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Title: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic - A Guide to Their Identification
Author: Leatherwood, Stephen, Caldwell, David, Winn, Howard
Language: English
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       *       *       *       *       *



  NOAA Technical Report NMFS CIRC-396



  Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic

  A Guide to Their Identification


  STEPHEN LEATHERWOOD, DAVID K. CALDWELL,
  and HOWARD E. WINN

  with special assistance by
  William E. Schevill and Melba C. Caldwell


  SEATTLE, WA
  AUGUST 1976

  UNITED STATES
  DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
  Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary
                     / NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
                    /  ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
                   /   Robert M. White, Administrator
                                              / National Marine
                                             /  Fisheries Service
                                            /   Robert W. Schoning, Director

  [Illustration: NOAA logo]

  For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
                            Washington, D.C. 20402

        Stock No. 003-020-00119-0 / Catalog No. C 55.13: NMFS CIRC-396



PREFACE


In March 1972, the Naval Undersea Center (NUC), San Diego, Calif. in
cooperation with the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Tiburon,
Calif. published a photographic field guide--_The Whales, Dolphins and
Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific. A Guide to Their Identification
in the Water_, by S. Leatherwood, W.E. Evans, and D.W. Rice (NUC TP
282). This guide was designed to assist the layman in identifying the
cetaceans he encountered in that area and was intended for use in two
ongoing whale observer programs, NUC's Whale Watch and NMFS's Platforms
of Opportunity. The rationale of these programs was that since
oceanographers, commercial and sport fishermen, naval personnel,
commercial seamen, pleasure boaters, and coastal aircraft pilots
together canvas large areas of the oceans which scientists specializing
in whales (cetologists) have time and funds to survey only occasionally,
training those persons in species identification and asking them to
report their sightings back to central data centers could help
scientists more clearly understand distribution, migration, and seasonal
variations in abundance of cetacean species. For such a program to work,
a usable field guide is a requisite. Because the many publications on
the whales, dolphins, and porpoises of this region were either too
technical in content or too limited in geographical area or species
covered to be of use in field identification, and because conventional
scientific or taxonomic groupings of the animals are often not helpful
in field identification, the photographic field guide took a different
approach. Instead of being placed into their scientific groups, species
were grouped together on the basis of similarities in appearance during
the brief encounters typical at sea. Photographs of the animals in their
natural environment, supplemented by drawings and descriptions or tables
distinguishing the most similar species, formed the core of the guide.

Despite deficiencies in the first effort and the inherent difficulties
of positively identifying many of the cetacean species at sea, the
results obtained from the programs have been encouraging. Many seafarers
who had previously looked with disinterest or ignorance on the animals
they encountered became good critical observers and found pleasure in
the contribution they were making. The potential for the expansion of
such observer programs is enormous.

Because of these initial successes and the large number of requests for
packets from persons working at sea off the Atlantic coast of North
America, this guide was planned. Many of the errors and deficiencies of
the Pacific Guide have been corrected, and the discussions of the ranges
of many of the species have been expanded with considerations of the
major oceanographic factors affecting their distribution and movements.
While the present volume, like the Pacific Guide, is intended as an aid
to the identification of living animals at sea, new materials have been
provided to aid in the identification and reporting of stranded
specimens, a major source of data and study material for museums. This
new dimension is expected to assist the U.S. National Museum, various
regional museums, and other researchers actively collecting cetacean
materials for display and study in the implementation of their stranded
animal salvage programs. Through a cooperative effort of this kind, the
best possible use can be made of all materials that become available.

As a part of continuing research, this guide will be revised whenever
possible. Suggestions for its improvement will at all times be welcome.

       *       *       *       *       *

Funds for the preparation of this guide were provided by a grant to
Stephen Leatherwood from the Platforms of Opportunity Program, National
Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, Tiburon, Calif., Paul Sund, Coordinator.



CONTENTS

  Introduction                                                         1
  Classification of cetaceans                                          1
  Dolphin or porpoise                                                  5
  Organization of the guide                                            5
  How to use the guide                                                 7
    To identify animals at sea                                         7
    To identify stranded animals                                       7
    To record and report information                                   7
  Directory to species accounts:
    Large whales:
      With a dorsal fin                                               10
      Without dorsal fin                                              13
    Medium-sized whales:
      With a dorsal fin                                               14
      Without dorsal fin                                              15
    Small whales, dolphins, and porpoises with a dorsal fin           16
  Species accounts:
    Large whales with a dorsal fin:
      Blue whale                                                      19
      Fin whale                                                       26
      Sei whale                                                       32
      Bryde's whale                                                   37
      Humpback whale                                                  40
    Large whales without dorsal fin:
      Bowhead whale                                                   49
      Right whale                                                     52
      Sperm whale                                                     57
    Medium-sized whales with a dorsal fin:
      Minke whale                                                     63
      Northern bottlenosed whale                                      67
      Goosebeaked whale                                               70
      Other beaked whales                                             74
        True's beaked whale                                           77
        Antillean beaked whale                                        78
        Dense-beaked whale                                            80
        North Sea beaked whale                                        82
      Killer whale                                                    84
      False killer whale                                              88
      Atlantic pilot whale                                            91
      Short-finned pilot whale                                        94
      Grampus                                                         96
    Medium-sized whales without dorsal fin:
      Beluga                                                          99
      Narwhal                                                        102
    Small whales, dolphins, and porpoises with a dorsal fin:
      Atlantic spotted dolphin                                       104
      Bridled dolphin                                                108
      Spinner dolphin                                                110
      Striped dolphin                                                113
      Saddleback dolphin                                             116
      Fraser's dolphin                                               120
      Atlantic white-sided dolphin                                   123
      White-beaked dolphin                                           126
      Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin                                   128
      Guiana dolphin                                                 132
      Rough-toothed dolphin                                          135
      Pygmy killer whale                                             138
      Many-toothed blackfish                                         142
      Pygmy sperm whale                                              144
      Dwarf sperm whale                                              148
      Harbor porpoise                                                150
  Acknowledgments                                                    152
  Selected bibliography                                              152

  Appendix A, Tags on whales, dolphins, and porpoises                154

  Appendix B, Recording and reporting observations of cetaceans
    at sea                                                           160

  Appendix C, Stranded whales, dolphins, and porpoises; with a key
    to the identification of stranded cetaceans of the western
    North Atlantic                                                   163

  Appendix D, Recording and reporting data on stranded cetaceans     169

  Appendix E, List of institutions to contact regarding stranded
    cetaceans                                                        171


    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve,
    recommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material
    mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS,
    or to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or
    sales promotion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves,
    recommends or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary
    material mentioned herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to
    cause directly or indirectly the advertised product to be used or
    purchased because of this NMFS publication.



  Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic

  A Guide to Their Identification


  STEPHEN LEATHERWOOD,[1] DAVID K. CALDWELL,[2] and HOWARD E. WINN[3]

  with special assistance by
  William E. Schevill[4] and Melba C. Caldwell[2]

[Footnote 1: Biomedical Division, Undersea Sciences Department, Naval
Undersea Center, San Diego, CA 92132.]

[Footnote 2: Biocommunication and Marine Mammal Research Facility, C. V.
Whitney Marine Research Laboratory of the University of Florida, St.
Augustine, FL 32084.]

[Footnote 3: Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode
Island, Kingston, RI 02881.]

[Footnote 4: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543
and Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
02138.]


ABSTRACT

This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the
cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the western
North Atlantic, including the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the
coastal waters of the United States and Canada. The animals described
are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in
appearance in the field. Photographs of the animals in their natural
environment are the main aids to identification.

A dichotomized key is provided to aid in identification of stranded
cetaceans and appendices describe how and to whom to report data on live
and dead cetaceans.


INTRODUCTION

All whales, dolphins, and porpoises belong to an order or major
scientific group called the Cetacea by scientists. They are all mammals
(air-breathing animals which have hair in at least some stage of their
development, maintain a constant body temperature, bear their young
alive, and nurse them for a while) which have undergone extensive
changes in body form (anatomy) and function (physiology) to cope with a
life spent entirely in the water. The breathing aperture(s), called a
blowhole or blowholes, has (have) migrated to the top of the head to
facilitate breathing while swimming; the forward appendages have become
flippers; the hind appendages have nearly disappeared, they remain only
as small traces of bone deeply imbedded in the muscles. Propulsion is
provided by fibrous, horizontally flattened tail flukes.

Scientists recognize two suborders of living cetaceans: the whalebone
whales, suborder Mysticeti, and the toothed whales, suborder Odontoceti.
The two groups are separated in the following ways:

BALEEN OR WHALEBONE WHALES. These animals are called whalebone whales
because when fully formed instead of teeth they have up to 800 or more
plates of baleen or whalebone depending from the roof of the mouth. They
use these plates to strain their food, which consists of "krill"
(primarily small crustaceans) and/or small schooling fish, by taking
water into the mouth and forcing it out through the overlapping fringes
of the baleen plates. Baleen whales are externally distinguishable from
toothed whales by having paired blowholes. There are eight species of
baleen whales in the western North Atlantic, ranging in size from the
minke whale (just over 30 feet [about 9.1 m])[5] to the blue whale (85
feet [25.9 m]).

[Footnote 5: Throughout this guide, measurements are given first in feet
or inches, followed in parentheses by their equivalents in meters or
centimeters. It is recognized that field estimates cannot be as precise
as most of the conversions used.]

TOOTHED WHALES. Unlike the baleen whales, the toothed whales do have
teeth after birth. The teeth vary in number from 2 to over 250, though
they may sometimes be concealed beneath the gum. In addition, toothed
whales have only a single blowhole. This group includes the animals
commonly called dolphin or porpoise as well as some commonly called
whales (for example, the sperm whale). There are currently about 30
species of toothed whales known from the western North Atlantic, ranging
in maximum adult size from the common or harbor porpoise, which is
approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) long, up to the sperm whale which reaches a
length of 68 feet (20.7 m). Several other species which are expected to
be found in this region, though they have not yet been reported, are
also included in this guide.


CLASSIFICATION OF CETACEANS

In addition to the two suborders (Mysticeti and Odontoceti), the
cetacean order contains numerous families, genera, and species. Each of
these groupings represents a progressively more specialized division of
the animals into categories on the basis of similarities in their
skulls, postcranial skeletons, and external characteristics. The
discipline which concerns itself with naming an animal and assigning it
to its appropriate scientific category is known as taxonomy. An example
of the classification of a cetacean species is shown in the following:

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE
ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED DOLPHIN

  Kingdom:      Animalia      all animals

  Phylum:       Chordata      having at some stage a notochord,
                              the precursor of the backbone

  Subphylum:    Vertebrata    animals with backbones--fishes,
                              amphibians, reptiles, birds,
                              and mammals

  Class:        Mammalia      animals that suckle their young

  Order:        Cetacea       carnivorous, wholly aquatic
                              mammals: whales, including
                              dolphins and porpoises

  Suborder:     Odontoceti    toothed whales as distinguished
                              from Mysticeti, the baleen whales

  Family:       Delphinidae   dolphins

  Genus:        Tursiops      bottlenosed dolphins

  Species:      truncatus     Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin

Modern taxonomy had its origin with the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus,
whose tenth edition of the _Systema Naturae_ in 1758 forms the official
starting point. Following Linnaeus, modern scientific names consist of
two words, a generic name, which has an initial capital, and a species
name, which rarely does, occasionally in botany (some species names
deriving from a person's name are capitalized). Both names are usually
of Latin origin (sometimes Greek) and are italicized or underlined.
These scientific names are of particular importance because, although
common names of species often are different in different countries or
even in different regions of the same country, the scientific name
remains the same. For example, the right whale is universally known as
_Eubalaena glacialis_ though its common names include black right whale,
nordcaper, sletbag, Biscay whale, and Biscayan right whale.

Although classification of many species is still in a state of flux, the
classification of western North Atlantic cetaceans followed in this
guide is as follows:

                                                                         Page of
                                                                synoptic account
                                                                  of the species

  Order Cetacea

  Suborder Mysticeti--Baleen whales

    Family Balaenopteridae--Rorquals

      _Balaenoptera acutorostrata_ Lacepede 1804     Minke whale              63

      _Balaenoptera physalus_      (Linnaeus 1758)   Fin whale                26

      _Balaenoptera musculus_      (Linnaeus 1758)   Blue whale               19

      _Balaenoptera borealis_      Lesson 1828       Sei whale                32

      _Balaenoptera edeni_         Anderson 1879     Bryde's whale            37

      _Megaptera novaeangliae_     (Borowski 1781)   Humpback whale           40

    Family Balaenidae--Right whales

      _Balaena mysticetus_         Linnaeus 1758     Bowhead whale            49

      _Eubalaena glacialis_        (Borowski 1781)   Right whale              52

  Suborder Odontoceti--Toothed whales

    Family Ziphiidae

      _Mesoplodon bidens_          (Sowerby 1804)    North Sea
                                                     beaked whale             82

      _Mesoplodon densirostris_    (Blainville in    Dense-beaked
                                   Desmarest 1817)     whale                  80

      _Mesoplodon europaeus_       (Gervais 1855)    Antillean beaked whale   78

      _Mesoplodon mirus_           True 1913         True's beaked whale      77

      _Ziphius cavirostris_        G. Cuvier 1823    Goosebeaked whale        70

      _Hyperoodon ampullatus_      (Forster 1770)    Northern bottlenosed
                                                       whale                  67

    Family Physeteridae

      _Physeter catodon_           Linnaeus 1758     Sperm whale              57

      _Kogia breviceps_            (Blainville 1838) Pygmy sperm whale       144

      _Kogia simus_                (Owen 1866)       Dwarf sperm whale       148

    Family Monodontidae

      _Monodon monoceros_          Linnaeus 1758     Narwhal                 102

      _Delphinapterus leucas_      (Pallas 1776)     Beluga                   99

    Family Stenidae

      _Steno bredanensis_          (G. Cuvier in     Rough-toothed dolphin   135
                                   Lesson 1828)

      _Sotalia guianensis_         (P. J. van        Guiana dolphin          132
                                   Beneden 1864)

    Family Delphinidae

      _Peponocephala electra_      (Gray 1846)       Many-toothed blackfish  142

      _Feresa attenuata_           Gray 1874         Pygmy killer whale      138

      _Pseudorca crassidens_       (Owen 1846)       False killer whale       88

      _Globicephala melaena_       (Traill 1809)     Atlantic pilot whale     91

      _Globicephala                Gray 1846         Short-finned pilot whale 94
           macrorhynchus_

      _Orcinus orca_               (Linnaeus 1758)   Killer whale             84

      _Lagenorhynchus              Gray 1846         White-beaked dolphin    126
           albirostris_

      _Lagenorhynchus acutus_      (Gray 1828)       Atlantic white-sided
                                                       dolphin               123

      _Lagenodelphis hosei_        Fraser 1956       Fraser's dolphin        120

      _Tursiops truncatus_         (Montagu 1821)    Bottlenosed dolphin     128

      _Grampus griseus_            (G. Cuvier 1812)  Grampus                  96

      _Stenella longirostris_      Gray 1828         Spinner dolphin         110

      _Stenella frontalis_         (G. Cuvier 1829)  Bridled dolphin         108

      _Stenella coeruleoalba_      (Meyen 1833)      Striped dolphin         113

      _Stenella plagiodon_         (Cope 1866)       Spotted dolphin         104

      _Delphinus delphis_          Linnaeus 1758     Saddleback dolphin      116

    Family Phocoenidae

      _Phocoena phocoena_         (Linnaeus 1758)    Harbor porpoise         150

This tentative classification follows an unpublished list by W.E.
Schevill and E.M. Mitchell currently under review. The scientific names
are followed by the name of the individual who named the species and the
year of naming, and then by the common name most often used in the
western North Atlantic.[6] It may be noted that some of the authors are
in parentheses. This indicates that though the species name has remained
the same since the date of naming the species has since been assigned to
another genus. Because the species are not arranged in taxonomic order
in this field guide, the page of the synoptic account of each is
provided in the column to the right.

[Footnote 6: Most common names are based on some characteristic of the
species (e.g., spotted dolphin, striped dolphin, rough-toothed dolphin);
others are the names of authors of the species (e.g., True's beaked
whale) or of habitats or macrohabitats which they inhabit (e.g., North
Sea beaked whale and harbor porpoise); the origins of some common names,
however, are less obvious (e.g., dense-beaked whale), and of less use in
field references.]

[Illustration: Figure 1.--The western North Atlantic, from lat.
35°N-65°N.]

[Illustration: Figure 2.--The western North Atlantic, from lat. 37°N
south to eastern Venezuela.]

[Illustration: Figure 3.--A baleen whale (humpback) showing the main
body parts referred to in the text.]

[Illustration: Figure 4.--A fin whale in the North Atlantic with the
paired blowholes open during respiration. The paired blowholes
distinguish this animal as a baleen whale. (_Photo by W. A. Watkins._)]


DOLPHIN OR PORPOISE

There is still considerable controversy over the correct usage of the
terms dolphin and porpoise. As mentioned in the preceding section,
common names of any species may vary from locale to locale and even from
individual to individual. Some persons argue for the use of the term
porpoise for all small cetaceans. Others insist on the term dolphin.
Still others either randomly use the terms or call members of the family
Delphinidae dolphins and members of the family Phocoenidae porpoises.
The evidence supporting any one of these positions is confusing at best
and no usage of terms appears to be without problems. We see no wholly
satisfactory resolution to the problem at this time. For all these
reasons, we have little desire to defend our decision to follow the last
of these practices in this guide, referring to all members of the family
Delphinidae for which the term dolphin or porpoise appears in the common
name as dolphins, and to the one member of the family Phocoenidae
represented in the western North Atlantic, _Phocoena phocoena_, as the
harbor porpoise. Although all cetaceans may be regarded as whales, the
term "whale" most commonly applies to the larger animals. For all
species treated, other common names by which they may be known are also
listed.

Detailed treatment of the relative merits of the various terminologies
is inappropriate here. Furthermore, it is our opinion that the usage of
the terms dolphin, porpoise, and whale as part of the common names of
cetaceans is largely a matter of personal preference.


ORGANIZATION OF THE GUIDE

The differences between baleen and toothed whales are easy enough to see
in animals washed up on the beach or maintained in a tank at a zoo or
aquarium. But since an animal at sea can seldom be examined that
closely, its most obvious characteristics may be its overall size, the
presence or absence of a dorsal fin, its prominent coloration or
markings, its general behavior, or its swimming, blowing, and diving
characteristics. For that reason, regardless of their scientific
relationships, all the whales, dolphins, and the one porpoise covered in
the main text of this guide are divided into three groups. Those over 40
feet (12.2 m) long are discussed in the section on Large Whales, those
from 13 to 40 feet (4.0 to 12.2 m) in the Medium-Sized Whale, and those
less than 13 feet (4.0 m) in the Small Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoise
(with a dorsal fin). There are no small whales, dolphins, or porpoises
in this region without a dorsal fin. Each section is further divided
into those animals with a dorsal fin and those without. From that point,
animals likely to be confused in the field are grouped together and the
important differences between them are discussed.

The synoptic accounts of the species are followed by five appendices:
Appendix A discusses and illustrates man-made and applied tags and
natural markings on cetaceans and their importance in studies of natural
history. Appendix B discusses the data which are most important to
record in observations of cetaceans at sea, gives examples, and provides
blank sighting forms. Appendix C discusses possible causes of cetacean
strandings and the manner in which stranded animals should be handled
and adds a key and tables to aid in identifying stranded cetaceans.
Appendix D provides guidelines for collecting data on stranded cetaceans
and provides forms and specific instructions for taking standard
measurements. Appendix E lists institutions to be contacted in the event
of a cetacean stranding or for information.

A bibliography of useful references on cetaceans in general and
cetaceans of this region in particular and a directory to species
accounts are included.

[Illustration: Figure 5.--A humpback whale lying on its left side on the
deck of a Canadian whaling station. Note the fringes of baleen suspended
from the roof of the mouth. (_Photo by J. G. Mead_.)]

[Illustration: Figure 6.--Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin mother and calf
from northeastern Florida. Note the single open blowhole, a
characteristic that marks these animals as toothed whales. (_Photo
courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 7.--The open mouth of an Atlantic bottlenosed
dolphin from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. All toothed whales have
teeth, which are used primarily for grasping rather than for chewing.
The number varies from 2 to over 250, though they are buried beneath the
gums in females and immature animals of several species, take peculiar
form in one (narwhal), and are extensively worn in others. (_Photo by D.
K. Caldwell._)]


HOW TO USE THE GUIDE


To Identify Animals at Sea

The three major sections of the guide (i.e., large, medium, and small
whales) are preceded by a directory to species accounts, which is a
summary of the most obvious characteristics of each species and in which
summary statements about each characteristic are arranged in parallel
order. To use the guide to identify living animals observed at sea, a
person or persons should:


1. First estimate the animal's size and determine whether or not it has
a dorsal fin.

2. Note also any distinctive features of body shape and coloration and
observe its general behavior, including swimming, blowing, and diving
characteristics. It should be noted that coloration may vary somewhat at
sea, depending on light conditions and water clarity. For example,
animals which appear dark gray or black at the surface or when dead may
appear brown in good light or when submerged. Making a brief sketch at
this point may aid in identifying the animal or in later recalling its
distinctive features.

3. Using the directory, locate the section to which the animal probably
belongs.

4. Then, for more detailed information, consult the section indicated.
There you will find a more complete discussion of the animal's range,
size, and distinctive characteristics. In addition, you will find a
brief discussion distinguishing it from animals with which it is likely
to be confused in the field.

       *       *       *       *       *

This guide will probably work best if, in advance of attempting to use
the key in the field, the reader will familiarize himself with the
general outline, with characters or behaviors to note, and with the
locations of the various species accounts. It will also help if he
schools himself to ask a series of questions about the animal(s) he sees
at the time of the encounter rather than depending on his recall at a
later time (see p. 160). As we have emphasized several times in this
guide, positive identification of cetaceans at sea can only occasionally
be made on the basis of a single characteristic. Therefore, the greater
the amount of pertinent evidence an observer obtains, the greater the
likelihood he can make a reliable identification.


To Identify Stranded Animals

Stranded animals can best be identified by referring to Appendix C and
its associated tables, making a preliminary determination and then
consulting the species accounts in the main body of the book for
verification of the identification. As noted in that appendix, if the
animal is recently stranded, identification can be made using any of the
externally visible characteristics described for the living species at
sea. But even if the animal is in an advanced stage of decomposition, it
can usually be identified by referring to the key and to the numbers and
descriptions of baleen plates, for all baleen whales, and the numbers
and relative lengths of ventral grooves, for all balaenopterine whales
(Table 1), or to the tables on the numbers and descriptions of teeth,
for toothed whales (Table 2).


To Record and Report Information

As discussed in the preface, though learning to identify the whales,
dolphins, and porpoises one sees may be exciting in itself, many persons
may want to participate in the accumulation of data on these interesting
animals by routinely reporting their observations to scientists who are
actively studying them and who can make immediate use of the
information. The following may help these persons:


Suggestions for making and recording observations of cetaceans at sea
and sample data forms are included in Appendix C. Similar suggestions
for taking and recording data on stranded cetaceans are included in
Appendix D. For both types of data, blank data forms located after the
appendices may be photocopied in bulk for use in the field.

Completed data forms and all associated information for sightings at sea
should be forwarded to the Platforms of Opportunity Program, National
Marine Fisheries Service, Tiburon, CA 94920, or to one of the authors of
this guide. From there, they will be made available to scientists
actively studying the cetaceans of a given species or geographical area.

Completed data forms and all associated information for observations of
stranded cetaceans should be forwarded to the Division of Mammals, U.S.
National Museum, Washington, DC 20560, to one of the authors of this
guide, or to one of the regional laboratories listed in Appendix E.
These persons have, in turn, been encouraged to keep a free flow of
information among them.

Table 1. Ranges in Numbers of Teeth in Each Upper and Lower Jaw of
Western North Atlantic Odontocetes.

  [P] = Page of species account
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                      |                |   |Ranges in  |
                      |                |   |   tooth
                      |                |   |   counts  |
                      |    Species     |   |-----+-----|
  Species common name |scientific name |[P]|Upper|Lower|     Remarks
  --------------------+----------------+---+-----+-----+------------------------
  Sperm whale         |_Physeter_      | 57| 0   |18-25|Ten to sixteen upper
                      |  _catodon_     |   |     |     |  teeth _rarely_ emerge;
                      |                |   |     |     |  lower teeth fit into
                      |                |   |     |     |  sockets in upper jaw.
  Northern            |_Hyperoodon_    | 67| 0   | 2(2)|At tip of lower jaw;
    bottlenosed whale |  _ampullatus_  |   |     | [A] |  sometimes second
                      |                |   |     |     |  pair behind first.
  Goosebeaked whale   |_Ziphius_       | 70| 0   | 2[A]|At tip of lower jaw.[B]
                      |  _cavirostris_ |   |     |     |
  True's beaked whale |_Mesoplodon_    | 77| 0   | 2[A]|At tip of lower jaw.[B]
                      |  _mirus_       |   |     |     |
  Antillean beaked    |_Mesoplodon_    | 78| 0   | 2[A]|At suture of mandible.
    whale             |  _europaeus_   |   |     |     |  One-third of way
                      |                |   |     |     |  from tip of snout to
                      |                |   |     |     |  gape.[B]
  Dense-beaked whale  |_Mesoplodon_    | 80| 0   | 2[A]|On prominences near
                      |  _densirostris_|   |     |     |  corner of mouth;
                      |                |   |     |     |  oriented backwards.[b]
  North Sea beaked    |_Mesoplodon_    | 82| 0   | 2[A]|About halfway from
    whale             |  _bidens_      |   |     |     |  tip of snout to
                      |                |   |     |     |  gape.[B]
  Killer whale        |_Orcinus orca_  | 84|10-12|10-12|Prominent; curved and
                      |                |   |     |     |  oriented backwards
                      |                |   |     |     |  and inwards; pointed.
  False killer whale  |_Pseudorca_     | 88| 8-11| 8-11|Prominent; pointed
                      |  _crassidens_  |   |     |     |  and curved.
  Atlantic pilot whale|_Globicephala_  | 91| 8-10| 8-10|  -- --
                      |  _melaena_     |   |     |     |
  Short-finned pilot  |_Globicephala_  | 94| 7-9 | 7-9 |  -- --
    whale             |  _macrorhyncha_|   |     |     |
  Grampus             |_Grampus_       | 96| 0   | 0-7 |Near front of jaw;
                      |  _griseus_     |   |     |     |  may have fallen out
                      |                |   |     |     |  in older specimens;
                      |                |   |     |     |  sometimes teeth in
                      |                |   |     |     |  upper jaw.
  Beluga              |_Delphinapterus_| 99| 8-11| 8-9 |   -- --
                      |  _leucas_      |   |     |     |
  Narwhal             |_Monodon_       |102| 2   | 0[A]|One (rarely both)
                      |  _monoceros_   |   |     |     |  grows up to 9 ft
                      |                |   |     |     |  (2.5 m) tusk which
                      |                |   |     |     |  has left-hand
                      |                |   |     |     |  (sinestral) spiral.
  Spotted dolphin     |_Stenella_      |104|30-36|28-35|  -- --
                      |  _plagiodon_   |   |     |     |
  Bridled dolphin     |_Stenella_      |108|29-34|33-36|  -- --
                      |  _frontalis_   |   |     |     |
  Spinner dolphin     |_Stenella_      |110|46-65|46-65|  -- --
                      |  _longirostris_|   |     |     |
  Striped dolphin     |_Stenella_      |113|43-50|43-50|  -- --
                      |  _coeruleoalba_|   |     |     |
  Saddleback dolphin  |_Delphinus_     |116|40-50|40-50|  -- --
                      |  _delphis_     |   |     |     |
  Fraser's dolphin    |_Lagenodelphis_ |120|38-44|38-44|  -- --
                      |  _hosei_       |   |     |     |
  Atlantic white-sided|_Lagenorhynchus_|123|30-40|30-40|Some specimens have
    dolphin           |  _acutus_      |   |     |     |  more teeth in upper
                      |                |   |     |     |  than in lower jaw.
  White-beaked dolphin|_Lagenorhynchus_|126|22-28|22-28|  -- --
                      |  _albirostris_ |   |     |     |
  Atlantic bottlenosed|_Tursiops_      |128|20-26|18-24|  -- --
    dolphin           |  _truncatus_   |   |     |     |
  Guiana dolphin      |_Sotalia_       |132|26-35|26-35|  -- --
                      |  _guianensis_  |   |     |     |
  Rough-toothed       |_Steno_         |135|20-27|20-27|Crown is sometimes
    dolphin           |  _bredanensis_ |   |     |     |  marked with many
                      |                |   |     |     |  fine vertical
                      |                |   |     |     |  wrinkles.
  Pygmy killer whale  |_Feresa_        |138| 8-13|10-13|Many specimens have.
                      |  _attenuata_   |   |     |     |  fewer teeth on right
                      |                |   |     |     |  than on left side.
  Many-toothed        |_Peponocephala_ |142|22-25|21-24|  -- --
    blackfish         |  _electra_     |   |     |     |
  Pygmy sperm whale   |_Kogia_         |144| 0   |12-16|Rarely 10 or 11;
                      |  _breviceps_   |   |     |     |  curved back and
                      |                |   |     |     |  inwards; fit into
                      |                |   |     |     |  sockets in upper jaw.
  Dwarf sperm whale   |_Kogia simus_   |148| 0-3 | 8-11|Rarely 13; curved
                      |                |   |     |     |  back and in; sharply
                      |                |   |     |     |  pointed; fit into
                      |                |   |     |     |  sockets in upper jaw.
                      |                |   |     |     |  Rarely has 1-3 upper
                      |                |   |     |     |  teeth as well.
  Harbor porpoise     |_Phocoena_      |150|22-28|22-28|Spade shaped, laterally
                      |  _phocoena_    |   |     |     |  compressed, and
                      |                |   |     |     |  relatively small.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Footnote A: Usually erupted from gums only in adult [MALES].]

[Footnote B: May have toothpick size vestigial teeth in either jaw.]

Table 2. Body Size; Numbers, Maximum Dimensions and Descriptions of
Baleen Plates; and Numbers and Relative Lengths of Ventral Grooves of W.
N. Atlantic Mysticetes.

  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
               |               |       |         |        | Maximum dimensions|
               |               |       |         |        |   of plates       |
               |               |       |         |        |-------------------|
               |               |       |         |Number  |         | Width   |
               |               |       | Maximum |  of    |  Length |  base   |
               |               |Page of|  body   |baleen  |----+----+----+----|
     Species   |   Species     |species| size[C] |plates/ | ft/|    | ft/|    |
   common name |scientific name|account|  ft(m)  | side   | in.| cm | in.| cm |
  -------------+---------------+-------+---------+--------+----+----+----+----|
  Blue whale   |Balaenoptera   |   19  |85 (26.0)|270-395 | 33"|  84| 12"| 30 |
               |  musculus     |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Fin whale    |Balaenoptera   |   26  |79 (24.0)|262-473 | 29"|  72| 12"| 30 |
               |  physalus     |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Sei whale    |Balaenoptera   |   32  |62 (19.0)|318-340 | 31"|  78| 15"| 39 |
               |  borealis     |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Bryde's whale|Balaenoptera   |   37  |46 (14.0)|250-300?| 17"|  42| 10"| 24 |
               |  edeni        |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Humpback     |Megaptera      |   40  |53 (16.0)|270-400 | 24"|  60|  5"| 13 |
    whale      |  novaeangliae |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Bowhead whale|Balaena        |   49  |65 (19.8)|325-360 | 14'| 414| 14"| 36 |
               |  mysticetus   |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Right whale  |Eubalaena      |   52  |53 (16.0)|250-390 |7.3'| 223| 12"| 30 |
               |  glacialis    |       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  Minke whale  |Balaenoptera   |   63  |31 (10.0)|300-325 |  8"|  21|  4"|  10|
               |  acutorostrata|       |         |        |    |    |    |    |
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                |                        |Mean No.|Numbers  |
                |                        |  of    |  of     |
     Species    |                        |bristles|ventral  | Relative lengths
   common name  |    Color of baleen     |  /cm.  |grooves  |of ventral grooves
  --------------+------------------------+--------+---------+------------------
  Blue whale    |All black with black    | 10-30  |  55-88  |At least to navel.
                | bristles.              |        |         |
  Fin whale     |Dark gray to bluish     | 10-35  |  56-100 |At least to navel.
                | gray; one-fifth to     |        |         |
                | one-third of right     |        |         |
                | front is whitish.      |        |         |
  Sei whale     |Ash black with blue     | 35-60  |  38-56  |End far short of
                | tinge and fine, light  |        |         | navel.
                | bristles; some near    |        |         |
                | front may be light.    |        |         |
  Bryde's whale |Slate gray with dark    | 15-35  |  40-50  |At least to navel.
                | bristles.              |        |         |
  Humpback whale|Ash black to olive      | 10-35  |  14-22  |At least to navel.
                | brown; sometimes       |        |         |
                | whitish; bristles      |        |         |
                | grayish white.         |        |         |
  Bowhead whale |Black; anterior         |   ?    |   None  |   XX
                | side of some is        |        | present.|
                | whitish; bristles      |        |         |
                | black.                 |        |         |
  Right whale   |Dirty or yellowish gray;| 35-70  |   None  |   XX
                | some anterior plates   |        | present.|
                | all or part white.     |        |         |
  Minke whale   |White to yellowish      | 15-25  |  50-70  |End short of
                | white. Posterior plates|        |         | navel; often just
                | may be brown or black. |        |         | behind flippers.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Footnote C: As stated in the Index to the species, these figures
represent maximum sizes recorded for the W. N. Atlantic. For all species
exploited by whaling industries' current maximum sizes will be
substantially smaller than these figures (see species accounts).]



DIRECTORY TO SPECIES ACCOUNTS


LARGE WHALES

(40-85 feet [12-26 m] maximum overall length)


With a Dorsal Fin

All five species of large whales with a dorsal fin belong to the same
major baleen whale group, the balaenopterid whales or rorquals. All are
characterized by the presence of a series of ventral grooves, usually
visible on stranded specimens and the length and number of which are
diagnostic to species. In addition, all species, with the exception of
the humpback whale, have at least one distinctive (though often not
prominent) ridge along the head from just in front of the blowhole to
near the tip of the snout. (The humpback whale, on the other hand, is
distinguished by numerous knobs, some of which are located along the
line of the head ridge, with others scattered on the top of the head.)
In Bryde's whale, the single head ridge characteristic of the other
rorquals is supplemented by two auxiliary ridges, one on each side of
the main ridge.

At sea, these whales often appear very similar and must be examined
carefully before they can be reliably identified.

In general, though the characteristics of behavior may vary from one
encounter to the next, based on the activities in which the animal is
engaged, whales in this group may be distinguished from each other on
the basis of differences in 1) the size, shape, and position of the
dorsal fin and the timing of its appearance on the surface relative to
the animal's blow (in general, the larger the whale, the smaller the
dorsal fin--the further back its position and the later its appearance
on the surface after the animal's blow); 2) the height of body in the
area of the dorsal fin, relative to the size of the dorsal fin, which is
exposed as the animal sounds; 3) sometimes the blow rate and movement
patterns; and 4) the shape and color of the head.

Despite variability in behavior by members of the same species from one
encounter to the next, an observer can greatly increase the reliability
of his identification by forming the habit of working systematically
through a set of characteristics for the species rather than depending
on any single characteristic.

[Sidenote: BLUE WHALE

_Balaenoptera musculus_

p. 19]

  Body very large, up to 85 feet (25.9 m) long.[7]
  Body basically bluish with mottlings of grayish white.
  Baleen all black.
  Head broad and nearly U-shaped, viewed from above.
  Head flat in front of blowhole, viewed from side.
  Dorsal fin small (to 13 inches [33 cm]), triangular to moderately
    falcate, in the last one-third of back.
  Distribution primarily from temperate seas to pack ice; rare in
    tropics.
  Distribution more northerly during summer.
  Flukes occasionally raised slightly on long dive.

[Footnote 7: These figures are all near maximum sizes recorded for the
North Atlantic. For all species which have historically been exploited
by whale fisheries present maximum sizes may be significantly less than
these figures.

It should also be noted that differences in methods of measurements
often account for discrepancies in reported lengths.]

[Sidenote: FIN WHALE

_Balaenoptera physalus_

p. 26]

  Body large, up to 79 feet (24 m) long.
  Body mostly dark gray or brownish gray; undersides of flukes and
    flippers and belly white; grayish-white chevron frequently on
    back behind head.
  Right lower lip white; right upper lip sometimes white; left lip
    dark.
  Head V-shaped, viewed from above.
  Right front one-third to one-fifth of baleen plates, yellowish
    white.
  Other baleen bluish gray with yellowish-white stripes.
  Dorsal fin to 24 inches (61 cm), slightly more than one-third
    forward from tail; forms angle of less than 40° with back.
  Distribution extensive but not very common near pack ice and in
    tropics.
  Distribution more northerly during summer.
  Flukes not raised on dive.

[Sidenote: SEI WHALE

_Balaenoptera borealis_

p. 32]

  Body up to 62 feet (19 m) long.
  Body appears shiny; dark gray on back, often with ovoid
    grayish-white scars; white on front of belly; undersides of
    flippers and flukes dark.
  Baleen grayish or ash black with fine, light-gray bristles.
  Dorsal fin to 24 inches (61 cm), strongly falcate, well more than
    one-third forward from tail; forms angle of more than 40° with
    back.
  Distribution extensive; are not very common in cold waters and
    may have a greater tendency than fin whales to enter tropical
    waters.
  Distribution more northerly in summer.
  Flukes not raised on dive.

[Sidenote: BRYDE'S WHALE

_Balaenoptera edeni_

p. 37]

  Body up to 46 feet (14 m) long.
  Body dark gray overall.
  Head has series of three ridges from area of blowhole to snout.
  Baleen slate gray with coarse dark bristles.
  Dorsal fin to 18 inches (45.7 cm), falcate, well more than
    one-third forward from tail, often irregularly worn on rear
    margin.
  Distribution primarily tropical and southern temperate.
  Flukes not raised on dive.

[Sidenote: HUMPBACK WHALE

_Megaptera novaeangliae_

p. 40]

  Body up to 53 feet (16.2 m) long.
  Body dark gray with irregular white area on belly; flippers
    white; underside of flukes often has varying amounts of white.
  Head in front of blowhole flat and covered with knobs.
  Baleen dark gray to black with olive-black bristles.
  Dorsal fin small, quite variable in shape, usually hooked,
    located on a step or hump, in last one-third of back.
  Flippers very long (to nearly one-third of body length), white,
    and scalloped on leading edge.
  Distribution at least New England to Iceland and Greenland during
    summer.
  Distribution to shallow tropical banks, winter and spring.
  Flukes often scalloped on trailing edges and sometimes raised on
    dive.

NOTE: Because of its small adult size, usually less than 30 feet (9.1 m),
another member of the rorqual family, the minke whale, is included with
the medium-sized whales in this guide. Features by which it may be
distinguished from all other rorquals are discussed in the species
account.

Further, inasmuch as the dorsal fin of the humpback whale is highly
variable in shape, positive identification may require reference to the
sperm whale (p. 57), which, though the sperm whale has been classified
with species without dorsal fin, has a rather distinct dorsal hump,
particularly noticeable when the animal arches the back and tail to
begin a long dive.

[Illustration: Figure 8a.--Swimming, blowing, and diving characteristics
of blue, fin, sei, and Bryde's whales.]

[Illustration: Figure 8b.--Swimming, blowing, and diving characteristics
of humpback, bowhead, right, and sperm whales.]


(40-65 feet [12-20 m] maximum overall length)


Without a Dorsal Fin

There are three species of large whales without a dorsal fin in the
western North Atlantic Ocean. Two of these, the bowhead or Greenland
whale, and its more widely distributed close relative the right whale,
are baleen whales. The third, the sperm whale, is a toothed whale. The
first two have relatively smooth backs without even a trace of a dorsal
fin. The sperm whale has a humplike low, thick, dorsal ridge, which,
from certain views, particularly when the animal is humping up to begin
a dive, may be clearly visible and look like a fin. But because the
profile of that hump and the knuckles which follow it are often not very
prominent in this species, it has been classified with the finless big
whales.

All three species are characterized by very distinctive blows or spouts.
In both the bowhead and the right whales, the projection of the blow
upward from two widely separated blowholes assumes a very wide V-shape
with two distinct columns, which may be seen when the animals are viewed
from front or back. Though this character may be visible under ideal
conditions in many of the other baleen whales species as well, it is
exaggerated and uniformly distinct in the bowhead and right whales and
may be used as one of the primary key characters. In the sperm whale,
the blow emanates from a blowhole which is displaced to the left of the
head near the front and projects obliquely forward to the animal's left.
This blow seen under ideal conditions positively labels a large whale as
a sperm whale.

Remember, however, that wind conditions may affect the disposition and
duration of the blow of any species and that a single character alone is
seldom sufficient to permit positive identification.

[Sidenote: BOWHEAD WHALE

_Balaena mysticetus_

p. 49]

  Body to 65 feet (19.8 m) long.[8]
  Body dark; back smooth.
  Chin and belly often white.
  Head lacks callosities.
  Baleen dark gray with gray fringes; to 12 feet (3.7 m) or more.
  Upper jaw and lower lip strongly arched.
  Two blowholes clearly separated.
  Blow projects upward in wide V-shape.
  Distribution restricted to Arctic waters south to Davis Straits.
  Flukes raised on longer dives.

[Footnote 8: These figures are near maximum sizes recorded for the North
Atlantic. All three species have been heavily exploited by whale
fisheries. Therefore maximum sizes today may be significantly less than
these figures (see text).

It should also be noted that differences in methods of measurements
often account for discrepancies in reported lengths.]

[Sidenote: RIGHT WHALE

_Eubalaena glacialis_

p. 52]

  Body to 53 feet (16.2 m) long.
  Body from dark to light gray and mottled; back smooth; chin and
    belly usually white.
  Head and lower jaw covered with callosities (the largest of which
    is called the bonnet and is set on top of the snout).
  Baleen usually dark gray with dark fringes; to 7.2 feet (2.2 m).
    When animals swim, mouth agape, near surface; baleen sometimes
    appears pale brownish to yellowish gray in color.
  Upper jaw and lower lip strongly arched.
  Two blowholes clearly separated.
  Blow projects upward in wide V-shape.
  Distribution extends from Iceland south at least to Florida and
    reported from Texas.
  Flukes raised on longer dives.

[Sidenote: SPERM WHALE

_Physeter catodon_

p. 57]

  Body to 69 feet (20.9 m) long; males grow significantly larger
    than females.
  Body dark grayish brown to brown; wrinkled in appearance.
  Back has rounded hump followed by knuckles.
  Head boxlike, comprises up to 40% of body length.
  From 18 to 25 functional teeth in each side of narrow lower jaw.
  Single blowhole on left of head at front.
  Blow projects forward obliquely from head and to left.
  Distribution extends from tropics to Arctic; adult males
    distributed farther north.
  Flukes raised on longer dives.


MEDIUM-SIZED WHALES

(13-32 feet [4-10 m] maximum overall length)


With a Dorsal Fin

There are 11 species of medium-sized whales with a dorsal fin known from
the western North Atlantic. These species, taking many diverse forms,
range in maximum adult size from about 13 feet (4.0 m) (grampus) to
about 33 feet (10.1 m) (the minke whale). This group includes such
widely distributed and frequently encountered species as the pilot
whales, false killer whales, and minke whales, and such rarely
encountered and poorly known species as the various "beaked whales"
(_Mesoplodon_ spp. and the goosebeaked whale).

Aside from their common inclusion within the stated size range and the
presence of a dorsal fin in all species (which ranges from only a small
nubbin in some of the beaked whales to a substantial 5- to 6-foot [1.5-
to 1.8-m] sail on adult male killer whales), these species have no
diagnostic field characteristics in common. Therefore, each is discussed
in detail and is placed in the text in near proximity to those species
with which it is likely to be confused in the field.

[Sidenote: MINKE WHALE

_Balaenoptera acutorostrata_

p. 63]

  Body to 30 feet (9.1 m), or more, long.
  Body black or dark gray; area of gray shading on each side just
    in front of and below dorsal fin.
  Flippers have transverse white band.
  Head very sharply V-shaped viewed from above.
  Dorsal fin falcate and distinct; usually appears simultaneous
    with blow.
  Blow often low and indistinct.
  Distribution polar, temperate, and tropical; frequently coastal.
  Often curious about boats.
  Flukes not raised on dive.

[Sidenote: NORTHERN BOTTLENOSED WHALE

_Hyperoodon ampullatus_

p. 67]

  Body to 32 feet (9.8 m) long.
  Body of young uniformly chocolate brown; body of adults brown
    with cream or yellow blotches.
  Head bulbous in adults and white in larger animals; has distinct
    beak.
  Dorsal fin falcate and distinct, in last one-third of back.
  Distribution north temperate and Arctic-offshore.
  Often curious about boats.
  Flukes large, rarely notched; occasionally raised on long dive.

[Sidenote: GOOSEBEAKED WHALE

_Ziphius cavirostris_

p. 70]

  Body to at least 23 feet (7 m) long.
  Body from dark gray or brown to rust or fawn and splotched with
    white; eyes dark.
  Head of large males white.
  Back frequently scarred with numerous scratches, presumably tooth
    marks.
  Dorsal fin falcate and distinct, in last one-third of back.
  Distribution primarily tropical; extends to temperate.
  Flukes light beneath, sometimes shallowly notched; often raised
    on dive.

[Sidenote: ALL OTHER WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC BEAKED WHALES

_Mesoplodon_ spp.

p. 74]

  Body to 16-22 feet (4.9-6.7 m) long.
  Body color black to dark gray.
  Back frequently scarred.
  Dorsal fin position varies with species.
  Distribution varies with species.
  Flukes not usually distinctly notched.

[Sidenote: KILLER WHALE

_Orcinus orca_

p. 84]

  Body to at least 30 feet (9.1 m) long.
  Body black with sharply demarcated white belly and oval white
    patch above and behind eye; gray saddle behind dorsal fin.
  Body chunky.
  Dorsal fin in males can be very tall, sometimes 6 feet (1.8 m).
  Dorsal fin in females and immature animals up to 3 feet (0.9 m),
    distinctly falcate.
  Distributed from tropics to Arctic; most common in colder waters.
  Often seen in shallow bays and rivers and near shore.
  Flukes may be raised on dive.

[Sidenote: FALSE KILLER WHALE

_Pseudorca crassidens_

p. 88]

  Body to at least 18 feet (5.5 m) long.
  Body black (faint gray blaze on belly between flippers).
  Body slender.
  Head small, tapering.
  Large prominent teeth frequently visible at sea.
  Flippers have distinct hump on leading edge.
  Dorsal fin to 14 inches (35.6 cm), falcate, and from rounded to
    pointed on tip.
  Distribution pelagic tropical to warm temperate seas.
  Frequently ride bow waves.

[Sidenote: ATLANTIC PILOT WHALE

_Globicephala melaena_

p. 91]

  Body to at least 22 feet (6.7 m) long.
  Body black with light gray, anchor-shaped area on chest; gray
    saddle sometimes seen behind dorsal fin.
  Head becoming more bulbous with age, somewhat squarish in adult
    males viewed from above.
  Tail humped.
  Flippers long (to one-fifth of body length), sickle-shaped.
  Dorsal fin broad-based, falcate to flaglike, in front half of
    back.
  Distribution primarily north temperate--about Hatteras north.
  Flukes not usually raised on dive.

[Sidenote: SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE

_Globicephala macrorhynchus_

p. 94]

  Body to at least 17.5 feet (5.3 m) long.
  Body black with indistinct light gray area on chest; saddle
    behind dorsal fin.
  Head becoming more bulbous with age; square in large adult males
    viewed from above.
  Flippers relatively short (to less than one-sixth of body
    length).
  Dorsal fin broad-based, falcate to flaglike, in front half of
    back.
  Distribution tropical and warm temperate; from about Hatteras
    south.
  Flukes not usually raised on dive.

[Sidenote: GRAMPUS

_Grampus griseus_

p. 96]

  Body to at least 13 feet (4.0 m) long.
  Body of newborn light gray; darkens with age.
  Body of adults light gray or white; scarred with numerous
    scratches.
  Head blunted, not beaked.
  Forehead has vertical crease in center.
  Dorsal fin less than 15 inches (38.1 cm), rather erect and
    distinct, and dark even in light adults.
  Distribution tropical to temperate.
  Rarely ride bow wave.


(13-16 feet [4-5 m] maximum overall length)


Without a Dorsal Fin

The only two species of medium-sized cetaceans in the western North
Atlantic which have no dorsal fin, the Beluga or white whale and the
Narwhal, share such limited common range, well outside the theater of
normal boating traffic, that they are generally infrequently
encountered.

Both species are easily identifiable when seen.

[Sidenote: BELUGA

_Delphinapterus leucas_

p. 99]

  Body to 16 feet (4.9 m) long.
  Body of adults all white; young slate gray.
  Small row of bumps along back ridge near midpoint, sometimes dark
    brown.
  Distribution usually near coast from Arctic waters to St.
    Lawrence Gulf and into Hudson Bay.

[Sidenote: NARWHAL

_Monodon monoceros_

p. 102]

  Body to 16 feet (4.9 m) long.
  Body of adult brownish with grayish spots; body of young dark
    bluish gray fading to white belly.
  Head small; adults may have tusks up to 9 feet long (2.7 m).
  Small row of bumps along back ridge.
  Distribution usually in coastal waters from Arctic waters south
    to Labrador coast.


SMALL WHALES, DOLPHINS, AND PORPOISES

(less than 13 feet [4 m] maximum overall length)


With a Dorsal Fin

The species in this group are not discussed in order of length; instead
the species of the genus _Stenella_ are treated together and then they
and other species are placed in near proximity to those animals with
which they are likely to be confused in the field.

[Sidenote: ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN

_Stenella plagiodon_

p. 104]

  Body to 7.5-8 feet (2.3-2.4 m) long.
  Body dark purplish gray on back, lighter gray on sides and belly;
    becomes increasingly spotted with increase in size.
  Body has spinal blaze and light line from flipper to eye.
  Beak white on tip.
  Rides bow waves.
  Distribution usually in tropical and warm temperate waters; most
    common inside 100-fathom curve of continents.

[Sidenote: BRIDLED DOLPHIN

_Stenella frontalis_

p. 108]

  Body to at least 7 feet (2.1 m) long.
  Body dark gray on back; lighter gray on sides and belly.
  Body has no spinal blaze.
  Cape on top of head distinct.
  Bridle: dark lines from eye to rostrum and from flippers to
    corner of mouth.
  Rides bow waves.
  Distribution in tropical waters, primarily in West Indies.

[Sidenote: SPINNER DOLPHIN

_Stenella longirostris_

p. 110]

  Body to at least 7 feet (2.1 m) long.
  Body dark gray on back; tan on sides; white on belly.
  Beak often long and slender, usually black above, white below.
  Tip of snout and lips distinctly black.
  Dorsal fin moderately falcate to triangular and very erect.
  Rides bow waves.
  Often jumps and spins on longitudinal axis.
  Distribution in oceanic and coastal tropical waters.

[Sidenote: STRIPED DOLPHIN

_Stenella coeruleoalba_ = _Stenella styx_

p. 113]

  Body to about 9 feet (2.7 m) long.
  Body dark gray or bluish gray on back; gray on sides; gray or
    white on belly.
  Distinctive black stripes from: 1) eye to anus, 2) eye to
    flipper.
  Distinctive black blaze from behind dorsal fin to side above
    flipper.
  Rides bow waves.
  Distribution temperate, subtropical, and tropical; seldom close
    to shore.

[Sidenote: SADDLEBACK DOLPHIN

_Delphinus delphis_

p. 116]

  Body to 8.5 feet (2.6 m); usually less than 7.5 feet (2.3 m)
    long.
  Body brownish gray to black; belly and chest white; crisscross
    (hourglass) pattern of yellow tan on sides.
  Distinct black stripe from center of lower jaw to flipper.
  Rides bow waves.
  Distribution temperate and tropical; seldom close to shore.

[Sidenote: FRASER'S DOLPHIN

_Lagenoldelphis hosei_

p. 120]

  Body to at least 8 feet (2.4 m) long.
  Body very robust in front of dorsal fin, resembling cross between
    saddleback dolphin and Atlantic white-sided dolphin.
  Beak very short and indistinct.
  Distinct black stripe from beak to area of anus.
  Dorsal fin and flippers small.
  Distribution tropical (not yet recorded in western North
    Atlantic).

[Sidenote: ATLANTIC WHITE-SIDED DOLPHIN

_Lagenorhynchus acutus_

p. 123]

  Body to about 9 feet (2.7 m) long.
  Dorsal fin part gray, part black; tall and distinctly falcate.
  Distinctive patch of white on side; tan or yellow coloration
    below and behind dorsal fin, often visible on swimming animal.
  Beak short; all dark.
  Does not usually ride bow waves.
  Distribution Cape Cod to southern Greenland.

[Sidenote: WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN

_Lagenorhynchus albirostris_

p. 126]

  Body to about 10 feet (3.1 m) long.
  Dorsal fin all black, tall, and distinctly falcate.
  Two pale areas: one in front, another behind and below dorsal
    fin; visible on swimming animal.
  Beak short, sometimes brushed with white blaze.
  May ride bow waves.
  Distribution Newfoundland north in summer, Cape Cod north in
    winter; common close to shore at Cape Cod in spring.

[Sidenote: ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED DOLPHIN

_Tursiops truncatus_

p. 128]

  Body to 12 feet (3.7 m) long.
  Body dark gray on back; lighter gray on sides; belly white to
    pink.
  Snout robust and short.
  Dorsal fin tall; back curved.
  Ride bow waves; often turn head downwards or to the sides as they
    do so.
  Distribution temperate and tropical, usually within 20 miles of
    shore (often in bays, lagoons, and larger rivers) but extending
    off the continental shelves.

[Sidenote: GUIANA DOLPHIN

_Sotalia guianensis_

p. 132]

  Body to approximately 5.6 feet (1.7 m) long.
  Body steel blue to dark brown on back; white on belly.
  Dorsal fin nearly triangular; curves only slightly backward.
  Distribution in Lake Maracaibo and the rivers of Guiana and in
    the nearshore coastal waters of northeastern portion of South
    America.

[Sidenote: ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN

_Steno bredanensis_

p. 135]

  Body to about 8 feet (2.4 m) long.
  Body dark gray to purplish gray on back with white or pink
    blotches on sides; belly white.
  Body frequently shows numerous white scars.
  Head tapers gradually; beak long and slender; no clear separation
    of beak from forehead.
  May ride bow waves.
  Distribution in deep tropical waters.

[Sidenote: PYGMY KILLER WHALE

_Feresa attenuata_

p. 138]

  Body to 8-9 feet (2.4-2.7 m) long.
  Body black with white belly patch which may extend up sides in
    area of anus.
  Head rounded; no beak; lips white; lower jaw and chin may be
    white.
  Dorsal fin to 15 inches (38 cm) tall, falcate; located near
    midpoint of back.
  Distribution tropical and subtropical.

[Sidenote: MANY-TOOTHED BLACKFISH

_Peponocephala electra_

p. 142]

  Body to about 9 feet (2.7 m) long.
  Body black on back; light gray on belly.
  Head rounded; no beak; underslung jaw; lips white.
  Dorsal fin to 10 inches (25.4 cm), tall, distinctly back curved.
  Distribution tropical (not yet reported in western North
    Atlantic).

[Sidenote: PYGMY SPERM WHALE

_Kogia breviceps_

p. 144]

  Body to about 11 feet (3.4 m) long.
  Body dark steel gray on back; lighter gray on sides; pinkish to
    white on belly (older animals speckled on belly).
  Head blunt; jaw underslung; false gills or bracket marks on side
    of head.
  Dorsal fin small; located in last one-third of body.
  Has not been reported to ride bow waves.
  Distribution in tropical and temperate waters.

[Sidenote: DWARF SPERM WHALE

_Kogia simus_

p. 148]

  Body to about 9 feet (2.7 m) long.
  Body dark steel gray on back; lighter gray on sides; pinkish to
    white on belly.
  Head blunt; jaw underslung; false gills or bracket marks on side
    of head.
  Body has two small creases on throat.
  Dorsal fin like that of Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin; located
    near midpoint of back.
  Has not been reported to ride bow waves.
  Distribution poorly known; at least from Georgia to the tropical
    seas.

[Sidenote: HARBOR PORPOISE

_Phocoena phocoena_

p. 150]

  Body to 5 feet (1.5 m) long.
  Body dark brown above and white below; transition zone on sides
    often speckled or streaked; ventral white extends high onto
    side in front of dorsal fin.
  Head rounded; beak small and indistinct.
  Dorsal fin short and triangular.
  Distribution in shallow waters from at least Delaware north;
    generally found inshore; often in bays, river mouths and
    inlets.
  Does not approach boats.



SPECIES ACCOUNTS


Large Whales With a Dorsal Fin



BLUE WHALE (B)[9]

_Balaenoptera musculus_ (Linnaeus 1758)

[Footnote 9: The letter in parentheses indicates whether the species is
a baleen (B) or a toothed (T) whale.]


Other Common Names

Sulphur-bottom.


Description

Blue whales are the largest living mammals. Though reports of maximum
length and weight vary from one account to another, Antarctic blue
whales are known to have reached lengths to 100 feet (30.5 m) and
weights of over 150 tons (136,363 kg)[10] before stocks were severely
depleted by whaling operations. North Atlantic blue whales may be
expected to reach lengths of 80-85 feet (24.4-25.9 m). In all known
populations of blue whales, females are slightly larger than males of
the same age.

[Footnote 10: The largest measured specimen was "just over" 100 feet
(30.5 m); the largest specimen weighed, the 150-ton individual noted
above, was 89 feet (27.1 m) long.]

Viewed from above, the blue whale's rostrum is broad, flat, and nearly
U-shaped (actually shaped like a Gothic arch, slightly flattened on the
tip), with a single ridge extending from the raised area just in front
of the blowholes towards but not quite reaching the tip of the snout.

The dorsal fin is extremely small [to only 13 inches (33 cm)] and
variable in shape from nearly triangular to moderately falcate. In all
cases, it is located so far back on the animal's tail stock that it is
seldom visible until the animal is about to begin a dive.

Blue whales are light bluish gray overall, mottled with gray or grayish
white. Some animals may have yellowish or mustard coloration, primarily
on the belly, the result of the accumulation of diatoms during long
stays in the cooler waters to the north. The undersides of the flippers
are light grayish blue to white.

The baleen plates are all black.


Natural History Notes

The blow or "spout" is tall, to perhaps 30 feet (9.1 m), slender,
vertical, and not bushy, as is the blow of humpback whales, for
instance.

Although the blowing and diving patterns of blue whales may vary,
depending on the speed of movement and the activity of the whale when it
is encountered, they may be generally described as follows: If the
animal is moving slowly, the blowhole and part of the head may still be
visible when the dorsal fin breaks the surface, and the animal may
settle quietly into the water without exposing the last portion of the
tail stock or the tail flukes. If the animal is moving more quickly,
however, or is about to begin a long dive, the blowhole disappears below
the surface, a broad expanse of the back is exposed and disappears, and
the dorsal fin emerges briefly just before the animal lifts its tail
stock and flukes slightly above the surface before slipping out of
sight.

In this species it can be generally stated that the maximum height of
back in the area of the dorsal fin which is exposed above the surface as
the animal sounds is approximately four times the height of the dorsal
fin itself. The exposure of the tail flukes is unlike that of the
humpback whale (Fig. 39), the right whale (Fig. 50), or the sperm whale
(Fig. 57) in that when beginning a long dive all these other species
raise the flukes high out of the water and usually descend at a steep
angle. Blue whales lift the flukes only slightly, if at all.

Blue whales are relatively shallow feeders, feeding as they do almost
exclusively on "krill" (small shrimplike crustaceans), most of which are
distributed in the surface 330 feet (100 m). Blue whales usually occur
singly or in pairs.


May Be Confused With

At sea, blue whales may be confused with fin whales (p. 26) and though
the two are sometimes difficult to distinguish from a distance, the
following key differences permit identification at close range:

           BLUE WHALE                           FIN WHALE

                                COLORATION

  Mottled bluish gray above            Gray above, white below; frequently
  and below.                           grayish-white chevron
                                       behind head, right lower
                                       lip white.

                                  BALEEN

  All black.                           Bluish gray with yellowish-white
                                       strips; front fifth to
                                       third of baleen on right side
                                       all white.

                                   HEAD

  Broad and nearly U-shaped;           Narrower, more V-shaped;
  all dark.                            right lower lip white.

                                DORSAL FIN

  To 13 inches (33 cm); triangular     To 24 inches (61 cm); falcate;
  to moderately falcate; in            located slightly more than a
  last third of back; visible well     third forward from tail
  after blow.                          flukes; usually visible shortly
                                       after blow.

                      SURFACING AND PREPARING TO DIVE

  Often shows head and blowholes;      Usually rolls higher out of
  broad expanse of back                water, particularly on long
  and much later, dorsal fin.          dive; dorsal fin visible shortly
                                       after blow.

                                  DIVING

  Dives for 10-20 min; surfaces        Dives 5-15 min (most often
  and blows 8-15 times, making         6-7); surfaces steeply for 3-7
  a series of 12- to 15-s dives        blows then dives rather
  between blows, then disappears       steeply again; does not show
  again; sometimes raises              flukes on dive: on sounding,
  flukes slightly on last dive;        the maximum height of back
  on sounding, the maximum             in the area of dorsal fin which
  height of back in the area of        is exposed is approximately 2
  dorsal fin which is exposed is       times the height of the dorsal
  approximately 4 times the            fin.
  height of the dorsal fin.

                                GROUPING

  Usually found singly or in           Occasionally found singly or
  pairs.                               in pairs, more often found in
                                       pods of six or seven individuals;
                                       many pods, consisting of
                                       as many as 50 animals, may
                                       be found in small area.

See also comparison of fin whale and sei whale (p. 26).


Distribution

Though blue whales have been reported from the pack ice to Cristobal
Harbor, Panama Canal Zone, their normal range in the western North
Atlantic is more limited. In spring and summer months (about April
through at least August) they can be expected in the northern portion of
their range, at least as far north as the Arctic Circle, feeding on the
krill abundant in those waters. A small portion of the population may
venture north, beyond the Circle. In fall and winter the population
moves south, presumably into temperate and perhaps to tropical waters.
Reliable records include animals from observations off Long Island and
Ocean City, Md.

Though southern limits of the species are poorly known, there are no
records from Florida or the West Indies and no verified records from the
Gulf of Mexico.

Summaries of blue whale distribution based on records when the species
was more numerous indicate that they were found during spring and summer
months in some abundance on the Nova Scotian Banks, the St. Lawrence
Gulf and estuary, the Strait of Belle Isle, Grand Bank, and in the
waters off the coasts of Iceland, southern Greenland, and the Davis
Straits and Baffin Bay. (Some individuals have entered the Hudson Strait
but not apparently Hudson Bay itself.)

Historically, a few animals apparently appeared off the coast of
southeastern Canada as early as February. It was speculated that from
there a portion of the population underwent a migration from the Strait
of Belle Isle north through the Davis Straits to the waters off western
Greenland. Some individuals entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence after the
ice was clear and remained behind until as late as November. In the fall
months, certainly by November, the northern portion of the population
had begun retreating to the south in front of the advancing ice. The
remainder apparently also underwent this migration as well, since blue
whales have historically been nearly absent from Canadian waters during
midwinter.

Many of the migrating individuals were assumed to continue south to
temperate and, less frequently, to tropical water where they calved. It
should be emphasized that though all of the southward and the subsequent
northward migrations were presumed to be along pelagic routes, details
were poorly documented.

Blue whales have been reported in both shallow inshore and deep oceanic
zones.

Despite considerable attention in the popular literature to the plight
of the blue whale populations and frequent statements that they are near
extinction, blue whale stocks in the western North Atlantic appear more
abundant than has been usually reported. While present stocks are far
short of previous population sizes, which may have exceeded 200,000
individuals worldwide, they should be sufficiently large for the
species to continue their increase, barring renewed exploitation.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded blue whales can be readily identified by 1) the large body size
(to 85 feet [25.9 m]); 2) the broad flat head; 3) the all-black baleen
plates (270-395 in number), which are usually barely more than twice as
long as they are wide; and 4) the 55-88 ventral grooves extending to the
navel or beyond (Table 2).

Depending on the state of decay and the position of the stranded
specimen, any of the body characteristics described for living animals
may also be used to positively identify the specimen.

[Illustration: Figure 9.--Closeup views of swimming blue whales off
British Columbia (top) and Baja California (bottom). In both photos note
the broad rounded appearance of the head and the single, prominent
central head ridge. In the animal on the top note also the black baleen
plates, barely visible at the front of the slightly open mouth. In the
animal on the bottom note the pattern of light grayish-white mottling
along the back and the raised areas around the blowholes. These features
clearly mark these animals as blue whales. (_Photos by R. M. Gilmore
(top) and K. C. Balcomb (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 10.--The dorsal fins of blue whales may vary from
distinctly triangular (top) to broadly rounded (middle and inset) to
smoothly falcate in appearance (bottom). Regardless of its shape,
however, the fin is always located well back on the tail and does not
become visible until long after the animal's blow. (_Photos by Japanese
Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura, mid-Pacific (top); S.
Leatherwood, southern California (middle and inset); and F. W. True,
northern North Atlantic, courtesy of U.S. National Museum (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 11.--A blue whale swimming leisurely at the
surface off San Clemente Island, Calif. Note that the blowholes, marked
by the raised areas on the top of the head, are still exposed after the
dorsal fin has become visible. Note also the very small size and the
shape of the dorsal fin and its position well back towards the tail.
(_Photo by S. Leatherwood._)]

[Illustration: Figure 12.--A sequence showing fast-swimming blue whales
off southern California. The animal rises rather steeply to the surface
(a), emits a tall, vertical blow (b, c), shows its broad bluish back,
mottled with grayish white, and its small dorsal fin (d, e), and then
dives out of sight (f). When swimming in this manner, blue whales
sometimes raise their tail flukes slightly above the surface before
beginning their long dives (g). (_Photos by J. F. Fish (a-f) and K. C.
Balcomb (g)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 13.--Two views of blue whales on the ramps of
whaling stations in Japan (top) and at Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland
(bottom). Note the broad rounded appearance of the head, the single
central head ridge, and the dark bluish-gray coloration, interrupted
only by mottlings of grayish white. In the animal on the bottom note the
all-black baleen plates, which are very broad relative to their length.
(_Photos by Japanese Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura
(top); and F. W. True, courtesy of U.S. National Museum (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 14.--Dead blue whales, harpooned and afloat off
the stern of a factory ship in the Antarctic (top), and on the deck of a
whaling station in western Canada (bottom). In both, note the numerous
ventral grooves (from 55 to 85 or more) extending to the region of the
navel and sometimes beyond, and the light coloration of the undersides
of the flippers. Even though grooves are often present above the
flippers, and occasionally even on the side of the head, counts of
ventral grooves are usually made between the flippers. (_Photos by
Japanese Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura (top); and G.
C. Pike, courtesy of I. MacAskie (bottom)._)]



FIN WHALE (B)

_Balaenoptera physalus_ (Linnaeus 1758)


Other Common Names

Finback whale, finner, razorback, common rorqual.


Description

Fin whales have been reported to reach 79 feet (24 m). Females are
slightly larger than males of the same age.

The back is distinctly ridged towards the tail, prompting the common
name "razorback" whale.

The rostrum is narrower and more V-shaped than that of the blue whale
and has the same sort of single distinctive head ridge. The top of the
head is flat, though slightly less than that of the blue whale.

The dorsal fin is up to 24 inches (61 cm) tall; angled less than 40° on
the forward margin, located slightly more than one-third forward from
the tail, and appears on the surface shortly after the blow.

All individuals are dark gray to brownish black on the back and sides
with none of the mottling present on blue whales and are rarely as
heavily scarred as sei whales. Along the back, just behind the head,
there is a grayish-white chevron, with the apex along the midline of the
back and the arms of the chevron oriented posteriorly, which is
sometimes distinctive and may be visible as the animals surface to
breathe. The undersides, including the undersides of the flukes and
flippers, are white. On the head, the dark coloration is markedly
asymmetrical, reaching farther down on the left than on the right side.
The right lower lip, including the mouth cavity, and the right front
baleen (approximately one-fifth to one-third) are yellowish white.
Occasionally the right upper lip is also white. The remainder of the
plates on the right side and all those on the left side are striped with
alternate bands of yellowish white and bluish gray. The fringes of the
plates are brownish gray to grayish white.


Natural History Notes

Fin whales are one of the most common baleen whale species in the world
and constitute a major portion of the whaling catch. They are reportedly
one of the fastest of the big whales (sei whales may be slightly faster)
possibly reaching burst speeds in excess of 20 knots, and were not an
important commercial species until the comparatively recent development
of fast catcher boats and the depletion of blue whale stocks.

A fin whale's blow can be from 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6.1 m) tall and has
been described as an inverted cone or an elongated ellipse.

Fin whales dive to at least 755 feet (230.1 m). This depth is probably
deeper than that of either blue or sei whales, a factor usually
reflected in differences among the surfacing, blowing, and diving
characteristics of these three species. When they are moving leisurely
at the surface, fin whales expose the dorsal fin shortly after the
appearance of the blowholes, slightly later than that of the sei whales.
When they are surfacing from a deeper dive, however, they surface at a
steeper angle, blow, submerge the blowholes, and then arch the back and
dorsal fin high into the air before beginning another long dive. In this
species it can be generally stated that the maximum amount of the back
in the area of the dorsal fin which is exposed above the surface as the
animal sounds is approximately 2 times the height of the dorsal fin. Fin
whales do not show their tail flukes when beginning a dive.

Unlike blue or sei whales, fin whales do breach on occasion. When they
do leap clear of the water, fin whales usually reenter with a resounding
splash, like that made by humpback and right whales and not smoothly,
head first, as minke whales often do.

Fin whales are sometimes found singly or in pairs but more often occur
in pods of six or seven individuals and many pods consisting of as many
as 50 animals may be concentrated in a small area.

Fin whales calve and breed in winter, mostly in temperate waters.

Atlantic fin whales eat a wide variety of foods, including krill,
capelin, squid, herring, and lanternfish.


May Be Confused With

Fin whales may be confused with blue whales, sei whales, and, in the
southernmost portion of their range, with Bryde's whales. They may be
distinguished from the blue whales by differences in overall coloration,
coloration and shape of the head, and the size, position, and time of
appearance of the dorsal fin at the surface (see p. 19). After close
examination they may be distinguished from Bryde's whales by the
presence of three ridges along the head (of the Bryde's whale) and by
the smaller, more sharply pointed falcate dorsal fin of the Bryde's
whale (see Fig. 31). They may be distinguished from sei whales in the
following similar ways:

          FIN WHALE                           SEI WHALE

                              DORSAL FIN

  Slightly falcate, forms angle       Sharply pointed and falcate:
  of less than 40° with back          forms angle of greater than
  slightly more than one-third        40° with back well more than
  forward from tail.                  one-third forward from tail.

                          SURFACING BEHAVIOR

  Usually rise obliquely so top       Primarily skimmer feeders;
  of head breaks surface first;       usually rise to surface at
  after blowing, animal arches        shallow angle so that dorsal
  its back and rolls forward          fin and head are visible
  exposing the dorsal fin on the      almost simultaneously; when
  long dive; on sounding, the         starting the long dive does
  maximum amount of back in           not usually arch the back as
  the area of the dorsal fin          much as the fin whale; on
  which is exposed is approximately   sounding, the maximum
  2 times the height of               amount of back in the area of
  dorsal fin.                         the dorsal fin which is
                                      exposed is approximately 1
                                      times the height of the dorsal
                                      fin.

                                BLOW

  Tall (to 20 feet [6.1 m]);          Similar shape but smaller--rarely
  inverted cone (point down)          taller than 10-15 feet
  or elongated ellipse.               (3.1-4.6 m).

                               DIVING

  Dive for 5-15 (usually 6-7)         Dive for 3-10 min; usually
  min; blow 3-7 times or more         blow at even intervals over
  at intervals of up to several       long periods of time; often
  minutes, then dive again.           visible just below the surface,
                                      even on longer dives.

                        COLOR OF UNDERSIDES

  White higher up on right            Mostly gray; irregular whitish
  than on left side.                  area on belly.

                        COLOR OF LOWER LIP

  White on right, gray on left.       Gray.

                           BALEEN PLATES

  Right one-fifth to one-third        Ash black with a blue tinge
  in front white; all others          and fine grayish bristles.
  alternate bands of yellowish
  white and bluish gray; bristles
  grayish white.

Distribution

Fin whales are probably the most numerous and widely distributed large
whale species in the western North Atlantic.

Fin whales summer from below the latitude of Cape Cod, Mass., north to
the Arctic Circle. (They are frequently seen between New York and
Bermuda this time of year.) Within this zone they may sometimes be seen
very close to shore and appear to be concentrated between shore and the
1,000-fathom curve from at least lat. 41°20' to 57°00' N. In recent
years they have been reported in relatively large numbers in the Gulf of
Maine from March through June, off Newfoundland as early as June but
increasing to August, and entering Davis Straits and beyond in
substantial numbers in midsummer to late summer. There is some evidence
that the animals venturing farthest north are the largest individuals of
the species. Movements of the population(s) southward have usually begun
by October, though some fin whales sometimes remain in the northern seas
sufficiently long to become trapped in the ice and killed.

During winter the range of fin whales spreads out from the advancing ice
southward, reaching at least to the coast of Florida, into the Gulf of
Mexico, and to the Greater Antilles, though fin whales are not at all
common in tropical waters. During the winter many fin whales move into
offshore waters. Northward migrations probably begin in midspring.

Fin whales may be found in Cape Cod waters all year long.

There may be two or possibly three separate stocks of fin whales in the
western North Atlantic, one more northern cold-adapted stock and another
more southern stock. The ranges of the two stocks appear to overlap,
such that the winter range of the northern stock probably becomes the
spring and summer range of the more southern stock. The third stock may
consist of an isolated population in the northern Gulf of Mexico.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded fin whales may be most readily identified by 1) the
yellowish-white coloration of the right front baleen and the right white
lower lip; 2) the numerous baleen plates (262-473 in number); 3) the
numerous ventral grooves (56-100 in number) extending to the navel and
beyond (Table 2); and 4) the broad, flat sharply pointed head with only
a single head ridge.

[Illustration: Figure 15.--The heads of fin whales surfacing to breathe
off Japan and in the northern North Atlantic (inset). When they can be
approached from the right side, fin whales can be positively
distinguished from the other large balaenopterine species by the white
coloration of the right lower lip and the flat, narrow head. Note also
the single central head ridge. (_Photos by Japanese Whales Research
Institute, courtesy of H. Omura, and K. C. Balcomb_ (_inset_).)]

[Illustration: Figure 16.--A small group of fin whales off British
Columbia. Fin whales may be found in groups of up to six or seven
individuals and these groups may congregate in feeding grounds. (_Photo
by G. C. Pike, courtesy of I. MacAskie._)]

[Illustration: Figure 17.--The back of a harpooned fin whale in the
eastern North Pacific (left) and in the North Atlantic (right). In both
note the light grayish-white chevrons just behind the head. These
chevrons are not usually very distinctive in North Atlantic fin whales.
In the animal in the left photo note also the prominent ridge along the
back behind the dorsal fin--a characteristic which prompted the common
name "razorback." (_Photos courtesy of_ Los Angeles Examiner (_left_)
_and K. C. Balcomb_ (_right_).)]

[Illustration: Figure 18.--Surfacing fin whales show the head and blow,
then the wheellike silhouette of the back, and then the dorsal fin. Note
that in this species the dorsal fin is smaller and located farther back
than that of the sei whale and appears on the surface later after the
animal's blow. (_Photo from the northern North Atlantic by K. C.
Balcomb._)]

[Illustration: Figure 19.--As they begin a long dive, fin whales
frequently arch the tail stock high into the air, exposing the dorsal
fin. Even on a long dive, however, this species is not known to throw
its tail flukes high into the air or even to raise them slightly, as
blue whales sometimes do when beginning a long dive. (_Photo from off
Virginia by J. G. Mead._)]

[Illustration: Figure 20.--Probably a fin whale (perhaps a Bryde's
whale) breaching in the eastern tropical Pacific. This type of behavior
has been described for humpback, minke, and fin whales but is far more
common for the first two species. Breaching fin whales often reenter the
water with a resounding splash, much like humpback whales, but sometimes
smoothly, head first, as minkes sometimes do. (_Photo by K. D. Sexton,
courtesy of National Marine Fisheries Service._)]

[Illustration: Figure 21.--A head-on view of a fin whale stranded at
Ormond Beach, Fla. Note the flat narrow appearance of the head and the
single, central head ridge. (_Photo by F. Essapian, courtesy of
Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 22.--In this partly flensed fin whale, at
Blanford, Nova Scotia, note the white lower lip and the white baleen in
the right front. The inset photo shows the right upper jaw of a fin
whale with the baleen intact. (_Photos by H. E. Winn, and from the North
Pacific by Japanese Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura
(inset)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 23.--A fin whale on the ramp of the whaling
station also at Blanford, Nova Scotia. Note the ventral grooves, 56 to
100 and extending at least to the navel. (_Photo by L. Rigley._)]



SEI WHALE (B)

_Balaenoptera borealis_ Lesson 1828


Other Common Names

Pollack whale, sardine whale, Rudolphi's rorqual.


Description

Sei (pronounced "say") whales have been reported to reach 62 feet (19
m).

The snout is less acutely pointed than that of the fin whale but when
viewed from the side appears slightly arched. In general, the head is
intermediate in shape between that of the blue whale and that of the fin
whale. The dorsal fin, which is from 10 to 24 inches (25.4 to 61 cm)
tall and strongly falcate in adult animals, is located about two-thirds
of the way back on the back, farther forward than that of the blue or
fin whales. Sei whales are dark steel gray on the back and sides, and on
the posterior portion of the ventral surface. The body often has a
galvanized appearance due to scars possibly resulting from lamprey bites
inflicted during migrations into warmer waters. These scars may be dark
gray to almost white in color. On the belly there is a region of grayish
white that is confined to the area of the ventral grooves. Neither the
flippers nor the tail flukes are white underneath. The right lower lip
and the mouth cavity, unlike those of the fin whale, are uniformly gray.
The baleen plates are uniformly grayish black with fine grayish-white
fringes. (A small number of sei whales have been noted to have a few
half-white plates near the front of the mouth, a feature which might
result in their confusion with fin whales.)


Natural History Notes

The blow of sei whales is an inverted cone rarely taller than 15 feet
(4.6 m).

Sei whales are generally skimmer feeders and do not usually dive very
deeply. For that reason they usually surface at a shallower angle than
fin whales. The head rarely emerges at a steep angle (except when the
whales are chased). Instead, the blowholes and a major portion of the
back, including the dorsal fin, become visible almost simultaneously and
remain visible for relatively long periods of time. In this species it
can be generally stated that the amount of the back in the area of the
dorsal fin which is exposed above the surface as the animal sounds is
approximately the same height as the dorsal fin. When they begin another
dive, sei whales do not arch the tail stock or flukes high. Instead,
they normally submerge by slipping quietly below the surface, often
remaining in view only a few feet down and leaving a series of tracks or
swirls on the surface as they move their tail flukes. When they are
feeding in this manner, sei whales may exhibit a highly regular blowing
and diving pattern over long periods of time.

Sei whales usually travel in groups of from two to five individuals,
though they may concentrate in large numbers on the feeding grounds.

In the northern portion of their range, sei whales feed on copepods.
Throughout the remainder of the range, however, their food is more
varied and also includes krill and a variety of small schooling fishes.
The species derived its common name, in fact, from its frequent
occurrence with or near sei fish.


May Be Confused With

The sei whale's smaller size and decidedly taller, more falcate dorsal
fin located well more than one-third forward from the tail should
prevent confusion with the blue whale. At a distance, however, sei
whales are difficult to distinguish from either fin whales or Bryde's
whales. The primary clues for distinguishing them from fins are the
differences in swimming, blowing, and diving characteristics tabularized
in detail on p. 26 and the asymmetrical coloration of the fin whale.

Sei whales may be distinguished from Bryde's whales only upon close
examination. The dorsal fin of Bryde's whales is small, to 18 inches
(45.7 cm), sharply pointed, and often worn on the rear margin. If close
examination is possible, the sei whale will be seen to have only a
single head ridge. Bryde's whales have two additional ridges--one on
each side of the main ridge. Bryde's whales are primarily fish feeders
and their diving behavior more closely resembles that of a fin whale
than that of a sei whale. (See p. 37).


Distribution

The distribution and migrations of the sei whale during most of the year
are rather poorly known. The species is known to avoid the colder
regions near the pack ice and to range from Iceland south to the
northeast Venezuelan coast and the northeast and southwest Gulf of
Mexico. There are also records from Cuba and the Virgin Islands. Along
the northeast United States and eastern Canadian coasts, where most
research on sei whales has been conducted, the species migrates from New
England through the Blanford, Nova Scotia area in June and July, is
found in small numbers off eastern Newfoundland in August and September
(abundant in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland in August), and continues
northward to the Davis Straits in September and October. An offshore
stock may be found year-round in the Labrador Sea. The summer range (May
to September or October) extends from New England to southern Arctic
waters. Though some individuals remain behind through November, the
southward movement of the bulk of the population presumably begins in
October. In general, sei whales do not venture as far north as fin
whales but may have a greater tendency to enter tropical waters.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded sei whales are most likely to be confused with fin whales or
Bryde's whales. The three head ridges of the Bryde's whale (sei whales
have only one) assist in distinguishing sei whales from Bryde's whales.
They may be distinguished from fin whales and all other rorquals by the
following characteristics: 1) The color of the baleen plates--uniformly
ash black with a blue tinge and fine white bristles (Table 2). 2) The
density of bristles on the plates--sei whales have from 35 to 60 baleen
fringes per centimeter; all other rorquals have far fewer (less than
35). 3) The relative lengths of the ventral grooves--the grooves of sei
whales end well before the navel; those of blue, fin, and Bryde's whales
extend at least to the navel. 4) The relatively small numbers of ventral
grooves (38-56)--both blue and fin whales have more; Bryde's whales have
approximately the same number.

If the animal is not in an advanced state of decomposition, the region
of white coloration of the belly may also be visible.

[Illustration: Figure 24.--The head of a sei whale is intermediate in
shape between that of the blue whale and that of the fin whale. When
viewed from the side it is slightly arched. Note the single central head
ridge, from just in front of the blowholes to near the tip of the snout.
Bryde's whales, with which sei whales are most likely to be confused in
the tropical and subtropical portions of their range, have two auxiliary
ridges, one on each side of the top of the head, in addition to this
main central ridge. (_Photo from the North Pacific by Japanese Whales
Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura._)]

[Illustration: Figure 25.--Sei whales are dark gray on the right lower
lip. They can be distinguished from fin whales, which have a white right
lower lip, by approaching them from the right side. (_Photo from the
North Pacific by Japanese Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H.
Omura._)]

[Illustration: Figure 26.--Three views of swimming sei whales. In all
three, note the tall, distinctly falcate dorsal fin (which has been
described as sickle or scimitar in shape) positioned farther forward on
the back than the fins of either the fin whale or the blue whale. In the
photo in the middle, note that the dorsal fin has appeared on the
surface while the blowholes are still open. Sei whales, generally
skimmer feeders and rather shallow divers, often show the dorsal fin and
much of the back for relatively long periods as they surface to breathe.
(_Photos from off central California, courtesy of National Marine
Fisheries Service_ (_middle_); _northeast of Hawaii by S. Ohsumi_ (_left
inset_); and _from off Japan by Japanese Whales Research Institute,
courtesy of H. Omura_ (right inset).)]

[Illustration: Figure 27.--A freshly dead sei whale from the Pacific
(top) and a stranded specimen in an advanced stage of decomposition at
Cape Island, S.C. (bottom and inset). Note that even though the
distinctive coloration of the fresh specimen has faded on the rotting
specimen, the numbers and lengths of the ventral grooves (38 to 56 in
number and stopping well short of the navel) still permit the specimen
to be distinguished from fin, blue, and Bryde's whales, in all of which
the grooves extend at least to the navel. (_Photos by Japanese Whales
Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura (top); and J. G. Mead (bottom
and inset)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 28.--Dorsal view of a sei whale on the deck of a
whaling ship in the North Pacific. Note the numerous scars on the body
and the otherwise dark gray coloration of the back. (_Photo by Japanese
Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura._)]

[Illustration: Figure 29.--The right upper jaw of the sei whale stranded
at Cape Island, S.C. The baleen plates, here partly buried in the sand,
numbering from 318 to 340 per side and uniform dark gray with fine
lighter gray bristles, continue to serve as identifying characteristics
even on a badly decomposed specimen. (_Photo by J. G. Mead._)]



BRYDE'S WHALE (B)

_Balaenoptera edeni_ Anderson 1879


Other Common Names

None known.


Description

Bryde's whales reach a maximum length of approximately 46 feet (14 m).
They closely resemble sei whales in external appearance. At a distance,
the head of this species is similar in profile and general appearance to
that of the sei whale. The most distinctive field characteristic of the
species, however, is the presence of three ridges along the head
anterior to the blowhole. In addition to the medial ridge characteristic
of all the other balaenopterid species, Bryde's whales have two
secondary ridges on the top of the head--one along each side even with
the blowhole running forward towards the tip of the snout. If they can
be examined at close range, Bryde's whales can be positively identified
by this character alone.

The dorsal fin of Bryde's whales is up to 18 inches (45.7 cm) tall,
extremely falcate, pointed on the tip, located well more than one-third
forward from the tail, and is often irregularly notched or frayed on the
rear margin from unknown causes. Bryde's whales are dark gray overall,
though some individuals, like some minke whales, have a small region of
gray on each side just forward of the dorsal fin.


Natural History Notes

Bryde's whales, like minke whales, reportedly often approach close to
vessels as if curious about them. During this time they may be examined
carefully and their identifying characteristics seen.

Though euphausiids may be an important food for this species in limited
areas, Bryde's whales often feed on schooling fish (including pilchards,
anchovies, herring, and mackerel). This food preference is reflected in
the diving behavior of the species. Bryde's whales are not "skimmer"
feeders; they are deeper divers. When they surface to breathe, they
often rise more steeply to the surface, exposing much of the head, roll
the body sharply, and hump up the tail stock before beginning another
dive. In this species, as in the fin whale, it can be generally stated
that the amount of the back which is exposed above the surface as the
animal sounds is approximately twice the height of the dorsal fin. They
apparently do not raise the tail flukes when beginning a dive.


May Be Confused With

At sea Bryde's whales may be confused with sei whales, fin whales, and
perhaps minke whales.

They may be most readily distinguished from sei whales by the
characteristics discussed on p. 32 and by differences in diving
behavior. The shallow-feeding sei whales surface and blow at regular
intervals over long periods of time. Bryde's whales are deeper divers,
less likely to surface, and blow at evenly spaced intervals. If they are
seen only briefly or at a distance, however, the two species may be
impossible to differentiate.

During the winter months, when fin whales may venture into tropical
waters, they may also be confused with Bryde's whales. But fin whales
seldom exhibit curiosity about boats. In addition, the dorsal fin of the
fin whale is larger, is located farther back on the back than that of
Bryde's whale, and does not become visible as soon after the blow. It is
also less likely to be worn on the rear margin than that of a Bryde's
whale.

The head of the fin whale is more acutely pointed. Furthermore, the
right lower lip and the right front baleen of the fin whale are white.
The baleen and the right lower lip of Bryde's whales are dark gray. If
the animals can be approached closely from the right side, positive
identification is possible using these differences in color.

Like Bryde's whales, minke whales often approach close to vessels. But
minke whales have an acutely pointed snout, a single head ridge, and a
white band on each flipper. Further, minke whales rarely reach 30 feet
(9.1 m) in maximum length.


Distribution

The distribution of Bryde's whales is rather poorly known, no doubt in
part, because the species is difficult to positively identify at sea,
and records of its occurrence may have often been confused with those of
sei whales, fin whales, or minke whales. From stranded animals and
confirmed sightings at sea, the species appears to be found primarily
near shore in areas of high productivity in tropical or subtropical
waters, though it ventures into warmer temperate waters as well. It has
been reported from Virginia south into the northeast Gulf of Mexico and
the southeast Caribbean, and southern West Indies (Curacao and Granada).
To date no migration has been described for the species.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded Bryde's whales can be positively identified by the three ridges
along the top of the head from the area of the blowhole to the tip of
the snout. All other species of balaenopterid whales, except humpback
whales have but a single ridge. If the head of a stranded specimen is
buried in sand, is decomposed beyond recognition, or is otherwise
inaccessible for identification, Bryde's whales can still be
distinguished from sei whales by differences in the relative lengths of
the ventral grooves (Table 2) and from both the fin whale and the sei
whale by differences in the characteristics of the baleen plates (Table
2).

[Illustration: Figure 30.--On the head of this Bryde's whale off La
Jolla, Calif. two of the three head ridges characteristic of the
species, the main ridge and the left auxiliary ridge, are clearly
visible. These ridges permit this animal to be positively identified as
a Bryde's whale. (_Photo by F. Morejohn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 31.--Bryde's whales in the Gulf of California and
north of Hawaii (inset). In both, note the tall, sickle-shaped
appearance of the dorsal fin, much like that of the sei whale. In the
animal in the larger photo note the ragged rear margin of the dorsal
fin, a frequently observed characteristic in Bryde's whales. In the
animal on the left note also the region of gray on the sides in front of
the dorsal fin. (_Photos by W. C. Cummings and S. Ohsumi_ (_inset_).)]

[Illustration: Figure 32.--Stranded Bryde's whales at Walnut Point, Va.
(top) and Panacea, Fla., Gulf of Mexico (bottom). In both animals note
the head shape similar to that of the sei whale, and the three distinct
head ridges. In the animal on the bottom, note that the two outermost
ridges have their origin in grooves beside the blowholes. In the animal
on the top, note also the baleen plates, up to at least 300 per side and
dark gray with coarse gray bristles. There is infrequently a rather wide
interval at the front of the mouth between the left and right rows of
baleen. (_Photos by U.S. National Museum, courtesy of J. G. Mead (top)
and M. B. Rank, courtesy of Wide World Photos (bottom)._)]



HUMPBACK WHALE (B)

_Megaptera novaeangliae_ (Borowski 1781)


Other Common Names

Humpbacked whale, bunch, hump whale, or hunchbacked whale.


Description

Humpback whales reach a length of 53 feet (16.2 m).

The body is robust, narrowing rapidly on the tail stock. The head is
quite broad and rounded, somewhat like that of the blue whale. The head
ridge characteristic of other balaenopterid species is indistinct and is
replaced in prominence by a string of fleshy "knobs" or protuberances,
many more of which are randomly distributed on the top of the head and
on the lower jaw. There is a distinctive rounded projection near the tip
of the lower jaw. Humpback whales carry many barnacles and whale lice.
The baleen plates are all black with black or olive-black bristles.

The flippers are very long (nearly a third as long as the body), are
scalloped on at least the leading edge, and are nearly all white.

The dorsal fin, located slightly more than two-thirds of the way back on
the back in approximately the same position as that of the fin whale, is
small and varies in size and shape from a small, triangular nubbin to a
more substantial, sharply falcate fin. The dorsal fin frequently
includes a step or hump, which is quite distinct when the animal arches
its back to begin a dive and from which the species derives its common
name.

Humpback whales are basically black in color with a white region of
varying size on the belly, which upon close examination may often be
seen to be crosshatched with thin dark lines; the flippers and the
undersides of the flukes also are white.


Natural History Notes

The blow of humpback whales is from 8 to 10 feet (2.4 to 3.1 m) tall and
has been described as balloon-shaped. It is wide relative to its height.
Feeding humpback whales habitually blow 4-8 times at intervals of 15-30
s after a long dive. In the tropics they habitually blow 2-4 times in
succession when beginning a long dive. In diving, humpback whales throw
the tail flukes high into the air, exposing the sometimes white
undersurface and the rippled rear margin.

Humpback whales often leap clear of the water, raise a flipper, and slap
it against the water, or "lobtail," raising the tail high into the air
and bringing it crashing back to the water in a loud report. Often,
particularly when they are encountered on their tropical breeding
grounds, humpback whales will be found lying on their sides with a long
flipper in the air.

Humpback whales feed on krill and schooling fish.


May Be Confused With

From a distance humpback whales may be confused with any of the other
large balaenopterid (rorqual) whales--blue, fin, sei, or Bryde's.
Although it is highly variable, the dorsal fin most closely resembles
that of the blue whale. However, it is located farther forward on the
back. Humpback whales distinguish themselves from the remainder of the
rorquals by their habit of raising the flukes high into the air when
starting a long dive. (In very shallow water they may not raise the
flukes at all.) The only other rorqual to do so--the blue whale--raises
the flukes slightly or not at all.

Under some conditions humpback whales may be confused with sperm whales
at a distance. When arching the back to begin a dive, both may show a
distinct hump. Both species frequently raise their flukes nearly
vertically when beginning a long dive but differ in several ways. The
flukes of humpback whales show varying amounts of white beneath, are
pointed on the tips, and are distinctly concaved and irregularly rippled
on the rear margin. Those of sperm whales are all dark and more
flattened and even along the rear margin. Further the species can be
distinguished in the following ways:

        HUMPBACK WHALE                 SPERM WHALE

                              BLOW

  Projects upwards from center    Projects obliquely forward
  of head. Usually blows          from left side of snout.
  4-8 times (2-4 times in         Usually blows many times
  tropics) before diving.         (20-50 or more) before diving.

                              HEAD

  Raised area around blowholes,   Blunted, long, smooth.
  knobs on upper surface.

                             FLUKES

  Often white underneath,         Smooth, all black on rear
  concaved and scalloped on       margin.
  rear margin, deeply notched.

                            FLIPPERS

  Extremely long (to one-third    Short; all black.
  of body), white and scalloped
  on leading edge.

                      DORSAL FIN (OR HUMP)

  Triangular to falcate fin,      Rounded hump, two-thirds
  including a step or hump in     back on back followed by
  front of the dorsal fin;        knuckles or crenulations.
  smooth.

When they can be examined at close range, humpback whales can be easily
distinguished from all other large whale species with a dorsal fin by
the tuberosities or knobs on the head, by the long white flippers
scalloped on the leading edge, by the small distinctive dorsal fin, and
by their distinctive tail flukes.


Distribution

In the western North Atlantic, humpback whales are widely distributed
from north of Iceland, Disko Bay and west of Greenland, south to
Venezuela and around the tropical islands of the West Indies. They have
been reported from the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Summer ranges
extend at least from New England north to the pack ice, and feeding
concentrations may be found in any portion of this region. During
winter, humpback whales migrate southward to the shallow borderlands of
Bermuda, to the Bahamas, and to the West Indies to calve and mate.


Stranded Specimens

The most distinctive features of stranded humpback whales are 1) the
ventral grooves, 14-22 in number, very wide and extending to the navel;
2) the tuberosities of the snout and lower jaw, often the sites of
numerous barnacle colonies; 3) the long flippers (to nearly a third of
the total body length); and 4) the distinctive rounded projection near
the tip of the lower jaw.

If these characteristics are not sufficiently clear, the species may be
identifiable by the characteristics of the baleen plates (Table 2).

[Illustration: Figure 33.--Three views of blowing humpback whales. The
blow of this species is usually less than 10 feet (3.1 m) tall, wider
than it is high, and has been described as balloon-shaped. In the photo
on the top, the wind has already begun to distort the blow. In the photo
on the bottom, two separate columns are visible. All baleen whales have
a bipartite blowhole, and if an observer is directly behind or in front
of either the right whale or the humpback whale under ideal wind
conditions, the blows of these two species may appear as two distinct
spouts. (_Photos from West Indies by H. E. Winn (top and middle) and
from off St. Augustine, Fla. by D. K. Caldwell (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 34.--Head views of surfacing humpback whales. Note
the rather broad rounded appearance of the top of the head and the small
head ridge, which extends from just in front of the blowholes to near
the tip of the snout. In humpback whales the single central head ridge
characteristic of most balaenopterid species is replaced in prominence
by a series of knobs, some of which are oriented along the same line as
the head ridge. On the animal in the inset photo note also the
characteristic rounded projection below the tip of the lower jaw,
heavily encrusted with barnacles. (_Photos from off St Augustine, Fla.
by D. K. Caldwell and from West Indies by H. E. Winn (inset)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 35.--A mother humpback whale with her newborn calf
off the northern West Indies. Newborn humpback whales are from 12 to 15
feet (3.7 to 4.6 m) long and are colored like the adults. Note the
mother's long white pectoral flipper, clearly visible below the surface.
(_Photo by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 36.--Humpback whales fall back into the water
after breaching. Note the long flippers, distinctly scalloped on the
leading edge. In the animal on the top, note also the knobs on the head,
visible in profile, the cluster of barnacles located on the rounded
projection below the tip of the lower jaw, and the throat grooves.
(_Photos off Baja California by K. C. Balcomb (top) and off Bermuda by
C. Levenson (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 37.--Often, particularly on their tropical
breeding grounds, humpback whales lie on their sides at the surface, the
long white pectoral flipper in the air. Note the pronounced scalloping
on the leading edge. (_Photos near West Indies by C. McCann (top) and H.
E. Winn (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 38.--A series showing the extreme variability in
dorsal fin shapes of humpback whales: (a) a small ridge, (b) slightly
falcate, (c) triangular with a pronounced hump, (d) slightly rounded,
(e) distinctly rounded, and (f) taller and more distinctly falcate.
(_Photos from northern West Indies by H. E. Winn (a, c, e) and C. McCann
(b); off Baja California by K. C. Balcomb (d); and off St. Augustine,
Fla. by D. K. Caldwell (f)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 39.--The humpback whale is the only large whale
species with a distinct dorsal fin which regularly raises its tail
flukes when beginning a long dive. When it does so, the scalloped
trailing edge is often visible (f, g, h). When the diving whale is seen
from the rear, the varying degree of white coloration on the undersides
of the flukes aids in identification (h). (_Photos from northern North
Atlantic by K. C. Balcomb (a-f), from West Indies by C. McCann (g), and
from off Massachusetts by W. A. Watkins (h)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 40.--Detail of the head of a humpback whale
harpooned off Japan. Note the knobs along the top of the head and on the
lower jaw, the rounded projection near the tip of the lower jaw and the
wide ventral grooves. The large mass of tissue to the left of the animal
is its tongue. In the inset photo from a Canadian whaling station, note
the baleen plates, less than 3 feet (0.9 m) long and dark olive green to
black in color. (_Photos by Japanese Whales Research Institute, courtesy
of H. Omura; and J. G. Mead (inset)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 41.--A humpback whale on the deck of a whaling
station in western Canada. All of the species' most distinctive
characteristics are evident in this photograph: (1) the hump and the
dorsal fin; (2) the knobs on the top of the snout; and (3) the long
flipper, with numerous barnacles attached to its leading edge. (_Photo
by G. C. Pike, courtesy of I. MacAskie._)]

[Illustration: Figure 42.--North Atlantic humpback whales have from 14
to 20 broad, widely spaced ventral grooves which extend about to the
navel. Those grooves remain good diagnostic characters for considerable
periods after the animal's death, as evidenced in the freshly killed
specimen from Newfoundland (top) and the badly decomposed stranded
animal from New Jersey (bottom). (_Photos from U.S. National Museum,
courtesy of J. G. Mead._)]



Large Whales Without a Dorsal Fin



BOWHEAD WHALE (B)

_Balaena mysticetus_ Linnaeus 1758


Other Common Names

Greenland whale, Arctic right whale, great polar whale.


Description

Bowhead whales, so-called because of the high-arching jaws and the
resultant contour of the head, reach a maximum length of about 65 feet
(19.8 m). They are extremely robust in form.

When viewed from the side, some swimming bowhead whales show two
characteristic curves to the back: the first extends from the tip of the
snout to just behind the blowholes; the second, encompassing the entire
back, begins just behind the head and extends all the way to the tail.
This character may be present only in adult animals and may be more
pronounced in males. Younger animals, particularly females, are often
stubbier and somewhat barrel-shaped behind the head. In all animals the
back is smooth, lacking even a trace of a dorsal fin.

The head of the bowhead whale is smooth, black, and without the bonnet
and the "rock-garden," the colorful clusters of callosities
characteristic of the black right whale. The blowholes are widely
separated, and the blow emanating from them projects upward as two
separate, distinct spouts. Though two separate columns sometimes may be
visible under windless conditions in the blows of most mysticetes, this
feature is exaggerated and is most characteristic in the bowhead and
right whales.

Bowhead whales are black overall, except for a white "vest" of uneven
coloration on the chin. Within that vest, near the sides of the white
zone, there may be a series of grayish black to black spots, which on
some animals have been likened to a string of beads. The vest is clearly
visible when a surfacing animal is viewed from the front or the side or
when the animals hang vertically in the water with the head on the
surface and the tail flukes down, as they do during periods of early
spring mating.


Natural History Notes

Bowhead whales are usually found singly or in groups of up to three
animals, though fall concentrations may include up to 50 animals.

Bowhead whales sometimes breach, throwing most of the body clear of the
surface and reentering with a resounding splash.


May Be Confused With

Bowhead whales are the only species of large whales found routinely in
Arctic waters. Though other species, including some of the balaenopterid
whales and the right whale, may venture north as far as the southern
limits of the bowhead whale and beyond, they usually do so in the spring
and summer, at a time when the bowhead whales are farther to the north.
Even if they are encountered together, bowhead whales can be
distinguished from all the balaenopterid whales by the absence of a
dorsal fin. Bowhead whales have neither a fin nor the slightest trace of
a dorsal fin or ridge, while all the balaenopterids have a dorsal fin;
and their back is extremely smooth, like that of the right whale. The
bowhead and right whales may be readily distinguished from one another
by the characters listed below for stranded specimens.


Distribution

Though bowhead whales in the western North Atlantic were once
distributed from Arctic waters, from the edge of the ice, south as far
as the Strait of Belle Isle and the St. Lawrence River in such abundance
that they were once referred to simply as "the whale," overwhaling
through the 19th century until as recently as 1911 has severely reduced
their numbers and restricted their modern range. Today in addition to
the more abundant populations of the Bering, Beaufort, and Chukchi seas
and the Sea of Okhotsk, there are populations off eastern Greenland and
in Davis Straits, Baffin Bay, James Bay, and the adjacent waters. Within
these ranges, bowhead whales move southward in front of the advancing
ice floes and may be expected near the southern limits of their range
from September or October through the early spring months. Populations
in the western North Atlantic appear to be increasing slowly.


Stranded Specimens

In addition to the fact that their ranges may overlap only slightly if
at all, bowhead whales may be distinguished from the other right whales
of the western North Atlantic by differences in 1) primary distribution,
2) coloration, 3) lengths of the longest baleen plates, and 4) presence
of callosities.

       BOWHEAD WHALE                    RIGHT WHALE

                           DISTRIBUTION

  Arctic distribution south to      Texas, southwest Florida
  Davis Straits only during         north to Iceland, reaching
  winter.                           northern limits only during
                                    spring and summer.

                            COLORATION

  Black with white "vest" on        Sometimes black often
  front part of lower jaw,          brown or mottled with regions
  sometimes containing a            of white on chin and
  string of black spots; upper      belly; patches of yellowish to
  jaw lacks the "rock garden."      pink callosities and lice
                                    encrusting the snout in what
                                    has been called a "rock
                                    garden."

                          BALEEN PLATES

  325-360 per side; plates to 14    250-390 per side 12
  inches (35.6 cm) at base and      inches (30.5 cm) at base and
  longest plates up to 14 feet      up to 7.2 feet (2.2 m) long.
  (4.3 m) long. Dark gray or        Dirty gray with black fringes;
  black with gray fringes;          some anterior plates
  anterior margin of some           partly or completely white.
  plates whitish, showing
  green iridescence in sunlight.

                  BONNET AND OTHER CALLOSITIES

  Not present.                      Present.

[Illustration: Figure 43.--Swimming adult bowhead whales, particularly
males, often show two characteristic humps or curves to the back--one on
the head, ending just behind the blowholes, and a larger curve from just
behind the blowholes to near the flukes; the second is accentuated when
the animal humps up to begin a dive. (_Photo by J. Lentfer._)]

[Illustration: Figure 44.--Bowhead whales have no dorsal fin. The back
is smooth and black, though often irregularly spaced white or grayish
scars of unknown origin appear. (_Photos by J. Lentfer._)]

[Illustration: Figure 45.--The unusually shaped head and the broad lower
jaw, colored by a broad white vest, are evident in the swimming bowhead
whale (left) and in both members of the copulating pair (right). Also
evident on the animal to the far left is the "string of black beads"
which is sometimes found in the white region. (_Photos by J. Lentfer._)]

[Illustration: Figure 46.--A harpooned bowhead whale (this one from the
Alaskan population). Note the high arching upper jaw of the species.
Bowhead whales have up to at least 360 plates per side, far more than
the black right whale. The longest plates, located near the middle of
each jaw, are reported to reach 12 feet (3.7 m), or more, in length.
(_Photo by D. R. Patten._)]



RIGHT WHALE (B)

_Eubalaena glacialis_ (Borowski 1781)


Other Common Names

Black right whale, Biscayan right whale, Biscay whale, Nordcaper right
whale.


Description

These right whales reach a length of about 53 feet (16.2 m).

The body is rotund and completely lacking a dorsal fin or a dorsal
ridge. The upper jaw is long, narrow, and highly arched. The lips are
similarly highly arched. The top of the head has a series of bumps or
callosities, the largest one of which is known as the "bonnet," on the
upper surface in front of the blowholes. Yellowish-brown lice and, less
frequently, barnacles grow on the callosities. The color and extent of
the callosities varies from one individual to the next.

The two blowholes are widely separated, resulting in the projection of
the blow upward as two distinct spouts. The body is dark on the back,
sometimes black, more often brown or mottled, usually has a region of
white on the chin and belly, and sometimes has numerous small
grayish-white scars of unknown origin. The baleen plates are up to 7.2
feet (2.2 m) long, very narrow, and variable in color from dark brownish
through dark gray to black in color. When the animals swim, mouth agape
near the surface, the baleen sometimes appears pale yellowish gray in
color.


Natural History Notes

Right whales are usually not wary of boats and may often be approached
very closely.

Like sperm and humpback whales, they usually throw their flukes high
into the air when beginning a long dive.

Right whales feed primarily on copepods.

Historically, this whale was nearly exterminated by hunters, who took
advantage of its slow speed and who knew that its carcass floats, to
harvest these animals for their great yield of whalebone and oil. It was
these characteristics which prompted whalers to dub these animals the
"right" whales to kill (as opposed to the ones that were too fast to
catch and sank when killed).


May Be Confused With

The distinct blow of the right whales and their smooth dark back, devoid
of any traces of a dorsal fin, make it unlikely that the species will be
confused with any other large whales except, perhaps, the bowhead whale.
In the event that the expansion of their ranges again causes these two
species to overlap in distribution, they can be distinguished from one
another by the characteristics discussed on p. 49.

If only the flukes are seen as the animal begins a dive, right and
bowhead whales may be distinguished from the other two species of large
whales exhibiting this behavior, the sperm and the humpback, in this
way: the flukes of right and bowhead whales are broad, pointed on the
tips, greatly concave towards a deep fluke notch, and dark below: those
of the sperm whale are more nearly triangular, while those of the
humpback whale have a jagged irregular or rippled rear margin and are
sometimes variously white below.


Distribution

Like its more northern relative, the bowhead whale, the right whale was
once the object of a widespread and extensive whale fishery, which
reduced the species to critically low numbers.

Though the former range of right whales is not clearly known, the
species is thought to have been abundant from the Davis Straits south at
least to the Carolinas and Bermuda and to have occurred in winter to
Florida and perhaps into the Gulf of Mexico.

Currently, right whales are known from Iceland south to Florida. Animals
move north along the eastern Florida coast between early January and
late March. During this time the species has also been observed in the
Gulf of Mexico off southwestern Florida and Texas. Right whales pass the
coast of New England in fair numbers in spring and continue as far north
as at least Nova Scotia. Right whales are also found off Iceland, though
the migration routes to and from Iceland waters are not known. The
recent apparent increases in numbers at the northern and southern
coastal approaches in New England and Florida, respectively, lend
credibility to the hopeful contention that the species will again
recolonize its historical range.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded right whales can be easily identified by all the characters
discussed on p. 49 and summarized in Table 2.

[Illustration: Figure 47.--The V-shaped blow characteristic of right
whales. Note the two distinct spouts, bushy in appearance. (_Photo off
Cape Cod by W. A. Watkins._)]

[Illustration: Figure 48.--A right whale off the northeastern Florida
coast. Note the robust body, the smooth back, completely lacking a
dorsal fin, and the narrow rostrum, bearing the characteristic yellowish
callosities. Right whales, primarily mothers with calves, show up on the
Florida coast in the early spring on their slow annual migration to the
north. (_Photo by N. Fain, courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 49.--Closeup views of the heads of right whales
off northeastern Florida (top left and right) and off Cape Cod, Mass.
(bottom left) clearly showing the narrow upper jaw, the bonnet, and the
widely separated blowholes. In the photo on the bottom left note the
extremely long baleen plates, characteristic of bowhead and right
whales. (_Photos by N. Fain, courtesy of Marineland of Florida (top left
and right); and W. A. Watkins (bottom left)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 50.--Right whales frequently throw their tail
flukes high into the air and then slip nearly vertically beneath the
surface. Note that the rear margin of the flukes of this species, unlike
that of the humpback whale, is smooth, broad, and concaved distinctly
towards a deep fluke notch. (_Photos from the northern North Atlantic by
K. C. Balcomb (a-g) and off northeastern Florida by N. Fain, courtesy of
Marineland of Florida (h)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 51.--A stranded right whale at Narragensett Bay,
R.I. Note the narrow, highly arched lower jaw; the extremely long,
narrow baleen plates, reaching lengths of 6.5 feet (2.0 m), or more; and
the bonnet (the protuberance near the tip of the upper jaw). (_Photo
from U.S. National Museum, courtesy of J. G. Mead._)]

[Illustration: Figure 52.--A ventral view of a harpooned female right
whale at Newfoundland. Note that this species, like the bowhead, lacks
the series of ventral grooves which characterize all other baleen whales
of the western North Atlantic. Note also the absence of the vest of
white on the chin, a feature which is characteristic of the bowhead
whale. Some right whales, however, do have extensive regions of white on
the ventral surface, including the chin. (_Photo from U.S. National
Museum, courtesy of J. G. Mead._)]



SPERM WHALE (T)

_Physeter catodon_ Linnaeus 1758


Other Common Names

Cachalot, Sea Wap (St. Vincent).


Description

Male sperm whales have been reported to reach a length of 69 feet (20.9
m), though today individuals larger than 50 feet (15.2 m) are rare.
Females are much smaller, rarely exceeding 38 feet (11.6 m).

A sperm whale is among the easiest of whales to identify at sea even
when comparatively little of the animal is visible. It has a huge head,
which comprises from a fourth to a third of the animal's total length.
(The proportion is considerably higher for males than for females.) The
blunted "squarish" snout, which may project up to 5 feet (1.5 m) beyond
the tip of the lower jaw, houses a large reservoir containing a
high-quality oil called spermaceti.

The single blowhole is located well to the left of the midline and far
forward on the head. As a consequence the small bushy blow, usually less
than 8 feet (2.4 m), emerges forward at a sharp angle from the head and
towards the left. Under good wind conditions this feature alone may
permit positive identification of sperm whales even at considerable
distances.

Sperm whales have a distinct dorsal hump, usually rounded in its
appearance about two-thirds of the way back from the tip of the snout.
Immediately behind the hump is a series of knuckles or crenulations
along the midline. This hump and the crenulations are clearly visible
when the animals arch the tail before beginning a dive. There is a
ventral keel, which may also be visible as animals "sound" (dive). The
flukes of sperm whales are broad and triangular in shape, are not
concaved, but are deeply notched on the rear margin.

Sperm whales usually are dark brownish gray in color. The body has a
"corrugated" or "shriveled" appearance. The belly and the front of the
head may be grayish to off-white. The skin around the mouth,
particularly near the corners, is white. The undersides of the flukes
and flippers vary in color through numerous shades of browns and
brownish grays.


Natural History Notes

Sperm whales may dive to depths in excess of 3,270 feet (996.7 m) for
periods of an hour or more. As do most whales upon surfacing from a deep
dive, sperm whales emit a single explosive blow and then, depending on
the length of the dive, may remain on the surface for over 10 min and
blow more than 50 times before beginning the next dive. Shorter periods
on the surface and fewer blows are more common. Females may dive and
remain on the surface for shorter periods of time than males. When
beginning a deep dive, sperm whales throw their broad triangular flukes,
dark on the undersides, high into the air.

Sperm whales may be found singly or in groups of up to 35 or 40
individuals. Older males are usually solitary except during the breeding
season. During the remainder of the year large groups may be bachelor
bulls (sexually inactive males) or nursery schools containing females
and juveniles of both sexes. Sperm whales are seldom found in less than
600 feet (182.9 m) of water.

Sperm whales feed primarily on squid but may occasionally also take
octopuses and a variety of fishes.


May Be Confused With

Because of their distinctive head shape and blow, sperm whales are
unlikely to be confused with any other species when they can be closely
examined. If only the back and tail flukes are seen, however, sperm
whales may somewhat resemble humpback whales. Both species arch the back
when beginning a dive, raising the fin or hump, and both throw the tail
flukes. The most distinctive differences between the two species are
tabularized on p. 40.

At sea the head of a sperm whale may also somewhat resemble that of an
adult male northern bottlenosed whale, but this latter species is
lighter brown in color, has a distinct beak and a prominent dorsal fin,
and is rarely found south of lat. 42°N. In addition, the blowhole of the
northern bottlenosed whale is located well back on the head and not--as
in the sperm whale--on the front.


Distribution

Sperm whales are widely distributed in oceanic areas of the western
North Atlantic. They may be encountered from Venezuela north at least as
far as the Davis Straits, though they apparently avoid the polar ice
fields. Distribution and migrations vary between males and females.
Males range farther to the north, while females and immature males
remain between lat. 30° and 50°N. Both groups shift northward during
spring and summer and return to southern portions of their range in the
fall. Adult males arrive off the New England coast in August. Those
reaching the Newfoundland and Labrador coasts arrive from the deep sea,
perhaps following the slope contours, in August and September. Males are
abundant as far north as southeast Greenland and Iceland in summer. Some
animals remain as late as November, but the majority migrate south to
temperate or tropical waters in the early fall.

Historically the primary grounds in the western North Atlantic were
those in all the following areas: the Grand Banks just southeast of the
southern Grand Banks from lat. 30° to 40°N and long. 35° to 55°W, off
the Carolinas, around the Bahamas, around many of the West Indies, and
in the southwestern Caribbean.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded sperm whales should be easy to identify. The very narrow
underslung jaw contains from 18 to 25 functional teeth, which fit into
sockets in the upper jaw. The huge, distinctly box-shaped head and the
position of the single blowhole to the left front of the head are
unmistakable clues.

[Illustration: Figure 53.--An aerial view of 21 sperm whales, including
two young calves and several large males, off Japan. Even from an
aircraft, the position of the blowhole and the body shape clearly mark
these animals as sperm whales. (_Photos by Suisan Koku Company, courtesy
of T. Kasuya._)]

[Illustration: Figure 54.--A side view of a sperm whale in the West
Indies, showing the distinctive blow. Note that the spout projects
obliquely forward from the blowhole, which is displaced to the left
front of the head. (_Photo by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 55.--Note the distinctive body shape and the
position of the blowhole of these swimming sperm whales, and, in the
animal on the left, the broad tail flukes. (_Photos from the North
Atlantic by S. Green (left) and from the North Pacific by S. Ohsumi
(right)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 56.--A sperm whale mother and calf off Baja
California, showing the distinct dorsal hump and the extremely long
head. In the bottom photo, from the West Indies, note the dorsal hump
and the crenulations of bumps which follow it. Both the hump and the
crenulations may be visible as the animal arches its tail to begin a
deep dive. Note also the wrinkled appearance of the body. (_Photo by K.
C. Balcomb (top) and H. E. Winn (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 57.--Sperm whales often show their broad tail
flukes as they begin long dives, which may last over an hour and take
them to depths of several thousand feet or more. Note the smooth rear
margin and the nearly triangular shape of the flukes. (_Photo from off
Baja California by K. C. Balcomb._)]

[Illustration: Figure 58.--A stranded infant male sperm whale at
Melbourne Beach, Fla. (top) and a male adult sperm whale on the deck of
a whaling ship in the Pacific (bottom). Note the bulging forehead, the
narrow, underslung lower jaw, the white coloration around the mouth,
particularly at the corners, and the wrinkled appearance of the body. In
the bottom photo note also the whitish region on the belly. (_Photos by
P. Winfield (top) and Japanese Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H.
Omura (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 59.--The narrow lower jaw of a sperm whale
contains from 18 to 25 large functional teeth, which fit neatly into
sockets in the upper jaw. Occasionally, the upper jaw also contains some
teeth. (_Photo from the North Pacific by Japanese Whales Research
Institute, courtesy of H. Omura._)]

[Illustration: Figure 60.--The throat and lower jaw of a sperm whale on
the deck of an eastern Canadian whaling station, showing the numerous
short throat grooves, which are most clearly evident on adult animals.
(_Photo by J. G. Mead._)]

[Illustration: Figure 61.--Detail of the broad, paddle-shaped flipper of
a sperm whale from the North Pacific. (_Photo from Japanese Whales
Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura._)]



Medium-sized Whales With a Dorsal Fin



MINKE WHALE (B)

_Balaenoptera acutorostrata_ Lacepede 1804


Other Common Names

Little piked whale, lesser rorqual, little firmer, sharp-headed finner,
grampus (Newfoundland), gibord (Quebec).


Description

Minke whales are the smallest baleen whale species in the northern
hemisphere, reaching maximum lengths of just over 30 feet (9.1 m). One
of the most distinctive features of this species is an extremely narrow,
pointed, distinctly triangular rostrum with a single head ridge, similar
to but much sharper than that of the fin whale (hence the common name
"sharp-headed finner"). Minke whales have a tall, falcate dorsal fin
located in the latter third of the back, in about the same position as
that of the sei whale, which often becomes visible simultaneously with
the low, usually inconspicuous blow.

Minke whales are black to dark gray on the back and white on the belly
and on the underside of the flippers. Portions of the underside of the
flukes may be steel bluish gray. They have a diagonal band of white on
each flipper, the extent and orientation of which varies individually.

Like the fin whale, minke whales (at least from the Pacific) sometimes
have a chevron on the back behind the head and often have two regions of
lightish-gray coloration on each side--one just above and behind the
flippers; another just in front of and below the dorsal fin. These
patches may be quite conspicuous on some animals, indetectable on
others. These markings may also be present on Atlantic specimens, though
they have not yet been documented. The baleen, which may be visible from
close range when the animal is feeding, is mostly yellowish white with
fine white bristles. The posterior plates (up to half) may be brown to
black.


Natural History Notes

Minke whales are frequently found as single animals, pairs, or trios,
though they may congregate in areas of food concentration in the
northern seas during the spring and summer. They are more likely to be
seen up close than their larger cousins--the blue, fin, and sei
whales--because they often closely approach boats, particularly
stationary boats, as if curious about them.

Minke whales may also approach very close to shore and often enter bays,
inlets, and estuaries.

Like fin whales, they often arch the tail stock high into the air when
beginning a long dive. However, they do not raise the flukes above the
surface when beginning a dive.

Minke whales feed primarily on small shoal fish (herring, cod, pollack,
and capelin).

Minkes sometimes breach, leaping completely clear of the water and
entering smoothly, head first, or with a substantial splash like
humpback whales.


May Be Confused With

When they are seen at relatively close range, minke whales can be
readily distinguished from the other rorquals that have relatively tall,
falcate dorsal fins (fin, sei, and Bryde's whales) by their considerably
smaller size and by their distinctive white band on each flipper.

At a distance, however, positive identification may be difficult. Minke
whales have a small, low, inconspicuous blow. Like sei whales, they
frequently expose the dorsal fin simultaneously with the blow, but minke
whales hump the tail stock much higher when beginning a long dive--more
like fin whales.

From a distance, minke whales might also be mistaken for northern
bottlenosed whales (or any of several other beaked whales with a similar
dorsal fin). They can be distinguished by the differences in head shape,
body color and markings, and behavior, detailed on p. 67.


Distribution

Minke whales are distributed in the polar, temperate, and tropical
waters of the western North Atlantic. They are found from the pack ice
south to at least Anguilla, Lesser Antilles, and the eastern Gulf of
Mexico, though they appear to be most abundant in temperate waters north
of the latitude of New York and are infrequently reported from tropical
waters. At least some of the population migrates to the northern
portions of their range in spring and back south in autumn. They often
approach close to shore and enter river mouths, inlets, and estuaries.

Minke whales arrive along the Canadian coast in May or June. Some
migrate as far north as Hudson Strait, where they remain until the
freeze in October, November, or December. By December the majority of
the population has begun to move to the south, although some animals
remain behind so long as to become entrapped in the ice and die. Spring
and summer concentrations along the Canadian coast correspond to
concentrations of capelin, cod, and herring. Southern concentrations,
also corresponding with concentrations of herring, extend farther
offshore at least to the edges of the Grand Bank. Minke whales also
summer off the south coast of western Greenland, which they probably
reach from waters southwest of Iceland. Minke whales also occur in deep
pelagic waters.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded minke whales can be most readily identified by: 1) their small
size (to just over 30 feet [9.1 m]); 2) the transverse white bands on
the flippers; 3) the yellowish-white baleen plates (up to half the
posteriormost plates may be brown or black), 300-325 per side in number
and having fine white bristles (the plates are up to 4.75 inches [12 cm]
wide at the base and up to 8 inches [20.3 cm] long); and 4) by the 50-70
thin ventral grooves, ending well before the navel, often just even with
the flippers.

[Illustration: Figure 62.--The minke whale, at a maximum length of just
over 30 feet (9.1 m), the smallest baleen whale species of the western
North Atlantic, is distributed in polar, temperate, and tropical waters.
These animals usually have a low, inconspicuous blow and are sometimes
curious enough about boats that they will alter their course to
investigate them. Note the two areas of light gray on the sides of the
body, characteristic of at least Pacific minke whales. (_Photo from off
British Columbia, courtesy of_ Nanaimo Free Press.)]

[Illustration: Figure 63.--Three views of minke whales at sea. In all
note the transverse band of white on the flippers and the sharply
pointed head. Note the gray chevron visible on the back (top), the
absence of a conspicuous blow and the appearance of the prominent dorsal
fin on the surface while the blowholes are still exposed (middle), and
the distinctive regions of light gray on the sides (bottom). (_Photos
from off San Diego, Calif. by G. E. Lingle (top); from the northern West
Indies by H. E. Winn (middle); and from the western Pacific by Japanese
Whales Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 64.--Minke whales are also known as sharp-headed
finners. On this animal from the North Pacific, note the sharply pointed
head and the single central head ridge. (_Photo by Japanese Whales
Research Institute, courtesy of H. Omura._)]

[Illustration: Figure 65.--A minke whale stranded at Santa Barbara,
Calif. Note the dark back, the white-banded flipper, and the 60-70 fine
ventral grooves extending to just behind the flippers. The short, white
baleen plates are visible in the open mouth. (_Photo by S. Anderson._)]

[Illustration: Figure 66.--Minke whales have from 300 to 325 short,
yellowish-white baleen plates (up to half the anteriormost plates may be
brown or black) with fine white bristles on each upper jaw. (_Photo from
Santa Barbara, Calif. by S. Anderson._)]



NORTHERN BOTTLENOSED WHALE (T)

_Hyperoodon ampullatus_ (Forster 1770)


Other Common Names

None known.


Description

Northern bottlenosed whales reach a length of 32 feet (9.8 m) and are
robust in form. They are characterized by a bulbous forehead, which is
more pronounced on larger animals and most distinctive in adult males,
and by the dolphinlike beak displayed in animals of all sizes and ages,
which is sometimes visible as the animals surface steeply to breathe.

The blowhole is located in an indented area behind the bulbous forehead,
and the blow emanating from it projects upward or slightly forward to a
height of up to 6 feet (1.8 m), is bushy and is visible from a
considerable distance under low wind conditions. The dorsal fin, located
two-thirds of the way back on the back, reaches at least 12 inches (30.5
cm) in height and is distinctly falcate. The dorsal fin may be visible
from a distance of several hundred meters.

Northern bottlenosed whales are usually brownish in color, though the
markings change with age. Smaller animals are a uniform chocolate brown.
Larger animals retain the chocolate brown color on the back but are
often lighter on the sides and the belly and often have irregular
patches or blotches of grayish-white coloration on the back and sides.
Extremely large animals, presumably older males, often have a white
head. The flippers and the undersides of the flukes are uniformly brown
in color.


Natural History Notes

Northern bottlenosed whales often form tightly packed groups of up to 10
or more animals. This species holds the anecdotal record for the longest
dives, having been reported by early whalers to remain submerged over 2
h. They are probably deep divers, feeding primarily on squid (though
they may take fishes as well), and they rarely go in water shallower
than 100 fathoms (183 m).

After a long dive, northern bottlenosed whales will sometimes remain on
the surface for 10 min or more, blowing at regular intervals before
making another dive. After the last blow of a series or when the animals
are startled by a boat, they may show the tail flukes as they begin to
dive. The flukes are not notched on the rear margin.

Northern bottlenosed whales have been observed to show curiosity about
boats, coming to them from a considerable distance. They have also been
observed to "lobtail," raising the tail flukes above the water and
slapping them against the surface, and to jump clear of the water.

In the late 19th century, after stocks of bowhead whales were severely
reduced by overwhaling, northern bottlenosed whales became a prime
target of arctic whalers. They were sought because in addition to whale
oil produced from the body blubber, the forehead of the species yielded
quantities of spermaceti like that obtained from sperm whales.


May Be Confused With

Northern bottlenosed whales have a northerly and deep-water
distribution. Within their range, they may be confused at a distance
with minke whales, with sperm whales, or perhaps with North Sea beaked
whales.

Minke whales (p. 63) have a falcate dorsal fin located in approximately
the same position as that of the northern bottlenosed whale. However,
minke whales have a flathead in front of their two blow holes and are
black to dark gray on the back.

Sperm whales (p. 57) have a squarish head that may somewhat resemble
that of an adult male northern bottlenosed whale. However, there are
numerous characteristics which will permit these species to be
distinguished even from a distance:

         NORTHERN
     BOTTLENOSED WHALE                   SPERM WHALE

                               BLOW

  Low and bushy; projects           Low and bushy, projects
  upward from indentation on        obliquely forward from left
  top of head.                      side of head; usually less
                                    than 8 feet (2.4 m).

                            COLORATION

  Lighter brown; adults splotched   Brownish gray; body appears
  with grayish white;               wrinkled.
  body smooth.

                              FLUKES

  Rarely notched; seldom raised     Notched; raised on long dive.
  on long dive.

                               HEAD

  Tapering in younger animals;      Squarish, long, all black;
  bulbous in adults;                beakless.
  white in older animals; beaked.

A further aid to distinguishing northern bottlenosed and sperm whales at
sea is the fact that the sperm whales that are found in areas where
northern bottlenosed whales are encountered are usually older, larger
males from 40 to 60 feet (12.2 to 18.3 m) long. Northern bottlenosed
whales do not exceed 32 feet (9.8 m).

Northern bottlenosed whales may also be confused with the poorly known
North Sea beaked whale (p. 82). When they can be examined at close
range, however, northern bottlenosed whales should be distinguishable on
the basis of the distinctly bulbous forehead.


Distribution

In the western North Atlantic, northern bottlenosed whales are
restricted to Arctic and north temperate waters, where they most
commonly occur in offshore areas. They have been reported from Davis
Straits and the entrance to Hudson Strait, the Gully southeast of Sable
Island, and as far south as Narragansett Bay, R.I.

In the spring and summer they concentrate near the northern limits of
their range, occasionally visiting deep channels of the Gulf of St.
Lawrence and eastern Newfoundland in summer. During these seasons they
may extend to the edge of the pack ice.

In the fall and winter the bulk of the population migrates southward.
Many probably winter in the Labrador Sea while others move farther
southward and farther offshore.


Stranded Specimens

Like the beaked whales discussed on p. 70 through 83, the northern
bottlenosed whales have no notch in the tail flukes, have two throat
grooves forming a V-shape on the chin, and have only two teeth in the
lower jaw, with those teeth emerged from the gums only in adult males.
These teeth may have sometimes fallen out of older males, but the tooth
sockets should still be visible in the gums.

NOTE: Some specimens--both male and female--will be found to have a
series of vestigial teeth the size of toothpicks in the upper and/or
lower jaws. Similar vestigial teeth, 5-40 in number, sometimes occur in
goosebeaked whales (p. 70). Further when they are prepared for museum
collections, the lower jaws of adult northern bottlenosed whales may be
found to contain a second pair of teeth just behind the first.

Northern bottlenosed whales may be distinguished from the remainder of
the beaked whale family, however, by the extremely robust body, by the
bulbous forehead, which is more extensively developed in larger animals,
particularly males, and by the pronounced dolphinlike beak.

[Illustration: Figure 67.--Northern bottlenosed whales at sea off Nova
Scotia. Note the prominent dorsal fin and the blotches of grayish-white
coloration on the body. Northern bottlenosed whales reach 32 feet (9.8
m) in overall length. (_Photo by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 68.--Views of the heads of male northern
bottlenosed whales off Nova Scotia. Note the distinctive beak (right)
and the bulbous forehead, features which develop with age and are most
pronounced in adult males. In the animal on the left, note also the low
bushy blow emanating from the indented area on the top of the head.
(_Photos by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 69.--Northern bottlenosed whales occasionally
raise their tail flukes when beginning a dive. At close range, these
flukes can often be seen to lack a distinctive notch on the rear margin.
(_Photo from off Nova Scotia by J. Hain._)]

[Illustration: Figure 70.--A stranded northern bottlenosed whale from
Holland. Note the bulbous forehead, the long dolphinlike beak and the
frequent absences of a notch in the rear margin of the tail flukes.
(_Photo by J. P. Strijbos, courtesy of Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke
Historie te Leiden._)]



GOOSEBEAKED WHALE (T)

_Ziphius cavirostris_ G. Cuvier 1823

Other Common Names


Ziphius, Cuvier's beaked whale, grampus (St. Vincent) (see also p. 96).


Description

Goosebeaked whales reach a length of 23 feet (7 m). Females are slightly
larger than males of the same age. Calves are probably less than about 6
feet (1.8 m) at birth. The head is small relative to the body length
and, when viewed laterally, is slightly concaved or scooped on the upper
margin. The cleft of the mouth is small, smaller than in any other
species of beaked whales. The beak is indistinct in larger individuals.
There is a distinct indentation on the back behind the head. Two teeth
are found at the tip of the lower jaw of adult males only.

The dorsal fin is relatively tall and distinct, to at least 15 inches
(38.1 cm), smoothly falcate, and located well behind the midpoint of the
back. The blowhole is located far forward on the top of the head. The
blow, which may project slightly forward and slightly off to the left,
is usually low and inconspicuous. Though the first blow after a long
dive may be more distinct, even it is rarely visible even under good
wind conditions for more than a few hundred yards.

Descriptions of the color pattern vary. Individuals may be dark rust
brown, slate gray, or fawn colored on the back and generally lighter on
the belly. Some appear dark in both regions, still others--particularly
youngsters--appear lighter gray or tan on the belly. The body is
frequently covered with white or cream-colored blotches (particularly on
the belly). The tail flukes are dark on the bottom. The head is
frequently paler in color. Old males have a distinct white head and are
frequently extensively scarred.


Natural History Notes

Goosebeaked whales frequently occur in groups of from 10 to as many as
25 individuals. They have been reported to jump clear of the water. They
are presumably deep divers and are known to stay down for more than 30
min. When they begin a deep dive, they often raise their tail flukes
above the surface and dive nearly vertically. Goosebeaked whales feed
primarily on squid.


May Be Confused With

So little is known of the external appearance and behavior of the living
beaked whales at sea that all the species may easily be confused.

Goosebeaked whales are larger than all other beaked whale species with
the exception of the northern bottlenosed whale. Upon close examination
they may be distinguished from the northern bottlenosed whale by the
lighter coloration of the head, reaching an extreme in the white head of
adult males. (See p. 67 and Fig. 75.)


Distribution

As with other species of beaked whales seldom encountered or at least
seldom positively identified at sea, the distribution of goosebeaked
whales is poorly known and must be constructed from records of stranded
specimens. Such records, often involving sick individuals that may have
washed ashore from considerable distances, may give an inaccurate
picture of normal ranges.

In general, stranding reports suggest that goosebeaked whales are
sparsely but widely distributed in nonpolar latitudes. They appear to be
primarily tropical in distribution, though they venture into temperate
areas in summer. They have been reported from Massachusetts and Rhode
Island south to Florida and thence to the islands of the West Indies.
They are frequently stranded along the Florida coast and are not an
uncommon species in the extant whale fishery of the Antillean Islands.
The fact that goosebeaked whales strand more frequently than other
beaked whales may reflect either a greater abundance or a greater
tendency to approach close to shore.

They are probably primarily an offshore species.


Stranded Specimens

To be positively identified, stranded goosebeaked whales in an advanced
state of decomposition may require museum preparation and examination of
the skull and teeth. Fresh specimens may be tentatively identified by
the characters illustrated in the figures.

[Illustration: Figure 71.--Goosebeaked whales have been rarely seen at
sea. In these photos from the eastern tropical Pacific, note the white
head of the animal on the left. Goosebeaked whales are wary of boats and
may dive for 30 min or more. When they surface, their blow, usually very
indistinct, may project forward and slightly to the left. (_Photos by K.
D. Sexton, courtesy of National Marine Fisheries Service._)]

[Illustration: Figure 72.--A beaked whale, probably a goosebeaked whale,
jumps beside a research ship off northwestern Baja California. Note the
position and shape of the dorsal fin and the depression just behind the
head. (_Photo by S. Leatherwood._)]

[Illustration: Figure 73.--A goosebeaked whale stranded in Delaware.
Goosebeaked whales are primarily tropical in distribution, though they
apparently venture into temperate areas in summer. Note the prominent
dorsal fin, the lighter coloration of the head, and the depression just
behind the head. (_Photo from U.S. National Museum, courtesy of J. G.
Mead._)]

[Illustration: Figure 74.--A closeup of the dorsal surface of the flukes
of a juvenile goosebeaked whale stranded in the northeastern Gulf of
Mexico. Like other members of the beaked whale family, goosebeaked
whales lack a distinctive notch in the rear margin of the flukes.
(_Photo courtesy of Florida's Gulfarium._)]

[Illustration: Figure 75.--Stranded goosebeaked whales, an adult male
from northern California (top) and an immature female from the
northeastern Gulf of Mexico (bottom). Note the brownish color of the
back, marked in the adult animal by blotches of lighter gray and
numerous scratch marks, presumably tooth rakes. Note also the mouth
cleft, shorter in this species than in any other beaked whale species,
and the slightly concave appearance to the upper margin of the head. The
beak is usually less developed in large animals. The inset photo shows a
ventral view of the tip of the lower jaw of an adult male from the east
coast of Florida. The two teeth of the species are emerged above the gum
only in adult males. (_Photos by W. J. Houck (top), Florida's Gulfarium
(middle), and W. A. Huck, courtesy of Marineland of Florida (inset)._)]



OTHER BEAKED WHALES (T)

_Mesoplodon_ spp.


Other Common Names

Grampus (St. Vincent) (see also p. 96).


Description

In addition to the northern bottlenosed whale (p. 67) and the
goosebeaked whale (p. 70), four other species of beaked whales have been
reported from the western North Atlantic. All four species are known
primarily from stranded specimens and have been rarely encountered at
sea. Therefore statements of range are usually limited to inferences
from locations of strandings, and information on appearance and habits
of the species in the wild is almost totally lacking.

The infrequent encounters with beaked whales at sea may result from such
factors as 1) a low inconspicuous blow, 2) avoidance of ships, and/or 3)
distribution in small groups in offshore areas well outside the normal
boating lanes.

The following descriptions will aid primarily in identifying stranded
specimens. Though subtle differences in ranges, color patterns, and
dorsal fin shapes and positions may be helpful in narrowing the choices
of living animals, the species will continue to be extremely difficult
to distinguish from one another in the brief encounters typical at sea
until additional data are collected.

The beaked whales have the following characteristics in common: 1) two
small creases forming a V-shape on the throat, 2) the absence of a
conspicuous notch on the rear margin of the tail flukes (some specimens
have a slight indentation), and 3) the absence of functional teeth in
all except adult males. Adult males have a single pair of teeth in the
lower jaw, the position and description of which help to identify the
species. The teeth of females are not functional and only rarely emerge
from the gums. Therefore, if a stranded animal is an adult male, its
species can be determined by the position and description of the teeth.
For example, in _Mesoplodon mirus_, the teeth are located near the tip
of the lower jaw; in _M. europaeus_, they are located about a third of
the way from the tip of the snout to the corner of the mouth; in _M.
bidens_, they are nearly half way from the tip of the snout to corner
of the mouth; and in M. densirostris, they are located in large
prominences near the back of the mouth.

If the animal is a female or an immature male, however, museum
preparation and examination might be required before the species can be
positively determined. The following four sections summarize characters
of western North Atlantic beaked whales.

[Illustration: Figure 76.--An unidentified beaked whale from the
mid-Pacific. Note the marks along the back, presumably tooth rakes,
consisting of scratches that are paired and close together. A beaked
whale in the western North Atlantic marked in this manner would be a
northern bottlenosed whale (p. 67), a goosebeaked whale (p. 70), or a
True's beaked whale (p. 77). These are the only three species in which
the teeth are located close together near the tip of the lower jaw.
(_Photo by K. C. Balcomb._)]

[Illustration: Figure 77.--Various views of a herd of five or six
unidentified beaked whales, possibly dense-beaked whales, 12 miles off
Pokai Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. The animals were very shy and had low
indistinct blows, making them difficult to spot and track. As they
surfaced, individuals frequently bucked their heads and slapped the chin
against the surface, rather than rolling. They did not raise their tail
flukes when beginning their long dives. (_Photos by E. Shallenberger,
Sea Life Park, Hawaii._)

(Because so little is known of beaked whales every encounter should be
recorded in as much detail as possible.)]

[Illustration: Figure 78.--Adult male beaked whales, showing the body
profile and the relative positions of the teeth. Remember that the teeth
of females and immature males are concealed beneath the gums. (_Drawing
by L. Winn._)]



TRUE'S BEAKED WHALE (T)

_Mesoplodon minis_ True 1913


Other Common Names

None known.


Description

True's beaked whales reach a length of at least 16 feet (4.9 m) long.
They are chunky in midbody and narrow rapidly towards the tail, closely
resembling goosebeaked whales (p. 70). In overall body shape, the head
is small with a slight indentation in the area of the blowhole, a slight
bulge to the forehead, and a pronounced beak. The flippers are small
(from one-fourteenth to one-tenth the body length). The dorsal fin is
small, slightly falcate, located in the latter third of the back, and
followed by a pronounced ridge on the tail stock. The flukes, which
sometimes contain a very slight notch, are broad (to almost one-fifth
the body length).

True's beaked whales are dull black to dark gray on the back, lighter
slate gray on the sides, and white on the belly. The body is frequently
covered with light colored spots or splotches and bears numerous pairs
of scratch marks, presumably tooth rakes (Fig. 76).

The flippers are all black and are attached in the dark coloration of
the animal's side. The flukes are dark above and below.


May Be Confused With

True's beaked whales are most likely to be confused with goosebeaked
whales (p. 70) but may also be confused with any of the other beaked
whales species (p. 74 and Fig. 78).


Distribution

True's beaked whales appear to be primarily temperate in distribution.
They have been reported from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia south as
far as Flagler Beach in Florida. Northernmost records are for summer
months.

The range of True's beaked whales overlaps with that of the Antillean
beaked whale but is more northerly.


Stranded Specimens

The teeth of adult male True's beaked whales may be visible near the tip
of the lower jaw, a characteristic shared with the goosebeaked whale (p.
70) and the northern bottlenosed whale (p. 67). Both these other species
reach substantially greater maximum lengths than True's beaked whales,
however, and should be readily distinguishable by this and the number of
other highly distinctive characteristics of each species.

Females and subadult males may be confused with any of the beaked whales
species (p. 74 and Fig. 78).

[Illustration: Figure 79.--Two views of the body of a stranded True's
beaked whale from northeastern Florida. This species reaches at least 16
feet (4.9 m) and closely resembles the goosebeaked whale in general body
shape. It is distributed in temperate waters from Nova Scotia to
Florida. (_Photos courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 80.--The head of a True's beaked whale stranded in
North Carolina. Note the small head, the pronounced beak, and the
position of the blowhole in the indentation behind the forehead. The
teeth, visible above the gums only in adult males, are in the position
indicated by the arrow. The photo on the right shows the two V-shaped
throat grooves characteristic of beaked whales. (_Photos from U.S.
National Museum, courtesy of J. G. Mead._)]



ANTILLEAN BEAKED WHALE (T)

_Mesoplodon europaeus_ (Gervais 1855)
(equals _M. gervaisi_ [Deslongchamps])


Other Common Names

Gulfstream beaked whale, Gervais' beaked whale.


Description

Antillean beaked whales reach a length of at least 22 feet (6.7 m). They
are slender in form and appear somewhat laterally compressed (i.e.,
taller than they are wide). The head is extremely small and tapers
rapidly to a narrow beak. The flippers are small (to about one-twelfth
the body length) with their origin well down on the sides of the body.
The dorsal fin is small, located behind the midpoint of the back, and
variable in shape from falcate to triangular. The flukes are less than
one-fifth the body length and are not notched.

Antillean beaked whales are dark grayish black on the back and sides,
slightly lighter on the abdomen. The flukes are dark gray above and
below.


Natural History Notes

Antillean beaked whales are probably primarily oceanic in distribution
and are known to feed on squid.


May Be Confused With

Antillean beaked whales may be confused with any of the other beaked
whales though they are larger than all except the northern bottlenosed
whale (p. 67) and the goosebeaked whale (p. 70).


Distribution

Antillean beaked whales have been reported stranded from the latitude of
Long Island, N.Y. south to Florida, thence into the Caribbean and the
Gulf of Mexico.


Stranded Specimens

The teeth of Antillean beaked whales are located at the suture of the
mandible, about one-third of the way from the tip of the snout to the
corner of the mouth (Fig. 78).

[Illustration: Figure 81.--Two views of an Antillean beaked whale
stranded in New Jersey in 1899. Note the very small head, the prominent
back-curved dorsal fin, and the slightly concave rear margin of the tail
flukes, which lack a distinct notch. (_Photos by F. W. True, courtesy of
U.S. National Museum._)]

[Illustration: Figure 82.--Two views of an Antillean beaked whale
stranded in Jamaica. This species reached at least 22 feet (6.7 m) in
length. Compared to the smaller True's beaked whale, Antillean beaked
whales have a smaller head, a narrower beak, and a taller, narrower
body. Furthermore, the teeth of this species are located about one-third
of the way back from the tip of the snout to the corner of the mouth.
(_Photos by J. J. Rankin._)]



DENSE-BEAKED WHALE (T)

_Mesoplodon densirostris_ (Blainville in Desmarest 1817)


Other Common Names

None known.


Description

Dense-beaked whales reach a length of at least 17 feet (5.2 m). The body
is distinctly spindle-shaped. The head, the contour of which is the most
distinctive characteristic of this species, is marked by a prominent
rise, located near the angle of the gape on each side. This rise, which
bears the teeth, gives a peculiar high, arching contour to the mouth (p.
84), particularly in adult males.

The flippers are small (one-eleventh to one-tenth the body length) and
have their origin in the lighter color of the lower sides. The dorsal
fin varies from small and triangular to nearly falcate and pointed on
the tip. It is located behind the midpoint of the back. The flukes are
from one-sixth to one-fifth the body length, are seldom notched, and
occasionally even bulge slightly backwards near the center of the rear
margin.

Dense-beaked whales are black or charcoal gray on the back, slightly
lighter on the abdomen. They are somewhat blotched with grayish white
and are often extensively scratched or scarred. The flippers are lighter
than the back. The flukes are dark above, light below.


Natural History Notes

From stomach contents of stranded animals dense-beaked whales are known
to feed on squid.


May Be Confused With

Adult male dense-beaked whales can be separated from the other beaked
whales by the high, arching contour to the corners of the mouth. If
there is no adult male in the group, however, dense-beaked whales may be
confused with any of the other beaked whales species.


Distribution

Dense-beaked whales have been reported from Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia
south to Florida. From all accounts, this species appears widely but
sparsely distributed in warm temperate seas.


Stranded Specimens

Adults of this species should be distinguishable by the highly
distinctive contour of the mouth. The teeth, located in the high rise of
the mouth, are oriented slightly backwards.

[Illustration: Figure 83.--A dense-beaked whale in the tank at New York
Aquarium. Note the position of the prominent dorsal fin, just breaking
the surface. The blow of beaked whales is usually small and
inconspicuous and reportedly projects markedly forward from the head.
(_Photo by J. G. Mead._)]

[Illustration: Figure 84.--Views of the heads of dense-beaked whales.
Females (bottom) and immature males have a slight curvature to the rear
of the mouth. As they mature, males (middle and top) begin to display
the two arching prominences near the corners of the mouth which give the
characteristic contour to the mouth. The teeth are located in these
prominences and are oriented slightly backwards. (Photos from
_northeastern Florida by W. A. Huck, courtesy of Marineland of Florida_
(top and middle) and by J. G. Mead (bottom).)]

[Illustration: Figure 85.--A dense-beaked whale stranded in northeastern
Florida. This species reaches about 17 feet (5.2 m) and is black or
charcoal gray on the back, lighter gray on the sides, and frequently
marked with grayish-white blotches and often extensively scarred.
(_Photo by W. A. Huck, courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]



NORTH SEA BEAKED WHALE (T)

_Mesoplodon bidens_ (Sowerby 1804)


Other Common Names

Sowerby's beaked whale.


Description

North Sea beaked whales reach a length of at least 16.5 feet (5 m). The
body is distinctly spindle-shaped, but apparently more robust near
midbody than that of the dense-beaked whale. The head is characterized
by a pronounced bulge in front of the blowhole, a slightly concave
forehead, and a moderate to long beak. The flippers are relatively long
(one-eighth to one-ninth the body length). The dorsal fin is reportedly
tall and variable in shape from triangular to slightly falcate and is
located just behind the midpoint of the back. The flukes are not notched
but are sometimes quite concave on the rear margin.

Adult North Sea beaked whales are dark charcoal gray on the back with
white spots overall. Young animals are also dark charcoal gray on the
back but are lighter on the belly and are unspotted. The flukes of
adults are dark above and below. Those of young are dark above, lighter
below.


Natural History Notes

North Sea beaked whales are known to feed on squid.


May Be Confused With

North Sea beaked whales are the most northerly species of beaked whales.
No other species is very likely to be encountered in the same area.


Distribution

North Sea beaked whales have been reported in the offshore waters from
the latitude of New England north perhaps to the pack ice. Individuals
are occasionally drawn to the coasts of Newfoundland in summer,
presumably by concentrations of squid, a known food item.


Stranded Specimens

The teeth of North Sea beaked whales are located about midway between
the tip of the snout and the corner of the mouth. Except for this
characteristic and their northerly distribution, however, this species
might easily be confused with any other of the beaked whales species.

[Illustration: Figure 86.--North Sea beaked whales are the most
northerly of the beaked whale species, extending north as far as the
pack ice. They reach at least 16.5 feet (5.0 m) and can be identified on
the beach by the position of the teeth near the middle of the lower jaw.
Little is known of the species at sea. (_Drawing by L. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 87.--A female North Sea beaked whale (16.5 feet
[5.0 m]) stranded in Hjertuika in 1957. (_Photo courtesy of A.
Jonsgard._)]



KILLER WHALE (T)

_Orcinus orca_ (Linnaeus 1758)


Other Common Names

Blackfish (see also pilot whales, p. 91 and 94), sword fish (Canada),
grampus (see p. 96), whitefish (St. Vincent), Espladon (Quebec).


Description

Killer whales are the largest member of the dolphin family. Adult males
reach a length of at least 30 feet (9.1 m) and are robust in form. One
specimen of 31 feet (9.5 m) was recorded for the western North Pacific.
Females are considerably smaller and less stocky. Newborn are
approximately 7-8 feet (2.1-2.4 m) long. Killer whales have large
paddle-shaped flippers.

The most distinctive field character of the species is the dorsal fin.
In adult males it is extremely erect and may be as much as 6 feet (1.8
m) tall. Though the fin of females and immature males is less than 3
feet (0.9 m) tall, it is nonetheless taller even in these animals than
in any other cetacean species and is distinctly falcate and pointed on
the tip.

Killer whales are basically black with an extensive region of white on
the undersides extending from the lower jaw to the anal region with a
branch extending onto the flanks behind the dorsal fin. There is an oval
white patch on the side of the head just above and behind the eye. In
newborn and very young calves, these regions may be tan to lemon yellow
in color. Most animals have a light-gray saddle marking just behind the
dorsal fin. The undersides of the flukes are usually white. Both
all-black and all-white animals have been reported.


Natural History Notes

Killer whales travel in groups of from a few to 25 or 30 individuals,
though herds of 150 have been reported. Males appear polygamous, and
females and young may form groups separate from young bachelors and
bulls.

Killer whales are extremely fast swimmers, capable of reaching top
speeds of 25 knots or more, and have been reported "porpoising" and
breaching. Individuals and entire groups have also been reported
"spy-hopping," or "pitchpoling," behaviors which consist of hanging
vertically in the water with the head and much of the body (to just
behind the flippers) exposed above the surface.

Killer whales feed on squid, fishes, sea turtles, seabirds, and marine
mammals.

Controversy still continues over whether or not killer whales pose a
threat to man. Documented attacks of killer whales on boats are rare and
have usually been provoked (i.e., harpooning or attempts to capture).
Only two uncertain instances of attacks in the wild have been reported,
but all divers and mariners should be cautioned that this powerful
animal is perfectly capable of doing tremendous damage and should not be
provoked.


May Be Confused With

Because of its very distinctive dorsal fin, body shape, and coloration,
the killer whale is not likely to be confused with any other whale when
it can be examined at close range or when an adult male is present in
the group. Pods of females and immature animals, however, may be
confused with false killer whales or with grampus. The killer whales may
be distinguished from false killers by the following differences:

      KILLER WHALE                  FALSE KILLER WHALE

                        BODY SHAPE

  Chunky.                         Slender.

                        BODY COLOR

  Black with white on belly,      All black with some gray on
  flank, and head.                belly.

                        DORSAL FIN

  Very tall and erect in adult    Shorter, slender, strongly
  males; tall and slightly back   falcate.
  curved in female.

                        HEAD SHAPE

  Broad, rounded.                 Tapered, slender.

                       FLIPPER SHAPE

  Paddle-shaped.                  Moderately long with
                                  characteristic hump near
                                  middle on forward margin.

                          LENGTH

  To at least 30 feet (9.1 m).    To at least 18 feet (5.5 m).

Furthermore, false killer whales are the only "blackfish" which are
known to ride the bow wave of a ship.

Grampus have a tall dorsal fin (15 inches [38.1 cm]) which is very
similar in appearance to that of adult female and juvenile killer
whales. But grampus have much lighter coloration, from slate gray to
nearly all white, and larger animals are covered with numerous
scratches. Upon closer examination they can be further distinguished
from killer whales by a crease in the front of the head dividing the
melon into two distinct sections. Grampus are considerably smaller, to
about 13 feet (4 m) maximum length.


Distribution

In the western North Atlantic killer whales have been reported from the
polar pack ice south to Florida and St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, and
into the Gulf of Mexico at least as far as Texas, though they are far
more common in the cooler waters from about New Jersey north.
Throughout their range, killer whales seem to prefer coastal areas and
often enter shallow bays, estuaries, and river mouths in search of food.

Migrations of the species are probably closely tied to movements of
their food supply. They annually arrive on the coast of New England with
the tuna. Along the Canadian coasts, where distribution and migrations
have been described in some detail, killer whales appear to move inshore
in spring and summer. Many arrive off the east coast of Newfoundland in
June, the Strait of Belle Isle in June and July, and slightly later
along the Labrador coast and Arctic waters. They are found around the
loose ice in April, presumably feeding on harp seals, _Pagophilus
groenlandicus_, and hooded seals, _Cystophora cristata_, and are
frequent in the St. Lawrence estuary in spring and autumn following the
movements of the white whales. The northward movements in spring also
coincide with migrations of balaenopterine whales, which have also been
reported among the food items. Killer whales may remain in arctic or
subarctic waters until driven out by new forming ice in October and
November. Though the migration has not been as thoroughly described,
killer whales apparently begin shifting southwards in autumn.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded killer whales should be readily identifiable by the robust
body, the distinctive body markings, and in larger animals the tall
dorsal fin. Killer whales have from 10 to 12 large, prominent teeth on
each side of the upper and lower jaws.

[Illustration: Figure 89.--Killer whales are often distributed very
close to shore. In these photos from Baja California, they are shown in
two characteristic behaviors--breaching (top) and "spy-hopping" or
"pitchpoling" (bottom). (_Photos by S. Leatherwood._)]

[Illustration: Figure 88.--A small herd of killer whales off southern
California (top) and details of an adult male from that herd (middle)
and of females or immature males off Islas San Benito, Baja California
(bottom). Adult males have a tall erect dorsal fin, which may be more
than 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, while the fins of females and immature males
are less than 3 feet (0.9 m) tall, distinctly falcate, and pointed on
the tip. Both sexes frequently have a grayish-white region, called a
"saddle," behind the dorsal fin. (_Photos by T. Dohl (top and middle)
and S. Leatherwood (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 90.--A leaping killer whale in California
aquarium. Note the distinctive coloration of the species, white on the
lower jaw, the belly and the anus, and on both sides above the anus.
Note also the distinctive white eye patch often visible on animals at
sea. (_Photo by D. K. Caldwell._)]

[Illustration: Figure 91.--Killer whales have from 10 to 12 large
prominent teeth, curved slightly backwards and inwards on each side of
each jaw. (_Photos from Point Mugu, Calif. by S. Leatherwood._)]



FALSE KILLER WHALE (T)

_Pseudorca crassidens_ (Owen 1846)


Other Common Names

Mongoose (St. Vincent).


Description

False killer whales in the western North Atlantic reach a length of at
least 18 feet (5.5 m). Males are slightly larger than females. Calves
from 5 to 7 feet (1.5 to 2.1 m) may be seen at any time throughout the
year.

The dorsal fin, located just behind the midpoint of the back, is from 7
to 16 inches (17.8 to 40.6 cm) tall, falcate, and variable to sharply
pointed on the tip. The flippers are characterized by a broad hump on
the front margin near the middle, a characteristic which is diagnostic
for the species.

The body of the species is all black except for a blaze of gray on the
belly between the flippers. This blaze varies from barely visible to
light grayish white similar to but generally fainter than that of pilot
whales. The body is long and slender, and the head is narrow and gently
tapered from the area of the blowhole forward.


Natural History Notes

False killer whales are a social form and may occur in herds of up to at
least 100 individuals. They often jump clear of the water and frequently
ride the bow waves of vessels. They are the only "blackfish" which are
known to do so. False killer whales feed primarily on squid and large
fishes and are notorious for their habit of stealing fish from the lines
of fishermen. The large prominent teeth may be visible on a swimming
animal.


May Be Confused With

False killer whales may be confused with killer whales, pilot whales, or
the smaller, poorly known pygmy killer whale (p. 138) and many-toothed
blackfish (p. 142).

The characteristics distinguishing the species from the killer whale are
tabularized on p. 84; its differences from the pilot whales are
summarized on p. 92.

At sea, false killer whales are distinguishable from the other two
species primarily by their larger size and differences in coloration.
False killer whales are up to 18 feet (5.5 m) in length. Pygmy killer
whales and many-toothed blackfish reach only 8-9 feet (2.4-2.7 m) in
length. Pygmy killer whales have an extensive region of white on the
belly which may extend onto the sides and both pygmy killer whales and
many-toothed blackfish have a distinctive white region on the lips,
usually lacking or indistinct on false killer whales.

Neither of the smaller species of blackfish has been reported to ride
bow waves.


Distribution

False killer whales are widely distributed in the pelagic tropical,
subtropical, and warm temperate waters of the western North Atlantic.
They have been reported from off Maryland south along the mainland
coasts of North America, in the Gulf of Mexico from Cuba and the Lesser
Antilles, and from the southeast Caribbean Sea. The species has been
reported from Venezuela.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded false killer whales can be positively identified by: 1) the
large size (to 18 feet [5.5 m]); 2) the slender body tapering rapidly to
a long slender head; 3) the markedly long mouth, with from 8 to 11
large, conspicuous teeth in each side of each jaw recalling those of the
killer whale, but circular and not, as in killer whales, elliptical; 4)
the unusually shaped flipper bulging conspicuously on the forward
margin.

For comparison with "blackfish" of similar size (the pilot whales) see
p. 92 and 94.

False killer whales do not appear to occur frequently in coastal waters,
sandy bays, or estuaries, though entire herds have stranded in such
areas. Records from throughout the range suggest that the species has an
oceanic distribution.

[Illustration: Figure 92.--False killer whales at sea 600 miles (968.0
km) off northeastern Florida. Note the smoothly falcate dorsal fin,
pointed on the tip, and located near the midpoint of the back. Dorsal
fins of this species may also be rounded on the tip but all are sharply
concaved on the rear margin. (_Photo by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 93.--False killer whales are the only "blackfish"
that routinely ride the bow waves of vessels. On this animal riding on
the bow wave of a research ship, note the all-black coloration of the
back, head, and sides and the broad "hump" near the middle of the
flippers on the leading edge. (_Photo 600 miles [968 km] off
northeastern Florida by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 94.--A false killer whale stranded in northeastern
Florida. Note the narrow tapering head, overhanging the lower jaw by
several inches, the position and shape of the dorsal fin and the
distinctive "hump" on the leading margin of the flippers. (_Photo by W.
A. Huck, courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 95.--Entire herds of false killer whales sometimes
strand themselves. In this dorsal view of an animal stranded in
southeastern Florida, note the extremely distinctive "hump" on the
forward margin of the flippers and the narrow head, tapering towards the
tip of the snout. (_Photo by J. Krol._)]

[Illustration: Figure 96.--False killer whales have from 8 to 11 large,
conspicuous teeth in each side of each jaw. These teeth are often
visible in swimming animals, particularly when they are engaged in their
obnoxious habit of stealing fish from the lines of fishermen. The teeth
are so distinctive that they can also be used to identify even a badly
decomposed stranded specimen. (_Photo, courtesy of Sea Life Park,
Hawaii._)]



ATLANTIC PILOT WHALE (T)

_Globicephala melaena_ (Traill 1809)


Other Common Names

Northern pilot whale, long-finned pilot whale, pothead, blackfish,
calling whale, caa'ing whale.


Description

Male Atlantic pilot whales reach an average length of at least 20 feet
(6.2 m). Females are slightly smaller, probably not exceeding 18 feet
(5.5 m). Young are 5-7 feet (1.5-2.1 m) at birth.

The head is thick and bulbous, a characteristic which reaches an extreme
in the development of the head of adult males (prompting the common name
"pothead"). The flippers are long (to one-fifth of the body length, or
more) and sickle-shaped. The tail is dorsally thickened just in front of
the flukes.

The dorsal fin of this species is one of its most distinctive
characteristics. It is low in profile, has a long base, is set far
forward on the animal's back, and is falcate to "flaglike" in
appearance. The dorsal fin of adult males reportedly has a thicker
leading edge and a rounder form than that of the female.

Atlantic pilot whales are black on the back and sides (prompting the
common name "blackfish") but have an anchor-shaped patch of grayish
white on the chin and a gray area on the belly, both of which are
variable in extent and intensity. Some larger animals have a gray saddle
behind the dorsal fin, though this zone of color is found more
frequently in short-finned pilot whales. Young animals are often a
lighter medium gray.


Natural History Notes

Atlantic pilot whales may occur in herds of 200 animals or more, though
herds of 50 or fewer (4-6) are more common. They are sometimes found in
association with Atlantic white-sided dolphins.

Pilot whales are sometimes found hanging vertically in the water with
the head and part of the back out of the water in what has been called
"spy-hopping" or "pitchpoling." Individuals frequently lobtail. Pilot
whales infrequently breach, a behavior which is usually confined to
younger animals. They do not ride bow waves.

Atlantic pilot whales feed primarily on squid but also take cod and
other fishes. A Pacific pilot whale, a closely related species, was
found by radio telemetric studies to be capable of diving to 2,000 feet
(609.6 m).

Atlantic pilot whales were formerly the object of an active shore
fishery off Newfoundland (1950-1971). In addition, entire herds and,
less frequently, individuals are sometimes stranded.


May Be Confused With

Atlantic pilot whales are most likely to be confused with false killer
whales, with which they share the waters from off Virginia to those off
Maryland. The two species may be distinguished by the following
characteristics:

     ATLANTIC PILOT WHALE            FALSE KILLER WHALE

                         SHAPE OF HEAD

  Thick and often squarish in     Slender, gently tapering
  larger animals.                 mouth long.

                         SHAPE OF BODY

  Robust.                         Long and slender.

                           DORSAL FIN

  Broad-based and falcate.        Slender, tall, falcate, and
                                  pointed on tip.

                           COLORATION

  Black with gray saddle          Mostly black with gray blaze
  sometimes evident behind        of variable extent and
  dorsal fin and gray region      intensity on belly between
  on chin and belly.              flippers.

                           BEHAVIOR

  Will not ride bow waves;        May ride bow waves, often
  seldom breaches.                "porpoises" and breaches.

                            RANGE

  Temperate waters from at        Temperate seas from at least
  least North Carolina north.     Maryland south.

In the extreme southern portion of their range, Atlantic pilot whales
may be confused with short-finned pilot whales with which they have only
a limited seasonal common range. Characters distinguishing these species
are subtle and may not be adequate to permit them to be distinguished at
sea. For purposes of this guide it is generally that pilot whales living
north of lat. 38°N (Virginia coast) are Atlantic pilot whales and those
living south of lat. 38°N are short-finned pilot whales.


Distribution

Atlantic pilot whales, the northernmost of the two pilot whales species,
are found in winter from the Grand Banks south as far as North Carolina
and in summer from Iceland and Greenland south to the New Jersey coast.
Winter concentrations of pilot whales may be found off the Newfoundland
coast and near Cape Cod, Mass. Atlantic pilot whales are distributed
both in coastal waters and in deep waters off the continental shelf.


Stranded Specimens

As discussed above, individuals and groups of pilot whales frequently
strand themselves for still incompletely understood reasons. They may be
identified as pilot whales primarily by: 1) the robust body and bulbous
head, which is often squarish in adult animals, and 2) the broad-based,
falcate dorsal fin located far forward on the back. Accurate
determination of the pilot whale species involved in the stranding may
require museum preparation of the skull and detailed examination of its
characteristics. Preliminary identification may be made, however, based
on the following:

      ATLANTIC PILOT WHALE           SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE

                      FLIPPER LENGTH

  To one-fifth body length,     To one-sixth body length, or
  or more.                      less.

                       NORMAL RANGE

  From North Carolina north.    From North Carolina south.

                          TEETH

  8-11 per row.                 7-9 per row.

[Illustration: Figure 97.--A herd of Atlantic pilot whales off
Massachusetts. The most distinguishing field characteristic of this
species, and of their southern cousins, the short-finned pilot whales,
is the highly distinctive dorsal fin, extremely long based, low in
profile, and set well forward on the animals' backs. (_Photo by W. A.
Watkins._)]

[Illustration: Figure 98.--Atlantic pilot whales frequently "lob tail"
(raise the tail flukes above the surface and slap them against the
water) (top) and pitchpole or spy-hop (hang vertically in the water with
the head up and the tail down) (bottom). (_Photos from the North
Atlantic by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 99.--North Atlantic pilot whales on the deck of a
whaling station in Newfoundland. The anchor-shaped patch on the chin and
the gray color of the belly are apparently more vivid and extensive in
this species than in the short-finned pilot whales. Further, the flipper
is longer, measuring one-fifth of the body length, or more, in adult
animals. The flippers of short-finned pilot whales (see Fig. 102)
measure one-sixth of the body length or less. (_Photo by J. G. Mead._)]



SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE (T)

_Globicephala macrorhynchus_ Gray 1846


Other Common Names

Blackfish (see also p. 84, 91, and 94).


Description

Male short-finned pilot whales of the western North Atlantic reach
lengths of at least 17.5 feet (5.3 m). Females are reportedly slightly
smaller than males (recorded only to 15.5 feet [4.7 m]).

The head, somewhat like that of the Atlantic pilot whales (p. 91), is
thick and bulbous, a characteristic which reaches its extreme in the
development of a flattened or squarish appearance to the front of the
head in mature males (see Fig. 101). In very old males the melon may
overhang the mouth up to several inches. The flippers are shorter than
those of the other pilot whale species of the western North Atlantic
(thus the common name short-finned pilot whale), reaching only one-sixth
of the body length or less. The tail is dorsoventrally thickened just in
front of the flukes.

The dorsal fin, like that of the Atlantic pilot whale, is one of the
species' most distinctive characteristics. It is low in profile, has a
long base, and is set far forward on the animal's back.

Short-finned pilot whales are all black on the back sides and most of
the belly with an anchor-shaped patch of gray on the chin and a gray
area of varying extent and intensity on the belly. These areas are less
vivid and extensive than those on Atlantic pilot whales. Younger animals
are lighter, often medium gray.


Natural History Notes

Short-finned pilot whales are known to occur in groups of 60 animals or
more, though smaller groups are more common. They have been reported
pitchpoling (spy-hopping), lobtailing, and--rarely--breaching.

Short-finned pilot whales feed on squid and fish.


May Be Confused With

In the tropical portion of their range, short-finned pilot whales may be
confused with pygmy killer whales (p. 138) and many-toothed blackfish
(p. 142). They may be distinguished from both species primarily by their
distinctive dorsal fin and the bulbous-to-squarish head. Both pygmy
killer whales and many-toothed blackfish have dorsal fins, which are
more falcate, slender, and pointed on the tip, and have longer,
slenderer heads.

Throughout their range short-finned pilot whales may be confused with
false killer whales. The two species may be distinguished by the same
differences which distinguish Atlantic pilot whales from false killer
whales (p. 91).

In the extreme northern portion of their range, short-finned pilot
whales may be confused with Atlantic pilot whales. The two species may
be distinguished by differences itemized on p. 93.


Distribution

Though short-finned pilot whales are known from Delaware Bay, their
normal range appears to extend from Bermuda and Cape Hatteras (Virginia
in summer) south to the Venezuelan coast. They have been reported for
the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the islands of the West Indies.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded short-finned pilot whales may be confused with any of the
species itemized under living animals. They may be identified as pilot
whales primarily by the robust body and bulbous head, often squarish in
adult animals, and the broad-based, falcate dorsal fin located well
forward on the animal's back. Accurate determination of the pilot whale
species involved may require museum preparation of the skull and
detailed examination of its characteristics. Preliminary identification
may be made, however, on the basis of the following:

    ATLANTIC PILOT WHALE          SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE

                    DISTRIBUTION

  Primarily North Carolina    Primarily North Carolina
  north.                      south.

                      FLIPPERS

  To one-fifth body length,   To less than one-sixth body
  or more.                    length.

                       TEETH
  8-11 per row.               7-9 per row.

[Illustration: Figure 100.--Short-finned pilot whales stranded in
northeastern Florida, shown here swimming in the lagoon at Marineland of
Florida. This species, like their northern cousins, the Atlantic pilot
whales, have a highly distinctive dorsal fin and a bulbous head (see
Figs. 97, 99). In these photos note the variation in the shape of the
head. Those of females and immature males are more rounded. Those of
adult males are far more blunted. (_Photo courtesy of Marineland of
Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 101.--Short-finned pilot whales have from 7 to 10
teeth in each side of each jaw. The bulbous forehead of the species is
far less pronounced in females and immature males (left). The head of
mature males is extremely "squarish" and may overhang the lower jaw by
several inches (right). (_Photos from Aquatarium (left) and southeastern
Florida by D. K. Caldwell (right)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 102.--The flippers of short-finned pilot whales
reach only about one-sixth of the body length, while those of the
Atlantic pilot whale may be one-fifth the body length or more. Note the
length of the flippers of the pilot whale in the background, relative to
its overall length. (_Photo from South Carolina by J. G. Mead._)]



GRAMPUS (T)

_Grampus griseus_ (G. Cuvier 1812)


Other Common Names

Risso's dolphin, gray grampus, white-headed grampus, mottled grampus,
Risso's porpoise, hard knocks (St. Vincent), white blackfish (Cape Cod).


Description

Grampus reach a maximum length of about 13 feet (4 m). The body is
robust, particularly in front of the dorsal fin, and lacks a distinct
beak. The head is somewhat bulbous and is marked on the front by a
V-shaped crease with the point downwards, which divides the melon into
two parts. The flippers are long and pointed on the tips. The dorsal
fin, located at about the midpoint of the body, is tall, to 15 inches
(38.1 cm) or more, and distinctly falcate. The body narrows rapidly
behind the dorsal fin and the tail stock is quite narrow. The flukes are
broad, concaved on the rear margin, and deeply notched.

The bodies of grampus are a uniform light gray at birth. As the animals
age, their color darkens to almost black with distinctive regions of
grayish white on the belly and chest. The body of older adults is cream
white or silver gray, particularly on the head, with numerous scars,
presumably from encounters with other grampus and perhaps with the
squid, which are one of the species' major food items.

The flippers, dorsal fin, and tail flukes usually remain dark even in
adults.


Natural History Notes

Grampus are found in herds of up to several hundred individuals and may
be seen "porpoising" (leaping from the water) as they surface to
breathe, and breaching. They sometimes ride the bow waves of a boat.

Grampus feed on fish and squid.


May Be Confused With

From a distance grampus are most easily confused with Atlantic
bottlenosed dolphins. They may be most readily distinguished by the
following differences:

                             ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED
     GRAMPUS                      DOLPHIN

                      SIZE

  To 13 feet (4 m).         Rarely to 12 feet (3.7 m);
                            usually less than 10 feet
                            (3.1 m).

                   BODY COLOR

  Young are uniform light   Dark gray on body; lighter
  gray; older animals dark  gray on sides; white or pink
  with grayish regions on   on belly; may appear brownish
  chest and belly; very     in water.
  old animals white and
  scarred.

                   DORSAL FIN

  To 15 inches (38.1 cm);   To 12 inches (30.5 cm) less
  sharply falcate; pointed  sharply falcate; pointed on
  on tip.                   tip.

               HEAD COLOR AND SHAPE

  Blunted and creased on    Uniformly brownish to gray
  front; frequently all     distinctly bottlenosed.
  white in larger animals.

                    MARKINGS

  Very often extensively    Less frequently scratched
  scarred.                  and scarred.


Distribution

Grampus are known to be distributed in temperate and tropical seas from
at least eastern Newfoundland, south at least to St. Vincent, Lesser
Antilles, and in the eastern and northern Gulf of Mexico. The species
may not be as rare as the paucity of records suggests. Though they have
been seen in Buzzards Bay on several occasions, grampus generally have
an oceanic range and, along the Atlantic coast of North America, may be
distributed from the Gulf Stream seaward, outside the theater of normal
boating traffic.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded grampus are most readily identifiable by 1) the presence of
only seven, or fewer, teeth in each side of the lower jaw (many of those
teeth may have dropped out in older animals and remaining teeth may be
extensively worn) and the absence of teeth in the upper jaw; 2) the
presence of a distinct crease or bifurcation in the melon on the extreme
front of the head; 3) the presence of numerous scratches and scars all
over the body; and 4) the tall, slender, sharply falcate dorsal fin
which may be more than 15 inches (38.1 cm) tall.

[Illustration: Figure 103.--Grampus are frequently found in small tight
groups "porpoising." From a distance they may resemble the Atlantic
bottlenosed dolphins, though grampus have taller dorsal fins, blunted
beakless heads, and lighter coloration. (_Photo off Washington State by
C. Fiscus._)]

[Illustration: Figure 104.--Grampus off Fistler, Scotland (top) and from
Baja California in the tank of Sea World, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
(bottom). Note the tall pointed dorsal fin, which remains dark even in
adult animals, the blunted head, which lacks a beak, and the extensive
scarring of the body. In the photo on the right, note also the long
pointed flippers and the white head characteristic of older animals.
(_Photos by A. S. Clark (top) and courtesy of D. K. Caldwell
(bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 105.--Grampus, particularly younger animals, have
two regions of grayish-white on the ventral surface, one in front of the
flippers and another beginning on the belly narrowing towards the tail.
These markings closely resemble the ventral marking of pilot whales.
(_Photos courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 106.--Stranded grampus can be readily identified.
On this captive animal note the blunted head, the distinct crease on the
front of the head (see also Fig. 107), and the extensive scarring of the
body. (_Photo courtesy of D. K. Caldwell._)]

[Illustration: Figure 107.--Grampus have seven or fewer teeth in each
side of the lower jaw. (None in the upper jaw.) Many of these teeth may
have fallen out of older specimens, and the remaining teeth may be
extensively worn. (_Photo courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]



Medium-sized Whales Without a Dorsal Fin



BELUGA (T)

_Delphinapterus leucas_ (Pallas 1776)


Other Common Names

White porpoise, white whale, belukha, sea canary, marsouin blanc
(Quebec).


Description

Belugas reach a maximum overall length of about 16 feet (4.9 m). Males
are slightly larger than females. In the western North Atlantic they
have been found to grow to greatest lengths in oceanic environments near
the southern extremities of their ranges, though they are found in far
greater abundance in estuarine areas of the Arctic. Belugas have
extremely robust bodies tapering to a distinct "neck" region and a very
small head relative to body size.

They do not have a dorsal fin. Instead, along the back just behind the
midpoint there is a narrow ridge notched laterally to form a series of
small bumps. These ridges may be clearly visible on a swimming animal.

Newborn belugas are brown. As they age, they gradually lighten through
slate gray, and by their sixth or seventh year have assumed the
all-white coloration characteristic of adult animals.


Natural History Notes

Belugas feed on a variety of fishes (including cod and capelin), on
squid, and on a variety of benthic crustaceans.

They are frequently found in shallow bays and river mouths, where the
young are born, and occasionally ascend rivers.


May Be Confused With

Because of their limited distribution, all-white coloration and lack of
a dorsal fin, belugas are unlikely to be confused with any other species
of cetacean.


Distribution

Belugas have been reported from the Arctic Circle south as far as
eastern Connecticut, typically in estuarine habitats, though they do
range into oceanic regions. They are most abundant from the north shore
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence northward. They remain near the Arctic
Circle and in Hudson Bay to northern Greenland during winter,
undertaking migrations to the south in autumn, straggling to the
Maritime Provinces and as far as Connecticut. Belugas are regularly seen
in the St. Lawrence and Saguenay rivers throughout late spring and
summer. Return migrations to the north take place in spring.

A small population in the estuary of St. Lawrence is resident throughout
the year.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded belugas are unlikely to be confused with any other species of
cetaceans. The all-white coloration, the robust body shape with a rather
small head and a distinct neck region, and the presence of 8-11 teeth in
each of the upper jaws and 8-9 in each of the lower jaws permit positive
identification.

[Illustration: Figure 108.--A group of three belugas surfacing to
breathe off northwestern Alaska. The animal to the right has just begun
to exhale, the middle animal is in the midst of his inhalation, and the
animal on the left has completed his blow and is preparing to dive. Note
the all-white coloration and, on the center animal, the small dorsal
ridge just emerging from the water. Details of the dorsal ridge are
clearly visible in the inset photograph. (_Photos by G. C. Ray and K. G.
Hewlett (inset)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 109.--Note the robust form and the small head of
this swimming beluga off northwestern Alaska. (_Photo by G. C. Ray._)]

[Illustration: Figure 110.--Captive belugas at Vancouver public
aquarium. Note the dorsal ridge, the shape of the head and body, and the
unusually shaped flippers. (_Photo by K. C. Balcomb._)]

[Illustration: Figure 111.--Ventral view of a beluga harpooned in the
northeastern Canadian Eskimo Fishery. Note the very narrow tail, just in
front of the flukes, and the robust form of the species. Belugas have
8-9 teeth in each of the lower jaws, and 8-11 in each of the upper jaws.
(_Photo by P. F. Brodie._)]



NARWHAL (T)

_Monodon monoceros_ Linnaeus 1758


Other Common Names

Unicorn whale (historical name not currently in use).


Description

The narwhal, also known as the unicorn whale because of the long tusk
found on adult males, is one of two medium-sized whales found in the
Arctic waters of the northwestern Atlantic. They reach a maximum length
of from 15 to 16 feet (4.6 to 4.9 m) excluding the tusk. Newborn calves
are approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) long. Narwhals have small rounded heads
and a small mouth. Like the other medium-sized whale in the same region,
the beluga or white whale, the narwhal has no dorsal fin. Instead, it
has a series of bumps, approximately 2 inches (5.1 cm) high along the
midline of the back in the half nearest the tail. The ridge created by
these bumps may be readily seen on a swimming animal.

The basic coloration of the species changes slightly with age. Young
animals are uniformly dark bluish gray on the back but rapidly begin to
develop the numerous leopardlike spots on the back and sides
characteristic of adults. Those spots rarely extend onto the belly even
in old animals.

Narwhals have only two teeth. In the females, these teeth rarely emerge
from the gums. In males, one and sometimes both of those teeth grow out
the front of the snout, spiraling in a left-hand or sinistral direction,
and may reach a length of 9 feet (2.7 m). One or two tusks may also be
exposed, however, in females.


Natural History Notes

The function of the tusk in male narwhals is unknown, but it was this
feature of the animal that earned it the name "unicorn whale" and
resulted in its extensive hunting by whalers. During their annual
migrations narwhals may congregate but are commonly found in groups of
10 or fewer during the rest of the year.

Narwhals feed on a variety of organisms, including cod, rockfish,
flounder, and crabs, but their diet consists primarily of squid.


Distribution

Narwhals are found in the high arctic seas of the western North
Atlantic, primarily in Lancaster Sound and its fringes. It has been
noted that they are found in isolated pockets within that range and are
not, like the beluga, widely distributed.

Narwhals make annual migrations in response to the movement of the ice.
During the fall as the ice begins to form, the whales migrate to the
south, sometimes reaching the Labrador coast. In the spring they return
to the pack ice.


May Be Confused With

Narwhals are so different in coloration from the only medium-sized
cetacean which shares its range and habitat--the beluga--that the two
are highly unlikely to be confused. Belugas are usually all white or
light slate gray in color, while narwhals are very much darker, ranging
from bluish gray to brownish, and are often covered with light
leopardlike spots. Furthermore, the body of the beluga is more robust.

Further, swimming narwhals frequently buck their heads up to breathe, a
behavior which makes the tusk of adult males visible and permits
positive identification.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded narwhals should be easily identifiable by the distinctive
coloration and the unique characteristics of the teeth. In adults, one
or two of the teeth may develop into the long, left-hand spiraling tusk,
shown in Figures 112 and 114. Immature animals have no teeth which are
emerged.

[Illustration: Figure 112.--In this photo of narwhals, the origin of the
name "unicorn whale" is apparent. The animal at the right, an adult
male, exposes his tusk as he surfaces aggressively to breathe. Even when
this feature is not observed, however, the narwhals' mottled gray
coloration makes them easy to distinguish from the all-white belugas,
with which they share a common range. Note also the dorsal ridge on the
animal to the left. (_Photo by D. Lusby, courtesy of the Sea Library._)]

[Illustration: Figure 113.--A juvenile narwhal in a tank at New York
Aquarium. Though newborn animals are dark bluish gray on the back,
fading to white on the belly, note that the mottled gray coloration
characteristic of adults is well developed even in relatively young
animals. The white region on the head is lanolin cream, applied to
protect the animal's skin during transport. (_Photo by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 114.--A stranded male narwhal. The long unicorn
tusk is the spiral extension of one of the two teeth, though the other
may be exposed above the gums in males and may even develop into a
second long tusk; both teeth of females are normally buried in the gums
and rarely emerge. Note the highly distinctive dorsal ridge, near the
midpoint of the back. (_Photos by D. Lusby, courtesy of the Sea
Library._)]



Small Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises With a Dorsal Fin



ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN (T)

_Stenella plagiodon_ (Cope 1866)


Other Common Names

Spotter, Gulf Stream spotted dolphin, spotted porpoise, long-snouted
dolphin.[11]

[Footnote 11: See also p. 110. The common name "long-snouted dolphin"
was once widely used for this species. It is now more frequently used
for _Stenella longirostris_, also known as the spinner dolphin.]


Description

Atlantic spotted dolphins reach a maximum adult length of 7.5, perhaps 8
feet (2.3 to 2.4 m). They are generally more robust in body shape than
the other species of Stenella, closely resembling Atlantic bottlenosed
dolphins in that regard, though the Atlantic spotted dolphins tend to be
more slender.

The dorsal fin is distinctly back-curved and pointed on the tip, also
closely resembling that of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin.

As the common name suggests, the Atlantic spotted dolphins are marked
dorsally with numerous grayish-white spots on a darker background and
ventrally with dark spots on a lighter background, though the extent of
the spotting and the additional details of coloration change with age.

Immature animals lack spots completely. They are dark gray or purplish
gray on the back, becoming lighter gray on the sides and white on the
belly. The cape along the back is distinctly separated from the lighter
gray coloration of the sides. The flippers and the trailing edge of the
flukes are darker than the rest of the body.

As they age, the Atlantic spotted dolphins develop grayish-white spots,
first low on the sides, spreading upward. During this stage, the cape
becomes less distinct, and dark spotting begins to develop on the belly,
the spots increasing in number with increasing age. In adult animals,
the belly is often extensively covered with dark blotches but never
becomes completely black. The lips may be white, and the beak is
characteristically tipped with white, a feature which may aid in
identification at sea.

The Atlantic spotted dolphins have a spinal blaze and a light line which
extends from the flipper to the eye.


Natural History Notes

Little is known of the natural history of the Atlantic spotted dolphins.
The species occurs in herds of up to several hundred individuals,
though groups of 50 or fewer (6-10) are more common. They are often seen
jumping clear of the water and habitually ride the bow wave of moving
vessels. As they do, the distinct cape or band of purplish gray on the
back of younger animals and the spotting pattern of older animals may be
visible.

Atlantic spotted dolphins feed primarily on squid but may also take
carangid fishes, small eels, herring, or anchovies.


May Be confused With

Atlantic spotted dolphins, particularly young animals, may be easily
confused with Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins because of the similarities
in color pattern and general body shape. However, the Atlantic spotted
dolphins have considerable purplish gray in their background colors and
the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are more dark gray to brownish gray.
This along with considerable differences in the overall sizes of the two
species should permit positive identification. In general, the key
differences between spotted and bottlenosed dolphins are as follows:

    ATLANTIC SPOTTED             ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED
       DOLPHIN                        DOLPHIN

                         MAXIMUM SIZE

  To 7.5-8 feet (2.3-2.4 m).      To 8-10 feet (2.4-3.1 m)
                                  inshore, to as much as 12 feet
                                  (3.7 m) offshore.

                          BODY COLOR

  Dark purplish gray on back;      Dark gray on back; lighter
  lighter gray on sides and        gray on sides; white or pink
  belly; body becomes              on belly (old animals may
  increasingly spotted with age.   have a few spots on belly,
                                   but most are not spotted).

                         HEAD AND BEAK

  Head more slender; beak          Head robust; beak short;
  longer; lips and top of snout    beak usually uniformly gray
  often white.                     (older animals' beak may be
                                   white at tip).

                     NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

  Usually found more than 5        Usually more coastal, often
  miles offshore; most common      ascending rivers and entering
  inside 100-fathom curve.         lagoonal and estuarine
                                   areas.

Young Atlantic spotted dolphins are so similar in appearance to the
Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins that the frequent reports of mixed schools
of the two species are probably occasioned by groups of spotted dolphins
which include some young, still unspotted animals.

Atlantic spotted dolphins might also be confused with bridled dolphins.
The two can be most readily distinguished by the following
characteristics:

  ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN           BRIDLED DOLPHIN

                        BODY SHAPE

  Usually robust, often like      More slender, more like
  that of the Atlantic            that of the Atlantic striped
  bottlenosed dolphin.            dolphin.

                        BODY COLOR

  Spotted; purplish gray on       Spotted; side of head light
  back; lighter gray on sides     gray; body has stripe from
  and belly becoming              flipper to corner of mouth,
  increasingly spotted with age.  though the stripe tends to
  As animals becomes more         fade as spotting increases.
  spotted, cape become less       Cape on top of head more
  distinct. Body has spinal       distinct that on Atlantic
  blaze and light line from       spotted dolphin. Body has no
  flipper to eye.                 spinal blaze.

At sea the Atlantic spotted dolphins may also be confused with
rough-toothed dolphins (p. 135).


Distribution

Atlantic spotted dolphins are a common species in the continental waters
of the tropical and warm temperate western North Atlantic. Although they
are far more abundant south of Cape Hatteras, they have been reported
from the latitude of Cape May, N.J. (some fishermen claim to have seen
them even further north) south through the Gulf of Mexico and the
Caribbean to Venezuela. Atlantic spotted dolphins may be replaced around
the West Indies by the bridled dolphin.

Within this range, the Atlantic spotted dolphins appear to be generally
restricted to the waters outside the 100-fathom curve, most commonly
more than 5 miles offshore. However, populations in the Gulf of Mexico
move inshore in the late spring, and may approach close to shore during
spring and summer.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded Atlantic spotted dolphins may be difficult to distinguish from
bridled dolphins. If the color pattern is still clearly visible, the
differences in coloration described above, particularly those of the
head, and the presence or absence of a spinal blaze may be used. But
since external appearance other than coloration are often very similar,
specimens should be photographed from as many aspects as possible and
the entire specimen or the roughed-out complete skeleton transported to
a museum for preparation and examination. Tooth counts recorded for the
two species to date are also very similar.

[Illustration: Figure 115.--Atlantic spotted dolphins beside a research
vessel off Beaufort, N.C., September 1965. Adults of this species can be
identified by the spotting pattern and the white coloration of the lips.
(See also bridled dolphin, p. 108.) Young animals which lack spots may
be confused with the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins though they are
smaller and are purplish gray on the back. (_Photo by G. T. Green._)]

[Illustration: Figure 116.--A side view of two female Atlantic spotted
dolphins from off St. Augustine, Fla. in the tank at Marineland of
Florida. Note the tall falcate dorsal fin, pointed on the tip and
varying slightly in shape between the two individuals, and the spots on
the body. (_Photo by S. Leatherwood._)]

[Illustration: Figure 117.--A series showing the development of the
color pattern of the Atlantic spotted dolphins from Florida. Newborn or
young animals are dark purplish gray on the back, grading to immaculate
white on the belly. As they mature, animals develop light spots, first
on the lower sides, then higher on the back, and dark spots on the
belly. As spotting increases, the cape becomes less distinct. (_Photos
by A. Solis (a), D. K. Caldwell (b, c), and courtesy of Marineland of
Florida (d, e, f)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 118--Juvenile Atlantic spotted dolphins at sea in
the southeastern Caribbean. Although spotters can be either relatively
short-snouted and chunky or long-snouted and slightly built, the spinal
blaze, flipper-to-eye stripe, white lips, and falcate dorsal fin can be
used to identify them. (_Photo by D. Poppe._)]

[Illustration: Figure 119.--A captive Atlantic spotted dolphin from off
St. Augustine, Fla. This species has from 30 to 36 teeth in each upper
jaw and from 28 to 35 in each lower jaw, fewer than all other Stenella
except perhaps the bridled dolphin, fewer than the saddleback dolphins,
but more than the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins. (_Photo by S.
Leatherwood._)]



BRIDLED DOLPHIN (T)

_Stenella frontalis_ (G. Cuvier 1829)

Other Common Names


Bridled spotted dolphin, Cuvier's dolphin, gamin (St. Vincent), bridled
porpoise.


Description

Bridled dolphins, the second species of spotted dolphins in the western
North Atlantic, reach an adult length of at least 7 feet (2.1 m). Like
the other, the Atlantic spotted dolphin (p. 104), bridled dolphins are
characterized by light grayish-white spots on the dark dorsal portions
of the body and dark spots on the light ventral surface. Other details
of the coloration differ somewhat. Bridled dolphins are dark gray on the
back, fading to lighter gray on the sides and belly. They lack the
spinal blaze characteristic of Atlantic spotted dolphins. Except on the
head, the border between the back and side colors is indistinct. On the
head, the cape (the dark color of the top of the head) is distinct. In
the light gray of the side of the head are the markings from which the
species derives its common name, "bridled dolphin." These are a black
circle around the eye with an extension to the junction (apex) of the
rostrum and the melon (present in nearly all dolphins) and a broad black
stripe from the origin of the flipper to the corner of the mouth. This
mouth-to-flipper stripe tends to fade as spotting increases. Both the
upper and lower lips are white or pinkish.


Natural History Notes

Virtually nothing is known of the natural history of bridled dolphins
except that they have been observed in small herds of from 5 to 30
individuals and sometimes ride the bow wave of a vessel.


May Be Confused With

At sea, bridled dolphins may be confused with Atlantic spotted dolphins
or spinner dolphins. Differences by which they may be distinguished from
the first are tabularized on p. 105. Differences between spinner and
bridled dolphins permitting identification at sea are as follows:

     BRIDLED DOLPHIN                   SPINNER DOLPHIN

                            COLORATION

  Distinct cape on top of head;     Dark gray on back; tan or
  side of head light gray;          yellowish tan on sides; white
  distinct stripes from flippers    on belly,
  to corner of mouth and from
  dark circles around eye to
  apex of melon.

                               BEAK

  Shorter and more slender; all     Extremely long and slender;
  black; lips white.                dark gray to black on top,
                                    white below; lips black.

                             DORSAL FIN

  Uniformly dark gray.              Often lighter gray in middle,
                                    dark around border.


Distribution

Bridled dolphins occur in tropical and subtropical waters primarily near
coastal areas and islands, but are best known from the West Indies. They
have been reported from the Antilles, from Texas, and from Florida north
to North Carolina. It has been speculated that this species replaces the
Atlantic spotted dolphin around the West Indies.

Bridled dolphins have not yet been described from the South American
coast.


Stranded Specimens

Bridled dolphins have from 29 to 34 teeth in each upper jaw and from 33
to 36 in each lower jaw. They can be distinguished from spinner
dolphins, which have 46-65 teeth in each jaw, by this character alone.

They may be distinguished from spotted dolphins only if the color
pattern of the head is clearly visible. If it has faded, the specimen
will probably require museum preparation and examination before it can
be positively identified.

[Illustration: Figure 120.--A bridled dolphin harpooned in the
commercial whale fishery off St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. If the color
pattern has faded, bridled dolphins cannot be readily distinguished from
the Atlantic spotted dolphins and must be sent to a museum for
preparation and examination of the skull and skeleton. (_Photo by W. A.
Huck, courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 121.--A bridled dolphin from St. Vincent, Lesser
Antilles. Note the dark cape of the back, the lighter side, and the dark
stripes from the eye to the snout (found in most dolphin species) and
the flipper to the gape, a feature which fades as the animal's spotting
increases. Together these two features comprise the "bridle" from which
the common name derives. Note also the white lips and the white lower
jaw. (_Photo by J. R. Sullivan._)]



SPINNER DOLPHIN (T)

_Stenella longirostris_ Gray 1828


Other Common Names

Long-snouted dolphin, long-beaked porpoise, spinner porpoise, rollover
(St. Vincent).


Description

Spinner dolphins reach a maximum length of about 7 feet (2.1 m). The
body is slender. The beak varies from extremely long and slender (Fig.
123) to relatively short (Fig. 125); the beak is usually dark on top and
clean white below, though there may be some white above. The tip of the
snout and the lips are distinctly black, while those of both species of
spotted dolphins are light. The back is dark gray to black, the sides
are tan to yellowish brown, and the belly is white. Some of the larger
animals appear almost all black with faint, light speckling. The dorsal
fin is generally moderately falcate, but may be almost triangular in
adult males. It is often a lighter gray near the middle, bordered by
black or dark gray.


Natural History Notes

Spinner dolphins derive their common name from their habit of leaping
clear of the water and spinning on their longitudinal axis. The reasons
for this behavior are unknown. Individuals may rotate 2 times, or more,
in one leap but spinning behavior is not observed as frequently in the
western North Atlantic as it is in the eastern tropical Pacific.

Spinner dolphins occur in herds of up to several hundred individuals and
are often seen jumping clear of the water, working the sea surface into
a froth. They frequently come to the bow of a boat from considerable
distances to ride in the bow wave and may ride for protracted periods.


May Be Confused With

Spinner dolphins may be confused with saddleback dolphins. Both species
occur in large herds and often come to moving vessels to ride the bow
wave. The two can be distinguished, however, by these differences:


     SPINNER DOLPHIN                   SADDLEBACK DOLPHIN

                            COLORATION

  Dark gray on back; tan or         Dark gray to brownish gray
  yellowish tan on sides; white     on back; white on belly with
  on belly; lacks crisscross        crisscross or hourglass pattern
  pattern on sides; distinct        of tan to yellow on sides;
  black stripe from flipper to      distinct black stripe from
  eye.                              flipper to middle of lower
                                    jaw.

Spinner dolphins might also be confused with bridled dolphins, but may
be distinguished by the differences summarized on p. 108.


Distribution

Spinner dolphins are distributed in oceanic and coastal tropical waters.
Though one specimen was collected from South Carolina, they have been
more frequently reported from both coasts of Florida, the Gulf of
Mexico, the Caribbean, and the West Indies. They have also been
reported from Venezuela. They are said to be the most abundant dolphin
species from the southeastern Caribbean. Some Pacific spinner dolphins
are distributed in oceanic zones. Atlantic spinners may be abundant in
offshore tropical waters as well.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded spinner dolphins are most readily identified by the extremely
long rostrum and the 46-65 teeth, far more than any other species of
dolphin. Note that the striped dolphins may have from 43 to 50 teeth per
side in each jaw. However, striped dolphins are decidedly larger (to
about 9 feet [2.7 m]), have a shorter beak, and are distinctly marked
with dark stripes from the eye to the flipper, from the eye to the anus,
and from the area behind the dorsal fin forward, towards but not
reaching the head.

Saddleback dolphins also have from 40 to 50 teeth on each side but are
also easily distinguishable by the differences in coloration discussed
above for living animals at sea.

[Illustration: Figure 122.--Spinner dolphins occur in large herds in
tropical waters. As illustrated by these photos of animals off Venezuela
in 1969, spinner dolphins often leap clear of the water and may come to
a moving vessel from considerable distances away to frolic in its bow
wave. (_Photo by M. Bartlett._)]

[Illustration: Figure 123.--A spinner dolphin jumping close beside a
research vessel off the Virgin Islands. The distinctive color pattern
(gray on the back, tan on the sides, and white on the belly) is clearly
visible. The black-tipped rostrum and the black lips are key characters
to this species. (_Photo by C. McCann._)]

[Illustration: Figure 124.--Spinner dolphins are active bow riders and
may stay with a vessel for long periods of time. (_Photo from off the
Virgin Islands by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 125.--Although all spinner dolphins so far
examined have the same basic characteristics, the degree of expression
of those characteristics varies from individual to individual or area to
area. These small short-snouted dolphins (those on bottom stranded near
St. Petersburg, Fla. and maintained alive by the Aquatarium in that
city, and those on top photographed at sea, off the northwestern Africa
coast in 1972) are spinners, although their classification is uncertain.
There may be several species or geographical races of spinners in the
Atlantic. (_Photos courtesy of W. F. Perrin (top) and Aquatarium
(bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 126.--A spinner dolphin harpooned in the fishery
at St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Even after subtle aspects of the color
pattern have faded, this species can be readily identified by the 46-65
teeth in both upper and lower jaws and by the distinctly black lips and
black-tipped rostrum. (_Photo by W. A. Huck, courtesy of Marineland of
Florida._)]



STRIPED DOLPHIN (T)

_Stenella coeruleoalba_ (Meyen 1833)


Other Common Names

Euphrosyne dolphin (_Stenella styx_), Meyen's dolphin, blue-white
dolphin, Gray's dolphin, striped porpoise, streaker porpoise.


Description

The striped dolphin is a widely distributed relative of the spinner and
the Atlantic spotted dolphins, though it more closely resembles
saddleback dolphins than either of these two species. It reaches a
maximum length of about 9 feet (2.7 m) and is characterized by a series
of distinctive black stripes. One band of black begins near the eye and
extends down the side of the body to the area of the anus. (A small
secondary stripe originating with this band turns off and disappears in
the white coloration of the side just above the flippers.) A second band
of black extends from the eye to the flipper. Some workers have
contended that striped dolphins are separable into distinct species
depending on whether the eye-to-flipper stripe has one (_S.
coeruleoalba_) or two (_S. styx_) components.

Most individuals have an additional distinctive finger of black
coloration which extends from the black coloration behind the dorsal fin
forward towards and about halfway to the eye. It is this feature which
is most distinctive in animals riding the bow or leaping clear of the
water. The back is dark gray to bluish gray, the sides are lighter gray,
and the belly is white.


Natural History Notes

Though little is known of this species, it has been reported in herds of
up to several hundred individuals and apparently exhibits behaviors very
similar to those of the saddleback dolphins (p. 116), frequently jumping
clear of the water. Atlantic and Mediterranean animals have been
reported to bow ride.


May Be Confused With

This species is most likely to be confused with the saddleback dolphin,
which it closely resembles. The two may be distinguished by the
following characteristics:

     STRIPED DOLPHIN                  SADDLEBACK DOLPHIN

                              LENGTH

  To about 9 feet (2.7 m) or       Seldom greater than 7.5 feet
  more.                            (2.3 m).

                            COLORATION

  Back from light gray to dark     Back basically black or
  gray to bluish gray; sides       brownish; distinct white
  gray; belly gray or white;       chest or belly patch;
  distinctive black lateral        hourglass or crisscross
  stripping from 1) eye to         pattern on the sides;
  flipper, 2) eye to anus, and 3)  distinct black stripe from
  dark color behind dorsal fin     flipper to middle of lower
  forward, towards but not         jaw.
  reaching head.


Distribution

Striped dolphins are widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical,
and tropical seas of the western North Atlantic. They have been reported
from at least Halifax, Nova Scotia, south as far as Jamaica. (Additional
records, purportedly from southern Greenland, involved a museum
specimen. Since striped dolphins of the eastern North Atlantic are rare
north of England, the species occurrence near Greenland would be highly
improbable.) Individuals have recently been reported from the Gulf of
Mexico.

Despite this wide distribution, striped dolphins appear to prefer warmer
waters and are probably normally confined to the Gulf Stream or the
waters off the continental slope. Individuals appearing to the north of
the range seem to have ventured northward with fingers of warm water.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded striped dolphins should be readily identifiable by the highly
distinctive patterns of lateral striping discussed above for living
animals. If the color pattern has faded, they may still be identified by
their size, larger than other dolphin species of similar appearance, and
the relatively large number of teeth (43-50 per side in both upper and
lower jaws). Only the spinner dolphin, much smaller in body length and
having a much longer beak, has more teeth (46-65 per side in each jaw).

[Illustration: Figure 127.--Despite some similarities in appearance and
behavior to saddleback dolphins, striped dolphins can be readily
identified by the prominent dark stripes on the side of the body. These
striped dolphins were photographed between the Caribbean Islands of
Curacao and Bonaire in 1972. (_Photo by D. Poppe._)]

[Illustration: Figure 128.--When they ride the bow, the most apparent
characteristic of striped dolphins is usually the dark streak beginning
in the black coloration behind the dorsal fin and extending forward
towards but not reaching the head. This stripe is not always present,
however, and the species may sometimes appear uniformly pale gray from a
distance. (_Photo from the tropical Atlantic by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 129.--Stranded striped dolphins. Note the
distinctive black stripes 1) eye to flipper, 2) eye to anus, and 3) (on
top animal) from black behind dorsal fin forward towards but not
reaching the head. Some workers contend that striped dolphins are
separable into two species, depending on whether the eye-to-flipper
stripe has one (_Stenella coeruleoalba_) or two (_S. styx_) components.
Others contend that the two belong to the same species (_S.
coeruleoalba_). Striped dolphins have from 43 to 50 teeth in each upper
and lower jaw. (_Photos from Japan by W. E. Schevill (top) and from
Indian Rocks Beach, Fla. by W. A. Huck, courtesy of Marineland of
Florida (bottom)._)]



SADDLEBACK DOLPHIN (T)

_Delphinus delphis_ Linnaeus 1758


Other Common Names

Saddleback porpoise, common dolphin, crisscross dolphin.


Description

Saddleback dolphins reach a maximum overall length of about 8.5 feet
(2.6 m) though most individuals are less than 7.5 feet (2.3 m) long.
Males are slightly larger than females of the same age.

The body shape varies slightly but usually closely resembles that of the
striped dolphin (p. 113). The dorsal fin varies from nearly triangular
to distinctly falcate and is pointed on the tip. It is sometimes all
black and sometimes black on the borders with a lighter grayish region
of varying size near the middle.

The back is basically black or brownish black, but this coloration and
the extent of the striping patterns that form the impression of a saddle
and the degree of color distinction between the different zones are
highly variable.

The chest and belly are cream white to white and are the most
distinctive features from a distance. Up close, the sides will be seen
to be distinctly marked with an hourglass or crisscross pattern of tan
or yellowish tan. This crisscross pattern is diagnostic for the species.

The rostrum is intermediate in length and shape between that of the
spinner and that of the striped dolphin and is often black with a white
tip.


Natural History Notes

Saddleback dolphins are often seen in herds of a thousand or more and
are often very active, many animals leaping clear of the water at any
time. Like spinner dolphins, saddleback dolphins are active bow-riders
and often come to the boat from considerable distances. Once on the bow
they often ride for extended periods of time.

Saddleback dolphins feed on squid and on a variety of fishes, including
anchovies, myctophids, and hake.


May Be Confused With

Saddleback dolphins might easily be confused with striped dolphins and
must be examined closely to be distinguished from them. Primary
differences apparent in encounters at sea are as follows:

     SADDLEBACK DOLPHIN                  STRIPED DOLPHIN

                            COLORATION

  Back basically black or            Back from light gray to dark
  brownish; distinct white           gray to bluish gray; sides
  chest or belly patch; hourglass    gray; belly gray or white;
  or crisscross pattern on           distinctive black lateral
  sides, some tan to yellowish       striping from 1) eye to
  tan; distinct black stripe         flipper, 2) eye to anus, and
  from flipper to middle of          3) dark color behind dorsal
  lower jaw.                         fin forward, towards but not
                                     reaching head.

                                 LENGTH

  To 7.5 feet, rarely to 8.5 feet    To 9 feet (2.7 m).
  (2.3-2.6 m).

From a distance, saddleback dolphins might also be confused with spinner
dolphins because of the habits of both species of congregating in large
schools with much jumping and splashing. Both species ride the bow wave,
and close examination should permit positive identification using the
following characteristics:

     SADDLEBACK DOLPHIN                 SPINNER DOLPHIN

                              COLORATION

  Dark gray to brownish gray         Dark gray on back; tan or
  on back; white on belly with       yellowish tan on sides; white
  crisscross or hourglass pattern    on belly; lacks crisscross
  of tan to yellowish tan            pattern on sides; distinct
  on side; distinct black stripe     black stripe from flipper to
  from flipper to middle of          eye.
  lower jaw.


Distribution

Saddleback dolphins are widely distributed in the temperate,
subtropical, and tropical waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean.
They have been reported off Newfoundland, Iceland, Nova Scotia, and the
coast of Massachusetts, south along the coast of North America to the
Caribbean (West Indies and Jamaica), in the Gulf of Mexico, and from
South American waters at least to Margarita Island, Venezuela.

The species' occurrence in the more northerly portions of this range
during the summer and early fall months appears to coincide with the
intrusion of warm waters into those areas. They are not uncommon off
Nova Scotia in summer and fall and are casual members of the marine
mammalian fauna of the remaining Maritime Provinces during that period.

In previous years, saddleback dolphins were not uncommonly encountered
by collectors of Marineland of Florida working the northeast coast of
Florida, but the species has been conspicuously absent since about 1960.
Reasons for this apparent shift of range are unknown.


Stranded Specimens

Saddleback dolphins have from 40 to 50 small, sharply pointed teeth in
each side of both the upper and lower jaws. These numbers overlap with
only those of the striped and spinner dolphins (with 43-50 and 46-65,
respectively). Saddleback dolphins should be readily distinguishable
from both these species by the features outlined under the descriptions
of living animals and distinguishable from the bridled dolphins by the
distinctive markings on the head of the two species (see Figs. 121 and
134).

[Illustration: Figure 130.--Saddleback dolphins captured off St.
Augustine, Fla., shown in the tank at Marineland of Florida. The highly
distinctive crisscross or hourglass pattern of tan or yellowish tan on
the sides is clearly visible. Note also the light tip of the snout and
the dark line from the center of the lower jaw to the flipper. This last
characteristic readily distinguishes the saddleback dolphin from the
striped dolphin, in which the black stripe begins at the corner of the
mouth rather than near the center of the lower jaw. (_Photos courtesy of
Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 131.--Saddleback dolphins on the bow of a ship off
Massachusetts in 1966. The color pattern, including the dark
brownish-gray back, the crisscross pattern on the sides, and the white
belly, are clearly visible. The light tip of the snout helps distinguish
this species from the spinner dolphins, which have a black-tipped snout.
(_Photo by E. Wheeler._)]

[Illustration: Figure 132.--The distinctive crisscross pattern of the
sides of the saddleback dolphins is clearly visible even when
comparatively little of the animal is seen. Note the falcate dorsal fin,
which often, as here, is dark on the border, lighter near the center.
(_Photo by R. K. Brigham, courtesy of National Marine Fisheries
Service._)]

[Illustration: Figure 134.--A saddleback dolphin stranded on Westerly
Beach, R.I. The origin of the common name "crisscross dolphin" is
evident in the color pattern of the side. Note also the distinctive
black stripe from the center of the lower jaw to the origin of the
flipper. (_Photo courtesy of H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 133.--Saddleback dolphins frequently jump clear of
the water and may reenter in a variety of ways: 1) smoothly, head first;
2) with a chin slap; 3) with an accompanying tail lob; or 4) on the
sides or back with a splash. This habit enables them to be spotted from
a considerable distance. When stressed, herds bunch tightly together,
like the group in the bottom photo. (_Photos from off Virginia by J. G.
Mead (top) and off San Diego, Calif. by S. Leatherwood (bottom)._)]



FRASER'S DOLPHIN (T)

_Lagenodelphis hosei_ Fraser 1956


Other Common Names

Sarawak dolphin, Bornean dolphin, Fraser's porpoise.


Description

Fraser's dolphins reach an overall length of at least 8 feet (2.4 m).
They are extremely short-beaked and have a pronounced dark stripe,
similar to that found on the striped dolphin, extending from the rostrum
to the area of the anus. They are robust in build and have rather small
flippers and dorsal fin relative to body size. The dorsal fin is
slender, falcate, and pointed on the tip. The body is gray on the back
and white on the belly. The color of the side is dominated by the
striping pattern. A cream-white band beginning high on the rostrum
extends above and past the eye, continues towards the tail, and finally
dissipates in the body color above the anus. Just below and parallel to
this cream-white band is a black one extending from the area of the eye
to the anus. A second cream-white band below and parallel to this dark
strip separates the darker gray coloration of the side from the white
coloration of the belly. The flippers are dark above and below.


Natural History Notes

The little that is known of the natural history and behavior of the
species may be summarized as follows: Fraser's dolphins occur in groups
of up to at least 500 animals and in the Pacific are occasionally seen
with spotted dolphins (_Stenella attenuata_). From all accounts, they
are not uncommon in certain areas of the tropical Pacific and off South
Africa.

Fraser's dolphins appear to be deep divers. They are aggressive swimmers
and, when they surface to breathe, often charge to the surface, creating
a spray from their heads. They have also been reported leaping clear of
the water.


May Be Confused With

Fraser's dolphin is intermediate in form between _Lagenorhynchus_ and
_Delphinus delphis_ (thus the composite name _Lagenodelphis_). Because
the species is apparently limited to tropical waters, however, and
because of the prominent stripe on the side of the body, Fraser's
dolphins are more likely to be confused with the striped dolphins (p.
113). The two species can be distinguished at sea by several
characteristics:

      FRASER'S DOLPHIN                 STRIPED DOLPHIN

                           COLORATION

  Single broad black stripe         Color dominated by series of
  from beak and eye back to         stripes from: 1) eye to anus;
  area of anus.                     2) eye to flipper, and 3)
                                    black behind dorsal fin
                                    forward, towards but not
                                    reaching the head.

                              BEAK

  Extremely short and indistinct.   Longer, much more distinctive.

                           BODY SHAPE

  Robust, particularly in front     Slenderer.
  of dorsal fin.

                             FLIPPERS

  Small, dark in color, and         Longer, sometimes lighter
  originating in light color of     on upper surface; note stripe
  sides.                            from front of flippers to eye.

                            DORSAL FIN

  Small, slender, slightly          Taller dorsal fin, broader at
  falcate, and pointed on top.      base.


Distribution

Although Fraser's dolphins have yet to be described for the western
North Atlantic Ocean, they are included here as "possibles" because of
the recent discovery that their range is far more extensive than
previously known. Records to date have been limited to offshore tropical
waters.

The species was first described in 1956 from the remains of a
beach-washed specimen from Sarawak in the South China Sea. Since that
time specimens have been collected from the eastern tropical Pacific,
and others have stranded in such widely divergent localities as
Australia, South Africa, and Japan. Recent summaries have added sighting
records from the Central Pacific, near the Phoenix Island, from
northwest of the Galapagos Islands, and from South African waters.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded Fraser's dolphins should be readily identifiable by 1)
distinctive coloration of the body; 2) short, indistinctive beak; and 3)
robust form. The only other species of small dolphins with beaks of
similar length and general appearance are the Atlantic white-sided and
white-beaked dolphins (p. 123 and 126); these dolphins, both with far
more northerly ranges, have 30-40 and 22-28 teeth in each side of each
jaw, respectively, while Fraser's dolphins have from 40 to 44 teeth in
the upper jaw and from 39 to 44 in the lower jaw.

[Illustration: Figure 135.--Fraser's dolphins, like these photographed
off the Phoenix Islands in the Pacific (top) and this one off the
Philippines (bottom), are definitely identifiable in their tropical
range by the short snout, the dark flank stripe and the small dorsal fin
and flippers. They may reach 8 feet (2.4 m), or more, in length and
occur in herds of at least 500 animals, sometimes with spinner dolphins
or Atlantic spotted dolphins. (_Photos by K. C. Balcomb (top) and T.
Hammond (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 136.--Fraser's dolphins from the eastern tropical
Pacific: adult (top and inset) and calf (bottom). Note the distinctive
black lateral strip and the extremely small flippers and dorsal fin.
(_Photos by R. Garvie (top and inset) and S. Leatherwood (bottom)._)]

[Illustration]



ATLANTIC WHITE-SIDED DOLPHIN (T)

_Lagenorhynchus acutus_ (Gray 1828)


Other Common Names

Atlantic white-sided porpoise, jumper (Newfoundland).


Description

Atlantic white-sided dolphins reach about 9 feet (2.7 m) in maximum
length and are robust in form with a small but distinct beak (less than
2 inches [5.1 cm] long).

The dorsal fin is tall, distinctly back curved, and pointed on the tip.
The tail stock is extremely thick and does not narrow laterally until
very near the tail flukes.

The back is distinctly black, the belly white. The sides have zones of
gray, tan, and white.

The single most distinctive feature of Atlantic white-sided dolphins is
an elongated oval zone of white and yellowish white along the sides from
just below the dorsal fin to the area above the anus. These patches of
lighter coloration, clearly demarcated from each other and from the
surrounding coloration, are frequently visible simultaneously with the
dorsal fin as the animals roll at the surface to breathe. Even alone
this feature permits positive identification of the species. The dorsal
fin is often part gray, part black. The beak is all black.


Natural History Notes

Atlantic white-sided dolphins are known to congregate in herds of
perhaps a thousand animals, though smaller herds are far more common.
The species is often wary of ships and does not ordinarily ride the bow
wave. Like a number of other species, white-sided dolphins have been
reported in association with Atlantic pilot whales.


May Be Confused With

At sea, Atlantic white-sided dolphins are most likely to be confused
with the white-beaked dolphins, with which they overlap in distribution.
Though they are very similar in general appearance, the two can be
distinguished in the following ways:

     ATLANTIC WHITE-SIDED
           DOLPHIN                     WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN

                             COLORATION

  Elongated band of yellowish        Two grayish areas--one in
  white and white along side,        front, the other below and
  visible behind and below           behind dorsal fin, visible as
  dorsal fin as animal rolls.        animal rolls.

                                BEAK

  All black.                         Sometimes white in parts of
                                     range though western Atlantic
                                     animals are usually dark.

                            MAXIMUM SIZE

  To 9 feet (2.7 m).                 To 10 feet (3.1 m).

                             DORSAL FIN

  Often part black, part lighter     Uniformly dark.
  gray.


Distribution

Atlantic white-sided dolphins are distributed, primarily offshore, in
the cool waters between the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current. They
have been observed from Hudson Canyon, off New York City, north to
southern Greenland and perhaps Davis Straits. Their normal range shares
a southern boundary with the white-beaked dolphin but does not extend as
far to the north.


Stranded Specimens

In addition to the features described above for living animals at sea,
stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphins can be distinguished from
white-beaked dolphins by the following:

     ATLANTIC WHITE-SIDED
           DOLPHIN                     WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN

                           NUMBER OF TEETH

  30-40 per side per jaw,            22-28 per side per jaw; have
  sometimes more in upper.           larger individual teeth--to 6
                                     mm in diameter.

                              FLIPPERS

  Lower portion of forward           Lower portion of forward
  margin more curved.                margin less acutely curved.

                           VENTRAL COLOR

  White coloration of belly          White coloration of belly
  extends high onto sides of         extends to lower jaw but not
  body.                              above flippers on sides.

                           CAUDAL CRESTS

  Tail stock strongly compressed     Tail stock less laterally
  laterally; taller, narrows         compressed, tapers more
  rapidly just in front of flukes.   gently towards tail flukes.

[Illustration: Figure 138.--An Atlantic white-sided dolphin off the
eastern Canadian coast. These animals do not usually ride the bow wave,
but when they can be examined at close range, they can be readily
distinguished from their more northerly cousins, the white-beaked
dolphins, by their highly distinctive color pattern. (_Photo by P. B.
Beamish._)]

[Illustration: Figure 137.--Atlantic white-sided dolphins at sea between
Cape Cod, Mass. and Nova Scotia. This species can be positively
identified by the elongated zone of white and the adjacent region of tan
or yellowish tan below and behind the dorsal fin, visible even in the
fast-swimming animal in the bottom picture. The top photo illustrates
the origin of the Newfoundland common name "jumper." (_Photos by K. C.
Balcomb (top) and H. E. Winn (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 139.--The highly distinctive pattern of the
Atlantic white-sided dolphins is clearly visible in this animal stranded
in Scotland. Even if the color pattern has faded, however, this species
should be easy to identify. The 30-40 teeth in each of the upper and
lower jaws permit distinction from the white-beaked dolphins, which have
only about 22-28 per side in each jaw. (_Photos by B. Tullock, courtesy
of A. S. Clarke._)]



WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN (T)

_Lagenorhynchus albirostris_ Gray 1846


Other Common Names

White-beaked porpoise, squidhound (Newfoundland).


Description

White-beaked dolphins reach a maximum overall length of about 10 feet
(3.1 m). The body is robust in form with a tall, uniformly dark-gray
dorsal fin, and a short but distinct beak which, as the common name
implies, is often light gray to white above and below, at least in
European waters. The beak of animals in the western Atlantic populations
is less frequently white. The back and sides are basically dark gray to
black, and the belly is white to light gray.

Swimming white-beaked dolphins can be most readily identified by the two
areas of pale coloration on the sides, one in front of and another below
and behind the dorsal fin. These areas are clearly visible from a ship
or aircraft as the animals roll at the surface.


Natural History Notes

White-beaked dolphins may sometimes occur in herds of up to 1,500
individuals. Like their cousins, the Atlantic white-sided dolphins, they
do not commonly ride the bow waves of vessels.

White-beaked dolphins feed on squid, octopus, cod, herring, capelin, and
sometimes on benthic crustaceans.


May Be Confused With

In their northerly range white-beaked dolphins are likely to be confused
with only the Atlantic white-sided dolphins. The most distinctive
features of white-beaked dolphins are 1) the two areas of paleness
described above, 2) the prominent, dark gray dorsal fin, and sometimes
3) the white beak. Other features by which the two species may be
distinguished in the brief encounters typical at sea are tabularized on
p. 127.


Distribution

White-beaked dolphins are the more northerly of the two species of
_Lagenorhynchus_ in the western North Atlantic. They are found from Cape
Cod, Mass., north to western and southern Greenland and Davis Straits,
though they are apparently far more numerous to the north of this range.
They appear in Davis Straits in spring and summer and leave that area in
autumn, sometimes as late as November, to move southward. They winter as
far south as Cape Cod, where they are the common dolphin species in
April, May, and June (sometimes to July). Their migrations are poorly
known.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded white-beaked dolphins can be most readily distinguished from
white-sided dolphins by the substantial differences in coloration and
the differences in numbers of teeth.

                                       ATLANTIC WHITE-SIDED
     WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN                    DOLPHIN

                                 TEETH

  22-28 per side per jaw.            30-40 per side per jaw,
                                     sometimes more in upper
                                     jaw.

                              COLORATION

  Beak sometimes gray or             Beak all black; side marked
  white above and below; two         with elongated areas of
  pale areas visible on living       white with streaking patterns
  animals not visible on stranded    of yellow and tan.
  specimens.

Additional characteristics by which the two species may be distinguished
are summarized on p. 123.

[Illustration: Figure 140.--Two views of white-beaked dolphins off
Newfoundland. This species is characterized by a prominent uniform dark
gray dorsal fin and two areas of paleness on the sides, one in front of
and one below and behind the dorsal fin. White-beaked dolphins are
distributed from Newfoundland north, extending to more northerly waters
than Atlantic white-sided dolphins. (_Photos by H. E. Winn (bottom) and
W. A. Watkins (top)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 141.--White-beaked dolphins reach nearly 10 feet
(3.1 m) in length. Stranded animals, such as this specimen from
Scotland, should be distinguishable from Atlantic white-sided dolphins
by their differences in coloration. This species sometimes has a white
beak and always lacks the elongated white patch and tan or yellow
streaking found on the side of Atlantic white-sided dolphins. (_Photos
by A. S. Clarke._)]



ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED DOLPHIN (T)

_Tursiops truncatus_ (Montague 1821)


Other Common Names

Bottlenosed porpoise, gray porpoise, common porpoise.[12]

[Footnote 12: See also p. 150 for use of this common name for another
species, the harbor porpoise.]


Description

Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins reach a maximum overall length of about 12
feet (3.7 m) and weigh in excess of 1,430 pounds (650 kg). They have
relatively stubby snouts and dorsal fins, which are broad at the base,
tall, and falcate. Coloration varies slightly, but individuals are
usually dark gray on the back, lighter gray on the side, grading to
white or pink on the belly. Old females may have spots on the belly. The
dark coloration of the back often appears as a highly distinct cape,
particularly on the head.


Natural History Notes

Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins often occur in groups of up to several
hundred individuals which usually consist of aggregations of small
groups of no more than a dozen animals each. They frequently associate
with the Atlantic pilot whales and are frequently found accompanying the
right and humpback whales travelling along the Atlantic coast of
Florida.

Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins have catholic tastes, feeding on shrimp,
eels, catfish, menhadden mullet, and miscellaneous trash fish, to
mention only a few. They are frequently found near shrimp boats, feeding
on fish stirred up by the trawls or on discarded trash fish.

They sometimes move in to ride the bow wave of a vessel, turning on
their sides, sometimes spinning completely around on their longitudinal
axis when doing so. Individuals may also turn their heads downward or to
the side. They are often found close to shore, in bays and lagoons, and
sometimes venture up the larger rivers. Some individuals, especially the
larger animals, are found as far offshore as the edge of the continental
shelf. Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins sometimes ride the surf.
Individuals may jump clear of the water as high as 15-20 feet (4.6-6.1
m), a behavior on which aquarium shows have capitalized.

Members of this species are the dolphins most commonly maintained in
captivity at zoos, aquariums, marine parks, and research institutions.
For that reason, they are perhaps more familiar to the general public
than any other species of porpoise, dolphin, or whale.


May Be Confused With

From at least Cape Hatteras southward, the range of the Atlantic
bottlenosed dolphins distributed in inshore areas may overlap with that
of Atlantic spotted dolphins, particularly during the spring and summer,
when the Atlantic spotted dolphins move inshore. There the two species
may be confused. The Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins and the Atlantic
spotted dolphins can be distinguished, however, by the following
characteristics:

         ATLANTIC                          ATLANTIC
     BOTTLENOSED DOLPHIN                SPOTTED DOLPHIN

                             MAXIMUM SIZE

  8 feet to as much as 12 feet       7.5-8 feet (2.3-2.4 m).
  (2.4 to 3.7 m).

                              COLORATION

  Not spotted (old females may       Dark purplish gray on back;
  have spots on belly); dark         lighter gray on sides and
  gray on back; light gray on        belly; body becomes increasingly
  sides; white or pink on belly.     spotted with age.

                             HEAD AND BEAK

  Head robust; beak relatively       Head more slender; beak
  short.                             longer.

Some Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are distributed well offshore as far
as the edge of the continental shelf. Those individuals may be confused
with either rough-toothed dolphins (p. 135) or with grampus (p. 96).
They may be distinguished from rough-toothed dolphins by the following:

     ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED
           DOLPHIN                      ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN

                               BODY COLOR

  Dark gray on back; light           Dark gray, almost purplish
  gray on side; white or pink on     with yellow spots; lighter on
  belly.                             belly.

                                  SNOUT

  Relatively short and stubby,       Long and slender; not
  and clearly demarcated from        clearly demarcated from
  forehead; usually all gray;        forehead; lower jaw and lips
  some older individuals have        speckled white.
  white-tipped snouts and/or
  white lips.

Distinguishing differences between the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins in
offshore areas and grampus are tabularized on p. 96.

In northeastern South America the range of the Atlantic bottlenosed
dolphin apparently overlaps with that of the Guiana dolphin, which,
except for size, it closely resembles (see p. 132).


Distribution

The Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are widely distributed in the
temperate and tropical waters of the western North Atlantic. They are
known from at least Nova Scotia but are best known from New England
southward to Florida, westward in the Gulf of Mexico, and thence
throughout the West Indies and Caribbean to Venezuela.

In the northern portion of that range, Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are
distributed offshore. In the southern portions of their range from at
least North Carolina southward, the majority are found nearshore and
often enter bays and lagoons, and sometimes venture up the larger
rivers. Daily migrations in these areas may follow tidal flow.

In these same southerly areas some Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are
distributed as far offshore as the edge of the continental shelf.


Stranded Specimens

Within their range, stranded Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins should be
readily identifiable by 1) the robust body, 2) relatively short beak,
and 3) the 20-26 teeth in each upper jaw and 18-24 in each lower jaw.

[Illustration: Figure 142.--Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins leaping on the
bow of a research vessel between Cape Cod, Mass. and Nova Scotia. Note
the robust body, the falcate dorsal fin, and the gradation of color in
three zones--dark gray on the back, to lighter gray on the sides, to
white or pink on the belly. (_Photo by A. Taruski._)]

[Illustration: Figure 143.--A side view of the Atlantic bottlenosed
dolphins off St. Augustine, Fla. Note the dark grayish coloration of the
back, the lighter coloration of the side, and the tall, sharply angled
dorsal fin, pointed on the tip. Though dorsal fin shapes are highly
variable, dorsal fins of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin are usually
more falcate and less pointed on the tip than on these animals. (_Photo
courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 144.--Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins frequently
ride the bow wave, often turning on their sides as they do so. Note the
distinctive color zones, the characteristic shape of the head and beak,
and the smooth lines of the flippers. (_Photo by L. Rigley._)]

[Illustration: Figure 145.--An Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin taken at
Isla La Blanquilla, off Venezuela. Because they inhabit shallow waters,
Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins are infrequent victims of strandings.
(_Photo courtesy of F. Cervigon._)]

[Illustration: Figure 146.--Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins have from 20
to 26 teeth in each side of the upper jaw and from 18 to 24 in each side
of the lower jaw. These teeth, sharply pointed in younger animals, may
wear substantially as the animal ages. (_Photo courtesy of Wometco Miami
Seaquarium._)]



GUIANA DOLPHIN (T)

_Sotalia guianensis_ (P.-J. van Beneden 1864)


Other Common Names

None known.


Description

Guiana dolphins are the second smallest cetacean species in the western
North Atlantic, reaching a maximum length of only about 5.6 feet (1.7
m).

Their body shape is very similar to that of the Atlantic bottlenosed
dolphin, though the beak is less clearly demarcated from the forehead.

The rather prominent dorsal fin is nearly triangular, curving only
slightly backwards near the tip.

Guiana dolphins are steel blue to dark brown on the back and white on
the belly. There is sometimes a brownish band extending from the dark
color of the back in front of the dorsal fin back towards but not
reaching the anus.


Natural History Notes

Guiana dolphins are usually found in groups of fewer than 10
individuals.


May Be Confused With

Because of their limited range and specialized habitats, Guiana dolphins
are unlikely to be confused with any other cetacean species except
perhaps Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins (p. 128). These two species can be
distinguished by the following characteristics:

     GUIANA DOLPHINS                    ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED
                                              DOLPHINS

                                SIZE

  To only 5.6 feet (1.7 m).          8 to as much as 12 feet
                                     (2.4 to 3.7 m).

                              DORSAL FIN

  More nearly triangular; curved     Broad-based, tall, and
  only slightly backwards            falcate.
  near tip.

                             DISTRIBUTION

  Found in rivers and estuaries,     Sometimes found nearshore
  extend into only very              and in bays, river mouths,
  shallow nearshore waters on        and estuaries, but extend
  limited area of South American     farther offshore.
  coast.


Distribution

Guiana dolphins are found in Lake Maracaibo, in the rivers of Guyana,
and in the nearshore coastal waters of the northeastern portion of the
Guianas.


Stranded Specimens

In their very limited range, stranded Guiana dolphins can be readily
identified by their extremely small size (to 5.6 feet [1.7 m]) and
nearly triangular dorsal fin. Furthermore, in addition to the
characteristics listed above distinguishing living Guiana dolphins from
Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins, the species can be distinguished by
differences in the numbers of teeth:

     ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSED               GUIANA DOLPHINS
            DOLPHINS

                            TEETH

  20-26 in each upper jaw;           26-35 in each jaw; often
  18-26 in each lower jaw.           ragged in arrangement.

[Illustration: Figure 147.--A Guiana dolphin from Kartabo, British
Guiana. In the coastal portion of its range along the northeastern South
American coast, this species is most likely to be confused with the
Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin. Guiana dolphins are much smaller, rarely
exceeding 5.6 feet (1.7 m), have a more triangular dorsal fin, and tend
to be found more frequently in estuaries and rivers. (_Photo by A. B.
Van Beneden from Zoologica VII(4), by permission of the New York
Zoological Society._)]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Figure 148.--Guiana dolphins harpooned in Kartabo,
British Guiana. Guiana dolphins have from 26 to 35 teeth in each jaw.
Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins, which are larger but somewhat similar in
appearance, have from 20 to 26 teeth in each upper jaw and from 18 to 26
in each lower jaw. (_Photo by A. B. Van Beneden from Zoologica VII (4),
by permission of the New York Zoological Society._)]



ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN (T)

_Steno bredanensis_ (G. Cuvier in Lesson 1828)


Other Common Names

Rough-toothed porpoise, goggle-eyed porpoise.


Description

Rough-toothed dolphins reach a length of at least 8 feet (2.4 m). The
coloration of the rough-toothed dolphins is quite variable. Individuals
are often dark gray to dark purplish gray on the back with pinkish-white
blotches on the sides and belly. The flippers and flukes are dark and
the belly is white. Individuals are frequently scarred with numerous
white streaks.

The most distinctive characteristic of the rough-toothed dolphin is its
beak, which is quite long and slender, may be white or pinkish white
along both sides, including one or both lips and the tip of the snout,
and is not separated from the forehead by the transverse groove present
in other long-snouted dolphins. Because the forehead and the sides of
the head slope smoothly into the rostrum, when this animal is seen from
above or from the side, its entire head appears very long and nearly
conical.


Natural History Notes

Rough-toothed dolphins occur in small groups of 50 animals or fewer and
are usually found off the edge of the continental slope. They may ride
the bow waves.


May Be Confused With

In their offshore habitat, rough-toothed dolphins are most likely to be
confused with Atlantic spotted dolphins (p. 104) and with Atlantic
bottlenosed dolphins (p. 128). They may be distinguished from Atlantic
spotted dolphins by the following:

     ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN             ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN

                               SNOUTS

  Long and slender; not clearly      Moderate in length and
  demarcated from forehead.          clearly demarcated from
                                     forehead.


They may be distinguished from Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins by the
characteristics tabularized on p. 128.

Even at a distance the blotched coloration of the side and the white
coloration of the rostrum of rough-toothed dolphins may be visible. If
closer examination is possible, the distinctive shape and coloration of
the beak make positive identification easy.


Distribution

Though records of rough-toothed dolphins from the western North Atlantic
are scant, the species is assumed to be widely distributed in deep
tropical to warm temperate waters. It has been reported from Virginia,
Georgia, Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, the West Indies, and off the
northeastern coast of South America.


Stranded Specimens

In addition to the characteristics listed above for distinguishing
living animals, stranded rough-toothed dolphins can be readily
identified by the fact that the 20-27 fairly large teeth per jaw per
side have a series of fine vertical wrinkles on the crown, a
characteristic from which the species derives its common name. (These
wrinkles are often difficult to detect.)

[Illustration: Figure 149.--Captive rough-toothed dolphins in Japan.
Note the distinctive, smoothly tapering head and the white coloration of
the sides and front of the snout. Rough-toothed dolphins are probably
widely distributed in the offshore waters of the tropics. The streamers
on the backs of the animals are marker tags (see Appendix A.) (_Photo
courtesy of Japanese Whales Research Institute._)]

[Illustration: Figure 150.--Closeups of the highly distinctive head of a
rough-toothed dolphin showing the white lips and the lack of a clear
demarcation between the snout and the forehead. This species has from 20
to 27 fairly large teeth in each side of both the upper and lower jaws.
(_Photos at Sea Life Park, Hawaii, by K. C. Balcomb (top) and S.
Leatherwood (bottom)._)]

[Illustration: Figure 151.--A rough-toothed dolphin stranded near New
Smyrna Beach, Fla. This species has from 20 to 27 fairly large teeth in
each side of both the upper and lower jaws. Those teeth are sometimes
marked by many fine vertical wrinkles along the crown, a characteristic
from which the species derives its common name. (_Photos by D. K.
Caldwell._)]



PYGMY KILLER WHALE (T)

_Feresa attenuata_ Gray 1874


Other Common Names

Slender blackfish, slender pilot whale.


Description

Pygmy killer whales reach a length of about 8-9 feet (2.4-2.7 m). They
are usually relatively slender-bodied with a rounded head, an underslung
jaw, and no beak.

The falcate dorsal fin, located about the center of the back, is usually
between 8 and 12 inches (20.3 and 30.1 cm) tall (though it may reach 15
inches [38 cm] in some individuals), is sometimes very distinctive, and
resembles that of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin. The flippers are
slightly rounded on the tips.

The color has been described as dark gray or black on the back, often
lighter on the sides, extending higher in front of the dorsal fin and
with a small zone of white on the underside, often a lighter gray area
on the sides, and distinctive white regions around the lips. The chin
may be completely white. This white zone on the chin, described as a
"goatee," is often clearly visible in swimming animals.


May Be Confused With

The pygmy killer whale resembles the false killer whale but is much
smaller and can be distinguished at close range by the zones of white
coloration. False killer whales are almost all black and reach a length
of up to at least 18 feet (5.5 m). Pygmy killer whales are dark gray on
the back, often lighter on the sides, and show a region of white on the
belly which may extend so high up onto the sides that it is visible on a
swimming animal. Further, they reach only 8-9 feet (2.4-2.7 m).

Pygmy killer whales may also be confused with the similarly sized and
colored many-toothed blackfish. So little is known of the two species'
appearance and behavior at sea that it is doubtful that they can be
successfully distinguished, though many-toothed blackfish apparently
lack the white region often seen on the sides of pygmy killer whales.
Further, pygmy killer whales have rounded flippers and smoothly tapered
heads, while those of the many-toothed blackfish are pointed on the tip
and more sharply pointed (often described as a parrot beak).


Distribution

Pygmy killer whales are probably distributed in the tropical and
subtropical waters of the western North Atlantic. They have been
reported from Texas, the Atlantic coast of Florida, and St. Vincent
Island, Lesser Antilles. Records of the species from the other oceans of
the world suggest that its distribution is limited to tropical and
subtropical waters.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded pygmy killer whales can be clearly distinguished from both the
false killer whale and the many-toothed blackfish. In addition to the
differences discussed above, the following are key differences between
the pygmy and false killer whales:

     PYGMY KILLER WHALE                 FALSE KILLER WHALE

                               TEETH

  10-13 in each side of upper        8-11 per jaw per side,
  and lower jaws; lower teeth        prominent.
  smaller.

                          VENTRAL COLORATION

  White from anus to under tail      Dark from anus to tail stock;
  stock, white may extend up         lighter pale gray area forward
  sides.                             between flippers.

                               FLIPPERS

  Smoothly rounded.                  Characteristic hump on forward
                                     margin.

Pygmy killer whales can be distinguished from many-toothed blackfish on
the basis of the second species' larger number of teeth. (Many-toothed
blackfish have from 22 to 25 teeth in the upper jaw and from 21 to 24 in
the lower jaw.)

[Illustration: Figure 152.--Pygmy killer whales at sea northwest of
Hawaii (top) off the island of Oahu, Hawaii (middle), and from
southeastern Florida in the tank at the Wometco Miami Seaquarium
(bottom). When swimming rapidly, pygmy killer whales may closely
resemble the much larger false killer whales. In addition to their much
smaller size, rarely exceeding 9 feet (2.7 m), however, pygmy killer
whales can be distinguished by their more rounded head, the white
coloration of the lips and chin, and the white zone on the belly,
sometimes extending up the sides. (_Photos by S. Ohsumi (top); J.
Naughton, National Marine Fisheries Service and courtesy of E.
Shallenberger, Sea Life Park (middle); and courtesy of Wometco Miami
Seaquarium (bottom)._)]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Figure 153.--Pygmy killer whales 5 miles off Kaena Point,
Oahu, Hawaii. These individuals were dark on the back with varying
degrees of lighter coloration on the sides, extending high onto the
sides in front of the dorsal fin. Many had a white "goatee" on the chin
and lower jaw. The prominent dorsal fin is characteristic. (_Photos by
E. Shallenberger, courtesy of Sea Life Park, Hawaii._)]

[Illustration: Figure 154.--Side and belly views of a pygmy killer whale
from South Africa. Note the slight white coloration of the lips, the
white region on the ventral surface (extending up onto the sides just
below the dorsal fin), and the falcate sharply pointed dorsal fin. Note
also the flippers, which lack the hump on the forward margin
characteristic of false killer whales. (_Photos courtesy of P. B.
Best._)]

[Illustration: Figure 155.--Pygmy killer whales have from 8 to 11 teeth
in each side of the upper jaw and from 11 to 13 in each side of the
lower jaw. Many specimens reportedly have one fewer on the right than on
the left side. The teeth are smaller than those of the false killer
whale and far less numerous than those of the more closely sized
many-toothed blackfish. Note also the white lips. (_Photo courtesy of P.
B. Best_)]



MANY-TOOTHED BLACKFISH (T)

_Peponocephala electra_ (Gray 1846)


Other Common Names

Hawaiian blackfish, melon-headed whale.


Description

Many-toothed blackfish reach lengths of at least 9 feet (2.7 m) and are
similar in body shape to the larger false killer whale and the
similar-sized pygmy killer whale. The body is elongated and slim with a
rather slim tail stock. In general, the head is shaped like that of the
false killer whale but has a sharper appearance to the snout, sometimes
described as a parrot-beak. The forehead is rounded, slightly
overhanging the lower jaw, and has no beak. The dorsal fin is up to 10
inches (25.4 cm). It is probably very distinctive as the animals surface
to breathe. Many-toothed blackfish are black on the back and slightly
lighter on the belly. The areas around the anus and genitals and the
lips are unpigmented. Many-toothed blackfish are presumably rare.


May Be Confused With

Many-toothed blackfish may be confused with either the false killer
whale or the pygmy killer whale. They are considerably smaller than the
false killer whale, have a slightly more pointed snout, and lack the
prominent humplike forward margin on the flippers which is
characteristic of the false killer whale.

They are approximately the same size as pygmy killer whales, but the
white area around the genitals which extends up onto the side in pygmy
killer whales may be lacking in many-toothed blackfish. This species has
pointed flippers, while those of pygmy killer whales are rounded on the
tips. Many-toothed blackfish also have a slightly more pointed snout.
Otherwise, the two species are virtually indistinguishable in encounters
at sea.


Distribution

Although many-toothed blackfish have not yet been reported in the
western North Atlantic, they are included in this guide because of a
record from the eastern tropical North Atlantic and the known tropical
distribution in other areas.


Stranded Specimens

Stranded many-toothed blackfish can be distinguished from false killer
and pygmy killer whales by the number of teeth alone. Many-toothed
blackfish have more than 15 per side per jaw (usually 21-25); both other
species have less than 15.

[Illustration: Figure 156.--A live many-toothed blackfish in a holding
pen in the Philippines. At sea these animals will be virtually
impossible to distinguish from pygmy killer whales. (_Photos by T.
Hammond._)]

[Illustration: Figure 157.--A many-toothed blackfish stranded in Hawaii.
This species is smaller than the false killer whale and can be
positively identified by the number of teeth, larger than any other
blackfish. Many-toothed blackfish have from 21 to 25 teeth per side in
both the upper and lower jaws. Other blackfish species have fewer than
15; otherwise, with the exception of differences in flipper shape (those
of this species are pointed while those of pygmy killer whales are
rounded on the tip), coloration and body shape of the two species are
similar. (_Photo courtesy of T. Dohl._)]



PYGMY SPERM WHALE (T)

_Kogia breviceps_ (Blainville 1838)


Other Common Names

None known.


Description

Pygmy sperm whales reach a length of at least 11 feet (3.4 m). They are
characterized by 1) an extremely robust body that rapidly tapers near
the tail, 2) a squarish head, and 3) a narrow, underslung lower jaw
which is located well behind the tip of the snout. Along the side of the
head, in approximately the same position where gill slits would be
located on a fish of comparable size, there is a crescent-shaped bracket
mark, often called a false gill.

The flippers, which are smoothly curved on the forward margin and may
reach a length of 18 inches (45.7 cm) or more on an adult specimen, are
located well forward on the body, just below and behind the bracket
mark.

The dorsal fin is very small, falcate, and located in the latter half of
the back.

Though coloration can be described only from stranded specimens and a
few encounters with living animals, pygmy sperm whales appear to be dark
steel gray on the back, shading to a lighter gray on the sides, and
gradually fading to a dull white on the belly. The outer surface of the
flippers and the upper surface of the tail flukes are also steel gray.


Natural History Notes

From the few accounts, the following may be summarized about the
behavior of pygmy sperm whales at sea: They reportedly usually rise
slowly to the surface to breathe, produce a blow that is inconspicuous,
and do not normally roll aggressively at the surface like most other
species of small whales. They reportedly fold their flippers flat
against their bodies when swimming. They have been reported to lie
motionless in the water with the back of the head on the surface and the
tail hanging loosely down in the water. (A similar behavior in sperm
whales has made them a minor hazard to shipping, since it has resulted
in some collisions with ships.) When they are startled in this posture,
they may defecate, issuing a cloud of reddish brown to rust-colored
fece. Beached pygmy sperm whales have also been observed to defecate a
fine chocolate feces.

Pygmy sperm whales apparently feed primarily on squid, but do take fish
as well.


May Be Confused With

In general, when they can be examined at close range, pygmy sperm whales
are so distinctive that they are unlikely to be confused with any other
species except perhaps the dwarf sperm whales. At a distance, they might
be confused with small individuals of any of the beaked-whale species
(p. 78) that also have a relatively small, falcate dorsal fin located in
the latter third of the back. Closer examination should permit easy
separation, however, since the pygmy sperm whale has a blunted head,
while the beaked whales, as the name implies, have elongated
"dolphinlike" beaks and are considerably larger. At sea, pygmy sperm
whales are most likely to be confused with their cousins the dwarf sperm
whales (p. 148 and Fig. 160). The two species can be distinguished as
follows:

     PYGMY SPERM WHALE                  DWARF SPERM WHALE

                              MAXIMUM SIZE

  To 11 feet (3.4 m).                To 9 feet (2.7 m).

                               DORSAL FIN

  Small to 8 inches (20.3 cm),       Taller, more like that of
  falcate; located in latter third   bottlenosed dolphins; located
  of back.                           near the midpoint of the
                                     back.

                               COLORATION

  Both species are dark steel gray on the back, grading to
  lighter on the belly.


Distribution

Because they have been rarely observed at sea, normal ranges for this
species are not known. Based on stranding records, however, the
following can be stated. In the western North Atlantic, pygmy sperm
whales have been found as far north as Sable Island, Halifax, Nova
Scotia, as far south as Cuba, and as far west as Texas in the Gulf of
Mexico. They are frequently found stranded along the Atlantic coast of
Florida and throughout the eastern and northern Gulf of Mexico.


Stranded Specimens

Because of the distinctive characters of the genus, stranded pygmy and
dwarf sperm whales are unlikely to be confused with any other species of
cetacean, though the rather narrow underslung jaw and the blunted head
may result in their casual dismissal by some beach walkers as stranded
sharks. The two species of Kogia may be distinguished by the following:

     PYGMY SPERM WHALE                  DWARF SPERM WHALE

                                  TEETH

  12-16 (rarely 10-11) in lower      8-11 (rarely 13) small and
  jaw are larger; no teeth in        extremely sharp teeth in
  upper.                             lower jaw; sometimes have
                                     up to 3 teeth in each upper
                                     jaw.

                                 THROAT

  No creases or grooves on           Several short irregular creases
  throat.                            or grooves on throat.

[Illustration: Figure 158.--In this rare photograph of a pygmy sperm
whale at sea in the Pacific, the animal was startled by the approaching
vessel, circled quickly, and then dived out of sight. The trail of
material visible in the water in front of and to the right of the animal
is feces, reddish brown to rust in color. Startled whales and porpoises
often defecate in this manner. (_Photo by S. Ohsumi._)]

[Illustration: Figure 159.--A young pygmy sperm whale swimming in a tank
at the New York Aquarium. Note the shape and position of the dorsal fin
and the shape of the head. (_Photo by H. E. Winn._)]

[Illustration: Figure 160.--On the beach the two species of Kogia can be
readily distinguished. The pygmy sperm whale, _K. breviceps_, (top)
reaches a length of about 11 feet (3.4 m); its dorsal fin is a small
nubbin located in the latter half of the back. The dwarf sperm whale,
_K. simus_, (bottom) reaches only about 9 feet (2.7 m); its dorsal fin,
much taller and more "dolphinlike" in appearance, is located near the
middle of the back. Coloration of fresh specimens is probably similar
for both species--the lightened areas in the lower photograph are the
result of decomposition. (_Photos from Jekyll Island, Ga. (top) and
Atlantic Beach, Fla. (bottom) by D. K. Caldwell._)]

[Illustration: Figure 161.--Ventral view of a female pygmy sperm whale
from Jekyll Island, Ga. Note the position and shape of the flippers and
mouth, and the abrupt tapering of the body at the tail stock. (_Photo by
D. K. Caldwell._)]

[Illustration: Figure 162.--Head of a pygmy sperm whale from
northeastern Florida showing gill-like, lightly pigmented "bracket
marks." (_Photo by F. G. Wood._)]

[Illustration: Figure 163.--A detailed view of the mouth of a pygmy
sperm whale from the east coast of Florida. In both species of Kogia
these long, curved, needle-sharp teeth, found in only the lower jaw,
lock into sockets in the upper jaw. Pygmy sperm whales have from 12 to
16 (rarely 10 or 11) pairs of teeth; dwarf sperm whales have from 8 to
11 (rarely 13) pairs. (_Photo by D. K. Caldwell._)]



DWARF SPERM WHALE (T)

_Kogia simus_ (Owen 1866)


Other Common Names

Rat porpoise (West Indies).


Description

Dwarf sperm whales reach an overall length of approximately 9 feet (2.7
m). Like the other species of _Kogia_, the pygmy sperm whale (p. 144),
the dwarf sperm whales are characterized by 1) a squarish head, 2) an
extremely robust body which tapers rapidly near the tail stock, 3) a
narrow, underslung lower jaw, and 4) a bracket mark or false gill on the
side of the head.

The dorsal fin of this species is tall and falcate, closely resembling
that of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, and is located near the
midpoint of the back. There are several short, irregular creases or
grooves on the throat similar to those found on the sperm whale (see
Figs. 60, 165).

Dwarf sperm whales are dark steel gray on the back, grading to lighter
gray on the sides, and fading to dull white on the belly.


May Be Confused With

Because of their tall, falcate dorsal fin, dwarf sperm whales may be
confused at a distance with any of the small dolphin species. Their
all-black or dark steel-gray coloration and the blunted head increase
the likelihood that they can be confused with pygmy killer whales or
many-toothed blackfish. They will have to be examined at close range
before they can be distinguished.

Dwarf sperm whales may also be confused with pygmy sperm whales (p. 144
and Fig. 160). The two species can be differentiated by the
characteristics tabularized on p. 144.


Distribution

Since it has only recently been recognized as a species distinct from
the pygmy sperm whale and even more recently given a common name,
records of dwarf sperm whales may have been confused with those of its
close relatives. The dwarf sperm whale has been reported from at least
Georgia south to St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, and throughout the
eastern and northern Gulf of Mexico. It is highly likely that this
species, like the pygmy sperm whale, extends further to the north.


Stranded Specimens

Because of the distinctive characteristics of the genus, neither species
of stranded _Kogia_ is likely to be confused with any other species.
They can be distinguished from one another by the characteristics
tabularized on p. 144.

[Illustration: Figure 164.--A dwarf sperm whale stranded near St.
Augustine, Fla., shown swimming in the tank at Marineland of Florida. In
this species the dorsal fin is taller than that of the pygmy sperm whale
and is located near the midpoint of the back (see Figs. 159 and 160).
(_Photo courtesy of Marineland of Florida._)]

[Illustration: Figure 165.--Dwarf sperm whales have several short
creases on the throat, similar to those found on the sperm whale (see
Fig. 60); pygmy sperm whales lack these creases. To compare other
features of the two species, refer back to Figure 160. (_Photo by D. K.
Caldwell._)]

[Illustration: Figure 166.--Closeup of the tail flukes of a dwarf sperm
whale from the Florida east coast. Note that the dorsal ridge extends
almost to the notch in the flukes. (_Photo by W. A. Huck, courtesy of
Marineland of Florida._)]



HARBOR PORPOISE (T)

_Phocoena phocoena_ (Linnaeus 1758)


Other Common Names

Common porpoise, herring hog, puffing pig (Newfoundland and New
England), Pourcils (Quebec), harbour porpoise.


Description

The harbor porpoise is the smallest cetacean species in the western
North Atlantic Ocean, reaching a maximum overall length of about 5 feet
(1.5 m). Its most distinctive identifying features in encounters at sea
are 1) the small, chunky body; 2) the coloration, dark brown or gray on
the back, fading to lighter grayish brown on the sides, often with
speckling in the transition zone, and white on the belly extending
farther up on the sides in front of the dorsal fin; 3) the small rounded
head, lacking a distinctive beak; 4) the small, triangular dorsal fin;
and 5) the shallow, inshore northerly distribution.


Natural History Notes

As the name implies, the harbor porpoise inhabits bays, harbors, river
mouths, and all the relatively shallow inshore water between. Though it
may travel in schools of nearly a hundred individuals, it is more often
seen in pairs or in small groups of from 5 to 10 individuals. It often
swims quietly at the surface. It will not ride the bow wave and is very
difficult to approach closely by boat.


May Be Confused With

The harbor porpoise is not known to associate with dolphins but is
sometimes seen in close proximity to fin whales and humpback whales off
the Canadian coast in spring and summer. Because of its northern inshore
habitat, the harbor porpoise is not likely to be confused with any other
cetacean.


Distribution

Harbor porpoises are restricted to the colder waters of the western
North Atlantic Ocean. They have been reported from North Carolina north
to the Davis Straits and the waters of southwestern Greenland. Within
this range they are probably most common in the Bay of Fundy and off
southwest Greenland.


Stranded Specimens

In addition to the characteristics described above for living animals,
stranded harbor porpoises can be readily identified by the small
spade-shaped teeth, 22-28 per jaw.

[Illustration: Figure 167.--Two views of a harbor porpoise just offshore
from Rio del Mar, Seaside, Calif. Note the small size (usually less than
5 feet [1.5 m]), the small triangular dorsal fin, the dark brownish
color of the back, and the lighter color of the sides and belly
intruding higher up in front of the dorsal fin. Harbor porpoises
frequent inshore areas, shallow bays, estuaries and harbors, and
reportedly do not approach moving vessels nor ride bow waves. (_Photos
by J. D. Hall._)]

[Illustration: Figure 168.--A harbor porpoise harpooned in Passamaquoddy
Bay, New Brunswick. Harbor porpoises have from 23 to 28 small,
spade-shaped teeth in each upper jaw and from 22 to 26 in each lower
jaw. Note the rounded head, the absence of a beak, and the triangular
dorsal fin. (_Photo by D. E. Gaskin._)]



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Obviously this guide could not have been produced without the
cooperation of many people. Of over 450 individuals and scientific
organizations contacted in 14 countries, 255 responded to our letters
and well over 100 provided photographs for review and selection. We were
particularly pleased that for the majority of the species found in the
western North Atlantic our most difficult problem was narrowing the
choices and ultimately selecting illustrations from the many good
materials made available to us. Although there are far too many
contributors to mention all by name, their prompt and enthusiastic
responses to requests for help are gratefully acknowledged, whether or
not their materials were used.

Although photo credits follow each figure, we would particularly like to
cite the generosity of Marineland of Florida, Hideo Omura of the
Japanese Whales Research Institute, J.G. Mead of the U.S. National
Museum, K.C. Balcomb of Moclips Cetological Society, Seiji Ohsumi of the
Far Seas Fisheries Research Laboratory, Jack Lentfer of the Alaskan
Department of Fish and Game, the U.S. Naval Undersea Center (NUC), The
University of Rhode Island, and William F. Perrin of the National Marine
Fisheries Service (NMFS). Photographs by Taruski, McCann, Hain, Wheeler,
and Rigley are in Winn's files. All others are in the files of
Leatherwood and Caldwell. The illustrations for Figures B1 and D1 were
prepared by George Galich of NUC. All other illustrations were prepared
by Lois Winn.

The extensive and often tedious job of preparing black and white
photographs of suitable format from the vast array of black and white
and color negatives and prints and from color transparencies was
accomplished at the NUC Photographic Laboratory by the able team of
Domingo Sanchez, Ray Krenik, Jeanne Lucas, and Alan McPhee.

George E. Lingle and John C. Moore assisted with gathering and reviewing
the literature and with cataloging and screening photo materials.

The various drafts of the manuscript were typed by Linda Thomson,
Margaret Alvarez, and Sandra Nolan. Sandra Peterson assisted with
proofreading the later drafts.

In preparing this guide we drew freely from the literature on cetaceans
of this region and supplemented it with our own observations and with
unpublished notes provided by our colleagues. A partial list of
materials used, each a good source of reference material on cetaceans in
general or on cetaceans of the western North Atlantic in particular, is
provided in the following section, "Selected Bibliography."

All of the following colleagues read all or part of the manuscript and
made useful suggestions for its improvement: K.C. Balcomb, W.C.
Cummings, J.G. Mead, Hideo Omura, W.F. Perrin, F.K. Rodgers, Allen N.
Saltzman, D.E. Sergeant, W.A. Watkins, A.A. Wolman, and F.G. Wood.

All of the information and photographs contributed by Lois Winn were
obtained under grants from the Office of Naval Research. Funds and
assistance for the preparation of intermediated drafts and logistics
support for all stages of preparation of this guide were provided by
Biological Systems, Inc., St. Augustine, Fla.

In addition to securing funds for the preparation and publication of
this guide, Paul Sund, Platforms of Opportunity Program, NMFS, Tiburon,
Calif., provided continuing help and criticism.

To these and to all who use this guide to further help knowledge about
the cetaceans of the western North Atlantic, we are grateful.



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANDERSEN, H. T. (editor).

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BURT, W. H.

    1952. A field guide to the mammals. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston,
      200 p.

CALDWELL, D. K., and M. C. CALDWELL.

    1973. Marine mammals of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. _In_ J. I. Jones,
      R. E. Ring, M. O. Rinkel, and R. E. Smith (editors), A summary of
      knowledge of the eastern Gulf of Mexico, p. III-I-1--III-I-23.
      State Univ. Syst. Fla. Inst. Oceanogr., St. Petersburg, Fla.

CALDWELL, D. K., and F. B. GOLLEY.

    1965. Marine mammals from the coast of Georgia to Cape Hatteras. J.
      Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 81:24-32.

CALDWELL, D. K., H. NEUHAUSER, M. C. CALDWELL, and H. W. COOLIDGE.

    1971. Recent records of marine mammals from the coasts of Georgia
      and South Carolina. Cetology 5:1-12.

FRASER, F. C.
    1937. Whales and dolphins. _In_ J. R. Norman and F. C. Fraser, Giant
      fishes, whales and dolphins, p. 201-349. Putnam and Sons, Lond.
      [There are several editions of this work, all with the same
      information.]

1966. Guide for the identification and reporting of stranded whales,
dolphins and porpoises on the British coasts. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
Lond., 34 p.

GOLLEY, F. B.

    1966. South Carolina mammals. The Charleston Museum, Charleston,
      S.C., xiv + 181 p.

GUNTER, G.

    1954. Mammals of the Gulf of Mexico. _In_ P. S. Galtsoff
      (coordinator), Gulf of Mexico, its origin, waters, and marine
      life, p. 543-567. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. Vol. 55.

HALL, E. R., and K. R. KELSON.

    1959. Order cetacea--cetaceans. _In_ The mammals of North America,
      2:806-840. Ronald Press, N.Y.

HERSHKOVITZ, P.

    1966. Catalog of living whales. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 246, 259 p.

KELLOGG, R.

    1940. Whales, giants of the sea. Natl. Geogr. Mag. 77:35-90.

LAYNE, J. N.

    1965. Observations on marine mammals in Florida waters. Bull. Fla.
      State Mus., Biol. Sci. 9:131-181.

LEATHERWOOD, S., W. E. EVANS, and D. W. RICE.

    1972. The whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern north
      Pacific. A guide to their identification in the water. Nav.
      Underseas Cent., Tech. Publ. 282, 175 p.

LOWERY, G. H., JR.

    1974. The mammals of Louisiana and its adjacent waters. Louisiana
      State Univ. Press, Baton Rouge, 565 p.

MITCHELL, E. D.

    1973. The status of the world's whales. Nat. Can. 2(4):9-25.

MOORE, J. C.

    1953. Distribution of marine mammals to Florida waters. Am. Midl.
      Nat. 49:117-158.

NORRIS, K. S. (editor).

    1966. Whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Univ. California Press,
      Berkeley, 789 p.

PALMER, R. S.

    1954. The mammal guide. Doubleday and Co., N.Y., 384 p.

RICE, D. W.

    1967. Cetaceans. _In_ S. Anderson and J. K. Jones (editors), Recent
      mammals of the world; a synopsis of families, p. 291-324. The
      Ronald Press, N.Y.

RICE, D. W., and V. B. SCHEFFER.

    1968. A list of the marine mammals of the world. U.S. Fish Wildl.
      Serv., Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 579, 16 p.

RIDGEWAY, S. H. (editor).

    1972. Mammals of the sea; biology and medicine. Charles C. Thomas,
      Springfield, Ill., xiii + 812 p.

SCHEVILL, W. E.

    1974. The whale problem. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 297
      p.

SERGEANT, D. E., and H. D. FISHER.

    1957. The smaller Cetacea of eastern Canadian waters. J. Fish. Res.
      Board Can. 14:83-115.

SERGEANT, D. E., A. W. MANSFIELD, and B. BECK.

    1970. Inshore records of Cetacea of eastern Canada, 1949-68. J.
      Fish. Res. Board Can. 27:1903-1915.

SLIJPER, E. J.

    1962. Whales. Hutchinson and Co., Ltd., Lond., 475 p. [There is also
      an American edition.]

TOMILIN, A. G.

    1967. Cetacea. Mammals of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Isr.
      Program Sci. Transl., Jerusalem, Vol. IX, 717 p. [A compilation of
      worldwide data, originally published in Russian.]

TOWNSEND, C. H.

    1935. The distribution of certain whales as shown by logbook records
      of American whaleships. Zoologica (N.Y.) 19:1-50.

TRUE, F. W.

    1889. Contributions to the natural history of the cetaceans, a
      review of the family Delphinidae. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 36:1-192.

WALKER, E. P.

    1964. Mammals of the world. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, p.
      1083-1145. [Cetaceans. There is also a second, revised edition of
      this work, and a third, revised edition is planned.]



APPENDIX A

TAGS ON WHALES, DOLPHINS, AND PORPOISES


Field studies of cetaceans are very difficult. First, it is extremely
hard to be positive that an individual or a group of animals is the same
from one encounter to the next. This means that it is nearly impossible
to determine, for example, whether herds of animals are resident in an
area or only seasonal visitors. Without information of this kind,
determinations vital to population management, such as sizes of
populations and natural ranges, are impossible to make.

Secondly, as we frequently point out in this guide, individual cetaceans
are usually visible to a surface observer only during the brief moments
when they break the air-water interface to breathe. The majority of
their vital activities (e.g., feeding, reproduction, communication,
establishing and maintaining position within the herd, and defending
against natural enemies) take place primarily below the surface, well
out of view to a surface observer.

In recent years, in an attempt to overcome some of these problems,
scientists have been placing markers on various species of cetaceans and
monitoring their movements. The following brief summary of major methods
of tagging cetaceans is provided to acquaint the reader with markers he
may expect to see in the western North Atlantic.


Static Tags

Since their development in the mid-1920's, numerous Discovery marks
(small stainless steel projectiles with identifying information stamped
on them) have been shot into commercially valuable species by means of a
shotgun. The recovery of these marks from whales subsequently killed in
the whaling industry has provided valuable information on the movement
patterns and on basic aspects of the growth and development of harvested
species of whales. Discovery marks are limited, however, because they
are not visible in a living animal. Reduction in whaling activities will
bring about a significant reduction in their use.

More recent tagging developments relate to marks which will be visible
on a free-swimming animal. Large whales, for instance, may be tagged
with color-coded streamers, such as that shown in Appendix Figure A2.
The tags, which are modified versions of the spaghetti tags first
constructed for use on fishes, consist of a small stainless steel head
for attachment to the blubber and a colorful streamer (sometimes stamped
with information on agencies to which tags should be returned) which is
visible above the surface of the animal. These tags may be applied by
using either a pole applicator or a crossbow and crossbow bolts. Both
applicators are equipped with a stop to limit the depth of penetration
into the animal's blubber. Extensive experimentation indicates that the
tags do not harm the animals and that their application is not
traumatic. With the continued reduction in whaling activity, it is hoped
that the use of such markers in the study of movements of big whales
will be increased.

Because they often ride the bow wave of a moving vessel, thereby making
themselves accessible for tagging and capture, small porpoises and
dolphins have been tagged with a greater variety of marks than large
whales. In recent years, at least three kinds of static tags, including
spaghetti streamers, have been placed on small and medium-sized
cetaceans.

Spaghetti tags, placed in the animal's blubber near the base of the
dorsal fin as it rides the bow wave, stream to conform to the contour of
the animal's body as it swims (App. Fig. A3). It is not possible to
identify the numbers on the spaghetti tag of a moving animal, although
color codes may be used to indicate different species, populations, or
tagging areas.

Button tags and freeze brands are placed on captured animals prior to
their release. The button tags (App. Figs. A4, A5) are placed in the
dorsal fin and should be visible as the animal surfaces to breathe or as
it rides the bow wave. At close range, the number, letter, or design may
also be visible. Freeze brands (App. Fig. A6) are placed on the back or
dorsal fin with a supercooled branding iron, apparently without pain or
discomfort to the animal, and provide a permanent mark which leaves the
tagged animal free of encumbrances. The use of freeze brands shows
promise and should come into more extensive use.

Other static tagging techniques currently under investigation include
the use of laser beams to apply small brands and the use of gas
branding devices. Neither technique, however, has yet reached the field
biologist.

The success of any tagging program using static tags depends on the
resighting of tagged animals and the recovery of tags. For that reason,
we appeal to readers to be on the lookout for tagged animals and to
report sightings to one of the authors.

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A1.--Some of the basic kinds of tags used
to mark porpoises, dolphins, and small whales. A, B, and C are nylon
button tags, which are placed in the dorsal fin of animals and may be
clearly visible as the animal surfaces to breathe. D is a vinyl
spaghetti tag. (_Photo by R. Krenic, courtesy of Naval Undersea
Center._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A2.--A spaghetti tag in the back of a
blue whale off San Clemente Island, Calif. (_Photo by S. Leatherwood._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A3.--A spaghetti tag in the flank of a
bottlenosed dolphin off Loreto, Baja California, Mexico. This particular
tag was placed unusually low. The streamer and spaghetti tags are
usually placed high on the back, just in front of the dorsal fin, and
are clearly visible as the animal surfaces to breathe. (_Photo by W. E.
Evans._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A4.--A button tag placed on the dorsal
fin of a newly captured saddleback dolphin off Catalina Island, Calif.
(_Photo by W. E. Evans._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A5.--This is the way the button tag
appears on an animal swimming free in the open sea off Palos Verdes,
Calif. (_Photo by B. Noble, courtesy of Marineland of the Pacific._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A6.--Freeze-branding is an apparently
painless method of applying a permanent identifying mark to the body of
a porpoise or whale. (_Photo of a bottlenosed dolphin off Sarasota,
Fla., by A. B. Irvine._)]


Radio Transmitter Tags

In recent years, radio transmitter tags have been developed for use on
marine mammals. As they continue to become more reliable, these tags are
expected to come into more and more widespread use.

Early radio tags (Fig. A7) were simple locator beacons which permitted
the animal to be tracked by sending a signal to a tracking vessel or
aircraft every time the animal surfaced and the antenna tip was exposed.
Even these basic packages provide important information on movement,
activity patterns, and respiration rates.

Subsequent developments have involved the addition of sensors to monitor
the maximum depth of each dive and environmental parameters such as the
water temperature at that depth (Fig. A8).

Logical extensions of these developments include the addition of
numerous other sensors to permit simultaneous monitoring of multiple
aspects of the animal's environment and the transmission of these data
first to aircraft and subsequently to satellites for relay to
shore-based laboratories.

In addition to permitting scientists to define movement patterns and
daily diving patterns of cetaceans, the use of such devices offers an
exciting means of determining the environmental parameters that trigger
changes in their behavior.

Radio transmitter tags, in a variety of configurations, may be
constructed and attached for short-term studies or for long-term
monitoring of migrating animals. In either case, depending on their size
and methods of attachment, radio transmitter tags may be visible on a
free-swimming animal even at a considerable distance.

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A7.--A saddleback dolphin wearing a radio
tag transmitter surfaces to breathe off southern California. (_Photo
courtesy of W. E. Evans._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A8.--A radio transmitter package attached
to the dorsal ridge of a California gray whale. This yearling animal,
captive for most of the first year of its life, was released into the
ocean off San Diego, Calif., in March 1972 and subsequently tracked from
shipboard and aircraft for over 30 days. The sensor transmitter package,
shown in detail in the inset, was designed to measure the maximum depth
of the animal's dive and the water temperature at that depth. (_Photo by
S. Leatherwood._)]


Natural Markings

In addition to these man-made and applied tags, variations in natural
markings and unusual appearances may be used to identify individuals and
herds on repeated encounters. Although many species of cetaceans are
characterized by changes in color pattern with age, individuals
occasionally differ radically in their coloration from their fellows
(App. Figs. A9, A10). In addition, individuals are sometimes seen with
unusually shaped dorsal fins or scarring patterns (App. Fig. A11). These
unusually marked animals should stand out in repeated encounters and can
be a help in identifying a herd from one encounter to another.

Obviously, this list of tags and anomalous markings is not exhaustive.
New marks may be developed at any time. The discussion is intended to
make the reader aware of the value of information on natural or man-made
marks in studies of cetacean natural history. Your cooperation will
perhaps help us to unravel some of the mystery surrounding the
distribution and movements of porpoises, dolphins, and whales.

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A9.--A piebald saddleback dolphin on the
bow of a research vessel off San Clemente Island, Calif. (_Photo by B.
C. Parks._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A10.--A nearly all-white pilot whale seen
off Catalina Island, Calif., in April 1971. The observation of this same
animal at least once each quarter of the year is evidence that it is
resident in that area. (_Photo by S. Leatherwood._)]

[Illustration: Appendix Figure A11.--A herd of pilot whales off Catalina
Island, Calif., including an animal with a partially chopped-off dorsal
fin, which has made him recognizable in repeated encounters with pilot
whales around the various channel islands. (_Photo by G. E. Lingle._)]



APPENDIX B

RECORDING AND REPORTING OBSERVATIONS OF CETACEANS AT SEA


To increase reliability of identifications, observers should train
themselves to ask the following kinds of questions each time cetaceans
are encountered:

1. How large was the animal?

2. Did it have a dorsal fin? If so, what was its size, shape, and
position on the animal's back?

3. Was the animal's blow visible? If so, how tall did it appear? What
was its shape? How frequently did the animal blow?

4. What was the animal's color and color pattern?

5. Did it have any highly distinctive markings?

6. If it was a large or medium-sized animal, did it show its tail flukes
when it began its dive?

7. If it was a medium-sized or small animal, did it approach, avoid, or
ignore the vessel? Did it ride the bow wave?

8. What was its behavior? Did it jump from the water? If so, did it make
a smooth graceful arching jump, or did it spin, somersault, or reenter
with a splash?

One characteristic is rarely sufficient by itself, and the greater
amount of relevant evidence the observer can obtain, the greater the
likelihood he can make a reliable identification. But it is important to
remember that even the most experienced cetologists are often unable to
make an identification. Therefore, even if you cannot positively
identify an animal or even make a good guess as to its identity, do not
hesitate to fill out the rest of the sighting record form and submit it
to an appropriate office. Listing the characters you observe and filling
in as much of the form as possible may enable a cetologist to make an
identification based on those characters and his knowledge of the
distribution, movements, and behavior of cetaceans. In this regard, a
sketch made as soon as possible after the encounter and photographs
taken from as many angles as possible will aid in the identification.

Two sample sighting reports are provided to demonstrate a method of
recording observations. The first report, "Sighting Information," is
completed as an example and is footnoted for explanation. The second
report, "Cetacean Data Record." located at the end of the guide, is
blank and may be photocopied in bulk for use in the field. Copies of
this or similar forms are available from any of the authors or from
National Marine Fisheries Service, Tiburon, Calif. Even if no form is
available, however, observations should be recorded in rough form, in as
much detail as possible.

Reliable intermittent reports of cetaceans are of interest to
cetologists. Their locations indicate seasonality of distribution, and
their frequencies help indicate relative abundances of the various
species. Because scientists are attempting to determine areas in which
cetaceans are often, occasionally, seldom, or never found, and are
ultimately describing why animals are found in one area and not another,
persons who want to go a step further in their participation in observer
programs may want to keep and report records of their entire cruise
tracks and zones in which vigilance was maintained but no cetaceans were
observed. Data obtained in this manner may be used as the foundation of
estimates of cetacean populations, estimates which are extremely
difficult to obtain by any other method.

To be of maximum use in such calculations, however, records of this kind
_must_ include the following minimum information: time and location of
beginning and ending of each continuous watch, weather conditions as
they affect visibility, sea state, ship's speed, height of the
observer(s) above the water, number of persons on watch, and details of
each sighting, particularly the estimated distance of the animal(s) from
the ship's track.

For a sample of a fictional continuous watch report might look like the
following. If sighting forms are available, these observations may be
recorded directly onto them. Additional information can be recorded on
the opposite side of the forms.

[Illustration: Appendix Figure B1.--A sample cruise track with cetacean
sightings. See text for detailed data recording.]


GENERAL INFORMATION

  RV Melville (34-foot converted fishing boat)
  U.S. Department of Commerce
  NMFS

  Hydrographic Cruise Miami, Florida to Flamingo, Florida

  28-31 January 1973

  2 observers (G.E. Lingle and G.M. Mohr)

  EYE LEVEL OF OBSERVERS: 16 feet above water

  AVERAGE SHIP SPEED: 8.0 knots during continuous watch

  CONTINUOUS WATCH INFORMATION (REFER TO FIG. B1):

             START END   START          END
  LEG  DATE  TIME  TIME POSITION       POSITION  WEATHER--VISIBILITY

  1-2  2/28  1200  1730 U. Miami Dock  25-42N    Beaufort II Visibility
                        Va. Key        80-02W    3 miles

  3-4  2/29  0800  1500 24-26N         25-00N    Beaufort I Visibility
                        80-04E         81-04W    3.5 miles

  5-6  2/30  0700  1680 25-12N         25-12N    3.5 miles
                        80-46W         81-10W

  7-8  2/31  0700  0900 25-00          Flamingo  3.5 miles
                        80-45W

CETACEAN OBSERVATIONS (REFER TO FIG. B1):

  A-2/28 1048   16 bottlenosed dolphins, _Tursiops truncatus_. 6 miles
                outside our course, headed west--rode bow briefly. Large
                concentrations of sea birds in area. One porpoise freeze
                branded N-1 on dorsal fin.

  B-2/29 1100   2 right whales directly ahead of vessel headed
                NE--40-foot female? with calf. 2 bottlenosed dolphins
                accompanying the whales were riding pressure wave off
                whale's head.

  C-2/29 1400   25-30 spotted porpoises, _Stenella plagiodon_, 1.25 miles
                outside our course, heading 240° mag. Did not ride bow
                wave.

  D-2/30 1300   8 bottlenosed dolphins, _Tursiops truncatus_, 200-300
                yards inshore of our course, milling in area of
                concentrations of mullet and other small schooling fishes,
                dolphins (porpoises) and birds feeding on fish.


SIGHTING INFORMATION

DATE AND LOCAL TIME [Handwriting: 27 January 1977 0845] LOCATION[13]
[Handwriting: Ca. 25°00'N, 80°30'W]

WEATHER CONDITIONS [Handwriting: Scattered rain squalls, visibility
1-1.5 mi, Temp 42°F]

OCEANOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS[14] [Handwriting: Swells 1-2 feet, scattered
white caps Winds from S.E. @ 3-8 knots, gusting in squalls to 15 knots.]

SPECIES[15] [Handwriting: Right Whales, Eubalaena glacialis (45 ft/15
ft)] NUMBER OF ANIMAL(S) [Handwriting: 2]

HEADING OF ANIMAL(S) [Handwriting: 015°] SPEED OF ANIMAL(S)
[Handwriting: 1-2] (MAGNETIC) (KNOTS)

ASSOCIATED ORGANISMS[16] [Handwriting: Bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops
truncatus (3) and unidentified gulls (10-20)]

TAGS OR UNUSUAL MARKINGS [Handwriting: One whale had deep slash across
back about 3 ft. behind blowholes-area of slash was white.]

CHARACTERISTICS OBSERVED WHICH RESULTED IN SPECIES IDENTIFICATION
[Handwriting: 45 ft, No dorsal fin, smooth black back, high arching
jaws, yellowish-orange growths on head, coastal habitat]

BEHAVIOR OF ANIMAL(S) [Handwriting: Adult whale swam steadily north,
calf close beside, Bottlenosed dolphins riding in front of adults head.]

SKETCHES [Hand-drawn illustration of whales, dolphins and distinguishing
features.]

PHOTOS AVAILABLE YES NO

[Handwriting: Photos (GEL, Roll 16, frames 8-30)]

ADDITIONAL REMARKS [Handwriting: Dolphins remained with whales entire
1/2 hour of observation, appently riding on pressure wave.]

NAME AND ADDRESS OF OBSERVER (SHIP OR A/C) [Handwriting: G. E. Lingle,
Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, California 92132 and G. A. Antonelis,
NMFS, Seattle, Washington 98105 aboard the RV Cape]

[Footnote 13: If latitude and longitude are not readily available,
record best available position, for example 5 hours at 10 knots, SE of
Miami.]

[Footnote 14: Any oceanographic or bathymetric information obtainable at
the time of sighting may be significant. Such measurements as water
depth, presence of large fish schools, or deep scattering
layer/organisms (DSL) characteristics of the bottom (e.g., flat sand
plain, sea mount, submarine cliff), surface temperature, depth of
thermocline, and salinity should be included if available. In the
Pacific, similar data have been used to demonstrate reliable
associations there between saddleback dolphins and significant features
of bottom relief and relationships between the onset of their nighttime
deep diving (feeding) patterns and the upward migration of the
scattering layers.]

[Footnote 15: Sometimes two or more species of cetacean are found
together. If more than one species is sighted, try to identify each.
Give both common and scientific names of each, and even if you cannot
identify the animal(s) describe, sketch, and, if possible, photograph
them and fill out the rest of the sighting report.]

[Footnote 16: Describe any tags seen (see Appendix A) and state their
size, shape, color, and position on the animal's body and any symbols or
numbers they contain.]



APPENDIX C

STRANDED WHALES, DOLPHINS, AND PORPOISES

With a Key to the Identification of Stranded Cetaceans of the Western
North Atlantic


Stranded Animals

As we discussed briefly in the introduction to this guide, whales,
dolphins, and porpoises sometimes "strand" or "beach" themselves,
individually or in entire herds, for a complex of still incompletely
understood reasons. Though the reasons suggested for these strandings
appear almost as numerous as the strandings themselves, two tenable
generalizations have recently been proposed.

Strandings of lone individuals usually involve an animal which is sick
or injured. Mass strandings, involving from several to several hundred
individuals, appear to be far more complex and may result from fear
reactions, from extremely bad weather conditions, from herd-wide disease
conditions, or from failure of the echolocation system due to
physiological problems or environmental conditions which combine to
reduce its effectiveness, to mention only a few.

Whatever their causes, however, cetacean strandings usually attract
crowds and elicit much public interest and sympathy. There are
frequently attempts to save the lives of the animals involved.

Individually stranded cetaceans rarely survive, even if they are found
soon after stranding and transported to adequate holding facilities.
This does not mean that every attempt should not be made to save them.

In mass strandings, some individuals may be entirely healthy, and if
they are found soon enough after stranding, properly protected and
transported, and correctly cared for in the initial few days after
collection, they may survive in captivity. Attempts to rescue all the
animals in a mass stranding by towing them out to sea have almost always
been frustrating because the animals usually swim repeatedly back onto
the beach.

If you discover a stranding and before you become involved in an attempt
to save a live stranded animal or to collect data from a dead one, you
should be aware of the following:

MARINE MAMMALS ARE CURRENTLY PROTECTED BY LAW. Under provisions of the
Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, it is unlawful for persons without
a permit to handle, harass, or possess any marine mammal. It is within
the authority of State officials and employees of the National Marine
Fisheries Service to arrange for the care of live animals through
certified institutions, such as many of those listed in Appendix E.
(Even if the animals were not protected by law, any impulse to take them
to backyard swimming pools, for instance, should be tempered by the
knowledge that their chances of survival are far greater in an
institution with the facilities and expertise to properly care for
them.) The best general rule is to notify the nearest State or National
Marine Fisheries Service office. If you prefer, however, you may
contact one of the institutions listed in the appendix and ask them to
handle the situation. Some will already have permits to investigate
strandings. Most will be anxious to help.

Although _you cannot remove the animal from the beach without a permit_,
you can help keep it alive until it can be removed. Here are a few
hints. WHILE WAITING FOR HELP TO ARRIVE, ENDEAVOR TO KEEP THE ANIMAL AS
COMFORTABLE AS POSSIBLE. IF IT IS NOT TOO LARGE AND SURF CONDITIONS
PERMIT, IT SHOULD BE REMOVED TO SHALLOW WATER WHERE IT IS BARELY AFLOAT.
The buoyancy of the water will reduce the stress to the animal and will
help to keep it cool and prevent overheating--a real danger to stranded
cetaceans.

Whether or not the animal can be floated, CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO
PROTECT IT FROM SUNBURN, DRYING OUT, AND OVERHEATING. IF IT IS AFLOAT,
EXPOSED PARTS SHOULD BE FREQUENTLY SPLASHED DOWN. IF IT IS HIGH AND DRY,
IT SHOULD BE COVERED WITH DAMP CLOTH, PARTICULARLY ON THE DORSAL FIN,
FLIPPERS, AND FLUKES, AND THE BODY AND THE TERRAIN SHOULD BE FREQUENTLY
WATERED TO PREVENT THE ANIMAL FROM OVERHEATING IN THE AREAS IN CONTACT
WITH THE SAND OR ROCK.

IN ANY CASE, BE CAREFUL TO LEAVE THE BLOWHOLE FREE SO THAT THE ANIMAL
CAN BREATHE. NOTE ALSO THAT THE EYES ARE PARTICULARLY SENSITIVE AND
SUSCEPTIBLE TO INJURY; THEY SHOULD BE COVERED WITH A WET CLOTH AND
TREATED WITH SPECIAL CARE.

With luck, this careful handling will be rewarded with the animal's
being picked up and transported to an aquarium, where it can receive
proper attention. But even IF THE ANIMAL CANNOT BE SAVED, COLLECTION AND
EXAMINATION OF THE CARCASS CAN PROVIDE VALUABLE INFORMATION TO
SCIENTISTS WORKING ON THE BIOLOGY OF CETACEANS, OR ON SUCH PROBLEMS AS
THEIR DISEASE CONDITIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS ON
THEM. DEAD STRANDED CETACEANS EVEN IN ADVANCED STAGES OF DECOMPOSITION
ARE ALSO AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF MATERIALS FOR MUSEUM STUDY AND DISPLAY.
THEREFORE, EVERY ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO GET THE CARCASS INTO THE BEST
HANDS. DEAD CETACEANS, LIKE THE LIVE ONES, ARE PROTECTED BY LAW AND MAY
NOT BE REMOVED WITHOUT A PERMIT. The procedure for obtaining permission
to collect them is the same as that outlined for live strandings. The
majority of the institutions along the western North Atlantic coast will
respond to calls about live or dead strandings. Even if you are unable
to contact an appropriate official, you can still collect some valuable
information by identifying the specimen, using the following key, and by
collecting measurements (see Appendix D).

[Illustration: Appendix Figure C1.--Whales and dolphins, like this mixed
school of false killer whales and bottlenosed dolphins, sometimes strand
themselves individually or as entire herds for a complex of still
incompletely understood reasons. (_Photo from Japan by S. Ohsumi._)]


Identifying the Animal

Cetaceans may be found during or shortly after the stranding or many
months later, when the carcass is bloated or rotted nearly beyond
recognition. If the stranded animal is alive or freshly dead, it can be
identified by any of the characteristics itemized in the text. But even
if it is in an advanced stage of decomposition it can be identified
using the key below. In general numbers and descriptions of teeth (Table
1) and numbers and descriptions of baleen plates (Table 2) persist
longest as reliable identifying characteristics. If they are still
detectable on the carcass, numbers and lengths of ventral grooves may
also be used to separate the balaenopterine whales.[17]

[Footnote 17: The tables were prepared primarily from Tomilin (1967) and
supplemented by miscellaneous published papers and our own observations.
The sections on toothed whales in the key were developed following the
general outline of Moore (1953).]

In order to use the key below, begin with the first pair of opposing
characteristics--one of the two will apply to the specimen you are
examining. On the line following that statement there will be a
paragraph number, go to that paragraph. There you will find two more
paired, opposing characteristics. Again, one of the two will apply to
the specimen you are examining. Select that one and go to the paragraph
indicated on the line following it. Continue this procedure until the
statement which is true for your specimen is followed by a species name
instead of a reference to another paragraph. This name identifies the
specimen. To verify your identification go to the discussion of that
species in the text. With a little practice and careful attention to
details, identification of whales, dolphins, and porpoises will become
easier.


KEY TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF STRANDED CETACEANS OF THE WESTERN NORTH
ATLANTIC


   1. a. Double blowhole; no teeth present in either jaw; baleen plates
      in upper jaws.                 (Baleen whale)                 Go to 2

      b. Single blowhole; teeth present (sometimes concealed beneath
      the gums); no baleen plates in upper jaw.
                                     (Toothed whale)                Go to 9

   2. a. Ventral grooves present; dorsal fin present; viewed in profile,
      upper jaw relatively flat and broad.
                                     (Balaenopterine whale)         Go to 3

      b. Ventral grooves absent; dorsal fin absent; viewed in profile,
      upper jaw and lower lips strongly arched; upper jaw very narrow.
                                     (Right whale)                  Go to 8

   3. a. Ventral grooves end before navel.[18]                      Go to 4

      b. Ventral grooves extend to or beyond navel                  Go to 5

   4. a. 50-70 ventral grooves, longest often ending between flippers;
      baleen less than 8 inches (20.3 cm), mostly white or yellowish
      white (some posterior plates may be dark) with 15-25 white
      bristles per centimeter; 300-325 plates per side.
                                     Minke whale, p. 63

      b. 38-56 ventral grooves, longest ending well short of navel;
      baleen less than 31 inches (78.7 cm), black (some anteriormost
      plates may be white) and with 35-60 fine silky white bristles per
      centimeter; 318 340 plates per side.
                                     Sei whale, p. 32

   5. a. Flippers one-fourth to one-third length of the body length and
      knobbed on leading edge; less than 22 broad and conspicuous
      ventral grooves, longest extending at least to navel; head
      covered with numerous knobs; baleen less than 24 inches (61 cm),
      ash black to olive brown (sometimes whitish) with 10-35 grayish
      white bristles per centimeter; 270-400 plates per side.
                                     Humpback whale, p. 40

      b. Flippers less than one-fifth body length; no knobs; from 40 to
      100 fine ventral grooves, longest extending at least to navel;
      head lacks knobs                                              Go to 6

   6. a. Three ridges on head, one from blowholes, forward towards tip
      of snout, one auxiliary groove along each side of main ridge;
      40-50 ventral grooves; 250-300 slate-gray baleen plates with
      15-35 dirty gray bristles per centimeter.
                                     Bryde's whale, p. 37

      b. Only one prominent ridge on head,[19] from just in front of
      blowholes forward towards tip of snout; 55-100 ventral grooves
                                                                    Go to 7

   7. a. Head broad and U-shaped; dorsal fin less than 13 inches (33 cm)
      and very far back on tail stock; baleen all black with 10-30
      black bristles per centimeter; plates extremely broad relative to
      length.
                                     Blue whale, p. 19

      b. Head broad at gape but sharply pointed on tip; dorsal fin to
      24 inches (61 cm) and slightly more than one-third forward from
      tail; right front one-fifth to one-third of baleen ivory white to
      yellowish white, remainder dark gray to bluish gray streaked with
      yellowish white; plates have 10-35 gray or white bristles per
      centimeter and are narrow relative to length.
                                     Fin whale, p. 26

   8. a. Top of snout not covered with callosities; 325-360 baleen
      plates per side, longest reaching 14 feet (4.3 m); plates black
      with black bristles (anterior portion of some plates may be
      whitish).
                                     Bowhead whale, p. 49

      b. Top of snout covered with callosities, often including lice
      and/or barnacles; 250-390 baleen plates per side, longest
      reaching 7.2 feet (2.2 m); plates dirty or yellowish gray (some
      anterior plates all or part white and some posterior plates brown
      or black) with 35-70 bristles per centimeter.
                                     Right whale, p. 52

   9. a. Upper part of head extending appreciably past tip of lower jaw;
      lower jaw markedly undershot and considerably narrower than upper
      jaw                                                          Go to 10

      b. Upper part of head not extending appreciably past tip of lower
      jaw; lower jaw approximately same width as upper jaw         Go to 12

  10. a. Body more than 13 feet (4.0 m); head massive, to one-third of
      body length; blowhole located far forward of eyes and to left
      front of head; dorsal fin low, triangular or rounded followed by
      series of knuckles or crenulations; 18-25 teeth in each lower jaw
      fit into sockets in upper jaw (10-16 upper teeth rarely emerge).
                                     Sperm whale, p. 57

      b. Body less than 13 feet (4.0 m); head considerably less than
      one-third body length; blowhole located approximately even with
      eyes on top of head, slightly displaced to left but not on left
      front of head; conspicuous dorsal fin present; 8-16 teeth in each
      lower jaw fitting into sockets in upper jaw                  Go to 11

  11. a. No creases on throat; dorsal fin small and located in latter
      third of back; 12-16 teeth (rarely 10-11) in each lower jaw.
                                     Pygmy sperm whale, p. 144

      b. Inconspicuous creases on throat; dorsal fin tall and falcate,
      resembling that of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, and located
      near middle of back; 8-11 (rarely 13) extremely sharp teeth in
      each lower jaw; rarely 1-3 teeth in each upper jaw.
                                     Dwarf sperm whale, p. 148

  12. a. Two conspicuous grooves on outer surface of throat forming
      V-shape pointed forward; notch absent or inconspicuous in flukes.
                                     (Beaked whale)                Go to 13

      b. No conspicuous grooves on outer surface of throat; deep median
      notch on rear margin of tail flukes                          Go to 18

  13. a. A pair of teeth located at the tip of the lower jaw (erupted
      only in adult males, concealed in females and immature
      animals)                                                     Go to 14

      b. No teeth at the tip of the lower jaw                      Go to 16

NOTE: Immature individuals of the species covered in paragraphs 14 and
15 may not be readily identifiable without museum preparation and
examination.

  14. a. Two well-developed teeth, erupted or hidden beneath the gum,
      are compressed so they appear elliptical in cross section; body
      to 16 feet (4.9 m); united portion of the lower jaws[20] more than
      one-fourth the length of the entire lower jaw.
                                     True's beaked whale, p. 77

      b. Two well-developed teeth substantially less flattened so that
      they appear more nearly rounded in cross section             Go to 15

  15. a. Distinct elongated beak; pronounced bulge to forehead;
      blowhole located in lateral crease behind bulge; body to 32 feet
      (9.8 m); sometimes second pair of teeth behind first in lower
      jaw.
                                     Northern bottlenosed whale, p. 67

      b. No distinct beak; forehead slightly concave in front of
      blowhole, increasing in concavity with increasing size; body to
      23 feet (7.0 m); united portion of lower jaw less than one-fourth
      the length of the entire lower jaw; head of adult males all
      white.
                                     Goosebeaked whale, p. 70

  16. a. A single pair of teeth in the united portion of the lower jaw,
      at the suture of the mandible (about one-third of the way from
      the tip of the snout to the gape); length to 22 feet (6.7 m);
      flukes less than one-fifth the body length.
                                     Antillean beaked whale, p. 78

      b. A single pair of teeth back of united portion of lower jaw;
      body less than 17 feet (5.2 m)                               Go to 17

  17. a. Teeth not exceptionally large and located immediately back of
      united portion of lower jaw, about half way from the tip of the
      snout to the gape.
                                     North Sea beaked whale, p. 82

      b. Teeth exceptionally large, located on bony prominences near
      the corner of the mouth, and oriented backwards; corners of
      mouth, particularly in adult males, have high-arching contour;
      flukes to one-sixth or one-fifth of the body length.
                                     Dense-beaked whale, p. 80

  18. a. Rostrum, if present, not sharply demarcated from forehead Go to 19

      b. Head has a distinct, though sometimes short rostrum separated
      from the forehead by a distinct crease angle                 Go to 30

  19. a. Teeth spade-shaped, laterally compressed and relatively small;
      body to only about 5 feet (1.5 m); 22-28 teeth in each upper and
      lower jaw.
                                     Harbor porpoise, p. 150

      b. Teeth conical and sharply pointed (in cross section circular,
      or slightly flattened anteroposteriorly)                     Go to 20

  20. a. No distinct dorsal fin; back marked instead with small dorsal
      ridge near midpoint of back.                                 Go to 21

      b. Distinct dorsal fin, in middle or forward third of the back
                                                                   Go to 22

  21. a. 8-11 teeth in each upper jaw, 8-9 in each lower jaw; body of
      young slate gray or brownish, adults white; short broad rostrum.
                                     Beluga, p. 99

      b. No visible teeth (or two teeth) in upper jaw of adults only;
      in males and sometimes females one or both of these may grow up
      to 9-foot (2.7 m) tusk in left-hand (sinestral) spiral; no
      rostrum.
                                     Narwhal, p. 102

  22. a. Head long and conical                                     Go to 23

      b. Head blunt                                                Go to 24

  23. a. 20-27 teeth in each upper and lower jaw; crowns of teeth often
      marked with many fine vertical wrinkles; body to about 8 feet
      (2.4 m).
                                     Rough-toothed dolphin, p. 135

      b. 26-35 teeth in each upper and lower jaw; teeth smooth; body to
      about 5.6 feet (1.7 m); distribution restricted to northern coast
      of South America, in the Guianas, and adjacent eastward territory
      of Venezuela.
                                     Guiana dolphin, p. 132

  24. a. Teeth usually at front end of lower jaw only, 2-7 pairs
      (rarely teeth in upper jaw); all teeth may have fallen out of the
      lower jaw of older specimens or may be extensively worn; forehead
      with median crease; dorsal fin tall and distinct to 15 inches
      (38.1 cm); body to 13 feet (4.0 m).
                                     Grampus, p. 96

      b. Teeth in both upper and lower jaws, 7 or more pairs, forehead
      with no median crease                                        Go to 25

  25. a. Flippers large and paddle-shaped, ovate, and rounded on the
      distal end; dorsal fin tall and erect to 6 feet (1.8 m) in males
      and 3 feet (0.9 m) in females; 10-12 teeth in each jaw; teeth to
      1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter.
                                     Killer whale, p. 84

      b. Flippers long and pointed                                 Go to 26

  26. a. Dorsal fin located in forward one-third of body, very broad at
      the base; head bulbous.
                                     (Pilot whale)                 Go to 27

      b. Dorsal fin located near midpoint of back; head long       Go to 28

  27. a. Flippers one-fifth of body length, or more.
                                     Atlantic pilot whale, p. 91

      b. Flippers one-sixth of body length, or less.
                                     Short-finned pilot whale, p. 94

  28. a. Flipper has distinctive hump on forward margin; 8-11 prominent
      teeth curved backwards and inwards, in each upper and lower jaw.
                                     False killer whale, p. 88

      b. Flipper lacks distinctive hump on forward margin; 10-25 teeth
      in each upper and lower jaw                                  Go to 29

  29. a. 8-13 teeth in each jaw.
                                     Pygmy killer whale, p. 138

      b. 20-25 teeth in each upper jaw, 21-24 teeth in each lower jaw.
                                     Many-toothed blackfish, p. 142

  30. a. Beak short, usually less than about 1 inch (2.5 cm)       Go to 31

      b. Beak more than 1 inch (2.5 cm)                            Go to 33

  31. a. Flippers very short; dorsal fin small and triangular; 38-44
      teeth in each jaw; body to at least 8 feet (2.4 m); distinct
      black stripe from beak to area of anus; in profile beak shows
      very little separation from forehead.
                                     Fraser's dolphin, p. 120

      b. Flippers long relative to body length; dorsal fin tall and
      distinctly falcate; 22-40 teeth in each jaw; in profile, beak
      shows distinct separation from forehead.
                                     (_Lagenorhynchus_ sp.)        Go to 32

  32. a. 22-28 teeth in each jaw; dorsal fin all black; body to about
      10 feet (3.1 m).
                                     White-beaked dolphin, p. 126

      b. 30-40 teeth in each jaw (some animals have greater number in
      upper than in lower jaw); dorsal fin part gray, part black; body
      to about 9 feet (2.7 m).
                                     Atlantic white-sided dolphin, p. 123

  33. a. 20-26 teeth in the upper jaws; 18-24 in the lower jaws; body
      to 12 feet (3.7 m); teeth may be extensively worn.
                                     Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin, p. 128

      b. 26 or more teeth in both upper and lower jaws             Go to 34

  34. a. 29-36 teeth in each upper jaw; 28-36 in each lower jaw.
                                     (Spotted dolphins)            Go to 35

      b. More than 40 teeth in each upper and lower jaw            Go to 36

NOTE: Characters in paragraph 35 are usable only on fresh specimens.
Spotted dolphins in advanced stages of decomposition can be
distinguished only with museum preparation and examination.

  35. a. Bridle present (dark lines from eye to rostrum and from
      flippers to corner of mouth); cape on head distinct; no spinal
      blaze.
                                     Bridled dolphin, p. 108

      b. Bridle absent though there is a light line from the flipper to
      the eye; cape indistinct; spinal blaze.
                                     Atlantic spotted dolphin, p. 104

  36. a. From 46-65 small, sharply pointed teeth; body dark gray on
      back, tan to light gray on sides, white on belly; beak dark gray
      or black above, white below, and often black-tipped; body to
      about 7 feet (2.1 m).
                                     Spinner dolphin, p. 110

      b. From 40 to 50 teeth in each upper and lower jaw           Go to 37

  37. a. Body to 9 feet (2.7 m); black to dark gray on back, gray on
      sides, white on belly; distinctive black stripes from eye to
      anus, eye to flipper, and dark dorsal coloration to side above
      flipper.
                                     Striped dolphin, p. 113

      b. Body to 8.5 feet (2.6 m) but usually less than 7.5 feet (2.3
      m); body dark on back with light thoracic patch and crisscross or
      hourglass pattern on side; black stripe from middle of lower jaw
      to origin of flipper.
                                     Saddleback dolphin, p. 116

[Footnote 18: Counts of ventral grooves are made between the flippers
and do not include shorter grooves often found on the side of the head
and on the side above the flippers.]

[Footnote 19: Blue whale has faint lateral ridges.]

[Footnote 20: By feeling between the lower jaws on the ventral surface
and moving the finger forward towards the tip of the snout, one can feel
the point at which the two lower jaws become united (called the
symphysis). This location is an important reference point in
distinguishing among the species separated in paragraphs 14, 15, and
16.]



APPENDIX D

RECORDING AND REPORTING DATA ON STRANDED CETACEANS


So that measurements of cetaceans taken at different times and at widely
divergent locations can be compared, the measurements and the methods of
taking them have been standardized, although there is still some
disagreement about which of the measurements are most important. The
data form located at the end of this guide, usable on both baleen and
toothed whales, includes all the measurements routinely taken by
cetologists plus a few new ones the authors consider important. The form
and the directions for taking measurements are synthesized from those
currently in use by the Naval Undersea Center, San Diego; the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada; the University of Rhode Island; the University
of Florida; the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C.; and the National
Marine Fisheries Service, La Jolla, Calif.

Data on stranded cetaceans should be collected by someone experienced in
handling and measuring cetaceans. The legal problems associated with
collection of a specimen are discussed in Appendix C. In addition to
having a permit or knowing how to obtain permission to collect the
specimen, persons active in cetacean research will usually have access
to laboratory facilities where in-depth studies, including postmortem
examinations and collection of tissues for specialized laboratory
examinations, can be conducted. Furthermore, specialized equipment, and
the number of steps required to do a complete job with the specimen,
make the procedure prohibitive for most noncetologists. Diligent
attempts should be made to contact one of the institutions listed in
Appendix E. If no one is available and no permit or approval is
obtainable, you are limited to photographing, sketching, and measuring
the specimen without removing the carcass or any part of the carcass
from the beach.

Any person taking data on stranded cetaceans should follow the
instructions itemized below, being careful to take measurements in the
manner prescribed and to record data in as much detail as possible.


1. Specimens should be preserved in 10% neutral Formalin, except for the
stomach contents, which should be kept in 70% ethyl or 40% isopropyl
alcohol, or be frozen. Commercial rubbing alcohol will suffice. As a
minimum, the head, flippers, and reproductive tract should be preserved.
If no other method of handling the specimen is available, and only as a
last resort, it may be buried in the sand well above the high tide line
and carefully marked so it can later be recovered. Burying usually
results in the loss of some vital parts.

2. The carcass should be examined for external parasites particularly in
such areas as the blowhole(s), the eyes, any wounds on the trailing
edges of the dorsal fin, flippers, and flukes. Occasionally barnacles
will be found on teeth or baleen plates. Like the stomach contents,
parasites should be preserved in alcohol.

3. Photographs and sketches are a valuable part of data
collection--views of the animal(s) from as many angles as possible, and
detailed shots of such features as baleen plates, mouth and teeth,
ventral grooves, flippers, flukes, and unusual scars or coloration
should be included. Including a ruler for size reference may be helpful.

4. Although scientific data are usually expressed in metric units,
measurements should be taken in whatever units are readily available.
All measurements should be taken in a straight line, as shown in the
diagram, unless otherwise noted. Measurements which refer to the rostrum
are taken from the tip of the upper jaw. The external auditory meatus
(ear) is a small inconspicuous opening located just below and behind the
eye. To locate the ear the observer must sometimes scrape away some of
the skin to expose the unpigmented ear canal beneath it.

5. Throat grooves are short grooves found on the throat of beaked
whales, sperm whales, and dwarf sperm whales. Ventral grooves are long
grooves found only on balaenopterine whales. Ventral grooves should be
counted between the flippers.


It is difficult to overstress the importance of data from stranded
cetaceans. For some species, the only data available have come from
stranded individuals. By carefully gleaning from each specimen all the
data that can be collected, you will make a valuable addition to the
body of knowledge on these elusive animals.

[Illustration: Appendix Figure D1.--Locations and details of important
measurements.]



APPENDIX E

LIST OF INSTITUTIONS TO CONTACT REGARDING STRANDED CETACEANS


The following list includes many of the institutions in the area covered
by this guide, which are likely to respond to calls about stranded
cetaceans. The institutions on the mainland are listed roughly in order
from north to south, following the contour of the coast. Several island
institutions and organizations are also listed.

These institutions are the ones that come to mind as having taken an
active interest in cetacean strandings in the recent past. In addition
to these, almost any university biology or zoology department, State or
Federal conservation agency or marine laboratory, or local natural
history museum or society can recommend an interested biologist if no
staff member is interested. Such organizations are widely distributed on
or near the coasts and are usually adequately listed in local telephone
directories.

It should be obvious that organizations such as oceanaria are the most
likely ones to be interested in live animals on an emergency basis. Even
so, these organizations often cooperate with biologists with whom they
are familiar and so will pick up dead animals for them as well.
Conversely, museums and the like are most interested in the dead animals
as they have no facilities for handling live ones. Nevertheless, they
often cooperate with institutions equipped to handle live animals and
will usually help in making arrangements for picking up the live ones.
Therefore, rather than the finder's making a decision as to whether or
not an institution should be called because the animal is alive or dead,
we would urge that the nearest organization in the following list be
contacted under any circumstances.

Space is provided at the end of the list for additions of contacts
inadvertently overlooked in compiling this list, or of institutions
which come into being after its publication.


CANADA

Newfoundland

  Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's.

Nova Scotia

  Bedford Institute, Dartmouth.

  Departments of Biology, Psychology and/or Physiology, Dalhousie
    University, Halifax.

  Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.

Quebec

  Arctic Unit, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue.

Ontario

  Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph.


UNITED STATES

Maine

  see Massachusetts.

New Hampshire

  see Massachusetts.

Massachusetts

  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole.

  New England Aquarium, Central Wharf, Boston.

  Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge.

Rhode Island

  Narragansett Marine Laboratory, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.

Connecticut

  Mystic Marine Life Aquarium, Mystic.

New York

  New York Aquarium, Coney Island, Brooklyn.

  American Museum of Natural History, Department of Mammals, New York City.

New Jersey

  Department of Biochemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick,

  also see New York.

Delaware

  see New York,

  see New Jersey.

Maryland

  Department of Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

  also see District of Columbia.

District of Columbia

  Division of Mammals, United States National Museum.

Virginia

  Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point.

  also see District of Columbia.

North Carolina

  Duke Marine Laboratory, Beaufort.

  Institute of Fisheries Research, University of North Carolina,
    Morehead City.

South Carolina

  Charleston Museum, Charleston.

  Grice Marine Biological Laboratory, College of Charleston, Charleston.

Georgia

  The Georgia Conservancy, The Clusky Building, 127 Abercorn Street,
    Savannah.

  University of Georgia Marine Institute, Sapelo Island (Darien).

Florida

  Marineland of Florida, St. Augustine

  University of Florida Biocommunication and Marine Mammal Research
    Facility, St. Augustine.

  Ocean World, Ft. Lauderdale.

  Wometco Miami Seaquarium, Miami.

  University of Miami School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami.

  Sea World, Orlando.

  Mote Marine Laboratory, Placida.

  Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota.

  Aquatarium, St. Petersburg Beach.

  Florida's Gulfarium, Ft. Walton Beach.

Alabama

  see Florida (Florida's Gulfarium).

  see Mississippi.

Mississippi

  Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs.

Louisiana

  Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.

  Marine Life Park, Gulfport.

Texas

  Sea-Arama Marineworld, Galveston.

  Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University,
    College Station.

  Department of Zoology, University of Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi.

  University of Texas, Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas.

Puerto Rico

  Commercial Fisheries Laboratory, Department of Agriculture,
    Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez.

  Department of Agriculture, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Santurce (San
    Juan).

Virgin Islands

  Caribbean Research Institute, Red Hook, St. Thomas.


OTHERS

Mexico

  Instituto Nacionale de Investigaciones Biologia Pesquera, Division de
    Vertebrados Marinos, Mexico 7, D.F.

  also see Texas.

Venezuela

  Universidad de Oriente, Nucleo de Nueva Esparta, Isla Margarita.

Jamaica

  Department of Zoology, University of the West Indies, Mona (Kingston).

  Science Museum, Institute of Jamaica, Kingston.

Bahamas

  Lerner Marine Laboratory, Bimini.

  Nassau Aquarium, Nassau, New Providence.

Bermuda

  Bermuda Biological Station, St. George's.

  Government Aquarium and Museum, Flatts.

Cuba

  Laboratorio de Vertebrados, Instituto de Biologia, Academie de
    Ciencias de Cuba, Havana.


                         SIGHTING INFORMATION

  DATE AND LOCAL TIME__________________________LOCATION_________________

  WEATHER CONDITIONS____________________________________________________

  OCEANOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS______________________________________________

  SPECIES_______________________________________NUMBER OF ANIMAL(S)_____

  HEADING OF ANIMAL(S)__________________________SPEED OF ANIMAL(S)______
      (MAGNETIC)                                    (KNOTS)

  ASSOCIATED ORGANISMS__________________________________________________

  TAGS OR UNUSUAL MARKINGS______________________________________________

  CHARACTERISTICS OBSERVED WHICH RESULTED IN SPECIES IDENTIFICATION_____
  ______________________________________________________________________

  BEHAVIOR OF ANIMAL(S)_________________________________________________

  SKETCHES

                                           PHOTOS AVAILABLE YES___NO____

  ADDITIONAL REMARKS____________________________________________________

  NAME AND ADDRESS OF OBSERVER (SHIP OR A/C)____________________________


                           CETACEAN DATA RECORD

  SPECIES___________________________________SEX___LENGTH_____WEIGHT_____

  DATE/TIME STRANDED__________________DATE/TIME DATA COLLECTED__________

  LOCATION OF COLLECTION________________________________________________

  OBSERVER NAME/ADDRESS_________________________________________________

  SPECIMEN SENT TO______________________________________________________

                                  Straight line parallel
                                     to the body axis     Point to point

  MEASUREMENTS:

  1. Tip of upper jaw to deepest
     part of fluke notch          ______________________  ______________

  2. Tip of upper jaw to center
     of anus                      ______________________  ______________

  3. Tip of upper jaw to center
     of genital slit              ______________________  ______________

  4. Tip of lower jaw to end of
     ventral grooves              ______________________  ______________

  5. Tip of upper jaw to center
     of umbilicus                 ______________________  ______________

  6. Tip of upper jaw to top of
     dorsal fin                   ______________________  ______________

  7. Tip of upper jaw to leading
     edge of dorsal fin           ______________________  ______________

  8a. Tip of upper jaw to anterior
      insertion of flipper (right)______________________  ______________

   b. Tip of upper jaw to anterior
      insertion of flipper (left) ______________________  ______________

  9. Tip of upper jaw to center
     of blowhole(s)               ______________________  ______________

  10. Tip of upper jaw to anterior
      edge of blowhole(s)         ______________________  ______________

  11a. Tip of upper jaw to
       auditory meatus (right)     ______________________  _____________

    b. Tip of upper jaw to auditory
       meatus (left)               ______________________  _____________

  12a. Tip of upper jaw to center
       of eye (right)              ______________________  _____________

    b. Tip of upper jaw to center
       of eye (left)               ______________________  _____________

  13. Tip of upper jaw to angle of
      gape                         ______________________  _____________

  14. Tip of upper jaw to apex of
      melon                        ______________________  _____________

  15. Rostrum--maximum width       ______________________  _____________

  16. Throat grooves--length       ______________________  _____________

                                  Straight line parallel
                                     to the body axis     Point to point

  17. Projection of lower jaw
      beyond upper (if reverse,
      so state)                   _____________________

  18. Center of eye to center of eye                      ______________

  19a.  Height of eye (right)     ______________________

    b.  Height of eye (left)      ______________________

  20a.  Length of eye (right)     ______________________

    b.  Length of eye (left)      ______________________

  21a.  Center of eye to angle of
        gape (right)              ______________________  ______________

    b.  Center of eye to angle of
        gape (left)               ______________________  ______________

  22a.  Center of eye to external
        auditory meatus (right)   ______________________  ______________

    b.  Center of eye to external
        auditory meatus (left)    ______________________  ______________

  23a.  Center of eye to center
        of blowhole (right)       ______________________  ______________

    b.  Center of eye to center
        of blowhole (left)        ______________________  ______________

  24. Blowhole length             ______________________

  25. Blowhole width              ______________________

  26. Flipper width (right)                               ______________

  27. Flipper width (left)                                ______________

  28a.  Flipper length--tip to
        anterior insertion (right)______________________

    b.  Flipper length--tip to
        anterior insertion (left)_______________________

  29a.  Flipper length--tip to
        axilla (right)           _______________________

    b.  Flipper length--tip to
        axilla (left)            _______________________

  30. Dorsal fin height          _______________________

  31. Dorsal fin base            _______________________

  32. Fluke span                 _______________________

  33. Fluke width                _______________________

  34. Fluke depth of notch       _______________________

                                 Straight line parallel
                                     to the body axis     Point to point

  35. Notch of flukes to center
      of anus                     ______________________

  36. Notch of flukes to center
      of genital aperture         ______________________  ______________

  37. Notch of flukes to umbilicus______________________

  38. Notch of flukes to nearest
      point on leading edge of flukes___________________

  39. Girth at anus               ______________________

  40. Girth at axilla             ______________________

  41. Girth at eye                ______________________

  42. Girth ___ cm in front of notch of flukes            ______________

  43a.  Blubber thickness (middorsal)                     ______________

    b.  Blubber thickness (lateral)                       ______________

    c.  Blubber thickness (midventral)                    ______________

  44. Width of head at post-orbital
      process of frontals         _______________________

  45. Tooth counts:
         right upper   _______
         right lower   _______
         left upper    _______
         left lower    _______

  46. Baleen counts:
         right upper   _______
         left upper    _______

  47. Baleen plates, length longest                        ______________

  48. Baleen plates, no.
      bristles/cm over 5 cm       _______________________

  49a. Mammary slit length (right)

    b. Mammary slit length (left) _______________________

  50. Genital slit length         _______________________

  51. Anal slit length            _______________________

       *       *       *       *       *



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS

National Marine Fisheries Service, Circulars


The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS) are to monitor and assess the abundance and geographic
distribution of fishery resources, to understand and predict
fluctuations in the quantity and distribution of these resources, and to
establish levels for optimum use of the resources. NMFS is also charged
with the development and implementation of policies for managing
national fishing grounds, development and enforcement of domestic
fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United States
coastal waters, and the development and enforcement of international
fishery agreements and policies. NMFS also assists the fishing industry
through marketing service and economic analysis programs, and mortgage
insurance and vessel construction subsidies. It collects, analyzes, and
publishes statistics on various phases of the industry.

The NOAA Technical Report NMFS CIRC series continues a series that has
been in existence since 1941. The Circulars are technical publications
of general interest intended to aid conservation and management.
Publications that review in considerable detail and at a high technical
level certain broad areas of research appear in this series. Technical
papers originating in economics studies and from management
investigations appear in the Circular series.

NOAA Technical Reports NMFS CIRC are available free in limited numbers
to governmental agencies, both Federal and State. They are also
available in exchange for other scientific and technical publications in
the marine sciences. Individual copies may be obtained (unless otherwise
noted) from D83, Technical Information Division, Environmental Science
Information Center, NOAA. Washington, D.C. 20235. Recent Circulars are:

315. Synopsis of biological data on the chum salmon, _Oncorhynchus keta_
(Walbaum) 1792. By Richard G. Bakkala. March 1970. iii + 89 p., 15
figs., 51 tables.

319. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory, Ann
Arbor, Michigan. By Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. March 1970, 8 p., 7
figs.

330. EASTROPAC Atlas: Vols. 1-7. Catalog No. I 49.4:330/(vol.) 11 vols.
Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

331. Guidelines for the processing of hot-smoked chub. By H. L. Seagran,
J. T. Graikoski, and J. A. Emerson. January 1970, iv + 23 p., 8 figs., 2
tables.

332. Pacific hake. (12 articles by 20 authors.) March 1970, iii + 152
p., 72 figs., 47 tables.

333. Recommended practices for vessel sanitation and fish handling. By
Edgar W. Bowman and Alfred Larsen. March 1970, iv + 27 p., 6 figs.

335. Progress report of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Center for
Estuarine and Menhaden Research, Pesticide Field Station, Gulf Breeze,
Fla., fiscal year 1969. By the Laboratory staff. August 1970, iii + 33
p., 29 figs., 12 tables.

336. The northern fur seal. By Ralph C. Baker, Ford Wilke, and C. Howard
Baltzo. April 1970, iii + 19 p., 13 figs.

337. Program of Division of Economic Research, Bureau of Commercial
Fisheries, fiscal year 1969. By Division of Economic Research, April
1970, iii + 29 p., 12 figs., 7 tables.

338. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Auke Bay,
Alaska. By Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, June 1970, 8 p., 6 figs.

339. Salmon research at Ice Harbor Dam. By Wesley J. Ebel. April 1970, 6
p., 4 figs.

340. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Technological Laboratory,
Gloucester, Massachusetts. By Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, June 1970,
8 p., 8 figs.

341. Report of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory,
Beaufort, N.C., for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968. By the
Laboratory staff. August 1970, iii + 24 p., 11 figs., 16 tables.

342. Report of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory,
St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, fiscal year 1969. By the Laboratory
staff. August 1970, iii + 22 p., 20 figs., 8 tables.

343. Report of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory,
Galveston, Texas, fiscal year 1969. By the Laboratory staff. August
1970, iii + 39 p., 28 figs., 9 tables.

344. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Tropical Atlantic Biological
Laboratory progress in research 1965-69, Miami, Florida. By Ann Weeks.
October 1970, iv + 65 p., 53 figs.

346. Sportsman's guide to handling, smoking, and preserving Great Lakes
coho salmon. By Shearon Dudley, J. T. Graikoski, H. L. Seagran, and Paul
M. Earl. September 1970, iii + 28 p., 15 figs.

347. Synopsis of biological data on Pacific ocean perch, _Sebastodes
alutus_. By Richard L. Major and Herbert H. Shippen. December 1970, iii
+ 38 p., 31 figs., 11 tables.

349. Use of abstracts and summaries as communication devices in
technical articles. By F. Bruce Sanford. February 1971, iii + 11 p., 1
fig.

350. Research in fiscal year 1969 at the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
Biological Laboratory, Beaufort, N.C. By the Laboratory staff. November
1970, ii + 49 p., 21 figs., 17 tables.

351. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Exploratory Fishing and Gear
Research Base, Pascagoula, Mississippi, July 1, 1967 to June 30, 1969.
By Harvey R. Bullis, Jr. and John R. Thompson. November 1970, iv + 29
p., 29 figs., 1 table.

352. Upstream passage of anadromous fish through navigation locks and
use of the stream for spawning and nursery habitat, Cape Fear River,
N.C., 1962-66. By Paul R. Nichols and Darrell E. Louder. October 1970,
iv + 12 p., 9 figs., 4 tables.

356. Floating laboratory for study of aquatic organisms and their
environment. By George R. Snyder, Theodore H. Blahm, and Robert J.
McConnell. May 1971, iii + 16 p., 11 figs.

361. Regional and other related aspects of shellfish consumption--some
preliminary findings from the 1969 Consumer Panel Survey. By Morton M.
Miller and Darrel A. Nash. June 1971, iv + 18 p., 19 figs., 3 tables, 10
apps.

362. Research vessels of the National Marine Fisheries Service. By
Robert S. Wolf. August 1971, iii + 46 p., 25 figs., 3 tables. For sale
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

364. History and development of surf clam harvesting gear. By Phillip S.
Parker. October 1971, iv + 15 p., 16 figs. For sale by the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

365. Processing EASTROPAC STD data and the construction of vertical
temperature and salinity sections by computer. By Forrest R. Miller and
Kenneth A. Bliss. February 1972, iv + 17 p., 8 figs., 3 appendix figs.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

366. Key to field identification of andromous juvenile salmonids in the
Pacific Northwest. By Robert J. McConnell and George R. Snyder. January
1972, iv + 6 p., 4 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

367. Engineering economic model for fish protein concentration
processes. By K. K. Almenas, L. C. Durilla, R. C. Ernst, J. W. Gentry,
M. B. Hale, and J. M. Marchello. October 1972, iii + 175 p., 6 figs., 6
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

368. Cooperative Gulf of Mexico estuarine inventory and study, Florida:
Phase I, area description. By J. Kneeland McNulty, William N. Lindall,
Jr., and James E. Sykes. November 1972, vii + 126 p., 46 figs., 62
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

369. Field guide to the anglefishes (Pomacanthidae) in the western
Atlantic. By Henry A. Feddern. November 1972, iii + 10 p., 17 figs., For
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

Continued on inside back cover.

370. Collecting and processing data on fish eggs and larvae in the
California Current region. By David Kramer, Mary J. Kalin, Elizabeth G.
Stevens, James R. Thrailkill, and James R. Zweifel. November 1972, iv +
38 p., 38 figs., 2 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

371. Ocean fishery management: Discussions and research. By Adam A.
Sokoloski (editor). (17 papers, 24 authors.) April 1973, vi + 173 p., 38
figs., 32 tables, 7 appendix tables.

372. Fishery publications, calendar year 1971: Lists and indexes. By
Thomas A. Manar. October 1972, iv + 24 p., 1 fig. For sale by the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

374. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Annelida:
Oligochaeta. By David G. Cook and Ralph O. Brinkhurst. May 1973, iii +
23 p., 82 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

375. New Polychaeta from Beaufort, with a key to all species recorded
from North Carolina. By John H. Day. July 1973, xiii + 140 p., 18 figs.,
1 table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402.

376. Bottom-water temperatures on the continental shelf. Nova Scotia to
New Jersey. By John B. Colton, Jr. and Ruth R. Stoddard. June 1973, iii
+ 55 p., 15 figs., 12 appendix tables. For sale by the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

377. Fishery publications, calendar year 1970: Lists and indexes. By
Mary Ellen Engett and Lee C. Thorson. December 1972, iv + 34 p., 1 fig.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

378. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Protozoa:
Ciliophora. By Arthur C. Borror. September 1973, iii + 62 p., 5 figs.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

379. Fishery publications, calendar year 1969: Lists and indexes. By Lee
C. Thorson and Mary Ellen Engett. April 1973, iv + 31 p., 1 fig. For
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

380. Fishery publications, calendar year 1968: Lists and indexes. By
Mary Ellen Engett and Lee C. Thorson. May 1973, iv + 24 p., 1 fig. For
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

381. Fishery publications, calendar year 1967: Lists and indexes. By Lee
C. Thorson and Mary Ellen Engett. July 1973, iv + 22 p., 1 fig. For sale
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

382. Fishery publications, calendar year 1966: Lists and indexes. By
Mary Ellen Engett and Lee C. Thorson, July 1973, iv + 19 p., 1 fig. For
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

383. Fishery publications, calendar year 1965: Lists and indexes. By Lee
C. Thorson and Mary Ellen Engett. July 1973, iv + 12 p., 1 fig. For sale
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

384. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Higher
plants of the marine fringe. By Edwin T. Moul. September 1973, iii + 60
p., 109 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402.

385. Fishery publications, calendar year 1972: Lists and indexes. By Lee
C. Thorson and Mary Ellen Engett. November 1973, iv + 23 p., 1 fig. For
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

386. Marine Flora and fauna of the northeastern United States.
Pyenogonida. By Lawrence R. McCloskey. September 1973, iii + 12 p., 1
fig. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

387. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States.
Crustacea: Stomatopoda. By Raymond B. Manning. February 1974, iii + 6
p., 10 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

388. Proceedings of the first U.S.-Japan meeting on aquaculture at
Tokyo, Japan. October 18-19, 1971. William N. Shaw (editor). (18 papers,
14 authors.) February 1974, iii + 133 p. For sale by the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

389. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States.
Crustacea: Decapoda. By Austin B. Williams. April 1974, iii + 50 p., 111
figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

390. Fishery publications, calendar year 1973: Lists and indexes. By
Mary Ellen Engett and Lee C. Thorson. September 1974, iv + 14 p., 1 fig.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

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Transcriber's Notes:

page 57: "Alantic" changed to "Atlantic" (Sperm whales are widely
distributed in oceanic areas of the western North Atlantic.)

page 69, caption to figure 70: "Rijks Musum" changed to "Rijksmuseum"
(...courtesy of Rijks Musum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden.)

page 80, cross reference to page 84 should be to figure 84 ( ...a
peculiar high, arching contour to the mouth (Fig. 84))

page 88: "5.5 cm" changed to "5.5 m" (False killer whales in the western
North Atlantic reach a length of at least 18 feet (5.5 m).)

page 88: "my" changed to "may" ( ...an extensive region of white on the
belly which may extend onto the sides ...)

page 132: "identifed" changed to "identified" ( ...stranded Guiana
dolphins can be readily identified by their extremely small size ...)

page 138: changed "sharpely" to "sharply" ( ...those of the many-toothed
blackfish are pointed on the tip and more sharply pointed ...)

page 154: changed "themselve" to "themselves" (thereby making themselves
accessible for tagging and capture)

Appendix Figure A3 caption: "breath" changed to "breathe" ( ...and are
clearly visible as the animal surfaces to breathe.)

Appendix Figure A5 caption: "botton" changed to "button" (This is the
way the button tag appears ...)

page 158: "usually" changed to "unusually" (These unusually marked
animals should stand out in repeated encounters ...)

page 161: "vessle" changed to "vessel" (2 right whales directly ahead of
vessel headed NE ...)

page 166: added closing parenthesis "(in cross section circular, or
slightly flattened anteroposteriorly)".

page 168 (Footnote 20): "feet" changed to "feel" (... one can feel the point
at which the two lower jaws become united)





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