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Title: History Plays for the Grammar Grades
Author: Lyng, Mary Ella
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History Plays for the Grammar Grades" ***

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Copyrighted, 1922, Mary Ella Lyng

  _Principal of_

  In appreciation of a pleasant association
  and many kindnesses.


The play idea will always appeal to the minds of children. History, so
often thought to be a dry subject, is made a live wide awake game when
the pupils live the parts. The great men and women of history are made
real to them.

This method has been worked out by the pupils in the fifth grade in
the McKinley School in San Francisco and found to be most successful.

The chief characters in Mace's Beginners History, the California State
Text, have been dramatized. The children read the story and study by
outline. Then with the help of the teacher the important events are
made into a play.

Much outside reading is encouraged. This awakens an interest in good
reading and an ability to do independent studying.

The lives of great men and women represent great things. Studying
about these people is an inspiration to the children for the bigger
and nobler things of life.

  "Lives of great men, all remind us
  We can make our lives sublime,
  And departing leave behind us--
  Footprints on the sands of time."




    CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS                   5

    JOHN SMITH and POCAHONTAS              7

    SIR WALTER RALEIGH                     8

    WILLIAM PENN                          10

    SIR FRANCIS DRAKE                     11

    PILGRIMS                              13

    GEORGE WASHINGTON                     15

    GEORGE ROGERS CLARK                   20

    ANDREW JACKSON                        21

    JOHN C. FREMONT                       24

    WEBSTER, CLAY and CALHOUN             27


    GRANT AND LEE                         35

    ROBERT E. LEE                         36

    SOME WOMEN OF HISTORY                 38



  Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, more than four hundred
  and fifty years ago. Genoa was a rich town on the Mediterranean Sea.
  She had trading routes to India, China and Japan.

  Columbus was fond of stories of the sea and liked the study of
  geography. He was anxious to go to sea and while a boy made his first
  voyage. When he grew up to be a man, he went to Lisbon the capital
  of Portugal. The bold deeds of Henry of Portugal drew many seamen to
  this city.

  Lisbon was full of learned men and sailors longing to go on long
  voyages. These sailors had tried to find a shorter way to India but
  without success.

  Columbus thought this could be done by going directly west. He thought
  the world round although most people at that time thought it flat.
  After many trails he laid his plans before the Court of the King of

  The first act will be Columbus at the Court of Spain.


  King and Queen on throne--courtiers around.

  Columbus enters and bows before king and queen.

Q. ISABELLA: You have come to us to talk about a shorter way to India?

COLUMBUS: Yes, your Majesty. According to this map and the proof I
have gathered, I believe India to be directly west. I have gone on
long voyages and have talked to many seamen about the signs of land
to the westward. I believe the world to be round and if your Majesty
could aid me I know I could find this shorter route.

QUEEN: We would be glad indeed to aid you, but at the present time
Spain has little money. The war has taken so much.

WISE MAN OF SPAIN: Your Majesty, this man thinks the world round. That
is foolish. If you use your eyes you can see it is flat. To sail
westward in the hope of getting to India is impossible and ridiculous.

WISE MAN: Your Majesty, I think this man right. He says the world is
round and I think if we study carefully, we will find it is so. If it
is possible we should give him a chance.

      _End of Act I._



  Columbus receiving little encouragement and after several years of
  waiting, set out to try his fortune in France. He stopped at a convent
  to beg for some bread. The Prior became interested in his plan and
  went to the Court of Spain, and begged the Queen not to allow Columbus
  to go to France but to help him in his plans.

  The next act will be Columbus talking to Queen.

QUEEN: Columbus, I will pledge my jewels in order to raise the money
for a fleet. I will fit out an expedition and make you Governor over
the land you discover.

COLUMBUS: Thank you, your Majesty. The lands discovered will be taken
up in the name of the King of Spain.

QUEEN: Will you take a vow to use the riches you obtain to help drive
out the Turks from the Holy City of Jerusalem?

COLUMBUS: I will take that vow.

      (_Columbus takes vow_).

      _End of Act II._

  The voyage across the ocean was a long and tiresome one. The sailors
  became discouraged and wanted to return to Spain. Columbus kept on
  and finally was rewarded. The next act will be the discovery of land.


  (Columbus talking to sailors:)

COLUMBUS: I rejoice my friends that you have had the grace to chant
the vesper hymn in so devout a spirit at a moment when there is
so much reason to be grateful to God for His goodness to us. What
cheering signs have encouraged us to persevere. The birds in the
air, the unusual fishes in the sea and the plants seldom met far
from rocks where they grow. I deem it probable that we reach the
land this very night. I call on you all to be watchful.

  (Columbus and Luis walk apart from the other sailors. Columbus a
  little in advance, stops, calls Luis.)

COLUMBUS: Luis! Look in that direction, seest thou aught uncommon?

LUIS: I saw a light, Senor.

COLUMBUS: Thine eyes did not deceive thee.

LUIS: What think you, Don Christopher?

COLUMBUS: Land! Bid Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia to come hither.

      (Rodrigo Sanchez comes. All look for light).

COLUMBUS: This is land. We will behold it soon.

      (Sailors come up and look. All exclaim, Land! Land!)

COLUMBUS: See the land, Luis?

LUIS: Yes.

COLUMBUS: Behold the Indies! Praise be to God!

      _End of Columbus Act._



  John Smith was the savior of Virginia. He was an officer in the new
  colony sent out to Jamestown. Captain Newport one of Raleigh's old
  sea captains brought a colony of one hundred settlers to America.

  The first act will be Captain Newport talking to some London

FIRST MERCHANT: The King has given us a charter for our new colony
in America.

SECOND MERCHANT: We need some men of adventure.

CAPT. NEWPORT: I know a man, John Smith, who could make the colony
a success. He has had as wonderful adventures as the knights of old.
He has just returned from fighting the Turks.

MERCHANT: We will see if the King will make him one of the officers
in the company.

      _End of Act I._



  Smith was made an officer but was not allowed to take part in
  governing the Colony but resolved to help by visiting the Indians
  and gathering food for the Colony. The next act will be Smith in
  the Indian village.

  (Powhatan sitting around bench. His wives sit at his side.
  Women and children stand around. In front stood Powhatan's
  fierce warriors. Two big stones are rolled in front of Powhatan.
  Two warriors rush to Smith, drag him to the stones and force
  his head upon one of them). (Pocahontas the chief's daughter
  rushes in.)

POCAHONTAS: Save his life! Do not kill him!

POWHATAN: Your life is saved. You will be my son and play with my

      _End of Act II._



  After awhile Smith returned to Jamestown. He found much trouble among
  the settlers. He took command and with the help of Pocahontas the
  little Indian maiden, restored order and saved them from starvation.
  Pocahontas was ever afterwards called "The good angel of the Colony."
  The next act will be Smith talking to the settlers.

SMITH: (Making speech). Every one of us must work. He that will not
work shall not eat. You shall not only gather for yourself, but for
those that are sick. They shall not starve. Some of you will plant
grain, others will build better houses. If this will take place we
will all be happier and more contented in Virginia.

      _End of Smith Act._



  Walter Raleigh was the Englishman who checked the power of the Spanish
  in America. He was a friend of Queen Elizabeth, and first gained her
  friendship, by an interesting incident. This act tells the story.


  (Walter Raleigh, Blount, and Tracy, walking along shore see boat
  of the Queen.)

BLOUNT: See, the Queen's barge lies at the stairs. We had best put
back and tell the Earl what we have seen.

RALEIGH: Tell the Earl what we have seen! Let us do his errand, and
tell him what the Queen says in reply.

BLOUNT: Do, I pray you, my dear Walter, let us take the boat and

RALEIGH: Not till I see the Queen come forth.

  (Queen comes, Raleigh removes his hat and stands close to Queen
  as she approaches with her court. She hesitates to pass miry
  spot. Raleigh takes coat from shoulder and lays it on the
  ground. Queen looks at Raleigh and passes on).

BLOUNT: Come along, Sir Coxcomb, your gay mantle will need the brush
today, I wot.

RALEIGH: This cloak shall never be brushed while in my possession.

BLOUNT: That will not be long, if you learn not a little more economy.

  (Member of court comes after Raleigh. Queen and court at water's
  edge, waiting).

COURTIER: I was sent to bring a gentleman who has no coat, you, sir,
I think. Please follow me.

BLOUNT: He is in attendance on me, the noble Earl of Sussex, Master
of Horse.

COURTIER: I have nothing to say to that. My orders are from her

  (Walter and man walk toward Queen).

BLOUNT: Who in the world would have thought it!

  (Raleigh is brought to Queen, who laughs, and talks to

QUEEN: You have this day spoiled a gay mantle in our service. We
thank you for your service, though the manner of offering was
something bold.

RALEIGH: In a sovereign's need, it is each man's duty to be bold.

QUEEN: (Speaking to attendant). That is well said, my lord. (To
Raleigh) Well, young man, your gallantry shall not go unrewarded.
Thou shalt have a suit, and that of the newest cut.

RALEIGH: May it please your majesty, but if it became me to choose--

QUEEN: Thou wouldst have gold? Fie, young man. Yet, thou mayest be
poor. It shall be gold. But thou shall answer to me for the use of it.

RALEIGH: I do not wish gold, your majesty.

QUEEN: How, boy, neither gold nor garment! What then?

RALEIGH: Only permission to wear the cloak which did this trifling

QUEEN: Permission to wear thine own cloak, thou silly boy?

RALEIGH: It is no longer mine. When your majesty's foot touched it,
it became a fit mantle for a prince.

QUEEN: Heard you ever the like, my Lords? What is thy name and birth?

RALEIGH: Raleigh is my name.

QUEEN: Raleigh? We have heard of you. You may wear thy muddy cloak,
and here, I give thee this, to wear at the collar.

  (Gives him a jewel of gold, Raleigh kneels, and kisses hand of



  William Penn was a Quaker and founded the city of Brotherly Love.
  He was the son of a great naval officer, Admiral Penn. When he became
  a Quaker his family were very much disgraced. His father drove him
  from home.

  The next act will be the meeting of King Charles and William Penn and


  (King Charles and Court enter. Enter William Penn and others. All
  hats removed except King's and Penn. King removes his.)

PENN: Friend Charles, why dost thou remove thy hat?

KING: Because wherever I am, it is customary for but one to remain
covered. (King passes on).

  (Penn's father enters.)

PENN SR.: Sir, I will not permit such conduct toward the King. Leave
this place at once.

      _End of Act I._



  After Penn's father died, the King gave Penn a grant of land in
  payment of a debt owed to his father. Penn invited all persecuted
  Christians to the colony. He gave the colonists the right to choose
  their own rules and to make their own laws. He also gave them land
  for their houses and farms.

  The next act will be Penn making a treaty with the Indians.

      (Indians in row--Penn and people).

PENN: (Talks to Indians). We are the same as if one man's body were
divided into two parts. We are all one flesh and one blood.

INDIAN CHIEF: We will live in love with William Penn and his children
as long as the moon and the sun shall endure.

  (Pipe of peace is smoked.)

      _End of Play._



  Sir Francis Drake was the English "Dragon" who sailed the Spanish
  Main and who "singed the King of Spain's beard." He was a most daring
  seaman. From boyhood he had been a sailor. The first act will be Drake
  at the Court of Queen Elizabeth.



FIRST MAID OF HONOR: Francis Drake has returned from his voyage around
the world.

QUEEN: Tell me about this Francis Drake.

SECOND MAID OF HONOR: He is a cousin of Captain Hawkins and was with
him when he had command of a ship against Mexico. The Spaniards killed
many of the sailors and took all they had.

COURT: He hates the Spanish because he thought they were plotting to
kill your Majesty.

QUEEN: Bring me to Francis Drake. I will visit him on his ship.

  (Enter Queen and Court.)

QUEEN: How do you do, Francis Drake. They tell me you have made a
voyage around the world.

DRAKE: Yes, your Majesty.

QUEEN: Tell me of your trip.

DRAKE: (Map and pointer showing the trip). We left England and sailed
straight for the Strait of Magellan. I was determined to sail the
Pacific. We entered this harbor. This is where Magellan spent a winter
when he made his trip around the world. One of my men will tell you
what happened here.

MAN: We sailed safely through the Strait but a terrible storm arose.
One of our ships were lost and one sailed for England. We went from
here, south and here we saw the first great treasure ship. We captured
four hundred pounds of gold.

DRAKE: Week after week we sailed northward until we reached Peru,
Pizarro's conquered land.

MAN: Here we saw another great treasure ship. We pursued her and
captured more than twenty tons of silver bars, thirteen chests of
silver and a great store of precious gems.

DRAKE: We sailed northward and back again southward and spent a time
in this beautiful bay. I named the country New Albion and took
possession in your Majesty's name.

MAN: The natives believed Francis Drake a god and begged us to stay
with them always.

DRAKE: We sailed on until we saw the island where Magellan had been.
We sailed on through the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope
and back to England.

QUEEN: Kneel Francis Drake (Drake kneels and is knighted by Queen).
Arise, Sir Francis Drake.


  Drake again went to fight the Spaniards. He sailed boldly for the
  coast of Spain. He captured shipload after shipload of treasure. He
  made the Spanish King very angry by his actions and the King resolved
  to crush England. Drake sailed right into the harbor of Cadiz. He
  burned so many Spanish ships that it took Spain another year to get
  the fleet ready.

  The next act will be Drake and others talking to the Queen after the
  Spanish Armada had been destroyed.

QUEEN: My brave and noble Sir Francis Drake, you have crushed the
Spanish power on the sea for all time I think.

NOBLE: He has certainly more than singed the King of Spain's beard
this time.

DRAKE: The terrible storm that came up helped us to destroy the
Spanish Fleet.

QUEEN: From now on our power on the sea will grow greater and greater.
We can now go to America without danger from the Spanish.

      _End of Play._




  The Pilgrims were persecuted for their religion in England. They went
  first to Holland. After a time they decided to come to America because
  they wanted their children to grow up in their own language and

  They set sail for America in the Mayflower. They had a long and
  dangerous journey, but on November 20, 1620 they found themselves
  looking with glad hearts upon the sandy but heavily-wooded shores of
  Cape Cod. They signed an agreement as to the government of the Colony
  and elected John Carver their first Governor.

  Captain Standish was their captain. The first act will be Captain
  Miles Standish and his sixteen men returning from an exploring party.


CLASS: The people on Mayflower.

PEOPLE: Here come Miles Standish and his men! Welcome back to the
Mayflower! What have you found, Standish?

STANDISH: We have tramped for three days through the forests, up and
down hills along the coast but found no suitable place.

FIRST ONE OF MEN: We found this. (Corn). We decided to take it up and
later we will pay the Indians double.

SECOND MAN: While we were examining an Indian snare, Bradford (points
to Bradford) found himself swinging by one leg in the air--(much
laughter). We have found a new way to catch game.

STANDISH: The second trip was no better but this time I think we have
found a good place. I think it is the same place found by Capt. John
Smith and named Plymouth by him.

GOVERNOR CARVER: I think this will be a good place to land. Shall we
land here?

PEOPLE ABOARD MAYFLOWER: We will get ready to land.

PEOPLE: It is God's will.



  The first winter for the Pilgrims was a hard one. Many of their people
  died. Among them Governor Carver. Miles Standish helped them in every
  way he could. He kept his army ready for any danger. The next act will
  be Samoset's visit to the Pilgrims.


  Miles Standish and several pilgrims talking over military

STANDISH: We must drill every day in order to be ready for danger.

BRADFORD: Yes we must keep up our careful watching.

BREWSTER: Look at that fine looking Indian coming toward us.

  (All look toward Indian coming).

SAMOSET: Welcome! Welcome!

STANDISH: You talk English?

SAMOSET: Me talk little. Me good Injun.

STANDISH: He looks like a good Indian.

SAMOSET: Me bring more Injuns. (Enter).

SQUANTO: Welcome Englishmen!

BRADFORD: You talk good English.

SQUANTO: My name Squanto, I been to London. I show you many things.
How plant corn, by putting dead fish in hill. How to hoe corn and
how to make into meal. I show you to catch eel and how make Indian
moccasins, canoes and lots of things.

BRADFORD: We will be glad to learn all this Squanto. You are a good
friend to us.


The next act will be the Pilgrims planning for the first Thanksgiving.

  (Men and women talking.)

FIRST WOMAN: Our first summer is now over.

FIRST MAN: Yes, and we have a big harvest; our houses are repaired
and the health of our people is good.

SECOND WOMAN: After the hardships of our first winter and the
blessings from God we have now, we should have a Thanksgiving.

ALL TOGETHER: Yes we should. The time for rejoicing has come.

WOMEN: We will have a great feast.

MEN: We will have games and military movements.

MAN: We will invite Massasoit and his warriors who have been so
kind to us.


INTRODUCTION: (Told by pupil).

  We are now going to tell you the story of George Washington and other
  heroes of the Revolutionary War.

  George Washington was the first president of the United States and
  was called "The Father of His Country." As a boy he was a skilful
  horseback rider and liked to go into the forest with his dog and hunt.
  He had a very good mother. His father called her "The Rose of Epping
  Forest"--a place in England.

  (Maps are used and pupil points out the places on maps with

  The first act will be George Washington talking to his mother.


WASHINGTON: Mother, it is decided that I should go to sea, is it not?

MRS. WASHINGTON: Yes, George, we had consented to your going to sea
but I would much rather have you go back to school and have a good
education. According to these old Virginia days the oldest son in the
family, when the father dies, receives a plantation and your brother,
Laurence, has received a plantation on the Potomac.

WASHINGTON: Well, mother, if I give up my plans of going to sea and
go back to school, what shall I do?

MRS. WASHINGTON: You will receive a plantation on the Rappahannock.

WASHINGTON: Well, I shall give up all my plans and go back to school
and I will try to excel in all my work.

MRS. WASHINGTON: You must excel in both work and play and remember
the Golden Rule--"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."

  (Several boys knock and enter--boys bow and speak to Mrs.

BOYS: How do you do, Mrs. Washington.

MRS. WASHINGTON: How do you do, boys.

FIRST BOY: George, we want you to come out and play with us.

SECOND BOY: Yes, we want you to be our captain.

THIRD BOY: We will take a walk in the woods.

FOURTH BOY: And maybe have a swim in the old swimming pool.

WASHINGTON: May I go out with the boys, mother?

MRS. WASHINGTON: Yes, George, but don't forget to come in before
it gets too late.

      _End of Act I._



  When George Washington was sixteen, he was made a surveyor for Lord
  Fairfax. At twenty he was put in Braddock's army and he saved the
  broken pieces. He was later elected to the house of Burgesses in

  After Washington's brother, Laurence, died, Washington received the
  beautiful Mt. Vernon plantation on the Potomac.

  One day while Washington was on his way to Williamsburg, he met a
  beautiful woman named Mrs. Martha Custis, who later became his wife.

  The second act will be Washington, Patrick Henry and others in the
  house of Burgesses in Virginia.

  (House of Burgesses assembled. Class in House of Burgesses.)

SPEAKER AT DESK: As you know the French and Indian war has left both
England and her colonies in debt and King George, thinking only of
England, put a tax on tea and a Stamp Act on the Thirteen Colonies.
Through such great men as Samuel Adams and our own Patrick Henry,
these Acts have been repealed. Now we are confronted with the trouble
in Boston. Shall the people of Boston be slaves or shall the thirteen
colonies fight to save that town?

  (Exclamations from House). Fight! Fight! No! No! Fight!

SPEAKER: I think Patrick Henry has a resolution to offer.

PATRICK HENRY: Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen: I offer resolutions
declaring that Virginia arm herself for the coming war.

MEN OF HOUSE: Why should we fight England? It is the greatest country
in the world and it is our Mother Country.

SECOND MAN OF HOUSE: Why not send petitions to the King asking him to
send his two armies out of Boston?

THIRD MAN OF HOUSE: We cannot fight England. Look at Drake. He checked
the Spanish Armada on the sea while Raleigh checked the Spanish on the
land. If we fight England it will leave us weaker than we are.

FOURTH MAN OF HOUSE: If we fight our Mother Country now it will spoil
the little nation we are trying to build up. We are not ready to


SPEAKER: Mr. Henry.

HENRY: We must fight! I repeat it, Sir, we must fight. An appeal to
arms and the God of Hosts is all that is left to us. They tell us,
Sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary.
But when shall we be stronger? Will it be next year, or next week?
Sir, we are not weak if we make the proper use which the God of Nature
has placed in our power. Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be
heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable, and let it come!
Our brothers are all ready on the field. Why stand we here idle! Is
life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of
chains and slavery? Forbid it Almighty God! I know not what course
others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!
(Much applause).

      _End of Act II._



  The next act will be the second Continental Congress where George
  Washington was elected Commander in Chief of the American army and
  where Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and others were appointed
  to draw up the Declaration of Independence.

MR. HANCOCK, SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE: You all know that in the first
Continental Congress we pledged to stand by Boston. If General Gage
means to make war on that town, let him do it. Is there anything to
say on the matter, gentlemen?

FRANKLIN: Mr. Hancock.

HANCOCK: Mr. Franklin.

FRANKLIN: I say that the thirteen colonies should unite in order to
fight Great Britain.

HENRY: Mr. Hancock.

HANCOCK: Mr. Henry.

HENRY: I agree with Mr. Benjamin Franklin. I wish to repeat a
statement I made once before. The distinctions between Virginians,
Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers and New Englanders are no more. I am not
a Virginian but an American. (Applause).



LEE: I make a motion that the thirteen colonies unite in order to
fight and that we declare ourselves free and independent of Great

MEMBER OF HOUSE: We must show reasons for separating from our Mother

ROBERT LIVINGSTON: We must show great men like Pitt and Burke why
we want to separate from England.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: I make a motion that a committee of men be
appointed to draw up a Declaration of Independence.

R. H. LEE: I second that motion.

SPEAKER: It has been moved and seconded that a committee of men be
appointed to draw up a declaration of independence. All those in favor
say Aye! Contrary minded No!

  Aye! Aye!

SPEAKER: I appoint Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Benjamin Franklin
of Pennsylvania, Robert R. Livingston of New York, Roger Sherman of
Connecticut and John Adams of Massachusetts to draw up a declaration
of independence. And now gentlemen, the American Army needs a head.
Who shall it be?

P. HENRY: I think Mr. Adams has a man in view.

HANCOCK: Mr. Adams.

ADAMS: I have but one man in mind, a gentleman from Virginia, whose
skill and experience as an officer, whose independent fortune,
great talents and excellent universal character would command the
approbation of all America and unite the Colonies better than any
other person in the Union. If you speak of solid information and
sound judgment, Colonel Washington is unquestionably the greatest
man on the floor.

LEE: Mr. President.


LEE: I nominate Colonel Washington as Commander in Chief of the
American Army.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: I second that motion.

HANCOCK: It has been moved and seconded that Colonel Washington be
made Commander in Chief of the American Army. All those in favor
say Aye.

  Aye! Aye!

HANCOCK: Not in favor, no. (All Aye). Then General Washington is
Commander in Chief of the American Army.


  (Goes to ante room and brings in Washington who left during Mr.
  Adams' speech).

Gentlemen, this is General Washington, Commander in Chief of the
American Army.

      (More Cheers).

WASHINGTON: I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in this
room that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity I do not think
myself equal to the task I am honored with.

      _End of Act III._



  The signing of the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July
  4th, 1776 by a Congress of representatives of the Colonies assembled
  in the State House in Philadelphia.

  The next act will be the signing of the Declaration of Independence
  as written by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia.

PRES. HANCOCK: After several days of debating in Congress the
Declaration of Independence as written by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia
is about to be accepted. Is there anything more to say on the subject,
gentlemen? Mr. Jefferson have you?

JEFFERSON: Mr. Hancock and Gentlemen. We feel that good reasons must
be shown to the world and to those brave Englishmen, Pitt and Burke
who have been our defenders for breaking away from our Mother Country.
We have tried to show these causes in the paper that I have written.

HANCOCK: Mr. Adams.

ADAMS: Mr. Hancock. We believe that all men are created equal with the
right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The present King
of England has shown himself a tyrant in his treatment of the Colonies
by his repeated acts. Thomas Jefferson has written these facts so the
world may see them.

HANCOCK: Mr. Sherman.

SHERMAN: Mr. Hancock. He has taxed us unjustly, without giving us a
voice in the matter. He has tried to force us to pay the debts of
England. These are more reasons we wish to give to the world for our
present action.

HANCOCK: Mr. Franklin.

FRANKLIN: We have sent petitions to him asking him to stop these
abuses. He has answered with insult. A prince with such a character
is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. We therefore, declare we
are enemies in war, in peace friends.

MR. LEE: Mr. Hancock.


LEE: I make a motion that the Declaration of Independence as written
by Mr. Jefferson be accepted and the news be given to the world that
we are a free people.

MEMBER OF HOUSE: I second that motion.

HANCOCK: It has been moved and seconded that the Declaration of
Independence be accepted and the news be given to the world that we
are a free people. All those in favor say Aye.

  Aye! Aye!

Contrary minded, No. And now gentlemen, I sign my name in large
letters so George Third may read it without spectacles (writes name).
We must all hang together in this matter.

FRANKLIN: Yes, we must all hang together, or we will hang separately.

HANCOCK: And now let the news be given to the world that we are a
free people.

BOY: Ring! Grandpa, Ring! Oh Ring for Liberty!

      _End of Washington Act._



  George Rogers Clark was born in Virginia in 1752. Clark liked to roam
  the woods. He became a surveyor and an Indian fighter at the age of
  twenty-one. He was a great leader in Kentucky along with Boone and
  fought the Indians many times. The British officers aroused the
  Indians. They paid a certain sum for each scalp of an American. Clark
  decided to strike a blow at the British across the Ohio. He drilled
  his men at Corn Island at the falls of the Ohio, the beginning of
  Louisville. In June he shot the falls and after a long march they
  reached the old French town of Kaskaskia.

  The first Act will be a dance at Kaskaskia.


  (British and French dancing. Enter Clark and stands at door.
  Indian lying on floor springs to feet and gives terrible war
  whoop. The dancing stops. Women scream and men rush toward

CLARK: Go on with your dance but remember you dance under Virginia
and not under Great Britain.

  (British General goes up to Clark).

CLARK: I ask you to surrender in the name of Virginia.

BRITISH GENERAL: I surrender. (Hands his sword to Clark).

  (French talk in corner. Father Gibault and other men come up to
  talk with Clark).

FATHER GIBAULT: We beg of you, Colonel Clark, to spare our lives and
the lives of our families.

CLARK: Father, your lives are safe. America makes war on no church
and will protect you all from insult. The King of France has made a
treaty with the United States and is sending ships and soldiers to
help us. All we want you to do is put up the American Flag.

FATHER GIBAULT: We are glad to hear this news. It makes us all very
happy indeed. I will go to Vincennes and tell the good news.

      _End of Clark Act._



  Andrew Jackson was born in North Carolina in 1767. His parents were
  Scotch Irish.

  Schools were few and poor and Andy learned more from the woods than
  from books. As a boy he was full of fun and mischief and fond of
  sports, but he was very hot tempered.

  When he was thirteen he learned what war meant for it was the time
  of the Revolution. Colonel Tarleton killed more than a hundred of
  Jackson's neighbors and friends, among them Andy's own brother. He
  never forgave the British.

  At fourteen he was taken prisoner by the British.

  The first act will be Andrew Jackson and a British officer. Enter
  soldiers dragging Andrew. Officer at desk. Men salute officer.

MEN: We have found this young fellow acting in a suspicious manner
around the camp, Colonel.

OFFICER: Well, well, a young rebel eh!

ANDREW: Yes, a rebel.

OFFICER: We'll see what you are good for, boy. Clean these boots.

JACKSON: I will not. I am a prisoner of war and expect to be treated
as such.

OFFICER: You won't! Won't you! (Draws sword and strikes boy on head).
(Soldiers drag him from room).

      _End of Act I._



  At Camden smallpox killed his remaining brother and left Andrew poor
  and sickly looking. His mother also lost her life in caring for
  American prisoners. Jackson was left an orphan of the Revolution. He
  studied law and at twenty was admitted to practice in the courts of
  the State.

  Stories from Tennessee made him long to see that beautiful country,
  so in company with nearly a hundred men, women and children he crossed
  the mountains into Tennessee.

  The next Act will be Jackson and others sitting around a camp-fire,
  telling stories of the Revolution.

JACKSON: This beautiful country of Nolichucky Jack's is worth the
trouble we have had in coming. Something in the stillness of the night
makes me think of those dreadful Revolutionary days. What a time it
was and what a lot of great heroes our country had.

ONE OF MEN: Yes, those were stirring days. Well do I remember that day
on the Boston Common. On the slopes of the hill where the State House
now stands there was a fine place to skate and slide. We fellows
learned our spelling those days for if we didn't we couldn't skate.
One day after school we hurried to the hillside. We found the ice
broken everywhere. We knew the British Redcoats had done the damage.
They thought it fun to make the Yankees angry. We went to General Gage
and told him what his soldiers had done. He said "You are plucky boys.
If my soldiers bother you again, let me know."

ONE OF THE GIRLS: Have you ever heard the story of Lydia Darrah?

  No, tell us.

Lydia was my grandmother. She lived in Philadelphia with her husband
and younger children. General Howe's adjutant took up his quarters
and secured a back room in which private councils could be held. Just
before one of these my grandmother was told to retire early as the
British officers would require the room at seven o'clock and would
remain late. Lydia suspected that something against the patriot army
was to take place. She sent the family to bed and taking off her shoes
crept down the stairs and listened at the door. She learned that all
the British troops were to march out and surprise General Washington
and his army. She knew it lay in her power to save the lives of
thousands of people. She decided to find a way of telling the news.

Going to the mill for flour, she left her sack to be filled and
hurried on to the American camp where she told one of the officers she
knew. He galloped off to Headquarters and informed General Washington.

The British officers never knew who gave Washington the information.

JACKSON: She was a brave woman. There were many brave women and men.

MAN: And that fight at Bunker Hill. Of course we lost because we
didn't have enough powder but how our brave boys did fight, as long
as the powder held out. They cut down whole ranks of the British army
as they advanced up the shore.

JACKSON: Well folks, I think we better go to bed. We have a hard
journey ahead of us. I will keep watch.

  (Jackson leans up against tree, smoking corncob pipe).

  (Suddenly the sound of an owl is heard in the distance).

JACKSON speaks to the man with him: "A little too natural that owl.
I fear it is Indians. We must arouse the people and go."

  (Goes and arouses people who get ready to leave.)

      _End of Act II._



  Jackson was successful as a lawyer; was made district attorney and was
  finally elected to Congress. Later became a frontier judge and a man
  of business. He won fame as a fighter in the war of 1812, and in many
  fights with the Indians and won the name of "Old Hickory."

  The next act will be calling for volunteers to fight at New Orleans.

JACKSON'S SPEECH: The British are again our enemies. They are
capturing our men on the high seas and forcing them to fight for
Great Britain. Shall we stand this? No, I say no. Perry and other
great sailors are fighting hard with our vessels. The British, if
we are not careful, will capture New Orleans. Who volunteers to go
with me? On to New Orleans and Victory!!

      _End of Act III._



  After the Battle of New Orleans Jackson was a great hero. In 1828 he
  was elected President of the United States. He had bitter quarrels
  with Clay, Calhoun and Webster over the U. S. Banks. In the Senate was
  another great man, Thomas H. Benton. He and Jackson had once fought a
  duel but were now good friends. Benton took Jackson's part against the
  other men. Refusal of South Carolina to pay the tariff caused trouble
  during Jackson's time. This act was called nullification.

  The next act will be President Jackson talking to General Scott about
  South Carolina.


JACKSON: South Carolina must be forced to obey the laws of the land.
The tariff will be collected by force if necessary. To nullify an Act
of Congress would be most dangerous to the Union. Take soldiers and
war vessels, General Scott, to Charleston and enforce the law at all

GENERAL SCOTT: I will do my best to enforce the laws of the land,
President Jackson.



  John C. Fremont was born in Savannah, in the year 1813, while his
  parents were on a journey through the South. His father died soon
  after, and his mother moved to Charleston, South Carolina. He was
  well educated, and after college spent some years in travel.

  He joined a company of engineers to explore the mountains between
  Tennessee and South Carolina to find a place for a railway. This
  region was a rough, beautiful, and wild country, and it gave Fremont
  a taste for exploring which never left him. His longing for wild life
  was gratified when he was made assistant to a famous Frenchman who
  went to explore the region between the Missouri and Canada.

  He married Jessie Benton, daughter of the famous Senator Benton.
  Benton was interested in the growth of the West. He knew that Fremont
  was interested in exploring, and used his influence with President
  Van Buren to have Fremont explore the Rocky Mountains.

  The first act will be Fremont talking to President Van Buren.


  (Senator Benton talking to Van Buren:)

BENTON: The West is a great country, Mr. President. We should have
it explored and investigated.

VAN BUREN: I agree with you, Senator Benton. The West should be
explored. If we had a good man to send on this expedition.

BENTON: I know a man, Mr. President; John C. Fremont. He is an
experienced engineer, and loves the wild life of adventure.

VAN BUREN: Bring Fremont to me.

  (Fremont enters and is introduced by Benton).

VAN BUREN: You are an explorer of note, Mr. Fremont? Will you
undertake a journey to the Rocky Mountains and bring back a report
of that country?

FREMONT: Yes, I am very much interested in exploring the West, and
with your permission and the permission of Congress, will try to
find out all that we can about that great country.

      _End of Act I._



  The next act will be Fremont telling about his first and second trip
  to the West.

SECRETARY TO PRESIDENT: Fremont and his famous guide, Kit Carson,
have returned from their second exploring trip to the West and await

PRESIDENT: Show them in.

  (Enter Fremont and party).

FREMONT: I have just returned from my explorations, and would like
to tell you of the trips. On my first trip I left Kansas City and
followed the Kansas River to the South Pass. On my second trip I
followed the same route to the South Pass, where I took four men,
and continued on, to the highest peak in the Rocky Mountains.

ONE OF THE MEN: While there and on the top, we unfurled the stars
and stripes in all its glory.

FREMONT: Then I decided to cross the mountains. After many weary
months we beheld a great lake.

ONE OF THE MEN: You can imagine what feelings stirred the breasts
of men shut in for months by mountains, at seeing what appeared to
us to be an ocean here in the midst of a continent.

FREMONT: As we strained our eyes along its silent shores, I could
hardly repress the almost desire to continue our explorations.

MAN: After making preparations, we crossed over the mountains till we
reached the Columbia River, and traveled down to Vancouver. Here we
were the guests of the Governor of the British Hudson Bay Company.

FREMONT: On November tenth, we started across the Sierra Nevada
Mountains, and then on, till we came to Sutter's Fort.

MAN: Here we met the remarkable Captain Sutter. Captain Sutter is a
native of Switzerland. He came here with the intention of building a
colony. The Spanish Governor, Alvarado, gladly gave him a great tract
of land. Captain Sutter has great herds of cattle and many acres of

FREMONT: We then decided to cross the mountains farther to the south,
where the San Joaquin River makes a gap. Here we beheld a great desert.

MAN: An Indian told us that there was neither water nor
grass--nothing. Every animal that goes on this desert dies.

FREMONT: From here we traveled forward, reaching Salt Lake; having
made a circuit of the Great Basin. Here we are, with the story of
our trip.

PRESIDENT: You have had some wonderful experiences. And now, Mr.
Fremont, I would like you to go on a third expedition--to explore
the Pacific Coast.

FREMONT: Very well, Mr. President.

      _End of Act II._



  Fremont did not know about the war with Mexico. On his way to the
  north, he heard that Mexicans were planning to kill every American
  in California. Jose Castro was a Mexican general. The Mexicans had
  one hundred and fifty horses. The Americans captured these horses.
  That was the first victory in the conquest of California.

      The Bear Flag Rebellion.

  The Americans were indeed a rough looking lot. Mounted on horseback,
  wearing leggings, and carrying pistols and guns. If the Americans had
  known that war was going on, they would have raised the Stars and
  Stripes. But not knowing it they decided to make a flag of their own.

  The next act will be the forming of the California Republic.

      (Men and soldiers around room).

MAN: We are now a Republic, and must have a Declaration of

OTHER MAN: Yes, and we must have a flag. Here is one. Mr. Todd made
it. A bear is drawn on it, and a star. Underneath are the words,
"California Republic."

OTHER MAN: We will raise this flag on the flagstaff of Sonoma. Now
we are an independent Republic.

      _End of Act III._



  The conquest of California came when a treaty was signed at the Rancho
  de Cahuenga. (Ca-wen-ga). The next act will be the Californians and
  Fremont at the Rancho de Cahuenga.

FREMONT: General Flores, General Vallejo, General Pico, and
Californians: You know why you have been called to this meeting?

GENERAL FLORES: Yes, Captain Fremont, we know why we have been called.
If we sign a treaty, and promise not to take up arms against the
United States we will be pardoned for revolting.

FREMONT: Yes, you will be pardoned under those conditions. Do you


FREMONT: Very well, sign here.

      (They sign.)

FREMONT: That will do, you are pardoned. Good afternoon, gentlemen.

CALIFORNIANS: Good afternoon, Captain Fremont.



  We are going to tell you the story of Webster, Clay and Calhoun.

  Daniel Webster was born in New Hampshire in 1782. He was a very weakly
  child, no one thought that some day he would have an iron body. He
  spent most of his time playing in the woods and fields. He loved the
  animals that he found there. He had a brother named Ezekiel. One day
  as they were walking through the field, they noticed that some of the
  cabbage had been eaten so they planned to catch the thief.

  The first act will be the story of the woodchuck.


  (Daniel and Ezekiel find woodchuck in trap).

EZEKIEL: Well Daniel I see that we have caught the woodchuck.

DANIEL: What shall we do with him?

EZEKIEL: I think that we should kill him.

DANIEL: I think we should take him into the woods and let him go.

EZEKIEL: Let us take the matter to father and let him settle it.
(Go to father).

DANIEL: Father, we have caught the woodchuck and we do not know what
to do with him. We have brought the matter to you to settle. Ezekiel
wants to kill him and I want to let him go.

FATHER: Well boys, we will hold a court. I will be the judge and you
will be the lawyers. One defend the case and the other prosecute.
Ezekiel you may speak first, you are the prosecutor.

EZEKIEL: I think we should kill the woodchuck. If we let him go, he
will be just as much trouble as ever, while if we kill him he can't
eat any more cabbage and we can sell his skin for at least ten cents
and small as that sum is it will help pay for some of the cabbage that
he has eaten, so in either way he is of more value dead than alive.

FATHER: Very good, Ezekiel. Now Daniel we will hear from you.

DANIEL'S SPEECH: God made the woodchuck. He made him to live in the
bright sunlight and the pure air. He made him to enjoy the free air
and the good woods. The woodchuck is not a fierce animal like the wolf
or the fox. He lives in quiet and peace. A hole in the side of a hill
and a little food is all that he wants. He has harmed nothing but a
few plants which he ate to keep himself alive. The woodchuck has a
right to life, to food, to liberty, for God gave them to him.

Look at his soft pleading eyes. See him tremble with fear. He cannot
speak for himself and this is the only way he can plead for the life
that is so sweet to him. Shall we be so cruel as to kill him? Shall
we be so selfish as to take from him the life that God gave him?

FATHER: Ezekiel, Ezekiel, let that woodchuck go!



  One day in spring, Daniel Webster's father took Daniel to Exeter
  Academy to prepare for college. All the boys laughed at his rustic
  dress and manners.

  He finally entered Dartmouth College at the age of fifteen. He was the
  best student there. All the students liked him. At the age of eighteen
  he gave a Fourth of July oration in his college town. After he had
  finished at Dartmouth, he taught school in order to help his parents
  send his older brother to school. Later, he entered Christopher Gore's
  law office. He studied very hard and won name and fame as a lawyer.

  The approach of the war of 1812 brought him into politics.

  He was elected to Congress and took his seat in 1813.


  Henry Clay was born in Virginia at the year of Burgoyne's surrender,
  1777. His father died when he was four years old. Little Henry lived
  near the "Slashes" the name given to a low flat region and went to
  school in a log cabin. He worked on a farm to do his share in the
  support of the family. Sometimes he would be seen barefooted behind
  the plow or else riding a horse to mill. From this he was called the
  "Mill boy of the Slashes." At fourteen he was a clerk in a store but
  he was made for better use.

  He was put in the office of a famous lawyer who was a clerk in one
  of Virginia's courts. He went to Richmond and studied law there. He
  formed a debating club and was made leader. From here he went to
  Lexington. There his rise in law was rapid, his fame grew and he was
  known as a lawyer who seldom lost his case.

  He was elected to the House of Representatives and was made speaker.
  As speaker he helped to bring on the War of 1812.


  Calhoun was born in the same year as Webster, 1782. He was born in
  South Carolina. His parents were Scotch-Irish. He learned more from
  the woods than he did from books and filled his memory before people
  could fill it. At the age of eighteen he began to prepare for college
  with the aid of his brother-in-law, a Presbyterian minister. Two years
  later he entered Yale College, studied hard and soon graduated with
  much honor. He studied law for three years, a year and a half in his
  own state and a year and a half in Connecticut. He began to practice
  law in South Carolina. He did not have much success. Perhaps the law
  was too dry for him or perhaps because he was soon to be elected to

  In 1811 he was married and elected to Congress.

  Henry Clay (Speaker) immediately put Calhoun on an important

  The next act will be John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay
  speaking of the war of 1812.

CLAY (speaker): Members of Congress and fellow citizens: England has
been at war with France for a number of years. France under Napoleon
has secured a large part of Europe. England has tried in various ways
to injure France by proclaiming that no ships of any nation shall
trade with France.

Napoleon retorted, issuing a decree that no ships shall trade with
Europe and these laws hurt American commerce. Shall we stand this or
demand our rights?

Gentlemen, I say we must fight. On to Canada!

MEMBER OF HOUSE: I think we should be very careful about going to war
with Great Britain. She has a thousand war vessels, while the United
States has only ten or twelve first-class vessels.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: England's troops are numerous, well drilled and
have had much experience. Our troops are few and poorly disciplined
and unused to war. I think, all matters in dispute could be arranged
without fighting.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: We would make a great mistake to fight England
and France at the same time.

WEBSTER: The British in taking our men have made it a practice to stop
American merchant ships and seize the best sailors. They claim these
men are British citizens and could be rightfully seized. Whenever they
see a fine looking seaman, they say: "You are an Englishman, we will
take you!" We must fight with the navy. If the war must be continued
go to the ocean. There the united wishes and exertions of the nation
will go with you. Even our party divisions end at the water's edge.

MR. CALHOUN: We have tried in various ways to induce England and
France to change these laws. These are not the only grievances we
have. England has a large navy. She needs many sailors. When our
ships were in her parts, she has seized our men and forced them on
her ships. Is this right? Must we stand such treatment? No! So we
call forth the patriotism and resources of our country to help us.

      _End of Act II._



  From 1819 to 1821, Congress was debating over the Missouri Compromise.
  The north opposed and the south favored. The excitement spread to the
  state Legislature and to the people. Many meetings were held.

  Finally Henry Clay succeeded in getting Congress to pass the Missouri
  Compromise. This act admitted Missouri as a slave state.

  Hayne had spoken against a protective tariff and for nullification and
  Daniel Webster felt called upon to reply so he made a great speech.
  His speech was considered by good judges the best ever delivered in
  Congress. He was probably the greatest orator of his time.

  South Carolina refused to pay the tariff in 1832 and nullified the
  law of Congress. President Jackson hurried the army and navy to make
  her pay.

  John Calhoun was for nullification. He said to save the South from the
  North, a state had a right to nullify a law of Congress.

  The third act will be Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun,
  speaking on the right of nullification.

SPEAKER CLAY: Gentlemen, we have been debating on the right of a state
to nullify. We must think of this matter in a calm manner. It is one
of the most serious times of our country. Our Union is in danger. We
have heard Mr. Hayne speak on Nullification; also Mr. Calhoun.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: Congress has no right to force another state to
pay a tariff and we declare a state has a right to nullify.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: President Jackson says the Federal Union must and
shall be preserved. He has warned the people of South Carolina that
any attempt at resistance will be put down with a high hand. We of the
North feel that this must be done in order to save the Union.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: Tariff is helpful to the North but not to the
South. There is always a difference between the North and South and
we of the South feel that nullification is right to save us from the

CALHOUN: Mr. Clay.

CLAY: Mr. Calhoun.

CALHOUN: The Southern people using slave labor will raise more tobacco
and cotton than they need so the tariff is hurtful to them. The
Northern people using free labor will manufacture all kinds of things
and the tariff is helpful to them. The Southern people are for
agriculture. The Northern people for manufacturing. The Southern are
for slavery and the Northern are for free labor. To protect the South
from the North the state has the right to nullify a law of Congress.
The state has the right because the state is above the nation. The
states made the constitution.

I believe that nullification is a means of saving the Union from

HAYNES: That is the way I feel, Gentlemen. Nullification is right.

MR. WEBSTER: Mr. Clay.

MR. CLAY: Mr. Webster.

MR. WEBSTER: We must not let South Carolina refuse to obey the laws
of the Union. For if she does she leaves the Union. If South Carolina
leaves the Union other states will also leave. Gentlemen of Congress:
Nullification is another name for secession. When my eyes shall be
turned to behold for the last time the sun in heaven, may I not see
him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious
nation. But may I see our flag without a single stripe erased or
polluted, not a single star obscured but everywhere spread all over
in characters of living light, that sentiment dear to every American
heart, Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

MR. CLAY: Gentlemen: I offer a compromise hoping it will please both
the North and South. I propose that the tariff be gradually reduced
till 1842 when all duties shall be 20% on the value of the articles
imported. I think, gentlemen this will be a solution of the question.
We will debate on it at the next meeting.

      _End of Act III._



  It was in 1848 that our country declared war on Mexico and won it with
  a great victory for the American Army. The treaty of peace with Mexico
  gave the United States all the territory then known as Alta (Upper
  California) and New Mexico.

  The North and the South disputed over this territory. The South said:
  "It must be open to slavery." The North said: "It must be free." The
  quarrel grew so bitter that many men thought the Union would be

  Kentucky legislature sent Clay back to the United States Senate by a
  unanimous call, Democrats as well as Whigs joining in the vote. It was
  a proud moment for the old man.

  Webster then went back to the United States Senate where he joined
  Clay in supporting the great Compromise of 1850. Calhoun opposed the

  The last act will be Clay, Webster and others talking on the
  Compromise of 1850.

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE: Gentlemen, for many days we have been debating
on the serious question of the danger of the South leaving the Union.
Mr. Clay will read his Compromise.

  (Mr. Clay enters on arm of friend. He is an old man now).

MR. CLAY: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I believe that the Union is in
danger of destruction but if we can again compromise, I think it can
be saved. This is what I propose: First that California shall be
admitted as a free state. Second: That the slave trade be stopped in
the District of Columbia. This should please the North. To please the
South, First: I propose that all Federal Officers be given authority
to hunt for slaves that have escaped to the North and without trial
or jury be returned to their masters. Second: I propose that the new
territories coming in as states decide for themselves whether they
shall be free or slave.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: The fugitive slave law reads thus: 'Any slave
escaping to the North might be seized wherever found and brought
before a United States judge. He cannot give testimony, or prove that
he is not a slave. All citizens are commanded to aid in the capture
of the fugitive.' Are we willing to accept Mr. Clay's clause in this
Compromise? As for myself, gentlemen, I think not.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: No, gentlemen, I do not think that we should
accept this. Many of these people have escaped into the North and are
living peaceably as free men. If this law goes into effect we will
have men who for money will go into the North and return these people
to slavery. There is a higher law even than an act of Congress. It is
the Golden Rule: 'Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.'

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: I say, Sir, we should have our slaves returned.
We need our slaves badly.

  (Mr. Calhoun's speech is read).

MR. CLAY: I believe from the bottom of my soul that this measure is
the re-union of the Union.

MEMBER OF CONGRESS: Mr. Clay's country is Virginia. He does not
understand that we of the South need slaves. If we of the South can't
keep our slaves, we will leave the Union.

MR. CLAY: The honorable Senator speaks of Virginia being my country.
This Union is my country, but even if my own state should raise the
standard of disunion I would go against her. I would go against
Kentucky much as I love her.

Mr. Calhoun's speech, Mr. President.

Mr. Calhoun is ill, I have a speech he wishes to be read.

MR. PRESIDENT: Honorable Senator, read Mr. Calhoun's speech.

  (Mr. Calhoun's speech).

Gentlemen of Congress: The Union is in danger today on account of the
Abolitionists. They have stirred up strife. All agitation against
slavery should be stopped. The relation existing between the two races
has existed for two centuries. We cannot permit it to be destroyed.
'Slavery is a good, a positive good.' There should be an equal
division of territory between the North and South. If you of the North
will not do this, then let our Southern states separate and depart in

Having faithfully done my duty to the best of my ability, both to the
Union and my section, I shall have the consolation that I am free from
all responsibility.

MR. WEBSTER: Mr. President.

MR. PRESIDENT: Mr. Webster.

MR. WEBSTER: I wish to speak today not as a Massachusetts man nor as
a Northern man, but as an American and a member of the United States

I speak today for the preservation of the Union. Hear me for my cause.
I speak from an anxious heart for the return of the peace and quiet of
this Union. I should rather have heard that this Union should never
be dissolved than that word secession. Secession, peaceable secession.
Sir, your eyes and mine will never see that miracle. Sir, I see as
plainly as I see that sun in Heaven that secession means a war. It
means a war, a war I cannot describe.

      _End of Play._




  Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky, February 12,
  1809. His parents were very poor. When he was seven years old his
  parents moved to Indiana. (He educated himself. Whenever he came in
  from work he read a book. He read the Bible, Æsop's Fables, Robinson
  Crusoe and other books). He loved his mother very dearly. She died
  when he was very young. Her last words to him were: "Try to live as
  I have taught you and to love your Heavenly Father."

  Many years after he said, "All I am or hope to be, I owe to my angel

  The first act will be Abraham Lincoln and John Hanks coming in from

HANKS: Gee, I am tired, aren't you?

LINCOLN: Yes. (Goes to cupboard, takes bread to eat, picks up book
and begins to read).

HANKS: (Gets bread and lies down). What you reading?

LINCOLN: O, a story of George Washington.

HANKS: Tell us about him.

LINCOLN: After a while.

HANKS: All you do is to read and cipher anyway. I am going to take
a nap.

      _End of Act I._



  Abraham Lincoln went on a flat boat down the Mississippi. The boat
  was laden with supplies to sell at New Orleans. While in New Orleans
  Lincoln visited a slave auction. After having seen this auction,
  Lincoln was very much more opposed to slavery.

  The next act will be Abraham Lincoln at the Slave auction. (Auctioneer
  and slaves. Sells several slaves. Class bid and carry on auction, etc.)

  (At end of auction, auctioneer says:)

AUCTIONEER: Rest of these slaves to be sold tomorrow. Gentlemen be
sure to come.

  (Lincoln and Hanks talk.)

HANKS: Well, well. Abe Lincoln what do you think of that?

LINCOLN: I think it is terrible. _If I ever get a chance to hit
that thing, I'll hit it and I'll hit it hard._

HANKS: I don't blame you.

      _End of Act II._


  After Lincoln came back from his voyage down the Mississippi, and the
  Blackhawk War, he ran for the State Legislature, but was defeated. A
  little later he ran again and this time he won. He said to a friend:
  "Did you vote for me?" His friend said, "I did." "Then," said Lincoln,
  "you must loan me two hundred dollars;" for Lincoln needed a new suit
  of clothes and stage coach fare to the Capital. Later he was sent to
  Congress and sometime later he was spoken of for President.

  The next act will be Lincoln waiting in a newspaper office in
  Springfield for news of his nomination.


  (Newspaper office. Lincoln and several men talking and walking
  around room. Among them Hanks.)

LINCOLN: I wonder who got the nomination.

EXCLAMATIONS: You got it Abe! Sure you got it! Hope Seward didn't get
it! Oh! there is no chance, Abe has it I know! Sure, Sure.

  (Enter man in great excitement).

Gentlemen, there has been a nomination. (People in office crowd around
him and talk). Mr. Seward (disappointment on faces of Lincoln and
men) Mr. Seward is the second name on the list. (Jumps upon chair and
exclaims). Three cheers for Abraham Lincoln, the next president of the
United States.

      _End of Act III._



  Abraham Lincoln was elected President. Soon after war broke out
  between the North and the South. Lincoln declared that the war was not
  to free the slaves but to save the Union. Lincoln soon saw that it was
  time to free the slaves, so he signed the Proclamation of

  This act linked the name of Lincoln with one of the greatest acts in

  The last act will be President Lincoln signing the Proclamation of

  (Lincoln sits at desk. Two men are showing him papers. One enters
  and says: "Mr. Lincoln, here is Mr. Seward with the
  Proclamation." Enter Seward and several others.)

MR. SEWARD: I have brought you the Proclamation to sign, Mr.

  (Lincoln takes paper, reads it over, takes up pen, tries to
  write, drops pen several times.)

MR. SEWARD: What is the matter, Mr. Lincoln?

MR. LINCOLN: I have been shaking hands since nine o'clock this morning
and my right hand is almost paralyzed. If my name ever goes down into
history it will be for this act and my whole soul is in it. If my hand
trembles as I sign this document, the ones who examine it will say--he



  Ulysses S. Grant was born in Ohio, April 27, 1822. His father was a
  tanner. He was brought up for farm work. Later went to West Point from
  where he graduated in 1843. He distinguished himself in the Mexican
  War. He resigned from the army in 1854, tried various kinds of
  business in St. Louis and Galena, Illinois. On the day after the fall
  of Sumter, Grant made up his mind to return to the army. In August
  1861 he became a brigadier general. From 1861 to 1863 his name was
  connected with most of the successful operations in the West, till
  Lincoln said of him, "I can't spare this man. He fights." His greatest
  characteristic was his indomitable grit.

  The first act will be Grant sending his answer to General Buckner at
  the capture of Fort Donelson.


  (Grant at desk, writing and looking over maps. Men at wall
  looking over maps. Officer speaks to General Grant.)

OFFICER: Two soldiers from General Buckner await outside, General

GRANT: Show them in.

  (Enter soldiers with Union man. Soldier salutes).

SOLDIER: General Grant, General Buckner wishes to know on what terms
you will consider the surrender of Fort Donelson.

GRANT: No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can
be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.

SOLDIER: Your answer will be given to General Buckner. Good bye,
General Grant. (Salute).

GRANT: (Salute). Goodbye.



  Robert E. Lee was born in 1807, of an old aristocratic Virginia
  family; he graduated from West Point (1829) and spent thirty-two years
  in the regular army; he distinguished himself in the Mexican War.

  Just before the Civil War broke out, he wrote to a friend: "If the
  Union is dissolved and the Government disrupted, I shall return to
  my native state and share the miseries of my people, and, save in
  defense, will draw my sword no more."

  A few days after the fall of Fort Sumter, he was offered the command
  of the United States Army and declined it. He resigned and after
  Virginia seceded, accepted a Confederate commission. He took command
  of the Army of Northern Virginia June 1, 1862. He had great power
  over men and his soldiers had perfect confidence in "Uncle Robert."



  The surrender of Appomattox Court House. Salute. Lee and his
  staff in room. Lee in full dress uniform. Grant enters with his
  staff. Grant shakes hands with Lee. Grant dressed in rough

GRANT: How do you do, General Lee. We have not met since the Mexican
War. Strange is it not?

LEE: (Salute). How do you do, General Grant. No we have missed
meeting. I have sent for you today, General Grant, to ask you the
terms of a surrender.

GRANT: The terms are the same as those sent you a few days ago,
General Lee. All of Northern Virginia must lay down their arms and
take up the Stars and Stripes.

LEE: Write them and I will sign.

General are in full dress uniform?

OFFICER: When Sherman came through we saved our best suit and this
is all we have.

  (Grant writes terms and reads to General Lee.)

The Terms: All the Army of Northern Virginia must lay down their
arms and take up the Stars and Stripes. The men are to be allowed to
return to their homes and are not to be disturbed by the United States
authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force
where they reside. They are to be allowed to take their horses home
to do the spring plowing.

LEE: You have been generous, General Grant. (Offers sword to Grant.
Grant takes it and returns it with this remark):

GRANT: A brave man should not be separated from his sword. I tender it
back to you.

  (Grant and Lee shake hands. Lee goes to his men and speaks to them).

LEE: Men we have fought through this war together. I have done my best
for you.

GRANT: (Speaks to his men). This day is not to be spent as a day of
victory but in peace and quiet. These men are now citizens of the same
country and are to be treated as such.



  We are now going to tell you the story of some of the great women of
  our nation, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Julia Ward Howe,
  and others.

  The first act will be Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the first champion of
  Woman Suffrage, and the first Woman's Rights Convention.


MRS. STANTON TALKING: Ladies we are met here today to discuss women,
our social, civil and religious conditions, and the rights of women.
(Applause). For generations we have been held down by man (more
applause). I want to read to you a set of resolutions. We will call
them a Declaration of Sentiments. They will be met of course with
ridicule but that does not matter. Right is right and in time will
prevail. Here are some of the resolutions:

First: We should have the same right as any other citizen of the
United States.

The right to own and manage our own property.

The right to cast a vote at an election.

There are others that we will talk of.

You see ladies we should have an equal vote with men. (Much applause).



  Susan B. Anthony met Mrs. Stanton soon after this convention and
  though she had not been in sympathy with the "Declaration of
  Sentiments" she changed and was ever after a friend of women's
  suffrage. They started a weekly paper which they called "The

  The next act will be Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony talking about
  their paper.

MISS STANTON: We must let the people of the United States see that the
only True Republic is this "Men their rights and nothing more--Women
their rights and nothing less."

MISS ANTHONY: Yes, this is the only way for us to get our rights. We
will organize a National Women's Suffrage Association.

MISS STANTON: We will go over the country to any state we are needed
and talk to the people.

MISS ANTHONY: Yes, I will address Congress and I will cast a vote for
the President. It is my right under the Fourteenth Amendment to the

      _End of Act II._

Transcriber's Note: The reader is obliged to seek information on
"Julia Ward Howe, and others" elsewhere, as the digital images of
this document contain final blank pages and a back cover, but no
further text.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note:

A Table of Contents has been added to this ebook for the reader's

Inconsistencies in punctuation, spelling and capitalization have
been retained to match the text of the original document.

The following typographical corrections have been made:

   Page 7: Removed stray parenthesis (Powhatan's fierce warriors.)
  Page 18: Changed Adam's to Adams' (Mr. Adams' speech)
  Page 22: Added missing word 'of' (before one of these)
  Page 22: Added missing letter 'i' to 'with' (with the Indians)
  Page 26: Added missing period (They sign.)
  Page 27: Changed 'ahe' to 'the' (caught the woodchuck)
  Page 30: Added missing word 'OF' (MEMBER OF CONGRESS)
  Page 33: Changed Æsops to Æsop's (Æsop's Fables)
  Page 34: Added missing period (Sure, Sure.)
  Page 34: Added missing period (Mr. Lincoln)
  Page 34: Added missing quotation marks (with the Proclamation.")
  Page 34: Changed . to ? (What is the matter, Mr. Lincoln?)

For ease of navigation during classroom use, a few minor formatting
adjustments have been made in this ebook. Six speakers' names
were converted to SMALL CAPS to match the style of the text; four
cases of left-justified unattributed dialogue were indented (three
cases of "Aye! Aye!" and one case of "No, tell us."); and parentheses
were added around some stage directions to better differentiate them
from dialogue.

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