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Title: European Fungus Flora: Agaricaceae
Author: Massee, George, 1845-1917
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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_To my friend Dr M. C. Cooke, to whom in matters Mycological I cannot
sufficiently express my indebtedness; I have much pleasure in dedicating
this attempt to introduce to British Mycologists, the Agarics of
European countries._

                                        _GEO. MASSEE._


  Dedication                             iii
  Preface                                  v
  Agaricaceae, definition of               1
  Agaricaceae, definition of sections of   1
  Leucosporae, analysis of genera          1
  Abbreviations                            3
  Chlorosporae, analysis of genera       118
  Rhodosporae, analysis of genera        118
  Ochrosporae, analysis of genera        138
  Melanosporae, analysis of genera       203
  Addenda                                241
  Corrections                            244
  Bibliography                           245
  Index                                  248


Observations extending over a period of twenty-five years, made at
Fungus Forays and kindred meetings where Mycologists assemble together,
has led to the conviction that familiarity with the Fungi and literature
pertaining thereto, of one country only, leads to a false impression as
to the significance of the term 'species.'

It conveys the idea that species are much more sharply defined than
proves to be the case, when the entire Fungus Flora of Europe is

In all large genera common to European countries, the continental
species can be sandwiched between British species. Even in large genera
there are as a rule not more than eight or ten primary differentiating
specific characters present, and it is the constant correlation of two
or three of those primary characters that constitute a species, as
understood at the present day.

If two British species are characterised respectively by the marks 1, 2,
and 3, 4, then we find that two continental species belonging to the
same genus will be indicated by the characters 1, 3, and 2, 4,

Primary specific characters should include only those features that are
constant, and not materially modified by geographical or exceptional
local conditions as to environment, etc., and such alone should
constitute a specific diagnosis. Trivial or local characteristics should
follow the essential diagnosis as a rider.

With the introduction of characters due to local conditions, a
description ceases to be a specific diagnosis in the proper sense, and
is merely a description of a certain state of a species occurring under
a given set of conditions. Such, however, is too frequently the nature
of so-called specific characters given in local Floras.

A lengthy and laboured description suggests lack of power to grip
essentials on the part of the compiler, and does not as a rule
facilitate the recognition of the species intended.

The idea of this work is to give the essential characters of each
species as presented by pileus, gills, stem and spores respectively.
This, however, owing to the views of some authors as to the predominant
value of one feature to the exclusion of others, has not always been
possible. For this reason the species of Britzelmayr are not included,
as his descriptions, even when aided by what are presumably intended as
figures, could not in many instances be construed into an intelligible

In Cooke and Quélet's _Clavis Synoptica Hymenomycetum Europaeorum_
(1878), 1943 species of Agarics are recorded as European, and of these
939 are given as British. The present work includes descriptions of 2750
European species, of which 1553 are British, a number considerably in
excess of that recorded for the species of any other European country.

The species indicated by brackets have not been recorded as British.

                                        G. M.

KEW, _June, 1902_.


Hymenium covering the entire surface of radiating lamellae or gills.
Spores one-celled.

Primary divisions of the Agaricaceae depend on the colour of the spores
as seen in the mass, when deposited on an opaque substance; and not as
seen under the microscope by transmitted light.


Spores white. In some cases with a tinge of yellow or pink. In some
species of _Russula_ the spores are clear ochre, but such species belong
obviously to _Russula_ notwithstanding.


Spores clear green or bluish-green.


Spores salmon-colour or pink.


Spores ochraceous or rust-colour.


Spores black, blackish-brown, or black with a purple tinge.


     Margin of gills acute; i.e. not longitudinally split or grooved.

     * MOLLES. More or less fleshy, soft, and soon decaying or
     shrivelling (not corky, woody, or rigid).

     + _Ring, or volva, or both present, or gills free._

=Amanita=. Volva and ring present. Gills usually free, rarely adnexed or
adnate. (Volva sometimes not evident round base of stem, but loose
patches on pileus prove its presence.)

=Amanitopsis=. Volva present, ring absent; gills free.

=Lepiota=. Ring present, volva absent; gills free. (In some sp. the
ring is imperfect, and in a few the gills are slightly attached.)

=Hiatula=. Gills free; volva and ring absent.

=Armillaria=. Ring present, volva absent; gills attached.

     ++ _Gills adnexed or adnate; ring and volva absent._

=Tricholoma=. Gills sinuate; stem fleshy.

=Russula=. Pileus fleshy; gills very rigid, brittle.

=Mycena=. Pileus slender, campanulate, usually striate, margin straight
and adpressed to stem when young.

=Collybia=. Pileus rather fleshy, more or less plane, margin incurved
when young; stem cartilaginous outside.

=Marasmius=. Tough, drying up and reviving when moistened; gills often
connected by veins.

     +++ _Gills decurrent._

=Lactarius=. Gills and flesh exuding milk when broken. (In some sp. the
gills are adnate.)

=Hygrophorus=. Gills thick at the base, edge acute, rather waxy, often
branched; pileus often hygrophanous. (In some sp. the gills are adnate
or even free.)

=Clitocybe=. Gills thin, pliant, sometimes powdered with the spores;
stem fibrous outside.

=Omphalia=. Gills thin, pliant, stem cartilaginous outside.

=Pleurotus=. Growing on wood. Stem lateral or excentric when present.

=Cantharellus=. Gills narrow, edge thick, rather waxy, forking.

=Arrhenia=. Gills reduced to very slight wrinkles or veins.

=Nyctalis=. Gills thick, edge blunt. Parasitic on fungi, or among dead
leaves, &c.

     ** TENACES. Coriaceous, corky, or woody, persistent, rigid when

=Lentinus=. Pileus coriaceous; gills decurrent, edge toothed or eroded.

=Panus=. Pileus coriaceous; gills decurrent, edge quite entire.

=Xerotus=. Pileus coriaceous; gills forking, edge thick.

=Lenzites=. Horizontal, sessile, woody or corky; gills radiating from

     Margin of gills split open.

=Trogia=. Gills resembling folds or wrinkles, edge grooved. (In the only
European species the edge of gills not grooved.)

=Schizophyllum=. Margin of gills split, the split portions rolling


Cm. = centimetres; compr. = compressed; decur. = decurrent; depr. =
depressed; exp. = expanded; g. = gills; hygr. = hygrophanous; infundib.
= infundibuliform; mm. = millimetres; p. = pileus; s. = stem; sp. =
spores; umb. = umbonate; umbil. = umbilicate.

The measurement given of the stem is that of its average length; that of
the pileus, its average breadth when expanded. The measurement of the
spores is given in micro-millimetres, usually indicated by the Greek
letter µ.


     * _Margin of volva free, persistent._

     + _Pileus red or deep orange._

[=caesarea=, Scop. P. hemispherical then exp. orange or red, edge
striate, flesh yellowish; g. yellow; s. stout, yellow, ring and volva
lax; sp. 8-10 × 6. Edible.

     ++ _Pileus white, sometimes tinged yellow or green._

=virosa=, Fr. Entirely white. P. 8-11 cm. conical, then expanded; viscid
when moist; g. free, crowded; s. 10-12 cm. slightly thinner upwards,
squamulose, ring near apex, torn, volva large, lax; sp. subglobose,
8-10. Poisonous.

=phalloides=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. viscid, obtuse, white, tinted yellow or
greenish; g. free, white; s. 7-10 cm. white, tapering upwards, bulbous,
ring large, volva large, margin irreg. free; sp. subglobose, 7-8.

=mappa=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 6-9 cm. convex then expanded, dry, white
or yellowish, usually with patches of the volva; g. adnexed, white; s.
5-8 cm. white, bulbous, ring torn, volva without a large, free margin;
sp. subglobose, 7-9. Poisonous.

Differs from _A. phalloides_ in shorter equal stem.

[=ovoidea=, Bull. White. P. silky, margin incurved, even; s. squamulose.

[=coccola=, Scop. White; margin of p. incurved, sulcate; s. villose; sp.
11-12 × 8.

[=lepiotoides=, Barla. At first entirely closed in brown volva. P. exp.
edge striate, squamulose, whitish, cuticle broken into greyish tawny
areolae or scales; g. broad, whitish, brownish when bruised; s.
yellowish-white, squamulose, ring thin, fugacious.

     +++ _Pileus yellow, sometimes tinged red._

[=junquillea=, Q. P. pale orange or lemon yellow, viscid, deeply
striate; g. adnexed; s. and fugacious ring yellowish-white, base
ovoid-bulbous, volva circumscissile.

[=vernalis=, Gillet. P. exp. pale dingy yellow with tinge of red, with
scattered white scales; g. free, white, broadest in front; s. white,
squamulose below the ring, base bulbous, volva ample margin free. In
early spring.

[=lutea=, Otth. P. conical, exp. yellow or yellowish ochre, edge invol.
slightly striate, disc papillose, viscid, usually with broad scattered
scales; g. white, crowded; s. rather narrowed upwards, base bulbous,
ring thin, white, volva membranous.

     ++++ _Pileus brownish or grey._

[=porphyria=, A. & S. P. brownish or with a violet tinge; g. adnexed; s.
slender, ring distant brownish; sp. 8-10.

=recutita=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. soon expanded, dry, glabrous, fragments of
volva present as a rule, grey or brownish; g. forming lines down the
stem; s. narrowed upwards, silky, white, ring distant, white, edge of
volva not free; sp. ----.

Differs from _A. porphyria_ in ring not being tinged brown.

[=cinerea=, Bresad. Small. P. conico-campan. edge striate, livid-grey;
g. free, crowded, white, edge fimbriate; s. equal, almost glabrous,
partly hollow, colour of p., ring apical, persistent, white; volva free,
sheathing, limb lobed, whitish; sp. 10-12 × 8.

     ** _Volva without a free loose margin, or almost obsolete._

     + _Pileus red, reddish-brown or dingy brown._

=muscaria=, Fr. P. 12-18 cm. soon plane, striate, viscid, scarlet or
orange with white patches; gills forming lines down the stem, white; s.
10-14 cm. stout, white, ring lax, volva broken up into concentric
ridges; sp. 8 × 5. Poisonous.

var. _regalis_, Fr. Large. P. liver-colour.

var. _formosa_, Pers. P. yellow or tawny orange, scales usually absent;
s. elongated, yellowish.

var. _umbrina_, Viv. P. umber or livid, disc fuscous; s. hollow. A
slender form.

=rubescens=, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. convex then expanded, dingy red-brown,
sprinkled with small pale warts, flesh brownish when broken; g. whitish,
forming lines down the stem; s. 7-10 cm. stout, narrowed upwards,
squamulose, whitish, ring large, bulbous base concentrically grooved;
sp. 8 × 6. Edible.

[=roseola=, Steinh. P. exp. rosy, with rosy mealy warts or naked, flesh
rosy; g. crowded, adnexed, white; s. cylindrical, somewhat bulbous, with
rufous squamules below ring, volva obsolete; sp. 8-9 × 5-6.

[=Eliae=, Q. P. reddish-lilac, margin sulcate; g. adnexed; s. white,
striate, volva obsolete; sp. 11 long.

=magnifica=, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. soon almost plane, striate, reddish-brown
or bay, with mealy patches, flesh reddish; g. slightly decurrent; s.
10-14 cm. bulbous, nearly equal, scaly and coloured like pileus up to
the large ring; sp. 7-8 × 5.

Very close to _Armillaria_.

=megalodactyla=, Berk. Strong scented. P. 5-8 cm. soon expanded,
subgibbous, reddish-grey; g. free, becoming tinged red; s. 8-12 cm.
rather bulbous, fibrillose, white, ring large; sp. 5 × 3.

=aspera=, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. soon plane, dusky olive, livid, or brownish,
with small, crowded, angular warts, flesh reddish under the cuticle; g.
free; s. 5-8 cm. white, squamulose, bulb rugulose, ring entire; sp. 8 ×

var. _Francheti_, Boud. P. pale yellowish-green with golden warts; sp.
10 × 8.

=excelsa=, Fr. P. 9-12 cm. soon plane, viscid, brownish-grey, warts
greyish, soon disappearing; g. free, white; s. 10-12 cm. squamose up to
the imperfect ring, and base bulbous, no free edge to volva; sp. 8-9 ×
5-6. Poisonous.

=pantherina=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. soon plane, viscid, striate, yellow-brown,
grey, or whitish, with flat mealy warts; g. free but close to stem,
white; s. 10-14 cm. bulbous, whitish, silky, ring distant, extreme edge
of volva free, sp. 8 × 5.

[=valida=, Fr. P. dark, with mucronate dark pointed warts; g. running
down stem in lines.

=spissa=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. soon plane, umber or grey with small grey
warts, flesh persistently white; g. running in lines down stem, white;
s. 6-8 cm. white, bulbous, slightly rooting, concentrically cracked or
squamulose, ring large; sp. 9-10 × 6.

     ++ _Pileus clear yellow or orange._

=aureola=, Kalchb. P. 7-10 cm. soon plane, orange or golden, viscid,
naked; g. free; s. 8-12 cm. slender, white, floccosely-squamulose, ring
sup. volva marginate; sp. ----.

=citrina=, Gon. & Rab. P. convex, obtuse, 8-12 cm. bright yellow with
white patches; g. white, broad, free; s. 10-12 cm. long, stout, white,
volva imperfect, ring large; sp. globose, warted, 6-7.

[=amici=, Gill. P. conical, then obtusely umb., striate, slightly
viscid, yellowish ochre, disc brownish and covered with large irreg.
greyish persistent patches; g. free, ventricose, narrowed at both ends;
s. hollow, bulbous, ring small inf., no free edge to volva.

     +++ _Pileus whitish or greyish._

=nitida=, Fr. P. 8-10 cm. hemispherical, whitish, with thick, angular,
brownish warts; g. free, crowded; s. 7-9 cm. conical, bulbous,
squamulose, white, ring torn; sp. ----.

=solitaria=, Bull. 8-12 cm. soon plane, whitish or tinged rufous, warts
angular, small, floccose, easily removed; g. white, broad, narrowed
behind and adnexed; s. 7-10 cm. with imbricated scales below, ring
torn, base swollen, rooting, volva marginate; sp. 7-12 × 5-6.

=echinocephala=, Vitt. White. P. convex then plane, shining, bristling
with acute, deciduous pyramidal warts; g. adnexed; s. solid, scaly, base
bulbous, rooting, ring distant; sp. 10 diam.

[=Persoonii=, Fr. P. greyish-white, margin even; g. free; s. solid,
nearly equal, rooting.

[=arida=, Fr. P. soon plane, grey, margin sulcate; g. adnexed; s.
subglabrous, ring distant, volva absent.

=strobiliformis=, Vitt. P. 10-20 cm. convex then expanded, white, grey,
or dingy ochre, with large pyramidal, hard warts; g. free; s. floccosely
scaly, bulbous, ring large, torn, volva forming concentric rings; sp.
13-14 × 8-9.

[=cariosa=, Fr. P. soft, even, umber or dark grey, with mealy patches;
g. adnate; s. equal throughout; sp. 10 long.


     * _Pileus coloured._

=vaginata=, Bull. P. 6-10 cm. plane, margin striate, grey, yellow,
brown, or white; g. pallid; s. 10-12 cm. narrowed upwards, minutely
squamulose, volva large, margin free; sp. 10 × 7-8.

The grey form is edible, the brown form is unpalatable.

=strangulata=, Fr. P. 8-10 cm. soon plane, livid-bay or grey, with
patches of the volva, margin striate; g. free, white; s. 10-14 cm.
stout, thinner upwards, pale, volva breaking up and forming 2-4
ring-like ridges on the stem; sp. 9-15 × 7.

Perhaps a vigorous form of _A. vaginata_.

[=urceolata=, Viv. P. thin, hemispher. then slightly depr. umb. viscid,
mouse-colour, edge striate; g. adnate, shining white; s. white, even,
naked, volva urceolate.

[=friabilis=, Karst. P. exp. thin, rather viscid, greyish, edge sulcate,
with broad crowded warts or scales; g. free, white, edge darker,
crenulate; s. conical, everywhere floccosely scaly, white or greyish;
volva broken up into fragments; sp. glob. 11-12.

Differs from _A. vaginata_ in smaller size and imperfect volva.

[=praetoria=, Paul. P. thin, campan. then exp. naked, pectinately
sulcate, maroon or brownish; g. annulato-adnexed; s. ventricose, volva
large, lax.

=lenticularis=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. globose, then convex, even, naked,
reddish-tan; g. free, crowded, pallid; s. 10-14 cm. subbulbous, white,
ring large; sp. ----.

[=Godeyi=, Gillet. P. pale honey-colour, naked, striate; g. free,
crowded; s. cylind., volva large, torn; sp. 15-18 long.

[=scobinella=, Trog. P. exp. fuscescent, pellicle broken up into minute,
deciduous, darker wart-like squamules, near margin even and silky; g.
white; s. conical, base white-squamulose.

[=gemmata=, Paul. Exp. vermilion with angular warts; g. pure white; s.
solid, bulbous, whitish, no distinct volva.

=adnata=, W. G. Sm. P. 6-8 cm. yellowish-buff with patches of the volva;
g. adnate, crowded, white; s. 5-9 cm. fibrillose, buff, volva almost
obsolete; sp. subglobose, 7-8.

[=insidiosa=, Letell. P. exp. even, glabrous, lurid, greenish-olive,
&c.; g. free, white; s. solid, slightly thinner upwards, edge of volva
free; sp. ----.

Differs from _A. baccata_ in even p. and free margin of volva. Fries
suggests _A. phalloides_ without the ring.

[=Bresadolae=, Sacc. Volva subglobose, not sheathing, edge stellate,
tinged brown; p. exp. glabrous, whitish, often with angular umber warts;
g. almost free, whitish; s. cylindr. whitish; sp. subg. 5-7.

Superficially resembles _Volvaria parvula_.

     ** _Pileus white._

[=leiocephala=, D. C. Shining white. P. convex then plane, silky, edge
even; g. free; s. solid, short, firm, volva very large, lax.

[=cygnea=, Schulz. White. P. soon plane; g. attenuato-adnexed; s.
clothed with adnate patches above the ample sheathing volva.

[=hyperborea=, Karst. (= _Ag. gemmatus_ var. _lapponicus_ Karst.).
Entirely white. P. thin, convex, exp. covered with angular warts, edge
pectinato-sulcate; g. free, shining white; s. bulbous, attenuated
upwards, ring absent; sp. glob. 10-14.

Perhaps a var. of _A. vaginatus_.

[=leccina=, Scop. P. exp. obtuse, naked, whitish or yellowish, edge
even; g. adnate; s. equal, edge of ring reddish; sp. 10 × 6.

[=baccata=, Fr. P. white, covered with globose warts; g. free; s. equal,
volva obtusely marginate; sp. 11 × 7.

[=Boudieri=, Barla. P. globose then exp. or depr., satiny, white, disc
tinged, warted, edge even; g. broad, white then tinged yellow,
subadnexed; s. long, subcylindrical, white and scurfy at apex, rest
yellowish-white, bulb turbinate, volva obliterated, brownish, ring thin,
caducous; sp. ellipsoid, elongated.

Differs from _A. baccata_ in longer sp.


     A. _Epidermis dry._

     * _Ring free, distinct from the volva._

=procera=, Scop. P. soon expanded, umbonate, with brownish scales, 10-25
cm.; g. free, crowded; s. 12-20 cm., base thickened, brownish,
transversely cracked, ring free; sp. 12-15 × 8-9. Edible.

=rachodes=, Vitt. P. 10-18 cm. soon expanded, not umbonate, with brown
scales, flesh brownish when broken; gills free; s. white, not cracked,
12-15 cm., ring free; sp. 14 × 8. Edible.

Differs from _L. procera_ in the flesh turning brown when cut.

var. _puellaris_, Fr. Small, entirely white, stem flocculose.

[=Olivieri=, Barla. P. convex, then exp. or depr., whitish tinged fawn
at disc, covered with fawn adpr. fibrillose scales; g. broad, free
yellowish-white; s. whitish, base swollen, ring cottony, caducous; flesh
white, brick-red then brownish when broken.

Allied to _L. rachodes_ with which it agrees in size.

=prominens=, Viv. P. 4-6 cm., umbo very strong, ochraceous, scaly; g.
white; s. 9-15 cm. slender, base swollen, ring free; sp. 10 × 8.

=permixta=, Barla. P. convex, more or less umb. campan. then exp. silky,
greyish fawn, centre darker, with adpr. brown scales and becoming
deprived of cuticle at edge; g. pale wax or tinged red; s. cylindr.
dingy white cracked into brown adpr. scales, base swollen, ring
brownish; flesh reddish when broken.

Resembles _L. procera_ in size and marking of s.; _L. rachodes_ in flesh
becoming red; and _L. excoriata_ in having border deprived of cuticle.

[=molybdites=, Mey. P. globose then campan. broken into crustaceous
scales up to middle; g. remote, white then tinged blue; s. hollow,
blackish-brown, bulbous, ring equal.

An introduced species.

=excoriata=, Schaeff. P. globose then plane, 5-8 cm. bistre or whitish,
silky or squamulose; g. free; s. cylindrical, white, 5-8 cm. hollow,
ring free; sp. 14-15 × 8-9.

_L. naucina_ differs in the fragmentary ring.

[=carneifolia=, Gill. P. fleshy, exp. brown or purple brown, glabrous
then minutely broken up into fascicles of fibrils; g. fleshy, crowded,
distant from s.; s. white, fibrillose, thickened at base, ring large,
soon free.

=densifolia=, Gill. P. obtuse, white, soon broken up into adpressed
fibrillose scales; g. closely crowded, thin, white, broadest in front;
s. white, shining, ring free.

=gracilenta=, Kromb. P. soon expanded, obtusely umbonate, 5-8 cm., brown
patches on white ground; g. free, broad; s. thickened at base, 12-16
cm., white, ring floccose, disappearing; sp. 10-11 × 7.5.

Differs from _L. procera_ in smaller size and more especially in the
fugacious ring. _L. prominens_ differs in very large umbo and permanent,
free ring.

=mastoidea=, Fr. Entirely whitish. P. 3-5 cm. with small disappearing
warts; g. free; s. narrow up from bulbous base, 5-8 cm., ring free; sp.
7-8 × 5.

The smallest species of the present section. Like _L. gracilenta_ in

     ** _Ring fixed, homogeneous with the universal veil clothing the

=Friesii=, Lasch. P. 8-12 cm. expanded, subumb. with adpressed,
tomentose brown scales; g. free, crowded; s. 8-12 cm. subbulbous, scaly,
brownish, ring pendulous; sp. 8-9 × 5.

=acutesquamosa=, Weinm. P. 9-12 cm. convex, obtuse, pale rusty with
numerous small pointed warts; g. free, crowded; s. 8-10 cm. narrowed
from swollen base, white with rusty scales below, ring large; sp. 7-8 ×

Differs from _L. Friesii_ in rigid deciduous warts, and broad gills very
close to stem.

=Badhami=, Berk. P. 5-8 cm. expanded, obtuse, squamulose, dark brown,
cracked into patches, flesh like that of stem saffron-red when broken;
g. free; s. 6-8 cm. bulbous, whitish, ring rather loose; sp. 5 × 3.

=emplastra=, Cke. and Mass. P. 5-8 cm. convex, glabrous, dark brown,
cracked and showing white ground; g. free; s. 7-9 cm. whitish, ring
brown outside; sp. 18-20 × 10-12.

Differs from _L. Badhami_ in glabrous pileus and larger spores.

=meleagris=, Sow. P. 2-4 cm. soon plane, minute black scales on a pale
ground, flesh becoming red; g. free; s. 3-6 cm., with blackish
squamules, stuffed, ring obsolete; sp. 6-7 × 4.

=biornata=, B. and Br. P. 2-4 cm. convex, white tinged yellow, sprinkled
with red scales; g. free; s. 6-9 cm. long, ventricose, white spotted red
as is also the ring; sp. 8-9 × 6.

=hispida=, Lasch. P. 5-7 cm. soon expanded, umb. tawny-brown, tomentose
then hispid; g. free, crowded; s. 5-7 cm. floccosely-scaly up to ring,
tawny; sp. 6-7 × 4.

[=lignicola=, Karst. P. exp. whitish- or yellowish-rusty, with innate,
erect, rusty concentric scales, edge fibrillose; g. crowded, free, edge
crenulate; s. curved, rusty, squamulose up to obsolete ring; sp. 4-5 ×

Superficially resembles _Phol. squarrosa_.

[=helveola=, Bres. P. exp. umb. scaly, reddish-brown; g. free,
ventricose, white; s. white then fawn, ring white. Poisonous.

[=Boudieri=, Bres. Subcaespitose. P. campan. exp. fawn, with minute
darker scales; g. densely crowded, white, edge purple primrose; s.
bulbillose, brownish and fibrillose up to ring; sp. 8-9 × 3.5.

[=ignicolor=, Bres. P. conico-campan. subexp. umb. squamulose or
fibrillose then almost glabrous, dry, fiery tawny; g. yellowish, edge
tawny; s. colour of p., base somewhat rooting with bright tawny fibrils;
ring evanescent; sp. 8-10 × 4.5-5.

[=castanea=, Q. P. umb. squamulose, brown; s. and ring white with tawny

[=echinella=, Q. and Bern. Smell like radishes. P. camp. then convex and
umb. bay, bristling with brown pyramidal hairs; g. free, pallid, tinged
red; s. rosy, blackish scales below silky ring, pale above.

Much more slender than _L. hispida_.

[=Morieri=, Gill. P. exp. umb. white, shining, covered with reddish
scales, umbo smooth, edge appendiculate; g. white, edge denticulate; s.
fibrillose, white, shining, ring ample.

=clypeolaria=, Bull. 5-8 cm. campan., at first incrusted, umb. tawny,
remainder with brownish scales; g. free; s. 6-8 cm., fibrillosely
squamulose up to ring, striate above; sp. 6 × 4.

Differs from _L. hispida_ in pileus not being tomentose, and paler
colour. From _L. cristata_ by squamulose stem.

[=brunneoincarnata=, Chod. and Mart. P. subglobose then campan.-conic
and umb. with scattered rufescent scales; g. free, white; s. fistulose,
equal, colour of p.

[=Forquignoni=, Q. P. white, silky, umbo olive; g. becoming rosy; s.

=felina=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. camp. expanded, umbo black, rest with
concentric black scales on a white ground; g. free; s. 3-5 cm., white,
sometimes with black specks; sp. 10 × 5.

=metulaespora=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. campan. then expanded, margin
coarsely striate, whitish-yellow with pale squamules; g. almost free; s.
4-6 cm., pale lemon yellow inside and out; sp. fusiform, 15-16 × 6.

=cristata=, A. and S. P. 2-4 cm. soon expanded, reddish-brown cuticle at
first continuous, then broken up into concentric scales on a whitish
ground; g. free; s. 4-6 cm., whitish, fibrillose; sp. 7 × 4.

Differs from _L. clypeolaria_ in stem not being squamulose.

[=lilacea=, Bres. P. convex-campan. exp. depr. sometimes umb.
purple-lilac then pale and broken up into fuscous squamules; g. free,
white; s. fibrillosely scurfy, then almost glabrous, whitish then
pinkish lilac, ring inf. persistent blackish violet underneath; sp. 4-5
× 2-2.5.

Differs from _Lepiota cristata_ in absence of smell, a feature which
also separates it from _L. Bucknallii_.

=nigro-marginata=, Mass. P. 3-5 cm. soon expanded, buff with small,
brown, concentric scales; g. narrow, pallid; s. 5-6 cm. slender, smooth,
buff, peronate up to distant ring; sp. 6-7 × 4.

[=Magnusiana=, P. Henn. P. cylindrico-campan. then exp. papillately
scaly, white, centre yellowish with age, edge striate; g. free, crowded,
lanceolate, white then reddish; s. equal, white then reddish, ring
membranaceo-flocculose; sp. 7-11 × 6-8.

=erminea=, Fr. White. P. 4-7 cm., camp. then expanded, even, glabrous,
then silky towards margin; g. free; s. 5-7 cm. fibrillose; sp. 11-12 ×

=micropholis=, B. and Br. P. 1-1.5 cm., soon plane, white with minute
radiating blackish squamules; g. free; s. 2-2.5 cm., white, ring
spreading; sp. 5 × 3.

=citriophylla=, B. and Br. P. 1.5-2 cm. expanded, umb. lemon yellow
with rufous squamules; g. free, lemon yellow; s. 2-4 cm. squamulose,
yellow; sp. 7-8 × 4.

Differs from _L. amianthina_ by free gills and white flesh; and from _L.
metulaespora_ in squamulose stem.

=atro-crocea=, W. G. Sm. P. 2.3 cm. soon plane, margin often lobed, deep
orange, covered with purple-brown fibrils; g. slightly attached, tinged
yellow; s. 2-3 cm. orange; sp. ----.

     *** _Ring superior, fixed, subpersistent; universal veil adnate to
     the pileus._

=Vittadinii=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. expanded, obtuse, whitish, densely covered
with small erect warts; g. free, with a greenish tinge; s. 5-8 cm. with
concentric scales up to large ring, whitish or scales tipped red; sp.

Differs from _L. nympharum_ in solid stem and superior ring.

[=strobiliformis=, Gill. P. convex, edge irreg. covered with strong
brown, angular and pyramidal warts; g. closely crowded, narrow; s.
cylindrical, stout, whitish, ring membranous.

[=furnacea=, Let. P. white with a black cortex splitting radially; s.
white with concentric black scales.

=nympharum=, Kalchb. P. 6-9 cm. soon expanded, umb. often tinged brown,
rest white with overlapping scales; g. free; s. white, hollow, glabrous;
sp. globose.

[=colubrina=, Kromb. P. convex, obtuse, tinged fuscous, covered with
tomentose imbricated scales; g. white; s. solid, very long, ring

=holosericea=, Fr. Very soft. P. 6-9 cm. soon plane, obtuse, floccose,
whitish or tinge of tan; g. free; s. 5-9 cm. bulbous, whitish, silky,
ring large; sp. 7-8 × 5.

=naucina=, Fr. White. P. 5-10 cm. globose then plane, subumb. glabrous
then breaking up into granules; g. free; s. 4-5 cm. tapering to
thickened base, fibrillose, ring sup. thin, disappearing; sp. subg. 6-7.

Differs from _L. excoriatia_ in the ephemeral ring.

=leucothites=, Vitt. P. 5-10 cm. subumbonate, white, disc tinged brown,
silky then squamulose; g. white then pink; s. 7-12 cm. white, smooth,
bulbous, ring large, persistent; sp. hyaline, 9 × 7.

[=rorulenta=, Paniz. Tufted. P. whitish, campan. umb. sulcate, softly
granulato-squamulose; g. closely crowded, tinged rosy; s. slender,
elongated, base thickened.

=cepaestipes=, Sow. Yellow. P. 2-5 cm. expanded, umb., scaly, margin
plicate; g. free; s. swollen below, 7-12 cm. floccose; sp. 7-8 × 4.

There is a white form.

[=medioflava=, Boud. P. exp. striate, snow-white, very minutely silky
tomentose, centre depr. but the prominent umbo yellowish; g. free,
white; s. fistulose, white, minutely scurfy above median reflexed ring,
thickened base often yellowish; sp. 5-6 × 3.

=licmophora=, B. and Br. Pale yellow. P. 2-3 cm. glabrous, coarsely
grooved; g. free; s. 3-5 cm. thicker below, smooth; sp. 9-10 × 5.

Differs from _L. cepaestipes_ in glabrous pileus.

[=Brebissoni=, Godey. P. exp. subumb. very thin, striate to middle,
brownish, paler towards edge, with brown scales at centre and paler ones
at margin; g. distant, edge toothed; s. swollen below, silvery white,
pruinose above the ring.

Resembles some sp. of _Coprinus_ in transparency and fragility.

[=Schulzeri=, Kalchbr. White. P. convex then exp. umb. even, glabrous;
g. free, remote, narrowed behind; s. hollow, narrowed from a subbulbous
base, naked, ring median, small.

[=straminella=, Bagl. Entirely straw-colour. P. obtuse, sulcate, with
glutinous mealy flecks; g. attached to ring behind, s. floccose,

     **** _Pileus granular or warted. Universal veil of pileus and stem
     at first continuous, on rupturing forming an inferior ring._

=cinnabarina=, A. and S. P. 4-7 cm. obtuse, more or less gibbous,
scurfy, persistently brick-red; g. free; s. 3-5 cm. with red scales up
to imperfect ring; sp. 6-7 × 5.

var. _Terreyi_, B. and Br. P. subglobose, bright tawny red, rough with

Differs from _L. granulosa_ by larger size and persistently red pileus.

=carcharias=, Pers. Smell strong. P. 2-4 cm. soon plane, subumb. pale
flesh colour or yellowish-pink, granular; g. adnexed, white; s. 3-4 cm.
granular and coloured like pileus up to ring; sp. ----.

var. _Terrei_, B. and Br. P. orange-red, convex; s. nearly equal; g.
broad, ventricose.

[=tuberculata=, Brig. P. globoso-exp. cuticle thick, breaking into
tubercles, pale tan; g. white; s. subbulbous, fibrillose.

[=venusta=, Bagl. P. convex, edge very thin, crenulate, sulcate, cuticle
tawny cracking in the centre; g. adnexed by a tooth; s. solid, thickened
upwards, peronate half way up.

[=Pauletii=, Fr. P. exp. bristling with spines, brownish; g. crowded; s.
short, white.

=granulosa=, Batsch. P. 2-3 cm. expanded, obtusely umb. scurfy or
granular, rusty or brownish-orange, pale and hoary when dry; s. 3-5 cm.
floccosely scaly and coloured like pileus up to ring; sp. ----.

Pileus often wrinkled, sometimes pale.

var. _rufescens_, B. and Br. Entirely white, becoming rufous when dry.

_L. amianthina_ differs in adnate gills and yellow flesh of stem.
Differs from _L. carcharia_ in absence of unpleasant smell.

=amianthina=, Scop. P. 2-2.5 cm. soon plane and subumb. granular,
ochraceous, flesh yellow; g. adnate, yellowish; s. 3-5 cm. squamulose up
to ring, flesh yellow; sp. ----.

var. _Broadwoodiae_, B. and Br. P. yellow; g. white.

=polysticta=, Berk. P. 2-3 cm. soon expanded, reddish or yellow-brown
broken up into minute scales; g. free, yellowish; s. 2-4 cm. scaly and
coloured like pileus up to ring; sp. ----.

     ***** _Cuticle of pileus dry, entire, not granular nor scaly;
     small, slender._

=parvannulata=, Lasch. P. 1-1.5 cm. expanded, subumb. silky, white or
tinged yellow; g. free, crowded; s. 3-5 cm. white, fibrillose up to
distant small spreading ring; sp. 4 × 2.5.

_L. erminea_ differs in superior, torn ring, glabrous pileus, and
radishy smell.

=sistrata=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. expanded, whitish, disc often tinged yellow
or reddish, pruinose with glistening particles; g. nearly free, crowded;
s. 3-5 cm. white, silky, ring fibrillose; sp. ----.

_L. seminuda_ differs in mealy stem, and _L. mesomorpha_ in glabrous
pileus and stem, and entire ring.

=seminuda=, Lasch. P. 2-3 cm. expanded, umbonate, whitish or tinged
fleshcolour, mealy then naked; g. reaching the stem; s. 3-4 cm. whitish,
mealy, ring small, superior; sp. 5 × 3.

_L. sistrata_ differs in fibrillose stem and pileus covered with
glistening particles.

=Bucknallii=, B. and Br. P. 1-2 cm. convex, white with violet powder; g.
reaching stem; s. 3-5 cm. white with violet powder; sp. 7 × 3.

Smell strong, like gas-tar.

=ianthina=, Cke. P. 2 cm. expanded, umb. whitish, disc violet,
fibrillose; g. free; s. 2-3 cm. wavy, white, ring distant, disappearing;
sp. ----.

=mesomorpha=, Bull. P. about 1.5 cm. expanded, subumb. pale brown or
yellowish, even, glabrous; g. free; s. 3-4 cm. pale, glabrous, ring
superior; sp. ----.

[=denudata=, Rab. P. campan.-exp. pale sulphur, very thin, floccosely
scurfy then naked; g. ventricose; s. subequal, with a minute very
fugacious ring.

[=serena=, Fr. White. P. campan. glabrous; s. slender, subbulbous, ring
thin, deciduous.

=martialis=, Cke. and Mass. P. 2-3. cm. soon plane, deep rose; g. free;
s. 3-4 cm. pink up to broad ring; sp. 8 × 4.

     B. _Cuticle of pileus viscid, not broken up._

[=demisannulata=, Secr. P. thin, umb. even; g. free, crowded, white; s.
nearly equal, with black fibrils, ring pendulous.

=medullata=, Fr. White. P. 3-5 cm. soon expanded, glabrous, viscid, veil
in fragments at margin; g. free; s. 5-8 cm. dry, obsoletely squamulose
below, ring torn; sp. ----.

Differs from _L. illinita_ in dry stem.

=glioderma=, Fr. P. 2.5-5 cm. campan. then convex, even, viscid
reddish-bay; g. free; s. 5-8 cm. dry, whitish, densely squamulose up to
torn ring; sp. ----.

=delicata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex then plane, even, viscid, granular,
rufescent or yellowish; g. free; s. 2-3 cm.; s. dry, whitish floccosely
squamulose up to ring; sp. ----.

Differs from _L. glioderma_ in p. not being campanulate, and stem
floccose, not squamose.

=illinita=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. white or tinged tan, subumb. glabrous,
viscid; g. free; s. 5-7 cm. white, glutinous, ring obsolete; sp. ----.

Distinct from all species by glutinous stem.

[=pingua=, Fr. P. white or greyish, viscid, as is also the ring; s.
short, dry.

[=inoculata=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, honey colour, even, viscid; g.
crowded, broad; s. abruptly vaginate by the veil.

=Georginae=, W. G. Sm. White. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. mealy, viscid, changing to
crimson when touched, as do also the gills and stem.


[=Wynniae=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. membranaceous, splitting along back of
gills, pale; g. rather distant, white; st. 2-3 cm. hollow.

Introduced from Queensland. Phosphorescent.


     * _Gills sinuate, adnexed._

=bulbigera=, A. and S. P. 7-10 cm. brownish, dry, fibrillose near
margin; g. emarginate; s. marginately bulbous, pale, ring soon
disappearing; sp. 7-10 × 5.

[=phoenicea=, Weinm. P. exp. glabrous, viscid, red; g. free, shining
white; s. bulbous, with red fibrils, ring fugacious.

=focalis=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. reddish-tawny, silky, obtuse; g. almost free;
s. 7-9 cm. equal, fibrillose, ring median; sp. ----.

var. _goliath_, Fr. Larger than type, s. rooting, ring almost obsolete.

=robusta=, A. and S. P. 6-8 cm. dry, rufous-bay, flesh thick; g. nearly
free; s. 3-5 cm. stout, base narrowed, brownish floccose up to ring,
white above; sp. ----.

Differs from _A. aurantia_ in deeply emarginate, broad, whitish gills.

[=squamea=, Barla. Smell like cucumber. P. convex then exp. reddish
cinnamon, covered with brown-red scales; edge incurved; g. broad,
subdecur. whitish tinged red; s. subventricose with a long tapering
base, reddish-brown and scaly up to torn ring, white above; flesh-white,
saffron when broken.

Allied to _Armill. robusta_ but larger.

[=Caussetta=, Barla. Smell like cucumber. P. exp. depr. dry, silky,
squamulose at centre, rather viscid when moist, brick-red, edge incurved
then spreading; g. broad, pale or tinged red; s. stout, narrowed at
base, fibrillose and reddish up to ring, white above; flesh white,
reddish when broken.

[=caligata=, Viv. Smell strong. P. exp. tawny, spotted with adpressed
silky scales; g. emarginate; s. solid, with brownish concentric scales
below the membranous persistent ring.

[=megalopoda=, Bres. Smell strong. P. convex, exp. or depr. even,
glabrous, rather viscid, chestnut; g. crowded, whitish then
straw-colour; s. brownish-squamulose up to median ring, white above; sp.
glob. 5-6.

[=luteovirens=, A. and S. All except white squamulose stem straw-colour;
p. torn into squamules, greenish when mature; ring imperfect.

=aurantia=, Schaeff. P. 5-8 cm. rusty orange; g. adnexed; s. 6-8 cm.
stout, orange and concentrically squamose up to ring, white above; sp.

[=dehiscens=, Viv. P. hemispher. then depr. yellowish ochre; g.
adnexo-decur., broad; s. cylindric, scaly, viscid, ring very narrow,

=ramentacea=, Bull. P. 5-8 cm., obtuse, whitish or yellowish with darker
squamules; g. adnexed becoming free; s. 3-5 cm. with brown squamules up
to the oblique fugitive ring; sp. ----.

[=Ambrosii=, Bres. P. convex, exp. dry, soft, floccosely-downy,
snow-white, edge append.; g. white; s. even above ring, floccose below,
white; ring inferior, torn, deciduous, sp. 4-5 × 2.5.

[=cingulata=, Fr. P. thin umb. greyish brown, squamosely fibrillose; g.
greyish white; s. even, ring median.

[=scruposa=, Paulet. P. exp. glabrous, rough with contorted ridges,
subfuscous; g. sinuato-adnate; s. solid, equal, rooting, ring firm,

[=albosericea=, Brig. White. P. exp. broadly umb., even; g. crowded; s.
silky, base tuberous, ring remote, fugacious.

=constricta=, Fr. All white. P. 3-5 cm. obtuse, dry, glabrous, silky; g.
emarginate, adnexed, or almost free; s. 3-6 cm. solid, fibrillose or
squamulose, ring apical, narrow; sp.

Much stouter than _A. subcava_.

[=verrucipes=, Fr. Pure white. P. glabrous; s. with brown warts up to
annular zone, ring absent; g. sinuato-adnate.

     ** _Gills narrowed behind, more or less decurrent, with no sinus._

[=imperialis=, Fr. P. brown with darker scales; g. deeply decurrent;
ring double, sp. 12-14 × 5.

[=Laschii=, Fr. P. fawn colour, even, glabrous, thin ring erect; g.
crowded, white.

[=tumescens=, Viv. P. exp. even, glabrous, whitish; g. adnate, pale
ochre, then tinged red; s. solid, stout, narrowed from the base,
whitish, ring fugacious.

[=rhadigosa=, Fr. P. depr. moist, whitish with brownish adpressed scales
at disc; g. decur., broad, white; s. short, equal, ring reflexed.

=mellea=, Vahl. P. 5-12 cm. soon expanded, yellowish-brown, squamulose,
margin striate; g. slightly decurrent; s. 8-12 cm. floccose up to
spreading ring, base honey-colour; sp. 9 × 5-6.

Mycelium forming long black strands. A destructive parasite.

=denigrata=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. obtuse, dark brown, rather viscid, spotted
with droplike depressions, and with elevated warts, margin even; g.
rather decurrent; s. 4-5 cm. solid tinged brown, ring disappearing; sp.

[=morio=, Fr. P. campan.-exp. irreg. cracked, viscid, greyish brown then
rufescent; g. adnate; s. solid, fibrous, ring narrow.

[=Viviani=, Fr. P. convex, glabrous, dark bay then whitish; g. adnate,
pale fawn; s. elongated, white, ring narrow.

[=griseofusca=, D. C. P. convex, even, glabrous, brownish grey, discoid;
g. decur.; s. equal, glabrous, ring persistent.

[=pleurotoides=, Fr. P. subexcentric, ring toothed; s. whitish with a
flesh-coloured tint.

=citri=, Inz. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, subumb., even, yellow; g. adnate;
s. 5-7 cm., slender, ring spreading; sp. subgl. 5 × 4.

=subcava=, Schum. P. 3-4 cm. white, umbo brownish, striate to middle; g.
decurrent; s. equal, hollow upwards, 4-5 cm., even up to torn ring,
punctate above, white; sp. ----.

Differs from _A. constricta_ by longer thinner stem, and striate pileus.

=haematites=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. obtuse, liver-coloured; g.
adnato-decurrent; s. 3-5 cm. coloured like pileus up to ring, whitish
above; sp. 8 × 5.

     *** _Gills adnate without a sinus._

[=laqueata=, Fr. White. P. 3-4 cm. hemispherical, obtuse, viscid when
moist, smooth; g. adnate; s. 5-7 cm. solid, squamulose or fibrillose
below the ring, base tinged brown; sp. ----.

=mucida=, Schrad. P. 4-8 cm. soon expanded, white or grey, rugulose,
glutinous; g. striately decurrent; s. 5-12 cm. base thickened, ring
apical, striate, tumid; sp. 15-16 × 8-9.

=Jasonis=, Cke. and Mass. P. 3-5 cm., camp. then expanded, umb., yellow,
disc tawny, papillate; g. adnate; s. 5-7 cm. coloured like pileus,
squamulose up to torn ring; sp. 8 × 5 µ.

[=fracida=, Fr. Smell rancid. P. convex, obtuse, even, spotted,
brownish-olive; g. becoming free, white; s. base narrowed, squamulose,
smooth above the spreading torn ring.

[=pinetorum=, Gill. P. exp. umb. granular, pale or yellowish white,
covered with reddish squamules; g. sinuato-decur., pallid; s. colour of
p., squamulose up to spreading ring which is also squamulose outside.


     A. _Pileus viscid, scaly, or villose._

     I. LIMACINA. _Pileus viscid when moist, innately fibrillose or
     squamulose, but not broken up._

     * _Gills not changing colour, not becoming rufescent._

=equestre=, Linn. P. 7-12 cm. exp. obtuse, viscid, squamulose, yellow or
tinged green; g. sulphur yellow; s. 4-7 cm. yellow; sp. 7-8 × 5.

=coryphaeum=, Fr. P. 8-15 cm. soon exp. viscid, yellowish with darker
squamules; g. white, edge yellow; s. solid, obclavate; sp. subglobose,

_T. equestre_ differs in having gills entirely yellow, and _T.
sejunctum_ in its pure white gills.

=sejunctum=, Sow. P. 7-10 cm. expanded, yellow with brown streaks,
viscid; g. pure white; s. 8-12 cm. white, apex squamulose; sp. subgl.

=portentosum=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. viscid, sooty often with purple tinge,
viscid, streaked with dark lines; g. white, very broad; s. 7-8 cm.
whitish, glabrous; sp. subgl. 4-5 × 4.

=fucatum=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. soon plane, viscid, dingy yellow with darker
stains; g. white or tinged yellow; s. 5-7 cm. fibro-squamulose, whitish;
sp. ----.

=quinquepartitum=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. viscid, even, glabrous, pale
yellowish; g. broad, white; s. 7-10 cm. white, striate, glabrous; sp.
5-6 × 3-4.

Differs from _T. portentosum_ in p. not being virgate, and from _T.
fucatum_ in glabrous striate stem.

=resplendens=, Fr. White. P. 5-9 cm. expanded, viscid, even, glabrous,
shining when dry, margin straight; g. very emarginate; s. 5-7 cm.,
solid, apex flocculose; sp. 7-8 × 4.

Differs from _T. spermaticum_ in solid stem.

=spermaticum=, Fr. White. P. 5-8 cm. expanded, viscid, wavy, glabrous,
shining when dry, margin at first incurved; g. margin eroded; s. 5-9 cm.
twisted; sp. ----.

     ** _Gills becoming discoloured, usually spotted with brownish-red._

=colossus=, Fr. P. 12-20 cm. expanded, margin at first incurved, dull
red or reddish umber, glabrous then squamulose, flesh very thick,
reddish when broken; g. broad, reddish; s. 7-10 cm. stout, apex
constricted, solid, reddish; sp. 6 × 4.

[=aurata=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, even, yellow then rufescent; g. yellow;
s. solid, fibrillose, yellow.

=nictitans=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. obtuse, even, glabrous, viscid,
yellowish; g. yellow; s. 7-8 cm. solid, yellow, apex squamulose; sp. 7-8
× 5.

Differs from _T. flavobrunneum_ in squamulose apex of stem.

=fulvellum=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. viscid, even, yellowish tan disc darker
and wrinkled; g. white then tinged rufescent; s. 4-6 cm. fibrillose,
apex naked, white tinged rufous; sp. subgl. 4-5.

=flavobrunneum=, Fr. P. 7-14 cm. soon exp. viscid, bay,
virgate-squamulose, flesh yellow then tinged rufous; g. pale yellow; s.
7-12 cm. ventricose, hollow, brownish, flesh yellow, viscid at first;
sp. 6-7 × 4-5.

=albobrunneum=, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. obtuse, viscid, brown, streaked with
fibrils, disc papillose; g. broad, whitish; s. 3-5 cm. equal, rufescent,
solid, flesh white; sp. 4-6 × 3-5.

=irregulare=, Karst. P. convex then exp. very irreg. rather viscid,
fibrillosely virgate, pale, tinged tawny rufous; g. white then reddish
or spotted; s. equal, curved, white, apex flocculose. Smell strong.

Differs from _T. albobrunneum_ in paler, irreg. p. and smell.

[=Salero=, Barla. Smell strong, mealy. P. exp. obtuse, even, viscid when
moist, satiny when dry, chestnut; g. white then reddish; s. cylindrical,
white and squamulose at apex, fibrillose and reddish at middle; flesh
white, reddish when broken, very bitter.

=ustale=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. umb. then nearly plane, even, glabrous,
disc rugulose bay; g. white tinged brown later, decur. tooth; s. 5-8 cm.
equal, somewhat rooting, apex naked, whitish; sp. 7-8 × 5.

=pessundatum=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. obtuse, wavy, glabrous, viscid, bay or
rufescent, granular or spotted; g. almost free, white then tinged
rufous; s. 5-8 cm. white, floccosely squamulose; sp. 5 × 2.5.

=stans=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. exp. viscid, rufescent, even, flesh red under
cuticle; g. crowded, spotted reddish; s. 5-8 cm. whitish, squamulose;
sp. 5-6 × 4.

=russula=, Schaeff. P. 6-8 cm. exp. viscid, rosy red, granulated; g.
subdecurrent; s. 3-5 cm. rosy, apex squamulose; sp. 10 × 5.

=frumentaceum=, Bull. P. 5-10 cm. exp. viscid, glabrous, pallid,
streaked or stained reddish; g. crowded; s. 5-8 cm. solid, fibrillose,
white, variegated red; sp. 5 × 3.5.

     II. GENUINA. _Pellicle not viscid, torn into scales, or

     * _Gills not changing colour, neither spotted with rufous nor

=rutilans=, Schaeff. P. 6-14 cm. exp. coated with purplish down, flesh
yellow; g. yellow, edge downy, orange; s. 5-8 cm. yellow with purple
squamules; sp. subgl. 5-6.

=variegatum=, Scop. P. 5-10 cm. exp. yellow with purplish squamules; g.
pale yellow, edge entire not darker coloured; s. 5-8 cm. pale yellow,
more or less variegated with red; sp. 5-7 × 4-5.

Differs from _T. rutilans_ in edge of gills.

[=albofimbriatum=, Trog. P. exp. obtusely umb. fibrillose, scaly towards
edge, brownish; g. sinuate, closely crowded, yellow then rufescent, edge
white-fimbriate; s. yellow-rufescent.

[=aestuans=, Fr. P. conico-exp. umb. with fugacious longitudinal
fibrils, yellow-rufescent; g. very broad, yellow then pallid; s. equal,
glabrous, striate.

=centurio=, Kalchb. P. campan. strongly umb. edge incurved then
spreading and wavy, fuscous then livid; g. deeply emarginate, almost
free, pallid; s. ventricose, stout, white.

=luridum=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. rather wavy, dry, glabrous, then torn
into livid squamules, yellowish-grey; g. broad, crowded; s. 5-8 cm.
glabrous, white; sp. 5-6 × 3-4.

Differs from _T. saponaceum_ in persistently white flesh.

=guttatum=, Schaeff. P. 5-12 cm. exp. cinnamon or with a pink tinge,
dry, granulose or floccose, margin remotely sulcate; g. with decurrent
line down stem, crowded; s. 5-8 cm., white, mealy; sp. ----.

Differs from _T. tigrinum_ in white gills and sulcate margin of pileus.

[=goniospermum=, Bres. P. fleshy, compact, hemispher. tinged fuscous or
livid yellowish; g. much crowded, smoky-grey or lilac then yellowish; s.
solid, whitish or lilac above, base brownish; sp. more or less cruciform
rarely subtriangular, 8-10 × 5-7.

[=psammopodium=, Kalchb. P. obtuse or subumb. dry, with scattered
fibrillose squamules, dusky cinnamon then tawny; g. yellowish; s.
ventricose, colour of p. with darker squamules downwards.

[=impolitum=, Lasch. P. exp. flocculose, then broken into scales and
subdepr.; g. crowded; s. solid, fibrillose, floccosely scaly above.

=columbetta=, Fr. White, here and there spotted with red. P. 5-10 cm.
dry, glabrous then fibrillose; g. subserrulate; s. 6-10 cm. stout,
solid, striate; sp. 6-7 × 4-5.

=scalpturatum=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. conical then exp. dingy, tomentose then
broken up into rufous or umber scales; g. white then yellowish; s. 5-9
cm. whitish, fibrillose; sp. 6-7 × 3.5.

var. _argyraceum_, Bull. Slender; p. silvery grey.

var. _chrysites_, Jungh. Pale, p. and g. becoming yellowish.

var. _virescens_, Wharton. Yellow-green when bruised.

These are forms rather than varieties.

     ** _Gills rufous or greyish; edge usually spotted with rufous or

=imbricatum=, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. exp. obtuse, dry, rufous umber, innately
squamulose, margin involute and downy at first; g. sinuate, crowded; s.
8-12 cm. solid, paler than p. apex white-pulverulent; sp. 6 × 4.

=vaccinum=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. exp. umb. dry, rufous, squamulose, margin at
first involute and downy; g. almost adnate; s. 7-10 cm. hollow,
fibrillose, brownish; sp. subg. 6-7.

Differs from _T. imbricatum_ in hollow stem and reddish flesh.

[=polyphyllum=, D. C. P. obtuse, irreg. with adpressed fibrillose
scales; rufous umber; g. white then tinged red; s. solid, white,
squamulose, apex striate.

=immundum=, Berk. P. 5-9 cm. greyish, silky-squamulose, stained, margin
incurved; g. greyish pink, separating readily from flesh; s. 4-6 cm.
greyish, fibrillose; sp. subg. 4-5. Every part blackish when bruised.

=inodermeum=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. acute then umb. rufous brown, fibrillose
and with radiating scales; g. free, ventricose, white, spotted red when
bruised; s. 7-8 cm. fibrous, white with rufous tinge, apex powdered
white; s. 7-8 × 4.

[=furvum=, Fr. P. campan.-exp. wavy, dry, brownish, fibrillosely
striate; g. entire, white then greyish; s. solid, fibrillose.

[=unguentatum=, Fr. P. exp. umb. grey, viscid, floccosely-squamulose; g.
very broad, crowded, whitish; s. white, solid, fibrillose.

[=gausapatum=, Fr. P. bullate, obtuse, wavy, covered with dense
superficial fibrils, edge at first incurved and with white wool; g.
adnate, grey; s. solid, white, fibrillose.

=terreum=, Schaeff. P. 5-8 cm. exp. umb. bluish grey with minute
squamules; g. greyish, sinuate; s. whitish, fibrillose; sp. subgl. 5-6.

var. _orirubens_, Q. Edge of g. reddish.

var. _atrosquamosum_, Chev. P. grey with small black scales, g. whitish.

var. _argyraceum_, Bull. Entirely pure white, or p. greyish.

var. _chrysites_, Jungh. P. tinged yellowish or greenish.

[=squarrulosum=, Bres. P. convex then exp. umb. dry, fuscous then lurid
tan, centre black, with black squamules, edge fibrillose, exceeding
gills; g. broad, crowded, whitish grey, reddish when bruised; s. colour
of p. punctato-squamulose; sp. 7-9 × 4-5.

[=triste=, Fr. P. conic then exp. umb. fuscous, fibrillosely scaly; g.
white then greyish; s. fistulose, slender, floccose.

     III. RIGIDA. _Pellicle rigid, punctato-granulate, or broken up into
     glabrous fragments when dry._

     * _Gills white or pallid, not rufous or grey spotted._

=macrorhizum=, Lasch. Smell strong. P. 10-20 cm. exp. ochraceous, darker
and cracked when old; g. almost free; s. 5-10 cm. stout, ochraceous,
rooting, solid, ventricose; sp. subgl. 5-6.

[=compactum=, Fr. P. soon plane, even, dry, glabrous, livid grey,
compact; g. yellow; s. solid, white.

=saponaceum=, Fr. Smell strong. P. exp. obtuse, dry, livid, tinged
olive, glabrous then often squamulose or punctate, flesh reddish; g.
pallid with greenish tinge; s. 5-10 cm. whitish, somewhat rooting; sp. 5
× 4.

var. _atrovirens_, P. thin, wavy, obscure green with crowded black

[=Boudieri=, Barla. P. exp. even, dry, satiny maroon or vinous with
coppery tint, then sooty brown with deeper granules at centre; g. tinged
green then ochre; s. subcylindrical, rather unequal, fibrillose, whitish
tinged red, then brownish-fawn; flesh white then reddish.

Differs from _Trich. saponaceum_ in the copper coloured p.

[=miculatum=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, glabrous, granulated then cracked,
umber; g. subadnate; s. solid, fibrillosely floccose.

=cartilagineum=, Bull. P. 5-9 cm. soon exp. and wavy, margin
persistently incurved, blackish, then broken up into small black spots;
g. crowded then greyish; s. 3-5 cm. glabrous, pure white; sp. ----.

=tenuiceps=, Cke. and Mass. P. 5-8 cm., flesh very thin, obtuse, dry,
granular, dusky brown; g. narrowed in front, white; st. 5-8 cm.
ochraceous white, everywhere granular, base abrupt with cord-like
mycelium; sp. subgl. 6-7.

=loricatum=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 2-5 cm. tough, convex, wavy, rather
viscid, brown, cuticle thick, tough, separable; g. almost free, pallid;
s. 5-7 cm. tough, often twisted, brownish red; sp. ----.

=atrocinereum=, Pers. P. 3-5 cm. soon plane, grey, prominent disc
darker, often cracked; g. crowded, hyaline; s. 5-7 cm. cylindrical,
stuffed, glabrous, apex naked, whitish; sp. ----.

=cuneifolium=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. soon plane, dry, brown,
glabrous then squamulose; g. crowded, white, broad and obliquely
truncate in front; s. 2.5 cm. hollow, narrowed at base, pallid, apex
mealy; sp. subgl. 3-5.

Differs from _T. atrocinereum_ in hollow stem.

     ** _Gills discoloured, with rufous or grey, spotted._

=crassifolium=, Berk. Smell strong. P. 5-10 cm. exp. wavy, flesh thin,
umb. ochraceous, disc darker; g. nearly free, becoming yellowish, thick;
s. solid, paler than p., pruinose; sp. ----.

[=geminum=, Fr. Stout, compact. P. obtuse, rufous cinnamon, velvety then
rimose; g. crowded; s. solid, floccose.

=sudum=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. soon plane, dry, greyish brown, glabrous, disc
often squamulose; g. deeply emarginate, white then tinged rufous; s. 6-8
cm. solid, pallid, fibrillosely-squamulose, striate; sp. 6-7 × 3.5.

=tumidum=, P. Smell slight. P. 6-8 cm. bullate, deformed then exp. and
wavy, livid grey, spotted, somewhat shining, cracking; g. white then
grey with rufous tinge; s. 7-9 cm. stout, tumid, striate, white,
rooting; sp. 6 × 4.

var. _Keithii_, Phil. and Plowr. P. rufous grey; s. dingy white, tinged
red near base.

=murinaceum=, Bull. Smell strong. P. 5-10 cm. exp. sometimes subumb.
grey, silky, cracking into squamules; g. deeply sinuate, broad, grey; s.
grey with darker squamules; sp. ----.

[=bisontinum=, Roll. P. pulvinate, cuticle thick, brown with greenish
tinge, virgate with minute adpr. fibrils; g. thick, grey, with flat,
transverse, more or less branched veins; s. solid, narrowed below,
fibrillosely striate, with minute dark granules above, pale; 10-12 × 6.

=hordum=, F. P. exp. subumb. grey, dry, glabrous then breaking up into
squarrose scales; g. rather distant, becoming greyish; s. 6-8 cm.
whitish, glabrous; sp.

=virgatum=, Fr. P. rigid, 5-9 cm. exp. umb. very dry, greyish, virgate
with radiating blackish lines; umb. often broken up into squamules; g.
broadly emarginate, becoming greyish, crowded; s. 7-9 cm. striate,
glabrous, whitish; sp. 6-8 × 5-6.

The only dry sp. with a virgate pileus.

[=dissultans=, Karst. P. fragile, thin, convexo-plane, acutely umb. very
dry, hoary with dense subreticulately interwoven superficial fibrils,
grey; g. hoary; s. hollow, equal, white, loosely fibrillose, apex
pruinose; sp. 5-6 × 4.

[=elytroides=, Scop. P. exp. obt. scabrid, disc floccosely scurfy, grey;
g. broad, grey; s. with dense fibrils directed upwards.

[=opicum=, Fr. P. umb. even, soon squamulose, greyish as is also the
flesh; g. arcuato-adfixed, hoary; s. stuffed, equal, almost glabrous.

     IV. SERICELLA. _Pileus at first silky, soon glabrous, quite dry._

     * _Gills broad, thickish, rather distant._

=sulphureum=, Fr. Strong smelling. Entirely sulphur yellow or p. tinged
rufous. P. 3-8 cm. subumb. silky, even; g. distant; s. 5-10 cm. striate,
same colour inside; sp. 9-10 × 5.

=bufonium=, Pers. P. 3-7 cm. soon plane, subumb. silky, soon glabrous,
rugulose, opaque, purplish brown, umber, or tan; g. yellowish-tan then
pallid; s. 5-7 cm. flocculose, coloured like p.; sp. subgl. 4-5.

=lascivum=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 4-5 cm. exp. and subdepressed, even,
silky then glabrous, tan colour then pallid; g. arcuately adnexed,
crowded, white; s. 4-6 cm. solid, rigid, tomentose, whitish, apex mealy,
rooting; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

var. _robustum_, Cke. Robust. P. whitish, silky; smell weak or none.

=interveniens=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, depr. silky then glabrous,
rugulose near edge, tan then pale; g. arcuato-adnex. crowded, pallid; s.
solid, equal, rooting, fibrillose, pallid; sp. 6-7 × 2-2.5.

=inamoenum=, Fr. Foetid. White. P. 2-4 cm. exp. umb. silky then
glabrous, even; g. arcuato-adnexed, crowded; s. 7-10 cm. equal, solid,
rooting; sp. 9-10 × 6-7.

The only white, foetid _Tricholoma_.

     ** _Gills thin, crowded, narrow._

=cerinum=, Pers. P. 2-4 cm. exp. obtuse or depressed, even, dry, almost
glabrous, wax-yellow or brown; g. crowded, yellow; s. 2-3 cm. stuffed,
fibrillosely striate, yellowish, base darker; sp. ----.

[=chrysenterum=, Bull. Entirely yellowish outside and inside. P. fleshy,
convexo-plane, obsoletely umb. silky then almost glabrous; g. free,
crowded, narrow; s. solid, base with white wool.

[=stiparophyllum=, Fr. Smell strong. P. exp. silky then glabrous,
yellowish white; g. crowded, white; s. hollow, white, glabrous, apex

[=cerinum=, Pers. P. exp. depr. almost glabrous, waxy yellow or
fuscescent; g. crowded, yellow; s. stuffed, fibrillosely striate, base
glabrous, often brownish.

[=onychinum=, Fr. P. exp. subumb. dingy purple or brown, margin silky;
g. yellow, crowded; s. pallid, apex reddish.

=ionides=, Bull. P. 2-4 cm. soon plane, umb. even, dingy violet then
pale; g. crowded, white, edge irreg.; s. 3-4 cm. elastic, fibrillose,
coloured like p.; sp. 6-7 × 3.5.

Differs from _T. humile_ and _T. sordidum_ in white gills.

var. _parvum_, Lasch. P. reddish brown.

var. _persicolor_, Fr. P. convexo-plane, peach-colour, then pale; g.
sinuate, white; s. paler than p.

=carneum=, Bull. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. fragile, exp. obtuse, glabrous,
persistently reddish flesh colour; gills pure white; s. 2-2.5 cm.
coloured like pileus, not fading; sp. 3 × 2.

[=carneolum=, Fr. Small. P. plano-depr. obtuse, even, flesh-red then
pale; g. closely crowded, very broad behind, shining white.

=caelatum=, Fr. P. 2-2.5 cm. persistently umbilicate glabrous, brown
then greyish, becoming cracked; g. crowded; s. 2.5 cm. glabrous, brown;
sp. 8 × 5.

     B. _Pileus even, glabrous, neither villose, scaly nor viscid._

     V. GUTTATA. _Pileus fleshy, soft, fragile, with drop-like markings;
     stem solid._

     * _Gills not discoloured._

=gambosum=, Fr. P. 6-12 cm. flesh thick, exp. and wavy, glabrous,
spotted, pallid tan, margin incurved and downy at first; g. crowded,
ventricose; s. 5-7 cm. stout, flocculose at apex, white; sp. 13-14 ×
8-9. Edible.

[=Georgii=, Clus. P. exp. rather wavy, dry, flocculosely soft,
ochraceous, edge even, naked, ochraceous; g. linear, transversely
striate, whitish; s. solid, stout, fibrillose. Edible.

=albellum=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. conical then exp. gibbous, whitish, pallid,
greyish when dry, mottled with spots, margin naked; g. crowded, broadest
in front; s. 3-5 cm. fibrillosely striate, solid, white; sp. 6-7 × 4.

=boreale=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. irreg. subumb. glabrous, rivulose when dry,
margin even, naked, flesh-colour becoming pale; g. crowded; s. 5-8 cm.
solid, elastic, base narrowed, whitish; sp. subg. 4-5.

     ** _Gills discoloured, rufescent or smoky._

=amethystinum=, Scop. P. 3-5 cm. exp. wavy, glabrous, livid and spotted
with bluish patches; g. crowded, white then rufescent; s. 3-5 cm. solid,
narrowed at base, paler than p.; sp. ----.

[=graveolens=, Fr. P. compact, obt. glabrous, margin even, rivulose when
dry, dusky brown; g. white then fuliginous; s. solid, firm, fibrillose.

=tigrinum=, Schaeff. P. 3-5 cm. exp. often wavy, glabrous, margin invol.
pale brown or greyish with brown spots; g. crowded, narrow, white then
greyish; s. 2-3 cm. and nearly as thick, solid, white, pruinose; sp.
subgl. 8.

Differs from _T. guttatum_ in glabrous pileus with an even margin.

[=leucophaeatum=, Karst. (= _Coll. leucophaeatus_, Fr.). P.
convexo-plane, broadly and obtusely umb. pallid grey; with thin hoary
tomentum; g. crowded, whitish then dingy, broadest behind; s. equal,
often curved, pallid, base strigose; sp. ----.

=pes-caprae=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. conical then exp. umb. unequal, greyish
brown, glabrous; g. broad, greyish white; s. 6-7 cm. naked, white; sp. 8
× 5.

var. _multiforme_, Schaeff. P. irreg., caespitose, smaller than type.

     VI. SPONGIOSA. _Pileus compact then spongy, obtuse, even, glabrous,
     not hygrophanous._

     * _Gills not discoloured._

=Schumacheri=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. exp. obtuse, livid grey, even, moist, edge
beyond gills incurved; g. narrow, crowded, pure white; s. 6-8 cm. white,
solid, fibrillosely-striate; sp. ----.

[=amicus=, Fr. P. fuscous; g. distant, white; s. bulbous, solid, white.

=patulum=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. plane, obtuse, wavy, even, glabrous, pale grey
or pallid; g. sides veined, pallid; s. elastic, equal, glabrous, 5-8
cm.; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=circumtectum=, Cke. and Mass. P. 5-8 cm. dry, obt. or subumb. wavy,
margin incurved, downy, greenish olive then tan; g. white; s. 3-4 cm.
whitish, striate, base pointed; sp. subgl. 4-5.

[=maluvium=, Fr. P. campan.-convex, obtuse, glabrous, greenish; g.
rounded, crowded, pallid; s. solid, firm, elastic.

[=conglobatum=, Vit. Densely clustered. P. unequal, even, edge thin,
inflexed, somewhat pruinose, blackish fuscous; g. free; s. stems solid,
ventricose, subtomentose, springing densely from a common tuber.

=arcuatum=, Bull. P. 5-8 cm. brownish white then tan, exp. margin
incurved, glabrous, flesh-coloured; g. arcuate, crowded, white; s. 4-6
cm. solid, fibrilloso-squamulose, pale brown, base darker, bulbous; sp.

Differs from _T. panaeolum_ in having white gills, and from _T.
melaleucum_ in having coloured flesh.

var. _cognatum_, Bull. Larger. Gilvous outside and inside or dingy tan;
p. obtuse, discoid; g. tan.

_oreinum_, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, obtuse, glabrous, fuscous, even;
g. rounded, free, white; s. solid, short, 2-3 cm. whitish, apex white
squamulose; sp. ----.

Separated from _T. humile_ by the gills projecting beyond the margin of

=album=, Schaeff. Entirely white, taste acrid. P. 6-9 cm. convex then
depr. even, glabrous, dry, disc sometimes tinged yellow; g. rather
crowded; s. 6-8 cm. narrowed upwards, solid, elastic; sp. 5-6 × 3.

var. _caesariatum_, Fr. P. white or yellowish, exp. fibrillosely silky,
then glabrous; s. slender, fragile, apex rather mealy; g. nearly free.

[=lentum=, Post. Entirely white not becoming spotted. P. convex,
unpolished and at first rather velvety, disc tinged pallid when old; g.
sinuate or subdecurr.; s. base narrowed, apex usually longitudinally
costate; sp. 7.5-10 × 4.5-7.

[=raphanicum=, Karst. Smell very strong, like radishes. P. convex, often
gibbous, white, disc tinged tan; g. white; s. rooting, flocculose above;
sp. glob. 3-4.

=leucocephalum=, Fr. Pure white, smell mealy. P. 3-4 cm. plane, even,
moist, glabrous after silky veil has gone; g. crowded; s. 5-6 cm.
hollow, smooth, cartilaginous, tough, rooting; sp. 9-10 × 7-8.

_T. album_ differs in having no smell, and _T. inamoenum_ in strong
disagreeable smell and very broad gills.

     ** _Gills discoloured._

=acerbum=, Bull. P. 7-10 cm. expanded, margin at first involute, sulcate
and rugulose, viscid, whitish then tinged rufous; g. narrow rufescent;
s. 5-8 cm. pale, apex squamulose; sp. subg. 5-6.

=militare=, Lasch. Smell and taste unpleasant. P. 8-15 cm. convex,
gibbous, margin even, viscid, cinnamon; g. white, torn, then spotted; s.
7-11 cm. solid, squamulose, pallid, base subbulbous; sp. ----.

Differs from _T. civile_ in strong smell and spotted gills.

=civile=, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. soft, soon exp. glabrous, moist, pale yellow
brown, cuticle separable; g. crowded, white then yellowish; s. 5-8 cm.
solid, soft, fragile, fibrillosely squamulose, whitish; sp. ----.

=duracinum=, Cke. P. 5-8 cm. convex, gibbous, even, dry, shining, grey
with olive tinge; g. arcuate, grey; s. 4-6 cm. reticulately squamulose
above, striate below, greyish white; sp. ----.

[=irinum=, Fr. P. spongy-compact, convex then plane, moist, obsoletely
innately virgate, flesh-colour then pale, edge even, pruinose; crowded,
narrow, quite entire, greyish then lurid; s. solid, subbulbous,
reticulately fibrillose.

=personatum=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. regular, obtuse, even, glabrous, margin
invol. and downy, tan or with a lilac tinge; g. rounded-free, crowded,
broad, violet then dingy; s. 5-7 cm. solid, stout, dingy purple,
villose; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

Flesh of stem white. In _T. nudum_ tinted violet.

=saevum=, Gillet. P. 6-9 cm. convex then plane, buff, margin naked,
flesh thick; g. crowded, narrow, pallid; s. 2-3 cm. long, 2 cm. or more
thick, purple, slightly squamulose; sp. 7 × 5.

Differs from _T. personatum_ in the short, stout, squamulose stem, and
absence of purple tint on gills.

[=glaucocanum=, Bres. P. rather soft, convex, exp. glabrous, edge
involute subflocculosely pruinose, glaucous-grey; g. closely crowded,
greyish violet, easily separating; s. solid, fibrillosely striate, apex
subsquamulose, base bulbous, colour of p.; sp. 6 × 3.

=nudum=, Bull. Whole fungus violet at first. P. 5-8 cm. soon exp. often
wavy, flesh thin; g. narrow, becoming rufescent; s. 5-8 cm. equal,
elastic, rather mealy; sp. 7 × 3.5.

Flesh of stem tinted violet. In _T. personatum_ white.

[=violaceonitens=, Bagl. P. convex, umb. dusky violet, shining, edge
wavy, rugulosely sulcate; g. crowded, dingy white; s. solid, stout, base
narrowed, colour of p.

=cinerascens=, Bull. P. 5-8 cm. convex, even, glabrous, white then
greyish; g. dingy, easily separating from flesh; s. 4-6 cm. solid,
equal, glabrous; sp. ----.

=panaeolum=, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. convex then almost plane, dusky grey with a
grey bloom, often spotted; g. grey with rufous tinge; s. 3-5 cm. solid,
fibrous-striate, greyish; sp. subgl. 5-6.

var. _calceolum_, Sterb. P. spongy, deformed, thin, soft, exp. edge
incurved, sooty-grey or reddish-grey; g. smoky; s. excentric, fusiform,
very short.

=cnista=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. exp. moist, glabrous, pale tan or whitish,
margin incurved, naked, even; g. white, veined, reddish when bruised; s.
3-5 cm. solid, glabrous, white; sp. 9-10 × 4.

Differs from _T. panaeolum_ in p. not becoming grey.

=fallax=, Peck. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, yellow, disc darker, even; g.
becoming yellowish; s. 2.5 cm. yellow, hollow; sp. 4-5 × 3.

     VII. HYGROPHANA. _Pileus thin, subumbonate, hygrophanous._

     * _Gills whitish, not spotted._

=melaleucum=, Pers. P. 3-7 cm. convex then plane, umb. blackish then
paler, glabrous; g. emarginate adnexed, white; s. 5-8 cm. equal,
elastic, whitish with dark fibrils; sp. 10 × 4-5.

_Coll. stridula_ much resembles this sp. but has a brownish stem. _T.
arcuatum_ has flesh tinged brown. _T. oreinum_ has apex of stem

var. _adstringens_, Pers. P. exp. pitch black and rather shining when
dry; g. tinged pink; s. naked.

var. _polioleucum_, Fr. P. obtusely umb. livid then grey; s. apex

var. _porphyroleucum_, Bull. P. fleshy, umbo disappearing, sooty or
fuscous-rufescent; s. solid, subfibrillose; g. white.

[=microcephalum=, Karst. P. 2-3 cm. convexo-plane, livid-sooty then
pale; g. much crowded, soft, white; s. tall, 9-12 cm. splitting easily
into fibres, pallid, glabrous; sp. subg. 5-6 × 5.

[=turritum=, Fr. P. conico-exp. umb. moist, obscure purple, somewhat
spotted; g. soon free, white; s. stuffed then hollow, white with dusky

=grammopodium=, Bull. P. 7-12 cm. camp. conv. then depr. umb. glabrous,
ruddy then pallid; g. arcuato-adnate, crowded; s. 7-10 cm. stuffed,
coarsely striate, glabrous, pallid; sp. 7-8 × 4.

[=strictipes=, Karst. P. soft, gibbous, plane or depr. white or
yellowish-white, centre often tinged; g. closely crowded, shining white,
entire; s. solid, equal, cylindrical, base usually thickened, straight,
white, glabrous; sp. 6-9 × 4-5.

=brevipes=, Bull. P. 3-6 cm. brown then pale, glabrous, convex then
plane; g. crowded, tinged fuscous then pale; s. 2-2.5 cm. solid, rigid,
brown outside and inside; sp. 7 × 4.

=humile=, Pers. P. 5-8 cm. umb. then convex or depressed, even,
glabrous; g. crowded, ventricose; s. 3-5, greyish white, villosely
pulverulent, stuffed; sp. 7-8 × 5.

Differs from _T. brevipes_ in pale stem and tufted habit.

=exsiccum=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. then umb. greyish brown then hoary; g.
crowded, narrow, pure white; s. 2-3 cm. solid, glabrous, rather shining;
sp. 6-7 × 4.

=subpulverulentum=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. greyish white, pulverulent, convex
then depr. even, extreme edge persistently incurved; g. crowded, narrow,
white; s. 3-4 cm. solid, whitish, slightly striate; sp. 5 × 3.

[=persicinum=, Fr. P. obtuse, even, glabrous, flesh-colour then pale; s.
cartilaginous, glabrous; g. arcuate, white.

[=Juranum=, Q. Obtuse, rufous then pale, white-floccose, margin
crenulate, mealy; g. white, crowded; s. solid, white, apex mealy.

     ** _Gills violet, grey or smoky._

[=urbum=, Fr. P. campan.-exp. brownish black with bluish tinge, subumb.,
margin straight; g. densely crowded, like flesh, bluish white; s.
incurved, fibrillose, bulbous.

=sordidum=, Fr. P. 2.5-7 cm. plano-depr. subumb. glabrous, brownish
lilac then dusky; g. rounded, dingy violet then dusky; s. 4-5 cm.
coloured like p. fibrillosely striate, slightly curved as a rule; sp.
7-8 × 3-4, minutely rugulose.

Differs from _T. nudum_ in being smaller, tougher, and hygrophanous.

var. _Feuilleauboisii_, Lucand and Quel. The broadly gibbous p. and s.
dark umber; g. deep violet.

=paedidum=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. soon depr. round conical umbo, smoky grey,
somewhat streaked; g. crowded, adnexed, narrow, white then greyish; s.
2-3 cm. dingy grey, slightly striate base thickened; sp. 10-11 × 5-6.

Differs from _T. sordidum_ in having no trace of violet colour; _T.
lixivium_ differs in the free truncate gills.

=lixivium=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. greyish brown, soon plane and umb. margin
expanded, membranaceous, striate; g. truncato-free, grey; s. 5-6 cm.
grey, whitish floccose, often flexuous; sp. 7 × 4-5.

[=rasile=, Fr. Soft. P. campan.-exp. umb. fibroso-virgate, undulate,
fuliginous; g. connected by veins, greyish-umber, edge white floccose;
s. equal, fibrillose.

[=favillarum=, Fr. P. exp. depr. round umbo, even, glabrous, moist, edge
spreading, even, whitish when dry; g. closely crowded, greyish.

=putidum=, Fr. Smell strong, rancid. P. 2-3 cm. umb. even, soft, olive
grey, hoary when dry; g. adnexed, crowded, grey; s. 2-3 cm. greyish,
pruinose; sp. 8-10 × 3-5.

_Coll. rancida_ differs in glabrous, rooting stem.

[=hospitans=, Fr. Shining white, campan. obtuse, even, edge straight,
adpressed to stem at first; g. free, very ventricose; s. solid, fibrous,
glabrous, apex pruinose.

Resembling a _Mycena_ but s. solid and fibrous.


     I. Taste mild.

     * _Gills ochraceous_ (not clear yellow).

=alutacea=, Fr. P. 4-10 cm. viscid, exp. depr. red, dark purple, disc
becoming pale, at length striate and tuberculose at margin, flesh white;
g. broad, rather distant, ochre, naked; s. 4-5 cm. white or tinged red;
sp. 7-9.

Differs from _R. integra_ in gills not being powdery.

=integra=, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. viscid, exp. depr. red or greenish, margin at
length sulcate and tuberculose, flesh white; g. broad, yellow, powdered
with the ochre spores; s. 4-5 cm. even, ventricose, white; sp. 9-10.

var. _alba_, Cke. Whole fungus except gills creamy white.

=xerampelina=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. compact, exp. then depr., dry, rosy
purple sometimes tinged olive, disc paler, cracked into granules, flesh
tinged yellow; g. forked, white then ochre; s. 4-7 cm. clavate, white,
more or less tinged red; sp. 8-10 × 6-7.

Differs from _R. integra_ by narrow gills not powdered with the spores.

=nauseosa=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 3-4 cm. viscid, plane then depr.,
purple or lilac, disc darker, coarsely striate; g. rather distant,
ochre; s. 2-3 cm. slightly striate, white; sp. 8-9.

_R. nitida_ differs in the yellow, shining gills.

var. _flavida_, Cke. P. primrose yellow.

=vitellina=, Fr. Strong scented. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, yellow, edge
tuberculose, striate; g. saffron ochre; s. 2-3 cm. slender, white; sp.

Differs from _R. lutea_ in strong smell and tuberculose margin.

var. _major_, Cke. Similar to type, but larger.

=lilacea=, Q. P. 4-7 cm. exp. depr., viscid, violet becoming pallid; g.
white, broad; s. 4-6 cm. fragile, white or base tinted rose; sp. 7-8.

=ochracea=, Fr. Every part inside and outside ochraceous. P. 5-7 cm.
viscid, coarsely striate; g. broad; s. 2-3 cm. wrinkled; sp. 10-12.

_R. fellea_ differs in bitter taste.

=lutea=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. plano-depr. viscid, yellow becoming pale; g.
connected by veins, egg-yellow; s. 2-3 cm. even, white; sp. 8-10 × 7-8.

Differs from _R. vitellina_ by even margin of p. and absence of smell.

=elegans=, Bresad. P. 4-7 cm. convex then depr., tuberculose and striate
with age, rosy, yellowish towards margin, densely granular everywhere;
g. ochraceous orange; s. 3-5 cm. white; sp. 8-10.

Differs from _R. vesca_ in granular, rosy pileus.

=armeniaca=, Cke. P. 2-4 cm. soon depr., peach colour, margin even; g.
deep ochraceous; s. 4-5 cm. white, hollow; sp. 10 × 8.

[=ravida=, Fr. P. depr. wavy and more or less lobed, brownish grey then
yellowish, opaque, edge even, flesh grey; g. broad, ochre; s. pallid,
brown striate.

=xanthophaea=, Boud. P. depr., edge sulcate and tuberculose, brownish
bay; gills clear ochre; s. white; taste mild.

Differs from _R. pectinata_ in ochre gills and mild taste, and from _R.
ravida_ in pectinate and tuberculose margin.

     ** _Gills yellow, without an ochraceous tinge._

=coerulea=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. convex then exp., polished, edge even, bluish
or bluish purple; g. adnate, pale yellow; s. 4-5 cm. white; sp. 10-12.

Much the appearance of _R. cyanoxantha_, differs in crowded yellow

=nitida=, Fr. Smell unpleasant. P. 3-5 cm. plane or slightly depr.,
viscid, purplish-bay, reddish, &c., shining, edge striate; g. sulphur
yellow, naked; s. 5-7 cm. white then pallid; sp. 8-10 × 6-8.

_R. nauseosa_ differs in ochre, powdered gills.

var. _cuprea_, Cke. P. copper colour.

=aurata=, Fr. P. rigid, 4-7 cm. plane, yellow, orange or reddish, disc
darker, margin striate, flesh yellow under the viscid cuticle; g. broad,
edge lemon yellow; s. 4-7 cm. white or yellow; sp. 8-10.

=decolorans=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. globose then exp., regular, viscid, orange
red then yellowish, margin becoming striate; flesh turning grey; g.
yellowish; s. 6-9 cm. white then grey, especially inside; sp. 7-9.

Differs from _R. depallens_ in the long s., and the yellow gills.

=punctata=, Gillet. P. 3-5 cm. convex then plane, viscid, rosy,
punctate with brown warts, striate; g. yellowish, edge often reddish; s.
2-3 cm. coloured like p. base whitish; sp. 8-9.

var. _leucopus_, Cke. Stem white.

=olivacea=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. convex then plane or depr., margin even,
minutely silky squamulose, purple with olive tinge, or brownish olive;
g. broad, yellow; s. 5-8 cm. pale rose; sp. 9-10.

Differs from _R. rubra_ in deeper yellow colour of g. and unpolished p.
and mild taste.

=Linnaei=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. plane then depr., polished, edge even, blood
red or dark rose; g. adnato-decur. yellowish; s. 3-6 cm. blood red; sp.

=chamaeleontina=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. plane or subdepr., slightly viscid,
edge becoming slightly striate, rose red, purplish lilac, &c., then
yellowish; g. closely crowded, plane, yellow; s. 3-6 cm. white; sp. 7-8.

=puellaris=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. almost membranaceous, conico-convex then
exp., tuberculose striate to the middle, purplish livid then yellowish,
disc brown; g. pale yellow, naked; s. 2-3 cm. yellowish white, soon
hollow; sp. 10 × 8-9.

P. not shining as in _R. nitida_.

var. _intensior_, Cke. P. deep purple, blackish at disc.

var. _roseipes_, Secr. S. sprinkled with rosy meal.

[=bona=, Schwalb. P. often irreg., lilac, centre pallid or obscure,
velvety; g. adnexed, pale yellow then pale egg-yellow; s. unequal, often
curved, white, hollow; taste mild; 8-10.

[=grisea=, Fr. P. exp. depr., polished, grey or olive, disc purplish,
edge even, flesh under cuticle violet; g. adnate, white then yellow s.
even, polished, white.

     *** _Gills white or creamy white._

     + _Pileus white or cream colour_ (often becoming blackish when

=virginea=, Cke. and Mass. Persistently pure white. P. 4-5 cm. soon
exp., viscid, polished when dry; g. subdecur., narrow, repeatedly
forked, veined; s. 4-5 cm. solid, rugulose; sp. 4-5.

=semicrema=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. persistently white, edge involute, even,
glabrous; g. decur. crowded, white; s. 3-5 cm. white, becoming blackish;
sp. 8-9.

Differs from _R. adusta_ and _R. densifolia_ in persistently white
p.--flesh also--and g., and from _R. delica_ in flesh of stem becoming

=lactea=, Fr. Entirely white or pallid. P. 4-5 cm. obtuse, even,
unpolished then minutely cracked; g. free, thick, distant; s. 2-4 cm.
solid, stout; sp. 7-9.

var. _incarnata_, Q. P. white tinged rose, then pale tan.

=nigricans=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. exp. umbilicato-depr. whitish, soon
sooty-olive, flesh white, reddish when broken; g. rounded, very thick
and distant; s. 3-6 cm. stout, solid, pallid then black; sp. 8-9. Every
part black when old.

=adusta=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. exp. depr. white then brownish, at length
scorched; g. thin, crowded, pallid; s. 3-5 cm. solid, pallid then dusky
grey; sp. 8-9.

Differs from _R. nigricans_ in much closer gills, and in flesh not
changing to red.

=densifolia=, Gillet. P. 3-9 cm. convex then depr. white then brownish,
flesh red when broken; g. thin, crowded, pallid; s. 3-5 cm. slightly
mealy, white then grey, at length blackish; sp. 7-8.

Differs from _R. adusta_ in flesh turning red, and from _R. nigricans_
in crowded gills.

=delica=, Fr. White. P. 8-14 cm. exp. umbil. polished, edge incurved,
even, glabrous; g. decur. thin, distant, white; s. 3-5 cm. solid,
compact; sp. 8-10 × 6-7.

This species has been confounded with _R. chloroides_, Bres. (= _R.
delica_, Mass. Fung. Fl. III, 53, _Lact. exsuccus_, Otto, &c.) but
differs in polished pileus, pure white gills, &c.

=chloroides=, Bresad. (= _Lact. exsuccus_, Otto; _Agaricus chloroides_,
Krombh.; _Russula delica_, Mass, &c. not of Cooke). P. 8-12 cm. depr.
edge involute, whitish, pubescent, flesh thick, white; g. decurrent,
white with a tinge of green, connected by veins, forked; s. 3-5 cm.
stout, white, tomentose, sometimes with a pale green zone at apex; sp.

Differs from _R. delica_ in pubescent pileus and stem, and green tinted

     ++ _Pileus clear yellow._

=citrina=, Gillet. P. 4-6 cm. slightly viscid, convex then depr.; g.
broadest in front, forked, white; s. 4-7 cm. white, solid, slightly
rugulose; sp. 7-8.

=fingibilis=, Britz. P. 4-5 cm. exp. depr. even, slightly viscid; g.
almost free, white; s. 3-5 cm. white, becoming hollow; sp. 7-9.

     +++ _Pileus greenish or olive._

=olivascens=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. exp. umbil. olive disc becoming yellowish,
edge even; g. white then tinged yellow; s. 2-4 cm. stout, firm, even;
sp. 9-10.

=heterophylla=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. exp. depr. even, polished, greenish,
yellow-brown, &c., disc becoming ochre, flesh white; g. very narrow,
closely crowded; s. 2-3 cm. solid, white; sp. 7-8.

var. _galachroa_, Fr. P. milky white then greenish.

Differs from _R. cyanoxantha_ in very narrow, crowded gills.

[=smaragdina=, Q. P. thin, viscid, somewhat zoned, clear green, edge
white; g. narrow, white; s. slender, pruinose, white; taste mild.

=azurea=, Bres. P. 4-5 cm. exp. depr. pale glaucous green, with white
bloom; g. pale cream colour; s. 2-3 cm. white, rugulose; sp. 8-9.

Differs from _R. cyanoxantha_ in white meal on the pileus.

=virescens=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. exp. umbil. dingy opaque green, innately
flocculose, areolately cracked; g. rather crowded, forked; s. 4-6 cm.
stout, white; sp. 8-9. Edible.

[=luteo-viridans=, C. Mart. P. convex then depr. then edge erect and
sulcate, pellicle viscid, separable, yellow with green or brown stains;
g. broad; s. reticulated, base narrowed. Acrid.

var. _bicolor_, C. Mart. Disc of p. yellow, edge brown; g. dark ochre.

var. _purpurea_, C. Mart. P. purple, disc yellow.

=furcata=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. rigid, depr. sometimes subinfund. even, dark
lurid green, even, frosted with a white silkiness; g. adnato-decur.
thickish, forked; s. 4-7 cm. firm, even, white; sp. 7-8.

var. _pictipes_, Cke. S. rosy at apex, greenish below.

var. _ochroviridis_, Cke. Disc of p. olive or sooty, ochraceous towards

=aeruginea=, Lindbl. P. 6-9 cm. exp. darker disc depr., verdigris green,
edge striate; g. narrow behind, slightly adnexed, pure white; s. 4-5 cm.
firm, even, persistently white; sp. 8-10.

     ++++ _Pileus red, brownish, purple, sometimes with green

=lepida=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. compact, depr. not polished, blood red,
becoming pale, minutely cracked into squamules; g. much forked; s. 3-5
cm. even, white with rosy tinge; sp. 6-8.

=atropurpurea=, Kromb. P. 6-8 cm. hard, convex then exp. depr. smooth,
even, deep blood red or purple red; g. adnate, white; s. 5-6 cm. white
or tinged red.

Differs from _R. rubra_ in being quite mild.

[=cerasina=, C. Mart. P. viscid, depr. subcyathiform, edge sulcate,
pellicle separable, cherry-red, disc yellow, flesh purple under cuticle;
g. adnato-decur. ochre; s. rugulose, white. Acrid.

=cutefracta=, Cke. P. 6-12 cm. exp. depr. even, purple, dull red, etc.,
cracking into areolae from edge towards disc; g. adnexed, crowded; s.
6-8 cm. solid, white with tinge of purple; sp. 7-10.

=vesca=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. exp. depr. flesh colour, disc darker, viscid,
rugulose; g. adnate, crowded; s. 3-5 cm. solid, white, reticulately
wrinkled; sp. 9-10.

var. _Duportii_, Phil. P. disc rufous, edge bluish, flesh reddish when
cut. Smells of crab.

var. _lilacea_, Q. P. violet or purple, flesh violet under the cuticle.

var. _Barlae_, Q. P. peach colour.

=depallens=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. firm, undulate, viscid, reddish, crimson,
or brownish, disc paler at length; g. crowded, forked; s. 3-4 cm. base
narrowed, white then grey; sp. 7-8.

Differs from _R. decolorans_ in having white gills.

[=pallida=, Karst. Acrid. P. convex then exp. mostly undulate, rather
viscid, constantly pallid, here and there tinged rose, edge even; g.
white, edge sometimes sulphur; s. white, often curved; sp. 5-8.

Differs from _Russula pallescens_ in being more robust and even margin
of p.

=cyanoxantha=, Schaeff. P. 5-9 cm. globose then depr. or infundib.
viscid, lilac, purplish, olive green, &c., edge generally bluish; g.
broad, forked; s. 4-6 cm. even, white; sp. 8-9.

=elephantina=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. convex, umbil. margin incurved, brownish
tan, wavy; g. obtusely adnate, arcuate, rather crowded, thin; s. firm,
white; sp. ----.

Differs from _R. nigricans_ and _R. adusta_ in not turning black or red
when old.

=mustelina=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. depr. edge upturned, even, opaque, brownish
or dingy yellowish, flesh persistently white; g. crowded, thin,
connected; s. 4-5 cm. even, white; sp. 7-8.

     II. Taste acrid.

     * _Gills yellow or ochraceous._

     + _Pileus yellow or ochraceous._

=fellea=, Fr. Every part, outside and inside, pale ochraceous or straw
colour, very acrid. P. 3-7 cm. exp. not becoming pale; g. adnate; s.
even, 4-6 cm.

Differs from _R. ochracea_ in being very acrid.

=aurata=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. rigid, exp. polished, citrin or orange,
sometimes reddish, edge becoming striate, flesh under cuticle citrin; g.
broad, shining citrin; s. 5-8 cm. white tinged yellow; sp. ----.

[=rhytipes=, Fr. Foetid. P. depr. dry, yellowish, blotched purple or
olive, corrugated, flesh sulphur yellow; g. broad, yellow, edge darker;
s. conical, reticulately rugose, greyish purple.

No account of mild or acrid taste is given, hence its position is
uncertain. Has points in common with _R. aurata_.

=claroflava=, Grove. P. 5-7 cm. bullate then plane, chrome yellow; g.
white, lemon yellow, then tinged ochre; s. 3-6 cm. white then grey or
blackish; sp. 8-9.

Differs from _R. ochroleuca_ in bright yellow p.

     ++ _Pileus red or purple._

=rubra=, Fr. P. 3-9 cm. rigid, convex exp. depr. dusky blood red or with
a tinge of purple, polished and even when dry; g. adnate whitish; s. 4-7
cm. hard, white sometimes tinged red; sp. 8-10.

Differs from _R. atropurpurea_ in very acrid taste.

=drimeia=, Cke. (= _R. expallens_, Gil.). P. 5-9 cm. firm, exp. depr.
bright purple to rose colour; g. clear yellow; s. 4-8 cm. purple, paler
than p.; sp. 7-9. Intensely acrid.

=veternosa=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. plano-depr. rosy or flesh colour then pale,
slightly viscid; g. adnate, narrow, white then straw colour; s. 5-8 cm.
spongy then hollow, white; sp. 7-9.

=maculata=, Q. P. 5-8 cm. thin, firm, exp. viscid, reddish flesh-colour,
then pale and blotched brownish; g. sulphur then peach colour; s. 3-4
cm. white or tinged rose, then spotted ochre; sp. 9-10.

Differs from _R. depallens_ in being smaller, acrid, and stem not grey.

=serotina=, Q. P. 2-2.5 cm. globose then more or less exp. purple brown
or olive, edge lilac, with white bloom at first; g. almost free, white
then tinged yellow; s. 2-3 cm. white; sp. 8-9.

     ** _Gills white._

     + _Pileus ochraceous or umber._

=ochroleuca=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. exp. depr. viscid at first, ochraceous then
pale, disc cracked into granules, margin almost even; g. rounded behind,
broad, subequal, whitish; s. 4-7 cm. soft, white then grey, reticulately
rugulose; sp. 8-9.

Differs from _R. granulosa_ in stem becoming grey.

=granulosa=, Cke. P. 4-7 cm. exp. often depr. viscid at first,
ochraceous, disc darker and granular; s. 4-7 cm. white, granular; g.
nearly free, white; sp. 11-12.

Close to _R. ochroleuca_, differing in granular persistently white stem.

=foetens=, Fr. Foetid. P. 7-12 cm. bullate, then exp. and depr. rigid,
viscid, edge at first incurved, tuberculato-sulcate, ochraceous then
pale; g. very unequal, forked, whitish; s. 4-5 cm. soon hollow, whitish;
sp. 8-10.

[=foetida=, C. Mart. Smell foetid. P. viscid, sulcate, yellow-brown,
flesh under cuticle brown, rest white; g. forked near stem, white then
yellow; s. very fragile, hollow, white, often spotted red below. Mild.

=consobrina=, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. exp. depr. viscid, edge even, brown or dark
grey, flesh grey under the cuticle; g. forked, white; s. 4-6 cm. white
then grey; sp. 8-9 × 7.

var. _sororia_, Fr. Edge of p. striate.

=pectinata=, Fr. Smell nauseous. P. 5-7 cm. exp. then depr. or broadly
infundib., rigid, brownish tan then pale except disc, viscid, margin
sulcate, flesh yellowish under cuticle; g. attenuato-free, equal, white;
s. rigid, striate, white; sp. 8-9.

Differs from _R. consobrina_, var. _sororia_ in tubercular sulcate edge,
and gills not connected by veins.

[=intermedia=, Karst. Acrid. P. exp. depr. irreg. viscid, edge even, at
length sulcate and tuberculose, tawny, disc darker, discoloured; g.
white then yellowish; s. white.

Near to _Russ. integra_, differs in taste and colour.

=sardonia=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. plane, wavy, viscid, edge even, dingy yellow,
then pale; g. adnate, closely crowded, white then yellowish; s. 3-5 cm.
white often tinged red; sp. 9-10.

Differs from _R. rosacea_ and _R. expallens_ in yellowish colour.

     ++ _Pileus red or purplish._

=emetica=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. exp. depr. shining, rosy to blood red, then
pale or white, edge at length sulcate, flesh white, red under cuticle;
g. free, white; s. 4-7 cm. even, white or tinged red; sp. 7-8.

var. _Clusii_, Fr. Flesh and gills tinged yellow.

=rosacea=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. unequal, viscid then dry and spotted,
rosy; edge acute, even; g. adnate, white; s. 3-5 cm. white or tinged
rose; sp. 7-8.

Differs from _R. sanguinea_ in irregular, often excentric p. and broader

=sanguinea=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. depr. or infundib. polished, blood-red
then pale, edge acute, even; g. decur. closely crowded, white; s. 4-7
cm. striate, white or tinged red; sp. 9-10.

_R. rubra_ differs in rigid p. and g. tinged yellow.

=fragilis=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. thin, fragile, exp. flesh colour or red, soon
pale, rather viscid, edge tubercular-striate; g. thin, crowded,
ventricose, white; s. 3-5 cm. white, polished; sp. 8-10 × 8.

var. _nivea_, Cke. Entirely white.

var. _violacea_, Q. P. violet, with narrow pale edge.

var. _fallax_, Cke. Disc of p. very dark, rest pale reddish purple.

=Queletii=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. soon plane, viscid, dark violet, edge
slightly striate, lilac; g. white; s. 3-5 cm. purple; sp. 7-8.

var. _purpurea_, Cke. (= _R. purpurea_, Gillet). Stem whitish, tinged
rosy at middle part; g. pale yellow.


     I. CALODONTES. _Edge of gills denticulate, dark coloured._

=pelianthina=, Bolton. P. 1.5-3 cm. obtuse, hygr. purplish then pale; g.
broad, adnexed, purplish with darker fimbriated margin; s. 5-8 cm.
equal, pallid; sp. 7 × 4.

=balanina=, B. P. 2-4 cm. exp. umb. pale yellowish brown, striate when
moist; g. adnate, separating, pinkish-white, edge purple; s. 6-8 cm.
tinged brown, squamulose above, brown and thin below.

[=crenulata=, Schum. P. camp. umb. purplish-bay; g. adnexed, paler than
p., edge distinctly crenulated but scarcely darker; s. even, glabrous,
base narrowed.

=mirabilis=, Cke. and Q. (= _Ag. marginellus_, Fr., non Pers.). P. 1-1.5
cm. camp. pale bluish grey, umb. darker, then tan, finely striate; g.
whitish, edge darker with minute particles; s. greyish, minutely
floccose, rooting and tomentose at base; sp. ----.

=aurantiomarginata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. subumb. even, brownish olive then
pale; g. adnexed, edge flocculent, orange; s. 2-4 cm. base ventricose
and strigose; sp. ----.

=elegans=, Pers. P. 1.5-2 cm. umb. striate, brown or livid-yellow; g.
adnate, edge saffron; s. 4-5 cm. equal, livid; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

=olivaceomarginata=, Mass. P. 1-1.5 cm. striate up to disc, honey
colour; g. adnexed, pallid, edge brownish olive; s. 3-4 cm. shining,
coloured like p.; sp. 6 × 4-5.

[=avenacea=, Fr. P. camp. obt. fuscous then livid grey, slightly
striate; g. adnate, white, edge fuscous; s. even, glabrous, without
juice, base fibrillose.

[=atromarginata=, Fr. P. exp. sulcate, viscid; g. white with a very
narrow black edge; s. tall, striate, glabrous.

=rubromarginata=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. camp. obtuse, striate, hygr. grey,
livid, reddish &c., paler; g. adnate, whitish, edge purple brown; s. 3-4
cm. even, pallid; sp. ----.

var. _fuscopurpurea_, Lasch. P. purple brown; g. edge eroded, brownish.

[=luteorufescens=, Karst. P. campan. often oblique, striato-virgate,
yellowish fuscous, disc rufescent, opaque; g. distant, whitish glaucous;
s. yellowish, glabrous; sp. 8-13 × 7-9.

[=viridimarginata=, Karst. P. campan. exp. umb. sulcate, glabrous,
brownish honey-colour, not hygr.; g. white then glaucous; s. rigid,
fragile, honey-colour then pale, not rooting; sp. 7-11 × 6-7.

=strobilina=, Fr. Every part deep red. P. 1-1.5 cm. acutely umb. not
becoming pale; g. adnate edge dark blood red; s. 3-4 cm. rigid; sp. 8-10
× 4.

var. _coccinea_, Sow. Edge of g. not darker.

Differs from _M. rosella_ in larger size, and in not becoming pale,
acute umbo, &c.

=rosella=, Fr. Every part pale rose colour. P. 4-7 mm. obtusely umb.
striate, becoming pale; g. adnate, edge darker; s. 2-3 cm. slender; sp.
7-8 × 4.

[=venustula=, Q. P. white, diaphanous, with rosy granules; g. few,
white, edge rosy; s. white, hyaline.

=carneosanguinea=, Rea. P. 2.5-3 cm. livid grey, umbo rufous, even,
flesh becoming blood-red when broken; g. purplish-brown, edge dark
purple, denticulate; s. 4 cm. grey, base thickened; sp. 4-5 × 2-3.

[=citrinomarginata=, Gill. P. campan. striate to apex, yellow; g.
distant, pale, edge citrin; s. thickened and downy at base, pale.

[=fuscomarginata=, Godey. P. campan. even, pale tan then pallid; g.
pale, edge brownish or reddish-purple; s. bay, summit pale.

     II. ADONIDEAE. _Stem juiceless, gills all one colour, colour clear,
     bright, not brownish or greyish._

=pura=, Pers. Smell like radishes. P. 3-6 cm. umb. margin striate,
lilac, reddish, &c., then pale; g. sinuato-adnexed, very broad,
connected by veins, pale; s. 5-8 cm. even, pale or tinged like pileus;
sp. 6-8 × 3-3.5.

_M. pelianthina_ differs in dark edged gills.

_M. pseudopura_ and _M. zephira_ have no smell.

_M. ianthina_ differs in persistently conical pileus.

[=fimicola=, Karst. P. convex then plane, umb. or papillate, umb.
striate, glabrous, reddish ochre then tan; g. whitish then tan; s.
equal, wavy, tough, glabrous, rusty then bay; sp. 6-9 × 3-4.

var. _multicolor_, Bres. P. clear greyish blue, umbo tawny, edge
striate; g. grey; s. rosy-purple, base yellowish, tomentose; sp. 7-9 ×

=pseudopura=, Cke. P. 2 cm. exp. obtusely umb. vaguely striate, rosy
then pale; g. adnate, whitish; s. 4-6 cm. rigid, pallid rosy, brownish
when dry, naked; sp. 12 × 5.

_M. pura_ differs in larger size of entire fungus, and smaller spores.

_M. zephira_ differs in squamulose stem.

=zephira=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. diaphanous, obtuse, striate to middle, reddish
or pinkish; g. adnate white; s. 4-6 cm. tinged pinkish rufescent,
squamulose, base cottony; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. pura_ in absence of smell.

[=caesiolivida=, Bres. P. campan. exp. or revolute, subirreg. glabrous,
hygr. livid blue or grey then rosy livid; g. white then rosy, at length
livid flesh colour; s. short, greyish or bluish livid, base strigosely
rooting; 8-10 × 5.5-6.

[=Renati=, Q. P. rosy lilac, disc brownish; g. white then tinged rosy;
s. pellucid, amber yellow.

[=Seynii=, Q. P. vinous, shining; g. rosy lilac; s. fistulose, hyaline,
purplish, base hairy, white.

[=punicella=, Fr. P. conical, obtuse, subviscid, scarlet, edge striate,
yellow; g. free, pallid; s. diaphanous, rooting, base dusky green, apex

=flavipes=, Q. Tufted, smells like radishes. P. 1-2 cm. camp. obtuse,
rosy pink or lilac; g. adnexed, whitish; s. 4-5 cm. polished, yellow,
rooting; sp. 10 × 4-5.

[=rubella=, Q. P. campan. striate, orange red; g. white then tinged
rosy; s. hyaline, apex rosy.

=adonis=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. conical then campan. rosy; g. uncinately
adnexed, narrow, white tinged pink; s. equal, white; sp. ----.

[=chlorantha=, Fr. P. camp. obtuse, green; g. sinuato-adnexed, white; s.
short, glabrous, greenish.

=lineata=, Bull. P. 1-2 cm. obt. glabrous, everywhere finely striate,
tinged yellow or whitish; g. adnate, white; s. 4-5 cm. even, base downy;
sp. ----.

=farrea=, Lasch. P. 2-2.5 cm. very thin, expanded, furfuraceous with
shining particles, pale, sulcate; g. adnate, snow-white; s. 6-7 cm.
silky, striate; sp. ----.

Among moss and grass. The only known _Mycena_ with a furfuraceous

=luteoalba=, Bolton. P. 1-2 cm. campan. then exp. and umb. pale yellow;
g. adnate, broad, white; s. 3-5 cm. shining, glabrous, yellowish; sp.

=flavoalba=, Fr. P. 1-5 cm. exp. umb. often cracked at margin, yellowish
or white; g. soon free, distant; s. 2-3 cm. white, pellucid, apex
pruinose; sp. 6-8 × 3-4.

_M. lactea_ differs in adnate gills and downy base of stem.

_M. luteoalba_ has a yellowish stem.

=lactea=, Pers. White. P. 1-1.5 cm. subumb. striate, even when dry; g.
adnate, narrow, crowded; s. 3-5 cm. toughish, not quite straight,
glabrous; sp. 7-8 × 3-4.

Differs from _M. gypsea_ and _M. tenuis_ in scattered habit.

var. _pithya_, Fr. Smaller, p. becoming almost plane; s. thin, base
bubillose, downy.

forma _pulchella_, Fr. Milk-white; g. linear, ascending; s. attenuated.

[=olida=, Bres. Smell very strong, rancid. P. thin, conico-campan.
obtuse, then exp. and umb. yellow soon pale straw; g. uncinato-decur.
connected by veins, white; s. hyaline, strigosely rooting; sp. 8-9 × 6.

=gypsea=, Fr. Caespitose. Pure white, rarely with a yellow tinge. P. 1-2
cm. conical then campan. striate up to umbo, glabrous; g. subuncinate;
s. 5-7 cm. straight, narrowed upwards from hairy base; sp. 8-9 × 4.

[=nivea=, Q. Shining white. P. sulcate, diaphanous; g. uncinate; s.
pruinose, base rather swollen, fibrillose.

[=galeropsis=, Fr. P. conico-camp. even, gilvous; g. free, whitish; s.
straight, narrowed upwards, fragile, not rooting, ferruginous below.

[=nucida=, Brig. P. campan. obtuse, even, downy under a lens, deep
rust-colour, hygr.; g. free, white then rosy; s. silky shining, base
snow-white, apex mealy.

[=Benzonii=, Fr. P. very thin, campan. exp. umbil. finely striate,
pallid or reddish; g. white; s. equal, glabrous, white.

An introduced species.

[=melanops=, West. P. convexo-camp. plicate, umbo blackish-brown; g.
adnexed to a collar; s. slender, glabrous base fibrillose.

[=pruinatus=, Fr. Shining white. P. thin, conico-campan. papillate, edge
deflexed, sulcate, pruinose; g. crowded; s. bulbous, naked.

     III. RIGIDIPEDES. _Stem firm, rigid, rather tough, juiceless, base
     strigosely rooting, gills discoloured, grey, reddish, &c., often
     connected by veins._

=cohaerens=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. camp. obtuse, tawny cinnamon, soft and
velvety; g. free, distant, very broad, pallid; s. 8-12 cm. horny, rigid,
even, shining, bay, base downy, rooting; sp. 10 × 7-8.

[=raeborhiza=, Lasch. P. acute camp. exp. glabrous, striate, rather
tawny then pale; g. almost free, connected by veins; s. even, floccosely
pruinose, rooting, tinged tawny.

=prolifera=, Sow. Caespitose. P. 1-2 cm. camp. then exp. subumb., margin
coarsely striate, yellowish tan; g. adnexed; s. 6-8 cm. glabrous,
shining, striate, brownish below, rooting; sp. ----.

=excisa=, Lasch. (non Berk.). P. 2-3 cm. camp. then obtuse, greyish
fuscous or pallid; g. scarcely adnexed, narrowed behind, very broad in
front, pallid; s. 2-3 cm. tough, even, grey, rooting; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. polygramma_ in smooth stem.

var. _fagetorum_, Fr. Slender. P. even, striate to middle, smoky or
livid then pale; g. joined to a collar; s. incurved at base, fixed to
leaves by down.

=rugosa=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. camp. then exp. subumb. tough, irreg. radially
rugulose, greyish; g. arcuately adnate, white then tinged grey; s. 3-4
cm. tough, even, glabrous, pallid; sp. ----.

=sudora=, Fr. White. P. 2-3 cm. umb. striate, viscid; g. obtusely
adnate, sometimes tinged pink; st. 6-10 cm. even, dry, rooting; sp.

=galericulata=, Scop. P. 2-5 cm. conic camp. exp. striate up to umbo,
dry, brownish, livid, &c.; adnate with decurrent tooth, connected by
veins, pinkish when old; s. 5-8 cm. polished, even, glabrous; sp. 6-7 ×

_M. rugosa_ differs from present sp. in having grey gills and rugulose

[=simillima=, Karsten. P. conico-campan. even, dry, glabrous, livid or
dingy pallid; g. emarginato-decur. crowded, white, very slightly tinged
rose; s. fragile, polished, even, glabrous, base curved, rooting; sp.

Very near to _Mycena galericulata_, differing in being fragile and in
becoming pale.

=polygramma=, Bull. P. 3-7 cm. conic camp. subumb. dry, striate, dark
grey or blackish-blue when young; g. pale pinkish-grey tinge; s. 7-12
cm. rigid, tough, shining, longitudinally striate, strigosely rooting,
grey; sp. 11-12 × 6.

Differs from _M. plicata_ in striate stem.

[=inclinata=, Fr. P. camp. obtuse, striate to middle, everywhere
brownish; g. adnate, whitish, base grey; s. rigid, twisted, pruinosely
fibrillose, upwards interruptedly striate.

=parabolica=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. oval then camp. striate to middle, disc
blackish-violet, margin paler, becoming pale; g. adnate; s. 4-7 cm.
even, glabrous, base strigose, dark coloured; sp. 11-12 × 6.

Differs from _M. galericulata_ in absence of decurrent tooth of gills,
also their pinkish colour.

=tintinabulum=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. tough, camp. even, bay, yellow brown,
pallid, &c., viscid when moist; g. adnate with a decurrent tooth,
crowded; s. 2-3 cm. even, glabrous, pallid, strigosely rooting; sp. 7-8
× 5.

Differs from _M. galericulata_ in short stem and even pileus.

=Berkeleyi=, Mass. (= _excisa_, B.). P. 3-7 cm. camp. striate up to
umbo, hygr. dingy brown then paler; g. broadly sinuate with decurrent
tooth, tinged flesh colour; s. 7-12 cm. long, purplish brown, base
rooting; sp. 5 × 3.5.

[=laevigata=, Lasch. Constantly white. P. hemispher.-exp. obtuse, even
when dry; g. with decur. tooth, crowded, distinct, joined to a collar;
s. even, glabrous, lubricous, base strigose.

Requires to be carefully distinguished from white forms of _M.
galericulata_ and _M. rugosa_. S. lubricous when moist, not viscid.

[=lasiosperma=, Bres. Caespitose. P. thin, conico-campan. exp. umb. edge
then upturned, rather viscid, striate to umbo, livid grey with a grey
bloom at first; g. sinuato-unc. connected by veins, whitish then grey;
s. pallid above, chestnut and white-pruinose below; sp. globose,
aculeate, 6-7.

     IV. FRAGILIPEDES. _Stem fragile, dry, juiceless. Pileus
     hygrophanous. Gills often discoloured._

=atroalba=, Bolton. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, disc blackish or fuscous,
whitish towards striate margin; g. free, crowded, glaucous; s. 6-10 cm.
pallid, apex darker, base swollen, strigose; sp. ----.

=dissiliens=, Fr. Smell strong, very fragile, conico-camp. obtuse,
greyish-brown then pale, grooved to middle; g. broadest in front, base
tinged grey; s. 4-5 cm. subincurved, slightly striate, dusky grey, base
strigose; sp. ----.

When compressed the stem splits into pieces which curl outwards

=atrocyanea=, Batsch. P. 1-1.5 cm. convex-camp. sulcate, dark brown then
blue-grey, powdered with white meal, deformed umbo obtuse; g. adnexed,
whitish; s. 3-4 cm. slender, glabrous, blackish-blue; sp. ----.

=pullata=, B. and Cke. Smell slightly nitrous. P. 1.5-2 cm. dark brown,
disc blackish, obtusely umb. striate to middle; g. white; s. 5-6 cm.
coloured like pileus, rooting; sp. 6 × 3.

_M. leucogala_ and _M. galopoda_ differ in white milk in stem.

_M. atrocyanea_ differs in dark blue tinge of p. and s.

[=cinerella=, Karst. Smell very strong of meal. P. campan. entirely
striate, grey or greyish-pallid; g. broadly adnato-decur. greyish-white;
s. greyish-white, base fibrillose, not rooting; sp. ----.

=psammicola=, B. and Br. Smell strong. P. 4-6 mm. hemispherical, brown,
paler towards striate margin, sprinkled with minute particles; g.
adnexed, sinuate; s. 1.5-2 cm. umber, paler upwards, everywhere
pulverulent; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. paupercula_ in pulverulent stem and pileus.

=paupercula=, B. Smell strong. P. 2-4 mm. conical, exp. pale ochraceous,
minutely fibrillose; g. free, whitish; s. 1-1.5 cm. slender, whitish,
rooting; sp. ----.

=leptocephala=, Pers. Smell strong, solitary, entirely grey. P. 2-2.5
cm. umb. sulcate, pruinose, opaque; g. emarginate; s. 4-5 cm. slightly
striate, opaque, dry; sp. ----.

=alcalina=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. camp. obtuse, naked, deeply
striate when moist, shining when dry, pallid or tinged yellowish-green;
g. adnate; s. 4-7 cm. yellowish, viscid, glabrous, shining, base
villose; sp. 8 × 5.

=ammoniaca=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 1.5-2 cm. conico-exp. umb. naked,
discoid, opaque, dark brown or greyish, striate at paler margin; g.
adnate; s. even, glabrous, rooting, pallid, 4-5 cm.; sp. ----.

_M. alcalina_ differs in tufted habit, viscid stem with yellow tinge of

=metata=, Fr. Smell weak, alkaline, soft. P. obt. striate, hygr.
grey--rarely yellowish or pinkish--even, opaque, and whitish when dry;
g. adnate, not connected by veins, whitish; s. 4-7 cm. firm, even,
glabrous, base fibrillose; sp. ----.

=cinerea=, Mass. and Crossl. Entirely grey, smell strong, like radishes.
P. 1.5-2 cm. subgibbous, exp. pale, silky and even when dry; g. adnate;
s. 5-7 cm. glabrous, downy and white at base; sp. 8 × 5; cystidia

_M. leptocephala_ differs in sulcate p., and _M. metata_ in white gills.
_M. plumbea_ has no smell.

=plicosa=, Fr. 1.5-2.5 cm. exp. plicato-sulcate, greyish brown, opaque
when dry; g. thick, distant, veined, grey; s. 3-4 cm. polished, greyish;
sp. globose, 4-5.

[=subplicosa=, Karst. P. campan. obtuse, with distant grooves, almost
plicate, glabrous, grey then pallid; g. adnate, whitish; s. rigid,
shining, hyaline or livid, base strigose not rooting; sp. 6-8 × 3-5.

=consimilis=, Cke. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. camp. grey, umbo darker, striate to
middle, margin upturned and splitting; g. adnexed, grey; s. 2.5-3.5 cm.
dry, smooth, paler than p.; sp. ----.

More or less resembling several species. _M. leptocephala_ and _M.
metata_ differ in strong smell. _M. peltata_ in orbicular plane pileus.
_M. rugosa_ differs in rugose pileus.

=peltata=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. orbicular, soon plane, disc fleshy, blackish
brown then grey, margin striate; g. with decurrent tooth, grey; s. 3-4
cm. even, glabrous, base downy; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. pelliculosa_ in absence of viscid pellicle.

=aetites=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. camp.-convex, coarsely striate, hygr. broad
obtuse umbo prominent, brownish; g. uncinate, thin, connected by veins;
s. 4-5 cm. glabrous, shining subcompressed; sp. ----.

=stannea=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. hygr. grey, even, and tin colour with a
silky sheen when dry; g. with decurrent tooth, connected by veins,
greyish white; s. 5-7 cm. even, shining, often compressed; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. vitrea_ in decurrent tooth to gills.

=vitrea=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. livid brown, finely striate all over, no
trace of umbo or fleshy disc; g. adnate, not connected by veins; s. 6-9
cm. slightly striate, polished, pale, base fibrillose; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. aetites_ and _M. stanneus_ in gills not having a
decurrent tooth and not connected by veins.

=tenuis=, Bolton. White, tufted. P. 1-1.5 cm. brittle, camp. obtuse,
then exp. striate; g. adnate; s. 5-7 cm. thin, pellucid, glabrous; sp.

_M. gypsea_ differs in decurrent tooth of gills, and strigose base of

     V. FILIPEDES. _Stem very slender, flaccid, rooting, dry, juiceless.
     Gills discoloured, edge paler._

=filopes=, Bull. P. 1-1.5 cm. camp. then exp. striate, livid grey; g.
free, white; s. 6-8 cm. flaccid, glabrous, rooting, base downy; sp.

=iris=, B. P. 1-2 cm. exp. obtuse, slightly viscid, striate, blue when
young, then brownish with blue fibrils; g. free, tinged grey; s. 3-6 cm.
bluish below, tinged brown above, with scattered fascicles of down; sp.

=amicta=, Fr. P. up to 1 cm. conico-camp. greyish, striate to middle,
dry, glabrous; g. free, grey; s. 6-10 cm. filiform, tough,
downy-pulverulent; sp. ----.

=plumbea=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convex then flattened, obtuse, sulcate, lead
colour powdered with white meal; g. adnate horizontal, grey; s. 6-8 cm.
elongated, pulverulent, grey, apex hyaline, base strigose, fragile; sp.

[=ianthina=, Fr. P. conical, striate all over, glabrous, lilac; g.
broadest in front, greyish-white; s. attenuated, flaccid, glabrous,
slightly striate, brownish lilac.

Differs from _P. pura_ in persistently conical pileus.

=urania=, Fr. P. camp. then convex, dark violet when young, then blue
becoming pale; g. uncinato-adnate, white; s. flaccid, even, glabrous,
base rather rooting, floccose.

=debilis=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. camp.-convex, striate, whitish or livid then
brownish, opaque, rugulose when dry; g. broadly adnate; s. 3-5 cm.
flaccid, base fibrillose not rooting; sp. ----.

[=lasiosperma=, Bres. P. striate, grey, umbo darker; g. greyish white;
s. white, pruinose, base brownish, strigosely rooting; sp. globose,

=vitilis=, Fr. P. 4-7 mm. conical then exp. papillate, deeply striate
when moist, brownish or greyish then pale; g. narrowed and adnate,
greyish white; s. 6-14 cm. livid, flexile, rooting; sp. ----.

Var. _amsegetes_, Secr. P. conico-campan. everywhere striate; g. not
connected by veins, edge entire; s. thicker, short.

[=latebricola=, Karst. P. campan. then plano-convex, disc depr. striate,
livid, fuscescent when dry; g. adnato-decurr., whitish; s. filiform,
tough, glabrous, pallid, root strigose; sp. ----.

[=canescens=, Weinm. P. hemispher. then plane, subumbil., white then
tinged grey; g. adnate, greyish; s. filiform, sooty grey, base

=collariata=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convex, subumb. striate, brownish or
greyish then pale; g. adnate to a collar, whitish then tinged pink; s.
2-3 cm. pale, polished, tough; sp. ----.

[=cimmeria=, Fr. P. convex, slightly striate, dry, yellowish brown; g.
adnexed, saffron yellow, edge white; s. glabrous, fibrillosely rooting.

[=cladophylla=, Lév. P. camp.-convex, wavy, glabrous, greyish white,
shining; g. adnate, branched; s. naked, white, base brownish.

[=epiphloea=, Fr. P. persistently acutely conical, papillate, everywhere
striate, whitish, apex tinged brown; g. free, ventricose, distant; s.
diaphanous, pallid.

[=supina=, Fr. Small. P. obtuse, striate; g. almost free, ventricose,
white; s. short, incurved, tough, glabrous, white.

=speirea=, Fr. P. 1 cm. convex, dark disc becoming depr. greyish with
brown lines; g. plane then decurrent, shining white; s. 3-4 cm. tough,
polished, fibrillosely rooting; sp. ----.

=tenella=, Fr. Tufted. P. up to 1 cm. obtuse, whitish, pellucid, margin
striatulate; g. uncinate, white then pink; s. 2 cm. glabrous, base
downy; sp. ----.

Caespitose. Altogether white or livid-rosy. Pileus exceedingly delicate.

=acicula=, Schaeff. P. 2-3 mm. camp., orange red, margin striate; g.
yellow; s. 2-3 cm. yellowish, base rooting; sp. ----.

Pileus at first subumbonate. Gills subovate, almost free, yellow then

     VI. LACTIPEDES. _Gills and rooting stem dry, giving out milk when

=haematopoda=, Pers. Caespitose. P. 2-4 cm. camp. obtuse, edge
denticulate, reddish disc darker; g. adnate, whitish, edge the same; s.
4-5 cm. reddish, white pulverulent, containing dusky red juice.

=cruenta=, Fr. P. 1 cm. conico-camp. margin striate, edge entire,
reddish; g. adnate, entirely white; s. 4-7 cm. containing dusky red
juice; sp.

=sanguinolenta=, A. and S. P. 1 cm. convexo-camp. striate, reddish, edge
darker; s. 3-5 cm. reddish with dark red juice; sp. ----.

=crocata=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. conico-camp. umb. reddish; g. white; s.
7-12 cm. narrowed, downy rooting, containing saffron-red juice; sp.

=chelidonia=, Sow. P. 1 cm. camp. then obtuse, nearly even, pinkish with
yellow tinge; g. adnate, tinged yellow; s. 4-5 cm. smooth, rooting,
often compr. with yellow juice; sp. 9-10 × 5.

=galopoda=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. camp. umb. striate sooty or greyish; g.
glaucous; s. slender, pallid, fibrillosely rooting, containing white
milk; sp. 9-10 × 5.

_M. leucogala_ differs in the grey gills.

=leucogala=, Cke. P. 1-1.5 cm. camp. umb. sulcate, sooty or purple
brown; g. adnate, grey; s. 4-7 cm. dark with whitish down at base,
containing a large quantity of white milk; sp. ----.

_M. pullata_ and _M. atrocyanea_ differ in having no milk.

     VII. GLUTINIPEDES. _Stem juiceless, viscid or glutinous._

=epiterygia=, Scop. P. 1-2.5 cm. camp. then exp. striate with a
separable viscid pellicle, greyish or greenish yellow; g. adnate; s. 5-9
cm. tough, glabrous, viscid, rooting, yellowish; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

Resembling _M. alcalina_, but no smell.

=clavicularis=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. striate, dry, not pelliculose, disc
becoming depr. brownish, yellowish or pale; g. adnate, white; s. 4-5 cm.
glabrous, viscid, whitish, base fibrillose; sp. ----.

=pelliculosa=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convex, obtuse, finely striate, viscid
pellicle separable, grey or brownish; g. rather fold-like; s. 3-4 cm.
glabrous, viscid, livid; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. vulgaris_ in separable cuticle.

=vulgaris=, Pers. P. 5-8 mm. convex then depr. with central papilla,
viscid brownish or grey with darker lines; g. decur. white; s. viscid,
pale, fibrillosely rooting; sp. 5 × 2.5.

=citrinella=, Pers. P. 3-6 mm. viscid, camp. then exp. umb. yellow; g.
uncinate, white; s. 2 cm. tough, viscid, yellow; sp. 6-8 × 4-5.

=plicato-crenata=, Fr. P. 1 cm. conical, subumb. coarsely plicate, edge
crenate, pale yellow; g. white; s. 3-5 cm. viscid, tinged red or
brownish, inside yellow; sp. ----.

=rorida=, Fr. P. up to 1 cm. convex, umbil. sulcate, dry, pale ochre;
g. subdecur. white; s. 3-4 cm. whitish, very glutinous; sp. ----.

     VIII. BASIPEDES. _Stem dry, base expanded into an orbicular disc or
     bubillose and strigose_.

=stylobates=, Pers. White. P. 2-3 mm. obtuse, striate, subpilose; g.
free; s. 3-4 cm. filiform, glabrous, inserted on a plane, orbicular,
downy, striate disc; sp. 4 × 2.

[=dilatata=, Fr. White. P. convexo-plane, obtuse, edge slightly striate;
g. sublinear, connected into a collar; s. filiform, base orbicular,
convex, glabrous.

var. _clavicularis_. P. greyish, disc subrotund.

=tenerrima=, B. White. P. 2-3 mm. convex, scurfy; g. free; s. 2-3 cm.
minutely hairy below, fixed by a minute downy disc; sp. subgl. 3-4.

=discopoda=, Lév. White. P. 2-3 mm. conical, obtuse, with white meal; g.
adnate, distant; s. 2-3 mm. mealy, expanding at base into a minute downy
disc; sp. ----.

=saccharifera=, B. & Br. Whitish. P. 2-3 mm. convex; g. arcuately decur.
dusted with shining particles; s. 3-4 mm. filiform, minute disc fixed by
filaments; sp. ----.

var. _eclectica_, Buck. White. P. sulcate, and like gills and stem,
sparkling with granules.

[=mammillata=, Pass. P. conico-campan. mammilate, sulcate, glabrous,
shining white then greyish; g. adnate, broad; s. floccose below, base
ending in a flat orbicular disc.

[=mucor=, Batsch. Minute, fugacious. P. plicate, grey; g. adnate,
distant, greyish white; s. hyaline, white, inserted in an orbicular

[=echinipes=, Lasch. Minute, white. P. camp. hyaline, striate; g. thick,
distant; s. thickish, glabrous, base slightly bulbous, hairy.

=pterigena=, Fr. Pale rose colour. P. 1-2 mm. camp. obtuse; g. adnate,
broad, distant; s. 4-6 mm. thin, wavy, smooth, ending in a radially
strigose disc; sp. ----.

[=trachelina=, Fr. P. brown, fibrillose; g. adnate, broad
floccoso-fimbriate; s. villosely squamulose, bulbillose, strigosely

[=cyanorhiza=, Q. P. striate, greyish white; g. broad, whitish; s.
greyish white, base somewhat swollen, hairy, blue.

     IX. INSITITIAE. _Stem very slender, not rooting nor attached by a
     disc but penetrating the substratum abruptly. Gills adnate._

=corticola=, Fr. P. 3-6 mm. obtuse, umbil. sulcate, blackish, brown,
grey, &c.; g. adnate, broad; s. 1.5 cm. slender, incurved, minutely
scurfy; sp. ----.

=hiemalis=, Osbeck. P. 4-7 mm. camp. umb. striate, pinkish, rufescent,
white, &c., often pruinose; g. narrow; s. 2-3 cm. curved, base downy;
sp. 7-8 × 3.

Differs from _M. corticola_ in narrow gills, and striate not sulcate

=codoniceps=, Cke. P. 2-3 mm. high and 1.5 mm. broad, pale umber, not
exp. sulcate, delicately hairy; g. adnate; s. 4-7 mm. umber below; sp. 5
× 2.5.

=setosa=, Sow. White. P. 1 mm. obtuse, smooth, g. almost free; s. 2-3
cm. slender, covered with delicate spreading hairs; sp. ----.

=capillaris=, Fr. White. P. 2 mm. camp. obtuse, then umbil.; g. adnate,
few; s. 1.5-2.5 cm. hair-like, wavy, glabrous; sp. 7-8 × 4.

[=stipularis=, Fr. Very minute and delicate. P. convex subumbil. rosy,
as are also the gills; s. downy, yellowish.

=juncicola=, Fr. P. 2-3 mm. striate, glabrous, rufescent or rosy; g.
adnate, distant; s. 1-1.5 cm. glabrous, fuscous; sp. ----.


     A. _Gills white or clear coloured, not grey; flesh white._

     I. STRIAEPEDES. _Stem stout, hollow or loosely stuffed, sulcate or
     fibrillosely striate._

     * _Gills white, rather distant._

=radicata=, Relh. P. 3-7 cm. exp. gibbous, rugose, viscid, brownish
ochre; g. distant, white; s. 10-18 cm. attenuated upwards, glabrous,
rooting; 14-15 × 8-9.

=longipes=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. exp. umb. dry, minutely velvety, pale
brown; s. 8-12 cm. velvety, with a rooting base, brownish; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. velutipes_ in dry, velvety pileus.

=veluticeps=, Rea. P. 3-6 cm. velvety, tawny; g. sinnato-adnate, deep
ochre; st. 4-7 cm. fusiform, striate, slightly velvety, with
rhizomorphic mycelium; sp. 7-8 × 3-4.


[=elevata=, Weinm. P. tough, exp. subfibrillose, umbo evanescent,
greyish white, shining, floccosely scaly; g. shining white then dingy;
s. long, striate, abruptly rooting.

=platyphylla=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. exp. obtuse, moist, fibrillosely virgate,
brown or greyish; g. truncate behind, white; s. 7-10 cm. striate,
pallid, base abrupt, with cord-like strands of mycelium; sp. 9-10 × 6.

var. _repens_, Ach. P. depr.; s. hollow, compr. apex pruinose,
rhizomorphic mycelium copious, anastomosing.

=semitalis=, Fr. P. 3-8 cm. exp. obtuse, glabrous, moist, sooty or livid
ochraceous, pale when dry; g. white, blackish when bruised, finally
obscure; s. 2-4 cm. fibrillose, with a thin cartilaginous cuticle,
brownish or grey; sp. 7-9 × 4-5.

[=lentiniformis=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, umbil. or depr. irreg. even,
glabrous, rufescent; g. almost free, crowded, white then spotted black;
s. apex thickened and silky, whitish, blackish when bruised; sp. 10-11 ×

Resembling _Lentinus cochleatus_ in form and colour.

[=concolor=, Del. White then tan. P. umboniform then exp. even, rarely
scaly; g. adnexed, pallescent; s. solid, equal, glabrous.

[=loripes=, Fr. Caespitose. P. exp. flexuose, lax, yellowish rufous,
even, glabrous; g. white then sulphur yellow; s. pallid, flexuous,
fibrillosely striate.

[=aerina=, Q. P. flexuous, tomentose, coppery olive; g. distant, yellow;
s. striate, orange yellow.

=fusipes=, Bull. P. 3-7 cm. exp. umbo at length disappearing, rufous or
dingy tan, often cracked; g. adnexed, white then dingy; s. 7-10 cm.
ventricose, grooved, rooting, glabrous, cartilaginous; sp. 5-6 × 3-4.

Tufted. Edible.

var. _oedematopa_, Schaeff. Subcaespitose, p. conical then flattened,
rufous bay; g. pallid; s. ventricose, fibrillosely pulverulent.

var. _contorta_, Bull. Caespitoso-connate, pileus and twisted stem
thinner; g. crowded, white.

=lancipes=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. umb. radiately rugulose, margin striate,
pale flesh colour then pallid; g. connected by veins, tinged flesh
colour; s. 4-6 cm. striate, narrowed towards rooting base; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. fusipes_ in rugulose pileus, and in growing singly.

=mimica=, W. G. Sm. Smell strong, fishy. P. 2-3 cm. obtuse, with
separable cuticle, dingy ochraceous, as are the broad g.; s. narrowed
towards base, ochraceous, 4-5 cm.; sp. 8 × 4-5.

     ** _Gills crowded, narrow._

=maculata=, A. & S. White; P. 5-10 cm. obtuse, compact, becoming spotted
with rust colour; g. free, closely crowded; s. 7-12 cm. more or less
ventricose, grooved, narrowed below, spotted rusty; subgl. 4-6.

var. _immaculata_, Cke. Not becoming spotted; g. minutely serrulate.

var. _scorzonera_, Batsch. Smaller, yellowish, stem long, rooting, often
wavy; g. yellowish.

[=serpentina=, Otth. P. campan. yellowish white, glabrous, somewhat
shining, whitish, edge involute, white-fibrillose; g. crenulate,
whitish, becoming tinged red; s. whitish, striate, silky shining,
hollow, ending in a long contorted serpentine root running amongst

=prolixa=, Fl. Dan. P. 7-10 cm. lax, exp. gibbous, even, glabrous, tawny
or brick red tinge; g. free, crowded, narrow, not spotted; s. solid,
subequal, not rooting, sulcate, brick-red, 7-9 cm.; sp. 8-9 × 5.

=distorta=, Fr. P. lax, 6-8 cm. exp. umb. glabrous, even, bay then pale;
g. narrow, much crowded, soon spotted red; s. 6-8 cm. narrowed from
ventricose base, sulcate, more or less twisted, pallid; sp. 6-7 × 4.

=butyracea=, Bull. P. 4-7 cm. exp. umb. even, glabrous, moist and
shining, reddish brown then pallid, flesh whitish; g. crenulate; s. 5-8
cm. conical, striate, rufous; sp. 7-9 × 4-5.

var. _bibulosa_, Mass. P. dingy olive at first.

var. _aurorea_, Larb. P. thinner, edge striate, flesh rufescent; s.

[=funicularis=, Karst. (= _Coll. dryophila_, var. _funicularis_, Fr.).
P. rufous then pale, even; g. sulphur then pale; s. sulcate, apex
thickened, curved, yellowish white; sp. 6 × 2-3.

[=phaeopodia=, Fr. P. exp. even, glabrous, moist, umbo evanescent, flesh
brownish, fuscous brown; g. white; s. blackish brown, thickened at both

[=epipphia=, Fr. P. discoid, viscid, striate to middle; g. white,
connected by veins; s. narrowed upwards, striate, white.

[=asema=, Weinm. P. thin, umb. hygr. livid, whitish when dry, flesh
watery, horny-grey near gills; g. crowded, entire, whitish; s. striate,

=stridula=, Fr. P. soft, soon exp. even, moist, hygr. blackish then
pale; g. arcuato-adnexed, white; s. fibrilloso-striate, livid brown.

Distinguished from _Trich. melaleucum_ by the dark stem.

[=pulla=, Schaeff. P. campan.-exp. obtuse, even, glabrous, hygr. purple
bay then pallid fuscous; g. transversely pellucidly striate, whitish; s.
twisted, soft.

=xylophila=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. lax, campan. then exp. gibbous, disc
brownish tan, rest paler; g. adnate, very narrow, much crowded; s. 4-5
cm. subflexuous, fibrillose, whitish; 4 × 2.5.

Caespitose. _C. confluens_ and _C. ingrata_ differ in downy stem.

[=jurana=, Q. P. thin, fleshy-buff colour, white floccose, margin
crenulate; g. whitish tinged flesh colour; s. fibrillose, whitish.

[=ramosa=, Bull. Pure white. P. exp. disc depr. slightly striate; g.
crowded; s. stuffed, subequal, rooting, glabrous.

[=strumosa=, Fr. White. P. wavy, glabrous, margin at first incurved and
downy; g. crowded; s. hollow, equal, flexuous, surface crisped and wavy,

[=globularis=, Weinm. White. P. globose, disc becoming plane and umbil.,
edge roundly incurved; g. adnate, crowded, broad; s. apex flocculose,
base tomentose.

     II. VESTIPEDES. _Stem thin, equal, fistulose or medullate, even,
     velvety, floccose or pruinose._

     * _Gills broad, rather distant._

=velutipes=, Fr. 3-7 cm. exp. viscid, yellow, glabrous; g. yellowish; s.
5-10 cm. velvety, blackish brown below, rooting; sp. 7 × 3-3.5.

var. _rubescens_, Cke. P. tawny; g. ochraceous.

var. _lactea_, Q. P. white; g. broad; s. velvety.

=laxipes=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. obtuse, glabrous, moist, whitish; g. distant;
s. 6-12 cm. lax, stuffed, with rufous velvety down; sp. ----.

Much smaller and slenderer than _C. velutipes_.

[=declinis=, Weinm. P. conico-campan. umb. moist, at length rivulose,
pale fuscous; g. scarcely adnexed, pallid, edge floccoso-crenulate; s.
white, apex flocculoso-pulverulent.

[=Benoistii=, Boud. Soft. P. convex then plane, rather hygr. dark
purple-bay then paler, edge striate, pellucid; g. nearly free, whitish
then tinged purple-bay; s. bay, apex paler and scurfy, pale flocculose;
flesh coloured.

=floccipes=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convex, umb. even, sooty brown then pale; g.
thick; s. 3-5 cm. whitish and rough with minute black points, rooting;
sp. ----.

[=trochila=, Lasch. P. convex, glabrous, umbilicately depr. discoid,
hyalino-striate, pallid fuscous; g. adnate, narrow; s. long, rigid,
blackish brown.

=vertiruga=, Cke. P. 1-2 cm. subpulverulent, exp. dull brown or grey,
radially wrinkled; g. adnate; s. 4-6 cm. tawny, minutely velvety, base
strigose; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. stipitaria_ in adnate gills and dingy pileus.

=stipitaria=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. exp. umb. velvety-squamulose, whitish
with brown fibrils; g. ventricose; s. 2.5-5 cm. bay, fibrillose or
hairy; sp. ----.

[=Sobolewski=, Weinm. P. thin, hemispher. obtusely umb.
white-pulverulent, shining white then tinged rosy; g. free; s. slender,
tinged fuscescent, shining, white-fibrillose.

[=alumna=, Schum. White. P. thin, globose-campan. exp. glabrous,
striate; g. adnate, broad; s. subulate from thickened base, downy below.

Habitat on fungi like _C. tuberosa_, from which it differs in adnate

     ** _Gills very narrow, closely crowded._

=hariolorum=, Bull. P. 2-5 cm. exp. glabrous, dingy tan; g. white then
pallid; s. 5-7 cm. narrowed upwards, rufescent, woolly-hirsute; sp. 6-7
× 3-4.

=confluens=, Pers. P. 2-4 cm. obtuse, flaccid, glabrous, rufescent then
pallid; g. closely crowded; s. 6-12 cm. more or less compressed, rufous,
everywhere with white down; sp. subgl. 7-9.

Differs from _C. hariolorum_ in densely tufted habit.

=ingrata=, Schum. P. 2-3 cm. convex, umb. even, brownish tan; g. free,
pallid; s. 5-10 cm. twisted, subcompressed, with white meal above, umber
and naked below, equal; sp. ----.

[=lilacea=, Q. Subtomentose, lilac; p. thin, hoary; g. amethyst; s.
slender, base with white down.

[=lupuletora=, Weinm. P. exp. depr. even, glabrous, livid or pale tan
then pallid; g. adnate, crowded, white; s. not rooting, white and
pulverulently scaly above, brownish, glabrous, and narrowed below.

[=foetidissima=, Gill. Smell extremely foetid. P. convex, umbil. wavy,
yellowish white; g. whitish; s. white.

[=orbicularis=, Secr. P. exp. umb. brown, disc with small viscid
blackish warts; g. adnexed, crowded; s. rufescent with white meal.

[=myosura=, Fr. P. orbicular, exp. obtuse, rufous, becoming pale; g.
free, much crowded; s. rufescent, apex powdered, root long, glabrous.

=conigena=, Pers. 1-2 cm. exp. subumb. glabrous, reddish-yellow or pale;
g. free, much crowded, pallid; s. 3-7 cm. pulverulent, pallid, base
strigose, rooting; sp. 4-5 × 3.

Differs from _C. tenacella_ and _C. esculenta_ in free, crowded, narrow

var. _lutea_, Vogl. P. yellow; g. densely crowded, white.

=cirrhata=, Fr. 1-1.5 cm. exp. at length umbilicate, silky, opaque,
white; g. adnate; s. 2-5 cm. slender, wavy, whitish, with a downy root;
sp. 4-5 × 2-3.

Differs from _C. conigena_ in adnate gills, and from _C. tuberosa_ in
downy rooting stem not springing from a sclerotium.

=tuberosa=, Bull. P. about 1 cm. white, exp. umb. even; g. adnate; s.
1.5-4 cm. thin, white, root glabrous and springing from a sclerotium;
sp. 4-6 × 2-3.

=racemosa=, Pers. P. up to 1 cm. convex, papillate, grey, subtomentose;
g. adnate; s. 3-5 cm. base dark, springing from a blackish sclerotium;
several minute stems with abortive pilei often spring from the stem; sp.

     III. LAEVIPES. _Stem thin, equal, fistulose, naked, glabrous
     (except base), not conspicuously striate._

     * _Gills broad, lax, usually more or less distant._

=collina=, Scop. P. 2-5 cm. exp. umb., brownish then pale; g. adnexed
then free; s. 6-10 cm. equal, even, glabrous, base abrupt, downy; sp.

=thelephora=, Cke. and Mass. P. 2-3 cm. camp. lax, umb. apiculate,
dingy ochraceous, disc darker; g. adnate; s. 6-10 cm. equal, hollow,
glabrous, base dark; sp. 9 × 7.

=ventricosa=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. camp. umb. glabrous, pale tan; g. with
rufous tinge; s. 6-10 cm. rufescent, base ventricose, rooting; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. dryophila_ in ventricose, rooting stem.

=leucomyosotis=, Cke. Strong scented, rather fragrant. P. 2-3 cm. exp.
grey then paler; g. adnate, sinuate, white; s. 8-12 cm. equal, brittle,
pallid; sp. 6 × 4.

=Stevensoni=, B. and Br. P. 1-1.5 cm. obtuse, viscid, pale yellow; g.
broadly adnate, broad, white; s. 2-3 cm. rufous, equal, fibrillose,
rooting; sp. 10-11 × 7-8.

Differs from _C. esculenta_ in broad, adnate gills.

=psathyroides=, Cke. Ivory white. P. 1.5-2 cm. broad and nearly 2.5 cm.
high, camp. obtuse, rather viscid; g. broadly adnate, broad; s. 6-10 cm.
equal, straight, hollow; sp. 15 × 7.

=xanthopoda=, Fr. P. 2.5 cm. exp. umb. glabrous, lax, yellow or tan
colour then pale; g. truncate behind; s. 6-10 cm. equal, hollow, tough,
glabrous, yellowish, strigosely rooting; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. dryophila_ in umbo, broad gills, and strigosely rooting

=nitellina=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. even, shining, tawny, hygroph.; g.
adnate, white then tinted; s. 5-8 cm. equal, rigid, glabrous, tawny; sp.

=succinea=, Fr. P. 2-2.5 cm. even, exp. then subdepressed, pale rufous,
often cracked; g. adnexed, broad, thickish, serrulate; s. 2-4 cm.
polished, rufescent, not rooting; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. dryophila_ by broader, thicker, less crowded gills, and
from _C. xanthopoda_ by absence of an umbo.

=nummularia=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. exp. subdepressed round small umbo,
pallid; g. free; s. 3-5 cm. glabrous, pallid, apex thickened; sp. ----.

=esculenta=, Wulf. P. 1-2 cm. orbicular, exp. obtuse, glabrous, pallid
tan; g. adnate, lax, whitish; s. 2.5 cm. indistinctly hollow, even,
polished, yellowish tan, rooting, base glabrous; sp. ----.

_C. tenacella_ differs in fibrillose rooting base, and snow-white gills.

=tenacella=, Pers. P. 1.5-2 cm. exp. subumb. even, glabrous, brownish
then pale; g. broad, snow-white; s. 5-10 cm. narrowly fistulose,
straight, even, glabrous, tawny, long root strigose; sp. 5-6 × 3.

var. _stolonifer_, Jungh. P. springing from a long, creeping, cord-like

=eustygia=, Cke. Smell of rancid meal. P. 2-4 cm. exp. subdepr. often
wavy, whitish, shining when dry; g. dark grey; s. 4-7 cm. white above
and sprinkled with pointed scales; darker below, rooting; sp. subgl.

[=rhodella=, Pat. P. thin, convexo-plane, reddish-brown, disc rugulose,
edge striate; g. adnate, distant, white, tinged pink; s. tinged brown,
twisted, wavy.

=retigera=, Bres. P. 3-6 cm. campan.-exp. umb. dry, glabrous,
fuscous-grey then pale, centre somewhat tawny, raised veins forming a
network on the surface; g. broad, edge paler, fimbriate; s. 4-6 cm.
pallid, whitish fibrillose, often compressed, somewhat rooting; sp.

[=plumipes=, Kalchb. P. campan. exp. subumb. slightly innato-fibrillose,
livid fuscous, shining; g. broad, white; s. glabrous, white, base

Differs from _C. conigena_ in glabrous s. and broad g.

[=planipes=, Brig. Caespitose. P. orbicular, exp. rather viscid, bay; g.
free; s. colour of p., rooting.

[=Gussonei=, Inzeng. P. convex, subumb., rather striate, brick-red, edge
dingy yellow; g. adnate, broad, crimson; s. compr. ochre with a crimson

     ** _Gills narrow, crowded._

=acervata=, Fr. Caespitose. P. 4-7 cm. exp. obtuse, then umb., reddish
then pale; g. free, narrow, closely crowded; s. 4-9 cm. equal, glabrous,
rufous, base downy, rooting; sp. 7-8 × 3.5.

Differs from _C. confluens_ in glabrous stem, and from _Marasmius
erythropus_ in narrow, closely crowded gills.

=dryophila=, Bull. P. 2.5 cm. obtuse, then subdepr. reddish or pale tan,
even; g. sinuate, crowded, narrow; s. 2-4 cm. hollow, glabrous,
rufescent or yellowish; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=aquosa=, Fr. Every part honey-colour. P. 2-2.5 cm. obtuse, hygr. margin
striate; g. rounded and free, crowded; s. 3-6 cm. polished, surface
slightly wavy; sp. 6 × 4.

var. _Bulliardii_. P. reddish ochre then pale; s. tawny.

=extuberans=, Fr. P. 2-3.5 cm. exp. umb. prominent, bay or umber; g.
crowded, narrow; s. 4-7 cm. equal, straight, glabrous, pallid, rooting;
sp. ----.

=exsculpta=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. umbilicate, persistently tawny brown;
g. closely crowded, sulphur-yellow; s. 2-3 cm. yellow; sp. ----.

[=luteifolia=, Gill. P. exp. edge lobed, irreg. reddish or cinnamon; g.
sulphur yellow; s. glabrous, colour of p.

[=cinnamomaeifolia=, Gill. P. convex, subdepr. with a slight umbo,
whitish yellow; g. crowded, pale cinnamon; s. reddish.

=macilenta=, Fr. Entirely yellow. P. 2-2.5 cm. obtuse, even, glabrous;
g. linear; s. minutely fistulose, glabrous, tough, rooting, 2-3 cm.; sp.
5-6 × 3.

=clavus=, L. P. 2-6 mm. obtuse, even, orange-red, shining; g. crowded,
white; s. 1.5-2.5 cm. very slender, whitish, glabrous; sp. 4 × 2.5.

_Mycena acicula_ differs in yellow gills and rooting stem.

=ocellata=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. exp. disc depr. round pale small umbo,
rufous or yellowish; g. crowded, white; s. 3-5 cm. slender, tough,
glabrous, tinged fuscous, base rooting, fibrillose; sp. ----.

Distinguished from _C. cirrhata_ by glabrous stem.

[=floridula=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, slightly striate, tinged flesh colour
then pale; g. pale rose colour; s. pellucid, white.

[=Micheliana=, Fr. Pure white. P. obtuse, margin slightly striate; g.
adnexed, crowded; s. thin, glabrous, base slightly thickened.

=muscigena=, Schum. Pure white. P. 2-4 mm. obtuse, even; g. adnate; s.
1.5-2.5 cm. very slender, wavy, equal, glabrous; sp. ----.

Known from small sp. of _Mycena_ by the broadly adnate gills and even

[=ludia=, Fr. Pure white. P. subumb. exp. revolute, undulate and irreg.
lobed, even; g. rather distant; s. slender, wavy, naked, root creeping,
branched, fibrillose.

     B. _Gills grey._

     IV. TEPHROPHANAE. _Brown or greyish._

     * _Gills crowded, rather narrow._

=rancida=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 2-5 cm. umb. dusky grey with a white
silkiness; g. free, narrow, grey; s. 7-12 cm. glabrous, grey, rooting;
sp. 7-10 × 4-5.

Distinguished among strong-smelling species by the rooting stem.

[=ignobilis=, Karst. P. plane, subdepr. edge spreading, livid, hoary,
pale when dry; g. crowded, dingy pallid; s. livid, floccosely pruinose;
sp. 7-8 × 4.

[=daemonica=, Karst. P. convex then exp. subumb. glabrous, rather
virgate, livid fuscous, disc blackish, pale when dry; g. adnate,
crowded, smoky, blackish when bruised; s. equal, glabrous, wavy,
fibrillosely striate, pallid, apex white flocculose; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

=coracina=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 2-3 cm. exp. naked, hygr. brownish then
grey; g. greyish-white; s. 2-3 cm. hollow, rigid, not rooting, brown,
apex mealy-squamulose; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. rancida_ in the short stem thickened at base, and not
rooting; _C. ozes_ differs from present in long, slender, flexuous stem.

=ozes=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 3-5 cm. exp. umb. naked, glabrous, hygr.
margin striate, greyish brown; g. adnexed, grey then olive; s. 6-10 cm.
subflexuous, slender, fragile, slightly striate, grey, apex with white
meal; sp. ----.

_C. rancida_ differs in free gills and rooting stem.

[=mephitica=, Fr. Smell strong. P. exp. subumb. even, adpressedly
innately silky, whitish; g. obtusely adnate, crowded, whitish; s.
filiform, obsoletely fistulose, tough, grey, pruinosely velvety.

=inolens=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. umb. glabrous, livid or pale tan; g.
adnexed, greyish-white; s. 5-9 cm. livid, undulate, base white-strigose,
apex white squamulose; sp. 7-8 × 4-5.

_C. plexipes_ and _C. protracta_ differ in having the stem glabrous at
the apex.

=plexipes=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. camp. rather rugulose, slightly striate,
glabrous, sooty; g. free; s. 5-7 cm. livid, silky fibrillose, rooting;
sp. 8-9 × 5.

Differs from _C. protracta_ in free gills.

[=miser=, Fr. P. subumb. glabrous, margin striate; g. adnate, grey; s.
fuscous, apex mealy.

[=atramentosa=, Kalchb. P. exp. subumb. rugulose, livid then sooty,
flesh black; g. narrow, becoming blackish; s. naked, colour of p.

[=fuliginaria=, Weinm. P. fuscous, with down; g. glaucous; s. fuscous,

=atrata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. pitch-black then brown, even, exp. or depr.
margin arched; g. adnate; s. 2-2.5 cm. even, glabrous, brown outside and
inside; sp. ----.

=ambusta=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. papillate, slightly striate, glabrous,
livid brown; g. adnate, tinged fuscous; s. 1.5-2 cm. somewhat stuffed,
tough, livid; sp. 5-6 × 3-4.

Differs from _C. atrata_ in umbonate pileus.

     ** _Gills very broad, more or less distant._

=lacerata=, Lasch. P. 2.5-3.5 cm. camp. moist, streaked dark brown on
pale ground; g. adnexed, broad, thick, greyish; s. 5-9 cm. twisted,
fibrous, apex floccose; sp. ----.

[=phalliodorus=, Alex. Foetid, convex, subumbilicate, at length lobed,
dingy ochraceous; g. adnate, white; s. glabrous.

=murina=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. umbilicate, glabrous then rugulosely
squamulose, dark brown then pale; g. slightly adnexed, broad; s. 5-7 cm.
hollow, cylindrical, not rooting, grey; sp. 7 × 4.

Somewhat resembling _C. atrata_, differing in very broad almost free

[=glacialis=, Fr. P. watery, fragile, obtuse, dusky fuscous then pale;
g. free, grey; s. grey, naked.

=protracta=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. exp. shining, disc fleshy, depressed,
subpapillate, greyish brown, margin striate; g. broad, grey; s. 5-7 cm.
glabrous, root long fibrillosely strigose; sp. ----.

=tesquorum=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. plane, obtuse, even, blackish then pale;
g. free, greyish brown; s. 3-5 cm. thin, brown, apex pruinose; sp. ----.

[=cessans=, Karst. P. exp. then depr. glabrous, striate, pallid fuscous
then pale and hoary, sublubricous; g. adnate, then adnato-decur.
connected by veins, whitish; s. solid, pallid, apex pruinose.

=clusilis=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. umbilicate, glabrous, hygr. livid then
pale; g. arcuately adfixed, semicircular, broad; s. 2-4 cm. glabrous,
pallid, not rooting; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. tylicolor_ and _C. nummularia_ in umbilicate pileus,
and decurrent tooth to gills.

[=erosa=, Fr. P. exp. striate, hygr. silky when dry, grey; g. broadly
emarginate, greyish; s. greyish-white, glabrous.

=tylicolor=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. subumb. even, glabrous, bluish-grey,
with white meal when young; g. free, distant, broad, grey; s. 2-3 cm.
pulverulent, grey; sp. ----.

     _Introduced species._

=Dorotheae=, B. P. 2 cm. globose then exp. subumb. dark brown then
paler, sulcate, squarroso-setulose; g. white, distant; s. 5-6 cm.
slender, minutely discoid at base, granulated like pileus and beset with
white bristles.

=caldarii=, B. P. 1 cm. hemispherical, umb. brown, rugose; g. grey; s.
4-5 cm. pale grey, cartilaginous; sp. ----.


     A. COLLYBIA. _Margin of pileus incurved at first. Stem
     cartilaginous; mycelium floccose._

     I. SCORTEI. _Stem solid, or stuffed then hollow, fibrous inside;
     outside villose over the cartilaginous cortex. Gills becoming

     * _Base of stem strigosely woolly._

=urens=, Fr. P. Acrid. 4-7 cm. exp. glabrous, even, pinkish buff, pale
when dry; g. free, becoming brownish, at length remote; s. 5-7 cm.
everywhere covered with white farinose down; sp. 8 × 4.

The acrid taste separates this sp. from _M. oreades_.

[=subannulatus=, Trog. P. plane or depr. even, yellowish; g. adnate,
reddish then brownish; s. with an incomplete ring about the middle, base
with white down.

=peronatus=, Fr. Acrid. P. exp. reddish brown, then tan colour, becoming
lacunose, margin striate; g. adnexed, seceding, pallid then rufescent;
s. 3-5 cm. villosely downy, lower portion coarsely strigose, yellowish;
sp. 10 × 6-7.

=porreus=, Fr. Smell of garlic. P. 2-5 cm. dingy yellowish then paler,
striate, disc even, flaccid; g. distant, firm, yellow then pale; s. 2-4
cm. reddish-brown, pubescent; sp. subgl. 4.

Differs from _M. prasiosmus_ in yellowish gills and stem everywhere

[=mulleus=, Fr. Mild. P. plane or depr. even, yellow brown then paler;
g. citrin; s. bay towards fusiform rooting base, with a purplish
tomentose ring.

[=Queletii=, Schulz. White. P. diaphanous, umb.; g. free, white; s.
stuffed; with grey rooting mycelium.

[=foeniculaceus=, Fr. P. tough, convex-umb. then plano-depr. pallid then
white; g. broad, thick, adnex. distant, whitish; s. fibrous, glabrous,
base abrupt, with rufous fibres. Used as a condiment.

     ** _Base of stem naked, often formed of twisted fibres._

=oreades=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. subumb. glabrous, brownish then pale; g. free,
broad, distant, pale; s. 3-6 cm. pallid, everywhere with a downy
surface; sp. 8 × 5. Edible.

[=globularis=, Fr. P. globose campan. umb. hygrophanous, pellucidly
striate; g. free, white then dingy; s. pulverulent, white.

=plancus=, Fr. P. 2-... cm. pliant, plane or depr. even, rufescent then
pale; g. narrow, tinged ochraceous-brown; s. 3-5 cm. with white down,
base narrowed, naked; sp. ----.

Differs from _M. oreades_ in narrower, darker coloured gills.

[=pyramidalis=, Fr. P. umb. shining, dingy brown then pale; g. arcuately
adnexed, white then reddish; s. narrowed upwards, flocculose, whitish,

=scorteus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. pallid, exp. obtuse, even, wrinkled; g.
broad, distant, white; s. 2-4 cm. obsoletely hollow, equal, tinged
fuscous, glabrous, apex slightly mealy; sp. 8 × 6.

Resembling _M. oreades_, but smaller and stem glabrous.

     II. TERGINI. _Stem rooting, distinctly tubular, not fibrous,
     evidently cartilaginous. Gills becoming free._

     * _Stem woolly below, glabrous above._

=prasiosmus=, Fr. Smell of garlic. P. 1.5-2 cm. pale yellow or whitish
disc, often darker, wrinkled, g. adnexed; s. 4-7 cm. pallid and glabrous
above, thickened and subtomentose below and brownish; sp. 14-15 × 7.

Differs from _M. porreus_ in white gills and estriate pileus.

=varicosus=, Fr. P. 1.5-3 cm. reddish brown, plane or depr. wavy,
subumb. darker when dry; g. closely crowded, very narrow; s. 5-8 cm.
reddish, with red juice, base with reddish down; sp. 4 × 3.

=fuscopurpureus=, Fr. 2-2.5 cm. exp. often umbilicate, purplish brown
then pale; g. attached to collar then free, tinged reddish; s. 2.5-7 cm.
dry, dingy purple, base with reddish down; sp. 4-3.

=terginus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. exp. obtuse, shining, reddish, then pale,
striate at margin; g. narrow, free; s. 5-8 cm. glabrous, shining,
pallid, reddish below with white down, rooting; sp. 6-7 × 4.

Much like _M. prasiosmus_ and _M. porreus_, differing from both in
absence of smell.

[=gelidus=, Q. P. campan. exp. thin, rugosely striate, pruinose,
translucent; g. free, hyaline or tinged rose; s. filiform, striate,
pruinosely-pubescent, base cottony, recurved; sp. 7-8.

[=putillus=, Fr. P. rufescent then tan; g. rufous, margin paler, entire;
s. short, rufescent, abrupt base with white down.

[=carpathicus=, Kalchb. P. exp. subumb. rather viscid, brownish, hygr.
edge striatulate; g. rotundato-adnexed, pallid; s. even, naked above,
pallid, rest bay, white downy base rooting.

     ** _Stem (at least when dry) everywhere pruinosely velvety._

=Wynnei=, B. and Br. P. 2.5-4 cm. soon plane, subumb. lilac-brown; g.
adnexed, lilac; s. 3-6 cm. paler than p., scurfy; 7-8 × 4.

=erythropus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. obtuse, even, then rugulose, pallid; g.
broad, lax, pallid, connected by veins; s. 5-8 cm. hollow, striate,
glabrous, dark red, base with white down; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

Differs from _Collybia acervata_ by the broad distant gills.

[=dispar=, Fr. P. subumb. whitish, margin striate; g. nearly free,
crowded, narrow; s. purplish-brown, pruinose, base with white down.

=archyropus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. plane or depr. glabrous, pallid; g.
crowded, linear, pallid; s. 6-10 cm. rigid, straight, pale rufescent,
coated with white down, base similar; sp. subgl. 4-5.

Differs from _M. terginus_ in tufted habit, and from _M. prasiosmus_ in
absence of smell.

=torquescens=, Q. P. 1-1.5 cm. plane, rugosely striate, pallid; g. free;
s. 4-5 cm. brown, minutely velvety, apex pale and glabrous; sp. 5 × 4.

=impudicus=, Fr. Smell foetid. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. rugulosely striate,
reddish bay, then pale; g. tinged red then pale; s. 3-5 cm. equal,
purplish, covered with white down when dry, base naked, rooting; sp. 8 ×

Differs from _M. foetidus_ in free gills.

[=saxatilis=, Fr. P. depr. striate, reddish; g. adnate, white; s.
glabrous, apex pruinose, reddish.

     III. CALOPODES. _Stem short, not rooting, entering matrix abruptly,
     often with a small floccose tubercle at base. Gills adnate then
     subdecur. when p. expands._

     * _Stem very glabrous upwards, shining, base simple._

=scorodonius=, Fr. Smell of garlic. P. 1.5-2 cm. soon plane, dry, rufous
then pale, wrinkled; g. adnate, whitish; s. 2.5-4 cm. equal, everywhere
glabrous, shining, rufous; sp. 6 × 4.

=calopus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. exp. even then wrinkled, glabrous, whitish;
g. emarginately adnexed; s. 2-2.5 cm. even, glabrous, bay, shining, not
rooting; 7 × 4.

Habit of _M. scorodonius_, but no smell.

=Vaillantii=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. depr. plicately rugose, whitish; g.
broad, subdecurrent; s. 2-2.5 cm. glabrous, bay, apex paler and
thickened; sp. 10 × 6.

_M. impudicus_ differs in purplish stem with white down when dry. _M.
foetidus_ differs in strong smell.

=angulatus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. soon exp. at length folded and angular,
whitish or tinge of tawny; g. distant; s. 2-3 cm. greyish rufescent,
thickened at both ends; sp. 7 × 4.

Closely resembling _M. Curreyi_ and _M. graminum_; differs from former
in ventricose gills not attached to a collar; from the latter in the
gills not being attached to a collar. _M. calopus_ differs in the
shining, bay stem.

[=Kirchneri=, Thurn. P. often umb. pallid whitish brown; g. subdecur.
distant, whitish fuscous; s. filiform, glabrous, brown.

=languidus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. umbil. flocculose, rugosely sulcate,
whitish tinged yellow or flesh colour; g. narrow; s. 2-3 cm. thickened
upwards, pale, naked, base tawny; sp. 6-7 × 4.

=rubricatus=, Mass. P. up to 1 cm. soon plane, whitish tinged red; g.
adnexed, white then brownish; s. 1-2 cm. slender, incurved, hollow; sp.
6 × 3.

     ** _Stem velvety pruinose, base subtuberculose._

=foetidus=, Fr. Foetid. P. 2-3 cm. exp. and umbil. or wavy,
striato-plicate, tawny bay or rufous, pruinose when dry; g. rufescent
with a yellow tinge; s. 2-3 cm. hollow, bay, minutely velvety; sp. 7 ×

=inodorus=, Pat. P. thin, exp. reddish brown with adpr. silky down; g.
adnate, crowded, whitish; s. blackish red, apex pale, entirely covered
with white bloom.

Differs from _M. foetidus_ in absence of smell.

[=xerotoides=, Tr. P. umbilicate, umber, striate; g. broadly adnate,
becoming greyish; s. velvety, base thickened, strigose.

[=lagopinus=, Fr. P. convex, even, glabrous, pallid; g. adnate, pallid;
s. pallid, white floccose half way up, apex naked.

=amadelphus=, Fr. P. 3-4 mm. soon plane, disc slightly pruinose, margin
at length striate, pale reddish-yellow; g. broadly adnate, broad; s.
pallid, bay below, slightly pruinose 1-1.5 cm.; sp. 4 × 2.5.

var. _insignis_. G. very distant, pale umber.

=ramealis=, Fr. P. 2-4 mm. opaque, rugulose, not striate, white, disc
often tinged rufescent; g. rather distant, narrow, white, adnate; s. 1
cm. white, mealy, base darker; sp. 4 × 2.

=candidus=, Bolt. Entirely white. P. up to 0.5 cm. pellucid, wrinkled,
naked; g. adnexed; s. 1-2 cm. whitish, slightly pruinose, base tinged
brownish; sp. 4 × 2.

     B. MYCENA. _Stem horny, fistulose but often with a pith, tough,
     dry, mycelium rhizomorphoid, cortex not floccose, edge of pileus
     straight and adpressed to stem at first._

     I. CHORDALES. _Stem rigid, rooting, or adnate by a dilated base._

=alliaceus=, Fr. Smell of garlic. P. 2.4 cm. subumb. even then striate
or sulcate, greyish; g. free; s. 6-10 cm. minutely velvety, blackish;
sp. 14-16 × 8.

=molyoides=, Fr. Smell somewhat unpleasant. P. soon plane, even,
brownish then pale; g. free, crowded, white; s. tall, hollow, glabrous,
blackish brown.

[=chordalis=, Fr. P. plicate, brownish; g. adnato-decurrent, white; s.
elongated, straight, velvety, blackish brown, stuffed, rooting.

=cauticinalis=, Fr. P. about 1 cm. yellowish, even then striato-sulcate;
g. adnato-decur. connected by veins, yellow; s. 3-6 cm. flocculose, bay,
paler and mealy upwards; sp. 7 × 3-5.

[=schizopus=, Secr. P. very thin, campan. plicato-sulcate, whitish; g.
thick, distant, white, with a collar; s. whitish, base a darker dilated

[=torquatus=, Fr. P. campan. sulcate, whitish; g. thick, attached to a
collar; s. whitish, with a darker tubercular dilated base.

     II. ROTULAE. _Stem filiform, flaccid, base entering matrix

     * _Stem very glabrous, shining._

=rotula=, Fr. P. 4-7 mm. umbilicate, plicate, whitish or disc slightly
tinged; g. attached to a free collar encircling the stem; s. 2-4 cm.
glabrous, blackish, shining; sp. 6 × 3-4.

[=littoralis=, Q. P. umbil. plicate, white; g. free, distant; s. horny,
umber, apex pale, base downy.

=graminum=, Berk. P. up to 1 cm. umb. striate or sulcate, pale rufous,
disc darker; g. attached to a collar encircling stem, few in number; s.
2-4 cm. black, shining, glabrous, apex paler; sp. subgl. 3-4.

[=epodius=, Bres. P. convexo-campan. exp. usually umb. and depr. edge at
first incurved, sulcate, centre usually reticulated, reddish-yellow then
pale; g. free, white then yellowish; s. very glabrous, rufescent then
bay, apex hyaline, base bulbillose substrigose; sp. 20-28 × 2.5-4.

[=Menieri=, Boud. P. 1-3 mm. excentric, broadly subumb. punctulate
tawny; g. fold-like, few, branched, paler than p.; s. curved, tawny,
base black; sp. 18-25 × 5-7.

[=faveolaris=, Fr. P. sulcate, exp. disc coloured; g. attached to a
ring, anastomosing to form cells; s. glabrous, subulate, bay below.

=androsaceus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. whitish, umbilicate striate; g. adnate
to stem; s. 3-6 cm. black, glabrous, polished; sp. 7 × 3-4.

[=sclerotipes=, Bres. P. thin, convex, edge incurved then plane,
ruguloso-striate, shining white, umbil. yellowish, subflocculose; g.
distant, adnate, white, edge fimbriate; s. filiform, tinged rufescent
downwards, adnate to a rufescent sclerotium.

Passed as _Collybia cirrhata_ very frequently. The latter differs in not
springing from a sclerotium. _Collybia tuberosa_ differs in growing on

[=Bulliardi=, Q. P. plicate, dingy yellow brown; g. whitish; s. bay.

=splachnoides=, Fr. Inodorous. P. up to 1 cm. whitish, subumbilicate,
striate; g. subdecurrent; s. 2-4 cm. polished, reddish-brown; sp. 8 × 5.

Similar in habit to _M. perforans_, but no smell, and white subdecurrent

[=limosus=, Q. Very minute. P. plicate, diaphanous, whitish; s.
capillary, brownish.

=flosculus=, Q. P. white, umbil. sulcate; g. adnate, white; s. short,
incurved, bay, apex pale.

=Curreyi=, B. & Br. P. up to 1 cm. pale rufous, coarsely striate, umb.
tawny; g. attached to collar; s. 2-3 cm. polished, blackish, apex white;
sp. 9 × 5-6.

     ** _Stem velvety or pilose._

=perforans=, Fr. Foetid. P. up to 1 cm. whitish or tinged rufous, plane,
not striate, rugulose; g. adnate; s. 2-3 cm. minutely velvety, blackish
brown; sp. 4 × 3.

=insititius=, Fr. Inodorous. P. 1-1.5 cm. subumbilicate, at length
plicate, pale yellow-brown then whitish; g. broadly adnate, simple,
unequal, distant; s. 2-3 cm. floccose or scurfy, reddish-brown; sp. 4 ×

=Hudsoni=, Pers. P. 2-3 mm. rugulose, tinged brown, covered with
spreading purplish hairs; g. white; s. 1-1.5 cm. with hairs like the
pileus; sp. 5 × 3.

[=buxi=, Fr. P. sulcate, minutely squamulose, tawny; g. few; s. blackish
purple, pilose below, glabrous above.

=epichloe=, Fr. P. 4-5 mm. plane, papillate, even, whitish, disc darker;
g. broadest behind; s. 2-3 cm. bay, coarsely striate, striae setulose;
sp. 3 × 2.

=actinophorus=, B. & Br. P. 2-3 mm. umbilicate, pale bay with darker
radiating lines, wrinkled when dry; g. adnexed; s. 1-2 cm. paler than
pileus; sp. subgl. 3-4.

=saccharinus=, Batsch. P. 2-4 mm. subpapillate, glabrous, sulcate,
whitish; g. broadly adnate, connected by veins; s. 1.5-2.5 cm. reddish,
minutely flocculose, then almost glabrous; sp. 5 × 3.

Resembling _M. polyadelphus_, but not clustered, and papillate pileus.

=epiphyllus=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. umbilicate, wrinkled, white; g. adnate,
distant, veined; s. 3-5 cm. bay, minutely velvety, apex pale; sp. 3 × 2.

     C. APUS. _Pileus sessile, resupinate._

=spodoleucus=, B. & Br. P. 4-5 mm. shell-shaped, resupinate, sessile,
grey, slightly pulverulent; gills few, white.

[=recubans=, Q. P. hemisph. sulcate, white; g. white; s. capillary,
villose, brown.


     * _Milk yellow, acrid._

[=resimus=, Fr. P. fleshy, umbil. then infundib. even, glabrous, viscid,
white or pallid, edge incurved and tomentose then spreading and naked;
g. decur. white; s. stout, hollow, villose; milk soon sulphur colour;
sp. 8-10 × 6-7.

=scrobiculatus=, Scop. P. 10-20 cm. yellowish, depr. zoneless, incurved
margin fibrillose; g. decur. whitish; s. 4-8 cm. stout, yellow, pitted;
milk soon sulphur yellow; sp. subgl. echin. 7-8. (10-12 × 8-9 Sacc.)

=chrysorrheus=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. umbil. then infundib. pale yellowish
flesh colour, zoned; g. yellowish; s. white, 3-4 cm.; milk white then
golden yellow; sp. 6-7.

=intermedius=, Kromb. P. 10-14 cm. infundib. viscid, ochraceous,
incurved margin tomentose at first; g. decur.; s. 3-5 cm. stout,
yellowish, pitted; milk soon yellowish; sp. ----.

Differs from _L. scrobiculatus_ in infundibiliform pileus.

=theiogalus=, Bull. P. 3-6 cm. depr. viscid, tawny rufous; g. pale
rufescent; s. 3-5 cm. colour of p.; milk white then sulphur yellow,
becoming acrid; sp. 7-8.

Agrees with _L. chrysorrheus_ in yellow milk, but differs in tawny
rufous stem.

     ** _Milk violet._

     + _Milk acrid._

=aspideus=, Fr. Dingy straw colour. P. 5-9 cm. zoneless, convex then
depr. at first with white down; g. narrow, thickish; s. 5-7 cm.
glabrous, dry; milk white soon becoming lilac; sp. echin. 8-10.

Differs from _L. uvidus_ in narrow gills.

=uvidus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. thin, depr. zoneless, dingy tan; g. broad,
white; s. 5-8 cm. viscid, pallid; milk white soon lilac; sp. 9-10. (5-6

[=flavidus=, Boud. P. exp. viscid pale primrose yellow; g. whitish; s.
solid, white with yellow tinge; milk white then deep violet; sp. 6-7.

     ++ _Milk sweet._

[=violascens=, Fr. P. depr. glabrous, grey with darker zones; g. white;
s. solid, greyish white; milk violet.

     *** _Milk reddish, saffron, or brownish._

     + _Milk acrid._

=deliciosus=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. convex, umbil. dusky orange, zoned; g.
subdecurrent, orange; s. 3-6 cm. smooth; milk saffron red; sp. 9-10 ×
7-8. Every part becoming red then greenish when bruised; sp. 7-10.

[=flammeolus=, Fr. P. subumb. not zoned, flame coloured; g. adnate,
yellow; s. hollow, pale orange; milk reddish, slowly acrid.

Differs from _L. mitissimus_ in red milk.

=acris=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. soon infundib. viscid, sooty grey; g. pale
yellow; s. often excentric, pallid, narrowed below; milk white then
reddish; sp. 8-9 × 6-8.

=fuliginosus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. soon depr. obtuse, even, at first with
sooty-brown powder, then naked and greyish tan; g. adnate, white then
tan; s. 6-8 cm. stuffed, naked, greyish tan; milk and flesh white then
reddish-yellow; sp. 8-9.

Distinguished from allies by pileus not being velvety.

[=fuscus=, Roll. Caespitose, scented. P. exp. and slightly depr. round
the umb. edge grooved, fibrillose or squamulose, sooty grey or dingy
violet, often zoned; g. forked, pallid then ochre; s. firm ochre or
tinged red, pruinose.

[=argematus=, Fr. White. P. thin, exp. glabrous, edge even; g. adnate,
crowded; s. stuffed, short, glabrous; milk slowly acrid, white then

     ++ _Milk mild._

=retisporus=, Mass. P. 5-8 cm. depr. smoky brown, velvety, radially
rugulose, minutely velvety; g. deeply sinuate, pale ochre; s. 3-5 cm.
glabrous, paler than p.; milk white then brown; sp. globose, 10-11, with
a raised network.

Close to _L. ligniotus_, differing especially in the spores.

[=sangifluus=, Fr. P. depr. even, not zoned, blood-red; s. narrowed
upwards, paler; g. thin, white; milk blood-red; sp. 10.

     **** _Milk becoming grey._

=vietus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. subumb. then plane and umbil. flesh colour,
pale and silky when dry; g. subdecurrent; 4-6 cm. soon hollow, livid;
milk white then grey, becoming acrid; sp. 7-8.

[=musteus=, Fr. P. convex then depr. zoneless, very viscid when moist,
gilvous then pallid; g. closely crowded, whitish; s. short, whitish;
milk scanty, slightly acrid, whitish then grey, as is the flesh when
cut; sp. 6-9.

     ***** _Milk becoming glaucous-green._

=glaucescens=, Crossl. P. 4-6 cm. whitish, depressed, flesh thick; g.
adnate, narrow, pallid; s. 2.5-3 long by 1.25 thick, whitish; milk white
then glaucous-green; sp. echinulate, 6-7 µ.

     ****** _Milk persistently white._

     + _Milk mild._

     § _Gills rufescent or yellowish._

=volemus=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. rigid, depr. obtuse, dry, glabrous, golden
tawny at length minutely broken up; g. decur. crowded, yellowish; s. 5-9
cm. solid, stout, coloured like p. pruinose; milk white; sp. 5-6.

=ichoratus=, Batsch. P. 6-10 cm. thin, depr. even, glabrous, wavy,
tawny, zoned; g. adnate, white then ochre; s. 3-7 cm. glabrous, tawny;
milk white; sp. 8-10 × 6-7.

Differs from _L. volemus_ in zoned p. and in being altogether more
slender. _L. tithymalinus_ differs in acrid milk and pinkish gills.

=mitissimus=, Fr. P. 2.6 cm. depr. papillate, dry, even, zoneless, deep
orange, shining; g. crowded, paler than p.; s. 3-6 cm. hollow, orange;
milk white; sp. 6-8 × 5-6.

Differs from _L. subdulcis_ in bright orange, shining p., and copious

=quietus=, Fr. Smell oily. P. 5-8 cm. depr. viscid at first, reddish
cinnamon, pale and rather silky when dry; g. paler than p.; s. 5-8 cm.
colour of p. glabrous; milk white; sp. 8-10 × 6-7.

=serifluus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. plane then depr. rather wavy, glabrous, not
zoned, tawny brown, margin incurved; g. crowded, yellowish; s. 2-4 cm.
slightly incurved, paler than p. solid; milk scanty, watery; sp. 7-8.

Differs from _L. subdulcis_ in solid stem.

=camphoratus=, Fr. Smell strong, pleasant. P. 3-5 cm. thin, depr. dry,
glabrous, reddish-brown, slightly zoned, rather wavy; g. adnate,
reddish-yellow; s. 2-3 cm. subundulate, colour of p.; milk white; sp.

Smell strong and fragrant, especially when dry.

_L. cimicarius_ has a very strong smell when quite fresh, but none when

=subumbonatus=, Lindgr. P. 2-3 cm. thin, depr. subumb. rugose, punctate,
wavy, dusky cinnamon, flesh grey then yellowish; g. adnate, pinkish
rufous; s. 2-3 cm. stuffed, rufescent; milk watery, whitish; sp. 5-6.
(9, Sacc.)

Smell foetid when dry.

=tomentosus=, Otto. P. 5-7 cm. umb. then depr. or infundib. downy, dingy
flesh colour or brownish; g. tinged reddish-yellow; s. 4-5 cm. soon
hollow, pallid, naked, smooth; milk white; sp. 8-9.

=helvus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. fragile, plane, subumb. pale brick red, broken
up into floccose squamules; g. decurrent, soon ochraceous; s. 5-8 cm.
brick red, pruinosely pubescent; milk scanty, white, rather sweet; sp.

_L. tomentosus_ differs in the naked stem.

=squalidus=, Kromb. P. 2-5 cm. umbil. pale greyish olive or lurid; g.
narrow, yellowish; s. 4-5 cm. solid, equal, glabrous, pale brown; milk
whitish; sp. 6-10.

About size of _L. pyrogalus_, but gills narrow and milk mild.

=ligniotus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. umb. plicato-rugulose, pruinosely
velvety, sooty umber; g. adnate, snow-white then tinged ochre; s. 6-12
cm. colour of p., apex constricted and plicate; milk white; sp.
echinulate, 9-10.

Known by rugulose pileus and mild milk.

     §§ _Gills pallid._

=pallidus=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. umbil. viscid, pale ochraceous tan,
zoneless; g. crowded, pallid, pruinose; s. 3-5 cm. pallid tan, soon
hollow; milk white; sp. 9-10 × 7-8.

=cremor=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. soon plane, minutely punctate, tawny, margin
striate; g. adnate, pallid; s. 3-4 cm. hollow, coloured like p.; milk
whitish, watery; sp. 9-10.

var. _pauper_, Karst. P. 7 cm. margin sulcate; milk none; sp. 10.

[=rubrocinctus=, Fr. P. plane, tawny then paler; g. adnate, pallid; s.
pallid with a pale red zone at the apex; milk scanty, white.

     ++ _Milk acrid._

     § _Gills whitish or pallid._

=vellereus=, Fr. White. P. 9-18 cm. umbil. tomentose, zoneless; g.
decurrent, distant; s. solid, pubescent, 5-8 cm.; milk scanty, white;
sp. 8 × 6.

=piperatus=, Fr. White. P. 7-18 cm. thick, firm, umbil. then infundib.
edge erect, glabrous, even; g. decur. crowded, narrow, forked; s. 3-4
cm. stout, smooth, solid; milk copious, white, acrid; sp. 8-9.

=pergamenus=, Fr. White. P. 5-8 cm. plane then depr. wavy, rugulose; g.
adnate, very narrow, horizontal, tinged straw colour; s. glabrous,
discoloured, 7-10 cm.; milk white; sp. 8 × 6.

Differs from _L. piperatus_ in crowded narrow gills, longer stem, and
thinner pileus.

=Scoticus=, B. and Br. Pallid white, smell pungent. P. 2.4 cm. soon
plane, tomentose then smooth except incurved margin; g. thin, rather
broad; s. 2-3 cm. solid, tinged pink; milk white; sp. 7-8.

=involutus=, Soppitt. White. P. 2-4 cm. plane or depr. incurved edge
silky; g. subdecurrent, very narrow, densely crowded; s. 2-2.5 cm.
glabrous, solid; milk white; sp. elliptical, 5 × 3.

Differs from _L. scoticus_ and all known species in the smooth,
elliptical spores.

=torminosus=, Schaeff. P. 6-9 cm. obt. depr. slightly zoned, margin
strongly involute and shaggy, tinged flesh colour or ochre; g. subdecur.
pale; s. 5-8 cm. paler than p.; milk white; sp. echin. 9-10 × 7-8.

Differs from _L. cilicioides_ in zoned pileus and white milk.

=cilicioides=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. soft, not zoned, exp. and depr. margin
fibrillose, pale flesh colour with rufous tinge; g. decur. somewhat
branched; s. 5-8 cm. stuffed, even, silky, not spotted, pallid; milk
white or faintly tinged yellow; sp. 8 × 6-7, echinulate.

=pubescens=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. thin, exp. umbil. zoneless, whitish, margin
pubescent; g. crowded, tinged pink; s. 2-4 cm. pinkish then pale,
narrowed downwards; milk white; sp. echin. 7-8.

Differs from _L. torminosus_ and _L. cilicioides_ in the margin being
only downy.

=insulsus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. soon infundib. viscid, slightly zoned,
yellowish or reddish, margin naked; g. forked, pallid; s. 3-4 cm.
stuffed then hollow, pallid; milk white; sp. echin. 10 × 8.

_L. zonarius_ differs in the solid stem.

=hysginus=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. rigid, umbil. viscid, thin margin incurved,
reddish flesh colour; g. crowded; s. 5-9 cm. stuffed then hollow; milk
white; sp. 10 × 7-8.

[=luridus=, Fr. P. fleshy, almost plane, even, viscid, slightly zoned,
rufous-grey, edge bent down; g. decur. whitish; milk white, acrid; s.
hollow, pallid; sp. 8 × 6.

=zonarius=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. compact, viscid, pale orange or yellowish,
zoned; g. whitish; s. 5-8 cm. solid, yellowish; milk white; sp. 9-10 ×

=circellatus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. soon plane, wavy, viscid, brownish, zones
and umbilicate disc darker; g. crowded, whitish; s. solid, narrowed
below, pallid; milk white; sp. 7-8.

_L. flexuosus_ differs in yellow gills.

=trivialis=, Fr. 9-18 cm. depr. viscid, zoneless, pale yellowish or
pinky tan, margin incurved; g. crowded, white; s. 3-8 cm. paler than p.,
hollow; milk white; sp. 9-10.

=turpis=, Fr. P. 6-14 cm. rigid, depr. zoneless, viscid, olive-umber,
margin at first with yellow down; g. thin, pallid; s. 3-6 cm. viscid,
olive, narrowed at base; milk white; sp. echin. 6-8.

Differs from _L. blennius_ in absence of circles of spots on pileus.

=umbrinus=, Pers. P. 5-8 cm. plane, umbil. wavy, dry, floccose, umber,
not zoned; g. crowded, pallid; s. solid, very short, 2 cm. greyish
white; milk white, forming grey spots; sp. 8-9.

=blennius=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. depr. glutinous, dingy olive grey, often
concentrically spotted, margin at first incurved; g. crowded; s. 3-5 cm.
viscid, coloured like pileus; milk white; sp. 7-8 × 6.

[=lividus=, Lamb. P. convex then plane or depr. not distinctly zoned,
pale livid, centre fuscescent, viscid (?); g. subdecur. pale livid,
crowded; s. livid, solid, curved; milk white, acrid.

[=impolitus=, Fr. P. convex then depr. subumb. dry, silky, not zoned,
becoming pale; g. adnate, crowded, pallid; s. glabrous but not polished,
reddish white; milk white, acrid.

     §§ _Gills rufescent or yellowish._

=rufus=, Scop. P. 6-9 cm. umb. depr. flocculose then glabrous, zoneless,
rufous bay, shining; g. yellowish rufous; s. 5-8 cm. rufescent; milk
white; sp. 7-9.

[=decipiens=, Q. P. moist then puberulent, reddish flesh-colour; g.
narrow, tinged flesh-colour; s. slender, paler than p., milk very acrid;
sp. 8-9.

[=maliodorus=, Boud. Smell unpleasant. P. infundib. dry, rather viscid
when moist, tawny ochre or tawny brick-red, zones formed of darker
spots, edge glabrous; g. subdecur. pallid then like p.; s. short,
rugose; flesh tawny, milk white, acrid.

Differs from _L. quietus_ in brighter colour and acrid milk.

=capsicum=, Schulz. P. 3-6 cm. obtuse, deep chestnut colour, margin
strongly incurved; g. tawny; s. white with tawny fibrils; milk white;
sp. 6-7.

[=tithymalinus=, Fr. P. umb. then convex, depr. dry, even, glabrous,
not zoned, yellow, disc rufescent; g. adnate, crowded, yellowish then
flesh-colour; s. glabrous, colour of p.; milk white, acrid.

=subdulcis=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. thin, at length depr. papillate, even,
glabrous, zoneless, bay or rufous cinnamon, not turning pale; g. adnate,
paler than p.; s. 3-5 cm. soon hollow, equal, rufescent, slightly
pruinose; milk white, sweet at first then very slightly acrid; sp. 9-10.

var. _concavus_, Fr. P. rufous bay; g. reddish, pruinose; mild.

var. _sphagneti_, Fr. P. shining, margin crenate; s. hollow, glabrous.

=Terrei=, B. and Br. Caespitose. P. 1-2 cm. wrinkled, depr. bay; g.
decur. pallid; s. thickened at base, hollow, with orange down; smell

[=rubescens=, Bres. P. convexo-plane then depr. rarely subumb. polished,
dry, edge at first incurved and white-pruinose, pinkish brick-red then
paler; g. crowded, pallid then pinkish-rufescent, subdecur.; s. colour
of p.; milk white, sparingly acrid; sp. 7-8.

=cimicarius=, Batsch. Smell unpleasant, oily. P. 2-4 cm. depr. or
infund. wavy, dark bay brown; g. reddish ochre, subdecur.; s. 2-3 cm.
paler than p.; milk white; sp. 7-8.

Smell strong, said to resemble bugs.

=obnubilus=, Lasch. P. 2-3 cm. thin, convex, umbil. sooty brown,
slightly striate; g. rather crowded, yellowish; s. 3-4 cm. stuffed,
slender, paler than p.; milk white; sp. 8-9.

var. _crenatus_, Mass. P. 3-5 cm. sooty brown, coarsely sulcate, margin

=flexuosus=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. dry, depr. wavy, lead colour or with lilac
tinge, becoming squamulose; g. thick, distant, yellow; s. 5-8 cm. stout,
solid, greyish; milk white; sp. 6-8.

var. _roseozonatus_, Fr. P. rose colour, zones darker.

Differs from _L. blennius_ in yellow gills.

=plumbeus=, Fr. P. 8-14 cm. convex then infundib. dry, dull, sooty then
blackish brown; g. crowded, tinged yellow; s. solid, equal, stout; milk
white, acrid; sp. 6-8 × 4-6.

[=capsicoides=, Fr. P. compact, convex-incurved, wavy, dry, glabrous,
not zoned, flesh-colour; g. broad, crowded, whitish; s. solid, short,

Differs from _L. flexuosus_ in broad, crowded, white g.

[=jecorinus=, Fr. P. convex then plano-depr. rugulose with elevated
ridges, zoneless, viscid, reddish liver-colour; g. distant, yellow; s.
hollow, pallid; milk white, acrid; sp. 10.

[=crampylus=, Fr. P. convex, umbil. everywhere rugulosely tomentose,
zoneless, sooty red, edge downy; g. yellow; s. greyish; milk white,

=pannucius=, Fr. P. plano-discoid, zoneless, glabrous, brick-red, edge
white-tomentose at first; g. yellow; s. elongated; milk white, acrid.

[=fluens=, Boud. P. convex, viscid, blackish olive, centre scarcely
zoned, edge pale; g. adnate, ochre with grey tinge later; s. solid,
rather viscid greyish ochre, brown when bruised like gills; milk acrid,
white then brownish.

Differs from _L. blennius_ in larger size, tufted habit, convex p. and
darker colour.

=fascinans=, Fr. P. convex then depr. viscid, brownish brick-red,
zoneless, edge downy white at first; g. thickish, yellowish; s. hollow,
pallid; milk white.

=cyathicula=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. plane, umb. brick-red then pale, broken up,
opaque; g. decurrent, crowded, yellowish; s. 4-5 cm. pallid; milk white;
sp. 6-8.

=glyciosmus=, Fr. Strong scented. P. 3-7 cm. soon exp. umb. squamulose,
greyish or brownish, opaque; g. soon pale ochre; s. 2-3 cm. pubescent,
pallid; milk white; sp. 6-10.

var. _flexuosus_, Fr. P. wavy, somewhat zoned.

=pyrogalus=, Bull. P. 5-8 cm. exp. depr. livid grey; g. thin,
ochraceous; s. 3-4 cm. hollow, pallid; milk white; sp. 7-10.

_L. flexuosus_ differs in larger size, thick gills, and squamulose dark

=utilis=, Weinm. P. 10-20 cm. exp. then infund. glabrous, tan; g.
adnate; s. 5-8 cm. hollow, even, coloured like p.; milk white; sp. 7-9 ×

=mammosus=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. acutely umb. then depr. zoneless, dry,
greyish brown or lurid, covered with grey down; g. adnate, pale rusty;
s. 5-7 cm. stuffed then hollow, pallid, downy; milk white, slowly acrid;
sp. 8-9.

=aurantiacus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. depr. even, zoneless, slightly viscid dull
orange; g. decurrent, ochre; s. 6-7 cm. coloured like p.; milk white,
becoming acrid; sp. 9-10.

_L. volemus_ differs in pruinose stem, and _L. mitissimus_ in mild milk.

[=Porinae=, Roll. P. very firm, rugose, glabrous, viscid, orange yellow,
generally with red zones, convex then plane, at length infundib. irreg.
subumb. edge even incurved; g. yellow then ochre, crowded; s. ochre,
rooting; milk white, scanty, rather acrid; sp. 7.5.

=picinus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. convex then plane, umb. brownish umber, at
first villosely velvety then disc almost glabrous; g. adnate, much
crowded, ochre; s. 4-7 cm. even, glabrous, paler; milk white; sp. 9-10.
(5-6 Sacc.)

Velvety p. and acrid milk mark this species.

=spinulosus=, Q. P. 2-3 cm. depr. umbo acute, flesh colour or rosy, with
minute erect spines towards margin; g. decur. flesh colour with yellow
tinge; s. 2-3 cm. flexuous, rugulose, paler than p.; milk white; sp. 8.

var. _violaceus_, Cke. P. rosy violet; s. almost smooth.

=lilacinus=, Lasch. P. 2-5 cm. depr. papillate, rosy-lilac, floccose
when dry; g. adnate, tinged pink; s. 2-3 cm. pallid with a white bloom;
milk white; sp. 7-10.

=lateritioroseus=, Karst. P. plano-depr. often subinfundib. and irreg.
granulose or squamulose especially near the edge, zoneless or nearly so,
pale brick-red with rosy tinge; g. decur. pinkish; s. solid, colour of
p., apex with white meal; milk scanty, white, acrid; sp. 9-10 × 8-9.

Differs from _Lact. lilacinus_ in decur. g. and pileus not floccose.

=controversus=, Pers. P. 7-12 cm. umbil. then infundib. whitish with red
spots or zones; g. closely crowded, soon with flesh-coloured tint; s.
3-5 cm. white; milk white; sp. echin. 6-8.

[=viridis=, Fr. P. depr. wavy, dry, green; g. white tinged rufous; s.
hollow, stout, base narrowed; milk white; sp. 8.5 × 6.

[=tabidus=, Fr. P. submembranaceous, acutely umb., reddish then pale,
edge striate when moist; s. subfistulose, pallid; g. flaccid, pallid;
milk; sp. 8 × 4-5.

Recognised by very thin, acutely umbonate p.; owing to absence of
description of milk, position uncertain.

[=rutaceus=, Lasch. P. subdepr. almost glabrous, opaque, reddish-fawn;
g. subdecur. crowded, narrow, yellowish clay-colour.

Smell like _Ruta graveolens_, taste bitter and of camphor.

     _Stem excentric or lateral; growing on wood._

[=lateripes=, Fr. P. white tinged rosy, subdimidiate; g. crowded,
pallid; s. lateral; milk white, rather acrid.

[=hometi=, Gill. P. lateral, fleshy, convex, pale yellowish ochre, edge
irreg. flesh white then violet; g. slightly decur. narrowed at both
ends, pallid, spotted violet; s. lateral, stout, colour of p.

=minimus=, W. G. Sm. P. 1 cm. convex, subumb. excentric, pallid tan; g.
subdecur. pallid; s. 1 cm. solid, coloured like p.; milk abundant,
white; sp. 3-4.

=obliquus=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 3-4 cm. thin, depr. oblique, lobed,
zoned greyish, silky; g. crowded; s. subexcentric, curved; milk white;
sp. 5-6.


     I. LIMACIUM. _Pileus viscid, stem also often so; secondary veil
     floccose, forming a ring or attached to edge of p.; s. squamulose,
     or scabrid at apex; g. adnato-decur._

     * _White or yellowish._

[=ligatus=, Fr. White. P. convexo-plane, even; g. thick, distant; s.
long, fibrillose, apex naked, ring inferior, subappend.; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

Sometimes tinged yellow, rarely spotted red.

=chrysodon=, Fr. White, edge of p. gills and upper part of stem tinged
yellow. P. 5-7 cm. exp.; g. broad, thin; s. 5-7 cm. yellow squamules
forming ring at apex; sp. 8 × 4.

[=gliocyclus=, Fr. P. exp. pallid-white, very glutinous; g. decur.
distant, permanently white; s. with inferior glutinous ring.

[=hyacinthinus=, Q. Fragrant. P. snow-white, viscid, silky-shining,
margin pubescent; s. slender, striate, pruinose.

=eburneus=, Bull. White. P. 3-5 cm. exp. even, edge soon naked; g.
decur. distant, firm; s. 3-7 cm. viscid, rough with points at apex; sp.
5 × 4.

Differs from _H. cossus_ in pure white colour and absence of unpleasant

[=subpurpurascens=, Allesch. P. hemispher. viscid, white, tan or
brownish when dry; g. decur. white, brownish-purple when dry; s. viscid,
narrowed below and rooting, white, apex white-scurfy; sp. 6-8 × 5-6.

=cossus=, Sow. Smell strong. P. 3-5 cm. exp. glutinous, shining when
dry, white with yellow tinge, edge naked; g. subdecur. distant, firm; s.
scurfy-punctate upwards; sp. 7-8 × 4-5.

[=melizeus=, Fr. Straw colour. P. exp. depr. even; g. decur. thin,
distant; s. soft, narrowed below, apex with white squamules.

=penarius=, Sow. P. 4-7 cm. P. umb. then exp. and obtuse, usually dry,
compact, pallid tan, opaque; g. decur. distant, thick; s. 3-5 cm.
glutinous then dry and rugulose, fusiformly rooting; sp. 7-8 × 3-4.

     ** _Reddish._

[=purpurascens=, Fr. P. whitish, disc with purplish squamules; g. decur.
white tinged purple; s. white, bristling with purplish squamules, ring

[=capreolarius=, Kalchbr. Entirely purple rufous. P. soon dry, virgate
with darker fibrils, centre squamulosely punctate, flesh reddish; g.
rigid, purplish then changing to cinnamon; s. reticulately striate with
darker purple-umber fibrils.

=erubescens=, Fr. P. 5-12 cm. gibbous then convexo-plane, white then
deep rosy or dingy red; g. soft, white spotted red; s. 4-9 cm. reddish
fibrillose, apex red punctate; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

Usually growing in circles. Pileus and flesh white suffused with red

=pudorinus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. convex depr. viscid, clear reddish flesh
colour; g. distant, thick, shining white; s. 5-9 cm. white, apex
constricted and rough with points; sp. 8 × 4.

Differs from _H. erubescens_ in pure white gills, and clearer colour of

=rubescens=, Beck. P. convex, shining, flesh-colour or yellowish, disc
often somewhat tawny; g. very distant, adnate, scarcely decur., pale
flesh-colour; s. clavate from base, yellowish white, narrowed and
floccosely-verruculose below gills; sp. 7.5-10 × 4-7; flesh of p.

Differs from _H. pudorinus_ and _H. discoideus_ in clavate s. and red

[=Queletii=, Bres. P. convex-plane, subumb. white with pinkish flecks at
centre, epidermis becoming squamulose, edge at first incurved and
white-floccose, viscid; g. adnato-decur. white or yellowish, edge
citrin; s. solid, white, scurfy with reddish flecks; sp. 8-9 × 5.

Sometimes entirely white and p. concentrically cracked.

=glutinifer=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. rufescent, pellicle glutinous, disc
rugosely punctate; g. arcuato-decur. white; s. 7-9 cm. stuffed,
ventricose below, viscid, colour of p., apex white squamulose; sp. ----.

[=leucophaeus=, Fr. P. exp. pallid gilvous, disc rugosely punctate; g.
adnate then decur. pallid; s. hollow, narrowed below, pallid, apex white
floccose; sp. 6-8 × 4.

[=Secretani=, Henn. (= _Ag. suaveolens_, Var. D. Secr.) Smell strong,
like aniseed. P. camp. exp. white, disc with rosy fibrils; g.
adnato-decur. distant, thick, white then tan or yellowish; s. white,
glabrous, apex white-floccose; sp. 11-13 × 5-6.

[=persicinus=, Beck. P. conic then hemispher. edge incurved, peach
colour or somewhat orange, shining, even; g. thick, both ends narrowed,
decur. edge very obtuse, fuscescent; s. constricted below gills, pale
lilac-peach-colour, base yellowish; sp. 15-20 × 5-6.

[=miniaceus=, Beck. P. convex then exp. fleshy, vermilion brick-red,
centre innately floccose; g. adnate, very distant, broad, white; s.
orange flesh-colour; flesh white soon reddish, deep rose under cuticle
of p.; sp. 6-7.

     *** _Tawny or yellow._

=arbustivus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. viscid, innately virgate, tawny; g.
adnate, thick, white; s. solid, 3-4 cm. pallid, apex with loose white
mealy granules; sp. 10 × 6.

=discoideus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. depr. glutinous, pale gilvous, disc
dark and rusty; g. adnato-decur. soft, colour of p. then pallid; s.
viscid, flocculose, with white points upwards, 3-5 cm.; sp. 5-8 × 4-5.

[=Friesii=, Sacc. (_H. nitidus_, Fr. Mon., not B. and C.). P. convex
then plane, obtuse, viscid, yellow; g. deeply decur. white then pallid;
s. solid, glabrous, viscid, apex even, white; sp. 8 × 4-5.

[=nitidus=, Fr. P. exp. viscid, yellow; g. deeply decur. distant, white
then pallid; s. solid, glabrous, viscid, apex smooth, white.

=aureus=, Arrh. P. 2-3 cm. exp. glutinous, golden yellow; g.
adnato-decur. white; s. 4-5 cm. reddish tawny and glutinous up to
imperfect ring; sp. 8 × 4.

[=Bresadolae=, Q. P. campan.-exp. umb. glutinous, clear yellow, umb.
orange tawny; g. distant, thick, attenuato-decur. citrin or more or
less white; s. apex white, yellow-flocculose below ring, glutinous; sp.
8-10 × 6.

[=lucorum=, Kalchb. P. plano-depr. subumb. viscid, whitish, disc bright
citrin, altogether yellowish when old; g. adnato-decur. pallid or
citrin, edge white; s. slender, base subbulbous, colour of p.; sp. 7 ×

=aromaticus=, Sow. P. 5-7 cm. exp. very fragile, cinnamon, glutinous; g.
subdecur. white with pink tinge; s. 3-5 cm. equal, colour of p.

Smell spicy, taste like peppermint. A fungus of uncertain affinity.

     **** _Olivaceous-umber._

=limacinus=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. convex, obtuse, umber then smoky olive, edge
paler; g. adnato-decur. greyish white; s. 5-7 cm. solid, viscid, apex
squamulose; 12 × 8.

Differs from _H. olivaceo-albus_ in squamulose apex of stem, and from
_H. agathosmus_ in viscid stem.

[=vignolius=, Paniz. P. obtuse, very glutinous, olive; g. adnate,
greyish-purple then rusty, edge white; s. with dark concentric scales or
glutinous and fibrillose.

=olivaceo-albus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. even, with olive gluten which
disappears leaving surface pale, umbo brown; g. adnato-decur. white; s.
5-7 cm. viscid, with a floccose ring at first, scaly and spotted brown,
apex glabrous; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=hypothejus=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. exp. and more or less depr. thin, olive
gluten disappearing and leaving p. yellowish-olive or brownish, virgate;
g. decur. yellow; s. 5-9 cm. viscid, paler than p., trace of ring when
young; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

_H. olivaceo-albus_ differs in white gills.

=cerasinus=, B. Smell strong, like cherry-laurel. P. 2-3 cm. obtusely
umb. viscid, pale umber then greyish, margin downy; g. very distant,
tinged pink; s. 5-7 cm. white, apex squamulose; sp. 8 × 4.

     ***** _Brownish grey or livid._

=fusco-albus=, Lasch. P. 4-5 cm. exp. even, viscid, brownish grey; g.
decur. broad, snow-white; s. 5-7 cm. equal, dry, apex white-floccose;
sp. 12-14 × 7-8.

=agathosmus=, Fr. Smell like aniseed. P. 3-5 cm. exp. gibbous, viscid,
livid grey, disc with crowded pellucid papillae; g. decur. soft, white;
s. 5-7 cm. dry, fibrillosely striate, rough with squamules upwards; sp.
9-10 × 5.

[=pustulatus=, Fr. P. exp. umb. viscid, livid grey, umbo fuscous,
cracked into papillae; g. adnato-decur. white, often glaucous; s. equal,
white, rough with black points; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

Var. _terebratus_, Fr. P. subumb. glabrous; g. triquetrous; s. wavy,
pure white, apex with black points.

[=tephroleucus=, Fr. P. exp. then depr. round the brown umbo, viscid,
grey, adpressedly squamuloso-fibrillose; g. decur. white; s. solid, with
black fibrils above.

[=hyporrhodius=, Otth. P. convex then depr. greyish brown, disc
squamulose; g. slightly decur. both ends acute, rosy white, connected by
veins; s. equal, white, granulosely squamulose.

[=albidus=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, umb. cuticle longitudinally
interwoven, rugosely papillate near edge, even, whitish, viscid; g.
adnato-decur. distant, shining white; s. equal, flocculose, white; sp.
8-10 × 6.

=mesotephrus=, B. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. hygr. viscid, striate, whitish
with brown disc; g. decur. white, s. 3-5 cm. slender, flexuous, white,
viscid, apex granular; sp. 9-10 × 5.

=livido-albus=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. even, glabrous, viscid, exp. obtuse,
thin, everywhere livid; g. decur. white; s. slender, even, almost
smooth; sp. 10 × 6.

Differs from _H. eburneus_ in livid p. and glabrous s.

=calophyllus=, Karst. P. conico-convex, exp. obsoletely umb. viscid,
even, glabrous, sooty-fuscous; g. decur. distant, joined by veins, rosy
or at length whitish; s. thicker below, wavy, pallid then sooty,
glabrous, even, dry; sp. 6-8 × 4-5.

     II. CAMAROPHYLLUS. _Veil absent. Stem not punctate or scabrid.
     Pileus firm, moist in wet weather but not viscid. Gills distant,

     * _Gills deeply and at length obconically decurrent._

=caprinus=, Scop. P. 7-12 cm. fleshy, fragile, exp. umb. rather wavy,
sooty, fibrillose; g. very broad, thick, very distant, white then
glaucous; s. 5-7 cm. solid, sooty fibrillose; sp. 10 × 7-8.

=leporinus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. convex, gibbous, reddish-yellow,
fibrilloso-floccose, opaque; g. decur. gilvous; s. 4-5 cm. fibrillose,
pallid; sp. subgl. 5-6.

Differs from _H. pratensis_ in floccose p.

[=alutaceorubens=, Otth. P. convex then flat, yellowish red, disc
darker; g. scarcely decur. reddish-yellow; s. cylind. rather twisted,
apex reddish and mealy, whitish below.

[=velutinus=, Borsz. P. exp. gibbous then subdepr. even when moist,
floccosely squamulose when dry, tawny yellow; g. deeply decur. thick,
orange; s. fibrillosely squamulose, darker; sp. 8 × 4.

=nemoreus=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. equally fleshy, exp. almost glabrous, tawny
orange; g. thick, distant, colour of p.; s. squamulose, fibroso-striate,
base narrowed, pale; sp. 6-7 × 5.

Differs from _H. pratensis_ in squamulose, pale s., and from _H.
leporinus_ in glabrous p.

=pratensis=, Fr. Every part tawny-yellow or buff. P. 2-7 cm. disc very
fleshy, gibbous, margin thin, altogether obconic; g. deeply decur.
thick, distant; s. 3-5 cm. stuffed, even, glabrous, narrowed downwards;
sp. 6 × 4.

Edible. Variable in size, sometimes all white or grey, s. often pale.

Var. _cinereus_, Fr. P. and g. grey, s. whitish, slender.

Var. _pallidus_, B. and Br. P. depr. or infundib., edge wavy, entirely
pale ochre.

[=bicolor=, Karst. P. compact and thick, obconoid, convex, often depr.
whitish, even, glabrous, g. deeply decur. gilvous; s. long, solid,
narrowed below, glabrous, whitish; sp. 10 × 6.

[=suberosus=, Jacobasch. P. convex, subdepr. subturbinate, not umb.
reddish yellow, g. decur. pallid; s. pallid, equal, floccosely
tomentose; sp. 3.7-5.5.

[=Karstenii=, Sacc. and Cub. P. fleshy, disc compact, convexo-plane,
glabrous, even, whitish; g. deeply decur. distant, yellow; s. solid,
narrowed below, wavy, whitish; sp. 10 × 6.

=virgineus=, Wulf. White. P. 3-7 cm. fleshy, exp. obtuse then depr.
becoming cracked and floccose when dry; g. distant, thickish; s. 3-5 cm.
stuffed, firm, short, narrowed downwards; sp. 8-10 × 5. Edible.

Var. _roseipes_, Mass. Stem rosy downwards.

=niveus=, Fr. White. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. tough, membranaceous, convex, umbil.
viscid; g. thin, arcuate, distant; s. 4-6 cm. slender, equal; sp. 7-8 ×

Differs from _H. virgineus_ in smaller size, thin p. and slender equal

=russo-coriaceus=, B. and Br. White, fragrant. P. 1.5-2 cm. convex, disc
fleshy, edge thin; g. thick, very distant; s. 1.5-2.5 cm. solid, smooth,
base narrowed; sp. 8 × 5.

Differs from _H. niveus_ in thick disc, and smell resembling Russian

[=helvella=, Boud. P. hygr. glabrous, greyish ochre, obconic-campan.
edge sometimes wavy; g. shortly decur. narrow, grey; s. whitish, equal,
scurfy above, base thickened and downy.

[=glaucus=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, umb. then depr. and somewhat wavy,
moist, glabrous, shining, even, glaucous; g. deeply decur. rather
branched, glaucous; s. wavy, with white down then glabrous, white; sp.
6-8, glob.

[=clivalis=, Fr. White, fragile. P. campan. exp. shining, edge at first
incurved then spreading, striate; g. narrowed behind, nearly free,
ventricose, distant; s. solid, short, fragile, narrowed below; sp. 6-7 ×

=ventricosus=, B. and Br. White. P. 4-7 cm. convex, disc fleshy, edge
thin, sometimes irreg.; g. deeply decur. narrow; s. 4-7 cm. ventricose,
solid, smooth; sp. 7 × 4.

Known among white sp. by fleshy p. and stout, ventricose stem.

     ** _Gills ventricose, sinuato-arcuate or plano-adnate._

=fornicatus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. campan. then exp. even, glabrous, viscid,
white or livid; g. sinuato-adnexed, thick, white; s. 5-7 cm. firm,
equal, tough, glabrous, white; sp. 5-6 × 3.

Stem solid below, apex hollow. Pileus obsoletely umb. rather wavy; gills
sometimes free, with a decurrent tooth, not decurrent as in _H.

=distans=, B. P. 2-4 cm. exp. or depr. umbil. thin, viscid, white with
silky sheen, sometimes stained with brown; g. adnate, very distant,
white; s. 3-4 cm. white above, rather narrowed and greyish below; sp. 10
× 8.

[=streptopus=, Fr. Fragile, splitting. P. campan. exp. greyish white; g.
sinuato-adnate, rather crowded, white; s. hollow, rather twisted, white.

=Clarkii=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. fragile, thin, exp. subumb. viscid,
livid grey; g. adnate with decur. tooth, broad, thick, distant, white;
s. 4-7 cm. grey, base white; sp. subgl. 12 × 10.

_H. distans_ differs in white umbilic. p.

=metapodius=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. compact, exp. viscid then silky squamulose,
brownish; g. arcuato-decur. thick, distant, greyish; s. 3-4 cm.
glabrous, grey, reddish inside; sp. 8 × 5.

=ovinus=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. thin, conical then exp. gibbous, viscid then
squamulose, fuscous; g. arcuato-adnate, connected by veins, grey then
rufescent; s. 4-5 cm. glabrous, often twisted, pallid or dark; sp. 5 ×

Differs from _H. metapodius_ in thin p. subequal s. and thinner g.

[=connatus=, Karst. P. thin, convexo-exp. unequal, dry, even, grey then
pallid, silky-white then glabrous; g. decur. distant, branched, narrow,
grey; s. solid, rather wavy, squamulose above, colour of p.; sp. 7-9 ×

[=flavus=, Lamb. Smell like new meal. P. convex, exp. then umbil. edge
sublobed, glabrous, even, yellowish; g. adnexed with decur. tooth, very
broad, ventricose, distant, whitish; s. equal, even, cylindrical, colour
of p.

=subradiatus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. submembranaceous, subumb. radiato-striate,
brownish; g. adnate with decur. tooth, thin, white; s. 3-6 cm.
fistulose, glabrous, pallid; sp. 8 × 5.

Var. _lacmus_, Fr. P. plano-depr. lilac then pallid, disc sometimes
fibrillose; g. grey.

=irrigatus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. thin, campan. then exp. subumb. livid,
lubricous; g. whitish, with a decur. tooth; s. 4-7 cm. grey, very
viscid; sp. 6-7 × 4.

_H. unguinosus_ differs in the sooty-grey gluten.

     III. HYGROCYBE. _Veil absent. Entire fungus thin, watery, fragile.
     P. viscid when moist, shining when dry, rarely floccose. Often
     bright coloured._

     * _Gills decurrent or adnate with decur. tooth._

=Colemannianus=, Blox. P. 3-5 cm. campan. then exp. and strongly umb.
pale umber paler except disc when dry; g. deeply decur. connected by
veins, pale brown; s. 2-3 cm. white, silky upwards; sp. 7 × 4.

=foetens=, Phill. Very foetid. P. 2-3 cm. exp. umber; g. grey; s. 2-3
cm. olive yellow, squamulose; sp. subgl. 4-5.

=sciophanus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. slightly viscid, opaque, pale brick
red, or tawny, striate; g. decur. connected by veins, tinged red; s. 3-6
cm. hollow, subflexuous, smooth; sp. ----.

[=sulcatus=, Karst. P. campan. exp. viscid, sulcate except disc, deep
tawny; s. hollow, equal, glabrous, viscid, yellowish; g. decur.

=laetus=, Fr. (= _H. Houghtoni_, B.). P. 2-3 cm. thin, convexo-plane,
viscid, tawny; g. thin, distant, paler than p. decur.; s. 5-7 cm. tough,
equal, viscid, colour of p.; sp. 7 × 4-5.

Differs from _H. sciophanus_ in viscid stem.

=vitellinus=, Fr. Every part clear lemon yellow, paler when dry. P.
1.5-2.5 cm. viscid, edge plicato-striate; g. decur. rather distant; s.
3-5 cm. hollow, fragile; sp. 6 × 4.

=ceraceus=, Wulf. P. 2-3 cm. fragile, thin, exp. viscid, shining,
wax-yellow; g. adnate, subdecur. distant, broad, almost triangular,
yellow; s. hollow, 3-4 cm. hollow, colour of p. often flexuous; sp. 8 ×

Differs from _H. vitellinus_ in broad gills and wax-yellow s. and p.

=coccineus=, Schaeff. P. 2.5-3 cm. fragile, thin, convexo-plane, obtuse,
viscid, glabrous, scarlet then pale; g. adnate with decur. tooth,
connected by veins, reddish or yellowish; s. 3-5 cm. hollow, compr.
yellowish, crimson above; sp. 10-12 × 6. (6-8 × 4-5.)

Differs from _H. puniceus_ in adnate g. and yellow base of s., from _H.
miniatus_ in glabrous p. and yellow base of s.

=miniatus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. fragile, thin, convex then umbil. scarlet
then pale, opaque and squamulose; g. adnate, distant, yellow and red; s.
3-5 cm. terete, polished, scarlet; sp. 10 × 6.

=turundus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. thin, convex then umbil. very brittle,
covered with greyish-brown down then squamulose; g. decur. distant,
white then yellowish; s. 2-3 cm. tawny, polished; sp. ----.

P. soon broken up into smoky squamules, but golden and viscid at first.

Var. _mollis_, B. and Br. P. golden with fibrils of same colour; s.
yellow; g. shortly decur.

Var. _lepidus_, Boud. Brilliant golden orange; p. convex, squamulose or
hirsuto-tomentose, umbil. then golden, centre deepest; g. thick distant,
deeply and abruptly decur. pallid; s. elongated, colour of p.; sp. 9-10
× 5-6.

=mucronellus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. submembranaceous, fragile, conic then
campan. acutely umb. glabrous, vermilion then pale; g. decur.
triangular, thick, yellow; s. 2-3 cm. slender, colour of p. base white;
sp. ----.

=Wynniae=, B. and Br. (= _Clitocybe xanthophylla_, Bres., _fide_ Berk.).
P. 1.5-2.5 cm. thin, convex then umbil. or infundib., striate, lemon
yellow, greenish when dry; g. decur. yellowish then tinged green; s. 2-3
cm. colour of p.; sp. 7-8 × 6.

[=syrjensis=, Karst. P. thin convex, disc depr. glabrous, even, dry,
fuscous-white or dingy yellowish; g. deeply decur. brownish, somewhat
branched; s. equal, pallid; sp. 6 × 3-4.

=micaceus=, B. and Br. P. 1-1.5 cm. thin, exp. yellow then grey with
green tinge, wrinkled, micaceous; g. decur. pale umber; s. 2-2.5 cm.
slender, yellow, base brown; sp. 4 × 3.

     ** _Gills adnexed then separating from stem._

=puniceus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. campan. obtuse, wavy, viscid, crimson then
pale; g. slightly adnexed, thick, distant, yellow; s. 5-7 cm. hollow,
striate, colour of p. base white; sp. 8 × 5.

Differs from _H. coccineus_ in adnexed g. and striate stem with white

Var. _nigrescens_, Q. Becoming blackish everywhere. P. orange, virgate,
then grey and silky; s. striate, yellow, apex red.

=obrusseus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. conico-convex, wavy, golden yellow, shining;
g. adnato-ventricose, thick, distant; s. 5-7 cm. hollow, subcompressed,
glabrous, even, yellow, base tawny; sp. 10-12 × 7.

Tawny base of stem not always evident.

[=citrino-croceus=, Beck. P. convex, flattened, glabrous, shining,
citrin-saffron, disc golden, edge whitish, slightly upturned; g. very
distant, broad, shortly decur. white; s. solid, subequal white or
spotted citrin; sp. 7.5-8.5 × 3.5-5.

=intermedius=, Pass. P. 3-5 cm. thin, campan. then exp.
silky-fibrillose, golden then greyish; g. adnate, ventricose, white then
yellow; s. 4-7 cm. yellow, fibrillosely striate; sp. 8-9 × 6.

Differs from _H. obrusseus_ in strong mealy smell, and p. becoming grey.

=conicus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. conical, acute, often lobed, yellow or tinged
crimson; g. nearly free, thin, yellowish; s. 3-9 cm. hollow
fibroso-striate, colour of p.; sp. 10-11 × 6-8.

Every part blackish when bruised or old.

[=albus=, Otth. P. conical, obtuse, even, white; g. free, snow-white; s.
white, striate, shining.

Differs from _Hygr. conicus_ in colour and obtuse p.

=calyptraeformis=, B. P. 3-7 cm. acutely conical then splitting and
exp. clear rose then paler; g. slightly adnexed, tinged rose; s. 6-9 cm.
hollow, white; sp. 7 × 4.

Var. _niveus_, Cke. Entirely white.

=chlorophanus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. fragile, very thin, convex, obtuse,
viscid, yellow, sometimes crimson; g. emarginate, adnexed, white tinged
yellow; s. viscid when moist, even, everywhere yellow, 4-7 cm.; sp. 8 ×

Differs from _H. conicus_ in not becoming black.

=psittacinus=, Schaeff. P. 1.5-3 cm. campan. then exp. umb. striate,
yellow and orange, with green gluten; g. thick, distant, greenish; s.
3-5 cm. glutinous, yellow, apex green; sp. 10 × 5.

=spadiceus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. thin, conical, acute, fibrilloso-virgate,
with olive-bay gluten, blackish and shining when dry; g. citrin; s. 5-7
cm. hollow, dry, tawny-fibrillose; sp. 6-7 × 4.

Differs from _H. conicus_ in virgate p. and thicker g. not narrowed

[=squalidus=, Lasch. Fragile. P. campan. exp. gibbous, and with the
glabrous hollow s. sooty and glutinous, orange after the gluten has
gone; g. thick, livid then fuscous, edge orange.

=unguinosus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. fragile, thin, obtuse, uneven, smooth, with
smoky-brown dripping gluten, becoming cracked; g. white; s. 4-5 cm.
hollow, with smoky gluten; sp. 10 × 7-8.

[=obscuratus=, Karst. P. fragile, convex, obtuse, dry, squamulose, sooty
or livid blackish, mouse-colour when dry; g. sinuato-adnate, whitish or
glaucous; s. unequal, usually inflated below, wavy, glabrous, pallid,
centre often tinged smoky; sp. 7-10 × 3-5.

=nitratus=, Pers. Smell strong, nitrous. P. 3-5 cm. deformed, viscid,
soon dry and squamulose, brownish-grey; g. broad, distant, white then
glaucous; s. 4-7 cm. polished, white or tinged yellow; sp. 8 × 5.

There are two forms, a large one in woods, and a smaller one in
pastures, structure that of _H. coccineus_, but colours very different.
Readily distinguished by the strong nitrous smell.

[=Schulzeri=, Bres. P. hemispher. exp. or depr. dry, even, livid
cinnamon; g. distant, subdecur. white then greyish; s. dry, colour of
p., apex white-scurfy; inodorous; sp. glob. 3-3.5.

[=glauconitens=, Fr. Rigid. P. fibrillosely virgate, olive-black or
sooty then pale; g. glaucous; s. equal, shining; sp. 6-8 × 6-7.

Fries thinks this may be a young state of _H. nitratus_. Smell same but

[=Marzuolus=, Bres. (= _Clitocybe Marzuolus_, Bres.). P. 4.5-7 cm. s.
4-7 cm. base clavate; sp. 6-7 × 4-5.

Bresadola considers this sp. is the _Clitocybe_ of Fries.


     A. _P. fleshy, not hygr. pale and silky when dry._

     * DISCIFORMES. _P. fleshy, convex then plane or subdepressed._

     + _P. greyish or brownish._

=nebularis=, Batsch. P. 6-12 cm. convex then subgibbous, grey, at first
with grey meal; g. narrow, subdecur. crowded, pallid; s. 5-8 cm.
narrowed upwards, fibrillose, pale; sp. 6 × 3.5. Edible.

=clavipes=, Pers. P. 3-6 cm. convex then plane, naked, grey or brownish;
g. decur. down stem, rather distant; s. obconic, fibrillose, 4-5 cm.
livid sooty; sp. 6-7 × 4.

=comitalis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, obtuse, sooty umber; s. 4-7 cm.
obconic, sooty; g. plane, crowded; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=gangraenosa=, Fr. Foetid. P. 5-8 cm. soon plane, obtuse, whitish,
variegated black, greenish, livid &c.; g. dingy white; s. 3-4 cm.
striate, somewhat bulbous; sp. ----.

=polius=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convexo-plane, regular, grey; g. decur. closely
crowded, white; s. 4-7 cm. equal, glabrous, whitish; sp. ----.

_C. fumosa_ differs in cartilaginous substance, mealy apex of stem,
hygr. &c.

=inornata=, Sow. P. 7-10 cm. plane or depr. pale greyish tan often with
olive tinge, cuticle separable; g. adnate then decur. grey; s. 3-4 cm.
glabrous, greyish; sp. ----.

[=Cardarella=, Fr. Convex then plano-depr. glabrous, shining, covered
with a thick separable pellicle, blackish red, very viscid; g. decur.
broad, shining white; s. solid, stout, white. Edible.

[=auricula=, D. C. P. hemispher. even, glabrous, edge incurved, naked,
greyish brown; g. white; s. solid, glabrous, white.

[=nimbata=, Batsch. P. camp.-convex, even, thin margin incurved, white
mealy; g. crowded, arcuate, white; s. solid, innately squamulose,
squamules becoming blackish.

[=luscina=, Fr. P. exp. even, glabrous, edge spreading, naked, fuscous
then livid; g. subdecur. crowded; s. solid, short, narrowed downwards,
powdered with white meal.

[=curtipes=, Fr. P. exp. oblique, obtuse, brown then pale, flesh brown;
g. closely crowded, white; s. short, rigid, fuscous, thickened upwards,
pale and subpruinose.

=hirneola=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. convex then plane, silky shining, grey then
pale; g. crowded, hoary; s. 4-5 cm. slender, subflexuous, grey, apex
with white meal; sp. 5 × 3.

var. _major_, Fr. P. wavy, slightly zoned, whitish.

var. _undulata_, ----. P. exp. slightly wavy and zoned, whitish; s.
thickened downwards.

[=dothiophora=, Fr. P. exp. oblique, gibbous, hoary; g. decur. crowded,
whitish; s. solid, short, excentric, glabrous.

     ++ _Pileus violet or rufescent._

=cyanophaea=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. plane, obtuse, brownish-blue; g. deeply
decur. violet then pale; s. 6-7 cm. narrowed upwards, bluish when young,
apex abruptly white; sp. ----.

Differs from _Trich. nudum_ in decurrent gills, &c.

[=tyrianthina=, Fr. Exp. even, purplish flesh colour, pellicle separable
when dry; g. rosy violet; s. villose then striate.

Differs from _C. gilva_ in springing from a fiery-red mycelium. Somewhat
resembling _Trich. personatum_.

=opiparia=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. nearly plane, obtuse, yellowish flesh-colour,
shining; g. white, connected by veins; s. 4-7 cm. solid, glabrous,
whitish; sp. ----.

=amara=, Fr. Taste very bitter. P. 3-5 cm. plane, obtuse or subumb.
floccosely broken up, rufescent; g. crowded, narrow, white; s. 4-5 cm.
white, solid, floccose then glabrous; sp. 4 × 2.

[=vulpecula=, Kalchb. P. exp. depr. gilvous-rufescent; g. acutely
adnate, narrow; s. hollow, naked, whitish.

=socialis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. umb. even, yellowish-red; g. tinged yellow;
s. 2-3 cm. reddish, rooting base hairy; sp. ----.

Stem strigose as in _Marasmius personatus_.

     +++ _Pileus becoming yellowish._

=amarella=, Pers. Smell strong, taste bitter. P. 4-5 cm. plane, subumb.
reddish-yellow or fawn colour; g. tinged grey, shining; s. 4-5 cm.
pallid grey, white down at base; sp. ----.

[=veneris=, Fr. P. exp. gibbous, yellow; g. crowded, shining white; s.
elastic, glabrous, white.

=vernicosa=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. obtuse, even, glabrous, gilvous or deep
yellow; g. yellow; s. 2-3 cm. glabrous, yellow; sp. ----.

Distinguished from _Trich. cerinum_ by decur. gills.

=venustissima=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. obtuse, striate, orange, tinged red;
g. decur. orange; s. 3-4 cm. long, glabrous, orange-red; sp. 6 × 3.5.

=alutacea=, Cke. and Mass. P. 1-1.5 cm. convex then umbil. edge
incurved, even, tan; g. narrow, crowded, arcuate, decur. paler than p.;
s. 3-4 cm. smooth, pale; sp. 6 × 4.

=subalutacea=, Batsch. P. 3-5 cm. plano-depr. obtuse, yellowish then
pale; g. broad, whitish; s. 4-5 cm. firm, elastic, glabrous; sp. ----.

     ++++ _Pileus greenish or pallid._

=odora=, Sow. Smell fragrant. P. 4-5 cm. wavy, pale, dingy opaque green;
g. adnate, not crowded, pallid; s. 3-4 cm. elastic; sp. 6-8 × 4-5.

=Trogii=, Fr. Smell fragrant. P. 4-5 cm. compact, greyish white; g.
crowded, white; s. 4-5 cm. whitish, solid; sp. ----.

Stouter than _C. odora_, and p. greyish, not green.

[=vilis=, Karst. P. convex, exp. umb. glabrous, pellucidly striate,
livid, pallid when dry; g. decur. pallid; s. equal, wavy, glabrous,
umber, apex white-scurfy, livid when dry; sp. 2.5-3.5 × 2.

[=bifurcata=, Weinm. P. exp. rather silky, clay-colour then pale, edge
substriate; g. adnato-decur. simple or bifurcate, white; s. fibrillose.

=rivulosa=, Pers. P. 3-7 cm. exp. or depr. obtuse, flesh-colour,
rufescent &c. then pale, glabrous then with white down; g. broad, rather
crowded, faintly tinged pink; s. 4-5 cm. tough, rather fibrillose,
whitish; sp. 6 × 3.5.

var. _neptunea_, Cke. Smaller than type.

[=rigidata=, Karst. P. rigid, plane, depr. unequal, even, glabrous,
pallid then whitish; g. adnate, pallid; s. thickened upwards, often
compr. rooting, pallid; sp. 4-5 × 2-3.

     +++++ _Pileus white, shining when dry._

=cerussata=, Fr. White. P. 3-7 cm. plane, obtuse, even, subglabrous; g.
closely crowded, adnate; s. 4-5 cm. smooth, elastic; sp. ----.

var. _difformis_. Tufted, p. lobed; s. rugose; g. pallid.

var. _obtextus_, Lasch. Snow-white. P. fibrillosely interwoven then
glabrous, rather viscid; g. subdecur. crowded.

[=puellula=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, subumb. even, glabrous, shining
white; g. adnate, crowded, white; s. subequal, straight, elastic, white
with blackish squamules; sp. 9-12 × 5-7.

Allied to _Clito. cerrusatus_ but smaller and with black squamules on

[=adsentiens=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, obtuse, even, at length scaly,
white; g. adnate, closely crowded, white; s. short, base thickened,
white with blackish scales; sp. ----.

=phyllophila=, Fr. Whitish-tan. P. 3-7 cm. convexo-plane, umbil. not
becoming pale, veil forming a silvery zone near margin; g. rather
distant, white then pallid; silky-fibrous, tough, 5-8 cm.; sp. 6 × 4.

=pithyophila=, Fr. White. P. 3-7 cm. exp. umbil. glabrous, becoming
shining white; g. crowded, permanently white; s. 4-5 cm. often compr.
base downy; sp. ----.

=tornata=, Fr. White. P. 3-5 cm. orbicular, subdepr. glabrous, shining;
g. rather crowded; s. stuffed, glabrous, 3-4 cm.; 4-6 × 3-4 µ.

Very regular in form.

var. _opala_, Fr. White. P. viscid.

[=olorina=, Fr. Whitish. P. exp. even, glabrous; s. hollow, rigid,
cylindrical, squamulose; g. subdecur. crowded.

=candicans=, Pers. White. P. 2-3 cm. plane or subdepr. umbil. with
adpressed silkiness, shining white when dry; g. adnate then decur.
crowded; s. 3-5 cm. subfistulose, cartilaginous, shining; sp. 5-6 × 4.

=dealbata=, Sow. White. P. 2-3 cm. plane then upturned and wavy,
glabrous, rather shining; g. adnate, crowded, white; s. 2-3 cm. entirely
fibrous, thin, equal, stuffed; sp. 4-5 × 2.5.

=gallinacea=, Scop. White, taste acrid. P. depr. even, dry, opaque; g.
crowded, narrow; s. 2-3 cm. equal, even, solid; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. dealbata_ in dingy white, opaque p. and acrid taste.

     ** DIFFORMES. _Pileus fleshy at the disc, margin thin, umb. at
     first, then exp. depr. and irregular._

=decastes=, Fr. Clustered. P. 10-25 cm. wavy, subumb. glabrous,
uniformly dingy brown or livid, then pale; g. crowded, wavy, white; s.
9-16 cm. long, solid, glabrous, white, apex pruinose; sp. globose, 4-5.

=subdecastes=, Cke. and Mass. Clustered. P. 3-5 cm. convex, obtuse,
ochre, paler towards lobed margin; g. crowded, white; s. 8-12 cm.
fibrillose, whitish; sp. globose, 4-5.

=ampla=, Pers. P. 7-12 cm. convex then exp. wavy, sooty then livid,
even; g. broad, smoky then dingy white; s. 9-14 cm. subcartilaginous,
naked, white, apex somewhat downy; sp. ----.

[=molybdina=, Bull. P. camp. exp. umb. glabrous, sooty, disc livid
rufous, then pale; g. horn colour then pallid; s. stout, fibrillosely
striate, mealy squamulose upwards, pallid.

[=coffeata=, Fr. P. brownish fawn then sooty grey, fawn colour and
shining when dry, virgate or spotted; g. decur. dingy white, as is also
the glabrous s.

=aggregata=, Schaeff. Tufted. P. 5-9 cm. wavy, greyish or reddish
yellow, then pale, silkily virgate; g. yellowish flesh colour; s. 7-10
cm. fibrillose, narrowed below and often grown together at base; sp.

[=hortensis=, Pers. Caespitose, elastic. P. exp. obsoletely umb. sooty,
blackish; g. decur. white then flesh-colour; s. hollow, rather wavy.

[=tabescens=, Scop. (= _Coll. tabescens_, Fr.). P. conico-campan. exp.
umb. depr. round umbo, tawny honey-colour, or tawny-brown, disc scaly;
g. decur. pallid then pinkish tan; s. fibrillosely scaly, pallid or
lurid yellow, elongated; sp. 8-10 × 5-7.

Closely resembling _Armillaria mellea_, but no ring on stem.

[=anapacta=, Pers. P. depr. wavy, brown, edge incurved; g. broad, dingy
tan; s. narrowed below, pallid.

=elixa=, Sow. P. 5-9 cm. unequal, wavy, disc umb. smoky buff, edge
paler; g. distant; s. 3-5 cm. solid, dingy, subfloccose; sp. 7 × 4.

=fumosa=, Pers. Tufted. P. 3-5 cm. subcartilaginous, obtuse, wavy, sooty
brown then pale; g. adnate, livid; s. 5-8 cm. often twisted, dingy, apex
minutely mealy; sp. subgl. 5-6.

Differs from _C. elixa_ in obtuse, non-virgate p.

[=effocatella=, Viv. Caespitose. P. convex, even, glabrous, livid
chestnut or umber; g. adnate, crowded, white; s. naked, ventricose

=tumulosa=, Kalchbr. Tufted. P. 2.5 cm. umb. even, umber then pale; g.
soon greyish; s. 8-12 cm. solid, dingy, floccosely pruinose; sp. ----.

=pergamena=, Cke. Tufted. P. 2-5 cm. convex then plane, subumb. pallid;
g. broadly adnate with decur. tooth, white; s. 8-12 cm. whitish, apex
squamulose; cartilaginous; sp. ----.

[=humosa=, Fr. P. fragile, exp. wavy, fuscous; g. adfixed, both ends
narrowed; s. short, whitish like the gills.

[=adunata=, Secr. Tufted, foetid. P. exp. gibbous then depr. white
becoming spotted red then rufous, becoming viscid; g. decur. crowded,
eroded, dingy red; s. stout, twisted, narrowed below, whitish.

=cryptarum=, Letell. Tufted. P. somewhat conical, flocculose, spotted
brown; g. decur. narrow, white; s. white, striate.

A doubtful species.

[=hebepodia=, Fr. P. exp. depr. unequal, even, grey then pale; g. decur.
white; s. woolly, white.

[=connata=, Schum. Shining white. P. conical exp. unequal, moist, obtuse
umbo disappearing; g. unequally decur. narrow, crowded; stems numerous,
hollow, collected at base into a tuberous mass.

=opaca=, Fr. White. P. 3-6 cm. umb. often depr. and wavy, minutely
flocculose; g. closely crowded; s. 3-5 cm. fibrillose, wavy; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. cerrusata_ in umbonate p.

=occulta=, Cke. P. 3-5 cm. depr. virgate, viscid, disc smoky rest
whitish; g. adnate, white; s. 3-5 cm. fibrillosely striate, solid,
white; sp. ----.

=monstrosa=, Sow. P. 3-5 cm. umb. wavy, opaque white; g. adnato-decur.
creamy; s. 2-4 cm. opaque white, streaked; sp. ----.

=marzuola=, Fr. P. compact, exp. subdepr. even, wavy, dusky; g.
unequally decur.; s. stout, short, white.

     *** INFUNDIBILIFORMES. _Pileus fleshy at disc, thinner towards the
     margin, becoming deeply umbilicate or infundibuliform._

     + _Pileus coloured, or becoming pallid, silky._

=gigantea=, Sow. (= _Pax. giganteus_, Fr.) P. 12-20 cm. infundib.
whitish or tinged tan, edge coarsely striate; g. closely crowded; s.
pallid, solid, glabrous, 3-5 cm.; sp. 5 × 3.

=maxima=, Fr. 12-25 cm. infundib. subumb. whitish or tinged tan, edge
even; g. deeply decur.; s. 7-10 cm. compact, fibrillosely striate,
whitish; sp. 6 × 4.

=infundibiliformis=, Schaeff. P. 4-7 cm. convex, umb. then infundib.
yellowish pink then pale, innately silky; g. deeply decur.; s. 5-7 cm.
thinner upwards, pallid; sp. 5-6 × 3-4.

var. _membranacea_, Fr. P. not umb.; s. equal; altogether more slender
than type.

[=squamulosa=, Pers. P. obtuse, tan, squamulose, at first obtuse, deeply
infundib.; g. decur. distant, white; s. narrowed upwards, elastic.

[=nauseosodulcis=, Karst. Very foetid when old. P. irregular, convex
then plane, glabrous, often areolately squamulose, entirely clay-colour;
g. decur. pallid; s. excentric, rarely central, usually unequal and
curved, solid, whitish; sp. 7-8 × 5.

Connato-caespitose, resembling _Pleurotus sapidus_.

[=Panizzii=, Barla. Caespitose. P. convex then umbil. or infundib. white
or grey, edge lobed, wavy; g. thin, narrow, striately decur. pale or
tinged rose; s. long, wavy, white; flesh elastic, white.

=trullaeformis=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. obtuse then infundib. edge spreading,
greyish brown, floccosely villose; g. decur. connected by veins; s. 4-5
cm. striate, grey; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. cyathiforme_ in pure white flesh and gills.

=incilis=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. plane then umbil. or infundib. margin silky,
incurved, crenate, brick red; g. white then pallid, connected by veins;
s. 1-2 cm. base narrowed, red; sp. 7 × 4.

[=pulla=, Gill. P. depr. then infundib. glabrous, hygr. brown then pale;
g. united by veins, lilac grey; s. swollen at base which is downy,
colour of p. white-fibrillose below, wavy.

Near _C. obbata_, which differs in striate margin, equal s. and distant

[=lenticulosa=, Gill. P. exp. umbil. then infundib. dry, reddish orange,
tuberculose near the even edge; g. crowded, white then tinged rose,
finally colour of p.; s. solid, paler than p.

Differs from _C. lentiginosa_ in solid s. and edge of p. not striate.

=sinopica=, Fr. Smell strong, mealy. P. 2-3 cm. brick red then pale,
plane then umbil. at length flocculose; g. closely crowded, white then
yellow; s. red, fibrillose, 3-5 cm.; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. incilis_ in solid stem, even edge of p. and yellowish

[=Arnoldi=, Boud. P. depr. then infundib. wavy, subtomentose, minutely
squamulose, ochrey brick-red; g. whitish; s. colour of p. fibrillose
below; sp. 9-11 × 5-6.

[=lentiginosa=, Fr. P. plane, deeply umbil. with concentric zones of
minute tubercles, yellowish ochre; g. deeply decur. yellow; s. hollow,
equal, yellowish fuscous.

=parilis=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. disc depr. edge involute, greyish white,
ornately flocculose; g. narrow, greyish white; s. 2.3 cm. fibrous,
sooty; sp. ----.

     ++ _Pileus coloured or pallid, glabrous._

=geotropa=, Bull. P. 5-12 cm. plane then infundib. obtusely umb. pallid;
g. crowded, white then pallid; s. 7-12 cm. solid, fibrillose, flesh
white; sp. 6-7 × 4-5.

[=candida=, Bres. Large. P. fleshy, plano-convex then depr. edge
involute, even, pubescent, white becoming tinged tan; g. much crowded,
narrow, attenuato-decur. white then pallid; s. stout, short, white;
flesh white; sp. 7 × 3.

Close to _C. geotropa_ and _C. gigantea_. Differs in pure white colour
and in sp.

=gilva=, Pers. P. 5-8 cm. soon depr. and wavy, dingy ochre, flesh same
colour; g. closely crowded, ochre; s. 2-2.5 cm. solid, ochre; sp. subgl.

=subinvoluta=, Batsch. P. 5-8 cm. convex then depr. tinged brick red,
fibrillose, zoned; g. pale tan; s. 4-5 cm. reddish, grooved; sp. ----.

=spinulosa=, W. G. Sm. P. 3-5 cm. depr. gibbous, yellowish pink, edge
even, incurved; g. white then pale yellow; s. 5-9 cm. fibrillose,
whitish, zoned with tan; sp. globose, spinulose, 8-9.

=splendens=, Pers. P. 5-8 cm. plane then depr. or infund.
pinkish-yellow, shining; g. deeply decur. white; s. 2-3 cm. glabrous,
yellow; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. gilva_ in white flesh.

=inversus=, Scop. P. 5-9 cm. convex then infundib. edge involute,
rufescent; g. soon tinged rufous; s. 4-6 cm. hollow, rigid, paler than
p. flesh pallid; sp. subg. 4-5. Often tufted.

=flaccidus=, Sow. P. 5-8 cm. thin, flaccid, umbil. then infund. edge
reflexed, tawny or rusty; g. yellowish; s. 3-4 cm. rusty, rather wavy;
sp. 4-5 × 3-4. Often tufted.

var. _lobatus_, Fr. Tufted. P. darker, edge lobed.

[=rhodoleuca=, Rom. Fleshy, almost glabrous, in dry weather pure white
except gills which are tinted rose; in rainy weather everywhere inside
and out deep rose, gills darkest. P. obconic, convex or almost flattened
above; sp. 6-9 × 5-6.5.

[=zizyphana=, Viv. P. convex then infundib. often excentric, rufous
brown, flesh reddish white; g. yellow; s. equal, pallid.

[=cervina=, Hoffm. P. plano-infundib. oblique, glabrous, edge convex,
greyish fawn, subzoned; g. pallid, edge darker; s. cylindrical, base

[=garidelli=, Fr. P. convex, at first umbil. edge incurved, deep rose to
flesh colour; g. decur. crowded, edge red; s. short, stout, flesh
colour. Edible.

[=ambigua=, Karst. P. tough, orbicular, convex, obtuse, glabrous, even,
pallid rufous tinged pink then pale; g. adnato-decur. pallid; s.
glabrous, wavy, whitish, base woolly; sp. 4-5 × 3.

[=paropsis=, Fr. P. plano-depr. glabrous, edge spreading, flaccid,
rufous or flesh-colour; g. narrow, shining white; s. cylindrical, base
rather bulbous.

=vermicularis=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, umbil. then infund. edge
incurved, often wavy, reddish tan then pale, flesh same colour; g.
closely crowded, white; s. 3-4 cm. hollow, elastic, striate, paler than
p.; sp. 5 × 3.

[=cacaba=, Fr. P. flaccid, infundib. glabrous, edge broadly reflexed,
sooty; g. very deeply decur. closely crowded, dark grey; s. striate,
base thickened, downy.

=senilis=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. infundib. brownish tan, concentrically
cracked, edge spreading; g. narrow, soon colour of p.; s. 2-3 cm. solid,
glabrous, pallid; sp. 5-6 × 4.

     +++ _Pileus clear white._

=catina=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. plane then infundib. glabrous, white,
discoloured when old; g. decur. somewhat crowded, white; s. 3-7 cm.
elastic, white; sp. ----.

_C. infundibiliformis_ differs in not being umb. and in being glabrous.
_C. phyllophila_ differs in adnate gills.

=tuba=, Fr. White. P. 5-8 cm. umbil. margin even, shining with a silky
lustre when dry; g. broad, closely crowded, decur.; s. 4-5 cm. equal,
soon hollow and compressed; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. pithyophila_ in umbil. p.; g. deeply decurrent.

=ericetorum=, Bull. White. P. 2-3 cm. fleshy, subturbinate, glabrous,
shining when dry; g. distant, connected by veins; s. 2-3 cm. glabrous;
sp. ----.

Resembling _Hygr. niveus_ in appearance.

     B. _Pileus thin, hygrophanous, soft, watery._

     **** CYATHIFORMES. _P. thin, depressed then cup-shaped. Colour
     dingy when moist._

=cyathiformis=, Bull. P. 3-7 cm. deeply depr. edge incurved, sooty-brown
then pale; g. dingy; s. 5-9 cm. stuffed, elastic, narrowed upwards,
reticulately fibrillose, sooty; sp. ----.

var. _cinerascens_, Fr. Smaller. P. pale grey-brown; g. tinged yellow.

=expallens=, Pers. P. 3-5 cm. plane then deeply depr. greyish brown then
pale, margin soon expanded; g. greyish white; s. 4-5 cm. greyish white,
hollow, equal; sp. ----.

=obbata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. plane, umbil. then deeply depr. sooty brown,
edge at length striate; g. decur. distant, greyish, pruinose with white;
s. 4-5 cm. glabrous, greyish brown, hollow; sp. ----.

[=fritilliformis=, Lasch. Convex-umbil. then infundib. glabrous, grey
then pallid, becoming fuscescent when dry, edge sublobed; g. thickish,
pallid; s. subtomentose, thickened upwards.

[=calatha=, Fr. P. exp. infundib. hygr. edge soon spreading, even,
sooty; g. deeply decur. violet then reddish; s. solid, tough, striately
rugose, narrowed below, violet then reddish.

=pruinosa=, Lasch. P. 4-5 cm. umbil. then deeply depr. brown, powdered
with grey bloom; g. decur. crowded, narrow, dingy; s. 3-5 cm.
fibrillose, pallid; sp. ----.

=concava=, Scop. P. 3-5 cm. broadly and deeply umbil. flaccid, wavy,
dark grey; g. decur. narrow, smoky; s. 2-3 cm. equal, glabrous, grey;
sp. ----.

[=vibecina=, Fr. P. exp. then infundib. greyish livid then pale, margin
soon extended, striate; g. deeply decur. greyish white; s. hollow,
glabrous, rather wavy.

[=Queletii=, Fr. P. convex, umbil. whitish with brown squamules when
dry; g. deeply decur. whitish; s. flocculose, whitish.

=suaveolens=, Fr. Fragrant. P. 2-3 cm. convex then concave, discoid,
buff, hygr. margin striate; gills crowded, pallid; s. 4-5 cm. thinner
upwards, tinged brown; sp. 8 × 5.

Among grass. Differs from _C. fragrans_ in concave pileus with striate

=brumalis=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. umbil. then deeply depr. flaccid,
glabrous, wavy, livid, pale when dry; g. pallid; s. 4-5 cm. glabrous,
whitish, often curved; sp. 4-5 × 3-4.

     ***** ORBIFORMES. _Pileus rather fleshy, convex then flattened or
     depressed, polished; g. adnate; dingy, becoming pale._

     + _Gills grey or olive._

=orbiformis=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. convexo-plane, even, smoky grey; g. greyish
white; s. 5-7 cm. naked, narrowed upwards, grey; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. cyathiforme_ in plane p.

[=applanata=, Secr. P. exp. disc depr. flaccid, lurid then hoary; g.
greyish white; s. fuscous with white down, pallid and silky fibrillose

[=insignis=, Gill. P. conical, convex, then exp. edge more or less wavy
and upturned, much depr. round strong umbo, even, glabrous, red, umb.
rusty; g. closely crowded, clear white; s. cylindrical, solid, colour of

[=papillata=, Gillet. P. convex then exp. with a little persistent brown
umbo, glabrous, hygr. slightly striate, clear reddish; g. pallid; s.
subequal, wavy, white-pruinose, apex colour of p.

[=radicellata=, Godey. P. convex, umbil. purplish brown, grey-pruinose;
g. crowded, soon yellowish grey; s. equal, curved, colour of g. with a
white bloom, base white with a number of branched strands.

[=ochracea=, Gill. P. irreg. umb. uniformly ochre, silky or pruinose; g.
distant; s. excentric, colour deeper than p.

[=macrophylla=, Karst. P. thin, convex, orbicular, livid-white then
paler and shining; g. adnate, very broad, triangular, white; s. wavy,
whitish, glabrous, base thickened; sp. ----.

[=lepiphylla=, Gill. P. convex then depr. uniformly pale grey then
pallid; g. decur. tinged grey; s. elastic, wavy, grey, with a white
bloom, with longitudinal whitish striae.

=metachroa=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane then depr. brownish grey, then
livid, at last pallid; g. pale grey; s. 2-3 cm. grey, apex mealy; sp.

=zygophylla=, Cke. and Mass. P. 4-7 cm. thin, wavy, slightly depr.
greyish ochre then pallid, edge plicate; g. deeply decur. grey, veined;
s. 4-5 cm. smooth, pallid; sp. 8 × 4.

=pausiaca=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, umber with olive tinge, often
silky; g. adnate, olive; s. 4-6 cm. striate, coloured like p., apex
powdery; sp. ----.

=ditopa=, Fr. Smell strong, mealy. P. 2-3 cm. plane then depr. brownish
grey then pale, often wavy; g. adnate, dusky grey; s. 2.3 cm. hollow;
sp. ----.

Differs from _C. metachroa_ in mealy smell.

[=nubila=, Fr. P. exp. umb. livid then tan, glabrous; g. subdecur.
rather distant, brownish tan; s. slender, apex pruinose.

[=obola=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, obtuse, glabrous, hygr. livid then
whitish; g. adnate, livid; s. equal, thin, striate, naked, livid.

     ++ _Gills whitish._

=diatreta=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. plane then depr. edge involute, pubescent,
often wavy, flesh colour then pallid tan; g. with an acute decur. tooth,
crowded, narrow; s. 3-5 cm. pallid, straight, terete; sp. ----.

=fragrans=, Sow. Smell strong, spicy, 2-3 cm. depr. pallid; g. subdecur.
rather crowded; s. 4-5 cm. elastic, glabrous; sp. ----.

_C. suaveolens_ differs in cup-shaped p. and brownish stem.

=angustissima=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. plano-depr. edge spreading, pallid,
shining white when dry; g. subdecur. narrow, closely crowded; s. 4-5 cm.
white, naked, flexuous; sp. 5 × 3.

[=isabellina=, Q. P. yellowish white, umb. hygr.; g. thick, often
branched, whitish; s. fistulose, wavy, white, base narrowed.

=obsoletus=, Batsch. Smell spicy, but weak. P. 2-3 cm. plano-depr. even,
pale pinky tan, pale when dry; g. obtusely adnate, broad; s. 2-3 cm.
elastic, soon hollow, whitish; sp. ----.

[=mortuosa=, Fr. P. plano-depr. umber or brown then pale, even; g.
adnate, closely crowded, narrow, whitish; s. short, glabrous, compr.

[=gyrans=, Fr. P. convex-umb. even, glabrous, hygr. edge broadly
incurved, whitish; g. crowded, white; s. hollow, glabrous.

     ****** VERSIFORMES. _Pileus thin, convex then deformed, squamulose
     or furfuraceous; g. adnate, broad; usually distant and powdered
     with the white spores._

=ectypa=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. then depr. revolute, dingy yellow or
rufescent, slightly streaked with dark fibrils, edge slightly striate;
g. adnate, pallid then spotted with red and powdered with the spores; s.
5-10 cm. dingy yellowish, fibrillose; sp. 9 × 6.

[=difformis=, Pers. P. convex, plane, subumbil. glabrous, hygr. striate
when moist, even when dry, at length subsquamulose, livid then whitish;
g. adnate, distant; s. hollow, glabrous, shining.

var. _stygia_, Fr. P. campan. umbil.; g. adnexed, ventricose; s. long,

[=incompta=, Fr. P. plane then depr. blackish olive, virgate with
adglutinated blackish fibrils, viscid; g. pale grey; s. fibrillosely
striate, grey.

[=xanthophylla=, Bres. P. convex-umbil. dry greyish-hoary, virgate
especially at centre with brownish fibrils; g. decur. clear yellow; s.
greyish-white, fibrillose.

[=nigropunctata=, Secr. P. exp. umb. whitish, mealy, disc dotted with
black; g. crowded, pallid then yellowish; s. hollow, striate with black.

[=pachyphylla=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, dingy yellow or rufescent,
floccosely squamulose; g. thick, distant, yellow; s. tough, yellow.

var. _absinthiata_. P. scurfy-squamulose, brown-ochre; g. very broad,
grey then pallid.

=bella=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. exp. depr. or umbil. orange yellow with darker
squamules; g. yellow, connected by veins, mealy; s. 4-5 cm. yellowish;
sp. 6-7, subgl. warted.

=laccata=, Scop. (= _Laccaria_, B. and Br.). P. exp. subumbil. irreg.
mealy subsquamulose, violet or brown, whitish when dry, 2-4 cm.; g.
thick, distant, coloured like p., mealy; s. 4-7 cm. fibrous, colour of
p.; sp. globose, warted, 8-9.

=proxima=, Boud. P. 2-3 cm. convex then plane, glabrous,
yellowish-brown; g. adnato-decurrent, pinkish; s. 6-7 cm. even, smooth,
paler than pileus; sp. 7 × 3.5.

Resembling the brown form of _C. laccata_, differing in the elliptical,
warted spores and glabrous pileus.

[=sandicina=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, umbil. deformed, even, hygr. at
length greyish-mealy; g. adnate, crowded, purplish, almost naked; s.
hollow, unequal, glabrous, purplish.

[=grumata=, Scop. P. campan.-convex, glabrous, cracked into squamules,
disc depr. yellow; g. broadly adnate, distant, white; s. equal, pallid.

=sadleri=, Berk. This is only an abnormal condition of _Hypholoma


     I. COLLYBIARII. _Pileus expanded from the first, edge incurved._

     * _Usually large, gills narrow, closely crowded._

=hydrogramma=, Fr. Livid white, white when dry. P. 4-7 cm. flaccid,
thin, umbil. hygr. edge spreading, striate; g. closely crowded; s. 6-8
cm. base rooting; sp. ----.

Differs from _Clito. phyllophila_ in polished stem.

[=chrysoleuca=, Fr. P. very thin, umbil. shining, white, edge reflexed,
substriate; g. yellowish; s. smooth, base thickened; sp. 8-10 × 4.

[=ventosa=, Fr. P. infundib. glabrous, flaccid, flesh-colour, hygr.; g.
white then flesh-colour; s. colour of p.

[=dumosa=, Fr. P. very thin, plane, subumbil. rigid, deep brick-red; g.
pallid; s. glabrous, colour of p.

=detrusa=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. rather fleshy, umbil. dark grey; g. with a
decur. tooth, whitish; s. 2-3 cm. glabrous, dark grey; sp. ----.

[=umbilicata=, Fr. P. umbil. then infundib. edge reflexed, even, hygr.
tinged brown, then pale but disc darker; g. whitish; s. terete, apex
striate with white fibrils; sp. 6-8 × 4.

=maura=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. thin, deeply umbil. hygr. striate, sooty brown,
pale and silky when dry; g. shining white; s. 3-5 cm. rigid, straight,
blackish; sp. 5-6 × 3-4.

Differs from _Col. atrata_ in decur. narrow gills.

[=lituua=, Fr. P. thin, plane, deeply umbil. hygr. even, bay then tan;
g. grey; s. slightly wavy, grey.

=offuciata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. plano-depr. flesh-colour then pale; g.
colour of p.; s. 4-5 cm. glabrous, reddish; sp. ----.

[=scyphoides=, Fr. Shining white. P. infundib. silky, unequal; g.
narrow; s. subvillose, short; sp. 6 × 2.

[=albula=, Q. P. umbil. thin, wavy, glabrous; s. solid, slender,
incurved; g. adnato-decur. unequal, yellowish; sp. 10-12 long.

[=Giovanellae=, Bres. P. thin, convex and umbil. then exp. and umbil.,
edge striate, silky-flocculose, grey then hoary brown; g. decur.
crowded, colour of p.; s. glabrous, colour of p.; sp. 8 × 3.

Differs from _Omp. scyphoides_ in hoary-grey colour of every part.

     ** _Medium size; gills rather distant, narrow, narrowed at both

=chrysophylla=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. thin, umbil. flaccid, floccose, brownish
yellow then paler, edge reflexed; g. deep golden yellow; s. 3-5 cm.
yellow; sp. 8 × 4.

Differs from _O. Postii_ in the floccose pileus.

=Postii=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. thin, umbil. glabrous, orange; g. whitish; s.
4-6 cm. glabrous, yellow; sp. ----.

var. _aurea_, Mass. P. very regular; g. slightly decur.; sp. 7 × 3.5.

=vesuviana=, Brig. P. infundib. orange, edge at length wavy; g.
thickish, narrow; s. fibrillose, colour of p.

=pyxidata=, Bull. P. 1.5-2 cm. thin, infundib. rufous-red, radiately
striate, pale when dry, hygr.; g. flesh-colour then yellowish; s. 1.5-2
cm. tough, pale tawny; sp. 7-8 × 5-6.

=leucophylla=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. thin, quite infundib. dark grey, even; g.
shining white; s. 3-5 cm. grey; sp. 10 long.

=Luffii=, Mass. Fragrant. P. 2-3 cm. convex then depr. glabrous, pallid
then white; g. crowded, decur. pallid; s. 2-3 cm. solid, pallid,
polished, often wavy; sp. 5 × 3.

Ground among grass &c. Differs from _Clito. fragrans_ in short, polished

=costatula=, Bres. P. infundib. then revolute, brown, glabrous, edge
striate wavy; g. decur. straw-colour, joined by veins; s. glabrous,
tinged straw-colour, base brownish; sp. 6 × 4.

=striaepileus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. plane, umbil. glabrous, entirely
striate, livid brown, hygr.; g. white; s. 4-5 cm. tough, tinged brown;
sp. rough, 6-7.

=Nevillae=, B. P. 1-1.5 cm. depr. rugose, disc granulated, striate,
brown then pale; g. white, veined; s. 2-3 cm. brownish, rough, base
downy; sp. ----.

_O. affricata_ differs in scaly p.

=sphagnicola=, B. P. 2-3 cm. thin, soon deeply umbil. squamulose, dingy
ochraceous; g. dingy ochre; s. 3-4 cm. slightly flexuous, colour of p.;
sp. 6 × 3.

=telmatiaea=, B. P. 3-7 cm. thin, pliant, soon infund. edge arched and
drooping, umber, hygr. pale and silky when dry; g. pallid; s. 2-4 cm.
grey, base cottony, white; sp. 7 × 4.

[=affricata=, Fr. P. umbil. then infundib. not striate, edge bent down,
everywhere with blackish squamules; g. grey; s. glabrous, greyish.

[=epichysia=, Pers. Soft. P. thin, exp. umbil. sooty grey, pallid when
dry, silky or floccosely scaly; g. plano-decur. whitish then grey; s.
grey; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

=philonitis=, Lasch. P. 1-2 cm. deeply umbil. edge erect, hygr. floccose
when dry, grey; g. deeply decur. greyish; s. 3-5 cm. glabrous, grey; sp.
5-7 × 3.5.

Differs from _O. oniscus_ and _O. epichysium_ in erect margin of p.

[=campestris=, Rom. P. campan. umbil. then exp. sooty-fuscous, sulcate
when dry; g. greyish-white, decur.; s. equal, glabrous, colour of p.
Appearing late in the season; glabrous; sp. 9-13 × 6-8.

=oniscus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. thin, infundib. wavy, flaccid, glabrous,
even, grey; g. grey; s. 2-3 cm. wavy, grey; sp. 6 × 5.

[=oniscoides=, Karst. P. convex-umbil. sometimes reflexed and concave,
glabrous, everywhere pellucidly striate, sooty or livid fuscous, pallid
grey when dry; g. adnate, then subdecur. white or greyish, edge
denticulate, s. tinged fuscous, base darkest; sp. 5-6 × 4.

=caespitosa=, Bolt. P. 1-2 cm. thin, hemisph. umbil. sulcate, whitish
ochre; g. whitish; s. 1-2 cm. coloured like p., base thickened; sp. 6 ×

[=arenicola=, Fr. P. thin, cup-shaped, wavy, with wart-like spots,
umber; g. paler than p.; s. short, umber.

=glaucophylla=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. infundib. plicato-striate, hygr.
mouse-colour then paler; g. olive; s. stuffed, firm; sp. ----.

=rustica=, Fr. P. 5-8 mm. thin, slightly convex, umbil. striate, hygr.
greyish brown then paler and silky; g. grey, edge arcuate; s. 2-2.5 cm.,
colour of p.; sp. ----.

Differs from _O. umbellifera_ by gills being narrowed behind.

[=scyphiformis=, Fr. White. P. infundib. glabrous; g. decur. thin; s.
thin, short, glabrous.

Differs from _O. scyphoides_ in glabrous stem.

     *** _Gills truly distant, broad, usually thick._

[=tricolor=, A. and S. P. ochraceous white, thin, umbil.; g. orange, at
first with rosy pruinose; s. yellowish.

[=cortiseda=, Karst. P. convex then plane, radiato-striate, glabrous,
pallid; g. adnato-decur. very distant, thickish, few, pallid; s. equal,
hyaline, pallid; sp. 10-11 × 4-6.

[=sciopoda=, Q. P. convex then umbil. rather crisped, pale straw-colour,
pruinose; g. adnate, thick, sometimes branched, straw-colour then tinged
rose; s. slender, wavy, velvety-pruinose, white above, grey below.

=demissa=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. thin, plane then umbil. striate, shining
rufous then pale; g. purplish; s. 1 cm., colour of p.; sp. 7 × 5. (10-12
× 6-8 Sacc.)

[=grisella=, Karst. P. convex, disc depr. silky, sulcate, pale
fuscescent, whitish when dry; g. adnate, distant, plane, whitish; s.
equal, glabrous, apex pruinose, pale, becoming more or less smoky; sp.
6-10 × 2-4.

=hepatica=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. tough, rigid, infundib. glabrous,
brownish flesh-colour then pale; g. narrow, whitish, connected by veins;
s. 2 cm. very tough, colour of p.; sp. 5-8 × 2-4.

Differs from _O. pyxidata_ in toughness, even edge of p. and pallid

=muralis=, Sow. P. 1-2 cm. becoming infundib. radiato-striate, rufous
brown; g. pallid; s. 1-1.5 cm. glabrous, coloured like p.; sp. rough, 10
× 5.

[=cuneifolia=, Karst. Very fragile. P. convex then plane, obtuse, dry,
glabrous, pellucidly striate when moist, sooty, tan when dry; g. adnate,
distant, thickish; broad, ventricose or broadest in front, obliquely
truncate, greyish; s. apex scurfy, solid; sp. 10-12 × 9-10.

[=lilacina=, Laest. P. plane, violet then pale; g. deeply decur.
connected by veins, yellow; s. persistently violet.

=umbellifera=, L. P. 1-2 cm. convexo-plane, radiately striate, even and
rather silky when dry, grey, yellow, brownish, pallid, &c.; g. very
distant and broad behind, colour of p.; s. 1 cm. colour of p.; sp. 3 ×

var. _myochroa_, Fr. P. brownish umber; s. strigosely rooting.

var. _abiegena_, B. and Br. Pale yellow.

var. _viridis_, Fl. Dan. Every part pale green.

[=Kalchbrenneri=, Bres. P. tough, convex, umbil. subexp. glabrous, hygr.
subochre; g. deeply decur. whitish; s. colour of p., base often
brownish; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

[=velutina=, Q. Downy, greyish. P. umbil. striate; g. arcuate; s.
filiform, base white floccose; sp. 8 long.

=infumata=, B. and Br. P. 3-4 mm. obtuse, greenish then smoky; g. few,
broad, yellow; s. 2 cm. thin, yellow, tomentose below.

[=griseolilacina=, Steinh. Entirely greyish lilac, grey when dry; p.
umb. then exp. edge incurved, even, glabrous; g. adnate then decur.; s.
cylindrical, equal; sp. 6-9 × 4-5.

=buccinalis=, Sow. White. P. up to 1 cm. trumpet-shaped, plane or depr.;
g. deeply decur. triangular; s. expanding into p.; sp. ----.

[=hirsuta=, Q. (= _O. caricicola_, Lasch). Hyaline-white, soon flaccid.
P. umbil. convex, very thin; gills or folds obliterated; s. capillary,
short, pilose, base bulbillose; sp. rough, 9 long.

=retosta=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. plano-depr. umber, polished and pale when dry;
g. distant, broad, narrowed at both ends, paler than p.; s. 2 cm.
glabrous, paler than p.; sp. ----.

Differs from _O. umbellifera_ in having gills narrowed behind.

=abhorrens=, B. and Br. Foetid. P. 1-1.5 cm. umbil. brown then pale; g.
narrow, pale; s. 2 cm. slender, apex thickened, colour of p.; sp. ----.

=pseudoandrosacea=, Bull. P. convex, umbil. then infundib. plicate, edge
crenulate, whitish or grey; g. deeply decur. segmentoid; s. slender; sp.
5-7 × 3-4.

=griseo-pallida=, Desm. P. plane, umbil. even, glabrous, brownish grey
then pale; g. broadest behind, grey; s. stuffed, fuscous, 1 cm.; sp.

Differs from _O. umbellifera_ and _O. rustica_ by p. not being striate
when moist.

=albidopallens=, Karst. P. convex, orbicular, scarcely umbil. pellucidly
striate, naked, hyaline white or pallid; g. adnate, decur. crowded,
pallid; s. equal, naked, pallid; sp. 4-5 × 3.

[=schizoxylon=, Fr. P. thin, almost plane, umbil. glabrous, grey; g.
narrow, paler than p.; s. rufous brown.

[=bibula=, Q. P. umbil. when moist, silky, olive-yellow then grey; g.
arcuate, broad, citrin; s. tinged citrin.

Near to if not identical with _Hygr. Wynniae_.

=stellata=, Fr. White. P. convex, umbil. diaphanous, striate; g. very
distant, thin, broad; s. equal, base radiately floccose; sp. 4 × 6.

     II. MYCENARII. _P. at first campanulate, margin straight, adpressed
     to stem._

     * _Gills broad, perfect, unequal._

=campanella=, Batsch. P. 1 cm. convex, umbil. striate, hygr. rusty
yellow; g. connected by veins, arcuate, yellow; s. 2-3 cm. horny, bay,
base narrowed, tawny-strigose; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

var. _badipus_, Cke. Base of s. slightly bulbous.

var. _papillata_, Fr. P. acutely conical.

var. _myriadea_, Kalchbr. Small, caespitose.

[=incomis=, Karst. P. convex, umbil. glabrous or broken up into
squamules, pale fuscous; g. adnato-decur. broad, white; s. tough,
thinner below, colour of p.; sp. ----.

[=psilocyboides=, Karst. P. convex, umbil. glabrous, tawny yellow; g.
very broad, yellowish-white; s. 8-12 cm. equal, bay, white-fibrillose,
apex paler and pruinose; sp. ----.

[=brunneola=, Q. Chestnut umber. P. umbil. squamulose; g. arcuate,
white; s. floccosely punctate, base with spreading fawn-coloured down;
sp. 10.

[=atripes=, Rab. P. thin, plano-depr. infundib. brown, pale and silky
shining when dry; g. very broad behind, brownish, albo-pruinose; s.
black, base bluish-pruinose.

[=Laestadii=, Fr. P. hemispherical, umbil. even, tawny-bay, shining; g.
distinct, yellow; s. rigid rufous bay.

=picta=, Fr. P. 1 cm. campan. cucullate, umbil. glabrous, striate,
fuscous; g. very broad, pallid; s. horny, bay, membranous spreading base
tawny; sp. 7-10 × 4.

=camptophylla=, B. P. 1 cm. convex then exp. deeply striate, disc brown,
rest pale grey; g. ascending then abruptly decur. white; s. 3-4 cm. very
slender, whitish, base radiately strigose; sp. 8-10 × 6-8.

[=cyanophylla=, Fr. P. thin, camp. umbil. striate, livid or bluish
becoming yellowish; g. clear blue; s. glabrous; sp. 5-7 × 3-4.

[=Cornui=, Q. P. umbil. tawny; g. yellow with violet tinge; s. horny,
bay, base inflated, downy, yellow.

[=reclina=, Fr. P. thin, rigid camp. then entirely infundib. livid; g.
thick, white or grey; s. tough; sp. 6 × 4-5.

[=deflexa=, Karst. P. campan.-convex, mostly umbil. everywhere striate,
fuscescent or pale livid, pale when dry; g. decur. arcuate, white; s.
solid, tough, pallid, glabrous; sp. 6-7 × 4-6.

=umbratila=, Fr. P. 2 cm. thin, campan. then convex, umbil. umber brown,
hygr.; g. broad, brownish; s. 3-4 cm. stuffed, brownish; sp. 7 × 5.

Readily mistaken with _Coll. atrata_ and _C. ambusta_, differs in
subdecur. gills.

[=invita=, Karst. P. convex, umbil. glabrous, striate when moist, sooty
or livid sooty, pale when dry; g. adnate, very broad, white; s. colour
of p.; sp. glob. 5-6.

=grisea=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. camp. glabrous, everywhere striate, livid
grey then hoary; g. distant, greyish; s. greyish-white, apex thickened,
5-7 cm.; sp. 7-8 × 4.

[=setipes=, Fr. P. convex, subpapillate, everywhere striate,
brownish-grey; g. greyish white, connected by veins; s. filiform, base
pubescent; sp. 6-7 × 2-3.

=fibula=, Bull. P. up to 1 cm. cucullate then exp. umbil. striate,
orange yellow then pale; g. deeply decur. pale; s. 3-4 cm. very slender,
weak, pale orange; sp. 4-5 × 2.

var. _Swartzii_, Fr. Apex of stem violet.

[=chlorocyanea=, Pat. Small, entirely bluish green outside and inside.
P. convex; g. distant, decur. unequal; s. solid, slender.

=directa=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 mm. nail-shaped flat at apex, white; g.
decur. white; s. rather wavy, 2 cm. whitish, tinged rufous, with long
hairs at base.

=belliae=, Johnst. P. 1 cm. thin, dry, top-shaped, infundib. pallid; g.
decur. thick, veined; s. 2-3 cm. brownish, adhering by a cottony base.

[=pectinata=, Rom. Entirely white, glabrous, hygr. P. thin, convex,
umbil. edge wavy or lobed, sulcate to middle; g. decur. distant; s.
subequal, almost glabrous; sp. 6-7 × 3.

=gracillima=, Weinm. Snow-white. P. 4-5 mm. downy, sulcate; g. decur.
distant, thin; s. 1.5 cm. filiform, base cottony; sp. 6-7 × 3.

[=gracilis=, Q. Snow-white. P. apiculate, striato-sulcate, glabrous; g.
arcuate, distant; s. filiform, pellucid, pruinose, base downy, rooting;
sp. 8 × 2.

[=candida=, Bres. Shining white. P. thin, convex, exp. often papillate,
glabrous, pellucidly striate; g. deeply decur. connected by veins at
base; s. splitting into fibres, glabrous, base rooting, strigose; sp.
9-11 × 4.5-5.

=bullula=, Brig. White. P. 3-4 mm. even, hemisph. diaphanous; g. arched,
decur.; s. 2 cm. filiform.

     ** _Gills fold-like, narrow._

=integrella=, Pers. White. P. 3-7 mm. hemisph. then exp.
pellucid-striate; g. equal, fold-like, distant, rather branched; s. very
slender, pubescent; sp. 6-7 × 4.

[=microscopica=, Wirt. Minute, diaphanous. P. 3-4 mm. infundib. 4-6,
sulcate; g. very narrow, arcuate; s. capillary.

=polyadelphus=, Lasch. Pure white. P. 2-3 mm. coarsely striate and
minutely flocculose; g. decurrent; s. 1-2 cm. very slender, base downy;
sp. 5 × 2.5.

[=cuspidata=, Q. Hyaline white. P. very acuminate, striate, flocculose;
g. decur. branched; s. filiform, pulverulent, the slight bulb hairy; sp.
8 long.

[=crispula=, Q. White, diaphanous. P. crisped, pruinose; g. wrinkled,
very thin; s. short, filiform, pruinose; sp. 8 long.

[=gibba=, Pat. (= _Cyphella infundibuliformis_, Fr.). White, minute. P.
trumpet-shaped, gibbous then deeply infundib. downy; g. mere traces of
folds; s. slender, downy.


     A. EXCENTRICI. _Pileus entire, extended laterally, excentric but
     not truly lateral._

     * _Veil forming a ring on the stem._

=corticatus=, Fr. P. 8-18 cm. convex then exp. covered with dense
greyish down then floccosely squamulose; g. decur. white, anastomosing
behind; tinged yellow when old; s. 3-7 cm. subexc. rooting, ring torn;
s. 9-14 × 4-6.

[=Albertinii=, Fr. P. convex, dimidiate, sooty, with black squamules; g.
decur. distinct, white; s. with black squamules up to sooty ring.

=dryinus=, Pers. P. 5-9 cm. oblique or subcircular, hard, whitish with
brownish spot-like squamules, flesh white then yellowish; g. decur. not
anastomosing behind, white tinged yellow; s. 2-3 cm. sublateral, ring
fugacious, torn; sp. 10 × 4.

Differs from _P. corticatus_ in gills not anastomosing behind.

=spongiosus=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. spongy, pulvinate, greyish tomentose; g.
sinuato-adnexed, white, simple; s. 1-3 cm. tomentose, white, ring white,
soon torn; sp. 8-10 × 4.

[=calyptratus=, Lindbl. P. soft, lateral-dimidiate, horizontal,
reniform, glabrous, viscid, sooty or livid; g. adnate to a nodule,
crowded, white then yellowish; s. a downy nodule, viscid membranous ring

     ** _Gills sinuate or obtusely adnate._

=ulmarius=, Bull. P. 8-15 cm. convex then plane, glabrous, livid then
pale, spotted; g. adnexed, broad, whitish; s. 1-3 cm. base thickened,
tomentose; sp. 5-6, glob.

=tessulatus=, Bull. P. 7-10 cm. convex then plane or depr. behind,
glabrous, tawny then paler and spotted; g. uncinato-adnate, white then
yellowish; s. 1-3 cm. glabrous; sp. ----.

[=pardalis=, Schulz. Caespitose. P. fleshy, convex, subcentral,
glabrous, chestnut then spotted; g. free, crowded, pallid; s. stout,
solid, connate at base, white.

[=decorus=, Fr. Yellow. P. thin, convex then exp. obtuse, rough with
adnate blackish scales; g. obtusely adnate, crowded; s. stuffed then
hollow, fibrillose; sp. glob. 6.

[=ornatus=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, umb. with rusty floccose squamules
that disappear; g. adnate, very broad, yellow; s. spongy, yellow; sp. 6

[=properatus=, C. Mart. P. membranous, form various, always umbil.
central or excentric, yellowish white with concentric brown scales; g.
adnato-decur. tinged yellow, edge eroded; s. cylindric with concentric
brown scales, ring membranaceous, fugacious.

=subpalmatus=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. Caespitose. Convex then depr. rugulose,
rufescent, cuticle gelatinous; g. adnate, connected behind, dingy; s.
3-4 cm. incurved; sp. ----.

Remarkable for the variegated flesh.

[=coripellis=, Fr. P. rigid, glabrous, moist, somewhat bay, thick
pellicle separable, disc compact, umb.; g. arcuato-adnate, plane,
crowded, white; s. excentric, vertical, rigid, fibrillosely striate,

P. almost black but fawn or yellow-brown when dry. Flesh tinged fuscous.

=craspedius=, Fr. Caespitose. P. 8-14 cm. thin, crenate or lobed,
brick-red or paler, glabrous; g. adnate, narrow, crowded, white; s. 4-7
cm. solid, elastic, glabrous, pallid; sp. 5.

=fimbriatus=, Bolt. P. 4-7 cm. thin, plane then depr. margin sinuate or
lobed, hygr. hyaline, whitish; g. adnate, closely crowded, white; s. 2-3
cm. firm, compr. downy; sp. ----.

=lignatilis=, Fr. Whitish. P. tough, convex then plane, umbil. irreg.
floccosely pruinose then glabrous; g. adnate, crowded, narrow, shining
white; s. irreg. rather downy; sp. 4 × 3.

var. _tephrocephalus_, Fr. P. more compact, disc black then grey, edge

=Ruthae=, B. and Br. P. 3-7 cm. more or less fan-shaped, whitish or
yellowish-buff, cuticle gelatinous, rather hispid; g. anastomosing
behind, white then reddish, veined; s. 1-3 cm. reddish, hispid; sp.

Differs from _P. pantoleucus_ in g. anastomosing behind, and not

=circinatus=, Fr. White. P. 5-7 cm. plane, orbicular, silky-pruinose; g.
adnato-decur. crowded; s. 2-5 cm. equal, glabrous, rooting; sp. ----.

[=olearius=, D. C. Caespitose. P. subexcentric plane or umbil. dry,
reddish tawny or deep brown; g. decur. narrow, yellow; s. solid, firm,
reddish-brown; sp. 5 × 4.

Gills phosphorescent.

var. _carpini_ (= _P. carpini_, Fr.). P. convexo-exp. angular,
rivulosely scaly when dry; s. slender, short, excentric or lateral; g.
adnexed, thin, rusty.

[=juglandinus=, Kalchbr. P. plano-convex, even, glabrous, dingy
golden-yellow, rather lobed; g. decur. distant, ends narrowed; s.
excentric, solid, brown-pilose; sp. 5.5 × 2.5.

     *** _Gills decurrent; stem almost vertical._

[=aquifolii=, Fr. P. rather wavy, soft, convex then plane, dusky tan; g.
thick, dusky, joined in a ring behind; s. stout, equal, white. Edible.

[=eryngii=, D. C. P. fleshy, tough, exp. depr. irreg. rufous-grey,
scabrid-virgate; g. broad, tinged pink; s. naked, whitish, solid; sp.
7-9 × 3.5.

[=nebrodensis=, Inzeng. P. compact, convex then depr. even, glabrous,
grey; g. decur. whitish; s. solid, excentric or lateral, short,
ascending, whitish.

[=nauseosodulcis=, Karst. P. soft, irreg. unequal, exp. even, glabrous,
entirely tan; g. decur. crowded, pallid; s. excentric, rarely central,
solid, tomentose, whitish; sp. 7-8 × 5.

=sapidus=, Kalchbr. Caespitose. P. fleshy, deformed, centre depr.
glabrous, pallid; g. decur. whitish; several stems springing from a
common base; sp. 11-12 × 4.

More or less trumpet-shaped. Edible.

[=cornucopoides=, Pers. P. very variable in form, convex, depr.
glabrous, white then livid yellow; g. decur. white; s. subexcentric to
lateral, expanding into p.

[=lingulatus=, Paulet. P. dimidiate or entire, umbil. convex, deformed,
even, pale ochre, edge incurved; g. subdecur. closely crowded, paler
than p.; s. solid, long, subcompr. white; sp. 10-12 long.

[=melanopus=, Fr. P. excentric or dimidiate, deformed, somewhat lobed,
glabrous pale rufous; g. decur. crowded, narrow, whitish red; s. solid,
glabrous, ascending, black.

[=spodoleucus=, Fr. P. plane, orbicular, even, glabrous, greyish; g.
crowded, white, separate behind; s. solid, glabrous, paler than p.; sp.
5-6 × 2-3.

=pantoleucus=, Fr. White. P. 4-7 cm. even, glabrous, spathulate, depr.
behind, marginate; g. crowded, distinct at base; s. 1-2 cm. ascending,
glabrous, not rooting; sp. 11-12 × 4.

Differs from _P. spodoleucus_ in pileus being white and depressed

[=pometi=, Fr. White. P. fleshy, rather flaccid, convex, even, disc
depr.; g. decur. crowded, not joined behind; s. elastic with a downy
rooting base; sp. 6-9 × 3-4.

[=Battarrae=, Q. White. P. cyathiform, spotted with blackish brown
squamules; g. milk-white; s. slender, attenuated; sp. 12 long.

[=lignicola=, Sacc. White. P. tough, irreg. exp. subumbil. floccosely
pruinose; g. adnato-decur. crowded, shining white; s. long, incurved,
flocculose at first; sp. 14 × 4.

=mutilus=, Fr. White. P. 2-2.5 cm. fleshy, irreg. silky when dry; g.
narrow, simple; s. 1-2 cm. long, terete, base downy; sp. ----.

Resembles _Omph. scyphoides_. Differs in nearly glabrous, irreg. p. not
becoming infundib.

[=macropus=, Bagl. Large, caespitose. P. excentric, exp. glabrous,
sooty-grey; g. decur. white; s. joined at base, firm, long, thickly

[=luteo-caesius=, Bagl. P. subexcentric, exp. fibrillosely rivulose,
tawny brown, edge wavy, incurved; g. subdecur. narrow, greyish yellow;
s. solid, fibrillose, long rooting.

[=lutincola=, Lasch. Caespitose, fuscous; p. glabrous; g. adnate with a
tooth running down stem to torn ring; s. often excentric.

[=pulvinatus=, Pers. P. pulvinate, rather wavy, glabrous, whitish, disc
tinged flesh-colour; g. decur. crowded, white; s. very short, solid,

     **** _Veil absent; gills deeply decur.; pileus lateral, sessile or
     produced behind into a short stem-like base._

=ostreatus=, Jacq. Tufted. P. 7-15 cm. fleshy, shell-shaped, ascending,
blackish then grey or pallid; g. rather distant, anastomosing behind,
pallid; s. widening into p. very short, downy or strigose at base; sp.
10-12 × 4-5. Esculent.

var. _euosmus_, B. Smell strong. Gills and spores tinged pink.

var. _columbinus_, Q. P. dark bluish-grey.

var. _nudipes_, Boud. S. quite glabrous.

[=ambiguus=, Oud. Excentric. P. sessile or shortly stalked, shining,
blackish or deep violet, edge incurved; g. deeply decur. anastomosing
behind, lilac; s. firm, elastic, thickened upwards, base strigose.

=revolutus=, Kickx. P. 9-15 cm. fleshy, firm, elastic, shining, depr.
behind, smoky-yellow then grey, edge incurved; g. serrulate, white; s.
2-3 cm. short, thick, whitish; sp. ----.

var. _anglicus_. Edge of p. not or very slightly incurved; g. pallid

[=Staringii=, Oud. Excentric. P. lateral, produced at base into a short
oblique stem, suborbicular or reniform, exp. very glabrous, smoky
fuscous, centre paler; g. white, anastomosing behind.

=salignus=, Pers. P. 4-9 cm. fleshy, spongy, becoming depr. behind and
strigose, horizontal, yellow brown or dusky; g. somewhat branched, edge
eroded, dingy; s. short, firm, tomentose; sp. 8-11 × 3-4.

[=Saccardianus=, Arc. Subexcentric, usually sinuately lobed, even,
glabrous, at length exp. and wavy, tan or grey; g. narrow, thin,
crowded; s. striate, glabrous, grey or umber; sp. 6-5 × 3-4.

[=roseocinereus=, Allesch. P. thin, campan. edge becoming split and
striate, fibrously silky, rosy-grey; g. very broad, pallid flesh-red; s.
shining white, fibrously striato-sulcate; sp. pale rufous, 5-7.

=acerinus=, Fr. White. P. 3-8 cm. tough, circular, silky-villose; g.
closely crowded, white then yellowish; s. subobsolete, downy; sp. ----.

[=pathenopejus=, Comes. Large, caespitose. P. excentric, generally
dimidiate, conchate, elliptical or rounded, mouse-grey then pale,
viscid, squamulose; g. deeply decur. base anastomosing, white then
tinged yellow; sp. 9-12 × 4-6.

[=Gemmellari=, Inzeng. Large, sessile. P. lateral, convex then exp.
yellowish, striate, upper stratum gelatinous; g. decur. broad,
anastomosing behind, white then sulphur.

     B. DIMIDIATI. _P. definitely lateral, without a free margin behind;
     not resupinate at first._

[=geoginus=, D. C. P. erect, subinfundib. even, glabrous, edge wavy,
reflexed, brownish; g. decur. crowded, white; s. very short, thick,

=petaloides=, Bull. P. 2-5 cm. thin, ascending, spathulate, entire, disc
depr. brownish then pale; g. crowded, narrow, whitish; s. short,
compressed, downy; sp. 9-10 × 4.

_P. porrigens_ differs in being white and stemless.

[=semiinfundibuliformis=, Karst. Erect, simple, semiinfundib. even,
glabrous, rusty tan, edge wavy, reflexed; g. deeply decur. crowded,
whitish then yellowish; s. exactly lateral, pallid; sp. 4-6, subgl.

=pulmonarius=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. obovate or reniform, rather convex,
glabrous, greyish or tan; g. plano-decur. simple, albo-livid; s. round,
very short, downy; sp. ----.

Differs from _P. serotinus_ in very short s., and glabrous p.

var. _juglandis_, Fr. Gregarious; g. greyish brown.

[=pulmonariellus=, Karst. P. convex, reniform, rather strigose, even,
yellowish, intermediate stratum thick, gelatinous; g. plano-decur.
crowded, white then yellowish; s. very short.

[=almeni=, Fr. P. thin, reniform, glabrous, brownish tawny, narrowed
behind into a very short stem; g. determinately decur. divergent, paler
than pileus; sp. 7-9 × 3-4.

=serotinus=, Schrad. P. 3-7 cm. fleshy, compact, viscid, reniform or
obovate, yellowish-green, or sooty-olive; g. crowded, yellow then
pallid; s. 2 cm. with blackish squamules; sp. ----.

=mitis=, Pers. P. 1-2 cm. tough, reniform, dry, rufescent then whitish;
g. crowded, distinct, white; s. 1 cm. compressed, dilated upwards,
whitish-squamulose; sp. 4 × 2.

=gadinoides=, W. G. Sm. White. P. 1-1.5 cm. horizontal, shell-shaped,
hygr. floccose, dry; g. crowded, branched; s. minute or absent; sp. 7 ×

=limpidus=, Fr. White. P. 1-2 cm. obovate or reniform, even, glabrous,
hygr., narrowed behind to point of attachment; g. white, decur. to base;
sp. ----.

Differs from _P. mitis_ in being shining white and subsessile.

[=limpidoides=, Karst. P. obovoid or reniform, often lobed, soft, even,
velvety, dark grey then livid; g. decur. whitish; upper stratum of flesh
gelatinous; sp. 6-9 × 3-4.

[=subrufulus=, Karst. P. soft, subgelatinous, orbicular or reniform,
even, glabrous, rufous- or pinkish-white; g. crowded, white; s. lateral,
strigose, very short.

[=planus=, Fr. Minute, subsessile, violet then flesh-colour.

=reniformis=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. horizontal, reniform, grey, disc depr.
plane; g. spreading from tubercular stem-like base, divergent, grey; sp.

[=Kerneri=, Wettst. P. obovate or reniform, lateral, not immarginate
behind, sessile, entire, edge lobed, convex, grey, base blackish,
minutely pulverulent; g. grey, simple; sp. glob. 3-5.

=tremulus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. reniform, even, glabrous, disc depr. greyish
brown then pale; g. rather distant, grey; s. 1 cm. subterete, ascending,
grey; sp. 6-8 × 5-7.

Differs from _P. reniformis_ in having a stem.

=lauro-cerasi=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. thin, horizontal, circular or
shell-shaped, sulcate, brownish, attached by narrowed base; g. broad at
middle, whitish; sp. 8 × 5.

[=dictyorhizus=, D. C. White. P. very thin, orbicular, sinuate,
subsessile, base reticulately-fibrillose; g. simple, unequal; sp. 6

=acerosus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. very thin, reniform, plane, striate,
sublobed, grey, silky white when dry; g. narrow, crowded, grey; s.
obsolete, base substrigose; sp. glob. 5-6.

[=Severinii=, Com. Shining white. Velvety then almost glabrous,
orbicular, edge entire, incurved; g. decur. simple; s. short, incurved.

     C. RESUPINATI. _Pileus at first resupinate; gills radiating from an
     excentric point; then reflexed, sessile._

     * _Pileus fleshy, uniform in texture._

=porrigens=, Pers. White. P. 4-7 cm. thin, tough, resup. then ascending,
ear- or fan-shaped, glabrous upwards; g. very narrow; sp. 7-8 × 6.

Resembling _P. petaloides_ in habit but white, and no stem-like base.

[=pinsitus=, Fr. P. fleshy, soft, horizontal, silky-villose, wavy, hygr.
dingy then white; g. broad, distinct; sp. rough, 10-11 long.

[=nidulans=, Pers. P. subreniform, tomentose, yellow; g. broad,
tawny-orange; sp. 3-5 × 1.

[=caesiozonatus=, Rab. P. subsessile, tough, plane then depr. behind,
downy, ochre-brown, zoned with bluish grey; g. broad, brownish yellow.

=septicus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. rather fleshy, resup. then reflexed,
pubescent, white; s. thin, 2-3 mm. incurved, disappearing; g. distant;
sp. 8-10 × 6.

_Claudopus variabilis_ differs in tinted gills and spores.

[=roseolus=, Q. P. convex, conchoid, translucent, striate, rather
woolly, rosy-purple; g. rosy, edge darker; s. curved, downy, colour of
p.; sp. 8.

     ** _Pileus fleshy, striate, upper surface gelatinous, or with a
     viscid pellicle._

=mastrucatus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. resup. then exp. and horizontal, often
lobed, brown, with erect bristly squamules; g. broad, greyish white; sp.

[=rivulorum=, Pat. and Doas. P. subgelatinous, pellucid, rusty brown and
covered with white down, horizontal or ascending; g. grey then vinous;
s. lateral, tubercular, downy, white, rosy when touched; sp. 4-6.

[=tremens=, Q. P. reniform or flabellate, diaphanous, rosy-violet,
tremelloid; g. sinuate, pinkish; s. lateral, colour of p.; sp. rough,

=atrocoeruleus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. fleshy, downy, dusky blue; g. broad,
whitish; sp. glob. 2-3.

P. sometimes brownish, and g. sometimes yellowish.

[=myxotrichus=, Lév. P. reniform, at first viscid, becoming spongy,
covered with white down, sessile or with a short stem; g. rather broad,
crowded; sp. 10-12 long.

[=furvellus=, Karst. P. dusky or bluish rosy, yellowish-white then
brownish when old; sp. 6-9 × 4-5.

Allied to _P. unguicularis_ but larger and becoming pale.

=Leightoni=, B. P. 1-1.5 cm. at first obliquely conical then
shell-shaped, umber or lead-colour, scurfy and with short black
bristles; g. distant, tan, forked at base; sp. ----.

=algidus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. horizontal, reniform, pellicle thin, viscid,
reddish-brown or grey; g. crowded, yellowish.

=fluxilis=, Fr. P. reniform, gelatinoso-viscid above, umber; g.
radiating from a lateral point, distant, whitish; sp. 10 long.

[=unguicularis=, Fr. P. resup. covered with a viscid pellicle, grey or
blackish; s. incurved then ascending, very short, white; g. distant,
white; sp. 4-6 × 1.5.

[=Silvanus=, Sacc. P. thin, sessile, cupulate or dimidiate, resupinate
then reflexed, very even, glabrous, greyish black, very minutely
white-scurfy; g. broad, dingy white; sp. strongly curved, 8-9 × 3.5-4.

=cyphellaeformis=, B. P. 5-8 mm. pendulous, cup-shaped, downy or mealy,
upper layer gelatinous, grey; g. narrow, distant, pure white; sp. ----.

Resembling a _Cyphella_ in habit.

[=nivosus=, Q. P. thin, campan. sessile, gelatinous, white and like
parchment when dry, granularly rugose, striate, subpellucid, smoky grey,
when moist with hyaline warts; g. narrow, white; sp. reniform, 12 × 2.

=applicatus=, Batsch. P. 4-8 mm. dusky grey, sessile, thin, rather
firm, cupulate, resupinate then reflexed, slightly striate,
subpruinose, base downy; gills broad, paler; sp. glob. 4-5.

Differs from _P. tremulus_ in absence of distinct s.

[=Mustialensis=, Karst. P. resupinate, subgelatinous within, sessile or
with an exceedingly short lateral stem, black, white-tomentose; g.
distant, narrow, paler; sp. 6-8 × 4.

Differs from _P. applicatus_ in black p. with white down, and dark g.

     *** _Pileus membranaceous, not viscid._

=Hobsoni=, B. P. 4-7 mm. reniform or semicircular, horizontal, pale
grey, downy; g. radiating, pallid; sp. ----.

Differs from _P. applicatus_ in being plane.

=striatulus=, Fr. P. 3-4 mm. very thin, pale grey, slightly cup-shaped,
striate, glabrous; g. few, distant.

[=canus=, Q. P. thin, dimidiate, reniform, edge mostly lobed, whitish,
downy, striate; g. very distant, adnate, white, edge fimbriate; s.
rudimentary; sp. 7-9 × 5.

[=arenarius=, Lasch. Hoary-pallid, subsulcate, slightly tomentose; g.
distant, thick, broad; s. absent or very short, white-floccose.

Allied to _P. striatulus_.

[=perpusillus=, Fr. White. P. very thin, resup. then reflexed, even,
glabrous; g. few, broad.

[=subplicatus=, Karst. P. very thin, resup. orbicular, usually entire,
almost plane, striato-plicate, rather silky, white, fixed by a white
downy base; g. radiating from an excentric point, broad, whitish; sp.
6-7 × 4-5.

var. _cinereus_, Karst. Entirely pale grey or glaucous.

=hypnophilus=, B. P. 3-6 mm. very thin, flat, white, rather reniform,
nearly smooth; g. radiating, distant, simple; sp. 5 × 3.

Resembling _Claudopus variabilis_, but gills and spores white.

=chioneus=, Pers. Snow white. P. 2-3 mm. very thin, subresupinate,
downy; s. short, downy, evanescent; g. rather broad; sp. 10 long.

_P. septicus_ is larger; s. more distinct; p. thicker.

Differs from _P. hypnophilus_ in downy pileus.

[=craterellus=, Dur. and Lév. Cupulate, white, even, downy, edge entire;
sp. 6 long.

[=pudens=, Q. P. downy, hygr. coriaceous, cup-shaped, g. radiating,
thin, wavy, white tinged lilac; s. central, short.


     A. MESOPUS. _Pileus entire. Stem central._

     * _Pileus and stem fleshy and solid._

=cibarius=. Every part opaque yellowish-buff. P. 3-7 cm. wavy then
turbinate, glabrous; g. thick, distant; s. 3-5 cm. narrowed below; sp. 9
× 5-6.

Edible. Smell none when fresh, like apricots when kept for some time.
Sometimes all whitish.

var. _rufipes_, Gillet. Flesh pale ochraceous, s. rufous at base.

[=amethysteus=, Q. P. thick, egg-yellow, edge flocculose violet
flesh-colour; g. reticulate, yellow; s. obconic, colour of p.; sp. 11

=Friesii=, Q. P. 2-3 cm. convex then depr. villose, somewhat orange; g.
fold-like, branched, yellow; s. 2 cm. slender, downy, base white,
narrowed; sp. 6-7 × 2-3.

With gills of _C. cibarius_ and habit of _C. aurantiacus_.

=aurantiacus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. thin, depr. soft, subtomentose, dingy
orange then pale; g. crowded, dichotomous, orange, rather broad; s. 1-2
cm. expanding upwards, orange, base often dark; sp. 10 × 5.

Poisonous. Perhaps should be placed under _Clitocybe_.

[=hypnorum=, Brond. P. campan. tomentose, yellowish or pale ochre; g.
decur. branched, yellow; s. slender, solid, wavy, almost glabrous,

[=rufescens=, Fr. P. plano-depr. almost glabrous, gilvous, thin; g.
crowded, thin; s. elongated, stuffed, narrowed upwards.

[=olidus=, Q. (= _C. rufescens_, Q. not Fr.) P. fleshy, edge downy,
white, convex then cyathiform, flesh white then pinkish; g. decur.
pinkish; s. rosy; sp. 3-4 long.

Taste sweetish. Smell of burnt sugar when dry.

[=brachypodes=, Chev. P. thin, infundib. almost glabrous, fuscous; the
short stuffed stem and straight gills yellowish.

=Brownii=, B. and Br. P. rather fleshy, convex, subumb. pale ochre then
reddish; g. very narrow, simple or forked, whitish; s. 3-5 cm. slender,
tough; sp. 7 × 5.

Gills very narrow, vein-like, hardly decur.

[=subdenticulatus=, Mont. Small, entirely apricot colour. P. rather
scurfy, convex and umb. then subdepr. edge spinously toothed; gills
fold-like, thickish, decur.; s. solid, flocculose above, base narrowed;
sp. globose.

[=parvus=, Otth. P. infundib. fibrously scaly, brownish-grey; g.
fold-like, scarcely prominent, yellowish; s. slender, twisted,
greyish-yellow, sulcate.

=carbonarius=, A. and S. P. 3-6 cm. umbil. bay then blackish,
striato-squamulose; g. straight, narrow, white; s. 2.5 cm. paler than p.
rooting; sp. 14-15 × 7-8.

Fasciculate, 2-3 pilei often appearing to spring from a branched stem.

=umbonatus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. thin, umb. then depr. flocculose,
blackish grey; s. 5-7 cm. equal, paler; g. straight, crowded, white; sp.
10 × 4-5.

Resembling an Agaric in habit.

=albidus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. infundib. wavy, glabrous, pallid,
sometimes indistinctly zoned; g. dichotomous, white; s. 2-3 cm. solid,
subequal, glabrous; sp. ----.

Tough, sometimes tinged brown or yellow.

[=longipes=, Lamb. P. centre prominent, edge thin, upturned, dry, even,
chestnut; g. fold-like, decur. closely crowded, forked, yellowish; s.
long, pale grey.

[=Turrissi=, Inz. Straw-colour. P. fleshy-waxy, hygr. convex then
digitaliform, often umbil.; g. decur. white, thick, fold-like, simple,
rarely branched; s. white, ventricosely fusiform.

     ** _Pileus submembranaceous; stem tubular, polished._

=tubaeformis=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. infundib. wavy, lobed, flocculose,
brownish then pale; g. thick, distant, much branched, smoky yellow, not
pruinose; s. 4-7 cm. hollow, glabrous, lacunose, tawny-orange; sp. 9 ×

var. _lutescens_, Fr. P. convex, umbil. almost regular, nearly glabrous;
g. less divided. Connects present sp. with _C. infundibuliformis_.

var. _lutescens_, Fr. P. convex, umbil. almost even and regular; g. less

Differs in more equal stem narrowed upwards.

Connects _C. tubaeformis_ with _C. infundibuliformis_.

=infundibuliformis=, Fr. P. 2-6 cm. thin; infundib. floccoso-rugose,
smoky yellow then pale; g. thick, dichotomous, greyish yellow, pruinose;
s. fistulose, even, glabrous, yellow; sp. 9-10 × 6.

=cinereus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. thin, infundib. open at base, blackish grey,
villosely-squamulose; g. thick, distant, grey; s. 3-5 cm. paler than p.;
sp. 7 × 5. (15-8 Sacc.)

Resembling _Craterellus cornucopioides_ but having distinct gills.

[=leucophaeus=, Nouel. P. thin, tough, infundib. glabrous, brownish
umber; g. distant, simple, mixed with dichotomous ones, white; s.
stuffed, thin, even, colour of p.

=cupulatus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. plano-infundib. wavy, hygr. pallid
fuscous or brownish, flocculose when dry; g. very distant, branched,
grey; s. 2-3 cm. stuffed, polished, colour of p.; sp. 7 × 5.

=Houghtoni=, Phil. P. 2-3 cm. convex, umbil. wavy, whitish; g. slightly
decur. narrow, tinged pink; s. 3-5 cm. equal, whitish, stuffed; sp. 7 ×

=Stevensoni=, B. and Br. P. 5-8 mm. orbicular, umbil. pallid, smooth; g.
decur. pallid; s. 1-1.5 cm. slender, cylindrical, white then darker,
pulverulent; sp. ----.

=replexus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan. convex, exp. and inversed,
striate, brown then grey; g. adnato-decur. veined, branched, distant,
white or glaucous; s. 3-5 cm. fistulose, glabrous, thickened upwards;
sp. ----.

Habit of a _Mycena_ but g. thick and fold-like.

var. _devexus_, Fr. P. cucullate; s. stuffed; g. simple, grey.

[=hygrophanous=, C. P. Laest. P. infundib. punctate, hygr. edge
involute, obtuse; g. decur. branched, edge obtuse; s. fistulose, tough,

[=coriaceus=, Preuss. P. depr. rusty brown, edge rather wavy and then
incurved; g. vein-like, forked, pale yellow; s. stuffed, thick, pallid.

     B. MERISMA. _Stems very numerous, united into an elongated column,
     or branched._

[=fascicularis=, Strauss. P. tubiform, split on one side, cochleate,
downily scaly; flesh and connate stems violet.

[=ramosus=, Schulz. Lurid yellow. P. fleshy, plano-depr. at length
deeply umbil. fibrous; s. solid, caespitose, divided into branches each
dilating into a pileus at its apex; g. vein-like, anastomosing.

[=polycephalus=, Bres. Branched. P. convex then subinfundib. white, edge
lobed; g. decur. white, connected by veins; s. white, downy, apex
branched; sp. 6 × 3.5.

[=ochraceus=, Gill. P. unequally infundib. edge upturned, lobed,
yellowish ochre; g. decur. almost to base of stem, anastomosing,
rosy-white; s. branched, even, spotted ochre.

     C. PLEUROPUS. _Stem exactly lateral._

[=spathulatus=, Fr. P. fleshy, spathulate, glabrous, brownish; g.
dichotomous, crowded, white; s. thin, glabrous.

=muscigenus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. spathulate, horizontal, glabrous, zoned,
yellowish brown or fuscous, greyish white when old; g. thick, distant,
branched, colour of p.; s. short, base downy; sp. 10-12 × 6-8.

Differs from _C. glaucus_ in being brown when moist, and from _C.
retirugis_ in having a distinct lateral stem.

=glaucus=, Batsch. Grey. P. 1 cm. ligulate, ascending, silky, not
zoned; g. fold-like, tumid, distant, forked; s. short, pruinose; sp. 5 ×

     D. RESUPINATE. _Pileus cup-shaped at first, fixed by the vertex,
     then subreflexed._

     * _Growing on mosses._

[=bryophilus=, Fr. P. thin, cupulate, white, vertex forming a stem-like
point of attachment, villose; g. broad, dichot., radiating from centre.

Gills acute, much resembling an Agaric.

[=juranus=, Q. and Pat. (= _Dictyolus_.) P. wavy, 1-2 mm. diam.
snow-white, becoming split, thin, downy, springing from cobweb-like
mycelium; g. fold-like, branched, broad, thin, white then cream; sp. 6-7

Close to _C. bryophilus_.

=retirugus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. thin, exp. wavy and lobed, greyish-white,
adfixed by fibrils behind; g. radiating from centre, very thin,
reticulated; sp. 10 × 8.

=lobatus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. horizontal, lobed, brown then pale; g.
fold-like, distinct, branched, divergent; sp. ----.

[=muscorum=, Fr. P. thin, gelatinous, ear-shaped, dingy rufous,
glabrous; g. crisped, folds divided near the margin of p.; sp. 3-4 ×

     ** _Growing on wood._

[=applicatus=, Lév. P. lobed, margin byssoid, tomentose, white; g.
vein-like, radiating from the centre, forked, white.

[=odorus=, Wetts. Reddish-yellow, strongly-scented. P. entire, solid,
fleshy, convex then turbinate or subconcave, often umbil. or subwavy,
glabrous, edge slightly incurved; g. thick, forked, decur.; s. solid,
glabrous; sp. subgl. 3-4.

[=crucibulum=, Fr. P. cup-shaped, downy, white; g. dichotomous, broad,
dingy yellow, edge obtuse.

[=Coemansii=, Rab. P. campan. tomentose, whitish, edge incurved; g.
fold-like, somewhat forked, cinnamon.


     * _Stem lateral._

[=auriscalpium=, Fr. Brown. P. thin, convex, glabrous; g. vein-like,
few, distant, simple; s. exactly lateral, straight, downy.

Resembling _Hyduum auriscalpium_ in form, but smaller.

     ** _Pileus sessile._

[=tenella=, Fr. P. .5-1 cm. effuso-reflexed, thin, soft, blackish,
becoming lobed; g. vein-like, simple, with shorter ones, dark.

[=cupularis=, Fr. P. 2-3 mm. resupinate, soft, orbicular, outside even,
downy, grey; g. vein-like, simple, radiating from centre.

Resembles young condition of _Pleurotus applicatus_.

[=fimicola=, Bagl. P. resupinate, thin, concavo-patellate, flesh-colour,
with a byssoid border; veins very slight, distant.


     A. SPELEAE. _Gills crowded, more or less coalescent. Very doubtful,
     probably morbid forms of Agarics._

[=verpoides=, Fr. P. campan. obtuse, glabrous, brown; g. very thick,
coalescent; s. equal, rigid, striate, glabrous.

[=cryptarum=, Secr. Foetid. P. conico-deformed, brown; g. adnexed,
undulate, subcoalescent, flocculose, fleshy-grey; s. unequal, flexuose,

[=canaliculata=, Pers. P. pallid white, oblique, subumbil. almost
glabrous; g. crowded, distinct, almost simple, edge slightly
canaliculate; s. solid, subundulate, naked.

=caliginosa=, W. G. Sm. P. subumb. edge incurved, greyish, white and
silky when dry, 1 cm.; g. subdecur. thick, narrow, branched, grey; s.
3-5 cm. often inflated, whitish, silky, hollow, rusty inside; sp. 5 × 3.

     B. PARASITAE. _Gills distinct from each other, distant. Growing on
     decaying fungi._

[=nauseosa=, Weinm. Smell nauseous. P. fleshy, globose then hemisph.
ochraceous, pulverulent, edge involute; g. distant, forked, pallid; s.
fistulose, thick, obliquely sulcate and twisted, pallid.

Larger than _N. asterophora_.

=asterophora=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. conical then hemispher. fawn, mealy with
large stellate conidia; g. adnate, distant, rather forked, dingy; s.
1-1.5 cm. whitish pruinose then brownish, twisted; sp. 3 × 2.

=parasitica=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conical then exp. irreg. with grey meal
formed of large, elliptical, smooth conidia; g. adnate, thick, distant,
then forked and anastomosing, dusky; s. 2-6 cm. whitish, floccosely
downy; sp. 5 × 3.5.

[=microphylla=, Corda. P. hemispher. soft, glabrous, naked, white; g.
adnate, entire, dingy white; s. glabrous, bluish.

[=vopiscus=, Fr. P. cup-shaped, reflexed then recurved, pallid; g.
thick, radiating from centre; s. short, excentric, curved, flocculose,


     A. MESOPODES. _Pileus subentire; stem distinct._

     * _Pileus squamulose._

=tigrinus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. orbicular, umbil. whitish, with blackish
innate scales; g. very narrow, tinged yellow; s. 3-5 cm. slender,
squamulose; sp. 7 × 3.5.

=Dunalii=, Fr. P. umbil. deformed, pallid with spot-like adpressed
scales which disappear; g. crowded, pallid; s. 1.5-2 cm. rather silky;
sp. ----.

=lepideus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. tough, depr. irreg. pale ochre breaking up
into darker spot-like scales; g. sinuato-decur. broad, whitish; s. 2-3
cm. stout, rooting, tomentosely squamulose; sp. 7 × 3. (10-14 × 6 Sacc.)

var. _contiguus_, Fr. P. thinner, plano-depr. and with the slender stem,

[=gallicus=, Q. P. ivory colour with tawny lilac flecks, then areolate;
s. pubescent, white, apex sulcate, then torn into scales, flesh
coloured; g. white, decur. in lines; sp. 10-12 long.

[=sitaneus=, Fr. P. elastic, convex, unequal, grey, fibrillosely scaly;
g. deeply decur. base anastomosing; s. firm, curved, fibrillose.

[=degener=, Kalchb. P. hemispher. exp. ochre with tawny scales; g. very
narrow, anastomosing; s. stout, scaly, base blackish.

[=contortus=, Fr. P. orbicular, umbil. tawny rufescent with darker
scales; g. crowded, subdecur.; s. twisted, subsulcate, squamulose.

[=Queletii=, Schulz. P. at first regular, edge incurved, umber, then
depr. edge wavy and split, and becoming pale or almost white, scaly; g.
pale ochre, edge torn; s. branched, excentric, colour of p. squamulose;
sp. 7-8 × 3.

     ** _Pileus villose or pulverulent._

=leontopodius=, Schulz. P. 7-16 cm. tough, irreg. slightly tomentose,
disc depr. tan, edge bent down, lobed; g. decur. connected by veins,
sides rugose; s. 6-9 cm. stout, woody, pulverulent, tan, base blackish;
sp. 12-15 long.

[=domesticus=, Karst. Very large. P. tough, edge thin, subinfundib.
oblique, irregular, cuticle broken up into darker adpressed revolute
scales, rusty; g. deeply decur. toothed, narrowed at both ends, very
broad, pale tawny rusty then reddish; s. excentric, solid, rusty,
squamulose; sp. 3-5 × 2-3.

[=hornotinus=, Fr. P. deformed, pulverulent, grey; g. crowded, white; s.
caespitosely branched, unequal, rather woody.

[=pulverulentus=, Scop. P. tough, convex, yellow, white-pulverulent; g.
toothed, white; s. stout, equal, rigid, with white powder.

[=lusitanicus=, Kalchb. P. oblique, not compact, depr. sublobed,
tomentose, becoming naked, tan; g. decur. crowded, anastomosing, white;
s. short, excentric or lateral, solid, even, glabrous, colour of p.; sp.

=resinaceus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. tough, excentric, cinnamon-ochre, villose,
matted with resin; g. crowded, shining white; s. 2 cm. partly hollow,
downy; sp. ----.

=adhaerens=, A. and S. P. 2-3 cm. tough, irreg. lacunose, rather
pulverulent; g. decur. in lines, very thin, torn, white; s. colour of p.
glutinous, rooting; sp. ----.

P. and s. appear as if lacquered from the dried gluten.

     *** _Pileus glabrous._

[=suffrutescens=, Fr. P. tough, convex then infundib. glabrous, somewhat
rusty; g. crenato-torn, yellowish; s. elongated, somewhat branched,

[=auricolor=, Brig. Subcaespitose, golden yellow, oblique; g. decur.; s.
fibroso-woody, subexcentric, distorted.

[=anisatus=. P. tough, subflabelliform or obliquely subinfundib.
somewhat lobed, whitish; g. decur. tinged yellow, edge entire; s.
lateral or excentric, short, pallid; sp. 6-7 × 3.5.

[=jugis=, Fr. White. P. irreg. lobed, glabrous, rather viscid; g.
dentate; s. short, irreg. scaly.

[=umbellatus=, Fr. P. tough, umbil. pervious, glabrous, yellowish grey;
g. very narrow, white; s. branched, sulcate.

=cochleatus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. tough, flaccid, irreg. depr. or infundib.
reddish cinnamon; g. crowded, serrate, pinkish white; s. solid, length
variable, several frequently more or less grown together, sulcate,
glabrous; sp. ----.

Edible. Smell sometimes spicy, at others almost none.

[=friabilis=, Fr. Caespitose, fleshy-fibrous, fragile, becoming pale. P.
thin, subdimidiate, umbilicate, pervious into partly hollow contorted
s.; g. crowded, narrow.

[=omphalodes=, Fr. Solitary. P. thin, tough, at first deeply umbil.
livid straw-colour then pale, limb convex then exp. and wavy; g. decur.
arcuate, pallid; s. central, thin, tough, glabrous, scrobiculate.

[=bisus=, Q. P. tough, convex, exp. deeply umbil. irreg. excentric, edge
lobed, livid grey, umbil. fuscous; g. sinuato-decur. greyish white, edge
toothed; s. brown, longitudinally sulcate, twisted, excentric; sp. glob.

[=badius=, Bres. P. thin, tough, regular, excentric, or subdimidiate,
with longitudinal cristate veins, bay then pale; g. very distant, edge
deeply and irreg. crenate; s. short, greyish-lilac; sp. 5-6 × 4-4.5.

[=Bresadolae=, Schulz. (= _L. divisus_, Schulz.) P. soon irreg.
infundib. wavy and sinuate, glabrous, even, pale smoky fuscous; g.
distant, spuriously decur.; s. very tough, obconic, subrooting, tinged
reddish; sp. 8-10 long.

[=hispidosus=, Fr. Caespitose. P. thin, subdimidiate, lobed, infundib.
hispidly scaly, rusty, edge torn, proliferous; g. serrulate; s. many,
growing out of each other.

     B. PLEUROTI. _Dimidiate, sessile or with a sublateral stem._

=scoticus=, B. and Br. P. 2-5 cm. thin, umbil. or infundib. smooth,
pallid or brownish, hygr.; g. decur. when stem is present, pallid,
strongly toothed; s. excentric or lateral, variable, darker than p.
springing from a branched brown mycelium; sp. 5-6 × 4.

=fimbriatus=, Currey. P. 1-2 cm. thin, depr. behind, pale fawn with
darker scales, margin hairy; g. narrow, tinged brown; s. .5 cm. thin,
whitish; sp. ----.

[=ursinus=, Fr. P. sessile, imbricated, ear-shaped, ascending, even,
rufous brown, brownish tomentose behind with age, edge entire, glabrous;
g. broad, torn, whitish.

[=castoreus=, Fr. P. subsessile, imbricate, pilei tongue-shaped,
glabrous, subrugose, rufous then tan, edge involute, entire; g. closely
crowded, rufescent.

=vulpinus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. tough, shell-shaped, imbricate, connate
behind, longitudinally corrugated with ribs, floccoso-scrupose, tan,
edge incurved, entire; g. broad, torn, white; sp. glob. 2.

[=auricula=, Fr. White, caespitosely imbricated, p. dimidiate, sessile,
ascending, glabrous, at length revolute; g. linear, densely crenulate;
sp. glob. 3.

Habit of _Pleur. porrigens_.

[=suavissimis=, Fr. Smell very pleasant. Subsessile, white, thin,
peltate, even, glabrous; g. dentate, decurrent from base, anastomosing.

=flabelliformis=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. subsessile, thin, tough, reniform,
glabrous, fawn-colour, edge crenato-fimbriate; g. broad, torn, pallid.

[=tomentellus=, Karst. Subsessile, imbricately tufted, coriaceous, p.
horizontal, tongue-shaped or obovoid, tomentose, whitish then tinged
rufescent, yellowish when dry, edge wavy, incurved; g. much crowded,
narrow, whitish, tinged red when dry, edge toothed.

[=hygrophanus=, Harz. P. conchate, woolly, digitately lobed, white then
yellowish ochre, glabrous, hygr. fragile, fixed by a narrow lateral
point; g. densely and acutely dentato-serrate; sp. glob. 3-3.5.


     * _Pileus irregular; stem excentric._

[=farneus=, Fr. P. compact, hard, irreg. circinate, nearly plane,
unequal, dingy yellow; g. adnate, crowded; s. short, glabrous, sulcate,

[=cyathiformis=, Schaeff. P. obliquely cup-shaped, wavy, squamulose,
brick-red then pale; g. crowded, pallid then yellowish; s. very short,
even, firm, excentric.

[=fulvidus=, Bres. P. tough, thin, convex or subcampan. exp. gibbous or
umb. tawny then pale, with brown squamules, edge fibrilloso-sulcate; g.
almost free, white; s. solid, white, narrowed to a rooting base, apex
sulcate; sp. 12-18 × 6-9.

[=urnula=, Fr. Subsessile, imbricated. P. subexcentric, urniform, even,
glabrous, fuscous, pale when dry, edge lobed; g. attenuato-decur. grey.

[=vaporarius=, Bagl. Caespitose imbricate. P. subcoriaceous, base
narrowed, erect, spathulate then utriculiform, undulately lobed,
pruinose, dingy white then livid violet; g. decur. very narrow, tinged

=conchatus=, Fr. P. tough, thin, unequal, excentric, dimidiate, cinnamon
then pale, becoming squamulose, 3-9 cm.; g. decur. in lines, somewhat
branched, pinkish then ochre; s. 1-2 cm. unequal, base pubescent; sp.

Rigid and the gills crisped or wavy when dry.

=torulosus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. plano-infundib. even, flesh colour then
ochre; g. decur. rather distant, reddish then tan; s. 1-2 cm. stout,
oblique, greyish-tomentose; sp. ----.

=rudis=, Fr. Caespitose. P. 4-6 cm. tough, depressed, sinuate,
reddish-tan, bristling with tufts of hairs; g. decur. narrow, crowded,
pale buff; s. very short or obsolete, hirsute; sp. ----.

[=Lamyanus=, Mont. P. orbicular, edge incurved, and, with the central
stem, tawny umber and fasciculately hirsute; g. narrow, thick, forked,

[=granulatus=, Berk. and Mont. Entirely rusty-saffron; p. semiorbicular;
s. short, excentric, granular; g. sparingly connected by veins.

[=Schurii=, Schulz. P. coriaceous, flattened, centre concave, wavy,
obconic, even, glabrous, whitish; g. decur. narrow, pallid; s. central,
fibrillose, short or almost absent.

[=inverse-conicus=, Lerchenf. and Schulz. P. flattened, broadly umbil.
whitish, edge incurved, inversely conical; g. decur. both ends acute; s.
central, cylindrical, white then brown.

     ** _Stem definitely lateral._

[=foetens=, Fr. Foetid. P. spongy, spathulate, convex then depr.
yellowish white, rather silky, base continued into a long stem
channelled above; g. decur. firm, crowded, reddish-yellow.

[=cochlearis=, Pers. Caespitose, tawny. P. oval, convex, spathulate,
hirsute, edge involute, entire; s. lateral; g. decur.

=stipticus=, Fr. Taste hot and pungent. P. thin, flexible, reniform,
cinnamon then pale, broken up into scurfy squamules; g. determinate,
thin, reticulately joined, cinnamon; s. lateral, very short, dilated
into the p.; sp. 3 × 2.

[=flabellulum=, A. and S. P. dimidiate, flabellate, subsquamulose,
produced into a short stem-like base, white then fawn; g. decur.
crowded; sp. 2.5-3.5.

[=tenuis=, Wetts. P. thin, reniform or suborbicular, convex then exp.
ochre or subfuscous, glabrous, somewhat shining; g. numerous, very thin,
colour of p.; s. lateral, oblique; sp. 2.5 × 1.5.

=farinaceus=, Schum. P. 1.5-2 cm. flexuous, dusky cinnamon, broken up
into greyish-white scurf which falls away; g. free, distinct, pale; s.
lateral, short; sp. ----.

var. _albido-tomentosus_, Cke. and Mass. P. with short, whitish velvety
down, semicircular; g. honey colour; sp. subgl. 5.

[=Schultzii=, Kalchb. P. spathulato-flabelliform, rigid, coriaceous,
concentrically sulcate, radiately rugose, dingy brick-red; g. crowded,
paler than p., edge brownish; s. expanding into pileus, apex virgate;
sp. 3 × 1.

Allied to _P. stypticus_.

     *** _Pileus resupinate, sessile or produced to a point of
     attachment behind._

[=violaceofulvus=, Q. P. resupinate, thin, hygr. cup-shaped then exp.
and reflexed, pulverulent, violet-umber; g. pale violet.

[=ringens=, Fr. P. resupinate, thin, flaccid, orbicular then partly
closed over and gaping, reddish-brown, edge striate; g. simple,

=patellaris=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. resupinate, plano-depr. orbicular, pallid
scurfy or downy, edge involute; g. ochraceous; sp. 4 × 3.

=Stevensonii=, B. and Br. P. spathulate, olive yellow; s. dilated above
convex, golden, slightly hispid; g. narrow, entire; flesh

[=pudens=, Q. P. cup-shaped then pendulous, with white pubescence, edge
becoming rosy; g. tinted lilac.

[=Delastri=, Mont. Resupinate, coriaceous, urceolato-turbinate, vertex
protruding as a tomentose stem, edge incurved; g. brownish purple, edge

[=lithophilus=, Fr. P. resupinate, flattened, sessile, adnate, downy,
edge free; g. radiating from a point, amethyst.


=degener=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. thin, plano-infundib. edge entire, greyish
bay, slightly zoned when moist; g. distant, decur. simple or dichot.
greyish; s. 1-2 cm. brown with white down.

A very uncertain sp. probably some _Clitocybe_. Quélet says it is an old
condition of _Cantharellus carbonarius_.

[=romanus=, Fr. P. glabrous, thin, exp. umbil. even, brownish, edge
lobed; g. thick, crisped, rufescent; s. rigid, fistulose, black.


     * _Growing on Angiosperms._

[=albida=, Fr. P. corky, soft, plane, zoneless, whitish, tomentose; g.
thin, dichot. anastomosing, entire, whitish. Effuso-reflexed.

=betulina=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. firm, long, 2-5 cm. broad, broadly attached,
flesh 4-6 mm. thick, pallid or tinged brown, rather zoned, tomentose; g.
thin, forked, whitish; sp. 4 × 2.

=flaccida=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. flaccid, more or less flabelliform, thin,
strigose, zoned, pallid; g. broad, crowded, unequally branched, whitish;
sp. 7 × 5.

[=variegata=, Fr. P. rigid, plane, velvety, zoned with different colour,
edge whitish; g. broad, thickish, anastomosing, white, edge torn.

Habit and colour of _Poly. versicolor_.

[=trabea=, Fr. P. coriaceous, flattened, rugulose, almost glabrous,
brownish; g. straight, simple and forked, freely anastomosing, entire,

Habit of _Dedaelea quercina_ but thinner.

[=cinnamomea=, Fr. P. coriaceous, flattened, firm, downy, concentrically
sulcate, inside and out cinnamon; g. rather distant, straight, unequal,
almost simple, narrow, entire, colour of p.

var. _crocata_, Sacc. P. strigosely velvety, sulcate, brown; g. yellow,
edge unequal, paler, trama bright saffron.

[=tricolor=, Fr. P. corky, plane, base gibbous, scabrid, zoned and
radiately rugulose, yellow then dingy; g. thin, distant, forked,
anastomosing behind, citrin then umber.

     ** _Growing on Gymnosperms._

=sepiaria=, Fr. P. 3-9 cm. long, hard, zoned, bay, strigose, rough; g.
branched, anastomosing, yellowish; sp. 5 × 4.

=abietina=, Fr. P. 3-12 cm. effuso-reflexed, umber-tomentose then nearly
glabrous, hoary; g. decur. simple, unequal, with white meal; sp. 7-8 ×

[=pinastri=, Kalchb. P. coriaceous, rigid, convex, tomentose,
obsoletely zoned, disc hoary, edge with broad rusty band; g. densely
anastomosing, pallid.

[=Queletii=, Schulz. P. generally reniform, corky, pale ochre becoming
deep yellow when wet, closely zoned; g. thick, anastomosing and forming
pores behind, whitish, edge tan; sp. 13-18 × 6-8.

var. _populina_, Schulz. P. narrowed into stem-like base, tomentose,
greyish or ochre; g. sometimes greyish, edge subserrulate.

var. _crassior_, Schulz. P. blackish grey and scabrid behind, rest
hispid-tomentose; sp. 4 × 1.

[=Bresadolae=, Schulz. (= _L. tricolor_, Kalch. not of Fr.). P.
semiorbicular, broadly adnate, gibbous, subtomentose, multizoned,
interruptedly radially wrinkled, umber then tawny; edge of g. colour of
p., sides paler; flesh fuscous.

=Reichardtii=, Schulz. Subimbricated. P. semiorbicular, adnate, base
brownish, ochre or whitish towards edge, grey when old, imperfectly
zoned; g. tan, at first white mealy, some forked.

[=heteromorpha=, Fr. Coriaceous, thin, effuso-reflexed, gibbous,
fibroso-rugose, pallid, margin incised into broad plates, crowded,
somewhat branched, white, excurrent.

var. _resupinata_, Fr. Resupinate, porose.

[=labyrinthica=, Q. and Schulz. P. irregularly rounded, edge sinuate,
produced behind into a short stem-like base, greyish white, base darker,
not zoned but with scattered warts; lamellate in front underneath,
behind white, glabrous and sterile; g. tan, anastomosing and forming
labyrinthiform pores; sp. 6-8 × 3-4.

[=faventina=, Caldesi. P. dimidiate, sessile, corky,
tuberculato-scrobiculate, whitish then grey; g. radiating, irreg. porose
behind, tinged yellow, edge acute, darker.

[=mollis=, Heufler. P. broadly exp. incurved, soft, edge brown with
darker zones, centre grey; g. strongly anastomosing, greyish or

[=septentrionalis=, Karst. P. sessile, dimidiate, gibbous behind,
floccose, radiately rugulose, pallid brownish with darker zones, almost
glabrous, edge thin, blackish; g. simple, crowded, very broad, fuscous.

[=sorbina=, Karst. P. corky, effuso-reflexed, imbricate, almost
glabrous, usually even, not zoned, thin, pallid, edge obtuse; g.
anastomosing, dingy white, thickish.


=crispa=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. shallowly cup-shaped, reflexed, lobed, downy,
yellowish brown, edge whitish; g. fold-like, dichotomous, crisped,
greyish-white; sp. subgl. 5-6.

In the only European sp. the edge of gills not channelled.


=commune=, Fr. P. thin, more or less fan-shaped or reniform, often much
lobed, narrowed behind to a point of attachment, whitish, downy then
strigose; g. radiating, narrow, brownish, edge split; sp. subgl. 5-6.

var. _multifidum_, Mass. (= _S. multifidum_, Fr.) P. deeply incised,
segments narrow.


=Chlorospora=. Gills free; veil appendiculate; volva and ring absent.

[=Chlorophyllum=. Gills free; veil forming a persistent ring on the
stem, volva absent. Not European.]


=Eyrei=, Mass. (= _Schulzeria Eyrei_, Mass.) P. 2-4 cm. campan. then
exp. and umb. even, glabrous, pale tan, edge appendiculate; g. free,
clear pale green then deep bluish-green; s. 4-5 cm. equal, slightly
wavy, pallid; sp. green, 4-5 × 3.

The only known European representative of the Chlorosporae.


     A. _Gills free._

=Volvaria=. Volva present; ring absent.

=Annularia=. Volva absent; ring present, often falling away.

=Pluteus=. Volva and ring both absent.

     B. _Gills adnexed, rarely adnate._

=Entoloma=. Gills sinuate behind; edge of pileus incurved when young;
stem fibrous or fleshy.

=Nolanea=. Stem cartilaginous; pileus campanulate, edge straight and
adpressed to stem when young.

=Leptonia=. Stem cartilaginous; pileus convexo-plane, edge incurved at
first; gills soon separating from stem.

     C. _Gills decurrent._

=Clitopilus=. Stem central, fibrous; edge of p. incurved at first.

=Eccilia=. Stem central, cartilaginous; pileus umbilicate.

=Claudopus=. Stem excentric, minute, or absent. Species minute,


     * _Pileus dry, silky, or fibrillose._

=bombycina=, Schaeff. P. 9-18 cm. campan. then exp. and subumb. white,
silky-fibrillose; g. flesh-colour; s. 7-14 cm. solid, attenuated,
glabrous, white, volva ample; sp. 6-7 × 4.

[=regia=, Fr. P. convex then exp. white or with a reddish tinge,
glabrous, dry; g. crowded; s. white or tinged yellow, solid, glabrous;
ring persistent; volva white, large.

=volvacea=, Bull. P. 5-7 cm. campan. then exp. obtuse, grey or
greyish-yellow, virgate with adpressed black fibrils; g. flesh-colour;
s. 5-9 cm. solid, subequal, white, volva large; sp. 6-8 × 3.5-4.

[=arenaria=, Otth. P. campan. exp. umb. silky fibrillose, whitish brown,
disc darker, dry; g. crowded, near to stem, subventricose; s. rather
shining, whitish, base thickened; volva mostly adherent, laciniate,

=Loveiana=, Berk. P. 5-7 cm. convex, obtuse, white, silky; g.
pinkish-salmon; s. bulbous, narrowed upwards, solid, white, volva irreg.
lobed; sp. 4-5 × 3.

Parasitic on _Clitocybe nebularis_.

=Taylori=, Berk. P. 3-5 cm. conical then obtuse, livid, edge paler,
striately cracked; g. narrowest behind; s. 4-5 cm. equal, solid,
whitish; volva lobed, brownish; sp. 5 × 3.5-4.

Differs from _V. volvacea_ by gills being narrowed behind, and small
brown volva.

[=grisea=, Q. P. flexuous, silky-villose; g. crisped, hoary; s. short,
tomentose; volva trilobed; sp. 8-9.

[=murinella=, Q. P. campan. villose, grey; g. remote, ventricose; s.
slightly striate, white; volva 3-4 lobed, white; sp. 6-8 × 3-4.

[=hypopithys=, Fr. Small. Shining white. P. conical then campan. dry,
silky; g. white then flesh-colour; s. solid, equal, pubescent,
adpressedly silky; volva bilobed; sp. 6-8 × 4.

     ** _Pileus more or less viscid and (one species excepted)

[=rhodomela=, Lasch. P. campan. then exp. somewhat sooty, squamulose,
viscid; g. reddish; s. solid, attenuated, delicately floccoso-downy then
almost glabrous; volva small, floccose.

=speciosa=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. P. soft, campan. then exp. obtuse, glabrous,
viscid edge even, white or disc greyish; g. flesh-colour; s. 10-18 cm.
subbulbous, solid, attenuated, villose, white; volva lax, villose; sp.
14-16 × 8.

[=theiodes=, Saut. P. campan. then exp. citrin, mealy, with deciduous
squamules, broadly umb. edge sulcate; g. free, broad; s. hollow,

=gloiocephala=, D. C. P. 7-11 cm. campan. then exp. umb. glutinous,
sooty, edge striate; g. reddish; s. 8-14 cm. solid, glabrous, whitish,
tinged brown below; volva adnate except a small free margin; sp. 10-12 ×

=viperina=, Fr. P. persistently conical, acute, grey; g. tinged yellow
then flesh-colour; s. solid, equal, closely sheathed by the thin volva.

=media=, Schum. P. 3-5 cm. exp. obtuse, viscid, silky when dry, white or
disc tinged brown; g. rosy; s. 4-7 cm. solid, equal, glabrous, white;
volva lobed; sp. 5 × 3.5.

Intermediate in size between _V. speciosa_ and _V. parvula_; differs
from former in glabrous s. and volva, and from latter in solid stem.

=parvula=, Fr. White. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan. then plane, umb. disc often
tinged brown; g. flesh-colour; s. 2-3 cm. equal, subfistulose, silky;
volva lax, usually 3-4 lobed; sp. 5 × 3.5.

var. _biloba_, Cke. S. stuffed, pubescent; volva bilobed.

=temperata=, Berk. P. 1-1.5 cm. convex then exp. and umb., disc tinged
tawny, rest whitish, striate; g. pale salmon; s. 1.5-2.5 cm. whitish,
volva rather large, lobed; sp. 4 × 2.5.


=laevis=, Krombh. P. 4-6 cm. convex subumb. whitish; g. free, narrowed
behind, becoming pale flesh-colour; s. 4-6 cm. base swollen, white, ring
large, free; sp. subgl. 7-8.

[=Fenzlii=, Schulz. P. ovate then exp. sulphur then egg-yellow; g.
ventricose, rosy; s. soon hollow, subattenuated, sulphur below the
median ring.

[=alutacea=, Pers. P. campan. obtusely umb. glabrous, tan; g. crowded;
s. glabrous, ring lax.

[=xanthogramma=, Ces. P. convex, umb. squamulosely punctate from the
umbo, milk-white with densely crowded yellow striae; g. very broad,
crowded; s. stuffed, thin, obsoletely annulate below middle.

=transilvanica=, Schulz. P. campan. striate to vertex, whitish, apex
darker, edge lobed; g. crowded, unequal; s. hollow, paler than p.,
flocculose, ring complete, membranous.


     * _Cuticle of pileus fibrillose or floccose._

=cervinus=, Schaeff. P. 4-9 cm. campan. exp. even, glabrous, then broken
up into fibrillose squamules which fall away, smoky with a yellowish or
fawn-coloured tinge; g. white then flesh-colour; s. 5-9 cm. solid,
whitish with black fibrils; sp. 7-8 × 5-6; cystidia ventricose.

var. _rigens_, Pers. P. grey, blackish, virgate or squamulose; s.
glabrous, somewhat shining.

var. _patricius_, Schulz. P. whitish then grey with umber or tan scales,
then almost glabrous, silky shining, and radiately cracked; s. even,

var. _eximius_, Saund. and Sm. Large and showy. P. even, with a
separable viscid pellicle, reddish-umber, vermilion near edge when
young; s. fibrillose, at length blackish.

var. _petasatus_, Fr. P. umb. glabrous, greyish white, with a separable
pellicle, at length striate to middle; s. fibrillosely striate, at
length tawny.

var. _Bullii_, Berk. P. convex, smooth, even, pallid, disc darker; s.
pale brown.

[=sororiata=, Karst. P. campan. exp. floccosely scaly, yellow; g.
flesh-colour; s. pallid then yellowish; sp. 7-8 × 6.

[=montellicus=, Sacc. P. flesh spongy, dry, exp. yellowish, almost
glabrous; g. olive-grey; s. fibrous, rufescent, incurved; sp. 10 × 8.

=umbrosus=, Pers. P. 3-5 cm. campan. then exp. lacunose-rugose, at first
downy, umber, edge ciliato-fimbriate; g. edge smoky-fimbriate; s. 4-7
cm. solid, squamulosely downy, pale; sp. 6-7 × 5; cystidia ventricose.

Differs from _P. cervinus_ in downy p. and dark-edged gills.

=ephebius=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. obtuse, covered with bluish down, edge
naked; g. yellowish flesh-colour; s. 4-7 cm. stuffed, glabrous, slightly
striate, whitish or tinged grey; sp. 7 × 4.

Differs from _P. cervinus_ in minutely downy p. which is sometimes

var. _drepanophyllus_, Schulz. P. umber; s. at length hollow.

[=granulatus=, Bres. (= _plautus_, Q., not of Fr.) P. campan. then exp.
hygr. edge striate, rufescent, densely covered with minute granules of
same colour; g. free, edge fimbriate; s. hyaline-white, often
compressed, grooved, rather scurfy, somewhat rooting; sp. 6-8.

=violarius=, Mass. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. hemisph. then nearly plane, minutely
velvety, watery, dark purple, flesh grey; g. flesh-colour, edge
serrulate; s. 2-3 cm. hollow, whitish upwards, base pale brown with
black fibrils; sp. subgl. 5-6.

=salicinus=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. exp. subumb. bluish-grey, disc darker and
floccosely rugose; g. rosy; s. 2-3 cm. stuffed, fibrillose,
bluish-white; sp. ----.

var. _beryllus_, Pers. P. greenish.

var. _floccosus_, Karst. P. floccosely scaly.

=hispidulus=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. convexo-plane, pilose or silky, grey,
edge at length slightly striate; g. flesh-colour; s. 3-4 cm. fistulose,
even, glabrous, silvery-white; sp. ----.

[=curtus=, Karst. P. convexo-exp. obtuse, longitudinally fibrillose or
cracked, with short, stout, erect, muricately squarrose scales at disc,
pallid then fuscescent; g. adnexed, broad, ventricose; s. rigid, short,
equal, wavy, floccosely squamulose, fuscescent, apex naked; sp. rough, 5
× 3-4.

Resembling _Inocybe lacera_ but smaller and shorter.

=pellitus=, Fr. White. P. 2-4 cm. convexo-plane, even, dry, silky; g.
flesh-colour; s. 3-4 cm. stuffed, glabrous, even, shining; sp. ----.

var. _punctillifer_, Q. P. exp. whitish, centre tinged fuscous, and with
minute umber squamules; s. whitish, squamulose below; sp. 3-4.

var. _gracilis_, Bres. P. white, becoming very faintly tinged umber at
disc; s. cylindrical, glabrous; sp. 5-6 long.

[=Roberti=, Fr. P. convex then plane, obtuse, slightly hairy, not
sulcate, white tinged fuscous; g. very broad, shining white; s. apex
hollow, solid below and slightly thickened.

Fries considers this sp. as near to _P. semibulbosus_ notwithstanding
the white gills.

     ** _Pileus atomately pruinose, subpulverulent._

[=plautus=, Weinm. P. campan. exp. even, glabrous, tan when moist, smoky
hoary; g. flesh-colour; s. fistulose, soft like velvet, blackish brown.

var. _terrestris_, Bres. P. exp. edge wavy, dry, pruinosely velvety,
sooty black, rugulose; g. edge subfimbriate; s. velvety, blackish; sp. 6
× 5.

[=cinereus=, Q. Scurfy-flocculose, grey. P. with raised veins forming
pits; s. springing from a white byssoid mycelium; sp. glob. 6-8.

=nanus=, Pers. P. 3-5 cm. exp. obtuse, rugulose, smoky, sprinkled with
floccose bloom; g. flesh-colour; 3-4 cm. solid, rigid, striate, white;
sp. subgl. echin. 5-6.

var. _lutescens_, Fr. Stem and g. or first only, yellowish.

var. _major_, Cke. Larger. P. even, greyish.

All the forms differ from _P. cervinus_ and its vars. in having
subglobose spores.

[=exiguus=, Pat. P. exp. reddish brown, bristling with minute squamules;
g. distant from stem, ventricose; s. white, pruinose, thickened at base,
solid; sp. 6-7 × 3.

Near _P. nanus_, but smaller and p. squamulose.

=melanodon=, Secr. P. convexo-plane, umb. pulverulent, edge slightly
striate, dull yellow; g. pale flesh-colour, edge with minute black
teeth; s. fistulose, slender, firm, glabrous, shining.

=spilopus=, B. and Br. (= _spodopileus_, Sacc.) P. 2-3 cm. exp. subumb.
radiately rugulose, brownish or dark fawn; g. pale salmon; s. 3-4 cm.
equal, whitish or tinged fawn, with scattered black points, solid; sp.
subgl. 7-8.

=semibulbosus=, Lasch. White. P. 1-2 cm. hemispher. obtuse, atomately
mealy, sulcate; g. pale flesh-colour; s. 1.5-2 cm. pubescent, base
swollen; sp. ----.

[=candidus=, Pat. Small. P. convex, even, white, silky; g. rosy; s.
white, downy, base thickened.

     *** _Pileus naked, glabrous._

=roseoalbus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. even, glabrous, rosy, edge naked; g.
rather distant, flesh-colour; s. 4-6 cm. solid, attenuated, whitish or
tinged red, with white meal; sp. rough, subgl. 5-6.

=leoninus=, Schaeff. P. 3-5 cm. thin, campan. then exp. glabrous, naked,
yellow, or tinged tawny; g. yellowish flesh-colour; s. 4-7 cm. solid,
glabrous, striate, whitish; sp. ----.

var. _coccineus_, Cke. P. crimson-orange or vermilion.

[=luteomarginatus=, Roll. P. obtuse, umb. campan. deformed then exp.
yellow, but at same time covered with sooty down, striato-virgate; g.
crowded, rosy, edge golden-yellow; s. silky, yellow with rosy fibrils;
sp. 7.5 × 6.

=chrysophaeus=, Schaeff. P. 3-4 cm. campan. exp. naked, glabrous,
virgate, cinnamon, edge striate; g. white then flesh-colour; s.
imperfectly hollow, glabrous, whitish or yellowish; sp. ----.

=phlebophorus=, Ditm. P. 3-5 cm. convex then exp. rugosely veined,
umber, edge even, naked; g. white then flesh-colour; s. 3-4 cm.
subincurved, glabrous, shining, whitish; sp. ----.

var. _marginatus_, Q. P. rugose, granulate, clear brown; g. with sooty
crenulate edge; s. pellucid, white; sp. glob. 8.

[=Godeyi=, Gill. P. campan. then exp. umb. very glabrous, rugulose,
striate, livid grey sometimes tinged green, rather viscid; g. broad,
joined by veins; s. white or tinged grey.

[=aurantio-rugosus=, Trog. P. campan. then conico-exp. areolately
wrinkled, reddish yellow, disc almost vermilion; g. crowded, serrulate,
broad; s. yellowish, thickened below and tinged red, brown-fibrillose;
sp. globose.

[=cyanopus=, Q. P. rugosely granular, pruinose, umber-bay; g. remote
from s., white then glaucous; s. silky, blue, base cottony, white; sp. 6

=umbrinellus=, Sommerf. P. convex, exp. even, edge fimbriate; g. white
then flesh-colour; s. fistulose, rooting, tough, glabrous, shining.

[=tenuiculus=, Q. P. rather small, subglobose, striate, umber; g.
semiorbicular; s. slender, pruinose, white; sp. glob. 10.


     I. GENUINI. _Pileus glabrous, moist or viscid._

=sinuatum=, Fr. P. 8-14 cm. compact, exp. and depr. wavy, even,
yellowish white; g. very broad, crowded; s. 7-12 cm. solid, fibrillose,
white; sp. rough, 8-9. Poisonous.

=lividum=, Bull. P. 7-10 cm. exp. dry, even, longitudinally fibrillose,
livid tan; g. broad; s. 5-7 cm. white, glabrous, apex pruinose; sp.
subgl. rough, 8-10.

var. _roseus_, Cke. P. whitish ochre, disc rosy.

=prunuloides=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. campan. then exp. and umb. glabrous,
rather viscid, yellowish or livid then pale; g. emarginato-free,
ventricose; s. 6-8 cm. solid, unequal, white; sp. subgl. rough, 8-10.

=porphyrophaeum=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. campan. then exp. umb. and wavy, smoky
fuscous then pale; g. truncate behind, almost free; s. 5-7 cm. solid,
narrowed from the thickened base, fibrous, naked, smoky purple; sp.
rough, 8-10.

Differs from _E. jubatum_ in glabrous p. and hollow s.

=repandum=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. conical then exp. umb. pale ochre striate
or spotted with darker colour, edge incurved, lobed; g. broadest in
front; s. 3-5 cm. solid, silky, white; sp. globose, rough, 8. (11 × 6

=erophilum=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, dry, pale grey, virgate or venosely
striate; g. rounded-adnate, broad; s. solid, short, pruinose; sp. 8 × 6.

Often growing in large circles.

[=holophaeum=, Bres. and Schulz. (_Ag. plebejoides_, Schulz.) Entirely
umber outside and inside, pileus and base of stem darkest; g. at length
greyish; sp. r. 8-10.

[=pyreniacum=, Q. P. umb. silky-virgate, silvery grey; g. greyish; s.
white, fibrillosely striate; sp. rough, 12 long.

=placenta=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. umb. plane, even, regular, livid
purplish; g. crowded, thickish; s. 4-7 cm. solid, fibrously striate,
brown; sp. glob. 8.

=helodes=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. plane, subumb. livid purplish or smoky,
often spotted; g. attenuato-adnate, white then rosy; s. 5-7 cm. hollow,
pallid, fibrillose, base somewhat thickened; sp. globose, rough, 10.

[=quisquilaris=, Karst. P. convex exp. subumb. slightly pruinose,
reddish or reddish-bay, disc darker, edge incurved, even; g. crowded; s.
subequal, reddish then blackish-bay; sp. 7-10 × 4-5.

[=fuliginarium=, Karst. P. convex then subdepr. glabrous, edge incurved
at first, pellucidly striate, pitch-black then livid; g. adnate,
crowded, oblong, pallid; s. paler than p., apex white pruinose; sp.

=bulbigenum=, B. and Br. (= _E. Persoonianum_, Phil. and Plow.) P. 2-3
cm. campan. or hemispher. obtuse, slightly tomentosely scaly, white; g.
adnexed; s. 5-7 cm. fibrillose, whitish, hollow, base somewhat bulbous;
sp. rough, 13-15.

=Batschianum=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. umb.-convex then plane and depr. even,
viscid, blackish; g. grey; s. 5-7 cm. tough, adpressedly fibrillose,
grey, base narrowed; sp. subgl. rough, 7-9.

[=cudon=, Fr. P. tough and cartilaginous, conical, acute, blackish
umber, edge incurved; g. crowded, smoky purple; s. short; glabrous,

=Bloxami=, Berk. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, dingy blue, purple, or
slate-colour, edge inclined to be lobed; g. pale rose; s. 3-4 cm. solid,
colour of p.; sp. globose, rough, 9-10.

=ardosiacum=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. campan.-convex, obtuse, deep blue with
brown tinge, then greyish; g. free; s. 5-7 cm. hollow, blue, base white;
sp. subgl. rough, 9-10.

[=nitidum=, Q. (= _E. ardosiacum_, Fr. Ic. t. 94, f. 4, not of Bull.) P.
campan. silky-shining, dusky bluish-violet, edge lilac, flesh white; g.
free, broad, white then flesh-colour; s. slender, often twisted,
shining, colour of p.; sp. rough, 8.

=madidum=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 3-5 cm. campan. exp. obtuse, viscid,
blackish-violet, sooty when old; g. greyish white; s. 5-8 cm. hollow,
violet, thickened base white; sp. rough, 8.

=liquescens=, Cke. P. 3-5 cm. exp. broadly umb. ochre, disc darker; g.
free, white then dingy lilac; s. 5-8 cm. white, hollow; sp. subgl.
rough, 7-8.

Gills deliquesce when mature.

[=excentricum=, Bres. P. campan. exp. mammilate, glabrous, tinged tan;
g. emarginate; s. cylindrical, colour of p. apex scurfy, always
excentric; sp. rough, 10-18.

[=viridans=, Fr. P. conical then exp. viscid, umb. olive-green; g.
nearly free, crowded; s. hollow, glabrous.

[=rubellum=, Scop. P. exp. obtuse, even, viscid, reddish; g. crenulate,
rosy; s. hollow, slightly downy, white; sp. 11 × 6.

=ameides=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. campan. often irreg. flocculent, soon
glabrous and silky, pale reddish-grey; g. deeply rounded behind,
rugulose; s. 3 cm. whitish; sp. subgl. rough, 10.

     II. LEPTONIDEI. _Pileus flocculose, somewhat scaly, absolutely dry,
     not hygr._

=Saundersii=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. campan. exp. wavy and lobed, adpressedly
tomentose, white, tinged brown when old; g. broad, distant; s. 8-12 cm.
solid, equal, white; sp. ----.

=fertilé=, B. P. 9-14 cm. convex then plane, dry, pulverulently scaly,
pallid reddish or reddish ochre; g. rounded behind; s. 9-12 cm. equal,
base thickened, whitish, fibrilloso-squamulose, solid; sp. ----.

[=Rozei=, Q. P. umb. grey, silky shining, edge lilac; s. slender,
fibrillose, white; sp. rough.

=jubatum=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. campan. exp. umb. downy-squamose or
fibrillose, mouse-colour; g. crowded, smoky; s. 5-7 cm. hollow, equal,
fibrillose, fuscous; sp. rough, 10-11 × 6.

Differs from _E. porphyrophaeum_ in squamulose p. and hollow s.

[=scabiosum=, Fr. P. campan. then plane, obtusely umb. sooty, rough with
crowded, erect papillose scales; g. free, greyish-white; s. hollow,
fibrillose, sooty; sp. rough, 10-12.

=resutum=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex, obtuse, fuscous, disc darkest,
adpressedly scaly or fibrillose; g. ventricose, greyish; s. 4-7 cm.
somewhat stuffed, glabrous, grey; sp. rough, 8-9 × 6.

=griseocyaneum=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan.-convex, obtuse, floccosely
scaly, grey tinged lilac; g. white then flesh-colour; s. 3-4 cm. hollow,
floccosely fibrillose, pallid then blue; sp. rough, 8-10.

Resembling _Leptonia_, but soft not cartilaginous.

=dichroum=, Pers. P. camp. exp. umb. squamulosely fibrillose, violet
then livid mouse-colour; g. sinuato-adnexed; s. blue, fibrillosely
mealy; sp. reddish fuscous, rough, 10-12 × 5-8.

=sericellum=, Fr. Shining white. P. 1.5-3 cm. exp. depr. silky; g.
adnate, then seceding; s. 3-4 cm. fibrillose then polished; sp. subgl.
rough, 10.

Differs from _E. speculum_ in smaller size and silky p.

var. _sublutescens_, Fr. P. more regular, convex, even, yellowish; g.
almost adnate; s. fistulose.

var. _lutescens_, Henn. P. campan. more or less exp. at first white and
silky-floccose, then glabrous and dingy yellow; s. white then yellowish;
sp. rough, 8.

=Cookei=, C. Rich. (= _Pluteus phlebophorus_, var. _reticulatus_, Cke.)
P. convex then exp. reddish orange or pale brick-red, covered with
raised veins forming a network; g. adnexed; s. 2-3 cm. solid; sp.
globose, rough, 8.

=Thomsoni=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. exp. umb. grey, with a network of
raised ribs; g. slightly adnexed; s. 3-4 cm. paler than p.; sp. 6 × 3.5.

[=subrubens=, Karst. P. conico-exp. umb. adpressedly squamulose or
fibrillose, glabrous, mouse-colour; g. sinuato-adnexed, edge crenate; s.
hollow, scurfy then glabrous, paler than p. reddish; sp. rough, 9-12 ×

[=indutum=, Boud. Small, entirely grey. P. campan. then exp. umb.
coarsely fibrillose; g. broad, uncinate, powdered with the rosy spores;
s. slender, fibrillose.

=tortipes=, Mass. P. 6-7 cm. convex then exp. umb. often depressed, dark
brown then tan and shining; g. broadly adnate; s. 4-5 cm.
silky-fibrillose, flexuous, white tinged tan; sp. 5 × 3.

Differs from _E. clypeatum_ in elliptical sp.

     III. NOLANIDEI. _Pileus thin, hygr. rather silky when dry. Often
     wavy and deformed._

=clypeatum=, L. P. 5-7 cm. campan. then exp. umb. lurid then greyish; g.
serrulate; s. 7-9 cm. stuffed, attenuated, fibrillose, pallid; sp.
subgl. rough, 9-10.

=nigrocinnamomeum=, Kalchbr. P. 5-7 cm. convex then exp. depressed round
the umbo, blackish umber, even, glabrous; g. reddish cinnamon; s. 4-6
cm. hollow, somewhat twisted, fibrillose, greyish fuscous; sp. subgl.
rough, 8 × 9.

Differs from _E. clypeatum_ in hollow stem and entire edge of gills.

=rhodopolium=, Fr. P. 5-12 cm. campan. then exp. gibbous then subdepr.
edge wavy at first incurved, brown or livid then pale and silky shining;
g. adnate then sinuate; s. 5-9 cm. hollow, glabrous, shining white; sp.
rough, 8-10 × 6-8.

[=pluteoides=, Fr. P. splitting, convex, exp. obtuse, greyish white when
moist, dingy yellowish when dry; g. emarginato-adnexed, crowded; s.
hollow, rigid, cuticle fibrillose, white, usually rooting.

[=elaphinum=, Fr. P. convex, obtuse, glabrous, bright fawn when moist,
pallid fuscous when dry, edge striate; g. somewhat truncate behind, very
broad; s. hollow, naked, livid; sp. rough, 10 × 6.

[=turbidum=, Fr. P. campan. convex, umb. margin at first straight and
adpressed to stem, then split into striae, somewhat fuscous, grey when
dry; g. crowded, greyish white; s. hollow, inflato-clavate, glabrous,
even, silvery shining; sp. 8-11 × 7-8.

=majale=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. campan.-convex, umb. edge spreading, wavy,
cinnamon, yellowish when dry; g. crenate; s. 7-9 cm. twisted, striate,
whitish, base with white down; sp. rough, 10-14 × 7-10.

=Wynnei=, B. and Br. Smell unpleasant. P. 3-4 cm. convex then exp.
subumb. often wavy, smoky grey, velvety then squamulose; g. broad,
transversely ribbed; s. 3-5 cm. smoky blue, base downy, white; sp.
rough, 10-11 × 7-8.

Smell resembling that of bugs.

=costatum=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. bullate then plane, subumbil. wavy, glabrous,
livid, fuscous then shining; g. nearly free, entire, transversely
ribbed, pallid; s. 4-5 cm. deformed, substriate, grey, apex with white
squamules; sp. rough, 12-14 × 8-11.

[=Cordae=, Karst. Differs from _E. costatum_ in blackish umbilicate p.;
smaller sp. rough, 5-6. Other points identical.

=sericeum=, Fr. Smell strong, like meal. P. 2-3 cm. exp. greyish fawn
when moist, livid and silky shining when dry; g. grey, emarginate; s.
2-3 cm. fistulose, fibrillose, paler than p.; sp. globose, rough, 7-8.

Differs from _Nolanea pascua_ in mealy smell, and broad distant gills
cut out behind.

[=mimicum=, Karst. P. campan. obtuse, then exp. glabrous, fuscescent;
g. adnate, whitish then dingy; s. hollow, equal, cartilaginous,
glabrous, livid; sp. 9-12.

[=venosum=, Gill. Smell strong of meal. P. thin, convex, subumb.
brownish, silky and shining when dry; g. free, broad, transversely
veined, reddish-grey; s. fragile, fibrillose, rather squamulose at apex.

Differs from _E. sericeum_ in free g.

[=praecox=, Karst. P. fragile, conico-convex, at length umb. glabrous,
silky-shining; g. ventricose, crowded, dingy then flesh-colour; s.
fistulose, equal, compr. glabrous, striate, pallid; sp. 7-10.

=nidorosum=, Fr. Smell alkaline. P. 4-7 cm. convex then exp. and
subdepr. greyish fawn, livid and with a silky sheen when dry; g. broad,
wavy; s. 4-7 cm. stuffed, equal, glabrous, pallid, apex with white meal;
sp. rough, 8-10 × 7-8.

Smell sometimes very faint.

=speculum=, Fr. Whitish. P. 2-4 cm. exp. subdepr. very glabrous, shining
when dry, edge incurved, wavy; g. emarginate, broad; s. equal, very
fragile, striate; sp. subgl. rough, 12. (12-14 × 7-8 Sacc.)


     * _Gills grey or somewhat fuscous. Pileus dusky, hygr._

=pascua=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. conico-exp. subumb. striate, livid bistre,
paler and shining when dry; g. crowded, narrowed behind, greyish; s. 3-5
cm. silky-fibrous, striate, pale; sp. rough, 9-10.

var. _umbonata_, Q. P. acute, umb. bay; s. fibrilloso-striate, silvery.

[=proletaria=, Fr. P. campan.-exp. obtuse, somewhat umber, disc darker,
villose; g. sooty grey; s. fibrous, very fragile, grey; sp. rough, 10-12
× 6.

[=versatilis=, Fr. P. convex then flattened, glabrous, shining, livid
aerugineous; g. grey; s. greyish white, with a silvery sheen when dry.

[=limosa=, Fr. Smell strong of meal. P. campan. obtuse, glabrous, sooty,
hoary-silky when dry; g. adnate, grey; s. polished, base inflated,

=Babingtonii=, Blox. P. 1-1.5 cm. conico-campan. pale grey, silky, with
fasciculate fibrils, disc squamulose; g. adnate, grey; s. 2-3 cm.
hollow, rather wavy, strigose and covered with brown down; sp. rough,

=mammosa=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. conico-campan. papillate, striate,
glabrous, fuscous, pale when dry; g. grey; s. 4-5 cm. rigid, polished,
apex with white meal; sp. rough, 7-8 × 5-6.

[=papillata=, Bres. P. subcampan. exp. papillate, striate, fuscous-bay
then paler; g. sinuato-adnate; s. shining, glabrous, base with white
down; sp. 5-7-angled, 10-11 × 6-7.

[=Bresadolae=, Mass. (= _N. clandestina_, Bres.). P. campan. exp. umb.
or papillate, glabrous, shining, striate, umber-bay or almost black then
rufescent; g. thick, umber then fuscous-purple; s. polished,
blackish-bay, subequal; sp. 5-6-angled, 9-10 × 7.

[=clandestina=, Fr. Umber. P. hemispher. umb. slightly striate,
glabrous, silky when dry; g. very distant, thick, umber then purplish;
s. short, naked.

[=bryophila=, Boud. and Roze. P. conico-campan. striate, apiculate, pale
rufous brown, apex blackish; g. nearly free; s. cartilaginous,
semipellucid, equal.

=juncea=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. conical then exp. radiately striate, sooty
umber, disc subumbil. subsquamulose; g. obovate, grey then brownish
purple; s. 4-6 cm. slender, fuscous; sp. rough, 10-12.

[=fumosella=, Wint. (= _A. fumosus_, Rab.). P. subconic, then subexp.
umbil. subpellucid virgate, reddish grey, sometimes white-floccose,
silky shining when dry; g. adnexed, subtriangular, closely crowded, grey
then brownish; s. colour of p., base albo-floccose, rooting, slightly

=fulvostrigosa=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. conico-campan. subumb. rugulose,
ochre with olive tinge; g. adnexed; s. 4-5 cm. hollow, mealy-squamulose,
base densely strigose with reddish fibrils; sp. rough, 10 × 6; cystidia

     ** _Gills yellowish or reddish._

=nigripes=, Trog. Smell of stinking fish. P. 2-3 cm. conico-campan.
obtuse, even, fuscous with paler flecks; g. yellowish pink; s. 7-10 cm.
twisted, glabrous, black; sp. ----.

=pisciodora=, Ces. Smell of stinking fish. P. 2-3 cm. conico-campan.
obsoletely umb. tawny cinnamon, soft like velvet; g. adnexed; s. 5-7 cm.
chestnut then blackish, apex paler, rather velvety; sp. ----.

=rufocarnea=, B. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. umbil. reddish brown slightly
fibrillose; g. ventricose, veined, salmon; s. 4-5 cm. hollow, pale
reddish brown, apex paler; sp. 9-10 × 6.

[=vinacea=, Fr. P. campan.-convex, obtuse, slightly striate, rufescent;
g. distant; s. even, glabrous, yellow.

var. _squamulosa_, Karst. P. campan. subumbil. coarsely striate, scurfy;
g. edge floccosely crenulate, golden; s. glabrous, yellowish; sp. rough,
10-12 × 7-8.

[=cetrata=, Fr. P. camp. then exp. glabrous, furcato-sulcate, yellow; g.
pallid yellow; s. fragile, glabrous, yellow; sp. rough, 10-12 × 10.

[=cuneata=, Bres. P. conico-cuspidate, glabrous, striate, lurid yellow,
cusp yellowish, g. pale yellow then brownish flesh-colour; s. yellowish,
apex with white scurf, base with contorted fibres; sp. angular, 10-12 ×

[=carneovirens=, Jungh. P. campan. deeply striate, greenish yellow; g.
free, broad; s. solid, glabrous, dusky aerugineous; sp. 11-12 × 7-8.

=icterina=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. campan.-convex, striate, papillate, yellowish
green, hygr.; g. distant, ventricose; s. 3-4 cm. rigid, floccosely
mealy, colour of p. or brownish; sp. rough, 11-12 × 8.

=subglobosa=, A. and S. P. 2 cm. hemispher. even, viscid, yellowish; g.
nearly free, rhomboid; s. 3-4 cm. striate, pale; sp. 9 × 7.

[=hesperidium=, Brig. P. broadly campan. even, waxy yellow, disc darker;
g. free, crowded; white then greyish violet, edge at length blackish; s.
even, shining white.

[=pleopodia=, Bull. P. campan. then exp. and edge upraised, even,
yellowish; g. narrowed behind, dingy flesh-colour; s. equal, yellowish
white, apex pruinose; sp. 10-12 × 4.

     *** _Gills white then rosy. Hygroph._

=picea=, Kalchbr. Smell of stinking fish. P. 2-3 cm. conical then
campan. papillate, even, glabrous, pitch brown then umber; g.
emarginate; s. 3-5 cm. slightly pruinose, colour of p.; sp. 7-8 × 5.

Differs from _N. pisciodora_ in colour of gills and p.

[=hirtipes=, Fl. Dan. P. conico-campan. fuscous; g. free, obovate, rosy;
s. slender, glabrous, colour of p. hirsute below; sp. rough, 7-9.

=infula=, Fr. Very tough. P. 2 cm. conical then exp. papillate, shining,
dark grey then pale; g. narrow, closely crowded, pure white then rosy;
s. 4-5 cm. rigid, glabrous, naked, fuscous; sp. ----.

var. _versiformis_, Fr. P. convex then depr. or even infundib. but
persistently papillate.

[=viridifluens=, Lasch. P. campan. subumbil. dry, fibrous, fuscous
olive; g. adnate, broad; s. greenish-yellow.

Exuding a green juice when broken.

[=staurospora=, Bres. P. conico-campan. hygr. brownish umber, margin
striate; g. subadnexed, white then flesh-colour; s. livid,
fibrilloso-striate, often twisted, tall, albo-floccose at base; sp.
almost quadrangular-stellate, 10-12.

Differs from _N. hirtipes_ in larger size, fibrillose stem, downy, not
strigose at base.

     **** _Gills whitish. Not hygr._

=verecunda=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. campan.-convex, disc rather fleshy,
subumb. watery reddish, striate towards edge, flocculose; g. adnate; s.
3-4 cm. pallid, apex mealy; sp. 10-12 × 5-8.

=coelestina=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. campan. obtuse, blue, disc darker,
scabrid; g. adnate, very broad; s. 2-3 cm. blackish blue, apex pruinose;
sp. glob. 10.

[=cruentata=, Q. P. campan. mammilate, edge exp. pruinose, bluish-lilac;
g. broad; s. slender, glaucous or bluish, rufescent when touched; sp.
rough, 10.

=exilis=, Fr. P. 2 cm. conico-exp. striate, livid grey, apex darker and
papillate; g. adnexed; s. 4-6 cm. filiform, bluish green, apex naked;
sp. ----.

[=Kretzschmarii=, Rab. P. ovate then exp. reddish then greyish white,
umbo rather fleshy, pellucidly striate at edge; g. decur.; s. yellowish
brown, base floccosely rooting.

=rubida=, Berk. P. up to 1 cm. convex then exp. umbil. whitish grey then
rufescent, minutely silky; g. adnate, slightly decur.; s. 4-6 mm. white;
sp. 4-5 × 3.

[=cocles=, Fr. Small. P. at first cucullate, furcato-sulcate, disc
umbil., umber, scabrid, becoming exp.; g. adnate, broad, distant; s.
glabrous, livid.

[=monachella=, Q. P. campan. apiculate, striate, diaphanous, white,
centre spotted sooty; g. adnate, uncinate; s. bulbillose, white,
hyaline; sp. rough, 10-12 × 6-8.

[=minuta=, Karst. P. convex, sometimes subumbil. striate up to
umbilicus, glabrous, pallid fuscous, paler when dry and shining; g.
adnate, pallid; s. pallid fuscous, glabrous; sp. rough, 7-9.


     * _Gills whitish. Pileus rather fleshy, not striate, not hygr._

[=Linkii=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, fibrillosely virgate, sooty black then
grey, disc darker; g. white then flesh-colour, edge black; s. glabrous,
smoky, base incurved; sp. 10 long.

[=Forquignoni=, Q. P. umbil. wavy, rugulosely striate, granulated,
olive, diaphanous; g. eroded, hoary; s. slightly striate, silky; sp.
rough, 11 long.

=placida=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex, obtuse, grey or bluish, downy disc
darker, fibrillosely scaly; g. adnexed, broad, entirely whitish; s. 4-7
cm. blackish-blue, apex with white bloom and very minutely spotted
black; sp. ----.

Differs from _L. lappula_ in p. not being umbil.

=anatina=, Lasch. P. 3-4 cm. campan. indistinctly umb. greyish brown,
longitudinally fibrillosely squamulose; g. adnexed, broad; s. 3-4 cm.
bluish, pruinose then fibrillosely squamulose, apex even (not spotted
black); sp. 8 × 5. (10-12 × 7-8 Sacc.)

Differs from _L. placida_ and _L. lappula_ in not having black points at
apex of stem.

=lappula=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. umbil. grey, even, the darker umbilicus
with erect fibrils, giving a muricellato-punctate appearance; g. broad,
crowded; s. 4-5 cm. brownish-lilac or blackish-purple, apex naked and
with black points; sp. ----.

=lampropoda=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex then exp. or subdepr. flocculose
then squamulose, sooty grey then paler; g. adnate, ventricose; s. 3-4
cm. even, firm bluish violet, apex not black spotted; sp. rough, 10-11 ×

Differs from _L. asprella_ in even p. not being umbilicate.

var. _cyanulus_, Lasch. Slender. P. subumbil. floccosely villose,
blackish blue; s. capillary.

=aethiops=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. plano-depr. even, shining, black then
smoky, glabrous but innately fibrillosely virgate; g. adnate, entirely
whitish; s. 3-5 cm. blackish brown, black punctate upwards; sp. rough,
10 × 7.

Differs from _L. lampropoda_ in black punctate s.

=solstitialis=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. exp. at length depr. papillate,
rugulose, obsoletely innately fibrillose, fuscous; g. emarginate, broad;
2-3 cm. smoky, glabrous; sp. rough, 12-14 × 7.

[=camelina=, Lasch. P. obtuse, pallid rufous; g. arcuate, crowded; s.
stuffed, fibrillose, base curved.

[=Turci=, Bres. P. convex, umbil. then exp. brown-umber then tan,
densely downy then squamulose; g. broad; s. hollow, compr. livid
cinnamon; flesh white, rosy when broken; sp. angular, 11-12 × 7-8.

     ** _Gills at first bluish or grey._

=serrulata=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. exp. umbil. rather scaly,
blackish blue; g. broad, edge black-serrulate; s. 2-3 cm. paler than p.
with black points above; sp. rough, 12-14 × 6-8.

=euchroa=, Pers. P. 1.5-2 cm. campan.-convex, obtuse, fibrillosely
scaly, violet; g. violet, edge darker, entire; s. 2-3 cm. violet, not
black punctate; sp. rough, 10 × 7-8.

Differs from _L. chalybea_ and _L. lazulina_ by growing on wood.

=chalybea=, Pers. P. 2-3 cm. convex, subumb. not striate, flocculose
then squamulose, dark violet; g. greyish-white, edge rather paler; s.
3-5 cm. blue, not punctate; sp. 10 × 6.

Differs from _L. lazulina_ by p. not being striate.

=lazulina=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. campan. striate, at first glabrous then
cracked into squamules, sooty black; g. adnate, equally narrowed from
stem to edge of p. pallid grey; s. 4-5 cm. blue, not punctate; sp. 10 ×

[=Bresadolae=, Schulz. P. subglobose then exp. umbil. and depr. umber,
minutely squamulose; g. pale violet; s. bright blue, base bulbous with
white down; sp. rough, 8-10.

[=Bizzozeriana=, Sacc. P. umb. exp. dusky grey with dark scurf; g. dusky
vinous-purple; s. dusky purple; sp. 7 × 3.

[=Gorteri=, Weinm. P. convex, obtuse, velvety-squamulose, grey then
pale, edge white-fimbriate; g. fuscous purple, shining; s. purple

     *** _Gills fuscous- or dusky-purple._

[=calimorpha=, Weinm. P. conico-convex, umb. densely squamulose, sooty
or black; g. nearly free, ventricose, with a purple sheen, edge black;
s. blackish-purple.

[=aquila=, Fr. P. exp. deeply umbil. bay; g. sinuato-adnexed, very
broad; s. stuffed, fuscous, thickened upwards.

[=pyrenaica=, Pat. and Doas. P. convexo-plane, 4-5 mm. slightly umb.
edge incurved, reddish brown; g. pale red, adnate with a tooth; s.
solid, curved, colour of p.; sp. 5-6.

     **** _Gills pallid. Pileus yellow or greenish then pale._

=incana=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. umbil. glabrous, somewhat virgate,
brownish green; g. adnate with decur. tooth, greenish white; s. 3-5 cm.
shining, brownish green; sp. rough, 8-9.

[=euchlora=, Lasch. P. campan. convex, not striate, yellow-green with
brown fibrils, darker disc impressed; g. adnate; s. squamulosely
fibrillose, greenish-yellow, base aerugineo-tomentose; sp. 10-14 × 6-8.

=formosa=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. subumbil. slightly striate, yellow
wax-colour with brown adpressed fibrils and scattered squamules; g.
adnate, pallid yellow; s. 4-5 cm. striate, shining, yellow; sp. 10-12 ×

var. _suavis_, Lasch. S. becoming bluish.

=chloropolius=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. striate, livid, centre with black
squamules; g. adnate, pallid; s. 4-5 cm. even, bluish-green; sp. rough,
7-8 × 5. (12-14 × 6-8 Sacc.)

[=pallens=, Karst. P. convex exp. disc slightly depr. glabrous, livid,
pale and shining when dry; g. adnate, seceding; s. pallid, glabrous; sp.
rough, 9-10.

[=melleo-pallens=, Karst. P. convex, entirely striate, glabrous,
shining, brownish honey-colour then pale; g. soon free, edge darker; s.
colour of p. base with white down; sp. rough, 13-15 × 10-11.

     ***** _Gills grey or glaucous. Pileus hygr. substriate._

=asprella=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. exp. glabrous or fibrillose, striate,
umbilicus downy then squamulose, sooty then livid grey; g. adnate,
equally narrowed to the edge; s. 3-4 cm. slender, even, glabrous, livid,
tinged green or blue; sp. 10-12 × 6-8.

[=scabrosa=, Fr. P. exp. umbilic. from the first, not striate,
squamulose, sooty-brown, then grey, hygr.; g. adnate, segmentoid, grey;
s. even, apex with black points and white meal.

=nefrens=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. exp. then infundib. hygr. rather wavy, livid
sooty, depression darkest, pale when dry; g. broad, edge blackish,
entire; s. 2-3 cm. glabrous, livid fuscous; sp. 4-5 × 3.

Differs from _L. serrulata_ in entire edge of g. and absence of black
points at apex of s.

[=sarcita=, Fr. Fragile. P. exp. radiato-striate, uniform, hygr. torn
into fibrillose scales, smoky, hoary when dry; g. linear, thick,
distant, glaucous; s. short, glabrous; sp. 10-12 × 8.

     ****** _Gills white._

[=Kervernii=, Guern. P. fleshy-ochre or buff-yellow, dotted with flecks;
g. free, ventricose; s. slightly squamulose, shining white, often compr.
base cottony.

[=Queletii=, Boud. P. white with scattered rosy-amethyst flecks; g.
white then rosy; s. white then yellowish; sp. rough, 14.

[=sericella=, Bull. Shining white. P. silky; g. flesh-colour; s.
slender, fibrillose.

[=Gillotii=, Q. Diaphanous, becoming hyaline white. P. striate, umbil.
tinged olive; s. fistulose, silky, base white-downy; sp. rough, 9.

[=parasitica=, Q. Pruinose, shining white. P. orbicular; g. sinuate,
white then rosy; s. arcuate, apex dilated.

[=aemulans=, Karst. P. convex, umbil. innately squamulose, grey, opaque;
g. adnate, broad, smoky; s. glabrous, dusky livid, base whitish.

Resembles _Clitopilus vilis_.


     I. ORCELLI. _Gills deeply decur. Pileus irreg. subexcentric, wavy,
     scarcely hygr. edge at first flocculose._

=prunulus=, Scop. Smell like new meal. P. 5-9 cm. compact, convex and
regular then wavy, dry, pruinose, greyish white; g. rather distant; s.
2-3 cm. ventricose, naked, striate, white; sp. 7-8 × 5. Edible.

=orcella=, Bull. Smell like new meal. P. 5-7 cm. soft, plano-depr.
irreg. from first, silky, rather viscid when moist, yellowish-white; g.
crowded; s. 2 cm. flocculose, thickened upwards; sp. 7 × 4.

=mundulus=, Lasch. P. 3-5 cm. plano-depr. unequal, dry, white; g.
closely crowded, narrow; s. 2-3 cm. floccosely villose, white, becoming
blackish inside; sp. 10 × 5.

[=pseudoorcella=, Fr. P. exp. depr. even, somewhat fuscous, but silkily
hoary; g. broad, distant, greyish white; s. solid, short, outside and
inside greyish-brown.

=popinalis=, Fr. Entirely grey. P. 3-5 cm. flaccid, rather wavy,
glabrous; g. crowded, dark grey; s. 3-4 cm. equal, naked; sp. rough,

=undatus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. deeply umbil. wavy, fragile, sooty grey, pale
and silky opaque; g. dark grey; s. 2-3 cm. hollow, colour of p.; sp.
rough, 6-8. (10-12, Quél.)

var. _viarum_, Fr. P. often excentric, greyish hoary, shining, with
darker zones.

[=concentricus=, Gill. P. convex, umbil. edge wavy, greyish or reddish
with brown broken concentric lines; g. reddish grey; s. pale reddish
with abundant white down at base.

=cancrinus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex-umbil. then exp. unequal, flocculose,
smooth, pale reddish-white; g. decur. distant; s. 2 cm. tough, glabrous,
white; sp. rough, 5-6.

=cretatus=, B. and Br. P. 1-2 cm. convex then umbil. thin, dead white
but shining, edge incurved; g. very decur.; s. 4-6 mm. white; sp. subgl.
4-5. (7 × 3 Phil., 11-12 long, Quél.)

[=lentulus=, Karst. P. plano-depr. often irreg. rather silky, rather
viscid when moist, whitish; g. decur. closely crowded, narrow, pallid;
s. solid, equal, wavy, flocculose, pallid; sp. rough, 2-4.

     II. SERICELLI. _Pileus regular silky or hygr.-silky, edge involute,
     naked. Gills adnate, slightly decur._

=carneoalbus=, Wither. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. convex then exp. and depr. edge
drooping, white, polished; g. crowded; s. 2-3 cm. equal, solid, white;
sp. rough, 7-8.

[=angustus=, Pers. P. convexo-plane, subumb. grey, silky-shining when
dry; g. tinged flesh-colour; s. glabrous, white, base incurved, downy;
sp. 7-8 × 5.

=sarnicus=, Mass. P. 2-3 cm. becoming plane, subumbonate, grey, silky;
g. plane then suddenly decurrent near the stem, reddish; s. 2-3 cm.
flexuous, white, smooth; sp. nodulose, 7-8 × 6.

[=nidusavis=, Secr. P. plano-umb. floccosely-scurfy, greyish brown, at
length wavy; g. broad, thickish, white then flesh-colour; s. flocculose,
thickened at both ends, base with white down; sp. 8-9 × 6.

[=hydroionides=, Cesati. Tough, violet then grey. P. convex, obsoletely
umb. hygr.; g. adnato-decur. whitish; s. hollow, short, even.

=vilis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex, umbil. slightly striate, grey,
silky-flocculose; g. crowded, white then greyish; s. hollow,
fibrillosely striate, grey; sp. 7-8 × 6.

[=ionipterus=, Cesati. P. plano-depr. glabrous, violet; g. adnato-decur.
bluish; s. solid, pallid, cracked into fibres outside.

[=cicatrisatus=, Lasch. P. convex, umbil. glabrous, not striate,
rivuloso-rugulose when adult, fuscous; g. broad, pallid; s. even, base
strigose, rooting.

[=neglectus=, Lasch. P. convex then umbil. not striate,
floccosely-fibrillose, whitish ochre then pallid; g. adnato-decur.; s.
solid, weak, whitish.

=straminipes=, Mass. P. 3-5 cm. fragile, whitish, shining, soon exp. and
depr.; g. whitish then rosy; s. 3-5 cm. straw-colour below, mealy above,
hollow; sp. rough, 10-12.

=stilbocephalus=, B. and Br. P. 2-4 cm. campan. obtuse, edge straight,
yellowish-white or greyish, sparkling with atoms; g. veined, adnate or
emarginate; s. 4-7 cm. silky-fibrous, white; sp. rough, 12 × 7-8.

=Smithii=, Mass. P. 2-4 cm. soon plane and orbicular, often wavy,
atomate, white or tinged yellow; g. broadly adnate; s. 4-7 cm. surface
undulated, pallid with a reddish tinge below; sp. glob. 4.


[=polita=, Pers. P. umbil. glabrous, hygr. livid, shining when dry; g.
crowded; s. equal, livid, polished, apex subpruinose.

[=apiculata=, Fr. P. convex, depr. umb. even, hygr. livid, silky when
dry; g. rather distant, grey; s. equal, glabrous, livid.

=Parkensis=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. exp. deeply umbil. glabrous, fuscous,
striate to middle; g. crowded; s. 2 cm. colour of p. glabrous; sp.
rough, 8-10.

=carneogrisea=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. convex, umbil. finely striate,
greyish pink, edge darker, micaceous; g. subdecur. edge irreg. darker;
s. 2-4 cm. colour of p. white down at base; sp. rough, 7 × 5.

=griseorubella=, Lasch. P. 2-3 cm. deeply umbil. then plane, striate,
hygr. umber then hoary; g. slightly decur.; s. 3-4 cm. glabrous, paler
than p.; sp. rough, 9-10.

[=Mougeotii=, Fr. (= _E. atrides_, Q.). P. umbil. then infundib.
fibrillose then squamulose, greyish lilac, edge blue; g. lilac then
pallid; s. elongated, fibrillose, apex floccose, greyish lilac; sp. 7-8.

var. _minor_, Sacc. P. convex then umbil. fuscous violet; g. lilac; s.
violet; sp. rough, 9 × 7.

=atrides=, Lasch. P. plane, deeply umbil. striate, black or brown, black
virgate, then pale; g. pallid, edge with black points; s. pallid with
black points above; sp. ----.

Fries thinks this may be an abnormal form of _Lept. serrulata_.

=nigrella=, Pers. Tufted, small. P. smooth, umbil. becoming blackish,
not virgate; g. flesh colour then grey, edge same colour; s. short,
glaucous, not dotted black; sp. ----.

United by Fries with _E. atrides_, but considered distinct by Berk. and

[=nigellus=, Q. Small, bay then blackish; p. striate, umbil. granulated;
g. decur. narrow, grey; s. short, glabrous, base woolly; sp. rough, 10.

=atropuncta=, Pers. P. 1-2 cm. soft, hemispherical, pale grey; g.
decur. arcuate, rosy-grey; s. 2-4 cm. rather tough, pallid, shining,
with black dot-like squamules; sp. rough, 5-6.

[=calophylla=, Pers. P. hemispher. umbil. sooty umber; g. decur.
reddish-purple; s. narrowed upwards, rather thick, somewhat viscid,
colour of p., at first purplish, shining.

=rhodocylix=, Lasch. P. 1-1.5 cm. umbil.-infundib. remotely striate when
moist, somewhat fuscous, flocculose and grey when dry; g. very distant,
broad; s. 2-3 cm. glabrous, grey; sp. rough, 10.

[=rusticoides=, Gill. P. convex, umbil. striate, glabrous, hygr. brown,
paler when dry; g. decur. thick, distant, forked, rufous-brown; s.
slender, colour of p.

=flosculus=, W. G. Sm. P. 1.5-2 cm. deeply umbil. with crystalline
particles, irreg. black brown, whitish with age; g. decur. rather wavy;
s. 2 cm. reddish; sp. rough.

Probably introduced.

=acus=, W. G. Sm. P. 1-1.5 cm. deeply umbil. densely pruinose, white,
edge striate and incurved; g. thick, distant; s. 2-3 cm. smooth,
whitish; sp. rough.

Probably introduced.

[=tristis=, Bres. Smell like spirit-of-wine. P. convexo-subcampan.
umbil. edge crisped, striate, moist, glabrous, brown; g. distant, thick,
broad, arcuato-decur. fleshy-brown; colour of p. glabrous; sp. rough,


[=translucens=, D. C. P. subsessile, thin, orbicular, wavy, pellucid,
white tinged reddish; g. free, pallid then reddish lilac; sp. 4-6 long.

=variabilis=, Pers. P. 1-1.5 cm. resupinate, then reflexed, tomentose,
white, attached by a very short incurved downy stem which disappears
when the pileus turns over; g. radiating from an excentric point,
distant, white then pink; sp. 3 × 2.

var. _sphaerosporus_, Pat. P. white, tomentose; g. paler than type; sp.
globose, echinulate, tinged red.

=depluens=, Batsch. P. 1-1.5 cm. more or less convex, edge incurved,
resupinate then reflexed, white or tinged reddish, usually with a very
short downy s.; g. broad, ventricose, grey then tinged rufescent; sp.
glob. rough, 5-6. (9-11 × 6-8 Sacc.)

Differs from _C. variabilis_ in globose, warted s.

[=inaequabilis=, Sacc. Entirely rusty, stipitate; p. oblique, almost
glabrous; g. sinuato-free, ventricose; s. very excentric, short, base
dilated, incurved; sp. 8 × 6.

[=macrosporus=, Pat. and Doas. P. exp. depressed at an excentric point
corresponding to insertion of stem, reddish brown, striate up to
depression; g. broad, distant, reddish; s. short, excentric, enlarged
into a flat plate at base; sp. 15-18 × 12.

=byssisedus=, Pers. P. 1-2 cm. resupinate then horizontal, reniform,
plane, downy, grey then pale; g. adnato-decur. greyish-white, reddish
with the spores; s. incurved, downy, base surrounded with white fibrils;
sp. glob. rough, 6-7.

Differs from _Pleurotus applicatus_ by presence of s. and pink sp.

[=Zahlbruckneri=, Beck. P. resupinate then reflexed, sessile, reniform,
shining white, downy; g. radiating, reddish, edge paler, denticulate;
sp. minutely warted, subg. 6-7.

Differs from _C. variabilis_ in denticulate edge of gills and sp.

[=Klukii=, Blonski. P. shell-shaped, reniform, downy, greyish-tan; g.
crowded, decur. whitish then bright rosy; s. slightly curved, base white
and downy; sp. 5-6 × 3.

Allied to _C. byssisedus_ but larger.

[=Peteauxi=, Q. P. cupulate then reniform, wavy, thin, fragile, minutely
tomentose, shining white; g. free, sinuate, radiating from a central
point which is continued into a very short, white tomentose stem; sp. 7


     A. _Gills separating spontaneously, or very easily from flesh of

=Paxillus=. Margin of pileus persistently involute; gills decurrent or

     B. _Gills not separating spontaneously, nor easily from flesh of

     * _Stem furnished with a volva, or an interwoven ring, or with

=Locellina=. Volva and ring both present.

=Pholiota=. Ring alone present.

     ** _Volva and ring both absent._

     + _Stem central._

=Pluteolus=. Gills free.

=Bolbitius=. Pileus membranaceous; gills deliquescent at maturity.

=Inocybe=. Stem fleshy, fibrous externally; pileus fibrillose or scaly;
gills sinuato-adnexed.

=Hebeloma=. Stem fleshy, fibrous externally; pileus glabrous, viscid;
gills sinuato-adnexed.

=Naucoria=. Stem cartilaginous externally; edge of pileus incurved at
first; gills adnexed or adnate.

=Galera=. Stem cartilaginous externally; edge of pileus straight at
first; gills adnexed or adnate, often with a decurrent tooth.

=Tubaria=. Stem cartilaginous externally; gills broadest behind,
decurrent or adnato-decurrent.

=Flammula=. Stem fleshy, fibrous externally; gills adnate or decurrent.

=Cortinarius=. Universal veil cobweb-like, not forming an interwoven
ring, often collapsing and forming a ring-like zone on the stem; stem
fleshy, fibrous.

     ++ _Stem excentric or absent._



     A. LEPISTA. _Pileus entire, central._

[=sordarius=, Fr. P. convexo-gibbous then plano-depr. dingy white, edge
at length spreading and sulcate; g. adnate, crowded; s. spongy-stuffed,
equal, striate, greyish white; sp. 8 × 6.

=Alexandri=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. compact, plane then depr. dry, fawn, edge
strongly incurved; g. subdecur. yellowish; s. 1-2 cm. stout; sp. 4-5 ×

=lepista=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. plano-depr. dry, dingy white, edge incurved,
even, naked; g. deeply decur. rather branched, crowded, whitish; s.
solid, stout, pallid; sp. 8 × 6.

Differs from large sp. of _Clitocybe_ by strongly incurved p. and dingy

=extenuatus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. rigid, campan. exp. naked, glabrous, moist,
brownish tan, edge incurved, downy, even; g. deeply decur. closely
crowded, white then dingy; s. 3-5 cm. solid, base tuberous, rooting; sp.

=panaeolus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. thin, exp. subdepr. glabrous, moist, white,
edge incurved, thin; g. slightly decur. crowded, narrow, pale rusty; s.
2-3 cm. rufescent, thickened below; sp. subg. 5.

var. _spilomaeolus_, Fr. P. with drop-like spots; s. slender, yellowish
white; g. pale rusty.

[=nitens=, Lamb. P. convex, fleshy, glutinous in damp weather, shining
and velvety when dry, yellow-brown, edge incurved, paler; g. free,
sinuate, closely crowded, becoming olive-brown; s. reddish-yellow, base

=orcelloides=, Cke. and Mass. P. 2-4 cm. thin, exp. snow-white then with
greyish blotches, edge incurved; g. adnato-decur. white then brownish;
s. 2-3 cm. tapering to base, ochre; sp. 8 × 4.

Differs from _P. panaeolus_ in tapering stem and sp.

=lividus=, Cke. P. 2-5 cm. convex, disc depr. margin arched and
incurved, dingy white or livid ochre; g. decur. broad, white; s. 6-9 cm.
narrowed downwards, white; sp. glob. 3-3.5, whitish.

Probably a sp. of _Clitocybe_.

=revolutus=, Cke. P. 2-3 cm. convex, pale ochre, edge thin, sometimes
tinged lilac, a little upturned; g. deeply decur. pale tan; s. 2-3 cm.
narrowed downwards, paler than p., often tinged violet at base; sp.
glob. 3.5-4.

Differs from _P. lividus_ in deeply decur. coloured g.

     B. TAPINIA. _Pileus usually excentric or resupinate._

=involutus=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. convex then depr. moist, rusty orange,
incurved edge downy, flesh pallid; g. branched, broad, anastomosing
behind, dingy ochre; s. solid, firm, 3-4 cm.; sp. 8-12 × 5-6.

var. _excentricus_, Fr. P. excentric; s. short, growing on wood.

=paradoxus=, Cke. P. 2-6 cm. convex then exp. sometimes irreg. densely
tomentose, rufous umber with purple tinge; g. decur. connected by veins,
yellow; s. 2-3 cm. fibrillose, red and yellow; sp. 20-22 × 7-8.

=leptopus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. excentric, gibbous then depr. yellow-brown,
torn into downy squamules, flesh yellow; g. simple, very narrow,
yellowish then darker; s. 1-2 cm. solid, base narrowed; sp. 8-9 × 5.

=atrotomentosus=, Fr. P. 6-12 cm. compact, excentric, gibbous then
plano-infundib. dry, torn into granules, rusty; g. adnate, yellowish; s.
solid, rooting, densely covered with blackish tomentum; sp. 5 × 3.

[=griseotomentosus=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, gibbous, excentric, oblique,
glabrous, tan, becoming rusty when bruised, edge incurved, downy; flesh
watery; g. decur. broad, tan; s. stout, tuberous, velvety with grey
down; sp. 9 long.

[=chrysophyllus=, Trog. P. campan.-plane, horizontal, cracked into
scales, pale cinnamon; g. decur. broad, white then citrin; s. short,
ascending, pallid.

=crassus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. oblique, nearly plane and even, becoming
rusty; g. rather distant, cinnamon; s. very short, excentric, ascending;
sp. 15-18 × 7-8.

Strongly suggests the genus _Flammula_.

[=ionipus=, Q. P. 5-10 cm. shell-shaped, oboval or oblong, glabrous,
straw-colour with a tinge of olive, narrowed into a short, bulbous,
tomentose, amethyst or lilac stem; flesh soft, citrin; g. decur.
transversely veined, branched, tinged olive then cinnamon; sp. 6-7 long.

=panuoides=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. shell-shaped, downy then glabrous, sessile
becoming resupinate, dingy yellow; g. decur. crowded, branched, crisped,
yellow; sp. 4-5 × 3-4.

var. _fagi_, Cke. Gregarious, crisped; g. crisped, orange.

[=lamellirugis=, D. C. P. 2-5 cm. resupinate, cup-shaped then
shell-shaped, downy, yellow; g. decur. branched, wavy and crisped,
alveolate at the base, saffron then cinnamon; sp. 6 long.

Perhaps identical with _P. panuoides_.


=Alexandri=, Gill. P. convex, umb. viscid, yellowish-tan, appendiculate;
g. adnato-decur. flesh-colour; s. slender, wavy, whitish, with a
fibrillose cinnamon veil, base bulbous, volva torn at free edge.

=acetabulosa=, Sacc. (= _Acetabularia acetabulosa_, B.). P. 2-3 cm. tan,
edge deeply striate; g. free, brown; s. 4-5 cm. white, hollow, volva


     A. HUMIGENI. _Terrestrial, not attached to mosses; rarely

     * _Spores rusty._

=aurea=, Matt. P. 8-14 cm. hemispher. exp. obtuse, somewhat velvety,
pulverulent or obsoletely squamulose, golden tawny; g. adnexed,
ventricose, paler than p.; s. 10-16 cm. stuffed, nearly equal, even; sp.
10 × 5.

var. _Vahlii_, Schum. P. even, glabrous; g. almost free.

=caperata=, Pers. P. 6-11 cm. ovate, exp. with incrusted white flecks,
yellow; g. adnate, clay-colour; s. 8-14 cm. white, ring superior, thin,
apex scaly; sp. 12 × 4-5.

=terrigena=, Fr. (incl. _P. Cookei_, Fr.). P. 3-5 cm. exp. fibrillosely
silky, dingy yellow; g. adnate, pale yellow rusty olive; s. 4-5 cm.
equal, variegated with rusty wart-like scales; veil forming a ring and
appendiculate; sp. 5 × 3. (10 × 4-6.)

[=Secretani=, Fr. P. convex, exp. yellow with darker deciduous scales,
then glabrous; g. adnate, golden then orange; s. solid, bulbous,
floccosely squamulose below ring.

=erebia=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. glabrous, rather viscid, lurid umber then
pale, edge striate; g. adnate; s. 3-4 cm. pallid, apical ring reflexed
and striate; sp. ----.

=ombrophila=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. even, rusty, hygr.; g. ventricose; s.
6-9 cm. hollow, pallid, ring entire, distant; sp. 8 × 3.5. (13-14 × 6-7

var. _brunneola_, Fr. P. obtuse, brown; g. narrow.

=togularis=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. even, pale ochre; g. yellowish; s. 6-9
cm. apex pale, ring median; sp. 8 × 3.5.

var. _filaris_, Fr. P. thin, campan. exp. obtuse, even, ochre; g.
adnate, ventricose, yellow then pale rusty; s. filiform, wavy, glabrous,
pallid, ring entire, distant.

Smaller than type, and s. not so yellow.

=blattaria=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. subumb. rusty, hygr. edge striate; g.
rounded and free, ventricose, cinnamon; s. 2-3 cm. equal, straight,
rusty, ring white; sp. 4 × 2.

     ** _Spores rusty-fuscous._

=dura=, Bolton. P. 4-5 cm. rather compact, exp. glabrous, at length
cracked into areolae, edge even, tawny then paler; g. adnate; s. 8-12
cm. hard, pale ochre, apex mealy, ring somewhat torn; sp. 8-9 × 5-6.

var. _xanthophylla_, Bres. G. sulphur yellow then umber; sp. 12-14 ×

=praecox=, Pers. P. 3-7 cm. soft, exp. obtuse, even, pallid tan; g.
crowded, white then fuscescent; s. 4-9 cm. cylindrical, downy then
glabrous, ring white; sp. 8-13 × 6-7.

var. _minor_, Fr. Small; ring torn, appendiculate.

[=phragmatophylla=, Guern. P. convex, depr. round broad umbo, maroon-bay
then paler; g. narrow, adnato-decur. connected by numerous veins; s.
tinged brown, squamulose, ring persistent, whitish.

=sphaleromorpha=, Bull. P. 4-7 cm. yellowish, even, soon expanded; g.
rather broad, slightly decur. dry, yellowish then tawny; s. 5-8 cm.
silky, pale, base thickened, ring distant, membranous; sp. 10 × 7.

[=gibberosa=, Fr. P. exp. dry, tan, umbo darker; g. quite free, closely
crowded; s. slender, equal, white, ring torn.

     B. TRUNCIGENI. _Growing on wood, or epiphytic; often clustered._

     * _Pileus naked, not scaly but usually rivulose; gills pallid then
     rufous or fuscous._

=radicosa=, Bull. Smell strong. P. 4-9 cm. equal, obtuse, even,
glabrous, spotted, pale greyish tan; g. free, ventricose; s. 8-14 cm.
solid, rooting, mealy above, squarrosely scaly below ring; sp. 9 × 4.5.

=pudica=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. exp. even, dry, glabrous, whitish or tinged
tawny; s. 3-5 cm. solid, even, whitish, ring spreading, persistent; sp.
6-7 × 3.5.

=leochroma=, Cke. P. 3-6 cm. exp. glabrous, tawny; g. adnate; s. 6-9 cm.
nearly equal, solid, whitish, ring sup. tawny; sp. ----.

[=radicellata=, Gill. P. ovoid then convex, striate, deep yellow-ochre;
g. numerous, slightly adnexed, colour of p.; s. white, ring fugacious,
long rooting.

=capistrata=, Cke. P. 3-5 cm. edge incurved, slightly striate, pale
dingy yellow, rather viscid; g. subdecur.; s. 6-9 cm. equal, squamulose,
whitish, ring sup. spreading; sp. ----.

[=cylindracea=, D. C. P. convex-gibbous, even, glabrous, rather viscid,
dingy yellow, disc darker; g. adnexed, crowded, whitish then rusty; s.
equal, rigid, subsquamulose, whitish, ring persistent apical, white; sp.
8 × 5.

=aegerita=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. rivulose, rugulose, tawny, edge pale; g.
adnate, pallid then fuscous; s. 8-14 cm. equal, silky-white, ring sup.
tumid; sp. 10 × 5.

[=Brigantii=, Fr. P. convex, white, reticulately sulcate then cracked
into wart-like areolae, polygonal, apex truncate and fuscous; g. with
decur. tooth; s. solid, equal, white with bay scales, ring apical

=luxurians=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex-gibbous then exp. unequal, silky then
squamulose, pale then rufo-fuscous; g. decur. greyish flesh-colour then
fuscous; s. 3-5 cm. white then tawny, solid, rigid, floccose, ring
apical, imperfect; sp. 10 × 4.

     ** _Pileus scaly, not hygr., gills becoming discoloured._

     + _Gills pallid then fuscous, olive, clay-coloured, not pure

=destruens=, Brig. P. unequal, yellowish white, with paler large woolly
floccose scales when dry; g. striato-decur. crenulate, broad, umber at
last; s. solid, narrowed upwards, white-scaly, base swollen and rooting,
ring fugacious; sp. 8-9 × 5-6.

Parasitic on living trees.

=comosa=, Fr. P. 7-14 cm. convex, viscid, tawny with whitish deciduous
scales; g. subdecur. white then brownish tan; s. 7-9 cm. solid, rather
bulbous, white, ring floccose, soon disappearing; sp. 12 × 6. (7.5-8.5 ×
5-6 Sacc.)

[=magna=, Schulz. P. convex-umb. wood-yellow, with broad scattered
adpressed scales; g. sinuate, yellow then umber; s. cylindrical, thick,
squarrosely scaly, yellowish; sp. 8-11 × 4-6.

=heteroclita=, Fr. P. 6-14 cm. exp. very obtuse, subexcentric, whitish
or yellowish, with scattered scales; g. very broad; s. 6-9 cm. solid,
hard, bulbous, rooting, whitish, fibrillose, veil apical; sp. 8-10 ×

[=cerifera=, Karst. P. convex, even, upper stratum thick,
waxy-gelatinous, glabrous, yellow, edge white-squamulose at first; g.
crowded, broad, pallid; s. central, solid, equal, curved, rooting, hard,
white-squamulose, whitish; sp. 8-10 × 6-7.

=aurivella=, Batsch. P. 7-14 cm. campan. convex, gibbous, tawny yellow,
with darker scales, rather viscid; g. sinuato-adfixed; s. 8-14 cm.
curved, with rusty adpressed squamules, ring rather distant; sp. 5 ×
2.5. (8-9 × 4-5 Sacc.)

var. _filamentosa_, Schaeff. P. thinner, scales adnate, concentric, ring

=squarrosa=, Müll. Smell strong. P. 5-9 cm. campan. convex, exp. dry,
rusty saffron, with darker concentric, squarrose, revolute scales; g.
narrow, pallid olive then rusty; s. 6-11 cm. squarrosely scaly up to
ring; sp. 8 × 4.

var. _Mülleri_, Fr. P. obtuse, pallid, adpressedly scaly, moist; g.

var. _reflexa_, Schaeff. P. thin, cuspidately umbonate, scaly; s. partly
hollow, long, equal.

var. _verruculosa_, Lasch. P. compact, obtuse, yellow, papillate scales
crowded, cinnamon; s. villosely squamulose.

[=humicola=, Quel. P. campan. convex, pale yellow, spotted; g. yellow;
s. slender, fistulose, yellowish, spotted; sp. 11-12 long.

Probably a var. of _Pholiota squarrosa_.

=subsquarrosa=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, viscid, rusty brown with darker
adpressed floccose scales; g. almost free, crowded, yellow then dingy
tan; s. 5-8 cm. rusty yellow, with darker scales up to zone of ring; sp.

Differs from _P. squarrosa_ in nearly free g.

[=djakovensis=, Schulz. P. pulvinate-umb. fleshy, edge for a long time
bent down, golden, darker and adpressed scaly at disc, very viscid in
rain; g. crowded, free, tan then purple-brown, edge entire; s. somewhat
rooting, ascending, subbulbous, scaly up to ring, colour of p.; sp. 4-5

[=fusca=, Q. P. 5-8 cm. convex, umb. viscid, brown with buff flecks near
the edge; g. pale then lilac, at length brown; s. fibrous-fleshy,
curved, subbulbous, yellowish-white, apex pulverulent, covered with fine
flecks below the floccose annular zone; sp. 13 long.

     ++ _Gills yellow then pure rusty or tawny._

=spectabilis=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. compact, exp. dry, bright tawny orange
then paler, broken up into fibrous scales; g. adnato-decur. crowded,
narrow, yellow then rusty; s. 6-9 cm. solid, ventricose, rooting, ring
inf.; sp. 9 × 4.

A destructive parasite on timber trees.

[=villosa=, Fr. P. exp. dry, everywhere floccosely villose, yellow
tawny; g. narrow, yellow; s. elongated, stout, fibrillose, base
thickened, yellow, ring narrow, entire.

=adiposa=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. yellow, glutinous, with darker,
concentric, deciduous scales; g. adnate, broad; s. 7-14 cm. subbulbous,
yellow, with darker glutinous squamules; sp. 7 × 3-4.

An injurious parasite to beech and ash.

=lucifera=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. then umb. viscid, yellow with darker
adpr. deciduous scales; g. crenulate, narrow; s. 3-5 cm. equal, rather
squamulose, base rusty, ring inf.; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

[=violacea=, Vogl. P. convex, viscid, violet, disc darkest; g.
arcuato-decur. brownish, edge eroded; s. dark violet, ring distant,

=flammans=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. subumb. dry, tawny with superficial
sulphur squamules; g. crowded, entire, yellow; s. 5-7 cm. equal, rather
wavy, squarrosely scaly up to ring; sp. 8 × 4. (4 × 2, Sacc.)

=Junonia=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. obtuse, dry, glabrous, yellow or tawny
yellow; g. yellow then tawny; s. 5-9 cm. solid, equal, incurved, scurfy
above entire ring; sp. 7-9 × 4.5-5.

=tuberculosa=, Schaeff. P. 3-5 cm. exp. dry, tawny yellow, broken up
into adpressed innate squamules; g. broad, serrulate; s. 3-4 cm.
incurved, bulbous, ring deciduous; sp. 7 × 4.

=curvipoda=, A. and S. P. 3-5 cm. exp. tawny yellow, torn into floccose
adpressed scales; g. adnate, broad; s. 3-5 cm. thin, incurved,
fibrillose, ring floccosely radiating, yellow; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

[=Kolaënsis=, Karst. P. convex-exp. yellow, covered with rusty or
cinnamon indumentum; g. at first yellowish; s. incurved, short, rusty
and fibrillosely scaly below.

=muricata=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, umbil. dry, yellow with tawny
fasciculate flocci forming a muricate or granular covering; g. broad,
yellow; s. thin, squamulose below the fugacious ring.

[=tersa=, Fr. P. exp. adpressedly squamulose, entirely yellow; g. free;
s. elongated, equal, rusty below.

[=trichocephala=, Trog. P. campan. exp. obtuse, with shining
straw-coloured hair-like squamules; g. free, distant, white then rusty;
s. solid, base thickened, glabrous.

=cruentata=, Cke. and Sm. P. 4-5 cm. exp. dry, yellow, breaking up into
darker adpressed scales, edge incurved; g. yellow then tan; s. curved,
colour of p. 3-5 cm. curved, base dark red brown, rooting, ring
superior. Flesh red; sp. ----.

     *** _Gills cinnamon_ (not yellow at first).

=paxillus=, Fr. Entirely cinnamon. P. 7-12 cm. convexo-gibbous then exp.
even, moist, rather wavy; g. decur. broad; s. 8-14 cm. solid, elongated,
stout, ring narrow, spreading; sp. ----.

=dissimulans=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. exp. edge involute, often gibbous
or obtusely umb. hygr. slightly viscid, lurid then pale; g. sinuately
adnate; s. 3-4 cm. thickened downwards, white, ring superior; sp. 7 × 4.

=confragosa=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. exp. hygr. floccosely-scurfy, edge striate,
rufous cinnamon then tawny; g. adnate, closely crowded; s. 4-5 cm.
fistulose, equal, fibrillose below spreading ring; sp. 8 × 4.

[=sublutea=, Fl. Dan. P. exp. umb. squamulose, moist, edge striate,
yellow; g. decur.; s. stuffed, glabrous, yellow, ring spreading.

=phalerata=, Fr. P. exp. glabrous but with superficial deciduous pale
scales, yellow; g. adnato-decur.; s. fasciculately pilose, adpressedly
flocculose above distant ring.

=mutabilis=, Schaeff. P. 2.5-9 cm. exp. subumb. glabrous, deep cinnamon
then pale; g. adnato-decur. crowded; s. 3-9 cm. rigid, squarrosely scaly
up to ring, base dark rusty; sp. 9-11 × 5-6.

[=gregaria=, Wettst. P. convex then exp. glabrous, edge thin, striate;
sometimes becoming raised, pale fuscous centre darker; g. adnato-decur.
broad, crowded, pallid then cinnamon; s. erect or curved, fistulose,
fibrous, tough, slender, squarrosely squamulose up to spreading rusty
ring, rusty below and pale above ring; sp. 6-8 × 4.

=marginata=, Batsch. P. 2-3 cm. exp. glabrous, hygr. edge striate,
honey-colour then pale; g. adnate, crowded; s. 3-5 cm. not scaly, ring
fugacious, dark base with white velvety down; sp. 7-8 × 4.

_P. mutabilis_ differs in scaly s.

=sororia=, Karst. P. convex, exp. slightly striate, squamulose,
tawny-cinnamon; g. sinuato-adnate, crowded; s. equal, wavy, colour of p.
then paler, variegated with white squamules, apex scurfy; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

Close to _Pholiota marginata_.

=mustelina=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. campan.-convex, even, glabrous, dry,
yellow then ochre; g. adnate, tawny cinnamon; s. 2-2.5 cm. even, pallid,
white-mealy above superior ring, base thickened, with white down; sp.

=unicolor=, Fl. Dan. P. 1-1.5 cm. campan.-convex, subumb. hygr. bay then
ochre; g. subtriangular; s. 3-4 cm. colour of p., ring slender; sp. 9-10
× 5.

[=mellea=, Karst. P. convex exp. even, glabrous, honey-colour; g.
crowded, fuscescent; s. wavy, glabrous, whitish, ring persistent; sp.
8-12 × 6-9.

Differs from _Pholiota unicolor_ in colour.

     C. MUSCIGENI. _Resembling a Galera with a ring; hygr._

=pumila=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. hemispher. even, ochre; g. adnate, crowded,
broad, yellow then pallid; s. 3-4 cm. slender, ring fugacious, forming a
zone; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

[=muscigena=, Q. Honey yellow then pale ochre. P. campan. umb. thin,
striate; g. triquetrous, thin, pale then ochre; s. slender, fistulose,
fibrillose, slightly striate, cottony at the base; ring membranous,
narrow, saffron-ochre; sp. 8-9 long.

=mycenoides=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan.-convex, everywhere striate, hygr.
rusty then tawny or pallid; g. adnate; s. 3-4 cm. rusty, glabrous, ring
white; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

=rufidula=, Kalchbr. P. exp. depr. not striate, rather rufous brick-red
then pale, white-flocculose at edge; g. adnate, branched; s. watery
rufescent, white-fibrillose, ring superior; sp. 8-10 × 4-6.


=reticulatus=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. campan. exp. viscid, reticulated with
raised anastomosing wrinkles, pale violet; g. free, rusty saffron; s.
3-5 cm. fragile, fibrillose; sp. 7 × 4.

[=dictyotus=, Kalchbr. Entirely pale ochraceous. P. campan. exp. umb.
dry, with anastomosing raised veins; g. free; s. fragile, even,

Differs from _P. reticulatus_ in colour, and in growing on the ground.

=aleuriatus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conical then convexo-plane, viscid,
striate, grey, livid, rosy, &c.; g. free, ventricose, saffron-ochre; s.
thin, pulverulent, subincurved, white; sp. ----.


=grandiusculus=, Cke. and Mass. P. 2.5-5 cm. thin, campan. exp. slightly
striate, pale yellow, disc rufous; g. free, rusty ochre; s. 6-9 cm.
narrowed upwards, hollow, white; sp. 15 × 5-6.

=vitellinus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. ovate then exp. viscid, egg-yellow, even
then sulcate at the edge; g. adnexed, ochre then tan; s. 6-7 cm. equal,
white, squamulose, hollow; g. 10 × 6.

Differs from _B. flavidus_ in white stem, and from _B. Boltoni_ in clear
yellow p. not depressed at disc.

=Boltoni=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. viscid, even, edge becoming sulcate, yellow
then pale, disc darker and subdepr.; g. subadnate, yellow then livid
fuscous; s. 4-5 cm. narrowed upwards, yellowish, at first flocculose;
sp. 14 × 8.

=flavidus=, Bolton. P. 2-4 cm. glutinous, conical then exp. disc a
little elevated, pale yellow, edge striate; g. almost free, yellow then
brownish; s. 4-6 cm. slightly tapering, yellow; sp. 10 × 6.

=fragilis=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. viscid, pellucid, edge striate, subumb.
yellow then pale; g. yellowish then pale cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. narrowed
upwards, naked, glabrous, yellow; sp. 7 × 3.5. (14-15 × 8-9 Sacc.)

[=bulbillosus=, Fr. P. convex-campan. exp. not striate, pale yellowish
fuscous; g. free, ventricose, rusty; s. attenuated upwards from a
somewhat marginate bulb, whitish yellow, glabrous; sp. 10-14 × 8.

=affinis=, Mass. (sp. nov.) P. 1-2 cm. campan. then exp. umb. glabrous,
dry, edge striate, yellowish tawny like the narrow, adnexed g.; s. 4-7
cm. attenuated upwards from a marginate bulb, white, shining; sp. 8 × 6.

Differs from _B. bulbillosus_ in the pure white s., and umbonate,
striate, tawny yellow p. which is whitish when dry.

[=conocephalus=, Bull. P. 1-2 cm. conico-campan. fragile, slightly
striate, viscid at the apex, creamy yellow; g. free, ventricose,
becoming ochre; s. slender, elongated, pruinose at the apex, white; sp.
10 long.

=titubans=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. ovoid-campan. thin, glabrous, diaphanous,
yellow, becoming striate, plaited and greyish at the edge; g. free,
yellow then reddish or ochre; s. hollow, slender, very fragile, 3-5 cm.
mealy, white, shining; sp. 12-14 × 8.

=apicalis=, W. G. Sm. P. 2-3 cm. high, conical, not exp. striate and
brown up to ochre disc; g. free, rusty; s. 3 cm. base thickened,
striate, white; sp. 9 × 6-7.

=rivulosus=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. campan. striate, rivulose, dingy tan;
g. cinnamon; s. 5-7 cm. narrowed upwards, smooth, white; sp. 10-12 ×

=niveus=, Mass. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtusely umb. smooth, rather viscid,
edge striate, pure white; g. free, salmon-colour; s. 7-9 cm.
clavato-bulbous and gradually narrowed upwards; sp. salmon-colour, 18 ×

=tener=, Berk. P. 1-2 cm. long, not exp. even, smooth, moist,
yellowish-white; g. nearly free, salmon-colour; s. 3-6 cm.
clavato-bulbous, white; sp. salmon-colour, 15-16 × 8-10.

=luteolus=, Lasch. Very thin, p. campan. plicato-sulcate, yellow; g.
free, yellow then livid; s. filiform, glabrous, pallid.

=pusillus=, Borsz. Very thin, campan. sulcato-plicate above middle,
viscid; g. free, cinnamon; s. pale yellow, white-squamulose.

=purifluus=, Lasch. P. very thin, exp. flocculose, sulcate, yellow; g.
free, narrow, subochraceous; s. narrowed, mealy, yellowish.

[=Ozonii=, Schulz. P. thin, conico-campan. exp. disc even, cinnamon or
fuscous, rest pale ochre and densely striate; g. adnexed, closely
crowded, pale then colour of p.; s. 2-6 springing from a common fleshy
mass, or solitary and subbulbous, white; sp. 7-11 × 5.


     A. SQUARROSI. _Pileus at first squarrose, stem scaly, both somewhat

=hystrix=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. convexo-plane, mouse-colour, with revolute,
squarrose scales; g. grey then fuscous; s. 4-7 cm. thickened upwards,
with rings of reflexed scales, pale above ring; sp. 10 × 5.

=relicina=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. conico-exp. with squarrose tomentose scales,
sooty; g. yellow then olive; s. 4-5 cm. solid, equal, floccosely scaly;
sp. ----.

=calamistrata=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 2-4 cm. campan. obtuse, squarrose
with rigid recurved scales, brown; g. white then rusty; s. 4-5 cm.
solid, rigid, base blue, squarrosely scaly everywhere, fuscous; sp.
10-11 × 5. Flesh reddish.

=hirsuta=, Lasch. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. conico-campan. acute, squarrose with
scales formed of fascicles of hairs, fuscous-ochre, disc sometimes
greenish; g. narrow, pallid then fuscous; s. 4-7 cm. solid, slender,
floccosely scaly above, base greenish; sp. ----.

=lanuginosa=, Bull. P. 1-2 cm. hemispher. exp. obtuse, floccosely scaly,
those of disc erect, umber then yellowish; g. toothed, pallid then
clay-colour; s. 2-3 cm. thin fibrillosely scaly, apex with white meal;
sp. rough, 8 or 10; 12 × 5 (Cke.)

=squarrulosa=, Karst. (= _Clypeus_, Karst.) P. convex then plane,
obtuse, fibrillose, fuscescent, disc squarrosely squamulose, fuscous; g.
crowded, white-crenulate; s. equal, brownish-squamulose; sp. 10 × 7-8.

=dulcamara=, A. and S. P. 3-5 cm. convex, umb. pilosely-scaly,
fuscous-olive; g. pallid then olive; s. 2-3 cm. fibrillosely squamulose
from the veil, apex mealy; sp. 8-10 × 5.

=plumosa=, Bolton. P. 2-4 cm. convexo-plane, disc with erect pilose
fascicles, edge fibrillose, mouse-grey; g. quite entire, whitish then
smoky; s. 3-6 cm. slender, wavy, floccosely scaly, apex naked; sp. 8-9 ×

=cincinnata=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. convexo-plane, squarrosely squamose,
somewhat fuscous; g. fuscous violet; s. 2-3 cm. solid, slender, scaly;
sp. 7-8. (8-10 × 5 Sacc.)

=haemacta=, B. and Cke. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, floccosely fibrillose
with dark fibrils, disc scaly and darker; g. dingy tan; s. 4-5 cm.
scarcely fibrillose, whitish above, tinged verdigris at base; sp. 8 ×

Flesh turning blood-red when bruised.

=leucocephala=, Boud. P. white, convex, entirely covered with erect
scales; g. free, broad, fawn; s. short, white, coarsely fibrillose
throughout; sp. rough, 9-11 × 6-8.

     B. LACERI. _Pileus torn into scales or fibrils (not cracking); stem
     coloured, paler than pileus, fibrillose._

=pyriodora=, Pers. Smell pleasant. P. 4-7 cm. umb. adpressedly
fibroso-scaly, fuscous ochre then pale; g. emarginate, rather distant;
s. 6-10 cm. solid, equal, fibrillose, pale, apex pruinose; sp. 10 × 6.
Flesh with red tinge.

[=corydalina=, Q. Strong-scented. P. whitish, umbo bluish-green; g.
narrow, white then fuscous; stem white pruinose; sp. 10 long.

var. _roseolus_, Pat. Larger than type. P. entirely bluish green, edge
white-append.; flesh tinged rosy.

[=violascens=, Q. P. splitting, fawn, umbo lilac; g. lilac; s. hollow,
white, apex striate, lilac, ring floccose, white; sp. 12-15 long.

=incarnata=, Bres. P. 4-7 cm. campan. convex, broadly umb. fibrillose
then squamulose, edge fimbriate, yellowish then tinged red; g. sinuate,
edge fimbriate becoming spotted or tinged red; s. 4-6 cm. fibrillose,
rosy, apex white and mealy; sp. 10 × 6.

=scaber=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. conico-convex, obtusely gibbous, with scattered
adpressed fibrillose scales, smoky then pallid; g. crowded, somewhat
smoky; s. 2-3 cm. thick, equal, silky fibrillose; sp. 11 × 5, Cke.; 7 ×
3-4, Pat.

var. _firma_, Fr. P. fuscous tan with fuscous scales; s. velvety.

=maritima=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex, exp. flocculosely fibrillose, hygr.
umber then grey; g. broad, grey then rusty; s. 2-3 cm. solid, floccosely
fibrillose, smoky; sp. rough, 9-10.

=violaceafusca=, Cke. and Mass. P. 2-5 cm. convex then exp. obtusely
umb. concentrically scaly, fibrillose, dry, umber, edge torn; g. violet
then umber, edge paler, serrulate; s. 4-6 cm. equal, smooth, violet
above; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=lacera=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convex, exp. obtusely umb. fibrillosely scaly,
mouse-grey then pale; g. broad pale rufescent then mouse-grey; s. 3-4
cm. fuscous-fibrillose, apex naked, red inside; sp. 12 × 6.

Distinguished from _I. scabra_ and _I. mutica_ by being reddish inside
of s.

[=abjecta=, Karst. P. convex exp. even, fuscescent, white-fibrous, disc
fibrously scaly; g. adnate, broad, ventricose in front, cinnamon tinged
olive; s. pallid, white-floccose, apex white-pruinose; sp. 10-13 × 5-7.

[=trivialis=, Karst. P. conico-campan. exp. usually depr. obtusely umb.
rimose, disc sometimes scaly pallid or mouse-colour changing to bay; g.
crowded; s. solid, equal, subrufescent, at length dusky outside and
inside, not bulbous; sp. 10-12 × 4-5.

[=rhodiola=, Bresad. P. conico-campan. exp. umb. fibrillosely scaly then
almost glabrous, rufous-umber then pale; g. becoming rusty-olive, edge
white-pruinose, becoming rufous spotted; s. fibrillose, subequal, apex
glabrous tinged yellow, reddish downwards, spotted reddish when bruised;
flesh whitish, base of s. red; sp. 10-12 × 6-7.

=fasciata=, Cke. and Mass. Caespitose. P. 4-7 cm. campan.-convex, pale
tan disc rufous, silky, covered with small, dark, squarrose scales; g.
pallid; s. 4-7 cm. fibrillose, reddish outside and inside at base, rest
pallid, solid; sp. rough, 10 × 6.

[=rufoalba=, Pat. and Doass. P. convex, mammillate, brown, silky white
tomentum everywhere except umbo; g. nearly free, rusty brown; s. equal,
pubescent, rusty, not bulbous; sp. rough, 9-10 × 4-5.

=flocculosa=, Berk. Smell strong. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. umb. subcampan. silkily
squamulose, tawny brown; g. fawn then rusty; s. 2-3 cm. fibrillose,
reddish, pulverulent above; sp. 10 × 5-6.

=Bongardii=, Weinm. Smell pleasant, like bergamot. P. 2-5 cm. campan.
obtuse, disc scaly, fibrillose towards edge, fuscous then pale; g.
broad, pale reddish then cinnamon; s. 4-9 cm. solid, rigid, pallid
rufous, silky and red below, apex with white meal; sp. 10-12 × 6.

[=Merletii=, Q. P. convex, hoary, virgate with brownish fibrils; g.
milky white then brownish fawn; s. whitish, stuffed, fibrillosely
striate, ring floccose, white; sp. 11-14 long.

[=capucina=, Fr. P. conico-campan. acute, everywhere fibrillosely scaly,
dusky fuscous, edge paler; g. adnate, crowded, fuscous; s. solid, short,
fibrillose, fuscous; sp. rough, 10.

[=cucullata=, C. Mart. Smell like camphor. P. variable in form, campan.
campan.-convex, sometimes irreg. scaly, tawny, disc darker; g. broad,
edge white, serrulate; s. subequal, hollow, glabrous, paler than p.; sp.

[=asinina=, Kalchbr. P. convex then plane, rather gibbous, adpressedly
fibrillose, hoary then rufescent tan; g. greyish yellow then cinnamon;
s. solid, brownish tan, loosely fibrillose and cingulate from the
superior veil.

[=connexifolia=, Gill. Smell like ripe fruit. P. conical then exp. umb.
with adpressed fibrillose scales especially at centre; g. arcuate,
connected by veins, whitish, olive-rufous, finally cinnamon; s.
fibrously squamulose, white then tinged pink, white above; sp. smooth.
Flesh reddish when cut.

=mutica=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convex then plane, very obtuse then depr.
squamulose, whitish, fuscous-fibrillose; g. adnate, crowded; s. hollow,
pale straw-colour then fuscescent; sp. 8 × 5. (6 × 4 Sacc.)

=carpta=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex exp. depr. dingy fuscous, with woolly
filaments; g. broad, fuscous brown; s. 2-4 cm. fibrillosely woolly,
hollow, narrowed downwards; sp. 8-10 × 5.

[=tenebrosa=, Q. P. campan. cracked into squamules, umber; s.
fibrillosely striate, blackish olive, apex whitish; sp. 7-8 long.

=deglubens=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convexo-plane, umb. torn into adpressed
fibrils, disc rather scaly, rufous bay then yellowish; g. dingy then
cinnamon; s. 4-6 cm. solid, pallid, apex with dark scurf; sp. 10 × 6.

Differs from _I. lacera_ in dark scurfy apex of s.

=obscura=, Pers. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan. then plane, umb. longitudinally
fibrillose, disc scaly, blue then fuscous; g. olive then brown; s. 3-4
cm. fibrillose, brownish violet; sp. 9-10 × 5-6.

var. _rufus_, Pat. P. brownish rufous, g. ventricose, violet.

[=Gaillardii=, Gill. P. convex then exp. umbo and around scurfy, margin
torn, reddish rusty; g. crowded, free, broad, colour of p.; s. slender,
paler than p.; sp. globose with long slender spines.

[=calospora=, Q. P. minutely squamulose, brownish; g. milk-white; s.
slender, slightly bulbous, pruinose, whitish rufous; sp. glob. strongly
aculeate, 10.

[=hirtella=, Bres. P. conico-campan. exp. umb. edge soon splitting,
yellowish straw-colour, densely covered with darker pilose scales; g.
adnate, whitish then fuscescent, edge white-mealy; s. white becoming
tinged straw-colour with a subterranean subbulbous base; sp. 10-12 × 6.

Allied to _I. calospora_, Q.

=echinata=, Roth. P. 2-5 cm. campan. then exp. pulverulent then scaly,
silky, dingy brownish yellow; g. nearly or quite free, deep rose to
blood-red; s. 3-5 cm. floccosely pulverulent up to imperfect ring, dull
red, hollow; sp. 5 × 3.

     C. RIMOSI. _Pileus longitudinally fibrillose, soon cracked, often
     adpressedly scaly; stem whitish, paler than pileus, fibrillose._

=schista=, Cke. and Sm. P. 4-7 cm. campan. broadly subumb. cracking
longitudinally, fibrillose, bay brown; g. adnate, rufous, edge pale,
serrate; s. 6-7 cm. stout, equal, twisted, solid, paler than p.; sp.

=fibrosa=, Sow. P. 7-9 cm. campan. umbo broad, silky, even then cracked,
edge wavy, pallid; g. free, crowded, dingy ochre, edge uneven; s. 4-12
cm. solid, narrowed upwards, striate, flocculosely scaly above; sp.
slightly rough, 12-14 × 6.

_I. perlata_ differs in darker p. and smooth sp.

=phaeocephala=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. conico-campan. umb. wavy, squamulose,
bay then sooty; g. free, arcuate, umber; s. 5-7 cm. solid, somewhat
bulbous; colour of p. above, below white and downy; sp. 6 × 4.

[=jurana=, Pat. P. umb. cracked and torn, fibrillose, rather squamulose
towards the edge, reddish violet, disc deep violet; g. broad,
ochraceous; s. tall, fibrous, apex pruinose, violet downwards; sp. 10 ×

=fastigiata=, Schaeff. P. 3-5 cm. thin, conico-campan. longitudinally
fibrous and cracked, edge often lobed, yellow brown; g. free,
fuscous-olive; s. 6-9 cm. solid, stout, rather twisted, silky-fibrous;
sp. rough, 8-10 × 6-8.

_I. pyriodora_ differs in smell and reddish flesh.

[=praetervisa=, Q. P. campan. fibrillosely virgate, fawn; g. milk-white
then fawn; s. pubescent, pale straw-colour; sp. warted, 10-11 × 5-6.

[=Godeyi=, Gillet. Smell strong, unpleasant. P. campan. edge slightly
incurved, scaly and fibrillosely rimose, dingy yellow then tinged
reddish-ochre as is every part of fungus more or less; g. free, pale
olive; s. rather floccose at apex, colour of p. flesh white, tinging
red; sp. 6-8 × 3-4.

[=Cookei=, Bres. P. conico-campan. exp. umb. edge becoming upturned and
split, fibrillose and silkily rimose, centre glabrous, straw-colour then
lurid yellowish; g. crowded, attenuato-adnexed, greyish white then
yellowish cinnamon; s. colour of p. silky fibrillose, base marginately
subbulbous, apex naked; sp. 8-10 × 5.

Allied to _I. fastigiata_.

=hiulca=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. conico-exp. umb. fibrillose, cracked into
scales, fuscous or olive; g. broad, becoming olive; s. 4-7 cm. rigid,
silky fibrillose, apex and flesh pinkish white, with white meal; sp.
8-10 × 5.

=Curreyi=, Berk. P. 3-5 cm. convex then exp. longitudinally fibrillose,
squamulose at disc rather cracked, pale yellow brown; g. yellowish then
tinged olive; s. 4-7 cm. rather fibrillose, colour of p. solid, flesh
dingy; sp. 11 × 6.

Differs from _I. pyriodora_ in absence of smell, and from _I.
fastigiata_ in smooth sp.

=perlata=, Cke. P. 6-9 cm. convex then exp. broadly umb. longitudinally
fibrous with darker fibrils, fuscous, edge paler, incurved, disc very
dark; g. adnexed, pale umber; s. 6-9 cm. sometimes twisted, striate,
pallid; sp. 8-9 × 6.

Differs from _I. schista_ in umber gills.

[=maculata=, Boud. P. campan. then exp. umb. silky-fibrillose, cracked,
dingy fawn-colour, and with concentric white adpr. scales; g. almost
free, fawn with olive tinge; s. fibrillose, paler than p. apex scurfy;
10-13 × 5-6.

Differs from _I. rimosa_ in the white scales on p.

=rimosa=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. campan. silky-fibrous, longitudinally cracked
when exp. yellow brown; g. free; s. 4-7 cm. solid, firm, almost
glabrous; sp. smooth, 10-11 × 6.

_I. eutheles_ differs in being umbonate, and _I. pyriodora_ in strong

[=albipes=, Gill. P. exp. plane, mammilate, fibrillosely rivulose, edge
wavy, dingy yellow disc darker; g. free, crowded; s. entirely white,
squamulose; sp. rough.

=asterospora=, Q. P. 3-5 cm. campan. subumb. silkily fibrous,
longitudinally cracked when dry, yellow brown, or umber; g. almost free;
s. 4-7 cm. slightly submarginately subbulbous, solid, pallid or pinkish
tinge; sp. subgl. warted, 10-11. (7-10 × 5-8 Sacc.)

Differs from _I. rimosa_ in spores.

[=proximella=, Karst. P. exp. umb. rimose and torn into fibres, pallid,
umb. darker; g. adnate, crowded, ventricose; s. subfibrillose, pallid,
flesh white, no trace of bulb; sp. warted, 8-9 × 5-6.

Differs from _Ino. asterospora_ in absence of bulb, curved fibrillose
stem, etc.

[=umbrina=, Bres. P. campan.-convex, plane, umb. chestnut brown, rather
viscid, woolly-fibrillose at length rimose, disc sometimes slightly
warted; g. crowded, lurid citrin then reddish cinnamon, edge darker; s.
fibrillose, colour of p. subbulbous; sp. substellate, 7-8 × 5-6.

Close to _I. asterospora_, Q.

=eutheles=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. campan. exp. strongly umb. undulate,
shining, silky, squamulose, fawn; g. broadly adnate, pallid, edge
whitish, toothed; s. 4-7 cm. equal, striate, pallid; sp. 10-11 × 5.

Differs from _I. fastigiata_ in adnate gills, and from _I. curreyi_ in
strong umbo and adnate g.

=margaritispora=, Berk. P. 3-5 cm. campan. then exp. wavy, broadly umb.
silky, with adpressed fibrillose scales, fawn; g. adnexed, pallid; s.
6-9 cm. equal, fibrillose, pallid; sp. warted, 8.

Differs from _I. eutheles_ in globose, warted s., and from _I.
asterospora_ in squamulose p.

=destricta=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. campan.-exp. umb. cracked, fibrillose, then
torn into scales, pallid then rufescent; g. uncinato-adnate; s. 4-5 cm.
solid, glabrous, fibrillose, striate, reddish-white; sp. 8 × 4.

Differs from _I. rimosa_ by adnexed g. and reddish s. _I. asterospora_
differs in warted globose sp.

=perbrevis=, Weinm. P. 2-3 cm. convex, obtusely umb. fibrously scaly,
edge rather striate at length splitting, fuscous then yellowish rufous;
g. uncinato-adnexed; s. 2-2.5 cm. pallid, white-fibrillose, base rather
narrowed; sp. 10-12 × 5.

[=putilla=, Bres. P. conico-campan. then exp. umb. silky-fibrillose,
surface at length cracked and torn, tan or greyish-brown, or fuscous
then pale, edge persistently lurid whitish; g. sinuato-adnate, white
then tan, edge crenulate; s. very faintly tinged rose, white-fibrillose
then glabrous, apex white-scurfy, base rather narrowed; sp. angular,
8-10 × 6-7.

=descissa=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. conico-campan. fibrillose, splitting open,
whitish fuscescent; g. almost free, crowded, whitish then fuscescent; s.
3-4 cm. partly hollow, equal, undulate, fibrillose, apex
white-pulverulent; sp. 8 × 4-5.

Resembling _I. geophylla_ but slenderer; s. white outside and inside.

var. _auricoma_, Batsch. Smaller. P. yellowish, edge striate; g.
adfixed, ventricose white then fuscous.

[=grammata=, Q. P. campan. fibrous-striate, whitish then fawn; g. tawny;
s. striate, tomentose, shining white then rosy; sp. rough, 10.

[=brunnea=, Q. P. umb. fibrillosely silky, chestnut; s.
fibrilloso-striate, fuscous, apex white, pruinose; sp. 12 long.

[=grata=, Weinm. P. conico-campan. fibrillose, umbonate, cracked when
exp. whitish- or yellowish-rufescent, scaly disc darker; g. crowded,
olive then pallid fuscescent; s. shining, fibrillose, wavy, whitish

=Trinii=, Weinm. Smell like clove-pinks. P. 1-2 cm. hemispher. obtuse,
longitudinally rufescent-fibrillose, whitish-rufescent, tawny when dry;
g. rounded, ventricose, cinnamon, edge white-floccose; s. 2-4 cm. equal,
slender, loosely rufous-fibrillose, powdered with white; sp. rough,

     D. VELUTINI. _Pileus not rimose, cuticle of interwoven fibrils,
     almost smooth, or adpressedly scaly, disc even; stem polished,
     glabrous, whitish, apex mealy._

=sambucina=, Fr. White, smell strong. P. 4-7 cm. firm, convex, exp.
obtuse, silky fibrillose, even, sometimes tinged yellow; g. crowded,
whitish; s. 3-4 cm. stout, solid, glabrous, striate, white; sp. 11-12 ×

=caesariata=, Fr. P. 1.5-3 cm. convex exp. gibbous, somewhat tawny,
ochraceous-fibrillose or subsquamulose; g. entire, pale ochre; s. 3-6
cm. solid, equal, fibrillose, pale ochre; sp. 8 × 4. (10-12 × 5 Sacc.)

[=delecta=, Karst. (= _I. caesariata_, var. _fibrillosa_, Fr.). P. exp.
even, fibrillosely scaly, dingy tawny- or rufous-honeycolour, paler when
dry; g. at length fuscous, edge paler and floccoso-crenate; s. solid,
dingy yellow or pallid, white-fibrillose; sp. ----.

[=subgranulosa=, Karst. P. convex then exp. or slightly depr. obsoletely
umb. even, pale ochre, disc more especially with minute erect dark
squamules; g. adnate, greenish- then brownish-cinnamon; s. hollow,
curved or wavy, paler than p.; sp. 7-9 × 4-5.

=lucifuga=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 2-3 cm. convex-plane, subumb.
adpressedly fibrilloso-squamulose, fuscous or olive then pale; g.
yellowish white then olive; s. 3 cm. solid, firm, equal, glabrous, apex
rather pruinose; sp. 10 × 6.

[=decipiens=, Bres. P. exp. umb. floccosely silky, disc smooth then
broken up into scales, cinnamon ochre; g. greyish white then lurid
cinnamon; s. glabrous, apex slightly pruinose, rather striate, pallid;
sp. rough, 11-14 × 6-8.

[=tomentella=, Fr. P. convex, obtuse, fibrillosely tomentose, brownish;
g. subadnate; s. solid, equal, white, apex pruinose, with a cortinate
median annular zone, otherwise glabrous.

=sindonia=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. thin, conico-convex, obtusely gibbous,
velvety-villose, dingy white or yellowish, edge appendiculate; g.
lanceolate, whitish then fuscous; s. 4-7 cm. with a separate pith which
disappears, then hollow, almost glabrous; sp. 7 × 4. (10 × 5 Sacc.)

Differs from _I. geophylla_ in larger size and hollow s.

[=cortinata=, Roll. P. campan. then exp. strongly umb. whitish
straw-colour, umb. darker, becoming rimose, white veil at margin; g.
adnato-decur. dingy ochre, edge flocculose, paler; s. white,
fibrilloso-striate, curved, ring median.

Perhaps a cortinate form of _I. sindonia_.

=Clarkii=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, whitish, silky; g.
adnexed, pallid, edge white; s. 3-5 cm. nearly equal, solid, white; sp.
8-10 × 6.

Differs from _I. sindonia_ in solid s. and pale g.

=geophylla=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conical then exp. umb. even,
silky-fibrillose, white or lilac; g. adnexed, crowded, dingy white then
umber; s. 4-6 cm. equal, firm, apex with white meal, veil fibrillose;
sp. 7-8 × 4.

_I. scabella_ differs in brownish squamulose p.

var. _fulva_, Pat. P. rufous-ochre, edge paler; sp. 8-10 × 5.

var. _violacea_, Pat. P. violet; sp. 10 × 5.

[=commixta=, Bres. P. conico-campan. exp. umb. shining white or tinged
grey; fibrillosely silky, edge often split, dry; g. closely crowded,
free, white then greyish cinnamon; s. solid, white, equal, apex scurfy,
base minutely turbinately bulbous; sp. angular, 10 × 7.

Closely resembling _I. geophylla_, differing in base of s. and angular

[=umbratica=, Q. Shining white. P. umb. silky-pruinose; g. white then
rosy-fawn; s. flocculose; sp. rough, 8-10.

=scabella=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. then plane, dry, torn into squamulose
fibrils, umbo obtuse, even, glabrous, rufescent or yellowish; g.
adnexed, dingy; s. 3-4 cm. glabrous, rufescent or pallid, apex pruinose;
sp. rough, 10 × 7.

[=debilipes=, Karst. P. conico-convex, exp. pallid fuscous then rather
rusty, everywhere torn into scales which become stuck down, then rimose;
g. adnexed, crowded, pallid rusty, edge fuscous-crenulate; s. wavy,
pallid, spotted with minute fuscescent squamules; sp. 7-9 × 5-6.

[=confusa=, Karst. P. exp. umb. glabrous, cuticle cracked, fibrillose,
rusty, tawny yellow or bay; g. crowded, yellowish then olive; s. solid,
firm, nearly glabrous, pale; sp. 10-12 × 6.

[=inconcina=, Karst. P. exp. obtuse, even, glabrous, innately
fibrillose, rusty then pale; g. sinuato-adnate, crowded, pale olive then
rusty, edge paler and floccosely crenulate; s. equal, wavy, pallid, apex
white-pruinose; sp. 8-13 × 5-6.

[=curvipes=, Karst. P. exp. obtuse, adpressedly fibrillose or
squamulose, brownish; g. adnexed, crowded; s. curved, wavy or twisted,
narrowed below, fibrillose, pallid; sp. rough, 9-15 × 5-7.

[=conformata=, Karst. P. exp. umb. slightly adpressedly floccosely
squamulose, rusty or brownish then pale; g. adnexed, ventricose, pallid
then brownish; s. equal, rather wavy, minutely fibrillosely flocculose;
sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

[=pusio=, Karst. P. exp. umb. fibroso-rimose, pallid fuscous; g. adnexed
with decur. tooth, tan; s. apex pruinose and at first violet, usually
wavy; sp. 8-10 × 4-6.

[=flavella=, Karst. P. acutely conical then exp. acutely umb. innately
fibrillosely rimose, glabrous, yellowish, rather shining; g. crowded,
yellowish then olive, edge paler, floccosely crenulate; s. solid, equal,
wavy, apex white-flocculose, yellowish white; sp. 12-14 × 4-6.

[=fulvella=, Bres. P. conico-campan. exp. umb. silky-flocculose, centre
glabrous, olivaceous honey-colour then brownish olive, umbo darker; g.
lilac then tan, edge fimbriate; s. lilac then rufescent, glabrous, wavy.

=subrimosa=, Mass. (_Clypeus subrimosus_, Karst.). P. 2-3 cm.
conico-campan. umbo prominent, edge often wavy, even, glabrous, then
longitudinally fibrillose and cracked, bay or rusty ochre; g. dingy tan;
s. 4-5 cm. solid, equal, polished, with a minute marginate bulb, white,
mealy; sp. 10-12, spiny.

=mamillaris=, Pass. P. convex, mammillate, squamulose; g.
emarginato-adnexed; s. hollow, equal, flexuous; sp. smooth.

=Renneyi=, B. and Br. P. 1-2 cm. hemispher. slightly fibrillose, disc
brown, rest fawn; g. rounded behind, dingy ochre; s. 3-4 cm. slightly
narrowed downwards, fibrillose, solid, paler than p.; sp. rough, 12 ×

var. _major_, B. and Br. Colour of type, but larger; g. broadly adnate.

     E. VISCIDI. _Pileus almost smooth, viscid._

=trechispora=, Berk. P. convex then exp. umb. viscid, soon dry and
silky, umbo brownish rest whitish; g. pinkish grey; s. 3-4 cm. equal;
often rather wavy, whitish, mealy; sp. 7 × 5-6.

Differs from _I. geophylla_ in dark umbo and rough sp.

[=viscosissima=, Fr. (= _I. umbonata, Q._) P. convex acutely umb.
umber-brown, dripping with gluten then silky; g. rounded and free,
ventricose, rufescent; s. equal, glabrous, pallid; sp. ----.

Allied to _I. trechispora_, differing in being very glutinous and in
rounded free gills.

[=imbecilis=, Pass. P. glabrous, rather viscid, white then clay-colour;
g. whitish then rusty-rose; s. solid, long, cylindrical, watery, with
white meal above.

=vatricosa=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. convex then plane, subumb. glabrous,
viscid, silky at margin, whitish; g. white then fuscescent; s. 2-3 cm.
fistulose, contorted, pulverulent; sp. ----.

Habit of _I. geophylla_ but smaller and viscid at first.

=Whitei=, B. and Br. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. convex, tawny, edge whitish, at
length exp. and all tawny, fibrillose, rather viscid; g. white then
pallid; s. 2-3 cm. slightly thickened at base, white then brownish; sp.
9 × 4.

=tricholoma=, A. and S. Whitish. P. 2-4 cm. plano-depr. rather viscid,
with adpr. white fibrils, edge strigosely fringed; g. decur.; s. 3-4 cm.
slender, squamulose above; sp. rough, 4.

=strigiceps=, Fr. P. convex-obtuse then exp. strigosely silky with long
fibrils, rufescent, edge at first involute, strigosely ciliate; g.
adnato-decur.; s. stuffed, downy, white.

var. _eriocephala_, Fr. P. yellowish-white, silky, with appendiculate
white down at edge; g. adnate; s. fistulose, becoming compressed.


     A. INDUSIATI. _Veil evidently cortinate, hence the pileus is often
     superficially silky near the margin._

=mussivum=, Fr. P. 5-10 cm. convex exp. obtuse, viscid, at length
squamulose, yellow disc often brownish; g. emarginate, yellowish; s.
8-12 cm. solid, equal, entirely fibrillose, yellowish, apex rather
pruinose; sp. 12 × 6.

=sinuosum=, Fr. P. 7-14 cm. exp. wavy, viscid, even, almost glabrous,
yellowish or pale brick-red then pale; g. emarginato-free, broad, pallid
then rusty; s. 8-13 cm. hollow, stout, fibrous, soft, white
floccosely-scaly above; sp. ----.

=fastibile=, Fr. Smell unpleasant. P. 4-7 cm. compact, exp. wavy,
viscid, glabrous, pale yellowish tan; g. emarginate, rather distant,
pallid then cinnamon, lacrymose; s. 4-7 cm. subbulbous, white, fibrously
scaly, veil evident; sp. 10 × 6.

var. _alba_, Fr. S. longer, equal, partly hollow, apex fibrously scaly;
g. distant.

var. _elegans_, Lindgr. Edge of p. sulcate or rugoso-plicate. Form B.
Pileus purple-brown.

=senescens=, Batsch. P. 4-9 cm. exp. rather viscid, ochre or
flesh-colour with tinge of rust, rusty yellow when old, edge crisped,
hoary; g. dusky rust colour; s. 6-9 cm. thinner and whitish upwards,
scaly and darker below; sp. 10 × 6.

=glutinosum=, Lindg. P. 4-7 cm. exp. glutinous, with white superficial
scales, yellowish white, discoid; g. crowded, yellowish then cinnamon;
s. 6-7 cm. subbulbous, whitish squamulose, apex mealy; sp. 10-12 × 5.

=testaceum=, Batsch. Smells like radishes. P. 3-5 cm. campan.-convex,
even, rather viscid, brick-red then pale, rather opaque; g. nearly free,
crowded, rusty; s. 6-7 cm. hollow, subbulbous, floccosely fibrillose,
pallid, apex mealy; sp. 10 × 5-6.

[=rubrum=, Otth. P. campan. then conico-exp. splitting into shreds,
clear red, yellowish when dry; flesh reddish; g. free; s. equal,
fibrous, often slightly bulbous, colour of p.

=firmum=, Pers. P. 4-7 cm. campan. exp. umb. viscid, brick-red, discoid;
g. dry, edge white toothed; s. 4-7 cm. solid, pallid, everywhere
floccosely scaly; sp. 10 × 5.

[=mitratum=, Fr. P. campan.-gibbous, viscid, often cracked, yellowish
brick-red, umbo prominent, stout, fuscous then pale, g. crowded,
sinuato-adnate; s. solid or becoming hollow, equal, yellowish-white,
fibrous, dusky yellow from veil.

=claviceps=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. convex, exp. disc gibbous, even, naked,
pallid; g. dry, pallid; s. 4-7 cm. equal, everywhere white mealy,
fuscous downwards; sp. 10-11 × 5.

Differs from _H. firmum_ in dark base of s. and paler g.

[=fusipes=, Bres. Smell like spirit of wine. P. convex-gibbous, edge
broadly incurved, viscid, glabrous, tinged tan; g. broad, edge
white-fimbriate; s. pallid, base fusiformly rooting; sp. 12-15 × 9-10.

[=birrum=, Fr. P. exp. discoid, disc rugulose, pale tan, with
superficial white squamules near edge; g. rounded then truncate and
free; s. solid, fusiformly rooting, rather woolly with white imbricated

=punctatum=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. silky then almost glabrous, the darker
disc punctate with viscid warts, tan, paler when dry; g. narrow,
crowded, pallid then rusty bay; s. 5-9 cm. hollow, equal, apex white
pruinose; sp. 7-11 × 5-6.

=versipelle=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. viscid with tough gluten, discoid, at
length wavy, crust-colour, adglutinated and silky at edge, then
glabrous; g. crowded, broad, reddish white then tan; s. 4-7 cm.
silky-white, apex pruinose; sp. 12 long.

[=subtortum=, Karst. P. convex then plane, obtuse, even, glabrous,
irreg. at first, silky near edge from veil, viscid, pale brick-red or
pallid, disc darker; g. adnato-subdecur. crowded, edge crenate; s.
hollow, usually twisted, whitish, apex mealy; sp. 7-9 × 4-6.

=mesophaeum=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. conico-convex then plane, even, viscid,
almost naked, gilvous, disc bay; g. emarginate, crowded, thin; s. 4-7
cm. tough, equal, slender, fibrillose, whitish then rusty, apex
pruinose; sp. 7-8 × 4-5.

Disc of p. sometimes umber.

var. _holophaeum_, Fr. P. umb. everywhere dusky fuscous; s. fuscescent,

=strophosum=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. expanded, subumbonate, viscid, disc bay,
edge white with veil; g. crowded; s. 3-5 cm. hollow, silky, whitish,
ring near the apex distinct but imperfect; sp. 8-9 × 5.

[=elatellum=, Sacc. (= _Roumeguerites elatellus_, Karst.) P. hemisph.
even, glabrous, naked, pale fuscescent, sometimes spotted, yellowish
livid when dry; g. adnate, much crowded, narrow, pale tan; s. tall,
equal, naked, whitish, ring, inf. entire, persistent, membranous, tinged
fuscous; sp. 7-9 × 4-6.

=subcollariatum=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. convex, exp. rather glutinous,
pale ochre-tan, centre darker; g. broadly adnate, soon separating from
s. and attached to a collar, pale tan, edge whitish; s. 4-5 cm.
flexuous, pale, brownish below, pulverulent; sp. 12-13 × 6.

=violascens=, Otth. P. convex, umb. dry, silky shining, bright violet,
disc adpressedly squamulose and brownish; g. reddish violet then
brownish; s. pale violet then rufous-fibrillose, base slightly bulbous,

[=deflectens=, Karst. P. exp. depr. rugulose, dry, scurfy-squamulose,
bright yellow-tan; g. crowded, lanceolate; s. equal, fistulose, tough,
rooting, paler than p. everywhere white-scurfy; sp. 7-9 × 5-6.

     B. DENUDATI. _Pileus glabrous, veil absent from the first._

=sinapizans=, Fr. Smell like radishes. P. 7-12 cm. compact, exp. rather
wavy, even, glabrous, rather viscid, pale tan; g. deeply emarginate,
broad, dry, crowded, entire; s. 6-10 cm. stout, equal, fibrillose,
white, apex white-scaly; sp. 12 × 7.

Differs from _H. sinuosum_ in strong smell and absence of veil.

=crustuliniforme=, Bull. P. 5-10 cm. convex then exp. glabrous, rather
viscid, often rather wavy, yellowish-red, disc darker then pale; g.
sinuate, thin, narrow, whitish then brown, edge crenulate and with beads
of moisture; s. 4-7 cm. solid, firm, subbulbous, whitish, with minute
white recurved flecks; sp. 11-12 × 6.

[=Syrjense=, Karst. P. convex, exp. obtuse, dry, even, glabrous,
brick-red; g. adnexed, crowded, pallid, edge crenulate; s. equal, wavy,
twisted, white, white-flocculoso-pulverulent above, at length entirely
umber; sp. 10-11 × 5-6.

Subcaespitose; stems cohering at base.

=hiemale=, Bres. (= _H. crustuliniforme_, var. _minor_, Cke.) P.
exp.-gibbous or depr. viscid, glabrous, edge incurved and white
flocculose at first, pallid tan, centre reddish tan; g. crowded, sinuate
and almost free, edge white-floccose; s. whitish, apex with white scurf;
sp. 12-13 × 6-7.

Near to _H. crustuliniforme_, but smaller and smell obsolete.

[=subsaponaceum=, Karst. Smell strong, soapy. P. exp. obtuse, even,
naked, dry, gilvous then pallid, darker when dry; g. adnate, dry; s.
elongated, equal, rather wavy, adpressedly fibrillose, apex rather
mealy, pale, umber below when touched; sp. 6-10 × 4-6.

[=Stocseki=, Schulz. P. convex, even, whitish then yellow, centre tawny;
g. adnexed, narrow, both ends narrowed, rufescent; s. cylindrical,
thickened below, whitish, often striately-twisted; sp. 10 × 4-6.

[=Quéletii=, Schulz. P. umbonato-campan. then convex, white then ochre,
sometimes rufous-brown, very even, subviscid in rainy weather, pellicle
separable; g. subsinuato-adnexed, rounded in front, whitish then pale
cinnamon; s. cylindrical, often curved at base, white base tinged brown;
sp. 10-12 × 6.

[=involuta=, Lamb. (= _Paxillus nitens_, Lamb.) P. convex, glutinous
when moist, shining as if varnished when dry, yellow brown, paler at
edge which remains for a long time incurved; flesh yellowish, glabrous;
g. free, cut out behind, narrow, crowded, brownish olive at last; s.
reddish yellow above, darker below.

=elatum=, Batsch. Smell strong of radishes. P. 6-10 cm. convex, umb.
glabrous, viscid, pinkish ochre whitish towards the edge; g. uncinate,
wavy, crowded, dry, pale flesh-colour then bistre; s. 8-10 cm. soft,
cylindrical, twisted, white then bistre, apex mealy, fibrillose or
downy; sp. 13-15 × 7.

=longicaudum=, Pers. P. 3-6 cm. exp. even, subumb. glabrous, viscid,
rather wavy, tan then whitish; g. crowded, dry, serrulate; s. 8-11 cm.
partly hollow, fragile, fibrillose, subequal, white, apex with white
meal; sp. 10 × 5.

var. _radicatum_, Cke. S. fusiform, rooting.

=lugens=, Jungh. Smell strong. P. 4-7 cm. exp. glabrous, rather viscid,
brown then yellowish; g. pale rusty, edge crenulate, darker; s. 4-7 cm.
shining, fibrillosely striate, subbulbous, apex white-mealy; sp. 10 × 6.

=truncatum=, Schaeff. P. 4-7 cm. exp. undulately wavy, almost dry,
somewhat rufous, edge paler; g. crowded, dry; s. 1.5-2 cm. solid, stout,
equal, everywhere slightly pruinose, white; sp. 12-13 × 6.

[=mentiens=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, edge angularly bent down, even,
glabrous, dry, yellowish-tan, tinged tawny when dry; g. subadnate,
broad, thin, white, yellowish when dry; s. hollow, fibrous, flexuous,
glabrous, white, apex thickened and rather pruinose; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

=nudipes=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. even, almost glabrous, slightly viscid,
tan then pale, edge thin; g. crowded, dry; s. 4-6 cm. solid, equal,
pelliculose, glabrous, naked, shining white, base fibrillose; sp. 12 ×
6. (8-10 × 4-5 Sacc.)

[=sacchariolens=, Q. Smell strong, like burnt sugar. P. campan. then
convex, 2-3 cm. thin, glabrous, viscid, whitish with the centre buff; g.
sinuate, crinkled, whitish then buff bordered with white; s. slender,
subfistulose, slightly striate, silky, pruinose at the summit, white,
streaked with fawn fibrils below; sp. 12 long.

[=circinans=, Karst. P. campan.-convex, lubricous, smoky-ochre, edge
revolute downy and whitish; g. sinuate, crowded, reddish, edge white,
crenulate; s. slender, whitish, subbulbous, with reflexed circinate
fibrils; sp. 11-12 long.

=nauseosum=, Cke. Smell nauseous. P. 3-4 cm. convex then exp. gibbous,
viscid, whitish ochre; g. very broad; s. 3-5 cm. whitish, mealy above;
sp. 20 × 10.

Differs from _H. crustuliniforme_ in glabrous s.

=capnicocephalum=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. exp. even, glabrous, gilvous, disc
darker, edge becoming blackish; g. broad, rusty; s. 3-4 cm. narrowed
downwards, fibrillosely-striate, pale rufescent; sp. 9 × 5. (12-14 ×
7-8, Sacc.)

=ischnostylum=, Cke. P. 3-5 cm. exp. broadly umb. rather viscid, white
or a little pallid at disc; g. edge serrulate; s. 4-5 cm. smooth, naked,
whitish; sp. 12 × 7.

Differs from _H. nudipes_ in whitish p.

[=diffractum=, Fr. P. convex, obtuse, glabrous, nearly dry, at length
broken up into scales, tan; g. broad; s. hollow, white, narrowed below,
whitish floccosely scaly above; sp. 10-12 × 4-5.

[=subzonatum=, Weinm. P. campanulato-exp. viscid, with darker innately
scaly zones, whitish; g. crowded, narrow; s. equal, rather bulbous,
fibrillose, apex pruinose.

[=spoliatum=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, viscid, even, glabrous, reddish tan;
g. broad, crowded; s. equal, rooting, tough, glabrous, apex pruinose;
sp. 10 × 6.

[=tortuosum=, Karst. P. convex, exp. gibbous, even, rufous-tan then
pale, glabrous; g. pallid then honey-colour; s. narrowed below, hollow,
contorted, pallid, apex with white floccose scales; sp. 6-9 × 4-5.

     C. PUSILLI. _Pileus scarcely an inch broad._

=magnimamma=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. umbo strongly mammiform, naked,
brick-red then pale; g. obtusely adnate, crowded; s. 2-3 cm. equal,
glabrous, gilvous then pallid; sp. ----.

[=sterile=, Jungh. P. campan.-exp. glabrous, even, dry, violet; g. free,
narrow, rusty; s. solid, equal, glabrous, violet, apex floccosely

[=odini=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, naked, bay, edge tawny; g. slightly
sinuate, yellow then tawny; s. fibrillose, tawny bay.

=petiginosum=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. conico-convex then exp. yellowish,
gibbous disc fuscous, margin silkily hoary; g. free, yellow then olive
bay; s. 3 cm. rufescent, pulverulent; sp. 10 × 5.


     A. GYMNOTI. _Pileus glabrous. Veil absent. Spores rusty, not dingy
     rusty brown._

     * _Gills free or slightly adnexed._

=lugubris=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. campan.-exp. wavy, often viscid, even, pallid
becoming rusty, opaque; g. free, very broad, crowded; s. 6-9 cm.
glabrous, fusiformly rooting, pallid; sp. 7 × 4.

A form in pine woods has p. bullate, disc bay; s. short.

=festiva=, Fr. P. 2.3 cm. convex, subgibbous, even, glutinous, usually
olive-brown, isabelline when dry; s. free, crowded, ventricose, rusty;
s. 5-7 cm. hollow, fusiformly rooting, colour various, violet, rufous,
&c.; sp. 12 × 6. (8 × 4 Sacc.)

Every part variable in colour.

[=christinae=, Fr. P. conico-acute, rather wavy, viscid, fiery cinnamon
when moist, tawny and shining when dry, then pale; g. free, pallid then
fiery saffron; s. cylindric, glabrous, rooting, dull blood-red; sp. 4-5
× 3-4.

[=medullosa=, Bres. Smell weak, like radishes. P. conico-campan. exp.
subumb. viscid, glabrous, tawny then paler; g. crowded, almost free,
edge white-pruinose; s. tinged fuscous, apex pale, pruinose, base
thickened and white-downy, pith white, separable; sp. 7-9 × 4-5.

[=hilaris=, Fr. P. thin, even, rather viscid, tawny orange, shining; g.
yellowish rusty; s. hollow, shining yellow.

[=subglobosa=, A. and S. P. hemisph. even, rather viscid, yellowish; g.
nearly free, very broad, rhomboid; s. stuffed, thin, short, striate; sp.
8 × 4.

=hamadryas=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, exp. gibbous, even, rusty bay,
yellowish red when dry and old; g. attenuato-adnexed, rusty; s. 5-7 cm.
hollow, equal, glabrous, pallid; sp. 13-14 × 7.

[=nimbosa=, Post. P. convex exp. umb. pruinosely velvety, rufous brown;
g. broad, rusty, edge fimbriate; s. everywhere pruinosely velvety,
fuscous below, pale above; sp. 10-11 × 6.

=cidaris=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. conical then campan. even, cinnamon tan, paler
when dry, edge wavy, striate; g. ventricose, honey-colour; s. 2.5-3 cm.
fusiform, blackish brown; sp. 10 long.

Differs from _M. cucumis_ in absence of smell.

[=Jennyae=, Karst. P. conical, exp. subumb. acute, even, glabrous, dry,
orange-bay; g. crowded; s. cartilaginous, fibrous inside, tough,
fusiformly narrowed below, apex thickened, reddish bay; sp. 4-5 × 3-4.

=cucumis=, Pers. Smell strong, like cucumber. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. broadly
campan. brownish bay when moist, edge paler; g. pallid then saffron; s.
2-4 cm. blackish brown, apex thickened, hollow, pruinose; sp. 9-10 ×

=anguinea=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. campan. convex, gibbous, even, yellowish
tan, a silky zone near the edge; g. crowded, linear, rusty; s. 5-7 cm.
bay, densely coated with white fibrils; sp. ----.

[=micans=, Fr. P. convex, gibbous, even, rather shining, yellow; g.
greenish yellow then rusty; s. rufo-fuscous, pruinate.

=centuncula=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. convexo-plane, lurid green then
yellowish, becoming pale; g. thick, broad, greyish yellow; s. 2.3 cm.
base with white down, apex white-pulverulent; sp. 8-10 × 6.

Stem usually incurved, often excentric.

[=laeta=, Lamb. Entirely clear yellow. P. convex, obtuse, glabrous; g.
free, crowded, narrow; s. slender, elongated, glabrous.

=horizontalis=, Bull. Watery cinnamon. P. 1-2 cm. exp. even; g. broad;
s. 1 cm. incurved, naked; sp. 12-13 × 7-8.

[=rimulincola=, Rab. Cinnamon. P. hemisph. umbil. plicate, rugulosely
tomentose; g. thick, very broad, edge white, crenulate; s. subexcentric,
short, curved; sp. 12-15 × 7.

=semiflexa=, B. and Br. P. 1 cm. exp. chestnut, edge fringed with white
silky veil, hygr.; g. broad and distant; s. 1 cm. incurved, pale, solid;
sp. 8 × 5.

[=pygmaea=, Bull. P. exp. obtuse, edge striate, ochre-tan; g.
ventricose, rusty; s. fistulose, thin, wavy, glabrous, white.

=rubricata=, B. and Br. Gregarious. P. concave then exp. and depr. 4-7
mm. whitish then tinged rufous or ochre; g. adnexed, whitish then
pinkish, finally brownish, rounded in front; s. slender, incurved, base
scurfy or downy; sp. ----.

     ** _Gills adnate, pileus convexo-plane._

[=enchymosa=, Lund. P. exp. glabrous, disc minutely punctate, olive when
moist, tan when dry; g. tawny then rusty; s. pallid then colour of p.

[=hyperella=, Fr. P. convex then plane, umbonate, fuscescent,
hoary-rusty when dry; g. crowded, obscure rusty; s. filiform, silky
fibrillose, pallid.

=abstrusa=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex, obtuse, even, glabrous, viscid, rusty
tan; g. crowded; s. 2-3 cm. rigid, glabrous, rusty; sp. 10 × 5.

_N. melinoides_ differs in striate p.

[=flacca=, Karst. P. conoid-campan. tan or yellowish-cinnamon; g.
adnate, soon free, colour of p.; s. cartilaginous, equal, paler than p.
umber below, white-fibrillose; sp. 9-11 × 5.

=innocua=, Lasch. P. 2-3 cm. convex, obtuse, almost glabrous, striate,
rufous then pale; g. yellowish ochre; s. 2-3 cm. white-fibrillose; sp.
11 × 4-5.

=cerodes=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convexo-plane, orbicular, even, hygr.
wax-colour then ochre; g. broad, ochre cinnamon; s. 3-5 cm. equal,
naked, yellow, base rusty; sp. 6 × 3. (12-16 × 6-8, Sacc.)

[=solstitialis=, Karst. P. campan. exp. depr. umb. fragile, glabrous,
edge striate then torn, honey-colour then rusty cinnamon, rusty when
dry; g. entire, cinnamon; s. equal, straight, pallid then greenish
umber; sp. 9-10 × 5-6.

=melinoides=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. convexo-plane, obtusely umb. even,
glabrous, tawny, ochre when dry; g. triquetrous-oblong, honey-colour,
toothed; s. 3-4 cm. hollow, thickish, with yellow meal above, base
white; sp. 10-12 × 4-5.

=pusiola=, Fr. P. 1 cm. hemispher. exp. obtuse, even, glabrous, rather
viscid, tawny yellow; g. broad; s. 2 cm. slender, glabrous, yellow,
shining; sp. 8 × 4.

[=miserrima=, Karst. P. plane, umb. sulcate then splitting, whitish when
dry, glabrous; g. adfixed, distant, broad, ventricose, subochre; s.
equal, base and apex slightly thickened, fistulose, straight, naked,
whitish; sp. ----.

     *** _Gills adnate; pileus campan. then exp._

=nucea=, Bolt. P. globoso-campan. umbil. punctate, pale chestnut, edge
incurved, rather lobed; g. rather crisped, cinnamon; s. 5-7 cm. silky
fibrillose, white; sp. 10-11 × 6.

=scolecina=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan.-convex then plane, edge slightly
striate, rusty bay; g. white then rusty, edge flocculose; s. 5-7 cm.
wavy, rusty rufous, white-mealy; sp. 10 × 6.

[=amarescens=, Q. P. slightly rugulose, brown then tan; g.
uncinato-ventricose, whitish then tawny; s. striate, whitish saffron
then umber; sp. 10 long.

=sideroides=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. campan. exp. umb. glabrous, viscid,
reddish-yellow, ochre and shining when dry; g. uncinately adfixed with a
decur. tooth, narrow, crowded; s. even, glabrous, apex white-mealy,
pallid, base brownish; sp. 8-10 × 4-6.

=glandiformis=, W. G. Sm. P. 2-3 cm. obtusely campan. then nut-shaped,
nut-brown, smooth, even; g. very broad, umber; s. 6-9 cm. equal, pallid;
sp. 10-12 × 6-8.

[=stictica=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, orbicular, even, rough with minute
superficial granules; hygr. brownish ochre then tan; g. crowded, pale
cinnamon; s. rusty brown.

[=typhicola=, P. Henn. P. thin, fragile, campan.-exp. subumb. flocculose
then smooth, edge striate, hygr. fuscescent; g. unequal, subdistant,
ventricose, flesh-colour then tawny; s. hollow, slender,
mealy-squamulose then smooth, whitish, base bulbous, white tomentose;
sp. 8-11 × 5-7.

=badipes=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan.-convex subumb. glabrous, pellucidly
striate from umbo when moist, rusty yellow then pale, edge almost
straight; g. adnate, ventricose; s. 4-7 cm. rusty, with white fibrillose
squamules up to middle; sp. 10 × 5.

=hydrophila=, Mass. P. 1-3 cm. campan. then slightly exp. acutely umb.
glabrous, edge striate when moist, pale tan with tinge of green; g.
brownish, edge pale; s. 3-5 cm. equal, flexuous, hollow, with red and
green tints; sp. 13-14 × 6-7.

=striaepes=, Cke. P. 2-4 cm. campan. then exp. more or less gibbous,
ochre; g. broad, tawny cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. straight or wavy, hollow,
white, distinctly longitudinally striate; sp. 10 × 4.

[=camerina=, Fr. P. campan.-convex, obtusely umb. glabrous, moist, edge
striate, ochraceous tan, paler when dry, disc darker; g. crowded,
yellowish cinnamon; s. wavy, adpressedly fibrillose, equal, umber.

=triscopoda=, Fr. P. 1 cm. conical then hemispher. then convexo-plane,
umb. bay, ochre when dry; g. obscure rusty; s. 1-3 cm. filiform,
glabrous, rusty, base umber; sp. 6-8 × 3-4.

     B. PHAEOTI. _Pileus naked. Gills and spores brownish-rusty._

     * PEDIADEI. _Growing in fields and pastures._

[=amoena=, Weinm. P. almost plane, even, rather viscid, dingy yellow
disc tinged rusty, then pale; g. adnate with decur. tooth, rusty; s.
fibrously stuffed, equal, fibrillose, shining white; sp. 8-9 × 4-5.

=vervacti=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convexo-plane, umb. even, glabrous, viscid,
shining when dry, yellow; g. adnate with decur. tooth, crowded; s. 3-4
cm. stuffed then hollow, attenuated, glabrous, rigid, not rooting,
whitish; sp. 12-16 × 8-10.

=pediades=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane, obtuse or depr. dry, at length
minutely rivulose, yellowish ochre then tan; g. adnexed, broad; s. 4-7
cm. with a pith, rather wavy and silky, yellowish, base slightly
bulbous; sp. 10-12 × 4-5.

=semiorbicularis=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. hemispher. then exp. even, glabrous,
rather viscid, at length rivulose, tawny rusty then ochre; g. adnate,
very broad, crowded; s. 4-9 cm. pale rusty, shining, containing a free
tube inside; sp. 10 × 5-6.

=arvalis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convexo-plane, yellow brown, ochre when dry;
g. adnexed; s. 2-4 cm. fistulose, thin, pulverulent, yellowish, with a
long filiform root; sp. 9 × 5.

Differs from _N. orbicularis_ in long rooting s.

=tabacina=, D. C. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. bay brown, almost plane, very obtuse,
edge involute, hygr.; g. adnate, crowded, cinnamon bay; s. 3-4 cm.
hollow, glabrous, cinnamon; sp. 8-9 × 4-5.

[=tabacella=, Sacc. Entirely cinnamon-brown. P. convex, centre
squamulose; s. terete, toughish, fibrillose, base rather thickened; sp.
10-11 × 6.

[=undulosa=, Jungh. P. convex, even, umbo fleshy, bay, shining; g.
adnate, ovate, distant; s. solid, firm, wavy, naked, colour of p.; sp. 6
× 4.

     ** SCORPOIDEI. _Growing in damp uncultivated places or in woods._

=tenax=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan. exp. glabrous, rather viscid, hygr.
cinnamon then ochre; g. adnate, edge entire, whitish; s. 3-5 cm. equal,
yellowish fuscous, striate with adpr. fibrils, almost glabrous, veil
fugacious; sp. 8 × 5.

=myosotis=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane, subumb. with a viscid
pellicle, olive or greenish brown then yellowish; g. adnato-decur. edge
serrate, white; s. 7-12 cm. slender, pallid, fibrilloso-scaly-cortinate;
sp. 11-12 × 6. (16-18 × 8-9 Sacc.)

[=Tavastensis=, Karst. P. convex, exp. disc, often depr. near edge with
concentric large yellowish floccose scales, livid-yellow then dingy
tawny tan; g. adnate, crowded; s. straight, subequal, solid,
fibrillosely scaly, pallid then tinged fuscous, ring torn, yellowish;
sp. 15-17 × 8-9.

[=scorpioides=, Fr. P. conico-convex, exp. glabrous, scarcely viscid,
depr. round umbo, somewhat reddish tan then pale; g. adnate with a
decur. tooth, edge coloured like rest, entire; s. slender, wavy, dry,
pallid, white-fibrillose, apex pruinose; sp. 5-6 long.

=temulenta=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan. convex, glabrous, subumb. hygr.
edge slightly striate, rusty then ochre; g. adnate, narrow in front,
lurid then rusty umber; s. 4-5 cm. fistulose but with a loose pith,
thin, tough, polished, wavy, glabrous, apex powdery; sp. 12 × 6.

=subtemulenta=, Lamb. P. campan. then convex, slightly umb. striate,
hygr. brown ochre when wet, tan when dry; g. crowded, narrow, almost
free, colour of p.; s. slender, colour of p. thickened towards base and
dark rusty.

=latissima=, Cke. P. 1.5-3 cm. subglobose, edge at first incurved, deep
chestnut brown; g. adnexed, very broad, tawny umber; s. 3-5 cm. narrowed
downwards into a rooting base, dark brown below, pale above; sp. ----.

Differs from _N. glandiformis_ in tapering, rooting s.

[=heliophila=, Fr. P. convex, umb. convex, dry, golden tawny, shining;
g. adnate, closely crowded, plane, pallid; s. not polished, with
scattered black points.

=reducta=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, hygr. striate to middle, membranaceous,
rather olive or brownish honey-colour; g. dingy yellow then rusty; s.
narrowed upwards, tough amber-brown, apex paler, pruinose.

     C. LEPIDOTI. (Naucoria typical.) _Pileus flocculose or squamulose.
     Veil evident. Spores rusty._

     * _Scales of pileus superficial, disappearing._

=porriginosa=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convex, exp. obtuse, viscid, tawny then
pale, with scattered superficial saffron flecks; g. adnate,
yellow-cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. equal, silky, pallid.

[=lapponica=, Laest. P. convex, umb. then plane, viscid, rufous brown,
discoid, with scattered yellow pilose scales; g. serrulate, white then
brown; s. elongated, cuticle separating.

=sobria=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convexo-plane, rather viscid and silky,
yellowish, veil pruinose, fugacious; g. adnate, crowded, broad, saffron
then pallid, edge pale; s. 2-3 cm. fibrillose, base brownish,
white-floccose; sp. 14-16 × 10.

var. _dispersa_, B. and Br. P. 0.5-1 cm. convex, ochre, punctulate, edge
scurfy; s. scurfy, ring append.; g. pallid, edge white.

     ** _Pileus innately squamulose._

=erinacea=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. dry, convex, subumbil. squamulose with
fascicles of hairs, rusty-umber; g. adnate, quite entire; s. 1-1.5 cm.
incurved, hairy, colour of p.; sp. 9-15 × 6-7.

Dry as in _Marasmius_. Differs from _N. siparia_ in entire edge of g.
and stem squamulose throughout.

=siparia=, Weinm. P. 1-2 cm. plane, obtuse, woolly-scaly, reddish rusty;
g. broad, edge floccose; s. 1.5-2 cm. squamulose, apex glabrous; sp.
8-10 × 4-5.

=conspersa=, Pers. P. 1-1.5 cm. fragile, convexo-plane, obtuse, hygr.
soon broken up into scurfy squamules, cinnamon bay then ochre; g.
adnate, crowded; s. 2-3 cm. fibrillose, apex scurfy-squamulose, colour
of p.; sp. 8-9 × 5.

=escharoides=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conico-convex, exp. obtuse
scurfy-squamulose, whitish tan disc becoming darker; g. lax, ventricose;
s. 2-3 cm. wavy, adpressedly fibrillose pale then darker; s. 14 × 7.

[=suavis=, Bres. Smell pleasant, like ripe pears. P. campan. exp. umb.
brownish, centre lurid tawny then pale, squamulose; g. crowded, pallid
then tawny brown; s. equal, fuscous; sp. 9-10 × 4.5-5.

[=limbata=, Bull. P. exp. obtuse, even then concentrically floccosely
squamulose, ochraceous-tan, edge striate then split; g. free, ochre-tan;
s. fistulose, glabrous, white then yellowish; sp. 6-9 × 4-6.

var. _sublimbata_. Differs in solid s. which like p. is brick-red then
pale; g. rusty.

[=Weislandri=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, glabrous, tawny, cuticle cracked into
areolae, hence the surface is crowded with minute dark wart-like
papillae; g. adnate, broad, dark rust; s. filiform, almost naked,

     *** _Pileus destitute of scales, silky or atomate._

[=segestria=, Fr. P. soft, convex, exp. or depr. silky, hygr. tan then
pale; g. adnate, crowded, narrow; s. soft, tough, fibrillose, pallid;
sp. 9-10 × 6.

[=pannosa=, Fr. P. thin, exp. fuscescent, silky with white hairs; g.
ventricose, distant, pale umber; s. filiform, almost glabrous, pallid.

[=hibala=, Karst. P. convexo-depr. hygr. surface loose and pannose,
sooty-umber or olive-brown, yellowish-grey when dry; g. adnate, narrow,
crowded, edge grey-flocculose, subdentate; s. base with white down,
pulverulent-velvety with yellowish particles.

[=bryophila=, Roze and Boud. P. conico-campan. acute umbo blackish, rest
reddish brown, striate; g. almost free, pale rose; s. cylindrical,
almost translucent, brown, curved.

=carpophila=, Fr. P. 3-6 mm. thin, convex, obtuse, shining with scurfy
particles, yellowish then pallid; g. broad, crenulate, ochre; s. 5-8 cm.
scurfy then naked, pallid.

=graminicola=, Nees. P. 3-8 mm. convex, papillate, hairy-tomentose,
fuscous then reddish ochre; g. rather distant, ochre then pallid; s. 1
cm. tough, hairy, brownish; sp. 7 × 4.

[=pityrodes=, Brig. P. dry, convex, plane, umb. very minutely
downy-squamulose, whitish then rufescent, edge striate, toothed; g.
ventricose, pallid; s. fistulose, tough, scabrid-squamulose, tawny,
strigose below.

=effugiens=, Q. Very minute. P. thin convexo-plane, diaphanous, ochre,
at length greyish olive and covered with shining crystalline grains; g.
yellowish; s. incurved, mealy.

=echinospora=, W. G. S. P. at first rather scurfy, moist, hygr. citrin,
greenish marginate then pallid, edge slightly striate; g. citrin; s.
reddish-brown, white squamulose; sp. rough, 7 × 6.


     I. CONOCEPHALI. _Pileus conico-campanulate, hygr. almost even,
     atomate when dry; stem straight, gills somewhat crowded,

[=apala=, Weinm. P. campan. equal, obtuse, even, hygr. pallid livid,
white when dry; g. almost free, whitish then ochre; s. tall, fragile,
narrowed upwards, white-velvety; sp. 12-14 × 7-8.

var. _sphaerobasis_, Post. P. campan. even; s. shorter, glabrous, base

=lateritia=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. high, nut-shaped then conical, even, hygr.
gilvous then ochre, edge densely striate when moist; g. very narrow,
tawny-rust; s. 6-9 cm. fragile, narrowed upwards, white-pruinose; sp.
11-12 × 5-6.

Differs from _G. ovalis_ by narrow, ascending g.

=tenera=, Schaeff. P. 1-2 cm. high, conico-campan. obtuse, hygr. pale
yellowish rusty, pale and rather atomate when dry; g. adnate, crowded,
rather broad, cinnamon; s. 6-9 cm. straight, fragile, rather shining,
colour of p.; sp. 12-13 × 7.

var. _pilosella_, Pers. P. and s. covered with short erect pubescence
when moist.

[=flexipes=, Karst. P. campan. obtuse, rusty and slightly pellucidly
striate, ochraceous when dry; g. adnexed, crowded, pallid then rusty,
edge crenulate; s. equal, fistulose, wavy, pallid then rusty,
white-fibrillose, apex white-pruinose; sp. 10-12 × 5-6.

[=pubescens=, Gillet. P. conical, reticulately wrinkled, atomate, very
minutely pubescent, brown or ochre, hygr.; g. narrow, veined at base,
rusty; s. tall, rigid, coarsely longitudinally striate above, finely
pubescent, paler than p.

=siliginea=, Fr. P. 1-1.5 cm. globose, then campan. finally exp.
unequal, even, greyish, not becoming pale; g. adnate, ochre; s. 4-7 cm.
rather wavy, equal, pallid, rather pruinose; sp. 11-13 × 5-7.

=campanulata=, Mass. Smell strong. P. 1-2 cm. persistently campan.
subacute, even, hygr. deep cinnamon, whitish, atomate and rather
rugulose when dry; g. adnate, tawny cinnamon; s. 4-5 cm. wavy, pallid;
sp. 12 × 7.

=ovalis=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. thin, ovato-campan. even, hygr. dark rusty,
yellowish when dry; g. nearly free, ventricose, very broad, rusty; s.
6-9 cm. straight, equal, slightly striate, colour of p. hollow; sp. 10 ×

Veil sometimes subannulate.

[=rabenhorstii=, Fr. P. acutely conical then exp. umbil. pellucidly
striate, olive; g. lanceolate, white then rufous-brown; s. fibrously
striate, brownish-white, base thickened, somewhat floccosely rooting.

=antipoda=, Lasch. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan.-convex, even, ochre, whitish
and atomate when dry; s. 2-3 cm. striate, mealy, base bulbous and
fusiformly rooting; g. almost free, crowded, yellowish-ochre; sp. 15-16
× 8.

=conferta=, Bolt. P. 1-2 cm. acutely conico-campan. striate, glabrous,
hygr. fuscous, fuscous ochre when dry; g. slightly adnexed, white then
brownish ochre; s. 2-4 cm. silky, shining, naked, with an equal very
long rooting base; sp. ----.

Densely crowded, very fragile.

=spicula=, Lasch. P. conico-campan. striate when moist, brown-ochre,
flocculose when dry; g. adnate; s. straight, slender, white-floccose,
base thickened, fibrillose.

=spartea=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan.-convex, exp. obtuse, hygr. even when
dry, glabrous, cinnamon then pale; g. adnate, crowded; s. 3-5 cm. rigid,
flexile, glabrous; sp. ----.

Resembling _G. tener_ but smaller, and s. not straight.

=pygmaeo-affinis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. exp. dry, not striate,
slightly wrinkled, honey-tan; g. thin, crowded, very narrow,
rusty-ochre; s. 4-6 cm. equal, shining white; sp. ----.

Fries says this is possibly a tall form of _Naucoria pygmaea_.

     II. BRYOGENI. _Pileus membranaceous, campanulate, striate,
     glabrous, hygr. even, opaque and rather silky when dry; stem
     slender, lax, flexile; gills broadly and abruptly adnate, broad,
     somewhat denticulate._

=vittaeformis=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. conico-campan. papillate, striate,
somewhat bay; g. adnate, ascending; s. 3-7 cm. equal, flexile, even,
reddish; sp. 12 × 6.

=rubiginosa=, Fr. P. 0.5-1 cm. campan. obtuse, everywhere deeply
striate, hygr. cinnamon or honey-colour, tan when dry; g. distant,
broad, opaque; s. 4-5 cm. glabrous, reddish; sp. 10 × 5.

=hypnorum=, Batsch. P. 0.5-1 cm. campan. subpapillate, glabrous,
striate, hygr. ochre or tawny-ochre then pale; g. broad, lax; s. 3-4 cm.
wavy, colour of p. apex pruinose; sp. 10 × 6.

var. _bryorum_, Pers. Larger, watery cinnamon, papilla somewhat horny;
sp. 10 × 6.

var. _sphagnorum_, Pers. Two to three times larger than type,
yellowish-ochre; s. elongated, subfibrillose, tawny.

[=hypnicola=, Karst. P. conico-campan. obtuse, disc gibbous, deeply
lineato-striate, livid fuscous, soon paler; g. crowded; s. equal, lax,
flaccid, silky flocculose from veil, soon glabrous, pallid; sp. 10-12 ×

=mniophila=, Lasch. P. 1-1.5 cm. campan. subpapillate, striate, brownish
yellow; g. broad, yellowish-ochre; s. 4-7 cm. equal, flexile, yellow,
apex mealy; sp. 14 × 6.

=minuta=, Q. P. 3-5 mm. campan. striate, pale tawny bistre; g. arcuate,
as broad as long; s. 1-2 cm. hair-like, tawny, shining, woolly and white
at base; sp. 6 × 4.

[=aquatilis=, Fr. P. campan.-convex, subpapillate, glabrous, watery,
edge striate, pallid honey-colour or hyaline, then whitish; g. distant,
triquetrous, pallid; s. very long, slender, even, very glabrous, pallid;
sp. 10-14 × 6.

[=tenuissima=, Weinm. P. campan. obtuse, glabrous, slightly striate,
tinged olive; g. crowded, cinnamon; s. very slender, flexile, glabrous,
cinnamon; sp. 10-13 long.

     III. ERIODERMI. _Pileus submembranaceous; veil evident,
     superficial, deciduous; at first--especially near the edge--silky
     or squamulose._

=pityria=, Fr. P. campan. exp. glabrous, viscid, lurid, tan when dry,
fugacious veil append.; g. slightly adnexed, crowded, rusty; s.
fistulose, firm, glabrous, silvery, apex with white meal.

=ravida=, Fr. P. 1.5-3 cm. campan. then hemispher. even when moist,
greyish, dingy ochre when dry, edge at first toothed with white veil; g.
nearly free, gilvous; s. 2-3 cm. fibrilloso-striate, pallid, silvery;
sp. 8-10 × 4.

=mycenopsis=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan. exp. disc even, striate to middle,
at first silky-white near edge, ochre then pale; g. white then ochre; s.
6-9 cm. attenuated, white, silky; sp. 9-12 × 5-6.

[=morchelloides=, De Brond. P. conoid, obtuse, subgibbous, with
anastomosing wrinkles, edge wavy, tawny ochre; g. whitish then fuscous;
s. equal, squamulose, rufous.

[=vestita=, Fr. P. campan. striate, tawny yellow when moist, ochre when
dry, edge fimbriately toothed with the veil; g. adnate, yellow then
ochre; s. rigid, pulverulent, yellowish; sp. 10 × 4-5.

[=Sahleri=, Q. Minute. P. conical, acute, striate, chestnut tawny,
honey-colour when dry, deciduous silky fibrils at margin; g. adnate,
tawny ochre; s. fibrillose, shining; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.


     I. GENUINI. _Spores rusty._

=cupularis=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. plano-depr. obtuse, even, glabrous,
rufescent then yellowish, hygr.; g. decur. crowded, tawny; s. 4-7 cm.
fistulose, naked, narrowed upwards, whitish; sp. 6 × 3.

=furfuracea=, Pers. P. 1.5-5 cm. convex then plane and at length umbil.
yellowish-cinnamon, hygr. hoary with the silky-squamulose veil,
especially near edge; g. adnato-decur. rather distant, cinnamon; s. 2-5
cm. fistulose, flocculose, rigid, pallid; sp. 10 × 6.

var. _heterosticha_, Fr. P. subumb. depr. cinnamon, ochre then pallid
when dry; s. almost naked.

var. _trigonophylla_, Fr. Small, becoming pale; g. very broad,
triangular, more distant, ochre with a tawny tinge.

=anthrocophila=, Karst. P. convex, exp. wavy, dry, rusty-cinnamon pale
when dry, with concentric white deciduous flecks near edge; g. adnate,
dentate; s. wavy, often compr. pallid rusty, white-fibrillose; sp. 6-7.5
× 3-5.

Close to _T. furfuracea_.

=paludosa=, Fr. 0.5-1.5 cm. P. conic then convex, umb. not striate,
yellowish fuscous, with silky pallid superficial flecks; g. decur. very
broad behind, crowded, watery ochre; s. 6-9 cm. slender, elongated,
flexuous, floccose, ochre or pale citrin; sp. 10 × 4.

=stagnina=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. conical then convex, obtuse, rather viscid
and striate when moist, rusty bay, even and pale ochre when dry, with
white concentric floccose scales near edge; g. decur. very broad, ochre
then rusty; s. 7-15 cm. reddish bay; sp. 10 × 5.

P. sometimes depr. and umbil.

[=vestita=, Q. P. 1-2 cm. thin, campan. creamy ochre, edge with a white
dentate fringe formed by the torn ring; g. yellow, then fawn with a
cream edge; s. fistulose, slender, mealy, creamy white; ring membranous,
thin, white, caducous; sp. 10 long.

=pellucida=, Bull. P. 1-2 cm. conical then campan. umb. cinnamon, hygr.
silky-squamulose near the striate edge; g. subdecur. very broad behind,
triangular, paler than p.; s. 3-5 cm. narrowed upwards, shining, pale,
apex mealy; sp. ----.

=muscorum=, Pers. P. 0.5-1 cm. convex, centre becoming depr. striate,
glabrous, yellow-fuscous; g. subdecur. paler; s. short, base thickened,
colour of p.; sp. 6-8 × 4.

=embola=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan. then convex, obtuse, lineato-striate,
glabrous, yellowish tawny, hygr.; g. very broad behind, triangular,
thick, distant; s. 3-5 cm. thickened upwards, glabrous, shining yellow
when dry; sp. 10 × 4-6.

Differs from _Omph. umbellifera_ in glabrous finely striate p. and s.
thickened upwards.

[=viscidula=, Karst. P. campan. striate, viscid, somewhat ochre; g.
adnate, distant, white then rusty; s. equal, rusty, paler upwards,
white-flocculose; sp. 6-7 × 3-6.

=autochthona=, B. and Br. P. 0.5-1 cm. hemispher. obtuse, pale ochre,
silky, edge flocculose; g. adnate with decur. tooth, honey-colour; s.
2-3 cm. wavy or curved, thickened above and below, base woolly; sp. 8 ×

Differs from _T. furfuracea_ in the p. not becoming pale, and sp. paler.

     II. PHAEOTI. _Spores fuscous-rusty._

=crobula=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convex then plane, obtuse, not striate, rather
viscid, covered with deciduous floccose subsquarrose scales, then naked,
greyish tan; g. subdecur. crowded; s. 2-3.5 cm. tough, fuscous, densely
covered with white floccose scales; sp. 10 × 6.

Almost a large-sized _T. inquilina_ with the veil of _A. furfuracea_,
but evidently annulate.

=inquilina=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. convex then plane, glabrous, rather viscid,
striate when moist, hygr. tawny or hoary-tan; g. subdecur. rather
distant, triangular, tan then brownish umber; s. 2-3 cm. tough, bay,
white-fibrillose; sp. 8 × 4.

Close to _T. crobula_, differs in glabrous p., striate when moist, and
nearly glabrous s.

var. _ecbola_, Fr. P. tan; s. rooting; g. crowded, rusty.

[=caricicola=, P. Henn. P. thin, convex, depr. centre brownish, even,
glabrous, yellowish-brown, silky when dry; g. shortly decur. rusty; s.
slender, curved, brown, base darker; sp. 8-10 × 3.5-4.5.


     I. GYMNOTI. _Veil absent; pileus dry, often squamulose_.

=gymnopodia=, Bull. Rusty brown. P. 4-7 cm. fleshy, campan.-convex,
squamulose; g. deeply decur. arcuate, crowded, rusty; s. 3-6 cm. solid,
almost glabrous, equal; sp. ----.

=Aldridgei=, Mass. P. 2-5 cm. convex then infundib. edge incurved, dry,
orange brick-red, minutely velvety; g. deeply decur. rusty orange; s.
6-9 cm. wavy, smooth, colour of p.; sp. 16 × 5.

=vinosa=, Bull. P. 2-4 cm. exp. then depr. rusty fawn-colour; g. decur.
crowded, narrow, rusty; s. 2-3 cm. solid, firm, base rather thickened,
minutely flocculose; sp. 5 × 3.

[=Tamii=, Fr. P. convex, dry, floccosely silky, dusky yellow, with tinge
of brown; g. adnate, orange tawny; s. solid, silky fibrillose, equal,
yellowish rufous.

[=abrupta=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, disc becoming depr. obsoletely umb.
glabrous, shining tawny; g. adnate with decur. tooth, pallid then tawny;
s. fibrillose, tawny yellow; sp. 5-7 × 3-5.

=floccifera=, B. and Br. Caespitose. P. 4-5 cm. convex, exp. tawny,
white-fibrillose, somewhat zoned when dry; g. adnate, wrinkled, rusty,
edge white; s. 3 cm. narrowed downwards, scurfy at apex, white and
silky-squamulose below; sp. ----.

[=muricella=, Fr. P. convex then plane, tawny, covered everywhere with
suberect darker erect innate squamules; g. adnate, crowded, dingy
yellow; s. solid, equal, glabrous, pallid.

=decipiens=, W. G. Sm. P. 2-3 cm. deep clear brown then pale, convex,
obtuse or umb. dry, minutely scaly, flesh yellow; g. decur.
orange-brown; s. 3-4 cm. narrowed downwards, tawny, striate; sp. 6-7 ×

Differs from _F. carbonaria_ in decur. bright g.

=clitopila=, Cke. and Sm. P. 3-4 cm. convex then exp. depr. and umbil.
smooth, dry, purplish brown; g. dingy yellowish; s. 4-5 cm. ventricose,
smoky brown, hollow; sp. 10 × 4-5.

     II. LUBRICI. _Pileus covered with a viscid, continuous, partly
     separable cuticle; veil evident, fibrillose._

=lenta=, Pers. P. 4-7 cm. convexo-plane, even, viscid, livid or tan, at
first with scattered scales; g. adnate, whitish then tan; s. 4-5 cm.
equal, scaly; sp. 10 × 4. (6-7 × 3-4 Sacc.)

Sometimes entirely whitish; p. glutinous when moist.

Stevenson considers the present and _Hebeloma glutinosum_ to be

=lubrica=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. plane, even, viscid, cinnamon or tawny or
pallid and disc tawny and spotted with squamules; g. adnate, broad, tan;
s. 5-12 cm. somewhat narrowed, fibrillose, whitish, apex striate; sp. 8
× 4.

=lupina=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. and depr. even, viscid; g. adnato-decur.
broad, pallid tan; s. 2-3 cm. short, firm, unequal, with rusty tinged
adpressed fibrils, apex white; sp. 8 × 4.

There are two forms: A. Smell strong, pungent, p. fuscous then tan; s.
becoming rusty. B. Milder, p. tawny; s. and g. yellowish.

=mixta=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. convexo-plane, viscid, crust-colour, disc
darker, rugulose; g. subdecur. crowded; s. 3-7 cm. hollow, pallid,
fusco-fibrillose, rufous-scaly below; sp. 10 × 5.

=juncina=, W. G. Sm. P. 3-4 cm. hemispher. exp. even, glabrous,
sulphur, disc brown; g. decur. sulphur then reddish brown; s. 8-10 cm.
tapering downwards, sulphur, base tawny; sp. ----.

=decussata=, Fr. P. plane, obscurely umb. viscid, virgate with innate
radiating fibrils, crust-colour; g. adnate, crowded, narrow, yellowish
then tan; s. tawny.

=gummosa=, Lasch. P. 3-6 cm. plane, floccosely scaly then even, viscid,
yellow or greenish; g. adnate, crowded, yellow then cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm.
silky fibrillose, base reddish; sp. ----.

=spumosa=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. even, viscid, yellowish; g. adnate,
yellow then rusty; s. 4-9 cm. equal, slender, fibrillose, yellowish; sp.
9 × 5.

[=Henningsii=, Bres. P. convex, exp. greenish-yellow or citrin, centre
tinged fuscous, with disappearing brownish squamules; g. sinuato-adnate,
crowded, yellow then tawny cinnamon; s. fibrillosely squamulose then
almost glabrous, tawny-yellow; sp. 8-9 × 5.5.

[=carbonaria=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. almost plane, even, viscid, somewhat
tawny, flesh yellow; g. adnate, tan becoming fuscescent; s. 3-7 cm.
rigid, squamulose, pallid; sp. 10-11 × 5-6.

     III. UDI. _Cuticle of pileus continuous, not distinct or separable,
     glabrous_ (frequently with superficial down), _moist or slightly
     viscid in rainy weather. Veil evident, appendiculate._ Spores not
     tawny nor ochre. Allied to _Pholiota_, caespitose, growing on wood.

=fusus=, Batsch. P. 4-8 cm. compact, convexo-exp. even, rather viscid,
reddish tan, flesh yellowish, veil append.; g. subdecur. yellowish then
rusty; s. 4-5 cm. fibrillosely striate, base narrowed, colour of p.
rooting; sp. 10 × 4.

var. _superba_, Mass. P. 8-12 cm. deep orange; s. pale orange; g.
narrow, bright yellow.

=filia=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. glabrous, moist in rainy weather but not
viscid, pale reddish yellow; g. adnate, arcuate, tawny yellow; s. 8-14
cm. glabrous, pale yellow, hollow; sp. 10 × 5.

[=cortinata=, D. C. Caespitose. P. convex, glabrous, discoid, veil
append.; g. adnate, rusty; s. hollow, unequal, squamulose, white.

var. _cortinella_, Dub. P. ovoid-convex, yellow or greyish-yellow; g.
whitish then rufous-lilac, at length vinous.

=astragalina=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. discoid, at first superficially silky
near edge, saffron blood-red, flesh same; g. adnate, crowded, pale
yellow then rusty; s. 3-9 cm. wavy, fibrillosely scaly, pallid; sp. 10

=alnicola=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. exp. moist, even, at first subfibrillosely
scaly then nearly glabrous, yellow then rusty, rarely greenish; g.
broad, pallid then rusty; s. 4-9 cm. partly hollow, narrowed to a
rooting base, fibrillose, yellow then rusty; sp. 9 × 4.

=flavida=, Schaeff. P. 3-7 cm. exp. equal; glabrous, moist, yellow; g.
yellow then rusty; s. 5-9 cm. yellow then rusty; 6-8 × 5.

=inaurata=, W. G. Sm. Sulphur yellow. P. 2-3 cm. moist, smooth, with a
distinct veil; g. adnate with a decur. tooth; s. 2-3 cm. with innate
scales; sp. ----.

=conissans=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. thin, exp. equal, moist, glabrous, yellowish
tan; g. crowded, pallid then dingy tan; s. 4-7 cm. hollow, silky
fibrillose, pallid; sp. 8 × 4.

Habit of _Hypholoma fasciculare_.

=inopoda=, Fr. P. 3-9 cm. exp. moist, glabrous, honey-coloured tan; g.
linear, yellowish white then pallid; s. 7-14 cm. slender, wavy,
adpressedly fibrillose, at length reddish below; sp. 10 × 6.

=apicrea=, Fr. 3-7 cm. exp. even, glabrous, moist, tan or dingy orange,
disc tawny; g. crowded, shining rusty; s. 4-7 cm. hollow, equal, not
rooting, pallid, base with rusty fibrils; sp. 7 × 3.

Differs from _F. alnicola_ in unchangeable gills, flesh hygr.; p.
clay-colour, disc tawny becoming pale, smell sweet.

[=austera=, Fr. P. campan.-convex exp. obtuse, moist, discoid,
fibrillose then glabrous, hygr. honey-colour, disc tawny; g. subdecur.
always cinnamon; s. hollow, equal, not rooting, silky fibrillose,

[=azyma=, Bull. P. convex-exp. obtuse, moist, even, hygr. pale rusty,
flocculose and rimosely squamulose when dry; g. adnate, gilvous, edge
whitish; s. fibrillosely cortinate, pallid; sp. 10 long.

     IV. SAPINEI. Pileus hardly pelliculose (flesh cracking or torn into
     squamules towards disc), not viscid. _Veil_ adpressedly fibrillose
     to the stem, _not appendiculato-cortinate, almost none, or forming
     a zone on stem_. Known more especially by yellowish or tawny yellow
     gills and ochre or tawny spores. Subcaespitose, always growing on
     pines or on pine branches etc. on the ground.

[=stabilis=, Weinm. P. compact, exp. even, glabrous, ochre, gibbous disc
darker; g. whitish then tawny cinnamon; s. stout, rigid, whitish with
ochre fibrils.

=penetrans=, Fr. P. exp. dry, almost glabrous, golden or orange tawny;
g. yellowish-white spotted tawny; s. silky then striate, pallid, very
fugacious flocculose veil white; sp. 8-9 × 4-5.

=hybrida=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. hemispher. exp. obtuse, glabrous, even, moist,
tawny cinnamon then tawny orange; g. adnate, pale yellow then tawny; s.
4-7 cm. narrowed upwards, tawny, whitish cortinate and cingulate; sp.
7-8 × 4-5.

[=harmoge=, Fr. P. campan. adpressedly squamulose, rather viscid, disc
fleshy, verdigris green, rest lilac or pinkish; g. adnate, broad,
sulphur then tawny-saffron; s. colour of p. veil floccosely radiating.

=sapinea=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. exp. very obtuse, minutely flocculosely
squamulose then rimosely broken up, golden tawny; g. adnate, broad,
golden then tawny cinnamon; s. 3-5 cm. deformed, thick, grooved,
rooting, yellowish; sp. 8 × 5.

[=Studeriana=, Fayod. P. convex then exp. edge acute, deep orange,
covered with deciduous, purple-brown radiating silky fibrils; g.
adnexed, brownish-tan, not spotted; s. cylindrical, fibrillose and
coloured like p.; sp. rough, 8 × 4-5.

=liquiritiae=, Pers. P. 3-7 cm. splitting, convexo-plane, subumb.
glabrous, moist, edge at length slightly striate, tawny orange; g.
broad, golden then tawny cinnamon; s. 4-5 cm. hollow, fibrous, striate,
silky and white then tawny-rusty; sp. ----.

=picrea=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. cracking, convexo-exp. even, glabrous, rufous-
or bay-cinnamon then tawny; g. crowded, narrow, yellow then rusty; s.
4-7 cm. fistulose, thin, somewhat umber, narrowed upwards, pulverulent
at first; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

=nitens=, Cke. and Mass. Caespitose. P. 3-5 cm. hemispher. obtuse,
shining, persistently purple brown; g. pallid then umber; s. 4-7 cm.
fibrillose, pale pinkish brown, solid; sp. 10 × 5-6.

[=limulata=, Fr. P. convex then irreg. densely papillosely-rivulose with
innate flecks, tawny; g. crowded, yellow then cinnamon; s. thin,
fibrillose, rather downy, fuscescent; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

     V. SERICELLI. _Cortinate, cuticle of pileus rather silky, dry or
     viscid at first._

[=Agardhii=, Fr. P. convex then exp. obtuse, dry, fibrillosely silky,
almost even, tawny-rusty; g. adnato-decur. crowded, tan then
brown-rusty, edge paler, crenulate; s. equal, wavy, fibrillosely

=ochrochlora=, Fr. Caespitose. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-exp. obtusely umb.
dry, rather silky, subsquamulose, greenish straw-colour; g. adnate,
crowded, greenish-white then olive; s. 4-5 cm. hollow, scaly and
white-floccose, wavy, base and inside rusty; sp. 8 × 4.

Resembling _Hypholoma fasciculare_, differing in rusty sp.

=helomorpha=, Fr. White. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. exp. gibbous, unequal, viscid,
silky when dry, edge naked; g. adnato-decur. crowded, white then tan; s.
2-3 cm. solid, unequal, curved, even, almost glabrous; sp. 10 × 6.

=scamba=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. subdepr. floccosely downy, viscid in damp
weather, white then tinged tan; g. subdecur. yellowish tan; s. 3-4 cm.
short, incurved, flocculosely cortinate, white, base narrowed; sp. 10-12
× 5-6.

     _Introduced species._

=filicea=, Cke. P. 2-4 cm. convexo-exp. or slightly depr. squamulosely
fibrillose, deep yellow disc tawny, veil reddish, append.; g. adnate,
sulphur then tawny; s. 3-5 cm. hollow, sulphur, base tawny; sp. 8 × 5.

=purpurata=, Cke. and Mass. P. 3-4 cm. exp. obtusely umb. purple or
purple-brown, squamulose, dry; g. adnate, yellow then rusty; s. 3-4 cm.
incurved, purplish and granulose below; sp. 8 × 5.


     _Key to the Subgenera._

I. =Phlegmacium=. Partial veil cobwebby. Pileus equally fleshy, viscid;
stem firm, dry. p. 177.

II. =Myxacium=. Universal veil glutinous, hence the pileus and scarcely
bulbous stem are viscid. Pileus rather thin; gills adnate or decurrent.
p. 183.

III. =Inoloma=. Pileus equally fleshy, dry, at first scaly, fibrillose
or innately silky, not hygrophanous. Veil simple. Stem fleshy,
subbulbous. p. 185.

IV. =Dermocybe=. Flesh of pileus thin, everywhere equal, at first downy
or subinnately silky, but glabrous when adult, dry, not hygrophanous. p.

V. =Telamonia=. Pileus hygrophanous, at first glabrous or with whitish
superficial fibrils. Flesh entirely thin or the margin abruptly so,
splitting. Universal veil peronate, or forming a ring low down on the
stem, apex somewhat cortinate, hence the veil is double. p. 191.

VI. =Hydrocybe=. Pileus glabrous or covered with superficial white
fibrils, not viscid but moist when growing, losing the deep colour and
becoming pale when dry, flesh very thin, splitting, disc rarely thicker.
Stem rather rigid, not peronate; veil thin, fibrillose, rarely
collapsing and forming an irregular zone round the stem. p. 196.

     _Partial veil cobwebby. Pileus equally fleshy, viscid. Stem firm,

     * CLIDUCHII. _Partial veil superior, forming a pendulous ring round
     the apex of the subequal or clavate stem._

     + _Gills pallid then tan._

=triumphans=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. convex then exp. even, yellow, at first
with a few adpr. darker scales; g. emarginate, crowded, quite entire; s.
7-14 cm. solid, clavate, with several concentric squamulose tawny rings;
sp. 12-14 × 5-6.

[=crocolitus=, Q. P. disc, with saffron squamules; g. white, lilac, then
tan; s. squamulose, ring thin, yellowish-white.

=claricolor=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. firm, exp. glabrous, shining when dry,
yellow, often cracked into scales; g. subadnexed, crowded, serrate,
greyish white then pallid; s. solid, at first floccoso-squamulose from
white veil; sp. 11-12 × 6-7.

=turmalis=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. convexo-plane, even, glabrous, discoid, dingy
yellow; g. emarginato-decur. crowded, subserrate, tan; s. 7-12 cm.
cylindric, white, at first woolly-peronate; sp. 8-9 × 5.

=crassus=, Fr. P. 7-11 cm. flesh thick, plano-depr. dingy yellow, disc
glabrous, rest fibrilloso-strigose; g. crowded, quite entire, tan; s.
6-9 cm. stout, fibrillose, white, apex mealy; sp. 15 × 7.

=balteatus=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. exp. compact, soon dry and broken up into
flecks, tawny, edge violet or bluish; g. emarginato-decur. crowded,
entire, whitish; s. at first peronato-tomentose, white, apex velvety;
sp. ----.

=sebaceus=, Fr. P. 6-12 cm. incurved then exp. rather wavy, pallid,
white-pruinose; g. emarg. not crowded, tan; s. 6-10 cm. solid, equal,
fibrillose, pallid; sp. 9 × 7.

=lustratus=, Fr. Wholly whitish. P. 3-5 cm. exp. even, glabrous, edge
fibrillose, cortinate; g. closely crowded; s. 3-5 cm. solid, nearly
equal; sp. ----.

Resembling _Entol. prunuloides_, but sp. ochre.

     ++ _Gills violet or purplish, then cinnamon._

=varius=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. compact, discoid, edge glabrous, flesh white,
rusty; g. crowded, entire, purplish then cinnamon; s. 3-5 cm. conical,
adpr. flocculose, whitish; sp. ----.

=cyanopus=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. exp. even, glabrous, bay or tawny, flesh
whitish; g. adnato-emarg. broad, violet then pale; s. 4-5 cm. violet
then whitish, bulb depressed, oblique; sp. ----.

=variicolor=, Fr. P. 8-11 cm. compact, discoid, tomentose edge violet,
rest bay; g. decur.-emarginate, bluish then tan; s. 8-11 cm. villose at
first blue then whitish; sp. 9-10 × 5. Flesh bluish then pallid.

var. _nemorensis_, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. yellowish-bay, edge at first bluish;
s. clavate, 7 cm. apex hollow, mealy; g. rotundato-subdecur.

=largus=, Fr. P. 8-14 cm. exp. wavy, subgibbous, tan or reddish, flesh
grey then white; g. broad, crowded, entire, grey then cinnamon; s. 8-12
cm. solid, fibrillose, curved, violet then white; sp. 12-14 × 7.

[=spadiceus=, Fr. P. exp. smoky bay, pellicle separable; g. blue then
brownish-tan; s. fibrilloso-striate, pallid.

[=pelmatosporus=, C. Mart. P. subglobose then campan. or convex, brown
or chestnut, centre darker, edge sulcate, incurved then exp. white
fibrillose veil persistent; s. stuffed, stout, apex white, violet below,
bulb submarginate, yellow; g. sinuate, adnexed; sp. very large.

=Riederi=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. campan. then exp. glutinous, ochre, shining
when dry; g. adnate, eroded, violet then cinnamon; s. clavate, silky
lilac, tawny fibrillose, 6-9 cm.; sp. 12 × 5.

     +++ _Gills yellow, cinnamon, or ferruginous (not whitish violet at

[=percomis=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, even, very glabrous, gilvous; g.
sulphur yellow then tan, broad; s. clavate, sulphur inside.

[=vitellinopes=, Secr. P. exp. depr. edge of margin upturned, discoid,
glabrous, egg-yellow; g. rusty cinnamon; s. solid, rather wavy, white
above ring, fibrillose and yellow below.

=saginus=, Fr. P. 8-11 cm. plano-convex, unequal, glabrous, yellow; g.
decur. broad, eroded, pallid then cinnamon; s. 7 cm. somewhat bulbous,
yellowish, apex naked; sp. ----.

[=cliduchus=, Fr. P. depr. shining, discoid, bright yellow; g. serrate,
rusty-cinnamon; s. slightly curved, fibrillose, yellow.

=russus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. convexo-plane, silky fibrillose near edge,
coppery; g. adnate, broad, connected by veins, rusty; s. 6-7 cm.
attenuated, pallid, fibrillose; sp. 8-10 × 5.

     ++++ _Gills olive._

[=cephalixus=, Fr. P. plane, rather wavy, olive, edge yellowish, disc
with brown granules; g. adnexed, thin, eroded, white then rusty olive;
s. clavate, brownish squamulose below.

=infractus=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. exp. virgate, edge thin, incurved, olive or
yellowish; g. broad, crowded, olive-umber; s. 6-7 cm. ovately bulbous,
tinged olive; sp. 10 × 8.

=anfractus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. unequal, bent inwards, wavy, olive then
tawny fuliginous; g. crisped, rather distant, sooty-olive then tan; s.
4-6 cm. unequal, apex violet; sp. ----.

=Berkeleyi=, Cke. P. 7-14 cm. convex then exp. edge incurved, rugulose,
pale, rest brown; g. narrow, cinnamon with olive tinge; s. 8-14 cm. base
bulbous, solid, white; sp. 15-16 × 8-9.

Whole young fungus enclosed in a white volva, patches of which often
remain on p.

     ** SCAURI. _Bulb depressed or turbinate, marginate, stem fleshy,
     fibrous; veil inferior, springing from margin of bulb; pileus
     equally fleshy; gills subsinuate._

     + _Gills whitish then tan or pale cinnamon._

=multiformis=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. equal, glabrous, yellow or tawny all
over, flesh white; g. serrate, white then tan; s. 5-9 cm. yellowish
white; sp. 10-12 × 5, rough.

var. _flavescens_, Cke. Flesh and gills yellow.

[=rapaceus=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, even, whitish-tan, not becoming
paler; flesh white; g. crowded, entire, white then tan; s. stuffed,
short, white, bulb depr. marginate.

=napus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. glutinous, edge incurved, tawny; g. rather
distant, crisped, smoky; s. 4-5 cm. equal, white, bulb obconic and
oblique; sp. 10 × 5.

=allutus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. conico-convex, orange yellow, intense yellow
when dry, then pale, edge darker, flesh rufescent; g. adnate, crenulate,
white then rufous; s. 2-3 cm. viscid, white, rufous striate below,
marginately bulbous; sp. ----.

=talus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. convex, even, dingy yellow then pale, edge
yellowish olive; g. pale ochre; s. 6-7 cm. cylindric, glabrous,
marginately bulbous, pallid; sp. 8-9 × 4-5.

     ++ _Gills violet, blue, purplish, becoming cinnamon._

=glaucopus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. compact, incurved then expanded, rather
wavy, viscid then floccoso-squamulose or fibrillose, olive-bay then
tawny yellow; g. broad; s. 6-8 cm. striate, bluish then yellowish, base
marginate; sp. 8 × 4-5.

[=pansa=, Fr. P. compact, incurved, wavy, glabrous, spotted with innate
scales, shining, tawny orange, flesh white; g. entire, blue; s.
marginate, yellow.

[=variegatus=, Bres. P. convex then exp. and umb. edge incurved, rufous
brick-red, white fibrillose then glabrous and yellowish tan; g. closely
crowded; s. fibrillose, whitish then tinged rusty, base narrowed and
somewhat rooting, or marginately bulbous with a clear violet silky basal
zone; sp. 8-10 × 3.5-4.

=calochrous=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. exp. flesh compact, white; tawny yellow; g.
serrate, bluish-purple; s. 3-5 cm. fibrillose, yellowish (never blue),
bulb abruptly marginate; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=caerulescens=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. convex then exp. dingy yellow or tan,
flesh blue then pale; g. entire, at first pure deep blue; s. 4-5 cm.
solid, attenuated, naked, bulb marginate blue or violet becoming
whitish; sp. 9-10 × 5.

=purpurascens=, Fr. P. 8-12 cm. exp. rather wavy, glutinous, bay or
reddish, then tawny olive, spotted, flesh everywhere blue; g. blue then
tan, purple when bruised; s. 6-7 cm. fibrillose, deep blue, darker when
bruised, marginate bulb disappearing; sp. 10-12 × 5-6.

var. _subpurpurascens_, Fr. P. thinner, subvirgate, becoming pale; s.
stuffed, bluish white.

     +++ _Gills rusty, tawny, or yellowish._

=dibaphus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. convex then exp. purplish, disc yellowish,
variegated with lilac; flesh yellow, violet under the cuticle; g. rusty
purple; s. 6-7 cm. yellow, apex purplish, bulb marginate; sp. 12 × 5.

var. _xanthophyllus_, Cke. G. for a long time yellow.

=turbinatus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. orbicular, dingy yellow or greenish,
all one colour, glabrous, becoming pale; g. crowded, entire; s. 4-5 cm.
cylindrical, bulb turbinate, marginate, whitish or tinged yellow; sp.
14-16 × 7, rough.

=corrosus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. umbil. glabrous, viscid, ferruginous
then pale tan, at length rivulose or subfloccose, opaque when dry, flesh
firm, white; g. closely crowded, narrow; s. 3-5 cm. white, cortina
fibrillose, apex naked, bulb depr. marginate; sp. ----.

=fulgens=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. silky-fibrillose, viscid, tawny orange,
flesh becoming spongy and tan; g. emarginate, tawny; s. 5-6 cm. colour
of p. fibrillose and woolly, bulb large, depr. marginate; sp. 9 × 5.

Stem viscid when young in damp weather.

[=sulfurinus=, Q. P. convex, sulphur yellow, edge white, disc with
saffron points; g. sulphur then tawny; s. silky, yellowish white.

=fulmineus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. tawny, edge orange, with adpressed
tawny scales; g. at first pure yellow; s. 2-3 cm. yellow, naked, apex
with a white veil, bulb ample, rooting; sp. 10 × 5-6.

Stem slightly viscid at first. _C. fulgens_ differs in tan-coloured

=elegantior=, Fr. P. exp. even, glabrous, edge at first incurved, tawny,
flesh yellowish; g. egg-yellow then olive; s. yellowish, marginately

=orichalceus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. with a viscid pellicle, disc reddish
tawny cracked into patches, edge livid; g. sulphur then greenish; s. 4-7
cm. fibrillose, yellowish, marginately bulbous; sp. ----.

=testaceus=, Cke. P. 6-9 cm. exp. obtusely umb. or depr. brick-red then
paler; g. adnate; s. 6-9 cm. whitish above, tinged rufous below, bulb
submarginate, flesh tinged reddish; sp. 16 × 8, rough.

     ++++ _Gills olivaceous._

[=rufoolivaceus=, Pers. P. exp. rufous then paler; g. crowded, olive; s.
green then yellowish, bulb submarginate.

=prasinus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. dingy bluish-green, spotted as if scaly,
edge incurved; g. rather distant, olive-yellow; s. 4-5 cm. marginately
bulbous, pale olive-green; sp. 10 × 5.

=atrovirens=, Kalchbr. P. 6-9 cm. convex, dusky-green or dusky-olive,
flesh yellowish green; g. yellow-green then tan; s. 6-7 cm. bulb
marginate, subturbinate, flesh tinged greenish; sp. 10 × 6.

=scaurus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. equal, exp. smoky-tawny then pale, spotted,
edge thin becoming striate; g. crowded, purplish-olive; s. 6-7 cm.
greenish or bluish, never yellow, narrowed upwards from marginate bulb;
sp. 10 × 5.

=herpeticus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. exp. olive then dingy tan, flesh violet
then whitish; g. violet-umber then sooty-olive; s. 5-7 cm. fibrillose,
pallid, bulb napiform, marginate; sp. 10 × 6.

     *** ELASTICI. _Veil simple, thin, fugacious, median or inferior.
     Stem never marginately bulbous or peronate, but elastic, rigid,
     externally polished, shining, cartilaginous._

     + _Gills white then tan or dingy cinnamon._

=cumatilis=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. obtuse, with bluish-violet gluten, disc
brownish; g. adnexed, serrate; s. 6-7 cm. subbulbous, white, veil
forming a volva at base; sp. ----.

=serarius=, Fr. P. 3-9 cm. gibbous, not polished, viscid, opaque,
reddish-tan; g. arcuato-adfixed; s. 7-9 cm. fibrillose, shining, and
like the flesh white; sp. ----.

=emollitus=, Fr. P. 6-8 cm. exp. wavy, slightly fibrillose-virgate,
tawny then ochre and shining; g. white then ochre; s. 3-4 cm. scarcely
bulbous, fibrillose, white as is also the flesh; sp. ----.

=cristallinus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. very glabrous, viscid, shining,
hygr. pallid, edge whitish; g. crowded, tan; s. 5-6 cm. hollow, nearly
equal, white; sp. 8 × 4.

=decoloratus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. soon dry and flocculose, tan then
pale, often corrugated when old; g. greyish-tan; s. 6-7 cm. base
thickened, fibrillosely-striate, silvery; sp. 7 × 4.

     ++ _Gills violet, purplish or flesh-colour._

=decolorans=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. all one colour, yellow; g. dry,
purplish then tan; s. 5-8 cm. narrowed upwards, and like the flesh,
white; sp. 10 × 8.

=porphyropus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. thin, virgate, ochre, often spotted;
g. rather crowded, thin; s. 5-9 cm. somewhat attenuated, lilac, purplish
when bruised as is also the flesh; sp. 10-12 × 7.

[=rubropunctatus=, Karst. P. thin, convexo-plane, even, glabrous,
glutinous, yellow; g. adnexed, crowded, white then ochre; s. wavy,
fibrillose, white, apex pruinose red-punctate; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

=croceocoeruleus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. lilac; g. lilac then orange-tan;
s. 4-5 cm. hollow, fragile, white; sp. 8 × 5.

[=maculosus=, Fr. P. conico-convex then exp. and wavy, whitish spotted
with umber scales; g. pinkish-white, grey then tan; s. squamosely
fibrillose, white.

     +++ _Gills pure ochre, tawny, or rusty._

=corruscans=, Fr. P. 7-11 cm. plane, even, glabrous, yellowish ochre
often spotted; g. plano-decur. closely crowded, ochre; s. 7-12 cm.
solid, elastic, white; sp. ----.

=papulosus=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. discoid, soon rivulose, granulato-punctate,
honey-tan, disc darker; g. adnato-decur.; s. 6-7 cm. fibrillose, white;
sp. ----.

[=intentus=, Fr. P. exp. soft, ochre or tawny; g. adnate, closely
crowded, bright saffron; s. hollow, rigid, fragile, yellowish.

[=compar=, Fr. P. exp. even, yellowish, edge thin; g. adnate,
rusty-cinnamon; s. fibrillose, apex lilac.

[=subsimilis=, Fr. P. exp. sooty brown, flesh white; g. adnate, smoky
then tan; s. solid, equal, fibrillose, tawny.

     ++++ _Gills olive or smoky._

[=olivascens=, Fr. P. exp. olive then sooty at length pale; g. tan
tinged olive; s. silvery-pallid. Taste very acrid.

     _Universal veil glutinous, hence pileus and scarcely bulbous stem
     viscid. Pileus rather thin. Gills adnate or decurrent._

     * COLLINITI. _Stem floccosely peronate, flocci at first covered
     with gluten._

[=alutipes=, Lasch. P. exp. obtuse, even, yellow-brown or bay; g.
adnate, rather distant, tawny cinnamon; s. solid, stout,
peronato-annulate, glutinous.

=arvinaceus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. exp. edge patent, golden-tawny or
reddish-tan; g. adnato-decur. straw-colour then ochre; s. 10-17 cm.
cylindric, yellowish-white, silky-viscid; sp. ----.

=collinitus=, Fr. P. 7-11 cm. fleshy, convex and incurved then exp.
even, shining, tawny-orange; g. adnate, greyish tan then cinnamon; s.
7-12 cm. cylindric, floccosely glutinous broken up into transverse
squamules; sp. 12 × 6.

var. _mucosus_, Fr. Firmer. S. even, silky; g. whitish then rusty.

[=alpinus=, Boud. P. convex camp. firm, viscid, tawny yellow; s. white,
apex sulcate, ring and below glutinous; g. adnate, broad, cinnamon, edge
paler. Flesh pale ochraceous.

Differs from _C. collinitus_ and _C. livido-ochraceus_ in very convex p.
and permanently white s. grooved at apex.

=mucifluus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. campan.-exp. smeared with hyaline gluten
that disappears, edge striate livid-tan or yellowish; g. adnate, tan; s.
5-7 cm. narrowed downwards, viscid and floccosely squamulose, white or
tinged violet; sp. 12 × 7.

=elatior=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. cylindrical then exp. thin except disc,
plicato-rugose, livid yellow then dingy ochre; g. adnate, very broad,
connected by veins; s. 10-16 cm. narrowed to both ends, whitish or
tinged lilac; sp. 12 × 6.

=grallipes=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. thin, campan. then exp. umb. even, hygr.
rusty then ochre; g. adnato-decur. very broad; s. 9-14 cm. stuffed then
hollow, rather wavy, yellowish; sp. ----.

Habit of _C. hinnuleus_, but viscid.

=livido-ochraceus=, B. P. 3-5 cm. very thin, exp. ochre; g. rounded
behind and slightly adnexed, cinnamon; s. 2-3 cm. narrowed at both ends,
whitish; sp. 8-10 × 5-7.

[=suratus=, Fr. P. convex, equal, yellow, shining, disc depr. brownish,
cracked; g. adnate, violet then dingy flesh-colour; s. solid, rather
bulbous, flexuous, with yellowish scales, apex naked, tinged violet.

     ** DELIBUTI. _Veil entirely viscid, stem not floccosely peronate
     but only viscid, shining when dry._

     + _Gills whitish then tan._

=nitidus=, Fr. P. 5-12 cm. exp. or depr. discoid, honey-coloured tan
then pale, disc tan; g. truly and equally attenuato-decur. crowded; s.
5-9 cm. clavate, white, apex with white meal; sp. 10-12 × 8.

[=emunctus=, Trog. P. campan. convex, pale violet then grey; g. adnate,
subdistant; s. glutinous, pallid, apex naked, white.

[=liquidus=, Fr. P. exp. even, glutinous, yellowish, silky and whitish
when dry; g. truly decur. distant; s. attenuated, glutinous, white.

     ++ _Gills at first violet, bluish or reddish._

=salor=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. exp. gibbous, innately fibrillose, violet; g.
adnate, tan, edge violet; s. 4-7 cm. solid, conically attenuated,
bulbous, glabrous, covered at the apex with the blue glutinous veil; sp.
8-10 × 6.

[=naevosus=, Fr. P. exp. subdepr. reddish yellow, crowded with minute
spot-like scales; g. emarginate, broad, blue then tan; s. solid, pallid
grey, with yellowish hyaline gluten.

=delibutus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. obtuse, yellowish with viscid hyaline
gluten; g. adnate, serrulate, pallid blue then rusty; s. 5-9 cm. thin,
attenuated, with whitish gluten; sp. 8 × 4.

var. _elegans_, Fr. P. and s. quite glabrous, with yellow viscidity,
shining when dry; flesh yellowish white.

=illibatus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. campan.-convex, then exp. and subumb. yellow
disc darker; g. adnato-decur. crowded, rosy then tan; s. 5-7 cm. white,
glabrous, often with reddish spots above; sp. 15-16 × 6-7.

     +++ _Gills at first ochraceous or cinnamon._

[=epipoleus=, Fr. P. exp. gibbous, hoary-shining; g. decur. edge wavy,
rather distant, tan; s. bulbous, clavate, obsoletely violet, viscid.

=stillatitius=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. subumb. even, smeared at first with
blue gluten, then livid fuscous, finally greyish-white; g. emarginate,
broad; s. 5-7 cm. hollow, very soft, with blue mucus; sp. 8 × 4.

Somewhat resembling _C. elatior_ but smaller, and veil not floccose.

=vibratilis=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. thin, almost plane, subgibbous, hygr.
yellow or tawny, golden and shining when dry; g. adnato-decur. crowded;
s. soft, conical, snow-white, glutinous veil fugacious; sp. 8 × 5.

Habit of _C. armeniacus_ and _C. causticus_. Differs from both in very
soft, snow-white stem, and glutinous veil.

=pluvius=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. globose, then convex, viscid, hygr.
yellowish tawny, tan and opaque when dry; g. decur. then seceding, white
then ochre; s. 5-6 cm. slender, subequal, soft, white then pallid; sp.
10 × 8.

[=oliveus=, Q. P. fibrilloso-virgate, viscid, olive green, flesh
yellowish-olive; s. silky, citrin, base clavate; g. reddish amethyst.

     _Pileus equally fleshy, dry, at first scaly, fibrillose or innately
     silky, not hygrophanous. Veil simple. Stem fleshy, subbulbous._

     * _Gills at first white or pallid._

=opimus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. hard, exp. unequal, dry, with adpressed tan
tomentum, rimoso-rivulose; g. emarginate, white then tan; s. 2.5-3 cm.
hard, stout, pallid, with white fibrils; sp. ----.

var. _fulvobrunneus_, Fr. P. glabrous then rivulose; g. very broad.

[=argutus=, Fr. P. conical then exp. subgibbous, silky-fibrillose,
ochraceous; g. adnate; s. solid, ventricose, fibroso-squamose, yellowish

=turgidus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. atomate then glabrous, whitish tan,
shining, edge at first silky; g. emarginate, crowded, edge entire; s.
4-6 cm. bulbous, rimosely-striate, glabrous, silvery shining; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. argentatus_ in very obtuse p. and entire edge of gills.

[=praestans=, Cord. P. convex, orbicular, silky-shining, brownish
violet; g. hyaline then grey; s. fibrous inside, solid, whitish,
cylindrical, sometimes wavy, rather bulbous. Esculent.

=argentatus=, Krombh. P. 6-9 cm. convex, almost glabrous, silvery grey,
shining, disc subgibbous, pallid, near the edge at first silky-lilac; g.
emarginate, crowded, serrate; s. 7-9 cm. stout, white; sp. 8 × 5.

var. _pinetorum_, Fr. Smaller. At first lilac and silky.

     ** _Gills with veil and stem more or less violet._

=violaceus=, L. P. 7-14 cm. very fleshy, dark violet, with downy scales;
g. broad, thick, distant, dark; s. 6-9 cm. bulbous, spongy, downy,
greyish violet; sp. 12-14 × 9-10.

Dark violet both outside and inside.

=cyanites=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. obtuse silky, even, pale blue; g. at first
clear blue; s. 7-12 cm. blue, bulbous, with red juice; sp. 10 × 5-6.

var. _major_, Fr. P. and s. slowly becoming reddish; g. dark blue-grey.

[=calopus=, Karst. P. convex, exp. even, hoary, silky-lilac near edge at
first, then more or less rusty; g. adnate, at first pale cinnamon,
entire; s. solid, equal, base thickened, usually curved, purple-lilac
then pale, floccosely-scaly then pale; sp. 7-8 × 4-5.

=muricinus=, Fr. P. 7-10 cm. obtuse, rufous violet, edge fibrillose; g.
rather crowded; s. 6-7 cm. bulbous, juiceless, downy, purplish violet;
sp. 8-9 × 4-5.

Flesh sky-blue then whitish.

[=cinereo-violaceus=, Fr. P. obtuse, violet then umber, squamulosely
punctate; g. adnate, purple-umber; s. clavato-bulbous, firm, juiceless,
reddish violet then pallid.

=albo-violaceus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. convex, silky, at length broadly
gibbous, whitish violet; g. serrulate, greyish violet; s. 4-5 cm.
clavate, whitish violet, with a median ring-like zone; sp. 12 × 5-6.

=malachius=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. pale lilac then brownish, tan when dry,
white-fibrillose at first; g. crowded, pale purple then rusty; s. 7-10
cm. bulbous, bluish-peronate; sp. 10-12 × 6-7.

=camphoratus=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 5-8 cm. obtuse, lilac, silky, then
whitish or yellowish, flesh blue; g. clear blue then purplish; s. 7-12
cm. bulbous, juiceless, bluish from the cortina, inside the base white;
sp. 9 × 6.

=hircinus=, Fr. Smell strong, foetid. P. 4-5 cm. obtuse or gibbous, with
adpr. silky violet fibrils then pale, disc glabrous becoming rusty; g.
broad, violet then cinnamon; s. 4-5 cm. bulbous, juiceless, violet then
pallid, base yellowish inside; sp. ----.

     *** _Gills and veil cinnamon, red or ochre._

=traganus=, Fr. Smell strong, foetid. P. 5-7 cm. obtuse,
lilac-fibrillose then pale; g. thick, crenate, at first saffron-ochre;
s. 7-12 cm. bulbous, spongy, tinged violet, inside saffron; sp. 9-10 ×

var. _finitimus_, Weinm. Smell not so foetid as in type; s. yellowish
and mottled inside.

=tophaceus=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. obtuse, tawny-ochre, villosely scaly, flesh
white; g. emarginate, tawny cinnamon; s. 5-7 cm. villoso-scaly,
yellowish; sp. 10 × 5.

Entirely ochraceous or yellow.

var. _redemitus_, Fr. P. slender, at length broadly gibbous,
golden-yellow, with darker adpressed fibrils; s. fibrillosely striate,
base slightly thickened.

=suillus=, Fr. P. 7-9 cm. obtuse, brick-red then paler, margin silky
then innately squamulose; g. adnate, broad, opaque, tan; s. 7-9 cm.
clavate, spongy, adpressedly woolly below, middle fibrillose, apex
silky, even, violet; sp. ----.

Gills fragile, connected by veins at base.

=callisteus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. convexo-plane, tawny-yellow, nearly
glabrous, even, innately squamulose, flesh yellowish; g. adnate,
floccosely connected behind; s. 7-11 cm. bulbous, tawny fibrillose; sp.

=Bulliardi=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 3-7 cm. campan.-convex, subgibbous,
even, or squamulose, rufescent; g. adnexed, broad, rusty-purplish; s.
4-6 cm. bulbous, short, firm, vermilion fibrillose below, apex whitish;
sp. 8-10 × 6.

=vinosus=, Cke. P. 5-7 cm. subgl. then exp. vinous red, smooth, even,
shining; g. adnexed, ventricose, rusty tan; s. 5-8 cm. thickened
abruptly into a reddish marginate bulb, pale violet above; sp. 16-18 ×

[=pavonius=, Fr. P. convex, obtuse, broken up into broad vermilion
scales; g. violet then cinnamon; s. solid, short, bulbous, with rufous

=bolaris=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. obsoletely umb. reddish-yellow,
variegated with saffron-red, innate, pilose adpressed scales, then pale;
g. subdecur. crowded; s. 5-7 cm. stuffed then hollow, nearly equal,
scaly, colour of p.; sp. 10 × 5.

[=craticus=, Fr. P. fleshy, campan.-exp. obtusely umb. covered with
reddish brick-coloured, innate interwoven fibrils; g. crowded; s. solid,
narrowed upwards, glabrous, reddish below, becoming pale, base

     **** _Gills and veil dusky, fuscous, or olive._

=pholideus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. obtusely umb. fawn, densely squamulose
with blackish fascicles of hairs; g. violet then tan; s. 6-9 cm. with
dusky squarrose squamules up to ring, apex even, violet; sp. 5 × 3-4.

=sublanatus=, Fr. Smell resembling radishes. P. 6-9 cm. campan.-exp.
umb. brownish tan, with innate pilose squamules; g. olive then
yellowish; s. 6-7 cm. attenuated from a bulbous base, glabrous and
pallid above, squamulose with fuscous down below; sp. 14-16 × 8-9.

=phrygianus=, Fr. Smell like radishes. P. 5-7 cm. obtuse, honey colour,
hispid with crowded simple black fibrils; g. dingy yellow; s. bulbous,
with a lax reticulation of black fibrils; sp. ----.

=arenatus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. convex, gibbous at first, reddish tawny,
granular with floccose squamules; g. yellowish tan; s. 6-7 cm. brownish
squamulose above the middle, apex even, pallid; sp. 7 × 5.

_C. phrygianus_ differs in blackish squamules of p. and s. and strong
smell of radishes. Both are often tinged olive when young.

[=melanotus=, Kalchbr. P. convex, yellow, covered with minute,
adpressed, blackish-olive scales, flesh olive-yellow; g. yellowish
cinnamon; s. solid, narrowed upwards, yellowish, with small umber scales
up to ring.

=penicillatus=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. convex, umb. rusty-brown, densely
floccose with innate scales; g. dusky brown; s. 4-7 cm. slender, equal,
with adpressed rusty-brown scales; sp. 8-9 × 5.

     _Flesh of pileus thin, everywhere equal, at first downy or
     subinnately silky, but glabrous when adult, dry, not hygr._

     * _Gills at first whitish or pallid._

=ochroleucus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. gibbous then obtuse, even, pallid white;
g. crowded becoming ochre-tan; s. 4-7 cm. solid, firm, ventricose,
white; sp. 8 × 4-5.

=decumbens=, Fr. P. 3-4 cm. exp. even, white then yellowish, shining; g.
tan from first; s. 3-4 cm. hollow, clavato-bulbous, ascending, pallid;
sp. ----.

=riculatus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. gibbous, yellowish, with adpressed
silky bloom, becoming whitish, disc naked; g. adnate; s. 5-7 cm. hollow,
pallid, base thickened.

=tabularis=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. soon plane, flocculose then almost glabrous,
brownish tan then pale; g. emarginate; s. 5-7 cm. white, adpressedly
fibrilloso-scaly then almost glabrous; sp. ----.

[=ochrophyllus=, Fr. P. exp. dry, glabrous, brownish olive then pale; g.
ochre then tan; s. solid, pallid, variegated with darker adpressed

=camarus=, Fr. Fragile. P. 5-7 cm. gibbous, hoary brown then pale; g.
subadnate; s. 5-7 cm. partly hollow, equal, curved, inside and outside
white, apex silvery shining; sp. 8-9 × 6-7.

=diabolicus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. obtuse then gibbous, fuscescent
with a grey bloom, then glabrous and tawny yellow; g. subemarginately
adnexed; s. 6-7 cm. glabrous, pallid, apex grey; sp. 10-12 × 7.

     ** _Gills at first violet then purplish._

=caninus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. exp. nearly glabrous, rufous-brick-red, tawny
when dry; g. broad, purple then cinnamon; s. 5-7 cm. clavately bulbous,
subperonate, pallid, apex violet; sp. 8 × 5-6.

=myrtillinus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. gibbous then flattened, sooty, hoary with
white fibrils; g. rather distant, amethyst-blue then bluish tan; s. 4-5
cm. bulbous silky, not zoned, whitish; sp. 10 × 5.

Apex of stem violet; no purple in g.

=azureus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. silky or atomate shining, hoary lilac; g.
clear blue-violet; s. 4-7 cm. glabrous, slightly striate, base
thickened, downy, whitish; sp. 9 × 6.

=albocyaneus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. hoary silky then glabrous, white then
yellowish; g. broad, crowded, bluish purple then subochre; s. 6-9 cm.
subclavate, naked, whitish; sp. 6-10 × 4-7.

Differs from _C. anomalus_ in clavate s. and flattened p.

=anomalus=, Fr. P. 2.5-5 cm. obtuse then gibbous, sooty-rufous, hoary
fibrillose then glabrous and tawny; g. crowded, bluish-purple then
cinnamon; s. 5-7 cm. thin, attenuated, fibrillose, somewhat scaly,
violet then pallid; sp. 8-9 × 7.

=spilomeus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. gibbous, dry, fuscous then tan; g.
crowded, narrow; s. 4-5 cm. whitish lilac variegated with tawny rufous
scales; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. anomalus_ in scaly stem.

=lepidopus=, Cke. P. 2-4 cm. exp. gibbous, umber with a tinge of violet
at edge, becoming rufescent; g. adnate, violet then cinnamon; s. 6-9 cm.
narrowed upwards, rather wavy, whitish or tinged lilac, with concentric
darker zones; sp. 9 × 6.

[=Lebretonii=, Q. P. lilac then fawn; s. lilac, dotted with saffron

     *** _Gills shining cinnamon, red, or yellow. Stem and fibrillose
     cortina coloured._

=miltinus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, bay-cinnamon, soon very glabrous and
shining; g. adnate, narrow, crowded, rusty; s. 5-7 cm. equally narrowed
upwards, cinnamon, reddish-fibrillose; sp. 6 × 4.

=cinnabarinus=, Fr. Smell strong, like radishes. Every part
crimson-lake. P. 2-5 cm. obtuse, silky then almost glabrous, shining; g.
adnate, broad, rather distant, darker; s. 3-5 cm. fibrillose; sp. 8 × 5.

Differs from _C. sanguineus_ in stuffed s., radishy smell, and broad
gills with an olive tinge.

=sanguineus=, Fr. Entirely blood-red. P. 2-5 cm. obtuse, innately silky
or squamulose; g. crowded, broadish; s. 3-5 cm. stuffed then hollow,
thin, equal; sp. 6-7 × 4.

=anthracinus=, Fr. P. 1.5-3 cm. convex exp. umb. somewhat chestnut; g.
adnate, crowded, scarlet, blood-red when bruised; s. 4-5 cm. fibrillose,
deep blood-red; sp. 7 × 5.

=cinnamomeus=, Fr. P. 2.5-5 cm. obtuse, umb. somewhat cinnamon with
yellowish innate fibrils; g. adnate, broad, crowded, shining, yellowish;
s. 4-9 cm. equal, with flesh and veil yellowish; sp. 7-8 × 4-5.

var. _croceus_, Fr. Smaller. P. subsquamulose, sometimes tinged
olive; g. less crowded, yellowish and sometimes olive, as is also the s.

var. _semisanguineus_, Fr. G. blood-red or orange-red.

=uliginosus=, B. P. 2-3 cm. conico-campan. then exp. strongly umb.
bright red-brown or brick-red, flesh olive-yellow; g. adnate, yellow,
olive, tan; s. 4-9 cm. flexuous, paler than p.; sp. 7 × 4-5.

=croceoconus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. conico-campan. persistently acute, tawny
cinnamon; g. linear, crowded; s. 4-7 cm. slender, flexuous, hollow; sp.

=orellanus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. obtusely umb. villosely squamulose or
fibrillose orange-tawny, flesh reddish; g. adfixed, broad; s. 3-5 cm.
solid, fibrillosely striate, tawny; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

Differs from _C. cinnamomeus_ in solid stem and reddish flesh.

=malicorius=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. obtuse, velvety-fibrillose,
tawny-golden, flesh splitting, yellow then olive-green; g. crowded,
tawny orange, edge becoming flocculose; s. 4-5 cm. hollow, fibrillose,
golden; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. cinnamomeus_ in persistently hollow s. golden then
olive-brown; flesh yellow then greenish- or golden-olive.

=infucatus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, obtuse, bright yellow; g. adnate,
crowded, tawny then cinnamon; s. 4-5 cm. narrowed from clavate base,
fibrillose, whitish or yellowish; sp. 10 × 5.

[=fucatophyllus=, Lasch. P. acutely umb. fibrillosely scaly, brownish;
g. broad, yellow with crimson spots, denticulate; s. fibrillose,
yellowish, veil reddish.

=colymbadinus=, Fr. P. subgibbous, with seceding yellow fibrils,
yellowish; flesh splitting, yellowish; g. rather distant, broad, thick,
rusty, edge white-floccose; s. equal, fibrillosely striate, naked,

     **** _Becoming olivaceous. Veil dingy, pallid or tinged fuscous.
     Pileus not broken up into scales._

=cotoneus=, Fr. P. 5-8 cm. olivaceous, campan. exp. bullate, wavy,
innately velvety; g. olive then brownish tan; s. 5-8 cm. solid, base
thickened, pale olive, veil forming a fuscous zone; sp. 10-11 × 8.

=subnotatus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. campan. then exp. olive then fuscous, at
first clothed with superficial hoary squamules, soon glabrous; g.
yellowish then olive tan; s. 6-9 cm. conical, squamulose with yellowish
fragments of veil, apex glabrous, shining; sp. 10 × 5.

=valgus=, Fr. Fragile. P. 5-7 cm. convex, subgibbous, almost glabrous,
olive then brick-red, edge submembranaceous; g. dingy yellow red then
brick-red; s. 7-12 cm. twisted, naked, pallid, shining, apex striate,
tinged violet, bulb with white down, rooting; sp. ----.

=raphanoides=, Fr. Smell strong, like radishes. P. 2-5 cm. campan. then
exp. gibbous, silky with innate fibrils, olive then tawny; g. olive then
cinnamon; s. 5-7 cm. firm, fibrillose, paler; sp. 8 × 5.

[=depexus=, Fr. P. thin, convex then plane, brick-red becoming pale; g.
adnate, yellowish then cinnamon, opaque; s. equal, fibrillosely striate,

=venetus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. thin, convex then exp. silky-villose, olive
then yellowish, opaque; g. broad, veined, yellowish-olive then
olive-cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. fibrilloso-striate, with the veil colour of
p.; sp. 10 × 5.

P. obtusely umb. sea-green or clear yellow-green as is the flesh.

[=olivascens=, Karst. P. thin, edge submembr. firm, equal, convex then
plane, even, glabrous, olive; s. pallid, fibrillose, ring fugacious; g.
adnexed, very broad tawny rusty; sp. 7-10 × 3-4.

     _Pileus hygr. at first glabrous or with whitish superficial
     fibrils. Flesh entirely thin or the margin abruptly so, splitting.
     Universal veil peronate or forming a ring low on the stem; apex
     somewhat cortinate, hence the veil is somewhat duplex._

     * PLATYPHILLI. _Gills very broad, thickish, more or less distant.
     Stem spongy or entirely fibrous._

     (Colour when dry given in brackets.)

     + _Stem and veil white or whitish._

=macropus=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. convex, incurved, then exp. hoary with minute
squamules, brick-red then rusty; g. distant, very broad; s. 7-14 cm.
equal, fibrillose, whitish, ring distant; sp. 8 × 5.

[=testaceo-canescens=, F. P. convex, brick-red, with greyish squamules;
g. emarginato-adnate; s. rigid, equal, silky-shining.

=laniger=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. exp. woolly with white superficial scales,
then glabrous and bright or dusky tawny; g. saffron-tawny; s. white,
peronate up to distinct ring, veil shining white; sp. ----.

=bivelus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. convexo-exp. glabrous, tawny brick-red; g.
adnate, bright tawny cinnamon; s. 6-7 cm. subbulbous, dingy white,
peronate, ring spurious, fugacious; sp. 10 × 5-6.

=bulbosus=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. campan. exp. glabrous, bay (dusky brick-red)
disc subgibbous; g. adnate, opaque; s. 5-7 cm. stout, bulbous, pallid,
peronate with white veil up to ring; sp. 8 × 3-4.

=urbicus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane, glabrous, silvery white; g.
emarginate, broad; s. 4-5 cm. equal, peronate, white and downy above
ring; sp. ----.

=licinipes=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. convex then exp. umb. glabrous, yellowish
red; g. adnate, very broad; s. 8-12 cm. pallid floccose with white
scales; sp. ----.

=microcyclus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. thin, plano-convex, fuscous brick-red
then pale; g. adnate, very broad, lilac then cinnamon; s. 3-5 cm.
narrowed from base, pallid, white annular zone evident; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. decipiens_ in somewhat bulbous stem and white annular

     ++ _Stem and gills violet._ Cortina usually white with a violet
     tinge, but universal veil white.

=torvus=, Fr. P. 5-12 cm. convex-exp. obtuse, bay or tinged violet at
first then brick-red, hoary with fibrillose squamules then almost
glabrous; g. thick, distant, very broad, purplish umber then cinnamon;
s. 7-12 cm. bulbous then elongated and equal, vaginate with the white
persistent veil, apex violet cortinate; sp. 12 × 7-8. Flesh usually
bored by larvae.

=impennis=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. fleshy, convex, obtuse, rigid, glabrous,
somewhat brick-red then pale; g. thick, distant, violet, purplish, then
cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. rather bulbous, pallid, imperfect ring and apex
violet, whitish cortinate, solid; sp. 10-11 × 7.

=lucorum=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. even bay brick-red when moist; g. emarginate,
cinnamon with a fugacious tinge of flesh-colour violet; s. 4-5 cm.
clavate, very fibrillose, one colour, becoming pale; sp. 10 × 5.

=plumiger=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. conico-campan. gibbous, brownish-olive,
densely covered with white feathery flecks; g. crowded, broad, edge
entire, coloured like rest; s. 6-9 cm. clavato-bulbous, floccose, pale;
sp. 10 × 5.

=scutulatus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. ovate, exp. obtuse, purplish umber
(brick-red) silky white round edge at first, then broken up into
squamules; g. adnate, violet purple; s. 6-9 cm. solid, rigid, rather
bulbous, outside and inside dusky violet, peronate and more or less
ringed white; sp. 7 × 3.

=evernius=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. conico-campan. exp. glabrous, purplish bay
(brick-red and hoary) at length torn into fibrils; g. adnate, very
broad, violet purple; s. 7-14 cm. cylindrical, soft, violet, obsoletely
ringed from the veil; sp. 10 × 7.

=quadricolor=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. conical then exp. whitish yellow (becoming
tawny) edge radiato-striate; g. adnate, broad, serrate, purplish then
cinnamon; s. 6-7 cm. stuffed then hollow, equal, thin, whitish violet,
veil forming an oblique white zone; sp. 10-11 × 6-7.

     +++ _Stem and veil reddish or yellowish. Gills tawny or cinnamon,
     not violet nor becoming brown._

=armillatus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. campan. exp. soon innately fibrillose and
torn into squamules, reddish brick-colour; g. very broad, distant; s.
8-12 cm. solid, bulbous, rufescent, with two or three red zones; sp. 10
× 6.

Differs from _C. hematochelis_ in distant gills, and more than one red
zone on stem.

=haematochelis=, Bull. P. 6-9 cm. gibbous, silky fibrillose, brownish
brick-red (pallid); g. adnate, crowded, rather narrow; s. 8-11 cm.
solid, narrowed upwards, with one red zone; sp. 10 × 7-8.

[=paragaudis=, Fr. P. campan. exp. umb. bay (tawny tan); g. adnexed,
ventricose; s. elongated, twisted, pale red, peronate with adpressed
fibrillose reddish squamules.

var. _praestigiosus_, Fr. P. thin, striate, silky-fibrous towards edge;
s. hollow, equal, slender; g. thin, distant, tawny cinnamon.

=croceofulvus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. umb. even, tawny orange; g. adnate,
rusty; s. 6-9 cm. solid, equal, reddish-yellow, with a narrow orange
zone; sp. 8-10 × 6. Flesh yellow.

=limonius=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. convexo-plane, obtuse, glabrous, tawny
(yellowish ochre), at length squamulose; g. rather distant, yellow then
tawny cinnamon; s. 6-7 cm. solid, firm, floccosely squamulose, colour of
p.; sp. ----.

Base of s. becoming deep saffron.

[=arenarius=, Q. P. pruinose, ochraceous-fawn; g. pale fuscescent; s.
rooting, fibrillosely floccose, sulphur.

=helvolus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. incurved then exp. glabrous, hygr.
tawny-rusty then cracked umbo obtuse, vanishing; g. very broad, thick;
s. 10-18 cm. attenuated, veil silky, almost smooth, peronate, terminated
by a rusty edged annular zone; sp. 6 × 5.

=hinnuleus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. thin, conico-campan. exp. subumb. glabrous,
pallid tawny-cinnamon (somewhat tawny); g. distant, broad, quite entire,
tawny cinnamon; s. 6-9 cm. rigid, somewhat tawny, narrowed below, white
silky veil almost smooth forming a pallid zone at apex; sp. 10-12 × 7-8.

=gentilis=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5, conico-exp. acutely umb. even, glabrous then
cracked, tawny cinnamon (yellow); g. adnate, thick, very distant,
entire, edge coloured like rest; s. 6-9 cm. slender, equal, scaly, tawny
cinnamon, scales and oblique ring, yellow; sp. 7-8 × 6.

=helvelloides=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5, thin, subconvex, obsoletely umb. rusty
(tawny then pale), then cracked; g. adnate, violet-umber then cinnamon,
edge floccose, white; s. 4-7 cm. slender, undulate, silky fibrillose,
with the imperfect ring and veil yellowish; sp. 7 × 5.

=rubellus=, Cke. P. 4-7 cm. campan. then exp. rufous orange umbo
darkest, flesh reddish-ochre; g. adnate, sinuate, bright rusty-red; s.
6-9 cm. pale above, dark below, with darker concentric bands; sp. 8 × 5.

     ++++ _Stem fuscescent, veil fuscous or dingy, gills dusky._
     [Species of _Inoloma_ and _Dermocybe_ are often peronately ringed,
     but the pileus is not hygr. and scaly or silky at first.]

=bovinus=, Fr. P. 6-11 cm. convexo-plane, even, glabrous, watery
cinnamon (somewhat tawny); g. very broad; s. 6-7 cm. stout, spongily
bulbous, greyish then fuscous-cinnamon, whitish above fuscous zone; sp.

=nitrosus=, Cke. Stinking. P. 4-7 cm. obtuse, exp. edge wavy, fawn or
tawny, disc darker, soon breaking up into darker, minute concentric
scales; g. violet then dilute cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. equal, ochre, base
darker, with dark concentric squamules; sp. 12 × 4.

=brunneus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. campan. exp. umber (reddish tan dingy),
naked, broken up into innate fibrils near edge, umbo fleshy, obtuse; g.
adnate, thick, distant, purplish then umber-cinnamon; s. 7-9 cm.
narrowed upwards, elastic, fuscescent, white-striate, veil forming a
brownish white zone; sp. 10-12 × 6.

[=disjungendus=, Karst. P. convex, gibbous, even, glabrous, tawny umber,
white-striate; g. adnate at first, distant; s. solid, equal, base
thickened and radiating, dingy, curved; sp. 10-17 × 5-6.

=injucundus=, Weinm. P. 6-9 cm. compact, convexo-plane, obtuse,
fuscous-cinnamon, fibrillose; g. very broad, lilac then tan; s. 6-9 cm.
solid, clavate, colour of p. then tawny-yellow, fibrils and veil
fuscous; sp. 10 × 5.

=brunneofulvus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. thin, campan. exp. subumb. even,
innately fibrillose, virgate, tawny cinnamon, edge at first
white-fibrillose; g. adnate, very broad, opaque; s. 6-9 cm. narrowed
from base, fibrillosely striate, fuscescent, at length pale tawny
outside and inside; sp. ----.

=glandicolor=, Fr. Entirely umber. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. exp. umb.
hoary-fuscous when dry; g. adnate, broad, distant, entire; s. 7-11 cm.
equal, slender, straight, veil forming a distant white zone; sp. ----.

var. _curta_, Fr. S. 2-3 cm. long, wavy, peronate with white veil,
cingulate, umbo blackish.

=punctatus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. thin, conico-convex, glabrous,
hoary-umber (tan), at length even; g. adnate, very distant, entire,
brownish-cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. slender, undulate, fibrillosely striate,
brownish-yellow, a zone formed by the fugacious pale fuscous veil; sp. 7
× 4.

     ** LEPTOPHYLLI. _Gills narrow, thin, more or less crowded. Pileus
     thin. Stem somewhat cartilaginous and rigid outside, stuffed or
     hollow, often narrowed below._

     + _Stem whitish or pallid, floccosely scaly._

=triformis=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. convexo-plane, subumb. hygr. opaque, almost
glabrous, yellow-brown; g. subadnate; s. 6-7 cm. clavate, almost
glabrous, pallid, ring white; sp. 10 × 6.

var. _melleopallens_, Fr. P. dingy honey-colour; s. yellowish then
pallid, becoming hollow, ring interwoven.

var. _fuscopallens_, Fr. P. umb. fuscescent then pallid; g. narrow,
watery white.

=biformis=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. conico-campan. exp. glabrous, shining, rusty
bay, umbo fleshy, prominent; g. adnate, crenulate; s. 5-9 cm. base
narrowed, fibrillosely striate, pale, ring oblique, white; sp. ----.

[=fallax=, Q. P. thin, becoming pallid; g. pallid then ochre; s. wavy,
slender, pallid, apex blue, ring white, fugacious.

[=Lindgrenii=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, glabrous, rusty (ochre-tan), then
wavy; g. crowded, watery cinnamon; s. short, adpressedly silky, whitish,
ring subapical, reflexed.

     ++ _Stem violet._

=periscelis=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. campan. then convex, lilac, white-silky,
umbo fleshy, rest very thin; g. adnate, crowded, narrow; s. 7-9 cm.
fibrillose, colour of p. interwoven brownish veil subannulate; sp. 7-8 ×

Usually several imperfect brownish rings on s.

[=bibulus=, Q. Greyish-lilac; p. ellipsoid, moist, fibrillosely silky;
g. dusky violet; s. slender, covered with curled white flecks.

=flexipes=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. conical then exp. acutely umb. violet
then brownish cinnamon (reddish tan) fibrillosely hoary; g. adnate,
broad, umber-violet then tan; s. 7-9 cm. wavy, subundulate, fibrillosely
scaly, apex violet, veil white, subannulate; sp. ----.

=flabellus=, Fr. Smell strong, like radishes. P. 2-3 cm. conical, exp.
obtusely umb. fuscous-olive (tan) hoary fibrillose; g. adnate, connected
by veins, linear, olive then rusty; s. 6-9 cm. wavy, floccosely scaly
pallid, scales and ring white; sp. ----.

     +++ _Stem and pileus tawny or rusty._

=psammocephalus=, Fr. Every part tawny cinnamon, inside also; p. 2-3 cm.
convexo-exp. then umb. scurfily-scaly; g. adnate, arcuate, crowded; s.
3-4 cm. narrowed, squamulosely peronate from the contiguous veil; sp. 6
× 4.

=incisus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conico-convex, exp. umb. naked but soon
innately fibrillosely scaly, hygr. rusty (tawny); g. adnate; s. 2-3 cm.
equal, fibroso-fibrillose, rusty, ring of white veil almost obsolete;
sp. 5 × 3.

=iliopodius=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, subumb. silkily hoary then almost
glabrous, reddish yellow (tan), at length rimose; g. adnate; s. 6-9 cm.
equal, thin tawny (inside and outside), peronate with even pallid veil,
naked and fibrillose above ring; sp. 7-8 × 4.

     ++++ _Stem floccosely scaly, and like pileus fuscescent._

=hemitrichus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. convex then plane, umb. fuscous (fuscous
tan), silky towards the margin with white curled fibrils; g. adnate,
crowded; s. 3-4 cm. hollow, subequal, pale fuscous, veil white,
floccose, as also is ring; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

=stemmatus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convex, exp. obtuse, bay, hoary-silky near
the edge, fibrillose and pale when dry; g. adnate, crowded, bay; s. 5-7
cm. floccosely scaly, subannulate, rusty-bay; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. uraceus_ in squamulose s.

=rigidus=, Fr. Strong scented. P. 1-3 cm. conico-convex, umb. glabrous,
shining, bay (reddish); g. adnate, broad; s. 5-9 cm. equal, wavy, paler
than p., veil white-squamulose, cingulate; sp. ----.

=paleaceus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. conico-exp. umb. rather fuscous (tan), silky
with white downy squamules; g. adnate, truly crowded, whitish then tan;
s. 5-7 cm. wavy, undulate, whitish-squamulose, apex with whitish ring;
sp. 7-8 × 3.

=iris=, Massee. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. then exp. acutely umb. pale
brown-ochre, silky, white-fibrillose; g. much cut out behind,
orange-brown, edge entire; s. 5-7 cm. conical, solid, orange-brown and
squamulose below ring, smooth and violet at first above ring; sp. 10 ×

     _Pileus glabrous or covered with superficial white fibrils, not
     viscid but moist when growing, discoloured when dry; flesh very
     thin, splitting, disc rarely compact. Stem rather rigid, not
     peronate; veil thin, fibrillose, rarely collapsing and forming an
     irreg. zone._

     * FIRMIORES. _Pileus rather fleshy, convex then campan.-convex,
     expanded, obtuse or at length gibbous, edge at first incurved. Stem
     generally narrowed upwards._

     (Colour when dry given in brackets.)

     + _Stem and veil white._

=firmus=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. exp. obtuse, glabrous, rusty ochre, flesh
compact, white; g. crowded; s. 6-8 cm. solid, stout, rather bulbous,
white, veil rusty; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. subferrugineus_ by clear colour of p. and white s.

=subferrugineus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. exp. yellowish brick-red becoming
rusty, subhygr.; g. scarcely crowded, broad, opaque, rusty; s. 6-8 cm.
solid, spongy, rigid outside, subbulbous, white then dingy; sp. 8-10 ×

=armeniacus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. exp. gibbous, glabrous, tawny cinnamon
(yellowish tan), shining; g. adnate, crowded; s. 5-7 cm. conical, rigid,
subperonate, white; sp. 8-9 × 5.

var. _falsarius_, Fr. P. yellow, white when dry.

[=umbilicatus=, Karst. P. convexo-plane, minutely umbil. undulate,
obtuse, even, glabrous, brown-bay; g. very broad, cinnamon; s. equal,
base thickened, whitish; sp. 6-6.5 × 4-4.5.

=damascenus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. thin, exp. bay-cinnamon (brick-red,
rivulose); g. adnate, crowded; s. 5-7 cm. solid, firm, cylindrical,
whitish; 12 × 6.

=privignus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. exp. gibbous, glabrous, pallid fuscous,
silvery-hoary (tan then pallid); g. adnate, serrate; s. 6-7 cm. fragile,
silvery white; sp. 8 × 5.

=duracinus=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. rigid, exp. gibbous, watery brick-red (tan,
opaque), edge strongly incurved, silky; g. adnate, thin; s. 3-5 cm.
rigid, unequal, rooting, glabrous, white; sp. 5 × 3.

[=candelaris=, Fr. P. conico-campan. obtuse, glabrous, reddish dun
(tawny, shining) edge slightly incurved white-silky; g. adnato-decur.;
s. rigid, yellowish white, rooting.

=illuminus=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. exp. gibbous, glabrous, tawny brick-red
(brick-red, tan) edge thin; g. adnate; s. 5-9 cm. partly hollow, pallid
becoming rusty; sp. 11-12 × 6-7.

=tortuosus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. glabrous, even, shining, rusty bay
(brick-red); g. adnate, tawny blood-red or purplish when touched; s.
somewhat twisted, silvery; sp. 15-16 × 8.

=dilutus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. exp. subumb. glabrous, even, opaque, reddish
dun (tan); g. broad, crowded; s. 4-7 cm. soft, pallid, base thickened;
sp. 6 × 4.

[=erugatus=, Weinm. P. exp. subumb. even, nearly glabrous, shining,
ochraceous, brick-red; g. subadnate, crowded; s. elongated, thinner
upwards, fibrillosely striate, pallid.

[=Hoeftii=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, watery brick-red (tan, opaque), with a
silky bloom; g. adnate, crowded, connected by veins; s. subfistulose,
equal, silvery.

     ++ _Stem and gills usually violet._ In certain sp. of preceding
     section there is an ephemeral tinge of violet at apex of stem.

[=livor=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, glabrous, dusky olive then tan; g.
emarginate, crowded, broad, semicircular, watery cinnamon; s. narrowed
from subbulbous base, short, violet; sp. ----.

=saturninus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. campan. exp. glabrous, moist, dusky bay
(brick-red), with white silky veil round edge; g. adnexed, crowded,
purplish then rusty; s. 4-7 cm. violet, base thickened; sp. ----.

=imbutus=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. convex, obtuse, glabrous, gilvous becoming
pale, edge subfibrillose; g. adnate, rather distant, broad,
greyish-violet then cinnamon; s. 4-7 cm. whitish, apex violet; sp. 7-8 ×

[=cypriacus=, Fr. P. almost membranaceous, campan. exp. gibbous,
glabrous, cinnamon (tawny); g. crowded; s. colour of p., striate with
adpr. fibrils.

[=plumbosus=, Fr. P. convex, plane, umb. moist, blackish lead-colour,
then paler and with satiny sheen near edge; g. olive-violet then
cinnamon; s. hollow, attenuated upwards, violet then pallid.

[=sciophyllus=, Fr. P. thin, convex, exp. deep bluish fuscous (bluish),
silky-white round edge at first; g. adnate, dusky umber; s. solid,
violet, narrowed from thickened base.

=castaneus=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. campan. exp. gibbous, even, chestnut
(shining); g. violet then rusty; s. 2-3 cm. cartilaginous, violet or
pallid reddish, stuffed then hollow; sp. ----.

=bicolor=, Cke. P. 3-5 cm. campan. exp. umb. dingy white or tinged
lilac; g. adnate, purplish violet then tan; s. 4-5 cm. pale violet then
pale, solid; sp. 12-14 × 6-7.

=balaustinus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. obtuse, virgate, rusty rufous (tawny
brick-red, shining); g. adnate, broad rusty rufous; s. 5-7 cm. conical,
pallid, then rusty outside and in; sp. 8 × 4-5.

=colus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convex, subgibbous, glabrous, rufous brown
(paler and shining); g. adnate, dusky cinnamon; s. 7-9 cm. fibrillosely
striate with fiery-saffron mycelium; sp. 9 × 4.

=isabellinus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. subumb. honey-colour, glabrous (yellowish
and shining); g. adnate, yellow then tan; s. 7-9 cm. rigid, striate,
yellowish; sp. 10 × 5.

=renidens=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. even, glabrous, shining, tawny (ochre);
g. crowded, tawny; s. 2-4 cm. equal and with fibrous veil, yellow; sp.
8-10 × 5.

=angulosus=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. wavy, hygr. reddish tawny (ochre,
opaque); g. adnate, thickish, distant, tawny; s. 3-4 cm. equal, twisted,
rather tawny; sp. ----.

var. _gracilescens_, Fr. S. hollow, slender, tortuous, base rather

[=zinziberatus=, Fr. P. exp. umb. tawny honey-colour (yellowish), edge
silky-fibrillose; g. adnate, quite entire, crisped; s. outside and base
also inside, yellowish.

     +++ _Stem fuscescent, veil pallid-dingy or white_ (_not yellow_);
     _gills dusky._

=uraceus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. campan.-convex, subgibbous, even, glabrous,
umber (tan, torn into fibres); g. adnate, bay brown; s. 5-9 cm. blackish
fuscous, apex becoming olive; sp. 8-9 × 4.

=jubarinus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. campan. exp. glabrous, bright tawny
cinnamon (shining); g. adnate, tawny cinnamon; s. 4-5 cm. fibrillosely
striate, tawny, veil fugacious, white; sp. 10 × 5.

Closely resembling _C. cinnamomeus_, differing in white fibrillose
fugacious veil.

[=rubricosus=, Fr. P. exp. umb. brownish bay (brick-red, shining); g.
obtusely adnate, bright rusty; s. narrowed downwards, brownish, white
veil collapsing and forming a silky zone.

[=nitens=, Karst. P. exp. umb. white-silky from veil then glabrous and
shining, brownish bay; g. tawny cinnamon; s. subequal, fuscous, white
veil forming oblique bands; sp. 6 × 3.5.

[=irregularis=, Fr. P. exp. umb. wavy, fuscous brown (tawny rusty,
shining); g. decur. closely crowded, rusty; s. naked, brick-red with
white striae.

=pateriformis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. plano-depr. obtuse, orbicular, chestnut
brown with white deciduous fibrils; g. brick-red; s. hollow, equal,
tinged fuscous; sp. ----.

[=phaeophyllus=, Karst. P. convex exp. umb. entirely even, edge silky,
glabrous, watery cinnamon, ochre and shining when dry; g. adnate,
brown-tan, edge honey-colour; s. equal, usually wavy, silky-fibrillose,
pallid-white; sp. 7-9 × 4-5.

=unimodus=, Britz. P. 2-3 cm. campan. then exp. usually depr. round
umbo, shining, rufous brown; g. adnexed, brown; s. 4-7 cm. fibrous,
brown below; sp. 10-12 × 6.

     ** TENUIORES. _Pileus submembranaceous, conical then exp. umbo
     acute, rarely obtuse or nearly obsolete, edge at first straight._

     + _Stem white._

=dolabratus=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. campan. exp. obtuse, glabrous, brick-red
(even and tan), silky near the edge; g. adnate, very broad, distant,
tan; s. 8-14 cm. stout, cylindrical, shining white; sp. 12-14 × 7-8.

Smell very disagreeable.

=rigens=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. conical then convex, obtuse, glabrous, opaque,
tan (whitish tan); g. adnato-subdecur.; s. 4-9 cm. cartilaginous, rigid,
rooting, white; sp. 6-7 × 4.

[=fulvescens=, Fr. P. exp. shining, cinnamon (brick-red), at length
fibrillose, umbo persistent rather acute; g. adnate; s. attenuated,
soft, rather wavy, becoming pale.

=Krombholzii=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. conico-campan. then gibbous, even,
glabrous, tan, edge append.; g. nearly free, broad, rusty edge
yellowish; s. 6-11 cm. equal, naked, white; sp. 8 × 4-5.

=Reedii=, Berk. P. 2-3 cm. conical then exp. and strongly umb. shining,
persistently brown; g. free; s. 2-3 cm. equal, rather bulbous, white,
solid; sp. 7-8 × 4.

=leucopus=, Bull. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. conical then exp. and umb. even,
glabrous, yellowish red (clay-colour, shining); g. subadnexed, crowded;
s. 2-3 cm. equal, shining white; sp. 6 × 3-4.

Differs from _C. pluvius_ in not being viscid.

=scandens=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conical, exp. tawny rusty to watery
honey-colour (clay-colour), umbo fleshy, edge striate; g. adnate, tawny
cinnamon, edge same colour; s. 5-8 cm. wavy, even, apex thickened, base
attenuated, whitish; sp. 10 × 5.

     ++ _Stem somewhat violet or reddish._

=erythrinus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. conical, exp. rufous bay, prominent umbo
darker; g. adnexed; s. 3-5 cm. equal, somewhat curved, violet above; sp.

var. _argyropus_. Slenderer than type; stem silvery, apex mealy.

=decipiens=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. conical, glabrous, shining, fuscous-bay,
depr. round darker umbo (brick-red); g. adnate; s. equal, slender, with
a pale separable cuticle; sp. 8 × 5.

S. usually without any violet, pale red inside.

var. _insignis_, Fr. P. paler; s. flexuous, glabrous.

=germanus=, Fr. Smell strong. P. 1-2 cm. conico-exp. obtusely umb.
rather silky, fragile, fuscescent (clay-colour); g. adnate, broad; s.
thin, equal, glabrous, lilac then pallid; sp. ----.

=ianthipes=, Secr. P. conical then exp. umb. fibrillose, shining, brown,
edge yellowish; g. white then greyish olive; s. shining, violet, rufous

     +++ _Stem yellowish, usually becoming pale._

=detonsus=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. conical, exp. subumb. glabrous, brick-red or
yellowish (tan and silky); g. adnate, yellowish then brick-red, quite
entire; s. 4-7 cm. glabrous, tinged yellow then pallid; sp. 6 × 4.

=saniosus=, Fr. P. conical then convex and umb. not striate, glabrous,
tawny fuscous (tawny, shining), edge fibrillosely torn; g. adnate, quite
entire; s. curved, yellowish, veil fibrillose, yellow.

=obtusus=, Fr. P. 1-3 cm. conico-campan. striate to middle, shining,
reddish yellow (ochre then pallid, opaque, fibrillosely torn); g.
adnato-ventricose, edge white-fimbriate; s. hollow, soft, ventricose,
becoming pale, 4-9 cm.; sp. 9 × 5.

=acutus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. conical, acutely umb. entirely striate,
yellowish red (clay-colour, silky then even); g. adnate, ochre, entire;
s. 6-8 cm. equal, slender, wavy, pale; sp. 6 × 4.

     ++++ _Stem becoming fuscescent._

=Junghuhnii=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. conical, exp. papillate, persistently
minutely velvety with thin innate white fibrils, shining cinnamon
(somewhat tawny); g. adnate, orange brick-red; s. 4-7 cm. shining,
adpressedly fuscous-fibrillose; sp. 8 × 5-6.

=depressus=, Fr. P. 4-5 cm. conico-convex, umb. glabrous, at first
superficially silky near striate edge, fuscous then rusty; g. adnate,
saffron then yellowish; s. hollow, reddish, base fuscous, white-silky;
sp. ----.

=milvinus=, Fr. Strong scented. P. conico-exp. subumb. striate to disc,
somewhat olive (tan then pallid), edge crowned with white innate
squamules; g. adnate, rusty olive, base veined; s. 4-5 cm. equal,
curved, fuscous then pallid, spotted with the white silky veil; sp. 8-10
× 4.

=fasciatus=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conico-exp. glabrous, fuscescent (brick-red
then pallid and silky) umbo acute, blackish; g. adnate, distant; s. 4-9
cm. rather wavy, glabrous, fibrously splitting, pallid fuscous; sp. 8 ×

Differs from _C. acutus_ in very distant g.


=palmatus=, Bull. P. 4-9 cm. compact, convex then exp. irreg. glabrous,
pelliculose, rusty; g. fixed to a collar, colour of p.; s. excentric or
lateral, incurved, glabrous, whitish; sp. subg. 10.

Differs from _Pleurotus subpalmatus_ in rusty sp.

A form with a central s. occurs.

[=hypsophilus=, R. Fries. Subcaespitose. P. fleshy, compact, irreg.
laterally produced, entire, convex then plane, edge becoming upturned,
glabrous, fuscous tan; g. emarginate, crowded, dingy yellow; s. very
excentric, short, curved whitish.

[=nidulans=, Mass. (= _Pleurotus nidulans_, Fr., _Crepidotus junquillea_
(Paulet) Lucand.) P. fleshy, at first resupinate then expanded, sessile,
subreniform, tomentose, yellow; g. broad, rather distant, tawny-orange;
sp. tawny.

=alveolus=, Lasch. P. 2-4 cm. soft, lateral, obovate, wavy, plane,
glabrous, ochre-fuscous, sessile or produced behind into a short
stem-like downy base; g. broad; sp. 7-8 long.

[=stiriacus=, Wetts. P. fleshy-fibrous, ovate-shell-shaped,
semiorbicular, or cuneiform, simple, lobed or partite, tomentose; g.
dense, ochre-fuscous; s. lateral, very short; sp. 5-7 × 3.

=mollis=, Fr. P. 3-7 cm. gelatinously fleshy, soft, obovate or reniform,
flaccid, subsessile, glabrous, pallid then greyish; g. decur. from base,
crowded, linear, whitish then watery cinnamon; sp. 8-9 × 5-6.

=putrigenus=, B. and C. Imbricate, sessile; p. 2-3 cm. subreniform,
whitish, tomentose; g. broad, rusty-brown; sp. subglobose, 6-7, rusty.

=applanatus=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. soft, fragile, plane, reniform or cuneate,
whitish, produced behind into a very short white-downy base; g.
determinate, crowded, whitish then pale cinnamon; sp. 5 × 3.

[=scalaris=, Fr. Imbricated. P. submembranaceous, very soft,
effuso-reflexed, even, glabrous, clear dilute ochre, pellucid when
fresh; g. decur. from base, distant, thin, whitish then cinnamon.

=calolepis=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. dimidiate, sessile and fixed by a downy
nodule, white, marginate behind, variegated with minute rufescent
scales; g. radiating from base, at length brownish rusty; sp. ----.

=haustellaris=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. flaccid, exactly lateral, reniform,
plane, even, very slightly downy, tan; g. rounded behind, pallid then
fuscous-cinnamon; s. distinct, narrowed upwards, downy, white; sp. ----.

[=Peteauxii=, Q. P. resupinate then cup-shaped, lateral, reniform,
tomentose, snow-white; g. free, whitish then ochre.

=rubi=, Berk. (= _Naucoria effugiens_, Q.) P. 0.5-1 cm. convexo-plane,
edge incurved, pale yellowish tan, sprinkled with glistening particles;
g. adnato-decur. rather broad, greyish then umber; s. 3-6 mm. incurved;
sp. 5-7 long.

=chimnophilus=, B. and Br. P. 4-6 mm. convex, edge incurved, downy,
whitish; g. attenuated behind, distant, narrow, pale tan; s. very short
or obsolete; sp. 5 × 3 µ.

=epibryus=, Fr. White. P. 3-5 mm. resupinate, sessile, adnate by the
vertex, silky then smooth; g. radiating from the centre, thin, crowded,
whitish then reddish-yellow; sp. ----.

[=inhonestus=, Karst. P. resupinate, sessile, adnate laterally or by the
vertex, rather silky, orbicular or subreniform, whitish; g. broad, thin,
white then brownish; sp. 6-8 × 5.

=Phillipsii=, B. and Br. P. 4-6 cm. rather fleshy, oblique, striate,
smooth, pale umber; g. narrow, ventricose, slightly adnate, pale tan; s.
short, solid, incurved; sp. 5-7 × 2.5 µ.

=pezizoides=, Nees. P. 3-4 mm. sessile, thin, cup-shaped then recurved,
mealy, subtomentose, whitish; g. radiating from the centre, rather
distant, brownish-olive then tawny.

=luteolus=, Lamb. P. thin, stipitate at first then resupinate and stem
disappearing, tomentose, clear yellow then pale; g. crowded,
orange-yellow then cinnamon; sp. rusty.

=Ralfsii=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. convex, edge incurved, delicately
hispid or scurfy, yellow, fixed by cottony mycelium, stem obsolete; g.
rather broad, ventricose, pale tan, edge whitish; sp. ----.

=Parisotii=, Pat. Minute. P. sessile, minutely velvety, bright citrin,
stem almost obsolete, white, downy, edge incurved; g. very distant,
reddish; sp. 4-5 × 2.

Only appears to differ from _C. luteolus_ in being somewhat smaller.

[=subintiger=, Schulz. P. thin, cylindrical then cyphelliform, fixed by
centre, orbicular-reniform, whitish, slightly tomentose; g. radiating
from centre, free, distant, ventricose, yellowish brown, edge wavy and
fimbriate; sp. 3-4 long.

[=pallescens=, Q. P. umbil. downy, yellowish white; g. adnate, white
then pallid; s. short incurved, downy, white; sp. 7 long.

[=scutellinus=, Q. P. convexo-plane, vertex minutely mucronate,
pellucid, rivulosely striate, whitish then ochre; s. filiform, arcuate,
short, downy, colour of p.; g. narrow, adnate, denticulate, white then
pale ochre; sp. 7 long.

[=Cesatii=, Rab. P. sessile, resupinate, rather tough, soft, whitish or
pallid gilvous; g. broad, pallid; sp. pale yellow; sp. 6-7 × 4-6.

Habit of _Claudopus variabilis_, but p. not tomentose, g. not reddish,
and pale sp.

[=proboscideus=, Fr. P. resupinate, campan. vertex prominent,
pedunculate, even, pubescent, ochraceous; g. radiating from an excentric
point, thin, straight, colour of p.

Must be carefully distinguished from _Pax. panuoides_.

=epigaeus=, Pers. P. 1-2 cm. thin, reniform or flabellate, reddish-grey,
base downy, whitish; g. distinct, narrow, diverging, watery rufescent;
sp. 10 × 7.

Entire fungus soft and watery; growing on naked damp earth.


     A. _Gills free from stem._

=Chitonia=. Volva present, ring absent.

=Agaricus=. (= _Psalliota_, Fr.) Ring present, volva absent.

=Pilosace=. Volva and ring both absent.

     B. _Gills attached to stem._ (Quite free from stem in some species
     of _Coprinus_.)

     + _Stem with a distinct membranous ring._

=Stropharia=. Gills adnate dark brown or purplish.

=Anellaria=. Gills adnexed, grey and clouded with the black spores.

     ++ _Ring very imperfect or absent; gills decurrent._

=Gomphidius=. Gills subgelatinous.

     +++ _Gills not decurrent, not adhering laterally when young, not

=Hypholoma=. Gills sinuate, dark brown or blackish-purple; veil often
hanging in fragments from edge of pileus.

=Panaeolus=. Edge of pileus extending beyond the gills, pileus not

=Psathyrella=. Pileus sulcate or striate.

=Psathyra=. Stem fragile; edge of pileus straight when young.

=Psilocybe=. Stem tough; edge of pileus incurved when young.

     ++++ _Gills adhering laterally when young, deliquescing at

=Coprinus=. Ring and volva present in some species, ring alone others,
both absent in others; gills adnate, adnexed or free.

     +++++ _Flesh of pileus entirely absent, the gills radiating from
     the stem free and unconnected by flesh above._

=Montagnites=. Volva present, buried in the ground.


=rubriceps=, Cke. and Mass. P. 2-3 cm. campan. then exp. umb.
reddish-brown; g. free, purplish-brown; s. 6-7 cm. hollow, paler than
p., volva large, free edge torn; sp. 12 × 6.

Introduced along with living plants into Kew Gardens.

[=coprinus=, Fr. (= _Ag. involucratus_, Mont.) P. fleshy, convex,
viscid, yellowish, sometimes floccosely scaly from fragments of volva;
g. free, smoky-black; s. fistulose, naked, whitish, volva very small.

Unless the small volva is noticed, this fungus will be considered as a
sp. of _Coprinus_.


     A. EDULES. _Large, fleshy._

=augustus=, Fr. P. 8-14 cm. globose then exp. very obtuse, disc even,
rest fibrillosely-scaly, pale yellow-brown; g. crowded, narrow, fuscous,
remote from stem; s. 8-14 cm. solid, ring superior, large, areolately
squamulose below; sp. 6 × 3.5. Edible.

=peronatus=, Mass. P. hemispher. then exp. dull ochre, densely scaly; g.
distant from stem, crowded, purple-brown; s. 10-14 cm. equal,
marginately bulbous, hollow, with large spreading white scales up to
broad spreading ring; sp. 6 × 4. Edible.

Differs from _A. augustus_ in hollow, peronate stem.

=elvensis=, B. and Br. P. 9-15 cm. subglobose then exp. fibrillose,
broken up into large persistent brown scales, edge warted; g. crowded;
s. 8-12 cm. narrowed at base, fibrillose, ring large, thick, warted
below; sp. 8 × 4. Edible.

[=praenitens=, Beck. P. hemispher. exp. white, with densely imbricated
chestnut scales which become smaller and denser at disc; g. remote,
purple-brown, edge white; s. clavato-bulbous, concentrically scaly up to
large ring, white; sp. 7-8 × 5.

=arvensis=, Schaeff. P. 10-24 cm. conico-campan. then exp. smooth,
even, white often stained yellow, flesh white, unchangeable; g. close to
stem, narrow; s. 6-12 cm. hollow, whitish, floccosely stuffed, ring
pendulous, double, exterior radiately split; sp. 6 × 4. (9-11 × 6 Sacc.)

var. _purpurascens_, Cke. Smaller than type. P. tinged purple.

Differs from _Ag. xanthodermus_ in the persistently white flesh.

=xanthodermus=, Genev. (= _Ag. flavescens_, Roze.) P. 6-10 cm. fleshy,
convex, even, glabrous, greyish-white, cuticle becoming yellowish when
touched, and the white flesh changing to yellow when broken; g. free,
sinuate, pale rose then grey, finally purple-brown; s. cylindrical,
stuffed, ring thin, flesh deep yellow at base, rest white; sp. ----.

Differs from _A. arvensis_ in flesh becoming yellow, and in yellow base
of stem.

[=ammophilus=, Ménier. P. convex, exp. thick, whitish; g. free, crowded,
rosy; s. stout, solid, base more or less thickened, whitish, ring
membranous, strongly adherent to apex of s. slightly striate, with a
circular canal; sp. 6-7.5 × 4-7.

=cretaceus=, Fr. P. 6-9 cm. globose then convex, shining white, at first
smooth and silky, then fibrillosely squamulose; g. for a long time
white, then blackish-brown; s. 6-8 cm. white, hollow, ring large,
superior, fixed; sp. 9 × 6. Edible.

=pratensis=, Schaeff. P. 4-7 cm. ovoid then exp. even or squamulose,
greyish-white; g. rounded behind, grey then brown; s. 4-6 cm. stuffed,
base thickened, naked, ring median, simple, deciduous; sp. 6 × 3.5.

var. _fulveolus_, Lasch. P. squamuloso-fibrillose, yellowish or reddish;
s. hollow, yellowish; g. tawny-denticulate.

[=Bernardii=, Q. Compact, white, tomentose under a lens. P. 10-20 cm.
convex then exp. cracked into areolae, greyish-white; s. solid, stout,
ovate, striate at the apex, ring membranous, striate above; g. free,
greyish-pink then bay-brown; flesh white, becoming purplish then
brownish when broken; sp. subgl. 8.

Foetid. Edible.

=campestris=, L. 6-12 cm. convex then plane, floccosely silky or
fibrillose, whitish, flesh reddish-brown when cut; g. close to stem,
subliquescent, fleshy then umber; s. stuffed, even, white, ring median,
torn; sp. 7-8 × 5-6. Edible.

var. _alba_, Berk. P. rather silky white; s. short.

var. _praticola_, Vitt. P. with rufous scales, flesh reddish.

var. _rufescens_, Berk. P. rufous, minutely scaly; s. elongated.

var. _umbrina_, Vitt. P. even, umber; s. stout, squamulose.

var. _fulvaster_, Viv. P. even, ochraceous-tawny; s. solid; g. rosy then

var. _villaticus_, Brond. P. cortex breaking up into scales; s.
peronately scaly up to inf. ring.

var. _silvicola_, Vitt. P. almost smooth, white, shining; s. stuffed,
elongated, subbulbous, ring simple, flesh not changing colour.

var. _robustissimus_, Pen. P. equal, large, 32 cm.; g. very broad, up to
2 cm.; s. tall, 13 cm. high, 6 cm. thick.

var. _exsertus_, Viv. P. fleshy, almost even, glabrous, white, flesh
red; s. hollow, slender, rather wavy, smooth ring small and torn,

var. _hortensis_, Cke. P. fibrillose or squamulose, brownish. The
variety commonly cultivated in England.

var. _costatus_, Viv. P. sulcate, wavy.

var. _vaporarius_, Otto. P. and s. with a brown pilose covering.

var. _exannulatus_, Cke. P. squamulose; s. elongated, equal, solid, ring
evanescent or obsolete.

=perrera=, Schulz. (= _Psal. Bresadolae_, Schulz.) P. 8-10 cm.
hemispher. then exp. yellowish, centre tawny, covered with
concentrically arranged tawny scales; g. remote, crowded, joined in a
ring behind, rosy then fuscous; s. equal, 9-10 cm. stuffed then hollow,
base submarginately bulbous, with evanescent tawny scales below the
large superior ring; sp. 8-10 × 5.

[=bitorquis=, Q. P. 5-9 cm. globose then exp. almost glabrous,
milk-white then cream or ochre at the edge; g. remote from s. becoming
deep brown; s. solid, ovoid, glabrous, white, with a membranous ring
near the apex and a volva-like ring near the base, separated by a
concave notch; sp. 5-6 long. Edible.

[=flavescens=, Gillet. P. globose then convex, dry, satiny, white, soon
tinged yellow or reddish-yellow; g. broad, brown; stem with a turbinate
bulb, white, suffused with reddish-yellow; flesh white, ring fugacious;
sp. 8 × 4.

=silvaticus=, Schaeff. P. 6-9 cm. thin, campan. then exp. gibbous,
fibrillose or squamulose, centre brownish becoming paler at edge; g.
crowded, dry; s. 8-12 cm. hollow, equal, whitish, ring simple, distant;
sp. 7 × 4.

=haemorrhoidarius=, Kalchbr. P. 7-12 cm. ovate then exp. rufous-brown,
covered with broad adpressed scales, edge at first incurved, flesh deep
red when broken; g. crowded, purple-umber; s. 8-11 cm. white, soon
hollow, fibrillose base solid, subbulbous, stains red when bruised, ring
superior, large; sp. 7-8 × 5. Edible.

[=sanguinarius=, Karst. Flesh blood-red when broken. P. campan. exp.
obtuse, usually wavy, even, pale fuscous, broken up into squamules; g.
free, crowded, white, rosy-umber; s. elongated, subequal, curved,
silky-flocculose then almost glabrous, white, ring superior, pendulous,
fixed, persistent, areolately-scaly outside near edge; sp. 5-7 × 3-4.

[=niveorubens=, Q. Floccose, shining white, everywhere becoming red.

Quélet now considers this to be a form of _Ag. sylvatica_, Schaeff., to
which sp. he also refers _Ag. setigera_, Paul., _Ag. haemorrhoidaria_,
Kalchb., _Ag. rubella_, Gill., and _Ag. Vaillantii_, Roze and Rich.

=setiger=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, smooth and silky, pale umber; g. umber;
s. stuffed, elongated, equal, squamuloso-fibrillose, colour of p., ring
thin, fugacious.

[=rubellus=, Gillet. P. exp. obtusely umb. with reddish scales,
especially at the disc, which is deep red-brown, paler towards edge; g.
crowded; s. hollow, cartilaginous, base swollen; ring fugacious; flesh

[=lecensis=, Harz. Smells like aniseed. P. convex then almost plane,
yellowish-white, often broken up into brown polygonal pyramidal patches;
g. white, rosy-violet, then brown, both ends narrowed; s. solid,
coarsely scaly above, white becoming tinted rosy or yellow; ring
conspicuous, radiately striate, outside scaly; sp. 14-15 × 5.5-7.

[=caldarius=, Wettst. P. convex then exp. white, disc even, brownish
squamulose towards edge; g. remote, narrow; s. glabrous, whitish; sp.
9-14 × 5-11.

     B. MINORES. _Flesh of pileus thin._

=comptulus=. P. 3-4 cm. convexo-plane, adpressedly silky, white; g.
flesh-colour then rosy; s. 4-6 cm. hollow, yellowish-white, ring median;
sp. 4-5 × 2-3.

=sagatus=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane, tawny, glabrous; g. ventricose,
umber; s. 4-5 cm. hollow, equal, pale, ring distant, spreading; sp. 6 ×

[=amethystinus=, Q. P. 3-4 cm. convex then plane, umb. downy or
fibrillose, white with the centre rose, lilac or amethyst; g. free,
ventricose, clear grey then bay-brown; s. slender, with a silky pith,
somewhat bulbous, fragile, glabrous, white, with a satiny, white ring;
sp. 6-7 long.

[=semotus=, Fr. P. exp. even, glabrous, brick-red, disc darker; g.
rather distant from stem, pallid; s. fistulose, reddish and more or less
peronate up to spreading ring, pale above; sp. 4-5 × 2-3.

[=dulcidulus=, Kalchbr. P. plane, subgibbous, almost glabrous, dry,
lurid white or ochre; g. crowded, grey then blackish; s. subbulbous,
colour of p., ring median, persistent.

Umbo often tinged fuscous or violet.

=rusiophyllus=, Lasch. P. 2-3 cm. soon plane, umbonate, silky, ruddy,
becoming pale; g. crowded, rosy then brown; s. 3-4 cm. thickened
downwards, white, ring persistent; sp. 5 × 3.

[=zonarius=, Brond. P. 1 cm. convex, with pellucid brown-violet zones;
g. free, rosy then bay-bistre; s. solid, elongated, ring membranous,

[=geniculatus=, Brig. P. campan. exp. tumid, glabrous, pale bay, edge
split here and there; g. free, remote from stem; s. bent, base
thickened, ring inf.

Remarkable in this genus for growing on wood.

[=haematospermus=, Bull. P. campan. then exp. then umb. and scaly,
brownish tan then blackish; g. rosy-blood-red then fuscous; s.
fistulose, equal, glabrous, colour of p., ring median, erect; sp. 4-5 ×

=subgibbosus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. convexo-plane, umb. even, glabrous but
silky towards edge, yellowish; g. remote from stem, white then
greyish-fuscous; s. 2-3 cm. fistulose, slender, ring fugacious.


=algeriensis=, Fr. P. 6-10 cm. convex then exp. even, glabrous, white
then disc tinged brownish; flesh very thick, white; g. very narrow, rosy
then umber; s. 3-5 cm. very stout, white, base thickened, solid; sp.
subgl. 8 µ.

[=Bresadolae=, Schulz. P. very thin and very fragile, irreg. campan.
then exp. and edge wavy, margin split, pale yellow-fuscous, glabrous,
even; g. free, blackish-brown, edge white-mealy; s. often slightly wavy,
apex abruptly contracted, white; sp. 9 × 4-5.

Many plants spring from a subterranean fleshy mass.

[=Phoenix=, Fr. P. thin, campan. exp. even, glabrous, hygr. fuscous then
pale; g. free, ventricose, pallid then umber; s. stuffed, striate,
subbulbous, rooting, pallid.


     A. VISCIPELLES. _Pellicle of pileus even or scaly, often viscid._

     * MUNDI. _Not growing on dung._

[=depilata=, Pers. P. exp. even, glabrous, viscid, yellowish-livid then
tan; g. adnato-decur. broad, white then blackish; s. solid, with white
revolute squarrose white scales below the ample ring; sp. 11-14 × 6-8.

=Percevali=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. rather viscid, umb. then exp. ochre,
scaly at first near edge; g. adnexed, broad distant; s. 5-7 cm.
squamulose up to ring, dark inside; sp. 12-14 × 6.

_S. squamosa_ differs in adnate, crowded g.

=versicolor=, With. P. 3-7 cm. convexo-plane, scaly, edge incurved; g.
decur. pallid then reddish-brown; s. 5 cm. whitish then brownish, ring

A species about which little is known.

=aeruginosa=, Curt. P. 4-7 cm. convex then exp. subumb. or quite plane,
at first with bluish-green mucus and sometimes with white squamules,
then yellowish; g. adnate, purplish; s. 5-6 cm. viscid, squamulose below
ring, tinged green, often quite glabrous; sp. 10 × 5.

Very variable within certain limits. Often stout and deep coloured in
shady woods. Slender and soon dry in open pastures.

=squamulosa=, Massee (= _S. aeruginosa_; var. _squamulosa_, Mass.). P.
4-6 cm. soon plane, deep verdigris-green, dry, squamulose; g. crowded,
brown; s. 5-7 cm. stout, fibrilloso-squamulose, green, ring fragmentary;
sp. 8-9 × 5.

Superficially like _S. aeruginosa_, but dry and silky, innately
squamulose, and brown g.

=albocyanea=, Desm. 1.5-2 cm. exp. umb. viscid, greenish-blue then
whitish; g. purplish; s. 3-5 cm. slender, flexuous, pallid or tinged
green, ring incomplete; sp. 7-8 × 3-4.

Differs from _S. Worthingtoni_ in greenish p.

[=Tavastense=, Karst. P. convex then flat, disc often depr. sometimes
umb. glabrous, with concentric yellowish-white squamules near edge,
yellowish livid then dingy tawny tan; g. adnexed, crowded; s. straight,
fragile, almost equal, solid, pale then fuscescent, ring torn,

[=consentiens=, Karst. P. convex, exp. umb. then depr. even, glabrous,
rather viscid, yellowish-livid, tinged olive, edge involute; g. adnate,
paler than p.; s. subequal, stuffed, wavy, apex pruinose, yellowish

[=coprinifacies=, Roll. P. hygr. conico-campan. then exp. viscid, umber
brown then pallid, with blue mucus; g. ventricose, both ends narrowed,
dusky purple, edge white; s. dingy white tinged blue, ring median; sp.
20 × 7.

=inuncta=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. subumb. with livid purple gluten that
disappears, then pale; g. adnate, pale brown; s. 4-7 cm. flexuous,
white, fibrillose below distant imperfect ring; sp. 8 × 6.

=coronilla=, Bull. P. 3-4 cm. plane, tawny-ochre then pale, edge white
flocculose; g. sinuato-adnate, violet, edge white; s. 2-3 cm. white,
ring median, violet-striate; sp. 10 × 5.

=ventricosa=, Mass. P. 1.5-2 cm. exp. broadly gibbous, slightly viscid,
tawny-ochre then paler; g. almost free, purplish; s. 5-7 cm. ventricose
below middle, base rooting, pale, ring large, striate, apical; sp. 10 ×

[=fusoidea=, Pat. P. 1-1.5 cm. campan. then exp. and umb. edge striate,
ochre; g. adnate, purplish; s. elongated, slender, smooth, strongly
ventricose near the base, whitish, ring distant; sp. 12-14 × 6-7.

Differs from _S. ventricosa_ in being smaller, and in the small, distant

=obturata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. exp. becoming cracked into squamules, almost
dry, yellow; g. adnate, purplish-umber; s. 2-3 cm. stuffed, short,
narrowed downwards, white, ring tumid; sp. 7 × 4.

[=capillacea=, Gillet. P. conico-campan. very finely wrinkled, reddish
brown with whitish flecks near margin more especially; g. blackish
brown, edge toothed; s. whitish, squamulose, ring fugacious.

=melasperma=, Bull. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane, rather viscid, white or
yellowish; g. ventricose, blackish violet; s. 3-5 cm. hollow, equal,
white, ring superior, deciduous; sp. 10 × 6.

=squamosa=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. exp. subviscid, yellowish-tan with
evanescent concentric scales; g. adnate, blackish, edge white; s. 7-12
cm. pallid, rusty near base, squamulose up to distant ring; sp. 12 × 6.

var. _thrausta_ (_Ag. thrausta_, Kalchbr.). Slender, fragile, hygr. not
scaly; sp. 12-15 × 6.

var. _aurantiaca_, Cke. P. orange or brick-red.

[=albonitens=, Fr. P. thin, exp. gibbous, viscid, glabrous,
hyaline-white, shining white when dry; g. adnate, crowded, pale fuscous;
s. stuffed with pith, everywhere floccosely villose, pale straw when
dry; sp. 6-9 × 4-5.

=Worthingtoni=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. viscid, yellow; g. adnate, broad,
brown; s. 4-7 cm. slender, flexuous, dark blue, ring incomplete; sp. 7 ×

Differs from _S. albocyanea_ in the yellow p.

[=palustris=, Q. P. hemispher. umb. rather viscid, hygr. greyish-tawny,
disc brown; g. adnate, very broad; s. slender, white, covered with
transverse tawny scales, ring distant.

     ** MERDARII. _Ring often incomplete._

=luteonitens=, Fl. Dan. P. 2-3 cm. conico-campan. umb. viscid, yellow,
edge squamulose; g. adnexed, ventricose; s. 2-3 cm. fistulose, even,
pruinose above distant ring, whitish; sp. 10-11 × 6. (14 × 6-7 Sacc.)

Intermediate between _S. squamosa_ and _Psilocybe coprophila_, having
scaly p. and ring of former, and stature of latter.

=merdaria=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. exp. obtuse, glabrous, moist, hygr. dingy
yellow-brown or pale bay; g. adnate, broad; s. 2-3 cm. flocculose, dry,
pallid, ring fugacious; sp. 8 × 5. (12-16 × 6-8 Sacc.)

[=mammilata=, Kalchbr. P. thin, exp. conico-papillate, even, viscid,
pale ochre; g. rotundato-adnate, blackish brown; s. glabrous, white then
yellowish, ring fugacious.

=stercoraria=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. then discoid, rather viscid,
glabrous, yellow; g. adnate, broad, olive-black; s. 8-10 cm. stuffed
with free pith, elongated, flocculose below the distant ring, rather
viscid, white tinged yellow; sp. 18-20 × 8-10.

=semiglobata=, Batsch. P. 2-3 cm. persistently hemispher. even,
glutinous, yellow; g. adnate, broad, clouded black; s. 6-10 cm.
glabrous, glutinous, yellowish, ring imperfect, inferior; sp. 12 × 6.

Differs from _P. stercoraria_ in persistently hemispher. p. and glabrous

[=siccipes=, Karst. P. hemispher. exp. obtuse, orbicular, naked, even or
edge slightly pellucidly striate, viscid, whitish clay-colour; g.
adnato-subdecur. clay-colour then fuscous and clouded; s. pallid, dry,
straight or wavy, flocculose, pruinose above the distant, dry ring; sp.
12-15 × 7-9.

Intermediate between _S. stercoraria_ and _S. semiglobata_.

[=paradoxa=, P. Henn. P. campan. papillately umb. viscid, centre brown,
edge broadly revolute, even, glabrous; g. adnato-decur. wavy, veined,
dusky brown; s. wavy, striate, fibrous, yellow, base white-downy, ring
black, floccose, deciduous; sp. 14-17 × 7-10.

     B. SPINTRIGERI. _Pileus without a pellicle, but innately fibrous,
     not viscid._

[=calceata=, Schaeff. P. exp. adpressedly fibrillose, moist, stoutly
umb. even, dingy yellow then pale; g. nearly free; s. solid, glabrous,
white, base marginately bulbous, limb free like a volva.

[=ocreata=, Holmsk. P. globoso-campan.-exp. obtuse, granulose then
imbricately scaly, red then gilvous; g. nearly free; s. peronate up to
imperfect ring.

[=medusa=, Brig. P. globose then convex, even, subrimosely squamulose
when dry, yellowish white, edge lobed; g. nearly free, sooty, edge
crenulate; s. solid, subtuberous, fibrillose, white, ring fugacious.

=caput-medusae=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. ovate, exp. lacunose, squamulose,
discoid, umber-brown, edge ochre; g. adfixed; s. 5-9 cm. peronate with
squarrose scales up to superior ring, scales at length falling away; sp.
10 × 4. (16-18 × 5 Sacc.)

=scobinacea=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. exp. gibbous, somewhat sulcate, at first
covered with crowded, blackish adpressed squamules; g. adnate,
crenulate, purplish; s. 6-9 cm. hollow, fibrillose, white, apex mealy,
ring superior, fugacious; sp. ----.

[=sulcata=, Gill. P. conico-campan. umb. covered except at summit with
branched ridges, reddish; g. distant; s. white, striate below and mealy
above the ring.

[=sulcatula=, Gill. P. convex, rugosely ridged, when young with reddish
superficial scales, then naked and whitish or tinged red at disc;
sooty-brown, edge whitish, denticulate; s. elongated, squamulose up to
ring, striate above, white, base rooting very cottony.

[=cotonea=, Q. At first entirely white. P. 5-7 cm. spherical then
convex, snow-white, covered with floccose squamules; g. sinuate, white,
then purple, at length brownish-purple, edge white; s. 3-6 cm.
fistulose, curved, floccosely scaly, apex glabrous, ring floccose; sp.
10 long.

Quélet considers this species to be identical with _Hyph.
lacrymabundum_, Fries.

=Battarrae=, Fr. P. hemispher. then exp., more or less olive, covered
with adpressed squamules most crowded at the disc; g. sinuate, white
then rosy, finally purple-brown, edge white; s. fistulose, whitish, with
brownish or olive squamules up to ring, apex pruinose, ring thin, white,
partly appendiculate; sp. 10 long.

[=punctulata=, Kalchbr. P. thin, convex, dry, pallid, squamulosely
punctate from the veil, then naked; g. sinuato-adnate with a decur.
tooth, pale umber; s. stuffed, pallid, squamulose from the veil above.

=Jerdoni=, B. and Br. P. 4-5 cm. exp. umbo fleshy, broad, ochraceous
with snow-white evanescent flecks; g. adnate with a decur. line,
transversely striate; s. 5-7 cm. snow-white and pulverulent above,
brownish squamulose below, ring superior; sp. 10 × 5.

=spintrigera=, Fr. P. 5-9 cm. ovate then exp. obtuse, even, glabrous,
brownish or pinkish tan then pale; g. adnate, crowded; s. 4-7 cm.
hollow, floccosely-fibrillose, white, ring distant, fugacious; sp. ----.

=hypsipoda=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convexo-plane, even, glabrous, hygr.
brownish yellow; g. white then fuscous; s. 7-11 cm. hollow, equal,
glabrous, whitish, ring median, persistent; sp. 12-14 × 6-7.

=cothurnata=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, even, thin, white, not hygr.; g.
adnexed, crowded; s. floccosely villose up to median ring, white.


=separata=, Karst. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, not exp. viscid, dull
ochre then pale and often rugulose; g. adfixed, greyish black; s. 6-10
cm. straight, white, base thickened, ring distant; sp. 10 × 7. (16-22 ×
10-15 Sacc.)

=scitula=, Mass. P. 1-1.5 cm. campan. obtuse, smooth, viscid, drab or
dingy ochre; g. almost free, grey; s. 2-3 cm. peronate up to inferior
ring; sp. 12-13 × 4.

=fimiputris=, Karst. P. 2.5-4 cm. conico-exp. thin, subgibbous, viscid,
dusky grey; paler when dry; g. adfixed, livid blackish; s. 6-10 cm.
pallid, slender, equal, pallid, with ring reduced to a zone; sp. 9-10 ×


=glutinosus=, Schaeff. P. 4-10 cm. obtuse, glutinous, purplish-brown; g.
slightly decur. whitish then grey; s. 4-9 cm. whitish, ring indistinct,
solid, flesh white, yellow at base; sp. 18-20 × 6-7.

var. _roseus_, Fr. Smaller. P. rosy; s. white, base rosy outside and

=viscidus=, Sow. P. 5-12 cm. fleshy, at length umb. edge acute, viscid,
reddish-brown; g. decur. purple-umber, branched; s. 6-10 cm.
yellow-brown, flesh yellow-brown, deepest at base; sp. 18-20 × 6.

var. _testaceus_, Fr. P. and base of s. outside and in brick-red; g.

=maculatus=, Scop. P. 5-7 cm. convex, viscid, whitish, spotted with
black when old; g. decur. branched, umber; s. 3-4 cm. cylindrical,
yellow, flesh reddish.

var. _Cookei_, Mass. P. 2-4 cm. convex then either subdepr. or gibbous,
viscid, whitish with black stains; g. decur. whitish then brownish; s. 6
cm. narrowed downwards, pale then blackish, flesh dark at base; sp. 20 ×

=gracilis=, B. P. 2-3 cm. conical then hemispher. sometimes depr. and
subumb. vinous brown, or tan with gluten that leaves blackish spots; g.
decur. whitish then bistre; s. 3-5 cm. flexuous, pallid, base yellow;
sp. 16-18 × 5.


     * FASCICULARES. _Pileus tough, glabrous, bright coloured when dry,
     not hygr._

=silaceum=, Pers. P. 6-8 cm. convex, orange-rufous, edge whitish and
silky; g. adnate, grey then olive; s. 6-7 cm. bulbous, shining; sp.

Fries says it is solitary, Secretan says caespitose from a common base.

=sublateritium=, Schaeff. P. 4-9 cm. convexo-plane, discoid, dry,
becoming glabrous, orange brick-red, edge pale, flesh compact, whitish;
g. adnate, white then smoky olive; s. 6-10 cm. fibrillose, rusty; sp. 8
× 4.

var. _Schaefferi_, Fr. P. yellow; s. hollow, equal.

var. _squamosa_, Fr. P. brick-red, edge yellow with superficial scales,
flesh thick, yellowish.

[=transversum=, Gill. P. exp. obtusely umb. glabrous, brick-red, disc
darker; g. yellowish, narrowed at both ends, connected by strong veins;
s. solid, glabrous, pale above, base rusty.

=capnoides=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. convexo-plane, obtuse, very glabrous, yellow
or tinged tawny; g. adnate, grey then purplish; s. 5-9 cm. pallid,
slightly silky; sp. 8 × 4.

=epixanthum=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. subgibbous, silky then glabrous, pale
yellow, disc often tawny, flesh yellow; g. yellowish white then grey; s.
7-10 cm. floccosely fibrillose, whitish, apex mealy; sp. 7 × 4.

=elaeodes=, Fr. P. 2-4 cm. exp. subumb. dry, glabrous, brick-red, flesh
yellow; g. green then pure olive; s. 5-9 cm. fibrillose, rusty; sp. 5-6
× 3-4.

=fasciculare=, Huds. Fasciculate, taste bitter. P. 2-5 cm. exp. subumb.
tawny, edge pale; g. adnate, closely crowded, yellow then greenish,
subliquescent; s. 6-9 cm. hollow, fibrillose, flesh like that of p.
yellow; sp. 7 × 4.

Said to be a parasite on the roots of raspberry.

=instratum=, Britz. P. 2-4 cm. convex, broadly umb. dark brown, radially
rugose; g. adnate; s. 5-7 cm. squamulose and brownish downwards; sp. 8 ×

[=aelopodium=, Fr. P. fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, glabrous,
rufescent; g. adnate, yellowish then brownish-olive; s. fistulose with a
free tube inside, variegated with minute red squamules.

=dispersum=, Fr. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. P. fleshy, exp. obtuse, tawny,
honey-colour near the edge and silky; s. 5-9 cm. tough,
silky-fibrillose, base brownish; g. subventricose, crowded, then
clouded; sp. 7 × 3-4. (14 × 6 Sacc.)

[=irroratum=, Karst. P. convex, plane, gibbous, even, tawny
honey-colour, edge silky pruinose; g. adnate, crowded, edge dentate,
straw-colour then darker and tinged green; s. tough, fibrillosely-silky,
pallid, equal, wavy below and with dense rusty down, rooting; sp. 6-8 ×

Smell and taste very sour. Differs from _H. dispersum_ in stem and silky
silvery edge of p.

     ** VISCIDI. _Pileus naked, viscid._

[=Gilletii=, Alex. P. exp. glutinous, rusty or ochre, edge lilac; g.
adnate, reddish-violet; s. solid, curved, strigosely-squamose, colour of

=incomptum=, Mass. P. 6-9 cm. campan. then exp. broadly umb. viscid when
moist, deep bay-brown, tawny-orange when dry, edge wavy; g. olive
clouded purple; s. 6-7 cm. rusty squamulose; sp. 8 × 3.5.

=oedipus=, Cke. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. hemispher. edge ragged, glutinous, umber
edge paler; g. adnate; s. 4-5 cm. enlarged downwards to the bulbous
base, ring median; sp. ----.

[=Buxbaumii=, Weinm. P. exp. even, glabrous, viscid, yellowish-white; g.
adnate, greyish-black; s. solid, long, equal, shining-white; sp. ----.

[=Prescotii=, Weinm. P. exp. glabrous, viscid, rufescent; g. adnate,
crowded, grey then fuscous-violet; s. stuffed, equal, elastic, white,
with pale rufescent squamules.

     *** VELUTINI. _Pileus innately fibrillose, silky or virgate._

=storea=, Fr. P. 6-7 cm. convexo-plane, umb. dry, fibrillose with
longitudinal fibrils, pale fuscous then pallid; g. adnate, dry, edge
white-serrulate; s. 8-10 cm. solid, pallid; sp. ----.

=lacrymabundum=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. convex, obtuse, piloso-squamose, scales
innate darker, whitish then darker; g. adnate, crowded, brownish-purple;
s. hollow, fibrillosely-squamulose, whitish, flesh whitish; sp. 10 ×

var. _hypoxanthum_ (= _Ag. hypoxanthus_, Phil. and Plow.). Base of s.
and mycelium yellow; sp. 9-11 × 5.

Quélet considers this species to be identical with his _Stroph.

=pyrotrichum=, Holmsk. P. 5-9 cm. hemispher. densely covered with
tawny-red squamules of fasciculate hairs; flesh and veil tawny; g.
adnate; s. 6-9 cm. fibrillose, tawny; sp. 11 × 6.

var. _egregius_, Mass. S. with spreading whitish squamules largest near

=velutinum=, Pers. P. 5-9 cm. campan. then exp. at length obtusely umb.
hygr. at first tomentose with adpr. fibrils then glabrous, livid then
paler, flesh very thin; g. seceding, brownish-bay, spotted black; s.
hollow, silky, pallid; sp. 10-12 × 5-6.

var. _leiocephalum_, B. and Br. Smaller; disc rugged, smooth except

Quélet considers this species to represent the true _Ag. lachrymabundus_
of Bulliard, tab. 194.

[=melantinum=, Fr. P. campan. then exp. umber then pale, variegated with
black innate pilose squamules; g. adnexed, ventricose, pale umber; s.
fistulose, pallid, fibrillosely hispid; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

[=lepidotum=, Bres. P. convex, exp. subgibbous, chestnut, centre
fuscous, with black fibrils which are here and there compacted into
squamules, densely striate; g. crowded, almost free, purple-brown, edge
fimbriate, white; s. white, apex white-scurfy, veil evanescent; sp. 7-8
× 4-5.

     **** FLOCCOLUSI. _Pileus with superficial, floccose scales which
     fall away._

=cascum=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. oval then exp. rugulose, becoming glabrous,
greyish ochre then pale; g. ventricose, dry, very broad, grey then
blackish brown; s. 5-9 cm. hollow, fibrillose, white; sp. ----.

[=sylvestre=, Gill. P. conical then exp. obtuse, white at first, soon
covered with large, adpressed brown or blackish, fibrillose scales,
margin appendiculate at first; g. crowded; s. cylindrical, wavy, white.

=punctulatum=, Kalchbr. Caespitose. P. 2-3 cm. convex, edge incurved,
pallid, minutely squamulose; g. sinuato-adnate; s. 2-5 cm.
squamuloso-fibrillose up to ring; sp. ----.

[=coriarium=, Vitt. P. convex then depr. discoid, floccosely scaly then
almost glabrous, clay-colour, disc darker; g. pinkish then ochre; s.
hollow, clavate, apex dilated.

[=intonsum=, Pass. P. flocculosely tomentose, veil membranaceous,
appendiculate spreading; g. adnate, rosy then bay, edge white crenulate;
s. hollow, white, striate, apex flocculose.

[=artemisiae=, Passer. P. thin, exp. flocculose, edge incurved, white
veil evident; g. adnate, crowded, white then fuscescent, edge white,
entire; s. thick, white, apex narrowed and striate, base floccose.

     ***** APPENDICULATI. _Pileus glabrous, hygrophanous._

=lanaripes=, Cke. P. 3-5 cm. exp. edge upturned, centre conical, pallid,
squamose, veil attached to margin; g. adnexed; s. 4-7 cm. fibrillose,
white; sp. ----.

[=coronatum=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, glabrous, subisabelline centre darker
and variegated with darker spots, edge with tooth-like fragments of
veil; g. adnate, closely crowded, very narrow; s. glabrous, even, white.

=Candolleanum=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. campan. then exp. bay then whitish, apex
tinged ochre, pruinose; g. sinuate, lilac then purple-brown, edge white;
s. 4-7 cm. fistulose, slender, fibrillose, apex striate, veil
membranous, forming a ring or appendiculate, white; sp. 8-10 × 4-5.

Differs from _H. appendiculatum_ in the gills being lilac or violet when

[=violaceo-atrum=, Letell. Caespitose. P. conical then exp. umb. dusky
violet; g. brownish violet; s. fistulose, even, whitish.

=appendiculatum=, Bull. P. 4-7 cm. ovate then exp. bay then whitish,
rugulose, and atomate; g. white then fleshy brown; s. 5-7 cm. glabrous,
white; sp. 5 × 2.5. (6-8 × 3-4 Sacc.)

Differs from _H. Candolleanum_ by absence of violet in gills when young.

=hydrophilum=, Bull. (_Bolbitius_, Fr.). Tufted. P. 3-5 cm. convex then
exp. often rather wavy and rugulose, glabrous, bay then ochre; g.
adnexed, crowded, with beads of moisture, fuscous-cinnamon; s. 4-5 cm.
pallid; sp. 5 × 3, rusty cinnamon.

Differs from _Psil. spadicea_ in the rusty cinnamon gills and spores.

[=sublentum=, Karst. P. tough, campan.-convex, exp. obtuse, wavy,
rugulose towards the edge which is silky from veil, glabrous, hygr.
smoky rufous or brown then pale; g. adnate, purplish brown, edge white,
flocculosely crenate; s. fibrous, hollow, white, veil append.; sp. 8-10
× 4-5.

[=subpapillatum=, Karst. Caespitose. P. exp. wavy, glabrous, rough with
minute crowded warts, bay or rufous-cinnamon then pale ochre and
wrinkled; g. dry; s. equal, silky-shining, apex striate and pruinose,
becoming pale; sp. 5 × 2.5-3.

Differs from _Hypholoma appendiculatum_ in granulose p.

=catarium=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. hemispher. exp. ochraceous then pale; g.
adnate, white then fuscous; s. 3-4 cm. white, rather shining, base
thickened and white-floccose; sp. 6 × 3.

=leucotephrum=, B. and Br. Tufted. P. 5-7 cm. campan. exp. whitish,
rugose, append.; g. grey then blackish; s. 6-9 cm. apex coarsely
striate, ring ample; sp. 10 × 6.

[=felinum=, Pass. P. hemispher. exp. glabrous, hygr.; g. adnate, white,
then fuscous; s. fistulose, short, slender, somewhat shining, base
thickened and white floccose, apex striate.

=egenulum=, B. and Br. Solitary. P. 2-3 cm. exp. umb. watery white,
smooth, edge appendiculate; g. purplish umber, edge white; s. 4-5 cm.
fistulose; sp. ----.

=pilulaeforme=, Bull. P. 1.5-2 cm. globose then exp. even, fuscous then
ochre; g. white then brownish; s. 2-3 cm. white, at first with a ring;
sp. ----.


     * _Pileus viscid, shining when dry._

=leucophanes=, B. and Br. P. 2 cm. campan. obtuse, whitish, satiny, edge
with fragments of veil; g. adnate, edge white; s. 4-5 cm. white,
slightly wavy; sp. 11-13 × 7-8.

=egregius=, Mass. P. 4-5 cm. ovate-campan. even, orange-brown; g.
adnexed, broad, edge paler; s. 9-12 cm. pale brown; sp. 15-17 × 7-8.

=phalenarum=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. campan.-convex, obtuse, greyish then
yellowish, veil append.; g. broad, greyish then black; s. 6-10 cm.
equal, pruinose, pale rufescent; sp. 10 × 6.

Differs from _P. papilionaceus_ in viscid p.

     ** _Pileus not viscid, moist, subflocculose when dry._

=retirugis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. globose then hemisph. subumb. pinkish tan,
atomate, opaque, with anastomosing raised ribs; g. greyish black; s. 5-9
cm. equal, pruinose, purplish; sp. 11-13 × 7. (15-20 × 8-9 Sacc.)

Margin often appendiculate.

[=remotus=, Schaeff. P. campan.-convex, subumb. flocculosely-rugulose
when dry, smoky-tawny; g. free, at length remote, ventricose, black; s.
fistulose, slender, fuscescent; sp. 11-12 × 8-9.

=sphinctrinus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. parabolic, obtuse, even, moist, grey or
smoky-black, livid and rather silky when dry, veil append.; g. adnate,
grey or olive then blackish with a very narrow white edge; s. 4-7 cm.
sooty grey, apex even; sp. 15-17 × 9-10.

     *** _Pileus not viscid, smooth, rather polished, zoneless._

=campanulatus=, L. P. 2-3 cm. campan. slightly viscid, sooty grey, paler
and the cuticle often cracking or peeling when dry; g. adfixed, crowded,
grey spotted with black, often with beads of moisture; s. fistulose,
rufescent or reddish-grey, everywhere pruinose, summit striate; sp. 8-9
× 6. (15-18 × 9-13, Sacc.)

=papilionaceus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. pruinose, greyish, cracked
into squamules when dry; g. broadly adnate, very broad, grey spotted
with black; s. 6-9 cm. whitish, apex with white meal; sp. 11-12 × 7. (18
long, Quélet.)

[=subfirmus=, Karst. P. convex then plane, centre subdepr. but also
subumb. even, glabrous, shining, disc subrugulose, dry, pale, smoky line
often present near edge; g. adnexed with decur. tooth, lanceolate,
black; s. wavy, glabrous, pale, apex flocculosely scaly; sp. 12-14 ×

=caliginosus=, Jungh. P. 2 cm. campan. obtuse, even, brown; g. adnexed,
lanceolate; s. 4-7 cm. equal, even, naked, colour of p.; sp. 10 × 6-7.
(16-18 × 10 Sacc.)

[=Quéletii=, Schulz. Solitary, hygr. P. conical, even, pale umber disc
fuscescent; g. free, ventricose, blackish, edge white; s. straight,
thinner upwards, tinged reddish; sp. 13-14 long.

     **** _Pileus dry, with a dark marginal zone._

=subbalteatus=, B. and Br. Caespitose. P. 3-5 cm. convex, hygr.
fawn-colour, rugose when dry; g. adnate, edge white, serrulate; s. 4-6
cm. red-brown, fibrous, white-fibrillose; sp. 14-15 × 8-9.

=acuminatus=, Fr. P. conico-campan. 1.5-2.5 cm. thin, glabrous, shining,
pinkish-buff, with a dark line near the edge; g. adnexed, very broad,
whitish then grey, finally dusky bistre; s. 2-3 cm. slender, fistulose,
whitish, shining, base brownish, thickened, white and downy; sp. 18

[=guttulatus=, Bres. P. convexo-exp. often subumb. edge involute then
spreading, black, then disc tawny, at first with grey bloom; g. colour
of p. edge white pruinose then fringed with drops; s. equal, fistulose,
tinged fuscous then greyish-scurfy; sp. 10 × 4.

=fimicola=, Fr. P. 2 cm. campan.-convex, obtuse, grey then yellowish; g.
adnate, broad; s. 5-9 cm. pallid, with white meal upwards; sp. 16 ×

var. _cinctulus_, Bolton. P. reddish-cinnamon; s. dingy brown.

[=hypomelas=, Batt. P. exp. rufous-tomentose, disc blackish; g. crowded,
intensely black; s. stuffed, narrowed downwards, greyish-white.

[=gomphodes=, Batt. P. campan.-convex, gibbous, dusky rufous, pannose
when dry; g. free, blackish; s. stout, rigid, ascending, flocculose,
rufescent, veil arachnoid.

[=Larchenfeldii=, Schulz. P. subgl. silvery, silky shining, subumbil.
deeply sulcate, edge grey, wavy; g. irreg. plicate; s. hollow, with
brown fibrils.


     * _Stem straight, glabrous._

=subatrata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, rufous-umber, paler when
dry, edge striate; g. adnate, crowded; s. 8-10 cm. fistulose, white then
pallid; sp. 12-15 × 6-8.

=gracilis=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. smoky or greyish then rosy, slightly
striate only when moist; g. broadly adnate, edge rosy; s. 6-7 cm.
fragile, straight, pallid; sp. 7 × 3.5. (12-14 × 6-8 Sacc.)

Pileus tinged rose and rugulose when dry.

[=longicauda=, Karst. P. convex, glabrous, pellucidly striate to umbo,
smoky yellow, hygr.; g. adnate, crowded, blackish purple, edge white;
s. fistulose, equal, subglabrous, apex white-mealy, remarkably rooting;
sp. 13-16 × 7-9.

Differs from _P. gracilis_ in larger sp., white edge to g., and rooting

[=squamifera=, Karst. P. campan. obtuse, pellucidly striate to middle,
rugulose, livid fuscous, pale tan when dry, with scattered, white
fibrillose scales; g. adnate, entirely grey then fuscescent; s. equal,
silky, apex pruinoso-flocculose then almost glabrous, pallid, base
oblique, strigosely rooting; sp. 11-13 × 6.

Differs from _P. gracilis_ in silky s., gills all one colour, &c.

[=impatiens=, Fr. P. thin, campan. obtuse, livid yellow,
furcato-sulcate; g. adnate; s. straight, weak, white; sp. 12-15 × 6-8.

[=biformis=, Schulz. P. conic, even, glabrous, white then tinged
flesh-colour; g. sinuato-adnexed, ventricose; s. filiform, glabrous,
even, whitish; sp. 11-14 × 6.

=hiascens=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. brownish, fisso-sulcate; g.
adnato-linear; s. 3-4 cm. straight, glabrous, white; sp. 7 × 3.5. (10-12
× 7-10 Sacc.)

[=gracilipes=, Pat. P. persistently campan. sulcate up to disc,
reddish-brown; g. nearly free, broad, blackish, subdeliquescent; s.
slender, tall, rigid, hollow, whitish, ring median, very distinct,
fugacious; sp. 8 × 4.

=arata=, B. P. 2-3 cm. campan.-conic, rather acute, brown then paler,
coarsely sulcate; g. free; s. 8-12 cm. white; sp. ----.

=trepida=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, fragile, densely and finely
striate, dusky; g. ventricose, crowded; s. 6-7 cm. pellucid, hyaline;
sp. 12 diam.

=hydrophora=, Bull. P. 2-3 cm. campan. then exp. and striate, edge
revolute, disc rufous; g. adnate, crowded, narrow; s. 5-7 cm. straight
from a curved base, white, beaded with drops of water; sp. 11-18 × 7-8.

[=graveolens=, Sacc. Smell strong. P. convex, exp. obtusely umb.
blackish fuscous, silky-atomate; g. rather crowded, broadish, black; s.
slender, cylindrical, glabrous, fuscous; sp. 5-6 × 2.

[=ampelina=, Foex and Viala. P. conical then exp. almost smooth, pale
brown, thin, slightly pilose; g. crowded, narrow, rosy violet then
greyish brown; s. white, shining, springing from a copious creeping
mycelium; sp. 4-5 long.

     ** _Stem more or less flexuous, apex mealy._

=caudata=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. conico-campan. striate, hygr. dry, disc even,
pinkish tan; g. adnate, very broad; s. 7-11 cm. slightly narrowed to
rooting base, whitish; sp. 12-15 × 6-9.

[=circellatipes=, Ben. Caespitose, hygr. P. conico-campan. pilose then
glabrous, rufous-brown then tawny ochre, at last pale ochre; g.
blackish, edge white, denticulate; s. long, white or pallid, apex
mealy, base with several delicate, narrow, tawny ochre rings; sp. 13-15
× 8-9.

[=sulcata=, Dun. P. campan. umb. bay then blackish; g. broad,
subliquescent; s. stuffed, equal.

[=asperella=, Q. P. cinnamon, apex darker, becoming pale, whitish and
transparent, squamulose when young; g. distant, narrowed at both ends,
whitish then powdered with the black spores; s. short, thick,
cylindrical then elongated, wavy, white, base often swollen; sp. 6-9 ×

=prona=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. hemispher. striate, hygr. smoky, opaque and
silky-atomate when dry; g. adnate, grey then dusky-violet, edge often
rosy; s. 2-3 cm. equal, flexuous, whitish; sp. 10 × 4-5. (12-18 × 8-9

=empyreumatica=, B. and Br. Strong scented. P. 2-3 cm. exp. hygr. rufous
then pale and atomate; g. adnate, broad, connected by veins, edge pale;
s. 4-6 cm. silkily-scurfy, pale; sp. ----.

Closely resembling _Pholiota confragosa_.

[=infida=, Q. P. conical, 1 cm. very thin, floccosely downy, greyish
bistre; g. adnate, triangular, distant, creamy then flesh-colour,
finally bay with a white edge; s. fistulose, filiform, wavy, somewhat
pruinose, pinkish bistre; sp. 12 long.

=atomata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, slightly striate, hygr.,
rugulose, atomate, pale ochre, whitish, or tinged rose when dry; g.
adnate, broad; s. 4-5 cm. slightly flexuous, white, apex scurfy; sp. 10
× 4. (13-15 × 5-8 Sacc.)

Differs from _P. gracile_ in flexuous and scurfy s. and not rose-edged

var. _expolita_, Fr. Smaller. P. conical, edge striate; s. undulating,
glabrous; sp. 12-14 × 6.

[=subatomata=, Karst. P. campan. obtuse, fragile, deeply striate, hygr.
rugose when dry, grey or livid, centre more or less bay, tinged rosy
when dry; g. adnexed, ventricose, greyish then black, edge rosy;
hyaline, pallid, white when dry, apex pruinose, base fibrously rooting;
sp. 10-14 × 5-7.

[=subrosea=, Karst. P. campan.-convex, obtuse, entirely striate, naked,
livid fuscous, rosy in dry weather; g. adnate, segmentoid, grey, edge
rosy; s. wavy, naked, whitish; sp. 10-13 × 5-6.

[=expolita=, Fr. Small. P. conical, edge striate, and with the wavy
stem, glabrous; g. not crowded, greyish-brown; s. 12-14 × 6.

=crenata=, Lasch. P. 1.5-2 cm. hemispher. sulcate, edge crenate,
yellowish and atomate when dry; g. adnate; s. 3-5 cm. whitish, striate
and mealy upwards; sp. 11-13 × 5-6.

=disseminata=, Pers. Densely tufted. P. 1-1.5 cm. ovate-campan.
furfuraceous then naked, sulcate, yellowish then grey; g. adnate; s. 2-3
cm. lax, scurfy then glabrous; sp. 6-10 × 3-5.

[=consimilis=, Bres. and Henn. P. conico-campan. exp. hyaline yellowish
at first then centre yellowish, edge greyish-fuscous, striate, glabrous;
g. rotundato-adnate, white then flesh-colour, then blackish-brown, edge
white fimbriate; s. hyaline white, fibrillose then almost glabrous; sp.
6-7 × 3.5-4, cystidia fusoideo-ventricose.

[=subtilis=, Fr. P. campan. obtuse, almost glabrous, hygr. pellucidly
striate when moist, ochre then pale; g. adnate, edge whitish; s.
filiform, lax, glabrous; sp. 12-16 × 5-8.

With a scurfy veil when young?


     I. CONOPILEI. _Pileus conico-campanulate; gills ascending, adnexed,
     often free._

=elata=, Mass. P. 3-5 cm. high, obtusely campan. even, glabrous, dark
brown then pale and atomate; g. adnate; s. 9-15 cm. straight, slightly
narrowed upwards, white, shining; sp. 18 × 8-9.

=conopilea=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. even, glabrous, bay then pale; g.
slightly adnexed; s. 8-14 cm. narrowed upwards, white, shining; sp. 14 ×

=mastigera=, B. and Br. P. 3-5 cm. nearly cylindrical obtuse then
conico-campan. with a strong umbo, usually wavy, brown then pale; g.
affixed, umber, edge pale; s. 6-7 cm. whitish or tinged purple; sp.
15-16 × 7-8.

=glareosa=, B. and Br. P. 1.5 cm. campan. grey, striate, minutely
tomentose; g. broadly adnate; s. 3-5 cm. brown with white fibrils; sp.

[=griseobadia=, Pat. P. hemispher. striate, pruinosely pulverulent, dry,
tough, reddish-fuscous; g. numerous, unequal, entire, adnate, fuscous;
s. slender, glabrous, reddish, dry, tough; sp. 10 × 7.

[=Loscosii=, Rab. P. thin, campan.-exp. greyish fuscous, sulcate, folds
at length granulato-crenate, edge incurved; g. adnate; s. long, tough,
equal, pallid fuscescent.

=corrugis=, Pers. P. 3-5 cm. campan. umb. rather rugose, pale ochre
often tinged pink; g. sinuate, adnexed; s. 4-7 cm. equal, glabrous,
white; sp. 12-14 × 6.

var. _vinosus_, Corda. P. with rosy tinge; s. short.

var. _gracilis_, Bull. (= _P. pellosperma_, Cke.). Slenderer than type.

[=Barlae=, Bresad. P. campan. exp. purplish brown then reddish umber,
centre tawny, reticulately rugulose; g. purplish then fuscous, edge
white; s. tall, stout, hollow, purplish upwards inside and out, pale
below, base strigose, veil white; sp. 12-15 × 7-8.

[=torpens=, Weinm. P. campan. obtuse, even, becoming pale; g. dry,
brown, edge white; s. slender, glabrous, white.

var. _astrospora_, Q. Subhygr. very fragile, blackish grey then
fuscescent, glabrous; g. adnato-decur. dusky brown-purple then blackish;
s. straight, rigid, hollow, white, striate and white-mealy above; sp.
black, 11-14 × 5.

=tenuicula=, Karst. P. very thin, campan. subexp. everywhere striate,
whitish, then livid or smoky, pale when dry; g. adnate, pallid then
grey; s. usually wavy, hyaline, pellucid, glabrous; sp. 5-6 × 3.

[=subliquescens=, Schum. P. conico-exp. brown-striate, viscid; g. nearly
free, subliquescent; s. elongated, attenuated, straight, pale brown.

[=typhae=, Kalchb. Small. P. thin, convex, striate, glabrous, pallid
ochre then pale umber; g. nearly free, whitish then fuscous; s. naked,
whitish, seated on an orbicular membranaceous arachnoid mycelium.

var. _iridis_, Boud. P. fuscous, striate, umbo rugulose, semipellucid;
s. with a median ring; sp. 10-13 × 6-7.

[=stricta=, Trog. P. campan. silky-even, dry, pallid; g. adnexed,
subdeliquescent, purplish umber; s. tall, straight, glabrous, white.

=gyroflexa=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. conico-campan. striate, atomate, grey, disc
rufescent when dry; g. adnexed; s. 3-5 cm. flexuous, silky, white; sp.
8-10 × 4-5.

     II. OBTUSATI. _Pileus campanulato-convex, expanding, glabrous or
     atomate, gills plano- or arcuato-adfixed._

=spadiceo-grisea=, Schaeff. P. 3-4 cm. conico-campan. then exp. subumb.
glabrous, striate to middle, hygr. bay then greyish; g. narrow; sp. 8-10

=obtusata=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. campan. then exp. obtuse, glabrous,
corrugated, hygr. rather shining, umber then pale; g. adnate; s. 2-4 cm.
pallid, base incurved; sp. 6-7 × 4.

[=ombrophila=, Karst. P. plane, orbicular, subgibbous, even, granular;
g. adnexed, blackish; s. reddish, base subtuberous; sp. yellowish, 4-6 ×

=neglecta=, Mass. P. 6-8 mm. convex then exp. even, glabrous, pale
ochre, atomate and whitish when dry; g. purple-brown; s. 2-3 cm. rather
wavy, white, pellucid; sp. 12 × 6; cystidia abundant, fusiform.

Differs from _P. urticaecola_ in glabrous p.

[=fagicola=, Lasch. P. thin, campan. obtuse, striate, viscid,
greenish-blue, sublivid, fuscescent; g. adnexed then separating,
subliquescent, brown.

[=Falkii=, Weinm. P. thin, hemispher.-exp. pellucid, moist, hygr. mealy
grey when dry; g. laxly adfixed, ventricose, umber then fuscous-purple.

[=solitaria=, K. Fragile. P. campan.-exp. glabrous, umber, pallid tan
when dry; s. fistulose, equal, whitish, fibrillose, base with white
down; sp. 6-7 × 3, cystidia ventricose-fusoid.

[=pallens=, Karst. P. convex, even, often rugulose when dry, atomate,
naked, whitish when dry; g. subadnate, ascending, grey, edge rosy; s.
equal, straight, naked, pallid; sp. 18-25 × 12-13; cystidia fusoid.

     III. FIBRILLOSI. _Pileus and stem floccose or fibrillose at first
     from the universal veil._

=frustulenta=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. hemisph. obtuse, slightly striate,
albo-floccose at edge, pallid brown, hygr.; g. adnate, cinnamon; s. 4-5
cm. rather wavy, flocculose, white; sp. 10 × 4, pale rusty brown. (5-7 ×
3-4 Sacc.)

Much like a _Galera_ in colour of sp.

[=bipellis=, Q. P. campan. then exp. 2-3 cm. hygr. purple-bay then
micaceous and rosy, edge with white silky flecks; g. adnate, rosy then
dusky violet with a narrow white edge; s. fistulose, fragile, mealy at
the apex, downy then satiny, white, often tinged violet; sp. 15 long.

[=subunda=, Karst. P. conico-convex, exp. umb. atomate, pellucidly
striate, even, glabrous, pale tan or pale livid, whitish when dry, with
scattered fibrils; g. adnate, crowded, grey then tinged violet, finally
brown; s. cylindrical, shining, white; sp. 8-9 × 4.

[=Schulzeri=, Q. (= _Ag. flavescens_, Q.) P. conoid-hemisph. then exp.
white, apex yellow or brown, even; g. purple-brown, edge whitish; s.
cartilaginous, glabrous, white; sp. 5-8 long.

=bifrons=, B. and Br. P. 1-2 cm. campan. obtuse, rugulose,
brownish-ochre, at first fibrillose; g. adnate, edge toothed; s. 4-7 cm.
naked, shining, white; sp. 8 × 4.

var. _semitincta_, Phil. P. pinkish; sp. 12 × 5.

=semivestita=, B. and Br. P. 1.5-2 cm. ovate-campan. obtuse, even, bay
then pale ochre, when young lower half white-fibrillose; g. broad; s.
5-7 cm. white, fibrillose below; sp. 10-12 × 5.

=fatuus=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. ovato-campan. then exp. rugose, fibrillose then
glabrous, dingy ochre then pale; g. adnate, brown; s. 5-9 cm. white,
apex striate, mealy; sp. 12-13 × 6-7.

=fibrillosa=, Pers. P. 3-4 cm. campan. then exp. slightly striate,
fibrillose, livid then pale; g. adnate, very broad behind; s. 4-5 cm.
white, fibrilloso-squamulose; sp. 12 × 5-6.

=Gordoni=, B. and Br. Densely tufted. P. 2-4 cm. campan. pale grey then
white, floccose, edge sulcate; g. grey; s. 4-5 cm. white, floccose
below; sp. 14-15 long.

=helobia=, Kalchbr. P. 2-4 cm. campan. then plane with concentric
ridges; radiately rugose, subumb. sooty brown, pale when dry; g. adnate,
sooty brown; s. 6-8 cm. reddish umber with white squamules; sp. 12 × 6.

=pennata=, Fr. P. 2-3 cm. campan. obtuse, even, with feathery white
squamules, pale ochre; g. adnexed, broad; s. 4-5 cm. villose, silvery;
sp. 7-8 × 5.

var. _fimicola_, Bern. P. rusty ochre; g. black, with a decur. tooth.

var. _squamosa_, Karst. Stem everywhere with squarrose white floccose
scales; sp. 5-6 × 3.

=gossypina=, Bull. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. campan. then exp. tomentose, soon
glabrous, edge striate, pale ochre; g. adnexed; s. 4-5 cm. tomentose,
whitish; sp. 10 × 6.

[=squamosa=, Karst. P. campan. exp. tawny-fuscous, tan and scaly when
dry; g. adnate, crowded; s. equal, wavy, undulate, apex mealy then
glabrous, shining; sp. 6-10 × 3-5.

Differs from _P. gossypina_ and _P. pennata_ in colour of p. and smaller

=noli-tangere=, Fr. Very fragile. P. 1-2 cm. campan.-exp. everywhere
striate, hygr. squamulose near edge, pale umber then pale; g. adnate,
broad; s. brownish, apex smooth; sp. 12 × 5.

[=laureata=, Q. P. convex, mammilate, glabrous, slightly viscid, greyish
bistre, edge with a double row of snow-white flecks; g. subdecur. broad,
triangular, greyish lilac; s. pruinose at summit, minutely velvety,
clear grey; sp. 8 long.

Resembles _P. noli-tangere_ in appearance.

=microrhiza=, Lasch. P. 2-3 cm. campan. even, dry, atomate, at first
yellow-pilose; g. crowded, narrow; s. 4-5 cm. silky, white, rooting; sp.
10-11 × 6.

=urticaecola=, B. and Br. P. 4-5 mm. campan. flocculent, edge becoming
striate, white; g. chocolate; s. 1-2 cm. flocculent, white; sp. 7 × 4.


     I. TENACES. _Veil accidental, rarely conspicuous. Stem callous,
     flexile, often coloured. Pileus pelliculose, often viscid in damp
     weather, becoming somewhat pale, clear coloured._

     * _Gills ventricose, not decurrent._

=sarcocephala=, Fr. P. 4-9 cm. compact, exp. mealy then glabrous, pallid
rusty; g. adnate, very broad, grey then purplish bistre; s. 7-12 cm.
whitish, apex mealy; sp. 7 × 3.5.

[=pertinax=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, obtuse, reticulately rugose,
dusky-brown, disc even; g. adnate, crowded, rusty-brown; s. hollow,
fibrillosely striate, pallid.

=nemophila=, Alex. P. exp. brick-red, even; g. deeply decur. very
narrow, edge crisped-dentate; s. solid, pale, fusiformly narrowed.

=helvola=, Schaeff. P. 2-3 cm. conical then convex, yellow-brown, disc
darkest; g. broadly adnate, broad, purple-umber, edge whitish; s. 5-6
cm. flexuous, pale, hollow; sp. obliquely elliptical, warted, 9-10 ×

=atrobrunnea=, Lasch. P. campan.-convex, umb. even, brownish; g. adnexed
then seceding, rather distant, brownish; s. stuffed, long, fibrillose,
apex white-mealy; sp. 9-12 × 5-6.

=ericaea=, Pers. P. 2-4 cm. exp. viscid when moist, tawny or bay then
yellowish and shining; g. adnate, broad, pruinose, at length black, edge
white; s. 6-9 cm. tough, pallid; sp. 9-10 × 5.

=subericaea=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. convex, obtuse, becoming plane, even,
smooth, tawny then pale; g. sinuate, adnexed, broad; s. 3-4 cm. equal,
smooth, yellowish, hollow; sp. 10 × 6.

Differs from _P. ericaea_ in short s. and attachment of broad g.

[=dichroa=, Karst. P. campan. subumb. edge slightly striate, bay then
tan; g. adfixed, broad, brownish-purple, edge whitish; s. pallid, then
fuscescent, silky.

var. _minor_, Karst. Smaller. P. striate to middle; g. umber.

[=lipophila=, Oud. P. convex, exp. obtuse, glabrous, viscid when moist,
pale rusty; g. adnexed then decur. broad; s. whitish, apex white, base
with white down; sp. 11-12 × 7.

[=mutabilis=, Karst. P. tough, convex, obtuse, watery umber when moist,
tawny when dry, glabrous; g. adnate, crowded, broad; s. hollow, rigid,
equal, whitish-silky, tinged rusty especially downwards; sp. 7-10 × 3-4.

=uda=, Pers. P. 1.5-2.5 cm. exp. dry, rugulose, tawny then yellowish; g.
adfixed, purplish; s. 6-10 cm. pale, thin, tough, fibrillose base rusty;
sp. 10 × 5. (16-20 × 7-9 Karst.)

var. _polytrichi_, Fr. P. campan.-convex then plano-depr. even,
glabrous, dry, pale yellow then whitish, edge pale; g. becoming decur.;
s. elongated, wavy, glabrous, pale tawny.

var. _elongatus_, Pers. P. campan.-convex, striate when moist, livid- or
greenish-yellow, even and yellowish when dry.

[=corneipes=, Fr. P. campan.-convex, glabrous, bay, edge striate; g.
adnate, very broad behind; s. horny, rigid, shining, blackish bay.

=canofaciens=, Cke. P. 2-3 cm. campan. then exp. disc fleshy, bay, with
white fibrils; g. adnate, umber; s. 4-7 cm. colour of p.; sp. 10 × 4,
some much larger.

=areolata=, Klotzsch. P. 3-6 cm. exp. brownish ochre, cracked up into
patches; g. adnate; s. 4-7 cm. dingy white, fibrillose; sp. 12-13 × 8.

=virescens=, Mass. P. 3-5 cm. exp. brown then greenish yellow, cracked
into patches; g. adnexed, dingy purple, edge pale; s. 4-5 cm. apex
striate, greenish, base white; sp. 9 × 5.

=agraria=, Fr. P. 2 cm. exp. white, not hygr.; g. adnate, white then
brown; s. 4-6 cm. glabrous, white; sp. ----.

=chondroderma=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. campan. bright dark brown, very
smooth, sometimes cracked, edge thin, append.; g. adfixed, brown, edge
white; s. 4-5 cm. subequal, paler than p., fibrillose, base squamulose;
sp. 7 × 3.5.

=scobicola=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. convex, umbil. white, glabrous; g.
adnexed, broad, reddish-brown; s. 2-3 cm. whitish, fibrillose, hollow;
sp. 8 × 5, pale.

     ** _Gills plane, very broad behind, subdecur._

=ammophila=, Mont. P. 2-3 cm. exp. umb. yellow-rufous, fibrillose;

=coprophila=, Bull. P. 1.5-2 cm. slightly viscid, hemispher. then exp.
umb. yellowish rufous; g. arcuato-subdecur. broad; s. 3-5 cm. narrowed
upwards, white, floccose then almost glabrous; sp. 13-14 × 8.

Differs from _P. bullacea_ in absence of striae on p.

=bullacea=, Bull. P. 1-2 cm. hemispher. then exp. umb. finely striate to
middle, rather viscid, bay or brownish brick-red, then pale, often with
a white fringe at the edge, cuticle separable; g. adnate, almost
triangular, grey then brownish purple; s. 2-4 cm. slender, apex
pruinose, fawn, fibrillose, base rusty; sp. 9-11 × 4-7.

=physaloides=, Bull. P. 1.5-2 cm. campan. then exp. umb. striate, rather
viscid, purple brown or bay then pale; g. subdecur. rather rusty then
purplish brown; s. 2-3 cm. fibrillose, base bay; sp. 12 × 6.

[=ferrugineo-lateritia=, Vogl. P. convex, subumbil. edge substriate,
glabrous, subhygr. rusty brick-red; g. adnato-decur. purple-black; s.
cylindrical, colour of p. base white; sp. 7-9 × 4.

[=libertata=, Fr. P. obconic, umbo hemispher. prominent, at first
hoarily silky then glabrous, dusky umber then pale; g. deeply decur.; s.

=atrorufa=, Schaeff. P. 2-2.5 cm. convex, obtuse, glabrous, edge
striate, purple-brown then pale; g. subdecur. broad, brown-violet with a
white edge; s. 5-7 cm. pale bay or fawn, pruinose, fibrillose at base;
sp. 10-12 × 6. (6-8 × 4-5 Karst.)

=nuciseda=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. convex, obsoletely umb. rather silky when
dry and yellowish, dusky brown at first; g. adnate, broad; s. 2-3 cm.
brownish with white down, base narrowed; sp. 8 × 4.

     *** _Gills sublinear, ascending._

=tegularis=, Schum. P. campan. glabrous, tan, areolately cracked; g.
attenuato-adnexed; s. stuffed, narrowed upwards from a thickened base,

=compta=, B. and Br. P. 3-4 cm. conico-campan. then exp. subumb. edge
striate, pale ochre and atomate when dry; g. broad, adnate; s. 4-5 cm.
pale rufous; sp. ----.

[=callosa=, Fr. P. conico-campan. obtuse, even, glabrous, dry, white or
yellowish; g. adnate, ascending, ventricose, sooty black; s. tough,
equal, glabrous, pallid.

=semilanceata=, Fr. P. 1-2 cm. exp. acutely conical, slightly viscid and
striate when moist, pallid, often tinged yellow or green; g. adnexed; s.
4-7 cm. flexuous, pallid; sp. 10-12 × 6.

var. _caerulescens_, Cke. P. rather obtuse; s. bluish at base.

     II. RIGIDI. _Veil absent. Stem rigid. Gills adnexed, very rarely

[=phoenix=, Secr. P. campan. then exp. even, glabrous, hygr. fuscous
then pale and shining; g. free; s. stuffed, striate, pallid, subbulbous.

=canobrunnea=, Fr. P. 4-7 cm. exp. obtuse, subviscid when moist, hygr.
fleshy-brown then pale; g. nearly free, brownish purple; s. 4-5 cm.
hollow, short, squamulose, whitish or greyish pink, rooting; sp. ----.

[=Gilletii=, Karst. P. campan.-convex, often obliquely umb. glabrous,
livid grey with olive tinge, umb. tawny, then pale ochre; g. subadnate
soon free, grey- then livid-purple; s. fistulose, straight, equal,
glabrous, bay, apex paler and pruinose; sp. 10-13 × 5-6.

[=simulans=, Karst. P. conico-convex, exp. usually obtusely umb.
glabrous, pale rusty with honey-colour tinge, pellucidly striate, edge
at first incurved, yellow tawny when dry; g. greyish with honey or olive
tinge; s. wavy, ascending, rather lubricous, shining, bay, apex paler;
sp. 4-6 × 3.

=spadicea=, Fr. Subcaespitose. P. 3-7 cm. glabrous, humid, convex then
exp. edge at first incurved, dark bay or bistre-brown then pale; g.
adnate with decur. tooth, crowded, whitish then pinkish, at last
purple-brown; s. fistulose, equal, rigid, silky, whitish; sp. 10 × 5.

var. _hygrophila_, Fr. Larger. P. fuscous then tan; s. subfusiformly
rooting; g. emarginate with a long decur. line.

var. _polycephala_, Fr. Very densely tufted. P. rigid; s. slender,
slightly flexuous; g. nearly free, fuscous-umber.

This is the commonest form in Britain.

_Hypholoma hydrophilum_ differs in having fuscous-cinnamon, lachrymose

=cernua=, Fl. Dan. P. 1.5-2 cm. campan.-convex then exp. glabrous,
micaceous, hygr. rugulose and pallid when dry; g. adnate; s. 5-9 cm.
white, apex even, pruinose; sp. 8 × 5.

=squalens=, Fr. P. 2-5 cm. exp. depr. even, glabrous, hygr. lurid then
pale; g. adnato-decur. tan then brown; s. 4-5 cm. not rooting, apex
striate, colour of p.; sp. ----.

[=murcida=, Fr. P. convex, obtuse, slightly striate, hygr. even when
dry, bay then tan or rosy; g. adnate, segmentoid, umber; s. slender,
fragile, straight, naked.

[=hebes=, Fr. P. exp. obtuse, glabrous, hygr. edge striate, lurid then
pale; g. adnate, triangular; s. glabrous, pallid.

=foenisecii=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. campan.-exp. obtuse, dingy brown then
pale; g. adnate, ventricose, umber; s. 4-6 cm. not rooting, pale
reddish, glabrous; sp. 10 × 5-6.

=clivensis=, B. and Br. P. 2-3 cm. hemispher. pale brown then pale ochre
or whitish; g. broad, adnate, emarginate, edge pale; s. 3 cm. silky,
base subclavate; sp. 10 × 5.

[=vicina=, Fr. P. convex then plane, obtuse, glabrous, umber then pale;
g. slightly adnexed, grey then blackish; s. stuffed, wavy, grey, apex

=catervata=, Mass. Densely fasciculate. P. 1-2 cm. campan. obtuse,
white; g. slightly adnexed, crowded, edge entire, white; s. 3-4 cm.
white; sp. 12 × 4; cystidia fusiform.


     _Key to the Sections._

I. Volva distinct with a free edge; ring present or absent. p. 228.

II. Volva absent; ring present on stem. p. 229.

III. Volva and ring absent. Veil practically absent. Pileus either
glabrous or with minute innate squamules, especially near the apex, not
splitting along the lines of the gills. p. 231.

IV. Volva and ring absent. Veil very evident--at least in a young
state--as a felty coating, which breaks up during expansion of the
pileus into patches, cottony, squamulose, fibrillose or mealy. Not
glistening nor micaceous. p. 231.

V. Volva and ring absent. Pileus covered with glistening micaceous
particles when young. p. 236.

VI. Volva, ring, and veil absent. Flesh very thin, pileus soon splitting
along the lines of the gills, scurfy or glabrous. p. 237.

     I. _Volva distinct, with a free margin; ring present or absent._

     * _Large; pileus more than 2 cm. high and wide._

     + _Stem white._

=sterquilinus=, Fr. P. 5-7 cm. high, coarsely sulcate, silvery grey,
disc tawny with squarrose squamules; g. free; s. 9-15 cm. white, dark
when bruised; volva with free margin, sometimes a ring on stem; sp.
18-20 × 11-12.

[=solstitialis=, Sacc. P. cylindric-ovate, whitish with concentric
over-lapping scales, expanding and blackish, grooved; g. free; s. white,
base volvate, ring imperfect.

Smaller than _C. sterquilinus_, and stem not blackish when bruised.

=oblectus=, Bolton. P. 3-5 cm. coarsely striate, whitish, glabrous, then
pale tawny and sprinkled with rose-coloured powder; g. free; s. 8-12 cm.
white; volva with recurved edge; sp. 18 × 11-12.

     ++ _Stem coloured._

=umbrinus=, Mass. At first entirely enclosed in a white volva, which
leaves patches on p. P. 4-5 cm. umber, sulcate up to disc; g. free; s.
10-15 cm. umber, margin of volva recurved; sp. 17-18 × 9.

Differs from _C. stenocoleus_ in sulcate pileus and umber stem.

[=stenocoleus=, Lindbl. P. 5-8 cm. umb. even, blackish with white
squamules; g. free; s. 10-15 cm. pale tawny; margin of volva free; sp.

     ** _Small; pileus less than 2 cm. high and wide._

     + _Volva entire._

[=cyclodes=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. high, campan. striate, glabrous, bay; g.
soon black; s. 4-5 cm. white, rather flexuous; edge of volva recurved;
sp. ----.

[=equinus=, Chelch. P. ovate then campan. greyish white, disc darkest,
covered with darker scurf or flecks; g. free; s. long, glabrous, base
rather swollen, volva with a free edge which sometimes breaks away as a
ring; sp. 5-6.

[=Trappenii=, Oud. P. campan. 1-1.5 cm. apex with fragments of volva,
then glabrous; g. purplish then black; s. 1-1.5 cm. white, volva entire;
sp. ----.

=volvaceo-minimus=, Crossl. P. 4-5 mm. striate, grey with white
squamules; g. slightly adnexed; s. 2-2.5 cm. glabrous, hyaline, base
bulbous, volva with broad free edge; sp. 6-7.

Differs from _C. Hendersonii_ in distinct volva and subglobose sp.

_C. bulbillosus_ differs in absence of a marginate volva.

     ++ _Volva torn into shreds._

=dilectus=, Fr. P. 1.5-2 cm. very thin, campan., obtuse, finely striate,
rosy white then tawny, furfuraceo-floccose with rosy meal, at length
splitting, revolute and naked; g. free, sublanceolate, crowded; s. 5-7
cm. whitish and powdered with rosy meal, base thickened, volva reduced
to squamules; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. oblectus_ in very rudimentary volva, and generally
smaller size.

=roseotinctus=, Rea. P. 7-11 × 5-7 mm. cylindr. then revolute, umb.
brown with rosy meal; g. adnexed, broad; s. up to 5 cm. bulbous, white,
with rosy meal when young; sp. 9-11 × 5-6.

Perhaps too closely allied to _C. dilectus_.

     II. _Volva absent, ring present on stem._

     * _Large; Pileus 8-15 cm. high._

=comatus=, Fr. P. cylindr. then campan. 9-15 cm. high, whitish or tinged
ochre, becoming broken up into large reflexed scales; g. very slightly
adnexed; s. 12-20 cm. white, base bulbous, rooting, ring loose; sp.
12-14 × 8-10. Edible.

var. _clavatus_, Q. P. ovate, g. free, white then black, no intermediate
pink colour; s. without a ring.

=ovatus=, Schaeff. P. 8-10 cm. high, ovate then exp. striate, soon
broken up into broad adpressed scales; g. free; s. white, base bulbous,
rooting, ring deciduous; sp. 12 × 8. Edible.

Differs from _C. comatus_ in smaller size, and ovate form when young.

=atramentarius=, Fr. P. rather fleshy, 8-12 cm. high, ovate then campan.
fluted, edge uneven, silvery grey, apex squamulose; g. free; s. 10-16
cm. white, hollow, ring basal, evanescent; sp. 12 × 6. Edible.

=soboliferus=, Fr. P. thin, ovate then exp. plicate below, disc
truncate, brownish with darker squamules, rest greyish white; g. free;
s. 12-20 cm. white, stuffed, ring fugacious; sp. 15 × 7. Edible.

Differs from _C. atramentarius_ in squamulose truncate disc, stuffed
stem, and larger spores.

[=pyrenaeus=, Q. P. narrowly ellipt. up to 10 cm. long, striate, pearl
grey, with a dense veil of free white fibrils; g. free; s. 10-15 cm.
hollow, white, ring basal, fugacious; sp. subgl. 12-18.

Differs from _C. atramentarius_ in white veil.

[=praegnans=, Fr. P. campan. 18-20 cm. high, not striate, grey, crowded
with white squamules; g. free, umber from first; s. solid, fusiform,
rooting, squamulose, ring free; sp. ----.

Differs from _C. atramentarius_ in solid s.

     ** _Small; pileus never exceeding 3 cm. high._

=Hendersonii=, Fr. P. subcylindrical then exp. up to 1 cm. apex tawny
rest grey, fluted, minutely pruinose; g. free; s. 3-4 cm. with a
permanent ring below middle; sp. 10-12 × 6.

[=bulbillosus=, Pat. P. 8-10 mm. grey disc yellow, striate, covered with
white meal; g. grey; s. 2-3 cm. white, base bulbous, ring loose, median;
sp. 8-9 × 6-7.

Differs from _C. Hendersonii_ in bulbous stem.

[=ephemeroides=, Fr. P. campan. plicato-sulcate, whitish, disc tinged
yellow, up to 1 cm. sprinkled with superficial flecks; g. free; s. 2-4
cm. whitish, ring free, base with a pilose bulb; sp. 11-12 × 6-7.

Differs from _C. bulbillosus_ in squamulose pileus and strigose bulb.

var. _muscorum_, sp. 7-9 × 6-8.

[=scauroides=, Godey. P. ovate then campan. striate, white then
purplish, floccosely squamulose; g. free; s. white, with a marginate
bulb and ring.

[=Bresadolae=, Schulz. P. subcylindrical, greyish-white, apex tinged
brown; g. black, edge white; s. tapering upwards, white, glabrous, ring

     III. _Volva and ring absent. Veil practically absent; p. either
     glabrous or with minute innate squamules, especially near the apex,
     not splitting along the lines of the gills._

     * _Gills attached to the stem._

=fuscescens=, Fr. P. 4-6 cm. ovate then exp. not lobed, disc fuscous,
rest greyish brown, powdered with meal at first; g. narrow towards the
front; s. white, hollow, somewhat fibrillose; sp. 8-10 × 5-6.

Differs from _C. atramentarius_ in rufous p. not lobed.

[=tergiversans=, Fr. P. conical then exp. 6-12 cm. rusty brown, grooved,
cracked into squamules; g. broadly adnate; s. white, apex sulcate.

Allied to _C. micaceus_; differs in squamulose and not micaceous p.

[=Lerchenfeldii=, Schulz. P. hemispher. apex elevated, brownish grey,
edge wavy silvery grey then violet; g. violet, shining; s. fibrillose or

     ** _Gills free._

[=cylindricus=, Fr. P. cylindrical then exp. 8-12 cm. across, rimosely
striate, a few adpr. squamules, whitish brown; g. narrow; s. 15-21 cm.
equal, fibrillose.

[=Mayrii=, Allesch. P. campan. exp. white, striate, small yellow-brown
squamules near edge, disc sparingly scaly; g. free; s. white, striate,
base globose, marginate, hollow to swollen base; sp. 6-7 × 3-4.

Allied to _C. atramentarius_.

=flocculosus=, Fr. P. ovate then exp. 4-7 cm. across, dingy white,
striate, squamules innate; g. narrow; s. 6-10 cm. white, silky, hollow;
sp. 10 × 7-8.

Differs from _C. aratus_ in white p., and from _C. lagopus_ in glabrous

=squamosus=, Morgan. P. 4-6 cm. sulcate, grey, with persistent spreading
brown scales; g. free; s. 9-14 cm. with brown spreading scales up to
ring; sp. 9-10 × 5.

     IV. _Volva and ring absent. Veil very evident--at least in young
     state--as a felty coating, which breaks up during expansion of p.
     into patches; cottony, squamulose, fibrillose or mealy. Not
     glistening or micaceous._

     * _Veil thick and felty, breaking into patches._

     + _Gills attached to stem._

=aphthosus=, Fr. P. campan. even, livid, 2-3 cm. white veil at first
continuous then broken into floccose patches; g. adnate; s. 5 cm. white,
hollow, fibrillose; sp. 15-16 × 10.

Differs from _C. varicus_ in hollow stem.

[=phaeosporus=, Karst. P. conico-cylindrical then flattened, everywhere
delicately striate, at first enclosed in a rufescent veil which breaks
up into patches, soon naked and white; g. adnexed; s. glabrous, white,
hollow; sp. 9-15 × 4-9.

Differs from _C. albus_ by glabrous s.

     ++ _Gills free._

=picaceus=, Fr. P. campan. glutinous, striate up to disc, blackish with
white patches; g. free; s. 10-15 cm. white, hollow, base swollen; sp. 14
× 8.

=tomentosus=, Fr. P. cylindr. then narrowly conical, at length exp. 2-3
cm.; pallid yellow, covered with a greyish felt which breaks into
scales; g. free; s. 5 cm. hollow, greyish, velvety; sp. ----.

[=velatus=, Q. P. cylind. then exp. 2-3 cm. yellowish, sulcate, veil
white, thin; g. free but close to s.; s. 4-6 cm. white, villose,
coarsely striate; sp. 10 × 5.

[=Forquignoni=, Mass. (_C. Quéletii_, Forq.). P. conico-campan. veil
thick, ochraceous, then broken up into persistent patches, whitish, 5-6
cm. high; g. remote; s. white, floccosely fibrillose, ending in a tawny
bulb; sp. 9 × 6.

[=varicus=, Fr. P. white or livid towards the split edge, with patches
of white veil; g. free; s. 6-9 cm. often incurved, white, glabrous,
solid, tough.

Differs from _C. picaceus_ in white p. and solid s.

     ** _Veil breaking up into superficial scales, cottony or

     + _Gills attached to stem._

     § _Pileus white or grey._

=niveus=, Fr. All pure white. P. 1-2.5 cm. campan. floccose; g. slightly
adnexed; s. 5-8 cm. hollow, villose; sp. 16 × 11-13.

var. _astroideus_, Fr. P. squamose, naked, grey, 1 cm.; s. up to 8 cm.
slender, glabrous.

[=albus=, Q. Snow white. P. ovoid then exp. 1.5-2 cm. floccosely mealy
then pearl grey and grooved, with tawny flecks at disc; g. adnate,
seceding; s. coarsely striate upwards; sp. 12-13 long.

[=Rostrupianus=, Hansen. White. P. thin campan. then exp. tomentose,
squamulose; g. free, grey then blackish; s. narrowed upwards, glabrous
above, downy below, base with white tomentum.

Medium sized, allied to _C. niveus_.

[=pilosus=, Beck. P. cylindr. apex rounded, white, densely covered with
septate acute white hairs, then exp. and centre almost glabrous and
yellowish, edge slightly striate; s. slender, pubescent, base floccose;
sp. 9-12 × 6-7.

=exstinctorius=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm. across, campan. whitish, apex tinged
brown, at first with evanescent floccose scales; g. reaching stem; s.
8-12 cm. smooth, white, hollow, swollen at base and rooting; sp. 10-11 ×

Differs from _C. fimetarius_ in pileus becoming bald from disc to

[=roris=, Q. P. soon convex and centre depr. pearl grey, transparent,
covered at first with a thin tawny-white veil, 1-1.5 cm.; g. adnate; s.
3-4 cm. greyish, villosely floccose; sp. 11-12 long.

Differs from _C. plicatilis_ in adnate g. and from _C. diaphanus_ in
villose stem.

=similis=, B. and Br. P. ovate then campan. pallid disc darker, striate,
studded with brown tipped pointed warts, 2.5 cm.; g. adnate; s. white,

[=Brunandi=, Q. P. campan. 5-6 mm. high, very delicate, striate, greyish
lilac, at first with crystalline interwoven filaments; g. adnate then
free; s. white, floccose, bulbous; sp. 10 long.

Allied to _C. lagopus_.

     §§ _Pileus tawny or brownish._

=domesticus=, Fr. P. campan. obtuse, sulcate, disc even, bay, rest
paler, scurfy-floccose, 4-7 cm.; g. adnexed; s. 6-9 cm. white, silky;
sp. 11-12 × 7.

[=alopecia=, Fr. P. 6-7.5 cm. campan. obtuse, sulcate, pale brown or
ochre, at first with adpr. fibrils; g. adnexed; s. 9-12 cm. densely
scaly, hollow.

[=Boudieri=, Q. P. 1-2 cm. campan. coarsely striate, pale tawny apex
darker, covered with fine white down; g. adnate; s. 3-4 cm. white,
pruinose and pubescent; sp. angularly globose, 10-12.

[=subcoeruleo-griseus=, Schulzer. P. acutely conical then plane,
slightly striate, disc pale yellowish-pink, rest greyish blue, with
minute fugacious scales; g. adnexed; s. white, floccosely pruinose, then
glabrous, hollow; sp. 10-13 × 6-8.

     ++ _Gills free._

     § _Stem glabrous._

=nycthemerus=, Fr. P. conico-cylindr. then exp. 1.5-2 cm. plicate, ribs
forked near edge, mealy then naked, grey, disc tawny; g. free; s. 5-7
cm. white, glabrous, flaccid, hollow; sp. ----.

[=gonophyllus=, Q. P. 1.5 cm. hemisph. striate, blackish grey, shining,
veil floccose, whitish, soon disappearing; g. free, triangular, edge
serrate; s. 3 cm. glabrous, slightly striate, white; sp. 10 × 4.

=Spraguei=, B. and Curt. P. conical then campan. 1.5-2 cm. tomentose,
striate, greyish, disc tawny; g. few, distant; s. 3-5 cm. pale reddish
ochre; sp. 10 × 5.

=Spegazzinii=, Karst. P. cylindr. or oval, then exp. and splitting up to
disc, greyish, soon naked and grooved; g. free; s. white, hollow,
thickened below and rooting; sp. 9-14 × 5-6.

=platypus=, B. and Cke. P. white then yellowish, flocculose, 4-5 mm.; g.
free; s. 1.5-3 cm. base discoid; sp. 8 × 6.

     §§ _Stem floccose or pulverulent at first._

=narcoticus=, Fr. Foetid. P. cylindric-clavate then exp. 1.5-2 cm.
hyaline, striate, at first with white floccose squamules; g. free; s.
4-5 cm. white, downy at first, hollow; sp. 11 × 5-6.

[=muralis=, Allesch. Smell strong, ammoniacal. P. cylindr. then campan.
white then grey, covered with white floccose squamules; g. free, narrow;
s. equal, hollow, floccosely scaly then glabrous, white, shining, base
densely fibrous; sp. subg. 6.

=lagopus=, Fr. P. cylindr. then campan. coarsely striate up to brown
disc, at first with white flocci; g. free; s. 10-15 cm. everywhere with
white floccose down; sp. 14-16 × 10-12.

Differs from _C. narcoticus_ in absence of smell. _C. lagopoides_
differs in tomentum breaking up into scales, and g. very distant from

[=lagopoides=, Karst. P. campan. sulcate, disc livid, with free white
scales, 4-7 cm.; g. distant from stem; s. up to 17 cm. white, floccose;
sp. 6-8 × 5-6.

=macrocephalus=, B. P. cylindr. then campan. striate, ashy grey, disc
brownish, sprinkled with pointed scales, 2 cm.; g. free; s. 3-5 cm.
dingy white, fibrillose below; sp. 11-13 × 7-8.

Differs from _C. lagopus_ in dark grey p.

[=tigrinellus=, Boud. P. elliptic-oblong then campan. striate,
snow-white edge becoming rosy, pulverulent, with tawny flecks; g. free;
s. 2 cm. white, base rather bulbous and often with blackish flecks; sp.
11 × 7.

Differs from _C. Friesii_ in being at first covered with brown tomentum
which breaks up into flecks.

[=Friesii=, Q. P. elliptic-oblong then exp. 1-2 cm. finely striate,
white apex tinged yellow, edge rosy; g. free, reddish then black; s. 2
cm. white, pulverulent, base swollen and floccose; sp. angularly glob.

Differs from _C. tigrinellus_ in not having a brown veil.

[=cupulatus=, E. Jacob. P. subcampan. greyish yellow, with a floccose
greyish white veil then pubescent, sulcate, 4-5 mm.; g. free; s. 5-7 cm.
white, downy, striate, base swollen; sp. 7-8 × 6-7.

=fimetarius=, Fr. P. 2-2.5 cm. clavate then conico-exp. soon splitting,
disc even brownish, at first covered with squarrose floccose scales,
then naked; g. free; s. 10-15 cm. white, squamulose, base solid; sp.
12-14 × 7-8.

var. _pullatus_, Fr. P. with adpressed squamules, soon naked, dark; s.
soon smooth.

var. _cinereus_, Fr. P. floccosely mealy then naked, grey; s. rootless,
hollow to base.

var. _macrorhiza_, Fr. P. at first with feathery squamules; s. short,

[=Queletii=, Schulzer. P. ellipsoid-conical then exp. deeply sulcate,
whitish, apex glabrous tinged cinnamon, with fugacious flecks; g. free;
s. white, flocculose then glabrous, ventricose below, rooting with long
brown fibres; sp. 10-12 × 4-6.

[=laxus=, Bres. and Schulz. P. subglobose, grey, disc yellowish
cinnamon, granularly floccose; g. free; s. white, tinged brown at base,
with white flecks, bending over as it dries; sp. 6-8 × 4-5.

[=Albertinii=, Karst. P. campan. sulcate, greyish-white, disc brownish,
with fine network of fibrils; g. free; s. white, silky-floccose; sp.
10-12 × 6.

[=Strossmayeri=, Schulzer. P. digitaliform, then conico-campan. whitish
then grey, apex darker, finally pale ochre, with deciduous squarrose
scales; g. free; s. white, pruinose, springing from a compact, branching
blackish-brown mycelium; sp. 7-9 long.

     *** _Veil formed of white meal, or hyaline vesicles. Not glistening
     or micaceous._

=tuberosus=, Q. P. campan. 3-5 mm. finely striate, white then greyish,
veil of hyaline vesicles; g. blackish violet; s. 2-4 cm. slender, wavy,
white, downy, springing from a small black sclerotium; sp. 12 long.

Smaller than _C. niveus_, and springing from a sclerotium.

[=cineratus=, Q. P. campan. 1-2 cm. striate, white then greyish violet,
veil of dusky hyaline vesicles; g. free, close to stem; s. 4-6 cm.
white, base rather swollen and sheathed by remains of a volva; sp. 10 ×

=filiformis=, B. and Br. P. 1-2 mm. cylindrical, striate, grey, mealy;
g. linear; s. 1-1.5 cm. slender, hyaline, sprinkled with hairs; sp.
subg. 5 × 4.

[=luxoviensis=, Mont. P. ovoid then campan. striate, mealy then naked
and grey, disc tawny; g. distant; s. with spreading fibrils, soon naked,
white, springing from a spreading mycelium; sp. ----.

[=caducus=, Harz. P. oval then cylindrical, striate, grey then blackish
brown, at first densely covered with white meal which becomes grey; g.
from a collar; s. greyish brown above, whitish below; sp. 9-10 × 6-7.

[=Britzelmayri=, Sacc. and Cub. (= _C. macrosporus_, Brit.) P. and s.
covered with snow-white meal; g. adnexed; s. tall; sp. 20 × 10-12.

[=albulus=, Q. P. almost hemispherical, 5 mm. pellucid, striate,
pulverulent; g. arcuately adnate; s. 2 cm. filiform, pulverulent, lower
half with white flecks; sp. 13 long.

[=divergens=, Brit. P. parabolic, brownish then dark grey, deeply
striate; g. blackish-grey; s. pellucid, whitish; sp. 10-11 × 6-7.

Intermediate between _C. tomentosus_ and _C. niveus_.

     V. _Volva and ring absent. Pileus covered with glistening particles
     when young._

=micaceus=, Fr. P. 3-6 cm. oval then campan. glistening then naked,
sulcate, tawny ochre; g. adnexed; s. 5-8 cm. white, silky, hollow.

[=marcescens=, Karst. P. campan. sulcate, whitish at first, soon dingy
ochre, then pale sooty grey, disc brownish yellow, micaceous; g.
adnexed; s. white, silky; sp. 6-9 × 4-6.

Differs from _C. micaceus_ in p. becoming sooty grey.

=aratus=, B. P. 5-8 cm. narrowly elliptical then campan.-umber, grooved
up to disc; g. slightly adnexed; s. 10-15 cm. snow-white, silky, hollow;
sp. 15 × 10-11.

=stercorarius=, Fr. P. 2.5-3 cm. ovate then campan. edge striate,
densely covered with white glistening meal; g. adnexed; s. 7-12 cm.
white, hollow, minutely mealy at first; sp. 14-15 × 8.

_C. niveus_ differs in tomentose p., and _C. albus_ in sulcate p.

=radians=, Fr. P. ovate then campan. 2.5-5 cm. edge striate, disc
granuloso-squamulose, tawny ochre then pale, glistening; g. slightly
adnexed; s. 3-5 cm. white, smooth, base with dense radiating strands of
mycelium; sp. 7 × 4.

=truncorum=, Fr. P. globose at first then campan. glistening then naked,
tawny ochre, striate, 2-4 cm.; g. free, rosy then black; s. 7-10 cm.
slender, white, glabrous, hollow; sp. 12-14 × 6.

Differs from _C. micaceus_ in p. being globose at first, and not
sulcate, and in free, rosy g.

[=inamoenus=, Karst. Foetid. P. subcylindrical then exp. blackish with
white micaceous scurf; g. fixed to a remote collar; s. hyaline, at first
downy, often rather wavy, several stems springing at intervals from a
prostrate mycelium; sp. 7-11 × 4-6.

[=intermedius=, Penzig. P. campan. pallid, even, with dense reddish
micaceous scurf near apex; g. free; s. glabrous, tinged pink; sp. 7.5-9
× 5.

[=frustulosum=, Sacc. P. campan. rather acute, even, covered with
reddish micaceous meal; g. free; s. conical then cylindrical, white; sp.
8 × 6.

     VI. _Volva, ring, and veil absent; flesh very thin, pileus soon
     splitting along the lines of the gills, scurfy or glabrous._

     * _Pileus more or less scurfy._

     + _Gills attached to stem._

     § _Pileus white._

[=conditus=, Godey. P. globose then ovoid, striate, sometimes tinged
yellow; g. adnate; s. 20-25 mm. shining, scurfy; sp. ----.

[=stellaris=, Q. P. ovoid then campan. 1-2 mm. striate, snow-white then
greyish, crowned with pellucid vesicles; g. adnate; s. 1-2 cm. long,
filiform, hyaline, velvety; sp. 8 long.

     §§ _Pileus coloured._

[=coöpertus=, Fr. P. conico-campan. 2.5 cm. striate, lurid, densely
micaceous, yellowish grey when dry; g. adnate, broad; s. 3-5 cm. pallid,
apex with white flecks; sp. ----.

[=pseudo-plicatilis=, Vogl. P. campan. umb. soon exp. and sulcate,
yellowish grey, umbo yellowish, scurfy; g. adnate; s. white, woolly,
thickened and floccose below; sp. 6-8 × 3.

=velox=, Godey. P. obovate, striate then grooved, scurfy between the
ribs, disc also greyish and scurfy, 3-4 mm.; g. close to stem; s. 1.5-3
cm. with white floccose down; sp. ----.

=ephemerus=, Fr. P. very delicate, ovate then campan. sulcate, slightly
scurfy, disc elevated, even, rufescent, 1-2 cm.; g. slightly adnexed; s.
3-6 cm. glabrous, whitish, pellucid; sp. 16-17 × 9-10.

[=mycenopsis=, Karst. P. campan. then exp. sulcate, sooty-grey, livid
disc prominent, scurfy, soon naked; g. adnate; s. tall, glabrous, white,
striate upwards; sp. 7-8 × 4.

     ++ _Gills free._

     § _Stem fibrillose or downy._

=cothurnatus=, Godey. P. conico-campan. then exp. and umb. densely
scurfy, whitish, yellowish or reddish, 2-3 cm.; g. free; s. 3-5 cm.
white, squamulose below; sp. ----.

[=evanidus=, Godey. P. obovate then campan. striate, whitish, rather
scurfy, disc prominent, tinged brown; 3-4 mm.; g. free, distant; s.
1.5-2.5, pellucid, white, downy; sp. ----.

     §§ _Stem glabrous._

=sociatus=, Fr. P. ovate then campan. plicate, subsquamulose or scurfy,
disc umber and becoming depr. 2 cm.; g. narrowed behind, attached to a
collar; s. 4-5 cm. white, glabrous, not pellucid; sp. ----.

Gills much nearer s. than in _C. plicatilis_, much narrowed behind,

[=sulcato-crenatus=, Steinh. P. cylindrical then campan. soon plane,
sulcato-crenate, almost glabrous, yellow, disc brown, even, becoming
depr.; g. remote from stem, distant; s. yellow, apex brown; sp. obtusely
triangular, compressed.

Differs from _C. plicatilis_ in yellow p. and s.

[=Patouillardii=, Q. P. conico-campan. then plane, coarsely striate up
to disc, grey, disc rough with minute reddish granules; g. attached to
collar distant from s.; s. 4-7 cm. white, glabrous, fragile; sp.
angularly globose, 6-8.

Differs from _C. nycthemerus_ in white s.; and from _C. velaris_ in
rough disc.

=papillatus=, Fr. P. elliptical then campan. becoming plane and
upturned; disc prominent and rough with minute warts, dark, striate,
covered with greyish scurf, .5-1 cm.; g. free; s. 2.5 cm. white,
hyaline, hollow; sp. 15 × 7.

[=affinis=, Karst. P. conico-cylindr. then exp. greyish white, disc pale
rufous, plicate, scurfy; g. free; s. flaccid, glabrous, pallid; sp. 6-8
× 5-7.

=radiatus=, Fr. P. cylindrical, soon plane and splitting, yellowish,
disc darker, then whitish, minutely pilose when young; g. almost free;
s. 1-3 cm. hyaline, pilose; sp. 7-8 × 5.

=Gibbsii=, Mass. and Crossl. Very minute, p. 0.5 mm. hemispher. then
exp. striate, glabrous, pale ochre; g. adnate, few; s. 4-7 mm. white,
glabrous; sp. subcircular, compressed, 8-9 diam.; cystidia piriform.

[=lanatus=, Boud. P. soon campan. plicately striate, greyish rufous disc
darker; g. free; s. glabrous, white, slightly bulbous.

     ** _Pileus glabrous._

     + _Gills attached to stem._

     § _Stem downy or pulverulent._

=tardus=, Karst. P. ovoid then campan. 2.5-5 cm. coarsely striate, bay
then ochre, glabrous; g. adnate; s. 6-10 cm. white, slightly flexuous,
equal; sp. angularly ellipt. 12-18 × 7-9.

Differs from _C. deliquescens_ in smooth disc and adnate g.

[=Gilletii=, Jacobasch. (= _Cop. intermedius_ Gill.). P. ovato-campan.
grey, disc yellow; pulverulent then glabrous, edge striate; g.
ovato-elongate, blackish; s. slender, glabrous, hollow, with a
membranaceous, distant, fixed erect ring.

[=attenuatus=, Gill. P. conico-campan. even, glabrous, edge sulcate,
upturned when dry, apex yellowish; g. broad, ventricose, reddish-brown;
s. long, slender, hollow, narrowed towards base.

     §§ _Stem glabrous._

[=auricomus=, Pat. P. elliptic-oblong then campan. finely striate, pale
greyish red disc darker, glabrous, 1.5-2 cm.; g. adnate; s. 5-8 cm.
white, glabrous; sp. ----.

Young plant enveloped in a golden yellow weft (= Ozonium).

=congregatus=, Fr. P. cylindrical then campan. edge slightly striate,
glabrous, viscid, ochre, 1.5-2 cm.; g. slightly adnexed; s. 2-3 cm.
smooth, hollow, white; sp. ----.

=alternatus=, Fr. P. hemisph. then discoid, even, glabrous, chalk-white
disc pale umber, 3 cm.; g. adnate; s. whitish, hollow, 7-10 cm.; sp. 10
× 6-7.

=digitalis=, Fr. P. ovate then campan. whitish disc darker, glabrous,
striate up to disc, 2.5 cm.; g. slightly adnexed; s. 3-5 cm. whitish,
equal; sp. ----.

When mature the p. is sometimes livid olive or yellowish grey, and g.
appear to be adnate.

[=diaphanus=, Q. Every part translucent and glabrous. P. grooved, edge
crenulate, silvery with a central tawny spot, 5-7 mm.; g. adnate; s.
capillary, glabrous, 2-3 cm.; sp. 12 long.

Differs from _C. plicatilis_ in adnate g.

[=sceptrum=, Fr. P. campan. papillately umb. deeply sulcate, pellucid,
tinged grey; g. adnate to a collar; s. pellucid.

=erythrocephalus=, Fr. P. cylindrical then campan. reddish vermilion
becoming grey, silky, edge very finely striate, 1 cm.; g. slightly
adnexed; s. 2-3 cm. paler than p.

     ++ _Gills free, sometimes attached to a collar._

     § _Stem downy or pulverulent._

[=Godeyi=, Gillet. P. subglobose, distantly grooved, glabrous, pellucid,
disc ochre, grey between the ribs, 3-4 mm.; g. free; s. 2 cm. pellucid,
sprinkled with white flecks below.

[=semistriatus=, Pat. P. ovate then campan. glabrous, disc even,
yellowish, striate and grey up to disc, 1 cm.; g. attached to a collar;
s. 1-2 cm. white, pruinose; sp. subcircular, compressed, 12-14 broad, 3

     §§ _Stem glabrous._

=plicatilis=, Fr. P. thin, cylindric ovate then plane, glabrous,
coarsely grooved, pale brown then greyish, disc broad, even, at length
depr. darker, 1-2 cm.; g. attached to a distant collar; s. 5-8 cm.
white, smooth, hollow; sp. 11-13 × 8-9.

=deliquescens=, Fr. P. ovate then campan. at length exp. livid grey,
disc rufescent, papillose, otherwise glabrous, 3-7 cm.; g. free; s. 7-10
cm. white, glabrous, hollow; sp. 8 × 5.

Differs from _C. atramentarius_ in free gills.

[=miser=, Karst. P. subglobose then exp. pellucid, tinged grey,
plicate, glabrous; g. distant from stem, few in number; s. hyaline,
glabrous; sp. 7-9 × 6-8.

=eburneus=, Q. Entirely white, shining; elliptic-campan. firm, striate,
rarely with a few flecks, 3-4 cm.; g. free; s. firm, glabrous; sp. 14

=hemerobius=, Fr. P. ovate then campan. 1.5-2.5 cm. coarsely grooved,
disc even, bay, not depr.; g. attached to an imperfect collar; s. 5-8
cm. fragile, pallid; sp. 10-12 × 7.

Differs from _C. velaris_ in imperfect collar, and from _C. plicatilis_
in disc not being depressed.

[=rapidus=, Fr. P. cylindrical then plane, coarsely grooved, pale drab,
glabrous, often slightly wavy, 1.5-2.5 cm.; g. free, close to stem,
brown; s. 4-5 cm. white, glabrous.

[=phyllophilus=, Karst. P. campan. then exp. glabrous, sulcate, dingy
ochre becoming sooty; g. close to stem; s. pellucid, pruinose then
naked; sp. angularly ovate, 7-8 × 5.

[=velaris=, Fr. P. 2.5 cm. at first globose, then hemisph. coarsely
striate, lurid, disc brownish, not depr.; g. black, edge white; s. 5-7
cm. pellucid, base downy; sp. 7-8 × 5.

[=pellucidus=, Karst. P. obovate then hemispher. obtuse, sulcate,
glabrous, whitish or yellowish then hyaline and greyish with a darker
central spot; g. crowded; s. wavy, glabrous, pellucid; sp. 7-9 × 4.

=Schroteri=, Karst. P. elliptical then exp. sulcate, glabrous, dingy
ochre then pale, at length sooty-grey; g. brown; s. slightly pulverulent
at first, slightly striate upwards; sp. angularly globose, 13-15 × 8-12.

var. _proximellus_, Massee (= _C. proximellus_, Karst.) Spores
elliptical, 10-13 × 5-7, otherwise as type.


[=Candollei=, Fr. P. 3-5 cm.; g. narrowed behind, broad, dark grey then
blackish; s. elongated fibroso-striate, hollow, tawny, volva fleshy,

[=Pallassii=, Fr. P. thin, plane; g. smooth, black; s. very long
rooting, volva absent; sp. 12 × 4.


     _Species accidentally omitted, or published during the progress of
     this work._

=Lepiota Bresadolae=, Schulz. (= _L. cupreus_, Schulz.). P. 4-8 cm. umb.
subcylindrical then broadly campan. at first glabrous and entirely
coppery, then broken up into broad, fibrillose subimbricate scales; g.
remote, narrowed at both ends, crowded, white then pallid; s. clavate at
base which is coppery, pale above, ring white then coppery; sp. 6-9

(Next _L. mastoidea_, p. 8.)

=Lepiota minuta=, Vogl. P. 6-8 mm. slightly fleshy, even, campanulate
then exp. brick-red, viscid; g. free, white, densely crowded; s. equal,
even, dry, brownish, with a very narrow ring; sp. globose, 2-3.

(Near _Lepiota delicata_, p. 14.)


Flesh of stem distinct from that of pileus; gills free and remote from
the stem; spores hyaline; ring and volva absent.

This genus follows _Lepiota_, from which it differs in the absence of a

=Schulzeria squamigera=, Schulz. and Bres. P. about 2 cm. rather fleshy,
convex then exp. dry, umber at first then whitish, surface broken up
into fibrous brownish-umber scales; g. crowded, subventricose, white,
free, somewhat remote from stem, 3 mm. broad; s. equal, whitish, with
lax umber scales which soon disappear; flesh white, compact; sp. 5-8 ×

=Schulzeria rimulosa=, Schulz. and Bres. P. 8-10 cm. fleshy, hemispher.
then exp. rather irreg. even, glabrous, dry, lurid white, epidermis
falling away then becoming areolately cracked; g. rather distant, 9-15
mm. broad, white then straw-colour, rounded at both ends, sometimes
subsinuate behind, free, remote; s. equal, subexcentric, glabrous,
colour of p.; sp. 5-6 × 3.

=Schulzeria septentrionalis=, Karst. P. about 10 cm. fleshy, soft,
convex then exp. subumb. even, glabrous, dry, whitish; g. free, remote,
broad, whitish, somewhat crowded; s. central, equal, base slightly
bulbous, distinct from flesh of p. glabrous, whitish.

=Tricholoma Czarnii=, Roum. (= _Ag. prasinus_, Lasch. in part). P. 6-8
cm. very fleshy, convex then convex-plane, rather viscid, yellowish,
disc darker, glabrous, edge slightly fibrillose; g. crowded; arcuate,
broad, emarginate, pallid, rosy in section; s. solid, straight, clavate,
slightly striate, colour of p., not longer than thick; sp. ----.

Allied to _T. coryphaeum_, differing in general aspect of p., g. never
yellow-edged, less viscid, and no smell.

(Next _T. coryphaeum_, p. 17.)

=Tricholoma Bresadolae=, Schulz. Taste very acrid. P. 9-12 cm. entirely
fleshy, irreg. edge sinuous, sometimes depressed at the centre, rather
viscid when young, then dry, even, edge sometimes tuberculoso-sulcate,
umber; g. distant, very thick, rounded in front, narrowed behind but not
decur., 1 cm. and more broad, whitish; s. cylindrical, obconic or
cuspidate towards base, whitish, sometimes tinged umber, glabrous; sp.
9-10 × 5.

(Next to _T. spermaticum_, p. 18.)

=Tricholoma fallaciosum=, Quel. and Schulz. (= _Ag. platyrhizus_,
Schulz.) P. 4-5 cm. irreg. subglobose; vertex elevated but not umb.
fleshy, brown, at first very dark then paler at edge, not shining,
glabrous, even; g. partly free, rounded behind and cuspidate in front,
brownish then pale, edge clear cinnamon; s. somewhat conoid, base pale
sulphur yellow with copious strands and plates of white mycelium,
central portion pale cinnamon, apex white and pulverulent; sp. 4-5 long.

(Next _T. scalpturatum_, p. 20.)

=Tricholoma Gauteraudii=, Roum. P. 3-6 cm. convex then plane,
mammillate, centre pale yellowish, somewhat silky, rest glabrous, even,
dry, whitish; g. broad, emarginate, whitish; s. white, base yellowish,
solid, equal; flesh white, insipid and inodorous.

(Next _T. inamoenum_, p. 23.)

=Clitocybe subviscifera=, Karst. P. 3-4 cm. thin, convex then plane,
sometimes becoming depr. orbicular or somewhat wavy, even, glabrous,
viscid, whitish, disc usually become stained with rufous, then
discoloured; g. deeply decur. distant, branched or connected by veins,
pallid white; s. hollow, equal, flocculosely-scurfy, pallid; sp. 6-8 ×

(Next to _C. pithyophila_, p. 82.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =centrifugus=, Fr. P. plano-depr. glabrous,
viscid, discoid, yellowish brown-violet then yellow, margin verdigris
green; g. emarginate, rather crowded, crenulate, pinkish violet then
cinnamon; s. solid, stout, clavato-bulbous, almost glabrous, white;
flesh white; sp. ----.

(Follows _C. Riederi_, p. 178.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =latus=, Fr. P. 7-12 cm. exp. almost glabrous,
moist, scarcely viscid, tan, disc darker; g. emarginate, subentire,
crowded, clay-colour cinnamon; s. solid, fibrillose, pallid white, apex
flocculose, cortina forming a superior persistent annulus, bulbous then
subequal; flesh white; sp. ----.

(Next _C. percomis_, p. 179.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =subtortus=, Fr. P. 3-8 cm. convex, exp. obtuse,
soft, glabrous, not striate, viscid, tan then pale, becoming rugulose;
g. rounded, adnate, connected by veins, very broad, rather distant,
greyish olive; s. unequal, rather twisted, becoming pale, apex partly
hollow, scarcely tinged blue; sp. ----.

(Before _C. anfractus_, p. 179.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =jasmineus=, Fr. P. exp. gibbous, wavy, lacunose,
rugose, viscid, dingy olive, disc at first fuscous then yellowish,
opaque; flesh yellowish ochre; g. subadnate, very broad, rather crowded,
pallid olive; s. stuffed, subequal, bluish, violet punctate, apex white;
sp. ----.

(Next _C. anfractus_, p. 179.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =elotus=, Fr. Acrid. P. subpulvinate, unequal,
glabrous, slightly viscid, sooty then tawny tan, edge darker and at
length striate; g. emarginate, rather distant, pallid then olive tan; s.
short, fibrillose, pallid, marginate bulb obsolete; sp. ----.

(Next _C. talus_, p. 180.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =arquatus=, Fr. P. equal, even, very glabrous,
viscid, discoid, disc bay, edge yellowish, polished and shining when
dry; g. subadnate, crowded, purplish then cinnamon; s. solid, pallid,
except the obconic marginate bulb, apex tinged blue inside and out; sp.

(Next _C. purpurascens_, p. 180.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =causticus=, Fr. Smell strong. P. convexo-plane,
obtuse, glabrous, punctate, hygrophanous, very viscid, tawny when moist,
then pale; g. ventricoso-emarginate, scarcely crowded, broad, whitish
yellow; s. firm, elastic, glabrous, shining white; sp. ----.

(Next _C. emollitius_, p. 182.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =vespertinus=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, soft,
glabrous, obsoletely viscid, subrugose, yellow, sometimes pale; g.
emarginate, very broad, crowded, tawny cinnamon, transversely veined,
edge whitish; s. solid, elongated, rather slender, fibrillose, shining
white, base thickened; sp. ----.

(Next _C. intentus_, p. 183.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =liratus=, Fr. P. 5-6 cm. thin, convexo-plane,
very glabrous, hygrophanous, viscid, radiately lacunose near the edge,
honey-colour then somewhat ochre; g. emarginate, crowded, pale rusty; s.
filled with pith limited by a dark horny line, equal, fibrillose,
yellowish, base thickened; sp. ----.

(Before _C. intentus_, p. 183.)

=Cortinarius= (Phleg.) =amurceus=, Fr. P. convexo-plane, squamulosely
papillose, viscid, sometimes gibbous, honey-tan; g. entirely adnate,
distant, yellowish olive; s. solid, pallid, somewhat attenuated; sp.

(Next _C. olivascens_, p. 183.)

=Coprinus purpureophyllus=, Jacobasch. P. 1-2.5 cm. conico-campan.
torn, diaphanous, pale greyish-yellow, sulcate up to apex, covered with
grey squamules which soon disappear; g. white then intense purplish
violet, finally blackish, linear, ascending, crowded, adnexed,
deliquescent; s. white, silky, generally curved, narrowed upwards from
the subbulbous strigose base, apex white-mealy, remainder glabrous,
fragile; sp. 7.5-8.5 × 5.5.

Growing on birch branches.

(Next to _Coprinus roris_, p. 233.)


=Armillaria focalis=, Fr. (p. 14), should be placed in the genus
_Lepiota_, following _L. naucina_, Fr., p. 11.

=Cortinarius subsimilis=, Fr. (p. 183), should be placed under the
section "_Gills olive or smoky_," p. 183.

=Cortinarius Karstenii=, Sacc. and Syd. This name should replace _Cort.
olivascens_, Karsten, p. 191. There is an earlier _Cort. olivascens_,
Fries, p. 183.


_The following short list of comparatively recent works indicates where
more detailed descriptions and illustrations of European Agarics may be


Hymenomycetes Europaei, sive Epicriseos Systematis Mycologici; Elias
Fries. Ed. II. Upsala, 1876.

(Although not of recent date, this work cannot be omitted, inasmuch as
it embodies the experience of over fifty years of continuous observation
on the part of the author, and is the sheet-anchor of the present
generation of mycologists. Written in Latin.)

Sylloge Fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum; P. A. Saccardo. Vol. V.
Padua, 1887.

(Contains descriptions of all European Agarics up to date of
publication. Later discoveries are contained in various supplements.
Written in Latin.)

Rysslands, Finlands och den Skandinaviska halföns Hattsvampar; P. A.
Karsten. Helsingfors, 1879.

(Descriptions of Russian, Finnish and Scandinavian Agarics, in Swedish.
It is in this work where Fries' subgenera, as Amanita, etc. are first
raised to specific rank. Written in Swedish.)

Die Pilze Deutschlands, Oesterreichs und der Schweiz; Georg Winter.
Leipzig, 1884.

(This forms the first volume of Rabenhorst's 'Kryptogamen-Flora von
Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz,' and contains along with other
fungi, descriptions of the Agarics of Germany, Austria and Switzerland,
in German.)

Flore Mycologique de la France et des Pays limitrophes; Lucien Quélet.
Paris, 1888.

(This is undoubtedly the best and latest work containing detailed
descriptions of the Basidiomycetes of Central and Western Europe. The
systematic arrangement is new and somewhat perplexing, and the index is
a terror. Written in French.)


Illustrations of British Fungi; M. C. Cooke. London, 1881-1891.

(This is by far the most important, and at the same time the most
comprehensive series of coloured figures of Agarics ever published in
any country, including 1199 plates.)

Handbook of British Fungi; M. C. Cooke. London, 1883.

(This work is a second edition of Cooke's 'Handbook of British Fungi,'
London, 1871, and contains descriptions of all the figures given in the
'Illustrations of British Fungi.')

British Fungus-Flora; Geo. Massee. 4 vols. London, 1892-1895.

(The first three volumes include all the British Agarics up to date of
publication. In addition to a diagnosis of each species, critical notes
by Fries, Berkeley, Cooke and other mycologists are appended.)


Les Hyménomycètes, ou description de tous les Champignons (Fungi) qui
croissent en France; C. C. Gillet. Alençon, 1874-1902.

(Contains descriptions of all known French Hymenomycetes, illustrated by
1907 coloured plates, 8vo. In French.)

Figures peintes de Champignons de la France; L. Lucand, 1884-1889.

(A series of beautifully executed figures, mostly Agarics, on 425 plates
4to size. The number of copies was in the first instance very limited,
and prepared only for subscribers. No descriptive text; names and
synonyms given on the plates.)


Die Pilze Schlesiens; J. Schroeter. Breslau, 1889.

(This work constitutes Vol. III. part I. of Cohn's Kryptogamen-Flora von
Schlesien, and contains full descriptions of all Agarics indigenous to
Silesia. In German.)


Icones selectae Hymenomycetum nondum delineatorum; Elias Fries.
Stockholm, 1867.

(An indispensable work to the student of the Agaricaceae, containing
descriptions and coloured figures of numerous species on 200 4to.
plates. Written in Latin.)


Fungi Tridentini novi, vel nondum delineati, descripti, et iconibus
illustrati; J. Bresadola. Tridenti, 1881-.

(This work contains very full descriptions of new or critical species,
mostly Agarics, which are illustrated in colour on 217 plates, 8vo.
Written in Latin. This work appears in parts at irregular intervals, and
is still going on.)


Flore Mycologique Illustrée. Les Champignons des Alpes-Maritimes; J. B.
Barla. Nice, 1888-1892.

(An excellent work, 4to size, containing coloured illustrations of new,
rare, or critical Agarics on 64 plates. In French.)


Révision des Champignons tant supérieurs qu'inférieurs trouvés jusqu'à
ce jour dans les Pays-Bas; C. A. J. A. Oudemans. Amsterdam, 1893.

(Vol. I. of this work contains descriptions and valuable original
comments of all the Hymenomycetes, Gasteromycetes, and Hypodermei met
with in Holland. Written in French.)


abhorrens (Omp.), 95

abietina (Lenz.), 116

abjecta (Ino.), 150

abrupta (Flam.), 173

abstrusa (Nau.), 163

acerbum (Trich.), 26

acerinus (Pleu.), 101

acerosus (Pleu.), 103

acervata (Col.), 53

acetabulosa (Loc.), 141

acicula (Myc.), 44

acris (Lac.), 63

actinophorus (Mar.), 61

acuminatus (Paneo.), 218

acutesquamosa (Lepi.), 9

acutus (Cort.), 200

acuus (Ecc.), 137

adhaerens (Lent.), 112

adiposa (Phol.), 144

adnata (Amtop.), 7

adonis (Myc.), 39

adsentiens (Cli.), 82

adunata (Cli.), 84

adusta (Rus.), 32

aegerita (Phol.), 143

aelopodium (Hyp.), 213

aemulans (Lep.), 134

aerina (Col.), 48

aeruginea (Rus.), 33

aeruginosa (Stro.), 208

aestuans (Trich.), 19

aethiops (Lep.), 132

aetites (Myc.), 43

affinis (Bolb.), 147

affinis (Copr.), 238

affricata (Omp.), 93

=Agaricus=, 204

agathosmus (Hyg.), 73

Aghardhii (Flam.), 176

aggregata (Cli.), 83

agraria (Bil.), 225

albellum (Trich.), 24

Albertinii (Copr.), 235

Albertinii (Pleu.), 98

albida (Lenz.), 116

albidus (Can.), 107

albidus (Hyg.), 74

albidopallens (Omp.), 95

albipes (Ino.), 153

albobrunneum (Trich.), 18

albocyanea (Stro.), 209

albocyaneus (Cort.), 189

albofimbriatum (Trich.), 19

albonitens (Stro.), 210

albosericea (Arm.), 15

alboviolaceus (Cort.), 186

albula (Omp.), 92

albulus (Copr.), 236

album (Trich.), 25

albus (Copr.), 232

albus (Hyg.), 78

alcalina (Myc.), 42

Aldridgei (Flam.), 172

aleuriatus (Pluteo.), 147

Alexandri (Loc.), 141

Alexandri (Pax.), 139

algeriensis (Pilo.), 208

algidus (Pleu.), 104

alliaceus (Mar.), 60

allutus (Cort.), 180

almeni (Pleu.), 102

alnicola (Flam.), 174

alopecia (Copr.), 233

alpinus (Cort.), 183

alternatus (Copr.), 239

alumna (Col.), 50

alutacea (Cli.), 81

alutacea (Ann.), 120

alutacea (Rus.), 29

alutaceorubens (Hyg.), 74

alutipes (Cort.), 183

alveolus (Crep.), 201

amadelphus (Mar.), 59

=Amanita=, 3

=Amanitopsis=, 6

amara (Cli.), 81

amarella (Cli.), 81

amarescens (Nau.), 164

ambigua (Cli.), 87

ambiguus (Pleu.), 101

Ambrosii (Arm.), 15

ambusta (Col.), 55

ameides (Ent.), 125

amethystinum (Trich.), 24

amethystinus (Agar.), 207

amethystinus (Can.), 106

amianthina (Lepi.), 13

amici (Aman.), 5

amicta (Myc.), 43

amicus (Trich.), 25

ammoniaca (Myc.), 42

ammophila (Psil.), 226

ammophilus (Agar.), 205

amoena (Nau.), 165

ampelina (Psath'lla), 219

ampla (Cli.), 83

amurceus (Cort.), 243

anapacta (Cli.), 83

anatina (Lep.), 131

androsaceus (Mar.), 61

=Anellaria=, 212

anfractus (Cort.), 179

anguinea (Nau.), 163

angulatus (Mar.), 59

angulosus (Cort.), 198

angustissima (Cli.), 90

angustus (Agar.), 204

angustus (Clitop.), 135

anisatus (Lent.), 112

=Annularia=, 120

anomalus (Cort.), 189

anthracinus (Cort.), 189

anthrocophila (Tub.), 171

antipoda (Gal.), 169

apala (Gal.), 168

aphthosus (Copr.), 231

apicalis (Bolb.), 148

apicrea (Flam.), 175

apiculata (Ecc.), 136

appendiculatum (Hyp.), 216

applicatus (Can.), 109

applicatus (Pleu.), 104

applanata (Cli.), 89

applanatus (Crep.), 201

aquatilis (Gal.), 170

aquifolii (Pleu.), 99

aquila (Lep.), 133

aquosa (Col.), 53

arata (Psath'lla), 219

aratus (Copr.), 236

arbustivus (Hyg.), 72

archyropus (Mar.), 58

arcuatum (Trich.), 25

ardosiacum (Ent.), 125

arenaria (Vol.), 119

arenarius (Cort.), 193

arenarius (Pleu.), 105

arenatus (Cort.), 187

arenicola (Omp.), 93

areolata (Psil.), 225

argematus (Lac.), 63

argentatus (Cort.), 185

argutus (Cort.), 185

arida (Aman.), 6

armeniaca (Rus.), 30

armeniacus (Cort.), 197

=Armillaria=, 14

armillatus (Cort.), 192

Arnoldii (Cli.), 86

aromaticus (Hyg.), 73

arquatus (Cort.), 243

=Arrhenia=, 109

artemisiae (Hyp.), 215

arvalis (Nau.), 165

arvensis (Agar.), 205

arvinaceus (Cort.), 183

asema (Col.), 49

asinina (Ino.), 150

aspera (Aman.), 5

asperella (Psath'lla), 220

aspideus (Lac.), 62

asprellus (Lep.), 133

asterophora (Nyc.), 110

asterospora (Ino.), 153

astragalina (Flam.), 174

atomata (Psath'lla), 220

atramentarius (Copr.), 230

atramentosa (Col.), 55

atrata (Col.), 55

atrides (Ecc.), 136

atripes (Omp.), 96

atroalba (Myc.), 41

atrobrunnea (Psil.), 224

atrocinereum (Trich.), 21

atrocoeruleus (Pleu.), 104

atrocrocea (Lepi.), 11

atrocyanea (Myc.), 41

atromarginata (Myc.), 37

atropuncta (Ecc.), 137

atropurpurea (Rus.), 33

atrorufa (Psil.), 226

atrotomentosus (Pax.), 140

atrovirens (Cort.), 181

attenuatus (Copr.), 238

aurantia (Arm.), 15

aurantiacus (Can.), 106

aurantiacus (Lac.), 69

aurantiomarginata (Myc.), 37

aurantiorugosus (Plut.), 123

aurata (Rus.), 30

aurata (Rus.), 34

aurata (Trich.), 18

aurea (Phol.), 141

aureola (Aman.), 5

aureus (Hyg.), 72

auricolor (Lent.), 112

auricomus (Copr.), 239

auricula (Cli.), 80

auricula (Lent.), 113

auriscalpium (Arrh.), 109

aurivella (Phol.), 143

austera (Flam.), 175

autochthona (Tub.), 172

avenacea (Myc.), 37

azurea (Rus.), 33

azureus (Cort.), 189

azyma (Flam.), 175

Babingtonii (Nol.), 128

baccata (Amtop.), 7

Badhami (Lepi.), 9

badipes (Nau.), 164

badius (Lent.), 112

balanina (Myc.), 37

balaustinus (Cort.), 198

balteatus (Cort.), 178

Barlae (Psath.), 221

Batschianum (Ent.), 125

Battarrae (Pleu.), 100

Battarrae (Stro.), 211

bella (Cli.), 91

belliae (Omp.), 97

Benoistii (Col.), 50

Benzoinii (Myc.), 39

Berkeleyi (Myc.), 41

Bernardii (Agar.), 205

betulina (Lenz.), 116

bibula (Omp.), 95

bibulus (Cort.), 195

bicolor (Cort.), 198

bicolor (Hyg.), 75

biformis (Cort.), 195

biformis (Psath'lla), 219

bifrons (Psath.), 223

bifurcata (Cli.), 82

biornata (Lepi.), 9

bipellis (Psath.), 223

birrum (Heb.), 158

bisontinum (Trich.), 22

bisus (Lent.), 112

bitorquis (Agar.), 206

bivelus (Cort.), 191

Bizzozerianum (Lep.), 132

blattaria (Phol.), 142

blennius (Lac.), 67

Bloxami (Ent.), 125

bolaris (Cort.), 187

=Bolbitius=, 147

Boltoni (Bolb.), 147

bombycina (Vol.), 119

bona (Rus.), 31

Bongardii (Ino.), 150

boreale (Trich.), 24

Boudieri (Amtop.), 7

Boudieri (Copr.), 233

Boudieri (Lepi.), 9

Boudieri (Trich.), 21

bovinus (Cort.), 194

brachypodes (Can.), 106

Brebissoni (Lepi.), 12

Bresadolae (Amtop.), 7

Bresadolae (Copr.), 230

Bresadolae (Hyg.), 72

Bresadolae (Lent.), 112

Bresadolae (Lenz.), 117

Bresadolae (Lepi.), 241

Bresadolae (Lep.), 132

Bresadolae (Nol.), 129

Bresadolae (Pilo.), 208

Bresadolae (Trich.), 242

brevipes (Trich.), 28

Brigantii (Phol.), 143

Britzelmayri (Copr.), 236

Brownii (Can.), 106

brumalis (Cli.), 88

Brunandi (Copr.), 233

brunnea (Ino.), 154

brunneofulvus (Cort.), 194

brunneoincarnata (Lepi.), 10

brunneola (Omp.), 96

brunneus (Cort.), 194

bryophila (Nau.), 168

bryophila (Nol.), 129

bryophilus (Can.), 109

buccinalis (Omp.), 95

Bucknallii (Lepi.), 13

bufonium (Trich.), 23

bulbigera (Arm.), 14

bulbigenum (Ent.), 125

bulbillosus (Bolb.), 147

bulbillosus (Copr.), 230

bulbosus (Cort.), 191

bullacea (Psil.), 226

Bulliardii (Cort.), 187

Bulliardii (Mar.), 61

bullula (Omp.), 97

butyracea (Col.), 49

Buxbaumii (Hyp.), 214

buxi (Mar.), 61

byssisedus (Claud.), 138

cacaba (Cli.), 87

caducus (Copr.), 235

caelatum (Trich.), 24

caerulescens (Cort.), 180

caesarea (Aman.), 3

caesariata (Ino.), 154

caesiolivida (Myc.), 38

caesiozonatus (Pleu.), 103

caespitosa (Omp.), 93

calamistrata (Ino.), 148

calatha (Cli.), 88

calceata (Stro.), 211

caldarii (Col.), 56

caldarius (Agar.), 207

caligata (Arm.), 15

caliginosa (Nyc.), 110

caliginosus (Paneo.), 217

calimorpha (Lep.), 133

callisteus (Cort.), 187

callosa (Psil.), 226

calochrous (Cort.), 180

calolepis (Crep.), 202

calophylla (Ecc.), 137

calophyllus (Hyg.), 74

calopus (Cort.), 186

calopus (Mar.), 58

calospora (Ino.), 151

calyptraeformis (Hyg.), 79

calyptratus (Pleu.), 98

camarus (Cort.), 188

camelina (Lep.), 132

camerina (Nau.), 165

campanella (Omp.), 95

campanulata (Gal.), 169

campanulatus (Paneo.), 217

campestris (Agar.), 205

campestris (Omp.), 93

camphoratus (Cort.), 186

camphoratus (Lac.), 65

camptophylla (Omp.), 96

canaliculata (Nyc.), 110

cancrinus (Clitop.), 135

candelaris (Cort.), 197

candicans (Cli.), 83

candida (Cli.), 86

candida (Omp.), 97

candidus (Mar.), 59

candidus (Plut.), 123

Candolleanum (Hyp.), 216

Candollei (Mont.), 240

canescens (Myc.), 44

caninus (Cort.), 188

canobrunnea (Psil.), 227

canofaciens (Psil.), 225

=Cantharellus=, 106

canus (Pleu.), 105

caperata (Phol.), 141

capillacea (Stro.), 209

capillaris (Myc.), 47

capistrata (Phol.), 142

capniocephalum (Heb.), 161

capnoides (Hyp.), 213

capreolarius (Hyg.), 71

capsicoides (Lac.), 68

capsicum (Lac.), 67

capucina (Ino.), 150

caput-medusae (Stro.), 211

carbonaria (Flam.), 174

carbonarius (Can.), 107

carcharias (Lepi.), 12

Cardarella (Cli.), 80

caricicola (Tub.), 172

cariosa (Aman.), 6

carneifolia (Lepi.), 8

carneoalbus (Clitop.), 135

carneogrisea (Ecc.), 136

carneolum (Trich.), 24

carneovirens (Nol.), 130

carneosanguinea (Myc.), 37

carneum (Trich.), 24

carpathicus (Mar.), 58

carpinus (Hyg.), 74

carpophila (Nau.), 168

carpta (Ino.), 151

cartilagineum (Trich.), 21

cascum (Hyp.), 215

castanea (Lepi.), 9

castaneus (Cort.), 198

castoreus (Lent.), 113

catarium (Hyp.), 216

catervata (Psil.), 228

catina (Cli.), 87

caudata (Psath'lla), 219

caussetta (Arm.), 15

causticus (Cort.), 243

cauticinalis (Mar.), 60

centrifugus (Trich.), 242

centunculus (Nau.), 163

centurio (Trich.), 19

cepaestipes (Lepi.), 11

cephalixus (Cort.), 179

ceraceus (Hyg.), 77

cerasina (Rus.), 33

cerasinus (Hyg.), 73

cerifera (Phol.), 143

cerinum (Trich.), 23

cernua (Psil.), 227

cerodes (Nau.), 163

cerussata (Cli.), 82

cervina (Cli.), 87

cervinus (Plut.), 120

Cesatii (Crep.), 203

cessans (Col.), 55

cetrata (Nol.), 129

chalybea (Lep.), 132

chamaelontina (Rus.), 31

chelidonia (Myc.), 45

chimnophilus (Crep.), 202

chioneus (Pleu.), 105

=Chitonia=, 204

chlorantha (Myc.), 39

chlorocyanea (Omp.), 97

chloroides (Rus.), 32

chlorophanus (Hyg.), 79

chloropolius (Lep.), 133

chondroderma (Psil.), 225

chordalis (Mar.), 60

christinae (Nau.), 162

chrysenterum (Trich.), 23

chrysodon (Hyg.), 71

chrysoleuca (Omp.), 91

chrysophaeus (Plut.), 123

chrysophylla (Omp.), 92

chrysophyllus (Pax.), 140

chrysorrheus (Lac.), 62

cibarius (Can.), 106

cicatrisatus (Clitop.), 135

cidaris (Nau.), 162

cilicioides (Lac.), 66

cimicarius (Lac.), 68

cimmeria (Myc.), 44

cincinnata (Ino.), 149

cinerascens (Trich.), 27

cineratus (Copr.), 235

cinerea (Aman.), 4

cinerea (Myc.), 42

cinerella (Myc.), 42

cinereoviolascens (Cort.), 186

cinereus (Can.), 107

cinereus (Plut.), 122

cingulata (Arm.), 15

cinnabarina (Lepi.), 12

cinnamomaeifolia (Col.), 53

cinnamomea (Lenz.), 116

cinnamomeus (Cort.), 189

circellatus (Lac.), 67

circellatipes (Psath'lla), 219

circinans (Heb.), 161

circinatus (Pleu.), 99

circumtectum (Trich.), 25

cirrhata (Col.), 51

citri (Arm.), 16

citrina (Aman.), 5

citrina (Rus.), 32

citrinella (Myc.), 45

citrinocroceus (Hyg.), 78

citrinomarginata (Myc.), 38

citriophylla (Lepi.), 10

civile (Trich.), 26

cladophylla (Myc.), 44

clandestina (Nol.), 129

claricolor (Cort.), 177

Clarkii (Hyg.), 76

Clarkii (Ino.), 155

claroflava (Rus.), 34

=Claudopus=, 137

claviceps (Heb.), 158

clavicularis (Myc.), 45

clavipes (Cli.), 80

clavus (Col.), 53

cliduchus (Cort.), 179

=Clitocybe=, 80

clitopila (Flam.), 173

=Clitopilus=, 134

clivalis (Hyg.), 75

clivensis (Psil.), 227

clusilis (Col.), 56

clypeatum (Ent.), 127

clypeolaria (Lepi.), 10

cnista (Trich.), 27

coccineus (Hyg.), 77

coccola (Aman.), 3

cochlearis (Panus), 115

cochleatus (Lent.), 112

cocles (Nol.), 131

codoniceps (Myc.), 47

coelestina (Nol.), 130

Coemansii (Can.), 109

coerulea (Rus.), 30

coffeata (Cli.), 83

cohaerens (Myc.), 40

Colemannianus (Hyg.), 77

collariata (Myc.), 44

collina (Col.), 51

collinitus (Cort.), 183

=Collybia=, 47

colossus (Trich.), 18

colubrina (Lepi.), 11

colus (Cort.), 198

colymbadinus (Cort.), 190

comatus (Copr.), 229

comitalis (Cli.), 80

committa (Ino.), 155

commune (Schiz.), 118

comosa (Phol.), 143

compactum (Trich.), 21

compar (Cort.), 183

compta (Psil.), 226

comptulus (Agar.), 207

concava (Cli.), 88

concentricus (Clitop.), 135

conchatus (Panus), 114

concolor (Col.), 48

conditus (Copr.), 237

conferta (Gal.), 169

confluens (Col.), 51

conformata (Ino.), 156

confragosa (Phol.), 145

confusa (Ino.), 156

conglobatum (Trich.), 25

congregatus (Copr.), 239

conicus (Hyg.), 78

conigena (Col.), 51

conissans (Flam.), 175

connata (Cli.), 84

connatus (Hyg.), 76

connexifolia (Ino.), 151

conocephalus (Bolb.), 147

conopilea (Psath.), 221

consentiens (Stro.), 209

consimilis (Myc.), 42

consimilis (Psath'lla), 220

consobrina (Rus.), 35

conspersa (Nau.), 167

constricta (Arm.), 15

contortus (Lent.), 111

controversus (Lac.), 70

Cookei (Ent.), 126

Cookei (Ino.), 152

coöpertus (Copr.), 237

coprinifacies (Stro.), 209

=Coprinus=, 228

coprinus (Chit.), 204

coprophila (Psil.), 226

coracina (Col.), 54

Cordae (Ent.), 127

coriaceus (Can.), 108

coriarium (Hyp.), 215

coripellis (Pleu.), 99

corneipes (Psil.), 225

cornucopoides (Pleu.), 100

Cornui (Omp.), 96

coronatum (Hyp.), 215

coronilla (Stro.), 209

corrosus (Cort.), 181

corrugis (Psath.), 221

corruscans (Cort.), 182

corticatus (Pleu.), 98

corticola (Myc.), 46

=Cortinarius=, 177

cortinata (Flam.), 174

cortinata (Ino.), 155

cortiseda (Omp.), 94

corydalina (Ino.), 149

coryphaeum (Trich.), 17

cossus (Hyg.), 71

costatula (Omp.), 92

costatum (Ent.), 127

cothurnata (Stro.), 212

cothurnatus (Copr.), 237

cotonea (Stro.), 211

cotoneus (Cort.), 190

crampylus (Lac.), 68

craspedius (Pleu.), 99

crassifolium (Trich.), 22

crassus (Cort.), 178

crassus (Pax.), 140

craterellus (Pleu.), 105

craticus (Cort.), 187

cremor (Lac.), 65

crenata (Psath'lla), 220

crenulata (Myc.), 37

=Crepidotus=, 201

cretaceus (Agar.), 205

cretatus (Clitop.), 135

crispa (Trog.), 117

crispula (Omp.), 97

cristata (Lepi.), 10

cristallinus (Cort.), 182

crobula (Tub.), 172

crocata (Myc.), 45

croceocoeruleus (Cort.), 182

croceoconus (Cort.), 190

croceofulvis (Cort.), 193

crocolitus (Cort.), 177

cruenta (Myc.), 45

cruentata (Nol.), 130

cruentata (Phol.), 145

crucibulum (Can.), 109

crustuliniforme (Heb.), 159

cryptarum (Cli.), 84

cryptarum (Nyc.), 110

cucullata (Ino.), 150

cucumis (Nau.), 162

cudon (Ent.), 125

cumatilis (Cort.), 182

cuneata (Nol.), 129

cuneifolia (Omp.), 94

cuneifolium (Trich.), 22

_cupreus_ (Lepi.), 241

cupularis (Arrh.), 110

cupularis (Tub.), 171

cupulatus (Can.), 108

cupulatus (Copr.), 234

Curreyi (Ino.), 152

Curreyi (Mar.), 61

curtipes (Cli.), 80

curtus (Plut.), 121

curvipes (Ino.), 156

curvipoda (Phol.), 145

cuspidata (Omp.), 97

cutefracta (Rus.), 33

cyanites (Cort.), 186

cyanophaea (Cli.), 81

cyanophylla (Omp.), 96

cyanopus (Cort.), 178

cyanopus (Plut.), 123

cyanorhiza (Myc.), 46

cyanoxantha (Rus.), 34

cyathicula (Lac.), 69

cyathiformis (Cli.), 88

cyathiformis (Panus), 114

cyclodes (Copr.), 229

cygnea (Amtop.), 7

cylindracea (Phol.), 142

cylindricus (Copr.), 231

cyphellaeformis (Pleu.), 104

cypriacus (Cort.), 198

Czarnii (Trich.), 242

daemonica (Col.), 54

damascenus (Cort.), 197

dealbata (Cli.), 83

debilipes (Ino.), 155

debilis (Myc.), 44

decastes (Cli.), 83

decipiens (Cort.), 200

decipiens (Flam.), 173

decipiens (Ino.), 155

decipiens (Lac.), 67

declinis (Col.), 50

decolorans (Cort.), 182

decolorans (Rus.), 30

decoloratus (Cort.), 182

decorus (Pleu.), 98

decumbens (Cort.), 188

decussata (Flam.), 174

deflectens (Heb.), 159

deflexa (Omp.), 96

degener (Lent.), 111

degener (Xer.), 116

deglubens (Ino.), 151

dehiscens (Arm.), 15

Delastri (Panus), 115

delecta (Ino.), 154

delibutus (Cort.), 184

delica (Rus.), 32

delicata (Lepi.), 14

deliciosus (Lac.), 63

deliquescens (Copr.), 239

demisannulata (Lepi.), 14

demissa (Omp.), 94

denigrata (Arm.), 16

densifolia (Lepi.), 8

densifolia (Rus.), 32

denudata (Lepi.), 13

depallens (Rus.), 34

depexus (Cort.), 191

depilata (Stro.), 208

depluens (Claud.), 137

depressus (Cort.), 201

descissa (Ino.), 154

destricta (Ino.), 153

destruens (Phol.), 143

detonsus (Cort.), 200

detrusa (Omp.), 91

diabolicus (Cort.), 188

diaphanus (Copr.), 239

diatreta (Cli.), 90

dibaphus (Cort.), 180

dichroa (Psil.), 225

dichroum (Ent.), 126

dictyorhizus (Pleu.), 103

dictyotus (Pluteo.), 147

difformis (Cli.), 90

diffractum (Heb.), 161

digitalis (Copr.), 239

dilatata (Myc.), 46

dilectus (Copr.), 229

dilutus (Cort.), 197

directa (Omp.), 97

discoideus (Hyg.), 72

discopoda (Myc.), 46

disjungendus (Cort.), 194

dispar (Mar.), 58

dispersum (Hyp.), 213

disseminata (Psath'lla), 220

dissiliens (Myc.), 41

dissimulans (Phol.), 145

dissultans (Trich.), 22

distans (Hyg.), 76

distorta (Col.), 49

ditopa (Cli.), 89

divergens (Copr.), 236

djakovensis (Phol.), 144

dolabratus (Cort.), 199

domesticus (Copr.), 233

domesticus (Lent.), 111

Dorotheae (Col.), 56

dothiophora (Cli.), 81

drimeia (Rus.), 35

dryinus (Pleu.), 98

dryophila (Col.), 53

dulcamara (Ino.), 149

dulcidulus (Agar.), 207

dumosa (Omp.), 91

Dunalii (Lent.), 111

dura (Phol.), 142

duracinum (Trich.), 26

duracinus (Cort.), 197

eburneus (Copr.), 240

eburneus (Hyg.), 71

=Eccilia=, 136

echinata (Ino.), 151

echinella (Lepi.), 9

echinipes (Myc.), 46

echinocephala (Aman.), 6

echinospora (Nau.), 168

ectypa (Cli.), 90

effocatella (Cli.), 84

effugiens (Nau.), 168

_effugiens_ (Nauc.), 202

egenulum (Hyp.), 216

egregius (Paneo.), 217

elaeodes (Hyp.), 213

elaphinum (Ent.), 127

elata (Psath.), 221

elatellum (Heb.), 159

elatior (Cort.), 183

elatum (Heb.), 160

elegans (Myc.), 37

elegans (Rus.), 30

elegantior (Cort.), 181

elephantina (Rus.), 34

elevata (Col.), 47

Eliae (Aman.), 4

elixa (Cli.), 84

elotus (Cort.), 243

elvensis (Agar.), 204

elytroides (Trich.), 22

embola (Tub.), 172

emetica (Rus.), 36

emollitius (Cort.), 182

emplastra (Lepi.), 9

empyreumatica (Psath'lla), 200

emunctus (Cort.), 184

enchymosa (Nau.), 163

=Entoloma=, 124

ephebius (Plut.), 121

ephemeroides (Copr.), 230

ephemerus (Copr.), 237

epibryus (Crep.), 202

epichloe (Mar.), 61

epichysia (Omp.), 93

epigaeus (Crep.), 203

epiphloea (Myc.), 44

epiphyllus (Mar.), 62

epipoleus (Cort.), 184

epipphia (Col.), 49

epipterygia (Myc.), 45

epixanthum (Hyp.), 213

epodius (Mar.), 60

equestre (Trich.), 17

equinus (Copr.), 229

erebia (Phol.), 141

ericaea (Psil.), 225

ericetorum (Cli.), 87

erinacea (Nau.), 167

erminea (Lepi.), 10

erophilum (Ent.), 124

erosa (Col.), 56

erubescens (Hyg.), 71

erugatus (Cort.), 197

eryngii (Pleu.), 100

erythrinus (Cort.), 200

erythrocephalus (Copr.), 239

erythropus (Mar.), 58

escharoides (Nau.), 167

esculenta (Col.), 52

euchlora (Lep.), 133

euchroa (Lep.), 132

eustygia (Col.), 52

eutheles (Ino.), 153

evanidus (Copr.), 237

evernius (Cort.), 192

excelsa (Aman.), 5

excentricum (Ent.), 125

excisa (Myc.), 40

_excisa_ (Myc.), 41

excoriata (Lepi.), 8

exiguus (Plut.), 122

exilis (Nol.), 131

expallens (Cli.), 88

expolita (Psath'lla), 220

exsculpta (Col.), 53

exscissum (Trich.), 28

exstinctorius (Copr.), 233

extenuatus (Pax.), 139

extuberans (Col.), 53

Eyrei (Chlor.), 118

fagicola (Psath.), 222

Falkii (Psath.), 222

fallaciosum (Trich.), 241

fallax (Cort.), 195

fallax (Trich.), 27

farinaceus (Panus), 115

farneus (Panus), 114

farrea (Myc.), 39

fasciata (Ino.), 150

fasciatus (Cort.), 201

fasciculare (Hyp.), 213

fascicularis (Can.), 108

fascinans (Lac.), 69

fastibile (Heb.), 157

fastigiata (Ino.), 152

fatuus (Psath.), 223

faventina (Lenz.), 117

faveolaris (Mar.), 61

favillarum (Trich.), 29

felina (Lepi.), 10

felinum (Hyp.), 216

fellea (Rus.), 34

Fenzlii (Ann.), 120

ferrugineo-lateritia (Psil.), 226

fertile (Ent.), 125

festiva (Nau.), 162

fibrillosa (Psath.), 223

fibrosa (Ino.), 152

fibula (Omp.), 96

filia (Flam.), 174

filicea (Flam.), 176

filiformis (Copr.), 235

filopes (Myc.), 43

fimbriatus (Lent.), 113

fimbriatus (Pleu.), 99

fimetarius (Copr.), 235

fimicola (Arrh.), 110

fimicola (Myc.), 38

fimicola (Paneo.), 218

fimiputris (Anel.), 212

fingibilis (Rus.), 32

firmum (Heb.), 158

firmus (Cort.), 196

flabelliformis (Lent.), 113

flabellum (Panus), 115

flabellus (Cort.), 195

flacca (Nau.), 163

flaccida (Cli.), 86

flaccida (Lenz.), 116

flammans (Phol.), 144

flammeolus (Lac.), 63

=Flammula=, 172

flavella (Ino.), 156

flavescens (Agar.), 205

flavescens (Agar.), 206

flavescens (Agar.), 223

flavida (Flam.), 174

flavidus (Bolb.), 147

flavidus (Lac.), 63

flavipes (Myc.), 38

flavoalba (Myc.), 39

flavobrunneum (Trich.), 18

flavus (Hyg.), 76

flexipes (Cort.), 195

flexipes (Gal.), 169

flexuosus (Lac.), 68

floccifera (Flam.), 173

floccipes (Col.), 50

flocculosa (Ino.), 150

flocculosus (Copr.), 231

floridula (Col.), 54

flosculus (Ecc.), 137

flosculus (Mar.), 61

fluens (Lac.), 69

fluxilis (Pleu.), 104

focalis (Arm.), 14

foeniculaceus (Mar.), 57

foenisecii (Psil.), 227

foetida (Rus.), 35

foetidissima (Col.), 51

foetidus (Mar.), 59

foetens (Hyg.), 77

foetens (Panus), 115

foetens (Rus.), 35

formosa (Lep.), 133

fornicatus (Hyg.), 76

Forquignoni (Copr.), 232

Forquignoni (Lepi.), 10

Forquignoni (Lep.), 131

fracida (Arm.), 17

fragilis (Bolb.), 147

fragilis (Rus.), 36

fragrans (Cli.), 90

friabilis (Amtop.), 6

friabilis (Lent.), 112

Friesii (Can.), 106

Friesii (Copr.), 234

Friesii (Hyg.), 72

Friesii (Lepi.), 9

fritilliformis (Cli.), 88

frumentaceum (Trich.), 19

frustulenta (Psath.), 223

frustulosum (Copr.), 236

fucatophyllus (Cort.), 190

fucatum (Trich.), 17

fulgens (Cort.), 181

fuliginaria (Col.), 55

fuliginarium (Ent.), 124

fuliginosus (Lac.), 63

fulmineus (Cort.), 181

fulvella (Ino.), 156

fulvellum (Trich.), 18

fulvescens (Cort.), 199

fulvidus (Panus), 114

fulvostrigosa (Nol.), 129

fumosa (Cli.), 84

fumosella (Nol.), 129

funicularis (Col.), 49

furcata (Rus.), 33

furfuracea (Tub.), 171

furnacea (Lepi.), 11

furvellus (Pleu.), 104

furvum (Trich.), 20

fusca (Phol.), 144

fuscescens (Copr.), 231

fuscoalbus (Hyg.), 73

fuscomarginata (Myc.), 38

fuscopurpureus (Mar.), 57

fuscus (Lac.), 63

fusipes (Col.), 48

fusipes (Heb.), 158

fusoidea (Stro.), 209

fusus (Flam.), 174

gadinoides (Pleu.), 102

Gaillardii (Ino.), 151

=Galera=, 168

galericulata (Myc.), 40

galeropsis (Myc.), 39

gallicus (Lent.), 111

gallinacea (Cli.), 83

galopoda (Myc.), 45

gambosum (Trich.), 24

garidelli (Cli.), 87

gangraenosa (Cli.), 80

gausapatum (Trich.), 20

Gauteraudii (Trich.), 242

gelidus (Mar.), 58

geminum (Trich.), 22

gemmata (Amtop.), 7

Gemmellari (Pleur.), 101

geniculatus (Agar.), 207

geoginus (Pleu.), 102

geophylla (Ino.), 155

Georgii (Trich.), 24

Georginae (Lepi.), 14

geotropa (Cli.), 86

germanus (Cort.), 200

gentilis (Cort.), 193

gibba (Omp.), 97

gibberosa (Phol.), 142

Gibbsii (Copr.), 238

gigantea (Cli.), 85

Gilletii (Copr.), 238

Gilletii (Hyp.), 214

Gilletii (Psil.), 227

Gillotii (Lep.), 134

gilva (Cli.), 86

Giovanellae (Omp.), 92

glacialis (Col.), 55

glandicolor (Cort.), 194

glandiformis (Nau.), 164

glareosa (Psath.), 221

glaucescens (Lac.), 64

glaucocanum (Trich.), 26

glauconitens (Hyg.), 79

glaucophylla (Omp.), 93

glaucopus (Cort.), 180

glaucus (Can.), 109

glaucus (Hyg.), 75

glioderma (Lepi.), 14

gliocyclus (Hyg.), 71

globularis (Col.), 49

globularis (Mar.), 57

gloiocephala (Vol.), 120

glutinifer (Hyg.), 72

glutinosum (Heb.), 158

glutinosus (Gomp.), 212

glyciosmus (Lac.), 69

Godeyi (Amtop.), 6

Godeyi (Copr.), 239

Godeyi (Ino.), 152

Godeyi (Plut.), 123

=Gomphidius=, 212

gomphodes (Paneo.), 218

goniosperma (Trich.), 19

gonophyllus (Copr.), 233

Gordoni (Psath.), 223

Gorteri (Lep.), 132

gossypina (Psath.), 224

gracilenta (Lepi.), 8

gracilipes (Psath'lla), 219

gracilis (Gomp.), 213

gracilis (Psath'lla), 218

gracillima (Omp.), 97

grallipes (Cort.), 183

graminicola (Nau.), 168

graminum (Mar.), 60

grammata (Ino.), 154

grammopodium (Trich.), 28

grandiusculus (Bolb.), 147

granulatus (Panus), 114

granulatus (Plut.), 121

granulosa (Lepi.), 12

granulosa (Rus.), 35

grata (Ino.), 154

graveolens (Psath'lla), 219

graveolens (Trich.), 24

gregaria (Phol.), 146

grisea (Omp.), 96

grisea (Rus.), 31

grisea (Vol.), 119

grisella (Omp.), 94

griseobadia (Psath.), 221

griseocyaneum (Ent.), 126

griseofusca (Arm.), 16

griseolilacina (Omp.), 95

griseopallida (Omp.), 95

griseorubella (Ecc.), 136

griseotomentosus (Pax.), 140

grumata (Cli.), 91

gummosa (Flam.), 174

Gussonei (Col.), 53

guttatum (Trich.), 19

guttulatus (Paneo.), 218

gymnopodia (Flam.), 172

gypsea (Myc.), 39

gyrans (Cli.), 90

gyroflexa (Psath.), 222

haemacta (Ino.), 149

haematites (Arm.), 16

haematochelis (Cort.), 193

haematospermus (Agar.), 207

haematopoda (Myc.), 45

haemorrhoidarius (Agar.), 206

hamadryas (Nau.), 162

hariolorum (Col.), 50

harmoge (Flam.), 175

haustellaris (Crep.), 202

=Hebeloma=, 157

hebepodia (Cli.), 84

hebes (Psil.), 227

heliophila (Nau.), 166

helobia (Psath.), 223

helodes (Ent.), 124

helomorpha (Flam.), 176

helvella (Hyg.), 75

helvelloides (Cort.), 193

helveola (Lepi.), 9

helvola (Psil.), 224

helvolus (Cort.), 193

helvus (Lac.), 65

hemerobius (Copr.), 240

hemitrichus (Cort.), 196

Hendersonii (Copr.), 230

Henningsii (Flam.), 174

hepatica (Omp.), 94

herpeticus (Cort.), 181

hesperidium (Nol.), 130

heteroclita (Phol.), 143

heteromorpha (Lenz.), 117

heterophylla (Rus.), 32

hiascens (Psath'lla), 219

=Hiatula=, 14

hibala (Nau.), 168

hiemale (Heb.), 159

hiemalis (Myc.), 47

hilaris (Nau.), 162

hinnuleus (Cort.), 193

hircinus (Cort.), 186

hirneola (Cli.), 80

hirsuta (Omp.), 95

hirsuta (Ino.), 148

hirtella (Ino.), 151

hirtipes (Nol.), 130

hispida (Lepi.), 9

hispidosus (Lent.), 113

hispidulus (Plut.), 121

hiulca (Ino.), 152

Hobsoni (Pleu.), 105

Hoeftii (Cort.), 197

holophaeum (Ent.), 124

holosericea (Lepi.), 11

hometi (Lac.), 70

hordum (Trich.), 22

horizontalis (Nau.), 163

hornotinus (Lent.), 111

hortensis (Cli.), 83

hospitans (Trich.), 29

Houghtoni (Can.), 108

_Houghtoni_ (Hyg.), 77

Hudsoni (Mar.), 61

humicola (Phol.), 144

humile (Trich.), 28

humosa (Cli.), 84

hyacinthinus (Hyg.), 71

hybrida (Flam.), 175

hydrionides (Clitop.), 135

hydrogramma (Omp.), 91

hydrophila (Nau.), 164

hydrophilum (Hyp.), 216

hydrophora (Psath'lla), 219

hygrophanus (Can.), 108

hygrophanus (Lent.), 113

=Hygrophorus=, 70

hyperborea (Amtop.), 7

hyperella (Nau.), 163

=Hypholoma=, 213

hypnicola (Gal.), 170

hypnophilus (Pleu.), 105

hypnorum (Can.), 106

hypnorum (Gal.), 170

hypomelas (Paneo.), 218

hypopithys (Vol.), 119

hyporrhodius (Hyg.), 74

hypothejus (Hyg.), 73

hypsipoda (Stro.), 212

hypsophilus (Crep.), 201

hysginus (Lac.), 66

hystrix (Ino.), 148

ianthina (Lepi.), 13

ianthina (Myc.), 43

ianthipes (Cort.), 200

ichoratus (Lac.), 64

icterina (Nol.), 130

ignicolor (Lepi.), 9

ignobilis (Col.), 54

iliopodius (Cort.), 196

illibatus (Cort.), 184

illinita (Lepi.), 14

illuminus (Cort.), 197

imbecilis (Ino.), 157

imbricatum (Trich.), 20

imbutus (Cort.), 198

immundum (Trich.), 20

impatiens (Psath'lla), 219

impennis (Cort.), 192

imperialis (Arm.), 16

impolitum (Trich.), 20

impolitus (Lac.), 67

impudicus (Mar.), 58

inaequabilis (Claud.), 137

inamoenum (Trich.), 23

inamoenus (Copr.), 236

inaurata (Flam.), 175

incana (Lep.), 133

incarnata (Ino.), 149

incilis (Cli.), 85

incisus (Cort.), 195

inclinata (Myc.), 41

incomis (Omp.), 96

incompta (Cli.), 90

incomptum (Hyp.), 214

inconcinna (Ino.), 156

indutum (Ent.), 126

infida (Psath'lla), 220

infractus (Cort.), 179

infucatus (Cort.), 190

infula (Nol.), 130

infumata (Omp.), 94

infundibiliformis (Cli.), 85

infundibuliformis (Can.), 107

_infundibuliformis_ (Cyph.), 97

ingrata (Col.), 51

inhonestus (Crep.), 202

injucundus (Cort.), 194

innocua (Nau.), 163

inoculata (Lepi.), 14

=Inocybe=, 148

inodermeum (Trich.), 20

inodorus (Mar.), 59

inolens (Col.), 55

inopoda (Flam.), 175

inornata (Cli.), 80

inquilina (Tub.), 172

insidiosa (Amtop.), 7

insignis (Cli.), 89

insititius (Mar.), 61

instratum (Hyp.), 213

insulsus (Lac.), 66

integra (Rus.), 29

integrella (Omp.), 97

intentus (Cort.), 183

intermedia (Rus.), 36

intermedius (Copr.), 236

_intermedius_ (Copr.), 238

intermedius (Hyg.), 78

intermedius (Lac.), 62

interveniens (Trich.), 23

inuncta (Stro.), 209

inversa (Cli.), 86

inverseconicus (Panus), 114

invita (Omp.), 96

_involucratus_ (Agar.), 204

involuta (Heb.), 160

involutus (Lac.), 66

involutus (Pax.), 140

ionides (Trich.), 23

ionipterus (Clitop.), 135

ionipus (Pax.), 140

irinum (Trich.), 26

iris (Cort.), 196

iris (Myc.), 43

irregularis (Cort.), 199

irrigatus (Hyg.), 76

irroratum (Hyp.), 214

isabellina (Cli.), 90

isabellinus (Cort.), 198

ischnostylum (Heb.), 161

jasmineus (Cort.), 243

Jasonis (Arm.), 17

jecorinus (Lac.), 68

Jennyae (Nau.), 162

Jerdoni (Stro.), 212

jubarinus (Cort.), 199

jubatum (Ent.), 126

jugis (Lent.), 112

juglandinus (Pleu.), 99

juncea (Nol.), 129

juncicola (Myc.), 47

juncina (Flam.), 173

Junghuhnii (Cort.), 200

junonia (Phol.), 145

junquillea (Aman.), 3

_junquillea_ (Crep.), 201

jurana (Col.), 49

jurana (Ino.), 152

juranum (Trich.), 28

juranus (Can.), 109

Kalchbrenneri (Omp.), 94

Karstenii (Hyg.), 75

Kerneri (Pleu.), 103

Kervernii (Lep.), 134

Kirchneri (Mar.), 59

Klukii (Claud.), 138

Kolaensis (Phol.), 145

Kretschmarii (Nol.), 131

Krombholzii (Cort.), 199

labyrinthica (Lenz.), 117

laccata (Cli.), 91

lacera (Ino.), 150

lacerata (Col.), 55

lacrymabundum (Hyp.), 214

=Lactarius=, 62

lactea (Myc.), 39

lactea (Rus.), 31

Laestadii (Omp.), 96

laeta (Nau.), 163

laetus (Hyg.), 77

laevigata (Myc.), 41

laevis (Ann.), 120

lagopoides (Copr.), 234

lagopus (Copr.), 234

lamellirugis (Pax.), 140

lampropoda (Lep.), 132

Lamyanus (Panus), 114

lanaripes (Hyp.), 215

lanatus (Copr.), 238

lancipes (Col.), 48

laniger (Cort.), 191

languidus (Mar.), 59

lanuginosa (Ino.), 148

lapponica (Nau.), 167

lappula (Lep.), 131

laqueata (Arm.), 16

Larchenfeldii (Paneo.), 218

largus (Cort.), 178

Laschii (Arm.), 16

lascivum (Trich.), 23

lasiosperma (Myc.), 41

lasiosperma (Myc.), 44

latebricola (Myc.), 44

lateritioroseus (Lac.), 70

lateripes (Lac.), 70

lateritia (Gal.), 168

latissima (Nau.), 166

latus (Cort.), 242

laureata (Psath.), 224

laurocerasi (Pleu.), 103

laxipes (Col.), 50

laxus (Copr.), 235

lazulina (Lep.), 132

Lebretonii (Cort.), 189

leccina (Amtop.), 7

lecensis (Agar.), 207

Leightoni (Pleu.), 104

leiocephala (Amtop.), 7

lenta (Flam.), 173

lenticularis (Lepi.), 6

lenticulosa (Cli.), 85

lentiginosa (Cli.), 86

lentiniformis (Col.), 48

=Lentinus=, 111

lentulus (Clitop.), 135

lentum (Trich.), 26

=Lenzites=, 116

leochroma (Phol.), 142

leoninus (Plut.), 123

leontopodius (Lent.), 111

lepida (Rus.), 33

lepideus (Lent.), 111

lepidopus (Cort.), 189

lepidotum (Hyp.), 215

=Lepiota=, 7

lepiotoides (Aman.), 3

lepiphylla (Cli.), 89

lepista (Pax.), 139

leporinus (Hyg.), 47

leptocephala (Myc.), 42

=Leptonia=, 131

leptopus (Pax.), 140

Lerchenfeldii (Copr.), 231

leucocephala (Ino.), 149

leucocephalum (Trich.), 26

leucogala (Myc.), 45

leucomyosotis (Col.), 52

leucophaeus (Can.), 107

leucophaeus (Hyg.), 72

leucophanes (Paneo.), 217

leucopheatum (Trich.), 24

leucophylla (Omp.), 92

leucopus (Cort.), 200

leucotephrum (Hyp.), 216

leucothites (Lepi.), 11

libertata (Psil.), 226

licinipes (Cort.), 191

licmophora (Lepi.), 12

ligatus (Hyg.), 70

lignatilis (Pleu.), 99

lignicola (Lepi.), 9

lignicola (Pleu.), 100

ligniotus (Lac.), 65

lilacea (Col.), 51

lilacea (Lepi.), 10

lilacea (Rus.), 30

lilacina (Omp.), 94

lilacinus (Lac.), 69

limacinus (Hyg.), 73

limbata (Nau.), 167

limonius (Cort.), 193

limosa (Nol.), 128

limosus (Mar.), 61

limpidoides (Pleu.), 102

limpidus (Pleu.), 102

limulata (Flam.), 176

Lindgrenii (Cort.), 195

lineata (Myc.), 39

lingulatus (Pleu.), 100

Linkii (Lep.), 131

Linnaei (Rus.), 31

lipophila (Psil.), 225

liquescens (Ent.), 125

liquidus (Cort.), 184

liquiritiae (Flam.), 176

liratus (Cort.), 243

lithophilus (Panus), 115

littoralis (Mar.), 60

lituua (Omp.), 92

livido-albus (Hyg.), 74

livido-ochraceus (Cort.), 184

lividum (Ent.), 124

lividus (Lac.), 67

lividus (Pax.), 139

livor (Cort.), 197

lixivium (Trich.), 28

lobatus (Can.), 109

=Locellina=, 141

longicauda (Psath'lla), 218

longicaudum (Heb.), 160

longipes (Can.), 107

longipes (Col.), 47

loricatum (Trich.), 21

loripes (Col.), 48

Loscosii (Psath.), 221

Loveiana (Vol.), 119

lubrica (Flam.), 173

lucifera (Phol.), 144

lucifuga (Ino.), 155

lucorum (Cort.), 192

lucorum (Hyg.), 73

ludia (Col.), 54

Luffii (Omp.), 92

lugens (Heb.), 160

lugubris (Nau.), 162

lupina (Flam.), 173

lupuletora (Col.), 51

luridum (Trich.), 19

luridus (Lac.), 67

luscina (Cli.), 80

lusitanicus (Lent.), 112

lustratus (Cort.), 178

lutea (Aman.), 4

lutea (Rus.), 30

luteifolia (Col.), 53

luteoalba (Myc.), 39

luteocaesius (Pleu.), 100

luteolus (Bolb.), 148

luteolus (Crep.), 202

luteomarginatus (Plut.), 123

luteonitens (Stro.), 210

luteorufescens (Myc.), 37

luteovirens (Arm.), 15

luteoviridans (Rus.), 33

lutincola (Pleu.), 101

luxoviensis (Copr.), 235

luxurians (Phol.), 143

macelenta (Col.), 53

macrocephalus (Copr.), 234

macrophylla (Cli.), 89

macropus (Cort.), 191

macropus (Pleu.), 100

macrorhizum (Trich.), 21

macrosporus (Claud.), 137

maculata (Col.), 48

maculata (Ino.), 153

maculata (Rus.), 35

maculatus (Gomp.), 212

maculosus (Cort.), 182

madidum (Ent.), 125

magna (Phol.), 143

magnifica (Aman.), 4

magnimamma (Heb.), 161

Magnusiana (Lepi.), 10

majale (Ent.), 127

malachius (Cort.), 186

malicorius (Cort.), 190

maliodorus (Lac.), 67

maluvium (Trich.), 25

mamillaris (Ino.), 156

mammillata (Myc.), 46

mammillata (Stro.), 210

mammosa (Nol.), 128

mammosus (Lac.), 69

mappa (Aman.), 3

=Marasmius=, 56

marcescens (Copr.), 236

margaritispora (Ino.), 153

marginata (Phol.), 146

maritima (Ino.), 149

martialis (Lepi.), 13

marzuola (Cli.), 84

Marzuolus (Hyg.), 79

mastigera (Psath.), 221

mastoidea (Lepi.), 8

mastrucatus (Pleu.), 104

maura (Omp.), 92

maxima (Cli.), 85

Mayrii (Copr.), 231

media (Vol.), 120

medioflava (Lepi.), 11

medullata (Lepi.), 14

medullosa (Nau.), 162

medusa (Stro.), 211

megalodactyla (Aman.), 5

megalopus (Arm.), 15

melaleucum (Trich.), 27

melanodon (Plut.), 122

melanops (Myc.), 40

melanopus (Pleu.), 100

melanotus (Cort.), 188

melantinum (Hyp.), 215

melasperma (Stro.), 209

meleagris (Lepi.), 9

melinoides (Nau.), 164

melizeus (Hyg.), 71

mellea (Arm.), 16

mellea (Phol.), 146

melleopallens (Lep.), 133

Menieri (Mar.), 61

mephitica (Col.), 54

merdaria (Stro.), 210

Merletii (Ino.), 150

mesomorpha (Lepi.), 13

mesophaeum (Heb.), 158

mesotephrus (Hyg.), 74

metachroa (Cli.), 89

metapodius (Hyg.), 76

metata (Myc.), 42

metulaespora (Lepi.), 10

micaceus (Copr.), 236

micaceus (Hyg.), 78

micans (Nau.), 163

Micheliana (Col.), 54

microcephalum (Trich.), 27

microcyclus (Cort.), 192

micropholis (Lepi.), 10

microphylla (Nyc.), 110

microrhiza (Psath.), 224

microscopica (Omp.), 97

miculatum (Trich.), 21

militare (Trich.), 26

miltinus (Cort.), 189

milvinus (Cort.), 201

mimica (Col.), 48

mimicum (Ent.), 128

miniaceus (Hyg.), 72

miniatus (Hyg.), 77

minimus (Lac.), 70

minuta (Gal.), 170

minuta (Lep.), 241

minuta (Nol.), 131

mirabilis (Myc.), 37

miser (Col.), 55

miser (Copr.), 240

miserrima (Nau.), 164

mitis (Pleu.), 102

mitissimus (Lac.), 64

mitratum (Heb.), 158

mixta (Flam.), 173

mniophila (Gal.), 170

mollis (Crep.), 201

mollis (Lenz.), 117

molybdina (Cli.), 83

molybdites (Lepi.), 8

molyoides (Mar.), 60

monachella (Nol.), 131

monstrosa (Cli.), 84

=Montagnites=, 240

montellicus (Plut.), 121

morchelloides (Gal.), 171

Morieri (Lepi.), 10

morio (Arm.), 16

mortuosa (Cli.), 90

Mougeotii (Ecc.), 136

mucida (Arm.), 17

mucifluus (Cort.), 183

mucor (Myc.), 46

mucronellus (Hyg.), 78

mulleus (Mar.), 57

_multifidum_ (Schiz.), 118

multiformis (Cort.), 179

mundulus (Clitop.), 134

muralis (Copr.), 234

muralis (Omp.), 94

murcida (Psil.), 227

muricata (Phol.), 145

muricella (Flam.), 173

muricinus (Cort.), 186

murina (Col.), 55

murinaceum (Trich.), 22

murinella (Vol.), 119

muscaria (Aman.), 4

muscigena (Phol.), 146

muscigenus (Can.), 108

muscorum (Can.), 109

muscorum (Tub.), 172

mussivum (Heb.), 157

mustelina (Phol.), 146

mustelina (Rus.), 34

musteus (Lac.), 64

Mustialensis (Pleu.), 105

mutabilis (Phol.), 145

mutabilis (Psil.), 225

mutica (Ino.), 151

mutilus (Pleu.), 100

=Mycena=, 36

mycenoides (Phol.), 146

mycenopsis (Copr.), 237

myosotis (Nau.), 166

myosurus (Col.), 51

myrtillinus (Cort.), 189

myxotrichus (Pleu.), 104

naevosus (Cort.), 184

nanus (Plut.), 122

napus (Cort.), 180

narcoticus (Copr.), 234

naucina (Lepi.), 11

=Naucoria=, 162

nauseosa (Nyc.), 110

nauseosa (Rus.), 29

nauseosodulcis (Cli.), 85

nauseosodulcis (Pleu.), 100

nauseosum (Heb.), 161

nebrodensis (Pleu.), 100

nebularis (Cli.), 80

nefrens (Lep.), 134

neglecta (Psath.), 222

neglectus (Clitop.), 136

nemophila (Psil.), 224

nemoreus (Hyg.), 74

Nevillae (Omp.), 93

nictitans (Trich.), 18

nidulans (Crep.), 201

nidulans (Pleu.), 103

_nidulans_ (Pleur.), 201

nidorosum (Ent.), 128

nidusavis (Clitop.), 135

nigellus (Ecc.), 136

nigrella (Ecc.), 136

nigricans (Rus.), 32

nigripes (Nol.), 129

nigrocinnamomeum (Ent.), 127

nigromarginata (Lepi.), 10

nigropunctata (Cli.), 91

nimbata (Cli.), 80

nimbosa (Nau.), 162

nivea (Myc.), 39

niveorubens (Agar.), 206

niveus (Bolb.), 148

niveus (Copr.), 232

niveus (Hyg.), 75

nivosus (Pleu.), 104

nitellina (Col.), 52

nitens (Cort.), 199

nitens (Flam.), 176

nitens (Pax.), 139

nitida (Aman.), 5

nitida (Rus.), 30

nitidum (Ent.), 125

nitidus (Cort.), 184

nitidus (Hyg.), 72

nitratus (Hyg.), 79

nitrosus (Cort.), 194

=Nolanea=, 128

noli-tangere (Psath.), 224

nubila (Cli.), 90

nucea (Nau.), 164

nucida (Myc.), 39

nuciseda (Psil.), 226

nudipes (Heb.), 160

nudum (Trich.), 27

nummularia (Col.), 52

=Nyctalis=, 110

nycthemerus (Copr.), 233

nympharum (Lepi.), 11

obbata (Cli.), 88

oblectus (Copr.), 228

obliquus (Lac.), 70

obnubilus (Lac.), 68

obola (Cli.), 90

obrusseus (Hyg.), 78

obscura (Ino.), 151

obscuratus (Hyg.), 79

obsoleta (Cli.), 90

obturata (Stro.), 209

obtusata (Psath.), 222

obtusus (Cort.), 200

occulta (Cli.), 84

ocellata (Col.), 54

ochracea (Cli.), 89

ochracea (Rus.), 30

ochraceus (Can.), 108

ochrochlora (Flam.), 176

ochroleuca (Rus.), 35

ochroleucus (Cort.), 188

ochrophyllus (Cort.), 188

ocreata (Stro.), 211

odini (Heb.), 161

odora (Cli.), 81

odorus (Can.), 109

oedipus (Hyp.), 214

olearius (Pleu.), 99

olida (Myc.), 39

olidus (Can.), 106

olivacea (Rus.), 31

olivaceoalbus (Hyg.), 73

olivaceomarginata (Myc.), 37

olivascens (Cort.), 183

olivascens (Cort.), 191

olivascens (Rus.), 32

oliveus (Cort.), 185

Olivieri (Lepi.), 8

olorina (Cli.), 82

ombrophila (Phol.), 141

ombrophila (Psath.), 222

=Omphalia=, 91

omphalodes (Lent.), 112

oniscoides (Omp.), 93

oniscus (Omp.), 93

onychinum (Trich.), 23

opaca (Cli.), 84

opicum (Trich.), 22

opimus (Cort.), 185

opiparia (Cli.), 81

orbicularis (Col.), 51

orbiformis (Cli.), 89

orcella (Clitop.), 134

orcelloides (Pax.), 139

oreades (Mar.), 57

oreinum (Trich.), 25

orellanus (Cort.), 190

orichalceus (Cort.), 181

ornatus (Pleu.), 98

ostreatus (Pleu.), 101

ovalis (Gal.), 169

ovatus (Copr.), 230

ovinus (Hyg.), 76

ovoidea (Aman.), 3

ozes (Col.), 54

ozonii (Bolb.), 148

pachyphylla (Cli.), 91

paedidum (Trich.), 28

paleaceus (Cort.), 196

Pallassii (Mont.), 240

pallens (Lep.), 133

pallens (Psath.), 222

pallescens (Crep.), 202

pallida (Rus.), 34

pallidus (Lac.), 65

palmatus (Crep.), 201

paludosa (Tub.), 171

palustris (Stro.), 210

panaeolum (Trich.), 27

=Panaeolus=, 217

panaeolus (Pax.), 139

Pannizii (Cli.), 85

pannosa (Nau.), 167

pannucius (Lac.), 68

pansa (Cort.), 180

pantherina (Aman.), 5

pantoleucus (Pleu.), 100

panuoides (Pax.), 140

=Panus=, 114

papilionaceus (Paneo.), 217

papillata (Cli.), 89

papillata (Nol.), 128

papillatus (Copr.), 238

papulosus (Cort.), 182

parabolica (Myc.), 41

paradoxa (Stro.), 211

paradoxus (Pax.), 140

paragaudis (Cort.), 193

parasitica (Lep.), 134

parasitica (Nyc.), 110

pardalis (Pleu.), 98

parilis (Cli.), 86

Parisotii (Crep.), 202

Parkensis (Ecc.), 136

paropsis (Cli.), 87

parvannulata (Lepi.), 13

parvula (Vol.), 120

parvus (Can.), 107

pascua (Nol.), 128

patellaris (Panus), 115

pateriformis (Cort.), 199

pathenopejus (Pleu.), 101

Patouillardii (Copr.), 238

patulum (Trich.), 25

Pauletii (Lepi.), 12

paupercula (Myc.), 42

pausiaca (Cli.), 89

pavonius (Cort.), 187

=Paxillus=, 139

paxillus (Phol.), 145

pectinata (Omp.), 97

pectinata (Rus.), 35

pediades (Nau.), 165

pelianthina (Myc.), 36

pelliculosa (Myc.), 45

pellitus (Plut.), 122

pellucida (Tub.), 171

pellucidus (Copr.), 240

pelmatosporus (Cort.), 178

peltata (Myc.), 43

penarius (Hyg.), 71

penetrans (Flam.), 175

penicillatus (Cort.), 188

pennata (Psath.), 223

perbrevis (Ino.), 153

Percevali (Stro.), 208

percomis (Cort.), 179

perforans (Mar.), 61

pergamena (Cli.), 84

pergamenus (Lac.), 66

periscelis (Cort.), 195

perlata (Ino.), 152

permixta (Lepi.), 8

peronatus (Agar.), 204

peronatus (Mar.), 56

perpusillus (Pleu.), 105

perrera (Agar.), 206

persicinum (Trich.), 28

persicinus (Hyg.), 72

personatum (Trich.), 26

Persoonii (Aman.), 6

pertinax (Psil.), 224

pes-caprae (Trich.), 25

pessundatum (Trich.), 18

petaloides (Pleu.), 102

Peteauxii (Claud.), 138

Peteauxii (Crep.), 202

petiginosum (Heb.), 161

pezizoides (Crep.), 202

phaeocephala (Ino.), 152

phaeophyllus (Cort.), 199

phaeopodia (Col.), 49

phaeosporus (Copr.), 232

phalenarum (Paneo.), 217

phalerata (Phol.), 145

phalliodorus (Col.), 55

phalloides (Aman.), 3

Phillipsii (Crep.), 202

philonitis (Omp.), 93

phlebophorus (Plut.), 123

phoenicea (Arm.), 14

Phoenix (Pilo.), 208

phoenix (Psil.), 227

pholideus (Cort.), 187

=Pholiota=, 141

phragmatophylla (Phol.), 142

phrygianus (Cort.), 187

phyllophila (Cli.), 82

phyllophilus (Copr.), 240

physaloides (Psil.), 226

picaceus (Copr.), 232

picea (Nol.), 130

picinus (Lac.), 69

picrea (Flam.), 176

picta (Omp.), 96

=Pilosace=, 208

pilosus (Copr.), 233

pilulaeforme (Hyp.), 216

pinastri (Lenz.), 117

pinetorum (Arm.), 17

pingua (Lepi.), 14

pinsitus (Pleu.), 103

piperatus (Lac.), 66

pisciodora (Nol.), 129

pithyophila (Cli.), 82

pityria (Gal.), 170

pityrodes (Nau.), 168

placenta (Ent.), 124

placida (Lep.), 131

plancus (Mar.), 57

planipes (Col.), 53

planus (Pleu.), 102

platyphylla (Col.), 47

platypus (Copr.), 234

plautus (Plut.), 122

pleopodia (Nol.), 130

pleurotoides (Arm.), 16

=Pleurotus=, 98

plexipes (Col.), 55

plicatilis (Copr.), 239

plicatocrenata (Myc.), 45

plicosa (Myc.), 42

plumbea (Myc.), 43

plumbeus (Lac.), 68

plumbosus (Cort.), 198

plumiger (Cort.), 192

plumipes (Col.), 53

plumosa (Ino.), 149

pluteoides (Ent.), 127

=Pluteolus=, 146

=Pluteus=, 120

pluvius (Cort.), 185

polita (Ecc.), 136

polius (Cli.), 80

polyadelpha (Omp.), 97

polycephalus (Can.), 108

polygramma (Myc.), 40

polyphyllum (Trich.), 20

polysticta (Lepi.), 13

pometi (Pleu.), 100

popinalis (Clitop.), 135

Porinae (Lac.), 69

porphyria (Aman.), 4

porphyrophaeum (Ent.), 124

porphyropus (Cort.), 182

porreus (Mar.), 56

porrigens (Pleu.), 103

porriginosa (Nau.), 166

portentosum (Trich.), 17

Postii (Omp.), 92

praecox (Ent.), 128

praecox (Phol.), 142

praegnans (Copr.), 230

praenitens (Agar.), 204

praestans (Cort.), 185

praetervisa (Ino.), 152

praetoria (Amtop.), 6

prasinus (Cort.), 181

prasiosmus (Mar.), 57

pratensis (Agar.), 205

pratensis (Hyg.), 74

Prescottii (Hyp.), 214

privignus (Cort.), 197

proboscideus (Crep.), 203

procera (Lepi.), 7

prominens (Lepi.), 8

proletaria (Nol.), 128

prolifera (Myc.), 40

prolixa (Col.), 48

prona (Psath'lla), 220

properatus (Pleu.), 99

protracta (Col.), 55

proxima (Cli.), 91

proximella (Ino.), 153

pruinata (Myc.), 40

pruinosa (Cli.), 88

prunuloides (Ent.), 124

prunulus (Clitop.), 134

psammicola (Myc.), 42

psammocephalus (Cort.), 195

psammopodium (Trich.), 20

=Psathyra=, 221

=Psathyrella=, 218

psathyroides (Col.), 52

pseudoandrosacea (Omp.), 95

pseudoorcella (Clitop.), 134

pseudoplicatilis (Copr.), 237

pseudopura (Myc.), 38

=Psilocybe=, 224

psilocyboides (Omp.), 96

psittacinus (Hyg.), 79

pterigena (Myc.), 46

pubescens (Gal.), 169

pubescens (Lac.), 66

pudens (Panus), 115

pudens (Pleu.), 105

pudica (Phol.), 142

pudorinus (Hyg.), 71

puellaris (Rus.), 31

puellula (Cli.), 82

pulla (Cli.), 85

pulla (Col.), 49

pullata (Myc.), 42

pulmonariellus (Pleu.), 102

pulmonarius (Pleu.), 102

pulverulentus (Scop.), 111

pulvinatus (Pleu.), 101

pumila (Phol.), 146

punctata (Rus.), 31

punctatum (Heb.), 158

punctatus (Cort.), 194

punctulata (Stro.), 211

punctulatum (Hyp.), 215

punicella (Myc.), 38

puniceus (Hyg.), 78

pura (Myc.), 38

purifluus (Bolb.), 148

purpurascens (Cort.), 180

purpurascens (Hyg.), 71

purpurata (Flam.), 177

_purpurea_ (Rus.), 36

purpureophyllus (Cort.), 243

pusillus (Bolb.), 148

pusio (Ino.), 156

pusiola (Nau.), 164

pustulatus (Hyg.), 73

putidum (Trich.), 29

putilla (Ino.), 154

putillus (Mar.), 58

putrigenus (Crep.), 201

pygmaea (Nau.), 163

pygmaeo-affinis (Gal.), 169

pyramidalis (Mar.), 57

pyrenaeus (Copr.), 230

pyrenaica (Lep.), 133

pyreniacum (Ent.), 124

pyriodora (Ino.), 149

pyrogalus (Lac.), 69

pyrotrichum (Hyp.), 214

pyxidata (Omp.), 92

quadricolor (Cort.), 192

Queletii (Cli.), 88

Queletii (Copr.), 235

Queletii (Heb.), 160

Queletii (Hyg.), 72

Queletii (Lent.), 111

Queletii (Lenz.), 117

Queletii (Lep.), 134

Queletii (Mar.), 57

Queletii (Paneo.), 218

Queletii (Rus.), 36

quietus (Lac.), 64

quinquepartitum (Trich.), 17

quisquilaris (Ent.), 124

rabenhorstii (Gal.), 169

racemosa (Col.), 51

rachodes (Lepi.), 7

radians (Copr.), 236

radiatus (Copr.), 238

radicata (Col.), 47

radicellata (Cli.), 89

radicellata (Phol.), 142

radicosa (Phol.), 142

raeborhiza (Myc.), 40

Ralfsii (Crep.), 202

ramealis (Mar.), 59

ramentacea (Arm.), 15

ramosa (Col.), 49

ramosus (Can.), 108

rancida (Col.), 54

rapaceus (Cort.), 179

raphanicum (Trich.), 26

raphanoides (Cort.), 190

rapidus (Copr.), 240

rasile (Trich.), 29

ravida (Gal.), 170

ravida (Rus.), 30

reclina (Omp.), 96

recubans (Mar.), 62

reducta (Nau.), 166

Reedii (Cort.), 199

regia (Vol.), 119

Reichardtii (Lenz.), 117

relicina (Ino.), 148

remotus (Paneo.), 217

Renati (Myc.), 38

renidens (Cort.), 198

reniformis (Pleu.), 102

Renneyi (Ino.), 156

repandum (Ent.), 124

replexus (Can.), 108

resimus (Lac.), 62

resinaceus (Lent.), 112

resplendens (Trich.), 17

resutum (Ent.), 126

reticulatus (Pluteo.), 146

retigera (Col.), 53

retirugis (Paneo.), 217

retirugus (Can.), 109

retisporus (Lac.), 63

retosta (Omp.), 95

revolutus (Pax.), 140

revolutus (Pleu.), 101

rhadigiosa (Arm.), 16

rhodella (Col.), 52

rhodiola (Ino.), 150

rhodocylix (Ecc.), 137

rhodoleuca (Cli.), 86

rhodomela (Vol.), 119

rhodopolium (Ent.), 127

rhytipes (Rus.), 34

riculatus (Cort.), 188

Riederi (Cort.), 178

rigens (Cort.), 199

rigidata (Cli.), 82

rigidus (Cort.), 196

rimosa (Ino.), 153

rimulincola (Nau.), 163

rimulosa (Schulz.), 241

ringens (Panus), 115

rivulorum (Pleu.), 104

rivulosa (Cli.), 82

rivulosus (Bolb.), 148

Roberti (Plut.), 122

robusta (Arm.), 14

romanus (Xer.), 116

rorida (Myc.), 46

roris (Copr.), 233

rorulenta (Lepi.), 11

rosacea (Rus.), 36

rosella (Myc.), 37

roseoalbus (Plut.), 123

roseocinereus (Pleu.), 101

roseola (Aman.), 4

roseolus (Pleu.), 103

roseotinctus (Copr.), 229

Rostrupianus (Copr.), 232

rotula (Mar.), 60

Rozei (Ent.), 126

rubella (Myc.), 38

rubellum (Ent.), 125

rubellus (Agar.), 207

rubellus (Cort.), 193

rubescens (Aman.), 4

rubescens (Hyg.), 71

rubescens (Lac.), 68

rubi (Crep.), 202

rubida (Nol.), 131

rubiginosa (Gal.), 170

rubra (Rus.), 35

rubricata (Nau.), 163

rubricatus (Mar.), 59

rubriceps (Chit.), 204

rubricosus (Cort.), 199

rubrocinctus (Lac.), 65

rubromarginata (Myc.), 37

rubropunctatus (Cort.), 182

rubrum (Heb.), 158

rudis (Panus), 114

rufescens (Can.), 106

rufidula (Phol.), 146

rufoalba (Ino.), 150

rufocarnea (Nol.), 129

rufoolivaceus (Cort.), 181

rufus (Lac.), 67

rugosa (Myc.), 40

russiophyllus (Agar.), 207

russocoriaceus (Hyg.), 75

=Russula=, 29

russula (Trich.), 19

russus (Cort.), 179

rustica (Omp.), 93

rusticoides (Ecc.), 137

rutaceus (Lac.), 70

Ruthae (Pleu.), 99

rutilans (Trich.), 19

Saccardianus (Pleu.), 101

saccharifera (Myc.), 46

saccharinus (Mar.), 62

sacchariolens (Nau.), 160

Sadleri (Cli.), 91

saevum (Trich.), 26

sagatus (Agar.), 207

saginus (Cort.), 179

Sahleri (Gal.), 171

Salero (Trich.), 18

salicinus (Plut.), 121

salignus (Pleu.), 101

salor (Cort.), 184

sambucina (Ino.), 154

sandicina (Cli.), 91

sangifluus (Lac.), 64

sanguinarius (Agar.), 206

sanguinea (Rus.), 36

sanguineus (Cort.), 189

sanguinolenta (Myc.), 45

saniosus (Cort.), 200

sapidus (Pleu.), 100

sapinea (Flam.), 175

saponaceum (Trich.), 21

sarcita (Lep.), 134

sarcocephala (Psil.), 224

sardonia (Rus.), 36

sarnicus (Clitop.), 135

saturninus (Cort.), 197

Saundersii (Ent.), 125

saxatilis (Mar.), 58

scabella (Ino.), 155

scaber (Ino.), 149

scabiosum (Ent.), 126

scabrosa (Lep.), 133

scalaris (Crep.), 201

scalpturatum (Trich.), 20

scamba (Flam.), 176

scandens (Cort.), 200

scauroides (Copr.), 230

scaurus (Cort.), 181

sceptrum (Copr.), 239

schista (Ino.), 151

=Schizophyllum=, 118

schizopus (Mar.), 60

schizoxylon (Omp.), 95

Schroteri (Copr.), 240

Schultzii (Panus), 115

Schulzeri (Hyg.), 79

Schulzeri (Lepi.), 12

Schulzeri (Psath.), 223

=Schulzeria=, 119, 241

Schumacheri (Trich.), 25

Schurii (Panus), 114

sciophanus (Hyg.), 77

sciophyllus (Cort.), 198

sciopoda (Omp.), 94

scitula (Anel.), 212

sclerotipes (Mar.), 61

scobicola (Psil.), 225

scobinacea (Stro.), 211

scobinella (Amtop.), 6

scolecina (Nau.), 164

scorodonius (Mar.), 58

scorpioides (Nau.), 166

scorteus (Mar.), 57

Scoticus (Lac.), 66

scoticus (Lent.), 113

scrobiculatus (Lac.), 62

scruposa (Arm.), 15

scutellinus (Crep.), 203

scutulatus (Cort.), 192

scyphiformis (Omp.), 93

scyphoides (Omp.), 92

sebaceus (Cort.), 178

Secretani (Hyg.), 72

Secretani (Phol.), 141

segestria (Nau.), 167

sejunctum (Trich.), 17

semibulbosus (Plut.), 123

semicrema (Rus.), 31

semiflexa (Nau.), 163

semiglobata (Stro.), 210

semiinfundibuliformis (Pleu.), 102

semilanceata (Psil.), 226

seminuda (Lepi.), 13

semiorbicularis (Nau.), 165

semistriatus (Copr.), 239

semitalis (Col.), 47

semivestita (Psath.), 223

semotus (Agar.), 207

senescens (Heb.), 157

senilis (Cli.), 87

separata (Anel.), 212

sepiaria (Lenz.), 116

septentrionalis (Lenz.), 117

septentrionalis (Schulz.), 241

septicus (Pleu.), 103

serarius (Cort.), 182

serena (Lepi.), 13

sericellum (Ent.), 126

sericeum (Ent.), 127

serifluus (Lac.), 64

serotina (Rus.), 35

serotinus (Pleu.), 102

serpentina (Col.), 48

serrulata (Lep.), 132

setiger (Agar.), 207

setipes (Omp.), 96

setosa (Myc.), 47

Seynii (Myc.), 38

Severinii (Pleu.), 103

siccipes (Stro.), 210

sideroides (Nau.), 164

silaceum (Hyp.), 213

siliginea (Gal.), 169

silvanus (Pleu.), 104

silvaticus (Agar.), 206

similis (Copr.), 233

simillima (Myc.), 40

simulans (Psil.), 227

sinapizans (Heb.), 159

sindonia (Ino.), 155

sinopica (Cli.), 85

sinuatum (Ent.), 124

sinuosum (Heb.), 157

siparia (Nau.), 167

sistrata (Lepi.), 13

sitaneus (Lent.), 111

smaragdina (Rus.), 32

Smithii (Clitop.), 136

Sobolewski (Col.), 50

soboliferus (Copr.), 230

sobria (Nau.), 167

socialis (Cli.), 81

sociatus (Copr.), 237

solitaria (Aman.), 5

solitaria (Psath.), 222

solstitialis (Copr.), 228

solstitialis (Lep.), 132

solstitialis (Nau.), 163

sorbina (Lenz.), 117

sordarius (Pax.), 139

sordidum (Trich.), 28

sororia (Phol.), 146

sororiata (Plut.), 121

spadicea (Psil.), 227

spadiceo-grisea (Psath.), 222

spadiceus (Cort.), 178

spadiceus (Hyg.), 79

spartea (Gal.), 169

spathulatus (Can.), 108

speciosa (Vol.), 119

spectabilis (Phol.), 144

speculum (Ent.), 128

Spegazzinii (Copr.), 234

speira (Myc.), 44

spermaticum (Trich.), 18

sphagnicola (Omp.), 93

sphaleromorpha (Phol.), 142

sphinctrinus (Paneo.), 217

spicula (Gal.), 169

spilomeus (Cort.), 189

spilopus (Plut.), 122

spintrigera (Stro.), 212

spinulosa (Cli.), 86

spinulosus (Lac.), 69

spissa (Aman.), 5

splachnoides (Mar.), 61

splendens (Cli.), 86

spodoleucus (Mar.), 62

spodoleucus (Pleu.), 100

spoliatum (Heb.), 161

spongiosus (Pleu.), 98

Spraguei (Copr.), 234

spumosa (Flam.), 174

squalens (Psil.), 227

squalidus (Hyg.), 79

squalidus (Lac.), 65

squamea (Arm.), 15

squamifera (Psath'lla), 219

squamigera (Schulz.), 241

squamosa (Psath.), 224

squamosa (Stro.), 210

squamosus (Copr.), 231

squamulosa (Cli.), 85

squamulosa (Stro.), 209

squarrosa (Phol.), 143

squarrulosa (Ino.), 149

squarrulosum (Trich.), 21

stabilis (Flam.), 175

stagnina (Tub.), 171

stannea (Myc.), 43

stans (Trich.), 18

Staringii (Pleu.), 101

staurospora (Nol.), 130

stellaris (Copr.), 237

stellata (Omp.), 95

stemmatus (Cort.), 196

stenocoleus (Copr.), 229

stercoraria (Stro.), 210

stercorarius (Copr.), 236

sterile (Heb.), 161

sterquilinus (Copr.), 228

Stevensoni (Can.), 108

Stevensoni (Col.), 52

Stevensonii (Panus), 115

stictica (Nau.), 164

stilbocephalus (Clitop.), 136

stillatitius (Cort.), 185

stiparophyllum (Trich.), 23

stipitaria (Col.), 50

stipticus (Panus), 115

stipularis (Myc.), 47

stiriacus (Crep.), 201

Stocseki (Heb.), 160

storea (Hyp.), 214

straminella (Lepi.), 12

straminipes (Clitop.), 136

strangulata (Amtop.), 6

streptopus (Hyg.), 76

striaepes (Nau.), 165

striaepileus (Amp.), 92

striatulus (Pleu.), 105

stricta (Psath.), 222

strictipes (Trich.), 28

stridula (Col.), 49

strigiceps (Ino.), 157

strobiliformis (Aman.), 6

strobiliformis (Lepi.), 11

strobilina (Myc.), 37

=Stropharia=, 208

strophosum (Heb.), 159

Strossmayeri (Copr.), 235

strumosa (Col.), 49

Studeriana (Flam.), 176

stylobates (Myc.), 46

suaveolens (Cli.), 88

suavis (Nau.), 167

suavissimis (Lent.), 113

subalutacea (Cli.), 81

subannulatus (Mar.), 56

subatomata (Psath'lla), 220

subatrata (Psath'lla), 218

subbalteatus (Paneo.), 218

subcava (Arm.), 16

subcoeruleo-griseus (Copr.), 233

subcollariatum (Heb.), 159

subdecastes (Cli.), 83

subdenticulatus (Can.), 106

subdulcis (Lac.), 68

subericaea (Psil.), 225

suberosus (Hyg.), 75

subferrugineus (Cort.), 197

subfirmus (Paneo.), 217

subgibbosus (Agar.), 208

subglobosa (Nol.), 130

subglobosa (Nau.), 162

subgranulosa (Ino.), 154

subintiger (Crep.), 202

subinvoluta (Cli.), 86

sublanatus (Cort.), 187

sublateritium (Hyp.), 213

sublentum (Hyp.), 216

subliquescens (Psath.), 222

sublutea (Phol.), 145

subnotatus (Cort.), 190

subnuda (Psath.), 223

subpalmatus (Pleu.), 99

subpapillatum (Hyp.), 216

subplicatus (Pleu.), 105

subplicosa (Myc.), 42

subpulverulentum (Trich.), 28

subpurpurascens (Hyg.), 71

subradiatus (Hyg.), 76

subrimosa (Ino.), 156

subrosea (Psath'lla), 220

subrubens (Ent.), 126

subrufulus (Pleu.), 102

subsaponaceum (Heb.), 159

subsimilis (Cort.), 183

subsquarrosa (Phol.), 144

subtemulenta (Nau.), 166

subtilis (Psath'lla), 221

subtortum (Heb.), 158

subtortus (Cort.), 243

subumbonatus (Lac.), 65

subviscifera (Clito.), 242

subzonatum (Heb.), 161

succinea (Col.), 52

sudora (Myc.), 40

sudum (Trich.), 22

suffrutescens (Lent.), 112

suillus (Cort.), 187

sulcata (Psath'lla), 220

sulcata (Stro.), 211

sulcato-crenatus (Copr.), 238

sulcatula (Stro.), 211

sulcatus (Hyg.), 77

sulfurinus (Cort.), 181

sulphureum (Trich.), 23

supina (Myc.), 44

suratus (Cort.), 184

sylvestre (Hyp.), 215

Syrjense (Heb.), 159

syrjensis (Hyg.), 78

tabacella (Nau.), 165

tabacina (Nau.), 165

tabescens (Cli.), 83

_tabescens_ (Coll.), 83

tabidus (Lac.), 70

tabularis (Cort.), 188

talus (Cort.), 180

Tamii (Flam.), 173

tardus (Copr.), 238

Tavastense (Stro.), 209

Tavastensis (Nau.), 166

Taylori (Vol.), 119

tegularis (Psil.), 226

telmatiaea (Omp.), 93

temperata (Vol.), 120

temulenta (Nau.), 166

tenacella (Col.), 52

tenax (Nau.), 166

tenebrosa (Ino.), 151

tenella (Arrh.), 110

tenella (Myc.), 44

tener (Bolb.), 148

tenera (Gal.), 168

tenerrima (Myc.), 46

tenuiceps (Trich.), 21

tenuicula (Psath.), 222

tenuiculus (Plut.), 123

tenuis (Myc.), 43

tenuis (Panus), 115

tenuissima (Gal.), 170

tephroleucus (Hyg.), 74

terginus (Mar.), 57

tergiversans (Copr.), 231

Terrei (Lac.), 68

terreum (Trich.), 21

terrigena (Phol.), 141

tersa (Phol.), 145

tesquorum (Col.), 55

tessulatus (Pleu.), 98

testaceocanescens (Cort.), 191

testaceum (Heb.), 158

testaceus (Cort.), 181

theiodes (Vol.), 119

theiogalus (Lac.), 62

thelephora (Col.), 52

Thomsoni (Ent.), 126

tigrinellus (Copr.), 234

tigrinum (Trich.), 24

tigrinus (Lent.), 111

tintinabulum (Myc.), 41

tithymalinus (Lac.), 68

titubans (Bolb.), 147

togularis (Phol.), 141

tomentella (Ino.), 155

tomentellus (Lent.), 113

tomentosus (Copr.), 232

tomentosus (Lac.), 65

tophaceus (Cort.), 186

torminosus (Lac.), 66

tornata (Cli.), 82

torpens (Psath.), 221

torquatus (Mar.), 60

torquescens (Mar.), 58

tortipes (Ent.), 126

tortuosum (Heb.), 161

tortuosus (Cort.), 197

torulosus (Panus), 114

torvus (Cort.), 192

trabea (Lenz.), 116

trachelina (Myc.), 46

traganus (Cort.), 186

transilvanica (Ann.), 120

translucens (Claud.), 137

transversum (Hyp.), 213

Trappenii (Copr.), 229

trechispora (Ino.), 157

tremens (Pleu.), 104

tremulus (Pleu.), 103

trepida (Psath'lla), 219

trichocephala (Phol.), 145

=Tricholoma=, 17

tricholoma (Ino.), 157

tricolor (Lenz.), 116

tricolor (Omp.), 94

triformis (Cort.), 195

Trinii (Ino.), 154

triscopoda (Nau.), 165

triste (Trich.), 21

tristis (Ecc.), 137

triumphans (Cort.), 177

trivialis (Ino.), 150

trivialis (Lac.), 67

trochila (Col.), 50

=Trogia=, 117

Trogii (Cli.), 82

trullaeformis (Cli.), 85

truncatum (Heb.), 160

truncorum (Copr.), 236

tuba (Cli.), 87

tubaeformis (Can.), 107

=Tubaria=, 171

tuberculata (Lepi.), 12

tuberculosa (Phol.), 145

tuberosa (Col.), 51

tuberosus (Copr.), 235

tumescens (Arm.), 16

tumidum (Trich.), 22

tumulosa (Cli.), 84

turbidum (Ent.), 127

turbinatus (Cort.), 180

Turci (Lep.), 132

turgidus (Cort.), 185

turmalis (Cort.), 178

turpis (Lac.), 67

Turrissi (Can.), 107

turritum (Trich.), 27

turundus (Hyg.), 77

tylicolor (Col.), 56

typhae (Psath.), 222

typhicola (Nau.), 164

tyrianthina (Cli.), 81

uda (Psil.), 225

uliginosus (Cort.), 190

ulmarius (Pleu.), 98

umbellatus (Lent.), 112

umbellifera (Omp.), 94

umbilicata (Omp.), 92

umbilicatus (Cort.), 197

umbonatus (Can.), 167

umbratica (Ino.), 155

umbratila (Omp.), 96

umbrina (Ino.), 153

umbrinellus (Plut.), 123

umbrinus (Copr.), 229

umbrinus (Lac.), 67

umbrosus (Plut.), 121

undatus (Clitop.), 135

undulosa (Nau.), 165

unguentatum (Trich.), 20

unguicularis (Pleu.), 104

unguinosus (Hyg.), 79

unicolor (Phol.), 146

unimodus (Cort.), 199

uraceus (Cort.), 198

urania (Myc.), 43

urbicus (Cort.), 191

urbum (Trich.), 28

urceolata (Amtop.), 6

urens (Mar.), 56

urnula (Panus), 114

ursinus (Lent.), 113

urticaecola (Psath.), 224

ustale (Trich.), 18

utilis (Lac.), 69

uvidus (Lac.), 63

vaccinum (Trich.), 20

vaginata (Amtop.), 6

Vaillantii (Mar.), 59

valgus (Cort.), 190

valida (Aman.), 5

vaporarius (Panus), 114

variabilis (Claud.), 137

varicosus (Mar.), 57

varicus (Copr.), 232

variegata (Lenz.), 116

variegatum (Trich.), 19

variegatus (Cort.), 180

variicolor (Cort.), 178

varius (Cort.), 178

vatricosa (Ino.), 157

velaris (Copr.), 240

velatus (Copr.), 232

vellereus (Lac.), 66

velox (Copr.), 237

veluticeps (Col.), 47

velutina (Omp.), 94

velutinum (Hyp.), 215

velutinus (Hyg.), 74

velutipes (Col.), 50

veneris (Cli.), 81

venetus (Cort.), 191

venosum (Ent.), 128

ventosa (Omp.), 91

ventricosa (Col.), 52

ventricosa (Stro.), 209

ventricosus (Hyg.), 75

venusta (Lepi.), 12

venustissima (Cli.), 81

venustula (Myc.), 37

verecunda (Nol.), 130

vermicularis (Cli.), 87

vernalis (Aman.), 4

vernicosa (Cli.), 81

verpoides (Nyc.), 110

verrucipes (Arm.), 16

versatilis (Nol.), 128

versicolor (Stro.), 208

versipelle (Heb.), 158

vertiruga (Col.), 50

vervacti (Nau.), 165

vesca (Rus.), 33

vespertinus (Cort.), 243

vestita (Tub.), 171

vesuviana (Omp.), 92

veternosa (Rus.), 35

vibecina (Cli.), 88

vibratilis (Cort.), 185

vicina (Psil.), 228

vietus (Lac.), 64

vignolius (Hyg.), 73

vilis (Cli.), 82

vilis (Clitop.), 135

villosa (Phol.), 144

violaceafusca (Ino.), 150

violaceo-atrum (Hyp.), 216

violaceofulvus (Panus), 115

violaceonitens (Trich.), 27

violarius (Plut.), 121

violascens (Heb.), 159

violascens (Ino.), 149

violascens (Lac.), 63

vinacea (Nol.), 129

vinosa (Flam.), 173

vinosus (Cort.), 187

viperina (Vol.), 120

virescens (Psil.), 225

virescens (Rus.), 33

virgatum (Trich.), 22

virginea (Rus.), 31

virgineus (Hyg.), 75

viridans (Ent.), 125

viridifluens (Nol.), 130

viridimarginata (Myc.), 37

viridis (Lac.), 70

virosa (Aman.), 3

viscidula (Tub.), 172

viscidus (Gomp.), 212

viscosus (Cort.), 186

vitellina (Rus.), 29

vitellinopes (Cort.), 179

vitellinus (Bolb.), 147

vitellinus (Hyg.), 77

vitilis (Myc.), 44

vitrea (Myc.), 43

Vittadinii (Lepi.), 11

vittaeformis (Gal.), 169

Viviani (Arm.), 16

volemus (Lac.), 64

volvacea (Vol.), 119

volvaceo-minimus (Copr.), 229

=Volvaria=, 119

vopiscus (Nyc.), 110

vulgaris (Myc.), 45

vulpecula (Cli.), 81

vulpinus (Lent.), 113

Weislandri (Nau.), 167

Whitei (Ino.), 157

Worthingtoni (Stro.), 210

Wynnei (Ent.), 127

Wynnei (Mar.), 58

Wynniae (Hiat.), 14

Wynniae (Hyg.), 78

xanthodermus (Agar.), 205

xanthogramma (Ann.), 120

xanthophaea (Rus.), 30

xanthophylla (Cli.), 90

xanthopoda (Col.), 52

xerampelina (Rus.), 29

xerotoides (Mar.), 59

=Xerotus=, 116

xylophila (Col.), 49

zahlbruckneri (Claud.), 138

zephira (Myc.), 38

zinziberatus (Cort.), 198

zizyphana (Cli.), 87

zonarius (Agar.), 207

zonarius (Lac.), 67

zygophylla (Cli.), 89 */





=A Glossary of Botanic Terms=, with their derivation and accent. By
BENJAMIN DAYDON JACKSON, Secretary of the Linnean Society of London.
Crown 8vo. 6_s._ net.

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=Agricultural Botany: Theoretical and Practical.= By JOHN PERCIVAL,
M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Botany at the South-Eastern Agricultural
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6_d._ net.

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     Incorporated in the text are 265 illustrations, and over three
     hundred experiments, which specially enhance the value of the book
     for schools and colleges where botany, agriculture, and
     horticulture are taught.

     _Nature._--"We have no hesitation in recommending it as _the_
     elementary handbook for the agricultural student. The chapters on
     weeds and on diseases of farm-plants are distinctly better than
     those in any previous English works dealing with agricultural

     _Journal of Education._--"A book which supplies what has for a long
     time been felt as a serious want in the literature of agricultural
     textbooks.... The book could hardly have been better."


=A Text-Book of Plant Diseases=, caused by Cryptogamic Parasites. By
GEORGE MASSEE, F.L.S., Mycologist and Principal Assistant, Royal
Herbarium, Kew. With 92 Illustrations, drawn from Nature by the Author.
Crown 8vo. 5_s._ net.

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     textbook on the subject."

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     kind that has yet appeared."


=A Hand-book of British Rubi.= By the Rev. W. MOYLE ROGERS, F.L.S. Demy
8vo. 5_s._ net.


Transcriber's Notes.

The printer used raised dots for the decimal point; they were changed to

The dagger symbol was used in the keys; I changed them to the plus sign.

There are many inconsistencies in the way words are abbreviated, the
hyphenation, the Latin word endings and the capitalization of names, as
well as the spelling in general; except where noted below, I left them
as is.

Changed "subq." to "subg." on page 11: "sp. subg. 6-7."

Changed comma to period after "rufous" on page 23: "p. tinged rufous."

Changed "peristently" to "persistently" on page 24: "persistently
reddish flesh colour."

Added missing period after "g" on page 30: "g. deep ochraceous."

Sometimes the abbreviation "sp." is missing when the spores are
described, such as page 31; I left them as is. Similarly, the
abbreviation "P." is sometimes missing when the pileus is described as
on page 50. I also left this as is.

Added period after "var" on page 36: "var. violacea."

Changed "striata" to "striate" on page 42: "striate at paler margin."

Changed comma to period in entry for haematopoda on page 45:

Changed "mik" to "milk" on page 45: "giving out milk when broken."

Changed period to comma after "lax" on page 49: "lax, campan. then exp."

Changed "hariolarum" to "hariolorum" on page 51: "Differs from C.

Although it appears that "P." should be after "Acrid.", I left it as is
on page 56 in the entry for M. urens.

Changed "palllid" to "pallid" on page 56: "pallid then rufescent."

The upper limit on the size of the pileus for M. plancus is missing on
page 57. I inserted an ellipsis as a placeholder.

Added a period after "P" on page 57: (varicosus) "P. 1.5-3 cm."

Changed "sub-umb." to "subumb." on page 58: "subumb. lilac-brown."

The spore size for M. fuscopurpureus on page 57 was left as "4-3" even
though that must be in error.

Changed semi-colon to comma on page 72: "with white points upwards, 3-5

The authority for M. xerotoides was left as "Tr.", although "Fr." might
have been intended.

Replaced "]" with ")" on page 79: "(= _Clitocybe Marzuolus_, Bres.)."

The authority for C. hirneola var. undulata was missing on page 80; I
inserted "----." as a placeholder.

Inserted period after "s" on page 83: "s. 7-10 cm."

Changed "floccossly" to "floccosely" on page 85: "floccosely villose."

Changed "yelllow" to "yellow" on page 100: "white then livid yellow."

There are two entries for Cantharellus tubaeformis var. lutescens on
page 107. Although these are almost identical, I kept them both.

Changed comma to period on page 108: "plano-infundib."

Changed "p." to "P." on page 112: "P. thin, subdimidiate."

Changed "Quelet" to "Quélet" on page 116: "Quélet says."

Removed extra period after "then" on page 126: "P. campan. then exp."

Changed "D.C." to "D. C." on page 140: "lamellirugis, D. C."

Changed "verdegris" to "verdigris" on page 149: "tinged verdigris at
base." Also on page 175: "verdigris green."

Removed replaced hyphen with space on page 149: "apex naked."

Change "squarrosula" to "squarrulosa" on page 149: "squarrulosa, Karst."

Inserted period after "var" on page 156: "var. major, B. and Br."

Removed extra period after "campanulato" on page 161: "P.

Inserted period after "g" on page 168: "g. slightly sinuate."

Changed "Hypholama" to "Hypholoma" on page 175: "Habit of Hypholoma

Changed "Sub-genera" to "Subgenera" on page 177: "Key to the Subgenera."

Changed "sub-bulbous" to "subbulbous" on page 177 for consistency:
"subbulbous base." Also on page 197: "subbulbous base."

Changed "fucescent" to "fuscescent" on page 188: "fuscescent with a grey

Sometimes, as on page 208, the Micro character is included with the
spore size. I left these where they occurred in the original.

Inserted comma after "free" on page 230: "g. free, white then black."

Removed extra period after "in" on page 236: "in p. being globose."

Inserted periods after "Jacobasch" and ")" on page 238 for consistency:
"Jacobasch. (= _Cop. intermedius_ Gill.)."

Changed "+" to "×" on page 240: (Pallassii) "sp. 12 × 4."

Added missing ")" to close paragraph on page 246: "British Fungi.')"

Changed "caeseriata" to "caesariata" on page 251: "caesariata (Ino.),

Changed "cöopertus" to "coöpertus" on page 253: "coöpertus (Copr.),

Changed "16" to "86" on page 256: "flaccida (Cli.), 86."

Moved period inside parentheses on page 256: "ephemerus (Copr.), 237."

Inserted missing page number in Index: "macrocephalus (Copr.), 234."

Changed "Amv." to "Ann." on page 261: "laevis (Ann.), 120."

Left inconsistent capitalization of "Var." and "var."

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "European Fungus Flora: Agaricaceae" ***

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