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´╗┐Title: Adequate Preparation for the Teacher of Biological Sciences in Secondary Schools
Author: McDonald, James Daley
Language: English
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                     ADEQUATE PREPARATION FOR THE
                    TEACHER OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
                         IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.


                           J. Daley McDonald


    Submitted to the School of Education of the University of
    California in partial fulfillment of the minor requirements
    for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

                             November 15th
                                 1921



                               CONTENTS


  Introduction                                                     3
    Retarding factors in improvement                               4
  Qualifications in subject matter                                 5
    Scope of Biology                                               6
    Values and relations of Biology                                7
    Adaptation of course to community conditions                  10
    Freedom from textbook slavery                                 11
    Materials and laboratory equipment                            12
    Historical setting                                            13
    Spirit of research                                            14
  Qualifications in method                                        16
    Factors determining correct method                            16
    History of scientific method                                  17
    Problem method                                                17
    Accuracy and logical constructive thinking                    18
    Teacher's final method necessarily unique                     19
  Summary of necessary qualifications                             19
  Opportunity for adequate preparation                            20
    Lack of professional course                                   20
    Requirements of Teachers Recommendation in Zoology            21
    Courses not adapted for teacher-preparation                   22
    Professional course the goal                                  23
    Suggested modifications of present courses                    24
    Course in special methods                                     25
    Practice teaching                                             27
  Bibliography                                                    29



The use of the term _preparation_ herein is intended to indicate
partially the limitation of the problem attempted. The following
discussion will be concerned only with such attributes of the
successful teacher as are the direct result, or at least greatly
enhanced by thorough preparation. A sufficiently comprehensive and
difficult problem remains after still further restriction of the field
so as to include only subject matter and the method of biological
science.

It is scarcely necessary to make the statement that the standards of
preparation and the facilities for meeting these standards have been
enormously improved within the past few years. Evidence of this is
found in the changes recently made in the curricula of and the
requirements for graduation from the California State Teachers
Colleges. Neither is it necessary to say that improvement must
continue. Such problems are evolutionary. Notwithstanding that
requirements for teachers certificates have been raised the country
over, the universities are not generally making very rapid strides in
affording opportunities for better preparation in subject-matter and
special methods. In corroboration, witness the recent criticisms of
the departmental courses in special methods now given in universities
generally (Swift, 1918; Taylor, 1918). The length of time or the
number of units of work required for certification may be increased
but that does not insure a finer _quality_ of preparation.

In attempting to explain the slow pace of improvement in the quality
of preparation for the teaching of science, one becomes involved in a
cycle. Science had its development in the college and university
whence it diffused slowly into the secondary schools, and finally
slightly into the elementary grades. The differences between the aims
of college science and secondary school science were and still are not
taken sufficiently into account. As an inevitable result there are to
be found in the curricula of high schools too many science courses
that are mere dilutions of the college type, with no modification of
purpose, and just enough change in method and subject matter to bring
them partially within the power of understanding of the less mature
mind. This situation in turn reflected upon the higher institutions of
learning in such a way that it seemed that they were giving adequate
training of the correct type. And such would have been the case had
the college course in the particular science been planned for the
express purpose of being diluted to suit secondary school needs. But
it will be generally conceded that such courses never have existed.

Another retarding factor in the evolution of the problem has been the
subordination of special training in subject matter to other really
less important qualifications, in the selection of teachers. The table
given below, compiled from statistics gathered in one of the States
during 1916, shows sufficient justification for the above statement.
And not only has the preparation in subject matter been too little
considered in choosing teachers, but also in the administration of
schools specially intended for teacher-training. An educator of high
standing in California is credited with making the criticism of the
Normal Schools of the State; that they attempt to teach a person how
to teach intelligently something about which he knows nothing. When
teachers have adequate preparation in subject matter as well as in
methods, and when they are employed to teach only those subjects for
which they are fitted, then the problem of maintaining a high standard
of teaching will be well nigh solved.

      Subject  | Prepared & | Not prepared | Prepared and | Total
               |  teaching  |  & teaching  | not teaching |
    -----------+------------+--------------+--------------+-------
    Physiology |     19     |       8      |      57      |   84
    -----------+------------+--------------+--------------+-------
    Botany     |     71     |      39      |      74      |  184
    -----------+------------+--------------+--------------+-------
    Zoology    |      9     |      20      |       5      |   34
    -----------+------------+--------------+--------------+-------
    Agriculture|     63     |      14      |      84      |  161
    -----------+------------+--------------+--------------+-------



                    Preparation in Subject Matter


Before facing the problem of preparation for the teaching of
biological sciences in the secondary schools, there must be a clear
conception of the aims and legitimate purposes of these sciences in
the high school. We are fortunate in having the aims of biology
clearly and concisely stated by the Commission on the Reorganization
of Secondary Education of the N.E.A. ("Reorganization of Science in
Secondary Schools", U.S. Dep't. Interior, Bureau of Education,
Bulletin 26, 1920). These aims will not be considered in their
entirety but only in so far as they bear directly on the problems
that follow. Before proceeding further, for simplification we will
assume that the teacher is assigned to teach biological sciences only.
Even then the field is quite comprehensive, for besides instruction in
general biology, there will be courses of a more advanced type, in
Zoology, Botany, Physiology, and often Bacteriology, Sanitation, or
Agriculture. However, with preparation in the fundamentals necessary
for biology a teacher should be able to conduct such courses without
difficulty. Thus the problem is sufficiently inclusive if it concerns
preparation for biology alone.

The brief literal translation of the word _biology_, science of life,
is full explanation of its scope. A course in the subject is not
Zoology, nor Botany, nor Bacteriology, nor Physiology--but rather all
of these in one. Biology should logically follow the nature study of
the elementary grades. The course must be so planned that it will give
the pupils the maximum of serviceable fundamentals and at the same
time be a basis for further study in advanced courses, if he desires
to continue; but such that he will miss none of the essentials if he
does not. Since science is the product of mature minds, the
culmination of knowledge, then in this course for adolescents, the
"ology" must not be too greatly stressed lest the essential part, the
"bios" be obscured. The goal then is a course in which a study of
plant life, a study of bacteria in relation to human welfare, a study
of animal life, and the biology of the human, are all incorporated
with well balanced emphasis. This is the type of course recommended by
the Commission on Reorganization for the ninth or tenth year pupils,
so is the end toward which preparation should be made.

The next question concerns what constitutes adequate preparation for
the direction of studies of animate nature. First and foremost is a
realization of the aims, or better, the values, and relations of
biology. It is a socializing subject and must be so taught--man is
social. Biology affects man vitally, directly his behavior follows
natural laws, and indirectly by illustration and comparison brings him
to a better understanding biologic laws underlying the organization of
society. By way of illustration we need only to cite the struggle for
existence and the division of labor with their far reaching influence
in determining the course of evolution. It would be impossible, I
believe, to teach biology so poorly that it did not have some
socializing value; but it comes very near to being done in some cases,
there is little doubt.

A paramount aim is the improvement of living conditions, both as it
concerns measures for group sanitation and factors in the health of
the individual. This should be the almost exclusive aim in those parts
of the course dealing with bacteria and disease, and the biology of
man, or physiology and eugenics. Biology has many applications in our
economic life. It is the very foundation of agriculture. The lumber
industry is beginning to find that there are biologic laws. The
Government of the United States some time ago established a Bureau of
Fisheries for the purpose of studying the biological problems involved
in the continuance and furtherance of our extensive fisheries
industry.

So far as the individual is concerned, biology should train him to
observe life phenomena accurately and to form logical conclusions,
through the use of problems. This ability is a valuable asset whatever
his life work may be. Also, if it is the right kind of a course, and
well taught, it will enrich the life of the boy or girl through the
aesthetic appeal of plants and animals, and so make possible a sincere
appreciation and enjoyment of nature. In addition, the study of
biology should make clear to the pupil the important part that the
intensive study of the various biological sciences has played in the
whole marvelous scientific progress of the past centuries.

Along with these values certain relations of biology must be well
understood if it is to be well taught. These relations may be
conveniently segregated into five groups, 1) relations to world
problems, 2) to problems of the state, 3) to the community, 4) to the
school curriculum, and 5) to individual pupils. To world problems
biology bears many relations, for example, it is fundamental in the
analysis of immigration problems, especially those phases concerning
health, over-population, and the probable hereditary effects of
assimilation through hybridization. State problems of health
protection, conservation of game and forests, control of rodents and
other crop pests, and others can only be solved after gaining a
thorough knowledge of the underlying natural laws, and acting in
accordance with them. How inadequate a game conservation law of closed
season, without regard to the breeding habits of the animal concerned!
Again, State regulations regarding the care of mentally deficient,
especially in the prevention of intermarriage, must be given
consideration from the biological as well as the ethical point of
view.

As we consider the smaller group unit so the relations of biology to
that group become more special. A biology course may be readily
standardized for national problems, but for any given community the
course must be somewhat unique. A course planned for a rural
population would not be fitted for a school in an overcrowded section
of a city. Where there are differences in social and biological
problems there also must be fitting adaptive changes in the course in
biology. In addition to these community relations, the teacher must
keep in mind the relations between the biology course and the other
courses in the curriculum of the school. Such a question as this
should arise in the mind of the teacher; how may my work be made to
correlate with that of Domestic Science? The possibilities are many,
there is the field of dietetics, scientific determination of the best
methods of sweeping methods by bacterial culture methods, and the role
of bacteria, yeasts and molds in the culinary arts constitute a few of
them. How about cooperation with the English Department? Certainly
every bit of written work, every oral recitation, should measure up to
standards of ability in expression as well as to standards of
attainment in the mastery of certain scientific information. This
cooperation has been carried out to great mutual benefit in some
schools. These illustrations are sufficient to illustrate, though the
teacher should not overlook any department of the school.

Relations to class and to individual will be considered in conjunction
with teaching methods.

The values and interrelations of biology have been discussed at some
length because they must serve as criteria in deciding what
constitutes adequate preparation.

The comprehensiveness and vital nature of the subject, biology,
present at once an inspiration and an element of fear to the
conscientious teacher. They cause him to regard in utter amazement,
the applicant for a position who in answer to question replies "No, I
have never taken any courses in biological Science, but I can easily
prepare myself to teach it, if need be." The impossibility of such
impromptu development of skill in the teaching of biology will become
more apparent as we proceed.

Besides a full appreciation of the aims and relations of the subject,
the teacher must be able to construct a course especially adapted in
content to the peculiar needs of the particular community. This
follows from what was said of relations in a previous paragraph. The
development of such a course demands sufficient knowledge of economics
and sociology to make possible a correct analysis of local conditions
and so find what is required. The course to fulfill the requirements
will necessarily be to some extent new, and just to such extent may
the teacher feel something of the inspiration of the pioneer. Relative
values must be established; emphasis must be properly placed--life of
distant regions should not be taught except as local material may not
be available to illustrate some very essential point, yet too often a
carefully pickled grasshopper is transported from Florida to
California, there to be dissected by some unfortunate high school lad.
Not only must the larger divisions of the course be carefully balanced
and tested for value, but each lesson must justify its induction into
it. It is at this point that the relation to the individual is the
chief criterion.

Each lesson of the series that makes up the course must justify its
place by having some rather direct bearing upon the life of the
individual pupil. The core of the lesson must be either the pupils
problem or one in which his interest can be readily stimulated. Herein
is the value of the project method of science teaching, the problem is
sure to be of interest to the pupil since he himself chooses it. Other
questions to which the lesson must give satisfactory answer are; Why
this particular lesson, at all? What relation does it bear to the
preceding and following lessons? Is it of real value to the pupil in
his living? What biological phenomenon does it teach? Is it the best
problem to illustrate that particular phenomenon? What generalizations
and practical applications can the _pupil_ make?

The organization of a course in biology which is fitted to the needs
of a certain community, the conditions of a particular class of
pupils, and to the needs of the individual pupils so far as possible,
requires that the teacher have an extensive knowledge of the subject
matter as a background freeing him from the necessity of dependence on
a textbook. Anyway, a biology teacher conducting the right sort of a
course, will see that the textbook is only an incidental, if used at
all. A continuation of set assignments in most textbooks would dampen
the ardor of pupils generally. Besides, few localities have textbooks
fitted to their specific needs. One that does have is New York City.
In fact it has two, "Elementary Biology" by Peabody & Hunt, and "Civic
Biology" by Hunter. These both have a large sale throughout the United
States, But, of course, in most localities they can be used only to
furnish supplementary reading, since _portions_ only will be adapted
to the conditions of the restricted locality. The fundamental life
processes are the same the world over, but varying environmental
conditions necessitates a variation in emphasis, in application, and
in the choice of problems which make up the course. If the teacher is
well prepared in subject matter, there is little use for a laboratory
manual except as it may suggest new methods and new experimental
materials. Students of the high school age should never be compelled
to follow a set laboratory outline with detailed instructions for
procedure; it will kill every whit of initiative. The teacher must be
so prepared, then, that he is able to steer a free course, employing
books for reference and supplementary reading almost exclusively. He
will cause the student to realize that the books are the result of
_human_ effort and therefor not infallible, and that they must always
take second place to first hand observation and experiment. The study
of animate nature, with endless opportunity for observation and
experiment on every hand, permits little excuse for such method as is
illustrated by "Be prepared to recite on the next three pages in the
book, tomorrow, and read experiment 37 so that you wont have to waste
any time in getting started with the laboratory work".

Somewhere in the course of preparation the teacher must have obtained
a thorough knowledge of laboratory apparatus and supplies. The
selection of types of apparatus best fitted to the course, and the
knowledge of where to buy are both necessary. Also judgement must be
exercised in purchase for few are the places where funds are adequate
for the ideal equipment of a laboratory. The money value of every
piece of apparatus must be balanced against its relative usefulness in
the successful culmination of the course. Besides this there must be a
knowledge of the various uses to which the available apparatus may be
put. A great deal depends on the ingenuity of the teacher in the
adaptation of even comparatively simple apparatus. In connection with
the laboratory part (and this should be the major part) of the course,
there arises the question of field work and excursions. Laboratory is
at best merely a substitute for the great out-of-doors, so the more
work that can be done in the field the better. Aside from exploration
to discover what parts of the particular locality will yield the
largest fund of valuable biological information, the problem here is
mainly one of method.

The teacher to be at his best must be somewhat of a naturalist. Upon
his fund of interesting stories about the animals and plants that the
children all know, will depend very largely the appeal of the work to
the pupil. Something of the spirit that distinguished John Muir as the
great naturalist is an inestimable asset to the teacher. If it is not
among his natal blessings, he need not be completely discouraged for
it can be acquired to some degree at least. Besides the advantage just
mentioned, the fauna and flora must be sufficiently well known so that
_choice_ is possible for laboratory experiment and illustrative
purposes.

In order to present any subject well, its historical aspect enters
into consideration. The influence of individuals, of governments, of
religion, and of the social ideals have all had their share in
determining the present status of the subject. Science as it now is,
is the result of growth, it has undergone evolution, and is at
present evolving. This will be thoroughly understood by the teacher of
science, and this understanding will determine in part the method of
presentation. In the history of the development of science there are
many men well worthy of hero worship. It is hard to find more
inspirational characters than those of Pasteur, and Lazear; men who
devoted (in latter instance, sacrificed life) their lives to service
for humanity. In the life and work of Charles Darwin we find a
splendid example of painstaking search for the truth. The records of
the rocks, (Paleontology, the nature-written history of biology) will
often come to the rescue of the teacher in clearing up the
presentation of the difficult problems of evolution. The historic
attitude must be "put over" to the pupil too, for _he_ must know his
world as the result of the evolutionary process, and as still in the
process of evolution.

Even at the risk of adverse criticism I desire to include among the
qualifications of a good teacher the spirit of research. This spirit
can be acquired by specialization in one of the fields of biological
science, followed by some actual research work.

Research in science is fundamental. It has three aims or ends, 1)
discovery of facts thus increasing the sum total of knowledge. This is
science for science sake. 2) Individual development. And, 3) Social
service. These last two aims are most important to the teacher. So,
his problem for investigation should have some practical bearing, and
should be of his own choosing, not pointedly suggested by the
professor in charge as is too often the case. If the research student
is given a problem which is some minor part of a larger problem being
investigated by his professor it will preclude the very thing the
prospective teacher needs, namely practice in recognizing, analyzing,
and solving a problem in its entirety and solely on his own resources.
Being a mere helper is probably not the best way to secure such
ability. Investigation may be broadening and developing to the
individual or it may prove to be quite the reverse, but that lies
within the control of the individual. Research for the teacher must
emphasize equally actual additions to knowledge and personal attitude.
It must not be an end in itself but a means to an end. The attitude of
the investigator is essential to the understanding of children for the
child is first of all an investigator. His questions, "what? why? how?
when?" prove this beyond doubt. What is this but a search for truth,
causal factors, and interrelations? Education uses this wholesome
curiosity as a foundation principle, so the teacher must exhibit a
sympathetic understanding of this universal attribute of children. No
better summary of a discussion of the values of research can be found
for our purposes than that by G. W. A. Luckey. It follows.

    "In order that teaching may be intelligent and in harmony
    with the laws of nature there must be a deeper and clearer
    knowledge of human growth and development. The teacher must
    know the nature of the individual to be taught and the ends
    to be reached in proper nurture. This can not be gained
    through the study of books alone, but may come through
    properly directed research in the workshop of life."

    One of the aims of present day education is "to develop a
    man, the best man possible under the conditions; to assist
    nature through nurture; to enable the individual to find
    himself and to evolve naturally and rapidly to the highest
    levels and even to rise above them. According to this
    conception ... the initiative must come from within. The aim
    of the teacher should be to develop a self-sustaining,
    self-directing, altruistic individual keenly alive to the
    interests of humanity. Such an ideal is progressive,
    scientific, and fits one through studies of yesterday and
    today to live the best and truest life tomorrow. To see and
    appreciate this ideal, research is necessary."

The last requirement to be considered in this discussion, is a good
foundation in Physics and Chemistry. Biological science is not
entirely separable from physical science, for a majority of life
phenomena, in final analysis can be explained only in terms of
physical science. Physiology has for its very foundation Physics and
Chemistry. Among the newest of the sciences is Biochemistry, the
chemistry of life; and within its limits are some of the most
promising fields of research. No argument is necessary, a knowledge of
physical science is indispensable in the interpretation of life
phenomena, and the understanding of biological processes.



                        PREPARATION in METHODS


Method is more closely associated with personality and with native
ability than is subject matter. So much more must preparation in this
field be general in nature. It must mainly concern the general
principles of the scientific method. Specific problems and minor
details will have to be worked out in actual practice. The final
method found most satisfactory by any teacher, will be to some extent
unique, but will be largely determined by three factors; the aptitudes
of the teacher, himself, the group that he is teaching, and lastly,
the consideration of the individual pupil. Ability to adapt ones
procedure so as to most nearly meet these requirements, will come
about only through experience. Ability to profit by experience, the
human attribute which makes possible the progress of civilization, is
a no less valuable asset to a teacher than to any other member of
society.

Balliet points out that science teaching has passed through three
stages in the past generation. The first stage is characterized by the
textbook method, occasionally supplemented by illustrative experiment,
performed by the teacher. The second stage is characterized by
individual laboratory experiment, a manual for a guide, and by a lack
of application of the principles except for a few traditional cases.
The third stage improves upon the second by leading the pupil, after
formulating his generalizations, to apply them to the facts and
phenomena of nature. "But", continues Balliet, "we must advance to a
fourth stage. We must not only apply the generalizations, but make the
_explanation_ of the facts and phenomena of nature--the interpretation
of nature--the very goal of science teaching." All problems should be
chosen then in the light of this last aim. The problems must be
natural, not in any way artificial, and they should be those of the
immediate environment of the pupil. To meet these obligations may be
in some cases difficult, but it should not be impossible.

In biological science there is a rich field permitting a considerable
choice in method. There are observations, projects, experiments,
excursions, individual reports, book readings, quizzes, and
conferences. In a single well chosen problem or project nearly all of
these will be employed. Biology lends itself ideally to the problem
method of teaching. By using some every day problem of the pupil, his
interest is assured. Even a seemingly simple problem if skilfully
directed, will ramify into several fields of biology before its
solution is completed. And the number of practicable problems is
almost limitless, but not all are equally good for the purpose, so the
teacher must often tactfully modify the pupils choice. Original
choices are likely to be too complex for the pupil to solve at his
stage of progress, so must be simplified, without his feeling that he
has been interfered with, without causing a wane in his interest. It
is clear that the real problem in the problem-method is the teacher's.
Practically, it is quite impossible to handle _individual_ projects in
large classes. In the writer's experience, he has had on the average
80 different pupils per day in four separate classes. It is clearly
beyond the power of any teacher to direct simultaneously eighty
different projects, and it would be a physical impossibility to
furnish the necessary laboratory apparatus. So, for this reason the
teacher may find it necessary to divide, as diplomatically as
possible, the classes into congenial groups, each with its problem, so
that the total number of problems will be so limited that each one may
be given adequate attention. It seems that such must be the limitation
of the problem-method under the conditions prevailing in the public
schools today.

The procedure in solving a problem will consist of these steps in the
order named, 1) understanding of the purpose, 2) the procedure or
method of attack, 3) observation of results, 4) and the use of these
in making some generalizations or arriving at some conclusions. Then
there must follow a testing of these generalizations or conclusions by
further experimentation. Accuracy must be the keynote of all work,
accuracy in recording experiments, accuracy in observation, accuracy
in drawing, which serves as a shortcut method of description. Neatness
is very desireable but should never supercede thinking and
understanding. If the problem has stimulated some accurate logical
thinking on the part of the pupil, then time spent on it has been well
spent. If, besides, it has yielded some valuable useable information,
the solving of the problem has been a marked success. The laboratory
method has been such an emancipation from the textbook slavery that
there is some tendency to elevate it to an end in itself, whereas it
must serve only as a very valuable _means_ to an end. "The ideal
laboratory is only a reasonably good substitute for the out-of-doors."

So far as preparation in the methods of science teaching is concerned,
much good may be accomplished in teachers courses and in practice
teaching. But it must necessarily be of a general nature, for the
unique individual method, determined by the interaction of teacher and
pupil and the reaction of both to subject matter can evolve only hand
in hand with teaching experience.

Before proceeding further it might be well, by way of summary, to
remind ourselves that the minimum qualifications for a teacher of
biology must include the following; a) a large fund of the most
interesting and most valuable facts of biology, b) a full realization
of the values and vital relations of biology to humanity, c) ability
to develop a course meeting the unique needs of the community,
d) familiarity with purchase and useability of laboratory equipment,
e) knowledge of the history of science, f) spirit of and sympathy with
research, g) a knowledge of physical science as related to biology,
h) and knowledge of the laboratory method and its value in the
promotion of accurate logical constructive thinking.



                 OPPORTUNITY FOR ADEQUATE PREPARATION.


What possibilities of making adequate preparation, are to be found in
colleges and universities? And how much preparation is required by the
Teacher's Recommendation or other standards of fitness? In search of
the answers to our questions, we may study conditions at the
University of California, for there is as good opportunity and
standards are as high in this school as anywhere in the country. The
quantity of preparation is fairly assured by the five-year requirement
for the Teacher's Recommendation, but the quality of the preparation
is not so certainly assured. With the possible exception of the
Education Department, no department considers the training of teachers
even nearly equal in importance to the production of specialists in
the subject who shall devote their lives to research. The subject is
regarded as an end in itself.

If a person were directed to make preparation for the teaching of
biology, he would be at a loss in searching for the Biology
Department, or even a department that gave a good comprehensive course
in biology. The subject as best taught in the secondary schools is
subdivided into various components, each with its special aim. The
prospective teacher has no carefully prepared course of study for his
pursuit, as has the prospective doctor, engineer, or farmer. The state
provides a specially adapted course of training for its veterinarians,
those who care for its livestock. Why not a special course of high
standard for those who plan to devote their lives to the direction of
the formative years of its children? It is probably explained in large
part by the failure to recognize teaching as a profession. The
Schools of Education throughout the country have been insisting upon
real professional training for teachers but other departments are
deplorably slow in cooperating.

In order to avoid becoming entangled in abstractions, we may choose a
specific instance to show the difficulties in the way of securing the
correct _kind_ of preparation, even though the quantity is guaranteed.
The Zoology Department (I choose this department neither because it is
worse nor better than any other, but because I am better acquainted
with the content of its courses) makes the following requirements for
the Teacher's Recommendation:

  General Zoology
  Invertebrate Zoology -- an advanced course which omits all
                          consideration of insects, and all
                          discussion of parasitic forms.
  Vertebrate Zoology -- mainly a course in comparative morphology,
                        which gives no field knowledge of California
                        vertebrates, the most essential thing for
                        the high school teacher.

  and one subject from each of the following groups,

  Group I
    Comparative Anatomy.
    Cytology -- basic principles must be understood by the teacher
                but he should not have to spend one whole half year
                to acquire them.
    Embryology -- the above is also true for this course.

  Group II.
    Biology of Water Supplies -- this course is primarily for
                                 sanitary engineers.
    Protozoology -- All that is necessary of this could be
                    incorporated in a general course.
    Parasitology -- essential for health instruction and for
                    illustration of certain biological principles.

  Group III.
    Experimental Zoology  } combination of these valuable.
    Animal Behavior       }
    Heredity, Evolution, and Eugenics -- this course is very essential
                                         for _any_ teacher.

  (Required in the fifth year, the Teachers' Course, some work in
  research, and practice teaching.)

Taken as a whole, the chief criticism to be made is that the subject
has been so subdivided to insure no overlapping of courses, that it
becomes necessary to take every course in order to obtain a well
rounded preparation in the field. This requires more time than any
individual can devote to it, for he must also have preparation in
Botany, Physiology, and Bacteriology and Hygiene, and in these
departments the arrangement of courses is essentially the same. The
general course in Zoology is inadequate, for it is planned for an
introduction to the more advanced courses and is careful not to steal
too much from their fund of interesting information. The aim is to lay
a thorough foundation rather than to discuss the more interesting
facts and general principles of biology, though I am glad to believe
that the present trend is decidedly in this latter direction.

Here we find adequate preparation for a teacher of _Zoology_, but in
no secondary school of the state will a teacher be employed for
Zoology alone. In high schools the biological science curriculum the
first course must be _Biology_, and it must be all-inclusive, for it
is all of the biological science that the majority of the pupils will
take. It would be a great step in advance if every school _required_
even that much for graduation.

Of the courses in Invertebrate Zoology and Vertebrate Zoology, it can
be safely said that they overlook the importance of field work. Boys
and girls sometimes have a surprisingly large superficial knowledge of
the plants and animals of their vicinity, and this knowledge is of the
sort obtained through observation of their ways in nature, that is, it
is a _field_ knowledge. The teacher must be prepared to use this to
the greatest possible extent, but how can this be expected if the
teacher knows little if any more than the children about the habits of
plants and animals. Such training would have to be obtained through
some of the field work of the Museum of Vertebrate zoology. But no
work in that department is required for the Teachers Recommendation. A
knowledge, though not an intensive knowledge, of each of the subjects
that make up the three groups included in the requirements is quite
necessary but it is out of the question for a person to take them all
unless he specialize in Zoology. Not all can be expected to major in
Zoology, and those that do will find it necessary to omit much that is
essential in the other departments of biological science. Each
department should have a general course covering fully its field of
work so that those majoring in some other department may in minimum
time gain a fair knowledge of its field. It is very doubtful if such a
course is given in any department at present.

At present only a meagre view is had of the history of Biology, until
the fifth year when it is given as seminar work. And at no time, in
any course, are the aims and relations of biology presented in such a
way as to be helpful to one attempting to plan the most valuable type
of high school course. Graduate research has been sufficiently
considered previously, and the teachers' course will be considered
last.

It will be conceded generally in thinking of the solution of the
problem that the ideal arrangement would be a real teachers' course,
at least five years in length. This could be comparatively easily
accomplished by a slight modification of the departments concerned and
their hearty cooperation with the Department of Education. The
disregard for method on the part of the former and the failure to
realize the importance of a thorough knowledge of subject matter by
the latter, can are obstacles that can be easily overcome I am sure.
The student would enter upon this course with the intention of
becoming a teacher, just as does any student enter upon his
professional course with the intention of becoming the professional
man for which his training is preparing him. Few freshmen now come to
the University of California with the intention of becoming teachers
in the secondary schools, that I admit, but the reasons and the remedy
for that are not for discussion here. Suffice it to say that when
reward is adequate, then the profession will grow and come to be made
up of the highest type of men and women.

The time of the Teachers Course is not far distant and it might be
worth while to see what could be done without radical modifications in
the curricula of the departments as they now are. For a working basis
I would like to present the following skeleton programme, which seems
practicable. In this schedule all preparation except that in subject
matter and method is understood to be included in "electives". A major
in Zoology is assumed. Each biological science department would have a
course of similar plan built about its major as a core.

  First year,
    Geography or Geology
    Aims of science and its human values.
    Chemistry
    Electives

  Second year,
    Zoology,
    Physics,
    Electives

  Third year,
    Zoology--advanced courses
    Botany,
    Physiology
    Electives

  Fourth year,
    Zoology--advanced courses
    Bacteriology, and Public Health
    Electives

  Fifth year,
    Zoology--research
    History of Science
    Teachers' Course, correlated with and supplementary to
          practice teaching.
    Electives

The reasons for selection and sequence of subjects in this schedule
are fairly evident from what has gone before, but a few points will
bear additional explanation.

A course in the aims and values of science should be introductory, for
in the absence of general knowledge concerning values, such as has
grown up with other professions, the student must be given early in
his work an enthusiasm for it and a sort of guide for future choice of
subjects for study. The difference in aim between university and
secondary school science must be clearly understood at the start. Too
often, university courses accept science as an end in itself and it is
taught from that point of view, whereas the prospective teacher must
hold to his point of view, that to humanity generally science is only
a very effective means to an end; it is just a faithful servant.

The schedule just submitted may seem to be overbalanced with science
courses, but it must be somewhat so, especially if courses are not to
be completely reorganized. Science would not need to consume quite so
large a part of the time if special courses were given for
teachers--another argument for a high grade, strictly professional
course.

Duplication of teachers' courses in special methods would be
eliminated for a single course for all of the departments of
biological science would be sufficient. Biology is the hub, and not
the separate biological sciences, in the courses in this field in the
secondary schools. The methods concerned are _biological methods_,
and therefore a single course for all prospective teachers of
biological science regardless of the nature of their major work, is a
logical procedure. Whether such a course is a success or a failure is
largely dependent on the professor in charge. In the past there have
been many failures, mainly because the person conducting it has never
had secondary school experience, knows little or nothing of the
problems, and has no sincere enthusiasm for the teaching of science to
boys and girls below the university age.

The course suggested would cover an entire year. At least that much
time is required to give any direction or instruction that is worth
while. The first half of the year might well be devoted to a digestion
and correlation of all previous work, organizing it into a form easily
useable in the work to follow. Questions of method, recitation,
laboratory and field work, textbooks and reference books purchase and
use of equipment, must be given consideration in some part of the
course. An outline course, with the separate lessons that make it up
should be worked out in detail, for some particular locality,
preferably the one where practice teaching is to be done. This should
then be carefully tested by the criteria of a good biology course, as
pointed out by the best authorities, and by _common sense_. But why
make this skeleton outline beforehand? Why be prepared in anything? It
will be too late to prepare at the moment the problem has to be met.
Few new teachers will find a well planned course awaiting their
arrival in a new field, and without previous experience a new teacher
is likely to build up a course without due respect to relative values
which comes only with a perspective of a course in its entirety. To
illustrate, in the course given by an inexperienced teacher there is
too much chance of six weeks time being spent on the study of the
grasshopper, with only four weeks left at the end of the school year
to be devoted to the biology of the human. The mapping of a course, by
way of practice, gives the prospective teacher practice in the
exercise of judgment, with helpful constructive criticism.

Practice teaching now becomes only the trying out of the course and
accompanying methods. As, one practice teacher remarked when this plan
was suggested "But, I might have to make my course all over." Such
would often be the case. Any wide-awake teacher will change his course
more or less from year to year. Even if the first plan were entirely
discarded the energy and thought prompted by its making would not be
lost. And now let us change the name given to those in charge of
practice teachers. Advisor would be more fitting than _super_visor,
for they should remain in the background except for rendering helpful
service, and making constructive criticism in excess of destructive.

In order for practice teaching to be effective there must be nothing
of an artificial sort enter in. Conditions must be of the regular sort
met every day in the teaching game. This statement seems superfluous,
but a visit to some of the classes where practice teaching is being
done will justify its insertion here. The practice teacher should not
be handed over a laboratory properly equipped. Of course, the
equipment should be available. The course should not be "ready-cut".
The practice teacher must meet _all_ of the problems and this is
cheating him out of a part of his fun. Through his solution of these
problems there will be a two-fold benefit, for the _advisor_ too may
profit by the ingenuity of the newcomer. Resignation should be
requested of any advisor who has outgrown the ability to learn. It is
most likely to be the "green" person, who will develop really new
methods, or evolve a more fitting experiment, or turn a bit of
apparatus to a new use. Above all, the practice teacher should be
required to scout for living material--there will usually be an
abundance all about him, and much that is of interest should find its
way into the laboratory. Training in the use of living material can
not be over emphasized.

The course which I have outlined in the previous pages, is not
satisfactory, but I firmly believe that it would be an improvement
over the present situation. When tried out it would show many
shortcomings, but by trial and improvement has our entire educational
system evolved. Even an ideal professional course in use today would
be obsolete tomorrow. It would be unfortunate were it not so, for
growth involves ecdysis, and growth is the law of nature.



                    Literature from which helpful
             suggestions were received during the course
                            of this work.


  Bagley, W. C.    The training of teachers as a phase of democracy's
                  educational programme. Ed. Adm. & Supervsn. vol.4
                  no.1, Jan.'18.

  Balliet, T. M. and Robinson, C. H.    Training of Science Teachers.
                  N. E. A. Report, vol.54, 1916, pp.734-7.

  Bessey, C. E.    Preparation of botanical teachers. Science, N.S.,
                  vol.33, pp.633-9, 1911.

  Boas, F. S.    Teachers and research. Contemp., vol.116, pp.426-431.
                  1919.

  Boggs, L. P.    Making Teachers. School & Soc., vol.7, pp.369-74.

  Caldwell, W. O.    Preparation of the teacher of biology. School
                  Sci. & Math., vol.16, pp.385-92.

  Coulter, J. G.    The training of elementary science teachers.
                  School Rev., vol.24, pp.26-30.

  Curtis, C.B.    Secondary school science. Ed. Adm. & Supervsn.,
                  vol.3, Nov.1917.

  Dewey, J. D.    Democracy and Education.

  Kent R. A.    University preparation of teachers for high schools.
                  School Rev., vol.27, pp.172-85.

  Lange, A. F.    Preparation of high school teachers from the
                  standpoint of the university. U. C. A. Report, 1907,
                  pp.718-23.

  Lloyd, F. E. and Bigelow, M. A.    The teaching of biology. 1909.
                  Longmans, Green & Co.

  Luckey, G. W. A.    Essentials in the training of a teacher. School
                  and Society, vol.1, pp.263-9.

  McElroy, R. M.    Teaching teachers. Ind., vol.93, pp.525-.

  Pillsbury, W. H.    Buffalo plan of teacher training. Elem. Sch. Jr.
                  vol.21, pp.595-606.

  Swift, F. H.    College courses in methods of teaching high school
                  subjects. Sch. & Soc., vol.6, pp.691-9.

  Taylor, W. S.    Project methods in teacher-training courses. Sch. &
                  Soc., vol.8, pp.487-90.

  Wieman, H. L.    Teaching the scientific method vs. teaching the
                  facts of science. Sch. & Soc., vol.3, pp.243-5.

  Williams, J.T.    Teacher training in colleges.  Sch. & Soc., vol.9,
                  pp.105-9.

  Winship, A. E.    Prepare rather than train for teaching. N. E. A.
                  Report, 1918, pp.222-6.

  ----    Research vs. teaching.  Sch. & Soc., vol.11, pp. 684-5.

  ----    Research as a means of teacher training. Sch. & Soc., vol.3,
                  pp.243-5.

  ----    Reorganization of science in secondary schools. U. S. Dep't.
                  Interior, Bureau Ed., Bull.26, 1920.

  ----    Cardinal principles of secondary education. U. S. Dep't.
                  Interior, Bureau Ed., Bull.35, 1918.


             Twiss, G.R.--Principles of Science Teaching.
                           Macmillan. 1917.



                         TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


1. Passages in underlines are surrounded by _underscores_.

2. Tables have been moved from the middle of a paragraph to the
closest paragraph break.

3. The original pages included corrections made by hand which have
been retained in this e-text.

4. The following misprints have been corrected:
    "intellegently" corrected to "intelligently" (page 5)
    "basterial" corrected to "bacterial" (page 9)
    "would would" corrected to "would" (page 11)
    "natuer" corrected to "nature" (page 15)
    "Abilty" corrected to "Ability" (page 17)
    "Baillet" corrected to "Balliet" (page 17)
    "taht" corrected to "that" (page 22)
    "modificacations" corrected to "modifications" (page 24)
    "succes" corrected to "success" (page 26)
    "in" corrected to "In" at start of sentence (page 26)
    "fialures" corrected to "failures" (page 26)
    "toworrow" corrected to "tomorrow" (page 28)
    "Teahcing" corrected to "Teaching" (page 30)

5. Some of the punctuation errors, e.g., comma instead of period,
extra period, etc. in the original have been silently corrected
while those requiring interpretation have been left as such.

6. The titles listed in the table of contents do not match with the
headings in the original text. However, no changes have been made in
this e-text for these mismatches.

7. Other than the corrections listed above, printer's inconsistencies
in spelling and punctuation have been retained.





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