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Title: A New Orchard And Garden - or, The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any - ground good, for a rich Orchard: Particularly in the North - and generally for the whole kingdome of England
Author: Lawson, William, fl. 1618, Harward, Simon, fl. 1572-1614
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A New Orchard And Garden - or, The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any - ground good, for a rich Orchard: Particularly in the North - and generally for the whole kingdome of England" ***

{Transcriber's note:

  This etext contains
    1. A New Orchard and Garden, by William Lawson
    2. The Country Housewifes Garden, by William Lawson
    3. A Most Profitable new treatise, from approved experience of the
       Art of Propagating Plants, by Simon Harwood
    4. The Husband Mans Fruitful Orchard

  The first edition of "A New Orchard and Garden", which included "The
  Country Housewifes Garden" appeared in 1618; many further editions
  appeared over the period to 1695. The "Art of Propagating Plants" and
  "The Husband Mans Fruitful Orchard" appeared in all editions from 1623.
  This transcript is taken from the 1631 edition. The transcriber used
  a modern facsimile of the 1657 edition to clarify some doubtful

  The spelling and hyphenation in the original are erratic. No corrections
  have been made other than those listed at the end of the etext. The
  formatting of the original tables of contents has been normalised.

  Sidenotes are enclosed in braces, prefixed with "SN" and placed before
  the paragraph in which they appear.

  Transcriber's notes in the text are enclosed in braces and prefixed with



  The best way for planting, grafting, and to make
  _any ground good, for a rich Orchard: Particularly in the North,_
  and generally for the whole kingdome of _England_, as in nature,
  _reason, situation, and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare_.

  With the Country Housewifes Garden for hearbes of common vse:
  _their vertues, seasons, profits, ornaments, varietie of knots, models_
  for trees, and plots for the best ordering of Grounds and Walkes.


  _The Husbandry of Bees, with their seuerall vses and annoyances_
  being the experience of 48 yeares labour, and now the second time
  corrected and much enlarged, by _William Lawson_.

  Whereunto is newly added the Art of propagating Plants, with the true
  _ordering of all manner of Fruits, in their gathering,
  carrying home, & preseruation._

  {Illustration: Skill and paines bring fruitfull gaines.
  _Nemo sibi natus._}

  Printed by _Nicholas Okes_ for IOHN HARISON, at the golden
  Vnicorne in Pater-noster-row. 1631.

  Knight and Baronet,

  _Worthy Sir_,

When in many yeeres by long experience I had furnished this my Northerne
Orchard and Countrey Garden with needfull plants and vsefull hearbes, I
did impart the view thereof to my friends, who resorted to me to
conferre in matters of that nature, they did see it, and seeing it
desired, and I must not denie now the publishing of it (which then I
allotted to my priuate delight) for the publike profit of others.
Wherefore, though I could pleade custome the ordinarie excuse of all
Writers, to chuse a Patron and Protector of their Workes, and so shroud
my selfe from scandall vnder your honourable fauour, yet haue I certaine
reasons to excuse this my presumption: First, the many courtesies you
haue vouchsafed me. Secondly, your delightfull skill in matters of this
nature. Thirdly, the profit which I receiued from your learned discourse
of Fruit-trees.

Fourthly, your animating and assisting of others to such endeuours. Last
of all, the rare worke of your owne in this kind: all which to publish
vnder your protection, I haue aduentured (as you see). Vouchsafe it
therefore entertainement, I pray you, and I hope you shall finde it not
the vnprofitablest seruant of your retinue: for when your serious
employments are ouerpassed, it may interpose some commoditie, and raise
your contentment out of varietie.

  _Your Worships
  most bounden_,


THE PREFACE to all well minded.

_Art hath her first originall out of experience, which therefore is
called the Schoole-mistresse of fooles, because she teacheth infallibly,
and plainely, as drawing her knowledge out of the course of Nature,
(which neuer failes in the generall) by the senses, feelingly
apprehending, and comparing (with the helpe of the minde) the workes of
nature; and as in all other things naturall, so especially in Trees; for
what is Art more then a prouident and skilfull Collectrix of the faults
of Nature in particular workes, apprehended by the senses? As when good
ground naturally brings forth thistles, trees stand too thicke, or too
thin, or disorderly, or (without dressing) put forth vnprofitable
suckers, and suchlike. All which and a thousand more, Art reformeth,
being taught by experience: and therefore must we count that Art the
surest, that stands vpon experimentall rules, gathered by the rule of
reason (not conceit) of all other rules the surest._

_Whereupon haue I of my meere and sole experience, without respect to
any former written Treatise, gathered these rules, and set them downe in
writing, not daring to hide the least talent giuen me of my Lord and
Master in Heauen: neither is this iniurious to any, though it differ
from the common opinion in diuers points, to make it knowne to others,
what good I haue found out in this facultie by long triall and
experience. I confesse freely my want of curious skill in the Art of
planting. And I admire and praise _Plinie_, _Aristotle_, _Virgil_,
_Cicero_, and many others for wit and iudgement in this kind, and leaue
them to their times, manner, and seuerall Countries._

_I am not determined (neither can I worthily) to set forth the praises
of this Art: how some, and not a few, euen of the best, haue accounted
it a chiefe part of earthly happinesse, to haue faire and pleasant
Orchards, as in _Hesperia_ and _Thessaly_, how all with one consent
agree, that it is a chiefe part of Husbandry (as _Tully de senectute_)
and Husbandry maintaines the world; how ancient, how profitable, how
pleasant it is, how many secrets of nature it doth containe, how loued,
how much practised in the best places, and of the best: This hath
already beene done by many. I only aime at the common good. _I_ delight
not in curious conceits, as planting and graffing with the root vpwards,
inoculating Roses on Thornes, and such like, although I haue heard of
diuers prooued some, and read of moe._

_The Stationer hath (as being most desirous with me, to further the
common good) bestowed much cost and care in hauing the Knots and Models
by the best Artizan cut in great varietie, that nothing might be any way
wanting to satisfie the curious desire of those that would make vse of
this Booke._

_And I shew a plaine and sure way of planting, which I haue found good
by 48. yeeres (and moe) experience in the North part of _England_: I
preiudicate and enuie none, wishing yet all to abstaine from maligning
that good (to them vnknowne) which is well intended. Farewell._

  Thine, for thy good,
  _W. L._

A Table of the things Contayned in this Booke

  CHAP. 1.
  _Of the Gardner his labour and wadges._       _pag. 1_

  CHAP. 2.
  _Of the Soyle._                                 _p. 3_
  _The kinds of trees._                           _p. 3_
  _Of barren earth._                              _p. 4_
  _Of Grasse._                                    _p. 5_
  _Of the Crust of the earth._                    _p. 6_

  CHAP. 3.
  _Lowe & neere the Riuer_.                       _p. 6_
  _Of Windes._                                    _p. 8_
  _Of the Sunne._                                 _p. 8_
  _Trees against a wall._                         _p. 8_

  CHAP. 4.
  _Of the quantity._                              _p. 10_
  _Orchards as good as a Corne-field._            _p. 10_
  _Good as the Vineyard._                         _p. 11_
  _What quantity of ground._                      _p. 11_
  _Want no hinderance._                           _p. 12_
  _How Land-lords by their Tenants may make
    flourishing Orchards._                        _p. 12_

  CHAP. 5.
  _The forme of the Orchard._                     _p. 12_

  CHAP. 6.
  _Of Fences._                                    _p. 14_
  _Effects of euill Fencing._                     _p. 14_
  _The kinds of Fencinge._                        _p. 15_
  _Of Pales and Rayles._                          _p. 15_
  _Of Stone-walles._                              _p. 15_
  _Of Quicksets and Moates._                      _p. 16_

  CHAP. 7.
  _Of Setts._                                     _p. 17_
  _Of Slipps._                                    _p. 17_
  _Of Burknots._                                  _p. 17_
  _Of Small Setts._                               _p. 18_
  _Tying of Trees._                               _p. 19_
  _Signes of diseases._                           _p. 19_
  _Of Suckers._                                   _p. 20_
  _A Running plant._                              _p. 20_
  _Of bought Setts._                              _p. 21_
  _The best Sett._                                _p. 22_
  _Times of remouing._                            _p. 23_
  _The manner of setting._                        _p. 26_

  CHAP. 8.
  _Of the distance of trees._                     _p. 28_
  _The hurts of too neere planting._              _p. 28_
  _All touches hurtfull._                         _p. 29_
  _The best distance._                            _p. 29_
  _Of wast ground in an Orchard._                 _p. 30_

  CHAP. 9.
  _Of the placing of trees._                      _p. 31_

  CHAP. 10.
  _Of Grafting._                                  _p. 33_
  _The kinds of Grafting._                        _p. 34_
  _How to Graft._                                 _p. 34_
  _What a Graft is._                              _p. 34_
  _The eies of a Graft._                          _p. 34_
  _Time of Grafting._                             _p. 35_
  _Gathering of Grafts._                          _p. 36_
  _Of Incising._                                  _p. 37_
  _Of Packing._                                   _p. 38_
  _Of Inoculating._                               _p. 39_
  _Grafting in the Scutcheon._                    _p. 39_

  CHAP. 11.
  _The right dressing of trees._                  _p. 40_
  _Timber-wood euill drest._                      _p. 41_
  _The cause of hurts in wood._                   _p. 42_
  _How to dresse Timber._                         _p. 43_
  _The profit of dressing._                    _p. 43-45_
  _Trees will take any forme._                    _p. 44_
  _How to dresse all Fruit-trees._                _p. 44_
  _The best times for proyning._                  _p. 47_
  _Faults of euill dressing and the remedies._    _p. 48_
  _Of water-boughes._                             _p. 49_
  _Barke-pyld._                                _p. 49-56_
  _Instruments for dressing._                     _p. 50_

  CHAP. 12
  _Of Foyling._                                   _p. 51_
  _Time fit for Foyling._                         _p. 53_

  CHAP. 13
  _Of Annoyances._                                _p. 54_
  _Two euills in an Orchard._                     _p. 54_
  _Of galls cankers, mosse &c._                   _p. 55_
  _Of wilfull annoyances._                        _p. 60_

  CHAP. 14.
  _Of the age of trees._                          _p. 60_
  _The parts of a trees age._                     _p. 61_
  _Of Mans age._                                  _p. 62_
  _The age of timber-trees._                      _p. 64_
  _To discerne the age of trees._                 _p. 65_

  CHAP. 15.
  _Of gathering and keeping Fruit._               _p. 65_

  CHAP. 16.
  _The profit of Orchards._                       _p. 67_
  _Of Cydar and Perry._                           _p. 67_
  _Of Fruit, Waters and Conserue._                _p. 68_

  CHAP. 17.
  _Of Ornaments._                                 _p. 68_
  _Of the delights._                              _p. 69_
  _The causes of delights._                       _p. 70_
  _Of Flowers, Borders, Mounts &c._               _p. 70_
  _Of Bees._                                      _p. 72_

THE BEST, SVRE AND READIEST VVAY to make a good _Orchard_ and _Garden_.


_Of the Gardner, and his Wages._

{SN: Religious.}
Whosoeuer desireth & endeauoureth to haue a pleasant, and profitable
Orchard, must (if he be able) prouide himselfe of a Fruicterer,
religious, honest, skilful in that faculty, & therwithall painfull: By
religious, I meane (because many think religion but a fashion or custome
to go to Church) maintaining, & cherishing things religious: as Schooles
of learning, Churches, Tythes, Church-goods, & rights; and aboue all
things, Gods word, & the Preachers thereof, so much as he is able,
practising prayers, comfortable conference, mutuall instruction to
edifie, almes, and other works of Charity, and all out of a good

{SN: Honest.}
Honesty in a Gardner, will grace your Garden, and all your house, and
helpe to stay vnbridled Seruingmen, giuing offence to none, not calling
your name into question by dishonest acts, nor infecting your family by
euill counsell or example. For there is no plague so infectious as
Popery and knauery, he will not purloine your profit, nor hinder your

{SN: Skilfull.}
Concerning his skill, he must not be a Scolist, to make shew or take in
hand that, which he cannot performe, especially in so weighty a thing as
an Orchard: than the which, there can be no humane thing more
excellent, either for pleasure or profit, as shall (God willing) be
proued in the treatise following. And what an hinderance shall it be,
not onely to the owner, but to the common good, that the vnspeakeble
benefit of many hundred yeeres shall be lost, by the audacious attempt
of an vnskilfull Arborist.

{SN: Painfull.}
The Gardner had not need be an idle, or lazie Lubber, for to your
Orchard being a matter of such moment, will not prosper. There will euer
be some thing to doe. Weedes are alwaies growing. The great mother of
all liuing Creatures, the Earth, is full of seed in her bowels, and any
stirring giues them heat of Sunne, and being laid neere day, they grow:
Mowles worke daily, though not alwaies alike. Winter herbes at all times
will grow (except in extreame frost.) In Winter your young trees and
herbes would be lightned of snow, and your Allyes cleansed: drifts of
snow will set Deere, Hares, and Conyes, and other noysome beasts ouer
your walles & hedges, into your Orchard. When Summer cloathes your
borders with greene and peckled colours, your Gardner must dresse his
hedges, and antike workes: watch his Bees, and hiue them: distill his
Roses and other herbes. Now begins Summer Fruit to ripe, and craue your
hand to pull them. If he haue a Garden (as he must need) to keepe, you
must needs allow him good helpe, to end his labours which are endlesse,
for no one man is sufficient for these things.

{SN: Wages.}
Such a Gardner as will conscionably, quietly and patiently, trauell in
your Orchard, God shall crowne the labours of his hands with
ioyfulnesse, and make the clouds drop fatnesse vpon your trees, he will
prouoke your loue, and earne his wages, and fees belonging to his
place: The house being serued, fallen fruite, superfluity of herbes, and
flowers, seedes, grasses, sets, and besides all other of that fruit
which your bountifull hand shall reward him withall, will much augment
his wages, and the profit of your bees will pay you backe againe.

If you be not able, nor willing to hire a gardner, keepe your profits to
your selfe, but then you must take all the pains: And for that purpose
(if you want this faculty) to instruct you, haue I vndertaken these
labours, and gathered these rules, but chiefly respecting my Countries

CHAP. 2.

_Of the soyle._

{SN: Kinds of trees.}
{SN: Soyle.}
Fruit-trees most common, and meetest for our Northerne Countries: (as
Apples, Peares, Cheries, Filberds, red and white Plummes, Damsons, and
Bulles,) for we meddle not with Apricockes nor Peaches, nor scarcely
with Quinces, which will not like in our cold parts, vnlesse they be
helped with some reflex of Sunne, or other like meanes, nor with bushes,
bearing berries, as Barberies, Goose-berries, or Grosers, Raspe-berries,
and such like, though the Barbery be wholesome, and the tree may be made
great: doe require (as all other trees doe) a blacke, fat, mellow,
cleane and well tempered soyle, wherein they may gather plenty of good
sap. Some thinke the Hasell would haue a chanily rocke, and the sallow,
and eller a waterish marish. The soile is made better by deluing, and
other meanes, being well melted, and the wildnesse of the earth and
weedes (for euery thing subiect to man, and seruing his vse (not well
ordered) is by nature subiect to the curse,) is killed by frosts and
drought, by fallowing and laying on heapes, and if it be wild earth,
with burning.

{SN: Barren earth.}
If your ground be barren (for some are forced to make an Orchard of
barren ground) make a pit three quarters deepe, and two yards wide, and
round in such places, where you would set your trees, and fill the same
with fat, pure, and mellow earth, one whole foot higher then your Soile,
and therein set your Plant. For who is able to manure an whole Orchard
plot, if it be barren? But if you determine to manure the whole site,
this is your way: digge a trench halfe a yard deepe, all along the lower
(if there be a lower) side of your Orchard plot, casting vp all the
earth on the inner side, and fill the same with good short, hot, &
tender muck, and make such another Trench, and fill the same as the
first, and so the third, and so through out your ground. And by this
meanes your plot shall be fertile for your life. But be sure you set
your trees, neither in dung nor barren earth.

{SN: Plaine.}
{SN: Moyst.}
Your ground must be plaine, that it may receiue, and keepe moysture, not
onely the raine falling thereon, but also water cast vpon it, or
descending from higher ground by sluices, Conduits, &c. For I account
moisture in Summer very needfull in the soile of trees, & drought in
Winter. Prouided, that the ground neither be boggy, nor the inundation
be past 24. houres at any time, and but twice in the whole Summer, and
so oft in the Winter. Therefore if your plot be in a Banke, or haue a
descent, make Trenches by degrees, Allyes, Walkes, and such like, so as
the Water may be stayed from passage. And if too much water be any
hinderance to your walks (for dry walkes doe well become an Orchard, and
an Orchard them:) raise your walkes with earth first, and then with
stones, as bigge as Walnuts: and lastly, with grauell. In Summer you
need not doubt too much water from heauen, either to hurt the health of
your body, or of your trees. And if ouerflowing molest you after one
day, auoid it then by deepe trenching.

Some for this purpose dig the soile of their Orchard to receiue
moisture, which I cannot approue: for the roots with digging are
oftentimes hurt, and especially being digged by some vnskilfull seruant:
For the Gardiner cannot doe all himselfe. And moreouer, the roots of
Apples & Peares being laid neere day, with the heate of the Sun, will
put forth suckers, which are a great hinderance, and sometimes
with euill guiding, the destruction of trees, vnlesse the deluing be
very shallow, and the ground laid very leuell againe. Cherries and
Plummes without deluing, will hardly or neuer (after twenty yeares) be
kept from such suckers, nor aspes.

{SN: Grasse.}
Grasse also is thought needfull for moisture, so you let it not touch
the roots of your trees: for it will breed mosse, and the boall of your
tree neere the earth would haue the comfort of the Sunne and Ayre.

Some take their ground to be too moist when it is not so, by reason of
waters standing thereon, for except in soure marshes, springs, and
continuall ouerflowings, no earth can be too moyst. Sandy & fat earth
will auoid all water falling by receit. Indeed a stiffe clay will not
receiue the water, and therefore if it be grassie or plaine, especially
hollow, the water will abide, and it wil seeme waterish, when the fault
is in the want of manuring, and other good dressing.

{SN: Naturally plaine.}
{SN: Crust of the earth.}
This plainnesse which we require, had need be naturall, because to force
an vneuen ground will destroy the fatnesse. For euery soile hath his
crust next day wherein trees and herbes put their roots, and whence
they draw their sap, which is the best of the soile, and made fertile
with heat and cold, moisture and drought, and vnder which by reason of
the want of the said temperature, by the said foure qualities, no tree
nor herbe (in a manner) will or can put root. As may be seene if in
digging your ground, you take the weeds of most growth: as grasse or
docks, (which will grow though they lie vpon the earth bare) yet bury
them vnder the crust, and they will surely dye and perish, & become
manure to your ground. This crust is not past 15. or 18. inches deepe in
good ground, in other grounds lesse. Hereby appeares the fault of forced
plaines, viz. your crust in the lower parts, is couered with the crust
of the higher parts, and both with worse earth: your heights hauing the
crust taken away, are become meerely barren: so that either you must
force a new crust, or haue an euill soile. And be sure you leuell,
before you plant, lest you be forced to remoue, or hurt your plants by
digging, and casting amongst their roots. Your ground must be cleered as
much as you may of stones, and grauell, walls, hedges, bushes, & other

CHAP. 3.

_Of the Site._

{SN: Low and neere a Riuer.}
There is no difference, that I find betwixt the necessity of a good
soile, and a good site of an Orchard. For a good soile (as is before
described) cannot want a good site, and if it do, the fruit cannot be
good, and a good site will much mend an euill soile. The best site is in
low grounds, (and if you can) neere vnto a Riuer. High grounds are not
naturally fat.

And if they haue any fatnesse by mans hand, the very descent in time
doth wash it away. It is with grounds in this case as it is with men in
a common wealth. Much will haue more: and once poore, seldome or neuer
rich. The raine will scind, and wash, and the wind will blow fatnesse
from the heights to the hollowes, where it will abide, and fatten the
earth though it were barren before.

{SN: Psal. 1. 3.}
{SN: Ezek. 17. 8.}
{SN: Eccl. 39. 17.}
{SN: Mr. _Markham_.}
Hence it is, that we haue seldome any plaine grounds, and low, barren:
and as seldome any heights naturally fertill. It is vnspeakeable, what
fatnesse is brought to low grounds by inundations of waters. Neither did
I euer know any barren ground in a low plaine by a Riuer side. The
goodnesse of the soile in _Howle_ or _Hollowdernes_, in _York-shire_, is
well knowne to all that know the Riuer _Humber_, and the huge bulkes of
their Cattell there. By estimation of them that haue seene the low
grounds in _Holland_ and _Zealand_ they farre surpasse the most
Countries in _Europe_ for fruitfulnesse, and only because they lie so
low. The world cannot compare with _Ægypt_, for fertility, so farre as
_Nilus_ doth ouer flow his bankes. So that a fitter place cannot be
chosen for an Orchard, then a low plaine by a riuer side. For besides
the fatnesse which the water brings, if any cloudy mist or raine be
stirring, it commonly falls downe to, and followes the course of the
Riuer. And where see we greater trees of bulke and bough, then standing
on or neere the waters side? If you aske why the plaines in _Holderns_,
and such countries are destitute of woods? I answer that men and cattell
(that haue put trees thence, from out of Plaines to void corners) are
better then trees. Neither are those places without trees. Our old
fathers can tel vs, how woods are decaied, & people in the
roomth of trees multiplied. I haue stood somwhat long in this poynt,
because some do condemne a moist soile for fruit-trees.

{SN: Winds. Chap. 13.}
A low ground is good to auoide the danger of winds, both for shaking
downe your vnripe fruite. Trees the most (that I know) being loaden with
wood, for want of proyning, and growing high, by the vnskilfulnesse of
the Arborist, must needes be in continuall danger of the South-west,
West, and North west winds, especially in _September_ and _March_, when
the aire is most temperate from extreme heat, and cold, which are deadly
enemies to great winds. Wherefore chuse your ground low: Or if you be
forced to plant in a higher ground, let high and strong wals, houses,
and trees, as wall-nuts, plane trees, Okes, and Ashes, placed in good
order, be your fence for winds.

The sucken of your dwelling house, descending into your orchard, if it
be cleanly conueyed, is good.

{SN: Sunne.}
The Sunne, in some sort, is the life of the world. It maketh proud
growth, and ripens kindly, and speedily, according to the golden tearme:
_Annus fructificat, non tellus_. Therefore in the countries, neerer
approching the Zodiake, the Sunnes habitation, they haue better, and
sooner ripe fruite, then we that dwell in these frozen parts.

{SN: Trees against a wall.}
This prouoketh most of our great Arborists, to plant Apricockes,
Cherries and Peaches, by a wall, and with tackes, and other meanes to
spread them vpon, and fasten them to a wall, to haue the benefit of the
immoderate reflexe of the Sunne, which is commendable, for the hauing of
faire, good & soone ripe fruit. But let them know it is more hurtfull to
their trees then the benefit they reape therby: as not suffering a tree
to liue the tenth part of his age. It helpes Gardners to worke, for
first the wall hinders the roots, because into a dry and hard wall of
earth or stone a tree will not, nor cannot put any root to profit, but
especially it stops the passage of sap, whereby the barke is wounded, &
the wood, & diseases grow, so that the tree becomes short of life. For
as in the body of a man, the leaning or lying on some member, wherby the
course of bloud is stopt, makes that member as it were dead for the
time, till the bloud returne to his course, and I thinke, if that
stopping should continue any time, the member would perish for want of
bloud (for the life is in the bloud) and so endanger the body: so the
sap is the life of the tree, as the bloud is to mans body: neither doth
the tree in winter (as is supposed) want his sap, no more then mans body
his bloud, which in winter, and time of sleep draws inward. So that the
dead time of winter, to a tree, is but a night of rest: for the tree at
all times, euen in winter is nourished with sap, & groweth as well as
mans body. The chilling cold may well some little time stay, or hinder
the proud course of the sap, but so little & so short a time, that in
calme & mild season, euen in the depth of winter, if you marke it, you
may easily perceiue, the sap to put out, and your trees to increase
their buds, which were formed in the summer before, & may easily be
discerned: for leaues fall not off, til they be thrust off, with the
knots or buds, wherupon it comes to passe that trees cannot beare fruit
plentifully two yeares together, and make themselues ready to blossome
against the seasonablenesse of the next Spring.

And if any frost be so extreme, that it stay the sap too much, or too
long, then it kils the forward fruit in the bud, and sometimes the
tender leaues and twigs, but not the tree. Wherefore, to returne, it is
perillous to stop the sap. And where, or when, did you euer see a great
tree packt on a wall? Nay, who did euer know a tree so vnkindly splat,
come to age? I haue heard of some, that out of their imaginary cunning,
haue planted such trees, on the North side of the wall, to auoide
drought, but the heate of the Sunne is as comfortable (which they should
haue regarded) as the drought is hurtfull. And although water is a
soueraigne remedy against drought, ye want of Sun is no way to be
helped. Wherefore to conclude this Chapter, let your ground lie so, that
it may haue the benefit of the South, and West Sun, and so low and
close, that it may haue moysture, and increase his fatnesse (for trees
are the greatest suckers & pillers of earth) and (as much as
may be) free from great winds.

CHAP. 4.

_Of the quantity._

{SN: Orchard as good as a corn-field.}
{SN: Compared with a vinyard.}
{SN: Compared with a garden.}
It would be remembred what a benefit riseth, not onely to euery
particular owner of an Orchard, but also to the common wealth, by fruit,
as shall be shewed in the 16. Chapter (God willing) whereupon must
needes follow: the greater the Orchard is (being good and well kept) the
better it is, for of good things, being equally good, the biggest is the
best. And if it shall appeare, that no ground a man occupieth (no, not
the corne field) yeeldeth more gaine to the purse, and house keeping
(not to speake of the vnspeakeable pleasure) quantity for quantity, than
a good Orchard (besides the cost in planting, and dressing an orchard,
is not so much by farre, as the labour and feeding of your corne fields,
nor for durance of time, comparable, besides the certainty of the on
before the other) I see not how any labour, or cost in this kind, can
be idly or wastfully bestowed, or thought too much. And what other
things is a vineyard, in those countries where vines doe thriue, than a
large Orchard of trees bearing fruit? Or what difference is there in the
iuice of the Grape, and our Cyder & Perry, but the goodnes of the soile
& clime where they grow? which maketh the one more ripe, & so more
pleasant then the other. What soeuer can be said for the benefit rising
from an orchard, that makes for the largenesse of the Orchards bounds.
And (me thinkes) they do preposterously, that bestow more cost and
labours, and more ground in and vpon a garden than vpon an orchard,
whence they reape and may reape both more pleasure and more profit, by
infinite degrees. And further, that a Garden neuer so fresh, and faire,
and well kept, cannot continue without both renewing of the earth and
the hearbs often, in the short and ordinary age of a man: whereas your
Orchard well kept shall dure diuers hundred yeares, as shall be shewed
chap. 14. In a large orchard there is much labour saued, in fencing, and
otherwise: for three little orchards, or few trees, being, in a manner,
all out-sides, are so blasted and dangered, and commonly in keeping
neglected, and require a great fence; whereas in a great Orchard, trees
are a mutuall fence one to another, and the keeping is regarded, and
lesse fencing serues sixe acres together, than three in seuerall

{SN: What quantity of ground.}
Now what quantity of ground is meetest for an Orchard can no man
prescribe, but that must be left to euery mans seuerall iudgement, to be
measured according to his ability and will, for other necessaries
besides fruite must be had, and some are more delighted with orchard
then others.

{SN: Want is no hinderance.}
{SN: How Land-lords by their Tenants may make flourishing Orchards
in _England_.}
Let no man hauing a fit plot plead pouerty in this case, for an orchard
once planted will maintaine it selfe, and yeeld infinite profit besides.
And I am perswaded, that if men did know the right and best way of
planting, dressing, and keeping trees, and felt the profit and pleasure
thereof, both they that haue no orchards would haue them, & they that
haue orchards, would haue them larger, yea fruit-trees in their hedges,
as in _Worcester-shire_, &c. And I think, that the want of planting, is
a great losse to our common-wealth, & in particular, to the owners of
Lord-ships, which Land lords themselues might easily amend, by granting
longer terme, and better assurance to their tenants, who haue taken vp
this Prouerbe _Botch and sit, Build and flit_: for who will build or
plant for an other mans profit? Or the Parliament mighte ioyne euery
occupier of grounds to plant and mainetaine for so many acres of
fruitfull ground, so many seuerall trees or kinds of trees for fruit.
Thus much for quantity.

CHAP. 5.

_Of the forme._

{SN: The vsuall forme is a square.}
The goodnesse of the soile, and site, are necessary to the wel being of
an orchard simply, but the forme is so farre necessary, as the owner
shall thinke meete, for that kind of forme wherewith euery particular
man is delighted, we leaue it to himselfe, _Suum cuique pulchrum_. The
forme that men like in generall is a square, for although roundnesse be
_forma perfectissima_, yet that principle is good where necessity by art
doth not force some other forme. If within one large square the Gardner
shall make one round Labyrinth or Maze with some kind of Berries, it
will grace your forme, so there be sufficient roomth left for walkes,
so will foure or more round knots do. For it is to be noted, that the
eye must be pleased with the forme. I haue seene squares rising by
degrees with stayes from your house-ward, according to this forme which
I haue, _Crassa quod aiunt Minerua_, with an vnsteady hand, rough hewen,
for in forming the country gardens, the better sort may vse better
formes, and more costly worke. What is needefull more to be sayd, I
referre that all (concerning the Forme,) to the Chapter 17 of the
ornaments of an Orchard.


_A._ Al these squares must bee set with trees, the Gardens and other
ornaments must stand in spaces betwixt the trees, & in the borders &

_B._ Trees 20. yards asunder.

_C._ Garden Knots.

_D._ Kitchen garden.

_E._ Bridge.

_F._ Conduit.

_G._ Staires.

_H._ Walkes set with great wood thicke.

_I._ Walkes set with great wood round about your Orchard.

_K._ The out fence.

_L._ The out fence set with stone-fruite.

_M._ Mount. To force earth for a mount, or such like set it round with
quicke, and lay boughes of trees strangely intermingled tops inward,
with the earth in the midle.

_N._ Still-house.

_O._ Good standing for Bees, if you haue an house.

_P._ If the riuer run by your doore, & vnder your mount, it will be

CHAP. 6.

_Of Fences._

{SN: Effects of euill fencing.}
{SN: Let the fence be your owne.}
All your labour past and to come about an Orchard is lost vnlesse you
fence well. It shall grieue you much to see your young sets rubd loose
at the rootes, the barke pild, the boughes and twigs cropt, your fruite
stolne, your trees broken, and your many yeares labours and hopes
destroyed, for want of fences. A chiefe care must be had in this point.
You must therefore plant in such a soile, where you may prouide a
conuenient, strong and seemely fence. For you can possesse no goods,
that haue so many enemies as an orchard, looke Chapter 13. Fruits are so
delightsome, and desired of so many (nay, in a manner of all) and yet
few will be at cost and take paines to prouide them. Fence well
therefore, let your plot be wholly in your owne power, that you make all
your fence your selfe: for neighbours fencing is none at all, or very
carelesse. Take heed of a doore or window, (yea of a wall) of any other
mans into your orchard: yea, though it be nayld vp, or the wall be high,
for perhaps they will proue theeues.

{SN: Kinds of fences, earthen walles.}
All Fences commonly are made of Earth, Stone, Bricke, Wood, or both
earth and wood. Dry wall of earth, and dry Ditches, are the worst fences
saue pales or railes, and doe waste the soonest, vnlesse they be well
copt with glooe and morter, whereon at _Mighill-tide_ it will be good to
sow Wall-flowers, commonly called Bee-flowers, or winter Gilly-flowers,
because they will grow (though amongst stones) and abide the strongest
frost and drought, continually greene and flowring euen in Winter, and
haue a pleasant smell, and are timely, (that is, they will floure the
first and last of flowers) and are good for Bees. And your earthen wall
is good for Bees dry and warme. But these fences are both vnseemly,
euill to repaire, and onely for need, where stone or wood cannot be had.
Whosoeuer makes such Walles, must not pill the ground in the Orchard,
for getting earth, nor make any pits or hallowes, which are both
vnseemly and vnprofitable. Old dry earth mixt with sand is best for
these. This kind of wall will soone decay, by reason of the trees which
grow neere it, for the roots and boales of great trees, will increase,
vndermine, and ouerturne such walles, though they were of stone, as is
apparant by Ashes, Rountrees, Burt-trees, and such like, carried in the
chat, or berry, by birds into stone-walles.

{SN: Pale and Raile.}
Fences of dead wood, as pales, will not last, neither will railes either
last or make good fence.

{SN: Stone walls.}
Stone walles (where stone may be had) are the best of this sort, both
for fencing, lasting, and shrouding of your young trees. But about this
must you bestow much paines and more cost, to haue them handsome, high
and durable.

{SN: Quicke wood and Moates.}
But of all other (in mine owne opinion) Quickwood, and Moats or Ditches
of water, where the ground is leuell, is the best fence. In vnequall
grounds, which will not keepe water, there a double ditch may be cast,
made streight and leuel on the top, two yards broad for a faire walke,
fiue or sixe foot higher then the soyle, with a gutter on either side,
two yards wide, and foure foot deepe set with out, with three or foure
chesse of Thorns, and within with Cherry, Plumme, Damson, Bullys,
Filbirds, (for I loue these trees better for their fruit, and as well
for their forme, as priuit) for you may make them take any forme. And in
euery corner (and middle if you will) a mount would be raised,
whereabout the wood may claspe, powdered with wood-binde: which wil make
with dressing a faire, plesant, profitable, & sure fence. But you must
be sure that your quicke thornes either grow wholly, or that there be a
supply betime, either with planting new, or plashing the old where need
is. And assure your selfe, that neither wood, stone, earth, nor water,
can make so strong a fence, as this after seuen yeares growth.

{SN: Moates.}
Moates, Fish-ponds, and (especially at one side a Riuer) within and
without your fence, will afford you fish, fence, and moysture to your
trees, and pleasure also, if they be so great and deepe that you may
haue Swans, & other water birds, good for deuouring of vermine, and boat
for many good vses.

It shall hardly auaile you to make any fence for your Orchard, if you be
a niggard of your fruit. For as liberality will saue it best from
noysome neighbours, liberality I say is the best fence, so Iustice must
restraine rioters. Thus when your ground is tempered, squared, and
fenced, it is time to prouide for planting.

CHAP. 7.

_Of Sets._

There is not one point (in my opinion) about an Orchard more to be
regarded, than the choyce getting and setting of good plants, either for
readinesse or hauing good fruite, or for continuall lasting. For
whosoeuer shall faile in the choyce of good Sets, or in getting, or
gathering, or setting his plants, shall neuer haue a good or lasting
Orchard. And I take want of skill in this faculty to be a chiefe
hinderance to the most Orchards, and to many for hauing of Orchards at

{SN: Slips.}
Some for readinesse vse slips, which seldome take roote: and if they doe
take, they cannot last, both because their roote hauing a maine wound
will in short time decay the body of the tree: and besides that rootes
being so weakely put, are soone nipt with drought or frost. I could
neuer see (lightly) any slip but of apples onely set for trees.

{SN: Bur-knot.}
A Bur-knot kindly taken from an Apple tree, is much better and surer.
You must cut him close at the roote ende, an handfull vnder the knot.
(Some vse in Summer about _Lammas_ to circumcise him, and put earth to
the knots with hay roaps, and in winter cut him off and set him, but
this is curiosity, needlesse, and danger with remouing, and drought,)
and cut away all his twigs saue one, the most principall, which in
setting you must leaue aboue the earth, burying his trunk in the crust
of the earth for his root. It matters not much what part of the bough
the twig growes out of. If it grow out of or neere the roote end, some
say such an Apple will haue no coare nor kirnell. Or if it please the
Plantor, he may let his bough be crooked, and leaue out his top end, one
foote or somewhat more, wherein will be good grafting, if either you
like not, or doubt the fruite of the bough (for commonly your
bur-knots are summer fruit) or if you thinke he will not couer his wound

{SN: Vsuall Sets.}
{SN: Maine rootes cut.}
{SN: Stow sets remoued.}
{SN: Generall rule.}
{SN: Tying of trees.}
{SN: Generall rule.}
{SN: Signes of diseases, Chap 13.}
The most vsuall kind of sets, is plants with rootes growing of kirnels
of Apples, Peares, and Crabbes, or stones of Cherries, Plummes, &c.
Remoued out of a Nursery, Wood or other Orchard, into, and set in your
Orchard in their due places I grant this kind to be better than either
of the former, by much, as more sure and more durable. Herein you must
note that in sets so remoued, you get all the roots you can; and without
brusing of any; I vtterly dislike the opinion of those great Gardners,
that following their Bookes would haue the maine rootes cut away, for
tops cannot growe without rootes. And because none can get all the
rootes, and remouall is an hinderance, you may not leaue on all tops,
when you set them: For there is a proportion betwixt the top and root of
a tree, euen in the number (at least) in the growth. If the roots be
many, they will bring you many tops, if they be not hindred. And if you
vse to stow or top your tree too much or too low, and leaue no issue, or
little for sap, (as is to be seene in your hedges) it will hinder the
growth of rootes and boale, because such a kind of stowing is a kind of
smothering, or choaking the sap. Great wood, as Oke, Elme, Ash, &c.
being continually kept downe with sheeres, knife, axe, &c. neither boale
nor roote will thriue, but as an hedge or bush. If you intend to graff
in your Set, you may cut him closer with a greater wound, and nearer the
earth, within a foote or two, because the graft or grafts will couer
his wound. If you like his fruite, and would haue him to be a tree of
himselfe, be not so bold: this I can tell you, that though you do cut
his top close, and leaue nothing but his bulke, because his rootes are
few, if he be (but little) bigger than your thumbe (as I with all plants
remoued to be) he will safely recouer wound within seuen yeares; by good
guidance that is. In the next time of dressing immediatly aboue his
vppermost sprig, you cut him off aslope cleanely, to that the sprigge
stand on the backe side, (and if you can Northward, that the wound may
haue the benefit of Sunne) at the vpper ende of the wound: and let that
sprigge onely be the boale. And take this for a generall rule; Euery
young plant, if he thriue, will recouer any wound aboue the earth, by
good dressing, although it be to the one halfe, and to his very heart.
This short cutting at the remoue, saues your plants from Wind, and neede
the lesse or no staking. I commend not Lying or Leaning of trees against
holds or stayres; for it breedes obstruction of sap and wounds
incureable. All remouing of trees as great as your arme, or aboue, is
dangerous: though sometime some such will grow but not continue long:
Because they be tainted with deadly wounds, either in the roote or top.
(And a tree once throughly tainted is neuer good) And though they get
some hold in the earth with some lesser taw, or tawes, which giue some
nourishment to the body of the tree: yet the heart being tainted, he
will hardly euer thriue; which you may easily discerne by the
blackenesse of the boughes at the heart, when you dresse your trees.
Also, when he is set with moe tops than the rootes can nourish, the tops
decaying, blacken the boughes, and the boughs the armes, and so they
boile at the very heart. Or this taint in the remouall, if it kill not
presently, but after some short time, it may be discerned by blacknesse
or yellownesse in the barke, and a small hungred leafe. Or if your
remoued plant put forth leaues the next and second summer, and little or
few spraies, it is a great signe of a taint, and next yeares death. I
haue knowne a tree tainted in setting, yet grow, & beare blossomes for
diuers yeares: and yet for want of strength could neuer shape his fruit.

{SN: Suckers good sets.}
Next vnto this or rather equall with these plants, are suckers growing
out of the roots of great trees, which cherries and plums do seldome or
neuer want: and being taken kindly with their roots, will make very good
sets. And you may helpe them much by enlarging their rootes with the
taws of the tree, whence you take them. They are of two sorts: Either
growing from the very root of the tree: and here you must be carefull,
not to hurt your tree when you gather them, by ripping amongst the
rootes; and that you take them cleane away: for these are a great and
continuall annoyance to the growth of your tree: and they will hardly be
cleansed. Secondly, or they do arise from some taw: and these may be
taken without danger, with long and good rootes, and will soone become
trees of strength.

{SN: A running Plant.}
There is another way, which I haue not throughly proued, to get not
onely plants for graffing, but sets to remaine for trees, which I call a
_Running Plant_: the manner of it is this: Take a roote or kirnell, and
put it into the middle of your plot, and the second yeare in the spring,
geld his top, if he haue one principall (as commonly by nature they
haue) and let him put forth onely foure Cyons toward the foure corners
of the orchard, as neere the earth as you can. If he put not foure,
(which is rare) stay his top till he haue put so many. When you haue
such foure, cut the stocke aslope, as is aforesayd in this chapter, hard
aboue the vttermost sprig, & keepe those foure without Cyons cleane and
straight, till you haue them a yard and a halfe, at least, or two yards
long. Then the next spring in grassing time, lay downe those foure
sprayes, towards the foure corners of your Orchard, with their tops in
an heape of pure and good earth, and railed as high as the roote of your
Cyon (for sap will not descend) and a sod to keepe them downe, leauing
nine or twelue inches of the top to looke vpward. In that hill he will
put rootes, and his top new Cyons, which you must spread as before, and
so from hill to hill till he spread the compasse of your ground, or as
farre as you list. If in bending, the Cyons cracke, the matter is small,
cleanse the ground and he will recouer. Euery bended bough will put
forth branches, and become trees. If this plant be of a burre knot,
there is no doubt. I haue proued it in one branch my selfe: and I know
at _Wilton_ in _Cleeue-land_ a Peare-tree of a great bulke and age,
blowne close to the earth, hath put at euery knot rootes into the earth,
and from roote to top, a great number of mighty armes or trees, filling
a great roomth, like many trees, or a little Orchard. Much better may it
be done by Art in a lesse tree. And I could not mislike this
kind, saue that the time will be long before it come to perfection.

{SN: Sets bought.}
Many vse to buy sets already grafted, which is not the best way: for
first, All remoues are dangerous: Againe, there is danger in the
carriage: Thirdly, it is a costly course of planting: Fourthly, euery
Gardner is not trusty to sell you good fruite: Fifthly, you know not
which is best, which is worst, and so may take most care about your
worst trees. Lastly, this way keepes you from practise, and so from
experience in so good, Gentlemanly, Scholerlike, and profitable a

{SN: The best sets.}
{SN: Vnremoued how.}
The onely best way (in my opinion) to haue sure and lasting sets, is
neuer to remoue: for euery remoue is an hinderance, if not a dangerous
hurt or deadly taint. This is the way. The plot forme being layd, and
the plot appointed where you will plant euery set in your orchard, digge
the roomth, where your sets shall stand, a yard compasse, and make the
earth mellow and cleane, and mingle it with a few coale-ashes, to auoide
wormes: and immediately after the first change of the Moone, in the
latter end of _February_, the earth being a fresh turn'd ouer, put in
euery such roomth three or foure kirnels of Apples or Peares, of the
best: euery kirnell in an hole made with your finger, finger deepe, a
foote distant one from another: and that day moneth following, as many
moe, (lest some of the former misse) in the same compasse; but not in
the same holes. Hence (God willing) shall you haue rootes enough. If
they all, or diuers of them come vp, you may draw (but not digge) vp
(nor put downe) at your pleasure, the next _Nouember_. How many soeuer
you take away, to giue or bestow elsewhere, be sure to leaue two of the
proudest. And when in your 2. and 3. yeare you Graffe, if you graffe
then at all, leaue the one of those two vngraffed, lest in graffing the
other you faile: For I find by tryall, that after first or second
graffing in the same stocke, being mist (for who hits all) the third
misse puts your stocke in deadly danger, for want of issue of sap. Yea,
though you hit in graffing, yet may your graffes with winde or otherwise
be broken downe. If your graffes or graffe prosper, you haue your
desire, in a plant vnremoued, without taint, and the fruite at your
owne choyce, and so you may (some little earth being remooued) pull, but
not digge vp the other Plant or Plants in that roomth. If your graffe or
stocke, or both perish, you haue another in the same place, of better
strength to worke vpon. For thriuing without snub he will ouer-lay your
grafted stocke much. And it is hardly possible to misse in graffing so
often, if your Gardiner be worth his name.

{SN: Sets vngrafted best of all.}
It shall not be amisse (as I iudge it) if your Kirnels be of choyce
fruite, and that you see them come forward proudly in their body, and
beare a faire and broad leafe in colour, tending to a greenish yellow
(which argues pleasant and great fruit) to try some of them vngraffed:
for although it be a long time ere this come to beare fruit, ten or
twelue yeares, or moe; and at their first bearing, the fruit will not
seeme to be like his owne kind: yet am I assured, vpon tryall, before
twenty yeares growth, such trees will increase the bignesse and
goodnesse of their fruite, and come perfectly to their owne kind. Trees
(like other breeding creatures) as they grow in yeares, bignes and
strength, so they mend their fruit. Husbands and Houswiues find this
true by experience, in the rearing of their yong store. More then this,
there is no tree like this for soundnes and dureable last, if his
keeping and dressing be answerable. I grant, the readiest way to come
soone to fruit is graffing: because in a manner, all your graffes are
taken of fruit bearing trees.

{SN: Time of remouing.}
{SN: Generall rule.}
Now when you haue made choise of your sets to remoue, the ground being
ready, the best time is, immediatly after the fall of the leafe, in, or
about the change of the Moone, when the sap is most quiet: for then the
sap is in turning: for it makes no stay, but in the _extremity_ of
drought or cold. At any time in winter, may you transplant trees so you
put no ice nor snow to the root of your plant in the setting: and
therefore open, calme and moist weather is best. To remoue, the leafe
being ready to fall and not fallen, or buds apparantly put forth in a
moist warme season, for need, sometime may do well: but the safest is to
walke in the plaine trodden path.

Some hold opinion that it is best remouing before the fall of the leafe,
and I heare it commonly practised in the South by our best arborists,
the leafe not fallen: and they giue the reason to be, that the
descending of the sap will make speedy rootes. But marke the reasons
following and I thinke you shall find no soundnesse, either in that
position or practise, at least in the reason.

1. I say, it is dangerous to remoue when the sap is not quiet, for euery
remoue giues a maine checke to the stirring sap, by staying the course
therof in the body of your plant, as may appeare in trees remoued any
time in summer, they commonly dye, nay hardly shall you saue the life of
the most young and tender plant of any kinde of wood (scarcely herbes)
if you remoue them in the pride of sap. For proud sap vniuersally staied
by remoual, euer hinders; often taints and so presently, or in very
short time kills. Sap is like bloud in mans body, in which is the life,
_Cap. 3. p. 9._ If the blood vniuersally be cold, life is excluded; so
is sap tainted by vntimely remouall. A stay by drought, or cold, is not
so dangerous (though dangerous if it be extreme) because more naturall.

2. The sap neuer descends, as men suppose, but is consollidated &
transubstantiated into the substance of the tree, and passeth (alwayes
aboue the earth) vpward, not onely betwixt the barke and the wood, but
also into and in both body & barke, though not so plentifully, as may
appeare by a tree budding, nay fructifying two or three yeres, after he
be circumcised at the very root, like a riuer that inlargeth his channel
by a continual descent.

3. I cannot perceiue what time they would haue the sap to descend. At
_Midsommer_ in a biting drought it staies, but descends not, for
immediatly vpon moisture it makes second shoots, at (or before rather)
_Michaeltide_, when it shapens his buds for next yeares fruit. If at the
fal of leafe, I grant, about that time is the greatest stand, but no
descent, of sap, which begins somwhat before the leafe fall, but not
long, therfore at that time must be the best remouing, not by reason of
descent, but stay of sap.

4. The sap in this course hath his profitable and apparant effects, as
the growth of the tree, couering of wounds, putting of buds, &c.
Wherupon it follows, if the sap descend, it must needs haue some effect
to shew it.

5. Lastly, boughs plasht and laid lower then the root, dye for want of
sap descending, except where it is forced by the maine streame of the
sap, as in top boughs hanging like water in pipes, or except the plasht
bough lying on the ground put rootes of his owne, yea vnder boughs which
we commonly call water boughs, can scarcely get sap to liue, yea in time
dye, because the sap doth presse so violently vpward, and therefore the
fairest shootes and fruits are alwayes in the top.

{SN: Remooue soone.}
_Obiect._ If you say that many so remoued thriue, I say that somewhat
before the fall of the leafe (but not much) is the stand, for the fall &
the stand are not at one instant, before the stand is dangerous. But to

The sooner in winter you remoue your sets, the better; the latter the
worse: For it is very perillous if a strong drought take your Sets
before they haue made good their rooting. A Plant set at the fall, shall
gaine (in a a manner) a whole yeeres growth of that which is set in the
Spring after.

{SN: The manner of setting.}
I vse in the setting to be sure, that the earth be mouldy, (and somewhat
moist) that it may runne among the small tangles without straining or
bruising: and as I fill in earth to his root, I shake the Set easily to
and fro, to make the earth settle the better to his roots: and withall
easily with my foot I put in the earth close; for ayre is noysome, and
will follow concauities. Some prescribe Oates to be put in with the
earth. I could like it, if I could know any reason thereof: and they vse
to set their Plant with the same side toward the Sunne: but this conceit
is like the other. For first I would haue euery tree to stand so free
from shade, that not onely the root (which therefore you must keepe bare
from graffe) but body, boughes, and branches, and euery spray, may haue
the benefit of Sunne. And what hurt, if that part of the tree, that
before was shadowed, be now made partaker of the heat of the Sunne? In
turning of Bees, I know it is hurtfull, because it changeth their
entrance, passage, and whole worke: But not so in Trees.

{SN: Set in the crust.}
Set as deepe as you can, so that in any wise you goe not beneath the
crust. Looke Chap. 2.

{SN: Moysture good.}
We speake in the second Chapter of moysture in generall: but now
especially hauing put your remoued plant into the earth, powre on water
(of a puddle were good) by distilling presently, and so euery weeke
twice in strong drought, so long as the earth will drinke, and refuse by
ouerflowing. For moisture mollifies, and both giues leaue to the roots
to spread, and makes the earth yeeld sap and nourishment with plenty &
facility. Nurses (they say) giue most & best milke after warme drinks.

If your ground be such that it will keepe no moisture at the root of
your plant, such plant shall neuer like, or but for a time. There is
nothing more hurtfull for young trees then piercing drought. I haue
known trees of good stature after they haue beene of diuers yeeres
growth, & thriue well for a good time, perish for want of water, and
very many by reason of taints in setting.

{SN: Grafts must be fenced.}
It is meet your sets and grafts be fenced, till they be as big as your
arme, for feare of annoyances. Many waies may sets receiue dammages,
after they be set, whether grafted or vngrafted. For although we
suppose, that no noysome beast, or other thing must haue accesse among
your trees: yet by casualty, a Dog, Cat, or such like, or your selfe, or
negligent friend bearing you company, or a shrewd boy, may tread or fall
vpon a young and tender plant or graft. To auoid these and many such
chances, you must stake them round a pretty distance from the set,
neither so neere, nor so thicke, but that it may haue the benefit of
Sun, raine, and ayre. Your stakes (small or great) would be so surely
put, or driuen into the earth, that they breake not, if any thing happen
to leane vpon them, else may the fall be more hurtfull, then the want of
the fence. Let not your stakes shelter any weeds about your sets, for
want of Sunne is a great hinderance. Let them stand so farre off, that
your grafts spreading receiue no hurt, either by rubbing on them, or of
any other thing passing by. If your stocke be long, and high grafted
(which I must discommend (except in need) because there the sap is
weake, and they are subiect to strong wind, and the lighting of birds)
tie easily with a soft list three or foure prickes vnder the clay, and
let their tops stand aboue the grafts, to auoid the lighting of Crowes,
Pyes, &c. vpon your grafts. If you sticke some sharpe thornes at the
roots of your stakes, they will make hurtfull things keepe off the
better. Other better fences for your grafts I know none. And thus much
for sets and setting.

CHAP. 8.

_Of the distance of Trees._

{SN: Hurts of too neere planting.}
I Know not to what end you should prouide good ground, well fenced, &
plant good sets; and when your trees should come to profit, haue all
your labours lost, for want of due regard to the distance of placing
your trees. I haue seene many trees stand so thicke, that one could not
thriue for the throng of his neighbours. If you doe marke it, you shall
see the tops of trees rubd off, their sides galled like a galled horses
backe, and many trees haue more stumps then boughes, and most trees no
well thriuing, but short, stumpish, and euill thriuing boughes: like a
Corne field ouer seeded, or a towne ouer peopled, or a pasture
ouer-laid, which the Gardiner must either let grow, or leaue the tree
very few boughes to beare fruit. Hence small thrift, galls, wounds,
diseases, and short life to the trees: and while they liue greene,
little, hard, worme-eaten, and euill thriuing fruit arise, to the
discomfort of the owners.

{SN: Remedy.}
{SN: Generall rule.}
{SN: All touches hurtfull.}
To preuent which discommodity, one of the best remedies is the
sufficient and fit distance of trees. Therefore at the setting of your
plants you must haue such respect, that the distance of them be such,
that euery tree be not annoyance, but an helpe to his fellowes: for
trees (as all other things of the same kind) should shroud, and not
hurt one another. And assure your selfe that euery touch of trees (as
well vnder as aboue the earth) is hurtfull. Therefore this must be a
generall rule in this Art: That no tree in an Orchard well ordered, nor
bough, nor Cyon, drop vpon, or touch his fellowes. Let no man thinke
this vnpossible, but looke in the eleuenth Chapter of dressing of trees.
If they touch, the winde will cause a forcible rub. Young twigs are
tender, if boughes or armes touch or rub, if they are strong, they make
great galls. No kind of touch therefore in trees can be good.

{SN: The best distance of trees.}
{SN: The parts of a tree.}
Now it is to be considered what distance amongst sets is requisite, and
that must be gathered from the compasse and roomth, that each tree by
probability will take and fill. And herein I am of a contrary opinion to
all them, which practise or teach the planting of trees, that euer yet I
knew, read, or heard of. For the common space betweene tree and tree is
ten foot: if twenty foot, it is thought very much. But I suppose twenty
yards distance is small enough betwixt tree and tree, or rather too too
little. For the distance must needs be as far as two trees are well able
to ouer spread, and fill, so they touch not by one yard at least. Now I
am assured, and I know one Apple-tree, set of a slip _finger-great_, in
the space of 20 yeares, (which I account a very small part of a trees
age, as is shewed Chapter 14.) hath spred his boughes eleuen or twelue
yards compasse, that is, fiue or sixe yards on euery side. Here I
gather, that in forty or fifty yeares (which yet is but a small time of
his age) a tree in good soile, well liking, by good dressing (for that
is much auaileable to this purpose) will spread double at the least,
viz. twelue yards on a side, which being added to twelue alotted to his
fellow, make twenty and foure yards, and so farre distant must euery
tree stand from another. And looke how farre a tree spreads his boughes
aboue, so far doth he put his roots vnder the earth, or rather further,
if there be no stop, nor let by walls, trees, rocks, barren earth and
such like: for an huge bulk, and strong armes, massie boughes, many
branches, and infinite twigs, require wide spreading roots. The top hath
the vast aire to spread his boughs in, high and low, this way and that
way: but the roots are kept in the crust of the earth, they may not goe
downward, nor vpward out of the earth, which is their element, no more
then the fish out of the water, Camelion out of the Aire, nor Salamander
out of the fire. Therefore they must needs spread farre vnder the earth.
And I dare well say, if nature would giue leaue to man by Art, to dresse
the roots of trees, to take away the tawes and tangles, that lap and
fret and grow superfluously and disorderly, (for euery thing _sublunary_
is cursed for mans sake) the tops aboue being answerably dressed, we
should haue trees of wonderfull greatnes, and infinite durance. And I
perswade myselfe that this might be done sometimes in Winter, to trees
standing in faire plaines and kindly earth, with small or no danger at
all. So that I conclude, that twenty foure yards are the least space
that Art can allot for trees to stand distant one from another.

{SN: Waste ground in an Orchard.}
If you aske me what vse shall be made of that waste ground betwixt tree
and tree? I answer: If you please to plant some tree or trees in that
middle space, you may, and as your trees grow contigious, great and
thick, you may at your pleasure take vp those last trees. And this I
take to be the chiefe cause, why the most trees stand so thicke. For men
not knowing (or not regarding) this secret of needfull distance, and
louing fruit of trees planted to their handes, thinke much to pull vpp
any, though they pine one another. If you or your heires or successors
would take vp some great trees (past setting) where they stand too
thicke, be sure you doe it about _Midsummer_, and leaue no maine root. I
destinate this space of foure and twenty yards, for trees of age &
stature. More then this, you haue borders to be made for walkes with
Roses, Berries, &c.

And chiefly consider: that your Orchard, for the first twenty or thirty
yeeres, will serue you for many Gardens, for Safron, Licoras, roots, and
other herbs for profit, and flowers for pleasure: so that no ground need
be wasted if the Gardiner be skillfull and diligent. But be sure you
come not neere with such deepe deluing the roots of your trees, whose
compasse you may partly discerne, by the compasse of the tops, if your
top be well spread. And vnder the droppings and shadow of your trees, be
sure no herbes will like. Let this be said for the distance of Trees.

CHAP. 9.

_Of the placing of Trees._

The placing of trees in an Orchard is well worth the regard: For
although it must be granted, that any of our foresaid trees (Chap. 2.)
will like well in any part of your Orchard, being good and well drest
earth: yet are not all Trees alike worthy of a good place. And therefore
I wish that your Filbird, Plummes, Damsons, Bulesse, and such like, be
vtterly remoued from the plaine soile of your Orchard into your fence:
for there is not such fertility and easefull growth, as within: and
there also they are more subiect to, and can abide the blasts of
_Æolus_. The cherries and plummes being ripe in the hot time of Summer,
and the rest standing longer, are not so soone shaken as your better
fruit: neither if they suffer losse, is your losse so great. Besides
that, your fences and ditches will deuoure some of your fruit growing in
or neere your hedges. And seeing the continuance of all these (except
Nuts) is small, the care of them ought to be the lesse. And make no
doubt but the fences of a large Orchard will containe a sufficient
number of such kind of Fruit trees in the whole compasse. It is not
material, but at your pleasure, in the said fences, you may either
intermingle your seueral kinds of fruit-trees, or set euery kind by
himselfe, which order doth very well become your better and greater
fruit. Let therefore your Apples, Peares, and Quinches, possesse all the
soile of your Orchard, vnlesse you be especially affected to some of
your other kinds: and of them let your greatest trees of growth stand
furthest from Sunne, and your Quinches at the South side or end, and
your Apples in the middle, so shall none be any hinderance to his
fellowes. The Warden-tree, and Winter-Peare will challenge the
preheminence for stature. Of your Apple-trees you shall finde difference
in growth. A good Pippin will grow large, and a Costard-tree: stead them
on the North side of your other Apples, thus being placed, the least
will giue Sun to the rest, and the greatest will shroud their fellowes.
The fences and out-trees will guard all.

CHAP. 10.

_Of Grafting._

{SN: Of Grauing or Caruing.}
{SN: Grafting What.}
{SN: A Graffe.}
Now are we come to the most curious point of our faculty: curious in
conceit, but indeede as plaine and easie as the rest, when it is
plainely shewne, which we commonly call _Graffing_, or (after some)
_Grafting_. I cannot _Etymologize_, nor shew the originall of the Word,
except it come of _Grauing_ and _Caruing_. But the thing or matter is:
The reforming of the fruite of one tree with the fruit of another, by an
artificiall transplacing, or transposing of a twigge, bud or leafe,
(commonly called a _Graft_) taken from one tree of the same, or some
other kind, and placed or put to, or into another tree in one time and


{SN: Kinds of grafting.}
Of this there be diuers kinds, but three or foure now especially in
vse: to wit, Grafting, incising, packing on, grafting in the scutchion,
or inoculating: whereof the chiefe and most vsuall, is called grafting
(by the generall name, _Catahexocen_:) for it is the most knowne,
surest, readiest, and plainest way to haue store of good fruit.

{SN: Graft how.}
It is thus wrought: You must with a fine, thin, strong and sharpe Saw,
made and armed for that purpose, cut off a foot aboue the ground, or
thereabouts, in a plaine without a knot, or as neere as you can without
a knot (for some Stocks will be knotty) your Stocke, set, or plant,
being surely stayed with your foot and legge, or otherwise straight
ouerthwart (for the Stocke may be crooked) and then plaine his wound
smoothly with a sharpe knife: that done, cleaue him cleanly in the
middle with a cleauer, and a knocke or mall, and with a wedge of wood,
Iron or Bone, two handfull long at least, put into the middle of that
clift, with the same knocke, make the wound gape a straw bredth wide,
into which you must put your Graffes.

{SN: A Graft what.}
The graft is a top twig taken from some other Tree (for it is folly to
put a graffe into his owne Stocke) beneath the vppermost (and sometime
in need the second) knot, and with a sharpe knife fitted in the knot
(and some time out of the knot when need is) with shoulders an ynch
downeward, and so put into the stocke with some thrusting (but not
straining) barke to barke inward.

{SN: Eyes.}
{SN: Generall rule.}
Let your graffe haue three or foure eyes, for readinesse to put forth,
and giue issue to the sap. It is not amisse to cut off the top of your
graffe, and leaue it but fiue or sixe inches long, because commonly you
shall see the tops of long graffes die. The reason is this. The sap in
graffing receiues a rebuke, and cannot worke so strongly presently, and
your graffes receiue not sap so readily, as the naturall branches. When
your graffes are cleanely and closely put in, and your wedge puld out
nimbly, for feare of putting your graffes out of frame, take well
tempered morter, soundly wrought with chaffe or horse dung (for the dung
of cattell will grow hard, and straine your graffes) the quantity of a
Gooses egge, and diuide it iust, and therewithall, couer your stocke,
laying the one halfe on the one side and the other halfe on the other
side of your graffes (for thrusting against your graffes) you moue them,
and let both your hands thrust at once, and alike, and let your clay be
tender, to yeeld easily; and all, lest you moue your graffes. Some vse
to couer the clift of the Stocke, vnder the clay with a piece of barke
or leafe, some with a sear-cloth of waxe and butter, which as they be
not much needfull, so they hurt not, vnlesse that by being busie about
them, you moue your graffes from their places. They vse also mosse tyed
on aboue the clay with some bryer, wicker, or other bands. These profit
nothing. They all put the graffes in danger, with pulling and thrusting:
for I hold this generall rule in graffing and planting: if your stocke
and graffes take, and thriue (for some will take and not thriue, being
tainted by some meanes in the planting or graffing) they will (without
doubt) recouer their wounds safely and shortly.

{SN: Time of graffing.}
The best time of graffing from the time of remouing your stocke is the
next Spring, for that saues a second wound, and a second repulse of sap,
if your stocke be of sufficient bignesse to take a graffe from as big as
your thumbe, to as big as an arme of a man. You may graffe lesse (which
I like) and bigger, which I like not so well. The best time of the yeere
is in the last part of _February_, or in _March_, or beginning of
_Aprill_, when the Sunne with his heat begins to make the sap stirre
more rankely, about the change of Moone before you see any great
apparancy of leafe or flowers but onely knots and buds, and before they
be proud, though it be sooner. Cheries, Peares, Apricocks, Quinces, and
Plummes would be gathered and grafted sooner.

{SN: Gathering graffes.}
{SN: Graffes of old trees.}
The graffes may be gathered sooner in _February_, or any time within a
moneth, or two before you graffe or vpon the same day (which I commend)
If you get them any time before, for I haue knowne graffes gathered in
_December_, and doe well, take heed of drought. I haue my selfe taken a
burknot of a tree, & the same day when he was laid in the earth about
mid _February_, gathered grafts and put in him, and one of those graffes
bore the third yeere after, and the fourth plentifully. Graffes of old
trees would be gathered sooner then of young trees, for they sooner
breake and bud. If you keepe graffes in the earth, moisture with the
heat of the Sun will make them sprout as fast, as if they were growing
on the tree. And therefore seeing keeping is dangerous, the surest way
(as I iudge) is to take them within a weeke of the time of your

{SN: Where taken.}
The grafts would be taken not of the proudest twigs, for it may be your
stocke is not answerable in strength. And therefore say I, the grafts
brought from South to vs in the North although they take and thriue
(which is somewhat doubtfull, by reason of the difference of the Clime
and carriage) yet shall they in time fashion themselues to our cold
Northerne soile, in growth, taste &c.

{SN: Emmits.}
Nor of the poorest, for want of strength may make them vnready to
receiue sap (and who can tell but a poore graft is tainted) nor on the
outside of your tree, for there should your tree spread but in the
middest; for there you may be sure your Tree is no whit hindered in his
growth or forme. He will stil recouer inward, more then you would wish.
If your clay clift in Summer with drought, looke well in the Chinkes for
Emmits and Earewigs, for they are cunning and close theeues about grafts
you shall finde them stirring in the morning and euening, and the rather
in the moist weather. I haue had many young buds of Graffes, euen in the
flourishing, eaten with Ants. Let this suffice for graffing, which is in
the faculty counted the chiefe secret, and because it is most vsuall it
is best knowne.

Graffes are not to be disliked for growth, till they wither, pine, and
die. Vsually before _Midsummer_ they breake, if they liue. Some (but
few) keeping proud and greene, will not put till the second yeere, so is
it to be thought of sets.

The first shew of putting is no sure signe of growth, it is but the sap
the graffe brought with him from his tree.

So soone as you see the graft put for growth, take away the clay, for
then doth neither the stocke nor the graffe need it (put a little fresh
well tempered clay in the hole of the stocke) for the clay is now
tender, and rather keepes moistture then drought.

The other waies of changing the naturall fruit of Trees, are more
curious then profitable, and therefore I mind not to bestow much labour
or time about them, onely I shall make knowne what I haue proued, and
what I doe thinke.

{SN: Incising.}
{SN: A great stocke.}
And first of incising, which is the cutting of the backe of the boale,
a rine or branch of a tree at some bending or knee, shoulderwise with
two gashes, onely with a sharpe knife to the wood: then take a wedge,
the bignes of your graffe sharpe ended, flat on the one side, agreeing
with the tree, and round on the other side, and with that being thrust
in, raise your barke, then put in your graffe, fashioned like your wedge
iust: and lastly couer your wound, and fast it vp, and take heed of
straining. This will grow but to small purpose, for it is weake hold,
and lightly it will be vnder growth. Thus may you graft betwixt the
barke and the tree of a great stocke that will not easily be clifted:
But I haue tryed a better way for great trees, viz First, cut him off
straight, and cleanse him with your knife, then cleaue him into foure
quarters, equally with a strong cleauer: then take for euery Clift two
or three small (but hard) wedges iust of the bignesse of your grafts,
and with those Wedges driuen in with an hammer open the foure clifts so
wide (but no wider) that they may take your foure graffes, with
thrusting not with straining: and lastly couer and clay it closely, and
this is a sure and good way of grafting: or thus, clift your stocke by
his edges twice or thrice with your cleauer, and open him with your
wedge in euery clift one by one, and put in your grafts, and then couer
them. This may doe well.

{SN: Packing thus.}
Packing on is, when you cut aslope a twig of the same bignesse with your
graft, either in or besides the knot, two inches long, and make your
graft agree iumpe with the Cyon, and gash your graft and your Cyon in
the middest of the wound, length-way, a straw breadth deepe, and thrust
the one into the other, wound to wound, sap to sap, barke to barke, then
tie them close and clay them. This may doe well. The fairest graft I
haue in my little Orchard, which I haue planted, is thus packt on, and
the branch whereon I put him, is in his plentifull roote.

To be short in this point, cut your graft in any sort or fashion, two
inches long, and ioyne him cleanly and close to any other sprig of any
tree in the latter end of the time of grafting, when sap is somewhat
rife, and in all probability they will close and thriue: thus

{Illustration: _The Sprig._ _The graft._ _The twig._ _The graft._}

Or any other fashion you thinke good.

{SN: Inoculating.}
Inoculating is an eye or bud, taken barke and all from one tree, and
placed in the roome of another eie or bud of another, cut both of one
compasse, and there bound. This must be done in Summer, when the sap is

{SN: Graffing in the Scutchion.}
Much like vnto this is that, they call grafting in the scutchion, they
differ thus: That here you must take an eie with his leafe, or (in mine
opinion) a bud with his leaues. (Note that an eie is for a Cyon, a bud
is for flowers and fruit,) and place them on another tree, in a plaine
(for so they teach) the place or barke where you must set it, must be
thus cut with a sharpe knife, and the barke raised with a wedge, and
then the eie or budde put in and so bound vp. {TN: a diagram of an H} I
cannot denie but such may grow. And your bud if he take will flowre and
beare fruit that yeere: as some grafts & sets also, being set for
bloomes. If these two kinds thriue, they reforme but a spray, and an
vndergrowth. Thus you may place Roses on Thornes, and Cherries on
Apples, and such like. Many write much more of grafting, but to small
purpose. Whom we leaue to themselues, & their followers; & ending this
secret we come in the next Chapter to a point of knowledge most
requisite in an Arborist, as well for all other woods as for an Orchard.

CHAP. 11.

_Of the right dressing of Trees._

{SN: Necessity of dressing trees.}
{SN: Generall rule.}
If all these things aforesaid were indeed performed, as we haue shewed
them in words, you should haue a perfect Orchard in nature and
substance, begunne to your hand; And yet are all these things nothing,
if you want that skill to keepe and dresse your trees. Such is the
condition of all earthly things, whereby a man receiueth profit or
pleasure, that they degenerate presently without good ordering. Man
himselfe left to himselfe, growes from his heauenly and spirituall
generation, and becommeth beastly, yea deuillish to his owne kind,
vnlesse he be regenerate No maruell then, if Trees make their shootes,
and put their spraies disorderly. And truly (if I were worthy to iudge)
there is not a mischiefe that breedeth greater and more generall harme
to all the Orchard (especially if they be of any continuance) that euer
I saw, (I will not except three) then the want of the skilfull dressing
of trees. It is a common and vnskilfull opinion, and saying. Let all
grow, and they will beare more fruit: and if you lop away superfluous
boughes, they say, what a pitty is this? How many apples would these
haue borne? not considering there may arise hurt to your Orchard, as
well (nay rather) by abundance, as by want of wood. Sound and thriuing
plants in a good soile, will euer yeeld too much wood, and disorderly,
but neuer too little. So that a skilfull and painfull Arborist, need
neuer want matter to effect a plentifull and well drest Orchard: for it
is an easie matter to take away superfluous boughes (if your Gardner
haue skill to know them) whereof your plants will yeeld abundance, and
skill will leaue sufficient well ordered. All ages both by rule and
experience doe consent to a pruining and lopping of trees: yet haue not
any that I know described vnto vs (except in darke and generall words)
what or which are those superfluous boughes, which we must take away,
and that is the chiefe and most needfull point to be knowne in lopping.
And we may well assure our selues, (as in all other Arts, so in this)
there is a vantage and dexterity, by skill, and an habite by practise
out of experience, in the performance hereof for the profit of mankind;
yet doe I not know (let me speake it with the patience of our cunning
Arborists) any thing within the compasse of humane affaires so
necessary, and so little regarded, not onely in Orchards, but also in
all other timber trees, where or whatsoeuer.

{SN: Timber wood euill drest.}
{SN: The cause of hurts in woods.}
{SN: Dresse timber trees how.}
How many forrests and woods? wherein you shall haue for one liuely
thriuing tree, foure (nay sometimes 24.) euill thriuing, rotten and
dying trees, euen while they liue. And instead of trees thousands of
bushes and shrubs. What rottennesse? what hollownesse? what dead armes?
withered tops? curtailed trunkes? what loads of mosses? drouping
boughes? and dying branches shall you see euery where? And those that
like in this sort are in a manner all vnprofitable boughes, canked
armes, crooked, little and short boales: what an infinite number of
bushes, shrubs, and skrogs of hazels, thornes, and other profitable
wood, which might be brought by dressing to become great and goodly
trees. Consider now the cause: The lesser wood hath beene spoiled with
carelesse, vnskilfull, and vntimely stowing, and much also of the great
wood. The greater trees at the first rising haue filled and ouer-loaden
themselues with a number of wastfull boughes and suckers, which haue not
onely drawne the sap from the boale, but also haue made it knotty, and
themselues and the boale mossie for want of dressing, whereas if in the
prime of growth they had bene taken away close, all but one top
(according to this patterne) and cleane by the bulke, the strength of
all the sap should haue gone to the bulke, and so he would haue
recouered and couered his knots, and haue put forth a faire, long and
streight body (as you see) for timber profitable, huge great of bulke,
and of infinite last.

{Illustration: _Imagine the roote to be spread farre wider._}

If all timber trees were such (will some say) how should we haue crooked
wood for wheeles, courbs, &c.

_Answ._ Dresse all you can, and there will be enough crooked for those

More than this, in most places, they grow so thicke, that neither
themselues, nor earth, nor any thing vnder or neere them can thriue, nor
Sunne, nor raine, nor aire can doe them, nor any thing neere or vnder
them any profit or comfort.

I see a number of Hags, where out of one roote you shall see three or
foure (nay more, such as mens vnskilfull greedinesse, who desiring many
haue none good) pretty Okes or Ashes straight and tall, because the root
at the first shoote giues sap amaine: but if one onely of them might bee
suffered to grow, and that well and cleanely pruned, all to his very
top, what a tree should we haue in time? And we see by those rootes
continually and plentifully springing, notwithstanding so deadly
wounded. What a commodity should arise to the owner, and the
Common-wealth, if wood were cherished, and orderly dressed.

{SN: Profit of trees dressed.}
{SN: The end of Trees.}
The wast boughes closely and skilfully taken away, would giue vs store
of fences and fewell, and the bulke of the tree in time would grow of
huge length and bignes. But here (me thinkes) I heare an vnskilfull
Arborist say, that trees haue their seuerall formes, euen by nature,
the Peare, the Holly, the Aspe, &c. grow long in bulke with few and
little armes, the Oke by nature broad, and such like. All this I graunt:
but grant me also, that there is a profitable end, and vse of euery
tree, from which if it decline (though by nature) yet man by art may
(nay must) correct it. Now other end of trees I neuer could learne, than
good timber, fruit much and good, and pleasure. Vses physicall hinder
nothing a good forme.

{SN: Trees will take any forme.}
Neither let any man euer so much as thinke, that it vnprobable, much
lesse vnpossible, to reforme any tree of what kind soeuer. For (beleeue
me) I haue tried it, I can bring any tree (beginning by time) to any
forme. The peare and holly may be made to spread, and the Oke to close.

{SN: The end of Trees.}
But why do I wander out of the compasse of mine Orchard, into the
Forrests and Woods? Neither yet am I from my purpose, if boales of
timber trees stand in need of all the sap, to make them great and
straight (for strong growth and dressing makes strong trees) then it
must needes be profitable for fruit (a thing more immediately seruing a
mans need) to haue all the sap his roote can yeeld: for as timber sound,
great and long, is _the good of timber trees_, and therefore they beare
no fruite of worth: so fruit, good, sound, pleasant, great and much, is
the end of fruit-trees. That gardner therefore shall performe his duty
skilfully and faithfully, which shall so dresse his trees, that they may
beare such and such store of fruit, which he shall neuer do (dare
vndertake) vnlesse he keepe this order in dressing his trees.

{SN: How to dresse a fruit-tree.}
A fruit tree so standing, that there need none other end of dressing but
fruit (not ornaments for walkes, nor delight to such as would please
their eye onely, and yet the best forme can not but both adorne and
delight) must be parted from within two foote, or thereabouts, of the
earth, so high to giue liberty to dresse his roote, and no higher, for
drinking vp the sap that should feede his fruit, for the boale will be
first, and best serued and fed, because he is next the roote, and of
grenest waxe and substance, and that makes him longest of life, into
two, three, or foure armes, as your stocke or graffes yeelde twigs, and
euery arme into two or more branches, and euery branch into his seuerall
Cyons, still spreading by equall degrees, so that his lowest spray be
hardly without the reach of a mans hand, and his highest be not past two
yards higher, rarely (especially in the middest) that no one twig touch
his fellow. Let him spread as farre as he list without his maister-bough
or lop equally. And when any bough doth grow sadder and fall lower, than
his fellowes (as they will with weight of fruite) ease him the next
spring of his superfluous twigs, and he will rise: when any bough or
spray shall amount aboue the rest; either snub his top with a nip
betwixt your finger and your thumbe, or with a sharpe knife, and take
him cleane away, and so you may vse any Cyon you would reforme, and as
your tree shall grow in stature and strength, so let him rise with his
tops, but slowly, and earely, especially in the middest, and equally,
and in bredth also, and follow him vpward with lopping his vndergrowth
and water boughes, keeping the same distance of two yards, but not aboue
three in any wise, betwixt the lowest and the highest twigs.

{SN: Benefits of good dressing.}
1. Thus you shall haue well liking, cleane skind, healthfull great, and
long-lasting trees.

2. Thus shall your tree grow low, and safe from winds, for his top will
be great, broad and weighty.

3. Thus growing broad, shall your trees beare much fruit (I dare say)
one as much as sixe of your common trees, and good without shadowing,
dropping and fretting: for his boughes, branches, and twigs shalbe many,
and those are they (not the boale) which beare the fruit.

4. Thus shall your boale being little (not small but low) by reason of
his shortnesse, take little, and yeeld much sap to the fruit.

5. Thus your trees by reason of strength in time of setting shall put
forth more blossomes, and more fruite, being free from taints; for
strength is a great helpe to bring forth much and safely, whereas
weakenesse failes in setting though the season be calme.

Some vse to bare trees rootes in Winter, to stay the setting til hotter
seasons, which I discommend, because,

1. They hurt the rootes.

2. It stayes it nothing at all.

3. Though it did, being small, with vs in the North, they haue their
part of our _Aprill_ and _Mayes_ frosts.

4. Hinderance cannot profit weake trees in setting.

5. They wast much labour.

6. Thus shall your tree be easie to dresse, and without danger, either
to the tree or the dresser.

7. Thus may you safely and easily gather your fruite without falling,
bruising or breaking of Cyons.

This is the best forme of a fruit tree, which I haue here onely shadowed
out for the better capacity of them that are led more with the eye, than
the mind, crauing pardon for the deformity, because I am nothing
skilfull either in painting or caruing.

Imagine that the paper makes but one side of the tree to appeare, the
whole round compasse will giue leaue for many more armes, boughes,
branches, and Cyons.

{Illustration: _The perfect forme of a Fruit-tree._}

If any thinke a tree cannot well be brought to this forme: _Experto
crede Roberto_, I can shew diuers of them vnder twenty yeeres of age.

{SN: Time best for proining.}
The fittest time of the Moone for proyning is as of grafting, when the
sap is ready to stirre (not proudly stirring) and so to couer the wound,
and of the yeere, a moneth before (or at least when) you graffe. Dresse
Peares, Apricocks, Peaches, Cherries, and Bullys sooner. And old trees
before young plants, you may dresse at any time betwixt Leafe and Leafe.
And note, where you take any thing away, the sap the next Summer will be
putting: be sure therefore when he puts a bud in any place where you
would not haue him, rub it off with your finger.

{SN: Dressing betime.}
And here you must remember the common homely Prouerbe:

    _Soone crookes the Tree,
    That good Camrell must be._

{SN: Faults of euill drest trees, and the remedy.}
Beginne betime with trees, and do what you list: but if you let them
grow great and stubborne, you must do as the trees list. They will not
bend but breake, nor bee wound without danger. A small branch will
become a bough, and a bough an arme in bignesse. Then if you cut him,
his wound will fester, and hardly, without good skill, recouer:
therefore, _Obsta principys_. Of such wounds, and lesser, of any bough
cut off a handfull or more from the body, comes hollownesse, and
vntimely death. And therefore when you cut, strik close, and cleane, and
vpward, and leaue no bunch.

{SN: The forme altered.}
This forme in some cases sometimes may be altered: If your tree, or
trees, stand neere your Walkes, if it please your fancy more, let him
not breake, till his boale be aboue you head: so may you walke vnder
your trees at your pleasure. Or if you set your fruit-trees for your
shades in your Groues, then I expect not the forme of the tree, but the
comelinesse of the walke.

{SN: Dressing of old trees.}
All this hitherto spoken of dressing, must be vnderstood of young
plants, to be formed: it is meete somewhat be sayd for the instruction
of them that haue olde trees already formed, or rather deformed: for,
_Malum non vitatur nisi cognitum_. The faults therefore of the
disordered tree, I find to be fiue:

{SN: Faults are fiue, and their remedies.}
  1. An vnprofitable boale.
  2. Water-boughes.
  3. Fretters.
  4. Suckers: And,
  5. One principall top.

{SN: 1. Long boale.}
{SN: No remedy.}
A long boale asketh much feeding, and the more he hath the more he
desires, and gets (as a drunken man drinke, or a couetuous man wealth)
and the lesse remaines for the fruit, he puts his boughes into the aire,
and makes them, the fruit, and it selfe more dangered with windes: for
this I know no remedy, after that the tree is come to growth, once
euill, neuer good.

{SN: 2. Water boughs.}
Water boughes, or vndergrowth, are such boughes as grow low vnder others
and are by them ouergrowne, ouershadowed, dropped on, and pinde for want
of plenty of sap, and by that meanes in time die: For the sap presseth
vpward; and it is like water in her course, where it findeth most issue,
thither it floweth, leauing the other lesser floes dry: euen as wealth
to wealth, and much to more. These so long as they beare, they beare
lesse, worse, and fewer fruit, and waterish.

{SN: Remedy.}
{SN: Barke-pild, and the remedy.}
The remedy is easie if they be not growne greater then your arme. Lop
them close and cleane, and couer the midel of the wound, the next Summer
when he is dry, with a salue made of tallow, tarre, and a very little
pitch, good for the couering of any such wound of a great tree: vnlesse
it be barke-pild, and then sear-cloath of fresh Butter, Hony, and Waxe,
presently (while the wound is greene) applyed, is a soueraigne remedy in
Summer especially. Some bind such wounds with a thumbe rope of Hay,
moist, and rub it with dung.

{SN: Fretters.}
{SN: Touching.}
{SN: Remedy.}
Fretters are, when as by the negligence of the Gardner, two or moe parts
of the tree, or of diuers trees, as armes, boughes, branches, or twigs,
grow to neere and close together, that one of them by rubbing, doth
wound another. This fault of all other shewes the want of skill or care
(at least) in the Arborist: for here the hurt is apparant, and the
remedy easie, seene to betime: galls and wounds incurable, but by
taking away those members: for let them grow, and they will be worse and
worse, & so kill themselues with ciuill strife for roomth, and danger
the whole tree. Auoide them betime therefore, as a common wealth doth
bosome enemies.

{SN: Suckers.}
A Sucker is a long, proud, and disorderly Cyon, growing straight vp (for
pride of sap makes proud, long, and straight growth) cut of any lower
parts of the tree, receiuing a great part of the sap, and bearing no
fruit, till it haue tyrannized ouer the whole tree. These are like idle
and great Drones amongst Bees; and proud and idle members in a common

{SN: Remedy.}
The remedy of this is, as of water-boughes, vnlesse he be growne greater
then all the rest of the boughs, and then your Gardner (at your
discretion) may leaue him for his boale, and take away all, or the most
of the rest. If he be little, slip him, and set him, perhaps he will
take: my fairest Apple-tree was such a Slip.

{SN: One principall top or bough, and remedy.}
One or two principall top boughes are as euill, in a manner, as Suckers,
they rise of the same cause, and receiue the same remedy; yet these are
more tolerable, because these beare fruit, yea the best: but Suckers of
long doe not beare.

{SN: Instruments for dressing.}
I know not how your tree should be faulty, if you reforme all your vices
timely, and orderly. As these rules serue for dressing young trees and
sets in the first planting: so may they well serue to helpe old trees,
though not exactly to recouer them.

The Instruments fittest for all these purposes, are most commonly: For
the great trees an handsome long, light Ladder of Firpoles, a little,
nimble, and strong armed Saw, and sharpe. For lesse Trees, a little and
sharpe Hatchet, a broad mouthed Chesell, strong and sharpe, with an
hand-beetle, your strong and sharpe Cleeuer, with a knock, & (which is a
most necessary Instrument amongst little trees) a great hafted and
sharpe Knife or Whittle. And as needfull is a Stoole on the top of a
Ladder of eight or moe rungs, with two backe-feet, whereon you may
safely and easefully stand to graffe, to dresse, and to gather fruit
thus formed: The feet may be fast wedged in: but the Ladder must hang
loose with two bands of iron. And thus much of dressing trees for fruit,
formerly to profit.


CHAP. 12.

_Of Foyling._

{SN: Necessity of foiling.}
There is one thing yet very necessary for make your Orchard both better,
and more lasting: Yea, so necessary, that without it your Orchard cannot
last, nor prosper long, which is neglected generally both in precepts
and in practice, viz. manuring with Foile: whereby it hapneth that when
trees (amongst other euils) through want of fatnesse to feed them,
become mossie, and in their growth are euill (or not) thriuing, it is
either attributed to some wrong cause, as age (when indeed they are but
young) or euill standing (stand they neuer so well) or such like, or
else the cause is altogether vnknowne, and so not amended.

{SN: Trees great suckers.}
{SN: Great bodies.}
Can there be deuised any way by nature, or art, sooner or soundlier to
seeke out, and take away the heart and strength of earth, then by great
trees? Such great bodies cannot be sustained without great store of sap.
What liuing body haue you greater then of trees? The great Sea monsters
(whereof one came a land at _Teesmouth_ in _Yorkeshire_, hard by vs, 18.
yards in length, and neere as much in compasse) seeme hideous, huge,
strange and monstrous, because they be indeed great: but especially
because they are seldome seene: But a tree liuing, come to his growth
and age, twice that length, and of a bulke neuer so great, besides his
other parts, is not admired, because he is so commonly seene. And I
doubt not, but if he were well regarded from his kirnell, by succeeding
ages, to his full strength, the most of them would double their measure.
About fifty yeeres agoe I heard by credible and constant report, That in
_Brooham_ Parke in _West more-land_, neere vnto _Penrith_, there lay a
blowne Oake, whose trunke was so bigge, that two Horse men being the one
on the one side, and the other on the other side, they could not one see
another: to which if you adde his armes, boughs, and roots, and consider
of his bignesse, what would he haue been, if preserued to the vantage.
Also I read in the History of the _West-Indians_, out of _Peter Martyr_,
that sixteene men taking hands one with another, were not able to
fathome one of those trees about. Now Nature hauing giuen to such a
faculty by large and infinite roots, taws and tangles, to draw
immediately his sustenance from our common mother the Earth (which is
like in this point to all other mothers that beare) hath also ordained
that the tree ouer loden with fruit, and wanting sap to feed all she
hath brought forth, will waine all she cannot feed, like a woman
bringing forth moe children at once then she hath teats. See you not how
trees especially, by kind being great, standing so thicke and close,
that they cannot get plenty of sap, pine away all the grasse, weeds,
lesser shrubs, and trees, yea and themselues also for want of vigor of
sap? So that trees growing large, sucking the soile whereon they stand,
continually, and amaine, and the foyzon of the earth that feeds them
decaying (for what is there that wastes continually, that
shall not haue end?) must either haue supply of sucker, or else leaue
thriuing and growing. Some grounds will beare Corne while they be new,
and no longer, because their crust is shallow, and not very good, and
lying they scind and wash, and become barren. The ordinary Corne soiles
continue not fertile, with fallowing and foyling, and the best requires
supply, euen for the little body of Corne. How then can we thinke that
any ground (how good soeuer) can containe bodies of such greatnesse, and
such great feeding, without great plenty of Sap arising from good earth?
This is one of the chiefe causes, why so many of our Orchards in
_England_ are so euill thriuing when they come to growth, and our fruit
so bad. Men are loth to bestow much ground, and desire much fruit, and
will neither set their trees in sufficient compasse, nor yet feed them
with manure. Therefore of necessity Orchards must be foiled.

{SN: Time fit for foyling.}
{SN: Kind of foyle.}
The fittest time is, when your trees are growne great, and haue neere
hand spread your earth, wanting new earth to sustaine them, which if
they doe, they will seeke abroad for better earth, and shun that, which
is barren (if they find better) as cattell euill pasturing. For nature
hath taught euery creature to desire and seeke his owne good, and to
auoid hurt. The best time of the yeere is at the Fall, that the Frost
may bite and make it tender, and the Raine wash it to the roots. The
Summer time is perillous if ye digge, because the sap fills amaine. The
best kind of Foile is such as is fat, hot, and tender. Your earth must
be but lightly opened, that the dung may goe in, and wash away; and but
shallow, lest you hurt the roots: and the spring closely and equally
made plaine againe for feare of Suckers. I could wish, that after my
trees haue fully possessed the soile of mine Orchard, that euery seuen
yeeres at least, the soile were bespread with dung halfe a foot thicke
at least. Puddle water out of the dunghill powred on plentifully, will
not onely moisten but fatten especially in _Iune_ and _Iuly_. If it be
thicke and fat, and applied euery yeere, your Orchard shall need none
other foiling. Your ground may lye so low at the Riuer side, that the
floud standing some daies and nights thereon, shall saue you all this
labour of foiling.

CHAP. 13.

_Of Annoyances._

A Chiefe helpe to make euery thing good, is to auoid the euils thereof:
you shall neuer attaine to that good of your Orchard you looke for,
vnlesse you haue a Gardner, that can discerne the diseases of your
trees, and other annoyances of your Orchard, and find out the causes
thereof, and know & apply fit remedies for the same. For be your ground,
site, plants, and trees as you would wish, if they be wasted with
hurtfull things, what haue you gained but your labour for your trauell?
It is with an Orchard and euery tree, as with mans body, The best part
of physicke for preseruation of health, is to foresee and cure diseases.

{SN: Two kinds of euils in an Orchard.}
All the diseases of an Orchard are of two sorts, either internall or
externall. I call those inward hurts which breed on and in particular

  1 Galles.
  2 Canker.
  3 Mosse.
  4 Weaknes in setting.
  5 Barke bound.
  6 Barke pild.
  7 Worme.
  8 Deadly wounds.

{SN: Galls.}
Galles, Canker, Mosse, weaknes, though they be diuers diseases: yet
(howsoeuer Authors thinke otherwise) they rise all out of the same

Galles we haue described with their cause and remedy, in the 11. Chapter
vnder the name of fretters.

{SN: Canker.}
Canker is the consumption of any part of the tree, barke and wood, which
also in the same place is deceiphered vnder the title of water-boughes.

{SN: Mosse.}
Mosse is sensibly seene and knowne of all, the cause is pointed out in
the same Chapter, in the discourse of timber-wood, and partly also the
remedy: but for Mosse adde this, that at any time in summer (the Spring
is best) When the cause is remoued, with an Harecloth, immediatly after
a showre of raine, rub off your Mosse, or with a peece of weed (if the
Mosse abound) formed like a great knife.

{SN: Weaknesse in setting.}
Weaknesse in the setting of your fruit shall you finde there also in the
same Chapter, and his remedy. All these flow from the want of roomth in
good soile, wrong planting, Chap. 7. and euill or no dressing.

{SN: Barke-bound.}
Bark-bound (as I thinke) riseth of the same cause, and the best, &
present remedy (the causes being taken away) is with your sharpe knife
in the Spring, length-way to launch his bark throughout, on 3. or 4.
sides of his boale.

{SN: Worme.}
{SN: Remedy.}
The disease called the Worme is thus discernd: The barke will be hoald
in diuers places like gall, the wood will die & dry, and you shall see
easily the barke swell. It is verily to be thought, that therin is bred
some worm I haue not yet thorowly sought it out, because I was neuer
troubled therewithall: but onely haue seene such trees in diuers
places. I thinke it a worme rather, because I see this disease in trees,
bringing fruit of sweet taste, and the swelling shewes as much. The
remedy (as I coniecture) is so soone as you perceiue the wound, the next
Spring cut it out barke and all, and apply Cowes pisse and vineger
presently, and so twice or thrice a weeke for a moneths space: For I
well perceiue, if you suffer it any time, it eates the tree or bough
round, and so kils.

Since I first wrote this Treatise, I haue changed my mind concerning the
disease called the worme, because I read in the History of the
_West-Indians_, that their trees are not troubled with the disease
called the worme or canker, which ariseth of a raw and euill concocted
humor or sap, Witnesse _Pliny_, by reason their Country is more hot then
ours, whereof I thinke the best remedy is (not disallowing the former,
considering that the worme may breed by such an humor) warme standing,
sound lopping and good dressing.

{SN: Barke pild.}
Bark-pild you shall find with his remedy in the 11. Chapter.

{SN: Wounds.}
Deadly wounds are when a mans Arborist wanting skill, cut off armes,
boughes or branches an inch, or (as I see sometimes) an handfull, or
halfe a foot or more from the body: These so cut cannot couer in any
time with sap, and therefore they die, and dying they perish the heart,
and so the tree becomes hollow, and with such a deadly wound cannot liue

{SN: Remedy.}
The remedy is, if you find him before he be perished, cut him close, as
in the 11. Chapter: if he be hoald, cut him close, fill his wound, tho
neuer so deepe, with morter well tempered & so close at the top his
wound with a Seare-cloth doubled and nailed on, that no aire nor raine
approach his wound. If he be not very old, and detaining, he will
recouer, and the hole being closed, his wound within shall not hurt him
for many yeeres.

{SN: Hurts on trees.}
{SN: Ants, Earewigs, Caterpillars, and such like wormes.}
Hurts on your trees are chiefly Ants, Earewigs, and Caterpillars. Of
Ants and Earewigs is said Chap. 10. Let there be no swarme of Pismires
neere your tree-root, no not in your Orchard, turne them ouer in a
frost, and powre in water, and you kill them.

For Caterpillars, the vigilant Fruterer shall soone espy their lodging
by their web, or the decay of leaues eaten around about them. And being
seene, they are easily destroyed with your hand, or rather (if your tree
may spare it) take sprig and all: for the red peckled butterfly doth
euer put them, being her sparm, among the tender spraies for better
feeding, especially in drought, and tread them vnder your feet. I like
nothing of smoke among my trees. Vnnaturall heates are nothing good for
naturall trees. This for diseases of particular trees.

{SN: Externall euils.}
Externall hurts are either things naturall or artificiall. Naturall
things, externally hurting Orchards.

  1 Beasts.  1 Deere.      2 Birds.   1 Bulfinch.
             2 Goates.                2 Thrush.
             3 Sheepe.                3 Blackbird.
             4 Hare.                  4 Crow.
             5 Cony.                  5 Pye.
             6 Cattell.
             7 Horse.                   &c.

             _The other things are_,
                 1 Winds.
                 2 Cold.
                 3 Trees.
                 4 Weeds.
                 5 Wormes.
                 6 Mowles.
                 7 Filth.
                 8 Poysonfull smoke.

             _Externall wilfull euils are these._
                 1 Walls.
                 2 Trenches.
                 3 Other works noisome done in or neere your Orchard.
                 4 Euill Neighbours.
                 5 A carelesse Master.
                 6 An vndiscreet, negligent or no keeper.

See you here an whole Army of mischeifes banded in troupes against the
most fruitfull trees the earth beares? assailing your good labours. Good
things haue most enemies.

{SN: Remedy.}
A skilfull Fructerer must put so his helping hand, and disband and put
them to flight.

{SN: Deere, &c.}
For the first ranke of beasts, besides your out strong fence, you must
haue a faire and swift Greyhound, a stone-bow, gun, and if need require,
an Apple with an hooke for a Deere, and an Hare-pipe for an Hare.

{SN: Birds.}
Your Cherries and other Berris when they be ripe, will draw all the
Black-birds, Thrushes, and Maw Pies to your Orchard. The Bul-finch is a
deuourer of your Fruit in the bud, I haue had whole trees shald out with
them in Winter-time.

{SN: Remedy.}
The best remedy here is a Stone bow, a Piece, especially if you haue a
Musket or Spar-hawke in Winter to make the Black bird stoope into a bush
or hedge.

{SN: Other trees.}
The Gardner must cleanse his soile of all other trees: but fruit-trees
aforesaid Chapter 2 for which it is ordained, and I would especially
name Oakes, Elmes, Ashes, and such other great wood, but that I doubt it
should be taken as an admission of lesser trees: for I admit of nothing
to grow in mine Orchard but fruit and flowers. If sap can hardly be good
to feed our fruit-trees, why should we allow of any other, especially
those, that will becom their Masters, & wrong them in their liuelyhood.

{SN: Winds.}
{SN: Frosts.}
And although we admit without the fence of Wall-nuts in most plaine
places, Trees middle-most, and ashes or Okes, or Elmes vtmost, set in
comely rowes equally distant with faire Allies twixt row and row to
auoide the boisterous blasts of winds, and within them also others for
Bees; yet wee admit none of these into your Orchard-plat: other remedy
then this haue wee none against the nipping frosts.

{SN: Weeds.}
Weeds in a fertile soile (because the generall curse is so) till your
Trees grow great, will be noysome, and deforme your allies, walkes,
beds, and squares, your vnder Gardners must labour to keepe all cleanly
& handsome from them and all other filth with a Spade, weeding kniues,
rake with iron teeth: a skrapple of Iron thus formed.


For Nettles and ground-Iuy after a showre.

{SN: Remedy.}
When weeds, straw, stickes and all other scrapings are gathered
together, burne them not, but bury them vnder your crust in any place of
your Orchard, and they will dye and fatten your ground.

{SN: Wormes. Moales.}
Wormes and Moales open the earth, and let in aire to the roots of your
trees, and deforme your squares and walkes, and feeding in the earth,
being in number infinite, draw on barrennesse.

{SN: Remedy.}
Worms may be easily destroyed. Any Summer euening when it is darke,
after a showre with a candle, you may fill bushels, but you must tred
nimbly & where you cannot come to catch them so; sift the earth with
coale ashes an inch or two thicknes, and that is a plague to them, so is
sharpe grauell.

Moales will anger you, if your Gardner or some skilful Moale-catcher
ease you not, especially hauing made their fortresses among the roots of
your trees: you must watch her wel with a Moal spare, at morne, noon,
and night, when you see her vtmost hill, cast a Trench betwixt her and
her home (for she hath a principall mansion to dwell and breed in about
_Aprill_, which you may discerne by a principall hill, wherein you may
catch her, if you trench it round and sure, and watch well) or
wheresoeuer you can discerne a single passage (for such she hath) there
trench, and watch, and haue her.

{SN: Wilfull annoyances.}
Wilfull annoyances must be preuented and auoided by the loue of the
Master and Fruterer, which they beare to their Orchard.

{SN: Remedy.}
Iustice and liberality will put away euill neighbours or euill
neighbour-hood. And then if (God blesse and giue successe to your
labours) I see not what hurt your Orchard can sustaine.

CHAP. 14.

_Of the age of Trees._

{SN: The age of trees.}
It is to be considered: All this Treatise of trees tends to this end,
that men may loue and plant Orchards, whereunto there cannot be a better
inducement then that they know (or at least be perswaded) that all that
benefit they shall reape thereby, whether of pleasure or profit, shall
not be for a day or a moneth, or one, or many (but many hundreth)
yeeres. Of good things the greatest, and most durable is alwaies the
best. If therefore out of reason grounded vpon experience, it be made
(I thinke) manifest, but I am sure probable, that a fruit tree in such a
soile and site, as is described so planted and trimmed and kept, as is
afore appointed and duely foiled, shall dure 1000 yeeres, why should we
not take paines, and be at two or three yeeres charges (for vnder seuen
yeeres will an Orchard be perfected for the first planting, and in that
time be brought to fruit) to reape such a commodity and so long lasting.

{SN: Gathered by reason out of experience.}
Let no man thinke this to be strange, but peruse and consider the
reason. I haue Apple trees standing in my little Orchard, which I haue
knowne these forty yeeres, whose age before my time I cannot learne, it
is beyond memory, tho I haue enquired of diuers aged men of 80. yeeres
and vpwards: these trees although come into my possession very euill
ordered, mishapen, and one of them wounded to his heart, and that deadly
(for I know it will be his death) with a wound, wherein I might haue put
my foot in the heart of his bulke (now it is lesse) notwithstanding,
with that small regard they haue had since, they so like, that I assure
my selfe they are not come to their growth by more then 2. parts of 3.
which I discerne not onely by their owne growth, but also by comparing
them with the bulke of other trees. And I find them short (at least) by
so many parts in bignesse, although I know those other fruit-trees to
haue beene much hindred in their stature by euill guiding. Herehence I
gather thus.

{SN: Parts of a trees age.}
If my trees be a hundred yeeres old, and yet want two hundred of their
growth before they leaue encreasing, which make three hundred, then we
must needs resolue, that this three hundred yeere are but the third part
of a Trees life, because (as all things liuing besides) so trees must
haue allowed them for their increase one third, another third for their
stand, and a third part of time also for their decay. All which time of
a Tree amounts to nine hundred yeeres, three hundred for increase, three
hundred for his stand, whereof we haue the terme stature, and three
hundred for his decay, and yet I thinke (for we must coniecture by
comparing, because no one man liueth to see the full age of trees) I am
within the compasse of his age, supposing alwaies the foresaid meanes of
preseruing his life. Consider the age of other liuing creatures. The
Horse and moiled Oxe wrought to an vntimely death, yet double the time
of their increase. A Dog likewise increaseth three, stanns three at
least, end in as many (or rather moe) decayes.

{SN: Mans age.}
Euery liuing thing bestowes the least part of his age in his growth, and
so must it needs be with trees. A man comes not to his full growth and
strength (by common estimation) before thirty yeeres, and some slender
and cleane bodies, not till forty, so long also stands his strength, &
so long also must he haue allowed by course of nature to decay. Euer
supposing that he be well kept with necessaries, and from and without
straines, bruises, and all other dominyring diseases. I will not say
vpon true report, that Physicke holds it possible, that a cleane body
kept by these 3. Doctors, _Doctor Dyet_, _Doctor Quiet_, and _Doctor
Merriman_, may liue neere a hundred yeeres. Neither will I here vrge the
long yeeres of _Methushalah_, and those men of that time, because you
will say, Mans dayes are shortned since the floud. But what hath
shortned them? God for mans sinnes: but by meanes, as want of knowledge,
euill gouernment, ryot, gluttony, drunkenesse, and (to be short) the
encrease of the curse, our sinnes increasing in an iron and wicked age.

Now if a man, whose body is nothing (in a manner) but tender
rottennesse, whose course of life cannot by any meanes, by counsell,
restraint of Lawes, or punishment, nor hope of praise, profet, or
eturnall glory, be kept within any bounds, who is degenerate cleane from
his naturall feeding, to effeminate nicenesse, and cloying his body with
excesse of meate, drinke, sleepe &c. and to whom nothing is so pleasant
and so much desired as the causes of his owne death, as idlenesse, lust,
&c. may liue to that age: I see not but a tree of a solide substance,
not damnified by heate or cold, capable of, and subiect to any kinde of
ordering or dressing that a man shall apply vnto him, feeding naturally,
as from the beginning disburdened of all superfluities, eased of, and of
his owne accord auoiding the causes that may annoy him, should double
the life of a man, more then twice told; and yet naturall phylosophy,
and the vniuersall consent of all Histories tell vs, that many other
liuing creatures farre exceed man in the length of yeeres: As the Hart
and the Rauen. Thus reporteth that famous _Roterodam_ out of _Hesiodus_,
and many other Historiographers. The testimony of _Cicero_ in his booke
_De Senectute_, is weighty to this purpose: that we must _in posteras
ætates ferere arbores_, which can haue none other fence: but that our
fruit-trees whereof he speakes, can endure for many ages.

What else are trees in comparison with the earth: but as haires to the
body of a man? And it is certaine, without poisoning, euill and
distemperate dyet, and vsage, or other such forcible cause, the haires
dure with the body. That they be called excrements, it is by reason of
their superfluous growth: (for cut them as often as you list, and they
will still come to their naturall length) Not in respect of their
substance, and nature. Haires endure long, and are an ornament and vse
also to the body, as trees to the earth.

So that I resolue vpon good reason, that fruit-trees well ordered, may
liue and like a thousand yeeres, and beare fruit, and the longer, the
more, the greater, and the better, because his vigour is proud and
stronger, when his yeeres are many: You shall see old trees put their
buds and blossomes both sooner and more plentifully then young trees by
much. And I sensibly perceiue my young trees to inlarge their
fruit, as they grow greater, both for number and greatnesse.
Young Heifers bring not forth the Calues so faire, neither are they so
plentifull to milke, as when they become to be old Kine. No good
Houswife will breed of a young but of an old bird-mother: It is so in
all things naturally, therefore in trees.

{SN: The age of timber trees.}
And if fruit-trees last to this age, how many ages is it to be supposed,
strong and huge timber-trees will last? whose huge bodies require the
yeeres of diuers _Methushalaes_, before they end their dayes, whose sap
is strong and bitter, whose barke is hard and thicke, and their
substance solid and stiffe: all which are defences of health and long
life. Their strength withstands all forcible winds, their sap of that
quality is not subiect to wormes and tainting. Their barke receiues
seldome or neuer by casualty any wound. And not onely so, but he is free
from remoualls, which are the death of millions of trees, where as the
fruit-tree in comparison is little, and often blowne downe, his sap
sweet, easily and soone tainted, his barke tender, and soone wounded,
and himselfe vsed by man, as man vseth himselfe, that is either
vnskilfully or carelessely.

{SN: Age of trees discerned.}
It is good for some purposes to regard the age of your fruit trees,
which you may easily know, till they come to accomplish twenty yeeres,
by his knots: Reckon from his root vp an arme and so to hys top-twig,
and euery yeeres growth is distinguished from other by a knot, except
lopping or remouing doe hinder.

CHAP. 15.

_Of gathering and keeping Fruit._

{SN: Generall Rule.}
{SN: Cherries, &c.}
Although it be an easie matter, when God shall send it, to gather and
keepe fruit, yet are they certaine things worthy your regard. You must
gather your fruit when it is ripe, and not before, else will it wither
and be tough and sowre. All fruit generally are ripe, when they beginne
to fall. For Trees doe as all other bearers doe, when their yong ones
are ripe, they will waine them. The Doue her Pigeons, the Cony her
Rabbets, and women their children. Some fruit tree sometimes getting a
taint in the setting with a frost or euill wind, will cast his fruit
vntimely, but not before he leaue giuing them sap, or they leaue
growing. Except from this foresaid rule, Cherries, Damsons and Bullies.
The Cherry is ripe when he is sweld wholy red, and sweet: Damsons and
Bulies not before the first frost.

{SN: Apples.}
Apples are knowne to be ripe, partly by their colour, growing towards a
yellow, except the Leather-coat and some Peares and Greening.

{SN: When.}
Timely Summer fruit will be ready, some at Midsummer, most at Lammus for
present vse; but generally noe keeping fruit before _Michal-tide_. Hard
Winter fruit and Wardens longer.

{SN: Dry stalkes.}
Gather at the full of the Moone for keeping, gather dry for feare of

Gather the stalkes with all: for a little wound in fruit, is deadly: but
not the stumpe, that must beare the next fruit, nor leaues, for moisture

{SN: Seuerally.}
Gather euery kind seuerally by it selfe, for all will not keepe alike,
and it is hard to discerne them, when they are mingled.

{SN: Ouerladen trees.}
If your trees be ouer-laden (as they will be, being ordered, as is
before taught you) I like better of pulling some off (tho they be not
ripe) neere the top end of the bough, then of propping by much, the rest
shall be better fed. Propping puts the bough in danger, and frets it at

{SN: Instruments.}
{SN: Bruises.}
Instruments: A long ladder of light Firre: A stoole-ladder as in the 11.
Chapter. A gathering apron like a poake before you, made of purpose, or
a Wallet hung on a bough, or a basket with a siue bottome, or skinne
bottome, with Lathes or splinters vnder, hung in a rope to pull vp and
downe: bruise none, euery bruise is to fruit death: if you doe, vse them
presently. An hooke to pull boughs to you is necessary, breake no

{SN: Keeping.}
For keeping, lay them in a dry Loft, the longest keeping Apples first
and furthest on dry straw, on heapes ten or fourteene dayes, thicke,
that they may sweat. Then dry them with a soft and cleane cloth, and lay
them thinne abroad. Long keeping fruit would be turned once in a moneth
softly: but not in nor immediately after frost. In a loft couer well
with straw, but rather with chaffe or branne: For frost doth cause
tender rottennesse.

CHAP. 16.

_Of Profits._

Now pause with your selfe, and view the end of all your labours in an
Orchard: vnspeakable pleasure, and infinite commodity. The pleasure of
an Orchard I referre to the last Chapter for the conclusion: and in this
Chapter, a word or two of the profit, which thorowly to declare is past
my skill: and I count it as if a man should attempt to adde light to the
Sunne with a Candle, or number the Starres. No man that hath but a meane
Orchard or iudgement but knowes, that the commodity of an Orchard is
great: Neither would I speake of this, being a thing so manifest to all;
but that I see, that through the carelesse lazinesse of men, it is a
thing generally neglected. But let them know, that they lose hereby the
chiefest good which belongs to house-keeping.

Compare the commodity that commeth of halfe an acre of ground, set with
fruit-trees and hearbs, so as is prescribed, and an whole acre (say it
be two) with Corne, or the best commodity you can wish, and the
Orchard shall exceed by diuers degrees.

{SN: Cydar and Perry.}
In _France_ and some other Countries, and in _England_, they make great
vse of Cydar and Perry, thus made: Dresse euery Apple, the stalke, vpper
end, and all galles away, stampe them, and straine them, and within 24.
houres tun them vp into cleane, sweet, and sound vessels, for feare of
euill ayre, which they will readily take: and if you hang a poakefull of
Cloues, Mace, Nutmegs, Cinamon, Ginger, and pils of Lemmons in the midst
of the vessell, it will make it as wholesome and pleasant as wine. The
like vsage doth Perry require.

These drinks are very wholesome, they coole, purge, and preuent hot
Agues. But I leaue this skill to Physicians.

{SN: Fruit.}
The benefit of your Fruit, Roots and Hearbs, though it were but to eate
and sell, is much.

{SN: Waters.}
Waters distilled of Roses, Woodbind, Angelica, are both profitable and
wondrous pleasant, and comfortable.

{SN: Conserue.}
Saffron and Licoras will yeeld you much Conserues and Preserues, are
ornaments to your Feasts, health in your sicknesse, and a good helpe to
your friend, and to your purse.

He that will not be moued with such vnspeakable profits, is well worthy
to want, when others abound in plenty of good things.

CHAP. 17.


Me thinks hitherto we haue but a bare Orchard for fruit, and but halfe
good, so long as it wants those comely Ornaments, that should giue
beauty to all our labours, and make much for the honest delight of the
owner and his friends.

{SN: Delight the chiefe end of Orchards.}
{SN: An Orchard delightsome.}
{SN: An Orchard is Paradise.}
{SN: Causes of wearisomnesse.}
{SN: Orchard is the remedy.}
For it is not to be doubted: but as God hath giuen man things
profitable, so hath he allowed him honest comfort, delight, and
recreation in all the workes of his hands. Nay, all his labours vnder
the Sunne without this are troubles, and vexation of mind: For what is
greedy gaine, without delight, but moyling, and turmoyling in slauery?
But comfortable delight, with content, is the good of euery thing, and
the patterne of heauen. A morsell of bread with comfort, is better by
much then a fat Oxe with vnquietnesse. And who can deny, but the
principall end of an Orchard, is the honest delight of one wearied with
the works of his lawfull calling? The very workes of, and in an Orchard
and Garden, are better then the ease and rest of and from other labours.
When God had made man after his owne Image, in a perfect state, and
would haue him to represent himselfe in authority, tranquillity, and
pleasure vpon the earth, he placed him in _Paradise_. What was
_Paradise_? but a Garden and Orchard of trees and hearbs, full of
pleasure? and nothing there but delights. The gods of the earth,
resembling the great God of heauen in authority, Maiestie, and abundance
of all things, wherein is their most delight? and whither doe they
withdraw themselues from the troublesome affaires of their estate, being
tyred with the hearing and iudging of litigious Controuersies? choked
(as it were) with the close ayres of their sumptuous buildings, their
stomacks cloyed with variety of Banquets, their eares filled and
ouerburthened with tedious discoursings? whither? but into their
Orchards? made and prepared, dressed and destinated for that purpose, to
renue and refresh their sences, and to call home their ouer-wearied
spirits. Nay, it is (no doubt) a comfort to them, to set open their
Cazements into a most delicate Garden and Orchard, whereby they may not
onely see that, wherein they are so much delighted, but also to giue
fresh, sweet, and pleasant ayre to their Galleries and Chambers.

{SN: All delight in Orchards.}
And looke, what these men do by reason of their greatnes and ability,
prouoked with delight, the same doubtlesse would euery of vs doe, if
power were answerable to our desires, whereby we shew manifestly, that
of all other delights on earth, they that are taken by Orchards, are
most excellent, and most agreeing with nature.

{SN: This delights all the senses.}
For whereas euery other pleasure commonly filles some one of our senses,
and that onely, with delight, this makes all our sences swimme in
pleasure, and that with infinite variety, ioyned with no lesse

{SN: Delighteth old age.}
That famous _Philosopher_, and matchlesse Orator, _M.T.C._ prescribeth
nothing more fit, to take away the tediousnesse and heauy load of three
or foure score yeeres, then the pleasure of an Orchard.

{SN: Causes of delight in an Orchard.}
What can your eye desire to see, your eares to hear, your mouth to tast,
or your nose to smell, that is not to be had in an Orchard, with
abundance and variety? What more delightsome then an infinite variety of
sweet smelling flowers? decking with sundry colours, the greene mantle
of the Earth, the vniuersall Mother of vs all, so by them bespotted, so
dyed, that all the world cannot sample them, and wherein it is more fit
to admire the Dyer, then imitate his workemanship. Colouring not onely
the earth, but decking the ayre, and sweetning euery breath and spirit.

{SN: Flowers.}
The Rose red, damaske, veluet, and double double prouince Rose, the
sweet muske Rose double and single, the double and single white Rose.
The faire and sweet senting Woodbinde, double and single, and double
double. Purple Cowslips, and double Cowslips, and double double
Cowslips. Primerose double and single. The Violet nothing behinde the
best, for smelling sweetly. A thousand more will prouoke your content.

{SN: Borders and squares.}
And all these, by the skill of your Gardner, so comely, and orderly
placed in your Borders and Squares, and so intermingled, that none
looking thereon, cannot but wonder, to see, what Nature corrected by Art
can doe.

{SN: Mounts.}
{SN: Whence you may shoote a Bucke.}
{SN: Dyall.}
{SN: Musique.}
When you behold in diuers corners of your Orchard _Mounts_ of stone, or
wood curiously wrought within and without, or of earth couered with
fruit-trees: Kentish Cherry, Damsons, Plummes, &c. with staires of
precious workmanship. And in some corner (or moe) a true Dyall or Clocke
and some Anticke-workes and especially siluer-sounding Musique, mixt
Instruments and voices, gracing all the rest: How will you be rapt with

{SN: Walkes.}
{SN: Seates.}
Large Walkes, broad and long, close and open, like the _Tempe_ groues in
_Thessalie_, raised with grauell and sand, hauing seats and bankes of
Cammomile, all this delights the minde, and brings health to the body.

{SN: Order of trees.}
View now with delight the workes of your owne hands, your fruit-trees of
all sorts, loaden with sweet blossomes, and fruit of all tasts,
operations, and colours: your trees standing in comely order which way
soeuer you looke.

{SN: Shape of men and beasts.}
Your borders on euery side hanging and drooping with Feberries,
Raspberries, Barberries, Currens, and the rootes of your trees powdred
with Strawberries, red, white, and greene, what a pleasure is this? Your
Gardner can frame your lesser wood to the shape of men armed in the
field, ready to giue battell: or swift running Greyhounds: or of well
sented and true running Hounds, to chase the Deere, or hunt the Hare.
This kind of hunting shall not waste your corne, nor much your coyne.

{SN: Mazes.}
Mazes well framed a mans height, may perhaps make your friend wander in
gathering of berries, till he cannot recouer himselfe without your

{SN: Bowle-Alley.}
{SN: Buts.}
To haue occasion to exercise within your Orchard: it shall be a pleasure
to haue a Bowling Alley, or rather (which is more manly, and more
healthfull) a paire of Buts, to stretch your armes.

{SN: Hearbes.}
Rosemary and sweete Eglantine are seemely ornaments about a Doore or
Window, and so is Woodbinde.

{SN: Conduit.}
Looke Chapter 5, and you shall see the forme of a Conduite. If there
were two or more, it were not amisse.

{SN: Riuer.}
{SN: Moats.}
And in mine opinion, I could highly commend your Orchard, if either
through it, or hard by it there should runne a pleasant Riuer with
siluer streames; you might sit in your Mount, and angle a peckled Trout,
or fleightie Eele, or some other dainty Fish. Or moats, whereon you
might row with a Boate, and fish with Nettes.

{SN: Bees.}
Store of Bees in a dry and warme Bee-house, comely made of Fir-boords,
to sing, and sit, and feede vpon your flowers and sprouts, make a
pleasant noyse and sight. For cleanely and innocent Bees, of all other
things, loue and become, and thriue in an Orchard. If they thriue (as
they must needes, if your Gardiner bee skilfull, and loue them: for they
loue their friends, and hate none but their enemies) they will, besides
the pleasure, yeeld great profit, to pay him his wages Yea, the increase
of twenty Stockes or Stooles, with other fees will keepe your Orchard.

You need not doubt their stings, for they hurt not whom they know, and
they know their keeper and acquaintance. If you like not to come amongst
them, you need not doubt them: for but neere their store, and in their
owne defence, they will not fight, and in that case onely (and who can
blame them?) they are manly, and fight desperately. Some (as that
Honorable Lady at _Hacknes_, whose name doth much grace mine Orchard)
vse to make seates for them in the stone wall of their Orchard, or
Garden, which is good, but wood is better.

{SN: Vine.}
A Vine ouer-shadowing a seate, is very comely, though her Grapes with vs
ripe slowly.

{SN: Birds.}
{SN: Nightingale.}
{SN: Robin-red-brest.}
{SN: Wren.}
One chiefe grace that adornes an Orchard, I cannot let slip: A brood of
Nightingales, who with their seuerall notes and tunes, with a strong
delightsome voyce, out of a weake body, will beare you company night and
day. She loues (and liues in) hots of woods in her hart. She will helpe
you to cleanse your trees of Caterpillers, and all noysome wormes and
flyes. The gentle Robin-red-brest will helpe her, and in winter in the
coldest stormes will keepe a part. Neither will the silly Wren be behind
in Summer, with her distinct whistle (like a sweete Recorder) to cheere
your spirits.

{SN: Black-bird.}
{SN: Thrush.}
The Black-bird and Threstle (for I take it the Thrush sings not, but
deuoures) sing loudly in a _May_ morning and delights the eare much (and
you neede not want their company, if you haue ripe Cherries or Berries,
and would as gladly as the rest do you pleasure:) But I had rather want
their company than my fruit.

What shall I say? A thousand of pleasant delightes are attendant in an
Orchard: and sooner shall I be weary, then I can recken the least part
of that pleasure, which one that hath and loues an Orchard, may find

What is there of all these few that I haue reckoned, which doth not
please the eye, the eare, the smell, and taste? And by these sences as
Organes, Pipes, and windowes, these delights are carried to refresh the
gentle, generous, and noble mind.

{SN: Your owne labour.}
To conclude, what ioy may you haue, that you liuing to such an age,
shall see the blessings of God on your labours while you liue, and leaue
behind you to heires or successors (for God will make heires) such a
worke, that many ages after your death, shall record your loue to their
Countrey? And the rather, when you consider (_Chap. 14._) to what length
of time your worke is like to last.



_Containing Rules for Hearbs and Seedes_ of common vse, with their times
and seasons, when to set and sow them.


With the Husbandry of Bees, published with secrets _very necessary for
euery House-wife_.

As also diuerse new Knots for Gardens.

The Contents see at large in the last Page.

Genes. 2. 29.

_I haue giuen vnto you euery Herbe, and euery tree, that shall be to you
for meate._



Printed by _Nicholas Okes_ for IOHN HARISON, at the golden Vnicorne in
Pater-noster-row. 1631.


CHAP. 1.

_The Soyle._

{SN: Dry.}
{SN: Hops.}
The soyle of an Orchard and Garden, differ onely in these three points:
First, the Gardens soyle would be somewhat dryer, because hearbes being
more tender then trees, can neither abide moisture nor drought, in such
excessiue measure, as trees; and therefore hauing a dryer soyle, the
remedy is easie against drought, if need be: water soundly, which may be
done with small labour, the compasse of a Garden being nothing so great,
as of an Orchard, and this is the cause (if they know it) that Gardners
raise their squares: but if moysture trouble you, I see no remedy
without a generall danger, except in Hops, which delight much in a low
and sappy earth.

{SN: Plaine.}
Secondly, the soyle of a Garden would be plaine and leuell, at least
euery square (for we purpose the square to be the fittest forme) the
reason: the earth of a garden wanting such helpes, as should stay the
water, which an orchard hath, and the rootes of hearbes being short, and
not able to fetch their liquor from the bottome, are more annoyed by
drought, and the soyle being mellow and loose, is soone either washt
away, or sends out his heart by too much drenching and washing.

Thirdly, if a garden soyle be not cleere of weedes, and namely, of
grasse, the hearbes shall neuer thriue: for how should good hearbes
prosper, when euill weeds waxe so fast: considering good hearbes are
tender in respect of euill weedes: these being strengthened by nature,
and the other by art? Gardens haue small place in comparison, and
therefore may be more easily be fallowed, at the least one halfe yeare
before, and the better dressed after it is framed. And you shall finde
that cleane keeping doth not onely auoide danger of gathering weedes,
but also is a speciall ornament, and leaues more plentifull sap for your
tender hearbes.

CHAP. 2.

_Of the Sites._

I cannot see in any sort, how the site of the one should not be good,
and fit for the other: The ends of both being one, good, wholesome, and
much fruit ioyned with delight, vnlesse trees be more able to abide the
nipping frostes than tender hearbes: but I am sure, the flowers of trees
are as soone perished with cold, as any hearbe except Pumpions, and

CHAP. 3.

_Of the Forme._

Let that which is sayd in the Orchards forme, suffice for a garden in
generall: but for speciall formes in squares, they are as many, as there
are diuices in Gardners braines. Neither is the wit and art of a
skilfull Gardner in this poynt not to be commended, that can worke more
variety for breeding of more delightsome choyce, and of all those
things, where the owner is able and desirous to be satisfied. The number
of formes, Mazes and Knots is so great, and men are so diuersly
delighted, that I leaue euery House-wife to her selfe, especially seeing
to set downe many, had bene but to fill much paper; yet lest I depriue
her of all delight and direction, let her view these few, choyse, new
formes, and note this generally, that all plots are square, and all are
bordered about with Priuit, Raisins, Fea-berries, Roses, Thorne,
Rosemary, Bee-flowers, Isop, Sage, or such like.

{Illustration: The ground plot for Knots.}

{Illustration: Cinkfoyle.}

{Illustration: Flower-deluce.}

{Illustration: The Trefoyle.}

{Illustration: The Fret.}

{Illustration: Lozenges.}

{Illustration: Crosse-bow.}

{Illustration: Diamond.}

{Illustration: Ouall.}

{Illustration: Maze.}

CHAP. 4.

_Of the Quantity._

A Garden requireth not so large a scope of ground as an Orchard, both in
regard of the much weeding, dressing and remouing, and also the paines
in a Garden is not so well repaied home, as in an Orchard. It is to be
graunted, that the Kitchin garden doth yeeld rich gaines by berries,
roots, cabbages, &c. yet these are no way comparable to the fruits of a
rich Orchard: but notwithstanding I am of opinion, that it were better
for _England_, that we had more Orchards and Gardens, and more large.
And therefore we leaue the quantity to euery mans ability and will.

CHAP. 5.

_Of Fence._

Seeing we allow Gardens in Orchard plots, and the benefit of a Garden is
much, they both require a strong and shrowding fence. Therefore leauing
this, let vs come to the hearbes themselues, which must be the fruit of
all these labours.

CHAP. 6.

_Of two Gardens._

Hearbes are of two sorts, and therefore it is meete (they requiring
diuers manners of Husbandry) that we haue two Gardens: A garden for
flowers, and a Kitchen garden: or a Summer garden: not that we meane so
perfect a distinction, that the Garden for flowers should or can be
without hearbes good for the Kitchen, or the Kitchen garden should want
flowers, nor on the contrary: but for the most part they would be
seuered: first, because your Garden flowers shall suffer some disgrace,
if among them you intermingle Onions, Parsnips, &c. Secondly, your
Garden that is durable, must be of one forme: but that, which is for
your Kitchens vse, must yeeld daily rootes, or other hearbes, and suffer
deformity. Thirdly, the hearbs of both will not be both alike ready, at
one time, either for gathering, or remouing. First therefore

_Of the Summer Garden._

These hearbs and flowers are comely and durable for squares and knots
and all to set at _Michael-tide_, or somewhat before, that they may be
setled in, and taken with the ground before winter, though they may be
set, especially sowne in the spring.

Roses of all sorts (spoken of in the Orchard) must be set. Some vie to
set slips and twine them, which sometimes, but seldome thriue all.

Rosemary, Lauender, Bee-flowers, Isop, Sage, Time, Cowslips, Pyony,
Dasies, Cloue Gilliflowers, Pinkes, Sothernwood, Lillies, of all which

_Of the Kitchen Garden._

Though your Garden for flowers doth in a sort peculiarly challenge to it
seise a profit, and exquisite forme to the eyes, yet you may not
altogether neglect this, where your hearbes for the pot do growe. And
therefore, some here make comely borders with the hearbes aforesayd. The
rather because aboundance of Roses and Lauender yeeld much profit, and
comfort to the sences: Rose-water and Lauender, the one cordial (as also
the Violets, Burrage, and Buglas) the other reuiuing the spirits by the
sence of smelling: both most durable for smell, both in flowers and
water: you need not here raise your beds, as in the other garden,
because Summer towards, will not let too much wet annoy you.

And these hearbes require more moysture: yet must you haue your beds
diuided, that you may goe betwixt to weede, and somewhat forme would be
expected: To which it auaileth, that you place your herbes of biggest
growth, by walles, or in borders, as Fenell, &c. and the lowest in the
middest, as Saffron, Strawberries, Onions, &c.

CHAP. 7.

_Diuision of hearbs._

Garden hearbs are innumerable, yet these are common and sufficient for
our country House-wifes.

_Hearbs of greatest growth._

Fenell, Anglica, Tansie, Hollihock, Louage, Elly Campane, French
mallows, Lillies, French poppy, Endiue, Succory and Clary.

_Herbes of middle growth._

Burrage, Buglas, Parsley, sweet Sicilly, Floure-de-luce, Stocke
Gilliflowers, Wall-flowers, Anniseedes, Coriander, Feather fewell,
Marigolds, Oculus Christi, Langdibeefe, Alexanders, Carduus Benedictus.

_Hearbes of smallest growth._

Pansy, or Harts-ease, Coast Margeram, Sauery, Strawberries, Saffron,
Lycoras, Daffadowndillies, Leekes, Chiues, Chibals, Skerots, Onions,
Batchellors buttons, Dasies, Peniroyall.

Hitherto I haue onely reckoned vp, and put in this ranke, some hearbs.
Their Husbandry follow each in an Alphabeticall order, the better to be

CHAP. 8.

_Husbandry of Herbes._

_Alexanders_ are to be renewed as _Angelica_. It is a timely Pot-hearbe.

_Anglica_ is renued with his seede, whereof he beareth plenty the second
yeare, and so dieth. You may remoue the rootes the first yeare. The
leaues distilled, yeeld water soueraigne to expell paine from the
stomacke. The roote dried taken in the fall, stoppeth the poares against

_Annyseedes_ make their growth, and beareth seeds the first yeere, and
dieth as _Coriander_: it is good for opening the pipes, and it is vsed
in Comfits.

_Artichoakes_ are renewed by diuiding the rootes into sets, in _March_,
euery third or fourth yeare. They require a seuerall vsage, and
therefore a seuerall whole plot by themselues, especially considering
they are plentifull of fruite much desired.

_Burrage_ and _Buglas_, two Cordials, renue themselues by seed yearely,
which is hard to be gathered: they are exceeding good Pot-hearbes, good
for Bees, and most comfortable for the heart and stomacke, as Quinces
and Wardens.

_Camomile_, set rootes in bankes and walkes. It is sweete smelling,
qualifying head-ach.

_Cabbages_ require great roome, they seed the second yeare: sow them in
_February_, remoue them when the plants are an handfull long, set deepe
and wet. Looke well in drought for the white Caterpillers worme, the
spaunes vnder the leafe closely; for euery liuing Creature doth seeke
foode and quiet shelter, and growing quicke, they draw to, and eate the
heart: you may finde them in a rainy deawy morning.

It is a good Pothearbe, and of this hearbe called _Cole_ our Countrie
House-wiues giue their pottage their name, and call them _Caell_.

_Carduus Benedictus_, or blessed thistle, seeds and dyes the first
yeere, the excellent vertue thereof I referre to Herbals, for we are
Gardiners, not Physitians.

_Carrets_ are sowne late in _Aprill_ or _May_, as Turneps, else they
seede the first yeere, and then their roots are naught: the second yeere
they dye, their roots grow great, and require large roome.

_Chibals_ or _Chiues_ haue their roots parted, as Garlick, Lillies, &c.
and so are they set euery third or fourth yeere: a good pot-hearb
opening, but euill for the eies.

_Clarie_ is sowne, it seeds the second yeere, and dyes. It is somewhat
harsh in taste, a little in pottage is good, it strengtheneth the

_Coast_, Roote parted make sets in _March_: it beares the second yeere:
it is vsed in Ale in _May_.

_Coriander_ is for vsage and vses, much like Anniseeds.

_Daffadowndillies_ haue their roots parted, and set once in three or
foure yeere, or longer time. They flower timely, and after _Midsummer_,
are scarcely seene. They are more for ornament, then for vse, so are

_Daisie_-rootes parted and set, as Flowre-deluce and Camomile, when you
see them grow too thicke or decay. They be good to keepe vp, and
strengthen the edges of your borders, as Pinkes, they be red, white,

_Ellycampane_ root is long lasting, as is the Louage, it seeds yeerely,
you may diuide the root, and set the roote, taken in VVinter it is good
(being dryed, powdered and drunke) to kill itches.

_Endiue_ and _Succory_ are much like in nature, shape, and vse, they
renue themselues by seed, as Fennell, and other hearbs. You may remoue
them before they put forth shankes, a good Pot-hearbe.

_Fennell_ is renued, either by the seeds (which it beareth the second
yeere, and so yeerely in great abundance) sowne in the fall or Spring,
or by diuiding one root into many Sets, as Artichoke, it is long of
growth and life. You may remoue the roote vnshankt. It is exceeding
good for the eyes, distilled, or any otherwise taken: it is vsed in
dressing Hiues for swarmes, a very good Pot-hearbe, or for Sallets.

_Fetherfewle_ shakes seed. Good against a shaking Feuer, taken in a
posset drinke fasting.

_Flower-deluce_, long lasting. Diuide his roots, and set: the roots
dryed haue a sweet smell.

_Garlicke_ may be set an handfull distance, two inches deepe, in the
edge of your beds. Part the heads into seuerall cloues, and euery cloue
set in the latter end of _February_, will increase to a great head
before _September_: good for opening, euill for eyes: when the blade is
long, fast two & two together, the heads will be bigger.

_Hollyhocke_ riseth high, seedeth and dyeth: the chiefe vse I know is

_Isop_ is reasonable long lasting: young roots are good set, slips
better. A good pot-hearbe.

_Iuly-flowers_, commonly called _Gilly-flowers_, or _Cloue-Iuly-flowers_
(I call them so, because they flowre in _Iuly_) they haue the name of
_Cloues_, of their sent. I may well call them the King of flowers
(except the Rose) and the best sort of them are called _Queene-Iuly
flowers_. I haue of them nine or ten seuerall colours, and diuers of
them as big as Roses; of all flowers (saue the Damaske Rose) they are
the most pleasant to sight and smell: they last not past three or foure
yeeres vnremoued. Take the slips (without shanks) and set any time, saue
in extreme frost, but especially at _Michael tide_. Their vse is much in
ornament, and comforting the spirits, by the sence of smelling.

_Iuly flowers_ of the wall, or wall-_Iuly-flowers_, wall-flowers, or
Bee-flowers, or Winter-_Iuly-flowers_, because growing in the walles,
euen in Winter, and good for Bees, will grow euen in stone walls, they
will seeme dead in Summer, and yet reuiue in Winter. They yeeld seed
plentifully, which you may sow at any time, or in any broken earth,
especially on the top of a mud-wall, but moist, you may set the root
before it be brancht, euery slip that is not flowr'd will take root, or
crop him in Summer, and he will flower in Winter: but his Winter-seed is
vntimely. This and Palmes are exceeding good, and timely for Bees.

_Leekes_ yeeld seed the second yeere, vnremoued and die, vnlesse you
remoue them, vsuall to eate with salt and bread, as Onyons alwaies
greene, good pot-hearb, euill for the eyes.

_Lauendar spike_ would be remoued within 7 yeeres, or eight at the most.
Slips twined as Isop and Sage, would take best at _Michael-tide_. This
flower is good for Bees, most comfortable for smelling, except Roses;
and kept dry, is as strong after a yeere, and when it is gathered. The
water of this is comfortable.

White _Lauendar_ would be remoued sooner.

_Lettice_ yeelds seed the first yeere, and dyes: sow betime, and if you
would haue them _Cabbage_ for Sallets, remoue them as you doe _Cabbage_.
They are vsuall in Sallets, and the pot.

_Lillies_ white and red, remoued once in three or foure yeeres their
roots yeeld many Sets, like the Garlicke, _Michael-tide_ is the best:
they grow high, after they get roote: these roots are good to breake a
Byle, as are Mallowes and Sorrell.

_Mallowes_, French or gagged, the first or second yeere, seed
plentifully: sow in _March_, or before, they are good for the
house-wifes pot, or to breake a bunch.

_Marigolds_ most commonly come of seed, you may remoue the Plants, when
they be two inches long. The double Marigold, being as bigge as a little
Rose, is good for shew. They are a good Pot-hearbe.

_Oculus Christi_, or Christs eye, seeds and dyes the first or second
yeere: you may remoue the yong Plants, but seed is better: one of these
seeds put into the eye, within three or foure houres will gather a
thicke skinne, cleere the eye, and bolt it selfe forth without hurt to
the eye. A good Pot-hearbe.

_Onyons_ are sowne in _February_, they are gathered at _Michael-tide_,
and all the Summer long, for Sallets; as also young Parsly, Sage,
Chibals, Lettice, sweet Sicily, Fennell, &c. good alone, or with meate
as Mutton, &c. for sauce, especially for the pot.

_Parsly_ sow the first yeere, and vse the next yeere: it seedes
plentifully, an hearbe of much vse, as sweet Sicily is. The seed and
roots are good against the Stone.

_Parsneps_ require and whole plot, they be plentifull and common: sow
them in _February_, the Kings (that is in the middle) seed broadest and
reddest. Parsneps are sustenance for a strong stomacke, not good for
euill eies: When they couer the earth in a drought, to tread the tops,
make the rootes bigger.

_Peny-royall_, or Pudding Grasse, creepes along the ground like ground
Iuie. It lasts long, like Daisies, because it puts and spreads dayly new
roots. Diuide, and remoue the roots, it hath a pleasant taste and smell,
good for the pot, or hackt meate, or Haggas Pudding.

_Pumpions_: Set seedes with your finger, a finger deepe, late in
_March_, and so soone as they appeare, euery night if you doubt frost,
couer them, and water them continually out of a water-pot: they be very
tender, their fruit is great and waterish.

_French poppy_ beareth a faire flower, and the Seed will make you

_Raddish_ is sauce for cloyed stomacks, as Capers, Oliues, and
Cucumbers, cast the seeds all Summer long here and there, and you shall
haue them alwaies young and fresh.

_Rosemary_, the grace of hearbs here in _England_, in other Countries
common. To set slips immediately after _Lammas_, is the surest way.
Seede sowne may proue well, so they be sowne in hot weather, somewhat
moist, and good earth: for the hearbe, though great, is nesh and tender
(as I take it) brought from hot Countries to vs in the cold North: set
thinne. It becomes a Window well. The vse is much in meates, more in
Physicke, most for Bees.

_Rue, or Hearbe of Grace_, continually greene, the slips are set. It
lasts long as Rosemary, Sothernwood, &c. too strong for mine Housewifes
pot, vnlesse she will brue Ale therewith, against the Plague: let him
not seede, if you will haue him last.

_Saffron_ euery third yeere his roots would be remoued at _Midsummer_:
for when all other hearbs grow most, it dyeth. It flowreth at
_Michael-tide_, and groweth all Winter: keepe his flowers from birds in
the morning, & gather the yellow (or they shape much like Lillies) dry,
and after dry them: they be precious, expelling diseases from the heart
and stomacke.

_Sauery_ seeds and dyes the first yeere, good for my Housewifes pot and

_Sage_: set slips in _May_, and they grow aye: Let it not seed it will
last the longer. The vse is much and common. The Monkish Prouerbe is

     _Cur moritur homo, cum saluia crescit in horto?_

_Skerots_, roots are set when they be parted, as _Pyonie_, and
Flower-deluce at _Michael-tide_: the roote is but small and very sweet.
I know none other speciall vse but the Table.

Sweet _Sicily_, long lasting, pleasantly tasting, either the seed sowne,
or the root parted, and remoued, makes increase, it is of like vse with

_Strawberries_ long lasting, set roots at _Michael-tide_ or the Spring,
they be red, white and greene, and ripe, when they be great and soft,
some by _Midsummer_ with vs. The vse is: they will coole my Housewife
well, if they be put in Wine or Creame with Sugar.

_Time_, both seeds, slips and rootes are good. If it seed not, it will
last three or foure yeeres or more, it smelleth comfortably. It hath
much vse: namely, in all cold meats, it is good for Bees.

_Turnep_ is sowne. In the second yeere they beare plenty of seed: they
require the same time of sowing that Carrets doe: they are sicke of the
same disease that Cabbages be. The roots increaseth much, it is most
wholesome, if it be sowne in a good and well tempered earth: Soueraigne
for eyes and Bees.

I reckon these hearbs onely, because I teach my Countrey Housewife, not
skilfull Artists, and it should be an endlesse labour, and would make
the matter tedious to reckon vp _Landtheefe_, _Stocke-Iuly-flowers_,
_Charuall_, _Valerian_, _Go-to bed at noone_, _Piony_, _Licoras_,
_Tansie_, _Garden mints_, _Germander_, _Centaurie_, and a thousand such
physicke Hearbs. Let her first grow cunning in this, and then she may
enlarge her Garden as her skill and ability increaseth. And to helpe her
the more, I haue set her downe these obseruations.

CHAP. 9.

_Generall Rules in Gardening._

In the South parts Gardening may be more timely, and more safely done,
then with vs in _Yorkeshire_, because our ayre is not so fauourable, nor
our ground so good.

2 Secondly most seeds shakt, by turning the good earth, are renued,
their mother the earth keeping them in her bowels, till the Sunne their
Father can reach them with his heat.

3 In setting hearbs, leaue no top more then an handfull aboue the
ground, nor more then a foot vnder the earth.

4 Twine the roots of those slips you set, if they will abide it.
Gilly-flowers are too tender.

5 Set moist, and sowe dry.

6 Set slips without shankes any time, except at _Midsummer_, and in

7 Seeding spoiles the most roots, as drawing the heart and sap from the

8 Gather for the pot and medicines, hearbs tender and greene, the sap
being in the top, but in Winter the root is best.

9 All the hearbs in the Garden for flowers, would once in seuen yeeres
be renued, or soundly watered with puddle water, except Rosemary.

10 In all your Gardens and Orchards, bankes and seates of Camomile,
Peny-royall, Daisies and Violets, are seemely and comfortable.

11 These require whole plots: Artichokes, Cabbages, Turneps, Parsneps,
Onyons, Carrets, and (if you will) Saffron and Scerrits.

12 Gather all your seeds, dead, ripe, and dry.

13 Lay no dung to the roots of your hearbs, as vsually they doe: for
dung not melted is too hot, euen for trees.

14 Thin setting and sewing (so the rootes stand not past a foot
distance) is profitable, for the hearbs will like the better. Greater
hearbs would haue more distance.

15 Set and sow hearbs in their time of growth (except at _Midsummer_,
for then they are too too tender) but trees in their time of rest.

16 A good Housewife may, and will gather store of hearbs for the pot,
about _Lammas_, and dry them, and pownd them, and in Winter they will
make good seruice.

Thus haue I lined out a Garden to our Countrey Housewiues, and giuen
them rules for common hearbs. If any of them (as sometimes they are) be
knotty, I referre them to Chap. 3. The skill and paines of weeding the
Garden with weeding kniues or fingers, I refer to themselues, and their
maides, willing them to take the opportunitie after a showre of raine:
withall I aduise the Mistresse, either be present her selfe, or to teach
her maides to know hearbs from weeds.

CHAP. 10.

_The Husbandry of Bees._

There remaineth one necessary thing to be prescribed, which in mine
opinion makes as much for ornament as either Flowers, or forme, or
cleanlinesse, and I am sure as commodious as any of, or all the rest:
which is Bees, well ordered. And I will not account her any of my good
House-wiues, that wanteth either Bees or skilfulnesse about them. And
though I knowe some haue written well and truely, and others more
plentifully vpon this theame: yet somewhat haue I learned by experience
(being a Bee-maister my selfe) which hitherto I cannot finde put into
writing, for which I thinke our House-wiues will count themselues
beholding vnto me.

{SN: Bee-house.}
The first thing that a Gardiner about Bees must be carefull for, is an
house not stakes and stones abroad, _Sub dio_: for stakes rot and reele,
raine and weather eate your hiues, and couers, and cold most of all is
hurtfull for your Bees. Therefore you must haue an house made along, a
sure dry wall in your Garden, neere, or in your Orchard: for Bees loue
flowers and wood with their hearts.

This is the forme, a Frame standing on posts with a Floore (if you
would haue it hold more Hiues, two Floores boorded) layd on bearers, and
backe posts, couered ouer with boords, slate-wise.


Let the floores be without holes or clifts, least in casting time, the
Bees lye out, and loyter.

And though your Hiues stand within an hand breadth the one of another:
yet will Bees know their home.

In this Frame may your Bees stand drye and warme, especially if you make
doores like doores of windows to shroud them in winter, as in an house:
prouided you leaue the hiues mouths open. I my self haue deuised such
an house, and I find that it keeps and strengthens my Bees much, and my
hiues will last sixe to one.

{SN: Hiues.}
M. _Markham_ commends Hiues of wood. I discommend them not: but straw
Hiues are in vse with vs, and I thinke with all the world, which I
commend for nimblenesse, closenesse, warmnesse and drinesse. Bees loue
no externall motions of dawbing or such like. Sometimes occasion shall
be offered to lift and turne Hiues, as shall appeare hereafter. One
light entire hiue of straw in that case is better, then one that is
dawbed, weighty and cumbersome. I wish euery hiue, for a keeping swarme,
to hold three pecks at least in measure. For too little Hiues procure
Bees, in casting time, either to lye out, and loyter, or else to cast
before they be ripe and strong, and so make weake swarmes and vntimely:
Whereas if they haue roome sufficient, they ripen timely, and casting
seasonably, are strong, and fit for labour presently. Neither would the
hiue be too too great, for then they loyter, and waste meate and

{SN: Hiuing of Bees.}
Your Bees delight in wood, for feeding, especially for casting:
therefore want not an Orchard. A _Mayes_ swarme is worth a Mares Foale:
if they want wood, they be in danger of flying away. Any time before
_Midsummer_ is good, for casting and timely before _Iuly_ is not euill.
I much like M _Markhams_ opinion for hiuing a swarme in combes of a dead
or forsaken hiue, so they be fresh & cleanly. To thinke that a swarme of
your owne, or others, will of it selfe come into such an hiue, is a
meere conceit. _Experto crede Roberto._ His smearing with honey, is to
no purpose, for the other Bees will eate it vp. If your swarme knit in
the top of a tree, as they will, if the winde beate them not to fall
downe: let the stoole or ladder described in the Orchard, doe you

{SN: Spelkes.}
The lesse your Spelkes are, the lesse is the waste of your honey, and
the more easily will they draw, when you take your Bees. Foure Spelkes
athwart, and one top Spelke are sufficient. The Bees will fasten their
combes to the Hiue. A little honey is good: but if you want, Fennell
will serue to rub your Hiue withall. The Hiue being drest and ready
spelkt, rubd and the hole made for their passage (I vse no hole in the
Hiue, but a piece of wood hoal'd to saue the hiue & keep out Mice) shake
in your Bees, or the most of them (for all commonly you cannot get) the
remainder will follow. Many vse smoke, Nettles, &c. which I vtterly
dislike: for Bees loue not to be molested. Ringing in the time of
casting is a meere fancie, violent handling of them is simply euill,
because Bees of all other creatures, loue cleanlinesse and peace.
Therefore handle them leasurely & quietly, and their Keeper whom they
know, may do with them, what he will, without hurt: Being hiued at
night, bring them to their seat. Set your hiues all of one yeere

Signes of breeding, if they be strong:

1 They will auoid dead young Bees and Droanes.

2 They will sweat in the morning, till it runne from them; alwaies when
they be strong.

_Signes of casting._

1 They will fly Droanes, by reason of heat.

2 The young swarme will once or twice in some faire season, come forth
mustering, as though they would cast, to proue themselues, and goe in

3 The night before they cast, if you lay your eare to the Hiues mouth,
yo shall heare two or three, but especially one aboue the rest, cry, Vp,
vp, vp; or, Tout, tout, tout, like a trumpet, sounding the alarum to the

{SN: Catching.}
{SN: Clustering.}
Much descanting there is, of, and about the Master-Bee, and their
degrees, order and gouernment: but the truth in this point is rather
imagined, then demonstrated. There are some coniectures of it, _viz._ we
see in the combs diuers greater houses then the rest, & we heare
commonly the night before they cast, sometimes one Bee, sometimes two,
or more Bees, giue a lowd and seueral sound from the rest, and sometimes
Bees of greater bodies then the common sort: but what of all this? I
leane not on coniectures, but loue to set downe that I know to be true,
and leaue these things to them that loue to diuine. Keepe none weake,
for it is hazard, oftentimes with losse: Feeding will not helpe them:
for being weake, they cannot come downe to meate, or if they come downe,
they dye, because Bees weake cannot abide cold. If none of these, yet
will the other Bees being strong, smell the honey, and come and spoile,
and kill them. Some helpe is in casting time, to put two weake swarmes
together, or as M. _Markham_ well saith: Let not them cast late, by
raising them with wood or stone: but with impes (say I.) An impe is
three or foure wreathes, wrought as the hiue, the same compasse, to rase
the hiue withall: but by experience in tryall, I haue found out a better
way by Clustering, for late or weake swarmes hitherto not found out of
any that I know. That is this: After casting time, if I haue any stocke
proud, and hindered from timely casting, with former Winters pouerty,
or euill weather in casting time, with two handles and crookes, fitted
for the purpose, I turne vp that stocke so pestred with Bees, and set it
on the crowne, vpon which so turned with the mouth vpward, I place
another empty hiue well drest, and spelkt, into which without any
labour, the Swarme that would not depart, and cast, will presently
ascend, because the old Bees haue this qualitie (as all other breeding
creatures haue) to expell the young, when they haue brought them vp.


There will the swarme build as kindely, as if they had of themselues
beene cast. But bee sure you lay betwixt the Hiues some straight and
cleanly sticke or stickes, or rather a boord with holes, to keepe them
asunder: otherwise they will ioyne their workes together so fast, that
they cannot be parted. If you so keepe them asunder at _Michael-tide_,
if you like the weight of your swarme (for the goodnesse of swarmes is
tryed by weight) so catched, you may set it by for a stocke to keepe.
Take heed in any case the combes be not broken, for then the other Bees
will smell the honey, and spoyle them. This haue I tryed to be very
profitable for the sauing of Bees. The Instrument hath this forme. The
great straight piece is wood, the rest are iron claspes and nailes, the
claspes are loose in the Stapes: Two men with two of these fastened to
the Hiue, will easily turne it vp.

They gather not till _Iuly_; for then they be discharged of their
young, or else they are become now strong to labour, and now sap in
flowers is strong and proud: by reason of time, and force of Sunne. And
now also in the North (and not before) the hearbs of greatest vigour put
their Flowers; As Beanes, Fennell, Burrage, Rape, &c.

The most sensible weather for them, is heat and drought, because the
nesh Bee can neither abide cold or wet: and showres (which they well
fore-see) doe interrupt their labours, vnlesse they fall on the night,
and so they further them.

{SN: Droanes.}
After casting time, you shall benefit your stockes much, if you helpe
them to kill their Droanes, which by all probability and iudgement, are
an idle kind of Bees, and wastefull. Some say they breed and haue seene
young Droanes in taking their honey, which I know is true. But I am of
opinion, that there are also Bees which haue lost their stings, and so
being, as it were gelded, become idle and great. There is great vse of
them: _Deus, et natura nihil fecit frustra_. They hate the Bees, and
cause them cast the sooner. They neuer come foorth but when they be ouer
heated. They neuer come home loaden. After casting time, and when the
Bees want meate, you shall see the labouring Bees fasten on them, two,
three, or foure at once, as if they were theeues to be led to the
gallowes, and killing them, they cast out, and draw them farre from
home, as hatefull enemies. Our Housewife, if she be the Keeper of her
owne Bees (as she had need to be) may with her bare hand in the heate of
the day, safely destroy them in the hiues mouth. Some vse towards night,
in a hot day, to set before the mouth of the hiue a thin board, with
little holes, in at which the lesser Bees may enter, but not the
Droanes, so that you may kill them at your pleasure.

{SN: Annoyances.}
Snayles spoile them by night like theeues: they come so quietly, and are
so fast, that the Bees feare them not. Looke earely and late, especially
in a rainie or dewey euening or morning.

Mice are no lesse hurtfull, and the rather to hiues of straw: and
therefore couerings of straw draw them. They will in either at the
mouth, or sheere themselues an hole. The remedy is good Cats, Rats-bane
and watching.

The cleanly Bee hateth the smoake as poison, therefore let your Bees
stand neerer your garden then your Brew-house or Kitchen.

They say Sparrowes and Swallowes are enemies to Bees, but I see it not.

More hiues perish by Winters cold, then by all other hurts: for the Bee
is tender and nice, and onely liues in warme weather, and dyes in cold:
And therefore let my Housewife be perswaded, that a warme dry house
before described, is the chiefest helpe she can make her Bees against
this, and many more mischiefes. Many vse against cold in Winter, to stop
vp their hiue close, and some set them in houses, perswading themselues,
that thereby they relieue their Bees. First, tossing and mouing is
hurtfull. Secondly, in houses, going, knocking, and shaking is noysome.
Thirdly, too much heate in an house is vnnaturall for them: but lastly,
and especially, Bees cannot abide to be stopt close vp. For at euery
warme season of the Sunne they reuiue, and liuing eate, and eating must
needs purge abroad, (in her house) the cleanly Bee will not purge her
selfe. Iudge you what it is for any liuing creature, not to disburden
nature. Being shut vp in calme seasons, lay your care to the Hiue, and
you shall heare them yarme and yell, as so many hungred prisoners.
Therefore impound not your Bees, so profitable and free a creature.

{SN: Taking of Bees.}
Let none stand aboue three yeares, else the combes will be blacke and
knotty, your honey will be thinne and vncleanly: and if any cast after
three yeares, it is such as haue swarmes, and old Bees kept all
together, which is great losse. Smoaking with ragges, rozen, or
brimstone, many vse: some vse drowning in a tub of cleane water, and the
water well brewde, will be good botchet. Drawe out your spelkes
immediatly with a paire of pinchars, lest the wood grow soft and swell,
and so will not be drawne, then must you cut your Hiue.

{SN: Straining Honey.}
Let no fire come neere your hony, for fire softeneth the waxe and
drosse, and makes them runne with the hony. Fire softneth, weakeneth,
and hindereth hony for purging. Breake your combes small (when the dead
empty combes are parted from the loaden combes) into a siue, borne ouer
a great bowle, or vessell, with two staues, and so let it runne two or
three dayes. The sooner you tunne it vp, the better will it purge. Runne
your swarme honey by it selfe, and that shall be your best. The elder
your hiues are, the worse is your honey.

{SN: Vessels.}
Vsuall vessels are of clay, but after wood be satiated with honey (for
it will leake at first: for honey is maruellously searching, the thicke,
and therefore vertuous.) I vse it rather because it will not breake so
soone, with fals, frosts, or otherwise, and greater vessels of clay
will hardly last.

When you vse your honey, with a spoone take off the skin which it hath
put vp.

And it is worth the regard, that bees thus vsed, if you haue but forty
stockes, shall yeeld you more commodity cleerely than forty acres of
ground. And thus much may suffice, to make good Housewiues loue and haue
good Gardens and Bees.

_Deo Laus._


The Contents of the Countrey _House-wifes Garden._

  Chap. 1. _The Soyle._                   _Pag. 77_

  Chap. 2. _Site._                          _p. 78_

  Chap. 3. _Forme._                         _p. 79_

  Chap. 4. _Quantity._                      _p. 85_

  Chap. 5. _Fences._                     _p. ibid._

  Chap. 6. _Two Gardens._                   _p. 86_

  Chap. 7. _Diuision of herbs._             _p. 88_

  Chap. 8. _The Husbandry of herbes._    _p. ibid._

  Chap. 9. _Generall rules._                _p. 96_

  Chap. 10. _The Husbandry of Bees._        _p. 98_
              _Bee-house._             _p. 98._
              _Hiues._                _p. 100._
              _Hiuing of Bees._      _p. ibid._
              _Spelkes._              _p. 101._
              _Catching._             _p. 102._
              _Clustering._           _p. 103._
              _Droanes._              _p. 104._
              _Annoyances._           _p. 105._
              _Taking of Bees._       _p. 106._
              _Straining honey._     _p. ibid._
              _Vessels._             _p. ibid._

  From approued experience of the art
  _of propagating Plants: by_
  Simon Harward.

CHAP. 1.

_The Art of propagating Plants._

{SN: 1.}
There are foure sorts of Planting, or propagating, as in laying of
shootes or little branches, whiles they are yet tender in some pit made
at their foote, as shall be sayd hereafter, or vpon a little ladder or
Basket of earth, tyed to the bottome of the branch, or in boaring a
Willow thorow, and putting the branch of the tree into the hole, as
shall be fully declared in the Chapter of Grafting.

{SN: 2.}
There are likewise seasons to propagate in; but the best is in the
Spring, and _March_, when the trees are in the Flower, and doe begin to
grow lusty. The young planted Siens or little Grafts must be propagated
in the beginning of Winter, a foot deepe in the earth, and good manure
mingled amongst the earth, which you shall cast forth of the pit,
wherein you meane to propagate it, to tumble it in vpon it againe. In
like manner your superfluous Siens, or little Plants must be cut close
by the earth, when as they grow about some small Impe, which we meane to
propagate, for they would doe nothing but rot. For to propagate, you
must digge the earth round about the tree, that so your rootes may be
laid in a manner halfe bare. Afterward draw into length the pit on that
side where you meane to propagate, and according as you perceiue that
the roots will be best able to yeeld, and be gouerned in the same pit,
to vie them, and that with all gentlenesse, and stop close your Siens,
in such sort, as that the wreath which is in the place where it is
grafted, may be a little lower then the Siens of the new Wood, growing
out of the earth, euen so high as it possible may be. If the trees that
you would propagate be somewhat thicke, and thereby the harder to ply,
and somewhat stiffe to lay in the pit: then you may wet the stocke
almost to the midst, betwixt the roote and the wreathing place, and so
with gentle handling of it, bow downe into the pit the wood which the
grafts haue put forth, and that in as round a compasse as you can,
keeping you from breaking of it: afterward lay ouer the cut, with gummed
Waxe, or with grauell and sand.

CHAP. 2.

_Grafting in the Barke._

Grafting in the Barke, is vsed from mid-_August_, to the beginning of
Winter, and also when the Westerne winde beginneth to blow, being from
the 7. of _February_, vnto 11. of _Iune_. But there must care be had,
not to graffe in the barke in any rainy season, because it would wash
away the matter of ioyning the one and the other together, and so hinder

{SN: 3.}
Grafting in the budde, is vsed in the Summer time, from the end of
_May_, vntill _August_, as being the time when the trees are strong and
lusty, and full of sap and leaues. To wit, in a hot Countrey, from the
midst of _Iune_, vnto the midst of _Iuly_: but cold Countries, to the
midst of _August_, after some small showres of Raine.

If the Summer be so exceeding dry, as that some trees doe withhold their
sap, you must waite the time till it doe returne.

Graft from the full of the Moone, vntill the end of the old.

You may graft in a Cleft, without hauing regard to the Raine, for the
sap will keepe it off.

You may graft from mid-_August_, to the beginning of _Nouember_: Cowes
dung with straw doth mightily preserue the graft.

It is better to graft in the euening, then the morning.

The furniture and tooles of a Grafter, are a Basket to lay his Grafts
in, Clay, Grauell, Sand, or strong Earth, to draw ouer the plants
clouen: Mosse, Woollen clothes, barkes of Willow to ioyne to the late
things and earth before spoken, and to keepe them fast: Oziers to tye
againe vpon the barke, to keepe them firme and fast: gummed Wax, to
dresse and couer the ends and tops of the grafts newly cut, that so the
raine and cold may not hurt them, neither yet the sap rising from
belowe, be constrained to returne againe vnto the shootes. A little Sawe
or hand Sawe, to sawe off the stocke of the plants, a little Knife or
Pen-knife to graffe, and to cut and sharpen the grafts, that so the
barke may not pill nor be broken; which often commeth to passe when the
graft is full of sap. You shall cut the graffe so long, as that it may
fill the cliffe of the plant, and therewithall it must be left thicker
on the barke-side, that so it may fill vp both the cliffe and other
incisions, as any need is to be made, which must be alwaies well ground,
well burnished without all rust. Two wedges, the one broad for thicke
trees, the other narrow for lesse and tender trees, both of them of box,
or some other hard and smooth wood, or steele, or of very hard iron,
that so they may need lesse labour in making them sharpe.

A little hand-Bill to set the plants at more liberty, by cutting off
superfluous boughs, helu'd of Iuory, Box, or Brazell.

CHAP. 3.

_Grafting in the cleft._

The manner of grafting in a cleft, to wit, the stocke being clou'd, is
proper not onely to trees, which are as great as a mans legs or armes,
but also to greater. It is true that in as much as the trees cannot
easily be clouen in their stocke, that therefore it is expedient to make
incision in some one of their branches, and not in the maine body, as we
see to be practised in great Apple trees, and great Peare-trees, and as
we haue already declared heretofore.

To graft in the cleft, you must make choise of a graft that is full of
sap and iuyce, but it must not bee, but till from after _Ianuary_ vntill
_March_: And you must not thus graft in any tree that is already budded,
because a great part of the iuyce and sap would be already mounted vp on
high, and risen to the top, and there dispersed and scattered hither and
thither, into euery sprigge and twigge, and vse nothing welcome to the

You must likewise be resolued not to gather your graft the day you graft
in, but ten or twelue dayes before: for otherwise, if you graft it new
gathered, it will not be able easily to incorporate itselfe with the
body and stocke, where it shall be grafted; because that some part of it
will dry, and by this meanes will be a hinderance in the stocke to the
rising vp of the sap, which it should communerate vnto the graft, for
the making of it to put forth, and whereas this dried part will fall a
crumbling, and breaking thorow his rottennesse, it will cause to remaine
a concauity, or hollow place in the stock, which will be an occasion of
a like inconuenience to befall the graft. Moreouer, the graft being new
and tender, might easily be hurt of the bands, which are of necessity to
be tyed about the Stocke, to keepe the graft firme and fast. And you
must further see, that your Plant was not of late remoued, but that it
haue already fully taken root.

When you are minded to graft many grafts into one cleft, you must see
that they be cut in the end all alike.

{SN: 7.}
See that the grafts be of one length, or not much differing, and it is
enough, that they haue three or foure eylets without the wrench when the
Plant is once sawed, and lopped of all his small Siens and shootes round
about, as also implyed of all his branches, if it haue many: then you
must leaue but two at the most, before you come to the cleauing of it:
then put to your little Saw, or your knife, or other edged toole that is
very sharpe, cleaue it quite thorow the middest, in gentle and soft
sort: First, tying the Stocke very sure, that so it may not cleaue
further then is need: and then put to your Wedges into the cleft vntill
such time as you haue set in your grafts, and in cleauing of it, hold
the knife with the one hand, and the tree with the other, to helpe to
keepe it from cleauing too farre. Afterwards put in your wedge of Boxe
or Brazill, or bone at the small end, that so you may the better take it
out againe, when you haue set in your grafts.

{SN: 8.}
If the Stocke be clouen, or the Barke loosed too much from the wood:
then cleaue it downe lower, and set your grafts in, and looke that their
incision bee fit, and very iustly answerable to the cleft, and that the
two saps, first, of the Plant and graft, be right and euen set one
against the other, and so handsomely fitted, as that there may not be
the least appearance of any cut or cleft. For if they doe not thus lumpe
one with another, they will neuer take one with another, because they
cannot worke their seeming matter, and as it were cartilaguous glue in
conuenient sort or manner, to the gluing of their ioynts together. You
must likewise beware, not to make your cleft ouerthwart the pitch, but
somewhat aside.

The barke of your Plant being thicker then that of your Graft, you must
set the graft so much the more outwardly in the cleft, that so the two
saps may in any case be ioyned, and set right the one with the other but
the rinde of the Plant must be somewhat more out, then that of the
grafts on the clouen side.

{SN: 9.}
{SN: 10.}
To the end that you may not faile of this worke of imping, you must
principally take heed, not to ouer-cleaue the Stockes of your Trees. But
before you widen the cleft of your wedges, binde, and goe about the
Stocke with two or three turnes, and that with an Ozier, close drawne
together, vnderneath the same place, where you would haue your cleft to
end, that so your Stocke cleaue not too farre, which is a very vsuall
cause of the miscarrying of grafts, in asmuch as hereby the cleft
standeth so wide and open, as that it cannot be shut, and so not grow
together againe; but in the meane time spendeth it selfe, and breatheth
out all his life in that place, which is the cause that the Stocke and
the Graft are both spilt. And this falleth out most often in Plum-trees,
& branches of trees. You must be careful so to ioyne the rinds of your
grafts, and Plants, that nothing may continue open, to the end that the
wind, moisture of the clay or raine, running vpon the grafted place, do
not get in: when the plant cloueth very straight, there is not any
danger nor hardnesse in sloping downe the Graft. If you leaue it
somewhat vneuen, or rough in some places, so that the saps both of the
one and of the other may the better grow, and be glued together, when
your grafts are once well ioyned to your Plants, draw out your wedges
very softly, lest you displace them againe, you may leaue there within
the cleft some small end of a wedge of greene wood, cutting it very
close with the head of the Stocke: Some cast glue into the cleft, some
Sugar, and some gummed Waxe.

{SN: 11.}
If the Stocke of the Plant whereupon you intend to graft, be not so
thicke as your graft, you shall graft it after the fashion of a Goates
foot, make a cleft in the Stocke of the Plant, not direct, but byas, &
that smooth and euen, not rough: then apply and make fast thereto, the
graft withall his Barke on, and answering to the barke of the Plant.
This being done, couer the place with the fat earth and mosse of the
Woods tyed together with a strong band: sticke a pole of Wood by it, to
keepe it stedfast.

CHAP. 4.

_Grafting like a Scutcheon._

In grafting after the manner of a Scutcheon, you shall not vary nor
differ much from that of the Flute or Pipe, saue only that the
Scutcheon-like graft, hauing one eyelet, as the other hath yet the wood
of the tree whereupon the Scutcheon-like graft is grafted, hath not any
knob, or budde, as the wood whereupon the graft is grafted, after the
manner of a pipe.

{SN: 12.}
In Summer when the trees are well replenished with sap, and that their
new Siens begin to grow somewhat hard, you shall take a shoote at the
end of the chiefe branches of some noble and reclaimed tree, whereof you
would faine haue some fruit, and not many of his old store or wood, and
from thence raise a good eylet, the tayle and all thereof to make your
graft. But when you choose, take the thickest, and grossest, diuide the
tayle in the middest, before you doe any thing else, casting away the
leafe (if it be not a Peare plum-tree: for that would haue two or three
leaues) without remouing any more of the said tayle: afterward with the
point of a sharpe knife, cut off the Barke of the said shoote, the
patterne of a shield, of the length of a nayle.

{SN: 13.}
In which there is onely one eylet higher then the middest together, with
the residue of the tayle which you left behinde: and for the lifting vp
of the said graft in Scutcheon, after that you haue cut the barke of the
shoote round about, without cutting of the wood within, you must take it
gently with your thumbe, and in putting it away you must presse vpon the
wood from which you pull it, that so you may bring the bud and all away
together with the Scutcheon: for if you leaue it behinde with the wood,
then were the Scutcheon nothing worth. You shall finde out if the
Scutcheon be nothing worth, if looking within when it is pulled away
from the wood of the same sute, you finde it to haue a hole within, but
more manifestly, if the bud doe stay behind in the VVood, which ought to
haue beene in the Scutcheon.

{SN: 14.}
Thus your Scutcheon being well raised and taken off, hold it a little
by the tayle betwixt your lips, without wetting of it, euen vntill you
haue cut the Barke of the tree where you would graft it, and looke that
it be cut without any wounding of the wood within, after the manner of a
crutch, but somewhat longer then the Scutcheon that you haue to set in
it, and in no place cutting the wood within; after you haue made
incision, you must open it, and make it gape wide on both sides, but in
all manner of gentle handling, and that with little Sizers of bone, and
separating the wood and the barke a little within, euen so much as your
Scutcheon is in length and breadth: you must take heed that in doing
hereof, you do not hurt the bark.

{SN: 15.}
{SN: 17.}
This done take your Scutcheon by the end, and your tayle which you haue
left remaining, and put into your incision made in your tree, lifting vp
softly your two sides of the incision with your said Sizers of bone, and
cause the said Scutcheon to ioyne, and lye as close as may be, with the
wood of the tree, being cut, as aforesaid, in waying a little vpon the
end of your rinde: so cut and let the vpper part of your Scutcheon lye
close vnto the vpper end of your incision, or barke of your said tree:
afterward binde your Scutcheon about with a band of Hempe, as thicke as
a pen or a quill, more or lesse, according as your tree is small or
great, taking the same Hempe in the middest, to the end that either part
of it may performe a like seruice; and wreathing and binding of the said
Scutcheon into the incision of a tree, and it must not be tyed too
strait, for that would keepe it from taking the ioyning of the one sap
to the other, being hindred thereby, and neither the Scutcheon, nor yet
the Hempe must be moist or wet: and the more iustly to binde them
together, begin at the backe side of the Tree, right ouer against the
middest of the incision, and from thence come forward to ioyne them
before, aboue the eylet and tayle of the Scutcheon, crossing your band
of Hempe, so oft as the two ends meet, and from thence returning backe
againe, come about and tye it likewise vnderneath the eylets: and thus
cast about your band still backward and forward, vntill the whole cleft
of the incision be couered aboue and below with the said Hempe, the
eylet onely excepted, and his tayle which must not be couered at all;
his tayle will fall away one part after another, and that shortly after
the ingrafting, if so be the Scutcheon will take. Leaue your trees and
Scutcheons thus bound, for the space of one moneth, and the thicker, a
great deale longer time. Afterward looke them ouer, and if you perceiue
them to grow together, vntye them, or at the leastwise cut the Hempe
behinde them, and leaue them vncouered. Cut also your branch two or
three fingers aboue that, so the impe may prosper the better: and thus
let them remaine till after Winter, about the moneth of _March_, and

{SN: 18.}
If you perceiue that your budde of your Scutcheon doe swell and come
forward: then cut off the tree three fingers or thereabouts, aboue the
Scutcheon: for if it be cut off too neere the Scutcheon, at such time as
it putteth forth his first blossome, it would be a meanes greatly to
hinder the flowring of it, and cause also that it should not thriue and
prosper so well after that one yeere is past, and that the shoote
beginneth to be strong: beginning to put forth the second bud and
blossome, you must goe forward to cut off in byas-wise the three
fingers in the top of the tree, which you left there, when you cut it in
the yeere going before, as hath beene said.

{SN: 19.}
{SN: 20.}
{SN: 21.}
When your shoote shall haue put foorth a great deale of length, you must
sticke down there, euen hard ioyned thereunto, little stakes, tying them
together very gently and easily; and these shall stay your shootes and
prop them vp, letting the winde from doing any harme vnto them. Thus you
may graft white Roses in red, and red in white. Thus you may graft two
or three Scutcheons: prouided that they be all of one side: for they
will not be set equally together in height because then they would bee
all staruelings, neither would they be directly one ouer another; for
the lower would stay the rising vp of the sap of the tree, and so those
aboue should consume in penury, and vndergoe the aforesaid
inconuenience. You must note, that the Scutcheon which is gathered from
the Sien of a tree whose fruite is sowre, must be cut in square forme,
and not in the plaine fashion of a Scutcheon. It is ordinary to graffe
the sweet Quince tree, bastard Peach-tree, Apricock-tree, Iuiube-tree,
sowre Cherry tree, sweet Cherry-tree, and Chestnut tree, after this
fashion, howbeit they might be grafted in the cleft more easily, and
more profitably; although diuers be of contrary opinion, as thus best:
Take the grafts of sweet Quince tree, and bastard Peach-tree, or the
fairest wood, and best fed that you can finde, growing vpon the wood of
two yeeres old, because the wood is not so firme nor solid as the
others, and you shall graffe them vpon small Plum-tree stocks, being of
the thicknes of ones thumbe; these you shall cut after the fashion of a
Goats foot: you shall not goe about to make the cleft of any more sides
then one, being about a foot high from the ground; you must open it with
your small wedge: and being thus grafted, it will seeme to you that it
is open but of one side; afterward you shall wrap it vp with a little
Mosse, putting thereto some gummed Wax, or clay, and binde it vp with
Oziers to keepe it surer, because the stocke is not strong enough it
selfe to hold it, and you shall furnish it euery manner of way as others
are dealt withall: this is most profitable.

_The time of grafting._

All moneths are good to graft in, (the moneth of _October_ and
_Nouember_ onely excepted). But commonly, graft at that time of the
Winter, when sap beginneth to arise.

In a cold Countrey graft later, and in a warme Countrey earlier.

The best time generall is from the first of _February_, vntill the first
of _May_.

The grafts must alwaies be gathered, in the old of the Moone.

For grafts choose shootes of a yeere old, or at the furthermost two
yeeres old.

If you must carry grafts farre, pricke them into a Turnep newly
gathered, or lay earth about the ends.

If you set stones of Plummes, Almonds, Nuts, or Peaches: First let them
lye a little in the Sunne, and then steepe them in Milke or Water, three
or foure dayes before you put them into the earth.

Dry the kernels of Pippins, and sow them in the end of _Nouember_.

The stone of a Plum-tree must be set a foot deepe in _Nouember_, or

The Date-stone must be set the great end downwards, two cubits deepe in
the earth, in a place enriched with dung.

The Peach-stone would be set presently after the Fruit is eaten, some
quantity of the flesh of the Peach remaining about the stone.

If you will haue it to be excellent, graft it afterward vpon an Almond

The little Siens of Cherry-trees, grown thicke with haire, rots, and
those also which doe grow vp from the rootes of the great Cherry-trees,
being remoued, doe grow better and sooner then they which come of
stones: but they must be remoued and planted while they are but two or
three yeeres old, the branches must be lopped.

The Contents of the Art of _Propagating Plants_.

  _The Art of propagating Plants._            _page 109._

  _Grafting in the Barke._                      _p. 111._

  _Grafting in the cleft._                      _p. 113._

  _Grafters Tooles._

  _Time of planting & seting._

  _Time of grafting._

  _How to cut the stumps in grafting._

  _Sprouts and imps: how gathered._

  _Grafting like a Scutcheon._                  _p. 116._

  _Inoculation in the Barke._

  _Emplaister-wise grafting._

  _To pricke stickes to beare the first yeere._

  _To haue Cherries or Plums without stones._

  _To make Quinces great._

  _To set stones of Plummes._

  _Dates, Nut, and Peaches._

  _To make fruit smell well._

  _To plant Cherry-trees._


  For the true ordering of all sorts of
  _Fruits in their due seasons; and how double_
  increase commeth by care in gathering
  _yeere after yeare: as also the best way_
  of carriage by land or by water:
  _With their preseruation for_
  longest continuance.

{SN: Cherries.}
Of all stone Fruit, Cherries are the first to be gathered: of which,
though we reckon foure sorts; _English_, _Flemish_, _Gascoyne_ and
_Blacke_, yet are they reduced to two, the early, and the ordinary: the
earely are those whose grafts came first from _France_ and _Flanders_,
and are now ripe with vs in _May_: the ordinary is our owne naturall
Cherry, and is not ripe before _Iune_; they must be carefully kept from
Birds, either with nets, noise, or other industry.

{SN: Gathering of Cheries.}
They are not all ripe at once, nor may be gathered at once, therefore
with a light Ladder, made to stand of it selfe, without hurting the
boughes, mount to the tree, and with a gathering hooke, gather those
which be full ripe, and put them into your Cherry-pot, or Kybzey hanging
by your side, or vpon any bough you please, and be sure to breake no
stalke, but that the cherry hangs by; and pull them gently, lay them
downe tenderly, and handle them as little as you can.

{SN: To carry Cherries.}
For the conueyance or portage of Cherries, they are best to be carried
in broad Baskets like siues, with smooth yeelding bottomes, onely two
broad laths going along the bottome: and if you doe transport them by
ship, or boate, let not the siues be fil'd to the top, lest setting one
vpon another, you bruise and hurt the Cherries: if you carry by
horse-backe, then panniers well lined with Fearne, and packt full and
close is the best and safest way.

{SN: Other stone-fruit.}
Now for the gathering of all other stone-fruite, as Nectarines,
Apricockes, Peaches, Peare-plumbes, Damsons, Bullas, and such like,
although in their seuerall kinds, they seeme not to be ripe at once on
one tree: yet when any is ready to drop from the tree, though the other
seeme hard, yet they may also be gathered, for they haue receiued the
full substance the tree can giue them; and therefore the day being
faire, and the dew drawne away; set vp your Ladder, and as you gathered
your Cherries, so gather them: onely in the bottomes of your large
siues, where you part them, you shall lay Nettles, and likewise in the
top, for that will ripen those that are most vnready.

{SN: Gathering of Peares.}
In gathering of Peares are three things obserued; to gather for
expence, for transportation, or to sell to the Apothecary. If for
expence, and your owne vse, then gather them as soone as they change,
and are as it were halfe ripe, and no more but those which are changed,
letting the rest hang till they change also: for thus they will ripen
kindely, and not rot so soone, as if they were full ripe at the
gathering. But if your Peares be to be transported farre either by Land
or Water, then pull one from the tree, and cut it in the middest, and if
you finde it hollow about the choare, and the kernell a large space to
lye in: although no Peare be ready to drop from the tree, yet then they
may be gathered, and then laying them on a heape one vpon another, as of
necessity they must be for transportation, they will ripen of
themselues, and eate kindly: but gathered before, they will wither,
shrinke and eate rough, losing not onely their taste, but beauty.

Now for the manner of gathering; albeit some climb into the trees by the
boughes, and some by Ladder, yet both is amisse: the best way is with
the Ladder before spoken of, which standeth of it selfe, with a basket
and a line, which being full, you must gently let downe, and keeping the
string still in your hand, being emptied, draw it vp againe, and so
finish your labour, without troubling your selfe, or hurting the tree.

{SN: Gathering of Apples.}
Now touching the gathering of Apples, it is to be done according to the
ripening of the fruite; your Summer apples first, and the Winter after.

For Summer fruit, when it is ripe, some will drop from the tree, and
birds will be picking at them: But if you cut one of the greenest, and
finde it as was shew'd you before of the Peare: then you may gather
them, and in the house they will come to their ripenesse and perfection.
For your Winter fruit, you shall know the ripenesse by the obseruation
before shewed; but it must be gathered in a faire, Sunny, and dry day,
in the waine of the Moone, and no Wind in the East, also after the deaw
is gone away: for the least wet or moysture will make them subiect to
rot and mildew: also you must haue an apron to gather in, and to empty
into the great baskets, and a hooke to draw the boughes vnto you, which
you cannot reach with your hands at ease: the apron is to be an Ell
euery way, loopt vp to your girdle, so as it may serue for either hand
without any trouble: and when it is full, vnloose one of your loopes,
and empty it gently into the great basket, for in throwing them downe
roughly, their owne stalkes may pricke them; and those which are prickt,
will euer rot. Againe, you must gather your fruit cleane without leaues
or brunts, because the one hurts the tree, for euery brunt would be a
stalke for fruit to grow vpon: the other hurts the fruit by bruising,
and pricking it as it is layd together, and there is nothing sooner
rotteth fruit, then the greene and withered leaues lying amongst them;
neither must you gather them without any stalke at all: for such fruit
will begin to rot where the stalke stood.

{SN: To vse the fallings.}
For such fruit as falleth from the trees, and are not gathered, they
must not be layd with the gathered fruit: and of fallings there are two
sorts, one that fals through ripenesse, and they are best, and may be
kept to bake or roast; the other windfals, and before they are ripe, and
they must be spent as they are gathered, or else they will wither and
come to nothing: and therefore it is not good by any meanes to beate
downe fruit with Poales, or to carrie them in Carts loose and iogging or
in sacks where they may be bruised.

{SN: Carriage of fruit.}
When your fruit is gathered, you shall lay them in deepe Baskets of
Wicker, which shall containe foure or sixe bushels, and so betweene two
men, carry them to your Apple-Loft, and in shooting or laying them
downe, be very carefull that it be done with all gentlenesse, and
leasure, laying euery sort of fruit seuerall by it selfe: but if there
be want of roome hauing so many sorts that you cannot lay them
seuerally, then such some fruite as is neerest in taste and colour, and
of Winter fruit, such as will taste alike, may if need require, be laid
together, and in time you may separate them, as shall bee shewed
hereafter. But if your fruit be gathered faire from your Apple-Loft,
them must the bottomes of your Baskets be lined with greene Ferne, and
draw the stuborne ends of the same through the Basket, that none but the
soft leafe may touch the fruit, and likewise couer the tops of the
Baskets with Ferne also, and draw small cord ouer it, that the Ferne may
not fall away, nor the fruit scatter out, or iogge vp and downe: and
thus you may carry fruit by Land or by Water, by Boat, or Cart, as farre
as you please: and the Ferne doth not onely keepe them from bruising,
but also ripens them, especially Peares. When your fruit is brought to
your Apple-Loft or store house, if you finde them not ripened enough,
then lay them in thicker heapes vpon Fearne, and couer them with Ferne
also: and when they are neere ripe, then vncouer them, and make the
heapes thinner, so as the ayre may passe thorow them: and if you will
not hasten the ripening of them, then lay them on the boords without any
Fearne at all. Now for Winter, or long lasting Peares, they may be packt
either in Ferne or Straw, and carried whither you please; and being come
to the iourneys end must be laid vpon sweet straw; but beware the roome
be not too warme, nor windie, and too cold, for both are hurtfull: but
in a temperate place, where they may haue ayre, but not too much.

{SN: Of Wardens.}
Wardens are to be gathered, carried, packt, and laid as Winter Peares

{SN: Of Medlers.}
Medlers are to be gathered about _Michaelmas_, after a frost hath toucht
them; at which time they are in their full growth, and will then be
dropping from the tree, but neuer ripe vpon the tree. When they are
gathered, they must be laid in a basket, siue, barrell, or any such
caske, and wrapt about with woollen cloths, vnder, ouer, and on all
sides, and also some waight laid vpon them, with a boord betweene: for
except they be brought into a heat, they will neuer ripen kindly or
taste well.

Now when they haue laine till you thinke some of them be ripe, the
ripest, still as they ripen, must be taken from the rest: therefore
powre them out into another siue or basket leasurely, that so you may
well finde them that be ripest, letting the hard one fall into the other
basket, and those which be ripe laid aside: the other that be halfe
ripe, seuer also into a third siue or basket: for if the ripe and halfe
ripe be kept together, the one will be mouldy, before the other be ripe:
And thus doe, till all be throughly ripe.

{SN: Of Quinces.}
Quinces should not be laid with other fruite; for the sent is offensiue
both to other fruite, and to those that keepe the fruite or come amongst
them: therefore lay them by themselues vpon sweet strawe, where they
may haue ayre enough: they must be packt like Medlers, and gathered with

{SN: To packe Apples.}
Apples must be packt in Wheat or Rye-straw, and in maunds or baskets
lyned with the same, and being gently handled, will ripen with such
packing and lying together. If seuerall sorts of apples be packt in one
maund or basket, then betweene euery sort, lay sweet strawe of a pretty

{SN: Emptying and laying apples.}
Apples must not be powred out, but with care and leasure: first, the
straw pickt cleane from them, and then gently take out euery seuerall
sort, and place them by themselues: but if for want of roome you mixe
the sorts together, then lay those together that are of equall lasting;
but if they haue all one taste, then they need no separation. Apples
that are not of the like colours should not be laid together, and if any
such be mingled, let it be amended, and those which are first ripe, let
them be first spent; and to that end, lay those apples together, that
are of one time ripening: and thus you must vse Pippins also, yet will
they endure bruises better then other fruit, and whilst they are greene
will heale one another.

{SN: Difference in Fruit.}
Pippins though they grow of one tree, and in one ground, yet some will
last better then other some, and some will bee bigger then others of the
same kinde, according as they haue more or lesse of the Sunne, or more
or lesse of the droppings of the trees or vpper branches: therefore let
euery one make most of that fruite which is fairest, and longest
lasting. Againe, the largenesse and goodnesse of fruite consists in the
age of the tree: for as the tree increaseth, so the fruite increaseth in
bignesse, beauty, taste, and firmnesse: and otherwise, as it decreaseth.

{SN: Transporting fruit by water.}
If you be to transport your fruit farre by water, then prouide some dry
hogges-heads or barrells, and packe in your apples, one by one with your
hand, that no empty place may be left, to occasion sogging; and you must
line your vessell at both ends with fine sweet straw; but not the sides,
to auoid heat: and you must bore a dozen holes at either end, to receiue
ayre so much the better; and by no meanes let them take wet. Some vse,
that transport beyond seas, to shut the fruite vnder hatches vpon straw:
but it is not so good, if caske may be gotten.

{SN: When not to transport fruit.}
It is not good to transport fruite in _March_, when the wind blowes
bitterly, nor in frosty weather, neither in the extreme heate of Summer.

{SN: To conuay small store of fruit.}
If the quantity be small you would carry, then you may carry them in
Dossers or Panniers, prouided they be euer filled close, and that
Cherries and Peares be lined with greene Fearne, and Apples with sweete
straw; and that, but at the bottomes and tops, not on the sides.

{SN: Roomes for fruite.}
Winter fruite must lye neither too hot, nor too cold; too close, nor too
open: for all are offensiue. A lowe roome or Cellar that is sweet, and
either boorded or paued, and not too close, is good, from _Christmas_
till _March_: and roomes that are seeled ouer head, and from the ground,
are good from _March_ till _May_: then the Cellar againe, from _May_
till _Michaelmas_. The apple loft would be seeled or boorded, which if
it want, take the longest Rye-straw, and raise it against the walles, to
make a fence as high as the fruite lyeth; and let it be no thicker then
to keepe the fruite from the wall, which being moyst, may doe hurt, or
if not moist, then the dust is offensiue.

{SN: Sorting of Fruit.}
There are some fruite which will last but vntill _Allhallontide_: they
must be laid by themselues; then those which will last till _Christmas_,
by themselues: then those which will last till it be _Candlemas_, by
themselues: those that will last till _Shrouetide_, by themselues: and
Pippins, Apple-Iohns, Peare-maines, and Winter-Russettings, which will
last all the yeere by themselues.

Now if you spy any rotten fruite in your heapes, pick them out, and with
a Trey for the purpose, see you turne the heapes ouer, and leaue not a
tainted Apple in them, diuiding the hardest by themselues, and the
broken skinned by themselues to be first spent, and the rotten ones to
be cast away; and euer as you turne them, and picke them, vnder-lay them
with fresh straw: thus shall you keepe them safe for your vse, which
otherwise would rot suddenly.

{SN: Times of stirring fruit.}
Pippins, Iohn Apples, Peare maines, and such like long lasting fruit,
need not to be turned till the weeke before _Christmas_, vnlesse they be
mixt with other of a riper kind, or that the fallings be also with them,
or much of the first straw left amongst them: the next time of turning
is at _Shroue-tide_, and after that, once a moneth till _Whitson-tide_;
and after that, once a fortnight; and euer in the turning, lay your
heapes lower and lower, and your straw very thinne: prouided you doe
none of this labour in any great frost, except it be in a close Celler.
At euery thawe, all fruit is moyst, and then they must not be touched:
neither in rainy weather, for then they will be danke also: and
therefore at such seasons it is good to set open your windowes, and
doores, that the ayre may haue free passage to dry them, as at nine of
the clocke in the fore-noone in Winter; and at sixe in the fore-noone,
and at eight at night in Summer: onely in _March_, open not your
windowes at all.

All lasting fruite, after the middest of _May_, beginne to wither,
because then they waxe dry, and the moisture gone, which made them looke
plumpe: they must needes wither, and be smaller; and nature decaying,
they must needes rot. And thus much touching the ordering of fruites.


       *       *       *       *       *



Printed by _Nicholas Okes_ for IOHN HARISON, at the golden Vnicorne in
Pater-noster-row. 1631.

{Transcriber's notes

  The following corrections have been made:

  Title page
    "carring home" changed to "carrying home".

  Sig. A2r
    "SIR HENRY BELOSSES" possible error for "SIR HENRY BELLOSES";
    not changed.

  Sig. A3v
    "how ancient, how, profitable," changed to
    "how ancient, how profitable,".

    "Roses on Thornes. and such like," changed to
    "Roses on Thornes, and such like,".

  Sig. A4r
    "_Of bough Setts._" changed to "_Of bought Setts._"
    for consistency with the text.

  Sig. A4v
    Page number for "_Of Foyling_" in Chapter 12 changed from 53 to 51,
    for consistency with the text.

    Page number for "_Of Flowers, Borders, Mounts &c._" in Chapter 17
    changed from 71 to 70, for consistency with the text.

  Chapter 1, page 3
    "other offall, that fruit" changed to "all other of that fruit"

  Chapter 2, page 3
    "nor searcely with Quinces," changed to
    "nor scarcely with Quinces,".

    "(not well ordered," changed to "(not well ordered)".

  Page 5
    "will pu forth suckers" changed to "will put forth suckers".

  Page 6
    "become manure to your ground" changed to
    "become manure to your ground.".

    "15. or 18 inches deepe" changed to "15. or 18. inches deepe".

  Chapter 3, page 6
    "(as is before described," changed to "(as is before described)".

  Page 7
    "in _Holland_ and _Zealand_" the "a" in "and" is italicised
    in the original.

    "Our old fathers can telvs" changed to "Our old fathers can tel vs".

  Page 8
    "chuse your ground low Or if you be forced" changed to
    "chuse your ground low: Or if you be forced".

  Page 10
    "(for trees are the greatest suckers & pillers of earth," changed to
    "(for trees are the greatest suckers & pillers of earth)".

  Chapter 7, page 18
    "for commonly your bur-knots are summer fruit)" changed to
    "(for commonly your bur-knots are summer fruit)".

  Page 20
    "arse from some taw" changed to "arise from some taw".

  Page 21
    "I could not mislke this kind" changed to
    "I could not mislike this kind".

  Page 27
    "Let not you stakes" changed to "Let not your stakes".

    "or of auy other thing" changed to "or of any other thing".

  Chapter 8, page 29
    "forty or fity yeares" changed to "forty or fifty yeares".

    "alotted to his felllow" changed to "alotted to his fellow".

  Page 30
    "vpward out of he earth" changed to "vpward out of the earth".

  Chapter 9, page 32
    "they are more subiect," changed to "they are more subiect to,".

  Chapter 10, page 33
    "commonly called a _Graft_)" changed to
    "(commonly called a _Graft_)".

  Chapter 11, page 43
    "(nay more) such as mens" changed to "(nay more, such as mens".

  Page 46
    "It stayes it nothing at al" changed to "It stayes it nothing at all.".

  Chapter 12, page 53
    "wastes cotinually" changed to "wastes continually".

  Chapter 13, page 57
    "take sprig and all (for" changed to "take sprig and all: for".

  Page 58
    "cleanse his foile" changed to  "cleanse his soile".

  Chapter 14, page 63
    "growth: for cut them" changed to "growth: (for cut them".

  Page 64
    "to inlarge their frust" changed to "to inlarge their fruit".

  Chapter 16, page 67
    "Orchrad shall exceed" changed to "Orchard shall exceed"

  Chapter 17, page 70
    "double double Cowslips" not changed.

  The Country Housewifes Garden
  Chapter 8, page 90
    "drunke to kill itches" changed to "drunke) to kill itches".

  Page 94
    "It floweth at _Michael-tide_" changed to
    "It flowreth at _Michael-tide_".

  Page 95
    "_Cur moritur homo, cum saluia crescit in horto?_" not changed.
    Possible error for "... cui saluia ...".

  Chapter 9, page 97
    "for then they are too too tender" not changed.

  Chapter 10, page 99
    "the Beees lye out" changed to "the Bees lye out".

  Page 100
    "Neither would the hiue be too too great" not changed.

  Page 102
    "hey cannot come downe" changed to "they cannot come downe".

  Page 103
    "claspes are loose in the Stapes" not changed.

  Page 106
    "combes into a siue" changed to "combes) into a siue".

  The Art of propagating plants
  Chapter 3, page 116
    The last side note has been changed from "1." to "11.".

  Chapter 4, page 120
    "aud these shall stay" changed to "and these shall stay".

    "sowre Cherry treee" changed to "sowre Cherry tree".

  The Husband mans fruitefull orchard
  Page 125
    "_Gascoyne_ and Blacke" changed to "_Gascoyne_ and _Blacke_".

  Page 126
    "if you doe trasport them" changed to "if you doe transport them".

    "Nertarines, Apricockes" changed to "Nectarines, Apricockes".

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A New Orchard And Garden - or, The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any - ground good, for a rich Orchard: Particularly in the North - and generally for the whole kingdome of England" ***

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