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Title: Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms
Author: Langdon, Stephen, 1876-1937
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                      Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms


                             Stephen Langdon

                         Professor of Assyriology

                           at Oxford University


                    Published by The University Museum



Lamentation of Ishme-Dagan Over Nippur. 13856 (No. 1)
Liturgy of Ishme-Dagan. 11005 (No. 2)
Liturgical Hymn to Innini. 7847 (No. 3 and duplicate No. 4)
Psalm to Enlil Containing a Long Intercession by the Mother Goddess. 15204
(No. 5)
Lamentation on the Pillage of Lagash by the Elamites. 2154 (No. 6)
Lamentation to Innini on the Sorrows of Erech. 13859 (Poebel No. 26)
Liturgical Hymn to Sin. 8097 (No. 7)
Lamentation on the Destruction of Ur. 7080 (No. 11)
Liturgical Hymns of the Tammuz Cult. 3656 (Myhrman No. 5)
A Liturgy to Enlil, Series _e-lum gud-sun_ (Zimmern KL. No. 11)
Reverse of Tablet Virolleaud (The titular litany)
Early Form of the Series _d.__Babbar-gim-è-ta_ 11359 (Myhrman No. 8)
Liturgy of the Cult of Kes (Nippur Fragments and Ashmolean Prism.)
Ashmolean Prism, Col. II
Third Tablet of the Series “The Exalted One Who Walketh” (_e-lum didara_)
(No. 13)
Babylonian Cult Symbols. 6060 (No. 12)
Addendum On Obv. I 10 F.
Description Of Tablets
Index Of Tablets
Index To Vol. X
Autographed Texts


[Transcriber’s Note: This e-book is Number 4 of Volume X of a series,
which had a single page numbering system throughout the Volume. Thus,
although this e-book is pages 233 through 351, it contains references to
pages outside of this range in the same Volume.]

With the publication of the texts included in this the last part of volume
X, _Sumerian Liturgical and Epical Texts_, the writer arrives at a
definite stage in the interpretation of the religious material in the
Nippur collection. Having been privileged to examine the collection in
Philadelphia as well as that in Constantinople, I write with a sense of
responsibility in giving to the public a brief statement concerning what
the temple library of ancient Nippur really contained. Omitting the
branches pertaining to history, law, grammar and mathematics, the
following _résumé_ is limited to those tablets which, because of their
bearing upon the history of religion, especially upon the origins of
Hebrew religion, have attracted the attention of the public on two
continents to the collections of the University Museum.

Undoubtedly the group of texts which have the most human interest and
greatest literary value is the epical group, designated in Sumerian by the
rubric _zag-sal_.(1) This literary term was employed by the Sumerian
scribes to designate a composition as didactic and theological. Religious
texts of such kind are generally composed in an easy and graceful style
and, although somewhat influenced by liturgical mannerisms, may be readily
distinguished from the hymns and psalms sung in the temples to musical
accompaniment. The _zagsal_ compositions(2) are mythological and
theological treatises concerning the deeds and characters of the great
gods. The most important didactic hymns of the Nippur collection and in
fact the most important religious texts in early Sumerian literature are
two six column tablets, one (very incomplete) on the Creation and the
Flood published by DR. POEBEL, and one (all but complete) on Paradise and
the Fall of Man. Next in importance is a large six column tablet
containing a mythological and didactic hymn on the characteristics of the
virgin mother goddess.(3) A long mythological hymn in four columns(4) on
the cohabitation of the earth god Enlil and the mother goddess Ninlil and
an equally long but more literary hymn to the virgin goddess Innini(5) are
good examples of this group of tablets in the Nippur collection.(6) One of
the most interesting examples of didactic composition is a hymn to the
deified king Dungi of Ur. By accident both the Philadelphia and the
Constantinople collections possess copies of this remarkable poem and the
entire text has been reconstructed by the writer in a previous
publication.(7) 1 have already signaled the unique importance of this
extraordinary hymn to the god-man Dungi in which he is described as the
divinely born king who was sent by the gods to restore the lost
paradise.(8) The poem mentions the flood which, according to the Epic of
Paradise, terminated by divine punishment the Utopian age. The same
mythological belief underlies the hymn to Dungi. Paradise had been lost
and this god-man was sent to restore the golden age. There is a direct
connection between this messianic hymn to Dungi and the remarkable Epic of
Paradise. All other known hymns to deified kings are liturgical
compositions and have the rubrics which characterize them as songs sung in
public services. But the didactic hymn to Dungi has the rubric
[_d__Dungi_] _zag-sal_, “O praise Dungi.” It would be difficult to claim
more conclusive evidence than this for the correctness of our
interpretation of the group of _zagsal_ literature and of the entire
mythological and theological exegesis propounded in the edition of the
Epic of Paradise, edited in part one of this volume.(9)

When our studies shall have reached the stage which renders appropriate
the collection of these texts into a special corpus they will receive
their due valuation in the history of religion. That they are of prime
importance is universally accepted.

From the point of view of the history of religion I would assign the
liturgical texts to the second group in order of importance. Surprisingly
few fragments from the long canonical daily prayer services have been
found. In fact, about all of the perfected liturgies such as we know the
Sumerian temples to have possessed belong to the cults of deified kings.
In the entire religious literature of Nippur, not one approximately
complete canonical prayer service has survived. Only fragments bear
witness to their existence in the public song services of the great
temples in Nippur. A small tablet(10) published in part two of this volume
carries a few lines of the titular or theological litany of a canonical or
musically completed prayer book as they finally emerged from the
liturgical schools throughout Sumer. Long liturgical services were evolved
in the temples at Nippur as we know from a few fragments of large five
column tablets.(11) The completed composite liturgies or canonical
breviaries as they finally received form throughout Sumer in the Isin
period were made by selecting old songs of lament and praise and
re-editing them so as to develop theological ideas. Characteristic of
these final song services is the titular litany as the penultimate song
and a final song as an intercession. A considerable number of such
perfected services exist in the Berlin collection. These were obtained
apparently from Sippar.(12) The writer has made special efforts to
reconstruct the Sumerian canonical series as they existed in the age of
Isin and the first Babylonian dynasty. On the basis of tablets not
excavated at Nippur but belonging partly to the University Museum and
partly to the Berlin collection the writer restored the greater part of an
Enlil liturgy in part 2, pp. 155-167.(13) In the present and final part of
this volume another Enlil liturgy has been largely reconstructed on pages
290-306.(14) From these two partially reconstructed song services the
reader will obtain an approximate idea of the elaborate liturgical worship
of the late Sumerian period. These were adopted by the Babylonians and
Assyrians as canonical and were employed in interlinear editions by these
Semitic peoples. Naturally the liturgical remains of the Babylonian and
Assyrian breviaries are much more numerous and on the basis of these the
writer was able in previous volumes to identify and reconstruct a large
number of the Sumerian canonical musical services. But a large measure of
success has not yet attended his efforts to reconstruct the original
unilingual liturgies commonly written on one huge tablet of ten columns.
Obviously the priestly schools of the great religious center at Nippur
possessed these perfected prayer books but their great size was fatal to
their preservation. It must be admitted that the Nippur collection has
contributed almost nothing from the great canonical Sumerian liturgies
which surely existed there.

Much better is the state of preservation of the precanonical liturgies, or
long song services constructed by simply joining a series of _kišubs_ or
songs of prostration. These _kišub_ liturgies are the basis of the more
intricate canonical liturgies and in this aspect the Nippur collection
surpasses in value all others. Canonical and perfected breviaries may be
termed liturgical compositions and the precanonical breviaries may be
described as liturgical compilations, if we employ “composition” and
“compilation” in their exact Latin sense. Since Sumerian song services of
the earlier type, that is liturgical compilations, are more extensively
represented in the Nippur temple library than in any other, this is an
appropriate place to give an exact description of this form of prayer
service which preceded and prepared the way to the greatest system of
musical ritual in any ancient religion. If we may judge from the literary
remains of Nippur now in the University Museum, the priestly schools of
temple music in that famous city were extremely conservative about
abandoning the ancient liturgical compilations. These daily song services,
all of sorrowful sentiment and invariably emphasizing humility and human
suffering, are constructed by simply compiling into one breviary a number
of ancient songs, selected in such manner that all are addressed to one
deity. In this manner arose intricate choral compilations of length
suitable to a daily prayer, each addressed to a great god. Hence we have
in the temple libraries throughout Sumer and Babylonia liturgies to each
of the great gods. Even in the less elaborate _kišub_ compilations there
is in many cases revealed a tendency to recast and arrange the collection
of songs upon deeper principles. A tendency to include in all services a
song to the wrathful word of the gods and a song to the sorrowful earth
mother is seen even in the Nippurian breviaries of the precanonical type.
I need not dilate here upon the great influence which these principles
exercised upon the beliefs and formal worship of Assyria and Babylonia,
upon the late Jewish Church and upon Christianity. The personified word of
god and the worship of the great _mater dolorosa_, or the virgin goddess,
are ancient Sumerian creations whose influence has been effective in all

As examples of the liturgical compilation texts the reader is referred
especially to the following tablets. On pages 290-292 the writer has
described the important compiled liturgy found by CHARLES VIROLLEAUD.(15)
It is an excellent example of a Nippurian musical prayer service. It
contained eleven _kišubs_, or prayers, and they are recast in such manner
that the whole set forth one idea which progresses to the end. The liturgy
has in fact almost reached the stage of a composition. And in these same
pages the reader will see how this service finally resulted in a canonical
liturgy, for the completed product has been recovered. On pages 309-310
will be found a fragment, part of an ancient liturgy to Enlil of the
compiled type. Here again we are able to produce at least half of the
great liturgy into which the old service issued. In the preceding part of
this volume, pages 184-187, is given the first song of a similar liturgy
addressed to the mother goddess.

Undoubtedly the most important liturgical tablet which pertains to the
ordinary cults in the Nippur collection is discussed on pages 279-285. The
breviary, which probably belongs to the cult of the moon-god, derives
importance from its great length, its theological ideas, especially the
mention of the messengers which attend the Logos or Word of Enlil, and its
musical principles. Here each song has an antiphon which is unusual in
precanonical prayer books of the ordinary cults.(16) Students of the
history of liturgies will be also particularly interested in the unique
breviary compiled from eight songs of prostration, a lamentation for the
ancient city of Keš with theological references. This song service was
popular at Nippur, for remains of at least two copies have been found in
the collection. A translation is given on pages 311-323.

The oldest public prayer services consisted of only one psalm or song. A
good number of these ancient psalms are known from other collections,
especially from those of the British Museum. In view of the conservative
attitude of the liturgists at Nippur it is indeed surprising that so few
of the old temple songs have survived as they were originally employed;
ancient single song liturgies in this collection are rare. The following
list contains all the notable psalms of this kind. RADAU, _Miscellaneous
Sumerian Texts_ No. 3(17) is a lamentation of the mother goddess and her
appeal to Enlil on behalf of various cities which had been visited by wars
and other afflictions. RADAU, _ibid._, No. 16 has the rubric
_ki-šu_(_18_)_ sìr-gal __d__Enlil_, “A prayer of prostration, a great song
unto Enlil.” A psalm of the weeping mother goddess similar in construction
to RADAU No. 3 is edited on pages 260-264 of this volume.(19) No. 7 of
this part, edited on pages 276-279, is an excellent illustration of the
methods employed in developing the old single song psalms into compiled
liturgies. Here we have a short song service to the moon god constructed
by putting together two ancient psalms. The rubrics designate them as
_sagar_ melodies,(20) or choral songs, and adds that it is sung to the
lyre.(21) An especially fine psalm of a liturgical character was
translated on pages 115-117. It is likewise a lament to the sorrowful
mother goddess.

The student of Sumero-Babylonian religion will not fail to comment upon
one remarkable lacuna in the religious literature of every Sumerian city
which has been excavated. Prayers of the private cults are almost entirely
nonexistent. Later Babylonian religion is rich in penitential psalms
written in Sumerian for use in private devotions. These are known by the
rubric _eršagģunga_, or prayers to appease the heart. Only one has been
found in the Nippur collection,(22) and none at all have been recovered
elsewhere. Seals of Sumerians showing them in the act of saying their
private prayers abound from the earliest period. Most of these seals
represent the worshipper saluting a deity with a kiss thrown with the
hand. The attitude was described as _šu-illa_, or “Lifting of the Hand.”
Semitic prayers of the lifting of the hand abound in the religion of
Babylonia and Assyria. Here they are prayers employed in the incantation
ritual. We know from the great catalogue of Sumerian liturgical literature
compiled by the Assyrians that the Sumerians had a large number of prayers
of the lifting of the hand.(23) In Sumerian religion these were apparently
purely private prayers unconnected with the rituals of atonement. At any
rate the Nippur collections in Constantinople and Philadelphia contain a
large number of incantation services for the atonement of sinners and the
afflicted. These resemble and are the originals of the Assyrian
incantation texts of the type _utukku limnuti_, and contain no prayers
either by priest (_kišub_ in later terminology is the rubric of priest’s
prayers in incantations) or by penitent (_šu-il-la’s_). The absence of
prayers of private devotion in the temple library of Nippur is absolutely
inexplicable. Does it mean that the Sumerians were so deficient in
providing for the religious cure of the individual? Their emphasis of the
social solidarity of religion is truly in remarkable contrast to the
religious individualism of the Semite. But the Sumerian historical
inscriptions often contain remarkable prayers of individuals. The seals
emphasize the act of private devotion. The catalogue of their prayers
states that they possessed a good literature for private devotions. When
one considers the evidence which induces to assume that they possessed
such a literature, its total absence in every Sumerian collection is an
enigma which the writer fails to explain.

In the introduction to part two of this volume(24) the writer has
emphasized the peculiarly rich collection of tablets in this collection
pertaining to the cults of deified kings. In the present part is published
a most important tablet of that class. This liturgy of the compiled type
in six _kišubs_ sung in the cult of the god-man Ishme-Dagan, fourth king
of the Isin dynasty, is unique in the published literature of Sumer. Its
musical intricacy and theological importance have been duly defined on
pages 245-247. With the publication of these texts the important song
services of the cults of deified kings are exhausted. In addition to the
texts of this class translated or noted in part two, I call attention to
the very long text concerning Dungi, king of Ur, published by BARTON,
_Miscellaneous Babylonian Inscriptions_ No. 3. In that extremely long poem
in six columns of about 360 lines(25) there are no rubrics, which shows at
once that it is not a cult song service. Moreover, Dungi had not been
deified when the poem was written. It is really an historical poem to this
king whose deification had at any rate not yet been recognized at Nippur.
It belongs in reality to the same class of literature as the historical
poem on his father Ur-Engur, translated on pages 126-136.

The only Sumerian cult songs to deified kings not in the Nippur collection
have now been translated by the writer and made accessible for wider
study. One hymn to Ur-Engur which proves that he had been canonized at his
capitol in Ur will be found in the _Proceedings of the Society of Biblical
Literature_, 1918, 45-50. The twelfth song of a liturgy to Ishme-Dagan
published by ZIMMERN from the Berlin collection is translated on pages
52-56 of the same article. Finally a long liturgy to Libit-Ishtar, son of
Ishme-Dagan, likewise in Berlin, has been translated there on pages
69-79.(26) Since the Berlin texts probably came from Sippar their
existence in that cult is important. For they prove not only the practice
of cult worship of deified kings in that city, but the domination of Isin
over this north Semitic city is thus documented for a period as late as

Nearly all the existing prayer services in the cults of the deified kings
of Ur and Isin are now published and translated. The student will observe
that they are all of the compiled type but that there is in most cases
much musical arrangement and striving for combined effect. A few, and
especially the Ishme-Dagan liturgy published as No. 1 of this part, reveal
theological speculation and an effort to give the institution of god-man
worship its proper place in their religion. The hymns of these cults
comparatively so richly represented in this volume will be among the most
interesting groups of religious texts supplied by the excavations at

OXFORD, July 9, 1919.


The liturgical character of this tablet is unique among all the numerous
choral compositions of the Isin period. It is a large two column tablet
containing six long _kišub_ melodies. Liturgies of such kind, compiled by
joining a series of _kišubs_, or melodies, attended by prostrations,
represent an advanced stage in the evolution of these compositions in that
the sections are not mechanically joined together by selecting older
melodies without much regard for their connection, but as a whole they are
apparently original compositions so arranged that they develop a motif
from the beginning to the end of the liturgy. Choral services composed of
_kišubs_ in the cults of deified kings have been found(28) wherein the
deeds and personality of the king are sung, his divine claims are
emphasized and his Messianic promises rehearsed. But the liturgy here
published resembles in literary style the classical lamentations which
always formed the chief temple services of Sumer and Babylonia. It more
especially resembles the weeping mother liturgies, but here Ishme-Dagan
appears in the lines of the service in a rôle similar to that of the
sorrowful mother goddess of the ordinary liturgies, as he weeps for

“Her population like cattle of the fields within her have perished. Helas
my land I sigh.”

So reads a line from the second melody.

Lines of similar character occur repeatedly in the laments of the mother
goddess as she weeps for her people in the standard liturgies. In other
words, the cult of the deified kings issues here into its logical result.
The god man created to live and die for his people usurps the sphere of
the earth mother herself. And like her he is intimately associated with
the fortunes of mankind, of nature and all living creatures. The great
gods and the hosts of their attendants rule over man and the various
phases of the universe from afar. But the mother goddess is the
incarnation of fruitful nature, the mother of man whose joys and sorrows
she feels. So also in this remarkable liturgy the deified son of the great
gods lives among men, becomes their patron and divine companion.

The tablet contained originally about fifty lines in each column, or 200
in all. About one-third of the first column is gone. The first melody
contained at least fifty lines and ended somewhere shortly after the first
line of Col. II of the obverse. It began by relating how Enlil had ordered
the glory of Nippur, and then had become angered against his city, sending
upon it desolation at the hands of an invader. When we take up the first
lines of Obv. II we are well into the second melody which represents
Ishme-Dagan mourning for fathers and mothers who had been separated from
their children; for brothers who had been scattered afar; for the cruel
reign of the savage conqueror who now rules where the dark-headed people
had formerly dwelled in peace.

At about the middle of Obv. II begins the third melody which consists of
38 lines extending to Rev. I 19. In this section the psalmist ponders upon
the injustice of his city’s fate, and looks for the time when her woes
will cease, and Enlil will be reconciled.

The fourth section begins at line 24 of Rev. I and ended near the bottom
of this column which is now broken away. Here Ishme-Dagan joins with the
psalmists weeping for Nippur.

Section 5 began near the end of Rev. I, and ends at line 16 of Rev. II.
Here begins the phase of intercession to Enlil to repent and revenge
Nippur upon the foe. Section 6, beginning at Rev. II 17, probably
continued to the end of the column and the tablet. Here the liturgy
promises the end of Nippur’s sorrow. Enlil has ordered the restoration of
his city and has sent Ishme-Dagan, his beloved shepherd, to bring joy unto
the people.

After sections 2 and 3 follows the antiphon of one or two lines. The ends
of sections 1 and 4 are lost but we may suppose that antiphons stood here
also. Section 5 does not have an antiphon. Since section 6 ended the
liturgy it is not likely that an antiphon stood there.

[Transcriber’s Note: In the original book, throughout the book, all of the
transcriptions and translations were done in two columns. The left column
showed the transcription, and the right the English translation; each line
had the line number. In this e-book, the transcription and translation of
each line will be shown in succeeding lines.]


(About eighteen lines broken away.)

1. ... _túg ba-ra-pad-da_

2. _d.__A-nun-na-ge-ne na-ba-an-ri-gi-eš-ám_
2. The Anunnaki he caused to take their seats.(29)

3. _ub-šu-ukkin-na_(_30_)_ ki di-gal tar-ru_
3. In the Assembly Hall, place where the great judgments are decided,

4. _eš-bar-e si-di ba-ra-an-zu-uš_(_31_)_-ám_
4. Decisions to arrange he caused them to know.

5. _dingir-bi-ne ki-dúr ba-ab- gar-ra_(32)
5. These gods he caused to take up there their abode.

6. _šug-láģ-bi im-šub-ba aga-bi im-ri-a_
6. Their clean sacrificial food he gave, their crowns he clothed upon

7. _ki-lugal du-azag_(_33_)_ ḳin-sîg_(_34_)_ unù_(_35_)_-gal-ba_
7. In the king’s place, the throne room, the _ḳinsig_ of the vast abode,

8. _tin_(_36_)_ làl bal-bal-e mu-šú be-ib-tar-ra_
8. The libation of wine and honey yearly he decreed.

9. _Nibru-(ki) uru giš-gig-dagal-la-bi-šú_
9. For Nippur the city whose shadow extends afar

10. _uku-sag-gig-ga ní-im-ši-ib-te-en-na_
10. The people, the dark headed, he caused to have reverence.

11. _ki-dúr-ba gú-ni a-gim_(_37_)_ ba-ra-an-šub_
11. But its habitations he cursed ...

12. _ab sīg-gan-dúg-ga-gim e-ne sīg-gan-ba-ra-an-dúg_
12. Like scattered cows he scattered them.

13. _uru šag-bi er-gíg sȋg- bi_
13. The city’s interior is filled with weeping,

14. _en-na_(_38_)_ dam_(_39_)_ dingir ga-ša-an-bi li-bi nu-tar-ri_(40)
14. While the consort, its divine queen, is not solicitous for her.

15. _é-gu-la za-pa-ag ib-zu-a-bi_
15. The great house which knew the cry of multitudes,

16. _é-ri-a-súd-gim galu nu-un-tur-tur_
16. Like a vast building in ruins men enter not.

17. _Nibru-(ki) uru ki ligir-ligir-gal-gal-e-ne
17. In Nippur, the city where great princes were prosperous,

18. _a-na-áš ú-gu i-ni-in-de-eš_(42)
18. Why have they fled?

19. _uku sag-gig gú-sa-ģi-a_(_43_)_ udu-gim be-ib-?_(_44_)_-a_
19. The people, the dark headed, all of them like sheep....

20. _e(?)-en-šú KAK-RU_(_45_)_ er a-nir šag PA-ḪI-BAD-a_
20. How long shall loud crying(?), weeping and wailing _distress_ (?) the

21. _en-šú bar_(_46_)_ be-íb- ... ùl_
21. How long shall the soul be terrified?

22. _šag nu-ub-ši-túg-e_
22. And the heart repose not?

23. _su__ùb __su__á-lá mu-un-tuk-a-ri_(47)
23. To the drum and cymbals I sing.

24. ... _gíg-ga a-a na_....
24. ... sorrowfully(?)....

25. ... _síg ... ne ba-dúr-ru-ne-eš_
25. ... _brick_ ... they dwell.

26. ... _gar-ra-bi er-šú ba-ab-bi-ne_
26. ... in tears they speak.

27. ... _šub-ba tūr-ru-ba-ne_
27. ... are made small.

28. ... _sìr-ri-eš ba-ab-bi-ne_
28. ... in misery they speak.

29. ... _ki-dúr-bi ḳar-ra_
29. ... whose habitations are desolated.

30. ... _im-ši-sìr-sìr-e-ne-eš_(48)
30. Unto ... they have hastened.

31. ... _ne-ne-túg_
31. ...?

32. ... _ga(?)nu-zu-gim_
32. ... like one that knows not.

33. ... _sūģ_(49)
33. ... is in confusion.



(About fifteen lines broken away.)(50)

1. ... _gál_
1. ....

2. ... _-e ba-ab-dúg-ám_(51)
2. ....

3. ... _ma-lal im-mé_
3. ....

4. ... _ģul-nu-zu-ne nig-dug be-ib-tar-ru-uš-ám_
4. ... evil they know not, good they have decreed.

5. _i-lu-gíg im-me_
5. Bitter lament I(52) utter.

6. _nam-lù-găl-bi máš-anšu-gim šag-ba mi-ni-ib-tíl-la-aš_
6. Her population like cattle of the fields within her have perished.

7. _a ka-na-ăm-mu im-me_
7. Helas! my Land! I sigh.

8. _ki-el kalag tul-tul-lá-bi-ne sùr_(_53_)_-ri- -eš mi-ni-ib- sal-la-áš_
8. Maid and young man and their children cruelly have been scattered far
            and wide.

9. _iš-a-bi im-me_
9. Tearfully I sigh.

10. _šeš-bi imi-dugud šèg-gà-gim di-e-be-ib-sud-ám_(54)
10. Their brothers like a rain storm have fled afar.

11. _er-šú nu- gul-_(_55_)_ e_
11. I cease not to weep.

12. _é-e áb amar-bi kud-du gim ní-bi-šù ūr-gíg-ga_(_56_)_ im-gub_
12. The household like a cow, whose calf has been separated from her,
            stand by themselves with sorrowful souls.

13. _sîg-sîg_(_57_)_ ni- mal- mal_
13. They have lapsed into the misery of silence.

14. _balag-di_(_58_)_ lù-ad-dug-ga-ge_(_59_)_-ne um-me-da-ū-a-di-gim_
14. Oh sing to the lyre! The wailers like a child nursing mother who cries
            in woe

15. _mu-bi er-ra mi-ni-ib-bal-bal-e-ne_
15. because of them devised lamentation.

16. _uru ù-mu-un-bi sag-ib-ta-an-dīm-ma_
16. The city whose lord had been magnified,

17. _igi-ni sá kûr-ra ib-ta-an-gar-ra ad-e-eš ba-an-ara-áš_
17. In whose presence a hostile rule has been established, with sighing
            they have caused to walk.

18. _é-zid kur-kur-ra igi-šú ba-an-gín-na_
18. As for the faithful temple, which in the lands excelled all,

19. _uku sag-gig-gi uš-zi_(_60_)_ be-íb-tùb-ba_
19. (Where) the people, the dark headed, reposed _in security_;

20. _a-na ib-ag a-na im-ģa-lam-ma-bi_(61)
20. What has done it, what has destroyed it?

21. _ù-mu-un-bi ib-ta-kàš sag-ki-a mu-un-du_
21. Its lord is a fugitive, he _hastens in flight_.

22. _ki-šub_(_62_)_- gú- 2 kam_
22. A melody with prostrations. Second section.


23. _me-gal šag-bi_(_63_)_ ba-ra-an-è-a-áš gù-gíg-ga nu-mal_(_64_)_-aš_
23. The meaning of the great decrees they have glorified. Sorrowful words
            they restrain not.

24. _giš-gí-gál-bi-im_(65)
24. This is its antiphon.


25. _uru ù-mu-un-bi šag ba-da-an-dib-ba_
25. The city whose lord is distressed,(66)

26. _en-šú la-ba-ši-gur-ru suģ_(_67_)_-ám-bi nu- um- im me_
26. Until when shall it not return (to its rest)? Until when shall its
            “How long” not be spoken?

27. _síg-bi a-na-šú gĭr-ib-ta-an-gar_
27. Why are its brick walls trodden underfoot?

28. _tu(ģu) za-pa-ág mà-mà-bi ab-ta ib-ta- an-dal_
28. The doves screaming flew from their nests.

29. _é ? zu síg nar-balag ág-zí-ba_(68)
29. The temple ... the sweet voiced flute,

30. ... _be-in-gí_

31. Entirely destroyed.

32. _é dû- na_(69)
32. The temple violently....

33. _é ní-nu-tuk-gim si-ga_....
33. The temple like one without reverence....

34. _ág-me-bi nu-azag-azag-ga_
34. Its regulations unholy ones....

35. _šu-luģ-bi kur-kur-ra nu-ub-da-suģ_(_70_)_-a-gim_
35. Its cult of ablutions like those which had not been chosen above those
            of all lands

36. _šu-be-in-ḳal tuģ-ni ib-ta-an-zig_
36. He has demolished, its wealth he seized away.

37. _ág-gíg-ūr-ra a a-še-ra mu-un-di_
37. In misery of soul how long shall I utter lament?

38. _ta-še_(_71_)_ egir na-ăm-ga-lim_(_72_)_ dū-a la-ba-an-kalag_
38. Why after the destruction has been done is it not respected?

39. _ág-el-dū-a-gim ģur-ri_(_73_)_ zag-be-in-bi_
39. As one who accomplishes pure things this one has uttered a curse:—

40. _síg-bi pā-e a-na-aš ib-ta-an-è_
40. “Why rise her brick-walls in effulgent glory?”


1. _gig-an-bil_(_74_)_-ba šag-ba er be-in-[zí-em]_
1. Night and day within her wailing is made.

2. _á-še kúr ág-gíg be-ib-aga-a_
2. Now the stranger has wrought insult.

3. _ù-mu-un-bi im-ģul-ám šu-bi be-in-gí-ám_(75)
3. Its lord like a storm wind _their hands have removed_(?)

4. _uru-bi é-bi in-gul-gul-ám_
4. Their city, their temple, he has destroyed.

5. _ùr-bi in-sir-ra-ám šitim_(_76_)_-e-ne in-ra-ám_
5. Its foundation he laid waste, the skilled workmen he transported.

6. _dam dumu-bi šag-ba mi-ni-in-dìg-ga-ám_
6. Wife and children within her he slew.

7. _uru-bi uru-šub-ba im-ma-ni-in-tu-ra-ám_
7. Their city a subjected city he caused to become.(77)

8. _mu-un-ga-bi ní-e be-in-ne-ra-ám_(78)
8. Its property he himself took as plunder.

9. _uru-gál-la-bi nu-gál-la mi-ni-in-tu-ra-ám_(79)
9. Their city which was he has caused to become a city which is not.

10. _dim-ma-bi gĭr ib-ta-an-kúr-ra-ám_
10. Its works of art he placed a hostile foot upon.

11. _túg-bi in-sūģ_(_80_)_-ám lil-e be-in-sīg-ám_
11. Its garments(81) he seized away, the winds tore them in shreds.

12. _ú-kaš-a-bi ib-ta-an-kar-ra-ám_
12. Its food and drink he pilfered.

13. _ga-zu-bi ... mi-ni-ib-tíl-la-ám_
13. Their infants(?) ... he caused to perish.

14. _é-e kúr ág-rig_(_82_)_ ... be-ib-aga-a_
14. The temple a stranger plundered.

15. _a-še-ir-gíg im-me er be-ib-lu-lu_
15. Bitter sighing I utter, tears I pour out.

16. _balag-di galu i-lu ba-ab-bi-ám_
16. Oh sing to the lyre, he that speaks the songs of wailing.

17. _šag nu-zí-ba-bi mu-un-na-ni-ib-gí-gí_
17. Their hearts which are not glad it will pacify.

18. _ù-mu-un-bi me-bi ba-ra-an-è-a-áš_(83)
18. The decrees of their lord they have glorified.

19. _á-bi nu-mu-un-tag-ga-ám li-bi nu-tar-ra-ám_
19. He(84) concerns himself not with their oracles; he cares not for their

20. ... _ki-šub-gú 3-kam-ma-ám_
20. A melody with prostrations. Third section.


21. _me-gal-gal-la-ni a-gim ba-ra-an-ēš_
21. His great decrees thus he has ordered.

22. _á-bi la-ba-an-tag-ga-ám li-bi nu-tar-ra-ám_
22. He has concerned himself not with their oracles; he cared not for
            their future.

23. ... _giš-gí-gál-bi-im_
23. This is its antiphon.


24. _mu-lu sìr-ra_(_85_)_ na-ăm-tar-gíg-ga-mu-uš_(86)
24. He of melodious song the sorrowful fate weeps for.

25. _me ib-ši-en_(_87_)_-ne-en er im-ši-šeš-šéš-en_
25. Sound of mourning he causes to arise; lamentation he utters.

26. _á-še balag-di sìr-zu- ne_
26. Now oh sing to the lyre! They that know the melodies

27. _ḪAR-dúr-ra-mu ma-ar ba-bi-ne-ám_
27. My ... shall speak for me.

28. _ì-dé-šú kuš-a im-ma-sȋg_(_88_)_-ga-mu_
28. Now I am filled with sighing.

29. _galu_(_89_)_-bi er-ra ma-an-mà-mà-ne-àm_
29. Her population offer prayers to me.

30. _á-še šag-zu_(_90_)_-mu né-táb-táb-ba-mu_
30. Now my intercession, my pleading(?),

31. _á-še dúr-ra-bi ma-ar galu mu-da-an-zu-ám_
31. Now mightily the population unite with me in making known.

32. _a-rá gig-ga šag-sir-ra-mu_
32. Upon ways of pain my mercy(91)

33. _ū-a tūr-ra-mu er-ra ma-an-tuk-ám_
33. Oh woe! my children weep for.

34. _éš é-dū-a ki-dúr-a-ne-ne_
34. In the house, the well builded temple, in their dwelling,

35. _nar-e-eš ba-ab-gar-ra ní-tuk ba-ab-tur-ra-ám_
35. Sound like one chanting is raised and praise is diminished.

36. _galu erím-eka na-ăm-mu ib-tíl-la_
36. The foe has caused my land to perish.

37. _er-ra ma-pad_(_92_)_(?)ma-an-mà-mà-ne-ám_
37. They beseech....

38. _šag ág-gíg-ga ib-sȋg-mu ad-bi-šú PI-gà_(_93_)_-bi dé-ib-šed-dé-ne-ám_
38. My heart which is filled with misery by their wailing ... may they

39. _er-bi ugû_(_94_)_-mà mu-un-mà-mà-dam_
39. Their weeping is made unto me.

40. _E+SAL_(_95_)_ šag-izi-du ma-ar ma-[an-tuk-tuk-e-ne-ám]_(96)
40. In the mother goddess’ sanctuary prayer to me they offer.

41. _d.__Mu-ul-lil_....
41. Enlil....

(About twelve lines broken away.)(97)


1. ....
1. ....

2. ....
2. ....

3. ....
3. ....

4. [ ... _mu-ra-ab-_]_dúg mu- na-ab_
4. ....

5. ... _ŭg-ga-gim_
5. ....

6. [ ... _m_]_u-ra-ab-dúg mu-na-ab_(98)

7. ... _aga- ... a- ... mu_

8. ... _mu- ... na- ... ab_

9. [...]_ma-a[r ... za]l-la_

10. ... _íb-dū-e KA-mu-na- ab_

11. ... _ģar-ra-ge-eš ... šag-izi-du_

12. ... _arruš_(_99_)_ ma-ra-tuk-tuk_(100)
12. Have mercy upon me.

13. _šag-zu šag-sīg ib-ta-ba-e šag-laģ ma-ra-an-gar-ra-me_ (sic!)(101)
13. Thy heart whose portion has been affliction become for me a glad

14. _sag-zuzi-zi-i_(_102_)_giš-šub-ba-za ul-šú_(_103_)_ ma-ra-an-mà-mà_
14. Thy head which is held aloof turn unto me to glorify thy portion.

15. _ág-kúr-ri za-ar_(_104_)_ i-ri-ib-aga-e šu-bi dé-ib-gí-gí_(105)
15. The hostile deeds which he did unto thee be returned unto his hand.

16. _uru-ki-a šu-bar-ri nu-zu-a mur-ri_(_106_)_ dé-ib-sĭg-gi_
16. In the city which knew not forgiveness let there be given _the cry of

17. ... _ki-šub gú 5-kam-ma-ám_
17. A melody of prostrations. Fifth section.


18. _à-še ù-mu-un-zu gú-šub-ba kúr me-e-ši-in-ra-ám_
18. Now thy lord _anger upon the foe_ will direct.

19. _arruš_(_107_)_ ma-ra-an-tuk-ám na-ám-zu in-tar-ra-ám_
19. He will have mercy and will decree thy fate.

20. _síg-zu a-še-ir ib-ta-an-è-a ib-si be-in-dúg-ga-ám_
20. Unto thy brick walls where lamentation arose he will command “it is

21. _ģar-šág-gi-zu-ra_(_108_)_ ma-ra-ni-in-tu-ra-ám_
21. Thy happy soul he will cause to return for me.

22. _d.__Nin-urašā maškim kalag-ga sag-zu be-in-tuk-ám_(109)
22. Ninurash the valiant guardsman will sustain thy head.

23. _dun-ú-a-ni ... giš-ib-ši-in-gub-ba-ám_(110)
23. His pastor(111) he will establish over (the city).

24. _é-kur ḳalag-ḳalag dū-dū-ù-dam á-mu-un_(_112_)_ ba-an-ag-ám_
24. Ekur like (a temple) which has been tenderly built he will make....

25. _ág-dú-bi ki-bi be-in-gí-ám_
25. Its beauty he will restore to its place.

26, 27. _gi-gŭn-na-bi_(_113_)_ ki-gí-gí-bi ud-gim kar-kar-bi_(114)
26, 27. That its great dark chamber be restored to its place, that it
            shine like day

28. _suģ_(_115_)_-ba-la-túm-túm-mu in-na-an-dúg-ga-ám_
28. Unceasingly he commands.

29. _garza kúr-ri ib- sūģ_(_116_)_- ám_
29. The ordinances the stranger has placed in confusion.

30. _me_(_117_)_ ib-bir-a-bi ki-bi-šú in-gar-ra-ám_
30. The ritual utensils which have been scattered he will restore to their

31. _šu-luģ erím_(_118_)_-e šu-be-in-lá-a-ba_
31. The rituals of hand-washing which the wicked caused to lapse into

32. _azag-gi ... el-e- ... bi_
32. To cause to be holy and pure

33. _uru-azag nam-šub-da-ni in-na-an-dúg-ga-ám_
33. In the holy city which has been consecrated he commands.

34. _[__d.__] Iš-me-__d__Da-gan sib kenag-gà-ni-ir_(120)
34. For Ishme-Dagan his beloved shepherd

35. _... bi(?) gú ul-šár-šár-ri-da_
35. ... to cause rejoicing

36. _in-na-an-dúg-ga-ám_
36. ... he commands.

37. ... _azag nam-tar-ri-da-ni_
37. The holy ... whose fate has been decreed,

38. ... _-ra-ám_
38. ...

39. ... _DU-ra-ám_
39. ...

(About twelve lines broken away, in case this section continued to the end
of the tablet.)




3. _d.__En-lil lugal dingir-ri-e-ne-ge_
3. Enlil king of the gods

4. _sig igi-nim-ma nam-en-bi ģa-ma-an-sĭg_
4. In the South and North(121) may give lordship over them unto me.

5. _dúg-dúg-ga __d.__Nu-nam-nir-ra-ta_
5. By the commands of Nunamnir,

6. _ka-ta-è-a __d.__En-lil-lá-ta_
6. By the utterance of Enlil,

7. _An-ni enim-zid-démà-a-ar ģa-ma-an-de_
7. May Anu speak for me an order of confidence.

8. _šibir-šibir šu-mu ģe-ma-sĭg_
8. Scepters may he give unto my hand.

9. _d.__Uraša-e dû-azag-ga_(_122_)_-ni-a sal-zid ģa-ma-ni-dúg_
9. May Uraša bestow upon me faithful care in his holy throne room.

10. _d.__Nin-lil-li šag lăg-lăg-ga-ni_(123)
10. Ninlil whose heart is pure,

11. _bara-maģ ud-sud-du gú-KU-MAL_(124)
11. She that in the far-famed chapel _assures_ length of days,

12. _giš-šub-ba-mà bal-bi šág-gi-da_
12. She that renders good my portion exceedingly,

13. _kuš_(_125_)_-__d.__En-lil-lá ka-dug-gi-mà_
13. She who unto Enlil spoke assuringly for me good words,

14. _é-kur-ri ud-šu-uš sag-uš-mà_
14. She who daily protects Ekur for me,(126)

15. _ki-úr ki-gal-e_(_127_)_ nam šu-ģa-ma-ni-tar_
15. May render me my fate in Kenur the vast place.

16. _d.__En-ki en-gal erida-(ki)-ga-ge_
16. May Enki the great lord of Eridu

17. _ganun zid-maģ sag-mà ģa-ma-ni-in-uš_(?)
17. Sustain(?) my head in the ritual chamber, the faithful, the far-famed.


5. _ki-úr gal-la li-bi tar-ri-ge_
5. Of the great Kenur its care....

6. _d.__En-lil-li á-bi ģu-mu-da-na-ág_
6. Of Enlil his oracle be proclaimed.

7. _dúg-dúg-ga a-a __d.__En-lil-lá-šú_
7. Unto the words of father Enlil—

8. _d.__Iš-me- __d.__Da-gan me-en gú-mu ģe-in-ši-ri_
8. Ishme-Dagan am I—verily my neck I will turn.

9. _ka-ta-è-a lugal-mà-šú giš-túg-ni_(_128_)_ ģe-im-ši-ag_
9. To the utterance of my king may I lend my(129) ears.

10. _ki-en-gi-ra nig-si-sá ģe-ni-in-gar_
10. In Sumer justice may I institute.

11. _Nibru-(ki) an-gim gú ģe-im-mi-uš_
11. Nippur may I exalt like heaven.

12. _é-kur-ra me-bi ģu-mu-un-ŭr-ŭr_
12. Of Ekur its decrees I will deliver.

13. _giš(?)-ģar(?) ù-a-ba li-be-[in-tar]_
13. Of the plans(?) unto their care may I give heed.

14. _garza_(_130_)_ ki-ta šub-ba-bi ki-bi ģe-[mu-un-gí]_
14. The sacred relics which have fallen from their places may I restore to
            their places.

15. _d.__En-lil-lá me ḳal-ḳalag-[ni]_
15. Of Enlil his precious decrees—

16. _d.__Iš-me-__d.__Da-gan me-en_....
16. I am Ishme-Dagan—I will....

17. _d.__Nin-lil-lá_....
17. Of Ninlil her ... I will....



1. _nin me-dug-ga_(_131_)_ babbar dalla-è-a_
1. Oh lady of the good decrees, that risest splendidly like the sun.

2. _sai-zid me-lam gùr-ru kenag __d.__Uraša-a_
2. Faithful woman, bearing a sheen  of terrible splendor, beloved of

3. _nu-gig an-na nin(?) sìr-gal-gal-la_
3. Heavenly virgin, queen(?)(132) of the great songs,

4. _aga-zi-dé ... nam-en-na tum-ma_
4. Who _puttest on_ a faithful crown, who hast been created fit for

5. _me-imin-bi šu-sá-dúg-ga_
5. Whose hand attaineth the seven decrees,

6. _nin-mu me-gal-gal-la sag-sìr-bi za-e me-en_
6. My queen, of the great decrees their directress(133) art thou.

7. _me-mu_(_134_)_-ila me šu-zu-šú mu-e-lal_
7. The decrees thou bearest; the decrees thou holdest in thy hand.

8. _me-mu_(_135_)_-ḳin me gab-zu be-tab_
8. The decrees thou directest; the decrees thou claspest to thy breast(?)

9. _ušumgal-gim kur-ra sub ba-e-sĭg_
9. Like a champion thou subduest the foreign lands.

10. _d__Immer-gim ki tù-gí-a_(_136_)_ __d.__Ašnan la-ba-ši-gál_
10. Like the storm-god in the place of the ... curse the grain-goddess
            thou leavest not.

11. _a-ma-ru kur-bi-ta è-de_
11. A whirlwind upon their lands thou sendest.

12. _sag-kal-an-ki-a dingir-ri-bi_(_137_)_ me-en_
12. Oh leader of heaven and earth their divinity thou art.

13. _ne-ne-ne-ra kalam-ma a-an-mal_
13. For them thou didst create the Land (of Sumer).

14. _dingiri-ir_(_138_)_ me-sĭg-gà_(_139_)_ nin-ur-ra-ū-a_(140)
14. That givest orders unto the gods(?), queen that guidest the universe.

15. _enim-azag-an-na-ta enim dúg-dúg_
15. That utterest command by the holy order of Anu.

16. _garza-gal-gal-la gar zu a-ba mu- ... un- ... zu_
16. The great decisions who (but thee) knoweth to teach?

17. _kur-gul-gul ud-de-da ba-e-sĭg_
17. Thou that shatterest the mountains, by a spirit of wrath thou art

18. _kenag __d.__En-lil-lá kalam-ma im-mi-ni-ri_
18. Beloved of Enlil, thou hast founded the Land.

19. _á-aga __d.__Nin-lil ba-gub-bi me-en_
19. Thou art she that hast effected the mandate of Ninlil.

20. _nin-mu za-pa-ág-zu-šú kur ni-gam-gam-e_
20. My lady, at thy cry the lands quake.

21. _ní-me-lam-ra_(_141_)_-zu-da nam-lù-găl-lu_
21. At the fear of thy splendor let mankind

22. _nig-me-gar gĭr-bi ù-mu-ri-gub_
22. With shouting await thee.

23. _me-te me-ģuš_(_142_)_-bi šu-ba-e-ri-ti_
23. Fittingly they have received their terrible decrees from thee.

24. _i-lu er-ra-zu gál-la-ra-ab-šéš_(?)
24. Thy lamentations and mournings let them wail for thee.

25. _é-a nir-gal-gal-la sil-ba mu-ri-du_
25. Unto the temple the chief singers shall walk the streets for thee(??).

26. _igi-mé-ta gar ma-ra-ta-si-ig_(_143_)
26. From before the face of battle they hasten unto thee.

27. _nin-mu á-ní-za enim-enim-ni-dúg-e_
27. My lady, of thy _fury_ they speak.

28. _ud-ul-ul-gim ni-dú-dú-ne_
28. The spirit(144) like an onrushing storm rushed over them.

29. _ud ka-ra-ta uku im-da-ab-ra-ra_
29. The spirit with a loud cry annihilated the people.

30. _d.__Immer-da tù-mu-da-an-gí-gí-in_
30. By the storm god they were ... accursed.

31. _im-ģul-im-ģul-da im-da-kuš-ù-ne_
31. By the storm winds they were brought to woe.

32. _gĭr-za sil kuš-ù i-ni- si_
32. Thy foot hastens restless in the street.

33. _balag a-nir-da i-lu mu-un-da-ab-bi_
33. Upon the lyre of weeping they utter lamentation.

34. _nin-mu __d.__A-nun-na dingir-gal-gal-e-ne_
34. Oh my lady, the Anunnaki, the great gods,

35. _su-din-(ģu)-dal-a-gim_(_145_)_ dul-dé mu-e-ši-ba-ra-aš_
35. Like a flying _sudin_-bird from the crannies hasten unto thee.

36. _igi-gĭr-a-za-la_(_146_)_-ba-lag-gi-eš-a_(_147_)
36. When before thy feet they run,

37. _sag-ki gĭr-a-za sag-nu-mu-un-ne-gà-gà_(_148_)
37. Unto the presence of thy feet they attain not.

38. _šag-ūb-ba-za ba-a ni-te-en-[te-en]_
38. Thine angry heart who shall pacify?

39. _šag-ģul-la-za te-[en-te-en-na-ám]_
39. Thine evilly disposed heart let become calm.

40. _nin ģar-ni šág nin[... -ni- ...]_
40. Oh lady, whose soul is magnanimous; oh lady [whose ... is ... ]

41. _ib-ba nu-te-en-[te-en....]_
41. Whose wrath is unpacified....

42. _nin-kur-ra-dirig-ga...._
42. Lady that stormeth over the mountains....

43. _ģar_(_149_)_-sag ki-za ba...._
43. The mountains (?) thy place (?)....

44. _ká-gal-a_
44. The great gate....


1. _ģalba_(_150_)_-ba nu_....
1. Its frost....

2. _ki __kuš__lu-úb_....

3. _ka-sìr-la_(?)(151)....

4. _nir-da-ni-bi_(_152_)....
4. Their afflictions....

5. _uru tuš dinig-di-bi mer-i-in-si-[si]_
5. Their city, an arid habitation, the whirlwinds have filled.

6. _ḳal-šag-gan-bi ... -šú ma-ra-ab-mú-[mú]_
6. Their ... workmen in ... supplicate thee.

7. _uru-zagin-ra li-be-in-dúg-ga_(_153_)
7. For the brilliant city they mourn in song.

8. _a-a uku-za li-be-in-eš-a-a_
8. The father thy creator sends forth cries of distress for it.(154)

9. _ka-azag-zu dé-in-dúg-dúg gĭr-za ģe-ib-gí_
9. May thy holy mouth speak the command and thy feet return.

10. _šă-ab-bi-ta ģuš ģe-ib-ta-an-zí-ni_
10. From her midst mayest thou cast the cruel one.

11. _sal-bi dam-a-ni-ta šág-ga-na-áš an_(_155_)_-da- ab- bi_
11. Let a woman with her husband speak kindly.

12. _gíg-ù-na-la_(_156_)_ na-an-ba-ni-ib-gí-gí_
12. During the nights forever let her return unto him.

13. _nig-azag šag-ga-na nam-mu-da-an-bur-ri_
13. That which is pure in her heart may she disclose.

14. _ù-gul-zi-zi-i dumu-gal __d.__Zu-en-na-áš_
14. _Fervid_ intercession unto the great son, Sin,

15. _nin dingir-ra dirig-ga_(_157_)_ a-ba ki-za ba-an-tum_
15. Oh lady surpassing the gods who beside thee brings?

16. _me-zi-de nin-gal nin-e-ne_
16. Establisher of decrees, oh great lady, their lady,

17. _uru-azag-ta è-a ama-uku-ni-ir dirig-ga_(_158_)
17. Thou that risest from the holy city, thou that surpassest his(159)
            child-bearing mother,

18. _gal-zu igi-gál nin kur-kur-ra_
18. Intelligent and wise, oh queen of the lands,

19. _zi-gál kalama-zu-a sìr-azag-zu ga-a-an-dúg_
19. Oh breath of life of thy Land, I will recite thy holy songs.

20. _dingir zi-me-a tum-ma ki-bi dúg- -ga-bi...._
20. Divinity who has been made agreeable unto the fury of battle, whose
            words unto their place....

21. _šag-sud-du sal-zid lăg-lăg-ga me-zu ga-mu-ra-ab-dúg_(?)
21. Thou of the unsearchable heart, who purgest faithfully, I will relate
            thy decrees.

22. _mi-ib-azag-gà ģu-mu-e-ši-in-tu-ri_
22. The holy _mi-ib_ weapon verily thou causest to enter upon (the foe).

23. _en me-en en- ... -ul-an-na me-en_
23. “A ruler am I, a ruler ... of heaven am I.(160)”

24. _gi-ma-sá-ab ni-gùr-ru kešda-bi-dúg_
24. The reed censer I bear and I arrange the ritual(?).

25. _ki-sĭg-ga be-in-gar mà-e nu-mu-un-ne -ti-li_
25. At the parentalia I place it; and these things I cease not to do.

26. _ud-de ba-nim ud-eš da(?)-bíl_
26. By day I ... and daily renew

27. _giš-gig ud-de ba-nim? -da im-mi-dù_
27. By night and day I ... and in ... am clothed(?)(161)

28. _KA-lál-mu šu-? a-ba-ab-tum_
28. My ... of honey ... I bring.

29. _ninda-mur-šág-šág-mu da-ta ba-e-de-gí_
29. By my pious offerings of baked cakes thou wilt be pacified.

30. _nam-mu __d.__En-lil lugal an-ki_
30. Something Enlil lord of heaven and earth

31. _an-ra enim-mu-na-ab an-e ģa-ba-duģ-e_
31. To Anu spoke as a command and verily Heaven is opened.

32. _a-da-lam an-ra enim-mu-na-ab an-e mu-e-tūb_
32. Now unto Anu he has spoken the command and thou causest Heaven to

33. _nam-lugal-an-ni sal-e ba-ab-kár-ri-en_
33. The royal power of Anu thou a woman hast seized.


(NO. 5)

This liturgical psalm in one melody adds one more document of this kind to
the classical Sumerian corpus of old short musical services on which the
later complex liturgies were based.(162) The title, _árabu-(ģu) árabu-(ģu)
múzu kúrra munmállašu záe alménna_, arranged in seven dactyls, does not
appear in the catalogue of old songs given in the Assyrian list, IV Raw.
53 Col. III. Since the greater part of the psalm consists in an address of
the mother goddess to Enlil on behalf of Nippur, the composition is
defined as an adoration of “my mother,”(163) an epithet applied to Innini
by the singers in most liturgies. The psalm begins with twelve lines sung
by the choir and addressed to Enlil. They then in lines 13-15 introduce
Innini whom they represent in discourse before Enlil in lines 16-47. This
part of the song service contains refrains characteristic of public
worship. Theologically the text illustrates one of the most profound
principles of Sumerian religion, the sympathy and concern of the virgin
mother for mankind.(164) The great daily services of the standard prayer
books represent her as a _mater dolorosa_ and she with Tammuz shares the
vicissitudes of mortal life. Our text is unique and noteworthy for one
salient fact. It illustrates the scenes so common on Babylonian seals,
where the mother goddess stands in intercession before the god, with one
or both hands raised in supplication and the left foot advanced as though
about to set it on the paved approach to the throne of the deity.

1. _arâ-bu-(ģu) arâ-bu-(ģu) mu-zu kur-ra mu-un-ma-al-la-šú_
1. Oh bird _arabu, arabu_,(165) thou art he whose name is proclaimed in
            the world.

2. _za-e al-me-en-na_

3. _d.__Mu-ul-lil arâ-bu-(ģu) mu-zu kur-ra mu-un-ma-al-al-la-šú_
3. Oh Enlil, _arabu_-bird, thou art he whose name is proclaimed in the

4. _za-e al-me-en-na_

5. _d.__Mu-ul-lil šag-sud-du e-ne-em zid- da_
5. Enlil of unsearchable heart, of faithful word.

6. _gú ki-ma-al_(_166_)_ e-ne-em di- di_(_167_)
6. He that bends the neck, that speaks the word.

7. _mu-zu kur-ra mu-un-ma-al-la-šú za-e al-me-en- na_
7. Thou art he whose name is proclaimed in the world.

8. _mu-zu kur-ra mu-un-ma-al-la-šú_
8. At thy name which is proclaimed in the world,

9. _dúg-ga-zu kur-ra ám-da-ma-al-la-šú_
9. At thy discourse which is proclaimed in the world,

10. _taģ-a-zu kur-ra ám-da-ma-al-la-šú_
10. At thy aid which is wrought in the world,

11. _uru-me-a_(_168_)_ an ní-bi nam-dúb ki ní-bi nam- sīg_
11. In my city heaven trembles of itself, earth quakes of itself.(169)

12. _nibru-(ki)-a an ní-bi nam-dúb ki ní-bi nam- sīg_
12. In Nippur the heaven trembles of itself, earth quakes of itself.

13. _ama mu-gíg-gi ama nu-bar-ra ama-mu ni-mi-ni-in-gí-gí_
13. The mother virgin, the mother courtesan, my mother began discourse.

14. _d.__[...]-e ga-ša-an urú-bar-ra-ra_(_170_)
14. She the divine ..., queen of the villages,

15. ... _ni-mi-ni-in-gí- ... gí_
15. ... discoursed.

16. ... _ku-a-zu- ... dé_
16. When in ... thou dwellest,

17. ... _-la ku-gar-ra_(_171_)_-zu-dé_
17. When in ... thou makest thy abode,

18. _[__d.__Nin-lil-da?]_(_172_)_ ga-ša-an keš-(ki)-a-ge_
18. With Ninlil (?) queen of Keš

19. ... _ģen mu-e-da-ab-tar-ri_
19. ... thou decreest.


20. ... _ge me-ri-mu-šú_(_174_)_ nu-GÁ-e_
20. [As I was ...] my foot I lifted not.(175)

21. _[a-a-mu lu-]lu-mu-ùr_(_176_)_ su-din-ģu ab-ba-ge_
21. To my father, my benefactor, as a _sudin_-bird of the sea,(177)

22. _me-ri-mu-šú nu-GA-e_
22. My foot I lifted not.

23. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-]-e šag-sud-da_
23. [To Enlil of] unsearchable heart,

24. _[ù-mu-un e-ne]-em zi-da_
24. [Lord] of faithful word,

25. _[gú ki-ma-al e-]ne-em di-di_
25. That bends the neck, that speaks the word,

26. ... _ge me-ri-mu-šú nu-GA-e_
26. [As I was ...] my foot I lifted not.

27. _[__d.__Mu-ul-lil ?]-e me-ri-mu-šú ù_(_178_)_-GA-e_
27. [But unto Enlil] I would lift my foot.

28. ... _-ra ga-ám-ši-rá_
28. Unto ... verily I will go;

29. _[me-ri]-mu-šú ga-mu-ni-ib-GA_
29. My foot I will lift.

30. _[a-a-mu]lu-lu-mu-ùr  ga-ám-ši-rá_
30. To my father, my benefactor, verily I will go;

31. _me-ri-mu-šú ga-mu-ni-ib-GA_
31. My foot I will lift.

32. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-ra šu-mu-šú ga-mu-ni-ib-GA_
32. Unto Enlil my hand I will raise;

33. _me-ri-mu-šú ga-mu-ni-ib-GA_
33. my foot I will lift.

34. _me-e __d.__Mu-ul-lil-ra um-ma dé-til_
35. ... _ṭu_(_179_)_-mu-na-da- ab- dúg_
34. I unto Enlil will say, “May the mother live.”

36. _a-a-mu lu-lu-mu-ùr ab-ba dé-til_
37. ... _ṭu-mu-na-da-ab- dúg_
36. Unto my father, my benefactor, I will say, “May the father live.”

38. _gù-gù gù-si-di ṭu-mu-na-ám-mar_
38. Words which set aright all things I will say.

39. _urú-me-a ama dumu dé-im-me_
40. ... _dumu ama dé-im-me_
39. In my city may the mother hail her son, may the son hail his

41. _nibru-(ki)-a ama dumu-dé-im-me_
41. In Nippur may the mother hail her son,

42. ... _dumu ama dé-im-me_
42. may the son hail his mother.

43. _ùz_(_181_)_-e síl-bi ģe-im-ši-ib-še-gi-en_
43. To ewe and her lamb may he be propitious.

44. _e-ne-em __d.__Mu-ul-lil-lá UZ-dé_(_182_)_ máš-bi_
45. ... _ģe-en-ši-ib-še-gi-en_
44. May the word of Enlil be propitious to the she-goat and her kid.

46. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-ra uru-ni še-ib nibru-(ki)_
46. For Enlil, his city, brick-walled

47. _ki-bi ga-mu-na-ab-gí_
47. Nippur, unto its place I will restore.”

48. _ní-na-teg ní-na-teg ama-mu ní-na teg_
48. She offers devotion, she offers devotion, my mother offers devotion.


This neatly written but seriously damaged single column tablet carried
when complete about fifty-five lines. In style the liturgical lamentation
has a striking resemblance to the lamentation on the invasion of Sumer by
the people of Gutium, published in the author’s _Sumerian Liturgical
Texts_, 120-124. The same refrain, “How long? oh my destroyed city and my
destroyed temple, sadly I wail,” distinguishes both compositions.(183)
Other lines are common to both threnodies. The contents are similar to the
lamentation on Lagash published in _Cuneiform Texts_ of the British
Museum, Vol. XV 22, of which ZIMMERN has published a variant VAT. 617 Rev.
II 10-42, in his _Sumerische Kultleider_. A translation of the British
Museum text will be found in the author’s _Sumerian and Babylonian
Psalms_, p. 284, an edition which can now be improved.

1. _a-a_[...]
1. Father [

2. _? dingir_[...]
2. ...

3. _a uru-gul-la é-[gul-la-mu gíg-ga-bi im-mi_]
3. How long? oh my destroyed city, my destroyed temple, sadly I wail.(184)

4. _ud-ba enim ud-dam bi_-[...]
4. At that time the word like a storm ...

5. _enim __d.__En-lil-lá_ [...]
5. The word of Enlil ...

6. _d.__En-lil galu nam-tar_ [...]
6. Enlil who the fate of ... _determined_.

7. _d.__En-lil-li nim_-[...]
7. Enlil ...

8. _d.__Mà-mà_(185) _dumugu_ [...]
8. Mama the princely son ...

9. _d.__Nin-mar-(ki)-ra-ge gú_[...]
9. Ninmar ...

10. _azag dāg-zagin __giš__má-gal-gal-la bal-[...]_
10. The holy one who lapis lazuli in great ships ...

11. _nin nig-ga-šù igi-[...]-ti-la a azag pi-el_ ...
11. The queen ... humiliates ...

12. _nin-e KA.? gim NE-a im-da-ra?_
12. The queen ...

13. _ki lagaš-(ki) nim-ki šu-ni-a im-ma-ši-in-gí_
13. The land of Lagash he abandoned unto the hand of Elam.

14. _ud-bi-a nin-e ... ud-da-ni sá-nam-ga_(_186_)_-mu-ni-ib-dúg_
14. At that time his wrathful word verily attained the queen.

15. _d.__Ba-ú galu-sukal-lu-gim ud-da-ni sá- nam-ga-mu-ni-ib-dúg_
15. His wrathful word attained unto the divine Bau even as a messenger.

16. _me-li-e-a ud-dé šu-ni-a im-ma-ši-in-gí_
16. Woe is me, the spirit of wrath into her hand he entrusted.

17. _ud uru gul-gul-e šu-ni-a im-ma-ši-in-gí_
17. The spirit of wrath that destroys the city into her hand he entrusted.

18. _ud é gul-gul-e šu-ni-a im-ma-ši-in-gí_
18. The spirit of wrath that destroys the temple into her hand he

19. _[uru?] __d.__Dumu-zi-abzu-ge-ta ki nir-ša-ki-ba-ge im_(_187_)_-ma
19. In the city(?) of Tammuz of the sea, the place of _wailing_ ... terror
            it caused.

20. ... _nir-šag-(ki) uru nam-šibir-ka ni-ḳar-ḳar-ge izi-ba-ab-dúg_
20. The city ... _nirsag_, city of ... with fire it consumed.

21. ... _uru(?)-ni Ninā-(ki)-a kur-ri ba-ab-gar_(_189_)
21. ... of her city Ninā it seized away to the mountains.

22. _[Si]rar_(_190_)_-(ki) ki-dúr kenag-gà-ni ģul-gál-e ba-ab-šub_
22. Sirar her beloved habitation an evil one has overthrown.

23. _[a uru]-gul-la é-gul-la-mu gíg-ga-bi_(_191_)_ im-me_
23. How long? my destroyed city, my destroyed temple, sadly I wail.

24. _[gè-pàr]_(_192_)_ azag nam-en-na-ba šu-ba-e-lá-lal_
24. Of the holy “Dark Chamber” the priestly rites are suspended.

25. _[en]-bi gè-pàr-ta ba-da-an-ḳar ki-erim-e ba-ab-KA(du)_(_193_)
25. Its high priest from the “Dark Chamber” has been taken and unto the
            land of the foe has gone.

26. ... _KU-si-na __d.__Nannar-ka da-dugud ba-ši-in-du_

27. ... _gan kaskal-gid __d.__Nannar-ka tùr-dugud_ ...

28. ... _ḳar-ra-gim íb-ri ba-ra_- ...

29. ... _gim íb-ri ba-an-de i-im-gul-gul-lu-ne_(_194_)
29. ... they destroyed.

30. ... _azag-ga-bi im-zí-ir-zí-ri_(_195_)_-e-ne ... -e-ne_
30. Of the ... its holy ... they shattered and ...

31. _[a uru-gul]-la é-gul-la-mu gíg-ga-bi im-me_
31. How long? oh my destroyed city and my destroyed temple, sadly I wail.

32. _[gè-pàr] azag nam-en-na-ba šu-ba-e-lá-lal_
32. Of the holy “Dark Chamber” the priestly rites are suspended.

33. _[en]-bi gè-pàr-ta ba-da-an-ḳar ki-erim-e ba- ab- du_
33. Its high priest from the “Dark Chamber” has been taken and unto the
            land of the foe has gone.

34. ... _gid-da-bi[...]a-nir ba-an-da-di_

35. ... _-bi nu gud-du sag me-te-a-áš li-be-íb-gál_

36. ... _KA íb-bi ba-ra-an-kád_(_196_)

37. ... _a ... a-ri-a-e ba-da-ab-lal_
37. ... has bound with him(?)

38. ... _ka lù-erím-e ba-an_-?
38. The ... of the ... the foe has ...

39. ... _-da(?)-ab-ag_

40. _é ... -sug-ga ba-an-dū_

41. _ki ... LU a-ri tùr-dugud-gim ba-gul_
41. ... like a ruined cattle stall has been destroyed.

42. _dingir Nin [...] mà [...] gĭr kúr ba-ra-an-ku_
42. As for the goddess Nin ... her ... the foe has set his foot.(197)

43. _d.__Nin-lí-ga-ge im ... na er-ni-šéš-šéš_
43. Ninliga ... weeps bitterly.

44. _a uru-gul-la é-gul-la-mu gíg-ga-bi im-me_
44. How long? oh my destroyed city and my destroyed temple, sadly I wail.

45. _gè-pàr-azag nam-en-na-ba_(_198_)_ šu-ba-e-lá-[lal]_
45. Of the holy “Dark Chamber” the priestly rites are suspended.

46. _en-bi gè-pàr-ta ba-[da-an-ḳar ki-erim-e ba-ab-KA(du)]_
46. Its high priest from the “Dark Chamber” has been taken and unto the
            land of the foe has gone.

47. _d.__Nin-a-zu-ge_ ...
47. Ninazu(199) ...

48. _d.__Nin-ģar-sag_ ...
48. Ninharsag ...

49. _tu-(ģu)-gim_ ...
49. Like a dove ...

50. _a uru-gul-la é-gul-la-mu gíg-ga-bi im-me_
50. How long? oh my destroyed city and my destroyed temple, sadly I wail.



This well preserved single column tablet is published by POEBEL in PBS. V
26. The composition reflects the standard theological ideas found in the
canonical psalms and liturgies. The mother goddess Innini is represented
as a divine mother wailing for the misery of her city and her people. The
calamity consists in the pillage of the city and its holy places by a
foreign invader, who is repeatedly compared to an ox. Like the ordinary
psalms of public service the singers abruptly introduce the goddess
speaking in the first person as in lines 16; 18-20; 33-4. But the
lamentation does not have refrains and at the end the style approaches
nearly that of a prayer. The tablet also bears no liturgical note at the
end. For these reasons and because of the general impression which the
lines leave with the present interpreter, he classifies this text as the
product of a scholastic liturgist of the Ur or Isin period whose work was
not incorporated into the corpus of the official breviary.


1. _zabar aga-[zu?] im-gūr-gūr-ri_
1. Oh pure one thy(?) crown overawes.

2. _til-igi-da_(_201_)_-zu ... im-bi-bi-ri_
2. Thy proceeding arrow scatters the....

3. _zíd_(_202_)_-gu-šig suģur-sū-lal (ģa)-da ... -kùr_....
3. Meal of the ... bean to the beared skate-fish thou givest to eat.

4. _eg ģa sĭg eg-eg ģa sŭ-lum-ma-gim im-bul-_[...]—
4. She that gives fish to the stream, in the streams fish (as numerous) as
            dates she causes to dart about.

5. _gud-dam ra e-sir unug-(ki)-ga-ge šár-ám mu-na-ab(?)- ... uš_
5. Rushing like an ox in the street of Erech like a multitude(?) he

6. _šár-ra giš-KU-A_(_204_)_ mu-na-an-dúr-ru-ne-eš_
6. Multitudinously in the habitations they dwelled.

7. _šattam-a-ni lugal gab-gál_(_205_)_ ki-gub-bu-ne ba-ra-è_
7. Her precentor,(206) the defender king, whither they go, went up.

8. _ugnim-e igi-im- ma- an- sĭg_
8. The hosts of peoples she beholds.

9. _nar-e li-du-a šu-i-ni-in-gí ŭb_(_207_)_ šu-na be-in-šub_
9. The singer refuses to chant and from his hand has thrown the drum.

10. _ni_(_208_)_-nag-a-zu  ni-nag-a-zu_
10. Thou drinkest not; thou drinkest not.

11. _a_(_209_)_ nu-e-nag amaš-zu um-mi-ni-nag_
11. Water thou drinkest not, but thy sheepfolds drink.

12. _ni-nag-a-zu  ni-nag-a-zu_
12. Thou drinkest not; thou drinkest not.

13. _kaš nu-e-nag ùš_(_210_)_-zu um-mu-ni-nag_
13. Beer thou drinkest not, but thy protégés drink.

14. _gud-dam e_(_211_)_ e-sir unug-(ki)-ga-ge šár-ám ma-ra-mi-ù-uš_
14. Like an ox going forth in the streets of Erech like a multitude(?) he
            pursues thee.

15. _šar-ra-ám giš-KU-A ma-ra-dúr-ru-ne-eš_
15. In multitudes they have taken up their abodes in the habitations.

16. _mèn_(_212_)_ a-na-ag-en sal-e mà-a ma-an-dúg-ga sal-un-ne_(_213_)_
16. As for me what shall I do? I who have bestowed care. A sacred devotee
            I am.

17. _gud-dam e ib-tag-ra be-in-ra ni-zu_(_214_)_ e-ne-ib-uš_
17. Coming forth like an ox, _hastening in destructive fury_ he came; even
            thee thyself he pursued.

18. _šar-úr á nam-ur-sag-gà-mu šu-nu-um-ma-ti_
18. The _šar-ur_ weapon, arm of my heroic power I have taken not in my

19. _é ģallab-mà a-gil-zu_(_215_)_-bi dal-la mi-ni-gí_(_216_)
19. Of my temple in Hallab its treasures he has hidden far away.

20. _giš-dal é-an-na pa-ba mi-ni-in-kud_
20. Of the _tallu_(217) of Eanna its _PA_ he broke off.

21. _gud-dam sil-šú im-ma-na-ra-è_
21. Like an ox he came up against thee on the highways.

22. _gud-dam e e-sir unu-(ki)-ga-ge šár-ra mu-ni-in-gaz_
22. Like an ox going forth in the streets of Erech he slaughtered

23. _šár-ra giš-KU-A-a-na mu-ni-in-dīg_
23. Multitudes in their habitations he caused to die.

24. _giš-ig ká-gal-la im-ma-an-gŭr-gŭr_
24. The doors of the city gate he shattered.

25. _a-tuģ_(_218_)_-na-ka ... im-ma-an-è_
25. Her defender he caused to go forth,

26. _šu-PEŠ_(_219_)_ dumu šu-PEŠ __d.__Innini-ge_
26. The fisherman, the son fisherman of Innini.

27. _šen-urudu  mu-na-an-bar-ri-ia-dúg_(_220_)
27. The copper vessels he scattered.

28. _gud-dam ra ... im-ma-an-ra-aģ_
28. Hastening like an ox he has wrought demolition.

29. _gud-dam e er-im-ma-an-šub_(_221_)_ sîg-sîg-ni-mà-mal_(_222_)
29. Coming forth like an ox tears he has caused to fall and misery he
            caused to be.

30. _d.__Innini zig_(_223_)_-mu sum-ma-ab_
30. Oh Innini, grant me favor.

31. _gud kur-ra ga-mu-ra-ab-sum tùr-zu ga-mu-ra-ah-lu_(_224_)
31. Oxen of the mountains I will give thee; thy stables I will enrich for

32. _udu ... kur-ra ... ga-mu-ra-ab-sum amaš-zu ga-mu-ra-ab-lu_
32. Sheep of the mountains I will give thee; thy sheepfolds I will enrich
            for thee.

33. _azag __d.__Innini-ge mu-na-ni-íb-gí-gí_(_225_)
33. Holy Innini replied:—

34. _a-šag ģallab-(ki)-a dúr-gar be-e-gar-ra e-ku_(_226_)_ ni-nad-ba_
34. “In the plains of Hallab thou shalt make thy abode where the people

35. _ama-ba_(_227_)_ ... gĭr(?) ... ģa-ra-ab-túg-e balag-al_(_228_)_
35. May their hosts _attend_(?) thee and proclaim to thee on lyre and

36. _d.__Innini nam-ur-sag-[zu]_(_229_)_ ga-ám-dúg_
36. Oh Innini, I will rehearse thy valor.

37. _zag-sal-zu ...  dug-ga-ám_
37. It is good to sing thy praise.


This liturgical composition consists of two melodies each designated by
the rubric _sagarram_, “It is a _sagar_.” The entire service is sung to
the _tigû_, a kind of flute. In the first melody of fifteen lines the
choir chant the glory of the moon god and his city Ur. The second melody
of twenty-four lines is apparently an address of the earth god Enlil to
his son the moon god. This melody must remain obscure as long as the
recurring liturgical phrase _áb-mu-ba-ši-in-dib_ is unexplained.


5. [...]_-ni éš uri-ki mu-šú ba-an-sá_
5. His city(?) the abode of Ur as a name he named.

6. _en ud-sud-du-ge uru-ni-ta_
6. As lord unto eternal days in his city,

7. _d.__Zu-en-e kidur_(_230_)_ ba-ni-in-gar_
7. The god Sin he(231) caused to abide.

8. _uri-ki uru šag-gi-pad-da-na_
8. In Ur the city which his heart has chosen

9. _è gud-gim ub-im-me_
9. The temple like a strong bull calls unto the regions(?)(232)

10. _lugal-mu ... sá-rin-na-ni_(_233_)
10. Of my king, may his net(?)

11. _ki-maģ ki-kal-kal ģe-en-na-nam-ma-ám_
11. Be upon tomb and ruins.

12. _d.__Zu-en-e uru kenag-gà-ni_
12. Of Sin, may his beloved city,

13. _eš uri-(ki) me-azag-azag-ga_....
13. The dwelling-place Ur, with holy decrees a city....

14. _lugal-mu    bara_....
14. Of my king may his chapel....

15. [...]_-e nin [...] gar-ra_....
15. ....

16. _sa-  [gar-]  ra- ám_(_234_)
16. It is a _sagar_ melody.

17. _e_(_235_)_ __d.__Nannar [ áb -] zu me-a mu-’u-lu en __d.__Áš-ìm-ür_
17. Hail! Nannar, of the flocks(?) thou art ruler, lord Ašimur.

19. _uru igi-ila éš šag [-gál ul- ] ti_(_236_)_-a-ni-mà_
19. In my city of the lifting of the eyes, the home of his own abode,
            which is his fulness of luxury,

20. _šuruppak-gim [nam-ģar-]-gud-e_(_237_)_ gál-la-bi_
20. Whose design is like Šuruppak,

21. ..._-e.... áb-mu-ba-ši-in-dib_
21. ....I have caused him to be a shepherd(?)

22. _[e dumu] __e.__En-lil-lá kalama me-a_ _mu-’u-lu en __d.__Áš-ìm-ür_
22. [Hail! son] of Enlil, in the Land he is ruler, lord Ašimur.

24. _[uru igi-] ila éš-šag-gál ul-[ti]-a-ni-mà_
24. Into my city of the lifting of the eyes, the home of his own abode,
            which is his fulness of luxury,

25. _[šuruppak]-gim nam-ģar-gud-[e] gál-la-bi_
25. Whose design is like Šuruppak,


1. _[... áb-mu-ba-] ši-in-dib_
1. [...] I have caused him to be a shepherd(?)

2. _[dumu-sag __d.__En-lil-lá kalama me-a] mu-’u-lu en __d.__Áš-ìm-ür_
2. [First son of Enlil, in the Land he is] ruler, lord Ašimur,

4. _[ud-]-dug-ga [ki-gar-ra mu-šú ga]-sá-a_
4. [“He that institutes battle” ] as a name I name.

5. _d.__Áš-ìm-[ür šag]-gi-pad-da-mu_
5. Ašimur the ... whom my heart has chosen,

6. _é-mud-[kur-ra-mu]_(_238_)_ áb-mu-ba-ši-in-dib_
6. In Emudkurramu I caused to be a shepherd(?).

7. _dumu-sag __d.__En-lil-lá kalama me-a mu-’u-lu_
7. First son of Enlil, in the Land he is ruler.

8. _ud-dug-ga_(_239_)_-ki-gar-ra mu-[šú] ga-sá-a_
8. “He that institutes battle” as a name I name.

9. _d.__Áš-ìm-ür me-en ki [šag]-gi-pad-da-mu_
9. Ašimur thou art; where my heart has chosen,

10. _é-mud-kur-ra-mu áb-[mu-ba]-ši-in-  dib_
10. In Emudkurramu I have caused thee to be a shepherd(?).

11-12. _lugal tùr-azag-ga áb-zu me-a mu-’u-lu šul-pa munsub-nun-na_
11-12. Lord of the clean sheepfolds, ruler of the flocks is he, the
            glorious(?) hero, far famed shepherd.

13. _šag-túm-ma bara ša mu-un-dū eš-e uri-(ki)-mu-[šú]_
13. In the meadow a sanctuary I have built; in the abode of my city Ur,

14. _é-šág-nam-sar kur Dilmun-na nam_
14. In the temple Šagnamsar(240) which is in the mount of Dilmun,

15. _é-gi-azag-bi-a áb mu-ba-ši-in-dib_
15. In the temple of the holy stylus a shepherd I caused him to be(?)

16. _dumu-sag __d.__En-lil-lá kalama me-a mu-’u-lu šul-pa munsub nun-na_
16. First son of Enlil, in the Land he is ruler, glorious(?) hero, far
            famed shepherd.

18. _šag-túm-ma bara ša-mu-un-dū éš-e uri-ki-mu-šú_
18. In the meadow a sanctuary I built; in the abode of my city Ur,

19. _é-šá-nam-sar kur Dilmun-na nam_
19. In the temple Šagnamsar which is in the mount of Dilmun,

20. _é-gi-azag-bi-a áb-mu-ba-ši-in-dib_
20. In the temple of the holy stylus a shepherd I have caused him to be(?)

21. _sa-gar-  ra-  ám_
21. It is a _sagar_ melody.

22. _nar-balag_(_241_)_ __d.__Zu-en-na_
22. Song on the flute to Sin.


The fragment Ni. 7080 carries the right half of one of the largest
literary tablets in the Museum. Broken evenly at the center from top to
bottom the right half of this tablet preserves part of Col. III and all of
Cols. IV, V of the obverse. The reverse correspondingly contains Cols. I,
II and half of Col. III. Like so many similar liturgical compositions of
the period of Ur this lamentation is divided into a series of _kišubs_ or
songs, here of unusually great length. The third song ends at Obv. III 38;
its first line stood in Obv. II, which has been lost. The fourth song
began at Obv. III 42 and ends at Obv. IV 23, containing thirty-four lines.
The fifth song begins at Obv. IV 27 and ends at Obv. V 7, containing
forty-seven lines. In the following pages will be found a translation of
twenty-three lines of the end of the fourth song which describes the
wrathful word of the gods Anu and Enlil. The fifth song, a remarkable ode
to the wrathful word of Enlil, has been translated so far as the text

The sixth song begins at Obv. V 11, and probably terminated in the broken
passage at the top of Rev. I. Its length was also unusual, having at least
forty-five lines. This song was edited on a small tablet Ni. 4584 on which
the beginning and the end of the section are preserved. It has been
published as No. 10 in _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_, Vol. X of the
Publications of the Babylonian Section. Only a few lines at the
commencement of this song have been translated here. From this point
onward the language of the liturgy presents such difficulty that the
writer has been unable to offer a translation.

Section seven probably ended at the top of Rev. II and refers throughout
to the mother goddess who weeps over the ruins of Ur. The eighth song
probably began at the top of Rev. II and ended perhaps at the top of Rev.
III. It is another doleful ode to the weeping mother and many of its lines
are clear and translatable. The entire song is marked by sorrowful
refrains: _me-li-e-a uru-mu nu-me-a_, Oh woe is me, my city is no
more.(242) _a-uru-mu im-me_, How long? oh my city I cry.(243) _me-li-e-a
uru-ta è-a-mèn_, Oh woe is me, from the city I depart.(244) _dingir
ga-ša-an-gal-mèn é-ta è-a-mèn_, Great divine queen am I, from the temple I
depart.(245) _er-gig ni-šéš-šéš_, She weeps bitterly.(246)

Only the ends of lines of a large part of the ninth song are preserved in
Rev. III. The tenth song probably occupied most of the space in Rev. IV.
Speculation concerning the number of songs in the entire liturgy is
limited to the number of about 11-13. The liturgy was, therefore,
extremely long, attaining to a content of about 500 lines. We know from
the single tablet variant of the sixth song that another edition of this
series existed in which small tablets carried each a single _kišub_. A
similar condition of editorial redaction is revealed by ZIMMERN, KL. 200,
a small tablet which contains the twelfth song of a liturgy to the deified
king of Isin, Išme-Dagan.

The historical event referred to in this liturgy is undoubtedly the
destruction of Ur in the time of Ibi-Sin, last of the kings of the Ur
dynasty. This calamity left many traces in the temple songs of Sumer, and
the Sumerian prayer books of Nippur contain other lamentations on the fall
of Ur, written perhaps during the Isin period. The writer has already
published a single column tablet which rehearses the same catastrophe,
mentioning Ibi-Sin himself and naming the Elamites as his captors.(247)


1. _an-ni e-ne-em-bi ba-ra-mu-un-gur_
1. Anu may prevent his word.

2. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-e ni_(_248_)_-šág ģe-ám-bi_
2. Enlil may order kindness.

3. ... _šag-mu ba-ra-be-in-šed-di_
3. And may my heart be at peace from sorrow.

4. [...-]_su-ud arad-na sag ki-ba-da-ab-gál-la_

5. [    ]-_nae-ne-em-súr-ragur-da-bi_
5. [    ] the angry word be prevented.

6. [    ] _ba-da-an-dúr-ru-ne-eš-a_

7. _ùr-ģe-im-ma-gid-gid-da  ģe-im-ma-lal-lá_
7. The foundations it has annihilated, and reduced to the misery of

8. _an-ra a-i-ne-mà me-e ģe-im-ma-na-dúg_
8. Unto Anu I will cry my “how long?”

9. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-ra ní-mu šag-ne-du ģe-im-ma-ag_
9. Unto Enlil I myself will pray.

10. _uru-mu nam-ma-gul-lu ģe-im-me-ne-dúg_
10. “My city has been destroyed” will I tell them.

11. _Uri-(ki) nam-ma-gul-lu ģe-im-me-ne-dúg_
11. “Ur has been destroyed” will I tell them.

12. _uku-bi nam-ma-bir(?)-e ģe-im-me-ne-dúg_(_249_)
12. “Its people have been _scattered_” will I tell them.

13. _an-ni e-ne-em-bi ba-ra-mu-un-gur_
13. May Anu prevent his word.

14. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-e ni-šág ģe-ám-  bi_
14. May Enlil order kindness.

15. _šag-mu ba-ra-be-in-šed-di_
15. And may my heart be at peace from sorrow.

16. _uru-mu gul-gul-lu-ba-da-bi ģe-im-ma-an-?-eš_
16. My city which has been destroyed may they ...

17. _Uri-(ki) gul-gul-lu-ba-da-bi ģe-im-ma-an-?-eš_
17. Ur which has been destroyed may they ...

18. _uku-bi dìg gi-bil-šu ág-bi ģa-ba-an-ṫar-ri-eš_
18. Of its slain people may they decree a new dispensation.(250)

19. _me-e nig-dúg-mu mu-ne-sum-ma-gim_(_251_)
19. I will offer my meditations unto them.

20. _me-e uru-mu-da ģe-en-bi mu-un-da-lal-eš_
20. I (will say to them): “In my city they have despised the splendor.”

21. _Uri-(ki) mu-durun-da ģe-en-bi mu-(un)-da-lal-e-eš_
21. “In Ur the city of homes they have despised the splendor.”

22. _an-ni [dúg-ga-ni ģur] nu-kúr-ru-dam_
22. Anu whose words in this manner change not.

23. _d.__ Mu-ul-lil-e eṇim-bi è-a-ni ... e-dam_
23. Enlil the going forth of whose word....


24. _ki-šub-gú 4-kam-ma-ám_
24. It is the fourth song.

25. _uru-ni ba-da-gul-ám me-ni ba-da-kúr-am_
25. Her city has been destroyed, her ordinances have been changed.

26. _giš-gí-  gál-bi-  im_
26. This is its antiphon.


27. _d.__ En-lil-li ud-de gù-ba-an-de_
27. Enlil utters the spirit of wrath

28. _uku-e še-ám-šá_
28. and the people wail.

29. _ud ģe-gál-la kalaṃa-da ba-da-an-ḳar_
29. The spirit of wrath prosperity from the Land has destroyed

30. _uku-e še-ám-šá_
30. and the people wail.

31. _ud dug Ki-en-gi-da ba-da-an-ḳar uku-e še-ám-šá_
31. The spirit of wrath peace from Sumer has taken and the people wail.

32. _ud ģul-gál-e á-ba-da-an-ág uku-e še-ám-šá_
32. He has sent the evil spirit of wrath and the people wail.

33. _ḳin-gal-ud-da ud-da-gub-ba šu-na im-ma-an-sĭg_
33. The “Messenger of Wrath,” the “Assisting Spirit” into its hand he

34. _ud kalam-tíl-tíl-e gù-ba-an-de uku-e še-ám-šá_
34. He has uttered the spirit of wrath which exterminates the Land and the
            people wail.

35. _d.__En-lil-li __d.__Gi-bil á-taģ-a ki-mu-na-ni-in_-[    ]
35. Enlil _has sent_ Gibil as its helper.

36. _ud-gal an-na-ge gù-ba-an-de uku-e še-ám-šá_
36. The great spirit of Heaven has been uttered and the people wail.

37. _ud-gal-e_(_253_)_ an-ta gù-ni-ib-im-me uku-e še-ám-šá_
37. The mighty spirit on high he commanded forth and the people wail.

38. _ud kalam tíl-tíl-e azag ki_ ...
38. The spirit that annihilates the Land ...

39. _im-ģul-e a-maģ-è-a-gim_ ...
39. The evil storm like a mounting inundation ...

40. _giš-dúr_(_254_)_ uru-ge sag-gaz ni-ag_ ...
40. The shepherd of the city it slew ...

41. _an-na ùr-ba? mu-un-nigin_ ...
41. Of heaven its foundation it ...

42. _ud-da igi-ba-ne mu-un-ne-ne_ ...

43. _bàr-bàr-ri ne-gig-edin-na tùr(?)_ ...

44. _an-ne-bar-ám ne-gùr-gùr_ ...

45. _an-ne é UD-UD è_ ...

46. _kalam-ma lăg-lăg-ga_ ...

(Lines 47-55 mostly illegible.)

Col. V.

(Lines 1-6 mostly illegible.)

7. _Uri-(ki)-ma túg-gim ba-e-gul ... gim ba-e-búr_
7. Ur like a garment thou hast destroyed, like a ... thou hast scattered.


8. _ki-šub-gú 5-kam-ma-ám_
8. It is the fifth song.

9. _ud ug(?)-ám al-[    ]uku-e še-am-šá_
9. The spirit of wrath like a _lion_ ... and the people lament.

10. _giš- gí- gál -bi- im_
10. This is its antiphon.

11. _ud-ba ud uru-da ba-da-an-gar uru-bi_ ...
11. At that time the spirit of wrath upon the city was wrought and the

12. _a-a __d.__Nannar uru dim-dūl-dūl-da ba-da-an-[    ]uku-e še-ám-šá_
12. Father Nannar upon the city of _master workmen_ ... and the people

13. _ud-ba ud kalama-ta ba-da-an-kár uku-e še-ám-šá_
13. At that time the spirit of wrath _descended_ upon the Land and the
            people wail.

14. _uku-bi šika-kud-da [nu-me-a bar-ba ba-e-si]_
14. Her people without water jars sit without her in desolation

15. _bád-ba gú [?_(_256_)_]-nin [kaskala im-ma-an-gar-gar uku-e še-ám-šá_]
15. Within her ... in the ways are _placed_ and the people wail.

16. _ká-gal-maģ gĭr-gál-la-[ba àd-a im-ma-] an [BAD]_
16. The great city gate and the highways with the dead are _choked up_.

17. _duk?-tun-sìr-gim dū-a-ba [sag-bal-e] ba-ab- gar_
17. Like a leather vessel all of her the usurper cast asunder(?)

18. [    ] _e-sir gĭr-gál-la-ba àd im-ma-an-gar-gar_
18. In her ... streets and roads corpses he _heaped up_(?)


The obverse of this fine single column tablet contained a hymn in
thirty-eight lines to the departed Tammuz. It represents the people
wailing for the lord of life who now sleeps in the lower world. Thirteen
lines have been completely broken away from the top. The reverse carried a
long liturgical song of the cult of this god in which the mother goddess
is represented wailing for her ravished lover. Songs of the weeping mother
are common enough in these wailings for Tammuz, but all other known
examples of this _motif_ represent the major unmarried type of mother
goddess Innini-Ishtar wandering on earth, crying for her departed son. The
hymn on our tablet reveals in a wholly unexpected manner the close
relation between the mother goddess Gula of Isin and Innini. It was known
that both sprang from a common source, a prehistoric unmarried goddess,
but one had hardly supposed that the liturgists went so far as to
introduce the married goddess of Isin in the rôle of the virgin mother
Innini. The great mother divinity of Isin, although attached in a loose
way to a male consort Ninurta, in that city retained, nevertheless, much
of her ancient unattached character. In the standard liturgies she is
almost invariably the type of Weeping mother, whereas Innini is this type
in the Tammuz liturgies. Since Gula of Isin was the ordinary liturgical
type we find the influence of the ordinary liturgies effective in the
composition of the Tammuz hymn. It explains the extraordinary phenomenon
of the introduction of a long passage (Rev. 3-10) from one of the wailing
liturgies. And the short litany refrain lines 11-20 is obviously an
imitation of numberless similar passages of the ordinary liturgies in
which the goddess wails for various temples; here only for Nippur and
Isin, since the composition was written for the services at Nippur in the
period of the Isin dynasty. In a most gratifying manner our tablet shows
how the lamentations of the mother goddess in the canonical prayer books
express sorrows for certain concrete misfortunes and certain defined
temples and cities and find their general expression in the lamentations
for Tammuz, the representative of all human vicissitudes. This edition has
been made from my own copy. The tablet was first published by MYHRMAN,
PBS. Vol. I No. 5, and by RADAU, BE. 30 No. 2. To these copies I have been
able to make only slight additions.


1. _KU_-? [    ]

2. _kalag giš_ [    ]
2. Oh strong one [    ]

3. _me-ri kuš-ù-[zu_(257) ]
3. _Thy_ weary foot [    ]

4. _á-lirum-šu_(_258_)_-[kuš-ù-zu_ ... ]
4. _Thy weary_ arms—breast—hands [    ]

5. _a-zu_(_259_)_-guruš a-zu_ [    ]
5. Oh strong healer, oh ... healer [    ]

6. _kalag __d.__Da-mu-mu_ [    ]
6. Oh strong one, my Damu [    ]

7. _ṭu-mu ù-mu-un mu-zi-da_ [    ]
7. Oh child, lord Gišzida [    ]

8. _a-zu a dam ... ni-kuš-ù-a-zu_
8. Oh healer, how long husband ... wilt thou be weary?

9. _a-zu a ṭu-mu ... ni-kuš-ù-a-zu_
9. Oh healer, how long son ... wilt thou be weary?

10. _i-dé (?) ... ṭu-ru ? [na?] zu-dé_
10. When before ... thou sittest,

11. _kalag da-ga-ám-ma_(_260_)_-ni ... zu-dé_
11. Oh strong one, when _into_ his _assembly_ thou ...

12. _a-rib_(_261_)_ šu-si me-ri ... a-bal-mà na-nam_
12. Alas he whose fingers and feet [_are bound_], my irrigator(262) is he.

13. _šag-zu-šú la-aģ-[la-aģ-]ģu-a-zu_
13. Because of thee she wanders far for thee.

14. _kalag __d.__Da-mu-mu a-bal-mà na-nam_
14. My sturdy Damu, my irrigator is he.

15. _ama-zu mu-lu er-ri nu-kuš-ù_
15. Thy mother she of lamentation rests not.

16. _ama ga-ša-an tin-dib-ba túb-bi-šú nu-durun_
16. The mother, queen who gives life to the afflicted, tarries not to

17. _ù-šub-ba-za ù-zi-ga-za sìr-ri-šú na-ri-bi_
17. In thy perdition, in thy seizure, in melodious sighing she speaks of

18. _kalag a-rin-na-za ù(?) a-tar-ra-za sìr-ri-šú na-ri-bi_
18. Oh hero, in thy contumely, in thy removal, in melodious sighing she
            speaks of thee.

19. _ama-ugu-mu GAR-LUL-LUL-na-mu sìr-ri-šú nu-uš ma-gub-bi_
19. My child-bearing mother, my lamenter(?) with melodious sighing behold
            she stands

20. _kalag idim-[ma me-]en galu-kur-al_
20. Oh sturdy one, prostrate thou art, a man of the land of

21. _en ... me-en galu-kur-dim_(_264_)
21. Oh lord, ... thou art, a man of the land of lament.

22. _unu-[dagal-mu] kur-idim-ma-mu_
22. In my vast chamber, in my land of misery,

23. _en me-en a-ra-li ki-sag kirud-da-mu_
23. A lord am I. In Aralu, place where I am cast away,

24. _kalag me-en kur-ri-sud-du-šú im-ma-ab-du me-en_
24. A laborer am I. Unto the faraway land I go.

25. _ud-me-e-na_(_265_)_ ni_-  ?   ?
25. Daily(?) he [_sorrows_?](266)


1. _šă-ab-er-ri_(_267_)_ kuš-ù-a-mu ma-a-a nad-da-[mu]_
1. I weary with heart woe, where shall I rest?

2. _balag-di šă-ab-er-ri kuš-ù-a-mu ma-a-a nad-da-[mu]_
2. Oh sing to the lyre; I weary with heart woe, where shall I rest?

3. _ama uru-sag ga-ša-an tin-dib-ba mèn_
3. Mother of the chief city,(268) queen who gives life to the dead am I.

4. _sag-ṭu-an-na ga-ša-an Ì-si-in-(ki)-na mèn_
4. First born daughter of heaven,(269) queen of Isin am I.

5. _ṭu-mu é-a ga-ša-an-mu_(_270_)_ __d.__Gu-nu-ra_
5. Daughter of the temple, Queen Gunura.

6. _tum-lu-azag ama é-šăb-ba mèn_
6. Holy _tumlu_ mother of Ešabba am I.

7. _d.__En-á-nun_(_271_)_ ama gù-an-ni-si mèn_
7. Enanun mother of lamentation am I.

8. _ga-ša-an nigín-mar-ra ki-azag-ga mèn_
8. Queen of Niginmarra,(272) the holy place, am I.

9. _ga-ša-an áš-te_(_273_)_ ... ga-ša-an La-ra-ak-(ki) mèn_
9. Queen of Ašte,(274) queen of Larak.

10. _ama é-a __d.__Ašnan __d.__Azag-sud mèn_
10. Mother of the temple, Ašnan the divine lustrator(275) am I.

11. _šă-ab-er-ri a-še-ir-ri ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
11. Weeping and sighing where shall I find rest?

12. _er é-kur-ra-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
12. Weeping for Ekur, where shall I repose?

13. _er kenur-ra-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
13. Weeping for Kenur, where shall I repose?

14. _er dù-azag-ga-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
14. Weeping for Duazagga, where shall I repose?

15. _er é-dīm-ma_(_276_)_-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
15. Weeping for the “House of the King,” where shall I repose?

16. _er uru-sag-gà-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
16. Weeping for the chief city, where shall I repose?

17. _er tir-azag-ga_(_277_)_-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
17. Weeping for the sacred forest, where shall I repose?

18. _er Ì-si-in-(ki)-na-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
18. Weeping for Isin, where shall I repose?

19. _er é-gal-maģ-a-ge ma-a kuš-ù-mu_
19. Weeping for Egalmah, where shall I repose?

20. _er La-ra-ak-(ki)-a-ge ma-a kuš-ù-[mu ma-a na]-d-da-bi_
20. Weeping for Larak, where shall I repose, where shall he rest?

21. _šă-ab dam-e-mu ša-ab [tu-mu-]_(_278_)_ mu_
21. The ravished one my husband, the ravished one, my son,

22. [...] _ki-el-la šăb mu-ud-na-mu_
22. [In ... ] the clean place, the ravished one my spouse,

23. _ṭu-mu-tūr ṭu-[mu ... ]_
23. The little son, the ... son [...]

24. _ga-ša-an_ [...]

25. _šă-ab_ [...]

26. _AN-NE_ [...]

27. _sukkal_ [...]
27. (279)

L. E. _a-šab-ba-ni a-ba-bar-ra-ni_
L. E. How long his ravishing? how long his absence?(280)


The history of the text of this long and intricate Enlil liturgy
elucidates in unusual manner the evolution of Sumerian prayer books until
they attained canonical and permanent form. The earliest text of this
liturgy is partially preserved on the _Tablet Virolleaud_ published in the
_Revue d’Assyriologie_, Vol. XVI. The fragment was brought to Europe in
1909 by the assyriologist CHARLES VIROLLEAUD, having been purchased by him
during his excavations in Persia. It is light brown and varies from the
center to the edge by two inches to one inch in thickness. The fragment is
from the upper left corner of a large three(?) column tablet. About half
of the first melody is preserved on the obverse. The reverse preserves the
last two melodies. From their rubrics we learn that the entire series
contained eleven sections. This tablet has the rubric _ki-šub-gú_ after
each strophe. The titular litany(281) occupies as usual the next to the
last place but only the opening lines giving the _motif_ and a few titles
are given. The redactor indicates the remaining titles by a rubric
“(Recite the title) of a god until they are finished.” The rubric is in
Semitic which shows that the redaction was done by Semitic scholars.

The series as it finally issued from the hands of the liturgists in the
Isin period was written upon a huge five(?) column tablet, the lower half
of which has been published by ZIMMERN, _Altsumerische Kultlieder_, No.
11. Each column contained about fifty lines. There are no _giš-gí-gal_ or
antiphons after the melodies, ten of which I have been able to restore. By
borrowing from old songs and other liturgies the redactors have greatly
increased the length of this service. At least ten songs have been lost on
Cols. III, IV of the obverse and I, II of the reverse.

The late Assyrian redaction is mentioned in the catalogue of prayer books
IV Raw. 53 I 13 and in BL. No. 103 Obv. 13. SBH. No. 21, edited in SBP.
112-119, is tablet one of the late Babylonian School(282) and contains the
first four songs, duplicates of the first four on K.L. 11. SBH. No. 25,
edited in SBP. 120-123,(283) carries on the obverse two songs (_e-lum
di-da-ra_ and _me-e ur-ri men_) found on Col. III of K.L. No. 11, Rev., or
the two last melodies before the titular litany. A fragment published by
MEEK in BA. X pt. 1, No. 11, contains the end of _e-lum di-da-ra_ and all
of _me-e ur-ri men_. SBH. 25 and MEEK No. 11 belong to the series _e-lum
di-da-ra_, entered in the Assyrian catalogue, IV Raw. 53_a_ 8, and form
tablet _one_ of that service.

The titular litany of the _e-lum gud-sun_ series is identical (except for
some variants) with the famous titular litany of the mother goddess series
_mu-ten NU-NUNUZ gim-ma_, tablet _five_, edited in SBP. 149-167. Portions
of the titular litany of the Enlil series have been edited in PBS. X
155-167, see pages 163-4. The titular litany of _ní-ma-al gù-de-de_ occurs
at the end of tablet two of that series, SBP. 24-9 = BL. 72-3. Not every
series has a theological litany of this kind, which ordinarily comes
before the _er-šem-ma_, or intercessional song at the end. The song to the
“word,” which occurs in all series, is partially preserved on Obv. III and
begins _a-ma-ru na-nam_. The indispensable song to the weeping mother
comes just before the titular litany. This little nine-line melody _me-e
ur-ri-mèn me-e kàs-mèn_ must have been a national religious song. It was
copied into another Enlil song service as we have seen. The same song
introduces tablet _four_ of an Innini series of which we have only the end
of tablet _three_, K. 2759, in BL. 93 f.

Finally the reader will note that the first song _e-lum gud-sun_ of this
series has been copied into one of the tablets of _ame baranara_, SBH. No.
22 = SBP. 126 f. A fragment of some unknown series, K. 8603 = BL. 14 also
employs this song in the body of its text.

1. _e-lum gud-sun mu-zu kur-kur-šú_(_284_)
1. Exalted one, bull that overwhelms, thy name is on the lands.

2. _ù-mu-un-e_(_285_)_ kur-kur-ra    gud-sun_
2. Lord of the lands, bull that overwhelms, thy name, etc.(286)

3. _ù-mu-un dúg-ga-zi-da    gud-sun_
3. Lord of the faithful word, bull that overwhelms, etc.

4. _d.__Mu-ul-lil a-a ka-na-ág_(_287_)_-gà ... gud-sun_
4. Enlil, father of the Land, bull that overwhelms, etc.

5. _sib sag-gíg-ga    gud-sun_
5. Shepherd of the dark-headed people, bull that overwhelms, etc.

6. _i-dé-duģ ni-te-na    gud-sun_
6. Thou of self-created vision, bull that overwhelms, etc.

7. _am GĬR_(_288_)_-na sá-sá    gud-sun_
7. Wild bull who directs his hosts, bull that overwhelms, etc.

8. _ù-lul-la ku-ku_(_289_)_ gud-sun mu-zu kur-kur-šú_
8. Thou that sleepest the sleep of perversity, bull that overwhelms, thy
            name is on the lands.

9. _mu-zu kur-ra mu-ma-al-la-šú an ní-bi nam-dúb_
9. When thy name is laid upon the lands the heavens tremble of themselves,

10. _ki ní-bi nam-sīg_
10. and the earth quakes of itself.

11. _d.__Mu-ul-lil e-ne-em-zu kur-ra-ám ma-ma-al-la-šú_
11. Oh Enlil, when thy word is laid upon the lands,

12. _dúg-ga-zu kur-ra-ám ma-ma-al-la-šú_
12. When thy command is laid upon the lands,

13. _daģ-a-zu kur-ra-ám ma-ma-al-la-šú_
13. When thy _command_(290) is laid upon the lands,

14. _an ní dúb sīg_(_291_)_ ki ní-bi nam-sīg_
14. The heavens tremble of themselves, the earth of itself quakes,

15. _ama [nu]_(_292_)_-gíg-gi ama nu-bar-ra dumu-ni mi-ni-in-gí-gí_
15. The harlot mother, the hierodule mother slays her son,

16. ... _ga-ša-an uru bar-ra-ra dumu-ni mi-ni-in-gí-gí_
16. ... queen of the city, outside the city slays her son.

17. ... _dumu-ni mi-ni-in-gí-gí_
17. ... slays her son.

18. _e-lum ... e-ne-em-zu-šú ... kur-ri ni-in-gí-gí_
18. Oh exalted ... at thy word ... the foreign land _thou reducest to the
            misery of silence_.

19. _d.__Mu-ul-lil mu-lu? A_ ...
19. Enlil lord of ...(293)

20.    _kur-ri ni-in-gí-[gí]_
20. the foreign land thou _reducest to the misery of silence_

21. _e-lum za-e e-ne-em-zu an-e um-ma-[dúg]_
21. Oh exalted one, as for thee, thy word in heaven speak

22. _an-e ib-[...]_
22. and heaven shall ...

23. _d.__Mu-ul-lil za-e e-ne-em-zu ki-e um-[ma-dúg]_
23. Enlil, as for thee, thy word on earth speak

24. _ki nu-um-_[    ]
24. and earth shall not....

25. _dim-me-ir    a-tú-a_(_294_)_ um-ma-dúg_....
25. God of libation speak [and heaven shall ... and earth shall not....]

26. _d.__am an-ki am uru zí-ba-ge um-ma-dúg_ [....]
26. Divine wild ox of heaven and earth, wild ox of the good city(295)
            speak, etc.

27. _ama é-maģ-a_(_296_)_ __d.__[Dam-gal-nun-na-ge]_
27. Mother of the house of the famous one, Damgalnunna,

28. _um-ma-dug_ [....]
28. speak, etc.

29. _d.__Asar-lù-dug-e [dumu uru zí-ba-ge]_
29. Marduk, son of the good city(297)

30. _um-ma-dúg_ [....]
30. speak, etc.

31. _d.__ìd ama uru zí-ba-ge um-[ma dug....]_
31. River goddess, mother of the good city speak, etc.

32. _d.__A-?_(_298_)_-e ga-ša-[an ab-su-ra-ka-di_(_299_)_ um-ma-dug....]_
32. Zarpanit queen of ... speak, etc.

33. _[sukkal-zid    mu-dug-ga]-sá-a-ra um-ma_(_300_)
33. Faithful messenger, called by a good name, speak, etc.

34. _[ud-dé du(l)- du(l)-]dúg šu-ám mi-ib-gál_
34. [The spirit] reduces [all things] to tribute.(301)

35. _te-e-ám ama-gan-ra dumu-ni zí-em-mà-na-ad(!)-du_(_302_)
35. How long shall the child-bearing mother reject her son?

36. _te-e-ám ama-gan-ra ga-ša-an urú_(_303_)_ bar-ra-ra dumu-ni
36. How long shall the child-bearing mother, queen of the city, cast aside
            her son?(304)

37. _te-e-ám  ama-gan-ra  ga-ša-an sun-na-ra_(_305_)_ dumu-ni
37. How long shall the child-bearing mother, the wild-cow queen, reject
            her son?

38. _a urú-a mu-lu im-me-a-ra_(_306_)_ dumu-ni zí-em-mà-na-ad-du_
38. How long in the city shall he of wailing reject his son?

39. _a ki-dagar-ra-ám Nippur-ám ib éš-ga-a-ra_(_307_)
39. How long in the wide land, in Nippur, in the region of the vast abode?


40. _a-gal-gal šel-su-su mulu ta-zu mu-un-zu_(_308_)
40. Flood that drowns the harvests, who comprehends thy form?

41. _e-lum a-gal-gal šel-su-su mulu ta-zu mu-un-zu_
41. Exalted, flood that drowns the harvests who comprehends thy form?

42. _d.__mu-ul-lil ù-mu-un kur-kur-ra_
42. Enlil lord of the lands, who etc.


1. _ù-mu-un dúg-ga-zi-da_(_309_)
1. Lord of the faithful word, who etc.

2. _d.__mu-ul-lil a-a ka-nag-ga_
2. Enlil father of the Land, who etc.

3. _sib sag-gíg-ga_
3. Shepherd of the dark-headed people, who etc.

4. _i-dé-duģ ní-te-na_
4. Thou of self-created vision, who etc.

5. _am erin-na sá-sá_
5. Hero who directs his hosts, who etc.

6. _ù-lul-a dúr-dúr_
6. Thou that sleepest the sleep of perversity, who etc.

7. _šag gi-ū gi-ū šă-ab túg-e túg-e_
7. Oh heart be reconciled, be reconciled, oh heart repose, repose.

8. _šag an-na gi-ū    gi-ū_
8. Oh heart of Anu be reconciled, be reconciled.

9. _šag __d.__mu-ul-lil gi-ū gi-ū_
9. Oh heart of Enlil be reconciled, etc.

10. _šag ur-sag-gal gi-ū gi-ū_(_310_)
10. Oh heart of the great hero, be reconciled, etc.


11. _ní-ma-al-e zid al-ma-al_(_311_)_ [li-]e_(_312_)_ nap-tan-na
11. Kneaded bread for the feast I set,

12. _ní-ma-al-e ní-ma-al-e_
12. Kneaded bread, kneaded bread,

13. _ní-ma-al-e zid al-ma-al_
13. Kneaded bread for the feast I set,

14. _[kur-gal __d.__en-lil-]da šu-en-ne ba-túg_
14. By the Great Mountain, Enlil, it has been blessed.

15. _[a-a __d.__mu-ul-lil] šu-en-ne ba-túg_
15. By Father Enlil it has been blessed.

16. _[kur-gal __d.__en-lil-]šu-en-ne ba-túg_
16. The Great Mountain Enlil has blessed.

17. _[a-a __d.__mu-ul-lil] šu-en-ne ba-túg_
17. The Father Enlil has blessed.(313)

18. _ù-mu-un am urú-zí-ib-(ki) šu-en-ne-ba-túg_
18. Lord, hero of the sacred city, has shown grace.

19. _ama-é-maģ_(_314_)_-a __d.__dam-gal-nun-na_
19. Mother of the house of the famous one, Damgalnunna, has shown grace.

20. _d.__asar-lù-dug dumu urú zí-ib-(ki)_
20. Asarludug, son of the sacred city, has shown grace.

21. _mu-ud-na-an-ni __d.__apin_(_315_)_-nun-na-an-ki_
21. His wife Zarpanit has shown grace.

22. _d.__ìd ama urú zi-ib-(ki)_
22. River goddess, mother of the sacred city, has shown grace.

23. _d.__a-rĭ-e ga-ša-an ab-su-di_(_316_)
23. Zarpanit queen of ..., etc.

24. _sukkal-zid mu-dug-ga-sá-a šu-ba-e-en_
24. Faithful messenger, called by a good name, has shown grace.

25. _ní-ma-al-e zí-ib ni-ma-al-la-ta_
25. The kneaded bread which has been well made,

26. _zí-ib ni-ma-al-la-ta ní-ma-al-e zí-ib-bi dé-kùr-e_(_317_)
26. Which has been well made, the kneaded bread may he eat graciously,

27. _d.__mu-ul-lil-li zí-ib-bi-kùr zí-ib-bi dé-kùr-e_
27. May Enlil graciously eat; yea graciously eat.


28. _ki an-dúr-ru-na-šú uku_(_318_)_-e gar-ma-an-zí-en_
28. Where Anu sits may the people hasten.

29. _[__d.__A-nun-na_(_319_)_-]ki-an-dúr-ru-na-šú uku-e gar ma-an-zí-en_
29. [_The Anunnaki._] Where Anu sits let the people hasten.

30. _é-e ám-ba-al ne-sag-maģ_(_320_)_ é-e am-ba-al_
30. To the temple he enters, the mighty priest of sacrifices to the temple

31. _a-tú-tú ma-mu šu-luģ-ge a-tú-tú ma-mu_
31. A libation he offers, the priest of hand washing a libation offers.

32. _é-e ud-šă-ab-šú e-dam ud-šuš-šú e-dam_
32. To the temple at mid-day go up! at sun-set go up.

33. _ud-da ne-sag-e šu-si-sá e-dam_
33. Daily to direct the sacrifices go up!

34. _ud-da ù-gul-ma-ma šu-si-sá e-dam_
34. Daily to direct the prayers go up!

35. _ud-da an dìm-me-ir mu-zu an-ni zu-zu-dam_
35. Daily Anu merciful god(321) on high _proclaim_.

36. _d.__am-an-ki am urú-zi-ib-(ki) an-ni zu-zu-dam_
36. The hero of heaven and earth, hero of the sacred city on high


37. _d.__en-lil mà-gùn_(_322_)_ __d.__en-lil gùn-uku-e gar-ma-an-zi-en_
37. To Enlil let all the land, to Enlil let all the people hasten.

38. _an-ni a-ma-an-tú an-gù(?) an-ni a-ma-an-tú šă-ab ám-ma-ab-túg-e_
38. Unto heaven verily I will libate water, unto the _canopy_ of heaven,
            unto heaven verily I will libate water. The heart I will

39. _im-ma-an-a-tú a ám-ma-ab-túg-e_
39. I will pour out a libation, the father I will appease.

40. _d.__am-an-ki am urú-zí-ib-(ki) ám-ma-ab-túg-e_(_323_)
40. The hero of heaven and earth, the hero of the sacred city I will



(Here began a melody of which ten lines at least are lost.)

11. _é-_....[_ta_ (=KL. 11 Obv. III 1)]

12. _unugal(?)-da_....[_ta_    ]

13. _dù-sag-áš_(_324_)_-ta_ [    ]

14. _é-bi-tūr-ta __d._[    ]

15. _éš è-bàr-ta_ [    ]

16. _éš é-an-na-_[_ta_    ]

17. _še-ib_ [    ]

18-22 ...
18-22 ...

23. _é_ [    ]

24. _dù_(?) [    ]

25. ...

26. _[mu-un-]túg-gà-ta_ [    ]
26. He has been pacified [    ]

27. _mu-un-túg-gà-ta_ [    ]
27. He has been pacified [    ]

28. _mu-un-túg-gà-ta_ [    ]
28. He has been pacified [    ]

29. _mu-un-túg-gà-ta šag __d._[    ]
29. He has been pacified, the heart of ... [has been pacified]

30. _mu-un-túg-gà-ta kur-gal __d.__m[u-ul-lil mu-un-túg-gà-ta]_
30. He has been pacified, the great mountain [Enlil has been pacified]

31. _edin-na_ ? _-a erida (ki)-ta_
31. In the ... plain of Eridu....(325)


32. _a-ma-ru na-nam kur al-gul-gul_
32. A tempest it is shattering the mountain.

33. _ù-mu-un-e e-ne-em-mà-ni a-ma-[ru na-nam]_
33. The word of the lord is a tempest.

34. _šăb-bi e-lum-e a-ma-ru na-[nam]_
34. The heart(326) of the exalted is a tempest.(327)

35. _šăb-bi __d.__mu-ul-lil a-ma-ru na-nam_
35. The heart of Enlil is a tempest.

36. _ù-mu-un-na šag an-šú an ní-ne ba-ni-ib-gam-ma-[ne]_
36. The heart of the lord is in heaven and the heavens waver of

37. _d.__mu-ul-lil e-ne-em ki-šú ki ní sīg-ga-ni_
37. The word of Enlil is on earth and the earth trembles of itself.

38. _e-ne-em-mà __d.__a-nun-na gil-li-em-eš-[a-ni]_(_329_)
38. The word which brings woe to the spirits of earth.

39. _e-ne-em-mà-ni a-zu nu-tuk šim-šar nu-[un-    tuk]_
39. His word a prophet has not; a magician it has not.

40. _e-ne-em-mà-ni a-ma-ru zi-ga gab-šu-gar nu-un-tuk_(_330_)
40. His word is an onrushing tempest, an adversary to oppose it has not.

(Here followed Obv. IV; eight or ten lines continued this melody to the
word. Their contents were similar to SBP. 100, 49-57 ff.)


1. _sukkal-zid mu-dug-ga-sà-a_ [    ]
1. The faithful messenger, he called by a good name.

2. _dingir ga-še-dé a-be-in-si sag_ [    ]
2. The god who satiates with milk and grain, _sag_(332)....

3. _an-ki-bi-da im-mi-ib-ģun-gà_
3. Heaven and earth it has pacified.

4. _ki-an-bi-da im-mi-ib-ģun-gà_
4. Earth and heaven it pacified.

5. _ud é-kùr-ta kùr-gal __d.__mu-ul-lil [im-mi-ib-ģun-gà]_
5. When in Ekur the great mountain Enlil it pacified,

6. _é-lam-ma_(_333_)_-ta ama-gal __d.__nin-lil im[-mi-ib-ģun-gà]_
6. [When] in Elamma the great mother Ninlil it pacified,

7. _an-ni-gar-ra_(_334_)_-ta ereš_(_335_)_ __d.__mu-ul-[-lil
7. In Annigarra the _consort (sister)_ of Enlil it pacified.


8. _e-lum di-da-ra dé-en_(_336_)_ ga-ám-dúr_
8. The exalted who walketh forth, where tarries he?(337)

9. _di-da-ra e-lum di-da-ra dé-en ga-ám-dúr_
9. Who walketh forth, the exalted who walketh forth, where tarries he?

10. _ù-mu-un-e kur-kur-[ra-ge di-da-ra]_
10. The lord of the lands, who walketh forth, where tarries he?

11. _[ù-mu-]un-e dúg-ga-zi-da    di_
11. The lord of faithful word, who etc.

12. _d.__mu-ul-lil a-a ka-nag-gà    di_
12. Enlil, father of the Land, who etc.

13. _sib sag-gíg-ga    di_
13. Shepherd of the dark-headed people, who etc.

14. _i-dé-duģ ní-te-na    di_
14. He of self-created vision, who etc.

15. _am erin-na sá-sá    di_
15. Hero that directs his hosts, who etc.

16. _ù-lul-la dúr-dúr    di_
16. He that sleeps the sleep of perversity, who etc.

17. _me-e bur-maģ-a kaš ga-an-na-ab nisak-ka_
17. I in a great bowl will pour out wine to him.

18. _ama-gim dugud_(_338_)_-da da-mu-un-lal_
18. I like a wild ox will bow down to the mighty one.(339)

19. _urú-zu al-gul-gul ga-an-na-ab-dúg_
19. “Thy city is destroyed,” will I say to him.

20. _kenur é-nam-ti-la    al_
20. “Kenur and Enamtila are destroyed,” will I say to him.

21. _zimbir-(ki) é-bàr-ra    al_
21. “In Sippar Ebarra is destroyed,” etc.

22. _urú-zu tin-tir-(ki)    al_
22. “Thy city Babylon is destroyed,” etc.

23. _é-sag-ila bád-si-ab-ba-(ki)    al_
23. “Esagila and Barsippa are destroyed,” etc.

24. _é-zi-da é-maģ-ti-la    al_
24. “Ezida and Emahtila are destroyed,” etc.

25. _é-te-me-en-an-ki    al_
25. “Etemenanki is destroyed,” etc.

26. _é-dár-an-na    al_(_340_)
26. “Edaranna is destroyed,” etc.

27. _gi-er-ra ba-mă ga-an-na-ab-dúg_(_341_)
27. “Wailing on the reed-flute ascends in her,”(342) will I say to him.

28. _ud ma-ra mu-un-zal-la-ta i-dé-a-ni nu-gub_
28. When I am overjoyous in his presence may I not stand.

29. _d.__mu-ul-lil-li mu-un-zal-la-ta i-dé-[a-ni nu-gub
29. As to Enlil when I am overjoyous in his presence may I not stand.

30. _d.__mu-ul-lil-li i-dé-a-ni nu-gub i-dé-nam-mu-un-dŭ-ru_
30. In the presence of Enlil may I not stand; may he behold me not.


31. _me-e ur-ri-mèn me-e kàs-mèn_(_343_)
31. I am a stranger and a fugitive.

32. _a è-ne al-dib a è-ne al-dib_
32. The risen waters seized away; the risen waters seized away.

33. _[nin]-urú-ma ama-gal __d.__nin-lil-là [mèn]_
33. Queen of city and house, great mother Ninlil am I.

34. _[__d.__a]-ru-ru SAL+KU __d.__mu-ul-lil-là [mèn]_
34. Aruru, sister of Enlil I am.

35. _[nin?]ú-a gašan ni-ib-bur mèn_
35. A _queenly_ caretaker, queen of Nippur I am.

36. _[gašan] azag-ga_(_344_)_ gašan ma-gí-a mèn_
36. An holy queen, queen of the convent I am.

37. _ma ma-al-la-šú ma ma-al-la-šú_
37. In the builded house, in the builded house,

38. _d.__mu-ul-lil [umun?] kúr-kúr-ra ma_
38. Enlil [_lord_] of lands in the builded house,

39. _[ereš]-mu mu-un-til ma_
39. My consort dwells not in the builded house.


40. At the end of this column began a long titular melody.(345)

(Lines 1-11 of this melody, i. e., 40-51 on KL. 11, III, are supplied by
Tablet Virolleaud, Rev. 1-11, and restores the entire section.)


1. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-li dam-a-ni __d.__Nin-lil-li_
1. Enlil and his consort Ninlil (we will pacify). (= Tab. Vir. Rev. 12.)

2. _An __d.__Uraša ki-še-gu-nu-e_(_346_)
2. Anu-Uraš _kisegunu_.

3. _d.__En-ki __d.__Nin-ki En-ul __d.__Nin-ul_
3. Enki and Ninki, Enul and Ninul.

4. _d.__En-da-šurim-ma __d.__Nin-da-šurim-ma_
4. Endašurimma, Nindašurimma.(347)

5. _d.__En-dù-azag-ga __d.__Nin-dù-azag-ga_(_348_)
5. The Lord of Duazag, the Queen of Duazag.

6. _ama __d.__Nin-lil a-a __d.__Mu-ul-lil_
6. Mother Ninlil and father Enlil.

7. _d.__En-ut-til-_(_349_)_ __d.__En-me-en-šár-ra_(_350_)
7. Enuttilla and Enmenšarra.

8. _nin-zi-an-na_(_351_)_ ga-ša-an ģar-sag-gà_(_352_)
8. Ninzianna and Ninharsag.

9. _d.__Šul-pa-è_(_353_)_ en __giš__banšur-ra_
9. Šulpae, lord of the sacrificial board.

10. _ama še-en-tùr_(_354_)_ dim-me-ir imin_
10. Mother Šentur, (mother) of the seven gods.(355)

11. _ù-mu-un si_(_356_)_Nipru-(ki) ù-mu-un kalag-a_
11. The lord _light_ of Nippur, mighty lord.

12. _gù-de-de_(_357_)_ ga-ša-an Nipru-(ki)_
12. The loud crying, queen of Nippur.

13. _dingir dumu-sag_(_358_)_ __d.__ga-ša-an mu-un-ga-ra_
13. Divine first born daughter, divine queen of treasures.

14. _d.__Nusku [á-]maģ dingir-gidim [é-kur-ra]_
14. Nusku of mighty message, divine spirit of Ekur.

[15. _ama é-a-ge __d.__Sa-dár-nun-na_]
[15. Mother of the temple, Sadar-nunna.]

[16. _d.__Še-ra-aģ gidim é-šar-ra_]
[16. Šerah spirit of Ešarra.]

[17. _lamma-šág-ga me-lam-an-na_]
[17. The propitious spirit whose splendor is supreme.]

18. _dumu [sukkal-gal __d.__Nannar __d.__Zuen-na_
18. The son, [great messenger, Nannar-Sin.]

19. _d.__En-[nu-NUNUZ-zi __d.__Nannar_(_359_)_ dam __d.__Nannar-ge]_
19. Zir [spouse of Nannar].

20. _nu-banda-[maģ __d.__Mu-ul-lil-la-zi-ge]_
20. [The august] prefect, [divine Enlilzi](360)

21. _d.__[En]-bu-[ul-e dumu é-sab-ba]_
21. [Enbul son of Ešabba.]

22. _šul-a[n-na umun ģar-sag-ģal-ge]_
22. Hero of [heaven, lord of the great mountain.]

23. _d.__ga-ša-[an-gal-e ama-an-na-ge]_
23. Ningal [heavenly mother.]

24. _d.__ga-ša-[an    an-na áš-ni-gi-ge_(_361_)]
24. The queen of heaven [who alone is strong.]

25. _mu-ud-[na-ni __d.__Ama-ušum-gal-an-na]_
25. Her husband [Tammuz.]

26. _ama ù-[mu-un-na gašan sun-]na_
26. The mother of the lord,(362) Ninsun.

27. _ù-[mu-un banda ù-mu-un èš-]nun-na_
27. Lugalbanda lord of Ešnunak.

28. _é-rib an-na mu-tin-an-na_
28. The heavenly sister-in-law, Geštinanna.(363)

(Here supply twenty-eight lines = SBP 154, 24-156, 51.)


1. _d.__En-á-nun ama gù-an-ni-si_
1. Enanun mother of loud weeping.(364)

2. _d.__NINDA + GUD_(_365_)_ amar zag-gi-ra_(_366_)
2. Ninda-Gud, the radiant son.

3. _d.__Sú-nir-da_(_367_)_ en šul-mé-ra_
3. Šunirda, queen, heroine of battle.

4. _dumu-šág-ga ga-ša-an kár_(_368_)_-nun-na-ra_
4. The pious daughter, Ninkar-nunna.(369)

5. _ga-ša-an dig-ga dingir-lum-ma_(_370_)_ ur-sag_
5. Queen(?) of the dead, Lumma the heroic.

6. _ù-mu-un uru_(_371_)_-gal ù-mu-un é_(_372_)_-gid-da_
6. Lord of the grave, lord of the seizing hand.

7. _d.__Ir_(_373_)_-ra-gal kú-a-nu-si-ra_(_374_)
7. Great Girra, hero unopposable.

8. _lamma-šág-ga sil-gig edin-na_
8. The good genius of the dark ways of the plain.(375)

9. _d.__Nin-sîg-ge __d.__Guškin-banda-ra_
9. Ninsig Guškinbanda,

10. _ù-mu-un nig-nam-ma-ge ḪU_(_376_)_-kur-kur_(_377_)
10. Lord of whatsoever is, the sculptured form.

11. _sal-si_(_378_)_-a __d.__Ba-ú_(_379_)_-šág-ga_
11. The earth woman, beneficent Bau.

12. _ù-mu-un né me en_(_380_)_ ga-ša-an abzu_
12. Lord of might, lord of decrees, priest of the deep.(381)

13. _d.__Ašnan __d.__Azag-sug_(_382_)_ mun-galu_(_383_)_-sal-sal_
13. Ašnan the divine cleanser, the ... loud crying.

14. _[ù-mu-un] sa-a_(_384_)_ ki-sá_(_385_)_ dumu nun-ra_
14. Lord of light, director of the earth, and the daughter of the

15. _[gidim uru-]ma ur sag-imin_
15. The demon of my city the dog of seven heads.

16. _[__d.__Gi-bil mu- ? ?]-na_(_387_)_ mu-ten ur-sag_
16. Gibil ... warlike man.

17. _[__d.__Ut-ta-ed-dé mu-lu] ki-azag-ga_
17. Uttaedde lord of the holy place.

18. _[umun ma-da sub-be an-na    ]_
18. [Lord of the land, light of heaven.](388)

19. [_umun á-zu umun e_(_389_)_-gid-da_    ]
19. [Lord Nergal, him of the seizing hand.]

20. [_ga-ša-an-né-da umun mu-zi-da_]
20. [Allat and Ningišzida](390)

21. [    ] _dū-a_
21. [    ]

22. [    ]_-ga_
22. [    ](391)

23. _[__d.__Ir-ri-eš ur-sag ga-ša]-an-subur_
23. [Irriš, the heroic] lord of the soil.

24. [_dingir ama é-uru-sag-gà gašan tin-dib-ba_]
24. [The divine mother of the temple of the chief city(392) queen who
            gives life to the dead.]

25. _[sag-gà an-na gašan] Í-si-in-na_
25. The lofty browed queen of Isin.

26. _[__d.__Pa-bil-sag ù-mu-]un La-ra-ag-ga_
26. Pabil-sag(393) lord of Larak.

27. _[__d.__Gu-nu-ra dim-gal] kalam-ma_
27. Gunura bar of the Land.

28. _[__d.__Da-mu šág-ga ù-]mu-un gir-su-a_
28. The pious Damu lord of the flood.(394)

29. _[__d.__Immer ù-mu-un] ní-dŭ-an-na_
29. Immer lord of terror.(395)

30. [    ] _íd-da-ra_
30. ... the river.(396)

31. _[ù-mu-un ši ka-nag-]gà ši kur-kur-ra_
31. Lord of the souls of Sumer, of the souls of the lands.

32. _[__d.__Sú-ud-da-am du-mu nun-na ama é-]šab-ba_
32. Suddam, daughter of the prince, mother of Ešabba.

About twenty-four lines completed this column and ended the liturgy. The
void is to be completed by part of the titular litany, SBP. 160, 19-164,
38, and by a short intercession similar to the fragmentary intercession at
the end of KL. No. 8. It is possible that the eleventh and last section on
Tablet Virolleaud was retained as the final melody of this later


1. _é-e sub-da sub-da [mu-un-laģ-en-ne-en]_
    To the temple with prayer, with prayer let us go.(397)

2. _balag_(_398_)_ é-e dirig sub-da [mu-un-laģ-en-ne-en]_
    To the lyre unto the temple which surpasses all let us go.

3. _balag nigin-na-e sub-da __d.__Mu-[ul-lil-ra mu-un]_
    To the lyre unto the merciful one with prayer, [unto Enlil,]

4. _balag dîm-me-ir mu-lu sub-da __d.__Mu-ul-[lil-ra mu-un]_
    To the lyre unto god, the lord, with prayer, unto Enlil [let us go].

5. _dîm-me-ir lu-gă-lu-ne-en sub-da mu-un-laģ-en-[ne-en]_
    Unto him who is god of his people with prayer let us go.

6. _me-en-ne é-e tùb a-ra-zu-a mu-un-laģ-en-ne-[en]_
    We “Oh temple repose” in prayer come.

7. _me-en-ne ki-e tùb a-ra-zu-a mu-un-laģ-(en)-ne-en __d.__Mu-[ul-lil-ra]_
    We “Oh earth repose” in prayer come, unto Enlil (come).

8. _ù-mu-un šă-ab tùb-e-da in-gà_(_399_)_-laģ-(en)-ne-en
    To pacify the heart of the lord behold we come unto Enlil.

9. _šă-ab ģun-gà bar ģun-gà-da in-gà-laģ-ne-en __d.__Mu-[ul-lil-ra]_
    To pacify the heart, to pacify the soul, behold we come to Enlil.

10. _me-en-ne šă-ab ù-mu-un-na mu-un-tùb-(en)-ne-en __d.__Mu-[ul-lil]_
    We will pacify the heart of the lord, yea of Enlil.

11. _šă-ab an-na šă-ab __d.__Mu-ul-lil-lá mu-un-tub-(en)-ne-en_
    The heart of Anu and the heart of Enlil we will pacify.

12. _d.__Mu-ul-lil-lá dam-a-ni ... __d.__Nin-lil-lá_
    [The heart of] Enlil and his wife Ninlil [we will pacify.]

13. _d.__En-ki __d.__Nin-ki __d.__En-mul __d.__Nin-mul_(_400_)
    The heart of Enki, Ninki, Enmul and Ninmul [we will pacify.]

14. _i-lu a-di ig-ga-am-ma-ru_
    A god until they are finished.(401)


        _ki-šub-gú 10-kam-ma_(_402_)
    The tenth strophe.

            (The Recessional)

15. _ù-mu-un-mu za-e babbar_(_403_)_ uru-mà ur-sag-gà me-en_
    My lord thou art, light of my city, a hero thou art.

16. _šùb-bi-mu ù-mu-un kalag-a ur-sag-gà me-en_
    My illumination, oh valiant lord, a hero thou art.

17. _ù-mu-un kalag-a ur-sag-gà me-en kalag-ga-na me-en_
    Oh valiant lord, a hero thou art, its(404) defender thou art.

18. _d.__Babbar-gim za-e ? en-na an-ni tur-tur-ne-[en]_
    Like Shamash thou art ... into heaven enters.

19. _d.__Nannar-gim ki dumu-zu an-na(?)_(_405_)_ na-an-gir-ri-[ne-en]_
    Like Nannar where thy son(406) in heaven hastens.

20. _ù-mu-un-mu enem-zu galu-ra_(_407_)_ na-an-na-ab-zí-[em]_
    My lord thy word on man has fallen.

21. _enem-zu galu ki_(_408_)_-kal-ra na-an-na-ab-zí-[em_]
    Thy word on him of the foreign land has fallen.

22. _enem-zu galu en-na nu-šeg-ra na-an-na-ab-zí-[em_]
    Thy word on men as many as are not obedient has fallen.

23. _ù-mu-un-mu uru-zu-a è-ni a-sar-sar-ra_(_409_)
    My lord _beneficent_ waters in thy city cause to spring forth.

24. _a-a__d.__ Mu-ul-lil ki-bur-ta-bur-ta uru-zu-a è-ni_
    Father Enlil ... in thy city cause to come forth.


        _ki-šub-gù_ 11_-kam-ma_
    The eleventh strophe.

25. _sub-bi še-ib è-kur-ra-ta ki-na gí-gí-ra_.
    A prayer for the brick walls of Ekur, that it return to its place.


    A song of supplication.

26. _al-tíl e-lum gud-sun_
    It is finished, the series “Exalted, bull that overwhelms.”


Ni. 11359, published by MYHRMAN, PBS. I. No. 8, is the left upper corner
of a large four column tablet. It contained a series of _ki-šub_ melodies
which formed the prototype of the later Enlil series of which three
tablets have been edited by the writer, see _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_
167. It stands to the completed series as the similar tablet of the _e-lum
gud-sun_ series, Tablet Virolleaud, is related to its completed canonical
form in ZIMMERN, KL. 11. Both Ni. 11359 and Tablet Virolleaud show the
evolution of two great Enlil liturgies arrested midway in their evolution.
They still consist of unmethodically joined melodies. Both have the same
rubric at the end. The first melody of _d.__Babbar-gim-è-ta_ after line
four agrees with the first melody of the Enlil series _zi-bu-ù sud-du-ám_
in ZIMMERN, KL. 8 and 9 after line five of that series. A duplicate will
be found in BL. pp. 37-39, which see for critical notes on the
reconstructed text.


1. _d.__Babbar-gim è-ta_ [    ]
1. Like the sun-god arise ...

2. _ù-mu-un gan_ ...
2. Oh lord ...

3. _a-a __d.__Mu-ul-lil ù-[mu-un kur-kur-ra_
3. Father Enlil, lord of the lands.

4. _d.__Mu-ul-lil ù-mu-[un dúg-ga-zi-da_]
4. Enlil lord of faithful word.

5. _am-ná-a gud-dé sīg-gan-nu-di_
5. Crouching wild ox, bull that rests not.(410)

6. _d.__Mu-ul-lil dam-kar-[ra ki-dagar-ra]_
6. Enlil herdsman of the wide earth.

7. _ù-mu-un mu erin-na-[ni sag-ma-al ki_]
7. Lord who _summons_ his toilers, recorder of the earth.

8. _ù-mu-un iá erin-a-[ni ga-eri-ám da-]ma-[la]_
8. Lord who causes to abound oil for his toilers, milk for the newly

9. _ù-mu-un ki-dúr-a-ni [uru ir-ir]_
9. Lord whose abode is the city of weeping.

10. _ki-ná-a-ni á-ág-[gà-e    gal-zu]_
10. In whose chamber oracles are interpreted.

11. _a-a __d.__Mu-ul-lil uru-[ta Nibru-ki]_
11. Father Enlil in (thy) city Nippur.

12. _é-kur é-šag-gi-pad-da-ta_
12. In Ekur temple of (thy) heart’s choice.

13. _gi-gun-na giš-tir-šim [__giš__ erin-na-ta_
13. In the great dark chamber of odorous forest and cedar.

14. [  _] Šeš-dū-a-ka šeš-mul [... ta]_
14. In ...,

15. [    _]si-ra é-ŭ-[di- ta    ]_
15. In ... the house of vision,

16. _[    ]lu é babbar nu-[zu-ta_]
16. In ... house which knows the sunlight not,

17. _[é]-gi-dim-dim-ma i-dé [nu-bar-ri-ta]_
17. In the house of the “reed of _sorrow_,” which eye beholds not,

18. _[     ]maģ dug-li duģ-[duģ-ta]_
18. In the great ... causing prosperity to abound,

19. _[é(?)]-ku-a __giš__ik-[ku-igi-lal-a-ta]_
19. In _Ekua_ gate of the lifting of the eyes,

20. [ _]-silim-ma mu-mar [mar-ra-ta_]




21. _sub-bi še-ib é-[kur-ra-ta?] ki-na-an-gí-gí-ra_(_412_)
21. Prayer for the brick walls of _Ekur_ that it be restored to its place.


22. _ki-šù-bi-im_
22. It is a service of prostrations.


Keš and Opis, two closely associated but unlocated southern cities of
Sumer, lay apparently somewhere in the region between Erech and Šuruppak.
So closely were they united that the same cult of the great mother goddess
obtained in both.(413) According to II Raw. 60_a_ 26, Innini of Hallab was
the queen of Keš. The Sumerian liturgy, BL. p. 54, names Nintud as the
goddess of this city, but the list of mother goddesses in PSBA. 1911 Pl.
XII calls her by the name Ninharsag,(414) where she is associated with
Ninmenna, epithet of the earth mother in Adab a city near Šuruppak. A
fragment, No. 102 in BL., reads her title at Keš as Aruru. These various
epithets all refer to the earth mother whose principal married type is
Ninlil. In fact one liturgy actually names Ninlil as the goddess of Keš,
SBP. 24, 74. On the other hand, a cult document of the Neo-Babylonian
period names Kallat Ekur, the bride of Ekur, as the goddess of _U-pi-ia_
or Opis, VS. VI. 213, 21.(415) The bride of Ekur is Ninlil. Thus the twin
cities Keš and Opis of Sumer with their cult of the earth mother Ninharsag
or Nintud were imitated in later times in Akkad and located on the Tigris
where Opis survived into Greek times (ωπις) and Keš seems to have become
confused in writing with Kiš a famous city near Babylon. At Opis in Akkad
a male satellite _Igi-du_ was associated with the mother goddess and we
may be safe in assuming that he was borrowed from the original southern
cult.(416) Of the names Ninharsag, Aruru, Nintud, Ninmah, Innini of
Hallab, we are not certain which one applied especially to Keš and Opis.
In any case the liturgy which we are about to discuss had some special
name for the goddess here. In a refrain which recurs at the end of each
melody the psalmists say that the god of Keš, that is probably Igidu,(417)
was made like Ašširgi, or Ninurta, and that its goddess was made like
Nintud, hence the _special_ name of the mother goddess in this liturgy
cannot have been Nintud.

So far as the text of this important liturgy in eight melodies can be
established, it leads to the inference that, like all other Sumerian
choral compositions, the subject is the rehearsal of sorrows which befell
a city and its temple. Here the glories of Keš, its temple and its gods
are recorded in choral song, and the woes of this city are referred to as
symbolic of all human misfortunes. The name of the temple has not been
preserved in the text. But we know from other liturgies that the temple in
Keš bore the name Uršabba.(418) The queen of the temple Uršabba is called
the mother of Negun, also a title of Ninurta in Elam.(419) The close
connection between the goddess of Keš and Ninlil is again revealed, for
Negun is the son of Ninlil in the theological lists, CT. 24, 26, 112.
Therefore at Keš we have a reflection of the Innini-Tammuz cult or the
worship of mother and son, mother goddess Ninlil or Ninharsag, and Igidu
or Negun.(420)

Keš and Opis must have been closely associated with both Erech and
Šuruppak, and of traditional veneration in Sumer. Keš is mentioned in a
list with Ur, Kullab (part of Erech) and Šuruppak, SMITH, _Miscellaneous
Texts_ 26, 5. Gudea speaks of a part of the temple in Lagash which was
pure as Keš and Aratta (i. e. Šuruppak).(421) The various mother goddesses
of Eridu, Kullab, Kêši, Lagaš and Šuruppak are invoked in an incantation,
CT. 16, 36, 1-9. The first melody of the Ashmolean Prism contains a
reference to the horse of Šuruppak.

The textual history of this liturgy is interesting. The major text is
written upon a four-sided prism now in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford. The
object is eight inches high, four inches wide on each surface and is
pierced from top to bottom at the center by a small hole, so that the
liturgy could be turned on a spindle. The writer published a copy of this
prism or prayer wheel in his _Babylonian Liturgies_. The elucidation of
this exceedingly difficult text was lightened somewhat by the discovery of
a four column tablet in Constantinople, which originally contained the
entire text. It was afterwards published as No. 23 of my _Historical and
Religious Texts_. Since the edition of these two sources, the Nippur
Collection in Philadelphia has been found to contain several fragments of
the same liturgy. A portion of the redaction on several single column
tablets had been already published by RADAU in his _Miscellaneous Sumerian
Texts_, No. 8 (=Ni. 11876), last tablet of the series containing melodies
six, seven, and eight. I failed to detect the connection of RADAU’s tablet
at the time of the first edition but referred to it with a rendering in my
_Epic of Paradise_, p. 19. Another tablet, also from a single column
tablet redaction at Nippur, has been recovered in Philadelphia, Ni.
8384.(422) This text utilized here in transcription contains a section
marked number 4 on that tablet but all the other sources omit it. Hence
this redaction probably contained nine melodies. The new melody has been
inserted between melodies three and four of the standard text. If evidence
did not point otherwise the editor would have supposed that Ni. 8384 and
11876 belonged to the same tablet. But Ni. 8384 has melodies four, five
and six of its redaction with the catch-line of the next or its seventh
melody which partly duplicates the Radau tablet. Moreover, these two
tablets have not the same handwriting and differ in color and texture of
the clay. Finally a small fragment, Ni. 14031, contains the end of the
second melody and the beginning of the third on its obverse. The reverse
contains the end of the sixth melody. This small tablet undoubtedly
belongs to the four column tablet in Constantinople. The two fragments
became separated by chance when the Nippur Collection was divided between
Philadelphia and the Musée Imperial of Turkey. Ni. 14031 will be found in
my _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_, No. 22.

Under ordinary circumstances a text for which so many duplicates exist
should have yielded better results than I have been able to produce. But
the contents are still obscure owing largely to the bad condition of the
prism. My first rendering of the interesting refrain in which I saw a
reference to the creation of man and woman was apparently erroneous. The
refrain refers rather to the creation of the mother goddess of Keš and to
her giving birth to her son Negun.(423)

COL. I (Lines 1-22 defaced)


23. _[é ke]š-(ki)-dug-ga    dū-a_
23. [Temple] in holy Keš builded.

24. _[é(?)] ÉN-ḪAR-(ki)-dug-gu dū-a_
24. [Temple(?)] in holy _EN-ḪAR_ builded.

25. _[é ...] nun-gim an-na dirig-ga_
25. [Temple] like ... _nun_, like  heaven exceeding all.(424)

26. _[é ...] azag-gim ? -si ri-a_
26. [Temple] like the pure ... clothed in

27. _[é] an-na-gim mūš kur-kur-ra_
27. [Temple] like heaven the illumination of the lands.

28. _[é ...] tūr-gim ki-a-ta sur-sur-ra_
28. [Temple] like ... _tur_ in the earth _founded_.

29. _[é ...-]gim mur-du ninda_(_425_)_-gim gù-nun-di_(_426_)
29. [Temple] like ... roaring, like a _young bull_ bellowing.

30. _[é ...] bi-ta lipiš kalam-ma_
30. [Temple] in whose ... the hearts of the creatures of the Land ...(427)

31. _[é ...] bi-ta zid Ki-en-gi-ra_
31. [Temple] in whose ... the soul of life of Sumer ...

32. _[é ...] ib-gal an-e-ri_(_428_)_ uš-sa_
32. [Temple], great ... _IB_, attaining unto heaven.

33. _[é ...]-da-gal  an-e_(_429_)_ uš-sa_
33. [Temple], great ... _da_, attaining unto heaven.

34. _[é ...] gal  an-e  uš-sa_
34. [Temple], great ..., attaining unto heaven.

35. _[é ...] -na [an-e] uš-sa_
35. [Temple ...], attaining unto heaven.


1. _... an-ki ..._
1. ... heaven and earth ...

2. _... abzu ..._
2. ... of the nether-sea ...

3. _é an-ni(?) šu-[    ]_
3. Temple which Anu ...

4. _d.__En-lil-li zag-šú ..._
4. Enlil above all ...

5. _ama __d.__Nin-tud eš-[bar-kin ... ]_
5. The mother, Nintud oracles ...

6. _é Keš-ki ... na ..._
6. Temple in Keš ...

7. _ÉN-ḪAR-(ki)_(_430_)_-gim rib-ba_(_431_)_ galu ši-in-[ga-an-túm-mu]_
7. Like _EN-ḪAR_ it has been made surpassing; verily man has brought
            solicitude for it.(432)

8. _ur-sag-bi __d.__Áš-šir-gí-gim rib-ba_
8. Its hero like Ašširgi has been

9. _ama ši-in-ga-an_(_433_)_-ù-tud_
9. made surpassing; the mother(434) verily has borne him.

10. _nin-bi __d.__Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ra a-ba_(_435_)_ er-mu-ni-in-duģ_
10. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


11. _gú     2     kam-[ma-ám]_
11. It is the second song.


12. _é an-šú ģud-da ki-šú ..._(_436_)
12. Temple, in heaven resplendent, in earth ...

13. _é an-šú ... ki-šú ..._
13. Temple, in heaven ..., in earth ...

14. _é an-šú siḳḳa_(_437_)_ ki-šú udu-[gim ... ...]_
14. Temple, in heaven (_like_) a wild goat, on earth like a sheep ...

15. _é an-šú ... ki-šú dár-[bar-gim ...]_
15. Temple, in heaven (_like_) ..., in earth like a roe ...

16. _é an-šú ... gim ... ki-šú dár-bar-gim ..._
16. Temple, in heaven like ..., in earth like a roe ...

17. _é an-šú muš-gim sîg-ga ki-šu babbar-gim za-e laģ-[laģ?]_
17. Temple, in heaven like a dragon gleaming, on earth like the sunlight
            thou shinest.

18. _é an-šú babbar-gim è-a ki-šu __d.__Nannar-gim ..._
18. Temple, in heaven like the sun arising, in earth like the new moon ...

19. _é an-šú kur-ra ki-šu idim-ma_
19. Temple, in heaven shining,(438) on earth loud crying.(439)

20. _é an-ki 3 gu-ma-bi na-nam_
20. Of the temple of heaven and earth three are its attendants.

21. _ÉN-ḪAR-(ki) gim rib-ba galu ši-in-ga-an-túm-mu_
21. Like _EN-ḪAR_ it has been made surpassing; verily man has brought
            solicitude for it.

22. _ur-sag-bi __d.__Áš-šir-gí-gim rib-ba-[ra]_
22. Its hero like Ašširgi has been made surpassing; the mother

23. _[ama] ši-in-ga-an-ù-tud_
23. verily has borne him.

24. _[nin-bi] __d.__Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ra a-ba er-mu-ni-in-duģ_
24. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


25. _[gú] 3-kam-ma-[ám]_
25. It is the third section.


1. _[é- ...] ní-gal-ar an-ni mu-maģ sá_
1. [Temple ...] in  splendor blazing, which Anu with a far-famed name has

2. _[è ...]-gal __d.__En-lil-li nam-ma-ni gal tar-ri_
2. [Temple ...] great, whose fate Enlil has grandly decreed.

3. _[é]á-nun-gál __d.__A-nun-ge-ne kalam sigi(?)_(_440_)_ lám(?)-mu_
3. [Temple] ... of the Anunnaki, in the Land _starlike gleaming_.

4. _é ki-dúr im-dúb-bu_(_441_)_ dingir gal-gal-e-ne_
4. Temple, peaceful dwelling place of the great gods.

5. _é an-ki-bi-da giš-ģar-bi ni-ģar me el šu-ba-e-tag_
5. Oh temple whose design in heaven and earth has been planned, thou art
            possessed of pure decrees.

6. _é kalam ki-gar-ra zag-gar-ra uš-sa_
6. Temple erected in the Land, where stand the chapels of the gods.

7. _é-kur ģe-gál ka-zal ud-zal-zal-li_
7. Mountain house, radiant with abundance and festivity.

8. _é __d.__Nin-ģar-sag-gà zi-kalam-ma ki-bi-šú gar_
8. Temple in whose place Ninharsag has instituted the breath of life of

9. _é-ģar-sag-gal šu-luģ-ģa túm-ma nig-nam-ma-ni ni_(_442_)_-kúr_
9. Great mountain house, made worthy of the rituals of purification, of
            its possessions nought changes.

10. _é ... da-nu ka-áš-bar nu-gà-gà_
10. Temple ... ceases not to render decision.

11. _è ... kalam-dagal-šú lá-a_
11. Temple ... unto the wide Land bearing.

12. _[é] kalam šár ù-tud numun giš-isimu tuk-tuk_
12. [Temple] causing the multitudes of the Land to produce offspring,
            causing the seed to send forth sprouts.

13. _[é] lugal ù-tud nam kalam-ma tar-ri_
13. Temple that gives birth to king, decreeing the fate of the Land.

14. _[é] bár-bár kar su-ḳin-dúr-bi ag-dé_
14. ...

15. _ÉN-ḪAR-(ki)-gim rib-ba galu ši-in-ga-an-túm-mu_
15. Like _ÉN-ḪAR_ it has been made surpassing; verily man has wrought
            solicitude for it.

16. _ur-sag-bi __d.__Áš-šir-gí-gim rib-ba ama ši-in-ga-ám-ù-tud_
16. Its hero like Ašširgi has been made surpassing; the mother verily has
            borne him.

17. _nin-bi __d.__Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ra a-ba er-mu-ni-in-duģ_
17. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


18. [_gú_ 4]_-kam-ma-ám_
18. It is the fourth section.


26. _[uru]_(_443_)_-in-ga-ám uru-in-ga-ám šag-bi a-ba a-mu-un-zu_(_444_)
26. It is a city, it is a city! Its secrets who shall understand?

27. _é Keš-ki uru-in-ga-ám šag-bi a-ba a-mu-un-zu_
27. The temple of Keš is a city! Its secrets who shall understand?

28. _šag-bi-a ur-sag ur-sag-e-ne si-mu-un-si-di-e-ne_
28. Within it the heroic ones administrate.

29. _eš-bar-ḳin-dùg-ga šu-gal mu-un-dú-dú_(_445_)
29. The oracles proclaimed grandly it executes.

30. _é-e gud-udu_(_446_)_-dam gud-ám-ma-gur-ri_(?)_-en_

31. _?-e tum-ma-ám luģ-luģ-_ ...

32. _é-e gud-šár-ra-ám_(_447_)_ al-dúg-[ga?]_

33. _è-e udu-šár-ra-ám al-dúg-[ga?]_

34. _giš-KU-LIL(?)-ne_(_448_)_ gú-LIL-ma-ám gál-li_ ...

35. _giš-KU-da_(_449_)_ ... gùr_ ...



2. _giš__A-TU-GAB-LIŠ-dam an-da-PI-PI-SAL(?)_ ...

3. _ģar-sag-da mă-a_(_450_)_ an-da-sîg-sîg-[ga-ám?]_

4. _EN-ḪAR-(ki)-gim rib-ba galu ši-in-ga-túm-mu_
4. Like EN-HAR it has been made surpassing; verily man has wrought
            solicitude for it.

5. ur-sag-bi d.Aš-šir-gi-gim rib-ba ama ši-in-ga-an-ù-tud
5. Its hero like Ašširgi has been made surpassing; the mother verily has
            borne him.

6. _nin-bi __d.__Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ra a-ba er mu-ni-in-duģ_
6. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


7. _[gú_(_451_)_ 4-kam-ma-ám_
7. Section four(452) it is.


8. ...
8. ...

9. _é_ [    ]

10. _é_ [  ]_-la né_ [  ] _tu_(_453_)_ [  ] ur_ [  ]

11. _šag-bi-a ur-sag ur-sag-e-ne si-mu-un-si-di-e-ne_
11. Within it the heroic ones administrate.

12. _d.__Nin-ģar-sag-gà ušumgal-ám šag-ki im-_[    ]
12. Ninḫarsag _placed_ it in the bosom of the earth like a python.

13. _d.__Nin-tud ama-gal-la tud-tud mu-un_-[    ]
13. Nintud the great mother ...

14. _d.__Šul-pa-è-a pa-te-si-ge nam-en-na mu_ [    ]
14. Šulpae the priest king lordship ...

15. _d.__Áš-šir-gi_(_454_)_ ur-sag-gà AB_(_455_)_-mu_-[...]
15. Ašširgi, the champion, ...

16. _d.__Urumaš ligir-gal-ám_(_456_)_ edin-na-an_(_457_)_ mu-da-an_-[...]
16. Urumaš great prince in the (heavenly) plain has ...

17. _é-e siḳḳa lu-lim_(_458_)_ gú-ám-ma-gur-ri_(_459_)
17. The temple assembles the rams and bucks.

18. _ÉN-ḪAR-(ki)-gim rib-ba galu ši-in-ga-an-túm-mu_
18. Like EN-HAR it has been made surpassing; verily man has wrought
            solicitude for it.

19. _ur-sag-bi __d.__Áš-šir-gi_(_460_)_-gim rib-ba_
19. Its hero like Ašširgi has been made surpassing; the mother

20. _ama ši-in-ga-a-an-ù-tud_
20. verily has borne him.

21. _nin-bi __d.__Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ra_(_461_)_ a-ba er-mu-ni-in-duģ_
21. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


22. _é 5-kam-ma-ám_
22. It is the fifth(462) section.


23. _é ud-gim ki-gal-la gub-ba_
23. The temple like the sun on the vast foundation stands.

24. _am-laģ-laģ-gim edin-na sūg-sūg-[gi]_
24. Like a white bull on the landscape it reposes.

25. [    ] _e gar-ra é_ [    ]

26. [    ]-_bi-ta_ [    ]

27. [    -]_ta_ [    ]

(28-30 illegible or lost on all the variants.(463))

31. [    ] _ra_ [    ]

32. [    ] _gar nu_ [    ]

33. [    ] _an-šár ki-šar_

34. [    ]_bi la-ģa-ma ki-uš-sa_

35. [    ] _na-ra-ab Uri-(ki)-ka keš-du_

36. _ÉN-ḪAR-(ki)-gim rib-ba_(_464_)_ galu ši-in-ga-an-túm-mu_
36. Like ÉN-HAR it has been made surpassing; verily man has brought
            solicitude for it.

Col. IV

1. _ur-sag-bi __d.__Áš-šir-gí-gim rib-ba-ra_
1. Its hero like Ašširgi has been made surpassing; the mother

2. _ama-a_(_465_)_ ši-in-ga-an-ù-tud_
2. verily has borne him.

3. nin-bi d.Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ra a-ba er-mu-ni-in-duģ
3. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


4. _é_(_466_)_ 6-kam-ma ám_
4. It is the sixth section.

5. _é-azag LU-bi é_(_467_)....
5. The sacred temple whose (?) is....

6. _é-Keš-(ki)-azag LU-bi é_(_468_)
6. The sacred temple of Keš whose ? is....

7. _é-a en-bi __d.__A-nun-na-me-eš_
7. In the temple whose high priests are the Anunnaki,

8. _nu-éš-bi dim-é-an-na-me-eš_(_469_)
8. Whose sacrificial priests are the _dim_ of Eanna,

9. _kisal-e lugal-bur-ra-ám mu-un-gub_
9. The aisle ... treads.

10. _en-dug šag túg-lal nam-mi-in-lal_
10. (The temple) unto which a beneficent lord has shown solicitude....

11. _a-tu-e umun __d.__En-ki NE-GAB in-_[    ]
11. The libator(?), lord Enki....

12. _tu-e a-ŭr(?)_(_470_)_-a_(_471_)_ mu-    e-    gub_
12. The baptizer ... treads thee.

13. _làl a-šag-ga ki-azag-ga-ám mi-_(_472_)...

14. _en isimu-e_(_473_)_ abkal ubar-e-ne tù ki-ám-ma-gál-li-eš [
            ]šeš-a-ni SU-mu-un-sīg-gi-ne_(_474_)
14. The lord Isimu, the councilor....

15. [    ] _RU URU RU mu-ni-ib-bi-ne_

16. [    ]_-ma-ge gig-ga_(_475_)_ mi-ni-ib-za [    ] á-lal-e gù-ģu
16. ... in sorrow abounds. ... the _bound_ cry like birds (?)[7]

17. [    ]?_-ra-ge sūģ-sūģ mi-ni-ib-za [    ] dug-gi si-ģa-ba-ni-ib di_
17. ... in desolation abounds. ... may direct aright.

18. [    ] _ka-zal-bi  al-dug_
18. Of ... its joy was sweet.

19. [    -]_dug ka-zal-bi al-dug_
19. Of ... its joy was sweet.

20. [    ]-_zal-bi a-mu-un-KU_

21. [    ]-_ģar-sag-gà nin-bi[?-] bi ám-mu-un-KU(?)_

22. _ÉN-ḪAR-(ki)-gim rib-ba galu ši-in-ga-an-túm-mu_
22. Like EN-HAR it has been made surpassing; verily man has brought
            solicitude for it.

23. _ur-sag-bi __d.__Áš-šir-gi-gim rib-ba ama ši-in-ga-an-ù-tud_
23. Its hero like Ašširgi has been made surpassing; verily the mother has
            borne him.

24. _nin-bi __d.__Nin-tud-gim rib-ba-ṛa a-ba er-mu-ni-in-duģ_
24. Its lady like Nintud has been made surpassing. And then wailing began.


25. _[é(?)_(_476_)_] 7-kam-ma-ám_
25. It is the seventh section.

(NO. 13)

The series _elum didara_ is entered in the Assyrian liturgical catalogue,
IV Raw. 53_a_ 8, and the first tablet of this Enlil liturgy has been found
in the Berlin collection and published by REISNER, SBH. No. 25.(477) The
Berlin tablet belongs to a great Babylonian temple library of the Greek
period redacted by a family of liturgists descendants of Sin-ibni. A
fragment of the same first tablet of another Babylonian copy has been
found, BM. 81-7-27, 203.(478) The catch line of tablet two is lost on SBH.
25 and no part of tablet two has been identified. In 1914 I copied BM.
78239 (=88-5-12, 94) the upper half of a large tablet carrying according
to the colophon ninety-six Sumerian lines. The number of lines provided
with an interlinear translation on this fragment is only two, which
increases the actual number of lines to ninety-eight. Probably a few more
should be added for Semitic lines on the lost portion. This tablet, also
from a Babylonian redaction, belongs to an edition made by another school
of liturgists and contains tablet three of _elum didara_.

The third tablet of _elum didara_ began with a melody _nin-ri nin-ri
gû-am-me_ to the mother goddess Bau (I. 2), who in line 7 is identified
with Nanâ. Lines 3-6 introduce by interpolation other local forms of the
mother goddess, as a concession to cities whose liturgists succeeded in
inserting these lines before the canon of sacred songs were closed in the
Isin period. Hence Babylon is favored by a reference to Zarpanit in line
3; Barsippa by a reference to Tašmet in lines 4-6. Bau or Gula wails for
Nippur whose destruction is here attributed to the moon-god, Sin. The
introduction of a long passage to the moon-god in the weeping mother
melody of an Enlil liturgy is unusual. The entire passage reflects the
phraseology and ideas of the well-known Sumerian hymn to the moon-god
_magur azag anna_.(479) The composer desiring to utilize these fine lines
makes a setting for them by describing Sin as the god who visited Nippur
with wrath, regardless of the inconsistency of placing such a passage in
an Enlil song service which attributed the sorrows of Nippur to Enlil

According to the catch line of tablet two of the Ninurta liturgy _gud-nim
kurra_ the third tablet of that series began by the same melody as tablet
three of the _elum didara_.(480) It is probable that the first melody of
tablet three of both series was identical. Melodies are always identified
by their first lines and when these agree we assume that the entire
melodies are identical. Since the musicians referred to all melodies by
their first lines it was manifestly impossible to begin two different
melodies with the same line. But tablet three of the weeping mother
liturgy _muten nu-nunuz-gim_ begins its first melody(481) _nin-ri nin-ri
gù-ám_, etc., otherwise both melodies differ completely. This is the first
known of example of two different melodies bearing the same title. It is
curious indeed that an Enlil, a Ninurta and a _mater dolorosa_ series all
begin their third tablets in the same manner.

The obverse of BM. 78239 breaks away before the end of the melody _nin-ri
ninri gú-ám-me_. Here forty-five Sumerian lines are lost; one or two
melodies at least stood in this break. For the last passage on tablet
three, the scribe borrows the first melody of the Ninurta series _gud-nim
kurra_.(482) The litanies which begin these melodies or series of
addresses to Ninurta differ greatly in the two redactions. Since SBH. No.
18 belongs to a Ninurta series the addresses therein are much more
extensive. The composer of the Enlil series _elum didara_ obviously
introduced this irrelevant melody to obtain the fine passage to the
weeping mother, Rev. 10-21 on BM. 78239. These lines are lost on the
Berlin text SBH. No. 18. On the whole the liturgy _elum didara_ is more
inconsistent in the development of ideas than any song service of which
extensive portions are known. Only tablets one and three are as yet
identified and neither of these is much more than half complete.

_ru-ba-tum (rubatum) ši-si-it âli i-šes-si ina lal-la-ra-ti_
The princess, the princess, in misery shouts the wailing of the city.(483)


1. _nin-ri nin-ri gú-ám-me úru in-ga-ám-me ù-li-li_

2. _a gašan-mu nu-nunuz-šág-ga   ù_
2. How long my queen, the pious woman, in misery?(484)

3. _é-gí-a é-sag-il-la_(_485_)_    ù_
3. The bride of Esagila in misery?

4. _dumu-sag __d.__Uraša-a ù_
4. First born daughter of Urasha in misery?

5. _dumu-sag é-i-be- __d.__A-nu-um ù_
5. First born daughter of the temple Ibe-Anum in misery?

6. _gašan-gù-ur-a-sĭg ud-lal-a-ge ù_
6. The obedient queen, she the ..., in misery?

7. _gašan-mu __d.__Na-na-a ù_
7. My queen Nana in misery?

8. _é-zu é-zu-šú ù_
8. (How long) shall thy temple for thy temple in misery be?

9. _uru-zu uru-zu-šú ù_
9. Thy city for thy city in misery be?

10. _dam-zu dam-zu-šú ù_
10. Thy wives for thy wives in misery be?

11. _dumu-zu dumu-zu-šú ù_
11. Thy sons for thy sons in misery be?

12. _še-ib-šú še-ib-gí-gí ù_
12. (How long) for the brick walls shall the brick walls restored wail?

13. _saģar-šú saģar-gí-gí_(_486_)_ ù_
13. For the dust shall the restored dust wail?

14. _si-mă_(_487_)_ azag an-na še-ir-ma-al-la ní-te-na dirig-ga-zu-dé za-e
14. Bright horned light of heaven mighty of itself, in thy excellence, yea
            thou in thy excellence,

15. _na-an-na-ru el-lu ša ša-me-e e-ṭil ra-ma-ni-šu ina šu-tu-ru-ti-ka

16. _a-a __d.__Nannar si-mă azag an-na še-ir-ma-al- a ní-te-na_
16. O father Nannar bright horned light of heaven, mighty of itself, (in
            thy excellence, yea thou in thy excellence),

17. _a-a __d.__Nannar umun-e an-šár_
17. Father Nannar, lord of all the heavens,

18. _umun __d.__Nannar umun __d.__Aš-ìm-ür-ra_(_488_)
18. Lord Nannar, lord of the rising light,

19. _umun gu-la galu nin-ģul-ma-al-la uru-zu ní-te-en-na še-ir-ma-al-la
19. Great lord, who himself has  wrought evil to thy city,(489) mighty of

20. _uru-zu Nippur-(ki) galu nin-ģul-ma-al-la uru-zu_
20. As for thy city Nippur, he who has wrought evil to thy city,

21. _nigin kalam-ma-zu á-si ma-ni-ib-bi_
21. All thy Land....

22. _[uru?] kalam-ma-da-zu gig-ga-an-na-ag-eš_
22. _Thy city_ and land are afflicted with woe.

23. [   ] _zu-gà_(_490_)_ (galu) a-ba an-lăģ_(_491_)_-eš_
23. _In_ thy ... and thy ... the scribes are driven away.

24. [   ] _zu-gà pag-da_(_492_)_ ma-an-lá-lal-la-aģ(?)_(_493_)_-eš_
24. In thy ... and thy ... the augurers are exiled.

25. ... _zu ba-ni-ib-gul_
25. Thy ... is destroyed.

26. ... _zu ba-ni-ib-sĭg-sĭg_

27. ... _ḪUL-AŠ-A_ (gloss) _e-ga ib_ ...

28. ... _A-AN ḪUL ... e-ga ib_ ...

29. ...
29. ...


1. _[gū-ud nim] kur-ra [mu-lu ta-zu mu-un-zu]_
1. Exalted hero of the world, doth any one comprehend thy form?(494)

2. _[kar-ra-]du ša-ku-u ša ma-a-tim kat-tuk [man-nu i-lam-mad]_

3. _alim-ma    umun ur-sag-gal_
3. Honored one, lord, great champion.

4. _ur-sag-gal umun si __d.__Mu-ul-lil-lá-ge_
4. Great champion, lord, light of Enlil.

5. _alim-ma    abil é-kur-ra_
5. Honored one, son of Ekur.(495)

6. _ur-sag-gal  umun é-šu-me-DU_(_496_)
6. Great champion, lord of Ešume-_du_.

7. _umun é-šag-maģ-a umun-e é-i-be-šu-gúd_
7. Lord of Ešamaḫ, lord of E-ibe-šugud.(497)

8. _umun sukkal-maģ-di_(_498_)_ gal-ukkin __d.__Nusku-ge_
8. Lord, great messenger, the herald Nusku.

9. _d.__Maš-tab-ba __d.__Lugal-gĭr-ra_
9. The twin god, Lugalgirra.

10. _dúg-ga-zu mu-lu ta-zu mu-un-zu_
10. As to thy commands, who comprehends thy form?

11. _taģ-a-zu mu-lu_
11. As to thy succor, who comprehends thy form?

12. _e-ne-em-zu mu-lu_
12. As to thy word, who comprehends thy form?

13. _edin-na di-di edin-na še-ám-du_
13. She wanders on the plain, on the plain she wails.

14. _ama gašan tin-dib-ba edin-na_
14. The mother, queen who gives life to the dead, on the plain wails.

15. _nin gašan nigín-gar-ra edin-na_
15. The queen, lady Nigingar, on the plain wails.

16. _nin gašan Lara-ak-(ki)-ge_(_499_)_ edin-na_
16. The queen, lady of Larak, on the plain wails.

17. _nin gašan I-si-in-na-(ki) edin-na_
17. The queen, lady of Isin, on the plain wails.

18. _nin ama é-dúr_(_500_)_-azag-ga edin-na_
18. The queen, mother of the holy city, on the plain wails.

19. _nin ama ŠU-ḪAL-BI_(_501_)_ edin-na_
19. The queen, the ... mother, on the plain wails.

20. _d.__Ba-ú nu-númuz šág-ga edin-na_
20. Bau, the pious woman, on the plain wails.

21. _éš é-rab-ri-ri umun __d.__Sá-kut-maģ-a edin-a_
21. The abode, Erabriri, of the lord Sakutmah on the plain wails.


22. _e-lum-e la-lu u-’u-a u-’u-a_
22. Oh honored one, the exuberant, alas, alas.

23. _96-ám mu-šid-bi-im duppu 3-kam e-lum di-da-ra nu al-tíl_
23. Ninety-six is the number of its lines. Third tablet of _Elum didara_,

24. _gab-ri Bár-sip-(ki) kima labiri-šu ša-ṭir-ma barim duppu
            __d.__Bêl-iḳ-ṣur māri-šu ša __d.__Bêl-iškun-ni_
24. Copy from Barsippa, according to its original, written and collated.
            Tablet of Bêlikṣur son of Belishkunni,

25. _mar Iddin-__d.__Papsukkal pa-liḫ __d.__Nabu ina šar-tum la uštešir ù
            ina me-riš-tum la u-ša-bi_(_502_)
25. son of Iddin-Papsukkal worshipper of Nebo. In fraud he has not
            translated it and with wilful readings has he not published


Ni. 6060, a Cassite tablet in four columns, yields a notable addition to
the scant literature we now possess concerning Babylonian mystic symbols.
A fragmentary Assyrian copy from the library of Ašurbanipal was published
by ZIMMERN as No. 27 of his _Ritual Tafeln_. The Assyrian copy contains
only fifteen symbols with their mystic identifications, in Col. II of the
obverse. The ends of the lines of the right half of Col. I are preserved
on ZIMMERN 27, and these are all restored by the Cassite original. The
obverse of these two restored tablets contained about sixty symbols with
their divine implications. Most of them are the names of plants, metals,
cult utensils and sacrificial animals, each being identified with a deity.
A tablet in the British Museum, dated in the 174th year of the Seleucid
era or 138 B. C., Spartola Collection I 131, published by STRASSMAIER, ZA.
VI 241-4, begins with an astronomical myth concerning the summer and
winter solstices(503) and then inserts a passage on the mystic meanings of
ten symbols. The myth of the solstices runs as follows:

“In the month Tammuz, 11th day, when the deities Miniṭṭi and Kaṭuna,
daughters of Esagila,(504) go unto Ezida(505) and in the month Kislev, 3d
day, when the deities Gazbaba and Kazalsurra, daughters of Ezida, go unto
Esagila—Why do they go? In the month Tammuz the nights are short. To
lengthen the nights the daughters of Esagila go unto Ezida. Ezida is the
house of night. In the month Kislev, when the days are short, the
daughters of Ezida to lengthen the days go unto Esagila. Esagila is the
house of day.” The tablet then explains the Sumerian ideogram
_gubarra_=Ašrat, the western mother goddess Ashtarte, and says that Ašrat
of Ezida is poverty stricken.(506) But Ašrat of Esagila is full of light
and mighty.(507) Some mystic connection between Ašrat or Geštinanna,
mistress of letters and astrology,(508) scribe of the lower world, and the
daughters of night and day existed. This cabalistic tablet here refers to
a mirror which she holds in her hand and says she appeared on the 15th day
to order the decisions. The 15th of the month Tammuz is probably referred
to or the beginning of the so-called dark period when the days begin to
shorten and Nergal the blazing sun descends to the lower world to remain
160 days.(509) For some reason Ašrat, here called the queen,(510) appears
to order the decisions, probably the fates of those that die. The phrase
“The divine queen appeared” is usually said of the rising of stars or
astral bodies, but the reference here is wholly obscure. As a star she was
probably Virgo. At any rate some mystic pantomime must have been enacted
in the month of Tammuz in which the daughters of Esagila and Ezida and the
queen recorder of Sheol were the principal figures. The pantomime
represented the passing of light, the reign of night and the judgment of
the dead. Clearly an elaborate ritual attended by magic ceremonies
characterized the ceremony. At this point the tablet gives a commentary on
the mystic meaning of cult objects used for the healing of the sick or the
atonement of a sinner. Obviously some connection exists between this
mystagogy and the myth described. The commentary is probably intended to
explain the hidden powers of the objects employed in the weird ritual, at
any rate the mystery is thus explained.(511)

(1) Gypsum is the god Ninurta.(512) (2) Pitch is _the asakku_-demon.(513)
(3) Meal water (which encloses the bed of the sick man) is Lugalgirra and
Meslamtaea.(514) [A string of wet meal was laid about the bed of a sick
man or about any object to guard them against demons. Hence meal water
symbolizes the two gods who guard against demons. See especially EBELING,
KTA. No. 60 Obv. 8 _zisurrá talamme-šu_, “Thou shalt enclose him with meal

(4) Three meal cakes are Anu, Enlil and Ea.(515) (5) The design which is
drawn before the bed is the net which overwhelms all evil. (6) The hide of
a great bull is Anu. [Here the hide of the bull is the symbol of the
heaven god as of Zeus Dolichaîos in Asia Minor.]

(7) The copper gong(516) is Enlil. But in our tablet II 13 symbol of
Nergal and in CT. 16, 24, 25 apparently of Anu. The term of comparison in
any case is noise, bellowing.

(8) The great reed spears which are set up at the head of the sick man are
the seven great gods sons of Išhara. The seven sons of Išhara are unknown,
but this goddess was a water and vegetation deity closely connected with
Nidaba goddess of the reed.(517) The reed, therefore, symbolizes her sons.

(9) The scapegoat is Ninamašazagga. Here the scapegoat typifies the genius
of the flocks who supplies the goat. See, however, another explanation
below Obv. II 17.

(10) The censer is Azagsud. The deity Azagsud in both theological and cult
texts is now male and now female. As a male deity he is the great priest
of Enlil, CT. 24, 10, 12, and always a god of lustration closely connected
with the fire god Gibil, MEEK, BA. X pt. 1 No. 24,4.(518) But ordinarily
Azagsud is a form of the grain goddess who was also associated with fire
in the rites of purification. As a title of the grain goddess, see CT. 24,
9, 35 = 23, 17; SBP. 158, 64 _A-sug_ where ZIMMERN, KL. 11 Rev. III 11 has
_Azag-sug_. She is frequently associated with Ninḫabursildu and Nidaba
(the grain goddess) in rituals, ZIMMERN, Rt. 126, 27 and 29; 138, 14, etc.
The censer probably symbolizes both male and female aspects, the fire that
burns and the grain that is burned. See below II 9, where the censer is
symbol of Urashâ a god of light.

(11) The torch is Nusku the fire god in the Nippur pantheon. Below (II 10)
the torch is Gibil, fire god in the Eridu pantheon.

The mystic identifications do not always agree, but the term of comparison
can generally be found if the origin and character of the deities are
known and the nature of the symbol determined. Each god was associated
with an animal and a plant and with other forms of nature over which they
presided. When the cult utensils are symbols the term of comparison is
generally clear. Below will be found such interpretations of these
mysteries as the condition of the tablet and the limits of our knowledge
permit. Most difficult of all are the metal symbols which begin with Obv.
I 10. Here silver is heaven, but it can hardly be explained after the
manner of the same connection of Zeus Dolichaîos with silver in Kommagene.
The cult of this Asiatic heaven god is said to have been chiefly practiced
at a city in the region of silver mines.(519) That is an impossible
explanation in the case of Anu whose chief cult center was at Erech. The
association of gold with Enmesharra, here obviously the earth god, is
completely unintelligible. In Obv. I 31 he is possibly associated with
lead or copper as the planet Saturn. In lines I 14-18 the symbols are
broken away, but they are probably based upon astronomy. Metals seem to be
connected with fixed stars and planets on the principle of color. The
metallic symbolism of the planets was well known to Byzantine writers who
did not always agree in these matters. Their identifications are certainly
a Græco-Roman heritage which in turn repose upon Babylonian
tradition.(520) The following table taken from COOK, _Zeus_, p. 626, will
illustrate Græco-Roman ideas on this point:

Kronos—lead (Saturn); Zeus—silver (Jupiter); Ares—iron (Mars); Helios—gold
(Sun); Aphrodite—tin (Venus); Hermes—bronze (Mercury); Selene—crystal

Our tablet preserves only the names of the deities at this point, and if
metals stood at the left we are clearly authorized to interpret the divine
names in their astral sense. This assumes, of course, that these astral
identifications obtained in the Cassite period. Assuming this hypothesis
we should have the metals for Betelgeuze, Ursa Major, Venus, Jupiter,
Mars, Saturn, New-moon(?), a star in Orion, Venus as evening and morning
star, Virgo, and perhaps others.

The reverse of the tablet is even more mystic and subtle. The first
section connects various cult substances with parts of the body. White
wine and its bottle influence the eyes. White figs pertain to a woman’s
breasts. Must or mead have power over the limbs as the members of motion.
Terms of comparison fail to suggest themselves here and we are completely
disconcerted by the fancy of the Babylonian mystagogue. In the next
section, which is only partially preserved, we have twelve gods of the
magic rituals. The province of each in relation to the city and state is
defined. Kushu, the evil satyr who receives the sin-bearing scapegoat,
hovers over the homes of men. Muḫru, the deity who receives burnt
offerings, or incarnation of the fires of sacrifice, dwells at the
city-gate. Sakkut, a god of light and war, inexplicably protects the
pools. Then follow hitherto undefined and unknown Cassite deities and a
break in the tablet.

As in the Assyrian duplicate, ZIMMERN Rt. 27, so also here, the reverse
contains a lexicographical commentary on mythological phrases. The name of
the god _Negun_ is commented upon here and most timely information is
given. Both the phonetic reading of the name and the character of the
deity are defined. The colophon at the end has the usual formula attached
to cult instructions whose contents are forbidden to the uninitiated.

1. _duk__ a-gub-ba_ ... [   ](521)
1. The vessel of holy water ... [of the gods]

2. _d.__Nin-ḫabur-sil-du nin(?) [tù-tù-ge]_(_522_)
2. is Ninhabursildu,(523) queen of incantations.

3. _duk__gan-nu-tūr_(_524_) _d.__[ ]MEŠ-GAR_
3. The little _hannu_-vessel is the deity ...

4. _giš__šinig __d.__A-nim_
4. The tamarisk is anu.(525)

5. _giš__šag-gišimmar_(_526_)_ __d.__Dumu-zi_
5. The date palm-head is Tammuz.

6. _ú__in-nu-uš_(_527_)_ __d.__É-a_
6. The _mashtakal_-plant is Ea.

7. _gi__šul-ģi __d.__Nin-urta_
7. the _šalatu_-reed is Ninurta.

8. _ú__el_(_528_)_ __d.__Ninâ_(_529_)
8. The _El_-plant is Niná

9. _gišburru_(_530_)_ __d.__Gir-rá_(_531_)
9. The gišbur wood is the Fire God Girra.

10. _dāg__kubabbar __d.__GAL_(_532_)
10. Silver is the great god (the moon).

11. _dāg__ku-gi __d.__En-me-šár-ra_(_533_)
11. God is Emmešarra (the sun).

12. _dāg__urudu __d.__É-a_
12. Copper is Ea.

13. _dāg__an-na __d.__Nin-maģ_
13. Lead is Ninmah.(534)

14. [   ](535) _d.__Ninurta_
14. [   ] is Ninurta.

15. [   ]       _d.__Ninlil_(_536_)
15. [   ] is Ninlil.

16. [   ]       _d.__Dilbat_
16. [   ] is Ishtar-Venus.

17. [   ]       _d.__AMAR-RA-ĠE-UD-DU-A-LU-TU_(_537_)
17. [   ] is Marduk-Jupiter.

18. [   ]       _d.__Lugal-giš-a-tu-gab-liš-a_(_538_)
18. [   ] is Nergal-Mars.

19. [   ] _d__ Sak-kud_
19. [   ] is Ninurta-Saturn.(539)

20. [   ] _d.__Nusku_(_540_)
20. [   ] is Nusku.

21. [   ] _d.__Pap-sukkal_(_541_)
21. [   ] is Papsukal.


22. [   -]_šág __d.__Sak-kut_(_542_)
22. [    ] is Sakkut.

23. [   -]_ŠID __ilu__Ram-ma-nu_
23. [    ] is Ramman.

24. [    ] _ilat__Ishtar Uruk-(ki)_
24. [    ] is Ishtar of Erech.(543)

25. [    ] _ilat__Ishtar A-ga-de-(ki)_
25. [    ] is Ishtar of Agade.(544)

26. [    -]_TAR __ilat__Be-lit-ṣêri_
26. [    ] is Bêlit-ṣeri.(545)

27. [    ] _d.__Nin-lil_
27. [    ] is Ninlil.

28. [    _ri-]kis-su-nu __d.__Ninurta_
28. [    ] their band(?) is Ninurta.

29. [    ] _ilāni sibitti_(_546_)
29. [    ] is the seven gods.

30. [    ] _d.__En-me-šár-ra_
30. [    ] is Enmesharra.(547)



2. _giš_ [   ] [_d._   ]
2. [    ]

3. _giš_ [   ] [_d._   ]
3. [    ]

4. _giš__šim_ [   ] [_d._   ]
4. [    ]

5. _šim-šal_(_548_)_ [__d._   ]
5. Box-wood is the god....

6. _gi-dug-ga_(_549_)_ [__d._   ]
6. The good reed is the god....

7. _šim-li __d._[_Immer_(_550_) ]
7. Cypress is Adad.

8. _šīpāti burrumti_(_551_)_ __ilu__Labartu(?)_(_552_)_ mar[at __ilu__Anim
8. Wool of variegated color is _Labartu_ daughter of Anu.

9. _šim-ZU_(_553_)_    __d.__[Nin-urta  ]_
9. The aromat-ZU is Ninurta.

10. _nig-na    __d.__Urašā_
10. The censer is Urasha.(554)

11. _gi-bil-lá __d.__[   Gi-bil_]
11. The torch is Gibil.(555)

12. _ḳu-ta-ri ibbûti_(_556_)_ __d.__[Ne-gun]_
12. The clean incense is Negun.(557)

13. _mul-lil-lum __d.__Ig[i-BALAG_(_558_)_ lù nu-gisš-šar
13. The amphora(?) is Igi-BALAG, gardener of Enlil.

14. _urudū__nig-kalag-ga_(_559_)_ __d.__Nin-[sar __d.__Nergal]_
14. The copper kettledrum is Ninsar,(560) that is Nergal.

15. _kuš-gū-gal_(_561_)_   __d.__[NINDA+GUD]_
15. The hide of a great bull is NINDA+GUD.(562)

16. _im-bar __d.__[Utu-găl-lu_
16. Gypsum is the storm god (Ninurta).(563)

17. _esir    __d.__id_
17. Bitumen is the river god.(564)

18. _máš-ģul-dúb-ba-a __d.__[Ku-šu]_
18. The scapegoat is Kushu.(565)

19. _udu-ti-la_(_566_)_ __d.__[Gira]_
19. “The living lamb” is Gira.(567)

20. _máš-gi-bil-la __d.__[Mu-uḫ-]ra_
20. The goat of the torch(568) is Muḫru.

21. _še-bir-bir-ri u-pu-un-tum_
21. “Scattered grain(?),” chick pea (?)

22. _zērê    ma-ka-lu-ú_
22. seed-corn, eating table and

23. _duk__ḳa-gaz__pl.__   __d.__Nun-ŭr-ra  __d.__Ea_(_569_)
23. the _ḳagaz_-pots are Ninurra-Ea.

24. _giš__ku-ma-nu 7 û-mu_(_570_)_ ku __d.__Marduk_
24. The seven (headed) weapon of laurel wood, the storm, the weapon of

25. _kù-gi-sig__pl.__ __d.__A-nun-na-ki_
25. Red sun-disks(?) are the Anunnaki.

26. _kù-gi nig-máš-zid_(_571_)_ __d.__Maš-tab-ba-gal-ga_
26. _The golden sacred kid_(?) is the Great Twins.(572)

27. _maš-dū    __d.__Un-gal Nibru-__ki_(_573_)
27. The kid is Ungal(574) of Nippur.

28. _kur-gi-(ģu) __d.__Nin-sîg_
28. The crane is Ninsig.(575)

29. _sún_(_576_)_ __giš__erin šita_(_577_)_ __d.__Zi-i_
29. The _sun_ of cedar, weapon of Zu.(578)

30. _làl ... __d.__[    ]_
30. Honey ... is the god ...

31. _lí ... li_
31. Oil ... oil ...

32. _d.__íd __d._[    ]
32. ... River-god, god...



1. _karanu ellu ḳaḳḳul-ti enâ-šu_
1. White wine and bottle are his eyes.

2. _tittu piṣîtu_(_579_)_    tulê-šu_(_580_)
2. The white fig is her breasts.

3. _iṣu__nurmû bir-ka-a-šu_
3. The _nur_-fig is his (her) knees.

4. _tittu_(_581_)_   ki-sal-la-a-šu_
4. The fig is his (her) loins.

5. _mirsu       pit puridi-šu_
5. Must is his (her) crotch.


6. _d.__Ku-ši     ṣêr ki-i-ṣi_(_582_)
6. The god Kushu over the chamber.

7. _d.__Mu-uḫ-ra ina pan abulli_
7. Muḫru before the city gate.

8. _d.__Sak-kut ina ḳabal appari_
8. Sakkut in the midst of the pool.

9. _d.__Si-lak-ki_(_583_)_ ina ma-na-ḫa-ti_
9. Silakki in the ruins.

10. _d.__E-ḳu-rum_(_584_)_ ina libbi šêr išdi_
10. Ekurum in the leg.

11. _d.__Ab-ba- gu-la_(_585_)_ ina igari_
11. Abbagula in the wall.

12. _d.__ ? ? ina nasikati_
12. [ ] in the fortress.

13-17. ........................

18. _12 ilāni_ [ ]
18. Twelve gods.


1. _[SAG-GĬR]-ME ša ina pani-šu namru_(_586_)
1. The battle which before him gleams.

2. _[ KU]-ŠÚ la_(_587_)_ maḫ-ru_
2. ... not are received.

3. _[ -]u:NU: la-a_
3. [ ]_NU_ = not.

4. _[ BT:]šu-u_(_588_)_:ILA:ma-ḫa-ri_
4. [ ]_BI_ = that: _ILA_ = to present.

5. _[__d.__Ne-gun] erim-bi nu-tuk-a ai-bi ina ḳatê-šu la uṣûni_
5. Negun who foes has not. The wicked from his hand escape not.

6. _NE-RU:ai-bi:ID:ḳa-ti:TUK-A SAL-ŠEŠ_?
6. _NE-RU_ = wicked : _ID_ = hand : ? ?

7. _d.__Ne-gun_(_589_)_ ḳa-lu-ú    i-ša-tam_
7. Negun is he that burns with fire.

8. _ḪU-gunu_[1agin]_:gu-nu-u:SI:ḳa-lu-u_
8. The _gunu_ of _ḪU_ has the syllabic value _gunū:si(g)_ = to burn.

9. _NE:i-ša-tu:sa-niš ka-lu ni-ka_
9. _NE_ = fire: Or = to consume offerings in fire.

10. _SAL-ŠEŠ_(_590_)_:ba-nu-ú:    ga-lu_
10. _ninmuš_ = blaze, burn.

11. _SI:ba-nu-ú:NE    ga-lu_
11. _si(g)_ = blaze: _bil = burn_.


12. _mûdû mûdâ li-kal-lim_
12. Let the knowing inform the knowing.

13. _la mûdû ul immar_
13. He that knows not may not read.

_ki-ma labiri-šu __ilu__Ninurta-naṣir   mar Ilu-iḳîša __amelu__ašipu išṭur
            bûši E-šu-me-rá_
According to its original Ninurtu-naṣir son of Ilu-iḳiša, the priest of
            magic wrote. It is the property of the temple Ešumera.(591)


Anu in this passage really denotes Sin, the moon, which has been connected
with silver on account of its color. The identification of Anu, the heaven
god, with the moon god rests upon the astronomical connection between the
moon and the summer solstice, see WEIDNER, _Handbuch der Babylonischen
Astronomie_, 32. Sin is called “Anu of heaven,” KING, _Magic_, No. I, 9,
and for the connection with silver, see VIROLLEAUD, _Astrologie_,
Supplement, V II, _kaspu __ilu__ A-nu huraṣu __ilu__ Enlil erû __ilu__
Ea_. Enlil is connected with gold in VIROLLEAUD, _Astrologie_, Second
Supplement, XVII 14, and Enlil is not infrequently identified with
Shamash, see p. 158, 1-2 and p. 308, 18, and gold is the traditional metal
of the sun.

The Greek identification of Zeus, the sky-god, with silver is certainly
borrowed from Babylonia; see p. 334.


1         13856     Large two column tablet. Unbaked; light brown with
                    dark spots. Top broken away and left lower corner
                    damaged. H. 6-½ inches; W. 4-¼; T. 1-¾ - ¾.
                    Liturgy of the cult of Ishme-Dagan. See pages
2         11005     Upper part of a large two column tablet. Unbaked;
                    light brown. Top and left edge of the fragment
                    damaged. H. 3-¾; W. 3-¾; T. 1-½ - ¾. Liturgy of
                    Ishme-Dagan. See pages 258-259.
3         7847      Dark brown unbaked tablet. Right upper corner
                    slightly damaged. Right lower corner broken away.
                    Two columns. H. 8; W. 5-¼; T. 1 - ½. Mythological
                    hymn to Innini. The obverse is translated on pages
                    260 to 264, but the reverse is too badly damaged
                    to permit an interpretation. The text ends with
                    the line, “Oh praise Innini,” the literary note
                    characteristic of epical compositions. The scribe
                    adds a note stating that there are 153 lines.
                    Written by the hand of _Lugal-ģe-a_ ... son of
4         7878      Light brown fragment from the left upper corner of
                    a large unbaked tablet. H. 3-½; W. 1-½ - 1; T. 1-½
                    - 1. Duplicate of 7847. This tablet omits the
                    liturgical note, “Oh praise Innini.” It has the
                    colophon, “Written by the hand of
                    _Ninurash-mu_..., in the presence of
5         15204     Single column, dark brown tablet. Partly baked.
                    Left lower corner broken away. H. 4-½; W. 2-½; T.
                    1-¼ - ½. Psalm to Enlil. See pages 265-268.
6         2154      Single Column, light brown tablet. Top and left
                    lower corner broken. H. 4-¼; W. 2-½; T. 1-¼-½.
                    Lamentation for Lagash. See pages 268-272.
7         8097      Single column, light brown tablet. Lower edge
                    damaged. H. 4-¼; W. 2-¼;  T. ¾-½. Liturgical hymn
                    to Sin. See pages 276-279.
8         346       Single column, dark unbaked tablet. Damaged at top
                    and bottom. H. 4; W. 2-½; T. 1--½. Bilingual hymn.
                    See plate 86.
9         8334      Single column, light brown tablet, unbaked. Left
                    upper corner and top of reverse damaged. H. 4-¾;
                    W. 2-½; T. 1-¼-½. Hymn to Innini.
10        8533      Upper part of a large two column tablet. Light
                    brown, soft and crumbling. Purchased by the
                    Expedition in 1895, from Abu Hatab. H. 3-¼; W.
                    5-½; T. 1-¼-½. Hymn to Enlil.
11        7080      Large light brown tablet; five columns; broken
                    perpendicularly at the middle. Isin period. H.
                    8-¼; W. 4; T. 2. Liturgy to Enlil. Lamentation for
                    the city of Ur. See pages 279-285.
12        6060      Nearly complete tablet; baked. Temple library
                    (IV). Second Exp. Two column tablet; Cassite
                    period. H. 4; W. 3-½; T. 1-½. Cult symbols. See
                    pages 320-342.
13        B.M.      Upper half of large single column tablet. Light
          78239     brown, partially baked. H. 7; W. 6; T. 2. Acquired
                    by the British Museum in 1888. Late Babylonian
                    edition of the third tablet of the liturgy _elum
                    didara_ to Enlil. See pages 323-329.
14        11327     Lower part of a large unbaked tablet, two columns.
                    Right half almost wholly broken away. Myth of the
                    water god Enki. H. 6; W. 6-½; T. 1-¾. Probably a
                    _zag-sal_ hymn.


Tablets in this Volume.

       346          8
      2154          6
      6060         12
      7080         11
      7847          3
      7848          4
      8097          7
      8334          9
      8533         10
     11005          2
     11327         14
     13856          1
     15204          5
B.M. 78239         13

Other Tablets Translated Or Discussed

Nies 1315, Tablet Virolleaud, 290-308

Poebel, PBS. V No. 26, 272-276

Myhrman, PBS. I No. 5, Radau, BE. 30, No. 2, 285-290

Myhrman, PBS. I No. 8, 309-310

Zimmern, KL. No. 11, 290-308

Zimmern, _Ritual Tafeln_, No. 27, 330-340

Ashmolean Prism, 311-323

Strassmaier, ZA. VI 241-4, 330-333

Reisner, SBH. No. 18, 327-329

Reisner, SBH. No. 21, 292-297

Reisner, SBH. No. 22, 292-295

Reisner, SBH. No. 25, 300-302


_abal_, irrigator, 287, 12.

Abbagula (deity), 341, 11.

_agubba_, vessel, symbol of Ninhabursildu, 336, 1.

Aja (goddess), 305, 14.

Allat (goddess), 306, 20.

_am, __d__Am_, title of Ea, 294.

Ama-šuhalbi, title of mother goddess, 329, 19.

Ama-ušum-gal, title of Tammuz, 304.

Annigarra, temple in Isin, 300, 7.

Anu (god), 261; 264; 281; 282; 295; 297; 302.
  Identified with the moon god, 337, 10.

Anunnaki (gods), 247, 2; 262; 317; 340.

Arabu, bird of Enlil, 266.

Aralu, 288, 23.

Aruru (goddess), sister of Enlil, 301.

Ašimur, title of moon god, 277, 17 and 22; 278.

Ašnan (goddess), 289; 305.

Ašširgi (god), 316; 317; 318; 319; 320.

Ašte, temple in Larak, 289, 9.

Azagsud (_ilu_), title of grain goddess, 289, 10; 305, 13.

Babylon (city), 301, 22.

_balag-di_, choral phrase, 250, 14; 254, 26.

Barsippa (city), 301, 23.

Bau (goddess), 329; 305.

Belit-ṣêri (goddess), 338.

Bel-ṣarbe, title of Nergal, 337, 18.

bitumen, symbol of river god, 339.

Canonical liturgies, 237 ff.

censer, symbol of Urashā, 339, 10.

copper, symbol of Ea, 337, 12.

crane, bird symbol of Ninsig, 340.

Damgalnunna (goddess), 294; 296.

Damu, title of Tammuz, 287, 6:14; 306, 28.

date-palm, symbol of Tammuz, 336, 5.

Dilbat (goddess), 337, 16.

Dilmun (ki), 279, 14:19.

dog, seven-headed, 305, 15.

Duazag, sanctuary, 248, 7; 289.

_dumu-sag_, title of Tašmet, 326, 4:5.
  _dingir dumu-sag_ (= Nappasi = Ninmungara) is probably a title of
              Ninlil, 303, 13. See _ibid._ note 6 and SBP. 150 note 5,
              line 14.

Ea (god), 336, 6.

E-anna, temple of Ištar in Erech, 275, 20.

E-barra, temple of the sun god, 301.

E-daranna, chapel of Ea in Esagila, 301.

E-dimma, temple, royal chapel in Ekur, 289, 15.

E-durazagga, epithet of Isin, 329, 18.

E-galmah, temple at Isin, 289, 19.

_e-gi-a_, bride, title of Zarpanit, 326, 3.

E-Ibi-anum, temple in Dilbat, 326.

E-Ibe-šagud, 328.

E-kua, 310, 19.

E-kur, temple of Enlil, 256; 258; 259; 289; 308; 310; 328.

Ekurum (god), 341.

E-lamma, chapel or temple of Ninlil at Nippur, 300, 6.

_el_-plant, symbol of Ninā, 336, 8.

E-maha, 294, 27 and note.

E-mahtila, chapel in Ezida, 301.

E-mudkurramu, chapel (?) in Ur (?), 279, 6:10.

E-namtila, chapel of Ekur, 301.

Enanun, title of mother goddess, 289, 7; 304.

Enbul (god), son of Ešabba, 303, 21 = SBP. 15216 and CT. 24, 23, 127.
  Var. _d__A-an-bu-bu_, CT. 24, 6, 33.

Endašurimma, title of Enlil, 302, 4.

En-duazag, title of Enlil, 302.

EN-HAR(ki), 316; 317; 318; 319; 320.

Enki (god), 259, 16; 302; 307; 322.

Enlil (god), 258; 259; 261; 264; 265; 266; 267; 268; 269; 277; 281; 282;
            283; 292; 293; 295; 299; 300; 302; 307; 309. As sun god, 308,
            18 and 15.

Enlilsi, deified king, 303, 20.

Enmešarra (god), 337, 11; 338, 30.
  Enmenšarra, 302.

Enul, title of Enlil, 302.
  Enmul, 307.

Enuttilla, title of Enlil, 302.

E-rabriri, temple of sakkut, 329, 21.

Erech (city), 272; 273; 274; 275.

Eridu (city), 259, 16; 299, 31.

E-šabba, temple of Gula in Šuruppak, 288, 6; 303, 21;
  ilatSuddam is mother of Ešabba, 306, 32.
  See _Suddam_.

E-sagila, temple of Marduk, 301; 326.

E-šagnamsar, temple in Dilmun, 279, 14:19.

E-šamah, temple of Ninurta, 328, 7; see BL. p. 135.

E-šarra, 303, 16.
  Ninurta is son of E-šár-ra, BL. No. 9, 8.
  Mythological chamber in Ekur, SBP. 221 n. 7.
  Ištar weeps for _E-šár-e_, KL., 123, Obv. II 2.

Ešnunak (city), 304, 27.

E-šumera, temple of Ninurta in Nippur, 328, 6; 342, 13.

E-temenanki, stage tower in Babylon, 301.

E-zida, temple of Nebo, 301.

_gannu-tur_, vessel, symbol of a deity, 336, 3.

_gepar_, dark chamber, 270, 24; 271; 272.

geštinanna (goddess), 304.

Gibil, firegod, 339, 11; 305, 16.

_gidugga_, reed, 338, 6.

Girra, firegod, 337, 9.

_gišburru_, a wood, symbol of firegod, 337, 9.

_gisgigal_, antiphon, 251, 24; 254, 23; 283, 26; 284, 10.

Gišzida (god), 287, 7.

gold, symbol of sun, 337, 11.

_gudede_, title of Ninlil, 303, 12.

Gula (goddess), consort of Tammuz, 285.

Gunura, title of mother goddess, 288, 5; 306, 27 = SBP. 160, 13.

Guškinbanda, title of Ea, 305, 9.

gypsum, symbol of Ninurta, 339.

Hallab (city), 275; 276.

Historical poems, 242.

Ibi-Sin, king of Ur, 281.

Id (deity), river god or goddess, 294; 297; 340.

Igibalag (deity), 339, 13.

Immer (god), 260; 262; 306; 339, 7.

incense, symbol of Negun, 339, 12.

Innini (goddess), 275; 276.

Irriš (god), title of Ninurta, 306, 23 = SBP. 160, 8.

Isin (city), 289. Queen of Isin, 306, 25; 329.

Išme-Dagan, deified king, 243; 245; 257; 258; 239.

Ištar, goddess of Erech, 338, 24;
  of Agade, 338, 25.

_kagaz_, pot, symbol of Ea, 340.

Kenur, chapel of Ninlil in Ekur, 259; 289; 301.

Keš (city), southern and northern Keš, 311;
  southern Keš, 315; 316; 319; 267.

Kingaludda, messenger of the Word, 283.

_kinsig_, a chamber, 248, 7.

Kišegunura, title of Urašā, 302, 2.

_kišub_, prayer in liturgies, 245; 256; 279; 290; 308.

_kušgugalû_, hide of an ox, symbol of Nindagud, 339, 15.

Kušu (deity), 339; 341.

Lagash (city), 268; 270.

Larak (city), 328, 16; 289, 9 and 20.

lead, symbol of Ninmah, 337, 13.

Libit-Ištar, deified king, 243.

Liturgical compositions and compilations, 237 ff. 243.

Lugalbanda (god), 304.

Lugalgirra (god), 328, 9.

Lumma (deity), 304.

Mama (god), title of Sin, 269, 8.

Marduk (god), 294; 296; 337; 340.

_mašgibilla_, burnt offering, symbol of the god Muhra, 340.

mašḫuldubbû, 339.

Maštabba (god), 328. Maštabba-galgal, twin gods, Gemini, 340.

_maštakal_-plant, symbol of Ea, 336, 6.

metals of planets, 334.

_mi-ib_-weapon, 264, 22.

Muhra (god), 340; 341, 7.

Musical instruments, 249, 23; 251, 29; 262, 33; 279, 22; 301, 27.

Nanā (goddess), 326, 7.

Nannar, god of new moon, 277.
  Son of Enlil, 277, 22; 284, 12; 303; 308, 19; 309, 1; 327.

Nappasi (goddess), 303 n. 6.

Nebo (god), 294; 297; 299.

Negun (god), 339, 12. Firegod, 342.

Nergal (god), 304; 306.

Nigin marra, title of mother goddess, 289, 8; 328, 15.

_nigkalalagû_, kettle drum, symbol of Nergal, 339, 14.

Ninā (goddess), 270; 336.

Ninazu (god), title of Nergal, 272, 47.

Nindagud (god), 339, 15; 304.

Nindašurimma, mother name of Enlil, 302.

Nin-duazag, mother name of Enlil, 302.

Ningal (goddess), 303.

Ningišzida (god), 306, 20.

Ninhabursildu (goddess), 336, 2.

Ninharsag (goddess), 272;  302; 318; 320.

Ninkarnunna (goddess), 304, 4.

Ninki, mother name of Enlil, 302; 307.

Ninliga (goddess), 272.

Ninlil (goddess), 258; 259; 261; 267; 302; 337; 338.

Ninmah (goddess), 337.

Ninmar(ki), goddess of, 269, 5.

Ninsar, title of Nergal, 339, 14.

Ninsig, title of Ea as god of metallurgy, 340, 28; 305, 9.

Ninsun (goddess), 304.

Nintud (goddess), 316; 318; 320; 321.

Ninul, Nimul, mother names of Enlil, 302; 307.

Ninurašā (god), 256; 336; 337; 338; 339.

Ninurra, title of Ea, 340.

Ninzianna, title of Ninlil, 302, 8.

Nippur (city), 248; 259; 266; 268; 295.

Nunammir, title of Enlil, 258, 5.

Nusku, firegod, 337, 20; 303, 328.

Opis (city). Northern and southern Opis, 311.
  See Keš.

Papsukkal (god), 337, 21.

Papilsag, god of Larak, 306.

Queen of heaven, 304.

Ramman (god), 338.

Sadarnunna, consort of Nusku, 303, 15; SBP. 152 note 1.

_sagar_, liturgical rubric, 277, 16; 279.

Sakkut (god), 341, 8.
  Sakkutmah, 329, 21.
  See also 337, 19; 338, 22.

_šalālu_, plant, symbol of Ninurta, 336, 7.

Šamaš (god), 305, 14.

_šarur_-weapon, 274, 18.

_šattam_, religious title, 274.

Šentur, title of Ninlil, 303, 10.

Šerah (god), Semitic title of Serpent-god as patron of vegetation, 303, 16
            = SBP. 152, 10.

seven gods, 338, 29; 303, 10.

seven-headed weapon, 340.

Silakki (god), 341.

silver, metal of Anu, i. e., moon god, 337, 10.

_šimli_, cypress, symbol of Adad, 339, 7.

_šimšal_-wood, symbol of a deity, 338, 5.

_šimzu_, an aromat, symbol of Ninurta, 339, 9.

Sin (god), 263; 277; 279.

Single song services, 240.

_šipatu_, wool, symbol of Labartu, 339.

Sippar(ki), 301, 21.

Sirar(ki), 270.

Suddam, title of Gula, 306, 32 = SBP. 160, 18.
  For this title of Gula of Šuruppak, see p. 177 n. 4 in part 2 of this
              volume. Usually a title of Aja or Ishtar as deities of
              light. Since d Sukurru or Gula of Šuruppak is the same as
              _Suddam_ mother of Ešabba, the temple Ešabba must be located
              in Šuruppak.

Šulpae, title of Enlil, 303; 320.

šumer, 259; 283.

Šunirda, title of the goddess Aja, 304.

Šuruppak (city), 277, 20; 278, 25.

Symbols of deities, 336 ff.

_tallu_, part of a door, 275, 20.

tammarisk, symbol of Anu, 336, 4.

Tammuz (god), 270; Hymn of, 285; 336, 5.

_tirazagga_, sacred grove, 289, 17.

Titular litanies, 236; 302 ff.

Ubšukkinna, hall of assembly, 247, 3.

Uddagubba, messenger of the Word, 283.

_udutila_, symbol of Girra, 340, 19.

Ur (city), 277; 278; 279; 282; 284.

Ungal (god), 340; cf. 306, 31.

Urašā (god), 326; 258, 6; 260; 302, 2.

Ur-Engur, cult hymn of, 243.

Urumaš (god), 320.

_urusagga_, chief city, title of Isin, 289, 16; 306, 24.

Utta-edde (god), 305, 17 = SBP. 158, 4.

Weeping mother, 265; 280.

Word, 261, 28; 262, 29; 284; 294; 299; 308, 22; 315.
  Hymn to the Word, 283.

_zagsal_, rubric, 233 ff.; 276, 37.

Zarpanit (goddess), 294; 296; 297.

Zeus Dolichaeos, 334. His connection with silver borrowed from Babylonia,

Zir (goddess), wife of Nannar, 303.

Zu (god), the eagle as symbol of the sun, 340, 29.


Plate LXXI. 1. Obverse. Col. 1.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXII. 1. Obverse. Col. 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXIII. 1. Reverse. Col. 1.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXIV. 1. Reverse. Col. 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXV. 2. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

2. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXVI. 3. Obverse. Col. 1 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXVII. 3. Obverse. Col. 1 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

3. Obverse. Col. 2 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXVIII. 3. Obverse. Col. 2 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

3. Reverse. Col. 1 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXIX. 3. Reverse. Col. 1 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

3. Reverse. Col. 2 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXX. 3. Reverse. Col. 2 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

4. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

4. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXI. 5. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXII. 5. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXIII. 6. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXIV. 6. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXV. 7. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

7. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXVI. 8. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

8. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXVII. 9. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

9. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXVIII. 10. Obverse. Col. 1. (Col. 2 Destroyed)

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate LXXXIX. 10. Reverse. Col. 1.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

10. Reverse. Col. 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XC. 11. Obverse. Col. 3 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCI. 11. Obverse. Col. 3 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

11. Obverse. Col. 4 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCII. 11. Obverse. Col. 4 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCIII. 11. Obverse. Col. 4 Final.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

11. Obverse. Col. 5 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCIV. 11. Obverse. Col. 5 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCV. 11. Reverse. Col. 1. Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCVI. 11. Reverse. Col. 1 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

11. Reverse. Col. 2 Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCVII. 11. Reverse. Col. 2 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

11. Reverse. Col. 3. Initial.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCVIII. 11. Col. 3 Continued.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate XCIX. 12. Obverse. Cols. 1 and 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate C. 12. Reverse. Cols. 1 and 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate CI. 13. Obverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate CII. 13. Reverse.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate CIII. 14. Obverse. Col. 1

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate CIV. 14. Obverse. Col. 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

14. Reverse. Col. 1.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]

Plate CV. 14. Reverse. Col. 2.

                       [Plate of cuneiform tablet.]


    1 In addition to the examples of epical poems and hymns cited on pages
      103-5 of this volume note the long mythological hymn to Innini, No.
      3 and the hymn to Enlil, No. 10 of this part. An unpublished hymn to
      Enlil, Ni. 9862, ends _a-a __d__En-lil zag-sal_, “O praise father
      Enlil.” For Ni. 13859, cited above p. 104, see POEBEL, PBS. V No.

    2 So far as the term is properly applied. Being of didactic import it
      was finally attached to grammatical texts in the phrase _d__Nidaba
      zag-sal_, “O praise Nidaba,” i. e., praise the patroness of writing.

    3 POEBEL, PBS. V No. 25; translated in the writer’s _Le Poème Sumérien
      du Paradis_, 220-257. Note also a similar epical poem to Innini
      partial duplicate of POEBEL No. 25 in MYHRMAN’S _Babylonian Hymns
      and Prayers_, No. 1. Here also the principal actors are Enki, his
      messenger Isimu, and “Holy Innini” as in the better preserved epic.
      Both are poems on the exaltation of Innini.

    4 Ni. 9205 published by BARTON, _Miscellaneous Babylonian
      Inscriptions_, No. 4. This text is restored by a tablet of the late
      period published by PINCHES in JRAS. 1919.

    5 Ni. 7847, published in this part, No. 3 and partially translated on
      pages 260-264.

    6 Undoubtedly Ni. 11327, a mythological hymn to Enki in four columns,
      belongs to this class. It is published as No. 14 of this part. A
      similar _zagsal_ to Enki belongs to the Constantinople collection,
      see p. 45 of my _Historical and Religious Texts_.

_    7 Historical and Religious Texts_, pp. 14-18.

    8 See PSBA. 1919, 34.

    9 One of the most remarkable tablets in the Museum is Ni. 14005, a
      didactic poem in 61 lines on the period of pre-culture and
      institution of Paradise by the earth god and the water god in
      Dilmun. Published by BARTON, _Miscellaneous Babylonian
      Inscriptions_, No. 8. The writer’s exegesis of this tablet will be
      found in _Le Poème Sumérien du Paradis_, 135-146. It is not called a
      _zag-sal_ probably because the writer considered the tablet too
      small to be dignified by that rubric. Similar short mythological
      poems which really belong to the _zag-sal_ group are the following:
      hymn to Shamash, RADAU, _Miscel._ No. 4; hymn to Ninurta as creator
      of canals, RADAU, BE. 29, No. 2, translated in BL., 7-11; hymn to
      Nidaba, RADAU, _Miscel._ No. 6.

   10 Ni. 112; see pp. 172-178.

   11 For example, MYHRMAN, No. 3; RADAU, _Miscel._ No. 13; both canonical
      prayer books of the weeping mother class. For a liturgy of the
      completed composite type in the Tammuz cult, see RADAU, BE. 30, Nos.
      1, 5, 6, 8, 9.

   12 See ZIMMERN, _Sumerische Kultlieder_, p. V, note 2.

   13 The base text here is ZIMMERN, KL. No. 12.

   14 The base of this text is ZIMMERN, KL. No. 11.

   15 Now in the Nies Collection, Brooklyn, New York.

   16 A similar liturgy is Ni. 19751, published by BARTON, _Miscellaneous
      Babylonian Inscriptions_, No. 6.

   17 Translated by RADAU on pages 436-440.

   18 Abbreviation for _ki-šub-gú-da_ = _šêru_, strophe, song of

   19 No. 3 of the texts in part 4.

_   20 sa-gar_ = _pitnu šaknu_, choral music, v. ZIMMERN, ZA. 31, 112. See
      also the writer’s PBS. Vol. XII, p. 12.

_   21 nar-balag._ The liturgists classified the old songs according to
      the instrument employed in the accompaniment. See SBP. p. ix.

   22 See page 118 in part 2.

   23 See IV Raw. 53, III 44-IV 28 restored from BL. 103 Reverse, a list
      of 47 _šu-il-lá_ prayers to various deities.

   24 Pages 106-109.

   25 Less than half the tablet is preserved.

   26 Note that this breviary of the cult of Libit-Ishtar terminates with
      two ancient songs, one to Innini and one to Ninâ, both types of the
      mother goddess who was always intimately connected with the god-men
      as their divine mother.

   27 For a list of the abbreviations employed in this volume, see page 98
      of Part I.

   28 The twelfth _kišub_ of a liturgy to Ishme-Dagan is published in
      ZIMMERN’S _Kultlieder_, No. 200. A somewhat similar song service of
      the cult of this king has been published in the writer’s _Sumerian
      Liturgical Texts_, 178-187. A portion of a series to Dungi was
      published by RADAU in the _Hilprecht Anniversary Volume_, No. 1. The
      liturgy to Libit-Ishtar in ZIMMERN, K L. 199 I—Rev. I 7, is composed
      of a series of _sa-(bar)-gid-da_.

_   29 na-ba-_ is for _nam-ba_, emphatic prefix. See PBS. X pt. 1 p. 76 n.
      4. Cf. _na-ri-bi_, verily she utters for thee, BE. 30, No. 2, 20.

   30 On the philological meaning of this name, see VAB. IV 126, 55.

   31 For the suffixes _eš_, _uš_, denoting plural of the object, see
      _Sum. Gr._ p. 168.

   32 On _ki-dúr-gar_ cf. Gudea, Cyl. B 12, 19.

   33 Usually written _dù-azag_, throne room. On the meaning of _du_ in
      this word, see AJSL. 33, 107. Written also _dû-azag_, in Ni. 11005
      II 9.

   34 Cf. Gudea, Cyl. A 25, 14, the _kin-gi_ of the _unu-gal_.

   35 Br. 7720. The sign _TE_ is here _gunufied_. Cf. OBI. 127, Obv. 5.

_   36 Tin_ alone may mean “wine,” as in Gudea, Cyl. B, 5, 21; 6, 1. See
      also NIKOLSKI, No. 264, _duk-tin_, a jar of wine.

_   37 a-gim_ = _dimêtu_, ban, SBH. 59, 25. _a-gim ģe-im-bal-e_, The ban
      may he elude, Ni. 11065 Rev. II 25. Unpublished. The line is not
      entirely clear; cf. BRÜNNOW, No. 3275.

   38 For _en-na_ in the sense of “while,” see PERY, _Sin_ in LSS. page
      41, 16.

   39 The sign is imperfectly made on the tablet.

   40 Cf. SBP. 328, 11.

_   41 ḪA_ is probably identical in usage with _PEŠ_, and the idea common
      to both is “be many, extensive, abundant.” Note ZIMMERN,
      _Kultlieder_ 19 Rev. has _ḪA_ where SBP. 12, 2 has _PEŠ_. _šu-peš_
      occurs in Gudea, Cyl. A 16, 23; 11, 9; 19, 9 and CT. 15, 7, 27.

   42 On _ugu-de_ = _ḇalāku, na’butu_, to run away, see DELITZSCH,
      _Glossar_ p. 43. Also _ugu-bi-an-de-e_, V R. 25_a_ 17; _ù-gù-dé_,
      RA. 10, 78, 14; _ú-gu ba-an-dé_, if he run away, VS. 13, 72 9 and
      84, 11, with variant 73, 11 _u-da-pa-ar_ = _udtappar_, if he take
      himself away. _ú-gu-ba-an-de-zu_, when thou fleest, BE. 31, 28, 23.
      _ú-gu-ba-de_, GENOUILLAC, _Inventaire_ 944; CLAY _Miscellen_ 28 V
      71: _má ú-gu-ba-an-de_, “If a boat float away,” _ibid._ _IV_ 14. See
      also GRANT AJSL. 33, 200-2.

   43 Sic! _gú-sa-bi_ is expected; cf. RA. 11, 145, 31 _gú-sa-bi_ =

   44 Sign obliterated; the traces resemble _SU_.

   45 Read perhaps _dū-šub_ = _nadû ša rigmi_, to shout loudly. Cf. _dúg
      sir-ra šub-ba-a-zu_ = _rigme zarbiš addiki_, ASKT. 122, 12. Passim
      in astrological texts.

   46 The tablet has _MAŠ_. The Semitic would be _adi mati kabattu

_   47 ri_ is apparently an emphatic element identical in meaning with
      _ám_; cf. SBP. 10, 7-12. Note _ri_, variant of _nam_, SBH. 95, 23 =
      ZIMMERN, KL. 12 I 8.

   48 Sic! Double plural. _eš_ probably denotes the past tense, see _Sum.
      Gr._ § 224.

   49 Sign BRÜNNOW, No. 11208.

   50 The first melody or liturgical section probably ended somewhere in
      this lost passage at the top of Col. II.

   51 Text _A-ÁŠ_!

   52 The subject is Ishme-Dagan.

   53 The sign is a clearly made BR. No. 10275 but probably an error for
      10234. For _sùr-ri-eš_ see BA. V 633, 22; SBH. 56 Rev. 27; ZIMMERN,
      KL. 12 Rev. 17.

   54 This compound verb _di-e-sud_ here for the first time. _di-e_ is
      probably connected with _de_ to flee. At the end _AŠ_ is written for
      _AN_. Read _a-áš_ and construe _šeš_ as a plural?

_   55 gul_ = _kalû_, restrain, is ordinarily construed with the
      infinitive alone; _še-du nu-uš-gul-e-en_ = _damāma ul ikalla_, Lang.
      B.L. 80, 25; SBH. 133, 65; 66, 15, etc.

   56 Confirms SAI. 6507 = _uḳḳu_, dumb, grief stricken.

   57 Variant of _sīg-sīg_, etc. See _Sum. Gr._ p. 237 _sig._ 3. Also
      POEBEL, PBS. V 26, 29.

   58 On the liturgical use of _balag-di_, see BL. p. XXXVII.

   59 Var. of _ad-du-ge_ = _bêl nissāti_, IV R. 11_a_ 23: _ad-da-ge_, ZIM.
      K.L. 12 II 3. See for discussion, LANG. PBS. X 137 n. 7.

   60 A new ideogram. Perhaps _uššu kînu_, “sure foundation.”

   61 For suffixed _ni_, _bi_, _ba_ in interrogative sentences note also
      _a-na an-na-ab-duģ-ni_, What can I add to thee? GENOUILLAC,
      _Drehem_, No. 1, 12, _a-ba ku-ul-la-ba_, Who shall restrain? Ni.
      4610 Rev. 1.

   62 See BL. p. XLV, and PBS. X 151 note 1.

   63 On the anticipative construct, see § 138 of the grammar.

_   64 nu-mal_ are uncertain. The tablet is worn at this point.

   65 On the use of this term, see PBS. X 151 n. 1 and 182, 33.

   66 Cf. BL. 110, 11.

   67 Written Br. 3046, but the usual form is the _gunu_, Br. 3009.
      _suģ-ám-bi_ = _aḫulap-šu_. POEBEL, PBS. V 152 IX 8: cf. also lines 9
      and 10 _ibid._ In later texts _suģ-a_ = _aḫulap_, HAUPT, ASKT. 122,
      12. DELITZSCH, H. W. 44_a_. _aḫulap_ has the derived meaning of
      mercy, the answer to the “How long” refrain as in this passage. See
      also SBP. 241 note 27 and SCHRANK, LSS. III 1, 53.

   68 Cf. _nar-balag nig-dug-ga_, POEBEL, PBS. V 25 IV 48. Our text has
      the _emesal_ form _ag-zib_.

   69 For _dû-na_ = _šalṭiš_, see RA. 11, 146, 33.

   70 Written Br. 3046 = _nasāḳu_.

   71 For _ta-šú_. Cf. BA. V 679, 14.

   72 Probably a variant of _namģalam_, _namģilim_ = _šaḫluḳtu._

   73 The demonstrative pronoun _ģur_, _ūr_

_   74 mûši ù urra_, IV R. 5_a_ 65; CT. 16, 20, 68.

   75 Text _A-AŠ_.

   76 Sign _AL_. _šitim_, _šidim_ = _idinnu_ is usually written with the
      sign _GIM_, POEBEL, PBS. V 117, 14 f. _amelu ĢIM_ = _idinnu_, passim
      in Neo-Babylonian contracts.

   77 Literally, “caused to enter.”

_   78 munga_ with _ra_, to carry away property as booty, see SBH. No. 32
      Rev. 21 and BL. No. 51. The comparison with line 11 suggests,
      however, another interpretation, _immer-e be-in-ne-ra-ám_, “the
      storm-wind carried away.”

   79 In lines 7 and 9 the verb _tur_ is employed in the sense of “to
      cause an event to enter,” to bring about the entrance of a condition
      or state of affairs.

   80 Br. 11208.

   81 The passage refers to the priests’ robes and garments of the temple
      service. See also SBP. 4, 9.

   82 Variant of _nam-rig-aga_ = _šalālu_.

   83 See Obv. II 23.

   84 Enlil.

   85 Rendered _ša ṣirḫi_, BL. 95, 19. On this title for a psalmist, see
      BL. XXIV.

_   86 uš_ has evidently some meaning similar to the one given in the
      translation but it has not yet been found in this sense in any other
      passage. We have here the variant of _iš_, _eš_ = _bakû_ with vowel
      _u_. See _Sum. Gr._ 213 and 222.

_   87 DUL-DU_. The sign _DUL_ is erroneously written REC. 236. In the
      text change _si_ to _ši_.

   88 Br. 3739.

   89 Here treated as plural.

   90 The tablet has _SU_. For _šag-zu_ synonym of _teṣlitu_, see IV R.
      21b Rev. 5.

_   91 libbu rûḳu_; see ZIMMERN, KL. No. 8 I 3 and IV 28.

   92 The sign like many others on this tablet is imperfectly made.
      _ma-pad_? or _ma-šig_? The meaning is obscure.

   93 Text uncertain. Perhaps _PI-SI-gà-bi_.

   94 Written _A-KA_. An unpublished Berlin syllabar gives _A-KA (uga)_ =

   95 Br. 5515. For this sign with value _maštaku_, see DELITZSCH, H. W.,
      _sub voce_ and BA., V 620, 20. The Sumerian value is _ama_, Chicago
      Syllabar, 241 in AJSL. 33, 182.

   96 Restored from an unpublished text in Constantinople, Ni. 721.

   97 Section 4 ended somewhere in this break.

   98 Probably a refrain.

   99 For the reading, see AJSL. 33, 182, 240.

  100 See BL. 128, 21.

  101 Read _A-AN_, i. e., _ám_.

  102 Cf. _sag-bi zi-zi_, ZIMMERN, K.L. 199 I 36.

  103 Cf. LANG. _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_ 154, 16.

_  104 AR_ is written _ŠI+ḪU_!

  105 The second sign _gí_ is only partially made by the scribe.

  106 The analysis of the text and the meaning are difficult. Perhaps _a_
      should be taken with the following sign _a-ḪAR-ri_, an unknown
      ideogram. _mur-ri_ is here taken for _rigmu_.

  107 See line 12 above.

  108 Sic! Demonstrative pronoun. See _Sum. Gr._ § 163.

  109 Here we have the first occurrence of the original expression for
      _kullu ša rêši_; cf. BR. 11244.

  110 Cf. SBP. 330, 10.

  111 The epithet refers to Išme-Dagan.

  112 This word is obscure and unknown.

  113 On _gigunna_, part of the stage tower, see VAB. IV 237 n. 2; BL. 38,

  114 Cf. SBP. 328, 5.

  115 Written Br. 3046. See Br. 3035.

  116 Br. 11208.

_  117 me_ = _parṣu_, refers primarily to the rubrics of the rituals, the
      ritualistic directions, but here the reference is clearly to the
      utensils employed in the rituals.

_  118 NE-RU._

_  119 lal, lá-a_ = _šuḳammumu_, see SBP. 66, 20.

_  120 ir_ is uncertain. The sign may be either _dū_ or _ni_.

  121 Literally, “Below and above.”

  122 Probably a variant of _dù-azag_. As the phrase is written
      _dug-azag-ga_ might mean “holy knees,” _birku ellitu_, but that is
      not probable. A parallel passage occurs in the liturgy to Dungi, BE.
      31, 12, 8, where my interpretation is to be corrected. For _dù_,
      _dŭ_, rendered into Semitic by the loan-word _dû_, with the sense
      “high altar, pedestal of a statue, altar or throne room” see AJSL.
      32, 107.

  123 Cf. Gudea, Cyl. B 13, 4.

  124 This phrase should have a meaning similar to “speak words of peace,”
      “assure, comfort.” The expression occurs also in Gudea, Cyl. A 7, 5,
      Ningirsu, son of Enlil _gú za-ra ma-ra-ģun-gà-e_, “will speak to
      thee words of peace.”

_  125 kuš_, preposition = _eli_, is derived from _kuš_ = _zumru_, “body,”
      literally “at the body.”

  126 In view of the parallel passages where kings are called the _sag-uš_
      of temples and cities (i. e. the _mukînu_ or _mukîl rêš_) it seems
      necessary to render _é-kur-ri_ as the object of _sag-uš_. See SAK.
      197 below c 5; BE. 29 No. 1 IV 6; PBS. V No. 73. A rendering, “She
      who raiseth me up daily in Ekur” is possible.

  127 Cf. SBP. 52, 5; BL. p. 138.

  128 Sic! third person.

  129 Text “his.”

  130 Or read _billudu_. This passage proves that _garza_ and _billudu_
      really do have a meaning, sanctuary, cult object or something
      synonymous. See _billudû_ in VAB. IV Index. The meaning, sanctuary,
      has been suggested for the Semitic _parṣu_ and this must be taken
      into consideration.

  131 Var. _šar-ra_.

  132 Var. is certainly not _nin_.

  133 For _sag-sìr_, see also ASKT. 96, 25; K. L., 199, 15; 199 Col. III
      51; CT. 24, 15, 79.

  134 Var. _mu-e_.

  135 Same as previous footnote.

  136 Cf. Ni. 4581 Obv. 8 in PBS. X pt. 2, where it is connected with
      _d.__Immer_. Var. _KA-gí-a!_

  137 Read _ḪU_ for _RI_(?). _mušen_ = _bêlu_, _beltu_, cf. PBS. V 15 Rev.
      14. Render “Their divine queen thou art”?

  138 Var. _ni_. Sic!

  139 Var. _ma_.

_  140 ḫāmimat kiššati_.

  141 Sic! Prepositions _ra_ and _da_ in the same phrase!

  142 Text _gĭr_!

  143 Cf. _mar-zen_, _gar-zen_ = _ḫâšu_, SBP. 116, 33; K.L., 15 II 12.

  144 In liturgies usually translated by “the Word.”

  145 Cf. SBP. 6, 16.

  146 For _ra_. Read _za-la_ for _lal-la_?

  147 Note the overhanging vowel _a_ denoting a dependent phrase without a
      relative introductory adverb, and see also _Sum. Gr._ page 163,
      examples cited _bé-in-da-ra-dú-a_, etc.

  148 The plural of this verb has been indicated by doubling the root, a
      case of analogy, being influenced by the similar plural formation of
      nouns. See _Sum. Gr._ § 124. An example of the same kind is
      _sag-nu-mu-un-da-ab-gà-gà_ = _ul ì-ir-ru-šu_, “they approached it
      not,” K. 8531, 6 in HROZNY, _Ninrag_, p. 8.

  149 Text _ub!_ Read _ub sag-ki-za_ = _tupḳi pani-ki_(??).

  150 For the form, see PBS. V 102 IV 3.

  151 If _la_ be correct, then the reading is _ka-sil-la_.

  152 Cf. _nir-da-an_, K. 45, 6, and _nir-da_, Gudea, Cyl. A 12, 26 with
      18, 3 where _nig-erim_ = _nir-da_.

  153 For _i-lu-dúg_ = _ṣarāḫu_.

_  154 a-a_ = _è-a_ = _aṣû_. CT. 15, 11, 7; K. L. 3_b_ 28. Cf. also the N.
      Pr. _d.__Gišbar-a_ = _d.__Gišbar-è_. “The fire-god causes to come

  155 So the text for _šág-ga-áš na-an-da-ab-bi_.

  156 See above, line 36.

  157 For the construction _dirig_ with _ra_, see _lù-ne-ir dirig_ = _eli
      annim rabi_, POEBEL, PBS V 152 32.

  158 See previous footnote.

  159 Refers to Sin.

  160 Here begins abruptly a passage spoken by the goddess herself. This
      is not unusual in liturgical texts.

  161 The sign is _dù_, not _dul_.

  162 For a discussion of these early Sumerian single song services, see
      the writer’s _Babylonian Liturgies_, pp. XXXVII ff.

  163 See also line 13.

  164 See _Tammuz and Ishtar_, p. 111.

  165 The Sumerian _arâ-bu_ (_UD-DU-BU_) is rendered into Semitic by the
      loan-word _arabû_, called _iṣṣur mēḫu_, bird of the storm, ZA. VI
      244, 48. In CT. XII 7_a_ 2 _UD-DU_ (_ara_) = _namru_, fierce,
      raging, where the entry is followed by _UD-DU_ (_ara_) = _ša
      UD-DU-bu_ (_ģu_), hence in any case a bird of prey. Were it not for
      the reference to this bird in the omen text, BOISSIER, DA 67, 18,
      one might conclude that the bird is mythical. For the reading
      _arabû_, see also REISNER, SBH. 104, 35.

  166 = _ḳadādu ša kišadi_, see SBP. 110, 22, “bend the neck,” i. e.,
      “grant favor.”

  167 Cf. V Raw. 39_a_ 33.

  168 Cf. _dagan-me-a_ = _ina puḫri-ni_, RA. XI 144, 8.

  169 Cf. SBP. 45, 13; 79, 13; 98, 44, etc.

  170 For this method of forming the plural see _Sumerian Grammar_, § 124.
      For _uru-bar_ = _kapru_, see MEISSNER, SAI. 543. Note also _umun
      urú-bar_, SBH. 22, 57 = 19, 56 and K. 69 Obv. 20. title of Nergal as
      lord of the city of the dead.

  171 Cf. _Historical and Religious Texts_, p. 34, 6.

  172 For Ninlil as queen of Keš, see also ZIMMERN, KL. 23 3; SBP. 23 note
      17. At Keš she was identified with the unmarried and earlier deity

  173 The line drawn across the tablet intersects the address of Innini
      and, if not for some unknown musical purpose, must be regarded as an

  174 For the construction, see _Sumerian Grammar_, § 91.

_  175 GA_ = _našû_, variant of _ga (ILA)_ = _našû_. The figure of lifting
      the foot and raising the hand (line 30) to Enlil refers to the
      attitude of adoration assumed by the mother goddess as she stands
      before one of the gods and intercedes for mankind. She is frequently
      depicted on seals in this attitude; see for example WARD, _Seal
      Cylinders of Western Asia_, 303_a_, 304, 308, etc.

  176 The suffixed pronoun _mu_ with affixed preposition _ra_.

  177 Innini is compared to the _sudin_-bird in SBP. 6, 16 also.

  178 For the optative use of this vowel, see _Sumerian Grammar_, § 217.

  179 Dialectic for _du_ = _da_ = _ga_ (by vowel harmony). Note the form
      _ga-mu-ra-ab-šid_ with variant _da-mu-ra-ab-šid_, _Sumerian
      Liturgical Texts_, 155, 30 (variant unpublished). See also _Sumerian
      Grammar_, § 50.

  180 For the idea, see also SBP. 292, 25-29.

  181 For _ŠURIM_ with value _uz=laḇru_, see THOMPSON, _Reports_ 103, 11
      and supply _u-uz_ in CT. 12, 26_a_ 22.

  182 The sign for _enzu_ certainly has a phonetic value ending in _d_;
      note NIKOLSKI NO. 262, where the sign is followed by _da_ and
      ZIMMERN, _Kultlieder_, 123 III 9, where it is followed by _dé_.

  183 See lines 3, 23, 31 and 44 below and lines 5, 14, 21, 27 and 34 of
      the parallel text in the volume cited above.

  184 This refrain occurs also in _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_, 121, 5;
      122, 14, 17; 123, 21, 27, 34, where it characterizes a lamentation
      for various cities of Sumer destroyed by an invasion from Gutium.
      The translation given above is preferable to the interpretation
      accepted in my previous volume.

  185 Title of Sin in CT. 25, 42, 5. Note also that _dumugu_ is a title of
      Sin, II Raw. 48, 33, and CT. 24, 30, 5.

  186 For _namga_ as an emphatic adverb, see _Journal of the Society of
      Oriental Research_, I 20, Metropolitan Syllabar, Obv. I 12-15.
      Variant _nanga_, _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_, 188, 1, 4 and 5.

  187 The scribe has written _im_ twice.

  188 Cf. SBP. 4, 6.

_  189 gar_ is employed as a variant of _kar_, see _Sum. Gr._ 223. For
      _gar_ in this sense, note _gar_ = _šaḫātu_, _nasāḫu_ in the
      syllabars. See also SBP. 198, 14 and note 15. The same sense of
      _gar_ will be found in Gudea, Cyl. A 6, 16; 7, 14; St. B 9, 16; Cyl.
      A 12, 25.

  190 The third sign of this ideogram is clearly _UNU_ not _NINA_ on the
      tablet. For the ideogram see SBP. 284, 6.

  191 For the adverbial force of _bi_ see _Sum. Gr._ § 72.

  192 Restored from _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_, 123 31, and below line

_  193 KA_ with value _du_ = _alāku_ occurs here for the first time.
      Variant has _du_ (line 33). This text supplies two more signs and
      makes possible a better translation.

  194 Cf. _Babylonian Liturgies_, No. 78, 3.

  195 Cf. PBS. XII No. 6 Obv. 11.

  196 Identification uncertain.

  197 The line is parallel to PBS. X 122, 13.

_  198 nam-en-na_ = _enûtu_, priesthood.

  199 A title of Nergal.

  200 About four lines are broken away to the end of the tablet.

_  201 igi-da_ occurs also in the title of Sin, _igi-da-gál_, ZIMMERN,
      KL., No. 1 Obv. I 3 and 6. The most natural interpretation is to
      regard _da_ as a variant of _du_, hence “to go before.”

  202 Written _túg_. _gu-šig_ is a kind of plant, on a tablet of the Tello
      Collection in Constantinople, MIO. 7086. For the meal of the
      _gu-šig_ see also CT. X 20, II 33 and REISNER, _Templeurkunden_, 128
      Col. III.

  203 Restored from line 14. Here begins the rehearsal of the woes of

  204 Cf. also CT. 15, 19 Rev. 2 where a place word is also expected.

  205 Cf. Gudea, St. B 9, 27.

  206 Semitic _šattamma_ a title employed in later times apparently in a
      secular sense. Originally it has a sacred meaning and probably
      denoted a musical director who was also a priest. The application of
      a priestly title to the king is in accord with his royal

  207 The sign is Br. 8899.

  208 For _ni_ = _nu_, see SBP. 138, 22, _ni-kuš-ù_ = _nu-kuš-ù_; SBH. 70,
      3 = 131, 48. Read _li_?

  209 Text _GAR!_

_  210 BAD_ = _kidinu_, has the value _uš_; cf. _uš-sa_ = _kuddinu_, Br.

_  211 e_ is here interpreted as a phonetic variant of _UD-DU_. Cf. also
      _e-dam_ in SBP. 118, 39.

  212 This is the first example of this form employed as subject.

  213 The text is difficult. _UN_ is certain but the sign _SAL_ is not
      clear on the tablet.

  214 Text _SU_.

  215 Phonetic variant of _gil-sa_ = _sukuttu_. The prefix _a_ is
      difficult and probably the noun augment, see _Sum. Gr._ § 148. The
      vowel _a_ seems to possess another sense in SBP. 284, 1.

_  216 gí_ = _piḫû_, confine, RA. 9, 77 I, 10; note also _é-a-ám gí_ =
      _ina bîti piḫû_, K. 41 Col. II 12.

  217 Part of the door; see VAB. IV Index.

  218 Variant of _á-taģ_ = _rêṣu_. The final _ka_ is for the emphatic _ge_
      in the status obliquus (_ga_). This emphatic particle is here
      attached to the object which is not a construct formation, but the
      choice of _ka_ for _ge_ is probably influenced by the principle of
      employing the oblique case of the construct when the noun in
      question is in the accusative; see _Sum. Gr._ § 135. “Defender”
      refers to Tammuz.

  219 The same title in PBS. V 2 Obv. II 23, _d__Dumu-zi šu-PEŠ_. POEBEL
      interpreted this as a variant of _šu-ģa_ = _ba’iru_, fisherman, and
      his suggestion is probably correct. We have, however, to consider
      the possibility of a confusion with _kam_ = _ukkušu_, the afflicted,
      SAI. 5082.

  220 The rise of the semi-vowel _i_ between the vowels _a-a_ occurs under
      similar circumstances in _igi-ģe-ni-ib-ila-ia-dúg_, RADAU,
      _Miscellaneous Texts_, No. 4, 5. See also _Sum. Gr._ § 38, 2. The
      form above arose from _bar-ri-a-a-dúg_. The prefixed element _dúg_
      falls under § 153 of the Grammar. _bar_ = _sapāḫu_ is a variant
      _par_, to spread out, scatter.

_  221 šub_, to let fall, _hence tabāku_, to pour out. Heretofore this
      meaning of _šub_ was known only from the forms _al-šù-šù-be_ =
      _ittanatbak_, SBH. No. 62, 15, and forms cited by MEISSNER, SAI.
      8345. See also _šu from šub_, _ibid._, 8334 and _al-šù-šù-be_, MVAG,
      1913 pt. 2 p. 49, 16.

  222 The same passage occurs in Ni. 13856 II 13. _sîg-sîg_ = _šaḳummatu_,
      variant of _sīg-sīg_.

_  223 zig_ is probably phonetic for _šeg_ = _magāru_, see _Sum. Gr._ 258,

_  224 lu_ from _lum_ = _dašû_, _dišû_, passim.

  225 Cf. also PBS. V 25 I 15; II 13 _mu-na-ni-ib-gí-gí_.

_  226 eku_ from _uku_ by dissimilation of vowels. See also REISNER, SBH.
      77, 17.

  227 For _ama_ = _ummatu_, _ummanātu_, see _Sum. Gr._ 202, _ama_2 and
      WEIDNER, _Handbuch der Babylonischen Astronomie_, p. 86, 4.

  228 See, for the musical instrument _AL_, _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_,
      Index, p. 221.

  229 Text omits _zu_, which is not on the tablet.

  230 Written _KU-KI_ Cf. also CT. 16, 44, 80 _KU-KI-gar-ra-bi_ = _ ina

  231 Enlil.

  232 A reading _ár-im-me_, “it is glorified,” suggests itself. Cf. SBH.
      93, 1.

  233 Cf. TSA. 31 Obv. II.

  234 See PBS. Vol. XII 12.

  235 Cf. SBP. 295, 17.

_  236 ul-ti_ = _ḫubuṣu_, “the lusty man,” POEBEL, PBS. V 136 V 13, with
      which compare n. pra. _Ḫubbuṣu_, _Ḫubbuṣtu_, in HOLMA, “Personal
      Names of the Form _fu ul_,” p. 50. Note also _ul-ti-a_ = _ḫābṣatum_,
      PBS. V _ibid._ l. 12. The hymn to Sin, SBP. 296, contains in line 14
      the same phrase.

  237 Text not entirely certain. If correctly read the signs _ḪAR-GUD_ =
      _kabattu_ must be read in SBP. 48, 45 after the variant SBH. 3, 10.

  238 Restored from line 10. The only previous occurrence of this name is
      in SMITH’S _Miscellaneous Texts_, 11, 1 which has _RI_ not _MU_. The
      end of the name is broken in BL. No, 27. Perhaps SMITH copied the
      sign wrongly.

  239 Pronounced _udugga_ = _ṣaltu_.

  240 The name as transliterated means _mudammiḳ musarrê_, “Temple of the
      benefactor of writing.” In line 15 its holy reed is mentioned, a
      mythical stylus symbolic of the god of wisdom, Enki, according to
      SAK. 6 h.

_  241 nar-balag_ = _tigû_, a kind of flute. Here the word indicates that
      in the musical accompaniment this instrument was employed. It
      probably denotes a specific kind of melody. Three other musical
      instruments have given their names to classes of melodies, the
      _eršemma_, _balag_ and _me-zí_, see SBP. page IX, and BL. page

  242 Rev. II 22.

  243 Rev. II 19.

  244 Rev. II 29.

  245 Rev. II 30.

  246 Rev. II 37:41. Cf. _er-gig mu-un-šéš-šéš_, ZIMMERN, KL. 25 II 2 f.

  247 See _Historical and Religious Texts_ 5-8.

_  248 nig_ to _ni_.

  249 Lines 50-54 on Col. III may be restored from lines 8-12.

  250 Literally, “decree again their oracle.”

_  251 gim_, emphatic suffix.

  252 We meet here for the first time with two avenging angels or genii
      who attend the Word in its execution of the wrath of god.
      _Ḳingaludda_ is mentioned as one of four evil spirits _ilu limmu_ in
      CT. 25, 22, 44. He is mentioned with the Zû bird and the demon
      _šêdu_ as appearing in dream omens, BOISSIER, DA. 207, 34. See also
      BOISSIER, _Choix_, II 53, 4. On _uddugub_ as a title of kings see
      BE. 31, 22 n. 9.

  253 The _ud-gal_ is regarded as plural = _ûmu rabûti_ and identified
      with the evil spirits of incantations, CT. 16, 22, 266 and 276. In
      the Epic of Creation the “great spirit of wrath” is one of the
      demons attendant upon Tiamat.

  254 See PBS. X 161, 13.

  255 The traces on Ni. 7080 are against the restoration _še-am-šá_. Lines
      11-19 are restored from PBS. X No. 10.

_  256 gĭr_? Variant _gú-nin!_

  257 Cf. RA. 12, 37, 1.

  258 So from my copy and CT. IV 4_b_ 12 = _Babyloniaca_, III 17.

  259 For this title of Tammuz, see _Tammuz and Ishtar_, 34.

  260 Probably for _dagan = puḫru_, RA. 11, 144, 8. See also _dakan_,
      divine abode, DELITZSCH, _Glossar_, 132.

  261 Cf. SB P. 304, 13.

  262 Title of Tammuz as spirit of the waters, see _Tammuz and Ishtar_,
      pp. 6 and 44. _a-bal = tābik mê_, pourer of water, irrigator, is the
      original idea of this ideogram. For the title _galu-a-bal_ in this
      sense, see CT. 13, 42, 7 ff. _Ak-ki galu abal_, the gardener who
      cared for Sargon. See also THUREAU-DANGIN, _Lettres et Contrats_,
      No. 174, 6-8, _galu a-bal_, a kind of laborer. The later usage of
      the word as libator of water for the souls of the dead, Semitic _näḳ
      mê_ is a strictly conventional development, see _Babyloniaca_, VI

_  263 al_ as synonym of _DE_ (in line 21) is probably a variant of _ilu =

  264 Sign _DE_.

  265 This line is connected with the classical interlude _ma-a-bi
      ud-me-na-gim_ etc. discussed in SBP. 185 n. 10 and BL. XLIX.

  266 Below the double line the figure 38, i.e. 38 lines on the obverse.
      Thirteen lines have been broken from the top.

  267 Cf. ZIMMERN, K.L., 25 II 42.

  268 I. e. Isin.

  269 On this title see BL. 143.

  270 Probably an error. Omitted in translation.

  271 On this line, see the commentary in _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_ 173
      note 3.

  272 Temple in Isin-Šuruppak. Šuruppak must have been a quarter of the
      later and more famous Isin. Note that this temple is assigned to
      Šuruppak in POEBEL, PBS. V 157, 7. The liturgies, however,
      constantly place Niginmar at Isin.

  273 I see traces of a sign after _te_.

  274 Temple in Larak, a quarter of Isin. See SBP. 160 n. 7.

_  275 azag-sug_ title of the deities of lustration Ašnan, Nidaba and

  276 Rendered _bit šarru_, V Raw. 16, 52, probably a royal chapel or room
      in Ekur especially provided for the king. See also SBP. 292, 14; KL.
      25 I 11.

  277 Probably name of a sacred park at Isin. It contained a chapel,
      _é-tir-azag-ga_, KL. 25 I 12.

  278 For the restoration, cf. RA. 12, 34, 9.

  279 The edge has the figure 48 which indicates the number of lines on
      the reverse and left edge.

  280 See also the same idea in SBP. 312, 12 and KL. 25 II 41.

  281 Concerning the _titular litanies_, see PBS. X 156, 173, etc.

  282 Erroneously designated the fourth tablet of _ame baranara_ in SBP.

  283 Erroneously assigned to _ame baranara_ in SBP.

  284 The text of lines 1-25 is taken from _Tablet Virolleaud_, now
      _Collection Nies._ No 1315.

  285 SBP. 112 and 126 have _umun_, et passim.

  286 SBH. 42 has an inserted line between II. 1-2. See SBP. 112.

  287 Vars. _nag_.

  288 Uncertain. Apparently REC. 225. Elsewhere in this passage always
      _ṢAB_ which has been read _erin-na_ = _ummāni-šu_, BL. 111, 16.

  289 See _Yale Vocabulary_ 135.

  290 On this passage see PBS. X 170, 13 and Ni. 15204, 8 of this volume.

  291 Sic! Error for _ní-bi-dúb_.

  292 Omitted by the scribe. Line restored from Ni. 15204, 11.

  293 With line 19 the variant SBH. 42 lower fragment begins.

  294 Var. adds _ra_.

  295 The god Ea of Eridu is meant.

  296 Cf. Col. II 19. On this variant for _dumu-maģ_, see note in
      _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_ 163.

  297 Restored from Col. II 20.

  298 We expect the sign _EDIN_ (= _rĭ_) but the traces are clearly not
      those of _EDIN_.

  299 Col. II 23 _ab-su-di_. Here begins KL. No. 11, I, which joins
      directly on to _Tablet Virolleaud_.

  300 This refrain is read _ù-um_ etc. on the late variant, SBH. No. 21,
      Obv. lower fragment.

  301 Cf. SBP. 40, 33. Restoration uncertain. This line does not appear in
      SBH. 42 = SBP. 112 which has here insertions for Tašmetu and Nanā.

  302 For _-na-ta_?. The suffixed conjugation is frequently employed in
      interrogations; _me-na gí-gí-mu_, “When shall one restore it?,” BE.
      30, 12, 2. _a-ba ku-ul-la-ba_, “Who shall restrain?,” Ni. 4610, r.
      1. _a-na an-na-ab-taģ-ni_, “What shall I add to thee?,” GENOUILLAC,
      _Drehem_, 1, 12. Variant SBP. 114, 32 _zag-na ab-zí-em-e_.

  303 Var. SBH. 43, 35 _ur-ra-ge_.

  304 Parallel passages do not mention the “queen of the city” but only
      the ordinary mother who rejects her children, SBH. 131, 58-61; BL.
      74, 10. The phrase refers obviously to the mother goddess. “Her son”
      must be interpreted figuratively in the sense that the mother
      goddess is the protector of all human creatures.

  305 This title _gašan-sun_ or _nin-sun_, really means _beltu rimtu_,
      “the wild-cow queen,” and characterizes the ancient mother goddess
      as patroness of cattle. The title usually refers to the married type
      Gula or Bau, as in SBP. 284, 19, and note that Ninsun, mother of
      Gilgamish, is frequently called _ri-mat_, POEBEL, OLZ, 1914, 4. The
      title also applies to the virgin type Innini in KL. 123 r. II 7.

_  306 mu-lu imme_ also BE. 30, 9 I 2 = _bêl ḳûli_(?), “Man of wailing.”
      The late version replaces this line by _[te-e-ám] da-ga-a-ta
      dumu-ni_, “How long shall the wife of the strong man reject her
      son?”, SBP. 114, 37. _dagāta = dam-guṭu_, SBH. 131, 60.

  307 Probably a title of Ekur. _ešgalla_ title of the temple in Kullab,
      KL. 3 II 20. The late version rejects this line since its local
      reference was not suited to general use.

  308 Here this line begins an Enlil melody within the body of a series.
      Originally _a-gal-gal šel-su-su_ was a Nergal melody and a series
      based upon it is catalogued in IV R. 53_a_ 33 of which K. 69 is the
      first tablet. See also BÖLLENRÜCHER, _Nergal_, No. 6.

  309 The late redaction of this melody revises this litany with the new
      liturgical movement _ursaggal—elimma_ placed before alternate lines.
      When this scheme is employed all feminine deities are omitted. See
      SBP. 114. Note 5 p. 115 _ibid._ is to be suppressed.

  310 Lines 7-10 conjecturally restored from _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_
      165, 8-11.

  311 Lines 11-17 restored from SBP. 116, 16 ff.

  312 Meaning and restoration uncertain.

  313 First line on ZIMMERN, No. 11 Col. II.

  314 See note on line 27 above.

  315 Usually _pà_ = _ekû_, canal, is used in this title of Zarpanit. She
      is originally a patroness of irrigation and ultimately identical
      with Ninā.

_  316 ab-su_ = _ab-zu_, sea? Cf. _ab-zu-bil-la_, the shining ocean, KL. 1
      Rev. I 19 f.

  317 SBP. 116, 27 _dé-en-kùr-e_.

  318 Var. _u-mi-a_, SBP. 116, 33.

  319 Line 29 is false and to be corrected after the late text SBP. p.
      118, 35 f. which has two lines. Read _ki an dúr-ru-na-šú
      __d__A-nun-na [gar-ma-an-zí-en]_, where Anu sits let the Anunnaki

  320 Cf. SBH. 44, 37.

_  321 ilu ra’imu_.

_  322 napḫar māti_, cf. IV R. 23_b_ 15.

  323 It is not certain that this melody ended here. Possibly all the
      titles in lines 19-27 followed here with the refrain
      _am-ma-ab-túg-e_. At any rate the traces of a last line on SBH. 44
      are those of the last line of this melody. There is not space enough
      on SBH. 44 after line 37 for more than the lines 31-40 supplied
      above for we must make some allowance for the interlinear Semitic
      translations in the break on SBH. 44.

_  324 šubat pirišti._ This sanctuary at Nippur is mentioned in BE. 29 No.
      5 Obv. 11; _dù-sag_ in KL. 64 II 4 and III 6.

  325 End of the sixth melody.

  326 Heart is used here in the sense “wrath.”

  327 Cf. SBP. 98, 40 f.

  328 Cf. SBP. 98, 44; 124, 19.

  329 Cf. SBP. 38, 13.

  330 Cf. _ibid._ 98, 48.

  331 In case the tablet possessed five columns like KL. 25 then this
      column is Rev. III. I know of no _four_ column tablets of similar

_  332 sag_ began a refrain which followed the titles of Enlil, Ea, etc.
      and ended with this line. See Obv. I 21-31, etc.

  333 Cf. SBP. 82, 47.

  334 A title of Egalmah in Isin, SBH. 94, 29 = SBP. 186, 29.

  335 Either DAM or _SAL + KU_ (sister) must be expected, since we have
      obviously a reference to Aruru here.

  336 Sic! An error for _en-ne_? See SBP. 120, 1. Perhaps _dé_ = _te_,
      “where?” strengthened by _en_ = _adi_.

  337 The following melody has been restored from the late variant SBP. p.

  338 Glossed _gú-da_.

  339 Semitic _lu-uk-mi-is-su_, glossed _kamû_. _kamû_, “to bind,” is the
      natural rendering of _lal_. The Semitic should perhaps be neglected
      as faulty and the Sumerian rendered, “Like a wild ox by the mighty
      one I am hobbled.”

  340 Lines 21-26 may not have stood in the ancient liturgy.

  341 Here begins variant 81-7-27, 203 = BA. X 87.

  342 Nippur.

  343 Beginning of a melody of a weeping mother series, BL. p. 94, 12. It
      is not certain that this melody stood in the ancient text. See for
      the text 81-7-28, 203 (= 78239) in this volume.

  344 Cf. SBH. 132, 27.

  345 The duplicate, MEEK, NO. 11, has here another melody not a titular
      litany. This text does not belong to the _e-lum gud-sun_ series.

  346 This title of Uraša remains unexplained. In all other examples
      _d__Uraša ki-še-gu-nu-ra_, SBP. 150, 6; 90, 20; K. 3931 Rev. 29; KL.
      17 Rev. II 6. Perhaps also Gudea, Cyl. B 19, 13 is to be restored

  347 Father-mother names of Enlil, IV Raw. 1_b_ 17 f.

  348 Enlil names, CT. 24, 4, 24 f.

  349 Enlil, CT. 24, 4, 20.

  350 Usually _me-šár-ra_. Enlil name, CT. 24, 4, 26. Not originally
      associated with Nergal. See _Historical and Religious Texts_, p. 35.

  351 Here both titles of Ninlil. Variant _nin-zíd-an-na_, PSBA. 1911, 233
      n. 39.

  352 See previous footnote.

  353 Originally title of Enlil, CT. 24, 25, 97 = 13, 42. Usually Marduk
      as Jupiter.

  354 Two other readings of this title of Ninlil as mother goddess are
      known; _d__Še-en-tūr_, SBP. 150 n. 5, l. 11 and _d__Še-en-tur_,
      KING, _Supplement_ to BEZOLD’S _Catalogue_, p. 10, No. 51, 8 where
      she is identified with Nintud = _d__bêlit_.

  355 In ZA. VI 242, 21 their mother is Išhara, another title of the same
      mother goddess. For the seven gods see IV Raw. 21 No. 1 B.

  356 Perhaps = _si-gal_, title of Ninurta, SBH. 132, 26; BL. 92, 7. CT.
      24, 7, 12.

  357 Usually title of Ninlil as here, SBH. 132, 23; SBP. 150 n. 5, 13.
      But consort of Ninurta, CT. 24, 7, 12.

  358 Var. _d__Nappasi_.

  359 The entire ideogram was read _zir_ = _zirru_, SMITH, _Miscel. Texts_
      25, 16.

  360 A legendary king who had received apotheosis, and was placed in the
      court of Enlil, CT. 24, 6, 20 = 8 Col. III 1. The variant SBP. 152,
      15 inserts another deified king Ur-Sin. See also GENOUILLAC,
      _Drehem_, 5501 II 21; _Babylonian Liturgies_, 92 Rev. 10; CT. 24, 6,

  361 Or _gi-ur-sag_. The Semitic is _ša ediš-ši-ša ḳarradat_. On Innini
      queen of heaven, see _Tammuz and Ishtar_, 88.

  362 I. e., Gilgamish.

  363 See _Tammuz and Ishtar_ 57, n. 2.

  364 On this title of the weeping mother, see _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_

  365 A title of Immer the thunder god.

_  366 Zagin-na_ to _zaggira_, see _Sumerian Grammar_, § 47.

  367 Aja goddess of light and battle, _Babylonian Liturgies_ 143.

  368 ZIMMERN, _AZAG_ an error?

  369 Cf. K. 7145, 7 in CT. 29, 47.

_  370 d__Lum-ma_ or _Ḫumma_, CT. 24, 6, 18 one of two _utukku_ of Ekur.
      Duplicate 24, 22, 117. Often in names of the early period, SCHEIL,
      _Textes Elamites-Semitiques_, p. 4 and in name of ancient patesi of
      Umma, _Ur-lum-ma_, see THUREAU-DANGIN, SAK. 273. SCHEIL, I. c. 4,
      says that _Lum_, _Ḫum_ is an Elamitic god. The title _gašan-dig-ga_
      indicates a female deity. Note the variant _gašan-sa-lum-ma_, SBP.
      158, 56. An underworld deity.

  371 Br. No. 909. Var. SBP. 158, 57 = V Raw. 52 II 27, has _unugal_.

  372 Var. of _á_ = _idu_.

  373 Sign _NITAḪ_. See Var. _ir-ra_, _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_, p. 174,

  374 For _gud-á-nu-gí-a_, ox that turns not back his might. See I. c. 173
      n. 3. For _g_ to _s_ see _Sum. Gr._ § 40 _b_.

  375 Spirit of the lower world, CT. 24, 8, 13.

  376 Vars. _šun_, or _šen_ SBP. 158, 61; CT. 24, 23, 24. Hence _ḪU_
      (_mušen_) has also the value _šen_ or _šun_. See on lines 9 f.
      _Sumerian Liturgical Texts_ 174 n. 5.

  377 For _kul_.

  378 Gunu of _ḪU_. Var. _NU-NUNUZ-ki-a_, see SBP. 158, 62 = CT. 24, 10,

  379 Var. _A-mà-mà_. _Ma-ma_, _Ma-mi_, _Mà-mà_, _A-mà_ = Bau, Nintud.

  380 For _en-me_ = _bêl parṣi_. Var. _umun me_. Here certainly a male
      deity as _d__Nin-né_ = _Almu_, form of Nergal in V Raw. 21, 25. For
      _Nin-né_ in the early period see ALLOTTE DE LA FUŸE, DP. 128 II 3.
      But _Nin-né_ = _Nin-né-mal_ = Alamu, form of Allat sister Ninlil,
      CT. 24, 10, 3, cf. V R. 21, 26.

  381 Variant SBP. 158, 63 = SBH. 86, 63 reads _šanga-maģ abzu-ge_. For
      the writing of _šanga_, see _Babylonian Liturgies_, p. XXII n. 2.

  382 On variants _Duru-sug_, _Dúr-ru-si-ga_, see _Sum. Lit. Texts_ 174,

  383 Sic! Perhaps error for _ģa-mun_. See also CT. 24, 9, 40
      _d__Ḫa-mun-sal(?)-sal?_. SBP. 158, 64.

  384 Title of Shamash, CT. 25, 25, 11.

  385 Title of Shamash here. Variant _d__Su-ud-ăm_ = Aja, CT. 25, 9, 25.

  386 I. e. Aja.

  387 So! Var. _mu-galam_, “of skilful name.”

  388 See Var. _Sum. Lit. Texts_ 175, 10.

  389 So Var. l. c. I. 11. See above, line 6.

  390 Certainly these two underworld deities are intended in this line.
      They occur together also in CT. 25, 5, 60-64. See also 25, 8, 14
      where read Nin-_né_-da.

  391 Two lines not on any variant.

  392 Gula of Isin.

  393 See for reading, _Sum. Lit. Texts_ 176, 5.

  394 See _Babylonian Liturgies_ 96 n. 1.

  395 For variants, see _Sum. Lit. Texts_ 177, 8.

  396 Variant SBP. 160, 16 has another text. Other variants omit the line
      altogether, KL. 8 IV 8; _Sum. Lit. Texts_, 177.

  397 Cf. SBP. 74, 19 and 68, 5.

  398 For this sign = REC. 46, see now K.L., 25 III 15. The two signs
      _balag_ and _dup_ are distinguished clearly on this tablet; see Obv.
      9 for _dup_. On the distinction of two original signs in Br. 7024,
      see THUREAU-DANGIN, ZA. 15, 167; Chicago Syllabary 208 f., and PBS.
      12 No. 11 Obv. Col. II 45 and 46 and page 13. Syl. B distinguishes
      the two signs.

  399 See RA. 11, 45 n. 5.

  400 All father-mother names of Enlil, CT. 34, 3, 29 ff.

  401 This Semitic rubric is unique in the published literature of
      Sumerian liturgies. It indicates that the choristers should here
      complete the long titular litany by reciting the titles of the
      deities named in the litany given in full on the Berlin tablet; see
      the preceding edition of K. L. 11 Rev. IV 1 ff.

  402 For this rubric, see PBS. X 151 note 1.

  403 For Enlil connected with the idea of light, see PBS. X 158 n. 1.

  404 The pronoun refers apparently to _uru_ in line 15.

  405 Text _na-an_!

  406 The moon god was held to be the son of Enlil, SBP. 296, 5.

  407 Cf. BL. 48, 23.

  408 Text _DI_.

  409 Same phrase in Ni. 14005, 24. See _Le Poème Sumèrien du Paradis_, p.

  410 For the interpretation, see RA. 12, 27 n. 5.

  411 See for readings BL. 38, 9.

  412 See also _Tablet Virolleaud_, Rev. end.

  413 Also Opis was sometimes called Keš, see CT. 16, 36, 3, _ki-e-ši_,
      gloss on the ideogram for Opis.

  414 For Ninharsag at Keš, see also SAK. 14 XVIII 6. Another title of the
      goddess at Keš is Ninmah, SAK. 237e.

  415 Here the god of Opis is given as Igidu, a form of Nergal. In this
      late text Opis on the Tigris at Seleucia is probably intended. The
      southern Keš and Opis were imitated in Akkad, at any rate in later
      times, and Keš was apparently confused with Kiš which gave rise to a
      second Kiš in Akkad. The ancient and historical Kiš at Oheimer on
      the canal of the Euphrates should not be confused with Kiš
      corruption for the new Keš near Seleucia.

  416 The god _Igi-du_ of Keš is identified with Ninurta as were most of
      the male satellites of the mother goddesses in various cities. CT.
      25, 24 K. 8219, 17+K. 7620, 18, _d__Igi-du_ = _d__Nin-urta_.
      According to CT. 25, 12, 17 it is one of the titles of Ninurta in
      Elam. But in CT. 24, 36, 52 _d__Igi-du_ is a form of Nergal, and in
      the omen text, BOISSIER, DA. 238, 10 he is explained as
      _d._Meslamtaèa, a form of Nergal.

  417 Or perhaps Negun. See below.

  418 BL. 72, 14. Here Keš or Kisa is written with the ideogram for Opis.

  419 CT. 25, 12, 23. See SBP. 156, 39.

  420 SAK. 118 XXVII 2.

  421 A temple _é-an-za-kar_ is assigned to Opis in POEBEL, PBS. V 157, 8
      and ZIMMERN, KL. 199 Rev. I 37 (here without _é_). This temple can
      hardly be the one which forms the subject of the liturgy on the
      Ashmolean Prism.

  422 Published by BARTON, _Miscellaneous Religious Texts_.

  423 A new copy of the Ashmolean Prism is published in the _Revue
      d’Assyriologie_, Vol. XVI.

  424 Cf. BA. V 707, 7.

  425 Probably for _gud-NINDA=bîru, mîru_.

  426 Var. _na_.

  427 Some verb seems to be missing here. The construction is obscure.

  428 So the prism.

  429 Var. _ni_.

  430 Variant Constple. omits _ki_.

  431 Cf. _ki-gim rib-ba_ = _kima irṣitim šûtuḳat_, DELITZSCH, AL3 134, 5.
      _KAL_ (_ri-ib_) = _šûtuḳu_, Chicago Syllabar 287; _rib_ = _šutuḳḳu_,
      CT. 19, 11, 12; _nam-kalag-ga-ni rib-ba_ = _dannussu šûtuḳat_, IV
      Raw. 24_a_ 48; _ana-gim ki-gim rib-ba-zu-ne_ = _ša kima šamê u
      irṣitim šûtugata_, SBP. 250, 6. See also EBELING, KTA. 32, 5,
      _rib-ba_ = _šu-tu-ḳu_.

  432 The meaning is obscure. For the suggested rendering cf. _en me-a
      túm-ma_, the lord who cares for the decrees, SAK. 204, 6.

  433 For this emphatic verbal prefix cf. DELITZSCH, AL3, 134, 5; ZIMMERN,
      KL. 68 Rev. 24.

  434 I. e. Nintud. For _ummu_ in the sense of “mother goddess” note CT.
      16, 36, 1-9 where the various mothers of Eridu, Kullab, Keš, Lagash
      and Šuruppak are invoked. The reference here is undoubtedly to
      Ninlil as the mother of Negun, SBP. 156, 39.

_  435 a-ba_ = _arka_, and then. The same phrase in BE. 31, 2, 7 and for
      _aba_, see especially _Sum. Gr._ § 241. _er-du(ģ)_ probably variant
      of _er-du_ = _damāmu_.

  436 Ni. 14031 in PBS. X No. 22 has as the verb the sign _dug_ written
      five times, as also the prism.

  437 Restored from the variant Cstple. Rev. I 10.

  438 So? _kur = napāḫu_, better than my former rendering of this passage.

_  439 idim_ = _šegû, nadāru_ (cf. THOMPSON, _Reports_ 82, 6 with 108, 5),
      refers to the rumbling of the great gates of the temple.

  440 Br. 2729? Cf. R _(si-gi) = ḳaḳḳabu_, CT. 18, 49, 4.

  441 Same phrase in CLAY, _Miscel_. 31, 33.

_  442 ni_ = _nu_; cf. SBP. 138, 22, _ni-kuš-ù_; POEBEL, PBS. V 26, 10.

  443 So on Var. Cstple. II 6.

  444 First example of the verb _zu_ strengthened by augment _a_; cf.
      _a-ru_, _a-sil_ in _Babyloniaca_ II 96.

  445 Cf. Gudea, Cyl. A 10, 18.

  446 Semitic _ṣênu_? Cf. EBELING, KTA. No. 4 Rev. 13.

  447 Var. Cstple. _an_.

  448 Read _ge-ne_? Ni. 8384 _ge_(?)_-e-ne_.

  449 Ni. 8384 _dam_.

  450 So on 8384.

  451 Var. Cstple. _é_. See below line 21 and BL. 88 n. 4.

  452 Fifth section on Ni. 8384.

  453 First sign on Ni. 8384 Rev. 1.

  454 Ni. 8384 _gí_

  455 Same sign on Var. Cstple. But Ni. 8384 has a sign apparently related
      to the difficult sign which I assimilated to Br. 4930 in AJSL. 33,
      48. The sign on Ni. 8384 recurs in ZIMMERN, KL. 35 II 5.

  456 Var. Ni. 8384 _gal-e_; Var. Cstple. _gal-la_. According to CT. 24,
      10, 8 the throne bearer of Enlil, but in 24, 26, 124 a _ligir-gal_
      in the attendance of the mother goddess.

  457 Ni. 8384 _edin-na_; Var. Cstple. _edin_.

  458 Both variants add _e_.

  459 Var. of _gú-gar_ = _puḫḫuru_. See BL. 10, 30.

  460 Vars. omit _gim_.

  461 Ni. 8384 omits _ra_.

  462 Sixth on Ni. 8384.

  463 Lines 29-IV 4 are partially restored from Ni. 14031.

  464 First signs on RADAU, _Miscel_. No. 8 = Ni. 11876.

  465 So Ni. 11876.

  466 So apparently Ni. 11876.

  467 Text certain. Not _NUN_.

  468 See last footnote.

  469 Var. Cstple. _en_.

  470 Radau’s copy has _ḲIN_.

  471 Var. _a-an_.

  472 Ni. 11876 has _làl-e ki-azag-ga nam-mi-in-KU_?

  473 Ni. 11876 omits _e_. This text proves that in the ideogram Br. 1202
      the gloss _isimu_ belongs properly to the first two signs only and
      that the original reading was _isimu-abkal_. See especially CT. 12,
      16, 34 (_i-si-mu_) = _PAP-sîg_ = _usmû_. In the later period _abkal_
      was apparently not pronounced and the whole ideogram was rendered by

  474 This line is not on the prism.

  475 Ni. 11876 _ga-a-an_. Cstple. Var. _gig_ simply.

  476 Or _gú_.

  477 I edited this tablet in SBP. 120-123 where I erroneously assigned it
      to the Enlil series _ame baranara_. The tablet has been partially
      restored from MEEK, No. 11. The first two melodies of _elume didara_
      are used in the Enlil liturgy _elum gudsun_ near the end just before
      the titular litany and have been re-edited above pp. 300-2 in the
      edition of the _elum gudsun_ series.

  478 MEEK, No. 11 in BA. X pt. 1.

  479 SBP. 296.

  480 SBP. 236.

  481 SBP. 140.

  482 SBP. 226=SBH. No. 18.

  483 The first line, together with its Semitic translation, is identical
      with the first line of the third tablet of the series _muten
      nu-nunuz-gim_, see SBP. 140. Otherwise the melodies differ.

  484 The refrain _ù-li-li_ apparently provides an incomplete sentence.

  485 Cf. SBH. No. 84, 13, there a title of the river goddess.

  486 Lines 10-13 form a duplicate of SBH. No. 25, Rev. 2-5 = SBP. 122.

_  487 si-mă_, literally _karnānu_, the horned, referring to the new-moon.
      The variant SBP. 296, 1 has _má-gúr_, the crescent boat. Undoubtedly
      _má-gúr_ should be rendered by _nannaru_ in this passage.

  488 See BL. p. 132.

  489 I. e. Sin himself is the author of Nippur’s sorrows.

  490 Glossed _ki_.

_  491 LAḪ_; transcription and interpretation uncertain.

  492 Hereby is established the reading _pa(g)-dà = mûdu, kapdu_. Probably
      a kind of augurer.

  493 Probably tautological writing for _lallaģ = itabbulu_, Voc. Hittite

  494 Cf. the first melody of the Ninurta series _gū-ud nim kur-ra_; see
      SBP. 226; BL. No. 9 and SBH. 40.

  495 Similar passages have _é-šár-ra_ (SBP. 226, 8; SBH. 40, 8) chapel of
      Ninlil in Ekur (SBP. 221 n. 7).

  496 Temple of Ninurta in Nippur. A syllabary recently published by
      SCHEIL (RA. 14, 174 I. 7) explains the name by _bit gi-mir par-ṣi
      hammu_, Temple which executes the totality of decrees. Note,
      however, the epithet _é i-dé-ila_ = _bit niš înê_, House of the
      lifting of the eyes, SBP. 208, 11.

  497 In any case an epithet of the temple of _Urta_ in Dilbat,
      _Ibe-__ilu__Anum_. For this reading _I-be_ see vars. _I-bi_, Im-bi,
      BL. p. 134. The word _ibi_ is probably Sumerian for _igi_, and shows
      that the phonetic rendering _i-de_ is erroneous. The dialectic
      pronunciation of _igi_ was _ibe_ and despite the Semitic variant
      _imbi_ the name is apparently Sumerian _Ibe-Anu_, Temple of the eye
      of Anu. Here _šu-gúd_ is an epithet for Anu, i. e. the lofty.

  498 See also SBH. 132, 46; BL. No. 56 Rev. 31; CRAIG, RT. 20, 30. This
      text has a variant _a_ for _di_.

  499 Probably part of the great city Isin, see SBP. 160 n. 7.

  500 Probably variant of _é-dŭr = adurû, kapru_, village, city, POEBEL,
      PBS. V 106 IV 30; see also II Raw. 52, 61 f. Note the similar title
      of the city of Bau _uru-azag-ga_ in SAK. 274; BL. 147. Here the
      title refers to Isin not Lagash.

  501 Cf. CRAIG, RT. II 16, 18 _d__Ama-ŠU-ḪAL-BI-ta_.

  502 Cf. CT. 12, 3_a_ 29; _ina šar-tu la uštešir-šu u ina me-riš-tum la
      i-kal-li_, “By fraud he has not translated it and with wilful
      readings has he not published it.” For _šutešuru_, “to translate or
      edit a tablet,” see LEHMANN, _Shamash-shum-ukîn_, Taf. XXXIV 17
      _akkadû ana šutešuri_, “to translate into Akkadian.” On this
      difficult passage concerning the education of Ašurbanipal see
      _Sumerian Grammar_, p. 3 and corrections by UNGNAD in ZA. 31, 41.
      _ikalli_ probably for _ukallim_; note the variant _ušâbi = ušâpi_.

  503 Only in a loose sense. From Tammuz to Kislev is the period of death,
      from Kislev to Tammuz the period of revivification of nature. See on
      the meaning of this passage KUGLER, _Im Bannkreis Babels_ 62-5.

  504 Temple of Marduk in Babylon.

  505 Temple of Nebo in Barsippa.

_  506 maš-dū_=_muškênitu_.

_  507 šarahitum._

  508 See _Tammuz and Ishtar_, p. 151. Ašrat or the western Ashtoreth
      usually had the title _bêlit ṣêri_, “Lady of the plains” and was
      identified with the Babylonian Geštinanna and Nidaba. Hence
      _[Bêlit-]ṣêri_ is _dupšarrat irṣitm_, scribe of the lower world,
      K.B. VI 190,47; cf. IV R. 27 B 29.

  509 See lines 51-4 of this tablet. Nergal descends into the earth on the
      18th of Tammuz and remains until the 28th of Kislev.

_  510 ilat__Šarrat_.

  511 Here epitomized. It will be found transcribed and translated by
      ZIMMERN in his _Zum Babylonischen Neujahrfest_, p. 129.

_  512 MAŠ_. See below Col. II 15, gypsum is Ninurta, the god of war,
      primarily a god of light. Gypsum, Sum. _im-bar_, “radiant clay,”
      became symbolic of Ninurta because of its light transparent color.

  513 So, because gypsum, lime and pitch are smeared on the door of the
      house and the god of light (Ninurta) tramples upon the demon of

  514 Two inferior deities related to Nergal, god of the lower world.
      Their images placed at the enclosure of a house prevent the demons,
      ZIMMERN, Rt. 168, 21 f. The image of Lugalgirra designed on a wall
      prevents the devils, _ibid._ 166,12. He binds the evil ones, IV R.
      21* C III 26. The two are placed at the right and left of a door to
      forbid the devils to enter. Maklu VI 124.

  515 The great trinity: heaven, earth and sea.

  516 In any case a cult utensil on which a noise was made, CT. 16, 24,

  517 See the Chicago Syllabar 230 where she is identified with Nidaba.

  518 Cf. ZA. 16, 178, 27; BA. V 649, 3; _Shurpu_ VIII 10.

  519 So A. B. COOK, _Zeus_, 632. I would, however, entertain doubts
      concerning this explanation of silver as the emblem of the Asiatic
      Zeus and of Jupiter Dolichenus. The identification of this metal
      with the sky god in Babylonia and Kommagene surely reposes upon a
      more subtle idea. [For the explanation of silver = Anu and gold =
      Enlil, see p. 342.]

  520 The Sabeans, a pagan Aramaic sect of Mesopotamia at Harran, are said
      to have assigned a metal to each planet. Since a considerable part
      of their religion was derived from Babylonia we may consider this
      direct evidence for the Babylonian origin of the entire tradition.
      For an account of the metals assigned to the planets by the
      Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Sabeans, see Bousset in _Archiv
      für Religionswissenschaft_ 1901, article on “Die Himmelreise der
      Seele.” The order of the planets, taken from the Byzantine list
      above, is based upon their relative distances from the sun.

  521 Restoration from Zim. Rt. 27.

  522 Conjectural restoration from ASKT. 96, 21. ZIMMERN, Rt. 27 I 3-4 has
      a longer description of _[Ninḫabursildu a-ḫa-lat [__d__ A-gub-ba
      bêlit] mê(?) ša nâri_(?).

  523 This deity appears in incantations as the queen of the holy waters
      _bêlit egubbê_, IV R. 28*b 16; _Bab._ III 28, Sm. 491, 3. Although
      placed in the court of Enlil the earth god as sister of Enlil by the
      theologians, CT. 24, 11, 40 = 24, 52, where she is associated with a
      special deity of holy water, _d__A-gub-ba_, yet by function and
      character she belongs to the water cult of Eridu. Her symbol is the
      holy water jar (_duk_) _agubba_ and the deity _d__Agubba_ is _šu-luģ
      lăg-lăg-ga Erida-ge_, Purifying handwasher of Eridu, CT. 24, 11, 41
      = 24, 53. The river goddess _d__Iă_ is also _bêlit agubbê_, CT. 16,
      7, 255 where in l. 254 _Ninḫabursildu_ is _aḫat __d__A-[gub-ba]_,
      sister of _Agubba_, and the river goddess is mother of Enki, or Ea,
      god of the sea, CT. 24, 1, 25. The reading _ḫabur_ for _A-ḪA_ is
      most probable, and the cognate or dialectic form _ḫubur_ is a name
      for the mysterious sea that surrounds the world. See BL. 115 n. 2.
      The holy water over which she presides is taken from the _apsu_ or
      nether sea, which issues from springs, hence _egubbû_ is spring
      water, CT. 17, 5 III 1. The name, then, really means “Queen of the
      lower world river, she that walks (_du_) the streets (_sil_).” The
      Semitic scribe of CT. 25, 49, 6 renders the name in a loose way by
      _bêlit têlilti bêlit ālikat sulê [rapšāti]_, Queen of lustration,
      queen that walks the [wide] streets (of the lower world). For the
      title _bêlit têliltī_, see CT. 26, 42 I 14. For a parallel to the
      description of her walking the streets of inferno, cf. _d__
      Kal-šág-ga sil-dagal-la edin-na_, Lady of purity who (walks) the
      wide streets of the plain (of inferno), consort of Irragal, god of
      the lower world, SBP. 158, 59. A variant, KL. 16 III 8 has
      _sil-gig-edin-na_, the dark street, etc.

  524 Variant of _kân-tūr_, V Raw. 42, 39.

  525 In K. 165 Rev. 8 f. the tamarisk and date palm are said to be
      created in heaven (_giš an-na ù-tŭ_) and the same is said of them in
      Gudea, Cyl. B 4, 10, _giš-šinig giš-šeḳḳa_ (i. e. = _šig =
      gišimmaru_) _an ù-tud-da_. This plant appears frequently in magic
      rituals, IV R. 59_b_ 4 _iṣu__ bi-ni_ (Semitic), IV R. 16_b_ 31,
      _Shurpu_ IX 1-8, and also in medical texts. _bînu_ has been
      identified with Syriac _bînā_, tamarisk. If this identification be
      correct, a comparison with the Hebrew legend of the _manna_ (bread
      of heaven in Psalms 105,40), said to have been the exudation of the
      tamarisk, is possible.

  526 Semitic _uḳuru_, Aramaic _ḳêrā_, see MEISSNER, MVAG. 1913, 2 p. 40
      and BE. 31, 69 n. 2. Used both in medicine and magic.

  527 Passim in rituals and medicine. See BE. 31, 69, 27; 72, 29; KING,
      _Magic_ 11, 44; MEISSNER, SAI. 2805.

  528 In _Shurpu_ VIII 70 mentioned with _šalālu_. A magic ointment made
      of the _El_ and _maštakal_, CT. 34, 9, 41. See also EBELING, KTA. 90
      rev. 17; KING, _Magic_ 30, 25. Perhaps identical in name with the
      stone _arzallu_, SAI. 8545. On a Dublin tablet often _giš EL_. Cf.
      _ú-šig-el-šar_ = _šûmu_, onion.

  529 For the correct reading _ni-ná-a_, see AJSL. XXXIII 194, 159.

  530 Here a wood employed in magic, cf. BE. 31, 60, 6+15. In syllabars
      _giš-BUR = gišburru, giškirru_, indicates a weapon or an utensil.

_  531 NITA-DU_, fire god, title of Nergal as fire god and identical with
      _d__ gĭr_ = Nergal.

  532 Here certainly _Anu_, heaven god, followed by Earth and Sea gods.
      Note also _d__Gu-la_ in liturgies _passim_ as title of Anu, BL. 136.
      Anu = Sin, see p. 342.

  533 Title of Enlil, lord of the totality of decrees. Enlil = Šamaš.

  534 Originally title of the great unmarried mother goddess _bêlit
      ilāni_, but often a title of the virgin types Innini and Ninâ, BL.
      141; of Gula _ibid._ Also somewhat frequently she is Damkina,
      consort of Ea, IV R. 54_b_ 47; CT. 33, 3, 21 her star beside that of
      Ea. Here she is the mother goddess and the same order, Heaven,
      Earth, Sea, Mother Goddess in _Shurpu_ IV 42, where Nin-maģ has the
      Var. Nin-tud, EBELING, KTA. p. 121, 11. Symbols of these four
      deities on boundary stones in same register, HINKE, _A New Boundary
      Stone_, p. 28 second register, et passim.

  535 Possibly a metal stood here, identified with _d__MAŠ_, a star in
      Orion (Kaksidi= Beteigeuze), CT. 33, 2, 6; KING, _Magic_ 50, 29.

  536 Possibly the constellation Ursa Major. Margidda, the Wagon is
      intended, identified with Ninlil on a Berlin text, WEIDNER,
      _Handbuch_ 79, 10. See also BEZOLD in DEIMEL, _Pantheon Babylonicum_

  537 From the context certainly a title of Marduk. ZIM. 27 I 19 omits

  538 Or _Bêl-ṣarbe_, title of Nergal, v. VAB. IV 170, 67. Between lines
      17 and 18 the variant inserts two lines.

  539 But Mars in Amos 5, 26. I accept here the later identifications,
      Nergal-Mars, Ninurta-Saturn. The identifications in the earlier
      period of Babylonian astronomy appear to have been Ninurta-Mars and

  540 Probably the astronomical form of Nusku as god of the new moon, IV
      R. 23a 4. His character as fire god is symbolized by the torch, ZA.
      VI 242, 24. In II 10 supply _Gibil_ after ZIMMERN RT. 27, 5. As fire
      god he is messenger of Enlil.

_  541 Papsukal_, messenger of Zamama, god of Kiš, a form of Ninurta. He
      also like Nusku derives his messenger character from his connection
      with light, _Papsukal ša še-ir-ti_, Papsukal of the morning light,
      CT. 24, 40, 53. Since Ninurta is identified with Alpha of Orion,
      Pap-sukal is identified with one of the stars in Orion, CT. 33, 2 II
      2; _mul__sib-zi-an-na __d__Pap-sukal [sukal __d__Anim Ištar]_
      restored from VIROLLEAUD, _Supplement_ LXVII 10. Here he is
      messenger of heaven and of Ishtar as Venus, queen of heaven, that
      is, he is a messenger of the powers of celestial light. Nusku and
      Pap-sukal often occur together in magic texts, _Shurpu_ VIII 10.

  542 Here probably Sakkut as lord of light and justice, god of Isin, in
      his normal capacity. See BL. 120 n. 6. His emblem is something made
      of date palm, _šág, gišimmar_. This deity is unknown in magic texts
      except in ZIMMERN, Rt. 70, 8.

  543 Ishtar of Erech is Venus as evening star, the effeminate Venus of
      Erech, see _Tammuz and Ishtar_, 54 and 180 n. 4.

  544 Venus as morning star. The Ishtar of Agade was the type of war
      goddess, see op. cit. p. 100; hence Venus as morning star is
      sometimes called the Bow Star, KUGLER, _Sternkunde_ II 198.

  545 Western title of Geštinanna, sister of Ishtar. Here perhaps the
      constellation Virgo.

  546 The seven gods are the Pleiades, CT. 33, 2, 44. Since they are
      followed by Enmesharra perhaps here to be identified with the seven
      sons of Enmesharra (see BE. 31, 35). In ZA. VI 242, 20
      _gi-uru-gal-meš_, “the great reed spears” are symbols of the seven
      great gods, sons of Išhara. But traces of the last sign are not
      those of _MEŠ_ here.

  547 In astronomy a form of Nin-urta = Saturn, but by character allied to
      Nergal a lower world deity. See line 11 above. For E. as Saturn note
      V Raw. 46_a_ 21, his star _UDU-LIM_ and II R. 48, 52 the same star
      is _d__UDU-BAD-sag-uš = kaimânu_, Saturn. See also BE. 31, 35 n. 4
      line 12, _kaimānu_ title of Enmesharra.

_  548 šimeššalû_ employed in medical texts, see SAI. 3574 and JASTROW,
      _Medical Text_ Rev. 5. Here also without _giš_. HOLMA, _Beiträge zum
      assyrischen Lexicon_, p. 85, identified it with Syr. _šamšārā_,
      Persian and Arabic _šimšar_.

  549 Passim in medical and incantation texts, CT. 23, 45, 9; RA. 14, 88,
      6; EBELING, KTA. 26 R. 20; IV R. 55 No. 2, 18., etc.

  550 Here variant ZIM. Rt. 27 Obv. II begins.

  551 Written _sìg dar-a_.

  552 The name of this deity is not legible in ZIMMERN’S variant and the
      first sign of the name on the Nippur text is doubtful but apparently
      the _šeššig_ and _gunu_ of _Galu_, that is REC. 100 later _RAB+GAN_,
      (v. SAI. p. 155 note 1). After this sign ZIMMERN and I have seen a
      sign _KU_ or _ŠU_. _Labartu_ is usually written _RAB+GAN-ME_. Here
      we may have to do with some new ideogram for this deity. She is the
      daughter of Anu, HAUPT, ASKT. 94, 59. A prayer to the daughter of
      Anu is KING, _Magic_ No. 61, 5-21.

  553 ZIM. _SU_.

  554 But in ZA. VI 242, 23 symbol of Azagsud.

  555 But ZA. VI 242, 24 Nusku, fire god in Nippur pantheon.

  556 See MUSS-ARNOLT, p. 940. Also note _niknakku ša ḳu-ta-ri_, censer of
      incense, CT. 29, 50, 9; _ḳutari ša šipti_, incense pertaining to the
      ritual of the incantation, _ibid._ 20. _ḳutari_ is a plural form
      employed to denote several acts of fumigation.

  557 Reading established by Rev. II 8. But see MEEK, AJSL 31, 287, _li-si
      to ne-su(n)_ gloss on the star _Ne-sùn_; son of Ninlil, hence a star
      in Ninlil’s constellation Ursa Major, VIROLLEAUD, _Sin_ XIII 22.

  558 Perhaps _igi-sig-sig_; cf. CT. 24, 3, 25.

  559 In ZA. VI 242, 19, symbol of Enlil. But CT. 16, 24, 25 hero of Anu.
      In rituals generally with _kušgugalû_.

  560 Sword bearer (_nāš patri_) of Enlil, CT. 24, 10, 16.

  561 Symbol of Anu in ZA. VI 242, 19.

  562 Priest of Enlil, CT. 24, 10, 13. Cf. _GUD-NINDA = mîru_, young ox,
      SBC. 19, 14.

  563 ZA. VI 242, 15 gypsum is _d__MAŠ_.

  564 But ZA. VI 242, 15 bitumen is the _asakku_ demon.

  565 A pest demon son of Anu, III R. 69, 70. On the other hand, ZA. VI
      246, 22 the scapegoat represents the patron of flocks Ninamašazag
      who supplies the goat. When sin is transferred to the goat it falls
      under the protection of Kushu. See Rev. I 6.

  566 Cf. _d__En-udu-til-la_, SBP. 150 n. 5 I. 8.

  567 Patron of flocks and fire god.

  568 That is burnt offering.

  569 I. e. Ea as the god of potters. Nunurra is _paḫaru rabû_ of Anu,
      MEEK BA. X pt. 1 p. 42, 14. Note CT. 24, 14, 41, _d__Nun-ŭr-ra(duk)

  570 Sic! Semitic.

  571 Cf. IV R. 28* No. 4 Rev. 3. The symbols in lines 24-6 are obscure.

  572 Lugalgirra and Meslamtaea.

  573 The temple of Gula and Ungal of Nippur, CLAY, BE. XV 34, 2. _Ungal_
      = _tênisêti_, population. God of the people of Nippur.

  574 See previous footnote.

  575 A form of Enki as patron of metallurgy. See RA. 12, 83 n. 5.

_  576 sun_ probable reading for _BAD_ in this sense. Offerings to the
      _giš-sun_, GENOUILLAC, _Drehem_, 5505 Obv. II 15.

  577 Sign a confusion of _NI+giš_ and _KAK+giš_, see RA. 13, 3.

_  578 Zû_, the eagle, bird of the blazing sun, Ninurta, Ningirsu, is the
      only emblematic animal that figures as a deity. The myth of his
      conflict with the serpent in the story of Etana dramatizes the old
      legend of the conflict between sun and clouds. He appears in magic
      here for the first time.

  579 See Vab. IV 154, 44 and note.

_  580 šu_ here for _ša_, feminine. The form should be dual.

  581 Gunu of _MA_ = _tittu_; Sumerian _peš_, value also assigned to _MA_
      = _tittu_ in the Chicago Syllabar, 115 f.

_  582 kīṣu_, compensation for _kiṣṣu_. See also STRASSMAIER, _Nabonidus_
      699, 24, _ki-ṣu_. Note that the _ḫulduppu_ (probably an image of a
      scapegoat) symbol of Kuši is placed opposite the door in ZIM. Rt. p.
      168, 29.

  583 CLAY, _Personal Names of the Cassite Period_, mentions a deity
      _Si-lak-ku-ku_(?). In any case a Cassite deity not mentioned in
      Babylonian lists and texts.

  584 Otherwise unknown. A Cassite deity(?).

  585 Probably same as _Abagal_, DEIMEL, _Pantheon_, p. 43.

  586 Cf. ZIMMERN, 27 R. 14-17.

  587 Written NU. Cf. ZIMMERN, 27 Rev. I 19.

  588 Cf. _ibid._ 21.

  589 Sign is _ḪU-gunu_ an error for _SI-gunu_. Only the latter sign has
      the values bright, burn. Line 8 proves that the sign is based on

_  590 nīn-muš_. The sign _ŠEŠ_ has the value _muš_. Note SAI. 2629 the
      gloss _ga-an-ŠEŠ_ and variant _Chicago Syllabar_ 212 _ga-an-muš_.
      See also JRAS. 1905, 81-4-28 l. 14. For _muš = banû_ cf. SAI. 1916.

  591 This is a real library note and is clear evidence for assuming that
      the temple of Nippur possessed a library, at least in the Cassite
      period. For similar library notes on the tablets from Aššur, see RA.
      13, 99. Note also the Smith Esagila tablet published by SCHEIL,
      _Memoires de l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres XXXIX_,
      Rev. 7, _mûdû mûdâ likallim la mûdâ ul immar an pî duppi gabri
      Barsip-ki šaṭir-ma UB-ṬU ù ba-ri_. For _an pi (KA)_, see RA. 13, 92.

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