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Title: Additions to the List of the Birds of Louisiana
Author: Lowery, George H.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Additions to the List of the Birds of Louisiana" ***

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                  Additions to the List of the Birds
                             of Louisiana


                         GEORGE H. LOWERY, JR.

                  University of Kansas Publications
                      Museum of Natural History

                     Volume 1, No. 9, pp. 177-192
                           November 7, 1947

                         UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


            Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, H. H. Lane,
                           Edward H. Taylor

                     Volume 1, No. 9, pp. 177-192
                      Published November 7, 1947

                         UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                           Lawrence, Kansas

                              PRINTED BY
                   FERD VOILAND, JR., STATE PRINTER
                            TOPEKA, KANSAS


            Additions to the List of the Birds of Louisiana

                         GEORGE H. LOWERY, JR.

Oberholser's "Bird Life of Louisiana" (La. Dept. Conserv. Bull. 28,
1938), was a notable contribution to the ornithology of the Gulf Coast
region and the lower Mississippi Valley, for it gave not only a complete
distributional synopsis of every species and subspecies of bird then
known to occur in Louisiana but also nearly every record of a Louisiana
bird up to 1938. However, at the time of the appearance of this
publication, one of the most active periods in Louisiana ornithology was
just then beginning. The bird collection in the Louisiana State
University Museum of Zoölogy had been started only the year before, and
the first comprehensive field work since the time of Beyer, Kohn,
Kopman, and Allison, two decades before, was still in its initial stage.
Since 1938 the Museum of Zoölogy has acquired more specimens of birds
from Louisiana than were collected there in all of the years prior to
that time. Many parts of the state have been studied where no previous
work at all had been done. Also in the last eight years some capable
ornithologists have visited the state as students at Louisiana State
University, and each has contributed greatly to the mass of new data now
available. Despite the excellence of Oberholser's compilation of
records, it is, therefore, not surprising that even at this early date
twenty-four additions can be made to the list of birds known from
Louisiana. Furthermore, this recently acquired information permits the
emendation of the recorded status of scores of species, each previously
ascribed to the state on the basis of comparatively meager data.

The plan is to publish eventually a revision of the birds of Louisiana
which will incorporate all of the new information, but the projected
scope of this work is such that many years may elapse before it is
finished. The present paper is intended to record only the more
pertinent additions, particularly records that may be significant in
connection with the preparation of the fifth edition of the American
Ornithologists' Union's "Check-list of North American Birds." There are
numerous species for which Oberholser cited only a few records, but of
which we now have many records and large series of specimens. If, in
such instances, the treatment given in the fourth edition of the
American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list would not be materially
affected, I have omitted mention of the new material in this paper.

I am indebted to a number of ornithologists who have presented their
notes on Louisiana birds to the Museum of Zoölogy and who have done much
to supplement its collections. Outstanding among these are Thomas R.
Howell, Robert J. Newman, Sam M. Ray, Robert E. Tucker, Harold E.
Wallace, and the late Austin W. Burdick. Their efforts in behalf of the
Museum have been untiring. I am grateful also to Thomas D. Burleigh and
Jas. Hy. Bruns, both of whom have played an integral part in our field
activities in recent years and without whose help much less would have
been accomplished. John S. Campbell, Ambrose Daigre, James Nelson
Gowanloch, Sara Elizabeth Hewes, E. A. McIlhenny, Edouard Morgan, and
George L. Tiebout, Jr., have generously contributed notes and specimens
which are duly attributed in the following text. For assistance in
taxonomic problems, or for the loan of comparative material, I wish to
thank John W. Aldrich, Herbert Friedmann, Howard K. Gloyd, Alden H.
Miller, Harry C. Oberholser, James L. Peters, Karl P. Schmidt, George M.
Sutton, J. Van Tyne, and Alexander Wetmore.

#Sula sula sula# (Linnaeus), Red-footed Booby

An immature individual of this species came aboard a boat of the
Louisiana Department of Conservation near the mouth of Bayou Scofield, 7
miles below Buras, Plaquemines Parish, on November 1, 1940. It was
captured by J. N. McConnell, who delivered it to James Nelson Gowanloch
of the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. The bird was then turned
over to me in the flesh for preparation and deposit in the Louisiana
State University Museum of Zoölogy. It has since been examined by James
L. Peters and Alexander Wetmore, who confirmed the identification. This
is the first specimen of the species obtained in the United States. The
only other record of its occurrence in this country is that of
individuals observed near Micco, Brevard County, Florida, on February
12, 1895 (Bangs, Auk, 19, 1902: 395-396). To eliminate possible
confusion in the literature, attention is called here to the fact that
the above-listed specimen was erroneously recorded by an anonymous
writer (La. Conserv. Rev., 10, Fall Issue, 1940: 12) as a Gannet, _Morus
bassanus_ (Linnaeus).

#Butorides virescens virescens# (Linnaeus), Eastern Green Heron

No winter records for the occurrence of this species were available to
Oberholser in 1938, the latest date cited by him being October 27.
Recently, however, it has been noted several times in winter on the
coast of Louisiana. Kilby and Croker (Aud. Mag., 42, 1940: 117) observed
it at the mouth of the Mississippi River, near Pilot Town, on December
25, 1939, and Burleigh and I each obtained a specimen at Cameron on
December 13, 1940. Another was shot by me at the same place on February
2, 1946. The species is therefore of casual occurrence in the state in

#Dichromanassa rufescens# (Gmelin), Reddish Egret

Although previously reported only as a casual summer visitor along the
coast, the Reddish Egret is known now to occur regularly in small
numbers during the winter. Since Oberholser (_op. cit._, 56) cited only
one specific record of occurrence in the state, all additional records
are listed here. On East Timbalier Island, one to three were seen daily,
August 16-19, 1940, and two to five were seen daily, November 15-17,
1940. In Cameron Parish, the species has been noted as follows (Lowery,
_et al._): two on December 14, 1940; one on January 3, 1943; three on
September 3 and two on November 4, 1944; one on April 29, 1945. Several
specimens were collected.

#Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus# (Linnaeus), Eastern Glossy Ibis

#Plegadis mexicana# (Gmelin), White-faced Glossy Ibis

Considerable confusion exists concerning the specific identity of the
glossy ibises inhabiting Louisiana. The fourth edition of the A. O. U.
Check-list (1931: 33) stated that _falcinellus_ "breeds rarely and
locally in central Florida and probably in Louisiana." In 1932, Holt
visited the marshes of Cameron Parish in southwestern Louisiana where he
studied the ibises nesting in a large rookery. Later he definitely
stated (Auk, 50, 1933: 351-352) that the birds seen by him were Eastern
Glossy Ibises (_Plegadis falcinellus_). It was doubtless Holt's
identification that influenced Oberholser to list _falcinellus_ as a
fairly common local resident in the state (_op. cit._, 78). This,
however, is contrary to the evidence at my disposal. My associates and I
have studied thousands of glossy ibises in the marshes of southwestern
Louisiana in the past ten years. These observations include numerous
field trips into the region where ibises are plentiful throughout the
year, especially during the breeding season. I have also visited a large
nesting rookery in Cameron Parish, the only one in the state known to
me, and the one which I have every reason to believe is the same colony
visited by Holt in 1932. Although Holt identified as _falcinellus_ the
birds seen by him at a nesting rookery in Cameron Parish, I have never
seen that species anywhere in Louisiana except at Grand Isle, 150 miles
east of Cameron, as henceforth noted.

In winter when the White-faced Glossy Ibis lacks the white on its face,
some difficulty might be encountered in differentiating that species
from the Eastern Glossy Ibis. The perplexing thing, however, is that
Holt made his observations in the nesting season when no possible
confusion should exist; also he was in the middle of a nesting rookery
with birds close at hand on all sides. This fact notwithstanding, the
ibis nesting in the Cameron Parish rookery (known locally as "The Burn")
on May 28, 1942, was the white-faced species (_Plegadis mexicana_), as
evidenced by moving pictures taken by J. Harvey Roberts and by specimens
of varying ages collected at the same time by me. In all, the Louisiana
State University Museum of Zoölogy has 19 specimens of _mexicana_ taken
in Cameron Parish in April, May, November, December, and January. Field
records are available also for the months of February, March, July, and

Aside from Holt's statement, Oberholser had only five other records for
_falcinellus_ in Louisiana, one being a market specimen with incomplete
data and therefore of questionable scientific value. The remaining four
specimens were taken by E. R. Pike near the mouth of the Mississippi
River on November 13 and 17, 1930, and are now on deposit in the Chicago
Academy of Sciences. Recently I borrowed these specimens for
reëxamination with the following results. The three taken on November
17, 1930, are _mexicana_ and not _falcinellus_ as labeled and so
reported by Oberholser. The single specimen taken on November 13 is,
however, correctly identified as _falcinellus_. Alexander Wetmore kindly
examined the material for me and confirmed my identifications. The
occurrence of _falcinellus_ in Louisiana thus hinged on Holt's statement
and one preserved specimen. However, on July 23, 1944, in the marshes on
Grand Isle, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, I encountered a flock of 12
immature ibises that impressed me by their blackness in contrast to the
color of glossy ibises with which I was familiar in Cameron Parish. Two
specimens were collected and both proved to be _falcinellus_.

Holt's published observations cannot be positively refuted, for we
cannot be sure that a colony of _falcinellus_ did not exist in Cameron
Parish in 1932, nor that the portion of the rookery under his
observation did not consist of a segregated population of that species.
However, ten years of field observations by other ornithologists have
failed to disclose the species which Holt considered a common nesting
bird in an area where we now know that only the White-faced Glossy Ibis
occurs. The fact that Holt specifically stated that he failed to find
the white-faced bird at any time in his stay in Cameron Parish is
difficult to explain, but this much is certain--the present known status
of _falcinellus_ in Louisiana is that of only a rare and casual visitor.

#Branta canadensis hutchinsii# (Richardson), Hutchins Goose

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 89) cited only one Louisiana record for this
goose. The bird in question was shot but apparently not preserved.
Consequently, the status of the race on the Louisiana list was subject
to question. Recently, however, two typical specimens of _hutchinsii_
were obtained in the state, one by Edouard Morgan, near Lake Catherine,
on November 7, 1942, and the other by Herman Deutsch, four miles above
the mouth of the Mermentau River, on November 2, 1944. The former is
displayed in the Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Exhibit in the
Louisiana State Museum, and the latter is now in the Louisiana State
University Museum of Zoölogy.

#Oxyura dominica# (Linnaeus), Masked Duck

A mounted specimen of this species was found by T. D. Burleigh and
myself in a sporting goods store in Lake Charles, Louisiana. Through the
kindness of Mr. Jack Gunn, owner, it was donated to the Louisiana State
University Museum Collection. The bird was shot approximately 25 miles
southeast of Lake Charles at Sweet Lake, Cameron Parish, on December 23,
1933, by R. T. Newton. This is the first recorded occurrence of the
species in Louisiana, as well as one of the very few instances of its
appearance anywhere in the United States.

#Buteo lineatus texanus# Bishop, Texas Red-shouldered Hawk

Although this race has been recorded previously only from Texas and
northeastern Mexico, it appears to be of regular occurrence in southern
Louisiana in the fall and winter. The six specimens in the Louisiana
State University Collection, identified by Herbert Friedmann as
_texanus_, are as follows: Westover, November 25, 1937; Baton Rouge,
October 20, 1936, November 1, 1938, and September 3, 1940; University,
November 14, 1942; Hoo-shoo-too, October 12, 1941 (Lowery, Tiebout, and
Wallace). Another specimen, taken at Baton Rouge on September 17, 1940
(Ray), was acquired by Louis B. Bishop, who identified it as _texanus_.

#Numenius americanus americanus# Bechstein, Long-billed Curlew

#Numenius americanus parvus# Bishop, Northern Long-billed Curlew

Thirteen specimens of this species in the Louisiana State University
Museum have been identified subspecifically (in part by J. Van Tyne) as
follows: _N. a. americanus_--4 [Female], Cameron, November 21 and 22,
1940, and December 5, 1942. _N. a. parvus_--4 [Male], 1 [Female],
Cameron, November 21 and 23, 1940, and April 11 and October 31, 1942; 1
[Female], East Timbalier Island, August 18, 1940. Three are intermediate
in size and therefore not identifiable with certainty. Contrary to
published accounts, the Long-billed Curlew is a fairly common migrant in
certain parts of southern Louisiana. About seventy-five were counted on
the beach near Cameron on November 1, 1941, and twenty-five were noted
at the same place on December 6, 1942. Almost invariably a few are
present there during every month of the year.

#Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus# (Cassin), Western Snowy Plover

#Charadrius alexandrinus tenuirostris# (Lawrence), Cuban Snowy Plover

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 216-217) listed the Cuban Snowy Plover as a rare
transient in Louisiana, and cited only four definite records based on
three specimens. Our recent studies, however, have yielded twelve
additional specimens and a number of sight records, all of which
indicate that the species is a regular and sometimes common migrant in
spring and fall. Eleven specimens in the series are identifiable with
certainty as examples of _nivosus_ and therefore constitute an addition
to the state list. They were taken at East Timbalier Island on November
15 and 16, 1940 (Burleigh, Lowery, and Ray), at Grand Isle on March 27,
1943 (Burleigh), and near Cameron on November 20 and 21, 1941, April 3
and October 17, 1942, and September 3, 1944 (Burdick, Howell, and
Lowery). On April 29, 1945, Tucker saw twenty on the beach near Cameron,
but he did not obtain a specimen. A single adult male in our series,
taken on East Timbalier Island, on November 15, 1940 (Ray), is referable
to _tenuirostris_.

#Charadrius hiaticula semipalmatus# Bonaparte, Semipalmated Plover

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 218) made special mention of the absence of
definite winter records for this species, but, in recent years, it has
been noted on numerous occasions in Louisiana in that season. For
example, ten were seen at Cameron on December 13, 1940, and the same
number was noted there on January 22 and 23, 1941 (Lowery, _et al._). A
specimen was shot at Cameron on December 5, 1942 (Lowery).

#Charadrius wilsonia wilsonia# Ord, Wilson Plover

Oberholser's single winter record for this species (_op. cit._, 220) has
now been supplemented by two others--fifteen birds seen and three
collected at Cameron on January 22, 1941 (Burleigh, Wallace, and Ray);
one taken at the same place on December 5, 1942 (Burdick).

#Pluvialis dominica dominica# (Müller), American Golden Plover

The presence of the Golden Plover on the northern Gulf coast in winter
already has been reported by Burleigh ("Bird Life of the Gulf Coast
Region of Mississippi," Occas. Papers Mus. Zoöl. La. State Univ., 20,
1944: 367), but since there are no published instances of its occurrence
in Louisiana at that season, the following four specimens are
noteworthy: two collected near Creole by Lowery and Ray on November 21,
1940; two others shot at the same place by Burdick and Tucker on
December 6, 1942; and one seen, but not taken, near Cameron on November
22, 1941 (Lowery, _et al._).

#Erolia bairdii# (Coues), Baird Sandpiper

Since there is only one previous definite record of the occurrence of
this species in the state, the following records are significant. A male
was obtained by Burdick at University, 3 miles south, on October 25,
1942. I saw three at the same place on October 29 and shot a male there
on November 9. The only spring record is that of a bird seen by me at
University, 1 mile south, on May 16, 1945.

#Steganopus tricolor# Vieillot, Wilson Phalarope

Apparently the first definite record of this species in the state is
that of an adult female, in breeding plumage, shot by E. A. McIlhenny at
Avery Island, Louisiana, on May 10, 1939, and later sent to the
Louisiana State University Museum of Zoölogy. A second specimen, a male
in winter plumage, was taken by Burdick 5 miles south of the University
on September 12, 1943.

#Limosa fedoa# (Linnaeus), Marbled Godwit

This species was listed by Oberholser (_op. cit._, 271) as a very rare
winter resident along the Gulf coast region of southern Louisiana and he
cited only two records of occurrence in the state. The following
additional records should clarify its present-day status. In 1940 two
were seen on East Timbalier Island on August 19, eight on November 15,
and seventy-five on both November 16 and 17. Three were seen near
Cameron on November 21, 1941. In 1942, two were seen near Cameron on
April 4, five on April 5, three on April 11, two on April 22, and one on
April 23. Another was noted near Cameron on October 7, 1943 (Lowery, _et
al._). A small series of specimens was taken from the birds mentioned
above. In connection with this species, it may be of interest to note
that the Hudsonian Godwit (_Limosa haemastica_) has not been observed in
Louisiana by me or my associates.

#Geococcyx californianus# (Lesson), Road-runner

The Road-runner inhabits the northwestern part of the state where it has
been reported for many years by local residents. However, since
confirmation of its occurrence was lacking, previous publications on the
birds of the state have not listed, it. The first definite record is
that of a bird killed near Shreveport, on May 1, 1938, by an unspecified
collector. Another was shot four miles north of Keatchie, De Soto
Parish, on July 9, 1943, by Delmer B. Johnson, at that time field
biologist with the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Both
specimens are in the Louisiana State University Museum. Johnson states
that he has seen the species on a number of occasions, specific records
being in April and May, 1943, twelve miles east of Mansfield, and two
miles east of Logansport. Various reports of nests have been received,
but as yet no completely satisfactory breeding record for the state has
been obtained.

#Columbigallina passerina pallescens# (Baird), Mexican Ground Dove

The Louisiana State University Museum of Zoölogy now has a series of 21
specimens of _Columbigallina passerina_ collected in Louisiana since the
publication of Oberholser's book, in which only a few records for _C. p.
passerina_ alone are cited. Examination of the new material reveals that
eleven specimens are clearly referable to _pallescens_, providing,
therefore, an addition to the avifauna of the state. As might be
expected, _pallescens_ prevails in the western part of the state,
although, at least occasionally, it migrates farther east. The specimens
identifiable as _pallescens_ are as follows: 7 [Male], 1 [Female],
Cameron, April 3, 1938 (Lowery); December 15, 1940 (Wallace); November 1
and 20, 1941 (Burdick and Lowery); October 31, 1942 (Burdick and
Tucker). Two females were taken at White Castle on January 18, 1938
(Hewes), and another was shot at Carville on January 15, 1941 (Lowery).
No Louisiana breeding record for the species is yet available, but in
1939 I saw a pair in the last week of May at Baton Rouge, another near
Plaquemine on May 17, 1946, and George M. Sutton and I noted a pair
almost daily at Cameron between April 22 and 30, 1942. If the bird
breeds in Cameron Parish, the nesting race may prove to be _pallescens_,
since a bird taken there on April 3, as listed above, belongs to that

#Chordeiles minor minor# (Forster), Eastern Nighthawk

Since the one previous record (Oberholser, _op. cit._, 348) of the
occurrence of this subspecies in the state now proves to be an example
of _C. m. howelli_, the following specimens, all taken after the
publication of Oberholser's book, constitute the only Louisiana records:
4 [Male], 1 [Female], University, October 3, 5, 12, 23, 1941 (Burdick,
Howell, Ray, and Lowery); 4 [Male], 1 [Female], University, May 15, 18,
22, 30, 1942 (Burdick and Lowery); 1 [Male], Creole, September 2, 1944

#Chordeiles minor howelli# Oberholser, Howell Nighthawk

The only state records known, all previously unpublished, are as
follows: 1 [Female], Colfax, May 15, 1937 (Lowery); 2 [Male], 1
[Female], University, May 23 and 24 and October 3, 1941 (Ray and
Lowery); 3 [Male], University, May 22 and 25, 1942 (Burdick); 1 [Male],
Chloe, 10 miles south, April 28, 1945; 1 [Male], Creole, 2 miles west,
April 30, 1945 (Tucker).

#Chordeiles minor aserriensis# Cherrie, Cherrie Nighthawk

Three specimens, one male and two females, taken from flocks of
migrating nighthawks at University on September 29 and October 3 and 9,
1941 (Ray and Lowery), are the only records of the occurrence of this
race in the state.

#Chordeiles minor sennetti# Coues, Sennett Nighthawk

A female taken at University on September 29, 1941 (Burdick), and a male
shot at the same place on May 22, 1942 (Lowery), constitute the basis
for the addition of this subspecies to the Louisiana list.

#Chordeiles acutipennis texensis# Lawrence, Texas Nighthawk

At dusk on April 10, 1942, in company with Burdick and Ray, I
encountered a small flock of nighthawks feeding over the marsh near the
beach a few miles from Cameron. Darkness came before more than two could
be collected, but both of these proved to be the Texas Nighthawk, a
species not heretofore recorded from Louisiana. On the following day a
nighthawk was found perched in a tree near the marsh where the birds had
been seen the previous evening. It was collected and likewise proved to
be _texensis_.

#Muscivora forficata# (Gmelin), Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

The nesting of this species in northwestern Louisiana has been indicated
for some time, especially after Wallace noted it at Lucas, in Caddo
Parish, on June 16 and July 21, 1942. However, the first authentic
breeding record for the state was furnished by a freshly built nest
found by Edgar W. Fullilove and myself several miles below Bossier, on
July 3, 1945. At least two pairs were found there in a large cotton
field in which an occasional pecan tree had been left standing. The nest
was in one of these trees, about 25 feet from the ground and far out on
the end of a limb. Fullilove informed me that to his knowledge the
species had nested in this field for at least ten years and that on
numerous previous occasions he had seen both nests and young.

#Myiarchus cinerascens cinerascens# (Lawrence), Ash-throated Flycatcher

The first record of the occurrence of this species in Louisiana is that
of a male collected by Howell at University, on March 20, 1943. On
December 23, 1945, I shot a second specimen, a female, on the bank of
False River opposite New Roads. When found, both birds were actively
pursuing insects and on being skinned, both were found to be very fat.

#Empidonax flaviventris# (Baird and Baird), Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 394) listed this species as a rare autumn
transient, citing one definite Louisiana record for that season. On the
contrary, the species is quite regular in fall. Six specimens have been
collected at University, one each on September 12, 17, 18, and 28, 1940,
October 22, 1942, and September 26, 1943 (Lowery and Wallace). Two
others have been taken at Cameron, on October 7, 1943 (Burleigh), and
September 2, 1944 (Lowery). There are numerous sight records, but since
the species cannot be distinguished with certainty in the field from
extremely yellow-plumaged Acadian Flycatchers, none of these is

#Empidonax traillii traillii# (Audubon), Alder Flycatcher

This species long has been regarded as an uncommon transient in
Louisiana in both spring and fall. However, recent field work has shown
the bird to occur regularly and sometimes abundantly in autumnal
migration. Forty-one specimens have been collected at University on
dates ranging from August 17 to October 5 (Lowery, _et al._). Specimens
taken by Burleigh at New Orleans on September 27, 1941, and August 23,
1943, are in the Louisiana State University Museum.

#Empidonax minimus# (Baird and Baird), Least Flycatcher

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 397) listed this species as an uncommon
transient since he had only a few sight records at hand. Since field
identification of all eastern empidonaces in fall is open to question,
our recent data, based on collected material, are significant. Six
specimens have been taken at University on dates ranging from September
15 to October 5, and five at Cameron between July 25 and October 17
inclusive (Lowery, _et al._). Another specimen in the collection is that
of a bird taken by Burleigh at New Orleans on October 1, 1942. There is,
as yet, no unquestionable spring record for Louisiana.

#Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus# Sclater, Vermilion Flycatcher

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 401) listed only one record for this species, a
male observed by H. E. Wallace at University, on February 6, 1938, and
shot the next day by me. Since 1938, however, it has been found
regularly and frequently at numerous localities in southern Louisiana in
winter. At Baton Rouge, for example, an adult male was noted almost
daily between October 19, 1941, and January 7, 1942, at a small pond on
the University campus. An immature male was seen there also on November
25, 1941, but not thereafter. In the following autumn another adult male
appeared at the same place on October 23, and was observed regularly
until January 15, 1943. Again, an adult male returned to the same area
on November 10, 1943, and remained until the middle of January, 1944. W.
C. Abbott informs me that for several years one or two individuals have
spent the winter at a small willow-bordered pond at his home near
Hopevilla, Iberville Parish. Like the individuals noted at Baton Rouge,
Abbott's birds arrived in October or November and remained until the
following January or February. H. B. Chase, Jr., noted two individuals
at City Park Lake in New Orleans in the winter of 1944-45, and three at
the same place in the winter of 1945-46. I have seen the species
frequently in Cameron Parish, in southwestern Louisiana, where six
specimens have been collected on dates ranging from November 4 to
January 22. Atwood (Auk, 60, 1943: 453) has also recorded its presence
near the Laccasine Refuge in Cameron Parish. An immature male was
obtained at False River, near Lakeland, in Pointe Coupee Parish, on
November 8, 1942 (Burdick). E. A. McIlhenny writes me that he has seen
the species many times at Avery Island and recently he sent me a skin of
an adult female which he collected there on October 25, 1945 (also _cf._
McIlhenny, Auk, 52, 1935: 187). From these data it is evident that the
Vermilion Flycatcher is now a regular winter visitor to southern

#Troglodytes troglodytes pullus# (Burleigh), Southern Winter Wren

A rather large series of Winter Wrens, all taken later than the date of
publication of Oberholser's book, includes three specimens of this race
and provides an addition to the state list. Two of the specimens are
males collected at Baton Rouge on November 23 and December 21, 1943
(Burleigh), and the other is a male shot at the same place on January
23, 1944 (Burdick). Several additional specimens in the series are
noticeably darker than the average _hiemalis_ and may have migrated from
a zone of intergradation.

#Turdus migratorius nigrideus# Aldrich and Nutt, Newfoundland Robin

The only two records for the occurrence of this race in Louisiana are
those of specimens taken at Baton Rouge on February 1, 1937, and
February 9, 1946 (Lowery).

#Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni# (Tschudi), Eastern Olive-backed Thrush

#Hylocichla ustulata almae# Oberholser, Alma Olive-backed Thrush

Only four Louisiana specimens of the Olive-backed Thrush were available
to Oberholser in 1938. He identified two as _swainsoni_ and two as
_almae_. We have since collected twenty-five specimens in the state,
seven of which are definitely _almae_. Of the remaining, all are clearly
_swainsoni_ with the exception of a few that appear intermediate in
color. The specimens of _almae_ were collected at Cameron, Baton Rouge,
and Baines on dates ranging from April 26 to May 16 and from September
29 to October 6. The specimens of _swainsoni_ were taken at New Orleans,
Port Hudson, Baton Rouge, and Baines between April 20 and May 16 and
between September 12 and October 28.

#Hylocichla fuscescens salicicola# Ridgway, Willow Thrush

Oberholser (_op. cit._, 474) recorded this race as a rare spring
transient on the basis of two records. However, eleven out of
twenty-three recently taken specimens are referable to _salicicola_,
indicating that _salicicola_ and _fuscescens_ possibly occur in
approximately equal numbers, in both spring and fall. The dates on which
_salicicola_ have been collected range from April 22 to May 16, and from
September 14 to 27. They were taken at Cameron, Port Hudson, Baton
Rouge, University, and Baines.

#Anthus spinoletta pacificus# Todd, Western Pipit

The only Louisiana record for this far western race is that of a female
taken by me at Jennings, on January 3, 1943. The specimen was sent to
Alden H. Miller, who compared it with material in the Museum of
Vertebrate Zoölogy and verified the identification. As a rule, I
scrutinize closely with binoculars all flocks of pipits, and as a
result, on several occasions have detected pale individuals that stood
out from the remainder of the flock. However, the above-mentioned
specimen is the only individual so detected that I succeeded in

#Vireo solitarius alticola# Brewster, Mountain Vireo

Four specimens out of a series of twenty-eight Blue-headed Vireos taken
in Louisiana since 1938 are referable to this race. It has not been
recorded previously from the state. The specimens consist of a male and
a female collected at Bogalusa on February 9, 1939, a male taken at
Tunica on March 30, 1939, and a female at Erwinville on March 11, 1941

#Helmitheros vermivorus# (Gmelin), Worm-eating Warbler

Although there are no published nesting records of this species in
Louisiana, it is now known to be a common summer resident in the
beech-magnolia forests of the Bayou Sara-Tunica Hills section north of
St. Francisville. Jas. Hy. Bruns has supplied me with copious data on
the birds seen in the nesting season at Baines, and the two of us have
spent a great deal of time searching for a nest, without success.
However, Bruns obtained a juvenile female, just out of a nest, on June
28, 1942.

#Seiurus aurocapillus furvior# Batchelder, Newfoundland Oven-bird

#Seiurus aurocapillus cinereus# A. H. Miller, Gray Oven-bird

Four specimens in our series of Oven-birds are identifiable without
question as examples of _furvior_. Two were collected by me at
University on September 15 and 25, 1940, and Tucker shot one there on
September 27, 1942, and another at Cameron on April 29, 1945. There are
also two specimens in the series referable to _cinereus_, as well as
several that are intermediate between _cinereus_ and _S. a.
aurocapillus_. Burdick shot one of the typical examples of _cinereus_ at
University on September 24, 1942, and I shot the other at the same place
on May 16, 1945.

#Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis# (Gmelin), Northern Water-thrush

#Seiurus noveboracensis limnaeus# McCabe and Miller, British Columbia

A. H. Miller has recently examined our large series of migrant
Water-thrushes and identified three as good examples of _limnaeus_, and
six as _noveboracensis_, neither one of which has been recorded
previously from the state. The specimens of _limnaeus_ were taken at or
near University on October 2, 1942 (Howell), October 12, 1943, and May
11, 1945 (Burleigh). The specimens of _noveboracensis_ were collected at
University on September 14, 1941 (Lowery); at Baines on September 4,
1943, August 20, 1944, and May 6, 1945 (Bruns); at New Orleans on
October 20, 1941 (Burleigh); and at Cameron on April 26, 1942 (Lowery).

#Geothlypis trichas occidentalis# Brewster, Western Yellow-throat

I have found it impracticable to determine subspecifically every
specimen in our series of 104 Yellow-throats from Louisiana. However,
two female specimens taken by me, one at Cameron on December 4, 1938,
and the other on False River at Lakeland on February 11, 1941, are
without doubt representatives of the race now known as _occidentalis_, a
subspecies not previously recorded from this state. Several additional
specimens in the series are probably also of that race, but I am
deferring, for the time, recording them as such.

#Icteria virens virens# (Linnaeus), Yellow-breasted Chat

The only winter record for Louisiana is that of a female taken by me at
Hackberry on January 24, 1941.

#Wilsonia pusilla pusilla# (Wilson), Wilson Warbler

The only winter record for the state is that of a female shot by T. D.
Burleigh on December 20, 1944, in a thicket along the Mississippi River
at University. He first found the bird at this place in November, and he
saw it several times in December before he succeeded in obtaining it.
Since Oberholser cited so few Louisiana records, it might be well to
mention in this connection that the species is after all a fairly common
fall migrant in southern Louisiana. At Baton Rouge it occurs regularly
between September 11 and October 24, and at Cameron it has been noted
between October 17 and November 21. There are still no spring records
for southern Louisiana.

#Sturnella neglecta# Audubon, Western Meadowlark

In 1938 Oberholser cited only two Louisiana records, both from the
northwestern part of the state. However, recently the species has been
found in the south-central region. Two were collected at Churchill on
February 11, 1941 (Lowery and Wallace), and another was shot at
University on December 9, 1942 (Burdick). There are in addition several
sight records, all of birds in song.

#Cassidix mexicanus prosopidicola# Lowery, Mesquite Great-tailed Grackle

I am indebted to E. A. McIlhenny for material that now permits the
definite recording of this subspecies from Louisiana. On occasions
during the winters of 1938, 1939, and 1940, McIlhenny sent me specimens
of grackles in the flesh which he had removed from his bird-banding
traps at Avery Island. Selection was based primarily on eye-color;
individuals with clear yellow irises proved invariably to be examples of
_prosopidicola_, whereas those with brown or yellow-brown irises were
always _major_. The final basis for sub-specific identification was,
however, size and plumage color. The series provided by McIlhenny
consists of six females taken on November 24 and December 20, 1938,
December 18, 1939, January 22 and March 5, 1940. Since the range in
Texas of typical _prosopidicola_ extends eastward to within thirty miles
of the Louisiana line, it is not surprising that occasional individuals
or flocks wander into Louisiana in winter.

#Passerculus sandwichensis mediogriseus# Aldrich, Southeastern Savannah

#Passerculus sandwichensis labradorius# Howe, Labrador Savannah Sparrow

#Passerculus sandwichensis nevadensis# Grinnell, Nevada Savannah Sparrow

Our series of 107 Savannah Sparrows, collected in Louisiana almost
entirely since the publication of Oberholser's book, includes
representatives of five geographical races, as follows: 37 _savanna_, 24
_oblitus_, 12 _mediogriseus_, 8 _labradorius_, and 7 _nevadensis_. The
remaining 19 specimens show various combinations of characters and
appear to be intergrades, and so have not been assigned definitely to
any one race. I am indebted to James L. Peters for the identification of
most of our specimens. Since _mediogriseus_ and _labradorius_ have not
been reported previously from Louisiana, and since there is only one
Louisiana record of _nevadensis_ (Miles, Auk, 60, 1943: 606-607), actual
dates and localities of occurrence for these races are listed here. _P.
s. mediogriseus_ (specimens by Burdick, Howell, Lowery, Ray, Tucker,
and Wallace)--University, January 31, 1939; February 11 and 29, April
29, November 28, and December 16, 1940; December 6 and 7, 1941; October
10 and 25, 1942; April 14, 1943. Erwinville, March 11, 1941. _P. s.
labradorius_ (specimens by Burleigh, Lowery, McIlhenny, Ray and
Wallace)--University, February 15 and November 8, 1940; January 1, 1941;
December 11, 1943. 2 mi. NE Baton Rouge, January 1, 1941. Burtville,
December 8, 1939. Avery Island, May 3, 1939. Lake Charles, November 20,
1940. _P. s. nevadensis_ (specimens by Burdick, Lowery, and
Wallace)--Iowa Station, January 23 and 24, 1940. University, February 10
and March 10, 1940. University, December 7, 1941, and November 15, 1942.
Cameron, December 6, 1942. There are at present no _bona fide_ records
of _P. s. anthinus_ in Louisiana, since the one recorded example of that
race (Oberholser, _op. cit._, 647) appears, on reëxamination, to be
referable to _savanna_ (_fide_ J. L. Peters).

#Ammodramus savannarum pratensis# Vieillot, Eastern Grasshopper Sparrow

Eight specimens of the Grasshopper Sparrow taken recently in Louisiana
are without exception referable to _pratensis_. Our one remaining
specimen, a male collected at Pride on December 19, 1937, is an example
of _perpallidus_ as recorded by Oberholser (_op. cit._, 648). Although
the present series is inadequate for determining the prevailing form in
the state in the winter, it would appear that _pratensis_ is more
common, rather than _perpallidus_ as indicated by Oberholser.

#Chondestes grammacus strigatus# Swainson, Western Lark Sparrow

Oberholser cited only one Louisiana record for this race. The following
additional records are now available: a specimen was taken by Howell at
Cameron on October 31, 1942, and one was obtained by me at University on
April 13, 1945. The species is a transient in both localities. A
supplementary winter record for the Lark Sparrow in Louisiana is that of
an individual seen at Port Hudson on December 23, 1945, by Howell and
Newman. The bird was shot, but unfortunately, it was not retrieved.

#Junco hyemalis cismontanus# Dwight, Cassiar Junco

The only specimen in our series of Slate-colored Juncos that is a
clear-cut example of this race is a male taken by Ambrose Daigre at
Catahoula Lake on November 29, 1939. A. H. Miller has confirmed the

#Calcarius lapponicus alascensis# Ridgway, Alaska Longspur

Oberholser listed this species as a casual winter visitor in northern
Louisiana, which was possibly no more than was indicated by records then
available to him. Since 1938, however, the species has been observed in
large flocks at various localities in the southern part of the state,
notably in January, 1941, when the whole state was blanketed with snow.
Nevertheless, snow is apparently not prerequisite to the appearance of
the species this far south, for on January 1 and 3, 1943, a flock of
approximately a thousand individuals was seen a few miles north of
Jennings. Again, on February 14, 1943, about half of what may have been
the original flock was observed there. In neither instance was there
snow anywhere in Louisiana. Of the thirty specimens in the Louisiana
State University Collection, eleven have been identified by Alexander
Wetmore as somewhat intermediate between _alascensis_ and _lapponicus_,
but closer to the former. Only _lapponicus_ has been previously recorded
from Louisiana. The specimens of _alascensis_ were taken at Baton Rouge
on January 25 and 28, 1940; Cornor, January 27, 1940; Lottie, January
27, 1940; and 10 miles north of Jennings, January 1 and February 14,
1943 (Burdick, Campbell, Hewes, Lowery, and Wallace).

  _Transmitted February 1, 1947._


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