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Title: A briefe discription of New England and the severall townes therein - together with the present government thereof
Author: Maverick, Samuel
Language: English
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[From a Manuscript written in 1660 by Samuel Maverick, and recently
discovered in the British Museum by Henry F. Waters, A.B.]






The Committee on English Research of the New England Historic
Genealogical Society called attention in their last annual report to the
fact that there were in England many important documents relating to the
American colonies, as well as manuscript maps hitherto unknown to
historical investigators. They urged upon the society the desirability
of having exact copies of them made now while we have in Mr. Henry
Fitz-Gilbert Waters an experienced American antiquary resident in
London. This statement has been most strikingly verified by the recent
discovery by Mr. Waters of the Winthrop map--one of the most valuable
contributions yet made to our early colonial history--notices of which
appeared in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society for
June, 1884, and in the REGISTER for July, 1884 (xxxviii. 342).

The manuscript "Description of New England," which is here printed, is a
still more important discovery. Though it bears neither name nor date,
there is internal evidence that it was written in the year 1660, after
the return of Charles II., by Samuel Maverick, afterwards one of the
king's commissioners. Maverick, when Winthrop and his company arrived,
was settled at Noddle's Island, now East Boston, and was known to have
been here some years before. The date of his arrival in New England has
hitherto been unknown. This manuscript gives it as 1624. Maverick was
then about twenty-two years old.

An account of New England by one of the first white men who ever settled
on the shores of Massachusetts Bay, one of the "old planters" whom Gov.
Winthrop found here, is certainly of extraordinary interest to all
students of our colonial history. Its fortunate discovery emphasizes in
the strongest manner the great importance of the work which Mr. Waters
is doing for us in England.

This paper clears up many obscurities in our early New England history,
and gives us definite information which we have long desired to obtain.
It was probably presented to Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards Earl of
Clarendon, who was then Charles the Second's Lord High Chancellor. It
may be the paper referred to by Maverick in his letter to the earl,
printed in the Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1869,
page 19. That letter and others in the same volume should be read in
connection with the present paper. They show the persistency displayed
by Maverick in his efforts to deprive New England, and particularly
Massachusetts, of the right of self-government which had so long been
enjoyed here. The same spirit is shown in his letters printed in the
third volume of the New York Colonial Documents. The death of Maverick,
which occurred between October 15, 1669, and May 15, 1676, did not bring
repose to the people of Massachusetts. In the latter year a new
assailant of their charter appeared in the person of Edward Randolph
(see REGISTER, xxxvi. 155), whose assaults on their liberties did not
cease till the charter was wrested from them, and the government under
it came to an end May 20, 1686.

The document here printed is in the British Museum, Egerton MSS. 2395,
ff. 397-411. The volume containing it was in private hands till 1875,
when on the sixteenth of February in that year it was sold at auction by
Messrs. Sotheby & Co., London, and bought by the Trustees of the British

The long residence of Mr. Maverick, the writer of this "Description of
New England," on these shores, and the opportunities which he is known
to have had to learn personally the facts here stated, give it greater
weight than it would have had were it merely the observations of a
transient visitor to the New World.

This document was read before the Massachusetts Historical Society by
John T. Hassam, A.M., in October, 1884, and is printed in its
Proceedings, vol. xxi. p. 231. It was also printed in the New-England
Historical and Genealogical Register for January, 1885, and the type set
for that periodical have been used to print the present issue.

     _Boston, Massachusetts, January 1, 1885._



_Pe[~m]aquid._--Westward from Penobscott (which is the Southermost Fort
in Nova Scotia) fourteen Leagues of is Pe[~m]aquid in which River
Alderman Alworth of Bristole, setled a Company of People in the yeare
1625, which Plantation hath continued and many Families are now settled
there. There was a Patent granted for it by his Mat^{ies}: Royall
Grandfath^{er} and by vertue of that Patent they hold the Islands of
Monahegan and Damerells Coue, and other small ones adjacent Commodious
for fishing.

_Sagadahocke._--Three leagues distant from Damerells Coue is Sagadahocke
at the mouth of Kenebeth River, on which place the Lord Pohams people
setled about fiftie yeares since, but soon after deserted it, and
returned for England; I found Rootes and Garden hearbs and some old
walles there, when I went first over which shewed it to be the place
where they had been. This is a great and spreading River and runes very
neer into Canada. One Captaine Young and 3 men with him in the Yeare
1636 went up the River upon discovery and only by Carying their Canoes
some few times, and not farr by Land came into Canada River very neare
Kebeck Fort where by the French, Cap^{t} Young was taken, and carried
for ffrance but his Company returned safe and about 10 yeares since a
Gentleman and a Fryer came down this way from Kebeck to us in New
England to desire aide from us ag^{st} the Mowake Indians who were and
still are their deadly enemies; This River by reason of its nearnesse
to Canada and some other branches of it tending towards Hudsons River;
and a Lake of Canada afford more Beaver skins and other peltry then any
other about us: On this River & on the Islands lying on the mouth of it
are many families Scatteringly setled. Some attend wholly the trade with
the Indians, others planting and raiseing a stock of Cattle and Some at
the mouth of the River keep fishing. There was a patent granted to
Christo: Batchelo^{r} and Company in the year 1632 or thereabouts for
the mouth of the River and some tract of land adjacent, who came over in
the Ship named the Plough, and termed themselves the Plough Companie,
but soon scattered some for Virginia some for England, some to the
Massachusetts never settling on that land.

_Casco Bay._--Betweene Sagadahocke and Cape Elizabeth lying about 7
Leagues assunder is Casco Bay; about the yeare 1632 there was a Patent
granted to one Cap^{t}. Christopher Lewett for 6000 acres of land which
he tooke up in this Bay neare Cape Elizabeth and built a good House and
fortified well on an Island lyeing before Casco River this he sold and
his Interrest in the Patent to M^{r} Ceeley M^{r} Jope and Company of
Plimouth, In this Casco Bay are many scattering Families settled. There
was a Patent granted for this Bay some yeares since by the title of the
Province of Ligonia to Collonell Alexander Rigby afterwards a Judge, and
under this Goverment the People lived some yeares, till of late the
Government of the Massachusits hath made bold to stretch its
Jurisdiction to the midle of this Bay, and as lyeing in their way have
taken in a dozen of Goverments more.

_Richmond Island._--There was long since a Patent granted to M^{r}
Robert Trelawny of Plymouth from Cape Elizabeth to Spurwinke River
including all Richmond Isle, an Excellent ffishing place, His Agents for
matter of Goverment long since submitted to the Province of Mayne, for
which Province a Patent was long since granted to S^{r} Ferdinando
Gorges there are not many people in it, Those that are, are under the
Goverment of the Massachusits.

_Black Point._--The next place inhabited is Black Point two miles from
Richmond Island; For this a Patent was granted to Captaine Cammock whose
successor M^{r} Henry Joselin lives there now, and severall Families
besides, they were under the Goverment of the Province of Mayne, but now
Commanded by the Massachusits.

_Saco._--Three miles beyond this is Saco River abounding with ffish as
Basse, Sturgeon and Salmond. The Northside of the River was granted by
Patent to M^{r} Lewis and Capt. Bonithan, and the Southside to on M^{r}
Richard Vines, upon this River are severall Families setled formerly
under the Goverment of the Province of Majne and here was keept some
time the Generall Court for that Province, but now Commanded by the

_Wells._--Three miles from Saco River are Cape Porpyes Islands a good
ffishing place, where are Severall Families setled, and 4 miles from
thence is Wells a handsome and well peopled place Lying on both sides of
a River, for which Place a Patent was long since Granted to on M^{r}
John Stratton but now Commanded by the Massachusetts.

_Bristoll_ now _Yorke_.--About 12 miles further is the River Agomentine,
for which and the lands adjacent a Patent was (nere 30 yeares since)
granted unto S^{r} Ferdinando Gorges, M^{r} Godfrey, Alderman ffoote of
Bristoll myselfe, and some others, On the northside of this River at our
great Cost and Charges wee setled many ffamilies, which was then called
Bristoll, and according to the Patent, the Goverment was conformable to
that of the Corporation of Bristoll, only admitting of Appeales to the
Generall Court for the Province of Mayne which was often keept there,
but some yeares since the Goverment with the rest was Swallowed up by
the Massachusetts.

_Nichiquiwanick._--About 3 miles from Agomentine is the River Pascataway
which is 6 miles from the mouth. It brancheth itselfe in two Branches,
the South branch of which retaineth the name of Pascataway the other
Nichiquiwanick, on the Northside of this River there are severall
Divisions of Land granted long since by Patents unto diverse persons as
Cap^{t} Mason, Cap^{t} Griffith, M^{r} Gardener and others, on which are
severall persons setled for 12 miles togither. At the Falls of
Nichiquiwanick 3 Excellent Saw-Mills are seatted and there and downward
that side of y^{e} River have been gotten most of the Masts which have
come for England, and amongst the rest that admired Mast which came over
some time last year containing neere 30 Tu[=n]es of Ti[=m]ber (as I have
been informed).

_Cochequo._--On the Sowth side of that Branch is a Creeke Cochequo,
whereon at the head are 2 Saw Mills, and affoord good Masts, & Mutch
Tarr hath been made on that Creeke side.

_Dover._--Belowe where the River parteth stands on a Tongue of Land the
Towne of Dover, for which place and the land adjacent some gentlemen of
or about Shrewsbury have a Patent.

_Oyster Creeke._--On the Northside of the South Arme is Oyster Creeke on
which place are many people setled some Saw Mills and affoords yow Good
Masts, and further up is another Saw Mill on Lamperell Creeke.

_Exeter._--Above this at the fall of this River Pascatoway is the Towne
of Exceter, where are more Saw Mills, doune the Southside of this River
are Farmes and other Stragling Families.

_Strawberry Bank. The Great House & Isle of Shooles._--Within 2 Myles of
the Mouth is Strawberry Banke where are many Families, and a Minister &
a Meeting House, and to the meeting Houses of Dower & Exceter, most of
the people resort. This Strawberry Banke is part of 6000 acres granted
by Patent about y^{e} yeare 1620 or 1621, to M^{r} David Thompson, who
with the assistance of M^{r} Nicholas Sherwill, M^{r} Leonard Pomery and
M^{r} Abraham Colmer of Plymouth Merchants, went ower with a
Considerable Company of Servants and built a Strong and Large House,
enclosed it with a large and high Palizado and mounted Gunns, and being
stored extraordinarly with shot and Ammunition was a Terror to the
Indians, who at that time were insulting over the poor weake and
unfurnished Planters of Plymouth. This house and ffort he built on a
Point of Land at the very entrance of Pascatoway River, And haveing
granted by Patent all the Island bordering on this land to the Midle of
the River, he tooke possession of an Island co[=m]only called the great
Island and for the bounds of this land he went up the River to a point
called Bloudy Point, and by the sea side about 4 milles he had also
power of Goverment within his owne bounds, Notwithstanding all this, all
is at this day in the power and at the disposall of the Massachusitts.
Two Leagues of lyes the Isle of Shooles one of the best places for
ffishing in the land, they have built a Church here and maintaine a

_Hampton._--Eight Miles to the Southward of Pascatoway is a small River
called Monoconock, on which River is a large Town called Hampton, The
inhabitants living weell by Corne and Cattle, of which they have great
store, Ther was a Patent granted for this very place to Cap^{t} Mason
neare 40 yeares agoe & this was the first land the Massachusits stretcht
there line over beyond there true bounds: For about 3 miles South of
this place, at there first coming over they sett up a house and named it
the bound House as finding it three miles from Meromack, the North bound
of there Patent, and with this they rested contented for about 10

_Salisbury New & Old._--Seaven Miles to the Southward of Hampton is
Meromack River, on the mouth of which on the Northside is seatted a
Large Toune called Sallisbury, and 3 miles above it a Village called old
Salisbury, where ther is a Saw Mill or two. The Commodities this Toune
affords are Corne, Cattle, Boards and Piper Staues.

_Haverell Andover._--Fouer Leagues up this River is Haverell, a pretty
Toune & a few miles higher is the Toune of Andouer both these Tounes
subsist by Husbandry.

_Newbury._--At the mouth on the southside of Meromack and upwards is
seated the Towne of Newbury, the Houses stand at a good distance each
from other a feild and Garden between each house, and so on both sides
the street for 4 Miles or therabouts betweene Salisbury and this Towne,
the River is broader then the Thames at Deptford, and in the Sumer
abounds with Sturgeon, Salmon and other ffresh water fish. Had we the
art of takeing and saveing the Sturgeon it would prove a very great
advantage, the Country affording Vinager, and all other Materialls to do
it withall.

In this Towne and old Newbury adjoining are 2 Meeting Houses.

_Rowley._--Three Miles beyound this Old Newbury is a large and populous
Towne called Rowley about two miles from the Bay of Agowame within land
the Inhabitants are most Yorkshiremen very laborious people and drive a
pretty trade, makeing Cloath and Ruggs of Cotton Wool, and also Sheeps
wooll with which in few yeares the Countrey will abound not only to
supply themselves but also to send abroad. This Towne aboundeth with
Corne, and Cattle, and have a great number of Sheep.

_Ipswich._--Three Miles beyond Rowley lyeth Ipswich at the head of
Agawame River, as farr up as Vessells cane come. It hath many
Inhabitants, and there farmes lye farr abroad, some of them severall
miles from the Towne. So also they do about other Townes.

_Wenham._--Six Miles from this Towne lyeth a Towne called Wenham seated
about a great Lake or Pond which abounds with all manner of ffresh
ffish, and such co[=m]odities as other places have it affordeth.

_Gloucester._--Between these two Townes there runes out into the Sea
that noated head land called Cape Ann fower miles within the outermost
head. There is a Passage cutt through a Marsh between Cape Ann Harbo^{r}
& Manisqwanne Harbour where stands the Towne called Glocester very
co[=m]odious for building of shipping and ffishing.

_Manchester._--Fower miles Westward from Glocester, lyeth on the Sea
side a small Towne called Manchester, there is a Sawmill and aboundance
of Timber.

_Mackrell & Basse Cove._--About six miles from this Towne lyeth by the
Sea side a Village Called Mackarell Coue, and a mile or 2 aboue on a
Branch of Salem River lyeth another Village called Basse Coue, These two
have Joyned and built a Church, which stands between them both ower
ag^{st} Salem.

_Salem._--On the South side of Salem River stands on a peninsula the
Towne of Salem, setled some yeares by a few people befor the Patent of
the Massachusits was granted. It is very commodious for fishing, and
many Vessells have been built there and (excep^{t} Boston) it hath as
much Trade as any place in New England both inland and abroad.

_Marblehead or Foy._--Two miles below this Towne on the Southside of the
Harbo^{r} by the sea side lyeth Marblehead or ffoy the greatest Towne
for ffishing in New England.

_Lynne._--Five miles Westward lyeth the Towne of Lynne along by the sea
side, and two miles aboue it within the bounds of it are the greatest
Iron works erected for the most part at the charge of some Merchants,
and Gentlmen here resideing and cost them about 14000£, who were as it
is conceived about six yeares since Injuriously outted of them to the
great prejudice of the Country and Owners.

_Reading._--Three miles above the Iron Worke in the Country is a pretty
Towne, called Reading, which as all inland Townes doe live by Husbandry.
The people have imployment also at the Iron work in digging of myne, and
cutting of wood.

_Rumney Marsh._--Two miles from the Ironwork by the Seaside is a large
Marsh called Rummney Marsh and between that and Winnisime being about 2
miles. There are many good farmes belonging to Bostone, which have a
Metting House, as it were a Chapel of Ease.

_Winnisime._--Two miles Sowth from Rumney Marsh on the North side of
Mistick River is Winnisime which though but a few houses on it, yet
deserves to be men[~c]ond One house yet standing there which is the
Antientest house in the Massachusetts Goverment, a house which in the
yeare 1625 I fortified with a Pillizado and fflankers and gunnes both
belowe and above in them which awed the Indians who at that time had a
mind to Cutt off the English, They once faced it but receiveing a
repulse never attempted it more although (as now they confesse) they
repented it when about 2 yeares after they saw so many English come

_Mauldon._--Two miles above Winnisime Westward stands a small Country
Towne called Mauldon, who imploy themselves much in ffurnishing the
Towne of Boston and Charles Towne with wood, Timber and other Materials
to build withall.

_Wooburne._--Fower or five miles above Mouldon West is a more
considerable Towne called Wooburne, they live by ffurnishing the Sea
Townes with Provisions as Corne and Flesh, and also they ffurnish the
Merchants with such goods to be exported.

_Charles Towne._--One mile from Winnisime crossing Mistick River is the
Towne of Charles Towne standing on the Northside of the Mouth of Charles
River, It Challengeth the second place of Antiquitie in the
Massachusetts Government. It hath some considerable Merchants in it and
many usefull handicraftsmen and many good farmers belonging to it.

_Cambridge._--Three miles aboue this stands on the same River the Towne
of Cambridge in which there is a Colledge a Master and some Number of
Students belonging to it; out of which there have come many into
England, The Towne hath many great ffarmes belonging to it.

_Water Towne._--Joyning to this is Watter Towne, a great Towne reaching
by y^{e} River Side two miles, and hath belonging to it very many and
great ffarmes, about the uper end of this Towne are the ffalls of
Charles River.

_Concord._--Above Twelve miles above Watter Towne is an In-land Towne
called Concord It lyeth on the River Meromack I conceive about 20 miles
above the first ffalls but good passing on it there in small Boats from
place to place. They subsist in Husbandry and breeding of Catle.

_Sudbury._--About 4 or 5 Miles more Southerly on the same River is a
Towne called Sudbury a very pleasant place, the River runing to & againe
in it, In which I have seen Excellent ffishing both with hooks & Lynes
and Netts, They plant and breed Catle, and gett something by Tradeing
w^{t} the Indians.

_Nashoway._--About ten or twelfe miles aboue these Two Townes is a
Countrey Towne called Nashoway first begun for Love of the Indians
Trade, but since the ffertility of y^{e} Soyle and pleasantness of the
River hath invited many more. There is Excellent Salmon and Trout.

Now we must returne to the mouth of Charles River againe or rather the
entrance of the Bay of Massachusits, It hath three entrances, two of
them difficult and dangerous without a good wind and Pylot. The
Southermost called Nasascot in the usuall Channell; w^{in} this Bay are
12 or 13 pretty Islands between some of which yow must saile about 2
leagues before yow come up to Boston Rode yow must passe within halfe a
Cable lenth of Castle Island, on which is a ffort above and a strong
Battery below, closs by Highwater marke, on this Island I conceive there
be thirtie good Gunns.

_Boston._--Two miles aboue this Island is the Towne of Boston, the
Metrapolis of New England lying pleasantly on a plaine and the ascending
of a High Mount which lyes about the midle of y^{e} plaine, The wholl
Towne is an Island except two Hundred paces of land at one place on the
Southside it is large and very populous. It hath two handsome Churches
in it, a handsome market place, and in the midest of it a Statehouse. In
the Towne are fouer full companys of ffoote and a Troope of horse On the
Southeast side of the Towne on a little Hill there is a Fort, and under
it a Batterie both having a dozen of Gunns or more in them, and on the
Northeast side of the Towne there is a Battery of 6 Gunns commanding the
Rode and the entrance of Charles River, and on the tope of the Hill
aboue the Towne and in the strats are severall good Gunns, The Towne is
full of good shopps well furnished with all kind of Merchandize and many
Artificers, and Trad's men of all sorts. In this Towne are kept the
Courts of Election y^{e} Generall quarter Court besids the Country

_Roxberry._--About two miles to the Southward of Boston is the Towne of
Roxberry. The sea which surrounds Boston comes on both sides of it. It
is well seatted, for the Body of the Towne lyeth on both sides a small
Rivolet of water. There are many considerable ffarmes belonging to it,
and by Farmeing is there most subsistance.

_Dorchester._--Two miles near east from this Towne lyeth Dorchester,
which claimes the third dignity as being y^{e} third Towne setled by the
English in the year 1630. They are a very industrious people, and have
large bounds on w^{ch} are many gallant Farmes, by these bounds runes
the Massachusets River.

_Dedham._--And on Charles River stands the Towne of Dedham about 8 Miles
either from Boston or Roxberry, a very pleasant place and the River
affoords plenty of good ffish In this Towne leiveth many Bisquett makers
and Butchers and have Vent enough for their Commodities in Boston.

_Medfeild._--Five or six Miles from Dedham is a small in-land Towne
called Medifield handsomly seatted for Farming and breeding of Cattle.

_Braintree._--Three or fouer miles Southward is a Towne once called
Mount Wolaston, now Braintree. There was a Patent granted for a
considerable tract of land in this place in the yeare 1632 or
thereabouts to Cap^{t} Wollaston and M^{r} Thomas Morton. Wollaston
returned for England and Morton was banished, his house fired before his
face, and he sent prissoner to England but for what offence I know not
who some yeares after (nothing being laid to his Charge) returned for
New England, where he was soon after apprehended and keept in the
Co[=m]on Goale a whole winter, nothing laid to his Charge but the
writeing of a Booke entituled New Canaan, which indeed was the truest
discription of New England as then it was that euer I saw. The offence
was he had touched them too neare they not proveing the charge he was
sett loose, but soone after dyed, haveing as he said and most believed
received his bane by hard lodging and fare in prison. This was done by
y^{e} Massachusetts Magistrats and the land by them disposed of. It
subsists by raiseing provisions, and furnishing Boston with wood.

_Weymouth._--Two or three miles from hence Sowthward is y^{e} Towne of
Weymouth, wherein are some quantity of Inhabitants, & leive as their
neibo^{rs} who have commerce with Boston.

_Higham._--Three Miles from hence Easterly on the South shoare of
Massachusits Bay is the Towne of Higham a handsome Towne supplying
Boston also with wood, timber, leather and board, Some Masts are had
there and store of provisions.

_Hull._--Three Miles further tending more to the East, at the very
entrance into the Massachusetts Bay is the Towne of Hull, the
Inhabitants of which leives well being by Water not above 7 Miles from
Boston tho neare 20 by land.

Three miles South from this place is the utmost south bounds of the
Massachusits Goverment and Territories, beyond which they have not gone
although they have gone soe farr beyond them to the Northward.

     Before I enter into Plymouth bounds I must say something
     of this Goverment which hath ouertopped all the rest.

About the yeare 1626 or 1627 there was a Patent granted by his
Maty^{es}: Royall Father of ever blessed Memory to certaine Gentlemen
and Merchants, for the Tract of land befor men[~c]ond, and power given
them by the same to incorporate themselfes into a body pollitick the
Governor and all other officers to be Annually chosen by the Majo^{r}
part of the inhabitants, ffreholders, As soon as the grant was
confirmed, they chose here on M^{r} Mathew Craddock Governo^{r} and one
Goffe deputy; They forthwith sent over one M^{r} Endicott, Governor[A]
as deputy to rule over us the Inhabitants which had leived there long
befor their Patent was granted, and some had Patents preceeding theirs,
had he had pouer according to his will he had ruled us to y^{e} purpose;
But within two yeares after they sent ower one M^{r} John Winthrope
Governor and with him a Company of Assistants all Chosen here in
England without the Knowledge or Consent of them that then leived there
or of those which came with them.

    [A] This word "Governor" was interlined over the word "as," and
        unfortunately no caret mark made to show its intended place.

This Governo^{r} and his Councill, not long after their Aryvall made a
law that no man should be admitted a Freeman, and soe Consequently have
any voyce in Election of Officers Civill or Military, but such as were
first entered into Church covenant and brought Certificate of it, let
there Estates, and accordingly there portion of land be never soe great,
and there taxes towards publick Charges. Nor could any competency of
Knowledge or inoffensivenesse of liveing or conversation usher a man
into there Church ffellowship, unless he would also acknowledge the
discipline of the Church of England to be erroneous and to renounce it,
which very many never condescended unto, so that on this account the far
great Number of his Majesties loyall subjects there never injoyed those
priviledges intended by his Royall ffather in his Grant, And upon this
very accompt also, if not being Joyned in Church ffelowship many
Thowzands have been debarred the Sacrament of the Lords Supper although
of Competent knowledg, and of honest life and Godly Conversation, and a
very great Number are unbaptized. I know some neer 30 years old, 7
persons of Quality about 12 years since for petitioning for themselves &
Neighbo^{rs} that they might have votes in Elections as ffreeholders or
be ffreed from publick Charge, and be admitted to the Sacrament of the
Lords Supper and theire Children to Baptisme as Members of the Church of
England, and have liberty to have Ministers among themselves learned
pious and Orthodox, no way dissonant from ye best Reformation in
England, and desireing alsoe to have a body of Lawes to be Established
and published to prevent Arbitrary Tiranny, For thus desireing these
three reasonable requests besids imprissonement and other indignitys,
they were fined 1000^{lb}, a Notw^{t}standing they Appealled to England,
they were forced to pay the same, and now also at great Charges to send
one home to prosecute their appeall which proved to no Effect, That
dismall Change falling out, Just at that time And they sending home
hither one Edward Winslow a Smooth toungued Cunning fellow, who soon
gott himselfe into Favo^{r} of those then in Supreame power, against
whom it was in vaine to strive, and soe they remained sufferers to this

By what I have said it appears how the Major part of the Inhabitants are
debarred of those Priviledges they ought to enjoy and were intended
fo^{r} them, How they Esteem of the Church of England. How farr they
owne his Matie as haveing any power over them, or their Subjection to
him; This I know that not long after they arrived they defaced the
Collou^{rs} which they brought over with them, being the English Redd
Cross terming it a badge of the Whore of Babelon.

And not long after haveing received a Report that his Mat^{ie} intended
to send a Generall Governo^{r} over, and being informed by a Shallop
that they had seen a great shipe and a smaller one goe into Cape Ann
Harbo^{r} about 8 Leagues from Boston. There was an Alarme presently
given and early in the Morning being Sabbath day all the Traine Bands in
Boston, and Townes adjacent were in Armes in the streets and posts were
sent to all other places to be in the same posture, in which they
continued untill by theire scouts they found her to be a small shipe of
Plymouth and a shallope that piloted her in, The generall and Publick
report was that it was to oppose the landing of an Enemie a Governo^{r}
sent from England, and with this they acquanted the Commanders.

And about the year 1636 one Brooks hearing one Evers to vilifie the
Goverment of England both Civill and Eclesiasticall, and saying that if
a Generall Governo^{r} were sent over he would kill him if he could, and
he knew the Magistrats would bear him out in it, of which Brooks
complaining by way of Information, the matter was handled that Evers had
nothing said to him, and Brookes forced to escape privatly for England.

They also in the yeare 1646 & 1647 suffered a ship the Mary of Bristoll
then standing out for the Kings Majestie to be taken by one Stagg
haveing a Commission from the Parliament, and conveyed away although
they had promised them a protection. They also Ordered the takeing downe
of the Kings Armes and setting up the States, & the like by the Signe of
the Kings head hanging before the doore of an Inne. And when that
unhappy warr was between King and Parlia^{t} they compelled every
Commander of a Vessell that went out from thence to enter into Bond not
to have any Commerce with any place then holding out for the King, and
in opposition to the then pretended power in England, Nor was there ever
any Oath of Alleageance offered to any, but instead thereof they have
framed two Oathes, which they impose on those which are made free. The
other they terme the Oath of ffidelitie, which they force all to take
that are above 16 yeares of age, a Coppy of it is as followeth--

I. A. B. by Gods providence being an Inhabitant within the Jurisdiction
of this Comon Wealth doe freely and sincerely acknowledge myselfe to be
subject to the Goverment thereof. I doe hereby swear by the great and
dreadfull name of the ever liveing God, that I will be true and
Faithfull to the same, and will accordingly yeild assistance thereunto
with my person, Estate, as in equity I am bound And will also truly
endeavo^{r} to maintaine and preserve all the Liberties and priviledges
thereof, Submitting myselfe unto the wholesome Lawes made and
established by the same. And further that I will not plot or practize
any evill against it or consent to any that shall soe doe. But will
timely discover and reveall the same to Lawfull Authority now here
established for the speedy preventing thereof. SO HELP ME GOD IN OUR

By this it may be judged what esteeme they have of the lawes of England,
swearing theire subjects to submite to lawes made only by themselfes,
And indeed to Alleage a Statute Law of England in one of their Courts
would be a ridiculous thing. They likewise long since fell to coyning of
monies, melting downe all the English Coyne they can gett, every
shilling makeing 15^{d} in their monies, And whereas they went over
thither to injoy liberty of Conscience, in how high a measure have they
denyed it to others there wittnesse theire debarring many from the
Sacraments spoken of before meerly because they cannot Joyne with them
in their Church-ffellowship, nor will they permitt any Lawfull Ministers
that are or would come thither to administer them. Wittness also the
Banishing so many to leave their habitations there, and seek places
abroad elswhere, meerly for differing in Judgment from them as the
Hutchinsons and severall families with them, & that Honb^{le} Lady the
Lady Deborah Moody and severalls with her meerly for declareing
themselfes moderate? Anabaptists, Who found more favour and respect
amongst the Dutch, then she did amongst the English, Many others also
upon the same account needless to be named, And how many for not comeing
to theire assemblies have been compelled to pay 5^{s} a peece for every
Sabbath day they misse, besides what they are forced to pay towards the
mantenance of the Ministers, And very cruelly handled by whipping and
imprissonment was M^{r} Clark, Obadiah, Holmes, and others for teaching
and praying in a private house on the Lords day, These and many other
such like proceedings, which would by them have been judged Cruelty had
they been inflicted on them here, have they used towards others there;
And for hanging the three Quakers last yeare I think few approved of it.

There are or will come unto the Hon^{ble} Councell many Complaints
against them, I shall say no more but come to

                                 _The Discription of Plymouth bounds._

_Connahassett._--It begins where the Massachusets ends. Three miles to
the Southward of the Massachusets Bay, where (neere by y^{e} sea side)
there stands a Village called Connahasset eight miles further there is a
small River comes out, and a reasonable harbour at the mouth of it.

_Scytuate._--On both sides is a Towne called Scytuate.

_Greenes-harbour._--From Scituate by ye sea side is a considerable Town
called Greens Harbour, a Towne well meadowed & good farmes belonging to
it. It is 7 miles from Scytuate.

_Ducksbury._--Seauen or eight miles from this Towne is Ducksbury which
is also a good plantation and affords much provision, which they sell at
Boston for the most part.

_New Plymouth._--Three or Fower miles Southward of this is ye Towne of
New Plymouth whence the Goverment took its Denomination. This place was
seated about y^{e} yeare 1620 or 1621 by a company of Brownists, which
went formerly from England to Amsterdam, and not beeing able to live
well there, they drew in one M^{r} Weston, and some other Merchants in
London to Transport them and their Famelies into those Westerne parts;
They intended for Virginia, but fell with Cape Cod aìs Mallabar, and
gott into the Harbour of it, and finding it not fitt for Habitation,
sought further and found this place and there settled liveing extream
hardy for some yeares and in great danger of the Indians, and could not
Long have subsisted, had not Plymouth Merchants settled Plantations
about that time at Monhegon and Pascattaway, by whom they were supplyed
and the Indians discouraged from assaulting them. It is a poor small
Towne now, The People being removed into Farmes in the Country.

_Sandwich._--Eighteene Miles more Southerly from Plymouth is a good
Towne called Sandwich a Towne which affords good store of Provisions,
and some yeares a quantity of Whalebone made of Whales which drive up
dead in that Bay.

_Barnstable._--Twelve Miles from Sandwich is Barnstable a Towne much
like it and affords the same Co[=m]odities.

_Yarmouth._--Seaven miles from Barnstable south east is the Towne of
Yarmouth, much like the former, and had in it as the rest have good
farmes about it, and sometimes also good benefite by drift Whales.

_Billingsgate._--Six miles east of this Towne is Billingsgate which lyes
in y^{e} Southeast nooke of Cape Codd Bay, and from thence to the Sea on
the South side of the s^{d} Cape, it is a very litle way whereas to goe
about is neare 20 Leagues which in tim will make it more convenient for

Almost South some what Westerly from Billingsgate is Natuckett Island on
which many Indians live and about ten leagues west from it is Martines
Vinyard, whereon many Indians live, and also English. In this Island by
Gods blissing on the Labour, care and paines of the two Mayhews, father
and sonn, the Indians are more civilized then anywhere else which is a
step to Christianity, and many of them have attained to a greate measure
of knowledge, and is hoped in a short time some of them may with joy &
Comfort be received into the Bossome of the Church, The younger of those
Mayhews was drowned comeing for England three yeares since, and the
Father goes on with the worke, Although (as I understand) they have had
a small share of those vast su[=m]es given for this use and purpose of
y^{e} Revenues of it. It were good to enquire how it hath been disposed
of. I know in some measure or at least suspect the bussines hath not
been rightly carryed.

_Rhode Island._--From this Island to Rhode Island is about Seaven
Leagues west, This Island is about ffouerteen miles Long, in some places
3 or 4 miles Broad, in other lesse. It is full of people haveing been a
receptacle for people of severall Sorts and Opinions.

_Warwick Providence._--There was a Patent granted to one Coddington for
the Goverment of this Island, and Warwick and Providence two Townes
which lye on the maine, And I think they still keepe a seeming forme of
Goverment but to litle purpose, none submitting to Supream Authority but
as they please.

_Rehobah._--Some three miles above Providence on the same River, is a
Towne called Rehobah, and is under the Goverment of New Plymouth, a
Towne not dispicable. It is not aboue 40 Miles from Boston, betweene
which there is a Comone trade, carrying & recarrying goods by land in
Cart and on Horseback, and they have a very fayre conveyance of goods by
water also.

_Taunton._--About ten miles from this eastward is Taunton lying on
another River within Rhode Island about 20 Miles up, It is a pleasant
place, seated amongst the Windings and turnings of a handsome River, and
hath good conveyance to Boston by Cart not being above 30 Miles
assunder, here is a pretty small Iron-worke, & is under New Plymouth

_Pequate._--Haveing gone through New Plymouth Goverment we come next to
Connecticot Goverment. The first that was under this Goverment was
Pequate, betweene w^{ch} and Rhods Island it is above 18 leagues,

In the faire Narragansitt Bay, and diverse fine Islands.

_Fishers Island._--Before the Pequate River lyes Fishers Island, on
which some people live, and there are store of Catle. This Pequat
Plantation will in time produce Iron, And in the country about this is a
Myne of Black Lead, and supposed there will be found better if not
already by y^{e} industry of that ingenious Gentleman M^{r} John
Winthrop. It hath a very good Harbour, farr Surpassing all there about
Connecticot River mouth to Pequate it is about eight Leagues.

_Saybrooke._--On the South-west side of the entrance of this River
stands Saybrooke and Saybrooke Fort, a handsome place and some Gunns in
the Fort.

_Metaboseck._--Fifteene Leagues up the River on the same side is the
Plantation of Metaboseck, a very good place for Corne and Catle.

_Witherfeild._--From Metaboseck to Withersfeild a large & Populous
Towne, it is about 9 miles.

_Hartford._--From Withersfield to Hartford the Metropolis of the
Goverment, it is about 3 Miles, it is a gallant Towne, and many rich men
in it.

_Windsor._--From Hartford to Windsor 9 Miles, this was the first Towne
on this River, settled first by people issueing from Dorchester in the
Massachusetts Bay about the year 1636.

_Springfeild._--From Windsor to Springfield about 12 miles, and the
first falles on Connecticot River are betweene these two Townes, This is
the Massachusetts bounds.

And above Springfeild 8 Miles is another Towne at first Intended but for
a tradeing house with the Indians, but the gallant Land about it hath
invited men to make it a Toune. This Connecticott River is a great River
before y^{e} Towne bigger then the Thames above bridge, This Towne is
also in the Massachusetts bounds and under its Goverment although 8
Miles from it.

_Guilford._--Now we must returne to the Mouth of the River and so along
by the sea side; and first from Saybrooke to Guilford 12 Miles.

_Tocott._--From Guilford to Tocott 9 Miles. These two Townes are under
Newhaven Goverment.

_Newhaven._--From Tocott to Newhaven it is 7 Miles. This Towne is the
Metropolis of that Goverment, and the Goverment tooke its Name from this
Towne; which was the first built in those parts, many stately and costly
houses were erected the Streete layd out in a Gallant forme, a very
stately Church; but y^{e} Harbour proveing not Comodious, the land very
barren, the Merchants either dead or come away, the rest gotten to their
Farmes, The Towne is not so glorious as once it was.

_Milford._--From Newhaven to Milford it is about 10 Miles, This Towne is
gotten into some way of Tradeing to Newfoundland, Barbados, Virginia, So
also hath some other Townes in this Goverment.

     Now in Course comes in againe some
     Townes in Connecticott Goverment

_Stratford._--From Milford to Stratford about 4 Miles.

_Fairfeild._--From Stratford to Fairfeild about 8 Miles.

_Norwock._--From ffairfeild to Norwock about 14 Miles and this Towne
with those last named are in Connecticott Goverment. I suppose this
skipped over Newhaven, being they came from those Townes in Connecticott

_Stamford._--From Norwock to Stamford 8 Miles.

_Greenwich._--From Stamford to Greenwich { } miles, these two last
Townes are under Newhaven Goverment, and there was another place begunn
and much done in it, but the Dutch came and tooke it by force, and since
the people of this Towne call it New Chester,

There are some Townes on Long Island which have come some under the
Goverment of Connecticot, and some of Newhaven; We are now come about 25
Miles within the Dutch plantation, which before I speake of I shall runn
over ye plantations on Long Island, and shew under what Goverment they
are begining at the west end. The Island conteanes in Lenth about 150
Miles, and lyes not farr from the Mayne, especialy at the west end where
it is very narrow, The plantationes are all on the inside, the Sea board
syde being a dangerous Coast and no Harbour at all on that syde.

Within a few Miles of the West end over against Manhata, which is the
Dutch's Chiefe Towne is seated Gravesend, most English, the Lady Moody
being the first Setler, Some Dutch there are, and all under the Dutch

    Then Mispach kell                       }
    Then Midleburgh aìs New Towne           } These Townes are
    Then Vlishing                           } under y^{e} Dutch
    Then Hempsteed                          } Government
    Then another Towne by the Dutch name    }

Then follow to the Northward

    First Oyster Bay under Newhaven Goverment
    Huntington not submitting to any Goverment   } These Townes
    Then Sotocot Likewayes Submitting to none    } belong to
    Nex^{t} Southampton under Newhaven Goverment } y^{e} English.
    Nex^{t} South-hole also under Newhaven       }

Then crossing a Bay but 12 Miles (but to round it, it is much more) is
Northampton. This Towne is under Connecticott Goverment. And then
Easthampton under no Goverment.

I suppose these two Goverments of Connecticott, and Newhaven, are only
by Combination, I never heard of any Patent they have, and they are also
in Confederacie with the Massachusetts, and New Plymouth, each of these
4 Goverments annually choosen two Comissioners to meet and Consult as
occasion may serve; their power lasting for one yeare. These meettings
prove chargeable, and as it is conceived of many of no great use.

Tis well knowen the Dutch plantation had been taken by those two
Southerne Collonies helpe, and the English on Long Island when Majo^{r}
Sedgwick was sent to take it who putting back for Fyall news came by one
of his Fleet that his designe was for that place; These afforsaid
Co[=m]issioners mett at Boston, where some weeks were spent in Contest
betweene the Commissioners of the two Southerne and Northern Collonies.
Those of the South Colonies were for proceeding with expedition on the
designe, The Co[=m]issioners of the North were dayly crying out for
Orders or leave to goe on. But those of Plymouth being Mungrell Dutch,
and some of the Grandees amongst them haveing a sweet trade with the
Dutch or debts oweing to them, from them; And those of the Massachusetts
haveing some other by-reason for it so long held out the dispute till it
was to late the peace being concluded.

There lye between this Long Island and the Mayne severall Islands, the
most Considerable is Shelter-Island, about 8 miles in lenth and three in
breadth, This belongs to Collonell Thomas Midleton and M^{r} Silvester,
on which they have some people & store of Catle.

Another considerable Island lyes by it of about 6 Miles in Lenth, and
three in Breadth.

Now before I come to speak of Hudsons River, I shall most humbly desire
the Hon^{ble} Councill to take it in consideration the great benefits
and profitts, which may redound to the English by these Westerne
Colonies if well managed. Of their present condition I have given a
breife accompt in my foregoing Relation, being my observations which for
severall years I have spent in America, even from the year 1624 till
within these two yeares last past:

For Newfoundland, it is well known what a great Number of Shipps and
Seamen have been there imployed annually I dare averr it hath bredd more
Seamen then any Trade the English ever medled withall & what profitts
the Owners and Merchants have gott by that Trade is unvaluable, And if a
course were taken we might now have salt from the English Collonies in
the West Indies, and provision from New England to carry on a greatt
part of the designe, and on better termes then out of Europe.

On all the Coasts of Canada from Cape Britton to Cape Sable is Excellent
fishing and full of good Harbours.

On the Coast within Cape Sable, as in Nova Scotia, Port Royall, and
those other fforts now in possession of Collonel Temple is mutch Beaver
& other Peltry gotten, and more might be if fully Stocked.

And for the Southern part of New-England, It is incredible what hath
been done there.

In the yeare 1626 or thereabouts there was not a Neat Beast Horse or
sheepe in the Countrey and a very few Goats or hoggs, and now it is a
wonder to see the great herds of Catle belonging to every Towne I have
mentioned, The braue Flocks of sheepe, The great number of Horses
besides those many sent to Barbados and the other Carribe Islands, And
withall to consider how many thousand Neate Beasts and Hoggs are yearly
killed, and soe have been for many yeares past for Provision in the
Countrey and sent abroad to supply Newfoundland, Barbados, Jamaica, @
other places, As also to victuall in whole or in part most shipes which
comes there.

Betweene the years 1626 and 1633, Indian Corne was usually sold at
10^{s} or 12^{s} the Bushell, now not esteemed worth 2^{s}, Beefe and
Porke then Brought from England and Irland sold at excessive rates.

At that time all the Houses there, except three or fower at New
Plymouth, and those which I had could not be valued worth 200^{lb}, and
now to behold the handsome Houses & Churches in so many Townes as I have
named is a wonder, And the place in which Boston (the Metropolis) is
seated, I knew then for some yeares to be a Swamp and Pound, now a great
Towne, two Churches, a Gallant Statehouse & more to make it compleate,
then can be expected in a place so late a wilderness.

And wheras about the time before mentioned wee could not make in all
three Hundred men in the whole Countrey, those scattered a hundred and
ffiftie Miles assunder, Now almost every Towne which I have named is
able to bring into the feild a full Company of Foote and some Horse,
some Townes two or three Companyes compleate with Horse proportionable
and Boston more.

And the great abundance of English Fruite, as Apples, Pears, Apricocks,
Plumbs, Cherries Musk-Mellons, Water-Mellons &c. is not to be beleeved
but by those that have seene it.

And about those times also there were not within the now Great
Government of the Massachusetts above three Shallops and a few Cannoes,
Now it is wonderfull to see the many Vessels belonging to the Country of
all sorts and seizes, from Shipps of some reasonable burthen to Skiffes
and Cannoes, many other great Shipps of Burthen from 350 Tunns to 150
have been built there, and many more in time may be, And I am confident
there hath not in any place out of so small a number of People been
raised so many able Seamen and Commanders as there hath been.

Now we returne to Hudsons River, in the mouth of which lyeth y^{e}
Island Mahatas, on which stands now Amsterdam in the Latitude of 41
degrees and about 41 Leagues up the River is their Fort Oranja in the
Latitude of 42 & 1/2 or thereabouts.

I have alwayes understood that the first Setlement of the Dutch there
was about the yeare 1618, @ were then a very considerable Number, and
long after. And this was as I conceive some yeares after King James had
granted all the lands and Islands betweene the Latitude of 40 degrees to
48 North Latitude, unto a Company established at Plymouth in Devon then
nameing it New-England, so that Mahatas lyes a full degree within y^{e}
bounds of New England; and Fort Oranja their prin^{l} place both for
Trade with the Indians @ for Husbandry it lyeth two full degrees and an
halfe within the bounds of New England.

And about the year 1629 or 1630 Theire Title to it being in question a
rich ship comeing from thence was seized on at Plymouth, as some now
here can testify, which shipp and goods (as they say) was delivered up
on the Dutch relinquishment of any Title they had or might have to the
said Hudsones River And this seemes to be true, for in or about the year
1632 or 1634, a shipp set out from hence by M^{r} Clobery & Dellabar and
others for New England, with passengers & goods & had also a Commission
from his Mat^{ies}: Royall Father to saile unto Mahatas @ as farr up
into the River towards Fort Oranja as they could goe, and there trade
with the Natives; which they did without any opposition, as the Masters
yet liveing can testifie.

From the uttermost part of Hudsons River to the North Cape of Delaware
Bay, is somewhat above 20 leagues, and from this Cape to the entrance of
the River is about 12 Leagues.

Here the Sweedes some yeares since built a Fort and five Leauges above
that a Sconce, and three Leagues above that another Fort, and 2 Leagues
above that another.

And hereabout the River trends away so much easterly that betweene that
@ Hudsons River it is not above 30 Miles. In this River hath been seated
some English Familes, but outed by the Dutch or Swedes.

For this place there was some yeares since a Patent granted to S^{r}
Edmund Ploydon, but by whom I know not, nor what is become of him or his

The entrance of this River is in 40 degrees. And now I am come to the
utmost Southwest bounds of New England which is a Country wherein the
Rivers and Pounds affords variety of Fish and Beaver in Great abundance,
The earth brings forth plentifully all sorts of Graynes, also Hemp @
fflax, The Woods affords store of good Timber for building of shipps
Masts, Also Pitch and Tarre, The bowels of the earth yeilds excellent
Iron Oare, and no doubt other Metalls if searched after.

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