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Title: An Australian Bird Book - A Pocket Book for Field Use
Author: Leach, John Albert
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Australian Bird Book - A Pocket Book for Field Use" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Mark Orton (for the Formatting Template), and the Online


Transcriber's Note.

^ indicates a superscript.

_text_ indicates italic type.

=text= indicates bold type.

A missing line on Page 25 (_in italics_)

(Their wings are paddles, being flattened and devoid of quills.
_The wings are not folded, but are carried hanging awkwardly at_
the side.)

  was restored from a different Edition on Google Books
(http:// books.google.com/books?id=Rn3uthhODo8C&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25).

Sundry damaged or missing punctuation has been repaired, and a few
index entries have been amended.


The use of hyphens was not necessarily consistent throughout this book.
In some instances there are subtle differences in meaning.

Some Australian/British spellings (e.g. coloured, defence, draught,
grey, learnt, lustre, etc.) have been retained, though color/colored
and gray are more prevalent. The Author has used various resources.



From Wikipedia:

"DR JOHN ALBERT LEACH (19 March 1870 - 3 October 1929) was an
ornithologist, teacher and headmaster in the state of Victoria,
Australia.

Leach was born in Ballarat, Victoria and educated at Creswick Grammar
School (where he was dux), Melbourne Training College (1890) and the
University of Melbourne, where he graduated B.Sc. in 1904, M.Sc. in
1906 and in 1912 obtained his doctorate for research in ornithology.

Leach was a regular writer and broadcaster on natural history subjects
and introduced it into the school curriculum. He was President of the
Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union (RAOU) 1922-1924 and Editor of
its journal The Emu 1914-1924 and 1928-1929. He was a member of the
British Ornithologists Union and a corresponding fellow of the
American Ornithologists Union. Leach was also member of the Field
Naturalists Club of Victoria. He was instrumental in founding the
Gould League of Bird Lovers in 1909 with Jessie McMichael. He is best
known as the author of An Australian Bird Book, the first edition of
which was published in 1911, and of Australian Nature Studies in 1922.
He also part-authored a series of Federal Geography books, and worked
on the Official Checklist of the Birds of Australia second and revised
edition, published by the RAOU in September 1926.

Leach had been preparing two books before his death, one of these was
a collection of weekly radio broadcasts he made on 3LO in the mid
1920s....

Among his contributions to ornithology was the relationship between
the Australian Magpie, butcherbirds and currawongs in the family
Cracticidae, now sunk as a subfamily into Artamidae."



This book is a field guide. The pages were divided vertically, with
the tabular matter on the top half, and the Lecture on the bottom half
of the page.

The ebook has been re-arranged so that the separate parts have a
smoother flow. The top parts of the pages have been left intact, but
the bottom parts have been collected together and moved, so that the
Lecture text for each ORDER precedes the tabular listing and
descriptions for that ORDER.

The only exception is for ORDER XXI.

ORDER XXI.--Perching-Birds--contains 11,500 species, more than
three-fifths of the world's 19,000 birds. It has been arranged into
sets of suitable groups of FAMILIES, to make it easier to access.

==== has been used to separate the Lecture from the Tabular matter.


From "PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.":

"In response to requests from beginners, a table has been added on
page 190. This table shows the page on which a bird of a certain size
may be found."


As the page numbers are an integral part of the field guide, and
necessary for the identification of birds seen in the field, in flight,
or found dead, they have been inserted into the tabular section, as
[Page xx].

Sometimes a page has contained the end entries of one ORDER, or one
Family, and the beginning entries of the next. In these few instances
(e.g. [Page 18a] and [Page 18b]; [Page 188a] and [Page 188b]), it may
be necessary for the reader to search both sections of the page.

For birds mentioned in the Lecture, it would be necessary to search by
bird name.


NAMES RECENTLY AMENDED (located after the INTRODUCTION).

It seems important to have these new names available, so they have
been added to (e.g.)

=20 Slate-breasted Rail= ....

as [~20 _Rallus pectoralis._]

so:

=20 Slate-breasted Rail= (Short-toed), Lewin Water-Rail,
    _Eulabeornis (Hypotaenidia) brachypus_, A., T., Auckland Is.
    =vt. Eur. Water-Rail.
    [~20 _Rallus pectoralis._]


See also the explanatory notes in the PREFACE, and in the PREFACE TO
THE SECOND EDITION.

"The number at the right side of the page is the length of the bird in
inches (from the tip of bill to the tip of tail)." ...

so:

1
1

    =2* Mallee-Fowl=, Lowan, Native Pheasant, Pheasant (e),
    _Leipoa ocellata_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. r. _mallee scrubs_      24

    Like a small turkey; neck light fawn-gray; back, wings spotted
    white, black, brown; f., smaller. Seeds, ants.

This means there is one genus of Mallee-Fowl in the world, and it is
found only in Australia. It is listed in this book as Bird number 2,
which has a colored illustration, indicated by the asterisk, *.

It is stationary (not migratory), rarely seen, lives in mallee scrubs,
and is 24" long.

It resembles a small turkey; its neck is light fawn-gray; its back
and wings are spotted white, black, and brown; the female is smaller;
and it feeds on seeds and ants.

Note (From NOTE following "PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION."):

    A.--Australian Region (from Wallace's Line to Sandwich Islands
        and New Zealand, see map p. 10).

'Sandwich Islands' is an old name for Fiji.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: [2] [3] [4] [6] [8] [11] [14] [16]]

   =2= Mallee-Fowl
   =3= Stubble Quail
   =4= Brown Quail
   =6= King Quail
   =8= Painted Quail
  =11= Plain Wanderer
  =14= Diamond Dove
  =16= Bronzewing Pigeon



AN AUSTRALIAN BIRD BOOK


A Pocket Book for Field Use


BY

J. A. LEACH, M.Sc.

_First-class Honorman and University Exhibitioner and Scholar in
Biology; Organizing Inspector of Nature Study, Education Department,
Victoria; Member of the Council of the Royal Australasian
Ornithologists' Union; Vice-President of the Field Naturalists' Club
of Victoria; &c._

With Introduction by
FRANK TATE, M.A., I.S.O.

_Director of Education, Victoria._

_Published by arrangement with the Education Department
of Victoria._

SECOND EDITION

[Illustration]

MELBOURNE
Christchurch, Wellington, Dunedin, N.Z., and London.
WHITCOMBE & TOMBS LIMITED
1912

[Illustration: _The Queen City Printers_]

_Illustrations from Specimens (318) in the National Museum, Melbourne;
the balance mostly from Specimens in the Entomological Museum, C.
French (59), and in the collections of A. Coles, Taxidermist, (36),
C. F. Cole, and D. Le Souëf. Twenty-two birds were photographed from
Gould's "Birds of Australia," five from drawings specially prepared by
C. C. Brittlebank, the well-known naturalist-artist, and one from the
Report of the Horn Expedition._

_Photos by Ralph L. Miller._

_Engravings by Patterson Shugg & Co., from Paintings by Miss Ethel M.
Paterson._



INTRODUCTION.


Nature-study in our schools is fast producing a generation of
Australians trained to look upon the characteristic beauties of our
Australian skies, our trees, our flowers, our birds with a passionate
appreciation almost unknown to our pioneering fathers and mothers.
It was natural that newcomers from the Old World should have been
impressed, and often unfavorably impressed, by the oddness of things
here. Rural sights to them had hitherto been sights of trim meadows
bordered by neat hedgerows, of well-cultivated fields and comfortable
farmsteads, or of stately homes set in fair gardens and far-reaching
parks of magnificently-spreading trees. What wonder, then, that they
were at first almost repelled by the strangeness and unfamiliarity
of their new surroundings! How could eyes accustomed to the decided
greens and to the somewhat monotonous shapeliness of the trees in
an English summer landscape find beauty all at once in the delicate,
elusive tints of the gum trees, or in the wonderfully decorative lines
of their scanty boughs and light foliage shown clear against a bright
sky? And so a land which is eminently a land of color, where
the ever-present eucalypts give in their leaves every shade from
blue-grays to darkest greens; where the tender shoots show brilliantly
in bright crimson, or duller russets, or bright coppery-gold;
and where tall, slender stems change slowly through a harmony of
salmon-pinks and pearl-grays, has been called a drab-colored land.
Even now, the beauty of the gum tree is not sufficiently appreciated
by Australians, and we see all too few specimens in our suburban
gardens. For an appreciation of the decorative effect of our young
blue gums, we must go to the Riviera or to English conservatories.

Australia has suffered greatly from phrase-makers. There is still much
popular belief that our trees are shadeless, our rivers are waterless,
our flowers are scentless, our birds are songless. Oddities in our
flora and fauna have attracted the notice of superficial observers,
and a preference for epigrammatic perfection, rather than for
truthful generalization, has produced an abundance of neatly-expressed
half-truths, which have been copied into popular literature, and even
into school books. Our English-bred poet, Gordon, writes of lands--

  "Where bright blossoms are scentless,
  And songless, bright birds."

and these lines are remembered better than his description in the same
poem of Spring--

  "When the wattle gold trembles
    'Twixt shadow and shine,
  When each dew-laden air draught resembles
    A long draught of wine."

It is true that we have scentless, bright blossoms; but Australia
is the home of the richly-perfumed wattle, and the boronia, with
its never-cloying fragrance; while there is, perhaps, no forest more
odorous than a forest of eucalypts. It is true, too, that we have
bright birds that have no excellence in song; but it is also true
that, in this favored land, there is a far greater proportion than
usual of fine song-birds.

The first generations of Australians were not taught to love
Australian things. We "learned from our wistful mothers to call Old
England home." Our school books and our story books were made in Great
Britain for British boys and girls, and naturally they stressed what
was of interest to these boys and girls. We read much about the beauty
of the songs of the Lark, and the Thrush, and the Nightingale, but we
found no printed authority for the belief that our Magpie is one of
the great song-birds of the world; we read of the wonderful powers
of the American Mocking-Bird, and did not know that our beautiful
Lyrebird is a finer mimic; we learned by heart Barry Cornwall's
well-known poem on "The Storm Petrel," and did not know that one of
the most interesting of Petrel rookeries is near the harbor gate
of Melbourne; and I remember well a lesson I heard as a boy on the
migration of birds, in which the teacher took all of his illustrations
from his boyish experiences in the South of England, and gave us no
idea that the annual migration of our familiar Australian birds to
far-off Siberia is a much more wonderful thing.

But all this is being rapidly changed. In the elementary schools
Nature-study is steadily improving, and children are being given an
eye for, and an interest in, the world of Nature around them. Our
school books are now written from the Australian standpoint, and more
use can, therefore, be made of the child's everyday experience. Field
Naturalists' clubs are doing much to extend the area of specialized
Nature-study, and their members are giving valuable assistance to the
schools by taking part in the programs for Arbor Day, Bird Day, and
the like. The growing interest in the Australian fauna and flora
is further evidenced by the frequent reservations by Government of
desirable areas as national parks and sanctuaries for the preservation
of Australian types. Last, but not least, is the production by capable
Nature students of special books on some form of Nature-study, such as
this Bird Book by Mr. Leach.

To our parents, Australia was a stranger land, and they were
sojourners here. Though they lived here, they did not get close enough
to it to appreciate fully its natural beauty and its charm. To us,
and especially to our children, children of Australian-born parents,
children whose bones were made in Australia, the place is home. To
them Nature makes a direct appeal, strengthened by those most powerful
of all associations, those gathered in childhood, when the foundations
of their minds were laid. The English boy, out on a breezy down, may
feel an exaltation of soul on hearing a Skylark raining down a flood
of delicious melody from far up at heaven's gate, but his joy is no
whit greater than his who hears, in the dewy freshness of the early
morning, the carol of the Magpie ringing out over an Australian plain.
To those who live in countries where the winter is long and bitter,
any sign that the genial time of flowers is at hand is very welcome.
All over the countryside the first call of the Cuckoo, spring's
harbinger, arouses the keenest delight in expectant listeners. This
delight is, however, more than mere delight in the bird's song. And to
those brought up with it year by year there comes a time when the call
of the Cuckoo stirs something deep down below the surface of ordinary
emotion. It is the resultant of multitudes of childhood experiences
and of associations with song and story. I first heard the Cuckoo in
Epping Forest one delicious May evening four years ago. It charmed me,
but my delight was almost wholly that of association. All the English
poetry I knew was at the back of the bird's song. Here in Australia
we have no sharply-defined seasons, yet I find myself every spring
listening eagerly for the first plaintive, insistent call of the
Pallid Cuckoo. For me his song marks another milestone passed.

Marcus Clarke wrote of the Laughing Jackasses as bursting into
"horrible peals of semi-human laughter." But then Marcus Clarke was
English-bred, and did not come to Australia till he was eighteen years
old. It makes all the difference in our appreciation of bird or tree
or flower to have known it as a boy. I venture to think no latter-day
Australian who has grown up with our Kookaburra can have any but
the kindliest of feelings for this feathered comedian. For myself, I
confess that I find his laughter infectious, and innumerable times he
has provoked me into an outburst as hearty and as mirthful as his own.
More than half of our pleasure is due to the fact that the bird is

  "The same that in my schoolboy days I listened to."

and to such a one we can say--

  "I can listen to thee yet,
    Can lie upon the plain
  And listen, till I do beget
    That golden time again."

It is time that we Australians fought against the generally received
opinion that the dominant note of our scenery is weird melancholy.
This is the note sounded mainly by those who were bred elsewhere, who
came to us with other associations and other traditions, and sojourned
among us. It will not be the opinion of the native-born when they find
appropriate speech.

  "Whence doth the mournful keynote start?
  From the pure depths of Nature's heart?
  Or, from the heart of him who sings,
  And deems his hand upon the strings,
      Is Nature's own?"

This little book should do much to popularize bird-study and to spread
a knowledge of our common birds among our people. I hope devoutly that
an effort will be made to give them suitable names. We should give
them names a poet or a child can use. A Chaucer poring lovingly over
his favorite flower, the daisy, could call it by a name which is
itself full of poetry. Even the unimaginative clown, Nick Bottom,
could sing of

  "The Ouzel Cock, so black of hue,
    With orange-tawny bill,
  The Throstle with his note so true,
    The Wren with little quill,
  The Finch, the Sparrow, and the Lark,
    The plain-song Cuckoo gray."

And a Burns can invoke the Throstle in lines as musical as the song of
the bird itself--"And thou mellow mavis, that hails the night-fa'."

But how shall an Australian bard sing of "The Red-rumped Acanthiza,"
or of that delightful songster, "The Rufous-breasted Thickhead"?
Australian Nature-poetry will be handicapped until our children give
names like "Bobolink," and "Chickadee," and "Whip-poor-will," and
"Jacky Winter," to our birds.

"Oriel," in the _Argus_, some time ago, showed how hard it is to write
of love's young dream in Australian verse.

  "Sweetheart, we watched the evening sky grow pale,
    And drowsy sweetness stole away our senses,
  While ran adown the swamp the Pectoral Rail,
    The shy Hypotaenidia philippinensis.

  "How sweet a thing is love! Sweet as the rose,
    Fragrant as flowers, fair as the sunlight beaming!
  Only the Sooty Oyster-Catcher knows
    How sweet to us, as there we lingered dreaming.

  "Dear, all the secret's ours. The Sharp-tailed Stint
    Spied, but he will not tell--though you and I
  Paid Cupid's debts from Love's own golden mint,
    While Yellow-Bellied Shrike-Tits fluttered nigh.

  "The Honey-eaters heard; the Fuscous--yea,
    The Warty-faced, the Lunulated, too;
  But this kind feathered tribe will never say
    What words you said to me, or I to you.

  "The golden bloom was glorious in the furze,
    And gentle twittering came from out the copses;
  It was the Carinated Flycatchers,
    Or else the black Monarcha melanopsis.

  "That day our troth we plighted--blissful hour,
    Beginning of a joy a whole life long!
  And while the wide world seemed to be in flower,
    The Chestnut-rumped Ground-Wren burst forth in song."

It surely would not be amiss if the Bird Observers' Clubs throughout
Australia, and the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union, enlisted
the aid of the State Education Departments, and endeavored to find out
what names the children use for the birds of their district. Executive
committees upon bird names are good; but a good name is not evoked by
arguments in committee. It ofttimes comes from the happy inspiration
of some child who loves the bird. At present the names given by
classifiers are often an offence. A few evenings ago I was charmed
with an unaccustomed song coming from out a big pittosporum tree in
my garden at Kew. I took careful note of the little warbler, and then
consulted Mr. Leach's _Descriptive List_. Judge of my satisfaction
when I found that my little friend was "The Striated Field Wren or
Stink Bird"!

The Australian boy is responding splendidly to the Nature-study
movement. Bird observers tell me that shy native birds, formerly
unknown near the haunts of men, are making their appearance,
feeling safer now from molestation. Nest hunting for the sake of egg
spoliation is happily becoming rarer, although children are developing
keener eyes for nests. To-day every country school has its nests
under loving observation for the purposes of bird-study and of
bird-protection. Walt Whitman might have been describing many a
Victorian school boy when he wrote--

  "And every day the he-bird, to and fro, near at hand,
  And every day the she-bird, crouched on her nest, silent, with bright eyes,
  And every day, I, a curious boy, never too close, never disturbing them,
  Cautiously peering, absorbing, translating."

This loving study must bear good fruit. If we believe the scientific
men, Australia is, _par excellence_, the land of birds, song-birds,
plumage-birds, and birds of wonderful interest, such as the Satin
Bower Bird. The collection of Australian birds in our National Museum
at Melbourne is certainly one of the finest sights of the city, and it
should be studied by all who wish to know how favored this continent
is in bird distribution. But we must get to know and to love our
feathered friends. Mr. Leach in his lecture has dwelt sufficiently on
the economic and scientific value of bird-study. Let me enter a plea
for bird-study as a source of æsthetic pleasure. Before our Australian
birds can be to us what the Thrush and the Blackbird and the Linnet
and the Lark and the Nightingale are to the British boy, we must have
a wealth of association around them from song and story. And this
association must grow up with us from childhood if it is to make
the strongest appeal to us. It can rarely be acquired in later life.
British birds owe much to the poets for the charm that surrounds them.
When I heard the Nightingale in England, although I had no association
with it gathered from my boyhood's days, I heard more than the bird's
song. I was listening to Keats and Wordsworth and Shakespeare as well.
There is something very fine in the thought that such bird songs go on
for ever, that these immortal birds are "not made for death," that

  "The voice I hear this passing night was heard
  In ancient days by emperor and clown:
  Perhaps the self-same song that found a path
  Through the sad heart of Ruth, when, sick for home,
  She stood in tears amid the alien corn."

The Nightingale's song, as a bird song, I thought disappointing.
I remember having the same feeling with regard to the Thrush and
Blackbird. The charm of their songs is largely in the associations
they evoke. Our city children are now growing up in familiarity with
these two birds, which are becoming as common in our gardens as in
England. And wherever they go they carry so much that is fine in
literature with them. But there has not yet been time for our native
birds to endear themselves to us. And so we hear only their song. Wise
Shakespeare says--

  "How many things by season seasoned are
  To their right praise and true perfection."

 *      *      *      *      *      *      *

  "The Nightingale, if she should sing by day,
  When every goose is cackling, would be thought
  No better a musician than the Wren."

He knows that to the song of the bird must be its appropriate setting,
and that when Nature has done her part there is still much to be
supplied by ourselves.

The outlook is, however, a hopeful one. Nature-study is bringing our
boys and girls into kindlier relationships with our birds; suitable
popular names will be forthcoming for them; our poets will sing of
them; our nursery rhymes and our children's tales will tell of them;
and the time will come when even the birds now trying so hard to
sing their way into our hearts, while cursed with the names of
"Rufous-breasted Thickhead" and "Striated Field Wren or Stink Bird,"
will mean to an Australian what "the Throstle with his note so true"
and "the Wren with little quill" do to an Englishman.

Mr. Leach's valuable little book is a powerful contribution to this
much-to-be-desired result.

  FRANK TATE.



NAMES RECENTLY AMENDED

By Gregory Mathews.

_The following were not included in the text._

The numbers 70, 74, and so on refer to the numbers of the birds.

   20 _Rallus pectoralis._
   65-66 _Genus Thalasseus._
   70 _Sterna fuscata._
   74 _Catharacta._
   75 _Catharacta parasitica._
   76 _Morinella interpres._
   80 _Lobibyx novae hollandiae._
   82 _Squatarola squatarola._
   83-89 _Genus Charadrius._
   90 _Hypsibates_
   95 _Numenius minutus._
   96 _Limosa baueri._
   97 _Limosa melanuroides._
   98 _Tringa hypoleuca._
   99 _Tringa nebularia._
  100 _Arenaria leucophaea._
  101 _Erolia ruficollis._
  102 _Erolia aurita._
  103 _Erolia ferruginea._
  104 _Canutus canutus._
  105 _Canutus magnus._
  110 _Choriotis australis._
  111 _Mathewsia rubicunda._
  114 _Egatheus falcinellus._
  117 _Egretta plumifera._
  118 _Egretta timoriensis._
  121 _Egretta nigripes._
  122 _Demigretta sacra._
  124 _Ixobrychus pusillus._
  126 _Chenopis atrata._
  132 _Tadorna tadornoides._
  134 _Nettion castaneum._
  139 _Nyroca australis._
  140 _Oxyura australis._
  142-146 _Genus, Carbo._
  157 _Astur cirrhocephalus._
  171 _Ieracidea berigora._
  172 _Ieracidea orientalis._
  179-183 _Genus, Tyto._
  185-187 _Genus, Glossopsitta._
  191 _Genus, Callocephalon._
  192-194 _Genus, Cacatöes._
  195 _Licmetis tenuirostris._
  196 _Calopsitta novae-hollandiae._
  198 _Polytelis anthopeplus._
  208 _Neophema chrysostoma._
  213 _Lathamus discolor._
  225 _Eurostopodus albigularis._
  228 _Apus pacificus._
  229 _Cuculus pallidus._
  232 _Misocalius palliolatus._



PREFACE.


This little volume is intended as a pocket book for field use, so
that the many teachers, nature-students, nature-lovers, schoolboys,
schoolgirls, and boy scouts, who like to "_see_ what they _look at_,"
may be able to name the birds they meet.

The first step towards knowing the birds is a _desire_ to know them;
this will grow if a person is interested; so our first business, as
in all nature-study work, is to arouse _interest_. Interest follows at
once, as we have often found, if a person realizes that what is about
him or her is worthy of study.

To arouse this necessary interest, a lecture on Australian birds is
given in such a form that it may be repeated, if desired.

The second requisite is a handy descriptive list of the birds that are
likely to be seen. This has been written in simple language, so that
the schoolboy and non-expert can use it.

Thus, our aims are two:--

    1. To show that Australian birds are of interest.

    2. To supply, in a convenient form, a list of the birds which
    are likely to be seen, and the marks by means of which they
    may be identified.

This little book contains illustrations and descriptions of--

  100% of the birds found in Victoria.
  92.5% .. .. .. .. .. .. .. South Australia.
  87.3% .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Tasmania.
  82.5% .. .. .. .. .. .. .. New South Wales.
  78.16%.. .. .. .. .. .. .. W. Australia (S. and C.).
  78.15%.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Queensland.

The balance of those found in each of the other States is made up
mainly of birds closely related to those of which illustrations are
given, or of very rare birds restricted to a small area.

The families of the birds of the world have been included, so that the
observer can see where the bird he is observing is placed amongst the
world's birds. He will also be enabled to place near its Australian
relatives birds he reads about. The Australian birds only are grouped
in orders.

Mr. H. Wilson, Nature-study Lecturer, Training College, superintended
the painting of the birds, and saw the book through the press.

_A Hand-List of Birds_: Dr. Sharpe; and _A Hand-List of the Birds
of Australasia_: Gregory M. Mathews, have been followed for
classification and distribution.

But for the interest of the Minister of Education, the Hon. A. A.
Billson, and the Director, Mr. F. Tate, M.A., I.S.O., this little
book would not have been possible. Further, Mr. Billson suggested the
colored illustrations, while Mr. Tate has written the introduction,
read the proof-sheets and assisted at all stages.



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


In response to requests from beginners, a table has been added on page
190. This table shows the page on which a bird of a certain size may
be found.

Pending the completion by the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union
of its official _Check-list of the Birds of Australia_, the scientific
names have been left as in the first edition.


NOTES.

Where one number is placed over another at the left side of the page,
the lower number denotes the number of species of that genus found in
the world; the upper denotes the number of species found in Australia
and Tasmania.

The number at the right side of the page is the length of the bird in
inches (from the tip of bill to the tip of tail).

The families of birds known are numbered consecutively, thus, F. 11,
F. 12, and so on. The number after a family name denotes the number of
species recorded from Australia and Tasmania. The distribution of
the species of each family amongst the six zoogeographical regions is
shown thus:

    F. 17. COLUMBIDAE (2), WOOD PIGEONS, Passenger-Pigeon, Rock-Dove,
    119 sp.--41(40)A., 25(17)O., 18(10)P., 19(17)E., 4(0)Nc., 24(20)Nl.

This should read: Family number 17 of the world's birds, COLUMBIDAE
(two of which are found in Australia and Tasmania) contains the Wood
Pigeons, including the Passenger-Pigeon (of North America) and the
Rock-Dove (of Europe). It comprises 119 species, of which 41 are found
in the Australian Region, 40 of them being confined to this region;
25 are found in the Oriental Region, 17 being confined to it; 18 are
found in the Palaearctic Region, 10 of which are not found outside
the region; 19 have been recorded from the Ethiopian Region, 17
being peculiar to that region; 4 have been recorded from the Nearctic
Region, none of which is restricted to the region; 24 have been
recorded from the Neotropical Region, 20 being peculiar to it.

The name in black type is the name accepted by the Australasian
Association for the Advancement of Science in 1898, and amended by the
"names" sub-committee of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union,
1911. This name should be used to denote the bird. Many local names
are given, so that a person knowing a bird by one of these may
discover its proper name.

    A.--Australian Region (from Wallace's Line to Sandwich Islands
    and New Zealand, see map p. 10).

    O.--Oriental (Indian) Region (India to Wallace's Line).

    P.--Palaearctic Region (Europe, N.W. Africa, and Northern and
    Western Asia, except Arabia).

    E.--Ethiopian Region (Arabia and Africa, except N.W.).

    Nc.--Nearctic Region. ("_The A.O.U. Check-List of North
    American Birds, 1910_" has been followed in making this North
    America, less Mexico).

    Nl.--Neotropical Region (South America, with Mexico).

    A.O.U.--American Ornithologists' Union; R.A.O.U--Royal
    Australasian Ornithologists' Union.


    A. denotes found throughout Australia; E.A. denotes found
    in Queensland, N.S.W., and Victoria; S.A. denotes South
    Australia; C.A. denotes Central Australia; W.A.
    denotes Western Australia; N. Ter.--Northern Territory;
    Mal.--Malaysia; Mol.--Molucca Is.; N. Cal.--New Caledonia;
    N. Heb.--New Hebrides; N.G.--New Guinea; N.Z.--New Zealand;
    Br.--British; T.--Tasmania.

    Nom.--Nomadic; Mig.--Migratory; Part. Mig.--Partly Migratory;
    Stat.--Stationary; exc.--except; acc.--accidental.

    C.--common; v.c.--very common; r.--rare; v.r.--very rare;
    u.--unlikely that the ordinary observer will see it.

    * means see colored illustration.

    f.--female; m.--male; f., sim.--f. is similar in color and
    size.

    =vt. Eur. denotes that the Australian bird is closely similar
    in form, habits, &c., to the corresponding European bird.

    =vt. cos. denotes that it is the equivalent or representative
    of a cosmopolitan group of birds.

1
4

    =6* King Quail= (Chestnut-bellied, Least, Dwarf), reads "No. 6
    (see colored illustration) is the King Quail, called also the
    Chestnut-bellied Quail, Least Quail, and Dwarf Quail. Four of
    this genus are known in the world, of which one is found in
    Australia."

(e) denotes that a name is used in error.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Yellow-tailed Tit-Warbler is about 4 in. long; a White-eye, 4.5 in.;
a Sparrow, 5 in.; a House-Swallow, 6.5 in.; a Sordid Wood-Swallow,
7 in.; a Black and White Fantail, 7.5 in.; a Starling, 8.5 in.;
a Harmonious Shrike-Thrush, 9.5 in.; a Noisy Miner, 10 in.; a
Magpie-Lark, 10.5 in.; a Butcher-Bird, 11 in.; a Pallid Cuckoo, 12in.;
a Rosella, 12.5 in.; a Galah, 14 in.; a Wattle-Bird, 14.5 in.;
a Laughing Kingfisher, 17.5 in.; a White-backed Magpie, 18 in.; and a
Crow, 20 in. (measured from the tip of tail to the tip of bill).

Don't try to judge a bird's length in inches.

Note one or two prominent markings, and the size of a bird; say,
larger than a Starling, but smaller than a Magpie-Lark. Then get the
length of these birds from the table above (8-1/2 in. and 10-1/2 in.
respectively), and compare the description of each bird that comes
between these lengths with the illustrations and the bird before you.
The birds are approximately relative size on each block.

Use the index to find the page of a bird, then use the number, if
asterisked, to find the bird in the colored plate index.

[Illustration: THE WORLD Showing REGIONS]



=An Australian Bird Book.=

       *       *       *       *       *

A LECTURE.


Australia is the wonderland of the scientist and of the Nature-lover.
It is a great living "museum," stocked with marvels of many kinds,
including so-called "living fossils," the sole survivors of otherwise
extinct groups of animals.

Competent authorities have proposed to divide the world, biologically,
into two parts--Australia and the rest of the world, and they have
considered Australia the more important part.

This division was based mainly on the study of mammals--animals which
suckle their young--for Australia is the home of the two surviving
members of the lowest group of mammals--Monotremata, the egg-laying
Platypus (_Ornithorhynchus_), and the Spiny Ant-eater (_Echidna_).
Further, marsupials, except for two kinds found in America, are
confined to this long-isolated southern land.

Here, shut off from the severe competition experienced by the animals
of northern lands, marsupials were modified so that they were adapted
for life in almost every realm utilized by the higher mammals of other
countries. Thus there are herbivorous, carnivorous, and insectivorous
marsupials. Owing, probably, to the advent of Bats--true flying
mammals--at, possibly, a comparatively early time, the marsupial was
beaten in the air, and so a true flying form was not evolved, though
the so-called "Flying Phalanger" is some distance on the way.

As regards the other group of flying animals--birds--Australia is even
of greater interest, for here are found unique archaic forms of life,
such as the Emu, Cassowary, Mound-Builders, and Lyre-Birds, and
"every widely-spread family of birds but two is represented; the only
widely-spread families of birds totally absent from Australia
are Woodpeckers and Vultures." Woodpeckers, however, have crossed
Wallace's line into Celebes and adjacent islands, and may yet reach
Australia naturally.

Further, many well-known birds, such as Pigeons, Parrots, and
Kingfishers, reach their highest development in the Australian region,
and, more important still, the whole bird world seems to reach its
culminating point in this wonderland. It is a factor adding to the
interest of Australia's fauna that three of the four families placed
at the head of the bird world in the natural system of classification
adopted by ornithologists, and used by Dr. Sharpe in his just recently
completed _Hand-List of Birds_, should be absolutely confined to the
Australian Continent and adjacent islands. Thus Australia can justly
claim to be the most highly developed of regions, so far as birds
are concerned, for Bower-Birds, Birds of Paradise, and Bell-Magpies
(_Streperas_) are peculiar, while the penultimate family--the Crow
family--is shared with the other regions of the world.

Thus, with regard to birds, the term "fossil continent" applied to
Australia is not appropriate, as it is but partly true.

Since the birds native to Australia are so interesting in themselves,
and are so varied in kind, Australians should know, love, and
jealously protect these beautiful creatures. Strict regulations should
be framed to prevent the exploitation of Nature's gifts by those who
destroy useful or precious and rare birds for the sake of gain. Even
collectors, who, under the guise of scientific work, collect eggs, and
kill birds to trade in their skins, should be supervized.

Let us now consider the different groups of birds. Living birds were
formerly divided into two sub-classes--(1) _Ratitae_ (Lat., _ratis_, a
raft), and (2) _Carinatae_ (Lat., _carina_, a keel). The first is
the small group of flightless, running birds, made up of five living
birds, all inhabiting southern lands. These are the Emu and Cassowary
of Australia, the Ostrich of South Africa, the Rhea or South American
Ostrich, and the Kiwi or Apteryx of New Zealand. Taken together with
other evidence, all pointing in the same way, these birds have led
scientists to think of a great southern land mass connecting the
southern lands, for the Emu did not fly here, nor did the Rhea fly
to South America, but they must have reached their present home by a
land-bridge not necessarily complete at any one time. As these birds
do not fly, they have no big wing-muscles, and so do not need the
ridge of bone down the breast. Thus they belong to the sub-class, the
members of which have a raft-like breast bone. The other living birds
were placed in the sub-class the members of which have a keel on the
breast bone for the attachment of the wing-muscles.

Recently, however, Pycraft, a leading ornithologist, has proposed to
base the division into sub-classes on the characters of the bones of
the palate instead of those of the breast-bone. Thus, he places the
sixth family of birds--the Tinamous, of South America--with the ratite
birds, to form his primitive group--_Palaeognathae_ ("old jaw"), while
the members of the old sub-class _Carinatae_, minus the Tinamous,
constitute his second division, the _Neognathae_ ("new jaw").

Mr. Gregory Mathews, the first part of whose projected great work
on Australian Birds has just come to hand, has followed Dr. Bowdler
Sharpe in accepting this classification, so we must follow too, as
Mathews' work will probably be our standard for years to come. The
large number of Australian birds belonging to this second sub-class is
now divided into 20 orders, which with the Emu order, make a total of
21 orders of birds represented in Australia.

Now, let us consider the birds in each order. The best-known member
of the first Australian order is the Emu, a bird well known to all,
though, unfortunately, becoming very rare, so that few persons in the
settled districts now enjoy the privilege of seeing an Emu in a wild
state.

====

  [Page 12]

  [Illustration: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]]

    CLASS.--AVES.--BIRDS.

    Sub-Class I.--Palaeognathae.

    Ratitae and Tinamidae.

    F. 1. _Rheidae_, Rhea, 3 sp. Nl.

    F. 2. _Struthionidae_, Ostrich, 4 sp.--4(3)E., 1(0)P. (S.
    Palestine).

    ORDER I.--CASUARIIFORMES.

    F. 3. DROMAEIDAE (1), EMU, 1 sp. A.

1
1

    =1 Emu=, _Dromaius novae-hollandiae_, A.

          Stat. r. plains      78

    See diagram, second largest living bird; f., smaller. Fruits,
    grass.

    F. 4. CASUARIIDAE (1), CASSOWARY, 17 sp. A.

    F. 5. _Apterygidae_, Apteryx, Kiwi, 6 sp. A. (N.Z.).

    F. 6. _Tinamidae_, Tinamous, 69 sp. Nl.

    Sub-Class II.--Neognathae.

    Carinatae, minus Tinamidae.

====

The birds of the second order are well known as "scratchers." They
include the domestic fowl, which has been derived from the wild jungle
fowl of India, and other fowl, such as the peafowl. Quail are also
included here; so are Pheasants. The absence of Pheasants from
Australia is more than compensated for by the presence of the
Mound-Builders. These marvellous birds, Brush Turkeys and Mallee-Fowl,
retain the reptilian characteristic of not sitting on their eggs. Thus
the young have never known their parents. The eggs are laid in a huge
mound of sand and earth, which contains rotting vegetation. The
heat of decomposition in this remarkable natural incubator, is quite
sufficient to hatch the eggs. The young are born fully feathered, able
to run at once, and able to fly the day they leave the mound. Contrast
their stage of development with that of a pigeon born naked, blind,
and helpless, and that of a chick born clothed with down and able to
run about. There is an interesting connexion between the size of
an egg and the state of development of the young bird at birth. The
pigeon lays a relatively small egg, so the young pigeon does not
develop far in the egg, and requires much maternal care. The hen's egg
is larger, and the chick is more fully developed. The Mallee-Hen's egg
is enormous, and so the young can develop much further before birth.
This bird, unfortunately, is doomed to early extinction, for the
fox has discovered the rich store of food in the eggs, and country
dwellers have also discovered that they are delicate in flavor, and
are good food. It is hoped that the scrubby western end of Kangaroo
Island, where foxes are unknown, will prove a suitable sanctuary
for them. These birds, which rank among Nature's wonders, are almost
confined to the Australian region. One is found in Borneo and the
Philippines, while a second is confined to the distant Nicobar
Islands. Twenty-six live in Australia and its neighboring islands. One
of these has spread across Wallace's line to the small Kangean Island,
near Java. The Stubble Quail, a member of the Pheasant family, is
nearly identical with the British Quail. Mathews and Campbell make the
King Quail a sub-species of the Chinese Quail.

Quail are favorite sporting birds, but when one considers that they
are worth about 9d. each as table or game birds, and that sportsmen
found at Birregurra, that the crops of Quail were full of crickets,
and at Kerang the Quail contained numbers of a species of weevil, it
is doubtful if it is wise policy to shoot this insect-eating bird.
Although it may be worth a few pence as a table bird; it is worth many
shillings as a pest destroyer.

====

  [Page 13]

    ORDER II.--GALLIFORMES.

    F. 7. MEGAPODIIDAE (4), Mound-Builders, Scrub-Fowl, Brush
    Turkey, Megapode, 28 sp.--27(25)A., 3(1)O.

1
1

    =2* Mallee-Fowl=, Lowan, Native Pheasant, Pheasant (e),
    _Leipoa ocellata_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. r. _mallee scrubs_      24

    Like a small turkey; neck light fawn-gray; back, wings spotted
    white, black, brown; f., smaller. Seeds, ants.

    F. 8. _Cracidae_, Curassows, Guans, 59 sp.--1(0)Nc., 59(58)Nl.

    F. 9. _Tetraonidae_, Grouse, Capercailly, Ptarmigan,
    Prairie-Fowl, 45 sp.--1(0)O., 19(16)P., 28(26)Nc.

    F. 10. PHASIANIDAE (6), Pheasants, Partridges, Peafowl,
    Domestic Fowls, 242 sp.--12(10)A., 137(119)O., 47(31)P.,
    64(58)E.

1
6

    =3* Stubble Quail= (Pectoral), _Coturnix pectoralis_, A., T.
    =vt. Eur. Quail.

          Nom. c. _stubble_, _grass_      6.7

    Brown lined white, black; throat dull reddish; breast streaked
    black; f., less distinctly marked with black. Weed-seeds,
    insects. Rises with a burr-r-r.

3
7

    =4* Brown Quail= (Swamp, Partridge), _Synoicus australis_,
    N.G., A., T. =vt. Eur. Partridge.

          Nom. c. _grassy flats_      6.5

    Upper finely-barred gray, black, chestnut; under buffy-gray
    with zigzag black bars; bill blue, tipped black; eyes orange;
    f., sim. Seeds, insects. "Bee'e quick."

    =5 Tasmanian Quail= (Silver, Greater-Brown), _S. diemenensis_,
    V., T. Like 4, but larger.

          Nom. r. occ. _thick grass_      8.5

  [Page 14]

  [Illustration: [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]]

1
4

    =6* King Quail= (Chestnut-bellied, Least, Dwarf, Swamp),
    _Excalfactoria chinensis lineata_, Philippines, Sumatra to A.
    exc. W.A.; sub-species of Chinese Quail.

          Nom. r. _swamps_      4.5

    Back dark-brown; breast blue-gray; abdomen chestnut; throat
    black, white bands conspicuous; 1-1/4 oz.; f., dark-brown,
    spotted black; throat whitish; under barred black. Weed-seeds,
    insects.

    F. 11. _Numididae_, Guinea-Fowls, 23 sp. E.

    F. 12. _Meleagridae_, Turkeys, 5 sp.--4(2)Nc., 3(1)Nl.

    F. 13. _Odontophoridae_, American Quails, Bob-Whites, 72
    sp.--18(10)Nc., 62(54)Nl.

====

Order III. comprises the 26 Bustard Quail and the peculiar Australian
Plain Wanderer. Only the last species of this Bustard Quail family,
the Australian Plain Wanderer has the hind toe. The females of this
order of birds do the fighting.

In Quail, the rule often observed amongst birds that the male is
larger and more beautiful than the female may be reversed, for here
the female is sometimes larger and the more conspicuously colored. In
association with this reversal of color and size, the domestic habits
are changed, for, in some species at least, the female sits on
the eggs but a very short time; the male then finishes the task of
incubating, and brings up and educates the young family. Meantime, the
female has found another mate and another clutch of eggs is left to
the care of the male.

In birds having both sexes the same color each bird usually does its
share of domestic work, sitting on the eggs, feeding the young, etc.
Where the male is more brightly colored, he, as a rule, does not
sit on the eggs, for he would be visible to a bird of prey sailing
overhead, and so would probably be killed and the eggs taken. The
great naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, thus regards the quiet
coloration of most female birds as a protection during the nesting
season. The gaudy coloration of many male birds has been explained by
Darwin as being due to sexual selection, the female choosing as a mate
the most gaily colored or most attractive bird.

Though the sitting bird is usually protectively colored, it was our
good fortune, on a Summer School excursion, attended by His Excellency
the Governor (Sir Thomas Gibson-Carmichael), a keen Nature-lover,
and the Director of Education (Mr. F. Tate), to find the
gorgeously-colored male Golden-breasted Whistler (Thickhead) sitting
on the eggs in full daylight. It was noted, however, that the open
nest was unusually well protected by an overhead bushy branch.

====

[Page 15]

    ORDER III.--TURNICIFORMES, HEMIPODES.

    F. 14. TURNICIDAE (8), Button (Bustard) Quail, 27
    sp.--14(14)A., 9(6)O., 3(0)P., 4(4)E.

7
26

    =7 Red-Backed Quail= (Black-backed, Orange-breasted), _Turnix
    maculosa_, Cel., N.G., N.A., E.A., S.A.

          Nom. r. _marshy_      7

    Back brown; crown blackish; sides, breast large black spots;
    abdomen lighter; no hind toe; f., larger. Weed-seeds, insects.

    =8* Painted Quail= (Speckled, Butterfly), Varied Turnix, New
    Holland Partridge (e), _T. varia_, A., T.

          Nom. r. _sandy_      8

    Upper rufous-brown with buff, black lines; breast, face
    spotted; no hind toe; f., larger. Weed-seeds, insects.

    =9 Red-chested Quail= (Chestnut-breasted, Yellow), _T.
    pyrrhothorax_, A. exc. W.A.

          Nom. v.r. _marshy_      6

    Upper dark-brown with buff, black lines; breast sandy-red;
    abdomen whitish; no hind toe; f., much larger, brighter.
    Weed-seeds, insects.

    =10 Little Quail= (Dottrel, Swift-flying, Button), _T. velox_, A.

          Nom. c. _open plains_      5.5

    Upper rufous with chestnut, black lines; breast rufous;
    abdomen white; no hind toe; f., much larger. Weed-seeds,
    insects.

1
1

    =11* Plain Wanderer=, Turkey Quail, _Pedionomus torquatus_, A.
    exc. W.A.

          Mig. r. _grass_, m.,  4.8; f.,  6.3

    Brown; broad black, white spotted collar; light band on wing;
    breast chestnut; hind toe; m., smaller, paler, faint collar.
    Weed-seeds, insects.

    F. 15. _Pteroclididae_, Sand-Grouse, Rock-Pigeons (e), 17
    sp.--7(2)O., 8(1)P., 12(7)E.

====

In Order IV. come those well-known birds--the "Cooers," Pigeons and
Doves. The Australian region is the great stronghold of these often
beautiful birds. It is only in this region that members of each of the
five families of living Pigeons are found. Two of the five families
are peculiar to the region, and nearly half the kinds of Pigeons known
are found here. The finest and largest of all Pigeons are the large
Crowned Pigeons of New Guinea. Unfortunately, the heads of these
Pigeons are much in demand for millinery. Would that fashionable women
knew the cruelty and devastation wrought by such fashions!

Amongst the most beautiful of Pigeons are, as Dr. Newton remarked,
the common Bronzewing Pigeons of Australia and Tasmania. The lovely
Fruit-Pigeons of East Australian scrubs are, perhaps, the most
beautiful of all, so it will readily be seen how fortunate we are with
regard to these birds.

The fine large Wonga-Wonga Pigeon is becoming rare. Its flesh is
white, so Gould named it _Leucosarcia_ (white flesh). It has been
proposed to introduce this bird into Europe to breed for table
purposes.

====

  [Page 16]

  [Illustration: [12] [12^A] [13] [14] [15] [16]]

    ORDER IV.--COLUMBIFORMES, PIGEONS, DOVES.

    F. 16. TRERONIDAE (8), FRUIT-PIGEONS, 228 sp--159(155)A.,
    60(56)O., 1(1)P., 12(12)E.

2
2

    =12 Topknot Pigeon=, _Lopholaimus antarcticus_, E.A., T.
    (acc.) "Quook-quook."

          Stat. c. _thick brushes_      17

    "This noble pigeon;" under silvery-gray; upper dark-gray;
    crest rust-red; eyes orange; f., sim. Native fruits.

  [Page 17]

    F. 17. COLUMBIDAE (2), WOOD-PIGEONS, Passenger-Pigeon,
    Rock-Dove, 119 sp.--41(40)A., 25(17)O., 18(10)P., 19(17)E.,
    4(0)Nc., 24(20)Nl.

    F. 18. PERISTERIDAE (15), GROUND-PIGEONS, Turtle-Doves, 198
    sp.--61(55)A., 21(8)O., 10(1)P., 32(30)E., 10(0)Nc., 86(76)Nl.

1
6

    =12^A Indian Turtle-Dove=, _Turtur ferrago_, Siberia to Ceylon,
    introduced A.

          Mig. c. _gardens_, _cities_      13

    Back brown; head gray; broad patch side and back of neck black
    spotted white; breast cinnamon; centre tail feathers blackish,
    rest tipped white; f., sim. Seeds.

3
5

    =13 Ground Dove= (Peaceful), Doo-doo, _Geopelia placida_, A.
    (interior).

          Stat. r. _grassy_      8.7

    Upper ashy-brown, barred black; chest, hind-neck gray with black
    lines; abdomen fawn; side tail feathers tipped white; f., sim.
    Small seeds. "Doo-doo."

    =14* Diamond Dove= (Little, Turtle), _G. cuneata_, A. (interior).

          Stat. r. _grass_      8.2

    Upper light-brown; crown gray; under light-gray; white spots
    on wing; side tail tipped white; eye red; f., neck, chest pale
    brown. Seeds.

1
6

    =15 Little Green Pigeon=, _Chalcophaps chrysochlora_, Mol.,
    N. Heb., N. Cal., Lord Howe Is., A. exc. S.A., W.A. Melancholy
    bellowing note.

          v.r. _dense scrubs_      9.5

    Rich brown; head, short tail darker; wings much green;
    shoulder white; f., less brilliant. Fallen berries.

2
2

    =16* Bronzewing Pigeon= (Scrub), _Phaps chalcoptera_, A., T.

          Nom. c. _open_, _forest_      13.5

    Upper brown marked lighter; cap whitish; line below eye,
    throat white; breast, back of head vinous; bronze wing; legs
    red; f., head gray. Seeds, fruits.

  [Page 18a]

  [Illustration: [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]]

    =17 Brush Bronzewing Pigeon= (Little Bronze), _P. elegans_, A., T.

          Nom. r. _sandy_      13

    Upper chestnut-brown; breast blue-gray; throat, crown chestnut;
    bronze wings; f., crown gray. Seeds.

1
1

    =18 Crested Pigeon= (Topknot (e), Crested Bronzewing),
    _Ocyphaps lophotes_, A. Seeds.

          Nom. r. _inland plains_      13

    Upper fawn; crown, under gray; crest black; black bars on wings;
    tail tipped white; eyes orange; f., sim.

1
1

    =19 Wonga-Wonga Pigeon=, _Leucosarcia melanoleuca_, E.A. Seeds,
    fallen fruits.

          Stat. r. _coast-_, (_hillside-_) _brushes_      15

    Back, breast slaty-gray; wings brown; crown, throat, abdomen white;
    sides spotted black; f., sim.

    F. 19. _Gouridae_, Crowned Pigeons, 8 sp. A. (N.G.).

    F. 20. _Didunculidae_, Tooth-billed Pigeons, 1 sp. A. (Samoa).

    F. 21. _Opisthocomidae_, Hoactzin, 1 sp. Nl.

====

The birds of Order V. are amongst the successes in the struggle
for existence, for they are found the world over.

The Landrailor Corn-Crake, the Little Crake, Spotted Crake, Moor-Hen,
Purple Gallinule, and the lobed-toed Coot, of other countries, are
represented by similar birds here.

They are largely swamp-dwellers, and conditions about swamps
apparently do not vary much from continent to continent. There is a
full supply of vegetable and animal food, and there is good shelter
in the thick reed-beds. The smaller members of the family are seldom
seen, for they skulk amongst the reeds, and seldom show themselves.

Many of these birds are long-toed, and are beautifully adapted for
life about the soft mud and floating vegetation of lagoons and swamps.
Though the feet are not webbed, several of these swamp-dwellers swim
well. Thus the Little Crake is an expert swimmer and diver.

There is one Australian bird not represented in other countries.
This is the handsome, bantam-like Black-tailed Native-Hen. At long
intervals the birds appear in thousands, and, being largely vegetable
feeders, they have sometimes done considerable damage to crops.

During one such irruption in 1846, the birds invaded the streets of
Adelaide. Others invaded the Geraldton district, and even reached
Perth in 1886. Northern Victoria was visited in 1909.

Some of the members of this group are known to all; indeed, when you
have finished reading this lecture, I expect to have created in your
mind an idea that bird study is very simple--that you know at least
one of each of the groups of birds. One further advantage of bird
study is that so few birds are found in any district. Thus, only 880
birds have ever been recorded from Australia, whereas there are over
9,000 kinds of native flowering plants, not to mention non-flowering
plants. In very few districts could a list of 100 different kinds of
birds be compiled in one year.

Again, while it is impossible to talk popularly of native plants,
because they have no common names, that does not apply to birds, for
bird-lovers have given a simple name to each bird. Even children,
therefore, can talk definitely and exactly about the different kinds.
This is a great advantage. Again, as birds are living, moving, loving,
and beautiful animals, they have always been favorite objects of
study, and so we know more about them than about any other division of
the animal kingdom. Thus you will, I hope, find that you know far more
about the subject than you at first thought.

====

  [Page 18b]

    ORDER V.--RALLIFORMES.

    F. 22. RALLIDAE (16), RAILS, 204 sp.--68(60)A., 37(18)O., 18(0)P.,
    37(24)E., 17(7)Nc., 72(65)Nl.

4
17

    =20 Slate-breasted Rail= (Short-toed), Lewin Water-Rail,
    _Eulabeornis (Hypotaenidia) brachypus_, A., T., Auckland Is.
    =vt. Eur. Water-Rail.
    [~20 _Rallus pectoralis._]

          Stat. r. _rivers_, _lagoons_      8.5

    Upper blackish striped olive; wings, flanks, abdomen barred
    black, white; throat, breast, slate-gray; f., duller.

    =21* Pectoral Rail=, Landrail, _E. philippinensis_, Malay Arch.
    to A., N.Z., Pac. Is. =vt. Eur. Corn-Crake (Landrail);
    f., young sim. Insects, grass.

          Mig. c. _grassy_      10.5

    Upper brown spotted white; under finely-barred black; white;
    sandy-buff bar on chest; light stripe above eye.

4
17

    =22* Australian Spotted Crake=, Water-Crake, _Porzana fluminea_, A.
    =vt. Eur. Spotted Crake.

          Stat. r. _rivers_      7

    Upper dark-brown, spotted white; abdomen, flanks blackish barred
    white; breast gray; swims; f., sim. Insects.

  [Illustration: [21] [22] [26] [27] [30] [67] [71] [72] [73]]

  =21= Pectoral Rail
  =22= Australian Spotted Crake
  =26= Black Moor-Hen
  =27= Bald Coot
  =30= Hoary-headed Grebe
  =67= Crested Tern
  =71= White-faced Ternlet
  =72= Silver Gull
  =73= Pacific Gull

  [Page 22]

  [Illustration: [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]]

    =23 Australian Little Crake=, _P. palustris_, A. =vt. Eur.
    Little Crake.

          Stat. r. _river_, _reed-beds_      6

    Upper rusty-brown; throat, breast gray; crown blackish; flanks,
    lower-abdomen barred black, white; swims, dives; f., sim.
    Water-animals.

  [Page 23]

    =24 Spotless Crake= (Leaden, Tabuan), Swamp-Rail, Little Swamp-Hen,
    Putoto, _P. plumbea_, Philippines to A., N. Heb., N. Cal., Fiji,
    Samoa, Tonga, N.Z., Chatham Is.

          Stat. c. _reed-beds_      6.3

    Upper reddish-brown; under dark slate-gray; throat whitish;
    eyes pink; f., young sim. Water-animals.

2
2

    =25 Black-tailed Native-Hen=, Gallinule (e), _Tribonyx ventralis_, A.

          Mig. flocks, occ. r. _lagoons_, _rivers_      15

    Upper brown; under bluish-gray; white marks conspicuous on flanks;
    upper-bill light-green; lower red at base; legs brick-red;
    runs, seldom flies; f., sim. Water-animals, seeds.

1
8

    =26* Black Moor-Hen= (-Gallinule), _Gallinula tenebrosa_, N.G., A.
    =vt. cos. Gallinule.

          Stat. c. _lagoons_, _rivers_      15

    Grayish-black; back deep-brown; under tail white at sides; scarlet
    garter above knee; base bill, plate on forehead blood-red;
    no white on flanks; jerks tail; f., smaller. Water-animals, plants.

2
16

    =27* Bald-Coot=, Purple Gallinule, Black-backed Water (Swamp,
    Macquarie) Hen, Pukeko, Redbill (e), _Porphyrio melanonotus_,
    N.G., A., T., Norfolk Is., Lord Howe Is., N.Z. =vt. cos. bird.

          Stat. c. _lagoons_, _rivers_      17.5

    Hind-neck, breast, flanks indigo-blue; back, wings, tail black;
    under tail white; eyes orange-red; bill, legs red; jerks tail;
    f., smaller. Insects, vegetable food.

1
13

    =28 Australian Coot=, Dabchick (e), _Fulica australis_, A., T.,
    =vt. cos. bird.

          Stat. c. _lakes_, _bays_      14

    Sooty-black; bill bluish-gray; eyes red; lobed feet; f., sim.
    Water-insects, snails.

    F. 23. _Heliornithidae_. Finfoot, 5 sp.--1(1)O., 3(3)E.,
    1(1)Nl.

====

In the next Order, the Sixth, there are three Australian birds.
They are called Grebes. Bird names often reflect some habit, e.g.,
Scratchers, Cooers. So Grebes are often called Divers. But the Divers
of the ornithologist are Northern Hemisphere birds, placed in the next
family (25).

There is a widespread tradition to the effect that Grebes wait for the
flash of the cap, and then dive before the bullet can reach them. They
are, indeed, remarkably active in the water, but are absurd on land.
Their legs are set so far back that it is almost impossible for them
to walk. Their toes are not webbed, but are broadly lobed.

The Great Crested Grebe is identical with the British bird, for it is
found all through the Eastern Hemisphere.

This is a remarkable distribution, when we consider that the bird,
by reason of its very small wings, is a poor flyer, and is almost
helpless on land. Such a wide distribution of a creature possessing
poor means of locomotion indicates that the animal must have existed
for a long time, so that it has been able to gradually extend its
range. Thus we conclude it is an ancient form.

====

  [Page 24]

  [Illustration: [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34]]

    ORDER VI.--PODICIPEDIDIFORMES.

    F. 24. PODICIPEDIDAE (3), GREBES, 25 sp.--5(2)A., 8(2)O., 6(0)P.,
    5(1)E., 6(0)Nc., 11(7)Nl.

2
15

    =29 Black-throated Grebe= (Little), Dabchick (e),
    White-bellied Diver (e), _Podiceps novae-hollandiae_, Java,
    N.G., A., N. Cal., =vt. Eur. Little Grebe.

          Stat. c. _lagoons_      9.5

    Upper blackish-brown; white patch on wing; under silvery-gray;
    throat, side-face black (summer), brown (winter); beautiful
    fur-like plumage; lobed toes; f., sim. Small fish, snails, insects.

  [Page 25a]

    =30* Hoary-headed Grebe=, Dabchick (e), "Tom Pudding," P.
    _poliocephalus_, A., T.

          Stat. c. _lagoons_, _river_      9.5

    Upper brown; wings white patch; under silvery-gray; head short
    white hair-like plumes (summer); head brown, throat buff (winter);
    fur-like plumage; lobed toes; f., sim. Small fish, snails, insects.

1
3

    =31 Great Crested Grebe= (Tippet), Loon, Gaunt, Carr Goose,
    _P. cristatus_ (_Lophaethyia cristata_, Mathews' Handlist),
    Eur., N. Asia, Japan, Africa, India to A., T., N.Z.

          Stat. r. _lakes_, _rivers_      24

    Upper brown; under glistening-white; crown black; neck-frill
    chestnut edged black (summer); face, neck whitish (winter);
    fur-like plumage; lobed toes; f., sim. Small fish, snails, insects.

    F. 25. _Colymbidae (Gaviidae)_, True Divers, Loons, 5 sp.--1(0)O.,
    5(0)P., 2(0)E., 5(0)Nc.

====

In the next order come those remarkable birds, Penguins. As so much
has been said about Penguins by Lieutenant Shackleton's party, they
have caught the popular fancy, and people are much interested in them.
Many Australians do not know that three Penguins are found on their
own coast. It was one of the sights of the 1910 Summer School at
Portsea to sit on the balcony and watch the Penguins chasing their
prey in the clear waters in front. Their wings are paddles, being
flattened and devoid of quills. The wings are not folded, but are
carried hanging awkwardly at the side.

During the interest aroused by Peary's expedition to the North Pole,
an illustrated weekly paper published a cartoon, which showed the
American Eagle sitting on the North Pole and reading a proclamation to
an audience of Penguins. One thing is unfortunate about this--Penguins
are unknown in the Northern Hemisphere. Indeed, they support the
geographer in his contention that, while the Pacific Ocean is very
ancient, the Atlantic Ocean has been formed much more recently, for
Penguins are found up the Pacific even to the Galapagos Is. on the
Equator, but have not spread into the Atlantic Ocean beyond Tristan da
Cunha, at the extreme South.

====

  [Page 25b]

    ORDER VII.--SPHENISCIFORMES.

    F. 26. SPHENISCIDAE (3), PENGUINS, 17 sp.--11(7)A., 6(1)E., 9(4)Nl.

1
5

    =32 Crested Penguin= (Tufted, Jackass, Victoria), _Penguinus
    (Catarrhactes) chrysocome_, Southern Ocean (circumpolar), V.,
    T., N.Z.

          Occ. r. _coasts_      27

    Wing a paddle; upper black; under silvery-white; crest yellow;
    f., yellow crest feathers shorter. Sea-animals.

2
3

    =33 Little Penguin= (Little Blue), _Eudyptula minor_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A., T., N.Z.

          Stat. c. _coasts_      18

    Upper light-blue; under glistening-white; wing a paddle; f., sim.
    Sea-animals, plants.

    =34 Fairy Penguin=, _E. undina_, V., T., N.Z.

          Stat. c. _coast_      13.5

    Like 33, but smaller.

====

Order VIII. includes the true ocean birds--those wanderers seen far
from any land by ocean travellers. Indeed, many of them do not go near
land except to breed. Then they usually repair to small lonely islands
often with bold precipitous shores.

Ocean birds are readily divisible into four families. The first
is made up of the 25 Storm-Petrels; the second of the 75 Petrels,
Shearwaters, Fulmars, and Dove-Petrels; the third family comprises
only the three small southern Diving-Petrels; while the fourth
contains the nineteen noble Albatrosses.

Though Storm-Petrels and Petrels of various kinds may be seen in the
Northern Hemisphere, yet the Southern Hemisphere, with its enormous
expanse of water, is the headquarters of these birds.

The dainty, tiny Storm-Petrels, fearlessly tripping over the mountain
billows in times of great danger to the sailor, were considered birds
of ill-omen. Their peculiar flight possibly helped this idea. Gould
closely studied them and other ocean birds during his voyages on
sailing ships. He describes them as "fluttering over the glassy
surface of the ocean during calms with an easy butterfly-like motion
of the wings, and buffeting and breasting with equal vigor the crests
of the loftiest waves of the storm; at one moment descending into
their deep troughs, and, at the next, rising with the utmost alertness
to their highest point, apparently from an impulse communicated as
much by striking the surface of the water with its webbed feet as by
the action of the wings."

This habit of "walking" on the sea is said to be responsible for the
name "Petrel," which is associated with Saint Peter, who, of old,
walked on the waters. Sailors call them Mother Carey's Chickens.

The largest Australian Storm-Petrel is the Whitefaced Storm-Petrel,
whose scientific name, _Pelagodroma_, means "open sea wanderer."
It has been recorded even from the North Atlantic and Britain. Many
thousands of these birds still nest on Mud Island, a sandbank just
inside Port Phillip Heads. The presence there of a true ocean wanderer
is a valuable piece of evidence to support the geographer in his claim
that Port Phillip Bay once had a wide opening, which has been almost
closed by the drift of sand across its mouth. The Storm-Petrels have
probably nested there for many, many centuries. Long may they continue
to do so! They hurt no one, and they are a feature of interest to all
interested in the flora and fauna of Australia, and to natural history
students and Nature-lovers in general.

The Shackleton expedition met the Wilson (Yellow-webbed) Storm-Petrel,
in considerable numbers, far south. Two specimens were presented by
Lieutenant Shackleton to the National Museum, Melbourne. However,
recently our Museum received, through the agency of two schoolboys,
a specimen that is valued even more highly, for it is Australian.

The boys, on their way to the Marshaltown State School (Mr. H. B.
Williamson, H.T.), found a bird near a fence about nine miles inland.
It had evidently been killed by flying into the fence in the dark.
Using the _Bird-List_, the boys discovered that it was a Yellow-webbed
Storm-Petrel, a truly pelagic bird, as its name, _Oceanites oceanicus_
indicates. Mr. Williamson, to show that the _List_ was of assistance,
even to boys, in identifying birds they had never heard of before,
left the bird at the Continuation School, Geelong. Here it was
recognized as a valuable specimen, and was at once sent to Mr.
Kershaw, curator of the National Museum. It is now in the Australian
collection.

The true Petrels are very numerous in kinds and individuals. Darwin
thought that the most numerous of birds was a Petrel. One of great
interest is the "Mutton-Bird," or Short-tailed Petrel. This romantic
bird breeds by the million on Cape Woolamai and other places about
Bass Strait.

Just as the mallee farmer is dependent on his annual wheat harvest,
so the remarkable colony of people living on Cape Barren Island is
entirely dependent on the annual Mutton-Bird harvest. They claim
to take about a million and a half birds each year. The number is
probably much exaggerated, for Littler, in his valuable _Birds of
Tasmania_, gives the number as 555,000 for 1909, valued at about
£4000. Bass and Flinders were glad to replenish their stores with
young Mutton-Birds. Flinders calculated that one flock of these birds
he met in Bass Strait contained 132,000,000 birds. They lay but one
egg, so one would expect the Petrel to be long-lived. We found a
closely-similar bird nesting on Mast Head Island, Capricorn Group.

The three southern Diving Petrels, forming the next family, are much
smaller than the common Petrels. They are expert divers, and are
found mainly in the far South.

The mighty Albatross, with its enormous wing-span of possibly up to
14 feet, is also largely a southern bird. That this bird has spread to
the North Pacific Ocean, but has not yet penetrated any distance into
the Atlantic, is another piece of evidence as to the age of these two
oceans. The Pacific Ocean is a very ancient depression, while the
Atlantic is much younger, and has been formed since the lands which
border its shores. The Black-browed Albatross, however, was once seen
in England. Probably this bird might have been carried north on board
ship, and then set free again. Fossil bones of Albatrosses have been
found in France and England. Their remarkable power of wheeling round
and round a vessel, with no perceptible movement of the wing, has
excited much interest and controversy.

Mr. Froude, in his _Oceana_, has given a vivid description of this
flight. The Albatross "wheels in circles round and round and for ever
round the ship--now far behind, now sweeping past in a long, rapid
curve, like a perfect skater on an untouched field of ice. There is no
effort; watch as closely as you will, you rarely or never see a stroke
of the mighty pinion. The flight is generally near the water, often
close to it. You lose sight of the bird as he disappears in the hollow
between the waves, and catch him again as he rises over the crest; but
how he rises, and whence comes the propelling force, are to the
eye inexplicable; he alters merely the angle at which the wings are
inclined...."

Gould considered that many of these birds circumnavigate the globe
many times. They follow ships for days together.

Albatrosses are sometimes caught by those on board ship. One means
of protection employed by these birds is to discharge a considerable
quantity of oily matter at an intruder. This has led sailors to
declare that the bird is "seasick." Some claim that this is not done
for protection, but is due to fright.

The members of the Australasian Ornithologists' Union, when on a trip
in the _Manawatu_ to the Bass Strait Islands found it tantalizing
to see the beautiful Shy Albatrosses sitting on their nests on the
precipitous granite Albatross Rock, and be unable to land owing to the
rough sea that was running. We waited a second and a third day, in the
shelter of Chimney Corner, Three Hummocks Island, but finally had to
depart with but a distant acquaintance with this fine bird. When they
return to nest the succeeding year, the parents drive last year's
brood off the island. Does the young live on its fat all through the
cold, rough winter, or do the parents return at intervals to feed it?
Some recent records by a French party on one of these lonely nesting
islands show that in some cases, at least, the parents do feed the
young at night during their long wait. The sitting bird is fed by
her mate. He opens his mouth, and she inserts her bill, and chooses a
dainty for herself.

_A Monograph of the Petrels_, by F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S., Pres.
British Ornithologists' Union, was consulted for Order VIII.

====

  [Page 26]

  [Illustration: [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40]]

    ORDER VIII.--PROCELLARIIFORMES, TUBINARES, TUBE-NOSED SWIMMERS.

    F. 27. PROCELLARIIDAE (5), STORM-PETRELS, MOTHER CAREY'S CHICKENS,
    25 sp--10(3)A., 2(0)O., 10(0)P., 7(0)E., 13(4)Nc., 13(3)Nl.

2
3

    =35 Wilson Storm-Petrel= (Yellow-webbed, Flat-clawed),
    _Oceanites oceanica_, S. Polar regions N. to British Is.
    (acc), Labrador (acc.), India, A., N.Z.

          c. _ocean_      6.8

    Blackish; base tail above below white; legs black; webs yellow;
    f., sim. Shellfish, small fish, greasy.

  [Page 27]

    =36 Gray-backed Storm-Petrel=, _O. (Garrodia) nereis_, S. Oceans,
    A., T., N.Z.

          r. _ocean_      6.7

    Sooty; abdomen, under base tail whitish; bill, feet black; f., sim.
    Oily substances, shellfish.

1
1

    =37 White-breasted Storm-Petrel= (White-faced), Frigate Petrel,
    Mother Carey's Chicken, _Pelagodroma marina_, S. Oceans, N. to
    Canary Is., U.S. (acc.)

          c. Mud. Is. _ocean_      8

    Upper brownish-gray; crown, line under eye, edge of wing, tail
    black; under, face, throat, line above eye white; bill, feet black;
    webs yellow; f., sim. Shellfish, oily matters.

2
4

    =38 Black-bellied Storm-Petrel=, _Cymodroma (Fregetta) melanogaster_,
    S. Oceans, to N. Atl., A., T.

          r. _ocean_      7.5

    Sooty-black; under base tail, flanks white; bill, feet black; f.,
    sim. Sea-animals, oily.

    =39 White-bellied Storm-Petrel=, _C. grallaria_, S. Oceans to B. of
    Bengal, Atl. to Cancer, Florida (acc).

          r. _ocean_      7.2

    Upper, neck, chest black; under, rump white; bill, feet black;
    f., sim. Sea-animals, oily.

    F. 28. PUFFINIDAE (29), PETRELS, Shearwaters, Fulmars, Prions,
    75 sp.--47(16)A., 7(0)O., 24(0)P., 30(2)E., 22(4)Nc., 37(7)Nl.

7
25

    =40 Wedge-tailed Petrel= (Shearwater), _Puffinus sphenurus_,
    A. seas.

          v.r. _ocean_      17.5

    Sooty-brown; wing blackish; tail black; throat ashy-gray; under
    dull ashy-brown; bill lead color; legs, feet livid flesh color,
    dusky on inner side of leg and toe. Like 42, but tail longer;
    f., sim. Food as for 41.

  [Page 28]

  [Illustration: [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]]

    =41 Allied Petrel=, Gould Shearwater (Little Dusky), _P. assimilis_,
    A. and N.Z. Seas, Atl. O. to Madiera Is., Nova Scotia (acc.).

          Flocks v.r. _ocean_      11

    Upper, crown, wings, tail sooty-black; side face, under white;
    side-chest dusky; bill dark horn-colour; legs greenish-yellow;
    f., sim. Shrimps, shellfish, seaweed.

    =42 Short-tailed Petrel= (Sooty, Bonaparte), Slender-billed
    Shearwater (U.S.), Seal-Bird, Mutton-Bird (V.), _P. brevicaudus
    (tenuirostris)_, A., Bass St., T., N.Z. Migrates to Alaska, Japan.

          Flocks, c. _ocean_      14

    Sooty-brown; under paler; bill blackish-brown; legs, feet
    light-grey, black down outer side. Food as 41.

3
3

    =43 Brown Petrel= (Great-Gray), Black-tailed Shearwater (U.S.),
    Night Hawk (e), Bully, Kuia, _Procellaria (Priofinus) cinereus_,
    S.O., California (once).

          r. _ocean_      19.5

    Crown, upper dark brownish-gray; under white; under base tail
    ashy-brown; tail black; feet grayish-flesh color; outer toe
    brownish-black; dives; f., sim.

1
1

    =44 Silver-gray Petrel= (Fulmar), Slender-billed Fulmar (U.S.),
    _Priocella glacialoides_, Bass St., A., T., N.Z., S. Oceans,
    Pacific to Japan, Alaska.

          c. _ocean_      18

    Pearly-gray; tip-wing black; face, under silky-white; f., sim.
    Dead animals, oil, cuttlefish.

3
3

    =45 Black Petrel= (Fulmar), Taonui, _Procellaria (Majaqueus)
    parkinsoni_, A. and N.Z. Seas.

          r. _ocean_      18

    Sooty black; f., sim. Food see 41.

9
32

    =46 Great-winged Petrel= (Long-winged, Gray-faced), _Æstrelata
    macroptera_, A., N.Z., S. Oceans.

          v.r. _ocean_      15

    Dark brown; about bill, throat gray; wing-quills, tail black;
    bill, feet black; f., sim. Food see 41.

  [Page 29]

  [Illustration: [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51]]

    =47 Brown-headed Petrel=, Solander Fulmar, _Æ. solandri_, 1 specimen
    only, Gould, Bass St.

          u. _ocean_      16

    Head, wings, tail dark-brown; back slaty-gray, marked dark-brown;
    bill, legs black.

    =48 White-winged Petrel=, _Æ. leucoptera_, A., N.Z. to C. Horn,
    Fiji.

          r. _ocean_      13

    Upper dark slaty-gray; forehead, face, under, under wing white;
    wings blackish-brown; eyes, bill black; legs, half toes and webs
    fleshy-white; tip toes and webs black; f., sim.

1
1

    =49 Giant Petrel= (Fulmar), Mother Carey's Goose, Nelly, Glutton,
    Stinkpot, Vulture of the Seas, _Macronectes gigantea_, S. Oceans
    up to 30° S. Lat. Oregon (acc).

          c. _ocean_      33

    Dark chocolate-brown; bill horn-color; has also a white phase;
    f., sim. Scavenger, omnivorous.

1
1

    =50 Cape-Petrel= (Pintado, Black and White, Spotted, Pied),
    Cape-Pigeon (-Fulmar), _Daption capensis_, A., N.Z., S. Oceans
    to Brazil, Ceylon, Peru, acc. to California, Maine, England.

          Large flocks c. _ocean_      16.5

    Head, hind-neck, upper-back, edge of wing, quills, chin sooty-brown;
    inner-wing, back white, broadly spotted sooty-brown; under white;
    bill, feet blackish-brown; f., sim. Food as 41.

5
5

    =51 Blue Petrel=, _Prion (Halobaena) coerulea_, S. Oceans, A., T.,
    N.Z. to Icepack, Fiji.

          c. _ocean_      11

    Forehead, cheeks, throat, centre-chest, under white; upper
    grayish-blue; outer wing-quills black; tail square, tipped white;
    bill blackish-brown; f., sim. Cuttlefish, shellfish.

  [Page 30]

  [Illustration: [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57]]

    =52 Broad-billed Dove-Petrel= (Blue-), Whale-Bird, Prion, _P.
    vittatus_, S. Oceans.

          c. _ocean_      11.5

    Upper delicate blue-gray; head darker than back; edge shoulder,
    wing, tip-tail black; under, line over eye, white; flanks blue;
    broad bill blue tipped black; feet light-blue; f., sim. Cuttlefish.

  [Page 31]

    =53 Banks Dove-Petrel= (Blue-), Prion, Whiroia, _P. banksi_,
    S. Oceans, A., T., N.Z.

          r. _ocean_      10

    Like 52, but bill narrower and paler blue-gray; expanded wings show
    black marks like letter W. Food as 54.

    =54 Dove-Petrel=, Dove-like-Petrel (-Prion), Whale-Bird
    (Snow-), _P. desolatus_, S. Oceans.

          c. _ocean_      10.5

    Like 52, 53, but more delicate; blackish below eye; white
    stripe above eye; head same as back; bill straighter, more
    slender; f., smaller. Shellfish, oily substances.

    =55 Fairy Dove-Petrel= (-Prion), Short-billed (Gould)
    Blue-Petrel, _P. brevirostris (ariel)_, S. Indian O., A.,
    Bass St., Madeira, S. Africa.

          v.r. _ocean_      9.5

    Like 52, 53, 54, but bill shorter, stouter; head same as back;
    white face.

    F. 29. PELECANOIDIDAE (1), DIVING PETRELS, 3 sp.--2(0)A.,
    1(0)E., 3(1)Nl.

1
3

    =56 Diving-Petrel=, Smaller Diving Petrel, Tee-tee,
    _Pelecanoides urinatrix_, A., N.Z., Str. of Magellan.

          r. _sheltered bays_      8

    Upper black; under white; legs, feet blue; dives; f., sim.
    Shellfish.

    F. 30. DIOMEDEIDAE (10), ALBATROSSES, Mollymawks, 19
    sp.--13(3)A., 2(0)O., 5(0)P., 5(1)E., 5(0)Nc., 9(3)Nl.

7
17

    =57 Wandering Albatross=, Man-of-War-Bird, Cape Sheep, Toroa,
    _Diomedea exulans_, S. Oceans up to Lat. 30° S.

          c. _ocean_      44

    Upper white with fine zigzag brown lines; wing-quills black;
    tail short, black above; side face, under white; zigzag lines
    on side of breast; bill whitish; color varies with age; span
    up to 14 ft.; f., sim. Jelly-fish, shrimps, shellfish.

  [Page 32]

  [Illustration: [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63]]

    =58 Royal Albatross=, _D. regia_, A., T., N.Z. Seas.

          c. _ocean_      44

    Lately separated from 57, because young have white down
    instead of gray; adult has no zigzag lines; f., sim. Food see
    57.

    =59 Black-browed Albatross= (Mollymawk), _D. melanophrys_, S.
    Oceans, England (once).

          v.c. _ocean_      32

    Head, neck, under, upper base tail white; blackish-gray
    streak through eye; wings dark brown; back slaty-black; tail
    dark-gray; bill buff-yellow; f., young sim. Fish.

  [Page 33]

    =60 White-capped Albatross=, shy Mollymawk, _D.
    (Thalassageron) cauta_, A. Seas, Bass St.

          c. _ocean_      31

    Back slaty-gray; rump white; wings dark-gray; tail slaty-gray;
    head, neck, under white; blackish streak through eye; bill
    horn-color; f., smaller. Fish, barnacles, shrimps.

    =61 Flat-billed Albatross=, (Yellow-nosed (e),
    Gray-headed), Gould Yellow-nosed Mollymawk, _D. chrysostoma
    (culminata)_, A., Indian O., Pacific O., Oregon
    (cas.) G. of St. Lawrence (cas.).

          r. _ocean_      28

    Back, wings, tail dark grayish-black; head, neck gray; faint
    blackish streak through eye; under, rump white; bill black,
    tip, crest, lower-edge yellow, f., sim. Food see 60.

    =62 Yellow-nosed Albatross= _D. chlororhynchus_, S. Atl. O.,
    S. Ind. O., A., T.

          c. _ocean_      30

    Under, head, neck, rump white; back, wings brownish-black,
    tail brownish; bill black, crest bright orange-yellow, tip
    blood-orange; faint dark streak through eye; f., sim. Food see
    60.

1
1

    =63 Sooty Albatross=, _Phoebetria palpebrata (fuliginosa)_, S.
    Oceans, Oregon (cas.), A., N.Z.

          c. _oceans_      29.5

    Sooty-brown; white ring almost round eye; bill black; f., sim.
    Food as 60.

    F. 31. _Alcidae_, Auk, Garefowl, Puffin, Razorbill, Guillemot,
    Murre, 28 sp.--22(1)P., 27(6)Nc.

====

The birds of Order IX. are mainly shore birds. There are four chief
kinds of these--Terns (Sea-Swallows), including Noddy Terns, Gulls,
the remarkable northern Skimmers, which skim along the surface with
the lengthened end of the lower mandible in the water, and the bold
sea-pirates, Skuas. Fifty-seven Terns and Noddies are found throughout
the world. Of these, twenty-one have been recorded from Australian
waters.

Being powerful flyers, it is not surprising to find that several of
the Australian Terns are really Old-World, and even New-World, forms
too. Thus the Whiskered (Marsh) Tern is also British. The Caspian,
Gull-billed, and Bridled (Brown-winged) Terns are British and
American, while the Sooty Tern is found in all tropical and
sub-tropical seas. It is one of the famous birds of the world, for
it is the "egg bird" of sailors. It retires in large companies to
low scrubby islands to breed. Here it lays a single egg on the bare
ground. Sailors, tired of ship's fare, often visit these "rookeries."
Gould quotes a record of one party which took 1500 dozen eggs on
one small island in Torres Strait. Spanish eggers from Havanah take
cargoes, which are disposed of at 25 cents per gallon.

The Wide-Awake Fair, of Ascension Island, is a famous annual event
in natural history. A similar scene has been described by Mr. A. W.
Milligan, the well-known West Australian ornithologist, on the Houtman
Abrolhos Island, west of Western Australia. Here acres of the ground
were covered by birds sitting on their nests. The question is, does
each find its own nest when it returns to sit? Mr. Milligan settled
this in the affirmative by tying a piece of string to a sitting bird
and then letting it take flight. It found its own egg, and resumed its
work. It is noteworthy that no two of the million eggs are similarly
marked, and this puzzling variation in marking probably assists each
bird to recognize its own egg.

One of the daintiest of these birds is the Fairy Tern, which was
common on Mud Island while the 1909 Summer School was being held.
Obedient to the call of the mother bird, which hovered threateningly
overhead, the mottled and striped young one squatted on the shelly
sand beach while bird-lovers hunted around for the material for a
photograph. At length the dark eye revealed the beautifully-protected
young bird.

As the camera was being fixed, a different call from the mother caused
the young one to run away. Three or four naturalists tried to catch
the active little bird, which stopped for a moment and disgorged two
whole small fish, with which its mother had evidently but recently fed
it. Eventually a good picture was obtained. These Terns nest singly,
though others nest in large companies. They obtain fish by diving into
the sea. It was interesting, on a Nature-study excursion, to watch the
Crested Terns diving frequently into the sea above a shoal of small
fish at Sandringham.

We found the Noddies breeding in thousands on Mast Head Island, in the
Capricorn Group. They built a small platform of leaves, or seaweed,
high or low, on every possible nesting site on the great _Pisonia_
trees. In fact, there is an interesting kind of partnership between
the bird and the tree. The fruits of the _Pisonia_ have bands of
sticky glands, which adhere to the plumage of the birds. After a
time the fruits fall off, possibly on another island, and so this
interesting tree is spread throughout these small coral sandbanks
and islets. The birds are sometimes so loaded and clogged with these
fruits that they are incapable of flight. Surely here is a wonderful
partnership between the tree-frequenting Noddy and the forest tree
that provides shelter and nesting places for it. It is, indeed, a
marvellous method of seed dispersal.

The number of ocean birds breeding on these tiny island-paradises
is amazing. Minute Mast Head Island is a place free of all pests--no
flies, no mosquitoes, no ticks, no snakes, nor prickly plants, but
a deep shady forest of giant _Pisonia_ trees, sometimes covered with
creepers and lianas, and fringed with pretty flowering shrubs, fig
trees, and long green grass, and surrounded, above spring-tide level,
by a fringe of graceful Horse-tail Sheoaks (Casuarinas). We calculated
that over 100,000 birds bred annually on this 100-acre sandbank, no
point of which rose 10 feet above spring-tide level. The graceful
White-capped Noddies already mentioned nested high and low on the
trees and shrubs. Petrels in thousands burrowed in the sand under the
giant _Pisonias_, which are so thickly foliaged that not enough
light penetrates to enable undergrowth to flourish, so the sand was
practically bare in the centre of the island. Reef Herons nested
low on spreading branches or interlacing roots. Silver Gulls and
Oyster-catchers nested on the ground, within about a yard of the
spring-tide mark; Doves, Silver-eyes, Bell-Magpies (_Streperas_),
Caterpillar-eaters, Kingfishers, and other land birds nested in the
trees, while the White-bellied Sea-Eagle (almost a fac-simile of the
Bald Eagle of America) had his nest overlooking all, on the highest
tree on the island. The Frigate Birds were not nesting on Mast Head
Island, but they roosted each night in the tall Sheoaks at the water's
edge. It was a treat, in the late afternoon, to see these glorious
birds winding up their invisible staircase into the vast void of upper
air. Gloriously and calmly they sailed up and up, until the merest
speck only could be seen. Of corals, turtles, and other marvels we may
not speak here. The migrating wading-birds had just reached the island
after their long journey from Siberian Tundras. Some were so poor
that we caught Sandpipers by hand. Flocks of Turnstone, Golden Plover,
Godwits, Curlew, and other wading-birds were there, possibly only
resting before continuing their journey to the South. It was indeed
a privilege to live on such a spot for nine days and to see Nature in
some of her most interesting phases.

The two Australian Seagulls illustrate the "law of representatives" so
often referred to by Gould. It is strange how often a closely similar
representative of a Northern bird is found in Australia. Thus the big
Pacific Gull is the representative of the large Gull of Europe, though
its peculiar deepened and orange-colored bill is distinctive. It does
not gain its beautiful white and black plumage until it is three or
more years old, being brown in the first year, and brown and white in
the second year.

The Silver Gull is known to all. Though a dainty-looking bird, it has
a bad character. It is worse than any bird of prey for stealing eggs
and young birds, for let a gannet or other nesting bird but leave the
nest for a moment, and Gulls quickly rob it of its contents. They are
scavengers, and eagerly follow a steamer at lunch-time to gather the
scraps. An interesting sight of Currie Harbor, King Island, is to see
the large company of Seagulls nesting undisturbed on a tiny, bare,
rocky islet close to the pier.

It was noted that, whenever the Noddies were disturbed, and rose,
protesting loudly, the Gulls immediately gathered and hovered over
the trees containing Noddies' nests. Evidently they were looking for
unprotected eggs.

Placed in the next family are the seven robber Gulls or sea
pirates--Skuas. We read of these birds in the old _Royal Readers_,
but few recognized them when they followed us to the Summer School
of 1910. They also followed our afternoon-tea cruise to South Channel
fort, and played their usual game of compelling the Seagulls to give
up the scraps they had gathered. The Robber Gull, or Skua, of Victoria
is, strange to say, identical with the Skua of England. The one that
followed the s.s. _Lady Loch_ to the Summer School is better known in
England as the Arctic Gull or Richardson Skua. It breeds in the far
North, so it is a great traveller.

One interesting fact about these birds is that they show two sets of
plumage. Thus, while each bird, as it gets older, usually changes its
immature and almost uniform dusky plumage for a white under-surface,
an incomplete white collar, and a blackish cap, yet some retain the
dusky plumage throughout life. This is a good example of "dimorphism,"
as it is termed. Usually, instead of picking up their own prey, they
watch until some other bird has captured a meal, and then they rapidly
pursue it and cause it to disgorge. They do not skim over the waves
like Petrels, but show a heavy, labored flight, varied by a short
soar. As the two centre tail feathers project beyond the rest, the
birds can be readily identified as they follow a steamer for tit-bits.

====

  [Page 34]

  [Illustration: [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69]]

    ORDER IX.--LARIFORMES.

    F. 32. LARIDAE (21), TERNS, NODDIES, GULLS, Skimmers, 125
    sp.--32(13)A., 35(3)O., 45(1)P., 42(6)E., 43(5)Nc., 46(19)Nl.

2
4

    =64 Whiskered Tern= (Marsh), _Hydrochelidon fluviatilis
    (hybrida)_, Eur. (Br.) to China, Malay, Afr. to A.

          r. _swamps (inland)_      11

    Head black; upper, wings, tail light-gray; face, throat, tail
    white; chest dark-gray; abdomen black; bill blood-red; winter,
    head grayish-white; f., sim. Water-insects, small fish.

  [Page 35]

1
1

    =65 Gull-billed Tern= (Long-legged), _Gelochelidon macrotarsa
    (anglica)_, cos.
    [~65-66 _Genus Thalasseus._]

          r. _rivers_, _swamps inland_      17

    White; crown, hind-neck black; upper, wing-quills
    silvery-gray; bill long, stout, black; long legs and feet
    black; winter head white streaked black; f., sim. Small fish,
    insects.

1
1

    =66 Caspian Tern=, Taranui, _Sterna (Hydroprogne) caspia_,
    cos. exc. S. Amer.
    [~65-66 _Genus Thalasseus._]

          c. _shore_      20.5

    Head, hind-neck black; back, wings, tail pale-gray; dark-gray
    wing-quills; under white; bill scarlet; dives; f., smaller.
    Fish.

10
37

    =67* Crested Tern= (Swift, Rüppell, Bass-St., Torres-St.),
    Village Blacksmith, _Sterna bergii_, Red S., Indian O., to
    Japan to A., Pac. Is.

          v.c. _ocean_      17

    Crown, crest black; forehead, sides and back of neck, under,
    white; back, wings, tail dark-gray; bill yellow; legs, feet
    black; f., sim. Fish.

    =68 White-fronted Tern= (Southern), _S. striata (frontalis)_,
    E.A., T., N.Z.

          c. _shore_      13

    Upper delicate-gray; wing-quills grayish-black; forehead,
    side-neck, under white; bill, about eye, hind-neck black; f.,
    sim. Small fish.

    =69 Bridled Tern= (Brown-winged, Panayan, Smaller-Sooty), _S.
    anaestheta_, tropical, sub-tropical seas.

          v.c. _shore_      14.5

    Upper light sooty-brown; forehead, line over eye, throat,
    under white; crown, nape, line from bill past eye black; bill,
    legs, feet black; like 70, but smaller; back, wings brown; f.,
    sim. Fish.

  [Page 38]

  [Illustration: [81] [87] [102] [106] [107] [109] [119] [123] [125]]

   =81= Black-breasted Plover
   =87= Black-fronted Dottrel
  =102= Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
  =106= Australian Snipe
  =107= Australian Painted Snipe
  =109= Southern Stone-Curlew
  =119= White-fronted Heron
  =123= Nankeen Night Heron
  =125= Australian Bittern

  [Page 40]

  [Illustration: [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75]]

    =70 Sooty Tern=, Wide-awake, Egg-bird, _S. fuliginosa_ (_S.
    fuscata_, A.O.U.), tropical, sub-tropical seas, Br. (acc).
    [~70 _Sterna fuscata._]

          v.c. _shores_      17

    Upper, crown, wings, line from bill past eye, tail black;
    forehead, under white; bill, feet black; like 69, but larger,
    blacker above; f., sim. Fish, squid. "Oo-ee."

    =71* White-faced Ternlet=, Sea-swallow, Little (Fairy) Tern,
    Taraiti, _S. nereis_, A., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Little Tern.

          c. _shore_      10.5

    Upper silvery-gray; under, rump, tall, forehead white; crown,
    hind-neck black; bill, feet orange-yellow; f., sim. Small
    fish.

  [Page 41]

1
45

    =72* Silver Gull= (Jameson), Seagull, Sea Pigeon, _Larus
    novae-hollandiae_, A., T., N. Cal., N.Z. (acc).

          Stat. c. _shore_, _inland_      17.5

    Head, neck, under, rump, tail white; back, wings
    delicate-gray; wing-tips white and black bars; bill, legs,
    feet blood-red; eye white; f., sim. Scraps, eggs, omnivorous.

1
1

    =73* Pacific Gull= (Larger), _Gabianus pacificus_. A., T. =vt.
    Eur. Greater Black-backed Gull.

          Stat. c. _shore_      25

    "This fine gull;" head, neck, under white; tail white barred
    black; back, wings slaty-black; eye white; legs yellow;
    deepened bill orange tipped red; f., smaller; young up to 4
    years mottled-brown, becoming more like adult each year. Fish,
    crabs, carrion.

    F. 33. STERCORARIIDAE (4), SKUAS, Robber Gulls, Sea Pirates, 7
    sp.--4(0)A., 1(0)O., 4(0)P., 3(0)E., 4(0)Nc., 4(1)Nl.

1
4

    =74 Great Southern Skua=, Robber Gull, Port-Egmont-Hen,
    Sea-Hawk, Hakoakoa, _Megalestris antarctica_, S. Oceans, A.,
    N.Z. =vt. Eur. Great Skua.
    [~74 _Catharacta._]

          Mig. r. _shores_      23

    Upper blackish-brown; under chocolate-brown; wing white patch;
    centre tail feathers project 1/2in.; f., sim. Stolen fish,
    carrion.

2
3

    =75 Richardson Skua= (Arctic), Arctic (Parasite) Gull,
    Long-tailed Jaeger, Sea-Pirate, Boatswain-Bird, Teaser,
    _Stercorarius crepidatus_, cos.
    [~75 _Catharacta parasitica._]

          Mig. r. _shores_      20

    Dimorphic (two phases)--1. Dusky upper; blackish cap; narrow
    whitish collar; under white; brown band on chest; brown band
    on wing; centre tail feathers project 3ins.; strong bill,
    claws. 2. Under mottled and barred brown and whitish; follow
    bay steamers; f., sim. Stolen fish.

====

The fifty Australian birds included in the important order of Waders
are remarkably like such birds found inhabiting other regions of the
globe, shore conditions apparently being somewhat similar the world
over. It is interesting to note that thirteen of the forty-four
Australian members of this family of Plover-like birds are also found
in Britain, and that most of the others are direct representatives
of closely-related birds found in other Countries. No less than
twenty-eight of these birds are merely visitors here, for they breed
away in the far North. Many even nest within the Arctic Circle, in
Siberia, for it is a rule that a migrating bird nests in the colder
of the two countries visited. Strictly, these twenty-eight species are
Siberian, or at least northern, forms, and not Australian birds.

Many members of this group undergo a seasonal change of plumage
when breeding time comes. As they spend this season in the Northern
Hemisphere, we do not see them in their brilliant colors, but in
quiet, mottled browns and grays.

Some are "accidental" visitors to Australia. Possibly they find their
way here by getting mixed with a company of allied birds on their
annual journey south. Thus the Common (British) Sandpiper is a very
rare bird here, though it retains its British name--Common Sandpiper.
Similarly, other European and American birds have been recorded, and
the number of these far-wandering birds recorded from Australia
is likely to be still further increased. The stout, short-legged
Turnstone is the most cosmopolitan of birds. Breeding in Siberia, so
widely does it roam, that it has visited almost every shore in
the world, where, true to name, it turns the stones in search of
sandhoppers.

The two "Oyster-catchers"--"Redbills"--are representatives of similar
birds found almost the world over. Their deepened, flat bill is said
to serve as a pick-axe to force open oysters and mussels. We found one
or two pairs on almost every shore we visited about Bass Strait, on
Eyre Peninsula, and on the Barrier Reef.

The two common Plovers--the Spurwing and Black-breasted--do not
migrate, so we see them in brighter colors. Still, though bright
when noticed, they are yet wonderfully protected, as they stand quite
still. I felt great astonishment on finding that I had driven,
near Lake Tyrrell, into the midst of a company of over a thousand
Black-breasted Plovers, not noticed until the eye picked out one and
then another. It recalled to mind the scene in the _Lady of the Lake_,
when Fitz James found the hillside alive with Roderick Dhu's warriors.

The White-headed Stilt, or Long-legged Plover, is one of five species
spread throughout the world. Some people have pretended to pity the
Stilt for being one of Nature's misfits, but surely they never saw the
bird in a state of nature enjoying life, and gaining an easy living on
shallow tidal flats, its long legs being a beautiful adaptation to the
environment in which it lives.

The Banded Stilt is a purely Australian bird, and has no
representative in other countries. These and some other shore-birds
live about tidal flats, and get their food in the soft mud. Their long
bill is often flexible, and the tip is sometimes well supplied with
nerves, so that it is sensitive. The bird can thus detect, in the soft
mud, any animal that would serve for food. It can then open its bill
enough to catch the animal without trouble. The Avocet's bill is
sharply curved upwards, and is one of the most remarkable of such
organs. The Australian Avocet is one species of a cosmopolitan genus.

Some of the Dottrels live on the dry, open plains of the interior;
others frequent the beaches and shores.

When a bird of prey appears, these plain-living birds squat quite
flat, placing even the head flat on the ground. They thus escape
detection, for the protective coloring of these birds and of their
eggs is marvellous. The story of how a photograph of a Dottrel's nest
was obtained is of value to teachers, for it will remind us that it
is not well to neglect the three R's, and that Nature-study alone
will not give a complete education. Three bird-lovers spent some time
trying to find this nest, while the parent birds flew noisily around.
Suspecting at last that the birds' knowledge of numbers was probably
deficient, the three hid behind a log. Two then walked away. The birds
immediately returned to the nest, and a valuable photograph was the
result. A training in Nature-study, valuable as it undoubtedly is, is
thus not all of our work.

The Painted Snipe breeds in Australia, but the Australian Snipe breeds
in Japan, so it, properly speaking, is not an Australian bird. Think
of the journey twice a year! Six of these wading-birds even visit New
Zealand each year. How do they find their way there, across a gap
of over 1000 miles, without any land whatever? Inherited memory is
strong, but how did the first batches find their way? Their annual
journey supports the geographer in his surmise that Australia at no
very distant date extended very much farther to the east. Indeed,
these birds almost certainly follow the old coast of the Australian
continent.

Snipe, some Plovers, Dottrels, Curlews (Sea), Whimbrels, Godwits, &c.,
thus go to the North each year to partake of the abundant banquet
of fruits, &c., preserved in the great ice chamber of the North.
Numberless flocks of birds follow up the melting ice, and so nest
unmolested on the great tundras and plains of Siberia. They wear their
bright wedding dress in the far North, and are known here only in the
quiet mottled browns and grays. In autumn these birds depart. They
travel mostly at night, to avoid Birds of Prey, and so are seldom
seen, though they may be heard calling as they pass high overhead.
They are occasionally seen with the aid of telescopes as they pass
across the face of the moon.

The Pratincole, or Swallow-Plover, is a representative of an Old-World
family. Its long wings and long legs denote a rapid runner and a rapid
flyer, so that it has little trouble in catching its insect food,
either in the air or on the ground.

Our inland Stone-Curlew has a call very similar to that of the sea
(true) Curlew, but it has a short, straight bill, instead of a long,
arched bill. The proper name of the land Curlew is the Southern
Stone-Curlew or Stone-Plover. It is the only Australian bird that
seems to have the power of varying the color of its eggs. If the eggs
are laid in grass, they are greenish; if amongst ironstone, the eggs
are reddish-brown; if on sand, the eggs are tawny; and so on. Other
ground-laying birds seem to pick out the soil that matches the
color of their eggs, and lay there only. Possibly local races of the
Southern Stone-Curlew keep to the one class of country. However, the
eggs do match the surroundings, and the birds nest on different kinds
of soil and rock.

In Family 42, the only Australian bird is the Australian Bustard, our
representative of a widely-spread family, a member of which formerly
bred in Great Britain. It is the well-known "Wild Turkey." As it is a
good table bird, it is generally shot on sight. This is a mistake,
as it is (as Mr. C. French, Government Entomologist, has pointed out)
worth many times its table value as an insect destroyer. None of the
family has spread to America. As no Bustard occurs in the regions
between Australia and India, this bird supplies a good example of
what is known to zoo-geographers as "discontinuous distribution."
"Discontinuous distribution," as applied to land animals, _e.g._,
marsupials found in America and Australia, ratite birds in South
America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, or the tapir,
found in Central America and Malaysia, implies a land connexion (not
necessarily complete at any one period) to allow of the gradual spread
of the animals. Of course, as flying birds can pass easily from one
region to another, "discontinuous distribution," as applied to them,
cannot have so much importance attached to it as indicating previous
land connexions.

====

  [Page 42]

  [Illustration: [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82]]

    ORDER X.--CHARADRIIFORMES.

    F. 34. _Chionididae_, Sheathbills, Kelp-Pigeons, 3 sp.--2(2)E.
    1(1)Nl.

    F. 35. _Thinocorythidae_, Seed-Snipe, Seed-Plover, 5 sp. Nl.

    F. 36. CHARADRIIDAE (44), Waders, Plover-like Birds, 202
    sp.--68(29)A., 75(5)O., 84(2)P., 70(24)E., 65(3)Nc., 74(28)Nl.

1
2

    =76 Turnstone=, Sea-Dottrel, Calico (beach) Bird, _Arenaria
    interpres_, cos.
    [~76 _Morinella interpres._]

          Mig. c. _shore_      8

    Winter plumage, mottled brown, black; summer plumage in far
    north; black and white conspicuous; short bill black; legs,
    feet, orange; f., duller. Sand-hoppers, shellfish.

  [Page 43]

2
13

    =77 Pied Oyster-catcher= (White-breasted, Black and white),
    Seapie, Olive, Redbill, Torea, _Haematopus longirostris_,
    Mol., N.G., A., T., N.Z., Chatham Is. =vt. Eur.
    Oyster-catcher.

          Stat. c. _shores_      19.5

    Black; abdomen, rump, base tail above, below white; eyes,
    bill, legs red; bill 3.75in.; f., sim. Sand-hoppers,
    shellfish, worms.

    =78 Black Oyster-catcher= (Sooty), Redbill, Toreo-pango, _H.
    fuliginosus_, A., T., N.Z.

          Stat. c. _shores_      18

    Sooty-black; bill, feet, eye red; f., sim. Shellfish, worms.

1
1

    =79 Red-kneed Dottrel=, Sandpiper (e), _Erythrogonys cinctus_, A.

          Mig. r. _muddy river banks_      7.5

    Head, upper-neck, chest, black; throat, sides of neck,
    abdomen, under base tail white; back olive-brown; middle tail
    feathers olive, rest white; thigh, knee pink-red; f., sim.
    Insects.

2
4

    =80 Spurwing Plover= (Wattled), Alarm-Bird, _Lobivanellus
    lobatus_, A., T.
    [~80 _Lobibyx novae hollandiae._]

          Stat. c. _plains_, _swamps_      14

    "One of most beautiful of plovers;" crown black; face,
    hind-neck, rump, under white; upper brown; tail white tipped
    black; wattle on face lemon-yellow; spur on shoulder; f., sim.
    Insects.

1
1

    =81* Black-breasted Plover= (Stubble, Flock, Plain), _Zonifer
    tricolor_, A., T.

          Stat. v.c. _plains_      10.5

    Upper brown; crown, line on face down to broad band on chest,
    wing-quills black; line through eye, throat, abdomen white;
    tail white barred black; spot at base of upper-bill blood-red;
    f., spot lighter-red. Insects.

1
1

    =82 Gray Plover= (Black-bellied), Gray Sandpiper (e), Maycock,
    _Squatarola helvetica_, cos. 82
    [~_Squatarola squatarola._]

          Mig. r. _muddy shores_, _rivers_      12

    Crown, upper, wings, olive-brown mottled white; wing-quills
    blackish-brown; rump white; tail white barred light olive;
    face, under white, breast tinged buff; bill, feet blackish;
    small hind toe; brighter in far North; f., sim. Insects,
    worms.

  [Page 44]

  [Illustration: [83] [84] [85] [86] [87]]

1
2

    =83 Lesser Golden Plover= (Pacific, American, Australian,
    Eastern), _Charadrius dominicus_, almost cos.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Mig. flocks, r. _plains near sea_, _rivers_      9

    Upper, tail dark-brown marked whitish; under mottled buff,
    brown, white; line over eye, throat whitish; no hind toe;
    brighter in far north; f., sim. Insects, worms.

4
8

    =84 Double-banded Dottrel= (Banded), Pohowera, _Ochthodromus
    bicinctus_, A., T., Norfolk Is., Lord Howe Is., N.Z.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Mig. c. _shores_, _grass_      6.5

    Upper brownish-gray; under white; black band on chest;
    chestnut band on abdomen; forehead white; black line through
    eye; eyelash scarlet; no hind toe; f., duller. Insects, worms.

    =85 Oriental Dottrel= (Eastern, Asiatic, Mongolian), _O.
    veredus_, Mongolia, China to A.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Mig. v.r. _sandy coasts_      9.5

    Indistinct mottled plumage; upper brown and buff; throat
    lighter; abdomen white; slender bill dark-brown; legs long,
    slender; no hind toe; f., sim. Insects, worms.

4
19

    =86 Red-capped Dottrel=, Red-necked Plover, Sandlark,
    _Ægialitis ruficapilla_, China to A., T., N.Z.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Stat. c. _shores_      6

    Crown, hind-neck rust-red; upper, wings pale-brown;
    wing-quills blackish-brown; centre tail dark-brown, rest
    white; under, forehead white; f., duller. Shellfish.

    =87* Black-fronted Dottrel=, _Æ. melanops_, A.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Stat. r. _rivers_, _pools_, _lakes_      6

    Forehead, broad band on chest black; throat, abdomen, stripe
    over eye, round hind-neck white; eyelash bright-red; "active,
    elegant bird;" f., sim. Insects, worms.

  [Page 45]

  [Illustration: [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93]]

    =88 Hooded Dottrel=, _Æ. cucullata_, A., T.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Stat. c. _shore_      8.3

    Head, throat, upper-back black; hind-neck, under white;
    lower-back light brownish-gray; middle tail feathers black,
    rest tipped white; scarlet ring round eye; f., crown mottled
    black, white. Sand-hoppers, worms.

1
1

    =89 Australian Dottrel=, _Peltohyas australis_, A. =vt. Eur.
    Common Dottrel.
    [~83-89 _Genus Charadrius._]

          Mig. v.r. _plains (interior)_      8

    Upper sandy-buff mottled with dark-brown; black band across
    top of head from eye to eye; black collar on hind-neck
    continued as a narrow V across chest; forehead, throat white;
    m., duller. Insects.

1
7

    =90 White-headed Stilt= (Pied), Longshanks, Stilt-bird,
    Long-legged Plover, _Himantopus leucocephalus_, Great Sunda
    Is., Mol., N.G., A. =vt. Eur. Stilt.
    [~90 _Hypsibates_]

          Nom. r. _swamps_, _lakes_      15

    White; hind-neck, back, wings black; long legs pink; f.,
    smaller. Insects, pond-snails.

1
1

    =91 Banded Stilt=, Rottnest Snipe (e), _Cladorhynchus
    leucocephalus_, A.

          Nom. v.r. _shallow lakes_      13.5

    White; broad chestnut band on breast; wings, centre of abdomen
    black; long bill black. Plaintive whistle.

1
4

    =92 Red-necked Avocet=, Cobbler, Cobbler's Awl, Painted Lady,
    Scooper, _Recurvirostra novae-hollandiae_, A., T., N.Z. =vt.
    cos. bird.

          Nom. r. _lakes_, _tidal bays_      15.5

    White; head, neck chestnut; wings black; f., sim. Shellfish,
    insects.

2
9

    =93 Australian Curlew=, Sea-Curlew, _Numenius cyanopus_, E.
    Sib., Japan to A. =vt. Eur. Common Curlew.

          Mig. c. _tidal shores_      m., 21; f., 24

    Arched bill 7in.; mottled brown; f., larger. Crabs, worms.

  [Page 46]

  [Illustration: [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99]]

    =94 Oriental Whimbrel= (Australian), Jack-Curlew, Mayfowl, _N.
    variegatus_, E. Sib., Japan to A., T. =vt. Eur. Whimbrel.

          Mig. r. _river_, _swamp_      15

    Brown mottled; chin, abdomen white; tail barred brown, white;
    arched bill 3in.; f., sim. Crabs, shellfish, worms.

1
1

    =95 Little Whimbrel=, _Mesoscolopax minutus_, E. Sib.,
    Mongolia, Japan to A.
    [~95 _Numenius minutus._]

          Mig. v.r. _swamps_      12

    Upper blackish-brown much marked and spotted buff; under, line
    past eye buff; arched bill 1.7in. Insects, worms.

  [Page 47]

2
5

    =96 Barred-rumped Godwit= (Pacific), Kuaka, _Limosa,
    novae-zealandiae_ (_lapponica_, Am.O.U.), Alaska, California;
    E. Sib. to A., T., N.Z., Oceania =vt. Eur. Barred-tailed
    Godwit.
    [~96 _Limosa baueri._]

          Mig. c. _shores_      15

    Upper brownish-gray marked whitish; rump, tail barred brown,
    white; abdomen white; legs brownish-black; broad, indistinct
    whitish eyebrow; bill long, slightly upturned; f., larger.
    Shellfish, worms, sand-hoppers.

    =97 Black-tailed Godwit=, _L. limosa_, Br. Eur., N. Afr.,
    India, E. Sib., Japan to A., Greenland (acc.), may be a
    distinct species than called _L. melanuroides_.
    [~97 _Limosa melanuroides._]

          Mig. v.r. _shallow lakes_      16

    Upper grayish-brown; wing white band flying; lower-back
    blackish-brown; upper base tail white; tail black, white at
    side at base; neck, breast, flanks grayish-brown; abdomen
    white; bill long, slightly upturned; f., larger. Insects, pond
    snails, worms.

1
2

    =98 Common Sandpiper=, Summer Snipe, _Tringoides hypoleucus_,
    Eur. (Br.), N. Asia, Afr., Ind., to A. (acc.).
    [~98 _Tringa hypoleuca._]

          Mig. u. _shores_, _lakes_      8

    Upper pale-brown marked darker; wing-quills slightly tipped
    white; centre tail feathers glossy-brown, side feathers white
    barred brown; under white; chest marked pale-brown; indistinct
    pale eyebrow; tail constantly jerked; f., sim. Water-insects,
    shellfish.

1
1

    =99 Greenshank=, _Glottis nebularius_, Br., Eastern
    hemisphere, Florida (acc.).
    [~99 _Tringa nebularia._]

          Mig. r. _shores_, _lakes_      14

    Face, under, tail white; sides of breast streaked brown; edge
    of tail barred freckled brown; crown, hind-neck gray; wings
    dark-brown; upper light-brown; legs deep olive-green; f., sim.
    Shellfish, worms.

  [Page 48]

  [Illustration: [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105]]

1
1

    =100 Sanderling=, _Calidris arenaria_ (_leucophoea_, Am.O.U.),
    cos. exc. Pacific Is.
    [~100 _Arenaria leucophaea._]

          Mig. v.r. _sandy shores_, _swamps_      7.5

    Crown, back gray; white band on wing; sides, lower-back white;
    eyebrow, forehead, face, under white; no hind toe; brighter in
    far north; f., sim. Sand-hoppers, insects. "Wick."

  [Page 49]

2
5

    =101 Eastern Little Stint= (Little), Red-necked Sandpiper,
    Land-snipe, Little Dunlin, _Pisobia ruficollis_, E. Sib.,
    Jap., China to A., T., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Little Stint.
    [~101 _Erolia ruficollis._]

          Mig. flocks c. _shores_      6.2

    Upper ashy-brown mottled darker; wing-quills blackish-brown;
    centre tail feathers blackish-brown; rest whitish; forehead,
    under white; faint chestnut band on chest; bill, legs black;
    brighter in far north; f., sim. Insects, shellfish.

1
5

    =102* Sharp-tailed Sandpiper= (Siberian-, Asiatic-Pectoral),
    Sharp-tailed Stint, Marsh Sandpiper, Marsh Tringa,
    _Heteropygia aurita_, (_P. aurita_, Am.O.U.), Alaska, E. Sib.,
    Japan, Ind, to A., T., N.Z.
    [~102 _Erolia aurita._]

          Mig. r. _coast_      8.5

    Upper dark-brown marked gray; crown faint rufous; wing-quills
    dark-brown; face, under whitish, breast brownish; f., smaller.
    Small water-animals.

1
1

    =103 Curlew-Sandpiper=, Pygmy Curlew, Curlew-Stint,
    _Ancylochilus subarquatus_ (_Erolia ferruginea_, Am.O.U.), A.,
    T., N.Z., almost cos. exc. Pac. Is.
    [~103 _Erolia ferruginea._]

          Mig. flocks r. _shore_      8.5

    Upper grayish-brown; eyebrow, rump, under white, chest tinged
    brown; bill 1.5 in., black, arched; brighter in far north; f.,
    sim. Insects, worms.

2
2

    =104 Knot=, Knot-Snipe, _Tringa canutus_, almost cos., A., T., N.Z.
    [~104 _Canutus canutus._]

          Mig. r. _tidal mud flats_      9

    Upper grayish-brown; under white; flanks, breast barred
    grayish-brown; upper base tail white barred black; brighter in
    far north; f., sim. Insects, worms.

    =105 Eastern Knot= (Japanese), Great Sandpiper, _T.
    crassirostris_, E. Sib., Jap., Ind. to A.
    [~105 _Canutus magnus._]

          Mig. v.r. _shore_      11.5

    Crown, neck, brownish-gray; back, wings brown; rump white;
    tail brownish-gray; breast dark-brown marked white; abdomen
    white; bill olive, 1-3/4 in.; brighter in far north; f., sim.
    Insects, worms.

  [Page 50]

  [Illustration: [106] [107] [108] [109] [110]]

1
23

    =106* Australian Snipe= (Japanese, Latham), Jack Snipe,
    Bleater, Long-bill, _Gallinago australis_, Jap., Formosa, to
    A., T., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Snipe.

          Mig. c. _swamps_      9.5

    Richly mottled; crown blackish with buff line along centre;
    face, chin buff; breast, washed reddish-brown; brown bars on
    flanks; back mottled brownish-black; under wings finely barred
    black, white; chestnut band on tail; two black lines on face;
    bill 2.7 in.; f., sim. Insects, worms.

1
3

    =107* Australian-Painted Snipe=, Australian Rhynchaea,
    _Rostratula australis_, A.

          Mig. v.r. _grassy_, _bush_      9.5

    Beautiful mottled dotted; crown dark-brown, with buff line;
    throat, chest dark, chin lighter; wing brown, spotted black,
    white, buff; abdomen white; long straight bill 1.7 in.; m.,
    duller, smaller. Insects, worms.

  [Page 51]

    F. 37. PARRIDAE (1), PARRA, Jacana, Water-Pheasant, 11
    sp.--2(1)A., 3(2)O., 3(3)E., 1(0)Nc., 4(3)Nl.

    F. 38. _Cursoriidae_, Coursers, 15 sp.--3(2)O., 1(0)P.,
    13(12)E.

    F. 39. GLAREOLIDAE (2), PRATINCOLES, Swallow-Plovers, 10
    sp.--2(0)A., 4(1)O., 3(0)P., 7(5)E.

1
1

    =108 Australian Pratincole=, Swallow-Plover, _Stiltia
    isabella_, Borneo, Java to A., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Pratincole.

          Mig. v.r. _(interior) rivers_, _marshes_      9.5

    Upper, wings, breast light-rufous, throat whitish; abdomen
    chestnut; base tail above, below white; centre tail black,
    rest white; bill red, tipped black, swallow-like flight; f.,
    sim. Insects.

    F. 40. _Dromadidae_, Crab-Plover, 1 sp.--1(0)O., 1(0)E.

    F. 41. OEDICNEMIDAE (2), STONE-CURLEWS, Stone-Plovers,
    Thick-Knees, 13 sp.--2(1)A., 3(1)O., 1(0)P., 7(6)E., 3(3) Nl.

1
1

    =109* Southern Stone-Curlew= (-Plover) Willaroo, Scrub Curlew,
    _Burhinus grallarius_, A., T. (acc.).

          Stat. c. _sandy plains_, _timber_      20.5

    Crown, upper dark-gray, marked black; round eye white; throat
    buff; chest, abdomen whitish, streaked blackish; white patch
    on wing; legs long; bill short, black; f., sim. Insects,
    berries. "Wee-lo."

    F. 42. OTIDIDAE (1), BUSTARDS, 33 sp.--1(1)A., 7(2)O., 7(2)P.,
    23(21)E

1
5

    =110 Australian Bustard=, Wild Turkey (e), _Eupodotis
    australis_, A.
    [~110 _Choriotis australis._]

          Mig. r. _plains_      48

    Crown black; face, neck grayish-white; upper, wings brown;
    wings spotted black-white; black band on chest; abdomen white;
    f., smaller. Seeds, grass, lizards, insects.

====

Australia, fortunately, has one representative of Order XI.--Cranes.
This is the Native Companion, the only true Crane found in Australia.
These are interesting birds, with their "quadrille parties,"
"corroborees," and dances. They live chiefly on vermin--insects,
lizards, &c. The great Gould said: "Its presence adds greatly to the
interest of the scenery." Would that more Australians thought so!

Cranes are amongst the best of flyers. They are said to fly sometimes
at a height of from three and a half to five miles, and have been
seen to cross lofty mountains in Central Asia without increasing
their altitude. Perhaps because of its inappropriate name--Native
Companion--some have proposed to regard this bird as the typical
Australian bird, but it is not so. In fact, it is our one
representative of an almost world-wide group.

====

  [Page 52]

  [Illustration: [111] [112] [113] [114] [115]]

    ORDER XI.--GRUIFORMES.

    F. 43. GRUIDAE (1), CRANES, 19 sp.--1(1)A., 8(2)O., 9(1)P.,
    7(5)E., 3(0)Nc., 2(0)Nl.

1
3

    =111 Australian Crane=, Native Companion, Brolga, _Antigone
    australasiana_, A.
    [~111 _Mathewsia rubicunda._]

          Nom. r. _plains_      42

    Deep silvery-gray; wing-quills black; naked red patch about
    face, throat; legs, feet black; f., smaller. Insects, lizards,
    bulbous roots, seeds.

    F. 44. _Aramidae_, Courlans, Limpkin, 2 sp.--1(0)Nc., 2(1)Nl.

    F. 45. _Rhinochetidae_, Kagu, 1 sp. A. (N. Cal.).

    F. 46. _Mesoenatidae_, 1 sp. E. (Madagascar).

    F. 47. _Eurypygidae_, Sun-bitterns, 2 sp. Nl.

    F. 48. _Psophiidae_, Trumpeters, 7 sp. Nl.

    F. 49. _Cariamidae_, Seriema, Saria, 2 sp. Nl.

====

In Order XII. Australia has representatives of the Ibises, Spoonbills,
Storks, Herons, Egrets, Night Herons, and Bitterns, so well known in
every part of the world.

Amongst the world's birds, few are better known than the Ibis. This
bird was so highly prized by the ancient Egyptians as to be considered
sacred, and they thought enough of it to embalm it. As Egypt depended
on the overflow of the Nile for food supply, and as this overflow was
heralded by the arrival of the migratory Ibis from the South, it was
natural for the Egyptians to connect the rise of the river with this
bird, and thus look for its approach. Again, the Ibis is an insect
destroyer, and, as Egypt was subject to plagues of grasshoppers, it
undoubtedly rendered as valuable service there as it does here. This
is another reason that has been assigned for the esteem in which this
valuable bird was held. However, it is now almost unknown in Egypt.

In Australia we have three Ibises. One, the Sacred Ibis, or White
Ibis, is practically identical with the Sacred Ibis of Egypt. Our
second Ibis is the even more valuable Straw-necked Ibis, which extends
its labors to plains and pastures, while the Sacred Ibis is rarely
seen except on swampy lands. The Straw-necked Ibis is restricted to
Australia. It seems to be increasing in numbers, for I have seen small
and large flocks in many parts of the Eastern States recently. It has
an insatiable appetite for grasshoppers and other insects. This bird
is a valuable asset to Australia, and yet thoughtless farmers used
to shoot it. Mr. Le Souëf and Dr. C. Ryan came upon a flock of Ibises
breeding in Riverina. They estimated the flock to contain 240,000
birds. They found that each bird shot contained on the average 2000
young grasshoppers. Think of it; 480,000,000 grasshoppers a day! Where
are those birds now, when needed to stem a locust plague? We have to
pay the price of our folly in destroying valuable birds. A third Ibis
is identical with the little Glossy Ibis of Europe.

The six Spoonbills are found throughout the world except in New
Zealand and the northern parts of North America. They used to breed
in England before man's selfishness and stupidity destroyed them and
their nesting-places. They breed at present in the Murray swamps.

The Australian Stork--the Jabiru--does not come to the Southern
parts of Australia, but breeds on the Queensland coast. It is
a quaint-shaped, though beautifully-colored, bird. Its large,
awkward-looking bill has a slight curve upwards.

Now come those beautiful birds, the Egrets. Man's cupidity and
selfishness, and woman's desire for ornament, seem to have doomed
these birds to total extermination, for the plume trade, which is
responsible for some of the "most abominable cruelty practised in
the animal world," is a war of extermination. Egrets are shy, and are
approachable only in the breeding season. At that time they are, in
obedience to parental instincts, brave in defence of their young. It
is just then that the plume-hunters visit the rookeries and shoot the
parents, leaving the helpless, almost fully-fledged, young to die in
the nest, so high overhead. And all for what? Could anyone who has
seen the devastated nests, with the famished bodies of the fledglings
rotting in the sun, ever take pleasure in Egret plumes decking the
head of a sister or wife? Women of refinement and tender heart will
refuse to wear the proceeds of human cruelty. Those engaged in the
trade resort to the mean trick of calling the plumes "Osprey plumes."
Now, the Osprey is a Fish-Hawk, and so possibly of little use to the
land-dweller, but these plumes grow on the back and neck of a valuable
insect destroyer. The extent of this trade is appalling. At one plume
sale, held in London on 4th August, 1909, the breeding plumes of
24,000 birds were offered for sale. Think of it! The slow starvation
of 40,000 nestlings, the death of 64,000 birds, to provide the plumes
for one day's sale. No, ladies, if you consider you are in need of
ornament, wear ostrich plumes and pheasants' feathers, for these
do not involve the death of a bird, but rather the reverse, for the
greater the demand for these feathers, the more birds will be bred;
but spare the Egret.

The Reef Heron is found on beaches from the Bay of Bengal to New
Zealand. It has given scientists much trouble, for it has a pure-white
form and a dark slaty-gray form. We found and photographed the nests
on Mast Head and Heron Islands. This was a prize, for no photograph
of a Reef Heron's nest had been published previously. As soon as the
falling tide exposed the reef round the island, Reef Herons, Gulls,
Plovers, Dottrels, and Terns, went out to have their next meal.

The "Blue Crane" of the country dwellers is the "White-fronted
Heron" of the bird-lover. "Fronted" in a bird name refers only to
the forehead. Herons are valuable birds to the grazier, farmer,
and irrigationist, for, in addition to insects and snails, they eat
yabbies (fresh-water crayfish), which bore into the banks and bed of
irrigation channels, and so cause much loss of water by soakage.

Distinguished from these birds mainly by its nocturnal habit is
the interesting Nankeen Night Heron, our one representative of a
practically cosmopolitan genus. Our one Night Heron hides on a leafy
bough asleep during the daytime. About dusk he sets off to a swamp.

The Australian Bittern, also our one representative of a cosmopolitan
genus, skulks in a bed of reeds. Hence it is seldom seen. Its loud,
dismal, booming note probably assisted in the formation of the Bunyip
legends of the blacks. I saw more Bitterns in a recent trip down the
Brisbane than I ever saw before.

At breeding time these birds assemble in very large companies, and
their nesting-places are called heronries or rookeries. The chief
rookeries here are in the Riverina, where the great annual overflow of
that fine river, the Murray, converts the country into a great series
of lakes and swamps. Here water animals live in large numbers, and
thousands of birds take advantage of this abundant food supply to nest
there in the enormous redgums.

Each bird is the close relative of a similar bird in Europe, so that
what is read concerning Herons and Egrets there, applies equally to
our members of this widely-distributed family. Eating grasshoppers
and other insects in great numbers, they are friends of the farmer and
grazier. Destroying yabbies and other burrowing water animals, they
are valuable allies of the irrigationist, and it is decidedly bad
policy to shoot one.


====

  [Page 53]

    ORDER XII.--ARDEIFORMES.

    F. 50. IBIDIDAE (3), IBISES, 27 sp.--4(2)A., 6(2)O., 3(0)P.,
    10(8)E., 4(0)Nc., 11(7)Nl.

1
5

    =112 Australian White Ibis= (Black-necked), Sickle-Bill, _Ibis
    molucca_, Mol., N.G., A. =vt. Sacred Ibis of Egypt.

          Nom. flocks, r. _lagoons_      30

    White; head, upper-neck bare black; back of head and neck
    barred rose-pink; black bill arched; f., smaller. Insects.

1
1

    =113 Straw-necked Ibis=, Dryweather (Letter) Bird, Farmer's
    Friend, _Carphibis spinicollis_, A. T.

          Nom. flocks, c. _grassy_      28

    "This beautiful ibis;" head, fore-neck naked black; black bill
    arched; pointed, straw-colored plumes on neck; breast, upper
    greenish-purple barred black; abdomen, flanks, tail white; f.,
    smaller. Insects.

1
3

    =114 Glossy Ibis=, Black Curlew (e), _Plegadis falcinellus_,
    A., T., N.Z., almost cos. exc. S. Am., Arctic, and Pac. Is.
    [~114 _Egatheus falcinellus._]

          Nom. flocks, v.r. _swampy_      25

    Head, neck, breast, back, under rich reddish-chestnut;
    lower-back, tail dark bronze-green; winter; head, neck
    streaked white; f., sim. Insects, worms.

    F. 51. PLATALEIDAE (2), SPOONBILLS, 6 sp.--2(2)A., 2(0)O.,
    2(0)P., 2(1)E., 1(0)Nc., 1(0)Nl.

1
4

    =115 Black-billed Spoonbill= (Royal), _Platalea regia_, A.,
    N.Z.

          Nom. r. _marshy_      29

    White; bill, legs, feet black; f., sim. Shellfish, frogs.

  [Page 55]

  [Illustration: [128] [129] [131] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [139]]

  =128= Cape Barren Goose
  =129= Maned Goose
  =131= Plumed Whistling Duck
  =133= Black Duck
  =134= Australian Teal
  =135= Gray Teal
  =136= Australian Shoveller
  =137= Pink-eared Duck
  =139= White-eyed Duck

  [Page 57]

  [Illustration: [152] [155] [157] [158] [165] [167] [170] [172] [173]]

  =152= Allied Harrier
  =155= Australian Goshawk
  =157= Collared Sparrowhawk
  =158= Wedge-tailed Eagle
  =165= Black-shouldered Kite
  =167= Black-cheeked Falcon
  =170= Little Falcon
  =172= Brown Hawk
  =173= Nankeen Kestrel

  [Page 60]

  [Illustration: [116] [117] [118] [121] [122]]

1
1

    =116 Yellow-billed Spoonbill=, _Platibis flavipes_, A.

          Nom. r. _swamps_      28

    White; bill, legs, feet yellow; f., sim. Shellfish, frogs,

    F. 52. CICONIIDAE (1), STORK (JABIRU), 19 sp.--2(0)A.,
    10(6)O., 4(1)P., 8(4)E., 2(0)Nc., 3(1)Nl.

    F. 53. _Scopidae_, Hammer-Head, 1 sp. E.

    F. 54. _Balaenicipitidae_, Shoe-bird, Shoebill, Whaleheaded
    Stork, 1 sp. E. (Upper White Nile).

    F. 55. ARDEIDAE (16), HERONS, 107 sp.--32(16)A., 27(4)O.,
    21(1)P., 25(14)E., 17(4)Nc., 33(20)Nl.

1
3

    =117 Plumed Egret=, _Mesophoyx plumifera_, Cel., Mol., N.G., A.
    [~117 _Egretta plumifera._]

          Nom. v.r. _swamps_      24

    White; bill yellow; feet, lower legs black, above "knee"
    yellow; f., sim. Insects.

1
3

    =118 Australian White Egret= (Great), White Crane (e),
    _Herodias timoriensis_, Jap., China, Philippines to A., T., N.Z.
    [~118 _Egretta timoriensis._]

          Nom. v.r. _lagoons_      30

    "This noble species;" white; bill beautiful orange; legs above
    "knee" and line down centre of inner shin dull yellow; rest of
    shin, feet black; naked space about eye greenish-yellow; f.,
    sim. Fish, frogs, insects.

2
4

    =119* White-fronted Heron=, Blue-Crane (e), Matuku, _Notophoyx
    novae-hollandiae_, Cel., Mol., N.G., A., T., N.Z.

          Nom. v.c. _about water_      24

    Face, throat white; upper, wings dark-gray; under gray tinged
    rufous; f., sim. Insects, crabs, yabbies.

    =120 White-necked Heron= (Pacific), White-necked Crane (e),
    _N. pacifica_, A., T.

          Stat. r. _swamps_      30

    Head, neck, breast, shoulder white; under, wings, tail upper
    blackish; f., smaller. Frogs, insects.

  [Page 61]

  [Illustration: [119] [120] [123] [124] [125]]

1
2

    =121 Lesser Egret= (Little, Spotless), _Garzetta nigripes_,
    Malay to N.G., A.
    [~121 _Egretta nigripes._]

          Nom. r. _swamps_      22

    White; 2 long plumes from nape; feet, legs totally black; bill
    black; f., sim. Frogs, insects.

1
1

    =122 Reef Heron= (White, Blue, Sacred), _Demiegretta sacra_,
    Jap., Ind. to A., T., N.Z.
    [~122 _Demigretta sacra._]

          Stat. r. _coast_      23

    Dark slaty-gray; bill yellowish-green; some birds are white;
    f., sim. Crabs, shellfish.

1
8

    =123* Nankeen Night Heron=, Nankeen Crane (e), _Nycticorax
    caledonicus_, Cel., N.G., A., T., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Night Heron.
    Frogs, insects, yabbies.

          Mig. c. _swamps_      19

    Nocturnal; crown, nape black; long white plumes from
    nape; upper rich chestnut; abdomen white; neck, chest
    reddish-chestnut; f., sim.; young mottled brown, buff.

2
10

    =124 Minute Bittern=, Kaoriki, _Ardetta pusilla_, A., N.Z.,
    =vt. Eur. Little Bittern.
    [~124 _Ixobrychus pusillus._]

          Stat. v.r. _swamps_      10

    Crown, back, tail greenish-black; under pale-buff; hind-neck,
    shoulder deep-chestnut; bill, feet yellow; dark line from chin
    to lower breast; f., smaller; upper brown streaked chestnut;
    tail black; under white streaked brown. Water-animals.

1
5

    =125* Australian Bittern= (Black-backed), Boomer, Bull-Bird.
    Matuku-Lurepo, _Botaurus poeciloptilus_, A. T., N. Cal., N.Z.
    =vt. Eur. Bittern.

          Stat. r. _reeds_      24

    Head, hind-neck, back dark-brown; wings brown marked buff;
    throat, under creamy-buff streaked dark-brown; bill yellow;
    f., smaller. Fish, frogs, yabbies, insects.

    F. 56. _Palamedeidae_, Screamers, Unicorn-Bird, 3 sp. Nl.

    F. 57. _Phoenicopteridae_, Flamingoes, 6 sp.--2(0)O., 1(0)P.,
    2(0)E., 1(0)Nc., 4(3)Nl.

====

Swans, Geese, and Ducks, the Swimming Birds grouped in Order XIII.,
are all classified in one family, though there are many sub-families.

At the head of the Australian birds is the Black Swan--that _rara
avis_ which, possibly, has done more to advertize Australia than
any other Australian animal or plant. A "black" swan was an
"impossibility," so this bird was one of the strongest factors
in establishing Australia's reputation as a land of paradoxes and
contradictions.

The Black Swan is well known outside Australia, as it is common
in every park and garden in Europe. Gould feared that it would be
exterminated here, but fortunately Australians are now learning to
appreciate their own land, and there is no danger of such a calamity.

Eight species of Swans are known to occur all over the world with the
exception of New Zealand and Africa.

In the next sub-family there is but one bird--the Semipalmated Goose
of Australia. This bird, better known as the Magpie Goose, has its
feet but half-webbed, hence its specific name, _semipalmata_. It is
getting rare, though I heard of six near Colac recently.

Again, the only living representative of the next sub-family is the
Cape Barren Goose, which is common in city gardens in Adelaide. It
is also becoming rare. It is found only in Tasmania, the Bass Strait
Islands, and Southern Australia. We visited its nesting place near
Flinders Island. It is a very pugnacious bird, so it is difficult to
keep with other birds.

After the Goose sub-family comes the group which includes our
"Wood Duck," or, as it is called, the Maned Goose, for its bill is
goose-like. It is a common bird in Australia. Two allied genera are
found in South America and North-east Africa respectively.

In the next sub-family come the domestic Ducks and most of the wild
Ducks of Australia. This group is often referred to as the "Freshwater
or River Ducks."

First come two kinds of Whistling Ducks--so called on account of their
whistling note uttered while flying. These are rare Ducks, one of
which is found as far as India; the other is occasionally seen in
New Zealand, as well as in Australia. The Sheldrake, or Shieldrake
(Mountain Duck) is the largest Australian Duck, and one of the most
handsome of the sub-family. It is nowhere very plentiful, though one
or more pairs appear in most suitable localities. As it is unfit for
the table, it should be spared as an ornament to the landscape.

The Black Duck is very similar to the common wild Duck (Mallard) of
England. Our Black Duck does not change color with the season, nor is
the male different in color from the female.

The Australian Teal is closely similar to the Teal of Europe. It is a
grass feeder, and is a good table bird. The female is very different
from the male. It is impossible to distinguish the male Gray Teal from
the female Teal when in the free state. Mr. Keartland (ex-President of
the Field Naturalist Club, and ornithologist to the Horn and Calvert
exploring expeditions) has shown that there is a big difference in
weight. The male of the smaller Gray Teal is not brightly colored like
the male Chestnut-breasted Teal.

The remarkable Shoveller comes next. It is closely similar to the
English Shoveller. Strange that this name was first used for the
Spoonbill. The Shovellers are found the world over. The males are very
brightly colored in the nesting season.

Unlike most other birds, Swans and Ducks lose the whole of their wing
feathers at once when moulting, so that for a short time they cannot
fly. As a protection, the gaudy ones acquire a quiet, inconspicuous
coloration for a time, so that the male is said to get an "eclipse
plumage." Many other birds get a bright dress for the breeding season
only, but the male Duck wears his bright dress for the whole year,
except in the moulting period. It is then "eclipsed," with the
corresponding advantage that he is protected from his many enemies at
a time when he is most helpless.

The remarkable Pink-eared Duck has no close relative. It has a small
pink spot between the eye and ear, and so is called pink-eyed or
pink-eared. It is found only in Australia. The female is similar in
color to the male. The name Wigeon, or Widgeon, sometimes applied to
this Duck, properly belongs to another of the fresh-water Ducks which
is not found in Australia. Hence, this name should not be used for our
bird.

Another peculiar Australian Duck is the Freckled Duck. It is a
very rare bird. One taken on the ornithologists' excursion to Eyre
Peninsula was considered a prize. So far as is known, it does not
change color with the season, nor has the male or female the usual
bright metallic patch seen on the wing of a Duck.

The "Salt-water Ducks" form the next sub-family. These Ducks, though,
are not always true to name, for they are not confined to the salt
water. The Victorian representative is the well-known White-eyed
Duck, or Hardhead. This Duck was common on the Botanic Gardens
Lake, Melbourne, until it was emptied some time ago. Thus, our
one "Salt-water Duck" was often seen on fresh water. In the same
sub-family come the Eider-Ducks of Iceland and the Logger-head,
Racehorse, or Steamer Duck, of Magellan Straits, which is said to lose
the power of flight on reaching maturity after the first moult. Thus
the life-history tells us that this bird is a degenerate form, and
not a primitive flightless form, for it has evidently descended from
flying ancestors. It uses its wings to row itself along at great
speed.

The ninth sub-family of this group of swimming birds contains two
native Ducks. The Blue-billed Duck, the first of these, is "especially
adapted for immersion and for obtaining its food from the bottom of
the water rather than on its surface." It was thought by Gould to be
confined to the coastal lagoons of Western Australia, but it has since
been recorded from inland in Victoria, and four specimens have been
taken in Tasmania. It remains under the water for a considerable time,
and, if hunted, flaps along the surface with its short wings, but
hesitates to exercise its "feeble grebe-like flight."

Some writers declare that the large Musk Duck is the most remarkable
of the many remarkable birds of Australia. It is the only known
species of the genus, and is "singularly different from every other
member of the Duck family," as Gould points out. Gould further says
that "this extraordinary bird reminds one of the Cormorants. Like many
other of these antipodean forms, it must be regarded as an anomaly."
The male has a lengthened, stiff, and leather-like appendage under the
bill. The female is without this pouch, and is but half the size
of the male. A pair is often to be seen on a sheltered bay or on an
inland dam, and yet this bird has very feeble powers of flight. It is
difficult to cause one to take to flight. Mr. A. J. Campbell summed
up an instructive discussion on this point in the columns of _The
Australasian_ by concluding that Musk Ducks can fly, though they do so
almost entirely at night.

====

  [Page 62]

  [Illustration: [126] [127] [128] [129] [130]]

    ORDER XIII.--ANSERIFORMES.

    F. 58. ANATIDAE (21), SWANS, GEESE, 206 sp.--39(30)A.,
    50(9)O., 68(10)P., 41(21)E., 56(11)Nc., 70(39)Nl.

1
1

    =126 Black Swan=, _Chenopsis atrata_, A., T.
    [~126 _Chenopis atrata._]

          Stat. c. _lakes_      40

    Black; white on wing; very long neck; f., sim. Plants.

  [Page 63]

1
1

    =127 Pied Goose= (Magpie, Black and White, Semipalmated),
    _Anseranas semipalmata_, A., T.

          Stat. v.r. _water_      32

    Head, neck, wings, lower-back, tail, thighs black; rest white;
    feet half-webbed; f., sim. Grass.

1
1

    =128* Cape Barren Goose=, _Cereopsis novae-hollandiae_, V.,
    S.A., W.A., T., Bass St. Is.

          Stat. v.r. _grass_, _coast_      33

    Brownish-gray; dark spots on wing; bill black; naked skin
    round bill lemon-yellow; legs pinkish; toes, webs, streak up
    front of leg black; pugnacious; f., sim. Grass.

1
1

    =129* Maned Goose=, Wood-Duck (e), _Chenonetta jubata_, A., T.

          Stat. c. _water_      20

    Crown deep-brown; tail, lower-back black; metallic green on
    wing; breast gray spotted black; hind-neck short black plumes;
    white patch on wing; bill olive-brown, high, goose-like; f.,
    smaller; duller; breast spotted white. Grass, snails, insects.

2
9

    =130 Whistling Duck= (Tree), _Dendrocygna arcuata_, Ind.,
    Malay to Cel., Mol., N.G., A., Oceania.

          Stat. r. _water_      17

    Crown, upper brownish-black marked lighter; chin whitish;
    breast deep-buff, spotted black; abdomen chestnut; under base
    tail white; whistles when flying; f., sim. Water-plants, fish.

  [Page 64]

  [Illustration: [131] [132] [133] [134] [135]]

    =131* Plumed Whistling Duck= (Eyton Tree), _D. eytoni_, A.,
    T., N.Z.

          Stat. r. _lagoons_      16

    Upper grayish-brown; rump, tail blackish-brown; lower-breast,
    flanks chestnut barred black; white, black plumes on flanks;
    under base tail white; whistles when flying; f., sim.
    Water-plants, fish.

  [Page 65]

2
5

    =132 Australian Sheldrake=, Chestnut-colored Shieldrake,
    Mountain Duck, _Casarca tadornoides_, N.S.W., V., T., S.A.,
    W.A., N.W.A. =vt. Eur. Sheldrake.
    [~132 _Tadorna tadornoides._]

          Stat. r. _lagoons_      27

    Head, neck shining-green; chest, upper-back pale rust-red;
    white band between green and rust-red; upper, under blackish;
    tail black; white, green, chestnut on wing; f., smaller,
    duller. Small fish, shellfish.

1
16

    =133* Black Duck= (Australian Wild, Gray, Brown), Parera,
    _Anas superciliosa_, =vt. Eur. Mallard. Sunda Is. to N.G., A.,
    T., N.Z.

          Stat. v.c. _water_      24

    Head dark-brown; line above eye, line below eye, throat
    light-buff; upper, under brown marked lighter; glossy-green
    patch on wing; bill bluish lead-color; f., sim. Grass,
    insects, pond-snails.

3
15

    =134* Australian Teal= (Chestnut-breasted, Black, Mountain),
    Tete, _Nettium castaneum_, Java, Cel., A., T., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Teal.
    [~134 _Nettion castaneum._]

          Stat. c. _lagoons_      18.5

    Head, neck dark bronze-green; upper rich brown; under
    chestnut; flanks spotted black; white, green patch on expanded
    wing; quills black; 1 lb. 9 oz.; f., head, neck brown and
    buffy-white; breast gray, spotted black; 1 lb. 8 oz. Grass.

    =135* Gray Teal=, Wood-Teal, _N. gibberifrons_, Sunda Is.,
    Cel., N.G., A., T., N.Z.

          Stat. c. _lagoons_      16

    Like female of 134, but smaller; neck white; 1 lb. 2 oz.; f.,
    smaller; 1 lb. 1 oz.

  [Page 66]

  [Illustration: [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141]]

2
4

    =136* Australian Shoveller=, Bluewing, Spoonbill-Duck,
    Stinker, Kuruwhengi, _Spatula rhynchotis_, A., T., N.Z., =vt.
    Eur. Shoveller.

          Nom. v.r. _freshwater_      21.5
    Crown brownish-black; white line before eye, side of neck;
    head, neck gray tinged green; under chestnut-brown mottled
    black; flanks chestnut banded black; back-feathers blackish
    edged grayish; blue, white, green on wing; throat black;
    quills dark-brown; under-wing white; f., duller; head, neck
    buff marked brown; under mottled brown, buff. Water-plants,
    shellfish, insects.

  [Page 67]

1
1

    =137* Pink-eared Duck= (Pink-eyed, Zebra), Widgeon (e),
    _Malacorhynchus membranaceus_, A., T.

          Nom. v.r. _fresh water_      17

    Under barred brown, white; face, chin white; black round eye;
    behind eye a spot of rose-pink; back, wings brown; upper
    base tail whitish; tail dark-brown slightly tipped white; f.,
    smaller. Water-animals.

1
1

    =138 Freckled Duck= (Monkey), _Stictonetta naevosa_, V., S.A.,
    W.A., T., N.S.W.

          v.r. _water_      17

    Dark-brown freckled whitish, under lighter. Small fish,
    pond-snails.

1
8

    =139* White-eyed Duck= (Purple-headed, White-winged),
    Hardhead, Brownhead, Barwing, Karakahia, _Aythya australis_,
    N.G., A., T., N.Z., =vt. Canvas-back of N. Am.
    [~139 _Nyroca australis._]

          c. _lagoons_, _bays_      20

    Chestnut-brown; white patch on wing; upper abdomen whitish;
    under tail white; eye white; f., smaller, duller. Pond-snails,
    insects.

1
7

    =140 Blue-billed Duck= (Spiny-tailed, Stiff-tailed, Diving),
    _Erismatura australis_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., T.
    [~140 _Oxyura australis._]

          v.r. _reedbeds_      16

    Head, neck black; chest, back, flanks chestnut; tail blackish;
    bill light-blue; f., bill olive-green; freckled gray-brown;
    under lighter. Insects, pond-snails, fish.

1
1

    =141 Musk Duck= (Must), Mould Goose (e), _Biziura lobata_,
    S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., T.

          Stat. c. _lagoons_, _bays_      26

    Blackish freckled buffy-white; wings small; long stiff
    tail-feathers; bill, lobe beneath chin greenish-black; dives;
    f., half-size; duller; no lobe. Frogs, shellfish, shrimps.

====

There are six families of birds included in Order XIV.--the
Totally-webbed Swimmers. All four toes are joined by a web. Ducks
have three toes only joined by the web, the hind toe being free.
Representatives of the six families are found in Australia. These
birds are fishers _par excellence_.

In the first family come the well-known Cormorants or Shags, birds
found in almost every country in the world. Forty-two species are
known, of which five occur in Australia.

The large Black Cormorant is the common Black Cormorant of Britain.
It has a very extensive range over North America, Greenland, Europe,
Africa, Asia, and Australia.

The little Black Cormorant is found in Australia, from the Moluccas to
Borneo, and in New Zealand. Indeed, New Zealand is the stronghold of
Cormorants, as it possesses many species.

The White-breasted and Pied Cormorants are so closely similar that
possibly they will yet prove to be one species. Each is glistening
white below, and jet black above. The bill is said to be longer in the
Pied Cormorant, and the patch of naked skin near the eye is yellow,
whereas, in the White-breasted Cormorant, this patch is said to be
blackish or purplish. The Little Cormorant is also black and white.
Its throat and upper chest are yellow.

Mr. Mattingley, C.M.Z.S., and others claim that the Cormorant, by
feeding its young on yabbies, which, they say, prey on fish eggs,
saves many more fish in the young stage than it ever eats in the adult
stage, and hence it is really "a friend" of the anglers and fish. One
thing is certain--fish were formerly much more abundant, and so were
Cormorants. Anglers, collect evidence, and balance good with evil.
Cormorants have a long, narrow bill, with a strongly-hooked tip. They
are such expert fishers that in China they are much used to catch
fish. Some will probably be surprised to learn that this custom
formerly held in England, for the "Master of the Cormorants" was once
one of the officers of the Royal household.

Some Cormorants nest in company in the Murray swamps, while others
retire to a rocky island, such as Storehouse Island, east of Flinders
Island, to breed.

These birds are expert swimmers and divers, so that one of the common
names for them is "Diver," but the true Divers, as already pointed
out, are Northern Hemisphere birds, and are placed in Family 25.

The Darter, or Snake Bird, is practically identical with the
Water-Turkey of the United States. Sometimes, when alarmed, it
submerges its body, leaving the head and neck exposed. It swims
rapidly in this position. Four of these birds are known, and they are
spread over America, Africa, Madagascar, Southern Asia, New Guinea,
Australia, and New Zealand. The Darter was frequently seen on a recent
trip to Enoggera Reservoir, the storage basin for Brisbane. The long,
stiletto-like bill is used to impale its prey, while the flexible neck
assists the spearing operation.

The next family contains the famous "Boobies" of sailors--the stupid
Gannets, or Solan Geese, that were too stupid to escape from danger.
Gould says our Gannet out-boobies the Booby, for he landed on a flat
rock and secured five specimens by hand before the rest shuffled over
the edge of the cliff and took flight. The Australian bird can scarcely
be distinguished from its British cousin. It is common in Australian
seas, where it can be seen diving for fish or flying swiftly round
looking for prey. There is a large Gannet rookery on Cat Island, east
of Flinders Island, where probably 4000 pairs of these fine birds nest
each year. This was visited by a party of ornithologists in the
_Manawatu_ in 1908.

The famous Frigate-Bird we read of in the old school readers was
twice taken in Port Phillip Bay. It is the best of flyers, as it can
"breakfast on the Senegal (Africa), and dine on the Amazon." The
two Frigate-Birds are common in Australian tropical seas. As already
mentioned we met the Frigate Bird on Mast Head Island. Its wings are
long, the forked tail also is long, but the legs and feet are very
small. It is a creature of the air, and gets its living by compelling
hard-working sea-birds to disgorge their prey.

The last bird in this varied Order is the Pelican. Our Australian
Pelican is one of the largest of its tribe. Its enormous pouch
distinguishes it at once. The ten Pelicans are practically world-wide
in their distribution. On the trip of the _Manawatu_ last year round
the islands of Bass Strait, we visited the Pelicans' nesting-place on
Penguin Island. This bird is practically identical with the "Pelican
of the wilderness" mentioned in Holy Writ. The Pelican enjoys a
reputation for maternal care of her offspring; indeed, she was said to
feed the young with her own blood. This was probably due to the fact
that one species of Pelican has a blood-red tip to the bill.
Young Pelicans have not the long bill or the pouch. Thus this bird
illustrates the truth of the statement that each animal in its
development climbs its own ancestral tree, or, to say it in another
form, each animal in its development recapitulates the life-history
of the race. The Pelican has evidently descended from birds that
possessed a short bill.

====

  [Page 68]

  [Illustration: [142] [143] [144] [145] [146]]

    ORDER XIV.--PELICANIFORMES.

    F. 59. PHALACROCORACIDAE (5), CORMORANTS, 42 sp.--16(14)A.,
    6(2)O., 7(3)P., 6(5)E., 10(4)Nc., 9(6)Nl.

5
42

    =142 Cormorant= (Black), Black Shag, _Phalacrocorax carbo_.,
    A., T., N.Z., cos. exc. S. Am.
    [~142-146 _Genus, Carbo._]

          c. _lagoons_, _sea_      35
    Glossy blackish-green; side of neck, face buffy white; white
    on thighs; f., sim. Fish.

  [Page 69]

    =143 Little Black Cormorant=, Shag, _P. sulcirostris_, Borneo
    to N.G., A., T., N.Z.
    [~142-146 _Genus, Carbo._]

          c. _lagoons_, _rivers_      25

    Glossy greenish-black, about eye and side of neck lighter; f.,
    sim. Fish, frogs.

    =144 White-breasted Cormorant=, Black and White Shag, Diver
    (e), _P. gouldi_, Louisiade Is., A., T.
    [~142-146 _Genus, Carbo._]

          Stat. c. _shores_, _rivers_      30

    Upper greenish-black, under glistening-white; naked skin about
    eye purple; hooked bill 2in.; f., sim. Fish.

    =145 Pied Cormorant=, Black and White Shag, Diver (e), _P.
    hypoleucus_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., N.W.A.
    [~142-146 _Genus, Carbo._]

          Stat. v.c. _bays_      30

    Like 144, but bare space in front of eye orange, bill 2.7in.;
    f., sim. Fish.

    =146 Little Cormorant=, Frilled Shag, _P. melanoleucus_, Sunda
    Is., Mol., N.G., A., T., N.Z.
    [~142-146 _Genus, Carbo._]

          Stat. pairs, r. _inlets_, _rivers_      23

    Upper black; under white; upper breast chestnut; f., sim.
    Fish, water-insects.

  [Page 70]

  [Illustration: [147] [148] [148^A] [149] [150]]

    F. 60. PLOTIDAE (1), DARTERS, Water-Turkey, 4 sp.--2(1)A.,
    1(0)O., 2(0)P., 1(0)E., 1(0)Nc., 1(0)Nl.

1
4

    =147 Australian Darter=, Snake-bird, Diver (e), Shag (e),
    _Plotus (Anhinga) novae-hollandiae_, N.G., A., N.Z.

          r. _lagoons_, _bays_      36

    Head, long thin neck, upper, under greenish-black; white patch
    side of neck; wings spotted whitish; bill straight, sharp;
    tail long; f., light-brown neck, breast. Fish.

  [Page 71]

    F. 61. SULIDAE (4), GANNETS, Booby, Solan Goose, 11
    sp.--4(1)A., 3(0)O., 1(0)P., 3(1)E., 6(1)Nc., 5(2)Nl.

4
11

    =148 Australian Gannet=, Takupu, _Sula serrator_, A., T., N.Z.

          Stat. c. _bays_      32

    White; wing-quills black; head, hind-neck buff; f., sim.;
    young brown spotted. Fish.

    F. 62. FREGATIDAE (2), FRIGATE BIRDS, Man-o'-war-bird,
    2 sp.--2(0)A., 2(0)O., 1(0)P., 2(0)E., 1(0)Nc., 2(0)Nl.
    (Tropical Seas).

2
2

    =149 Frigate-Bird=, Man-o'-war-Bird, _Fregata aquila_.

          Stat. r. _ocean_      40

    Brownish-black; about eyes, pouch on throat deep red; variable
    in size, color; bill long, hooked; tail forked; wings very
    long; legs very short; f., browner; breast, flanks whitish.
    Stolen fish, young turtles.

    F. 63. PHAËTHONTIDAE(2), TROPIC BIRDS, Boatswain-Bird,
    Straw-Tails, 7 sp.--4(1)A., 4(1)O., 4(0)E., 3(0)Nc., 4(0)Nl.

    F. 64. PELECANIDAE (1), PELICANS, 10 sp.--1(1)A., 4(1)O.,
    3(0)P., 3(1)E., 3(0)Nc., 4(1)Nl.

1
10

    =150 Australian Pelican=, _Pelecanus conspicillatus_, N.G.,
    A., T., N.Z. =vt. cos. bird.

          c. _lagoons_, _bays_      60

    White; wings, tail black; bill pink, pouch yellowish; f., sim.
    Fish, insects.

    F. 65. _Cathartidae_, Condor, Turkey (American, New World)
    Vultures, 9 sp.--3(1)Nc., 8(6)Nl. The largest of flying birds.

====

The well-known Birds of Prey, so keen of eye, so rapid of flight,
so fearless in courage, and so matchless in fight, have spread over
almost the whole known world. The Eagles of one land are, therefore,
much like the Eagles of another. The Harriers of England are
practically identical with the Harriers of Australia and New Zealand,
and, in fact, of almost any other land. The Falcon, so famous in
mediæval times, is practically identical with the Falcon of Australia
and Tasmania. The Australian Fish Hawk is the universal Fish Hawk
or Osprey, for there is probably but one Osprey, having an almost
world-wide range. The naming of these birds, though, has been a
stumbling-block to us. To Australians they are all Hawks--even our
gigantic and glorious Eagle has been reduced to the ignominious level
of an "Eaglehawk," though our male Eagle is the largest male Eagle
known, outrivalling, as it does, both the Bald Eagle of America and
the Golden Eagle of Europe. A source of confusion, too, has arisen
from the introduction of so many of our popular names from America,
Thus, the Gum-tree (Eucalypt) is not a Gum, the 'Possum is not the
carnivorous Opossum of America, the Goanna is not the equivalent of
the vegetarian American Iguana; the "Wild Cat" is not a Cat, nor is
the "Native Bear" a Bear, nor even remotely related to one, nor is
the Kestrel a Sparrowhawk. It is an American error in popular naming,
which has given us the Kestrel as the equivalent of the American
Sparrowhawk, while the Sparrowhawk of the ornithologist is the
equivalent of the Sparrowhawk of Britain.

In one respect, we are unfortunate in this new land. No mass of
association and tradition has yet had time to crystallize about our
native animals and plants. Our poets have not been able to sing of our
birds for want of names and knowledge. Little has been done beyond
the giving and frequent altering of scientific names, and the
misapplication of names of animals and plants living in other lands to
often totally different animals and plants here, so that confusion
has reigned supreme. However, in bird matters, at least, we are on
a better footing, for the bird-lovers have provided a common, and in
most cases an appropriate, name for each bird.

The American Bobolink and Chickadee are famous birds, chiefly on
account of an appropriate name; so is the British Cuckoo, while its
even more noisy, more common, and practically identical Australian
cousin is still unknown, or rather was until recently. The
introduction of Bird Day has already produced gratifying results. We
need good descriptive names for our varied and beautiful birds--more
children's and poets' names, and less of the deadly formal
"Yellow-vented Parrakeet," "Blue-bellied Lorikeet," and "Warty-faced
Honeyeater" for some of the most glorious of the world's birds.

The old Order _Raptores_--birds of prey--included Hawks and Eagles,
and Owls. These are now placed in two orders as "Diurnal Birds of
Prey"--Hawks, and "Nocturnal Birds of Prey"--Owls. They all seize prey
with the very well-developed talons, and not with the bill. Hence
they were called _Raptores_--seizing birds. They use these talons when
flying, and do not catch prey in scrub, or very close to the ground,
unless in a clear space.

The two Harriers are typically Ground Hawks. The name is said to be
derived from the habit these birds are said to possess of _harrying_
birds. They are generally called "Swamp Hawks," and may frequently be
seen flying low over bushes, to beat birds out.

The Goshawks--_i.e._, Goosehawks--possibly received their name by
confusion, as possibly a Falcon to hunt Geese was kept in olden days,
but probably it was not this bird. Three of these birds are rare.
The White Goshawk is a fine bird, and is confined to Australia and
Tasmania. The Australian Goshawk is said to be the only troublesome
Hawk to the poultry farmer, and he bears a bad name generally. The
Lesser Goshawk is a casual visitor in the Eastern States.

The Sparrowhawk of the ornithologist is much feared by small birds. He
lurks in ambush, suddenly flashes out upon his prey, and is away
with it instantly. The male is one of the smallest of Hawks. It is
an almost universal rule in this order of birds that the females are
larger, often much larger, than the males, and that there are several
changes of plumage before the adult plumage is finally donned, so it
is often a matter of difficulty to determine exactly the name of one
of these birds.

Eagles are found the world over except in New Zealand. Our Eagle has
the honor of being, as already stated, the largest Eagle in the world.
It is also of undoubted courage, as its specific name, _audax_ (bold)
would lead one to suppose. It is, further, Gould says, of a "far more
pleasing and elegant contour" than the Golden Eagle, the "pride and
pest of the parish." Whoever heard of an Australian who was proud of
his Eagle, though it is something to be proud of? Let our noble bird
appear near a house, and there is a rush for a gun. On Eyre Peninsula
we found the Eagles fed their young on rabbits, a serious pest in
Australia.

The equivalent of our Sea Eagle is the White-headed or Bald Eagle of
America, the female of which is the same length as the male of our
Eagle, 38 inches. Many of these glorious Sea Eagles were floating,
with their peculiar butterfly-like flight, over the Brisbane River,
and added much to our enjoyment of a recent bird excursion there. We
found one nest on each island in the Capricorn Group. On Mast Head
Island the nest was in a tree about 60 feet high. On tiny Erskine
Island, where there were no big trees, it was built on the ground,
though it had been added to until it is now over 6 feet high. The
fully-feathered dark-brown young bird sat on the edge of the nest, and
formed a good photographic subject. Eagles were ruthlessly slaughtered
in the British Isles. There is a shadow of an excuse there, perhaps,
with their game preserves, where rabbits and birds are bred for
sporting purposes. These reasons do not exist here. But it is pleasing
to find on record that, even there, "Lord Breadalbane, who died in
1862, thought that the spectacle of a soaring Eagle was a fitting
adjunct to the grandeur of the Argyllshire mountain scenery, and a
good equivalent for the occasional loss of a lamb."

Though the Sea Eagle lives mainly on fish and refuse cast up by the
sea, it is pitiful to read that, though this interesting, picturesque,
and valuable bird was once common, not one is left on the mainland
of Scotland. Could blind, unreasoning slaughter do more? Why kill a
harmless bird? But it is not only harmless; it is of distinct value
in its sphere in Nature. Hawks altogether are misunderstood and
misjudged. It is doubtful if it pays a farmer, aye, even a poultry
farmer, to shoot Hawks. They might steal a few chickens, but they
do not live on them. They live mainly on rabbits, mice, rats, and
insects.

The Whistling Eagle whistles while flying about in the fine large
flight-houses of the Adelaide Zoological Gardens. One fine specimen
accompanied the Federal trawler _Endeavour_ down Gladstone Harbor, but
not far from shore, for it returned when we headed for the open ocean
and the fairyland of the Great Barrier Reef.

Kites used to be excessively common about many English towns, where
they acted as scavengers. The introduction of the shot-gun has
exterminated them. They are world-wide in distribution, so what
you read about European Kites will fit Australian Kites. They are,
perhaps, the most graceful of flyers, gliding, soaring, hovering,
and performing all sorts of aërial evolutions. The toy kites of our
childhood were suggested by the flight of these once common birds.
Now, alas! they are very rarely seen. Being mainly insectivorous, they
are invaluable birds, and we can ill spare them in this country, where
insect life is so abnormally prolific.

The Black-breasted Buzzard is the third largest of our Diurnal Birds
of Prey. It is a rare visitor in Southern Australia, but in seasons of
drought it comes down from Central Australia.

The Falcon, which our ancestors trained for hawking, is almost
identical with our Falcon, while our Little Falcon is, for its size,
the "boldest and swiftest of all birds of prey," for it has been
observed to decapitate a flying Duck with a blow of the edge of its
wing. In Brisbane we had the pleasure of spending an interesting
afternoon with Mr. J. Bell, who formerly practised falconry with
trained Australian Falcons.

The Kestrel of Australia is almost identical with the Kestrel of
Europe. You must have noticed with interest its habit of hovering. One
incident of the 1909 Ornithologists' Congress will show that, even
in the midst of a crowded city like Adelaide, it is possible for
scientific work in ornithology to be done. While the Director of
Education, Mr. A. Williams, Mr. Le Souëf (ex-Pres., A.O.U.), Mr. A.
J. Campbell (Pres., A.O.U.), Mr. Robert Hall (Vice-Pres., A.O.U.), and
myself were walking from the Education Office to Grote Street School,
a Kestrel was seen on the grass in a small square. The members of
the party were astonished to see the Kestrel rise carrying a
bird, possibly a Sparrow, in its talons. Now, the interest of this
observation is that most of our ornithologists were prepared to state
that the Kestrel is entirely insectivorous, and never touches small
birds. However, an observation in the heart of Adelaide is of value
in this matter of scientific interest. This bird, unfortunately,
is generally called the Sparrowhawk, a name which belongs to a much
bolder Australian bird of prey (No. 157), which does eat small birds.

Kestrels are very fond of mice, and would, if allowed, spend time
protecting the farmer's haystacks, but if a Kestrel comes near the
farmhouse the gun is at once produced, and so the farmer loses the
services of one of his best friends.

Jeffries and other Nature-lovers have written on the marvellous
powers of hovering possessed by these birds. In fact, the Kestrel is
frequently called the Windhover. In Australia Kestrels frequently nest
in a hollow tree, but do not lay the usual white egg.

The Osprey is another example of bad naming. The word is said to be a
corruption of Ossifrage, the "bone-breaker." As it feeds on fish,
it has no big bones to break. It is spread from "Alaska to Brazil,
Lapland to Natal, Japan to Tasmania, and even out to the Pacific
Isles," and it may be the same bird throughout, though Dr. Sharpe
has allowed three species in the "_Handlist of Birds_." "_The A.O.U.
Check-list of North American Birds_, 1910," however, recognizes the
North American bird as a sub-species only, so it is possible the
Australian bird will be also listed as a sub-species when the Royal
Australasian Ornithologists' Union adopts its check-list in Sydney
this year. These birds eat living fish, which they catch by plunging
into the sea. Occasionally they drive their talons into too big a
fish, and, not being able to withdraw them, are drowned.

Flinders, in his journal, wrote about the enormous nests he met on
rocky points, and considered they were built by a great "Dinornis."

The Osprey and the White-bellied Sea Eagle, however, build on rocky
points if no trees are available, and add to the nest each year. It
is interesting to read in the Western Australian Year Book article
on birds that the Government has placed an Osprey's nest in the
cave district, "under the protection of the Cave Warden." A pleasing
interest is growing in Australian nature in its many forms.

====

  [Page 72]

  [Illustration: [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156]]

    ORDER XV.--ACCIPITRIFORMES, DIURNAL BIRDS OF PREY.

    F. 66. _Serpentariidae_, Secretary-Bird, 2 sp. E.

    F. 67. _Vulturidae_, Vultures, 17 sp.--8(5)O., 6(0)P., 9(5)E.

    F. 68. FALCONIDAE (29), HARRIERS, GOSHAWKS, EAGLES, FALCON,
    etc., 485 sp.--99 (86) A., 106(58)O., 70(19)P., 118(91)E.,
    53(17)Nc., 144(112)Nl.

2
18

    =151 Spotted Harrier= (Jardine), Spotted Swamp-Hawk, _Circus
    assimilis_, Cel. to A., T.

          Stat. c. _plains_      22

    Facial disc, hind-neck, back, chest dark-gray; crown rust-red
    streaked black; shoulders, rest of under rich-chestnut spotted
    white; tail barred dark-brown, gray; legs long, yellow; m.,
    smaller, duller. Lizards, mice, small snakes, birds.

  [Page 73]

    =152* Allied Harrier= (Gould), Swamp-Hawk, Kahu, _C. gouldi_,
    A., T., N. Cal., Norfolk Is., Lord Howe Is., N.Z., Fiji =vt.
    Eur. Marsh-Harrier.

          Stat. v.c. _swampy_      20

    Upper, head dark-brown; facial disc indistinct brown; under
    buffy-white streaked and tinged red-brown; upper base tail
    white; rest tail brownish-gray; f., larger. Reptiles, mice,
    birds.

5
63

    =153 Gray Goshawk= (New Holland, Gray-backed), _Astur clarus
    (cinereus)_, A.

          v.r. _dense brushes_      16.5

    Upper gray; throat, under white finely barred gray; feet
    yellow, claws black; f., larger. Reptiles, mice, birds.

    =154 White Goshawk=, _A. novae-hollandiae_, E.A., S.A., T.

          r. _timber_      16.5

    Pure white; m., much smaller. Food as 153.

    =155* Australian Goshawk=, Chicken-Hawk, _A. fasciatus
    (approximans)_, A., T., Norfolk Is., N. Cal. =vt. Eur.
    Goshawk.

          Stat. c. _timber_,      f., 20; m., 15

    Upper dark-brown; shoulder thigh rust-red; tail dark-brown
    barred black; throat buff; under buff barred brown; f.,
    larger. Food as 153.

    =156 Lesser Goshawk= (Western, Chestnut-colored), _A.
    cruentus_, V. (acc.), W.A., N.W.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      17

    Back, wings, tail slaty-brown; chestnut-red, indistinct
    collar; under barred brown white; chin buffy-white; f., upper
    brown. Birds, mice, lizards.

  [Page 76]

  [Illustration: [184] [185] [191] [193] [194] [196] [197] [198] [199]]

  =184= Blue Mountain Lorikeet
  =185= Musk Lorikeet
  =191= Gang-gang Cockatoo
  =193= Pink Cockatoo
  =194= Rose-breasted Cockatoo
  =196= Cockatoo-Parrot
  =197= Superb Parrot
  =198= Black-tailed Parrot
  =199= King Parrot

  [Page 78]

  [Illustration: [200] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [209] [213] [214]]

  =200= Crimson Parrot
  =202= Rosella
  =203= Mallee Parrot
  =204= Blue Bonnet
  =205= Many-colored Parrot
  =206= Red-backed Parrot
  =209= Grass Parrot
  =213= Swift Parrot
  =214= Warbling Grass-Parrot

  [Page 80]

  [Illustration: [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162]]

1
42

    =157* Collared Sparrow-Hawk=, _Accipiter cirrhocephalus_,
    N.G., A., T. =vt. Eur. Sparrow-Hawk.
    [~157 _Astur cirrhocephalus._]

          Stat. r. _timber_,      f., 14; m., 12

    Head, upper brownish-gray; tail barred deep-brown; obscure
    collar reddish-brown; throat, under, thighs rufous barred
    white; f., much larger. Mice, birds.

  [Page 81]

1
1

    =158* Wedge-tailed Eagle=, Eaglehawk (e), _Uroaëtus audax_,
    A., T. =vt. Eur. Golden Eagle (32in.).

          Stat. c. _timber_, _plains_      38

    "Noble bird;" largest eagle known; upper, under
    blackish-brown; feathers edged pale-brown; hind-neck
    golden-brown; f., larger. Rabbits, rats, carrion.

1
4

    =159 Little Eagle=, _Eutolmaëtus morphnoides_, N.G., A.

          r. _timber_      22

    Back of head, under rufous striped black; back, rump, wings
    brown; tail grayish-brown, barred blackish-brown. Carrion,
    rats, mice.

1
10

    =160 White-bellied Sea Eagle=, _Haliaëtus leucogaster_, Ind.
    Malay to A., T., Oceania =vt. American Bald Eagle.

          r. _shores_      30

    "Noble species;" white; wing-quills, base-tail blackish-brown;
    f., larger; young; head buff; upper wings chocolate-brown;
    under buffy-brown. Dead fish, shellfish. "Floats like a great
    butterfly."

2
4

    =161 Whistling-Eagle= (-Hawk), _Haliastur sphenurus_, A., N.
    Cal.

          Nom. c. _swamps_, _shores_      24

    Under light sandy-brown streaked white; back, wings brown
    marked lighter, spotted white; tail ashy-brown; head, neck
    sandy streaked lighter; f., larger. Caterpillars, mice, rats,
    floating food.

1
6

    =162 Allied Kite=, _Milvus affinis_, Sunda Is., Cel. to A.
    =vt. Eur. Black Kite.

          Nom. c. _open country_      20

    Upper glossy brown; wing-quills black; slightly-forked
    tail brown; under rufous-brown; chest dark lines; f., sim.
    Scavenger, birds.

  [Page 82]

  [Illustration: [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168]]

1
1

    =163 Square-tailed Kite=, _Lophoictinia isura_, A. =vt. Eur.
    Common Kite.

          r. _timber_, _plains_      19

    Neck, shoulders, under reddish-orange; chest marked black;
    head streaked black; abdomen, flanks barred lighter; upper
    blackish-brown; square tail brownish-gray; f., larger.
    Caterpillars, birds.

1
1

    =164 Black-breasted Buzzard=, _Gypoictinia melanosternum_, A.
    (interior).

          v.r. _timber_, _plains_      23

    "Fine species;" crown, face, chest, abdomen black; flanks
    chestnut; hind-neck light-brown; upper brownish-black;
    wing-quills white base, rest black; this white patch gives
    appearance of window in wing when flying; f., larger. Animals.

2
5

    =165* Australian Black-shouldered Kite=, _Elanus axillaris_,
    A.

          Mig. r. _open plains_      12.5

    Upper delicate-gray; head, under white; jet black shoulder,
    patch under wing; tail grayish-white; f., sim. Insects,
    reptiles.

    =166 Letter-winged Kite=, White-breasted Sparrow Hawk (e), _E.
    scriptus_, E.A., S.A., W.A.

          r. _plains (interior)_      12.5

    Like 165, but more black on under angle of wing gives letter W
    when wings expanded; f., sim. Insects.

4
37

    =167* Black-cheeked Falcon=, _Falco melanogenys_, A., T. =vt.
    Eur. Peregrine Falcon.

          Stat. c. _plains_, _coast_, _rocky_      15

    Crown, side of head black; upper-breast creamy spotted black;
    rest of under barred black, reddish-gray; upper, wings, tail
    dark-gray; tail barred brown, gray; f., larger. Birds.

  [Page 83]

  [Illustration: [169] [170] [171] [172] [173]]

    =168 Gray Falcon=, Blue (Smoke) Hawk, _F. hypoleucus_, A. =vt.
    Eur. Gyrfalcon.

          v.r. _timber_, _plains_      f., 17; m., 12

    "Rare beautiful falcon;" bluish-white below; grey above; tail
    barred gray, brown. Birds.

    =169 Black Falcon=, _F. subniger_, A.

          v.r. _plains (inland)_      17

    Dark, sooty-brown, paler below; chin whitish; f., larger.

    =170* Little Falcon= (White-fronted), Duck Hawk (e),
    Australian Hobby, _F. lunulatus_, A., T., =vt. Eur. Hobby.

          Stat. c. _plains_      f., 13.5; m., 11.5

    Forehead white; upper grayish-black; cheeks black; tail barred
    gray, chestnut; throat buff; chest reddish-buff, striped
    dark-brown; under, thighs reddish; incomplete whitish collar;
    f., larger. Birds, insects.

2
3

    =171 Striped Brown Hawk= (Western, Orange-speckled),
    _Hieracidea berigora_, A.
    [~171 _Ieracidea berigora._]

          v.c. _swampy_, _plains_      17

    Upper dark-brown; wings spotted reddish; incomplete collar,
    under buff-white striped dark-brown; throat whitish; naked
    skin round bill yellow; tail barred dark-brown, gray; f.,
    larger. Caterpillars, insects, birds.

    =172* Brown Hawk=, _H. orientalis_, A., T.
    [~172 _Ieracidea orientalis._]

          Stat. v.c. _timber_      17

    Head, upper dark-brown; line over eye, throat buff; under buff
    spotted rust-brown; tail brown barred rust-red; Skin round
    bill bluish; f., larger. Food as 171.

1
28

    =173* Nankeen Kestrel=, Windhover, Mosquito Hawk, Sparrowhawk
    (e), _Cerchneis cenchroides_, A., T., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Kestrel.

          Stat, v.c. _timber_, _plains_      11.5

    Upper cinnamon-red, spotted black; tail rufous, faintly banded
    black above, tipped white, then black bar; side neck, throat,
    abdomen, under tail white; chest buff striped black; f.,
    larger. Insects, mice.

    F. 69. PANDIONIDAE (1), OSPREYS, 6 sp.--3(0)A., 5(1)O.,
    1(0)P., 1(0)E., 1(0)Nc, 1(0)Nl.

1
3

    =174 White-headed Osprey=, Fish Hawk, _Pandion leucocephalus_,
    Mol., N.G., A., T. =vt. cos. bird.

          Stat. r. _shores_      23

    Crown, hind-neck, throat, abdomen, under tail white; upper
    dark-brown; chest mottled brown; side-neck dark-brown, marked
    white; wing-quills black; dives; f., sim. Fish.

====
[Page 84]

  [Illustration: [174] [175] [176] [177] [178]]

Just as the Diurnal Birds of Prey (e.g., Hawks) are closely related to
those of the Northern Hemisphere, so are the Nocturnal Birds of Prey
(Owls) very closely related to those of the Old World. The different
kinds of Owls are so closely similar that there are many disputes as
to their classification, and it is not likely that we shall ever be
able to recognize in the living, free state all the species recognized
by scientists.

Indeed, I was much interested at the Adelaide Museum to see our
leading ornithologists fail to pick out the skins of two English Barn
Owls when they were placed with three Australian Lesser Masked Owls,
and yet ornithologists give our birds such widely-different names that
literature is useless to us. These names have seriously hampered the
popularization of bird-study in Australia. If ornithologists, with
skins in hand, cannot separate them, what is the use of manufacturing
species?

As Owls are active late in the afternoon or at night, there has
always been a certain amount of mystery regarding them, and, speaking
generally, the ordinary observer knows little of them. Two of the
Australian birds have forced themselves on our notice to some extent.
The Powerful Owl, the largest of our Owls, has alarmed many by means
of its blood-curdling screeches heard in quiet forest gullies.

The Boobook Owl, though not often seen, calls "Mopoke," which sounded
like "Boobook" to the aboriginal ear, but became "Cuckoo"--the
best-loved bird-call of their far-distant home to the ears of the
homesick first white residents. And was it not, they asked, what one
might expect in a country where Christmas came at the wrong time
of the year, where the trees were always green, and shed their bark
instead of their leaves--where the leaves grew vertically, instead
of horizontally, and so gave no shade--was it not natural that the
Cuckoo, a day bird in England, should become a night bird in this land
of paradoxes and contradictions? Thus Australia's reputation was added
to even by the Boobook Owl.

Confusion was caused, for, when daylight came, and the Frogmouth was
seen sitting in the tree, the Frogmouth was supposed to be responsible
for the frequent calls of the previous night. However, some reliable
observers, notably Mr. C. H. McLennan, "Mallee Bird," and Mr. T. H.
Tregellas, claim that the Frogmouth does call "Mopoke'" occasionally,
but the Boobook Owl is the bird that is responsible for the frequent
"Mopoke" on calm evenings.

The Owls are divided into two families. The members of the first
family--the Owls Proper, or Hawk-Owls--have the facial disc almost
absent, while in the second family the facial disc is complete. In
each, the eyes are directly obliquely forward, and, since they are not
capable of much movement, the bird turns its head from side to side.
Though mainly nocturnal, Owls are sometimes seen hunting for their
prey by day. As they feed mostly on mice, rats, and insects, they are
very valuable birds. The feathers are very soft, with a weak central
axis, so that no sound is made when flying. They are thus able to
approach their prey without giving warning. The Powerful Owl well
deserves its name, as it possesses great strength, and is a formidable
enemy if wounded. However, Owls are, fortunately, seldom shot at.

Like Hawks, Owls catch their prey with and carry it in their feet,
unless the feet are required for climbing. One peculiarity of the feet
is that the bird can reverse one toe, so that it can have three toes
in front and one behind, like most birds, or two in front and two
behind, like Parrots and Cuckoos.

Although not so strong of flight as the Diurnal Birds of Prey (_e.g._,
Hawks), Owls have managed to spread throughout the world, so that
they are found even in New Zealand. The different kinds are not easily
separated, so most people are satisfied when they have classed a
bird as an Owl, though you will probably want to divide them into two
groups--the Owls Proper and the Barn Owls.

====

  [Page 85]

    ORDER XVI--STRIGIFORMES, NOCTURNAL BIRDS OF PREY, OWLS.

    F. 70. BUBONIDAE (11) HAWK OWLS, 280 sp.--47(44)A., 88(74)O.,
    33(17)P., 48(42)E., 34(16)Nc, 75(61)Nl.

11
44

    =175 Boobook Owl= (Cuckoo), _Ninox boobook_, A.

          Stat. v.c. _timber_      16

    Head, upper, wings, tail reddish-brown; under rufous blotched
    white; facial disc indistinct, grayish-white edged black; f.,
    larger. Insects, mice, birds.

    =176 Spotted Owl=, _N. maculata_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T.,
    King Is.

          Stat. r. _timber_      13

    Head, upper brown spotted white; under brown blotched tawny
    and white; disc indistinct; f., slightly larger. Insects,
    birds.

    =177 Winking Owl= (Western), _N. connivens_, A., exc. N.W.A.

          Stat. c. _brushes_, _wooded gullies_      16

    Upper dark-brown spotted white; tail dark-brown barred
    grayish-white; under mottled brown, white; disc indistinct;
    f., larger. Insects, birds.

    =178 Powerful Owl= (Eagle), _N. strenua_, N. Ter., E.A., S.A.

          Stat. r. _dense gullies_      24

    Crown, upper brown marked whitish; face, throat, chest whitish
    streaked brown; rest of under whitish barred brown; f., sim.
    Birds, quadrupeds.

  [Page 86]

  [Illustration: [179] [180] [181] [182] [183]]

    F. 71. STRIGIDAE (5), BARN OWLS, 26 sp.--13(11)A., 3(1)O.,
    1(0)P., 4(3)E., 1(1)Nc., 7(7)Nl.

5
26

    =179 Australian Barn Owl= (Lesser Masked, Delicate, Screech),
    _Strix delicatula_, N.G., A.
    [~179-183 _Genus, Tyto._]

          Stat. c. _timber_      14

    Upper beautiful soft light grayish-brown tinged yellow, finely
    spotted blackish-brown and white; under white, few small
    brownish spots; disc white edged buff; f., sim. Mice, rats.

  [Page 87]

    =180 Masked Owl=, _S. novae-hollandiae_, A.
    [~179-183 _Genus, Tyto._]

          Stat. r. _forests_, _rocky_      14

    Pale buff; head, back wings marked dark-brown, few white
    spots; under paler, few brown spots; disc purplish-white,
    edged with deep-brown spots; f., larger. Mice, rats.

    =181 Chestnut-faced Owl=, _S. castanops_, N.S.W., V., S.A., T.
    [~179-183 _Genus, Tyto._]

          Stat. c. _brushes_, _swamps_;      f., 17; m., 14.5

    Disc deep-chestnut edged black; upper rufous-brown marked
    dark-brown; few small spots on head, shoulders; under deep
    sandy-brown with blackish spots; f., larger. Mice, rats.

    =182 Sooty Owl=, Dusky Barn Owl, _S. tenebricosa_, N.G., E.A.
    [~179-183 _Genus, Tyto._]

          Stat. v.r. _dense brushes_;      f., 16; m., 13.5

    Disc sooty-gray deeper round eyes; upper brownish-black finely
    spotted white; under brownish-black washed buff, fainter
    spots; legs mottled brown, white; f., larger. Mice, rats.

    =183 Grass Owl=, _S. candida_, India, Formosa, China,
    Philippines to E.A.
    [~179-183 _Genus, Tyto._]

          Stat. v.r. _grass_      14

    Disc white or tinged pale-pink; brownish spot before eye; edge
    disc dark-brown above, buff below; upper dark-brown finely
    spotted white; under white tinged orange-buff with scattered
    brown spots; tail whitish barred brown; legs long; f., sim.

====

While Australia possesses representatives of nearly all the important
widely-spread families of birds this favored land also contains many
birds that are unknown elsewhere. In addition, there are some groups
which are found in other continents, but which reach their highest
development here. Conspicuous amongst these are Parrots and Cockatoos.
Australians are so accustomed to see these beautiful birds on every
country road, and in cages outside their houses, that they do not
appreciate their beauty or their interest, for "familiarity breeds
contempt," even with bird life.

When one reflects that no figure of a Parrot is found in ancient
Egyptian art, and that no Parrot is mentioned in the Bible, then
one begins to understand the interest of Europeans in these "spoilt
children" of the animal world, the "monkeys of the bird world," and
"the cream of the Australian avifauna."

Their tameness, their affection, their entertaining habits, and their
remarkable powers of speech, all help to render Parrots the favorites
amongst birds. The brilliance of their plumage, their intelligence,
and their longevity excite wonder, for Parrots have been known to live
100 years in captivity. Presumably, they would live even longer in a
state of nature. Humboldt recorded, as quoted in Newton's "Dictionary
of Birds," "that in South America he met with a venerable bird, which
remained the sole possessor of a literally dead language, the
whole tribe of Indians, Atures by name, who spoke it, having become
extinct."

Australians will perhaps be surprised to learn that there are no
Parrots or Cockatoos in Europe, and none in Asia, excepting India,
none in Africa north of the Tropic of Cancer, and only two in North
America, and that one of these is rapidly becoming extinct, and
that Africa and India are poor in Parrots. Thus South America and
Australasia alone are left as the lands that contain these interesting
birds in any number. While South America contains the largest
Parrots--the Macaws--all the South American species belong to
one family. In the Australian region six families of Parrots are
represented. Four of them are confined to the region, while but one
species of the fifth family (Cockatoos) is found outside the region.

The Brush-tongued Parrots, or "Lorikeets," are a purely Australian
family. Some of these are very common at times in flowering eucalypts,
even in the public gardens and streets. The Blue Mountain Parrot, very
common at times, is a giant of the family. It has been described as
a "noble bird, gorgeously apparelled." Its vernacular name of
Blue-bellied Lorikeet has been altered to Blue Mountain Lorikeet.
We found these birds nesting in the big sugar-gums bordering Warunda
Creek, Eyre Peninsula. They keenly and noisily resented our curiosity,
and screeched much as we tried to discover them amongst the green
foliage. Though so gaudy, they were picked out with difficulty.
This bird was very troublesome in my garden at Bengworden, near
the Gippsland Lakes, where, when the apples were about the size of
marbles, they tore them to pieces to get the developing "pips." In
common with the other members of the family, they have a swift, direct
flight, and screech much when flying. The "Green Keets," generally
called "Green Leeks," which are so very numerous at times, are often
accompanied by two other Lorikeets, the Little and Purple-crowned
Lorikeets. These green birds hang, head down, among the eucalyptus
leaves, and brush up the honey from the flowers with their brush
tongue. They follow the flowering of the eucalypts from district to
district, and since the eucalypts flower at irregular intervals, these
birds are not so regular in their movements as Swifts, Snipe, Curlews,
Cuckoos, and other migratory birds. For this reason the birds may be
absent from a district for some years, and then suddenly appear again
in great numbers.

Cockatoos are almost confined to the Australian region. This includes
the islands north-west of Australia out to Wallace's line, passing
between Celebes and the Philippine Islands, Celebes and Borneo, and
between the small islands of Lombok and Bali, east of Java. These
islands, though but fifteen miles apart, "differ far more from each
other in their birds and quadrupeds than do England and Japan. The
birds of the one are extremely unlike those of the other." Another
authority says that the faunas of Bali and Lombok are more unlike
than those of South America and Africa. Bali has Woodpeckers, Barbets,
Bulbuls, and Black and White Magpie-Robins, none of which is found
in Lombok, where we find Screaming Cockatoos, Friar-birds, and other
Honey-eaters, and the strange mound-building Megapodes and numerous
other remarkable birds. This narrow strait is over 1000 fathoms in
depth, and is probably one of the most ancient and most permanent
dividing lines in the world. Instead of being united to Asia, it is
probable that Australia has been more recently joined to New Zealand,
South America, and South Africa. Only one Cockatoo transgresses
Wallace's line to the west, and that is found in the Philippine
Islands; evidently it has spread there from the adjacent part of the
Australian region.

The sombre, slow-flying Black Cockatoo is the largest of all
Cockatoos. It is seen fairly often in small companies, especially on
wattles and eucalypts, the wood of which it tears to pieces with its
powerful bill to get the insect larvæ feeding there. It is a valuable
forest-saving bird.

The Glossy or Leach Black Cockatoo is named after Dr. Leach, who did a
great amount of work on Australian animals about 100 years ago. It is
a rare bird, and may readily be distinguished by its smaller size and
more glossy plumage.

The peculiar gray Gang-gang Cockatoos are common in parts of the
forest country. The male is easily recognized by his red head and
crest. I occasionally see these interesting birds in the big eucalypt
forests of Gippsland. I was surprised to discover that, in South
Gippsland, it is generally called the Galah, a name which belongs to
quite a different bird (194).

The screeching, fussy White Cockatoo, with its delicate sulphur crest,
is well known. Many country dwellers enjoy the privilege of often
seeing these snowy-white birds almost covering a dead tree. They
are favorites as pets, and live to a good old age. They render good
service at times by digging up and eating grasshoppers' eggs, though
they do damage to maize and other crops. As they post sentinels, they
are difficult birds to approach.

The Pink Cockatoo (Major Mitchell) is unfortunately becoming rare. It
was fairly common when I taught in a Mallee school, near where Hopetoun
now is. It has been described as "quite the most beautiful of all the
Cockatoos, being a harmony of delicate rose-pink and white, with a
handsome crest of acuminate feathers barred in crimson, yellow, and
white." It does not take kindly to captivity. It nested in the smaller
"spouts" of the green "box-trees" in the "box-flats" and swamps about
the Goyura School, south of Lake Corrong.

What is more glorious than a mob of Rose-breasted Cockatoos
(Galahs), 500 strong, airing their beauties and graces as they take a
constitutional before retiring for the night? Probably no other kind
of bird shows better company-flying than Galahs; now one sheet of
a delicate gray lavender, and the next instant a flash of brilliant
salmon-pink, as the whole company turns and wheels, obedient to some
command or signal unperceived by us; again, the sun lights up the
pale-pink crests and gray backs, as they turn once more and wheel,
screeching, to continue their evolutions further afield. It is a sight
that lingers in the memory. They are charming pets, and some talk
well. Their beauty adds charm to our almost perfectly level great
inland plains.

The delicately-colored and friendly Cockatoo Parrot, with its
immovable crest, takes a sub-family to itself. It migrates from the
North, and, in a dry year, may even reach the South Coast. In 1908
some of these birds reached Colac, in Southern Victoria. They are
favorite aviary birds, and thousands have been exported.

In the true Parrot family, Australia is strongly represented by many
beautiful birds. The first is the Barraband Parrakeet of Gould, and
the Green Leek of some ornithologists. As the name Green Leek is
practically in universal use for the Musk Lorikeet (Green Keet) of the
ornithologist, it seems desirable to sink an inappropriate name into
a synonym, and use the earlier name, Superb Parrot, for it is a
beautiful bird. Sad to say, it has become exceedingly rare, though Mr.
A. W. Milligan informed me, a few days ago, that he saw six fly into
some pines at Black Rock one day this month (January, 1911).

The Rock Pebble, or Smoker, of the country dweller, formally called
the Black-tailed Parrot, is a fine bird. His tail, however, is not
really black, but is strongly iridescent. He nested in numbers, at
the beginning of the nineties, in the dead box-trees in Lake Corrong.
After an early tea, we frequently went over to the lake and watched
the birds feeding their young. No longer do they inhabit that
district, which has been completely cleared and placed under
cultivation.

The big King Parrot is a "showy, noble species," and is still common
in parts, especially the moist forest districts.

The members of the next group form a sub-family--the
Broad-tails--confined to Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the
Pacific Islands. Judging by their names, they must be amongst the most
beautiful of birds. The best known is the common Rosella, often
quoted in European books as one of the most beautiful of birds.
Its scientific name is eximius, which means excellent. Indeed, the
scientific names of Australian parrots give a good indication of
their place amongst the glories of the bird world. The cousin of the
Rosella--the large blue-winged and blue-cheeked Crimson Parrot--is
well named elegans; a grass parrot is also elegans, then follow
splendidus, splendida, and pulchella, while that great ornithologist,
Gould, has conferred the honor of pulcherrimus on another Australian
parrot. These names, given by scientists, will show Australians in
what high esteem these birds, so common with us, are held by observers
from other lands.

The Crimson Parrot, previously mentioned, is, I think, becoming
common, for I have lately seen it flying about in towns, notably in
the Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, the Zoological Gardens, Melbourne, and
the school yard at Wangaratta.

The Yellow Parrakeet, with its blue cheeks, is a "harmony in blue and
canary yellow, and is an exceedingly lovely bird." It is unfortunately
rare.

The next bird is one of our well-known cage pets--the beautiful
Ringneck--the Mallee Parrot. It flies ahead of one along the
half-chain strip of scrub left on mallee roads, and is a feature of
interest.

The next group contains some inland parrots. The "Bulloak," or "Blue
Bonnet," is a beautiful bird, and is common on inland plains. It has
a brownish-olive back and a gray chest. The bright, blue cheeks,
forehead, and shoulder, red abdomen, and light yellow base to tail
present a striking appearance. Its vernacular name--Yellow-vented
Parrakeet--has now been altered to Blue Bonnet Parrot.

The Many-colored Parrot, with its large yellow shoulder patch, is a
glory. It is, indeed, difficult to imagine a more beautiful bird as
it flies about in the bright Mallee sunshine. The Red-backed Parrot is
the common "Grass Parrot" of country dwellers. Large flocks of these
birds are to be seen on the inland plains. The female is much plainer
than her gaudy mate. This is unusual amongst parrots; for, as the work
of sitting on the eggs is done in a hollow tree under good shelter,
there is apparently no reason why the female should be plainer than
the male, and in most parrots she is equally pretty.

The brownish female offers a strong contrast to her more brightly
coloured mate, which is immediately distinguished by the large red
patch on the back. (The Many-colored Parrot has a much smaller red
patch on the back, near the base of the tail.)

The seven small Grass-Parrots (_Neophemas_) are amongst the most
beautiful of parrots. These birds have become so rare that the South
Australian Government has wisely placed them on the totally-protected
list. Bird trappers formerly exported numbers to Europe each year.
These rare Parrots are said to be worth about £7 each as cage birds.

We found the rare Rock Parrot nesting in the edges and hollows of
a tiny travertine-limestone island (Goat Island) in an inlet at the
eastern end of the Great Australian Bight. The eggs were laid on the
bare earth, often within two or three feet of high-tide mark. The
whole island was less than an acre in extent, and at no point was ten
feet above high-tide level. Many similar islands on the Australian
coast have not yet been explored ornithologically, so we do not know
what matters of interest are awaiting us.

The next bird, the Swift-flying Lorikeet, is a honey feeder, like the
first four Parrots (Lorikeets) mentioned. It is often found with
them, and was common all the winter, and is common now in a clump
of flowering gums outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground. It has given
scientists much trouble as to its correct name and position. It can
be distinguished from the "Green Keets" by having scarlet under the
wings.

The beautiful and affectionate little Budgerigar (Warbling Grass
Parrot), or Love Bird, has many names. It is migratory, and sometimes
appears in thousands, though it may not be seen again for years. It is
a favorite cage bird, and breeds as freely as caged canaries, so it is
well-known in Europe.

The last two Parrots are ground birds, which never perch or climb.
It was feared that the Ground Parrot was extinct, but it is seen
occasionally in the National Park at Wilson's Promontory. The Night
Parrot is better called the Western Ground Parrot. It is found amongst
the Spinifex (_Triodia_) scrub of the interior.

Though Parrots are essentially "climbers," having the suitable
arrangement of two toes in front and two behind, it is interesting to
learn of these two Australian Parrots which cannot perch or climb. The
Parrot's foot is of interest, further, in so far as it is used as a
hand, and the food is held in it while being eaten. The powerful bill
not only serves to reduce its food to powder, but also assists in
climbing. It is sometimes amusing to note the "absurd caution," and
great deliberation with which a parrot climbs down in his cage to pick
up some dainty.

Possessing no less than 76 kinds of Parrots and Cockatoos, Australians
should be alive to their privileges as contrasted with the dwellers of
northern lands, where Parrots do not live. They should insist on the
proper protection of these beautiful and wonderful birds.

====

  [Page 88]

  [Illustration: [184] [185] [186] [187] [188]]

    ORDER XVII.--PSITTACIFORMES.

    F. 72. _Nestoridae_, Nestor, Kaka, Kea, 4 sp. A. (N.Z.).

    F. 73. LORIIDAE (9), BRUSH-TONGUED PARROTS, LORIES, LORIKEETS,
    87 sp. A.

3
16

    =184* Blue Mountain Lorikeet= (-Parrot), Rainbow Lory,
    Blue--bellied (Swainson) Lorikeet, _Trichoglossus
    novae-hollandiae_, N.A., E.A., S.A., T.

          Nom. flocks c. _eucalypts_      14

    Head, throat, abdomen blue; chest blood-red tinged yellow;
    back green; bill blood-red; f., sim. Honey. Screech.

  [Page 89]

3
5

    =185* Musk Lorikeet=, Green Keet, Green Leek (e),
    _Glossopsittacus concinnus_, E.A., S.A., T.
    [~185-187 _Genus, Glossopsitta._]

          Nom. v.c. _flowering eucalypts_      8.5

    Green; forehead, behind ear red; bill black tipped red; f.,
    sim. Honey. Screech.

    =186 Purple-crowned Lorikeet=, _G. porphyrocephalus_, N.S.W.
    V., S.A., W.A.
    [~185-187 _Genus, Glossopsitta._]

          Nom. flocks with 185. r. _eucalypts_      6.5

    Green; forehead red, yellow; behind ear fainter red,
    yellow; crown purple; behind head yellowish-green; shoulder
    light-blue; under wing crimson; under greenish-gray; flanks,
    under-tail golden-green; bill black; f., sim. Honey. Screech.

    =187 Little Lorikeet=, Jerryang, _G. pusillus_, E.A., S.A., T.
    [~185-187 _Genus, Glossopsitta._]

          Nom. flocks with 185. c. _eucalypts_      6.5

    Green; face deep-red; hind-neck brown; wings black edged
    green; tail feathers grass-green, inner webs red at base,
    yellowish at tip; f., smaller. Honey. Screech.

    F. 74. CYCLOPSITTACIDAE (2), Fig-Parrots, 23 sp. A.

    F. 75. CACATUIDAE (17), COCKATOOS, 29 sp.--28(28)A., 1(1)O.
    (Philippine Is.).

7
7

    =188 Black Cockatoo=, Funereal Black Cockatoo,
    _Calyptorhynchus funereus_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T., King
    Is.

          Small flocks, r. _timber_      26

    Black; ear-patch, under tail yellow; f., sim. Wood-boring
    larvae. Seeds. "Wy-la."

  [Page 90]

  [Illustration: [189] [190] [191] [192] [193]]

    =189 Banksian Cockatoo=, Banksian Black Cockatoo, C. _banksi_,
    E.A., S.A.

          r. _timber_      24

    Glossy greenish-black; vermilion-red band on tail; f., yellow
    side of head, neck. Caterpillars, seeds.

  [Page 91]

    =190 Glossy Cockatoo= (Leach Black), _C. viridis_, E.A., S.A.

          Small flocks, r. _timber_      19.5

    Glossy greenish-black; deep vermilion-red on tail; f., no
    vermilion on tail. Sheoak (_Casuarina_) seeds.

1
1

    =191* Gang-gang Cockatoo= (Red-crowned), Red-crowned Parrot (e),
    Galah (e), _Callocephalum galeatum_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., T., King Is.
    [~191 _Genus, Callocephalon._

          v.r. _forest_      13.5

    Head, crest fine scarlet; rest slate-gray barred
    grayish-green; wings tinged green; under tinged red; f., head,
    crest gray. Eucalypt seeds.

5
17

    =192 White Cockatoo= (Sulphur-crested), _Cacatua galerita_,
    A., T., King Is.
    [~192-194 _Genus, Cacatöes._]

          Nom. Flocks, v.c. _timber_, _open plains_      20

    White; crest, under wing, portion of tail sulphur-yellow; f.,
    sim. Seeds, grain, native bread, bulbous roots, grasshoppers'
    eggs. Screech.

    =193* Pink Cockatoo= (Leadbeater), Major Mitchell, _C.
    leadbeateri_, Int. A.
    [~192-194 _Genus, Cacatöes._]

          Nom. r. _lofty gums_      16

    "Most beautiful and elegant" cockatoo; white; forehead, neck,
    under wing, middle abdomen, base of tail salmon pink becoming
    deeper under wing; crest crimson, yellow, white; eyes black;
    f., yellow in crest brighter; eyes reddish-brown. Plaintive
    cry.

  [Page 92]

  [Illustration: [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199]]

    =194* Rose-breasted Cockatoo=, Galah, Willie-willock, Willock,
    _C. roseicapilla_, A., T. (acc).
    [~192-194 _Genus, Cacatöes._]

          Nom. large flocks, c. _plains_      14

    Upper gray; under deep rose pink; head pinky-white; "the
    second most beautiful of cockatoos;" f., sim. Seeds,
    salt-bush.

  [Page 93]

2
2

    =195 Long-billed Cockatoo=, Corella, _Licmetis nasica_, N.
    Ter., N.S.W., V., S.A.
    [~195 _Licmetis tenuirostris._]

          Flocks r. _ground_      17

    White; under wing pale-yellow; under tail bright-yellow;
    forehead, face scarlet; neck, breast tinged scarlet; naked
    blue skin round eye; long bill, 1-5/8 in.; f., sim. Bulbous
    roots.

1
1

    =196* Cockatoo-Parrot=, Cockatiel, Quarrion, _Calopsittacus
    novae-hollandiae_, A.
    [~196 _Calopsitta novae-hollandiae._]

          Mig. flocks, c. _plains_, _timber_      12

    Forehead, crest lemon-yellow; ear-patch rich reddish-orange in
    a patch yellow above white below; upper, under gray; white on
    wings, chest; f., face, crest dull olive-yellow; tail barred
    brown. Seeds.

    F. 76. PSITTACIDAE (47), PARROTS, Macaws, 433 sp.--144(144)A.,
    49(49)O., 42(42)E., 2(1)Nc., 197(196)Nl.

2
2

    =197* Superb Parrot= (Scarlet-breasted), Green Leek, Barraband
    Parrakeet, _Polytelis barrabandi_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. v.r. _timber_      16

    Green; forehead, cheeks, throat rich gamboge-yellow; crescent
    of scarlet next to yellow on chest; bill yellow; sometimes
    red on thigh; f., green tinged dull rose on chest; thigh red.
    Seeds.

    =198* Black-tailed Parrot=, Rock-Pebbler, Rock-Pebble, Smoker,
    _P. melanura_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A. (interior).
    [~198 _Polytelis anthopeplus._]

          Nom. v.r. _Box flats_, _timber_      16

    Head, neck, greenish-yellow; shoulders, under yellow;
    upper-back olive; wing-quills, tail iridescent black; some
    pink on wing; bill scarlet; f., duller. Seeds, honey.

1
9

    =199* King Parrot= (Scarlet and Green, Spud), Blood Rosella,
    King Lory (e), _Aprosmictus cyanopygius_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _forest_      16

    "Showy, noble species;" head, neck, under scarlet; back, wings
    green; rump, base tail rich dark blue; band bright green on
    wing; bill scarlet; f., head, upper green; throat, chest green
    tinged red; abdomen scarlet; young male like female for two
    years. Bulbous roots, seeds.

  [Page 95]

  [Illustration: [219] [220] [221] [223] [224] [227] [229] [230] [235]]

  =219= Australian Roller
  =220= Blue Kingfisher
  =221= Laughing Kingfisher
  =223= Sacred Kingfisher
  =224= Australian Bee-eater
  =227= Spine-tailed Swift
  =229= Pallid Cuckoo
  =230= Fan-tailed Cuckoo
  =235= Bronze Cuckoo

  [Page 97]

  [Illustration: [238] [240] [242] [244] [244^A] [245^A] [248] [248^A]]

  =238= Welcome Swallow
  =240= Tree Martin
  =242= Brown Flycatcher
  =244= Scarlet-breasted Robin
  =244^A= Scarlet-breasted Robin (Female)
  =245= Flame-breasted Robin
  =245^A= Ditto (Female)
  =248= Red Capped Robin
  =248^A= Red Capped Robin (Female)

  [Page 100]

  [Illustration: [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205]]

16
16

    =200* Crimson Parrot=, Crimson Rosella, Pennant Parrakeet,
    Red Lory (e), Mountain Lowry (e), _Platycercus elegans_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. v.c. _timber_, _open_      13.5

    Head, neck, under, rump rich deep crimson; feathers of back
    black, edged crimson; cheeks, shoulders blue; tail tipped
    pale-blue; f., sim.; young all green at first. Grass, seeds,
    insects, caterpillars.

  [Page 101]

    =201 Yellow Parrot=, Yellow Rosella, Murray Smoker (e), Swamp
    Lory (e), Yellow-rumped Parrakeet, _P. flaveolus_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A. (interior).

          Stat. v.r. _lofty river gums_      13.5

    "Exceedingly lovely bird, a harmony in blue and canary
    yellow;" upper under canary-yellow; back feathers black edged
    pale-yellow; wing blue; tip quills dark-brown; tail tipped
    light blue and white; forehead crimson; cheeks blue; f.,
    duller. Seeds.

    =202* Rosella=, Rosehill Parrakeet, Nonpareil Parrot, _P.
    eximius_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Stat. v.c. _open timber_      12.5

    Crown, hind-neck, chest, under base tail scarlet; cheeks
    white; back feathers black edged rich yellow; rump, upper
    base tail, lower abdomen pale-green; centre-abdomen yellow;
    shoulders blue; tail tipped pale blue; f., young sim.

5
5

    =203* Mallee Parrot= (Scrub), Barnard Parrakeet, Ring-neck,
    Bulla-Bulla, _Barnardius barnardi_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.
    (interior).

          Stat. c. _mallee scrub_, _water courses_      13

    Crown, chest, abdomen, rump rich-green; yellow band on
    hind-neck; forehead red; back bluish-gray; centre-abdomen
    orange; wing-quills black; shoulder blue; centre tail feathers
    green becoming deep iridescent blue at tip; side tail deep
    blue at base becoming bluish white at tip; bill horn color;
    f., sim. Seeds.

8
8

    =204* Blue-Bonnet=, Bulloak Parrot, Yellow-vented Parrakeet,
    _Psephotus zanthorrhous_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A. (inland).

          c. _mallee-scrub_, _plains_      12.5

    Forehead, face blue; crown, upper, chest yellowish-gray; rump,
    under base tail, abdomen deep yellow, about legs scarlet; edge
    shoulder, patch on wing blue; wing-quills blackish-brown; f.,
    duller. Seeds.

    =205* Many-colored Parrot= (Varied, Mulga), _P. multicolor_,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., N.W.A. (inland).

          Stat. c. _plains_      12

    Head, neck, chest, back green; rump little red; abdomen,
    thighs scarlet; forehead, shoulder, under base tail yellow;
    f., brick red patch on shoulder, duller. Grass-seeds.

  [Page 102]

  [Illustration: [206] [207] [208] [209] [210]]

    =206* Red-backed Parrot= (Grass, Red-rumped, Ground), _P.
    haematonotus_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Large flocks, v.c. _grass_      11

    Green; lower-back scarlet; tip-shoulder outer wing-quills
    blue; centre-shoulder, abdomen yellow; f., brownish-olive
    upper. Seeds.

7
7

    =207 Bourke Grass-Parrot= (Night, Pink-bellied), _Neophema
    bourkei_, N.S.W., V., S.A. (interior).

          v.r. _plains_      8.5

    Upper olive-brown; under delicate brown tinged pink; forehead,
    shoulder, flanks, under tail blue; f., forehead not blue.
    Seeds.

    =208 Blue-winged Grass-Parrot= (Blue-banded), _N. venusta_,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., T., King Is.
    [~208 _Neophema chrysostoma._]

          Mig. r. _open timber_      9

    Forehead, large patch shoulder deep-blue; crown, neck, back,
    breast green; face, abdomen light-yellow; tail tipped fine
    yellow; f., sim. Grass seeds.

    =209* Grass-Parrot= (Elegant Grass), _N. elegans_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          Mig. r. _grass_      9

    Forehead, patch shoulder, wing-quills blue; about eye
    rich-yellow; back golden-green; chest green; abdomen, side of
    tail yellow; f., duller. Seeds. Musical whistle.

    =210 Orange-breasted Grass-Parrot= (Orange-bellied), _N.
    chrysogastra_, N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Mig. r. _grass_      9

    Crown, upper grass-green; forehead blue; cheeks, breast
    yellowish-green; shoulder, patch on wing deep-blue; abdomen,
    under base tail yellow; lower abdomen much orange; f., less
    orange. Seeds. Sharp snapping note.

    =211 Red-Shouldered Grass-Parrot= (Chestnut-shouldered,
    Beautiful), _N. pulchella_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Mig. c. _timber_      8

    Cheeks, shoulders rich metallic-blue; crown, hind-neck,
    upper, flanks bright olive-green; bright patch chestnut-red
    at insertion of wing; under rich-yellow, tail green tipped
    yellow; f., sim. Seeds.

  [Page 103]

  [Illustration: [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216]]

    =212 Scarlet-chested Grass-Parrot= (Orange-throated,
    Splendid), _N. splendida_, N.S.W., V., S., W.A.

          v.r. _scrub_      8

    Head, neck beautiful deep-blue; shoulder blue; breast scarlet;
    abdomen light-yellow; upper green; f., duller, breast green.
    Seeds.

1
1

    =213* Swift Parrot= (Red-shouldered), Swift-flying Lorikeet
    (e), _Euphema discolor_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T.
    [~213 _Lathamus discolor._]

          Mig. r. _flowering eucalypts_      9.5

    Green; forehead, throat, tip-shoulder, base tail above below,
    under-wing red; crown, edge wing blue; f., smaller, duller.
    Honey.

1
1

    =214* Warbling Grass-Parrot= (Shell-, Canary-, Zebra-),
    Betcherrygah, Budgerigar, Love-Bird (Flight-), _Melopsittacus
    undulatus_, A. (int.).

          Mig. flocks c. _timber_      7.5

    Head, throat yellow; under, rump green; upper green finely
    barred black; several dark spots on throat; f., smaller.
    Grass-seeds.

1
2

    =215 Ground Parrot= (Swamp), _Pezoporus terrestris_, V., S.A.
    W.A., T., Bass St. Is.

          v.r. u. _sandy_, _swampy_      13

    Green uniformly barred black yellow; forehead scarlet; tail
    long; never perches; f., sim. Seeds.

1
1

    =216 Night Parrot= (Spinifex), Western Ground Parrakeet,
    _Geopsittacus occidentalis_, V., S.A., C.A., W.A., N.W.A.

          v.r. u. _swampy_      10

    Like 215, but forehead not red; under base short tail yellow.

    F. 77. _Stringopidae_, Owl-Parrot, 2 sp. A. (N.Z.).

====

Australia is well represented in Order XVIII.--Picarian Birds. The
Tawny Frogmouth is one of "the most peculiar," and is the "ugliest of
birds." On account of its wide mouth, it is called the Frogmouth, and
on account of the confusion connecting it with the Boobook Owl, which
calls "Mopoke," this bird is also called the "Mopoke" (see p. 85).
It so closely mimics a broken branch during the day that it is seldom
seen, though it is fairly common.

Gould bears eloquent testimony to the value of Australian birds in
general, and the _Podargus_ in particular, when he says: "In no other
country is there a greater proportion of insectivorous birds, and
certainly none in which nocturnal species such as the Podargi are more
numerous."

The Australian Roller (Dollar-Bird) has the family beauty, and has a
white circular patch on each wing, which shows clearly when the wing
is expanded during flight. At the Tallangatta excursion a pair was
working even after dusk near the schoolground. Flying from the topmost
dead branch, one bird suddenly closed its wings, and cut queer antics
in the air. After flying a considerable distance, it returned to its
former perch, and the mate set off. On the return of the mate the
first set off again, and so on. With their disagreeable, rough "treek
treek," and peculiar antics, they are conspicuous birds. It is our one
representative of a family most strongly developed in Africa.

While Kingfishers are cosmopolitan (world-wide in distribution), yet
the Australian region contains far more of these beautiful birds than
any other region. They are famous in legend and story, and we owe to
them the expression, "halcyon days" (Gr. _alkuon_, a Kingfisher).

The great terrestrial Kingfishers, of which Australia has three
species--the fourth being confined to New Guinea--are amongst the
avine curiosities of Australia. Few birds are more famous than the
Laughing Kingfisher (Jackass), first, on account of his gigantic
size--hence his specific name, _gigas_--and, secondly, because of
his laugh, which brightens many a gloomy, misty day in lonely country
districts. Homesick travellers from foreign lands could only hear
evil spirits laughing at their trials and loneliness, but, just as
mountains, once thought ugly, are now considered beautiful, so
other thoughts are now associated with the laugh of our remarkable
Australian Kingfisher.

True to the law of representatives, Australia presents us with a
beautiful representative of the Old World family of Bee-eaters. A
writer has well said that there are "few so beautiful, and none so
graceful." Its scientific name, _ornatus_, shows that our bird stands
well amongst its fellows. One kind occasionally visits England (about
thirty records in the last hundred years).

In the same order come the Goatsuckers, or Nightjars, wide-mouthed,
swift-flying, insectivorous birds, which have an almost cosmopolitan
range, being absent only from New Zealand and the Polynesian Islands.
These Owl-like birds have very long wings, thus indicating their rapid
flight. They are very valuable insect destroyers, though they are
sometimes called "Night Hawks," and are shot by people who foolishly
shoot hawks. Many destructive insects fly only at night, and these
night-flying birds are a necessity to maintain the balance of Nature.

Swifts are cosmopolitan birds. One Swiftlet is world-famous on account
of its saliva-built nest, which is the edible swallows' nest we used
to read about. This bird occasionally visits Queensland. Two of the
Australian birds breed in Japan. They are essentially creatures of
the air; their long, pointed wings, shown much longer than the tail,
indicate great speed. Gould said that a Swift might be hawking for
insects over Victoria one hour, and over Tasmania the next hour; that
is, it can cross Bass Strait in an hour. The spines at the end of
the short tail feathers are thought to assist as a prop when the bird
settles on a wall or a cliff face. In some Swifts the four toes point
forward; this helps also in cliff clinging. Though so common in the
upper air, Swifts have not, in Victoria, been recorded as having been
seen to alight.

Most birds have hollow bones which are filled with air. It was claimed
by those who like to find a use for everything that this was an
obvious adaptation for purposes of flight, but when one reflects that,
in some of the Ostrich and Emu group, the members of which never fly,
the bones are strongly "pneumatic," while in Terns and Swifts, and
some other flying birds, the bones are solid, one must hesitate before
generalizing even about such an apparently obvious matter. Swifts are
in no way related to Swallows, but are close to Humming Birds, which
are born with a wide, Swift-like mouth.

====

  [Page 104]

  [Illustration: [217] [218] [219] [220] [221] [222]]

    ORDER XVIII.--CORACIIFORMES, PICARIAN BIRDS.

    F. 78. _Steatornithidae_, Oil-Bird, Guacharo, 1 sp. Nl.

    F. 79. PODARGIDAE (6), FROGMOUTHS, 32 sp.--20(20)A., 12(12)O.

4
7

    =217 Tawny Frogmouth= (Tawny-shouldered), Mopoke (e),
    _Podargus strigoides_, A.T.

          Stat. c. _open forest_      18

    Upper brown freckled grayish-white and darker-brown; wings
    lighter, spotted black and buff; tawny patch on wing; tail
    tawny-brown barred blackish-brown; wide bill brown; nocturnal;
    f., sim. Insects. "Oom, oom."

2
13

    =218 Owlet Nightjar= (Little), Banded Goatsucker (e), Moth Owl
    (e), _Ægotheles novae-hollandiae_, A., T.

          Stat. r. _timber_      8.5

    Blackish-gray; tail faintly banded; obscure collar; short,
    wide bill; bristles round bill; nocturnal; f., sim. Insects,
    mosquitoes, moths.

    F. 80. _Leptosomatidae_, Kirombos, Madagascar Rollers, 2 sp.
    E.

  [Page 105]

    F. 81. CORACIIDAE (1), ROLLERS, 32 sp.--5(5)A., 6(3)O.,
    3(0)P., 22(21)E.

1
11

    =219* Australian Roller=, Dollar (Star) Bird, _Eurystomus
    pacificus_, Cel., Mol., A. exc. S.A., W.A., Lord Howe Is.,
    N.Z.

          Mig. r. _timber_      12

    Head, upper dark-brown; inner-wing bluish, outer-wing
    dark-blue with a silvery-blue patch (dollar); throat
    dark-blue; eyelash, wide curved bill, feet red; many shades of
    blue and green; abdomen light-green; f., sim. Insects.

    F. 82. ALCEDINIDAE (14), KINGFISHERS, 200 sp.--112(105)A.,
    52(44)O., 5(0)P., 31(30)E., 3(0)Nc., 11(8)Nl.

3
7

    =220* Blue Kingfisher= (Azure, Water, River), _Alcyone
    azurea_, E.A., S.A., T.

          Mig. r. _water_      8

    Upper ultramarine-blue; behind ear yellowish-white patch;
    wings black; throat whitish; under rusty-orange; bill black;
    f., sim. Fish, insects.

3
4

    =221* Laughing Kingfisher= (Great Brown, Giant), Laughing
    Jackass, Bushman's (Settler's) Clock, Kookaburra, _Dacelo
    gigas_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. v.c. _timber_      17.5

    Upper, line from bill past eye brown; side-head, under
    whitish; blue, white spots on wing; tail barred brown, black,
    tipped white; f., sim. Lizards, insects, snakes.

6
71

    =222 Red-backed Kingfisher= (Golden), _Halcyon pyrrhopygius_,
    A. (interior).

          r. _open country_      8

    Back, rump reddish-brown; collar, under white; crown
    dull-green streaked white; dark band from bill through
    eye round back of head; wings, tail bluish; f., sim. Fish,
    insects.

  [Page 106]

  [Illustration: [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228]]

    =223* Sacred Kingfisher= (Wood, Forest, Tree), _H. sanctus_,
    Cel., Java to A., T., N. Heb.

          Mig. c. _timber_, _near water_      8

    Head, upper greenish-blue; whitish collar; buffy-white under;
    bill long black; f., sim. Insects, ants, lizards, fish.

    F. 83. _Bucerotidae_, Hornbills, 71 sp.--4(4)A., 33(33)O.,
    34(34)E.

    F. 84. _Upupidae_, Hoopoes, 6 sp.--2(1)O., 2(0)P., 4(3)E.

    F. 85. _Irrisoridae_, Wood-Hoopoes, 12 sp. E.

    F. 86. MEROPIDAE (1), BEE-EATERS, 41 sp.--5(4)A., 10(6)O.,
    2(0)P., 30(27)E.

  [Page 107]

1
21

    =224* Australian Bee-eater=, Rainbow Bird, Sandpiper (e),
    Kingfisher (e), Spinetail, Pintail, _Merops ornatus_, Cel.,
    Lesser Sunda Is., Mol., A.

          Mig. c. _open forests_      10

    Crown, back, inner-wing brownish-green; wing-quills
    orange-brown, tipped black; band on throat blackish; line
    below eye, lower-back blue; throat orange; tail black; two
    tail feathers longer; curved bill black: f., sim. Insects,
    very rarely bees.

    F. 87. _Momotidae_, Motmots, 24 sp. Nl.

    F. 88. _Todidae_, Todies, 7 sp. Nl. (West Indies).

    F. 89. CAPRIMULGIDAE (3), NIGHTJARS, GOATSUCKERS, 124
    sp.--11(8)A., 22(17)O., 10(4)P., 30(26)E., 11(5)Nc., 57(51)Nl.

2
3

    =225 White-throated Nightjar=, Night Hawk (e), Moth (Fern)
    Owl, _Eurostopus albigularis_, N.G., E.A., S.A.
    [~225 _Eurostopodus albigularis._]

          Stat. r. _open forest_      13

    Upper mottled, striped gray, brown; head darker; wings
    dark-brown marked gray, spotted buff, with white patch
    (see figure); white patch side of throat; under buff marked
    dark-brown; f., sim. Insects. Valuable nocturnal birds.

    =226 Spotted Nightjar=, _E. argus_., Aru Is., New Ireland, A.

          Stat. r. _open forest_      12

    Like 225, but uniform rusty-brown abdomen and under base tail;
    f., sim. Insects. Valuable, nocturnal.

    F. 90. _Macropterygidae_, Tree-Swifts, 7 sp.--3(3)A., 4(4)O.

    F. 91. CYPSELIDAE (4), SWIFTS, 103 sp.--11(7)A., 33(24)O.,
    9(1)P., 28(22)E., 4(0)Nc., 30(26)Nl.

1
34

    =227* Spine-tailed Swift=, _Chactura caudacuta_, Sib., Jap.,
    China, to A., T., N.Z.

          Mig. c. _upper air_      7.5

    Throat, forehead, back edge wing, flanks, under base
    tail white; wings, tail deep shining-green; under, back
    grayish-brown; short tail ends in spines; f. smaller. Flying
    insects.

1
25

    =228 White-rumped Swift= (Australian), _Cypselus pacificus_,
    E. Sib., Jap., Indo-China to A., T., N.Z.
    [~228 _Apus pacificus._]

          Mig. r. _upper air_      7

    Upper brownish-black; rump, throat white; under brown; long
    forked tail; indistinct collar; f., sim. Flying insects.

    F. 92. _Trochilidae_, Humming-Birds, 581 sp.--18 (5) Nc.,
    576(563)Nl.

    F. 93. _Coliidae_, Mouse-Birds, 14 sp. E.

    F. 94. _Trogonidae_, Trogons, 54 sp.--16(16)O., 4(4)E.,
    1(0)Nc., 34(33)Nl.

====

Few birds have attracted more notice, or have been more written about,
than Cuckoos. To dwellers in lands with a dreary winter, the Cuckoo
heralds the spring, so its call is most welcome. Then, too, the
mysteries connected with its upbringing have proved of interest to
all Nature and bird lovers. Its call, "Cuckoo," aptly described as the
"most imitable of bird calls," has also assisted in making the bird a
favorite.

The Pallid Cuckoo belongs to the same genus as the well-known Cuckoo
of England. It also resembles that bird in appearance. Its note,
however, is quite different. At times it seems to be endeavoring to
run up a chromatic scale, so, in some districts, it is called the
Scale Bird. At other times, after three running notes, it repeats one
note strongly. So persistent is it in calling that it is called in
places the Brain-fever Bird. Last September, in Castlemaine, it called
all night in the street trees. Few, however, seemed to notice it, and
fewer still knew what was uttering the persistent call.

Possibly other birds recognize the Cuckoo as an enemy, or possibly its
remarkable superficial resemblance to a Hawk causes birds to chase it.
However, in some cases, possibly, the male Cuckoo does not object to
being chased. He draws the birds away, while the female Cuckoo quietly
places an egg in a convenient nest, and retires unmolested.

The Fan-tailed or Ash-colored Cuckoo is not so conspicuous, as it
keeps to more secluded places, and is a solitary bird. Its flight is
heavy and labored. It also has a habit of elevating and lowering
its tail several times both before and after flight. Its frequent,
plaintive, trilling note often reveals its presence, which would
otherwise be overlooked.

The Brush Cuckoo is rare. In fact, considerable difficulty was
experienced in obtaining a specimen for the photograph above, as
there was no named specimen in the National Museum. Thanks to Messrs.
Kershaw and French, the difficulty was at last overcome.

The Bronze Cuckoos are very similar. They will be immediately
recognized by the under-surface barred brown and white, and the
golden-green or bronze lustre of the dark back. The New Zealand
Bronze-Cuckoo migrates from N.E. Australia and New Guinea. Apparently
it sometimes migrates down the East Coast, instead of to New Zealand.

The Narrow-billed Bronze Cuckoo has a narrower bill, and the centre
tail feathers are brownish-chestnut at the base. While the birds are
so similar, their eggs are quite unlike. The Bronze Cuckoo lays a
bronze egg, generally in dome-shaped or covered nests. It is
sometimes found in Tits' nests. The Narrow-billed Bronze Cuckoo has a
red-speckled egg, which is placed often in an open or cup-shaped nest.

The last Cuckoo--the Channel-bill--is one of the largest of Cuckoos.
It is a northern bird, which very rarely reaches the southern part of
the continent. Its large bill is characteristic. Its tail is large,
and often spread out fanwise, thus giving a majestic appearance to
the bird. Its call is not pleasing, as it is described by Gould as a
"frightful scream," and again as consisting of "awful notes." It lays
its eggs sometimes in the nest of a Sparrowhawk (not Kestrel), or in
the nest of a Magpie, Bell-Magpie (_Strepera_), or even of a Crow. It
appears with the first flood-waters, and follows the rivers from the
Gulf of Carpentaria watershed down to Cooper's Creek and Lake Eyre.

One large Australian Cuckoo builds its own nest, and rears its own
young. This bird, however, does not visit Southern Australia.

In addition to the interest of their habits and life history, Cuckoos
are amongst the most valuable of insectivorous birds. Few birds will
eat the vine caterpillar or hairy caterpillar. The Cuckoos, however,
are very fond of these, and so should be encouraged. They do no harm
to anything we need.

    ====

  [Page 108]

  [Illustration: [229] [230] [231] [232]]

    ORDER XIX.--COCCYGES.

    F. 95. _Musophagidae_, Plantain-eaters, Touracos, 35 sp. E.

    F. 96. CUCULIDAE (14), CUCKOOS (Cuckows), 202 sp.--61(50)A.,
    57(42)O., 8(0)P., 55(51)E., 8(0)Nc., 43(35)Nl.

  [Page 109]

2
11

    =229* Pallid Cuckoo= (Unadorned), Harbinger-of-Spring, Scale
    (Semitone, Brain-fever, Storm) Bird, Mosquito (Grasshopper)
    Hawk, _Cuculus inornatus_, A., T. =vt Eur. Cuckoo.
    [~229 _Cuculus pallidus._]

          Mig. v.c. _open_, _timber_      12

    Upper brown; under gray; tail barred white, brown; eyelash
    yellow; white at edge wing; wing spotted, marked lighter; f.,
    upper mottled whitish, rufous. Caterpillars, insects. Runs up
    scale, calls frequently at night.

3
13

    =230* Fan-tailed Cuckoo=, Ash-colored, _Cacomantis rufulus
    (flabelliformis)_, Aru Is., A., T.

          Mig. c. _open_, _timber_      10

    Head, upper dark slate-gray; under rust-red; throat gray;
    tail dark toothed with white; white edge of wing; eyelash
    citron-yellow; f., smaller. Caterpillars, insects. Sad trill
    often repeated.

    =231 Square-tailed Cuckoo= (Brush), _C. flabelliformis
    (variolosus)_, Mol., Timor, N.G., A.

          Mig. v.r. _open timber_      9.2

    Like 230, but smaller; tail feathers toothed with white on
    inner web only; f., sim. Insects.

1
1

    =232 Black-eared Cuckoo=, _Mesocalius palliolatus_, Mol., Aru
    Is., A.
    [~232 _Misocalius palliolatus._]

          Mig. v.r. _scrub_      7.5

    Head, upper, wings glossy olive-brown; shoulder darker; tail
    olive-brown tipped white; side tail feather five white bars;
    behind ear a narrow black streak; above this a lighter patch;
    under pale-brown; f., duller. Insects. Feeble plaintive note.

  [Page 110]

  [Illustration: [233] [234] [235] [236]]

5
15

    =233 Narrow-billed Bronze Cuckoo=, _Chalcococcyx basalis_,
    Mal. Pen., Java, Cel., to A., T.

          Mig. c. _open_, _timber_      6.2

    Upper beautiful bronze-green; under barred brown, white; like
    234 but bill narrower; lighter brown head; paler back; outer
    tail feathers strongly barred blackish-brown, white; centre
    abdomen not barred; base tail much chestnut; f., duller.
    Insects, caterpillars.

  [Page 111]

    =234 Broad-billed Bronze Cuckoo= (New Zealand, Shining),
    Pipiwharauroa, _C. lucidus_, E.A., T., N.Z., Chatham Is.,
    Macquarie Is. (acc).

          Mig. v.r. _open_, _timber_      6.2

    Like 233, but outer tail feathers barred white; next feathers
    barred rufous; forehead freckled with white; crown, hind-neck
    shining-green; bill broader; f., duller. Insects.

    =235* Bronze Cuckoo=, _C. plagosus_, A., T., Pac. Is.

          Mig. c. _open_, _timber_      6.2

    Like 233, 234; crown, hind-neck dark violet-brown; very little
    rufous on tail; f., duller. Insects, caterpillars.

1
1

    =236 Channel-bill=, Giant Cuckoo, Storm (Flood, Rain) Bird,
    Toucan (e), Hornbill (e), _Scythrops novae-hollandiae_, Cel.,
    Flores, Mol., A., T. (once).

          Mig. r. _plains_      24

    Gray; tail banded black; tipped white barred black, white
    below; bill very large, light horn-color; red about eye; f.,
    smaller. Insects, berries.

    F. 97. _Indicatoridae_, Honey-Guides, 18 sp.--2(2)O., 16(16)E.

    F. 98. _Capitonidae_, Barbets, 140 sp.--40(40)O., 82(82)E.,
    18(18)Nl.

    F. 99. _Rhamphastidae_, Toucans, 60 sp. Nl.

    F. 100. _Galbulidae_, Jacamars, 22 sp. Nl.

    F. 101. _Bucconidae_, Puff Birds, 45 sp. Nl.

    F. 102. _Picidae_, Woodpeckers, Piculets, Wrynecks, Flickers,
    440 sp.--6(5)A., 124(117)O., 41(33)P., 54(53)E., 44(32)Nc.,
    197(181)Nl.

    F. 103. _Eurylaemidae_, Broadbills, 16 sp. O. The only family
    of birds restricted to the Oriental Region.

====

One of the most interesting birds in the world is the Lyre Bird, whose
beautiful tail, alas, often brings early death to its rightful owner.
There are three species of these birds, found only in the mountainous
parts of South-eastern Australia, and as far as Wide Bay, in Southern
Queensland. Two of the species are found in New South Wales and
Southern Queensland, while the third is found in Victoria. Though
these beautiful birds are supposed to be protected, hundreds of their
tails are sold annually in London.

The Lyre Bird is responsible for the statement that Australia
possesses "Wrens as large as peacocks," whereas most Wrens are very
small. However, the Lyre Bird is not now classed with Wrens. In all
its ways, the Lyre Bird is of interest. Its dancing mounds, its large
domed nest, containing but one egg, and its remarkable mimicking
powers have frequently been written about. Dr. Sharpe has lately
placed the Lyre Birds in an Order by themselves--Order XX.

Gould considered the Lyre Bird the most shy of birds, for he spent
days in the forest gullies surrounded by them, but though he was
entertained by their many and varied calls, he caught no sight of a
bird. The wonderful tail is not attained until the male bird is four
years old. It is unique, and is the most beautiful tail ornament worn
by any bird. Dr. Newton hoped that "so remarkable a form as the Lyre
Bird, the nearly sole survivor, apparently, of a very ancient race
of beings, will not be allowed to become extinct--its almost certain
fate, so far as can be judged--without many more observations of its
manners being made, and fuller details of them placed on record."
Australians please note. You alone can assist by collecting facts and
recording reliable observations. Bird-lovers hope that the Lyre
Bird will be successfully established in the National Park, Wilson's
Promontory, where some have already been placed, and so be preserved
for future generations. Its large, domed nest is usually placed on the
ground, and the large single egg (or the young one) is often taken by
the fox. Further, its natural haunts--dense forest scrubs--are
being rapidly cleared, so that the bird is doomed, except in special
sanctuaries.

The Lyre Bird is now generally acknowledged to be the prince of
mocking birds. It mimics clearly all bush noises, the chopping of
trees, sawing of logs, barking of dogs, clucking of hens, the singing
of native birds. Its dancing mounds are interesting. Near one of
these mounds, on the Upper Snowy River, in the wild cherry scrub, we
observed a nest at a height of about thirty feet from the ground.

Australians! you owe it to mankind in general to see that the
protection supposed to be given to the Lyre Bird is a reality.
Recently, after passing a lady much bedecked with Bird of Paradise
plumes, I thought it was fortunate the Lyre Bird's tail was too large
for a lady's hat. Imagine my surprise when, at the next street corner
(Collins and Spring Streets), I met a lady with a Lyre Bird's tail
stuck through her head-dress. However, I have seen no other tail used
for such a purpose.

In America the Audubon Society has done splendid work by disseminating
knowledge about American birds, and arousing public interest in the
value of birds. There, also, thorough scientific investigation has
been made of the value of insect-eating and seed-eating birds. It has
been stated, as the result of full research, that one wild pigeon,
in whose crop over 7000 weed seeds were found, was as efficacious in
destroying weeds as two farm laborers.

It is to be noted that no less an agricultural authority than
Professor Gilruth, of the Veterinary School, Melbourne University, has
given it as his deliberate opinion that the Australian farmer would
find life impossible without the aid of the detested Sparrow as a weed
destroyer. This is the judgment of a man whose opinion is worthy of
serious consideration.

It is open to serious doubt if it pays commercially to kill
indiscriminately any kind of bird found on this continent. It may,
of course, happen that one individual bird has learnt where to get an
easy food supply at the expense of a farmer or orchardist. Such a bird
could be kept away. To kill birds at all times, because of the damage
done by a few at a particular time, is foolish.

On the lines of the American Audubon Society, the Gould League of Bird
Lovers has recently been established. Just as Audubon was the great
father of American ornithology, so "John Gould, the bird man," was the
father of Australian ornithology. Hence his name has been associated
with this movement to save our birds. The movement is progressing by
leaps and bounds.

The Victorian branch has a very large body of members, about 40,000
certificates having already been issued to adults and children.
Tasmania has a branch in full operation. In South Australia bird clubs
are doing excellent work, especially amongst the young people, and
Queensland and New South Wales bird-lovers have taken active steps
to develop the movement in their States. A Bird Day, by order of the
Minister of Education, Hon. A. A. Billson, and the Director, Mr.
F. Tate, was observed in Victorian schools in 1909 and 1910, with
gratifying results. Bird-nesting, for the collection of eggs, has
practically wholly disappeared from our schools, while at most country
schools native birds can be seen nesting on the school grounds, the
children keeping observation notes of nesting and feeding habits of
the birds as part of their work in Nature-study. What study is of
greater economic importance to this wealthy, though occasionally
insect-troubled, land?

====

  [Page 112]

  [Illustration: [237]]


    ORDER XX.--MENURIFORMES, LYRE-BIRDS.

    F. 104. MENURIDAE (3), LYRE-BIRDS, 3 sp. A. (South-Eastern
    A.).

3
3

    =237 Victoria Lyre-Bird=, Pheasant (e), _Menura victoriae_, V.

          Stat. r. _dense scrubs_,      m., 36; f., 27

    Beautiful lyre tail; f., sooty-brown; all tail feathers fully
    webbed. Insects, centipedes, snails.

====

Order XXI.--Perching-Birds--contains 11,500 species, more than
three-fifths of the world's 19,000 birds. As Perching-Birds
(_Passeres_) are still undergoing evolution, connecting links still
live, so that it is very difficult to divide the Perching Birds
into well-defined families. Sharpe has divided them into sixty-one
families, but, for several of these, no exact characters that exclude
other birds can be assigned, so that some of these, at least, are "not
worthy of family rank." However, Sharpe's classification represents
the latest thought of scientists on this difficult matter, so it must
be adopted here.

This large order of birds is divided into two sub-orders:--

1. Songless Perching-Birds, made up mainly of South American
birds, though two families are included that are represented in the
Australian region--_viz._, Pittas (_Pittidae_) and New Zealand Wrens
(_Xenicidae_).

2. Song-Birds.

Birds of the second division are again divided into two:--A.: Abnormal
Song-Birds. B.: Normal Song-Birds.

The first group, Abnormal Song-Birds, comprises only the two
remarkable Scrub-Birds (_Atrichornithidae_) of Australia. One of these
inhabits West Australian scrubs only, while the other inhabits East
Australian (Richmond River) scrubs only.

The breast bone and the muscles of the voice apparatus are unusual.
These birds are about the size of a thrush, and form "one of the most
curious ornithological types of the many furnished by that country"
(Australia).

So far, no female bird has been examined, and little is known about
these remarkable, noisy, scrub-haunting birds.

The remaining forty-eight "families" of birds belong to the Normal
Song-Birds. It is interesting to note that Australia contains
representatives of twenty-nine families of Song-Birds. Representatives
of but nineteen families have been recorded from Britain. The Indian
Empire, including Burmah and Ceylon, contains representatives of
twenty-two families, North America, also, of twenty-two families,
while in South America twenty-three families are represented in this
highest division of birds.

Again, while only 89 Song-Birds have been recorded as permanent
residents of, or regular visitors to, Britain, almost 500 species of
Song-Birds have, so far, been recorded from Australia and Tasmania.
Of these, 157 have been recorded from Victoria, and are illustrated in
this volume. And yet, we are told, this is a land of songless birds.

Swallows have always attracted much notice, perhaps, because of their
airy play when enjoying themselves after their long migration flight.
It is very difficult to realize that Cuvier and most scientists of
one hundred years ago believed that Swallows hibernated by burying
themselves in the mud in the bottom of lakes and pools. It is
interesting to note, in Gilbert White's _Natural History of Selborne_,
the growing doubt concerning this belief; but, as it was supported by
apparently good authority, he is cautious. Fuller observation shows
that there are well-marked lines of migration, so that the European
Swallow migrates sometimes even as far as South Africa, and the
Swallows of North Asia are said to migrate even to Australia. However,
in our winterless clime, migration is not complete, and this year
(1910) there was probably little migration of Swallows. As Swallows
are such rapid fliers, and spend much of their time on the wing, it is
not a matter of surprise to find that they have spread the world over,
except to New Zealand, though Tree Swallows are said to reach even
that distant land occasionally.

The Australian members of the Swallow family present very different
nesting habits. While the Welcome Swallow builds the well-known
cup-like mud nest, the rare White-backed Swallow drills a two-inch
hole into a bank for two or three feet, and there builds its nest. The
Tree Martin (Swallow), on the other hand, makes no nest, but lays its
eggs on leaves placed on the rotten wood in the hollow of a tree. The
Fairy Martin builds a long, bottle-shaped mud flask, under a bridge,
or a ledge, and so is sometimes called the Bottle or Retort Swallow.
Wood-Swallows and Swifts do not belong to the Swallow family.

The Flycatcher family is a large one, nearly 700 species being
accepted by Dr. Sharpe. More than half of these are restricted to the
Australian region.

The Brown Flycatcher is almost as common as the Willie Wagtail (Black
and White Fantail). The white feather on each side of the tail is a
valuable guide, though the Groundlark also has this. So often does it
sit on fence posts looking at the passer-by that it has been called
the "Post-Sitter." Its Sydney name, Jacky Winter, is less formal than
Brown Flycatcher--a name which is already in use for another bird.

The Robin Redbreast of Britain is regarded with affection by all
English children. That feeling has been transferred to the externally
slightly similar "Robin Redbreasts" of this country, though they are
not at all related to the British Robins. Redbreast is really the name
of the English bird, and Robin is perhaps a term of endearment added
to the name Redbreast. While the British bird has a rufous breast, the
Australian birds have a scarlet breast, and are much handsomer birds.
The British Robin is now placed in the Thrush family.

Once given to members of this family, the name Robin has been adopted
for related birds that have no red--_e.g._, the black and white Hooded
Robin, and the Tasmanian Dusky Robin. The Shrike Robins belong to the
Shrike family, so they need not be mentioned here. The Scrub Robin of
the inland dry scrubs belongs to the same family as the Coachwhip Bird
and the Babbler.

The Fantails and some, at least, of the Flycatchers proper are known
to all. Who does not know and admire the plucky, though fussy Black
and White Fantail (Willie Wagtail), as it drives a cat or a dog away
from the vicinity of its nest, or as it waits impatiently about the
mouth of a grazing cow or horse, or as it expresses its opinion of
itself in the melodious "sweet, pretty creature," heard even late on
moonlight nights? The friendly White-shafted Fantail is almost as
well known, as it flits about a camp or catches flies near some
water-course.

At the Summer School, a Fantail spent some time each day in the
dining-tent. The beautiful Rufous Fantail is just as tame, but is not
quite so common. The nests of the White-shafted and Rufous Fantails
are things of beauty. The long wine-glass stem is said by some to
serve to drain the water away down from the nest, or as a means of
carrying the eye down from the nest itself, so that it is seldom
seen, or as a balance, so that the nest is not tilted too far in windy
weather.

The Scissors Grinder, or Restless Flycatcher, is very much like a
Black and White Fantail, but the throat is white, while that of the
Fantail is black. The Grinder is often mentioned in popular books on
bird-life, on account of its peculiar scissors-grinding note uttered
while hovering in search of insects.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 113]

    ORDER XXI.--PASSERIFORMES, PERCHING BIRDS.

    F. 105. _Pteroptochidae_, Tapaculos, Tilt-birds, 31 sp. Nl.

    F. 106. _Conophagidae_, Antwrens, 16 sp. Nl.

    F. 107. _Formicariidae_, Ant-thrushes, 348 sp. Nl.

    F. 108. _Dendrocolaptidae_, Wood-hewers, Spinetails, 405 sp.
    Nl.

    F. 109. _Tyrannidae_, Tyrant-birds, American Flycatchers,
    Kingbird, Phoebe, 560 sp.--41(9)Nc., 551(519)Nl.

    F. 110. _Oxyrhamphidae_, 3 sp. Nl.

    F. 111. _Pipridae_, Mannikins, 84 sp. Nl.

    F. 112. _Cotingidae_, Cotingas, Chatterers, 145 sp.--1(0)Nc.,
    145(144)Nl.

    F. 113. _Phytotomidae_, Plant-cutters, 4 sp. Nl.

    F. 114. PITTIDAE (4), ANT-THRUSHES, 63 sp.--32(32)A.,
    30(30)O., 1(1)E.

    F. 115. _Philepittidae_, Wattled Ant-thrushes, 2 sp. E.
    (Madagascar).

    F. 116. _Xenicidae_, New Zealand Wrens, 4 sp. A. (N.Z.).

    F. 117. ATRICHORNITHIDAE (2), SCRUB-BIRDS, 2 sp. A.(N.S.W., W.A.).

  [Page 116]

  [Illustration: [251] [254] [255] [256] [259] [262] [265] [265^A] [266]]

  =251= White-throated Flyeater
  =254= White-shafted Fantail
  =255= Rufous Fantail
  =256= Black and White Fantail
  =259= Restless Flycatcher
  =262= Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike
  =265= White-shouldered Caterpillar-eater
  =265^A= White-shouldered Caterpillar-eater (F.)
  =266= Spotted Ground-Bird

  [Page 118]

  [Illustration: [272] [273] [276] [278] [279] [280] [281] [281^A] [282]]

  =272= Coachwhip Bird
  =273= Gray-crowned Babbler
  =276= White browed Field-Wren
  =278= Brown Song Lark
  =279= Rufous Song Lark
  =280= Mountain Thrush
  =281= White-fronted Chat
  =281^A= White-fronted Chat (Female)
  =282= Crimson-breasted Chat

  [Page 120]

  [Illustration: [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243]]

    F. 118. HIRUNDINIDAE (6), SWALLOWS, MARTINS, 116 sp.--9(6)A.,
    25(7)O., 16(2)P., 54(50)E., 10(1)Nc., 34(27)Nl.

3
40

    =238* Welcome Swallow= (House), _Chelidon (Hirundo) neoxena_,
    A., T. =vt. Eur. House Swallow.

          Mig. c. _houses_      6.6

    Breast, throat, forehead rust-red; abdomen whitish; head,
    back, rump black; tail forked, a band of whitish spots; f.,
    duller. Flying insects.

  [Page 121]

1
1

    =239 White-backed Swallow= (Black and White, White-breasted,
    White-capped), _Cheramoeca leucosternum_, A., exc. N. Ter.
    =vt. Eur. Sand-Martin.

          Stat. r. _inland_      5.8

    Back, throat, chest white; wings, tail, rump, abdomen black;
    no rust-red; f., sim. Insects.

2
10

    =240* Tree Martin=, Tree Swallow, _Petrochelidon nigricans_,
    Mol., N.G., A., T., Bass St. Is., N.Z. =vt. Eur. Tree Swallow.

          Mig. flocks, v.c. _timber_      5.1

    Head, back black; under, rump whitish-gray; indistinct whitish
    collar; rust-red forehead; f., sim. Flying insects.

    =241 Fairy Martin=, Bottle (Land, Cliff, Retort) Swallow, _P.
    ariel_, E.A., S.A., T. (occ).

          Mig. c. _cliffs_, _banks_      4.7

    Head rust-red; black back; rump, under white; tail slightly
    forked; f., sim. Insects.

    F. 119. MUSCICAPIDAE (71), FLYCATCHERS, 690 sp.--354(346)A.,
    164(148)O., 14(1)P., 155(151)E., 5(2)Nc., 20(17)Nl.

4
11

    =242* Australian Brown Flycatcher=, Jacky Winter, Postboy,
    Post-sitter, White-tail, Stump-Bird, Spinks, Peter-Peter,
    _Microeca fascinans_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _open_, _forest_      5.2

    Upper pale-brown; side tail white; under lighter; chin,
    abdomen white; swings tail sideways; f., sim. Insects.
    Songster.

    =243 Allied Flycatcher= (Lesser Brown), _M. assimilis_, N.A.,
    V. (acc), W.A. Insects.

          Stat. c. _open_, _forest_      4.6

    Like 242, but smaller; outer tail feathers brown at base.

  [Page 122]

  [Illustration: [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249]]

11
17

    =244* Scarlet-breasted Robin=, _Petroica leggei_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., T.

          Mig. c. (winter) _open_, (summer) _forest gullies_      5.2

    Head, throat, upper black; cap white; white bands on wing;
    breast scarlet; lower-abdomen dull-white; outer-tail white;
    bill, feet black; f.,* upper, under brown; breast tinged red;
    white marks on wing. Insects.

  [Page 123]

    =245* Flame-breasted Robin=, _P. phoenicea_, S.Q., N.S.W., V.,
    S.A., T., Bass St. Is.

          Mig. c. (winter) _open_, (summer) _mt.-gullies_      5.3

    Crown, upper sooty-gray; small white forehead; white on wing;
    outer-tail white; chin sooty-gray; under scarlet; under
    base tail white; f.,* under brown; outer-tail white; under
    reddish-gray. Insects.

    =246 Pink-breasted Robin=, _P. rhodinogaster_, V., S.A., T.,
    Bass St. Is.

          Stat. v.r. _deep forest_, _gullies_      5.2

    Head, neck, back sooty-black; white spot on forehead; breast,
    abdomen rose-pink; under base tail white; f., upper brown;
    buff marks on wing; under gray; under base tail white.
    Insects. "Tick-tick-tick;" like snapping dead twig.

    =247 Rose-breasted Robin=, _P. rosea_, E.A. Insects.

          Stat. r. _dense brushes_, _gullies_      4.5

    Crown, throat, upper dark slate-gray; narrow white forehead;
    chest rich rose-red; under base tail white; outer-tail white;
    f., forehead buff; upper grayish-brown.

    =248* Red-capped Robin=, Redhead (e), _P. goodenovii_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., C.A., W.A.

          Nom. r. _open inland scrubs_      4.7

    Crown, breast scarlet; upper, neck black; white stripe on
    wing; abdomen, under tail white; f.,* dark-brown upper;
    forehead tinged reddish; throat, breast faintly tinged red.
    Insects.

    =249 Hooded Robin= (Black and White, Black, Pied), _P.
    bicolor_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., N.W.A.

          Stat. r. _open_, _forest_      6.5

    Head, upper, throat black; patch on wing, abdomen, under base
    tail, outer-tail white; f., brownish-gray instead of black.
    Insects.

  [Page 124]

  [Illustration: [250] [251] [252] [253] [254]]

2
2

    =250 Short-billed Tree-Tit= (Sombre), Scrub-Tit, _Smicrornis
    brevirostris_, E.A., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. c. _treetops_      3.5

    Crown brownish-gray; back olive; behind eye reddish-brown;
    throat, chest whitish; abdomen citron-yellow; tail brown at
    base, banded blackish, spotted white at tip; short bill brown;
    f., sim. Insects. Clear whistle.

16
62

    =251* White-throated Flyeater=, Native Canary (e),
    Bush-Warbler, _Gerygone albigularis_, N.A., E.A., N.W.A.
    Insects. Musician.

          Mig. c. _tree-tops_      4.3

    Upper ashy-brown; throat, face white; chest, abdomen
    greenish-yellow; tail blackish band, white tip; f., sim.

    =252 Southern Flyeater= (Western), White-tailed Bush-Warbler,
    _G. (Pseudogerygone) culicivora_, E.A., S.A., C.A., W.A. f.
    sim. Insects.

          v.r. _forests_, _scrubs_      4.2

    Upper olive-brown; throat, chest light-gray; abdomen white;
    tail white base; black band, tip spotted white.

    =253 Brown Flyeater=, Brown Bush-Warbler, _G. fusca_, E.A.

          Stat. c. _forest_, _scrubs_      3.8

    Back, sides reddish-brown; forehead, eyebrow, throat, chest
    gray; tail black band, tip spotted white; f., sim. Insects.
    Feeble "What is it? What is it?"

10
99

    =254* White-shafted Fantail= (-Flycatcher, -Flysnapper),
    Cranky Fan, Devil-Bird, Land-Wagtail (e), _Rhipidura
    albiscapa_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _open forest_      6

    Upper, band across chest sooty-black; under buff; stripe over
    eye, mark behind eye, throat, bars on wing, shafts of tail
    feathers (except 2 centre feathers) white; outer-tail, tip
    white; f., sim. Insects. Musical song.

    =255* Rufous Fantail= (-Flycatcher), _R. rufifrons_, E.A.

          Part.-Mig. (winter) _open_, (summer) _gullies_,
          _brushes_      6.2

    Crown, hind-neck brown; forehead, lower-back, base tail
    rust-red; throat, centre-abdomen white; chest black; flanks,
    under base tail light fawn; f., smaller. Insects.

  [Page 125]

  [Illustration: [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260]]

    =256* Black and White Fantail= (-Flycatcher), Shepherd's
    Companion, Willie Wagtail, Wagtail (e), Frog (Morning) Bird,
    _R. motacilloides (tricolor)_, Mol., N.G., A. "Sweet pretty
    little creature."

          Stat. v.c. _open forest_      7.5

    Upper, throat, breast black; eyebrow, rest under white; long
    fan-tail; f., sim. Insects. Often sings at night.

4
29

    =257 Leaden Flycatcher= (-Flysnapper), Frog-Bird, _Myiagra
    rubecula_, N.G., A., T.

          Mig. r. _coast scrubs_, _gullies_      6.5

    Upper, wings, tail, breast leaden-gray glossed with green;
    abdomen, under base tail white; f., throat, breast rust-red.
    Insects. Squeaking note.

    =258 Satin Flycatcher= (Shining), Satin Sparrow (e), _M.
    nitida_, Louisiade Is., E.A., S.A., T.

          Mig. r. _gullies_      6.5

    Upper, breast blackish metallic-green; abdomen, under base
    tail white; f., upper duller; throat, breast rust-red.
    Insects. Loud piping whistle.

2
2

    =259* Restless Flycatcher=, Scissors Grinder, Grinder, Willie
    Wagtail (e), Dishwasher (e), Who-are-you? _Seisura inquieta_,
    A.

          Stat. c. _open_, _scrub_      8

    Upper shining black; under white; like 256 but throat white;
    hovers; f., throat, breast buff. Insects. Harsh grinding,
    "Tu-whee, tu-whee."

2
8

    =260 Black-faced Flycatcher= (Carinated), _Monarcha
    melanopsis_, Timor, N.G., N. Ter., E.A.

          Stat. r. _brushes_      6.7

    Forehead, face, throat black; upper gray; wings, tail brown;
    chest gray; abdomen rufous; f., sim. Insects. Loud whistle,
    "Why-yew, witch-yew."

====

Order XXI. (continued)

More than half the species of birds making up the family of
Caterpillar-eaters are restricted to the Australian region.

The common Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike has many names. Leatherhead, Blue
Pigeon, and Blue Jay are amongst the most common, and all are
wrong. The Leatherhead is a Honey-eater, and is better known as the
Friar-Bird. The Cuckoo-Shrike is not a Pigeon, but is a perching bird;
nor is it a Jay, which is a Northern Hemisphere bird, a member of the
Crow family.

The Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike is partly migratory, being stationary
in the northern parts of its range, but migratory in the south. It
occasionally reaches New Zealand. These birds undergo many changes of
plumage before assuming the adult dress. The Little Cuckoo-Shrike,
in particular, has several plumage phases, the throat and neck being
black in the young, but gray in the adult. Its Cuckoo-like flight
undoubtedly suggested part of the name. When young males are unlike
the adult males, they usually resemble the female. Here, however, the
adults of both sexes are similar.

The male White-shouldered Caterpillar-eater resembles a Hooded Robin
(249). It is supposed to be shy, but at the Tallangatta excursion,
two pairs were attending to domestic duties in the school ground and
surprised all by their fine musical performances. The male called
"Peter, Peter," or some syllabize it "Pretty Joey," and then broke
into a trilling song that fully equalled any canary performance I have
heard. This was repeated frequently during the day. The female seemed
to have a creak in her note, which, however, was musical. The bill is
slender in this species.

The Jardine Caterpillar-eater is rare and very shy. It keeps to the
topmost branches of lofty trees. The male is dark blue-gray and black,
and has a strong bill. The brown female is quite dissimilar, her
whitish under surface being crossed with numerous brown arrow-head
markings.

The Cuckoo-Shrikes and Caterpillar-eaters are, like the Cuckoos, very
fond of caterpillars, and so should receive all the protection we can
give them.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 126]

  [Illustration: [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [265^A]]

    F. 120. CAMPOPHAGIDAE (10), CUCKOO-SHRIKES,
    Caterpillar-eaters, 186 sp.--104(103)A., 63(61)O., 2(1)P.,
    19(19)E.

1
1

    =261 Ground Cuckoo-Shrike=, Ground Graucalus, Ground
    (Long-tailed) Jay (e), _Pteropodocys phasianella_, Q., N.S.W.,
    V., C.A., W.A. (interior).

          Stat. v.r. _plains_      13

    Head, neck, chest, back delicate-gray; abdomen, rump white,
    many narrow black bars; under base tail white; wings, tail
    black; side tail tipped white; f., sim. Insects, larvae.
    Shrill note.

  [Page 127]

5
34

    =262* Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike=, Leatherhead (e), Cherry-Hawk
    (e), Lapwing (e), Summer (Blue) Bird, Blue (Gray) Jay
    (e), Blue (Mountain) Pigeon (e), Australian Shrike (N.Z.),
    _Coracina robusta (Graucalus melanops)_, Cel., Mol., N.G., A.,
    N.Z. (acc.).

          Part.-Mig. v.c. _plains_, _timber_      13

    Delicate gray; forehead, face, throat black; wing-quills black
    edged gray; tail gray base, black centre, tip white; lifts
    wings after settling; f., sim. Caterpillars, insects, fruit.
    Purring note.

    =263 Little Cuckoo-Shrike=, Varied Graucalus, Lesser Blue-Jay
    (e), _C. mentalis_, E.A.

          Stat. r. _forest_      10.5

    Upper dark slate-gray; wing-quills black; tail black tipped
    white; about eye black; throat, breast gray (adult), under
    wing, under base tail white; young many changes of color;
    head, neck black; f., sim. Caterpillars, insects, berries.
    Soft rolling note.

1
35

    =264 Jardine Caterpillar-eater= (-Campophaga), _Edolisoma
    tenuirostre_, N. Ter., E.A.

          Stat. r. _treetops_      10.6

    Face black: upper, under, centre-tail deep blue-gray;
    wing-quills, outer-tail black; f., smaller; upper, wings, tail
    feathers brown, edged lighter; under creamy-buff with many
    blackish bars; line over eye buff. Insect larvae. "Kree-kree."

2
25

    =265* White-shouldered Caterpillar-eater= (-Campophaga),
    Peewee-Lark (e), _Lalage tricolor_, N.G., A., T.

          Mig. c. _thick timber_      6.5

    Crown, hind-neck, upper-back black; shoulders, line on wing
    white; rest wing black; lower-back gray; tail black outer
    tipped white; under white; somewhat like 248 but throat white;
    f.,* upper brown; wing marked light lines; under whitish.
    Insects. Fine musician, canary-like song.

    F. 121. _Pycnonotidae_, Bulbuls, 257 sp.--7(6)A., 148(145)O.,
    6(4)P., 99(99)E.

====

Order XXI. (continued)

The family _Timeliidae_ is an ill-defined one, the members of which
are mostly ground birds, or, at least, spend a good deal of time on
the ground.

The Spotted and Chestnut-backed Ground-Birds are rare and are very
quiet and shy as they run back under the shade of a bush. Thus,
they are seldom seen, though they are very beautiful in their
richly-spotted plumage. Driving along mallee roads, one sometimes sees
these birds make a short, quick run to cover. A good name is required
for them. Ground-Bird is not very definite.

The rich brown Pilot Bird rarely flies, but keeps low down in the
dense tangles and undergrowths in country like that about Ferntree
Gully. It must be patiently waited for, as it is very shy.
It, apparently, values its services highly, for it often calls
"A-guinea-a-week."

The larger Scrub-Robin which lives only in the interior flies little,
but, as shown in the figure, it has long legs, suitable for running.
Its color is not the dark-brown suitable for dark scrubs, but is the
light-brown which matches the dead mallee twigs lying so thickly on
the ground under the scrub. We met the Scrub-Robin on Eyre Peninsula,
but it was difficult to get a second look at it. Almost as rare are
the closely-similar Chestnut-rumped and Red-rumped Ground-Wrens. Few
will see these birds, as they live only in the drier parts.

That interesting bird--the Coachwhip Bird--is far more often heard
than seen. Along the densely-scrubbed creeks of Eastern Australia,
the interesting whip-crack of this bird is very often heard. An exact
representative lives in West Australian scrubs. I was surprised
to hear, in several places lately, the Rufous-breasted Whistler
(Thickhead) called the Coachwhip Bird. It has been found that both
birds take part in the peculiar call which has a loud crack very like
that of a whip. This bird dwells in the dense eastern scrubs, and uses
its short wings but little for flight. It was seen, however, recently
at Sandringham, a few miles from Melbourne.

The Australian Babblers are of interest from all points of view. Their
habits are peculiar; their calls are varied and usually pleasant, and
their large domed stick nests are common objects along a country road.
Usually seen in companies of from four to a dozen, these birds work
energetically and systematically. They are entirely insectivorous, and
so are of great value economically. They are tame, as I have watched a
flock at work in the gardens in the middle of a town such as Dunolly.
They occasionally visit orchards and attack the codlin moth pupae.
They are said never to squabble, and so are called "Happy Family"
or "Happy Jacks." Their names, however, are many. The commonest is,
perhaps, "Catbird." There is a "Catbird," a Bower-Bird, in Queensland,
so the use of that name should be discouraged. Babblers sometimes
make six or seven nests, laying only in one. The others are said to
be shelter nests, or possibly play nests.

That pleasing songster--the White-browed Field-Wren--is uniformly
streaked with black both above and below. It is fairly common, but is
not often seen unless looked for. Dogs will follow the scent of this
bird, as they do that of a quail; so it is sometimes called the
Stink-Bird by sportsmen.

Now we come to two of the four native Skylarks. Who has not, while
lying on his back on the grass enjoying a rest in the warm sunshine,
felt pleasure at the beautiful song of the Rufous Song-Lark as
it soars singing away so high overhead? The British Skylark often
receives the credit for the harmony of our four Skylarks. Two belong
to this family, and two come later with the Larks and Pipits. One
is larger and darker on the breast, hence the name Black-breasted
Song-Lark. I saw many of these birds, when examining the glacial
deposits at Hallet's Cove, near Adelaide. As there was a continuous
chorus of these fine songsters above the crops, the reason for the
name Harvest Birds was apparent.

The Thrush family (_Turdidae_) includes the British Song-Thrush,
Blackbird, Nightingale, and many other famous songsters, The
Australian Mountain-Thrush is larger and more prettily marked, but is
not such a good songster as its European cousin--the Song-Thrush. It,
however, has one of its calls closely similar to one of the calls of
its more famous relative. It is a quiet, shy bird, though I walked
within five feet of one this morning as it was busy digging up worms
on the lawn in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens. I left it at work
pleased that my presence had caused no feeling of fear in so beautiful
and so shy a bird. Its beautiful moss-covered nest is built even
so early as July. It flies little, preferring to keep near the dark
scrubs, especially the tea-tree scrub along the coast.

The Song-Thrush and Blackbird have been successfully introduced,
and they are common in suburban gardens. Their delightful song makes
richer the lives of busy city dwellers, though their attentions to
soft fruits are not always appreciated. For sweetness and fulness
of notes, however, these introduced birds cannot compare with our
Harmonious Shrike-Thrush (315), deservedly named _harmonica_ by
Latham, a British ornithologist. The call of the latter bird, however,
is not so continuous as that of the introduced birds.

The four Australian birds known as Chats take the next sub-family
to themselves. The common Chat is known as a "Tang," "Nun," and
"Tin-tac." While the White-fronted Chat is very common in the South,
the beautiful Crimson-breasted Chat, with its crimson cap and pure
white throat, and the Orange-fronted Chat, are found mostly in the dry
interior, where they are known as Salt-bush Canaries. A good common
name is urgently required for this Australian sub-family of birds.
North calls them Nuns; but that name is preoccupied, and is suitable
only for one of them. I was much interested last week (January, 1911)
to see a male White-fronted Chat feeding a fully-fledged young Bronze
Cuckoo. Two female Sparrows were also in attendance, one of which
fed the Cuckoo three times while I was observing it. A female Bronze
Cuckoo sat for some time by the young one, but did not interfere, or
offer to feed it. The Chat returned the fifth time for the purpose of
feeding the young Cuckoo, when the passing of a motor-car broke up the
party. The young Cuckoo flew across the road and some distance on to
a bush, where it resumed its constant wheezing whine. It is unusual to
find birds so far apart as a Finch, like the Sparrow and a member of
the Thrush family, like the Chat, feeding the one young Cuckoo.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 128]

  [Illustration: [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272]]

    F. 122. TIMELIIDAE (27), BABBLERS, BABBLING-THRUSHES, 590
    sp.--65(65)A., 447(443)O., 7(3)P., 75(75)E. (an ill-defined
    family).

6
6

    =266* Spotted Ground-Bird= (-Thrush, -Dove), Babbling-Thrush,
    _Cinclosoma punctatum_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Stat. r. _scrubby_      10.7

    Crown, back rufous-brown; back striped black; shoulders
    steel-black spotted white; throat, narrow chest band
    steel-black; eyebrow, patches on throat white; breast gray;
    tail tipped white; f., upper lighter; throat white, rufous
    patch at side. Insects. Rise with a whirr-r-r. Low piping
    whistle.

  [Page 129]

    =267 Chestnut-backed Ground-Bird= (-Thrush), _C.
    castano-notum_, W.N.S.W., W.V., S.A., W.A., N.W.A.

          Stat. r. _plains_      9

    Upper chestnut-brown; eyebrow, side-throat white; throat,
    chest black; shoulder black spotted white; tail tipped white;
    f., duller; throat, chest gray. Insects.

1
1

    =268 Pilot Bird=, _Pycnoptilus floccosus_, E.N.S.W., E.V.

          Stat. v.r. _dense scrubby gullies_      6.7

    Rich dark-brown; throat rufous mottled dusky; f., sim.
    Insects. "Guinea-a-week."

3
5

    =269 Scrub-Robin=, _Drymodes brunneipygius_, N.S.W., V., S.A.
    (interior).

          Stat. v.r. _mallee_, _scrub_      8

    Upper brown; wings brown barred white; tail brown, slightly
    tipped white; under grayish-brown; long legs; shy, runs; f.,
    smaller. Insects. Monotonous whistle.

2
2

    =270 Chestnut-rumped Ground-Wren=, Red-rumped Scrub-Warbler,
    _Hylacola pyrrhopygia_, N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. v.r. _dry scrubs_      5.3

    Upper brown; base tail chestnut-red, tip white; eyebrow white;
    under streaked black, white; f., sim. Agreeable song.

    =271 Shy Ground-Wren= (Red-rumped, Cautious, Rufous-rumped),
    Shy Scrub-Warbler, _H. cauta_, V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _dry scrubs_      5.7

    Like 270, but small white patch near outer edge of wing;
    shier; f., sim. Insects.

3
3

    =272* Coachwhip Bird= (Whip, Stockwhip), _Psophodes
    crepitans_, E.S.Q., E.N.S.W., E.V.

          Stat. c. _dense scrubs_      10

    Dark olive-green; black crest, breast; white side of throat,
    centre of abdomen, tip-tail; f., smaller, duller. Insects.
    Loud full note ends in a whip crack.

  [Page 130]

  [Illustration: [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279]]

4
34

    =273* Gray-crowned Babbler=, Chatterer (e), Cackler, Barker,
    Pine (Cat (e), Dog) Bird, Codlin-Moth-eater, Hopper, Jumper
    (e), Yahoo, Happy Family, Happy Jack, Twelve Apostles (e),
    Apostle-Bird (e), _Pomatorhinus frivolus (temporalis)_, E.A.,
    S.A.

          Stat. flocks, c. _open timber_      11

    Dark brown; crown light-gray; brow white; throat, breast
    white; tail tipped white; bill long black, curved; runs; f.,
    sim. Insects. Many peculiar notes, noisy.

  [Page 131]

    =274 White-browed Babbler=, Go-aways, Stick-Birds, _P.
    superciliosus_, A. inland (exc. N. Ter., N.Q.).

          Stat. flocks, c. _open timber_      8

    Like 273, but smaller; crown dark-brown; f., sim. Insects.
    "Most noisy bird I ever observed." (G.) Many notes.

    =275 Chestnut-crowned Babbler=, _P. ruficeps_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A. (interior). Insects. Noisy.

          Stat. c. _timber_      8.5

    Like 273, 274, but crown, hind-neck chestnut; f., sim.

7
7

    =276* White-browed Field-Wren=, White-lored Reed-Lark, Rush
    Warbler (e), Stink-Bird, _Calamanthus albiloris_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A.

          Stat. c. _grass_, _heath_      5

    Greenish-brown streaked black; face, brow white; throat
    whitish streaked black; erect tail; shy; f., sim. Insects.
    Pretty song on bush-top.

    =277 Field-Wren=, Field Reed-Lark, _C. campestris_, V., S.A.,
    N.W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _open plains_      4.6

    Upper ashy-brown streaked dark-brown; upper base tail
    rufous-brown; side tail tipped white, banded black; forehead
    rufous streaked dark-brown; eyebrow white; under whitish
    streaked dark-brown; f., sim. Insects.

2
2

    =278* Brown Song-Lark= (Black-breasted), Australian Skylark,
    Harvest-Bird, Singing-Lark, Corn-Crake (e), _Cincloramphus
    cruralis_, A. exc. C.A.

          Mig. c. _crops_      9

    Dark-brown, upper feathers edged lighter; abdomen blackish;
    f., much smaller; paler; eyebrow, under whitish. Insects.
    "Fine songster, ranks with the Skylark;" sings flying like
    Skylark.

    =279* Rufous Song-Lark= (Rufous-tinted), Rufous-rumped
    Singing-Lark, Skylark, _C. rufescens_, A.

          Mig. c. _grass_, _crops_      7.5

    Upper brown, feathers edged lighter; upper base tail rufous;
    brow, throat whitish; under brownish-gray; side face darker;
    f., smaller; face not dark. Insects. "Amongst the richest and
    sweetest of Australian bird songs." Sings flying like Skylark.

  [Page 132]

  [Illustration: [279^A] [280] [280^A] [281] [282] [283]]

    F. 123. _Troglodytidae_, Wrens, 255 sp.--2(1)A., 18(17)O.,
    10(10)P., 43(32)Nc., 194(183)Nl.

    F. 124. _Cinclidae_, Dippers, Water-Ouzels, 19 sp.--5(2)O.,
    11(8)P., 1(0)Nc., 6(5)Nl.

    F. 125. _Mimidae_, Mocking-Birds, Thrashers, 71
    sp.--17(10)Nc., 61(54)Nl.

    F. 126. TURDIDAE (8), THRUSHES (Blackbird (Br.),
    Nightingale, Robin (Br.), Wheatear, Bluebird (Am.), Redstart,
    Hedge-Sparrow), 588 sp.--48(44)A., 167(117)O., 124(53)P.,
    192(163)E., 29(14)Nc., 132(118)Nl.

1
114

    =279^A Blackbird=, _Turdus merula_, Eur., N. Afr.,
    Egypt, Syria, Persia, Azores, A. (introduced).

          Stat. c. _timber_      10

    Black; bill yellow; f., dark-brown; breast reddish-brown
    marked darker. Insects, snails, fruit. Songster.

  [Page 133]

4
13

    =280* Australian Mountain Thrush= (Ground), King Thrush,
    _Turdus (Oreocichla) lunulata_, N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. c. _coastal scrubs_, _mt. gullies_      10.5

    Upper brown marked with black half-moons; under white stained
    buff on breast, flanks, marked with black half-moons; f., sim.
    Snails, insects, worms.

1
24

    =280^A Song Thrush=, _T. musicus_, Eur., W. Asia,
    India, A. (introduced).

          Stat. c. _gardens_      9

    Upper brown; breast yellowish spotted brown; throat, abdomen
    white; f., sim. Snails, insects, worms. Famous singer.

5
5

    =281* White-fronted Chat=, Banded Tintac, Tang, Ringlet (e),
    Clipper, Nun, Dottrel (e), Jenny-Wren (e), Ballyhead, Gar,
    Ringneck (e), _Epthianura albifrons_, Bass St. Is., T., A.
    exc. N. Ter. Insects. Dull metallic "tang."

          Mig. v.c. _grass_     4.5

    Forehead, face, under, tip tail white; back gray; band on
    chest, wings, tail black; f.,* duller, faint band on chest.

    =282* Crimson-breasted Chat= (Tricolored), Saltbush Canary
    (e), _E. tricolor_, A. exc. N. Ter.

          Mig. r. _timber_      4.3

    Crown, base tail, breast, abdomen scarlet; face, back of head,
    back dark-brown; tip-tail spotted white; throat, under base
    tail white; f., duller. Insects.

    =283 Orange-fronted Chat=, Saltbush Canary, _E. aurifrons_, A.
    exc. N. Ter.

          Nom. r. _open plains_      4.3

    Head, upper base tail, under golden-orange; back brown; tip
    tail spotted white; chin black; f., duller. Grasshoppers,
    other insects.

====

Order XXI. (continued)

The Warbler family, _Sylviidae_, is a large one, found all through the
Eastern Hemisphere. One migratory species crosses Behring Strait each
year to summer in Alaska.

As no less than 79 Australian small birds have been grouped in this
family, it is of considerable importance to our bird lovers. At
the head of the family, we have an exact representative of the
Reed-Warbler of Europe in the delightful plain-brown songster which
charms all who frequent river sides. Its song is "louder and more
melodious than that of any of its European relations except" the
Reed-Warbler. It is a welcome spring visitor, and can be heard on any
spring or summer day in the Botanic Gardens, or in any reed bed by
stream or lake.

The next bird is the Australian representative of the Fantail-Warblers
(_Cisticola_). These birds are related to the Tailor-Bird.

Much has been written of the Tailor-Bird of India which so cleverly
sews leaves together to enclose its nest, but few know we have a bird
that does similar work when building its nest. Dr. Sharpe has decided
that our bird is identical with an Indian species, so we must take the
Indian name--Golden-headed Fantail-Warbler. This bird moults twice
a year. At the autumn moult, it obtains a long tail and a streaked
crown. The four Australian species described by Gould are now known
to be but different forms of the one species which undergoes seasonal
change.

Speckled Jack, the Speckled Warbler (Little Field-Wren), is a tame
little bird with a pleasing song. Its chocolate-colored egg used to
be much valued in the days when schoolboys collected eggs. It walks
instead of hopping.

The Yellow-tailed Tit-Warbler (_Acanthiza_) is a member of an
Australian genus, which has been split up into 27 species, all of
which, except a New Guinea form, are restricted to Australia. Some are
pleasing songsters. The two-storied nest of the Yellow-tail is well
known and is peculiar. What is the use of the upper nest--for the male
to rest in, to delude the cuckoo, or what?

These birds are not Tits (_Paridae_). They have been called Thornbills
by Mr. A. J. North. The name Tit-Warbler has been adopted by the
"names" sub-committee of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists'
Union, pending the completion of the Australian Check-List. The common
White-browed Scrub-Wren is not a Wren, but is a Warbler. He is the
best known of the genus, though even he is seldom seen. His dark-brown
color leads one to suspect a dark scrub as his dwelling place. Though
common in places, he is seldom noticed, but if you sit down in a quiet
scrubby corner, his inquisitiveness will often impel him to run almost
over your feet. Some light spots on the shoulder and the white eyebrow
will assist you in identifying him. His mouse-like run further assists
in identification.

Amongst the glories of the bird world, the Superb-Warbler stands high.
His beautiful enamel-blue and black costume, and his cheery, fussy
song justify his name. He is generally accompanied by four or five
plain-colored mates, and is said to lose his beautiful coat of blue
each autumn, but the balance of evidence now seems to be with
Mr. Keartland and Dr. Horne, who claim that he gets the permanent
beautiful coat late in life (that is, when three or four years old),
and does not lose it afterwards, except for a few days at moulting
time. But, being so conspicuous, he soon falls a prey to one of his
numerous enemies, of whom the small boy with a pea-rifle is probably
the worst. I, too frequently, hear of these enemies of their country
being caught with three or four of these lovely little birds in their
possession. However, Bird Day in the schools did much good, and the
next generation of boy will probably have less of the savage in him.

The Emu-Wren, which has tail feathers like Emu feathers, is easily
recognized if seen. It is difficult to cause it to fly out of the
rushes round a swamp. The Bristle-Birds are Australian, and are fairly
common in some dense scrubs.

Grass-Wrens are not Wrens, but are placed in the Warbler family. They
are Central Australian birds. They seldom fly, but "progress like a
rubber ball" with great swiftness. They are of the light tawny color
that so well matches desert sands. It is very difficult to get a
second look at one, as it hides in the grass and scrub, and almost
refuses to be flushed. Sometimes it nearly allows itself to be walked
upon.

Fourteen of the 17 members of the Wood-Swallow family are confined
to the Australian region. The White-rumped Wood-Swallow extends from
Australia through the islands to the Andaman Islands; another kind
is found in India, Ceylon, and Burma. Some kinds are migratory. They
appear suddenly in great companies, build a flimsy, careless nest in
any spot high or low, and soon have the young on the wing. They are
the "Blue-Birds," "Summer-Birds," or "Martins" of our youth. Some of
these birds have the remarkable habit of hanging in a cluster similar
to a great swarm of bees. Like Honey-eaters, they take honey from the
flowering eucalypts. The street trees of Bendigo were alive with these
birds in May, 1909. The Sordid Wood-Swallow is partly migratory, and
lives in small companies. Most towns in Southern Australia have a
company of these birds in the neighborhood. One such company lives in
the Domain, near the entrance to the Botanic Gardens, Melbourne.

These tame woodland birds, admirable in their graceful wheeling and
floating flight, destroy numbers of destructive insects. Occasionally,
a company has discovered that a good food supply can easily be
obtained close to a beehive. Thus rarely they do a slight amount of
harm, but the balance is overwhelmingly in their favor.

(continued below)

====

    F. 127. SYLVIIDAE (79), WARBLERS (Whitethroat, Blackcap
    (Br.), Chiffchaff), 525 sp.--107(102)A., 137(84)O., 108(22)P.,
    267(228)E., 1(0)Nc.

  [Page 135]

  [Illustration: [284] [285] [286] [287] [288] [289] [291] [293] [297]]

  =284= Australian Reed-Warbler
  =285= Australian Fantail-Warbler
  =286= Grass-Bird
  =287= Speckled Warbler
  =288= Little Tit-Warbler
  =289= Brown Tit-Warbler
  =291= Striated Tit-Warbler
  =293= Yellow-tailed Tit-Warbler
  =297= White-browed Scrub-Wren

  [Page 137]

  [Illustration: [300] [300^A] [302] [304] [306] [311] [312] [313] [315]]

  =300= Superb-Warbler
  =300^A= Superb-Warbler (Female)
  =302= White-winged Superb-Warbler
  =304= Emu Wren
  =306= Bristle Bird
  =311= White-browed Wood-Swallow
  =312= Masked Wood-Swallow
  =313= Wood-Swallow
  =315= Gray Shrike-Thrush

  [Page 139]

  [Illustration: [319] [320] [321] [322] [322^A] [323] [323^A] [326] [327]]

  =319= Australian Butcher-Bird
  =320= Yellow-breasted Shrike-Tit
  =321= Crested Bell-Bird
  =322= Golden-breasted Whistler
  =322^A= Golden-breasted Whistler (Female)
  =323= Rufous-breasted Whistler
  =323^A= Rufous-breasted Whistler (F.)
  =326= Shrike-Robin
  =327= Whiteface

  [Page 142]

  [Illustration: [284] [285] [286] [287] [288] [289]]

2
29

    =284* Australian Reed-Warbler=, Reed-Bird, (Nightingale),
    Water-Sparrow (e), _Acrocephalus australis_, Lombok, E.A.,
    S.A., T. =vt. Eur. Reed-Warbler.

          Mig. c. _reeds_      6.2

    Brown; head darker; under lighter; throat whitish; bill long,
    pointed; f., sim. Insects. Rich melodious song.

1
51

    =285* Golden-headed Fantail-Warbler=, Grass-Warbler (Exiled),
    Corn (Barley) Bird, _Cisticola exilis_, Ind., Formosa to A.
    (exc. C.A.), King Is.

          Stat. r. _grass_, _crops_      3.6

    Golden-buff; upper streaked blackish; tail 1.2in., blackish,
    edged buff; f., crown streaked black. Winter* crown streaked
    black; throat whitish; tail 1.9in.; f., sim.

3
10

    =286* Grass-Bird= (Little Reed), Marsh-Warbler, _Megalurus
    gramineus_, N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Stat. v.r. _tussocks_      5.2

    Upper brown streaked, lined blackish; throat, chest gray
    faintly streaked black; tail reddish-brown; f., sim. Insects.
    "Four or five plaintive notes."

1
1

    =287* Speckled Warbler=, Little Field-Lark (-Wren), Speckled
    Jack, Blood Tit (e), Jenny-Wren (e), _Chthonicola sagittata_,
    E.A., S.A.

          Stat. r. _grass_      5

    Under whitish boldly streaked black; head brown faintly
    streaked white; back brown, feathers edged lighter; tip-tail
    spotted white; f., sim. Insects. Singer.

26
27

    =288* Little Tit-Warbler= (Yellow), Yellow-breasted Thornbill,
    Tomtit, Little Tit, _Acanthiza nana_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. c. _trees_      3.5

    Upper dull olive-green; under yellow; tail grayish-brown,
    black band; f., sim. Insects. "Tiz, tiz, tiz."

    =289* Brown Tit-Warbler= (Tit), Scrub Thornbill, Dwarf
    Warbler, _A. pusilla_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _scrub_      3.7

    Upper, wings brown; tail brown, banded black, slightly tipped
    white; throat, chest spotted black and white; flanks, abdomen
    buff; f., sim. Insects. Singer.

  [Page 143]

  [Illustration: [290] [291] [292] [293] [294] [295]]

    =290 Red-rumped Tit-Warbler= (Tit), Rufous-rumped Thornbill,
    _A. pyrrhopygia_, N.S.W., V., S.A. (interior).

          Stat. v.r. _mallee_, _scrubs_      4

    Upper pale olive-brown; forehead blackish-brown, feathers
    tipped white; throat, chest mottled gray, white; abdomen
    whitish; upper base tail rufous; tail olive, black band, white
    tip; f., sim. Insects.

    =291* Striated Tit-Warbler=, Striped Tit, Striped-crowned
    Thornbill, _A. lineata_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      3.7

    Throat, chest whitish streaked black; head brown streaked
    whitish; back olive-brown; flanks, abdomen yellowish; tail
    black band; f., sim. Insects. Songster.

    =292 Chestnut-rumped Tit-Warbler= (Thornbill), _A.
    uropygialis_, A. exc. C.A., N. Ter.

          Stat. r. _scrubs_, _forests_      3.6

    Upper brown; upper base tail rich reddish-chestnut; tail
    brownish-black tipped white; under whitish; f., sim.

    =293* Yellow-tailed Tit-Warbler=, Yellow-rumped Thornbill
    (-Tit), Yellow-tail, Geobasileus, _A. chrysorrhoa_, E.A.,
    S.A., W.A., T.

          Stat. v.c. _gardens_, _timber_      3.8

    Upper olive-brown; base tail bright-yellow; under
    yellowish-white; forehead black spotted white; cheeks, throat,
    line over eye grayish-white; f., sim. Insects. Singer.

    =294 Buff-tailed Tit-Warbler=, Buff-rumped Thornbill (Tit),
    _A. reguloides_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _open timber_      4.3

    Upper olive-brown; upper base tail pale yellow; throat, chest
    white slightly marked brown; forehead feathers tipped lighter;
    f., sim. Insects. Song.

10
16

    =295 Redthroat=, Red-throated Scrub-Wren, _Sericornis
    brunnea_, N.S.W., V., S., C., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _scrubs_      4.5

    Upper dark-brown; tail brownish-black tipped white; throat
    rufous; under brownish-gray; f., sim. Insects. "Fine song
    equal to that of any small bird."

  [Page 144]

  [Illustration: [296] [297] [298] [299] [300] [301]]

    =296 Yellow-throated Scrub-Wren=, Devil Bird, _S. barbata_,
    E.Q., E.N.S.W., E.V.

          Stat. r. _coastal scrubs_      5.5

    Crown, upper brown tinged yellow; side of face, round eye,
    ear black; white line over eye; throat yellow; chest, flanks
    olive-brown; centre abdomen white; f., smaller; duller.
    Insects. Pleasing rich note.

    =297* White-browed Scrub-Wren= (White-fronted), _S.
    frontalis_, E.A., S.A., Kent Group.

          Stat. c. _undergrowth_      4.5

    Upper dark-brown; throat white streaked dusky; brow white;
    chest, abdomen light-yellow; flanks olive-brown; small
    distinct white marks on shoulder; f., duller, throat not
    streaked. Insects. Inward warble.

    =298 Large-billed Scrub-Wren=, _S. magnirostris_, E.A.

          Stat. v.r. _tree-tops_, _coast_, _gully scrubs_      4.7

    Brown; rump rufous; about bill tawny; eye, long bill black;
    legs flesh-color; f., sim. Insects.

    =299 Spotted Scrub-Wren= (Striated), _S. maculata_, V., S.A.,
    Kangaroo Is., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _scrubby_      4.5

    Upper brown; tail black band tipped white; forehead, side of
    face black; stripe above, very small patch below eye, marks
    on edge of wing white; under grayish-white, sometimes washed
    yellow; throat, chest grayish-white spotted (striated) black;
    f., duller. Insects.

23
23

    =300* Superb-Warbler=, Blue-Wren (-Bonnet, -Tit, -Cap, -Head),
    Mormon-Wren, Cocktail, _Malurus cyanochlamys_, E.A., S.A.,
    Kangaroo Is.

          Stat. v.c. _gardens_      5

    Crown, behind ear, upper-back enamel-blue; throat, chest,
    hind-neck, lower-back black; tail deep-blue; f.,* brown; round
    eye reddish-brown; under lighter; bill reddish-brown. Insects.
    "Animated song." "Lovely bird."

    =301 Black-backed Superb-Warbler= (Wren), _M. melanonotus_,
    E.A., C.S.A. (inland).

          Stat. r. _scrubs_      4.7

    Crown, under, upper-back, upper and under base tail beautiful
    metallic blue; behind ear verditer-blue; side of face, band
    on back, faint band across chest black; wing green; tail
    greenish-blue; f., side of face, round eye reddish-brown;
    upper brown; under whitish; wings brown; tail green. Insects.

  [Page 145]

  [Illustration: [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307]]

    =302* White-winged Superb-Warbler= (Wren), _M. cyanotus
    (leucopterus)_, A. (exc. N. Ter.).

          r. _saltbush_, _plains_      4.8

    Above, below deep cobalt-blue; wings white; quills brown; tail
    dark-blue; f., upper brown, under white tinged brown. Insects.

    =303 Purple-backed Superb Warbler= (Wren), _M. assimilis_, A.

          Stat. v.r. _scrubs_      5

    Crown, side of head, back purplish-blue; throat, chest, band
    on upper back, rump black; chestnut-red patch inner wing; rest
    wing brown; abdomen white; tail dark-blue tipped white;
    f., brown; about eye rich chestnut; under whitish; tail
    greenish-blue. Insects.

4
4

    =304* Emu-Wren=, Stick-tail, _Stipiturus malachurus_, S.A.,
    E.A., W.A., f., throat brown. Insects.

          Stat. c. _tussocks_      7

    Upper brown streaked rufous; tail feathers long loosely
    webbed, erect; throat blue; abdomen brown; runs.

    =305 Mallee Emu-Wren=, _S. mallee_, N.W.V.

          Stat. v.r. _Spinifex (Triodia)_      5

    Like 304, but forehead chestnut; throat, chest light
    purplish-blue; abdomen grayish-brown.

4
4

    =306* Bristle-Bird=, _Sphenura brachyptera_, N.S.W., E.V.,
    Insects. Rich, varied notes.

          Stat. v.r. _undergrowth_      8.8

    Brown; throat, centre-breast lighter; shy; runs; f., sim.

    =307 Rufous Bristle-Bird= (Rufous-headed), _S. broadbenti_,
    W.V., S.A. (Otway Ranges to Mt. Lofty).

          Stat. v.r. _dense scrub_      10.5

    Rufous-brown; f., sim. Insects.

  [Page 146]

  [Illustration: [308] [309] [310] [311] [312] [313]]

10
10

    =308 Grass-Wren=, _Amytornis textilis_, V., C.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _plains_, _dense scrubs_      6.2

    Upper dark-brown striped white; under paler; flanks rust-red;
    seldom flies; progresses like a rubber ball; tail erect; f.,
    sim. Insects.

    =309 Striated Grass-Wren= (Black-cheeked), _A. striatus_,
    N.S.W., V., C.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _dense scrubs_      6.8

    Like 308, but black stripe on cheek; plumage strongly rufous;
    runs, seldom flies; f., sim. Insects.

  [Page 147]

    F. 128. _Vireonidae_, Vireos, Greenlets, 112 sp.--24(7)Nc.,
    105(88)Nl.

    F. 129. _Ampelidae_, Waxwings, Cedar-Bird, 10 sp.--1(0)O.,
    2(0)P., 3(0)Nc., 7(5)Nl.

    F. 130. ARTAMIDAE (12), WOOD-SWALLOWS, Swallow-Shrikes, 17
    sp.--15(14)A., 2(1)O., 1(1)E.

9
16

    =310 White-rumped Wood-Swallow= (Swallow-Shrike), _Artamus
    leucogaster_, Andaman Is., Mal. Arch., Papuan Is., A.

          Mig. r. _timber_      7.4

    Head, neck grayish-black; back brown; tail, wing-quills black;
    rump, breast, abdomen white; f., sim. Insects. Plaintive note.

    =311* White-browed Wood-Swallow=, Summer-Bird, Martin (e), _A.
    superciliosus_, E.A., S.A., N.W.A.

          Mig. v.c. _timber_      8

    Slaty-gray; white eyebrow; abdomen rich chestnut; tail tipped
    white; f., faint white eyebrow. Insects, honey. "Sweet, clear
    whistling note."

    =312* Masked Wood-Swallow=, Bush (Blue) Martin (e), _A.
    personatus_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A., N.W.A.

          Mig. c. _timber_      8

    Dark-gray upper; pure white edge to jet-black throat patch;
    under gray; tail tipped white; f., duller. Insects.

    =313* Wood-Swallow= (Sordid, Dusky), Jacky-Martin, Martin (e),
    _A. tenebrosus_, A., T., Bass St. Is.

          Part-Mig. v.c. _timber_      7.3

    Smoky vinous-gray; wing-quills black; white line in edge of
    wing; tail tipped white; bill blue tipped black; f., sim.
    Insects.

    F. 131. _Vangidae_, 12 sp. E. (Madagascar).

====

Order XXI. (continued)

Family 132--Wood-Shrikes--contains two of the best known of Australian
birds, for they are to be found about almost every town and city, as
well as in the country. The well-known Magpie-Lark has but one close
cousin in the world, a New Guinea bird. Its mud nest is familiar to
country boys. It is notable that, excepting Swallows, only two other
Australian birds build a mud nest. These birds, the Apostle-Bird and
the White-winged Chough, are mentioned later. Its dainty, well-kept
plumage renders the Magpie-Lark one of the most graceful of birds. Its
flight is "unlike that of any bird known to me." (Gould.) "It flies in
a straight line, with a heavy, flapping motion of the wings." Its
loud call is responsible for the name of Pee-wee, a common name for
a European Plover; its black and white coloring for the vernacular
name--Magpie-Lark.

This bird is of great value, as it consumes large quantities of pond
snails, the necessary host of the early stages of the liver fluke.
Exterminate the pond snails, and immediately the liver fluke is
completely destroyed, and all future loss from its ravages is saved
to the pastoralists. In 1846, fluke caused a loss of £10,000,000
in England alone, so it is a serious pest, and may yet prove a very
expensive one to Australia.

This bird's scientific position is disputed. It has been classed with
Crows and with Thrushes. Gould placed it by itself. Dr. Sharpe has,
however, placed it in the family _Prionopidae_. Its vocal organs are
anomalous, and it may be that its position is not finally settled yet.

Placed by Sharpe in the same family are the Shrike-Thrushes, strictly
Australian birds. The glorious "powerful swelling notes" of our common
bird caused Latham to bestow the well-deserved name _harmonica_ on it.
Yet there are some who talk of Australia as a land of songless birds.
This falsehood seems to have had its origin in a note written by
Caley, who, about 1825, collected near Sydney, for the Linnean Society
of London. As quoted by North, he said, "They (Superb-Warblers) are
good songsters, and, I may say, almost the only ones in the colony."
Fortunately, the Harmonious Shrike-Thrush is becoming common and tame
about school grounds and most towns. It is occasionally to be heard in
the Melbourne Botanic Gardens.

Family 134 contains the famous Shrikes, those birds which are said
to keep a butcher's shop. Not being "birds of prey," they do not hold
their prey in their feet, so they fasten it in the fork of a tree, or
on a thorn. Then they proceed to eat it, or leave it until they are
hungry. Our Shrike or Butcher-Bird has the same habit.

The Australian Butcher-Bird has a rich, mellow, flute-like note, which
is more frequently heard in autumn. Some consider his one of the best
of bird-notes. His strongly-hooked bill renders him a terror to small
birds, including caged Canaries.

That glorious songster, the Australian Magpie, is placed in this
family. These Australian songsters are now divided into five
closely-similar species, all possessing the same rich carol. The
Tasmanian bird was formerly called the "Organ-Bird." This Australian
musician is responsible for the European epigram of "white Crows that
sing." These birds are not Crows, nor are they white, but they _sing_,
so that Alfred Russel Wallace has declared that no European songbird
can equal them. Gould found it impossible to describe their "carol,"
and regretted that "his readers could not," as he had done, "listen to
the birds in their native wilds." Their early morning carol lives
in the memory. The Australian Magpie is not related to the European
Magpie, which is a member of the Crow family (164), but is a glorified
Butcher-Bird. However, it would be a difficult matter to displace the
name magpie for the Australian bird.

In the same family, though in the next sub-family, are some peculiar
Australian birds. The two Shrike-Tits are found one in Eastern
Australia and the other in Western Australia. Gould said feelingly--he
was nipped by one--that "no bird of its size has stronger mandibles."
It is to be seen in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens, tearing off bark as
it seeks for insects.

The Crested Bell-Bird is restricted to Australia. Being a perfect
ventriloquist, it is very difficult to locate it. Some of its
notes are bell-like, and have misled those seeking horses. I met it
frequently in the Mallee and in the Maryborough and Ararat districts.
It often hopped out on to the road on frosty mornings. It is one of
Australia's singular and interesting birds.

Those badly-named, but often attractive, songsters--the Thickheads
(now called Whistlers)--are placed next. Eighty-eight of these birds
are known from the Australian region, though but twenty occur in
Australia itself and Tasmania. On account of the difficulty of
skinning these birds, they were given the name _Pachycephala_. It is
unfortunate that the literal translation--thick head--was the name
used by bird people for these beautiful singers. It is now proposed to
change the name to Whistler. Strange to say, we have not heard a good
local name for these attractive and often gorgeous birds.

To complete this interesting sub-family, we have the Yellow-breasted
Shrike-Robin--a confiding favorite, found in most dark scrubs. Its
single, often-repeated, piping note is responsible for its name,
_Eopsaltria_, "Psalm of the Dawn." This delightful forest-dweller
frequently perches sideways on a sapling. Six kinds are known from
Australia, and two more from adjacent islands.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 148]

  [Illustration: [314] [314^A] [315] [316] [317] [318] [319]]

    F. 132. PRIONOPIDAE (11), WOOD-SHRIKES, 95 sp.--55(55)A.,
    15(15)O., 25(25)E.

1
2

    =314 Magpie-Lark=, Murray (Little) Magpie (e), Mudlark (e),
    Soldiers, Peewee (e), Peewit (e), Pugwall, _Grallina picata_,
    A., T. (acc).

          Stat. v.c. (near water) _open_, _timber_      10.5

    Black and white; slender stilt-like legs; throat white (f.),
    black (m.); mud nest. Insects, pond-snails. "Pee-wee."

  [Page 149]

10
10

    =315* Gray Shrike-Thrush= (Harmonious), Gray (Native) Thrush,
    Pluff, Mourner, _Colluricincla harmonica_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      9.5

    Gray; back umber-brown; face whitish; under lighter: f.,
    throat streaked dusky. Insects. Powerful swelling harmonious
    note.

    F. 133. _Aerocharidae_, 1 sp. E. (Madagascar).

    F. 134. LANIIDAE (42), SHRIKES, 313 sp.--134(132)A., 36(22)O.,
    33(10)P., 140(127)E., 6(6)Nc., 1(1)Nl.

5
5

    =316 Black-backed Magpie=, Piping Crow-Shrike (Varied), Organ
    (Flute) Bird, Singing White Crow (e), _Gymnorhina tibicen_,
    E.A., S.A., W.A.

          Stat, v.c. _open_      17

    Black; hind-neck, upper under base tail, patch on wing white;
    f., grayish instead of white. Insects. "To describe the
    note of this bird is beyond the power of my pen." (Gould.)
    "Wonderfully modulated whistle ... unequalled among European
    birds." (Alfred Russel Wallace).

    =317 White-backed Magpie= (Crow-Shrike), _G. leuconota_,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., C.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.c. _open_      18

    Upper white, except head, tip-tail, wing-quills black; under
    black; f., back gray. Insects. Glorious carol, see 316.

8
11

    =318 Black-throated Butcher-Bird= (Crow-Shrike), _Cracticus
    nigrigularis_, A. exc. N. Ter.

          Stat. v.r. _timber_      13.5

    Head, neck, chest black; hind-neck, centre-wing, rump, under
    white; tail black, side tipped white; f., sim. Insects, mice.
    One of the best of songsters, rich notes.

    =319* Australian Butcher-Bird= (Shrike), Collared Crow-Shrike,
    Derwent (Tasmanian, Whistling) Jackass, Durbaner, _C.
    destructor_, E.A., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.c. _timber_      11.2

    Head, neck black; back gray; side hind-neck, upper base tail,
    patch on wing white; under grayish-white; f., duller. Insects,
    mice, birds. Fine song (autumn); rich notes.

  [Page 150]

  [Illustration: [320] [321] [322] [323] [324]]

3
3

    =320* Yellow-breasted Shrike-Tit= (Yellow-bellied, Frontal,
    Crested), Falcon-Shrike, _Falcunculus frontatus_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. r. _timber_      7.5

    Upper green; crest, throat, line through eye black; patch
    above eye, patch below eye white; under bright-yellow; strong
    hooked bill; f., throat green. Insects. Musical notes.

1
1

    =321* Crested Bell-Bird=, _Oreoica cristata_, A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      9

    Upper brown; top of head black, side-head gray; white on face,
    throat; black from eye to black chest band; abdomen white
    tinged sandy-buff; f., duller. Caterpillars, insects. Bell
    notes, ventriloquist.

20
88

    =322* Golden-breasted Whistler=, White-throated Thickhead,
    Thunder-Bird, Cutthroat, Coachwhip-Bird (e), _Pachycephala
    pectoralis (gutturalis_), E.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      7

    Throat white; black head, band on chest; outside black band,
    under golden-yellow; back olive green; f.,* brown; throat
    whitish faintly streaked dusky. Caterpillars, insects. Fine
    songster, many melodious calls; whip-like smack ends one of
    notes.

    =323* Rufous-breasted Whistler= (Thickhead), Little Thrush,
    Ring Coachman, Coachwhip-Bird (e), _P. rufiventris_, E.A.,
    S.A., C.A., W.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      6.7

    Upper gray; throat white; head blackish; black side of neck,
    band on chest; rest under light rufous-brown; f.,* upper
    brownish-gray; throat white streaked blackish-brown; rest
    under buff; breast, sides streaked blackish-brown. Insects,
    caterpillars, wild berries. Famous songster; whip-like smack
    at end of one of its calls.

    =324 Red-throated Whistler=, Gilbert Thickhead, _P. gilberti_,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _timber_      7.2

    Dark-gray; black before eye; throat dull rust-red; under gray;
    f., no black on face; throat gray. Insects. Clear whistling
    note.

  [Page 152]

  [Illustration: [325] [326] [327] [328] [329]]

    =325 Olive Whistler=, Olivaceous Thickhead, _P. olivacea_,
    N.S.W., V., T., Bass St. Is.

          Stat. r. _humid scrubs_      8

    Olive brown; head dark-gray; throat whitish marked brown;
    faint gray band across chest; under reddish-brown; f., no band
    on chest. Insects. "Liquid, whistling note."

6
8

    =326* Yellow-breasted Shrike-Robin=, Yellow Robin (e), Wild
    Canary (e), _Eopsaltria australis_. N.S.W., V.

          Stat. c. _timber_      5.3

    Dark-gray; upper base tail olive-yellow; throat grayish-white;
    under bright yellow. Tame, perches on side of sapling; f.,
    sim. Insects. Piping note often repeated.

====

Order XXI. (continued)

In Family 135--Titmice or Tits--Australia has but five
representatives--the peculiar Wedgebill, "Kitty-lin-tof," and the four
Australian "Whitefaces." The Whiteface is "lively, with sweet chirping
notes." Its former scientific name (_Xerophila_) means "dry lover,"
for it is found mainly in the drier parts.

The European Tits belong to this family, so it is not desirable to use
the name "Tit" for the Australian birds of the genus _Acanthiza_, for
they belong to the Warbler family (_Sylviidae_), and not to the Tit
family (_Paridae_).

The Nuthatches of the Old World and America are represented by
closely-related birds, with somewhat similar habits, in Australia.
These run spirally down a tree-trunk, searching every crack or piece
of bark. Eight of these birds occur in Australia. Latham called them
Nuthatches. It is now proposed to return to this name, as it is used
for the British, Indian, and North American birds of this family
(_Sittidae_).

The male Black-capped Nuthatch (Tree-runner) is true to name, but the
female has the head and hind-neck black, instead of a black cap only.
Nuthatches are not found in Tasmania. Possibly Bass Strait was formed
before they reached Southern Victoria. Thus bird-study supports the
geographer and ethnologist when they declare that Bass Strait is of
comparatively remote formation. As the Tasmanian blacks were ignorant
of boats, they evidently reached Tasmania before Bass Strait was
formed. They are a more primitive type than the Australian blacks, who
were improved by later influxes of more highly-developed Caucasians.

Many country dwellers will not admit that there is no Woodpecker in
Australia, but it is a fact, nevertheless. Our so-called "Woodpecker"
is the Tree-Creeper. It never chisels mortice-holes in a tree to get
out a grub, as the true Woodpecker does. These birds occur all over
the continent, and are often to be seen alighting on the side of a
tree or fence post and then running up spirally to the top. They soon
fly off to another tree, alighting lower than the place they started
from. The bright-brown band on the wing is conspicuous as they fly.
Their lively notes brighten a country drive.

The White-eye is one of a large genus, for no less than 157 species
have been accepted by Dr. Sharpe. However, one of the rarest of these
was a Victorian species. It was based on one specimen, a female, taken
at Marong, near Bendigo. It was said to be slightly different from the
common White-eye. Hence Dr. Horne, of Clifton Hill, one of our most
enthusiastic bird-lovers, created a new species, and named it in honor
of his niece, Miss Bowie, who is a favorite with all the birds in
Dr. Horne's extensive aviaries. White-eyes are found from Africa
and Madagascar to India and Japan, and from Australia out past New
Zealand.

Our common White-eye is one of the interesting birds of the world at
the present time, for it is showing that man is not the only animal
with a colonizing instinct. It was unknown in New Zealand until, in
1856, it was first recorded. The Maoris, keen Nature-students,
who have a name for every native animal and plant, called it the
"Stranger." Its presence has been accounted for by some authorities as
being due to the fierce winds that accompanied Black Thursday having
blown it over from Australia. However, not satisfied with spreading
throughout New Zealand until it is said to be the commonest bird
there, it has spread out to Chatham Island, and a flock was reported
recently a considerable distance from the coast, apparently looking
for fresh fields, or rather islands, to colonize. It is a well-known
city dweller. Though it destroys grapes and other soft fruits, it also
so completely destroys aphides that it is appropriately called the
Blight-Bird. Again, the balance is strongly in its favor, for it is
probably but taking fair toll of that which will probably not have
reached maturity but for its labors, and the laborer, even if a bird,
is worthy of his hire.

A bird's color usually affords it protection from its natural enemies.
These are mainly birds of prey flying overhead. Thus, speaking
generally, protective coloration applies only to the upper surface,
so that a white throat or under surface does not necessarily render a
bird conspicuous to its natural enemies.

Again, a bird may be very conspicuous when seen away from its natural
surroundings, but the concealment may be perfect under natural
conditions. It has been already mentioned that the gorgeous Blue
Mountain Lorikeet was very difficult to discern in its native
sugar-gums. A tiger is said to be invisible at a distance of ten yards
in a jungle; the black stripes being similar to the shadows of the
bamboos, and the light bands to the sunlight between the vegetation.

The White-eye and Tree-Creepers just noticed may be considered
protectively colored, for they are difficult to see in a tree. Still,
the brown patch on the wing of the Tree-Creeper is conspicuous as it
flies. Alfred Russel Wallace, the great evolutionist, supplied a
good explanation, when he regarded bright wing bands, white rump,
and white-tipped tail, as "warning colors." An enemy is, perchance,
perceived by a bird. This individual flies away quietly; others see
the bright wing patch disappear, and they seek shelter as quickly and
quietly as possible. This is often a great advantage, for, in many
cases, all reach safety, possibly, before the enemy has seen one of
them. If the first bird had given an alarming call, it would have
warned the enemy too.

It is noteworthy that these bright markings on the upper surface are,
usually, not visible when the bird is at rest. The white wing patch
folds in, the white rump is covered, while, in a white-tipped tail,
it is usual for the two centre feathers to be plain throughout (see
illustrations of species 313 and 329). The tail is folded, and the
white tips are covered by the two non-white centre feathers. The
introduced Indian Turtle-Dove, common about nearly every city in
Australia, shows the spread-out, white-tipped tail splendidly when
flying. The bird itself is barely visible if it settles in the shade
or on the soil. The Indian Myna, a city bird, has both white wing-patch
and white-tipped tail.

This explanation is also applied to other wild animals; thus many Deer
have the white patch on the hind quarters. Other Deer, seeing this
warning signal displayed in flight, immediately make for safety.
Similarly, Wallace has explained the white tail of a Rabbit.

The Skunk also has this white patch on the hind quarters, but here a
different explanation is required, for the Skunk does not trouble
to run away when a possible enemy appears. The bright color is here
regarded as an "advertizing color." The Skunk has other means of
protection, and he is labelled dangerous or objectionable, just as our
one poisonous Spider is plainly labelled dangerous by means of a red
stripe. An inexperienced enemy may rush at the Skunk, but the means
of protection enjoyed by it effectively protects it, and the enemy
retires.

It is a rule recognized by collectors that conspicuous animals have
generally some effective means of protection, and they are best left
alone, or at least taken with caution. This is readily understood when
it is considered that a young, inexperienced chicken will rush at a
brightly-colored caterpillar. He then retires, endeavoring to get rid
of the objectionable taste. For the future, he avoids brightly-colored
animals. Thus the bright color is an obvious advantage to its
possessor, as it saves a dangerous peck. It is also an advantage to
its enemies, for it saves them an unpleasant experience. We are told
the Parrot is the only bird with a sense of taste, but it seems that
the chicken possesses one also.

Still another phase of color is shown by Diamond-Birds, where three
species have a yellow spot, a red spot, or an orange spot respectively
on the wing. It is also shown by the Red-breasted Robins. One has
a white forehead, one a white cap, and the third a red cap. These
colored patches are considered to be recognition marks, so that a bird
can recognize its mate, or a bird of its own kind, readily and with
certainty.

That rarely-seen, but beautiful, bird, the Mistletoe-Swallow, is
fairly common. From several points of view, it is of great interest.
Ranging from India, through Malaysia, to Australia, it did not reach
Tasmania. Possibly Bass Strait was formed before this bird reached
Southern Victoria. Interesting, also, is the fact that no mistletoe is
found in Tasmania. This bird is closely associated with the mistletoe,
for, wherever you find it, you find the mistletoe. It furnishes
another example of those interesting partnerships between animals and
plants. It is not related to Swallows, but while it sits on a bough,
its external form somewhat resembles that of a Swallow. Its nest
is one of the most beautiful of all nests--a finely-felted, domed
structure, often suspended in a clump of mistletoe. This bird has a
long-continued, pretty, animated song, which is seldom heard, for
it is low, and, as the bird is high in the tree-tops, it might be
inaudible; but the main reason is probably that our ears are not
attuned to pick out these fine songs. It is said that Tyndall found
the insects on the Alps almost deafening, while his companions heard
nothing. So it is with the high-pitched call of a Bat. Have you heard
one? Few have.

The Mistletoe-Swallow should be called the Australian Flower-Pecker,
for it is our one representative of a large genus, best developed in
the Indian Region.

Placed at present in Family 141 with the little Mistletoe-Bird are the
Diamond-Birds of Australia, the plumage of our common kind of which is
"so variegated and beautiful as to render description impossible."

The Diamond-Birds are restricted to Australia. Though they are found
mainly in high tree-tops, whence they prettily and continuously call
"wit-e-chu" and "wit-loo," some usually nest in a bank of earth. The
bank of a dam, the side of a creek, and the earth suspended on the
roots of a fallen tree are favorite places. Some people find the
continuous, musical note annoying, and have named the Diamond-Bird the
Headache-Bird. Others find it entertaining, and syllabize it as "Sweet
Dick," or "Sleep, Baby."

Three of these birds are recognized by a small, bright spot on the
side of the wing. In one this spot is said to be red, in another it is
orange, and in the third yellow. However, Gould said the young of the
Red-tipped had the orange tip, and later investigation seems to be
supporting his view, for the Orange-tipped is possibly not a
different species, but only a phase of the Red-tipped. One of our bird
observers, Mr. F. Wilson, has lately recorded finding the nest of
a pair of Pardalotes, of which one was red-tipped and the other
orange-tipped. The Yellow-tipped is said to be the commonest bird
in Tasmania. These birds are plentifully spotted, "spotted like the
pard," hence the name Pardalote, Panther-Bird, or Diamond-Bird.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 153]

    F. 135. PARIDAE (5), TITMICE, Tits, 206 sp.--5(5)A., 55(48)O.,
    88(78)P., 32(32)E., 34(28)Nc., 8(5)Nl.

4
4

    =327* Whiteface=, White-faced Titmouse (Squeaker),
    _Aphelocephala (Xerophila) leucopsis_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.,
    C.A., W.A. (interior).

          Stat. small flocks, c. _plains_      4

    Upper olive-brown; forehead, face white; under pale-buff; tail
    tipped white; f., sim. Small seeds. Sweet chirping notes.

    F. 136. _Chamaeidae_, Wren-Tits, 3 sp. Nc. (W.U.S.). The only
    family of birds restricted to the Nearctic Region.

    F. 137. _Regulidae_, Gold-crested Wren, Fire-crested Wren,
    Kinglet, 20 sp.--6(5)O., 9(7)P., 1(0)E., 4(2)Nc. 4(2)Nl.

    F. 138. SITTIDAE (8), NUTHATCHES, 60 sp.--12(11)A., 21(18)O.,
    18(16)P., 1(1)E., 10(7)Nc., 3(1)Nl.

8
10

    =328* Orange-winged Nuthatch= (Tree-runner, Bark-pecker),
    Woodpecker (e), _Neositta (Sittella) chrysoptera_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. r. _open forest_      4.5

    Head brown; upper gray streaked black; wing dark-brown with
    rich rufous band; upper base tail white; tail black tipped
    white; under gray; under base tail white barred brown;
    bill sharp slightly upturned; f., head darker. Insects.
    "Chip-chip."

    =329 Black-capped Nuthatch= (Tree-runner, Bark-pecker),
    Woodpecker (e), _N. pileata_, N.S.W., V., S.A., C.A., W.A.,
    N.W.A.

          Stat. r. _open timber_      4.7

    Grayish-brown; upper base tail white; cap black; quills
    blackish-brown with rich rufous band; tail black tipped white;
    forehead, stripe over eye, under white; thighs blackish-brown;
    f., head, face, hind-neck black. Insects.

  [Page 154]

  [Illustration: [330] [331] [332] [333] [334] [335]]

    F. 139. CERTHIIDAE (8), CREEPERS, 39 sp.--10(10)A., 13(12)O.,
    9(8)P., 1(1)E., 5(4)Nc., 3(2)Nl.

9
10

    =330* Brown Tree-Creeper=, Woodpecker (e), _Climacteris
    picumna_, E.A., S.A. =vt. Eur. Creeper.

          Stat. c. _open timber_      7.2

    Crown blackish-brown; line over eye buff; throat buff with
    few blackish spots; upper brown; wings banded buff; under
    grayish-brown; flanks striped white; f., throat chestnut
    spots. Insects. Sharp piercing cry. Creep _up_ a tree.

  [Page 155]

    =331* White-throated Tree-Creeper=, Woodpecker (e), _C.
    scandens_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Stat. c. _forest_      6.5

    Crown sooty-black; back olive-brown; buff band on wing;
    throat, centre-abdomen white; flanks brownish-black striped
    white; f., orange spot below ear. Insects. Shrill piping cry.
    Creeps _up_.

    =332 Red-browed Tree-Creeper=, _C. erythrops_, S.Q., N.S.W.,
    V., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _rough barked trees_      6

    Back brown; head blackish-brown; forehead marked dusky-gray;
    rump, tail gray; buff band on wing; face, stripe above eye
    rust-red; throat white; under grayish-brown striped white; f.,
    face brighter; throat rust-red, striped white. Insects. Creeps
    up.

    =333 White-browed Tree-Creeper=, _C. superciliosa_, Q.,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., C.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _timber_      5.7

    Upper brown; wings rich fawn band; broad white stripe over
    eye; under grayish-brown; abdomen striped white; f., narrow
    line rust-red above the white eyebrow; tail washed with gray.
    Insects. Creeps up.

    F. 140. ZOSTEROPIDAE (14), WHITE-EYES, Silver-eyes, 171
    sp.--83(80)A., 38(34)O., 4(3)P., 50(50)E.

13
157

    =334* White-eye= (Silver, Ring, Glass-), Blight-Bird
    (Spectacled-), Grape-eater, Silve, Tauhou, _Zosterops
    coerulescens_, E.A., S.A., T., N.Z., Chatham Is.

          Stat. v.c. _open gardens_      4.5

    Crown, wings, tail olive; back dark-gray; white ring round
    eye; throat, centre-abdomen, under base tail whitish; flanks
    chestnut-brown; sometimes throat, side-head yellow; f., sim.
    Insects, fruit. Pretty lively song.

    =335 Gray White-eye=, _Z. bowiae_, V. (Marong). One specimen
    only. Mathews now says it is 334.

    Like 334, but gray instead of olive, abdomen darker.

  [Page 158]

  [Illustration: [328] [330] [331] [334] [336] [336^A] [337] [340] [341]]

  =328= Orange-winged Nuthatch
  =330= Brown Tree-Creeper
  =331= White-throated Tree-Creeper
  =334= White-eye
  =336= Flower-Pecker
  =336A= Flower-Pecker (Female)
  =337= Red-tipped Diamond-Bird
  =340= Spotted Diamond-Bird
  =341= Golden-rumped Diamond-Bird

  [Page 160]

  [Illustration: [342] [345] [346] [347] [348] [349] [350] [351] [353]]

  =342= White-naped Honey-eater
  =345= Striped Honey-eater
  =346= Sanguineous Honey-eater
  =347= Black Honey-eater
  =348= Spinebill
  =351= Painted Honey-eater
  =349= Tawny-crowned Honey-eater
  =350= White-fronted Honey-eater
  =353= Regent Honey-eater

  [Page 162]

  [Illustration: [355] [356] [357] [358] [359] [362] [363] [364] [365]]

  =355= Yellow-eared Honey-eater
  =356= Singing Honey-eater
  =357= Yellow-faced Honey-eater

  =358= White-eared Honey-eater
  =359= Yellow-tufted Honey-eater
  =362= Yellow-plumed Honey-eater

  =363= White-plumed Honey-eater
  =364= Crescent Honey-eater
  =365= White-bearded Honey-eater

  [Page 164]

  [Illustration: [360] [366] [367] [368] [370] [372] [373] [374]]

  =360= Helmeted Honey-eater
  =366= White-cheeked Honey-eater
  =367= Bell-Miner
  =368= Noisy Miner
  =370= Wattle-Bird
  =372= Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater
  =373= Blue-faced Honey-eater
  =374= Friar-Bird

  [Page 166]

  [Illustration: [336] [337] [338] [339] [340] [341]]

    F. 141. DICAEIDAE (11), FLOWER-PECKERS, 113 sp.--57(57)A.,
    56(56)O.

1
74

    =336* Australian Flower-Pecker=, Mistletoe-Bird (-Swallow),
    _Dicaeum hirundinaceum_, A.

          Stat. c. _treetops_      3.5

    Black glossed steel-blue; throat, breast, under base tail
    scarlet; abdomen white, black patch down centre; flanks
    dusky; f.,* throat, centre-abdomen buff; under base tail pale
    scarlet. Honey, pollen, fruits, insects. Pretty, feeble song.

  [Page 167]

10
10

    =337* Red-tipped Diamond-Bird= (Striated, -Pardalote),
    Wittychu, Pickwick, Chuck-e-chuc, _Pardalotus ornatus_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. c. _treetops_, _scrub_      4.2

    Crown, wings, tail black spotted, lined white; back gray; rump
    brown; throat yellow; red spots side of wing, yellow stripe
    from bill above eye joins white stripe to nape; centre-abdomen
    white; flanks pale-brown, tinged yellow; f., sim. Insects.
    "Wit-e-chu."

    =338 Orange-tipped Diamond-Bird= (Ramsay, -Pardalote), _P.
    assimilis_, E.A., C.A.

          Stat. v.c. _treetops_, _timber_      4.3

    Like 337, but upper paler; orange spots on wing; as a rule
    only one feather in the wing edged with white; Gould thought
    it the young of 337; f., sim. Insects. "Wit-e-chu."

    =339 Yellow-tipped Diamond-Bird=, Allied Pardalote, _P.
    affinis_, E.A., S.A., T., Bass St. Is.

          Stat. c. _timber_      4.3

    Like 337, 338, but yellow spot on side of wing; head black,
    striped white; yellow stripe from bill joins white stripe
    above eye; back grayish-brown; upper base tail olive-brown;
    tail black, tip spotted white; throat yellow; centre abdomen
    white; flanks buffy-brown; wings black, tipped white, a few
    feathers lined white; f., sim. Insects. "Witloo." "Sleep,
    Baby."

    =340* Spotted Diamond-Bird= (Pardalote), Diamond Dyke
    (Ground), Ground-Diamond, Diamond Sparrow (e), _P. punctatus_,
    T., A. (exc. N.A., C.A.).

          Stat. v.c. _timber_      3.3

    Head, wings, tail black, spotted white; white stripe above
    eye; back grayish-brown, marked buff and black; upper base
    tail crimson; throat, under base tail rich yellow; abdomen
    fawn; f., duller; head yellow spots; throat whitish. Insects.
    "Sleep, Baby," "Sweet Dick."

    =341* Golden-rumped Diamond-Bird=, Yellow-rumped Pardalote,
    _P. xanthopygius_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A. f., duller. Insects.

          Stat. r. _timber_      3.5

    Like 340, but upper base tail golden-yellow; throat, under
    base tail golden-yellow; rest under buffy-white.

  [Illustration: [342] [343] [344] [345] [346] [347]]

    F. 142. NECTARINIIDAE (1), SUN-BIRDS, 234 sp.--36(33)A.,
    77(74)O., 2(1)P., 123(122)E.

    F. 143. _Promeropidae_, Promerops, 2 sp. E. (S. Afr.)

====

Order XXI. (continued)

The most characteristic family of birds of the Australian region is
the Honey-eaters. Flowering eucalypts and other myrtaceous plants,
with their honey-bearing flowers and usually inedible fruits, are
the characteristic Australian trees; so are these birds, depending so
largely on the honey of these brilliant flowers and the insects which
visit them, the characteristic Australian birds. The Honey-eaters form
a very large family, and are found throughout the Australian region
as far as New Zealand and away to the Sandwich Islands, which,
zoologically, belong to Australia. Strange it is that only one species
should have spread to the west across Wallace's line to the island of
Bali. These birds are provided with a brush tongue, which is used in
brushing up honey from the flowers. They have usually a long, slender,
curved bill, suitable for exploring flowers. Their feet are well
developed and strong, for they are used while hanging in all sorts
of positions as the flowers are explored. No less than eighty-eight
Honey-eaters are found in Australia, but they are often restricted to
very limited areas, so that no district would contain many kinds of
these birds. Many are well known, though not by the name Honey-eater.
Who does not know the harsh note of the Wattle-Bird (Wattled
Honey-eater)? Again, who does not often meet the Noisy Miner
(Garrulous Honey-eater), a bird that makes such a fuss when a snake
appears that he is sometimes called the Snake-Bird? Is there a city
boy who does not know the Greenie (White-plumed Honey-eater)? Some of
the Honey-eaters are amongst the most beautiful of birds.

The Regent (Warty-faced) Honey-eater is a glory, and is often figured
in British books as one of the world's beautiful birds.

The Helmeted Honey-eater is very rare, and is probably confined to the
deep forests of Gippsland. It is one of the most splendid of
Honey-eaters.

That active city-dweller, the Greenie, is found in almost every large
eucalypt that happens to be in flower. It is pugnacious. As it busily
brushes honey from the flowers, or catches an insect on the wing, the
white ear plume can be seen. Otherwise, it has not conspicuous colors.
Its lively call of "chick-oo-wee" adds something to life for the busy
city toiler.

Now come the Miners. The Noisy Miner is known to nearly everyone. It
is a common visitor to school grounds at lunch time, and is a noisy
bird that is little loved by sportsmen, for it persists in alarming
all game within reach. A second Miner is famous as the Bell-Bird,
better Bell-Miner. The tinkling notes, "like silver bells from a
distant shrine," must be heard in a deep fern gully to be appreciated
fully. The green birds are seldom seen. Kendall has immortalized this
bird in his beautiful poem, "Bell-Birds."

The Wattle-Bird is known to all. It is a pugnacious bird, and has a
rough, disagreeable note. It has a small wattle of naked red flesh
hanging at the side of the neck, hence the name. The bold, pugnacious
Brush Wattle-Bird is not so well known, though its notes are even
more remarkable. Both birds to-day are common in the Melbourne Botanic
Gardens on the flowering plants in the "Australian" section.

The Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater is said to be a rare bird, but there is
probably not a park about Melbourne but has some of these at present,
as well as all through the winter. It is somewhat similar in build
and habits to the Wattle-Birds, but is an elegant and attractive bird,
with many peculiar notes.

The Blue-eye (Blue-faced Honey-eater) is a conspicuous bird in country
districts. He is noisy, and is handsomely attired. His nesting habits
are peculiar, for he often builds in the deserted nest of a Babbler.

The remarkable Friar-Bird has a naked, dark-blue head, and is an
"impudent and daring" bird, that does not hesitate to steal fruit. Its
loud call has been variously interpreted as "Four o'clock," "Pimlico,"
or "Tobacco-box." This bird has a hump on its long curved bill. The
Yellow-throated Friar-Bird, when young, has yellow on the end of the
throat feathers, and has no hump on the bill. It is a summer visitor
to Southern Australia.

The well-known Ground-Lark, or Australian Pipit, is the Australian
representative of the cosmopolitan family (147) of Pipits. Even New
Zealand has its representative of this family. The Wagtails of
Britain and North America belong to this family, whereas the so-called
Australian Wagtail is a flycatcher. Like the other members of its
family, our Ground-Lark, or Pipit, sometimes sings beautifully as it
soars.

The Skylark of Britain comes in the next family (the _Alaudidae_),
which is almost cosmopolitan. This beautiful songster, singing at
Heaven's gate, pours forth a flood of melody. The man who has these
delightful songsters on open land near his home is indeed fortunate.
Australia has its representative of this family--the Bush-Lark, a bird
so remarkably like the Australian Pipit in external appearance that
it is well-nigh impossible to distinguish them in the field. The
Bush-Lark, however, is "shorter, plumper, and has a stouter bill." It
further has a peculiar, greatly undulating flight. It mounts up, then
sinks, then mounts, and so on alternately, "singing all the time very
melodiously, but with a weaker strain than that favorite bird" (the
British Skylark).

Four introduced Finches have succeeded in establishing themselves
in Southern Australia. The Greenfinch is spreading, though slowly. A
specimen was recently sent in from Horsham, in Western Victoria.
The Goldfinch, "one of the prettiest birds in Britain," is spreading
rapidly. It is often to be seen on thistles, for it destroys their
seeds.

The Tree-Sparrow is rare as yet, but the House-Sparrow is already a
serious pest, though probably he has not been valued highly enough as
a weed destroyer. However, it was a pity early colonists did not take
notice of Gould's protests and warnings, for possibly the greatest
harm introduced birds do is the displacing of native birds.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 168]

    F. 144. MELIPHAGIDAE (88), HONEY-EATERS, Honey-Suckers
    (-Birds), 251 sp.--250(250)A., 1(1)O.

11
11

    =342* White-naped Honey-eater= (Lunulated), Blackcap,
    _Melithreptus atricapillus_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., Kent
    Group.

          Stat. v.c. _timber_      5.5

    Upper yellowish-olive; quills brown; head, hind-neck black;
    narrow white band on nape; under white; naked patch about eye
    orange-scarlet; f., sim.; young no black cap. Tame. Honey,
    pollen, insects. Peevish, half-whistling note.

  [Page 169]

    =343 Black-chinned Honey-eater= (Black-throated), _M.
    gularis_, E.A., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. r. _timber_      6.7

    Upper olive-yellow; head, nape black; whitish band on nape
    joins white band up to eye; sides of throat white, centre
    blackish; chest grayish; sides creamy; centre-abdomen white;
    naked skin about eye turquoise-blue; f., sim. Honey, insects,
    seeds. Sweet song.

    =344 Brown-headed Honey-eater= (Short-billed), _M.
    brevirostris_, E.A., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. r. _timber_      5.7

    Greenish-olive upper; quills brown; head, nape dark-brown;
    whitish band on nape continued as brownish-white band on head;
    under creamy; bare skin about eye greenish-blue in winter,
    dull yellow (delicate flesh-tint) in summer; f., sim. Honey,
    insects. Rough, rattle-like note.

1
1

    =345* Striped Honey-eater= (Lanceolated), _Plectoramphus
    lanceolatus_, E.A., S.A., W.A. (inland).

          Stat. r. _timber_      8.8

    Upper grayish-brown, striped blackish-brown; wing-quills
    brown, edged lighter; throat white; under, upper base tail
    white; black marks side of neck, flanks. Honey, insects.
    Cheerful, loud whistle, "Chirp, chirp, cherry, cherry."

6
52

    =346* Sanguineous Honey-eater= (Blood), Humming-Bird (e),
    Blood-Bird, _Myzomela sanguinolenta_, E.A. (coastal).

          Nom. r. _thick bushes_, _heath_      4.3

    Head, neck, breast, back, upper base tail rich shining
    scarlet; side-face, wings, tail black, wings lined lighter;
    abdomen buff; f., light brown, lighter below. Pollen, honey,
    insects. Beautiful song.

    =347* Black Honey-eater=, _M. nigra_, A. exc. N. Ter.
    (interior).

          Mig. v.r. _plains_      4.4

    Black; side abdomen, under base tail white; f., brown; under
    dull-white; breast marked dark-brown; under base tail white.
    Insects. Plaintive song.

  [Page 170]

  [Illustration: [348] [349] [350] [351] [352] [353]]

4
4

    =348* Spinebill=, Spinebill Honey-eater, Humming-Bird (e),
    Cobbler's Awl, _Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris_, E.A., S.A., T.,
    Bass St. Is.

          Stat. c. _Banksias_, _heath_      6.5

    Crown, line to crescent on side of chest, wings, tail black;
    chest white, chestnut-brown patch on throat; back brown;
    abdomen light chestnut-brown; outer tail tipped white; eye
    scarlet; f., duller. Insects, honey. Monotonous strong call.

4
12

    =349* Tawny-crowned Honey-eater= (Fulvous-fronted),
    _Gliciphila melanops (fulvifrons)_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.,
    W.A., T., Bass St. Is.

          Stat. c. _sandy_, _heathy_      7

    Upper ashy-brown; crown tawny, blackish line from bill past
    eye down side of breast; buff spot behind ear; throat, abdomen
    white. Insects, honey. Plaintive notes.

    =350* White-fronted Honey-eater=, _G. albifrons_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A., W.A., T. (inland).

          Stat. c. _dry scrubs_      5.7

    Upper grayish-brown; crown, throat black; forehead, behind
    ear white; abdomen white, streaked dark-brown. Insects, honey.
    "Tink-tink."

1
1

    =351* Painted Honey-eater=, _Entomophila picta_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A. (inland).

          Stat. v.r. _plains_      5.5

    Upper black; band on wings, side tail yellow; tip tail white;
    abdomen white, faintly streaked brown; f., smaller. Insects.

1
1

    =352 Pied Honey-eater=, _Certhionyx variegatus_, N.S.W., V.,
    S.A., C.A., W.A., N.W.A.

          Stat. v.r. _dry scrubs_      6.5

    Black and white; head, throat, back, wings, tip-tail black;
    rest white; f., light-brown upper; under whitish, throat
    buffy, streaked dark-brown. Pollen, honey, berries.

1
1

    =353* Regent Honey-eater= (Warty-faced), Turkey-Bird (Mock
    Regent), Flying Coachman, _Meliphaga phrygia_. S.Q., N.S.W.,
    V., S.A.

          Nom. flocks r. _eucalypts_      9.2

    One of the most beautiful of birds; see colored plate;
    richly contrasted black and yellow; warty patch about eye;
    pugnacious; f., sim. Ringing "Clink-clank."

  [Page 171]

  [Illustration: [354] [355] [356] [357] [358]]

27
53

    =354 Fuscous Honey-eater=, _Ptilotis fusca_, S.Q., N.S.W., V.,
    (exc. dry parts).

          Stat. c. _open forest_      6.2

    Grayish-brown, quills dark-brown, edged yellow; a circle
    blackish feathers round eye; pale yellow ear tufts; under
    whitish, chest faintly streaked brownish; f., smaller.
    Insects, honey.

    =355* Yellow-eared Honey-eater= (Lewin), _P. chrysotis_, E.A.

          Stat. c. _humid scrubs_      9

    Upper olive-green, under lighter; large bright yellow ear
    tufts; gape straw-white; about eye blackish. Insects, honey.
    Quavering whistling notes.

    =356* Singing Honey-eater= (Large-striped), _P. sonora_, A.
    exc. extreme N.

          Stat. c. _forest_, _scrub_      7.5

    Upper brown; black stripe through eye to side of neck; faint
    yellow band below black stripe; bright yellow ear patch,
    behind this a small white patch; throat whitish; under gray,
    faintly streaked blackish; f., sim. Insects, berries. Loud
    calls.

    =357* Yellow-faced Honey-eater= (Yellow-gaped), Chick-up,
    Love-Bird (e), _P. chrysops_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _scrub_      6.8

    Ashy-brown; two black lines along side of face, bright yellow
    band between these to ear tufts; spot of white behind ear;
    throat grayish-white; chest ashy-brown; f., sim. Insects,
    honey. Strong musical call.

    =358* White-eared Honey-eater=, _P. leucotis_, S.Q., N.S.W.,
    V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. c. _scrub_, _timber_      8

    Fine, showy bird; upper, abdomen yellowish-olive; head
    dark-gray; throat, chest black; ear patch pure white: f.,
    smaller. Insects. Loud ringing note.

  [Page 172]

  [Illustration: [359] [360] [361] [362] [363] [364]]

    =359* Yellow-tufted Honey-eater= (Golden-tufted, Black-faced,
    Spectacled), Yellow-Whiskers, _P. melanops (auricomis)_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V.

          Stat. c. _eucalypts_      7.8

    "One of the most beautiful of birds," crown olive-yellow;
    throat, about ear bright yellow; black from bill, round
    eye above ear; upper dark-brown; under yellow; f., smaller.
    Insects, honey. Varied, high-pitched notes.

    =360* Helmeted Honey-eater=, _P. cassidix_, V.

          Stat. r. _forest_      8.5

    "This splendid" Honey-eater; greenish-black; head black;
    crown, ears, under yellow; tail tipped white; about eye black;
    f., smaller, paler. Insects.

    =361 Wattled-cheeked Honey-eater=, _P. cratitia_, V., S.A.,
    W.A.

          Stat. r. _eucalypts_      7

    Crown gray; upper olive-green; tail, wings brown; about eye,
    ear black; narrow yellow line below black; from bill to side
    of neck naked lilac skin; under olive yellow; f., smaller.
    Pollen, honey.

    =362* Yellow-plumed Honey-eater= (Graceful), _P.
    novae-hollandiae (ornata)_, N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          c. _scrub_      6.5

    "Elegant bird;" upper olive-brown; under grayish-white,
    streaked brown; yellow ear-tuft; f., sim. Honey, insects. Loud
    ringing note.

    =363* White-plumed Honey-eater=, Greenie, Linnet (e),
    Chickoowee; Ringeye (e), Ringneck (e), Australian Canary (e),
    _P. penicillata_, E.A., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. v.c. _gardens_      6.7

    Grayish-brown, tinged olive; under light yellowish-brown; long
    white ear plumes, sometimes not seen until the head is moved;
    f., smaller. Insects, pollen, honey. Loud ringing notes;
    "Chick-oo-wee."

5
6

    =364* Crescent Honey-eater= (Horseshoe, Tasmanian), Egypt,
    _Meliornis pyrrhoptera (australasiana)_, N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Stat. c. _forest_, _heath_      6.2

  [Page 173]

  [Illustration: [365] [366] [367] [368] [369]]

    Upper dusky black; black bar each side of breast; under white;
    flanks dusky; wings, tail marked golden-yellow; side-tail
    spotted white; f., dusky-brown, faint yellow on wings and
    tail. Loud varied calls, "Egypt."

    =365* White-bearded Honey-eater= (New Holland), Yellow Wings,
    _M. novae-hollandiae_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., SA., T.

          Stat. v.c. _scrubby_, _Banksias_      7.2

    Blackish-brown, marked white; much yellow on wings; tail
    black, margined yellow, tipped white; line side of nape,
    cheeks, behind ear white; f., sim. Insects, honey.

    =366* White-cheeked Honey-eater=, _M. nigra (sericea)_, S.Q.,
    N.S.W., V., W.A.

          Stat. r. _scrub_, _undergrowth_      7

    Like 365, but forehead white; large tuft of white plumes on
    side of head; tail not tipped white; f., smaller. Insects,
    honey. Clear double whistling note.

1
1

    =367* Bell-Miner=, Bell-Bird, _Manorina melanophrys_, E.A. f.,
    sim. Insects. Bell note, "Tink."

          Stat. r. _dense gullies_      7

    Olive-green; bright yellow patch between eye and bill; small
    red patch behind eye; forehead, about eye black.

4
4

    =368* Noisy Miner=, Garrulous Honeyeater, Snake-Bird,
    Cherry-eater, Soldier, Micky, Squeaker, _Myzantha garrula_,
    E.A., S.A., T.

          Stat. v.c. _open forest_      10

    Gray; marked whitish on hind-neck, marked dusky-gray chest;
    crown, about eye, ear, chin black; wing tinged yellow; tail
    tipped white; legs, bill, skin behind eye bright yellow; f.,
    smaller. Insects, fruit, honey. Noisy.

    =369 Yellow-throated Miner=, _M. flavigula_, E.A., S.A., C.A.
    W.A. (inland).

          Stat. r. _timber_      10

    Gray; hind-neck marked whitish, chest marked brown; rump, tip
    tail white; naked space behind eye; forehead, throat, bill,
    legs yellow; a little olive-yellow on wing, base-tail; f.,
    smaller. Insects, honey.

  [Page 174]

  [Illustration: [370] [371] [372] [373] [374] [375]]

2
2

    =370* Wattle-Bird=, Red Wattle-Bird, Gill-Bird, Wattled
    Honey-eater, Mutton-Bird (e), _Acanthcchaera carunculata_,
    S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., W.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      14.5

    Brown streaked, lined white; red wattle 1/4in.; whitish below
    eye, between shoulder and gill; wing quills and tail tipped
    white; centre abdomen yellow; f., smaller. Insects, honey.
    "Kwock, kwock;" "Up with the rag." Many curious guttural
    notes.

  [Page 175]

2
2

    =371 Brush Wattle-Bird=, Mocking-Bird, Mocker, Cookaycock,
    _Anellobia chrysoptera (mellivora)_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.,
    T.

          Stat. c. _timber_      12

    Brown, lined white; quills lined, tipped white; tail tipped
    white; throat whitish; no wattle; f., smaller. Showy,
    pugnacious, many curious notes.

1
1

    =372* Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater=, _Acanthagenys rufigularis_,
    A.

          Nom. c. _timber_, _scrub_      10

    Upper dusky-brown; white spiny feathers, below eye to ear;
    throat, chest rufous; abdomen whitish, streaked dusky-brown;
    tail tipped white; f., sim. Insects, honey. Many peculiar loud
    notes, a plaintive trill.

3
3

    =373* Blue-faced Honey-eater=, Banana-Bird, Blue-eye,
    _Entomyzon cyanotis_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. c. _timber_      12

    Attractive, beautiful; upper golden olive-green; head,
    hind-neck black; throat dusky; line on hind-neck, side throat,
    under white; about eye blue; f., sim. Insects, honey. Loud
    monotonous call.

3
8

    =374* Friar-Bird=, Monk, Leatherhead, Four-o'-clock, Pimlico,
    Poor Soldier, _Tropidorhynchus corniculatus_, E.A., S.A.
    Insects.

          Nom. c. _open forest_, _orchard_      13.2

    Head naked, ink-black; knob on bill; brown; tail tipped white;
    silver-white lanceolate feathers on throat; f., sim. Noisy,
    "Tobacco-box," "four-o'-clock." Fruit.

2
12

    =375* Yellow-throated Friar-Bird=, Little Leatherhead,
    _Philemon citreigularis_, N. Ter., E.A., S.A., N.W.A.

          Nom. r. _timber_      10

    Upper brown; under pale brown; throat yellow (young), white
    (adult); the colored plate shows a young bird; the adult loses
    yellow on throat, black on face, grayish marks on back, and
    becomes "one of the plainest of birds"; f., similar to adult
    male. Insects, berries, honey. "Five-o'-clock."

    F. 145. _Mniotiltidae_, American Warblers, 231 sp.--2(0)P.,
    80(12)Nc., 219(151)Nl.

    F. 146. _Drepanididae_, Sandwich Island Honeyeaters, 40 sp. A.

  [Page 176]

  [Illustration: [376] [376^A] [377] [377^A] [377^B] [377^C]]

    F. 147. MOTACILLIDAE (2), Pipits, Wagtails, 107 sp.--11(6)A.,
    32(6)O., 53(12)P., 49(32)E., 7(1)Nc.,

1
55

    =376* Australian Pipit=, Ground-Lark, _Anthus australis_, A.,
    T. =vt. Eur. Pipit.

          Part-Mig. v.c. _grass_      7

    Upper dark-brown, feathers edged lighter; buff stripe above
    eye; under white streaked dark-brown; most streaked on chest;
    outer-tail white; f., sim. Insects, small seeds. Sometimes
    soars singing melodiously.

    F. 148. ALAUDIDAE (4), Larks, Skylark, Horned-Larks,
    Shore-Larks, 224 sp.--6(6)A., 45(29)O., 69(48)P., 108(99)E.,
    18(10)Nc., 11(4)Nl.

  [Page 177]

1
12

    =376^A Skylark=, _Alauda arvensis_, Eur., N. Afr., V.
    (introduced).

          Mig. c. _grass_      7

    Upper warm-brown mottled, streaked darker; stripe over eye
    lighter; throat, chest brownish-buff, streaked brown; abdomen
    yellowish-white; f., smaller. Insects, seeds. Sings soaring;
    famous songster.

4
45

    =377* Bush-Lark=, Horsfield Bush-Lark, Skylark (e), _Mirafra
    horsfieldi_, E.A., W.A.

          Stat. r. _grass_      5.3

    Like 376, but plumper, shorter; bill stouter, almost
    finch-like; f., sim. Insects, small seeds. Sings melodiously
    soaring, also on moonlight nights; "one of our most pleasing
    songsters."

    F. 149. _Catamblyrhynchidae_, 2 sp. Nl. (Peru).

    F. 150. _Fringillidae_, Finches, Grosbeak, Bullfinch, Bunting,
    Cardinal (Am.), Crossbill, Chaffinch, Linnet, Redpoll, Canary,
    1087 sp.--129(83)O., 202(138)P., 107(96)E., 191(125)Nc.,
    529(474)Nl.

1
10

    =377^A Greenfinch=, Green Linnet, _Ligurinus chloris_,
    Europe to Persia, V. (introduced).

          Stat. c. _fields_, _gardens_      6

    Upper olive-green; golden-yellow eyestripe; tail yellow
    base, black tip; wing dark-brown, lined bright yellow; under
    greenish-yellow, darker on flanks; f., much duller. Seeds.
    "One of the prettiest of British songsters."

1
11

    =377B Goldfinch=, Thistle-Finch, _Carduelis
    carduelis_, Europe, Canary Is. to Egypt, to Persia, Siberia,
    V. (introduced).

          Stat. v.c. _fields_      5

    Crown black; face, chin red; behind eye, throat, under, upper
    base tail white; bright yellow on wings; f., sim. Thistle
    seeds, insects. Loud, sweet song; "twit-it."

2
56

    =377C Tree-Sparrow= (Mountain-), _Passer montanus_,
    Eur., N. Asia, A. (introduced).

          Stat. r. _trees_      5.6

    Like 377D, but head, nape chestnut; black ear patch
    in centre of a large white patch; two white bars on side of
    wing; shier; f., sim. Seeds, insects. Chirps.

  [Page 178]

  [Illustration: [377^D] [378] [379] [380] [381] [382]]

    =377D House-Sparrow=, _P. domesticus_, Eur., Siberia,
    A. (introduced).

          Stat. v.c. _houses_      5

    Crown, nape bluish-gray; behind eye, side neck broad chestnut
    band; upper brown; one white bar on wing; cheeks, throat
    black; under whitish; f., duller; darker below; no black
    throat. Seeds, insects. Chirps.

    F. 151. _Coerebidae_, Honey-Creepers, 93 sp.--1(0)Nc.,
    93(92)Nl.

    F. 152. _Procniatidae_, 1 sp. Nl.

    F. 153. _Tanagridae_, Tanagers, 424 sp.--6(0)Nc., 424(418)Nl.

====

Order XXI. (continued)

Gould placed the Australian Finches in the same family as the
Sparrow--the _Fringillidae_--which includes also the Linnet and the
cage Canary. Most writers now put them in with the Weaver-Birds or
Weaver Finches (family _Ploceidae_). Twenty-three Finches have been
recorded from Australia. All have the well-known Finch bill, adapted
for shelling seeds, and all are seed-eaters, though some occasionally
take insects in addition.

The Spotted-sided Finch is true to name, as a glance at the
illustration shows. The rare Fire-tail is beautifully and closely
banded below, while the Chestnut-eared Finch is banded on the throat
and chest. The Plum-headed Finch has a deep crimson forehead, and is
banded below.

The Red-browed Finch is often called the "Firetail," for it has the
red rump as well as the red brow and bill, but the under surface is
not banded. These birds usually build a very large nest, which has
been compared to a "stocking hung by the toe, while the eggs are laid
in the heel, and entrance is gained through the leg."

The introduced Starling has firmly established itself, and is
extending its range rapidly. Incredible numbers gather at lagoon-sides
to roost in the reed-beds.

This bird is a favorite with farmers and graziers, but orchardists
view its rapid increase with alarm. It is possible, as Mr. C. French,
Government Entomologist, has pointed out, that the Starling will yet
prove a more expensive pest than the Rabbit.

Starlings, at least, upset the balance of nature, for, by occupying
all available nesting sites, early and late, they displace the native
birds. Kingfishers, Parrots, and other birds that nest in hollows are
thus being driven away from their old haunts.

The Australian Oriole is a member of the family of true Orioles. The
Fig-Birds of Queensland towns are closely related. The members of
this family are restricted to the Eastern Hemisphere. Our Oriole is an
interesting migrant which visits even cities. Its beautiful hanging,
cup-shaped nest woven amongst the twigs at the end of a leafy bough
is a clever piece of work. Its note is melodious and varied. It often
calls "o-ree-ee-o-ole." It is also fond of mimicking other birds.

The Baltimore Oriole, or Golden Robin, is properly not an Oriole, but
comes in a related family--the _Icteridae_--which contains American
birds somewhat similar to Orioles. The Australian bird, as shown by
the colored illustration, has not the conspicuous golden and black
plumage of the European bird.

The Spangled Drongo is the Australian representative of a family
of birds spread from Africa, Madagascar, and India up to Japan, and
through the islands to Australia. They are a characteristic feature of
Indian ornithology, for they are found everywhere in that country.
The one Australian bird is a migrant, and seldom reaches Southern
Australia. Like other Drongos, it is a glossy black, has a long,
forked tail, is a good mimic of other birds' calls, and is also a
vicious fighter. It is exceedingly active, and has a disagreeably
harsh, cackling, and creaking whistle. It will drive away even hawks
and crows.

After the Shining Starlings of Queensland, come the
marvellously-beautiful Birds of Paradise--"God's Birds."

These unique birds are found only in New Guinea, Papuan Islands,
Molucca Islands, and the rich, tropical coast scrubs of Eastern
Australia. One, the Riflebird, is found even down to North-Eastern New
South Wales.

The Federal and State Governments are doing excellent work in
protecting our beautiful birds, and are giving what seems to be a
really efficient protection, so that some of our birds which possess
the fatal gift of beauty in an extreme degree will probably survive
for some time yet. Collectors as well as plume-hunters should be
compelled to keep hands off our exquisite birds.

(continued below)

====

    F. 154. PLOCEIDAE (23), WEAVER-FINCHES, 487 sp.--59(56)A.,
    41(37)O., 1(0)P., 391(391)E.

  [Page 179]

1
1

    =378* Spotted-sided Finch=, Diamond-Sparrow (e), Java-Sparrow
    (e), _Stagonopleura guttata_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. c. _grass_      4.6

    "Showy, attractive;" crown gray; back, wings brown; rump,
    bill, eye red; sides, chest-band, tail black; sides spotted
    white; throat, centre abdomen white; f., sim. Grass-seeds.

2
2

    =379* Firetailed Finch=, Firetail, _Zonaeginthus bellus_,
    S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A., T.

          Stat. r. _grass_      4.6

    Upper olive-brown, finely-barred black; under gray,
    finely-barred black; rump, bill scarlet; about eye black; f.,
    sim. Seeds.

1
2

    =380* Chestnut-eared Finch= (Zebra), _Taeniopygia castanotis_,
    A. (interior).

          Nom. small flocks, v.r. _plains_      4.2

    Upper brown; rump white; upper base tail black, with three
    white spots; cheeks chestnut; throat, chest gray, barred
    black; black band on chest; abdomen white; flanks chestnut,
    spotted white; feet, bill orange; f., throat, chest gray,
    fringed brown; abdomen yellowish-brown. Grass-seeds.

1
4

    =381* Plum-headed Finch= (Diadem, Plain-colored), _Aidemosyne
    modesta_, S.Q., N.S.W., V., S.A.

          Stat. small flocks, r. _grass_      4.6

    Crown deep purple; bill, between eye and bill, spot on chin
    black; upper brown; wings spotted white; side-tail tipped
    white; under white barred brown; f., no black on chin. Seeds.

2
2

    =382* Red-browed Finch= (Temporal), Redhead, Redbill (e),
    Sydney Waxbill, _Ægintha temporalis_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. small flocks, r. _grass_      4.5

    Bill, patch over eye, rump crimson; crown gray; upper
    olive-brown; under lighter; f., sim. Seeds.

    F. 155. _Icteridae_, Bobolink, Cowbird, Blackbirds (Am.),
    Oriole (Am.), Redwing (Am.), 185 sp.--35(15)Nc., 170(150) Nl.

    F. 156. _Sturnidae_, Starlings, Grackles, 60 sp.--2(1)A.,
    42(28)O., 29(14)P., 2(1)E.

  [Page 181]

  [Illustration: [375] [376] [377] [378] [379] [380] [381] [382] [383]]

  =375= Yellow-throated Friar-Bird
  =376= Australian Pipit
  =377= Bush-Lark
  =378= Spotted-Sided Finch
  =379= Firetailed Finch
  =380= Chestnut-eared Finch
  =381= Plum-headed Finch
  =382= Red-browed Finch
  =383= Olive-backed Oriole

  [Page 183]

  [Illustration: [384] [385] [385^A] [386] [390] [391] [392] [394]]

  =384= Spangled Drongo
  =385= Satin Bower-Bird
  =385^A= Satin Bower-Bird (Female)
  =386= Spotted Bower-Bird
  =390= Apostle-Bird
  =391= White-winged Chough
  =392= Pied Bell-Magpie
  =394= Gray Bell-Magpie

  [Page 186]

  [Illustration: [382^A] [382^B] [383] [384] [385] [385^A]]

1
23

    =382^A Starling=, _Sturnus vulgaris_, Eur., N. Afr.,
    Asia, A. (introduced).

          Nom. v.c. _open_      8.5

    Glossy-black, with metallic reflections; upper feathers tipped
    buff, under tipped white; light tips lost in summer; bill
    lemon-yellow summer, blackish winter; f., sim. Insects,
    caterpillars, fruit. Wheezing, whining notes. Mimic.

  [Page 187a]

1
3

    =382^B Common Myna= (Indian, Calcutta), _Acridotheres
    tristis_, India, Afghanistan, V. (Introduced).

          Stat. v.c. _houses_      10

    Head, neck black; upper brown; under rich vinous-brown;
    tip-tail, large patch on wing white; about eye, bill, legs
    yellow; f., sim. Insects, fruit. Many notes.

    F. 157. EULABETIDAE (2), SHINING STARLINGS, 139 sp.--51(51)A.,
    20(20)O., 1(1)P., 67(67)E.

    F. 158. _Paramythidae_, 1 sp. A. (N.G.).

    F. 159. _Buphagidae_, Oxpecker, Rhinoceros-Bird, 2 sp. E.

    F. 160. ORIOLIDAE (4), ORIOLES, Fig-Birds, 70 sp.--27(27)A.,
    29(26)O., 3(0)P., 15(14)E.

1
12

    =383* Olive-backed Oriole=, Green Thrush (e), _Mimetes
    sagittata (Oriolus viridis)_, E.A., N.W.A.

          Stat. r. _open forest_      11.5

    Upper yellowish olive-green; wings, tail brown, tipped white;
    under whitish, streaked black; bill flesh-red; eyes scarlet;
    variable in color; f., sim. Insects, fruit. "Or-ree-ee-oale."
    Mimic.

    F. 161. DICRURIDAE (1), DRONGOS, 73 sp.--24(23)A., 39(38)O.,
    11(11)E.

1
29

    =384* Spangled Drongo=, Drongo-Shrike, King-Crow, _Dicruropsis
    (Chibia, Dicrurus) bracteata_, N.G., N. Ter., E.A., N.W.A., T.
    (acc.).

          Nom. r. _timber_      12.2

    Black glossed, spotted green; spotted white under wing; f.,
    sim. Insects. Noisy, harsh peculiar notes.

    F. 162. PARADISEIDAE (4), BIRDS OF PARADISE, Rifle-Bird, 70
    sp. A.

====

Order XXI. (continued)

Mr. A. J. North, C.M.B.O.U., the ornithologist of the Australian
Museum, Sydney, and one of the greatest of living Australian
ornithologists, has declared that "without exception, the
bower-building birds of Australia are the most extraordinary and
interesting group of birds found in the world."

These wonderful birds construct, apart from their nests,
play-houses--structures that "are perfectly anomalous in the
architecture of birds." Gould considered the accounts of the
"extraordinary habits" of the Bower Birds "as some of the valuable and
interesting portions" of his work. Though the bird was known before
Gould's time, its "extraordinary habits had never been brought
before the scientific world until I (Gould) had the gratification of
publishing an account of them after my return from Australia."

This month I had the gratification of seeing the Satin Bower Birds
playing about a perfect bower within one chain of a country school,
and within one yard of a busy roadside. The birds have quite made
friends with the school children. They have helped themselves to the
blue flowers from the school garden, pieces of blue paper, and even
a blue hair ribbon, besides blue parrot's feathers. These are used to
decorate this very interesting playhouse.

Unfortunately, Satin Bower Birds are mainly fruit-eaters, and so
will possibly do some damage, but they are amongst the wonders of the
world, and it is hoped all will hesitate to shoot them, "for their
highly-decorated halls of assembly must be regarded as the most
wonderful instances of bird-architecture yet discovered." The male
gets his beautiful blue-black coat after he is seven years old.

Many of the schools of South Gippsland can show Satin Bower-Birds
regularly in attendance at lunch-time to gather the crusts. We have
destroyed their native fruits, and should submit to some slight
loss to enable young Australians to become familiar with the "most
interesting group of birds" in the world.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 187b]

    F. 163. PTILONORHYNCHIDAE (11), BOWER-BIRDS, Regent-Bird, Cat
    (Gardener) Bird, 37 sp. A.

1
1

    =385* Satin Bower-Bird=, Satin Bird, _Ptilonorhynchus
    violaceus_, E.A.

          Stat. r. _coast-scrubs_, _mt.-gullies_      12.5

    Lustrous blue-black, with black centres to feathers; f.,*
    upper grayish-green; quills dark-brown; tail golden-brown;
    under yellow, washed bluish-green, marked blackish-brown;
    young male up to 3 years sim. to f. Gets fully adult
    blue-black after 7 years of age. Fruits, berries, insects.
    Many notes, mimics.

  [Page 188a]

  [Illustration: [386] [387] [388] [389] [390]]

5
6

    =386* Spotted Bower-Bird=, Cabbage-Bird, _Chlamydera
    maculata_, E.A, S.A. (inland).

          Stat. v.r. _dry scrubs_      12

    Upper dark-brown spotted buff; rose-lilac opalescent plumes
    on nape; tail tipped buff, white; abdomen pale creamy-buff,
    flanks barred dusky brown; f., no rose-lilac plumes. Varied,
    harsh, plaintive notes, mimics.

====

Order XXI. (continued)

The members of the Crow Family--the _Corvidae_--were considered the
most highly-developed of birds--the most highly organized, so far as
structure was concerned, and the most intelligent. However, Sharpe has
erected the seven Australian Bell-Magpies (_Streperas_) into a family
which, in his _Hand-List of Birds_ is placed at the top of the bird
tree.

In the Crow Family many well-known birds are placed. The Jays,
Magpie, Daws, Rooks, and Nutcrackers of Europe are not represented
in Australia. The Crows and the Raven, however, are represented by
closely-related birds.

It is important to tell the difference between the Australian Crow and
the Australian Raven, for, we are told, the Crow is all that is good,
while the Raven is the reverse.

The ornithologists say it is easy to tell the difference. Just examine
the down, say, on the neck. It is white in the Crow, but dusky in
the Raven. Unfortunately, the birds will not always wait to permit an
examination of the down.

The eye is often mentioned, but hazel-eyed birds have become white-eyed.
However, the Raven has lanceolate feathers on the neck, and a rougher,
unmusical voice.

The Raven seems the more common bird, though most people will tell you
there are no Ravens in their district.

The Apostle-Bird (Gray Jumper), and the White-winged Chough are two
of Australia's "anomalous birds." Both go in flocks, so each has been
called the "Twelve Apostles." However, the name has become attached to
the Gray Jumper.

The White-winged Chough has no close relative in the world; possibly,
the Chough that nests in the cliffs of Cornwall is nearest to it.

The Bell-Magpies (_Streperas_), perhaps better known as Black or Gray
Magpies, are now receiving much notice, because of their position
at the head of the bird-world. They are restricted to Australia,
Tasmania, and Lord Howe Island. A good name is required for these
birds, for, of course, they are not Magpies, though they have a
white-tipped tail, and there is usually white in the wing, and about
the base of the tail. They are fine, large birds, with a variety of
notes.

(continued below)

====

  [Page 188b]

    F. 164. CORVIDAE (5), CROWS, Rook, Raven, Jackdaw, Magpie
    (Br.), Jay, Nutcracker, Chough, 274 sp.--27(25)A., 73(58)O.,
    69(53)P., 15(9)E., 43(35)Nc., 73(65)Nl.

3
63

    =387 Hazel-eyed Crow=, _Corvus coronoides_, A.

          Nom. c. _open_, _timber_      20

    Black glossed with purple; white down; hazel eyes; f.,
    smaller. Insects, carrion, fruit, not lambs.

    =388 Small-billed Crow=, _C. bennetti_, W.N.S.W., V., S.A.
    Like 387, but smaller; bill small; eye white; f., sim.
    Insects, carrion. "Car" repeated.

          Stat. v.r. _plains_      18.5

    =389 Australian Raven=, Crow (e), _C. marianae (Corone
    australis)_, A., T.

          Nom. v.c. _plains_, _timber_      20

    Black glossed purple; throat feathers lanceolate, tinged
    green; down dusky-gray; eyes white; f., smaller, lanceolate
    feathers not so well developed. Locusts, caterpillars,
    omnivorous, destructive. "Loud, deep Gwar-gwar, varied with
    shrill, high-sounding Korr-Korr" (North).

1
1

    =390* Apostle-Bird=, Gray Jumper, Twelve Apostles, _Struthidea
    cinerea_, N. Ter., E.A., S.A. (inland).

          Stat. small flocks, r. _open timber_      13

    Gray; wings brown; bill, legs black; eye white; f., sim. Mud
    nest. Insects. Incessant chattering.

  [Page 189]

  [Illustration: [391] [392] [393] [394] [395]]

1
1

    =391* White-winged Chough=, Black Magpie (e), Jay (e),
    Apostle-Bird (e), _Corcorax melanorhamphus_, E.A., S.A.

          Stat. small flocks, c. _timber_      16

    Sooty black, white on wing only; eyes red; f., sim. Mud nest.
    Insects, fruits, seeds. Low, mournful whistle.

    F. 165. STREPERIDAE (7), BELL-MAGPIES, Streperas,
    Crow-Shrikes, 7 sp. A.

7
7

    =392* Pied Bell-Magpie= (Crow-Shrike), Currawong. Mutton-Bird
    (e), _Strepera graculina_, E.A., Lord Howe Is.

          Nom. r. _timber_      18.5

    Black; white patch on wing, upper base tail, under base tail,
    tip tail; eye yellow; f., smaller. Berries, fruit, insects.

    =393 Black-winged Bell-Magpie= (Crow-Shrike), _S.
    melanoptera_, V., S.A., Kangaroo Is.

          Stat. v.r. _scrub_      19

    Black, white tip tail, under base tail; f., smaller. Insects.

    =394* Gray Bell-Magpie= (Crow-Shrike), Gray Magpie, Rain-Bird,
    Squeaker, _S. versicolor (cuneicaudata)_, E.A.

          Stat. v.c. _timber_, _orchard_      19

    Gray; white on wing, tip tail, under base tail; eye
    orange; f., sim. Insects, fruit. Loud, ringing notes.
    "It's-going-to-rain." "Two and two are four." Cree-e-ling,
    cree-e-ling.

    =395 Sooty Bell-Magpie= (Crow-Shrike), Black Magpie (e), _S.
    fuliginosa_, E.A., S.A., T., Bass St. Is.

          Stat. r. _timber_      18

    Sooty black; white in wing, tip tail; eye yellow; big bill
    black; f., sim. Insects, fruit.

====

This concludes a necessarily brief outline of the classification
of the Birds of Australia, and, incidentally, of the birds of the
world, for, while the Emu is one of the most primitive of birds placed
right at the foot, the Bell-Magpies (_Streperas_) are placed at the
very summit of the avine tree.

Australians! Realize that you live in a land favored far beyond most
as regards birds, and that you have a duty to perform in preserving as
many as possible of these unique, interesting, and valuable forms
for posterity. Teachers! Your influence is more potent than all the
legislation. Bird lovers already freely acknowledge the fundamental
change that has come over the schoolboy since the introduction of
nature-study, and they look to you with confidence to extend greatly
the good work of cultivating an interest and a pride in
things Australian, for this interest will eradicate the once
almost-universal, but now rapidly-disappearing, desire for slaughter
of anything wearing a feather.

If women could be persuaded to come in line with the once destructive
schoolboy in this respect, the bird lover and the well-wisher of his
country would have further cause for gratification, and our beautiful
birds a further enjoyment of a useful, indeed, often a necessary life,
one necessary to the welfare of the agriculturist and the pastoralist,
as well as of all dwellers in this fair, sunny land of ours.

Australians! Your wonderful Lyre-Birds, your marvellous Bower-Birds,
your gorgeous Birds of Paradise, your Mound-Builders, your flute-noted
Magpies, your charming Whistlers, your beautiful and intelligent
Cockatoos, your glorious Parrots--the pets of the bird world--your
Superb-Warblers, your varied, valuable, and attractive Honey-eaters,
and your giant Laughing-Kingfisher are here for your enjoyment and
appreciation. No other people has your privilege of knowing these
birds in their native state. On the other hand, you enjoy most of the
privileges of dwellers in other lands, in addition to your own, for
"every widely-spread family of birds but two is found in Australia.
The only notable absentees are Vultures and Woodpeckers." Be proud
of your heritage, and pass it on uninjured. Though that, alas! is not
possible, yet you may pass on at least the remnant that still survives
the "blessings and advance of civilization."



NOTE.


Having obtained the approximate length of a bird, look for it on the
following pages. Compare the bird before you with the half-tone and
colored illustrations, and, if necessary, the written description:--

    PAGES

    3-5 inches, 14, 121, 123, 124, 131, 133, 142-145, 153, 155,
    166, 167, 169, 179.

    5-7 inches, 13, 15, 22, 23, 26, 27, 44, 49, 89, 110, 111,
    120-125, 127, 129, 131, 142, 144-146, 151, 152, 155, 168-172,
    177, 178.

    7-9 inches, 13, 15, 17, 18, 27, 31, 42, 43, 45, 47-49, 89,
    102-107, 109, 125, 129, 131, 145, 147, 150-152, 154, 169-173,
    176, 177, 186.

    9-11 inches, 17, 18, 24, 25, 31, 40, 43, 44, 49-51, 61, 102,
    103, 107, 109, 127-129, 131-133, 145, 148, 149, 151, 170, 171,
    173, 175, 187.

    11-13 inches, 28-30, 34, 43, 46, 49, 80, 82, 83, 93, 101, 102,
    105, 107, 109, 130, 149, 175, 187, 188.

    13-15 inches, 17, 18, 23, 25, 28, 29, 35, 43, 45, 47, 80, 83,
    85-88, 91, 92, 100, 101, 103, 107, 126, 127, 149, 174, 175,
    188.

    15-17 inches, 18, 23, 28, 29, 45-47, 64, 65, 67, 73, 82, 85,
    87, 91, 93, 189.

    17-20 inches, 16, 23, 25, 27, 28, 35, 40, 41, 43, 61, 63, 65,
    67, 73, 82, 83, 91, 93, 104, 105, 149, 188, 189.

    20-23 inches, 35, 41, 45, 51, 61, 63, 66, 67, 72, 73, 81, 91,
    188.

    23-25 inches, 13, 25, 41, 45, 60, 61, 65, 69, 81, 82, 84, 85,
    90, 111.

    25-30 inches, 25, 33, 41, 53, 60, 65, 67, 69, 89, 112.

    30-35 inches, 29, 32, 33, 53, 60, 63, 69, 71, 81.

    Over 35 inches, 12, 31, 32, 51, 52, 62, 68, 70, 71, 81, 112.



INDEX (Colored Plates).


  Frontispiece.

    =2= Mallee-Fowl
    =3= Stubble Quail
    =4= Brown Quail
    =6= King Quail
    =8= Painted Quail
   =11= Plain Wanderer
   =14= Diamond Dove
   =16= Bronzewing Pigeon


  Page 19

   =21= Pectoral Rail
   =22= Aust. Spotted Crake
   =26= Black Moor-Hen
   =27= Bald Coot
   =30= Hoary-headed Grebe
   =67= Crested Tern
   =71= White-faced Ternlet
   =72= Silver Gull
   =73= Pacific Gull


  Page 38

   =81= Black-breasted Plover
   =87= Black-fronted Dottrel
  =102= Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
  =106= Australian Snipe
  =107= Australian  Painted Snipe
  =109= Southern Stone-Curlew
  =119= White-fronted Heron
  =123= Nankeen Night Heron
  =125= Australian Bittern


  Page 55

  =128= Cape Barren Goose
  =129= Maned Goose
  =131= Plumed Whistling Duck
  =133= Black Duck
  =134= Australian Teal
  =135= Gray Teal
  =136= Australian Shoveller
  =137= Pink-eared Duck
  =139= White-eyed Duck


  Page 57

  =152= Allied Harrier
  =155= Australian Goshawk
  =157= Collared Sparrowhawk
  =158= Wedge-tailed Eagle
  =165= Black-shouldered Kite
  =167= Black-cheeked Falcon
  =170= Little Falcon
  =172= Brown Hawk
  =173= Nankeen Kestrel


  Page 76

  =184= Blue Mountain Lorikeet
  =185= Musk Lorikeet
  =191= Gang-gang Cockatoo
  =193= Pink Cockatoo
  =194= Rose-breasted Cockatoo
  =196= Cockatoo-Parrot
  =197= Superb Parrot
  =198= Black-tailed Parrot
  =199= King Parrot


  Page 78

  =200= Crimson Parrot
  =202= Rosella
  =203= Mallee Parrot
  =204= Blue Bonnet
  =205= Many-colored Parrot
  =206= Red-backed Parrot
  =209= Grass-Parrot
  =213= Swift Parrot
  =214= Warbling Grass-Parrot


  Page 95

  =219= Australian Roller
  =220= Blue Kingfisher
  =221= Laughing Kingfisher
  =223= Sacred Kingfisher
  =224= Aust. Bee-eater
  =227= Spine-tailed Swift
  =229= Pallid Cuckoo
  =230= Fan-tailed Cuckoo
  =235= Bronze Cuckoo


  Page 97

  =238= Welcome Swallow
  =240= Tree Martin
  =242= Brown Flycatcher
  =244= Scarlet-breasted Robin
  =244^A= Scarlet-breasted Robin (Female)
  =245= Flame-breasted Robin
  =245^A= Flame-breasted Robin (Female)
  =248= Red Capped Robin
  =248^A= Red Capped Robin (Female)


  Page 116

  =251= White-throated Flyeater
  =254= White-shafted Fantail
  =255= Rufous Fantail
  =256= Black and White Fantail
  =259= Restless Flycatcher
  =262= Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike
  =265= White-shouldered Caterpillar-eater
  =265^A= White-shouldered Caterpillar-eater (Female)
  =266= Spotted Ground-Bird


  Page 118

  =272= Coachwhip Bird
  =273= Gray-crowned Babbler
  =276= White-browed Field-Wren
  =278= Brown Song-Lark
  =279= Rufous Song-Lark
  =280= Mountain Thrush
  =281= White-fronted Chat
  =281^A= White-fronted Chat (F.)
  =282= Crimson-breasted Chat


  Page 135

  =284= Aust. Reed-Warbler
  =285= Golden-headed Fantail-Warbler
  =286= Grass-Bird
  =287= Speckled Warbler
  =288= Little Tit-Warbler
  =289= Brown Tit-Warbler
  =291= Striated Tit-Warbler
  =293= Yellow-tailed Tit-Warbler
  =297= White-browed Scrub-Wren


  Page 137

  =300= Superb-Warbler
  =300^A= Superb-Warbler (Female)
  =302= White-winged Superb-Warbler
  =304= Emu Wren
  =306= Bristle-Bird
  =311= White-browed Wood-Swallow
  =312= Masked Wood-Swallow
  =313= Wood-Swallow
  =315= Gray Shrike-Thrush


  Page 139

  =319= Aust. Butcher-Bird
  =320= Yellow-breasted Shrike-Tit
  =321= Crested Bell-Bird
  =322= Golden-breasted Whistler
  =322^A= Golden-breasted Whistler (F.)
  =323= Rufous-breasted Whistler
  =323^A= Rufous-breasted Whistler (F.)
  =326= Yellow-breasted Shrike-Robin
  =327= Whiteface


  Page 158

  =328= Orange-winged Nuthatch
  =330= Brown Tree-Creeper
  =331= White-throated Tree-Creeper
  =334= White-eye
  =336= Australian Flower-Pecker
  =336^A= Australian Flower-Pecker (Female)
  =337= Red-tipped Diamond Bird
  =340= Spotted Diamond Bird
  =341= Golden-rumped Diamond Bird


  Page 160

  =342= White-naped Honey-eater
  =345= Striped Honey-eater
  =346= Sanguineous Honey-eater
  =347= Black Honey-eater
  =348= Spinebill
  =349= Tawny-crowned Honey-eater
  =350= White-fronted Honey-eater
  =351= Painted Honey-eater
  =353= Regent Honey-eater


  Page 162

  =355= Yellow-eared Honey-eater
  =356= Singing Honey-eater
  =357= Yellow-faced Honey-eater
  =358= White-eared Honey-eater
  =359= Yellow-tufted Honey-eater
  =362= Yellow-plumed Honey-eater
  =363= White-plumed Honey-eater
  =364= Crescent Honey-eater
  =365= White-bearded Honey-eater


  Page 164

  =360= Helmeted Honey-eater
  =366= White-cheeked Honey-eater
  =367= Bell-Miner
  =368= Noisy Miner
  =370= Wattle-Bird
  =372= Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater
  =373= Blue-faced Honey-eater
  =374= Friar-Bird


  Page 181

  =375= Yellow-throated Friar-Bird
  =376= Australian Pipit
  =377= Bush-Lark
  =378= Spotted-Sided Finch
  =379= Firetailed Finch
  =380= Chestnut-eared Finch
  =381= Plum-headed Finch
  =382= Red-browed Finch
  =383= Olive-backed Oriole


  Page 183

  =384= Spangled Drongo
  =385= Satin Bower-Bird
  =385^A= Satin Bower-Bird (Female)
  =386= Spotted Bower-Bird
  =390= Apostle-Bird
  =391= White-winged Chough
  =392= Pied Bell-Magpie
  =394= Gray Bell-Magpie



INDEX (General).


The Ordinary Figures (175) refer to tabular matter and the Italic
Figures (_141_) refer to the lecture.

  _Acanthagenys_, 175

  _Acanthiza_, 142, _141_, _153_

  _Acanthochaera_, 174

  _Acanthorhynchus_, 170

  _Accipiter_, 80

  _Acridotheres_, 187

  _Acrocephalus_, 142

  _Ægialitis_, 44, 45

  _Ægintha_, 179

  _Ægotheles_, 104

  _Aerocharidae_, 149

  _Æstrelata_, 28, 29

  _Aidemosyne_, 179

  Alarm-Bird, 43

  _Alauda_, 177

  _Alaudidae_, 176, _177_

  Albatross, 31, 32, 33, _33_, _34_

  _Alcedinidae_, 105

  _Alcidae_, 33

  _Alcyone_, 105

  _Ampelidae_, 147

  _Amytornis_, 146

  _Anas_, 65

  _Anatidae_, 62

  _Ancylochilus_, 49

  _Anellobia_, 175

  _Anhinga_, 70

  _Anseranas_, 63

  Anteater, Spiny, _11_

  _Anthus_, 176

  _Antigone_, 52

  Ant-thrushes, 113

  Antwrens, 113

  _Aphelocephala_, 153

  Apostle-Bird, 188, 130, 189, _147_, _186_

  _Aprosmictus_, 93

  _Apterygidae_, 13

  _Apteryx_, 13, _13_

  _Aramidae_, 52

  _Ardeidae_, 60

  _Ardetta_, 61

  _Arenaria_, 42

  _Artamidae_, 147

  _Artamus_, 147

  _Astur_, 73

  Atlantic O., _26_, _33_

  _Atrichornithidae_, 113, _119_

  Audubon Society, _114_

  Auk, 33

  _Aves_, 12

  Avocet, 45, _47_

  _Aythya_, 67


  Babbler, 130, _130_, _175_

  Babbling-Thrush, 128

  _Balaenicipitidae_, 60

  Bald-Coot, 23

  Bali, _91_, 168

  Ballyhead, 133

  Banana-Bird, 175

  Barbet, 111, _91_

  Barker, 130

  Bark-pecker, 153

  Barley-Bird, 142

  _Barnardius_, 101

  Barn Owl, 86, 87, _85_

  Barwing, 67

  Bass St., _154_, _165_

  Bat, _11_, _166_

  Beach-Bird, 42

  Bee-eater, 106, 107, _106_

  Bell-Bird, 151, _151_, _174_

  Bell-Magpie, 189, _12_, _39_, _185_, _186_, _187_

  Bell-Miner, 173, _174_

  Bird Day, _74_, _119_, _141_

  Birds of Paradise, 187, _12_, _180_, _190_

  Birds of Prey, 72, _71_, _74_, _79_, _84_, _87_

  Bittern, 61, _59_

  _Biziura_, 67

  Blackbird, 132, 179, _133_, _134_

  Blackcap, 142, 168

  Bleater, 50

  Blight-Bird, 155, _156_

  Blood-Bird, 169

  Blood Tit (e), 142

  Blue-Bird, 127, 132, _146_

  Blue-Bonnet,  101, 144, _99_

  Bluecap, 144

  Blue-eye, 175, _176_

  Blue-Head, 144

  Blue Mountain, 88, _90_, _156_

  Blue-Tit, 144

  Bluewing, 66

  Blue-Wren, 144

  Boatswain-Bird, 41, 71

  Bobolink, 179, _74_

  Bob-White, 15

  Boobook Owl, 85, _85_, _104_

  Booby, 71, _70_

  Boomer, 61

  _Botaurus_, 61

  Bower-Birds, 187, 188, _12_, _185_, _190_

  Brain-fever Bird, 109, _110_

  Bristle Bird, 145, _141_

  Broadbill, 111

  Broad-tails, _94_

  Brolga, 52

  Brownhead, 67

  Brush-Turkey, 13, _15_

  _Bubonidae_, 85

  _Bucconidae_, 111

  _Bucerotidae_, 106

  Budgerigar, 103, _100_

  Bulbul, 127, _91_

  Bulla-Bulla, 101

  Bull-Bird, 61

  Bullfinch, 177

  Bully, 28

  Bunting, 177

  Bunyip, _59_

  _Buphagidae_, 187

  _Burhinus_, 51

  Bush-Lark, 177, _177_

  Bushman's Clock, 105

  Bush-Warbler, 124

  Bustard, 51, _51_, _52_

  Bustard Quail, 15, _17_, _21_

  Butcher-Bird, 149, _150_

  Button Quail, 15

  Buzzard, 82, _79_


  Cabbage-Bird, 188

  _Cacatua_, 91

  _Cacatuidae_, 89

  Cackler, 130

  _Cacomantis_, 109

  _Calamanthus_, 131

  Caley, _149_

  Calico-Bird, 42

  _Calidris_, 48

  _Callocephalum_, 91

  _Calopsittacus_, 93

  _Calyptorhynchus_, 89

  Campophaga, 127

  _Campophagidae_, 126

  Canary, 124, 133, 152, 172, 177, _134_, _179_

  Cape Barren Is., _32_

  Cape Petrel, 29

  Cape Pigeon, 29

  Capercailly, 13

  Cape Sheep, 31

  _Capitonidae_, 111

  _Caprimulgidae_, 107

  Cardinal, 177

  _Carduelis_, 177

  _Cariamidae_, 53

  _Carinatae_, 13, _13_, _14_

  _Carphibis_, 53

  Carr Goose, 25

  _Casarca_, 65

  Cassowary, 13, _11_, _13_

  _Casuariidae_, 13

  _Catamblyrhynchidae_, 177

  _Catarrhactes_, 25

  Catbird, 130, 187, _131_

  Caterpillar-eater, 126, 127, _39_, _127_, _128_

  _Cathartidae_, 71

  _Cerchneis_, 83

  _Cereopsis_, 63

  _Certhiidae_, 154

  _Certhionyx_, 170

  _Chaetura_, 107

  Chaffinch, 177

  _Chalcococcyx_, 110

  _Chalcophaps_, 17

  _Chamaeidae_, 153

  Channel-bill, 111, _111_

  _Charadriidae_, 42

  _Charadrius_, 44

  Chat, 133, _134_

  Chatterer, 113, 130

  _Chelidon_, 120

  _Chenonetta_, 63

  _Chenopsis_, 62

  _Cheramoeca_, 121

  Cherry-eater, 173

  Cherry-Hawk, 127

  _Chibia_, 187

  Chickadee, _74_

  Chicken-Hawk, 73

  Chickoowee, 172

  Chick-up, 171

  Chiffchaff, 142

  _Chionididae_, 42

  _Chlamydera_, 188

  Chough, 189, _147_, _186_

    " (Br.), 188, _186_

  _Chthonicola_, 142

  Chuck-e-chuc, 167

  _Ciconiidae_, 60

  _Cinclidae_, 132

  _Cincloramphus_, 131

  _Cinclosoma_, 128

  _Circus_, 72

  _Cisticola_, 142, _134_

  _Cladorhynchus_, 45

  _Climacteris_, 154

  Clipper, 133

  Coachwhip-Bird, 129, 151, _130_

  Cobbler, 45

  Cobbler's Awl, 45, 170

  _Coccyges_, 108

  Cockatiel, 93

  Cockatoo, 89, 91, _88_, _91_, _89_

  Cockatoo-Parrot, 93, _94_

  Cocktail, 144

  Codlin-Moth-eater, 130

  _Coerebidae_, 178

  _Coliidae_, 108

  _Colluricincla_, 149

  Coloration--

    Advertizing, _165_

    Protective, _21_, _156_

    Recognition, _165_

    Warning, _156_

  _Columbidae_, 17

  _Colymbidae_, 25

  Condor, 71

  _Conophagidae_, 113

  Cooers, _21_, _24_

  Cookaycock, 175

  Coot, 23, _22_

  _Coraciidae_, 105

  _Coracina_, 127

  _Corcorax_, 189

  Corella, 93

  Cormorant, 68, _68_

  Corn-Bird, 142

  Corn-Crake, 18, 131, _22_

  _Corone_, 188

  _Corvidae_, 188, _185_

  _Corvus_, 188

  Cotingas, 113

  _Cotingidae_, 113

  _Coturnix_, 13

  Courlan, 52

  Courser, 51

  Cowbird, 179

  Crab-Plover, 51

  _Cracidae_, 13

  _Cracticus_, 149

  Crake, 18, 22, 23, _22_

  Crane, 52, 60, _52_, _59_

  Cranky Fan, 124

  Creeper, 154, _154_

  Crossbill, 177

  Crow, 188, _12_, _185_

   "  White, 149, _150_

  Crow-Shrike, 149, 189

  Cuckoo, 108-111, _74_, _85_, _87_, _109_, _112_, _134_

  Cuckoo-Shrike, 126, _126_

  _Cuculidae_, 108

  _Cuculus_, 109

  Curassow, 13

  Curlew, 45, _39_, _49_, _50_

  Curlew, Black, 53

    "  Pygmy, 49

    "  -Sandpiper, 49

    "  -Stint, 49

    "  Stone, 51, _50_

  Currawong, 189

  _Cursoriidae_, 51

  Cutthroat, 151

  _Cyclopsittacidae_, 89

  _Cymodroma_, 27

  _Cypselidae_, 107

  _Cypselus_, 107


  Dabchick, 23, 24, 25

  _Dacelo_, 105

  _Daption_, 29

  Darter, 70, _69_

  Daw, _185_

  Deer, _165_

  _Demiegretta_, 61

  _Dendrocolaptidae_, 113

  _Dendrocygna_, 63

  Devil-Bird, 124, 144

  Diamond-Bird, 167, _166_

  Diamond Dyke, 167

  _Dicaeidae_, 166

  _Dicaeum_, 166

  _Dicruridae_, 187

  _Dicruropsis_, 187

  _Dicrurus_, 187

  _Didunculidae_, 18

  Dimorphism, 41

  Dinornis, 84

  _Diomedea_, 31

  _Diomedeidae_, 31

  Dipper, 132

  Dishwasher (e), 125

  Diver, 24, 25, 69, 70, _24_, _69_

  Diving-Petrel, 31, _32_

  Dog-Bird, 130

  Dollar Bird, 105, _105_

  Dottrel, 42-45, 133, _48_, _59_

  Dove, 16, 17, _21_, _39_

  Dove-Petrel, 30, 31, _27_

  _Drepanididae_, 175

  _Dromadidae_, 51

  _Dromaeidae_, 12

  _Dromaius_, 12

  Drongo, 187, _180_

  _Drymodes_, 129

  Dryweather-Bird, 53

  Duck, 63-67, _62-67_

  Dunlin, Little, 49

  Durbaner, 149


  Eagle,  81, _72_, _74_, _79_

    "  Bald (Amer.), 81, _26_, _39_, _72_, _74_

    "  Golden, 81, _72_, _74_, _79_

    "  Sea, 81, _39_, _74_, _79_, _84_

  Eaglehawk (e), 81, _72_

  _Echidna_, 11

  _Edolisoma_, 127

  Egg (size), _16_

  Egg-Bird, 40, _36_

  Egret, 60, 61, _54_, _59_

  Egypt, 172, _53_

  Eider Duck, _65_

  _Elanus_, 82

  Emu, 12, _11_, _13_, _15_, _109_, _187_

  Emu-Wren, 145, _141_

  _Entomophila_, 170

  _Entomyzon_, 175

  _Eopsaltria_, 152, _152_

  _Epthianura_, 133

  _Erismatura_, 67

  _Erolia_, 49

  _Erythrogonys_, 43

  _Eudyptula_, 25

  _Eulabetidae_, 187

  _Euphema_, 103

  _Eupodotis_, 51

  _Eurostopus_, 107

  _Eurylaemidae_, 111

  _Eurypygidae_, 53

  _Eurystomus_, 105

  _Eutolmaëtus_, 81

  _Excalfactoria_, 14


  _Falco_, 82

  Falcon, 82, 83, _72_, _79_

  _Falconidae_, 72

  Falcon-Shrike, 150

  _Falcunculus_, 150

  Fantail, 124, 125, _123_

  Fantail-Warbler, 142, _134_, _141_

  Farmer's Friend, 53

  Fern-Owl, 107

  Field-Lark, Little, 142

  Field-Wren, 131, _132_

  Fig-Bird, 187, _180_

  Fig-Parrot, 89

  Finch, 177-179, _178-180_, _134_

  Finfoot, 23

  Firetail, 179, _179_

  Fish Hawk, 84, _59_, _72_

  Flamingoes, 61

  Flickers, 111

  Flight-Bird, 103

  Flood-Bird, 111

  Flower-Pecker, 166

  Fluke, _148_

  Flute-Bird, 149

  Flycatcher, 113, 121-125, _121-123_

  Flyeater, 124

  Flying Coachman, 170

  Flying Phalanger, _11_

  Flysnapper, 124, 125

  _Formicariidae_, 113

  Four-o'clock, 175

  Fowl, Domestic, 13, _15_

  _Fregata_, 71

  _Fregatidae_, 71

  _Fregetta_, 27

  Friar-Bird, 175, _91_, _176_

  Frigate Bird, 71, _39_, _70_

  _Fringillidae_, 177, _179_

  Frog-Bird, 125

  Frogmouth, 104, _86_, _104_

  Fruit-Pigeon, 16, _21_

  _Fulica_, 23

  Fulmar, 27, 28, 29, _29_


  _Gabianus_, 41

  Galah, 91, 92, _92_, _93_

  _Galbulidae_, 111

  _Gallinago_, 50

  _Gallinula_, 23

  Gallinule, 23

  "  Purple, 23, _22_

  Gang-gang, 91, _92_

  Gannet, 71, _70_

  Gar, 133

  Gardener-Bird, 187

  Garefowl, 33

  _Garrodia_, 27

  _Garzetta_, 61

  Gaunt, 25

  _Gaviidae_, 25

  _Gelochelidon_, 35

  _Geobasileus_, 143

  _Geopelia_, 17

  _Geopsittacus_, 103

  _Gerygone_, 124

  Gill-Bird, 174

  _Glareolidae_, 51

  Glass-eye, 155

  _Gliciphila_, 170

  _Glossopsittacus_, 89

  _Glottis_, 47

  Glutton, 29

  Goatsucker, 104, 107, _107_

  Goaway, 131

  Godwit, 47, _39_, _49_

  Golden Robin, _180_

  Goldfinch, 177, _178_

  Goose, 62, _62_, 63, 67

  Goshawk, 72, 73, _74_

  Gould League, _114_

  _Gouridae_, 18

  Grackle, 179

  _Grallina_, 148

  Grape-eater, 155

  Grass-Bird, 142

  Grasshopper-Hawk, 109

  Grass-Warbler, 142

  Grass-Wren, 146, _141_

  Graucalus, 126, 127

  _Graucalus_, 127

  Grebe, 24, 25, _24_

  Greenfinch, 177, _178_

  Greenie, 172, _169_, _174_

  Green Keet, 89, _90_, _100_

  Green Leek, 93, _94_, _90_

  Green Leek (e), 89, _94_

  Greenlet, 147

  Greenshank, 47

  Grinder, 125, _126_

  Grosbeak, 177

  Ground-Bird, 128, _129_

  Ground-Diamond, 167

  Ground-Dove, 17, 128

  Ground-Lark, 176, _176_

  Ground-Pigeon, 17

  Ground-Thrush, 128, 133

  Ground-Wren, 129

  Grouse, 13

  _Gruidae_, 52

  Guacharo, 104

  Guan, 13

  Guillemot, 33

  Guinea-a-week, 129

  Guinea-Fowl, 14

  Gull, 34, 35, 41, _35_, _39_, _40_, _41_, _59_

  _Gymnorhina_, 149

  _Gypoictinia_, 82

  Gyrfalcon, 83


  _Haematopus_, 43

  Hakoakoa, 41

  _Halcyon_, 105

  _Haliaëtus_, 81

  _Haliastur_, 81

  _Halobaena_, 29

  Hammer-Head, 60

  Happy-Family, 130, _131_

  Happy Jack, 130, _131_

  Harbinger of Spring, 109

  Hardhead, 67, _65_

  Harrier, 72, 73, _72_, _74_

  Harvest-Bird, 131, _133_

  Hawk, 81, 83, 109, _72_, _74_, _79_, _87_

  Hawk Owl, 85, _86_

  Headache-Bird, _166_

  Hedge-Sparrow, 132

  _Heliornithidae_, 23

  Hemipode, 15

  _Herodias_, 60

  Heron, 60, 61, _53_, _59_

  _Heteropygia_, 49

  _Hieracidea_, 83

  _Himantopus_, 45

  _Hirundinidae_, 120

  _Hirundo_, 120

  Hoactzin, 18

  Hobby, 83

  Honey-Bird, 168

  Honey-Creeper, 178

  Honey-eater, 168-175, _74_, _91_, _126_, _168-176_, _190_

  Honey-guide, 111

  Honey-sucker, 168

  Hoopoe, 106

  Hopper, 130

  Houtman Abrolhos, _36_

  Humming-Birds, 108, 169, 170, _109_

  _Hydrochelidon_, 34

  _Hydroprogne_, 35


  _Hylacola_, 129

  _Hypotaenidia_, 18


  _Ibididae_, 53

  _Ibis_, 53, _53_, _54_

  _Icteridae_, 179, _180_

  _Indicatoridae_, 111

  _Irrisoridae_, 106


  Jabiru, 60, _54_

  Jacamar, 111

  Jacana, 51

  Jackass, 105, 149, _106_

  Jackdaw, 188, _185_

  Jacky Martin, 147

  Jacky Winter, 121, _122_

  Jaeger, 41

  Jay, 126, 127, 188, 189, _126_, _185_

  Jenny-Wren, 133, 142

  Jerryang, 89

  Jumper, 130, 188, _186_


  Kagu, 53

  Kahu, 73

  Kaka, 88

  Kaoriki, 61

  Karakahia, 67

  Kea, 88

  Kelp-Pigeon, 42

  Kestrel, 83, _73_, _80_, _81_

  Kingbird, 113

  King-Crow, 187

  Kingfisher, 105, 106, 107, _11_, _39_, _105_, _106_, _190_

  Kinglet, 153

  Kirombo, 104

  Kite, 81, 82, _79_

  Kiwi, 13, _13_

  Knot, 49

  Knot-Snipe, 49

  Kookaburra, 105

  Kuaka, 47

  Kuia, 28

  Kuruwhengi, 66


  _Lalage_, 127

  Landrail, 18, _22_

  Land-Snipe, 49

  Land-Wagtail, 124

  _Laniidae_, 149

  Lapwing (e), 127

  _Laridae_, 34

  Lark, 176, _133_

  _Larus_, 41

  Leatherhead, 127, 175

  _Leipoa_, 13

  _Leptosomatidae_, 104

  Letter-Bird, 53

  _Leucosarcia_, 18, _21_

  _Licmetis_, 93

  _Ligurinus_, 177

  _Limosa_, 47

  Limpkin, 52

  Linnet, 172, 177, 179

  _Lipoa_, 13

  _Lobivanellus_, 43

  Logger-Head, _66_

  Lombok, _91_

  Longbill, 50

  Longshanks, 45

  Loon, 25

  _Lophaethyia_, 25

  _Lophoictinia_, 82

  _Lopholaimus_, 16

  _Loriidae_, 88

  Lorikeet, 88, 89, 103, _74_, _89_, _90_, _99_, _156_

  Lory, 88, 93, 100, 101

  Love-Bird, 103, 171, _100_

  Lowan, 13

  Lowry, 100

  Lyrebird, 112, _11_, _112_, _113_, _190_


  Macaw, 93, _89_

  Macquarie-Hen, 23

  _Macronectes_, 29

  _Macropterygidae_, 107

  Magpie, 148, 149, 189, _150_, _151_, _190_

  "  Br., 188, _151_, _185_

  Magpie-Lark, 148, _147_

  _Majaqueus_, 28

  Major Mitchell, 91, _93_

  _Malacorhynchus_, 67

  Mallard, 65, _63_

  Mallee-Fowl, 13, _15_

  _Malurus_, 144

  Mannikin, 113

  Man-of-war-bird, 31, 71

  _Manorina_, 173

  Marsh-Harrier, 73

  Marsh-Tringa, 49

  Marsh-Warbler, 142

  Marsupials, _11_, _52_

  Martin, 120, 121, 147, _121_, _146_

  Matuku, 60

  Matuku-Lurepo, 61

  Maycock, 43

  Mayfowl, 46

  _Megalestris_, 41

  _Megalurus_, 142

  Megapode, 13, _91_

  _Megapodiidae_, 13

  _Meleagridae_, 15

  _Meliornis_, 172

  _Meliphaga_, 170

  _Meliphagidae_, 168

  _Melithreptus_, 168

  _Melopsittacus_, 103

  _Menura_, 112

  _Menuridae_, 112

  _Meropidae_, 106

  _Merops_, 107

  _Merula_, 132

  _Mesocalius_, 109

  _Mesoenatidae_, 53

  _Mesophoyx_, 60

  _Mesoscolopax_, 46

  Micky, 173

  _Microeca_, 121

  _Microtribonyx_ see _Tribonyx_, 23

  _Milvus_, 81

  _Mimetes_, 187

  _Mimidae_, 132

  Miner, 173, _169_, _174_

  _Mirafra_, 177

  Mistletoe-Bird, 166

  Mistletoe-Swallow, 166, _165_

  _Mniotiltidae_, 175

  Mocker, 175

  Mocking-Bird, 114, 132, 175

  Mock Regent Bird, 170

  Mollymawk, 31, 32, 33

  _Momotidae_, 107

  _Monarcha_, 125

  Monk, 175

  Monotremata, 11

  Moor-Hen, 23, _22_

  Mopoke, 104, _86_, _85_, _104_

  Mormon-Wren, 144

  Morning-Bird, 125

  _Motacillidae_, 176

  Mother Carey's Chicken, 26, 27, _30_

  Mother Carey's Goose, 29

  Moth-Owl, 104, 107

  Motmot, 107

  Mound-builders, 13, _11_, _15_, _16_, _190_

  Mourner, 149

  Mouse-Bird, 108

  Mud Island, _30_, _36_

  Mudlark, 148

  Murre, 33

  _Muscicapidae_, 121

  _Musophagidae_, 108

  Mutton Bird, 28, _32_

  " (e), 174, 189

  _Myiagra_, 125

  Myna, 187, _156_

  _Myzantha_, 173

  _Myzomela_, 169


  Native Bear, 73

  Native Companion, 52, _52_, _53_

  Native-Hen, 23, _22_

  Native Pheasant, 13

  Nature-study, _48_, _190_

  _Nectariniidae_, 168

  Nelly, 29

  _Neognathae_, 13, _14_

  _Neophema_, 102, _99_

  _Neositta_, 153

  Nestor, 88

  _Nestoridae_, 88

  _Nettium_, 65

  Night Hawk (e), 28, 107, _107_, _108_

  Night Heron, 61, _53_, _59_

  Nightingale, 132, _133_

  Nightjar, 104, 107, _107_

  _Ninox_, 85

  Noddy, 34, _35_, _36_, _39_, _40_

  North Pole, 26

  _Notophoyx_, 60

  _Numenius_, 45

  _Numididae_, 14

  Nun, 133, _134_

  Nutcracker, 188, _185_

  Nuthatch, 153, _153_

  _Nycticorax_,  61


  _Oceanites_, 26, _31_

  _Ochthodromus_, 44

  _Ocyphaps_, 18

  _Odontophoridae_, 15

  _Oedicnemidae_, 51

  _Oestrelata (Æstrelata)_

  Oil-Bird, 104

  Olive, 43

  _Opisthocomidae_, 18

  _Oreocichla_, 133

  _Oreoica_, 151

  Organ-Bird, 149, _150_

  Oriole, 179, 187, _180_

  _Oriolidae_, 187

  _Ornithorhynchus_, _11_

  Osprey, 84, _59_, _72_, _81_, _84_

  Ostrich, 12, _13, 109_

  _Otididae_, 51

  Owl, 85, _74_, _84_, _87_

  Owlet Nightjar, 104

  Owl-Parrot, 103

  Oxpecker, 187

  _Oxyrhamphidae_, 113

  Oyster-catcher, 43, _39_, _46_


  _Pachycephala_, 151, _152_

  Pacific O., 26, _33_

  Painted Lady, 45

  _Palaeognathae_, 12, _14_

  _Palamedeidae_, 61

  _Pandion_, 84

  _Pandionidae_, 84

  Panther-Bird, _167_

  _Paradiseidae_, 187

  _Paramythidae_, 187

  Pardalote, 167, _165_, _167_

  _Pardalotus_, 167

  Parera, 65

  _Paridae_, 153, _141_, _153_

  Parra, 51

  Parrakeet, see Parrot

  _Parridae_, 51

  Parrot, 88, 93-103, _11_, _88-101_, _190_

  Partridge, 13, 15

  _Passer_, 177

  _Passeres_, _119_

  Peafowl, 13, _15_

  Peary, _26_

  _Pedionomus_, 15

  Pee-wee, 148, _148_

  Peewee Lark, 127

  Peewit, 148

  _Pelagodroma_, 27, _30_

  _Pelecanidae_, 71

  _Pelecanoides_, 31

  _Pelecanoididae_, 31

  _Pelecanus_, 71

  Pelican, 71, _71_

  _Peltohyas_, 45

  Penguins, 25, _25_, _26_

  _Penguinus_, 25

  Perching Birds, 113, _119_

  _Peristeridae_, 17

  Peter-Peter, 121, _127_

  Petrel, 27-31, _27_, _30-39_

  _Petrochelidon_, 121

  _Petroica_, 122

  _Pezoporus_, 103

  _Phaëthontidae_, 71

  _Phalacrocoracidae_, 68

  _Phalacrocorax_, 68

  _Phaps_, 17

  _Phasianidae_, 13

  Pheasant, 13, 112, _15_

  _Philemon_, 175

  _Philepittidae_, 113

  Phoebe, 113

  _Phoebetria_, 33

  _Phoenicopteridae_, 61

  _Phytotomidae_, 113

  Picarian Birds, 104, _104_

  _Picidae_, 111

  Pickwick, 167

  Piculets, 111

  Pigeon, 16-18, _11_, _21_, _126_, _127_

  Pilot-Bird, 129, _129_

  Pimlico, 175

  Pine-Bird, 130

  Pintado, 29

  Pintail, 107

  Pipit, 176, _133_, _176_

  Pipiwharauroa, 111

  _Pipridae_, 113

  _Pisobia_, 49

  _Pitta_, _119_

  _Pittidae_, 113, _119_

  Plantain-eater, 108

  Plant-cutters, 113

  _Platalea_, 53

  _Plataleidae_, 53

  _Platibis_, 60

  _Platycercus_, 100

  Platypus, _11_

  _Plectoramphus_, 169

  _Plegadis_, 53

  _Ploceidae_, 178, _179_

  _Plotidae_, 70

  _Plotus_, 70

  Plover, 43-45, _39_, _42_, _46_, _49_, _59_, _148_

  Pluff, 149

  Plumage, Eclipse, _64_

  "  Phase, 41

  _Podargidae_, 104

  _Podargus_, 104, _105_

  _Podiceps_, 24

  _Podicipedidae_, 24

  Pohowera, 44

  _Polytelis_, 93

  _Pomatorhinus_, 130

  Poor Soldier, 175

  _Porphyrio_, 23

  Port Egmont Hen, 41

  _Porzana_, 18

  Postboy, 121

  Post-sitter, 121, _121_

  Prairie-Fowl, 13

  Pratincole, 51, _50_

  Pretty Joey, _127_

  Priocella, 28

  _Priofinus_, 28

  Prion, 27, 30, 31

  _Prion_, 29, 30, 31

  _Prionopidae_, 148, _148_

  _Procellaria_, 28

  _Procellariidae_, 26

  _Procniatidae_, 178

  _Promeropidae_, 168

  Promerops, 168

  _Psephotus_, 101

  _Pseudogerygone_, 124

  _Psittacidae_, 93

  _Psophiidae_, 53

  _Psophodes_, 129

  Ptarmigan, 13

  _Pteroclididae_, 15

  _Pteropodocys_, 126

  _Pteroptochidae_, 113

  _Ptilonorhynchidae_, 187

  _Ptilonorhynchus_, 187

  _Ptilotis_, 171, 172

  Puff-Birds, 111

  Puffin, 33

  _Puffinidae_, 27

  _Puffinus_, 27

  Pugwall, 148

  Pukeko, 23

  Putoto, 23

  _Pycnonotidae_, 127

  _Pycnoptilus_, 129


  Quail, 13, 14, 15, _15_, _17_, _21_

  Quarrion, 93


  Rabbit, _165_, _180_

  Racehorse, _66_

  Rail, 18, 23

  Rain-Bird, 111, 189

  Rainbow Bird, 107

  _Rallidae_, 18

  _Raptores_, _74_

  _Ratitae_, 12, _13_

  Ratite, _52_

  Raven, 188, _185_, _186_

  Razorbill, 33

  _Recurvirostra_, 45

  Redbill, 23, 43, 179, _46_

  Redbreast, _122_

  Redhead, 123, 179

  Redpoll, 177

  Redstart, 132

  Redthroat, 143

  Redwing, 179

  Reed-Bird, 142

   "  -Lark, 131

   "  -Nightingale, 142

   "  Warbler, 142, _134_
  Reef Heron, 61, _39_, _59_

  Regent-Bird, 187

  _Regulidae_, 153

  _Rhamphastidae_, 111

  Rhea, 12, _13_

  _Rheidae_, 12

  Rhinoceros-Bird, 187

  _Rhinochetidae_, 53

  _Rhipidura_, 124, 125

  _Rhynchaea_, 50

  Riflebird, 187, _180_

  Ring Coachman, 151

  Ringeye, 155, 172

  Ringlet, 133

  Ringneck, 101, 133, 172, _99_

  Robin, 122, 123, _122_, _127_

    "  (Br.), 132, _122_

    "  (Scrub), 129, _129_

    "  (Shrike), 152, _152_

  Rock-Dove, 17

  Rock-Pebbler, 93, _94_

  Rock-Pigeon, 15

  Roller, 105

    "  Madagascar, 104

  Rook, 188, _185_

  Rosella, 93, 100, 101, _94_

  Rostratula, 50

  Rush-Warbler, 131


  Saltbush Canary, 133, _134_

  Sanderling, 48

  Sand-Grouse, 15

  Sandlark, 44

  Sand-Martin, 121

  Sandpiper, 43, 47, 49, 107, _39_, _43_

  Sandwich Is. Honey-eaters, 175

  Saria, 53

  Satin-Bird, 187

  Scale-Bird, 109, _110_

  Scissors Grinder, 125, _123_, _126_

  Scooper, 45

  _Scopidae_, 60

  Scratcher, _15_, _24_

  Screamer, 61

  Scrub-Birds, 113, _119_

  Scrub-Curlew, 51

  Scrub-Fowl, 13

  Scrub-Tit, 124

  Scrub-Warbler, 129

  Scrub-Wren, 143, 144, _141_

  _Scythrops_, 111

  Seagull (see Gull)

  Sea-Hawk, 41

  Seal-Bird, 28

  Seapie, 43

  Sea-Pigeon, 41

  Sea-Pirate, 41, _40_

  Sea-Swallow, 40, _35_

  Secretary-Bird, 72

  Seed-Plover, 42

  Seed-Snipe, 42

  _Seisura_, 125

  Semitone-Bird, 109

  _Sericornis_, 143

  Seriema, 53

  _Serpentariidae_, 72

  Settler's Clock, 105

  Sexual Selection, 21

  Shag, 68, 69, 70, _68_

  Shearwater, 27, 28, _27_

  Sheathbill, 42

  Sheldrake, 65, _63_

  Shepherd's Companion, 125

  Shieldrake, 65, _63_

  Shoebill, 60

  Shoebird, 60

  Shoveller, 66, _64_

  Shrike, 127, 149, _149_

  Shrike-Tit, 150, _151_

  Sickle-bill, 53

  Silve, 155

  Silver-eye, 155, _39_, _156_

  Singing-Lark, 131

  _Sittella_, 153

  _Sittidae_, 153, _153_

  Skimmers, 34, _35_

  Skua, 41, _35_, _40_, _41_, _165_

  Skunk, 165

  Skylark, 131, 176, 177, _132_, _133_, _177_

  _Smicrornis_, 124

  Smoker, 93, 101, _94_

  Snake-Bird, 70, 173, _69_

  Snipe, 45, 47, 49, 50, _48_, _49_, _90_

  Snow-Bird, 31

  Solan Goose, 71, _70_

  Soldier, 148, 173

  Song Birds, _119_

  Song-Lark, 131, _133_

  Song Thrush, 133, _134_

  Sparrow, 125, 167, 177, 178, 179, _114_, _134_, _178_

  Sparrowhawk, 80, 82, 83, _73_, _74_, _81_, _112_

  _Spatula_, 66

  Speckled Jack, 142, _141_

  Spectacled-Bird, 155

  _Spheniscidae_, 25

  _Sphenura_, 145

  Spider, 165

  Spinebill, 170

  Spinetail, 107, 113

  Spinks, 121

  Spoonbill, 53, 60, _53_, _54_

  _Squatarola_, 43

  Squeaker, 153, 173, 189

  _Stagonopleura_, 179

  Star-Bird, 105

  Starling, 179, 186, _180_

     "  Shining, 187, _180_

  Steamer Duck, _65_

  _Steatornithidae_, 104

  _Stercorariidae_, 41

  _Stercorarius_, 41

  _Sterna_, 35

  Stick-Bird, 131

  Stick-tail, 145

  _Stictonetta_, 67

  Stilt, 45, _47_

  _Stiltia_, 51

  Stink-Bird, 131, _132_

  Stinker, 66

  Stinkpot, 29

  Stint, 49

  _Stipiturus_, 145

  Stockwhip-Bird, 129

  Stone-Plover, 51, _50_, _51_

  Stork, 60, _54_

    "  Whaleheaded, 60

  Storm-Bird, 109, 111

  Storm-Petrel, 26, _27_, _30_, _31_

  Straw-Tails, 71

  _Strepera_, 189, _39_, _112_, _185_, _186_, _187_

  _Streperidae_, 189

  _Strigidae_, 86

  _Stringopidae_, 103

  _Strix_, 86

  _Struthidea_, 188

  _Struthionidae_, 12

  Stump-Bird, 121

  _Sturnidae_, 179

  _Sturnus_, 186

  _Sula_, 71

  _Sulidae_, 71

  Summer-Bird, 127, _146_

  Sun-Bird, 168

  Sun-Bittern, 53

  Superb-Warbler, 144, 145, _141_, _149_, _190_

  Swallow, 120, _109_, _120_, _147_

  Swallow-Plover, 51, _50_

  Swallow-Shrike, 147

  Swamp-Hawk, 72, 73, _74_

  Swamp-Hen, 23

  Swamp-Rail, 23

  Swan, 62, _62_

  Swift, 107, _90_, _108_, _121_

  _Sylviidae_, 142, _134_, _153_

  _Synoicus_, 13


  _Taeniopygia_, 179

  Tailor Bird, _134_

  Takupu, 71

  Tanager, 178

  _Tanagridae_, 178

  Tang, 133, _134_

  Taonui, 28

  Tapaculo, 113

  Tapir, _52_

  Taraiti, 40

  Taranui, 35

  Tauhou, 155

  Teal, 65, _64_

  Teaser, 41

  Tee-tee, 31

  Tern, 34-40, _35-39_, _59_, _109_

  Ternlet, 40

  _Tetraonidae_, 13

  _Thalassogeron_, 33

  Thickhead, 151, 152, _21_, _130_, _151_, _190_

  Thick-Knee, 51

  _Thinocorythidae_, 42

  Thornbill, 142, 143, _141_

  Thrasher, 132

  Thrush, 132, 133, 149, 151, 187, _133_, _148_, _149_

    "  Shrike,  149, _134_

  Thunder-Bird, 151

  Tilt-Birds, 113

  _Timeliidae_, 128, _128_

  _Tinamidae_, 12, 13

  Tinamous, 13, _14_

  Tintac, 133, _134_

  Tit (_Acanthiza_) see Tit-Warbler

  Tit (_Paridae_), 153, _141_, _152_

  Titmouse, 153, _152_

  Tit-Warbler, 142, 143, _141_

  _Todidae_, 107

  Todies, 107

  Tom Pudding, 25

  Tomtit, 142

  Torea, 43

  Toreo-pango, 43

  Toroa, 31

  Toucan, 111

  Touraco, 108

  Tree-Creeper, 154, 155, _154_, _156_

  Tree-runner, 153, _153_

  Tree-Swifts, 107

  Tree-Tit, 124

  _Treronidae_, 16

  _Tribonyx_, 23

  _Trichoglossus_, 88

  _Tringa_, 49

  _Tringoides_, 47

  _Trochilidae_, 108

  _Troglodytidae_, 132

  _Trogonidae_, 108

  Trogons, 108

  Tropic-Bird, 71

  _Tropidorhynchus_, 175

  Trumpeters, 53

  Tube-nosed Swimmers, 26

  _Tubinares_, 26

  _Turdidae_, 132, _133_

  _Turdus_, 133

  Turkey, 15

  Turkey-Bird, 170

  _Turnicidae_, 15

  _Turnix_, 15

  Turnstone, 42, _39_, _46_

  Turtle-Dove, 17, _156_

  _Turtur_, 17

  _Tyrannidae_, 113

  Tyrant-Bird, 113


  Unicorn-Bird, 61

  _Upupidae_, 106

  _Uroaëtus_, 81


  _Vangidae_, 147

  Village Blacksmith, 35

  _Vireonidae_, 147

  Vireos, 147

  Vulture, 71, 72, _11_, _190_

    " of the Seas, 29

  _Vulturidae_, 72


  Waders, 42, _42_

  Wagtail, 125, 176, 177

  Wallace's Line, _11_, _17_, _91_, _168_

  Wanderer, 15, _17_, _21_

  Warbler, 142-146, 124, 175, _134_, _153_

  Water-Hen, 23

  Water-Ouzel, 132

  Water-Pheasant, 51

  Water-Sparrow, 142

  Water-Turkey, _69_

  Wattle-Bird, 174, 175, _169_, _175_

  Waxbill, 179

  Waxwing, 147

  Weaver-Birds, _179_

  Weaver-Finches, 178, _179_

  Wedgebill, _153_

  Whale-Bird, 30, 31

  Wheatear, 132

  Whimbrel, 46, _49_

  Whip-Bird, 129

  Whiroia, 31

  Whistler, 151, 153, _21_, _130_, _151_, _152_

  White-eye, 155, _155_, _156_

  Whiteface, 153, _153_

  White-tail, 121

  Whitethroat, 133

  White-tipped tail, _156_

  Who-are-you, 125

  Wide-Awake, 40

  Wide-Awake Fair, _36_

  Widgeon, 67, _65_

  Wild-Canary, 152

  Wild-Cat, _73_

  Wild Turkey, 51, _51_

  Willaroo, 51

  Willie-Wagtail, 125, _121_, _123_

  Willie-Willock, 92

  Windhover, 83, _81_

  Wittychu, 167

  Wood-hewer, 113

  Wood Hoopoe, 106

  Woodpecker, 111, 153, 154, 155, _11_, _91_, _154_, _190_

  Wood-Pigeon, 17

  Wood-Shrike, 148, _147_

  Wood-Swallow, 147, _146_

  Wren, 113, 132, 144, 153

   " Tits, 153

  Wrynecks, 111


  _Xenicidae_, 113, _119_

  _Xerophila_, 153, _153_


  Yabbie, _59_, _69_

  Yahoo, 130

  Yellow-tail, 143, _141_

  Yellow-Whiskers, 172

  Yellow Wings, 173


  _Zonaeginthus_, 179

  _Zonifer_, 43

  _Zosteropidae_, 155

  _Zosterops_, 155





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