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Title: Construction Work for Rural and Elementary Schools
Author: McGaw, Virginia
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Construction Work
for
Rural and Elementary
Schools


BY

VIRGINIA McGAW

Teacher in the Elementary School
of Baltimore


A. FLANAGAN COMPANY
CHICAGO



COPYRIGHT 1909
BY
A. FLANAGAN COMPANY



PREFACE


In offering this volume to the public the author has but one
wish--namely, that it may supply a want in time of need and help some
one over a difficult place.

Most of the subject-matter in Parts One, Two, Three, and Four was
written for and has been previously published in the _Atlantic
Educational Journal_, with a view to assisting the rural teacher. The
present volume comprises a revision of the articles published, together
with a short account of one season's work in a school garden, and has
the same object--that of aiding the rural teacher by means of a few
simple suggestions.

The work is divided into five parts--"Cord Construction," "Paper
Construction," "Wood Construction," "Basketry," and "The School
Garden." No subject is dealt with at length. The aim has been to give
simple models that may be made without elaborate preparation or special
material.

Believing that a child is most likely to appreciate his tools when he
realizes their value or knows their history, a brief introduction to
each part is given, and wherever possible, the place of the occupation
in race history is dealt with, and an account of the culture and
habitat of the material is given.

As clear a statement as is possible is made of how the model is
constructed, and in most cases both a working drawing and a picture are
given.

                              VIRGINIA McGAW.

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND,
  April, 1909.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


To the _Atlantic Educational Journal_ for the privilege of revising and
relinquishing the articles on Cord, Paper, Wood, and Basketry.

To Mr. George M. Gaither, Supervisor of Manual Training in the Public
Schools of Baltimore, for five of the woodwork patterns.

To President Richard W. Silvester, of the Maryland Agricultural
College, for the inspiration to write the _Garden Bulletin_, his
consent to its republication, and his hearty coöperation in its
revision.



CONTENTS


CORD CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                             9

KNOTS                                            9
    1 Overhand Knot                             10
    2 Square Knot                               10
    3 "Granny" Knot                             11

CHAINS                                          11
    4 Loop Chain                                11
    5 Overhand Knot Chain                       13
    6 Solomon's Knot Chain                      13

COMBINED KNOTS AND CHAINS                       15
    7 Knotted Bag                               15
    8 Miniature Hammock--Knotted                16
    9 Miniature Portière--Knotted               17

WEAVING                                         17
    10 Miniature Hammock--Woven                 17


PAPER CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                            25

A MODEL LESSON                                  27
    1 Windmill or Pin-wheel                     31
    2 Square Tray No. I                         31
    3 Square Tray No. II                        31
    4 Square Box with Cover                     32
    5 Square or Rectangular Box                 33
    6 Pencil Box with Sliding Cover             35
    7 Seed Box with Sections                    37
    8 Picture Frame No. I, Diagonal Folds       37
    9 Picture Frame No. II                      37
    10 Portfolio                                40
    11 Barn--House--Furniture                   41
    12 Hexagonal Tray                           42
    13 Lamp Shade                               44
    14 Star                                     45
    15 Notebook                                 46
    16 Bound Book                               47
    17 Japanese Book                            49
    18 Scrap-Book                               50


WOOD CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                            55
    1 Puzzle                                    56
    2 Plant Label                               58
    3 Pencil Sharpener                          58
    4 Match Scratch                             59
    5 Kite-String Winder                        60
    6 Thermometer Back                          61
    7 Pocket Pin-Cushion                        61
    8 Picture Frame                             63
    9 Japanese Box                              65
    10 Grandfather's Chair                      66


BASKETRY

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                            71

REED CONSTRUCTION                               75
    1 Napkin Ring No. I                         75
    2 Napkin Ring No. II                        76
    3 Mat                                       76
    4 Hamper Basket                             77
    5 Basket Tray                               79
    6 Basket with Handle                        81

RAFFIA CONSTRUCTION                             83
    7 Plaited Rope                              84
    8 Plaited Mat                               85
    9 Purse                                     86
    10 Plaited Basket                           86
    11 Hat of Plaited Rope                      88
    12 Napkin Ring                              89
    13 Indian Basket                            89
    14 Grass Basket or Tray                     91
    15 Basket of Splints and Raffia             93

COMBINED REED AND RAFFIA                        95
    16 Umbrella                                 97
    17 Miniature Chair No. I                    97
    18 Miniature Chair No. II                   99

RULES FOR CANING CHAIRS                        102


THE SCHOOL GARDEN

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS                           107

A CITY SCHOOL GARDEN                           108



PART I

CORD CONSTRUCTION



CORD CONSTRUCTION


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

To a child one of the most attractive of possessions is a piece of
cord. He has so many uses for it that it becomes part of the prized
contents of his pocket. Since this commodity affords so much pleasure
to the untrained child, how greatly may the pleasure be enhanced if he
is taught how to make the number of beautiful things that may be
wrought from cord or twine! Having this knowledge, he will
unconsciously employ many otherwise weary moments in fashioning some
coveted article.

Among the things he can make are chains, reins, bags, nets, miniature
hammocks, portières, and rugs for the dollhouse. He must be guided step
by step from the simplest to the more intricate. He must be taught that
only when a thing is well done has it any use or value, therefore the
best effort is necessary to the success of his work. If he ties a knot,
it must be properly tied or it will not hold. If he makes a bag or a
hammock, the meshes must be uniform and the color blendings pleasing or
it will lack beauty, and even he, himself, will not care for it. Should
he make a chain or reins, they ought to be attractive-looking as well
as useful; hence the aim should be for artistic combination and perfect
execution. The success the child will meet with will depend greatly
upon the attitude of the teacher toward the work and the amount of
spirit she may be able to infuse into it.


KNOTS

     _Aim_--To teach the names of different knots, how they are
     tied, and the utilitarian value of each.

Begin by teaching how to tie a knot, and that all knots are not alike
nor tied in the same way. There are three kinds of knots--the overhand
knot, the square knot and the "Granny" knot. Each of these has its use,
its place, and a utilitarian value.


1 Overhand Knot

     _Material_--One 10-inch piece of heavy twine.

Hold one end of the twine firmly in the left hand and throw the other
end over with the right hand to form a loop; then pass the end in the
right hand under the loop; and draw it through tightly, making a firm
knot.

[Illustration: OVERHAND KNOT]

A long piece of twine in which are tied either single knots at regular
intervals, or groups of three or five knots with spaces between, will
make a chain which will delight any small child.


2 Square Knot

     _Aim_--To teach how to tie a knot that will not slip.

     _Material_--One 12-inch piece of heavy twine.

Take an end of the twine between the thumb and the forefinger of each
hand. Holding in the left hand end No. 1, pass it to the right over end
No. 2; then pass it under No. 2; finally, pass it out and over, making
the first tie. Now, holding end No. 1 firmly in the right hand and end
No. 2 in the left, pass No. 1 to the left over No. 2, then under, out
and over; draw the two ties together, and you will have a firm, square
knot.

[Illustration: SQUARE KNOT]


3 "Granny" Knot

     _Aim_--To teach the name of the knot one usually ties and
     how to tie it.

     _Material_--One 12-inch piece of heavy twine.

Take an end of the twine between the thumb and the forefinger of each
hand and hold firmly. Pass end No. 1 to the right over end No. 2, under
and out. Next pass end No. 2 to the right over end No. 1, under and
out.

We now have the knot known as the "Granny," which we ordinarily tie.


CHAINS

4 Loop Chain

     _Material_--One piece, 5 yards long, of macramé cord, No.
     12, one color. (See page 12.)

About five inches from one end of the cord make a short loop. Using
this loop as a starting-point, work up the length of the cord to within
about eighteen inches of the other end, by repeatedly drawing a new
loop through the one previously made as one does in crocheting. The
child can easily manipulate the cord with his tiny fingers. Aim to have
the loops of uniform size. Finish with a loop five inches long, leaving
an end of the same length. Now, placing together the two ends of the
chain, we have a loop and two single ends of cord. Take these single
cords together and buttonhole them over the loop for about three
inches, then twist. Tie the single ends with a square knot, and fringe
them out; leave the loop.

[Illustration: LOOP CHAIN
Showing how stitch is made and appearance of finished chain.]

Instead of being fringed, the ends may have a large bead attached to
each, and a whistle may be strung on the loop. This would both make
the chain attractive to the child and demonstrate a use for it.


5 Overhand Knot Chain

     _Material_--Macramé cord, No. 12: one piece 2 yards long,
     white; one piece 2 yards long, red.

[Illustration: OVERHAND KNOT CHAIN]

Fasten the two pieces together in the middle. Pin them to a board or
slip them over a hook where the cord will be held firmly. Using the
overhand knot, tie each color alternately, until all except about four
inches of cord is used up. Taking four ends as one, tie a slip-knot
close up to the point where you stopped forming the chain. Next, fringe
out the four ends close up to the knot. The result is a circular cord
with stripes running diagonally around it, very pleasing to the eye of
a child.

The lengths here given make a fob-chain about five inches long.


6 Solomon's Knot Chain

     _Material_--Four pieces of macramé cord, No. 12, 2-1/2 yards
     long, of one color. (See page 14.)

Double in the middle and leave two loops, each two inches long. Take
two strands as the center and foundation and attach them to a hook or a
board where they will be held firmly. Loop the two remaining threads
alternately over the two central ones, first the one on the right, then
the one on the left. For instance: Take a single cord on the left, form
a loop to the left of the double cords, draw the end over the two
foundation pieces and hold firmly. Then take a single cord on the
right, pass it over the piece of cord which forms the loop, then under
where the three pieces cross and up through the loop; draw it tight.
Then work with a single cord on the right in the same way and continue,
alternating the two single cords, until there is left about four
inches. Clip the middle cords so that the four ends may be of equal
length. Finish by tying them in a square knot and fringing the ends.
This forms a flat chain one-quarter of an inch wide and one-eighth of
an inch thick, which may be made any length desired.

[Illustration: SOLOMON'S KNOT CHAIN
Showing how stitch is made.]

[Illustration: KNOTTED BAG]


COMBINED KNOTS AND CHAINS

7 Knotted Bag

     _Material_--Macramé cord, No. 12, one or two colors; twelve
     pieces 1 yard long or six pieces 1 yard long, of each of the
     two colors.

Double each piece of cord in the middle and tie it in a loop over a
pencil or some other object that will make the loops of equal size.
Slip the loops from the pencil and string them to a cord, alternating
the colors. Join the ends of the cord so as to form a hoop. You now
have twelve loops on this hoop and one row of knots. Form a second row
of knots by tying cords of different colors together. The meshes should
be uniform and of the size of the loops. Continue knotting one row
below the other until about three inches of cord remain. Now stretch
the bag out straight and double and tie together the four cords, which
operation will form the bottom and close the bag. Fringe the ends and
trim them off evenly.

Make a loop chain, and run it through the top loops, having removed the
working cord. Small brass rings may be used at the top instead of
loops, and the drawing string may be run through them. A larger bag may
be made by the addition of more and longer pieces of twine.

[Illustration: MINIATURE HAMMOCK--KNOTTED]


8 Miniature Hammock--Knotted

     _Material_--Twelve pieces of seine cord, No. 12, each 2
     yards long. Two iron rings, 1 inch in diameter.

String the pieces of cord through a ring, taking care that the ends are
of the same length. About three inches from the ring, knot each piece
of cord. This will make twelve knots and form the first row. For the
second row, knot alternate pieces of cord. Continue until there are
twelve rows of knots. Be careful to make the meshes the same size.
Leave about three inches unknotted and attach these ends to the second
ring. Make a twisted cord (of four thicknesses of macramé) of some
contrasting color and run through the meshes of each side, taking it
twice through each mesh and attaching it to rings at the ends of the
hammock. The meshes should be about an inch square. Make the cords a
little shorter than the sides of the hammock, in order to give it the
proper spring. Take an extra piece of cord the color of the hammock and
wrap it around the cords close up to the rings, winding it evenly and
firmly for about an inch from the ring; fasten it securely.


9 Miniature Portière--Knotted

     _Material_--Twelve 36-inch lengths of macramé cord, No. 12.

Double each piece in the middle and, using the overhand knot, tie it
over a stout lead pencil or a very narrow ruler. See that each knot is
pressed close to the foundation holder, that the loops may be of equal
size. These loops and knots form the first row. Do not remove them from
the holder. Separate the cords and knot together each two adjacent
ones, alternating at every other row. Continue knotting until about
three inches of cord remain to form the fringe at the bottom. Before
tying the last row of knots, slip a colored glass bead over each set of
cords, then make the knot so as to hold the bead in place. These beads
are an ornament, apart from giving weight to the portière to make it
hang well. Trim the fringe evenly, slip the portière from the
foundation holder, and it is ready to hang.

Use beads the color of the cord, or of some effective contrasting
shade. If a child is expert enough, a bead may be placed at every knot,
adding decidedly to the attractiveness of the little portière. (See
page 18.)


WEAVING

10 Miniature Hammock--Woven

     _Material_--Tag-board loom 8×10 inches. Cord of one, two or
     three colors. Two brass rings, 1/2 inch in diameter.

[Illustration: MINIATURE PORTIERE--(For description see page 17.)]

To make a loom, take a piece of tag-board 8×10 inches in size. Measure
off one inch from the back edge and draw a line parallel to the back
edge. Measure off one inch from the front edge and draw a line parallel
to the front edge. Measure off one inch from the right edge and draw a
line parallel to the right edge. Measure off one inch from the left
edge and draw a line parallel to the left edge. You have now a 6×8-inch
rectangle marked off, leaving a one-inch space around the edge of the
tag-board. Start at a point where a vertical and a horizontal line
intersect and mark off the six-inch ends into spaces one-fourth inch
apart. Next with a large needle pierce the board at each point of
intersection. This will make twenty-five eyelets at each end. On the
reverse side of the board draw diagonals to determine the center. Tie
together the two brass rings and fasten them firmly to the center of
the reverse side.

[Illustration: BLANKET FOR DOLL'S BED
Showing how it is started.]

To string the loom requires about fifteen yards of cord. Divide the
cord into two lengths. Thread a length into a needle and tie one end of
it to one of the brass rings. Next carry the cord from the ring through
the thirteenth perforation, then across the face of the loom to the
thirteenth perforation at the opposite end, through again to the
reverse side and pass through the opposite ring from which it started.
Repeat this operation by carrying the cord in a reverse direction each
time until one-half the loom is strung. Then with the other length of
cord start, by attaching it to the same ring to which the first piece
was tied, and work in the opposite direction until the second half is
strung. Should it be necessary to add to the cord, arrange that the
knot be on an end near a ring. A knot in the warp hampers the weaving.

[Illustration: A RUG
Made of narrow strips of cotton cloth.]

Have the warp threads and the predominant woof thread of the same
color.

To begin weaving, cut a quantity of ten-inch lengths. Take one of these
lengths, start in the center of the loom, and weave in and out among
the warp threads, allowing it to extend two inches beyond on each side.
Have a perfectly smooth, narrow, thin ruler and weave it in across the
warp threads. As each horizontal or woof thread is added, shove it
close to the preceding one with the ruler, which acts as a pusher.
Weave first on one side of the center and then on the other, until the
entire 6×8-inch space is covered. If a border is to be put in, gauge
equal spaces from the center and work in the border of a different
shade or color. The borders must be placed equally distant from the
center and the same distance from each end. Take the overhanging cords
and knot each alternate two together along the line of the outer warp
thread. This will hold the woof threads in place, as well as finish the
edges of the hammock. Comb these ends out and trim them, to get the
fringe even. At each end where the weaving stops, take a needle
threaded with a length of cord and run in and out along the warp
threads, first to the right and then to the left of the final woof
thread. This makes a secure finish and holds the woof threads in
position. Next unfasten the rings and remove the hammock from the loom
by tearing the tag-board along the lines of perforations. Finally,
where the cords pass through the ring, hold them close to the ring and
wrap them with a piece of cord for the distance of an inch, then fasten
off by forcing the needle up through the wrapped space toward the ring;
draw the end through and clip close to the ring. The hammock is now
finished.

The question may arise: Why begin weaving in the center of the loom?
The answer is: Because small children, and even older ones, sometimes,
are not able to keep their warp threads parallel and as they approach
the middle, where these threads give more, they naturally draw them in.
This tendency is remedied to a great extent by beginning in the middle
and weaving toward the ends, where the warp is confined in the board
and keeps its place with no effort on the part of the child.



PART II

PAPER CONSTRUCTION



PAPER CONSTRUCTION


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

Whatever may have been the true origin of the art of paper-making, it
is now lost in obscurity. It is almost certain that the earliest form
of paper was the papyrus of the Egyptians and that they were the first
to use it as a writing material. They manufactured it from the stem of
the papyrus plant, from which the name _paper_ comes.

It is also known that the Chinese were versed in this art before the
Christian Era, and that they made paper from the bark of various trees,
the soft part of bamboo stems, and cotton. In India and China the
practice of writing on dried palm and other leaves still obtains. It is
probable that the employment of these fibrous substances, together with
observation of the methods of paper-making wasps and other insects, led
to manufacturing by pulping the materials and spreading them out.

As the Chinese seem to have been the pioneers in so many great
inventions, so also they appear to have been the inventors of this art.
From the Chinese the Arabians learned, in the seventh century, the
craft of making paper from cotton, and they established a manufactory
at Samarcand in 706 A. D. Here the Moors learned the art, and through
them it was introduced into Spain. It is thought that the Moors used
flax and hemp in addition to cotton in their manufacture of paper. The
products of their mills are known to have been of a most superior
quality, but, with the decline of the Moors, paper-making passed into
less skilled hands, and the quality of the paper became inferior.

From Spain the art spread through the other countries of Europe, and as
factories were established further north, where cotton was not a
product nor easy to import, the necessity of substituting some other
material probably led to the introduction of linen rags; but when they
began to be used is uncertain. England was far behind the other
countries of Northern Europe in introducing the industry of
paper-making.

[Illustration: SCREEN--SIX-BY-NINE-INCH CONSTRUCTION PAPER]

In the United States to-day paper in all varieties is manufactured to
an enormous extent, and almost exclusively from vegetable matter. The
book and newspaper trades demand an untold quantity.

There are three great types--writing, printing, and wrapping paper.
Writing paper is made from rags and wood pulp. The staple for wrapping
paper is old rope, and in some cases jute. The best writing and
printing papers, however, are made from rags. From these as staples,
all other varieties are developed, and we have paper for every use to
which man can apply it.

Paper folding and modeling is not an ancient occupation, but a modern
device, yet to the child it has a utilitarian value not to be
overlooked. His nature demands that he be employed, and change of
occupation is conducive to his happiness. Nothing is quite so restful
to him as to do something with his hands; therefore, with his blocks he
builds a house, fences it around with his splints, and strews the
ground with imaginary trees and animals. He lives in this nursery play,
and in it he is happy.

When he enters school, should he have only books? No, his hands still
demand employment. He is now led to fashion from paper what he has
already made with his blocks and toys. He is occupied, he is
interested, and he is cultivating concentration and industrious habits.
Is this worth while?

Begin the lessons with a talk on the manufacture and uses of paper. By
a story, an association or the suggestion of a future use the child
should be made to feel that he is doing something worth while. This
will accentuate the interest and deepen the impression.

All models given may be increased or decreased in size if the
proportions are adhered to, but the dimensions stated are those
commonly used.


A MODEL LESSON

     _Aim_--To construct a windmill or pin-wheel.

Each child should have a five-inch square, a slender stick five inches
long, a pin, a ruler, a pair of scissors, and a lead pencil.

The children are supposed to know that every piece of paper, laid in
position, has a back edge, a front edge, a right edge, a left edge, a
right-back corner, a left-back corner, a right-front corner, a
left-front corner, and that, in tracing, the forefinger of the right
hand is used.

Three questions after each direction will be sufficient. The questions
aim to have a complete statement in answer, and to develop an
unconsciously correct use of the verb. This may appear slow at first,
but soon the replies will come quickly and the answer will be correctly
given.

[Illustration: WINDMILL, A]

_Teacher_: "Children, lay your papers on your desk parallel with the
front edge of the desk.--John, where are you to lay your paper?"

_John_: "I am to lay my paper on my desk parallel with the front edge
of my desk."

_Teacher_: "Mary, where did you lay your paper?"

_Mary_: "I laid my paper on my desk parallel with the front edge of my
desk."

_Teacher_: "Willie, where has Mary laid her paper?"

_Willie_: "Mary has laid her paper on her desk, parallel with the front
edge of her desk."

_Teacher_: "Trace the back edge of your paper.--Anna, what are you to
do to your paper?"

_Anna_: "I am to trace the back edge of my paper."

_Teacher_: "Harry, what did you do to your paper?"

_Harry_: "I traced the back edge of my paper."

_Teacher_: "Jessie, what have you done to your paper?"

_Jessie_: "I have traced the back edge of my paper."

_Teacher_: "Each child place the forefinger on the right-back corner of
the paper.--Charles, what are you to do?"

_Charles_: "I am to place my forefinger on the right-back corner of my
paper."

_Teacher_: "Anna, what did you do?"

_Anna_: "I placed my forefinger on the right-back corner of my paper."

_Teacher_: "Laurence, what have you done?"

_Laurence_: "I have placed my forefinger on the right-back corner of my
paper."

_Teacher_: "Take your ruler and lay it across your paper from the
left-back corner to the right-front corner.--Margaret, what are you to
do?"

_Margaret_: "I am to lay my ruler on my paper from the left-back corner
to the right-front corner."

_Teacher_: "Draw a line connecting the left-back corner of your paper
with the right-front corner.--James, what did you draw?"

_James_: "I drew a line connecting the left-back corner of my paper
with the right-front corner."

_Teacher_: "Alice, what have you drawn?"

_Alice_: "I have drawn a line connecting the left-back corner of my
paper with the right-front corner."

Now have the children draw a line connecting the reverse diagonal
corners and proceed as follows:

_Teacher_: "Find the point where the lines cross. This is the center or
middle point of your paper.--Albert, what are you to find?"

_Albert_: "I am to find the point where the lines cross, which is the
center of my paper."

_Teacher_: "Measure one inch from this point on each of the four lines
and place a dot.--Sara, what did you measure?"

_Sara_: "I measured one inch from the center of my paper on each of the
four lines and placed a dot."

_Teacher_: "Lay your pencil and your ruler down. Place your paper on
your desk parallel with its front edge and lay your left hand on the
right-front corner. Turn the paper until this corner is directly in
front of you. Take your scissors and cut along the ruled line from the
corner to the point one inch from the center.

[Illustration: WINDMILL, B]

"Lay down your scissors. Turn your paper from right to left until the
next corner faces you. Cut. Move the paper from right to left again
until the third corner faces you. Cut. Bring the fourth corner to face
you. Cut. There are now eight points. Turn each alternate point to the
center, run the pin through all of them and fasten the wheel to the
stick."

_Final questions._

_Teacher_: "What did you make?"

_Pupil_: "I made a pin-wheel."

_Teacher_: "What have you made?"

_Pupil_: "I have made a pin-wheel."

_Teacher_: "What has Ellen made?"

_Pupil_: "Ellen has made a pin-wheel."

When older pupils have completed a model it is excellent practice to
have them write a full description of how it is made and the materials
used.


1 Windmill, or Pin-Wheel

     _Material_--One piece of construction paper, 5×5 inches.
     Stick, 5×1/4×1/4 inches. One pin. (See pages 28 and 30.)

Fold the square on the diagonals. Cut the diagonals to within one-half
inch of the center. Bend alternate corners over until the point of each
touches the center. Fasten the four points in the center by running the
pin through them and driving it into the stick.


2 Square Tray No. I

     _Material_--Construction paper, 5×5 inches. (See page 32.)

Measure off one inch on four sides, and connect the points with a line
parallel to the edge of the paper. Score lightly each line. Cut out the
four corner squares. Turn up the sides, fasten the corners together
with raffia or cord, tying a small bow.


3 Square Tray No. II

     _Material_--Construction paper, 5×5 inches. (See page 33.)

Fold and crease into sixteen small squares. Score lightly the four
lines nearest the outer edge. Draw one diagonal pointing toward the
center of each corner square. Next draw half of the diagonal extending
in the opposite direction. Fold the paper on the lines scored. Crease
the diagonals 1-2, making the crease extend to the inside of the tray,
and press until lines 1-4 and 1-3 meet. Now we have a triangle on the
inside of the tray. Fold this over on half-diagonal, No. 5, and press
to the side of the tray. This will fasten together firmly the corners
of the tray.

[Illustration: SQUARE TRAY No. I--(For description see page 31.)]


4 Square Box with Cover

     _Materials_--Construction paper, 6×6 inches. (See page 34.)

Measure off from the outer edge two lines, one inch apart. Score these
lines. In each corner there are four one-inch squares. Cut off 1, 2,
and 3; then draw the diagonal of 4 pointing toward the center of the
paper. Crease and fold on these diagonals, extending the triangle
inward. Fold this triangle over to half its size; press to the inside
of the box. Edges 5-6, 5-7 will meet to form the corners of the box,
and cover flaps 8-9 will fall naturally into place. Result, box four
inches square, one inch deep, with folding cover.


5 Square or Rectangular Box

[Illustration: SQUARE TRAY No. II--(For description see page 31.)]

     _Material_--Construction paper, 4×4 inches or 4×6 inches.

Measure off a margin one inch all around, and score. Cut as indicated
on page 35. Fold over the border to half its width, as 1 over to 2.
Bend up on line 2-3. When the edge is folded over a little tongue is
formed at each end. Slip this tongue under the fold of the adjacent
side, and it will fasten the sides of the box firmly together. A lid
may be made exactly as the box is made.

[Illustration: SQUARE BOX WITH COVER--(For description see page 32.)]

A beautiful Christmas box may be made of red paper, or gray decorated
with holly. Made of white paper, with a chicken (in yellow) painted on
the lid, it is appropriate for Easter.

[Illustration: SQUARE BOX--(For description see pages 33 and 34.)]


6 Pencil Box with Sliding Cover

     _Material_--Construction paper: one 7-inch square; one
     rectangle 4×9 inches. (See page 36.)

_Drawer._ Lay the rectangle on the desk with the nine-inch edge
parallel with the front edge of the desk. Draw a line one inch from the
back edge and parallel with it. Draw a line one inch from the front
edge and parallel with it. Draw a line one inch from the right edge and
parallel with it; and a line one inch from the left edge and parallel
with it. Score, bend and crease on these lines. Cut the lines on the
right and the left edges to where they intersect the lines on the back
and the front edges. Fold and glue. The laps are pasted on the inside
and give strength to the ends of the drawer.

[Illustration: PENCIL BOX WITH SLIDING COVER]

_Cover_ (seven-inch square). Measure off one and one-fourth inches, and
construct a line parallel to the back edge. Measure one inch and draw a
line parallel to this. Measure off two and one-sixteenth inches (shy)
and draw a third parallel line. Measure one inch again and draw a
fourth line parallel to the other three. Score and fold on these lines.
Lap the space at the back edge over the space at the front edge until
they form a rectangle two and one-sixteenth by seven inches in size, to
correspond with the opposite one, which is the top of the cover. Glue.
Slide in the drawer and the pencil box is completed.


7 Seed Box with Sections

     _Material_--Construction paper: two rectangles 8×9 inches;
     one rectangle 2×5-1/2 inches; one rectangle 2×4-1/2 inches.
     (See page 38.)

Take one 8×9-inch rectangle for the body of the box and lay off a
two-inch space all around. Cut on dotted lines. Score and crease, fold
and glue. The laps are glued to the inside and each one turned to the
right. When the partitions are put in the laps mark where the ends go,
as well as brace the ends of them. Take the two rectangles, 2×4-1/2
inches and 2×5-1/2 inches, and draw a line one-half inch from each of
the two-inch edges. Score and crease. These form the laps for pasting
the partitions in. On these partitions turn all four laps to the right,
to coincide with the laps on the box. Dovetail the partitions by
cutting a slit one inch deep in the center of each and slipping one
over the other. Next glue them to the inside of the box.

_Cover._ Take the second 8×9-inch rectangle and mark off a two-inch
space (shy) all around. Find middle of nine-inch edges and draw lines
1-2, 2-3, and 2-4. Cut out these two triangles. Cut the corners on the
dotted lines. Score, fold, and glue. Notice that in the lids the laps
are not turned as in the body of the box. Here, as in the drawer of the
pencil-box, the laps are glued to the ends of the cover, concentrating
strength there and producing symmetry in construction.


8 Picture Frame No. I--Diagonal Folds

     _Material_--Construction paper, 5×5 inches. (See page 39.)

Fold on the diagonals. Bring each corner over until it touches the
center; crease. Fold each corner back again until its point touches the
outside edge at the middle section; crease.

[Illustration: SEED BOX WITH SECTIONS--(For description see page 37.)]


9 Picture Frame No. II

     _Material_--Construction paper, 4-1/2×16-1/2 inches. (See
     page 40.)

Divide the length into three equal parts, making three rectangles
4-1/2×5-1/2 inches in size. In the middle rectangle, measure off and
cut out a rectangle 2-1/4×3 inches in size. Fold rectangle No. 3 up and
back of rectangle No. 2. Holding the two firmly together, punch two
holes, one-fourth inch apart, on each side, and one-fourth inch from
the outer edges (see diagram). Draw a piece of raffia or ribbon through
these holes and tie in a bow. Fold back rectangle No. 1 for support.

[Illustration: PICTURE FRAME No. I--(For description see page 37.)]

[Illustration: PICTURE FRAME No. II--(For description see pages 37 and
39.)]


10 Portfolio

     _Material_--Heavy manila paper, 7-1/2×12 inches. (See page 41.)

Fold edge No. 1 over and even with edge No. 2. Crease and fold. On each
side of A mark and cut off one-half inch. Clip off the corners of the
flaps on B. Fold the flaps of B over on A and paste. Find the middle of
edges 1 and 2. With a radius of one inch, describe a semicircle and cut
it out.

[Illustration: PORTFOLIO--(For description see page 40.)]


11 Barn--House--Furniture

     _Material_--Construction paper, 8×8 inches or 10×10 inches.
     (See page 42.)

Fold a square into sixteen small squares of equal size; crease. With
this as a basis throw the child on his own resources, allowing him to
invent a pattern and make a chair, a sofa, or any piece of furniture
that he can devise from such a square. A corner may have to be cut out
or a slit made, but impress upon the child that, as far as possible,
the model must be gotten by folding, with very little or no cutting.

By using a larger square and folding in the same way, a house or a
barn may be made. Add a chimney and steps from an extra piece of paper.

[Illustration]


12 Hexagonal Tray

     _Material_--Construction paper, 7×7 inches.

[Illustration: HEXAGONAL TRAY]

Draw one diameter; find the center. With a radius of three and one-half
inches describe a circle. (The circumference of a circle is six times
the radius). Place a point of the compass at one intersection of the
circumference and the diameter, and divide the circle into six equal
parts. With a radius of two inches, describe an inner circle parallel
to the outer one. Connect opposite points of the outer circle by
drawing two more diameters. This will divide the inner circle into six
equal parts. Connect by straight lines the adjacent points of the inner
circle, as 1-2; score. At the intersections of the outer circle, mark
off one-half inch on each side and by straight lines connect both these
points with the opposite points of intersection of the inner circle, as
2-3, 2-4. This forms two equal triangles, one of which is to be cut
out, as 4-2-5, and the other, as 3-2-5, left. Having cut out the six
triangles, bend up on lines scored, bring the sides together, and use
triangle 3-2-5 as a lap for pasting.


13 Lamp Shade

     _Material_--Construction paper, 7×10 inches. Japanese rice
     paper, 7×10 inches.

[Illustration: LAMP SHADE, A]

Select a pretty shade of brown, green or red construction paper.
Measure off two inches and construct a line parallel to the ten-inch
length. Bisect this line. Place the compass at this point of bisection
and with a radius of four inches describe a semicircle, 1-2; extend
this arc to 3, and draw the line 3-4. With a radius of one inch
describe an inner semicircle (5-6) parallel to the outer one. Again,
with a radius of one inch describe a third semicircle, parallel to the
other two. Set the compass at half the radius and divide each
semicircle into six equal parts. Connect these points of intersection
by straight lines (9-10). Make a stencil that will fit in one of these
sections. Using the stencil, draw the same figure in each section.
Carefully cut out the stenciled space. Next lay the construction paper
on the Japanese rice paper and trace on it the stencil design. Remove
the construction paper and, with two blending colors of crayon, color
the figure or design traced on the Japanese paper. Again, lay the
construction paper on the rice paper and glue the two together. Cut out
the shade as marked off, bring the two edges together, and glue.

[Illustration: LAMP SHADE, B]

If you wish the lower edge scalloped, cut it as shown in the diagram.
By folding and creasing on the lines of intersection the shade may be
made hexagonal in shape. All designs for decoration are supposed to be
original.


14 Star

     _Material_--Construction paper, two 8-inch squares. Raffia.

Take an eight-inch square. Fold the front edge over to the back edge;
crease. On the left edge place a point one and one-half inches from the
left-back corner. Carry the right-front corner over to this point; fold
and crease. Turn the left triangle under; fold and crease. Next, as the
paper stands in your hand with the triangle facing you, fold the right
edge over to the left edge; crease. Where the three edges of the paper
come together, begin at the highest point and cut across the paper from
right to left to within two and one-half inches of the center. Open out
the paper and you have the star.

A picture frame made of a five-pointed star is very pretty. Cut two
stars of the same size. From the center of one cut a star one inch
smaller for a mat. Lay this mat on the solid or foundation star and
glue four of the points together. In the fifth point pierce two holes
through both pieces, about an inch from the apex of the point. Slip in
the picture. Take a piece of raffia or cord and tie a loop with two
ends. Bring these ends through the holes from the back to the front and
tie them in a bow. By the loop at the back the frame is hung.

[Illustration: PICTURE FRAME FROM FIVE-POINTED STAR]


15 Notebook

     _Material_--Construction paper, 6-1/2×7 inches, for cover.
     Manila paper, four pieces 6×6-1/2 inches, for leaves.

Fold the piece of construction paper down the middle, so as to form the
3-1/2×6-1/2-inch cover. In the same way crease the manila paper for the
leaves. Place the leaves within the cover; with heavy silk or fine
twine sew them to the back. Bring the needle through one inch from the
upper edge, one inch from the lower edge, and in the middle. The long
stitch is on the inside, the two short ones are on the outside, both
ends of the thread are brought through the center to the inside and
tied over the long stitch to hold it in place. Leave the ends an inch
long and fringe them.

[Illustration: NOTEBOOK]


16 Bound Book

     _Material_--Heavy construction paper, colored, 5×6 inches,
     for cover. Four pieces white paper, 11-1/2×19-1/2 inches,
     for leaves. Two pieces tape, 1/4×2 inches.

_Cover._ Mark off and rule two and seven-eighths inches from each edge
of the five-inch length; crease. This will leave in the middle a
1/4×5-inch space, in which the back of the leaves will go. Take each
sheet of white paper, fold it once lengthwise, and once crosswise; this
will make a "folio" four leaves thick, 2-3/4×5-3/4 inches in size. We
have four of these folios to be joined together and bound to the back.
Take folio No. 1 and with needle and silk sew the leaves together,
running the thread one inch from the upper edge and one inch from the
lower edge and in the center, seeing that the last stitch brings the
thread on the outside of the back of the leaves. Do not break the
thread. Take folio No. 2, hold it close to folio No. 1, carry the
thread across and take it through the middle of the back, one inch from
front or back edge, as in folio No. 1.

[Illustration: BOUND BOOK]

On the back edges of these folios there will be two long stitches.
Under these stitches pass the two pieces of tape. Keep one of these
tapes as near the upper and the other as near the lower edge as the
stitch will allow. As a folio is added and the leaves sewed together,
connect the exposed stitch of the one previously added to the one last
added, at the three places where the thread holds the leaves, by a
buttonhole stitch (in bookbinding known as the "kettle stitch"). When
the last folio is added, place the back of the leaves to the back of
the cover in the 1/4×5-inch space. Stretch the tapes down on the cover
and paste (1-3). Take the first and the last leaf and paste them over
the tapes, to the inside of the cover. The outside of the cover may
have some simple decoration if such is desired.

In Book VII of the _Text Book of Art Education_, published by The Prang
Educational Company, is worked out a very interesting problem for the
making of a scrap-book, and suggestions given for decorating the cover.
The scrap or clipping books shown here were made in a similar way. The
decoration and cover are left to the taste and ingenuity of the teacher
or the child.


17 Japanese Book

     _Material_--Construction paper, colored, 4-1/4×12-1/4
     inches, for cover. Manila paper, six leaves, 4×6 inches,
     double, with fold on outer edge.

[Illustration: JAPANESE BOOK]

The paper for the cover is 4-1/4×12-1/4 inches in size. Place the paper
lengthwise in front of you and bring the left edge over to the right
edge; crease, fold. Mark off a space three-fourths of an inch from the
edge of the fold, draw a line, A-L. On this line three-quarters of an
inch from the upper and the lower edges, place dots, B C, and
one-fourth inch from B C place dots D E. Hold the leaves evenly
together and press them in between the cover. With a large needle and
cord sew through C, under, up, and over A, through C again, under to
F, over through C, under and up through E, back to G, under and up
through E, down to D, through and over H, back to D, down and up
through D, then to B; down under to K, back to B, through and under and
around to L, to B, to D, to E, to C. Tie the two ends of the cord,
which come together at C, and fringe them out.

[Illustration: SCRAP OR CLIPPING BOOK
Cover of grass cloth.]


18 Scrap-Book

     _Material_--Construction paper, colored: 6-1/4×8-1/4 inches,
     for cover. Manila paper: three leaves 6×8 inches; three
     strips 1-1/8×6 inches. Two paper clamps.

Double the 6×8-inch leaves into six leaves 4×6 inches in size. Between
leaves 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, place the 1-1/8×6-inch guards at the
back. Have leaves and guards even and compact; then set them between
the cover. Measure from the back edge of the cover a space
three-quarters of an inch wide, and draw a pencil line. Placing the
sharp edge of a ruler on this line, bend the back edge toward the front
until it is well creased. In the center of this 3/4-inch space, one
inch from the upper edge and one inch from the lower edge of the book,
pierce a hole and insert the brass clamps.

[Illustration: SCRAP OR CLIPPING BOOK
Cover of linen, stenciled.]


A PASTE

Mix until perfectly smooth one cup of flour with one cup of cold water.

Put two cups of water in a vessel and set it over the fire until it
heats. (Do not let it boil.) Add one teaspoonful of powdered alum, then
stir in the mixture of flour and cold water. Continue stirring until
it thickens to a good consistency. Remove it from the fire and add one
teaspoonful of oil of cloves or peppermint. Pour it into an air-tight
jar and when it is cool screw on the top.

[Illustration: SCRAP OR CLIPPING BOOK
Cover of fancy paper--(For description see pages 51 and 52.)]

Use the same cup all through. The oil of cloves or peppermint is simply
a flavoring, and does not add to the quality. This quantity will nearly
fill a quart jar.



PART III

WOOD CONSTRUCTION



WOOD CONSTRUCTION


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

As the child develops, paper construction loses its charm, and a desire
for something utilitarian arises. We suggest that at this stage the
much-treasured pocket knife be brought into service, for from small
pieces of wood many articles may be made. The construction of these
will afford the child, especially the boy, much pleasure, and will at
once arouse a new interest.

Only the simplest articles will be given here--articles which may be
fashioned from bits of wood commonly found around a house, such as old
cigar boxes, small starch boxes, etc. But, should the teacher be able
to obtain the proper materials, basswood a quarter or three-eighths of
an inch thick, and whittling knives are the requisites.

The reader will notice that the wood mentioned for each model is bass.
Why? Because bass is the wood generally used for carving. The tree is
the same as the linden and the lime. It is found in northern Asia,
Europe, and North America, and grows to an immense height. The wood is
soft, light, close-veined, pliable, tough, durable, and free from
knots, and does not split easily; all of which qualities favor its
suitability for carving.

In whittling, it is always best to lay off the pattern on both sides of
the wood. Then one can work from either side without fear of spoiling
the material.

In cutting, work with the grain, or the wood will be apt to split. Cut
toward you, not from you.

In grooving, use the point of the knife, and work slowly and carefully.
If the knife slips the wood is ruined.

Insist that nothing the child does is well done unless well
sandpapered, and nothing is properly sandpapered until all roughness is
done away with, and the grain appears.

In the making of designs, let the child first have a piece of paper the
size of the wood he is to use, and have him work out a design to be
applied to his wood. This design may be most crude, but with a
suggestion here, and a correction there, from the teacher, it can be
brought into shape. The child will be pleased, and will attack with
more assurance of success each succeeding problem that he meets.

For coloring, use water color paints. Red, green, and yellow are most
satisfactory, as their identity is retained when staining is applied.

Apply the stain with a brush, and with a soft cloth rub it in until it
is dry. This develops or brings out the grain.

When sure that the stain is well rubbed in and dry, apply butcher's
wax, and polish with a soft cloth. Some articles need two coats of
stain, and an equal amount of polish.

In all work impress upon the child the fact that what is worth doing is
worth doing well, or it should not be done at all.

Each model given works out a problem in handling the knife and cutting
the wood, and each problem leads up to the one that follows.

We will begin with the simplest thing one can make--a puzzle.


1 Puzzle

     _Problem_--To cut with the grain of the wood, and how to cut
     corners. (See page 57.)

     _Material_--Basswood: one piece 7×1-1/2×3/16 inches; one
     piece 3×1-1/2×3/16 inches. One yard of macramé cord.

Shave the 7×1-1/2-inch strip of wood down with a knife until it is an
inch wide, being careful to keep the edges parallel. Measure off
three-eighths of an inch in opposite directions on each corner and on
both sides of the wood. Connect these points by a pencil line. Cut off
each corner the space indicated by the line. Be careful always to cut
with the grain of the wood; cutting against it will split the board.
Next, three-fourths of an inch from each end, and equally distant from
the sides, and in the center, bore holes. From the 3×1-1/2-inch piece
of wood, cut two blocks one and one-half inches square, and bore a hole
in the center of each. Double the string to a loop and draw this loop
through the center hole of the rectangular strip. Pull the loop to the
edge, and draw through it the two ends of the cord. String the
1-1/2-inch blocks, one on each cord, then tie the ends of cord in the
two end holes of the rectangular strip.

The puzzle is finished. What is the aim, and how can it be solved?

[Illustration: PUZZLE]

_Solution._ Mark one block. Hold one in the hand and move the other
along until it passes through the loop at the center.

Pull the cord through the middle hole until it draws with it four
thicknesses of cord. Now slide the block along until it passes through
a double loop. Next, draw this double loop back through the hole; the
string will be in position, and the block is now passed along through a
single loop and onto the string containing the other one. To replace
the block, turn the puzzle around and repeat the process.


2 Plant Label

     _Problem_--To cut across the grain, and, by removing two
     equal triangles, to form a well-tapered point.

     _Material_--One piece of basswood, 6×1×1/4 inches.

[Illustration: PLANT LABEL]

Take the end A B and find the center, C. From A measure off two and a
half inches, and place point D. From B measure off two and a half
inches, and place point E. Connect points CD and CE. Place the same
measurements on the reverse side. With the knife cut off triangles
A-C-D and B-C-E. Sandpaper the wood until it is smooth and the label is
finished.


3 Pencil Sharpener

     _Problem_--Curve-cutting.

     _Material_--One piece of basswood, 6-1/2×1-1/4×1/4 inches.
     One piece of sandpaper, 1×3-1/8 inches. Glue. Stain.

On the wood place points three and a quarter inches from each end, at A
and B, and connect them by line A-B. Place points G and H half an inch
from C and D. Start your curve at G, pass through I, and end at H. In
the rectangle A-B-F-E draw a handle as indicated in the diagram. Shape
the other end by removing spaces G-C-I and H-D-I. Sandpaper thoroughly.
Shape one end of the 1×3-1/8-inch piece of sandpaper as curve G-I-H,
and glue it to the wood. Stain the wood and polish it by rubbing it
with a soft cloth.

[Illustration: PENCIL SHARPENER]


4 Match Scratch

     _Problem_--Curve and cross-grain cutting.

     _Material_--One piece of basswood, 3-3/4×3×1/4 inches. One
     piece of sandpaper, 2-1/2×3 inches. Glue.

[Illustration: MATCH SCRATCH]

Place a point at the center of line A-B and of line C-D. Place a point
on line A-C and line B-D, one and one-quarter inches from A and B.
Connect these points by a pencil line, and draw another line one-eighth
of an inch below. Score these two lines with the point of the knife,
making a tiny groove. Draw curves A-E and B-E, the highest point of the
curve being half an inch from the edge A-E-B. Draw curves G-F and H-F.
Remove spaces 1, 2, 3, and 4. Sandpaper thoroughly the edges and sides.
Shape the piece of sandpaper, two and a half by three inches, to fit
the space G-F-H, allowing a quarter-inch margin, and glue it on. Bore a
hole at 5. Do not stain.

[Illustration: KITE STRING WINDER]


5 Kite-String Winder

     _Problem_--Cross-grain cutting.

     _Material_--One piece of basswood, 5-1/2×2-1/2×1/4 inches.

Measure and lay off as shown in the diagram, and cut out all spaces
indicated by dotted lines. Sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Stain
the winder or not, as is preferred.


6 Thermometer Back

     _Problem_--Beveling and grooving. (See page 62.)

     _Material_--One piece of basswood 6×3×1/4 inches. Stain.

For the thermometer back the measurements need be placed on but one
side of the wood.

Mark off a quarter-inch from the edge all around and draw a line. Place
a second line a quarter-inch within this. Using the line nearest the
edge as a guide, cut off the sharp edges on the face of the strip of
wood until the slant surface is reached between the line and the back
edge. This makes the bevel. The inner line is a guide for spacing the
design. Originate a simple design, and lay it off on the board in
pencil. Then, using the point of the knife, with the greatest care
groove out the design. Place a hole near the top of the strip by means
of which to hang it. Notice that the design fits around the hole.
Sandpaper, stain, and polish the wood.

The design given here is the simplest that can be made. It is suggested
that until the child becomes accustomed to working with the knife, all
designs for grooving had better be confined to straight lines. Combine
in a design a vertical, a horizontal, and an oblique line, and some
beautiful patterns may be originated.


7 Pocket Pin-Cushion

     _Problem_--Circular cutting, grooving, stenciling, and
     coloring. (See page 63.)

     _Material_--Basswood: two pieces, 3×3×1/4 inches. One piece
     of heavy felt 3×3×1/4 inches. Glue. Water-color paints.
     Stain.

Find the center of each square of wood by drawing the diagonals. With
the compass at the radius of one and one-half inches, describe a circle
on each piece of wood (on one side only). Remove spaces A, B, C, and D
with the knife, and you have a circular block. Remember to cut with the
grain. Bevel the edges. Make an original design and apply it to your
wood. With the knife groove the outline of this design. There should be
a space three-eighths of an inch wide between the edge of the wood and
the outer edge of the design. When the design is grooved in, color
it. Red, green and yellow are the best colors. Their identity is not
lost in staining. Lastly, stain and polish the face of the blocks. Cut
the felt the size of the blocks, cover the back of each block with
glue, place the felt between the two, and keep the whole in press for
several hours. The model here suggests two designs. These are given
simply as illustrations. Use the same design for both backs of the
cushion.

[Illustration: THERMOMETER BACK--(For description see page 61.)]

[Illustration: PIN CUSHION]

[Illustration: DESIGNS FOR PIN CUSHION]


8 Picture Frame

     _Material_--Basswood, sweet gum, walnut or oak. One piece,
     8×6×1/4 inches, for frame; one piece, 5-1/4×4×1/4 inches,
     for back; one piece, 4-1/2×3×1/4 inches, for supports; two
     pieces, 3-1/4×3/8×1/4 inches, and one piece, 5-1/4×3/8×1/4
     inches for cleats. Glue. Half-inch brads.

Should basswood be used it must be stained. Sweet gum, walnut, or oak
may be left in its natural state, and oiled to bring out the grain and
finish.

[Illustration: PICTURE FRAME]

On the 8×6×1/4-inch board mark off with a pencil a center space
2-3/4×3-3/4 inches in size. With a gimlet bore holes at points A, B, C,
and D. Connect these holes with a pencil line as a guide for cutting.
Along the line make a groove which may be broadened and deepened until
the board is cut through. By working around the square in this way, the
center will soon be opened. Trim the wood as smoothly as possible with
a knife; then use sandpaper to level and finish off. Bevel the edge of
the opening if you wish.

Cut in half the 4-1/2×3×1/4-inch piece of wood, and make two supports,
as in Figure 2. With a pencil draw the shape of these supports on the
wood; in whittling work very carefully, as they are small and will
easily split. As far as possible, hold the pieces so that the knife
will shave with the grain of the wood. In crosscut work from the
opposite side. In straight cut, keep notches at opposite ends, so that
if the knife should slip and the wood split no serious damage will be
done.

Place the cleats on the back half an inch from the opening, the longer
fitting in between the two shorter ones. Glue them on, then nail them.
Against these cleats glue the back (1) before nailing it. Next glue and
nail on the two supports against the back and on a level with the lower
edge (Figure 4). On the fourth side, where there is no cleat, is the
opening through which the picture is slipped. When the frame is
satisfactorily sandpapered, oil and polish it.


9 Japanese Box

     _Problem_--To construct a box having lid and bottom extend
     beyond sides.

     _Stock_--Basswood: two pieces, each 8-1/2×3-1/2×1/4 inches,
     for lid and bottom; two pieces, each 8×2×1/4 inches, for
     sides; two pieces, each 2-1/2×2×1/4 inches, for ends; two
     pieces, each 2-1/2×1/4×1/4 inches, for cleats. Glue.
     Half-inch brads. Stain. Wax.

[Illustration: JAPANESE BOX]

On the 8-1/2×3-1/2×1/4-inch pieces of wood, cut a bevel a quarter of an
inch wide.

Place the two ends between the two sides; glue and nail. Set this
rectangular frame on the under side of the bottom, equally distant from
each edge, and trace the shape with a pencil. Remove the frame; the
pencil line indicates where the nails are to be driven to secure the
frame to the base. Now set the frame on the upper side of the bottom;
aim for the same spacing as on the under side, and mark off. Carefully
cover the lower edge of this frame with glue, place it on the base and
press the two until the glue is dry. Drive the brads through from the
under side of the base an eighth of an inch within the guiding line.
Having beveled and sandpapered the lid, trace a design on it, and
outline this design by grooving.

[Illustration]

Nail the 2-1/2×1/4×1/4-inch cleats to the under side of the lid,
five-eighths or an inch from each end and half an inch from each side.
These cleats fit into the box and hold the lid on.

Stain, wax, and polish the box.


10 Grandfather's Chair

     _Material_--Basswood: three pieces 5×2×1/8 inches; one piece
     2×2×1/8 inches. Brads. Sandpaper. Glue. Stain or oil.

[Illustration: GRANDFATHER'S CHAIR]

Measure and lay off as you have done in making the other small pieces
of wood work. Handle the knife most cautiously, as the wood is so thin
that it is easily split. When all parts are cut out and well
sandpapered glue them together and secure them by driving in the brads
about an inch apart along the line of the seat and where the arms join
the back. Stain or oil as most convenient, or as taste dictates.



PART IV

BASKETRY



BASKETRY


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

The art of basket-making is a primitive one, and so simple that it
appears to have been known among the rudest people and in very early
ages.

When Moses was found by Pharaoh's daughter, he was lying in a basket
which had been woven by his mother.

Later, when the Israelites were returning to the Promised Land, they
were commanded to offer unto the Lord "the first of all the fruits of
the earth" in a basket, as soon as Canaan became their possession. The
baskets of the rich, of these ancient Israelites were made of gold and
silver, and so valuable were they that when a gift was sent in one of
them the basket was always returned.

The ancient Britons were remarkably expert in the manufacture of
baskets, which were so beautifully made that they were highly prized by
the Romans.

Our own American Indians were, and still are, such adepts in the art of
basket-making that, for beauty and artistic effect, their baskets are
excelled by none.

The perfection attained in this art by the uncivilized is marvelous.
Adapting the materials about them to their use, they produce
masterpieces which the civilized man beholds in wonder and amazement.

Though handed down to us through many ages, this ancient occupation has
never lost its fascination. The adult and the child of to-day are as
eager to learn its secrets as were those dwellers on the banks of the
Nile, hundreds of years ago.

As a plastic art it lies between paper construction and clay modeling
on one side, and wood and iron work on the other.

A keen interest in the art may be awakened by arousing in the child a
desire for a basket for some practical purpose. In the autumn, the
collecting of seeds for next spring's planting, the gathering of nuts,
the need for something in which to take the lunch to school, or,
perhaps, a wish to make a pleasing gift for the coming Christmas, will
immediately suggest its utility.

[Illustration: NORTH CAROLINA PINE]

Of what shall the basket be made? Children enjoy those things most
which they feel that they have exerted themselves to obtain; and the
greater the effort involved, the greater the educational value. Every
child should be trained to keep his eyes open and to adapt to his use
the things he sees about him. Materials for baskets may be obtained in
just this way. City children may take a trip to the country and gather
the long grasses found in swamps and low places. Perhaps in the garden
at home there is a clump of yucca; when the fall comes and the bloom is
gone the leaves or blades may be cut, dried and stripped, and
transformed into an attractive basket or tray. Again, the husks which
are stripped from the corn cooked for dinner may be torn into narrow
ribbons and dried for use. Corn husks make a beautiful basket, for the
different shades of green change, after the husks have dried, to as
many shades of brown, which blend most artistically when worked up. The
little children of the South may gather the long needles that fall from
the southern pine, and combine them with raffia or twine to construct a
basket. Country children have a most adaptable and convenient commodity
in the tough, flexible willows found on the banks of almost every
stream.

The material most commonly used and easiest to begin with, however, is
reed, which is pliable, and readily handled and moulded into simple
forms by even small children. It is available when other materials are
not to be had, for it may be purchased with the school supplies.

Reed is the core or central part of the climbing calamus, a species of
palm found in the jungles of Borneo and adjacent South Sea islands. The
outside of the raw calamus is smooth and is made into commercial cane
used for chairs. The shavings, made by the machine which separates the
cane from the core or inner reed, are utilized for mats, polishing
material, and stuffing for mattresses and furniture. Thus every part of
the raw material is brought into use.

Originally the calamus grew in a limited area and was difficult to
obtain. Only the natives could gather it, as the white man contracted
the jungle fever as soon as he subjected himself to the climate in
which it grew. But within the last fifty or seventy-five years
enterprising men have begun the cultivation of the rattan palm, and
have met with so much success that now there are a number of factories
in the United States making the reed and rattan of commerce, while
Germany and Belgium export to us the best reed that is used.

[Illustration: REED BASKETS]

The teacher should never begin the use of any new material for
construction without having made the child familiar with its history;
nor should a finished article be laid aside until the pupil has given
the teacher a description of how it is made, and of what it is made. If
this method is carried out the child will show a greater appreciation
of what he is doing, will value the finished article more highly, and
will place a premium on the raw material.

Overlook the pupils in their work, but grant them the privilege of
adjusting size and shape, and of selecting material for the
requirements of the design they have in mind. By achieving what he can
for himself, the pupil attains a realization of his own power, and the
logic of size, shape, material, etc., is awakened.


REED CONSTRUCTION

In construction, the first thing to teach a child is how to handle the
material. To do this, use small quantities and attempt only simple
articles. Reed is the simplest thing to begin with, and the easiest of
all basket-work models is the napkin ring. Soak all the reed and dry it
with a cloth before using.


1 Napkin Ring No. I

     _Problem_--To construct a napkin ring of reed.

     _Material_--No. 2 reed, 7 feet.

Take one end of the reed and form a loop two inches in diameter, and
wind the reed three times to form the ring. Hold it in the left hand.
Pass the loose end over the curve and through the circle. Pull it taut
enough to make it lie in a natural curve. Repeat this movement--over
and over, round and round--allowing the strands always to follow the
valley between the two former laps. When the foundation is covered,
clip the end where it finishes up, press it into place in the groove,
drop a little glue over the point at which it is pressed in, and bind
the ring with a string to hold the end in position. When the glue has
dried, remove the string.

[Illustration: No. I     No. II
REED NAPKIN RINGS]

When the napkin ring has been made, the child has learned the principle
involved in constructing a basket handle.


2 Napkin Ring No. II

     _Problem_--To construct a napkin ring of No. 5 reed. (See
     page 75.)

     _Material_--No. 5 reed, 2-1/2 feet.

In using No. 5 reed, form the loop two inches in diameter, but have the
ring of only one thickness, and proceed as in ring No. 1. This will
make a napkin ring of different appearance because the windings are
fewer and the reed thicker.


3 Mat

     _Problem_--To construct a simple mat of reed.

     _Material_--No. 4 reed: eight spokes, 9 inches long; one
     spoke, 6 inches long. Weavers of No. 2 reed.

[Illustration: Figure 1     Figure 2
TO START A REED MAT OR SIMPLE BASKET]

Place together, at right angles, two groups of four spokes of No. 4
reed. To the under group add the six-inch spoke of No. 4 reed (Figure
1). Hold the spokes firmly in the left hand. Take the No. 2 weaver and
insert it under the thumb. Wind the weaver diagonally over the crossing
point in both directions (Figure 2). Then wind the weaver over and
under alternate groups of spokes, three times around. Hold both spokes
and weaver firmly in place with the left hand. Separate into single
spokes now and continue weaving until your mat is four inches in
diameter. Fasten the end of the weaver by tucking it down beside a
rib. The projecting ribs are trimmed to an even length and pointed.
Take any given spoke, as No. 1, bend it to the left in front of No. 2
and insert it on the right side of No. 3. No. 2 is now taken and
carried to the left over No. 3 and inserted to the right of No. 4.
Proceed thus until all the spokes are inserted, when the mat is
finished. The scallops should form a semicircle.

[Illustration: REED MAT]

For a larger mat, take ten spokes, sixteen inches long, of No. 4 reed,
and one spoke nine inches long of the same. Use No. 1 reed for the
weaver and proceed as in making the smaller mat.

To add a new weaver, place the end about two spokes back of where the
former weaver ended and parallel with it.


4 Hamper Basket

     _Problem_--To construct a simple reed basket.

     _Material_--No. 4 reed: eight spokes 16 inches long; one
     spoke 9 inches long. Weavers of No. 1 reed.

Begin the basket exactly as the mat was begun. Weave until the bottom
is three inches, or three and a half inches in diameter. Then bend the
spokes at right angles with the base, drawing the weaver tight so as to
hold the spokes in position and keep them separated at an equal
distance. Continue weaving until the basket is three inches high, or
until about one and a half inches of spokes is left for the border.
Finish the edge by turning down the spokes as in the edge of the mat,
or bend them down flat with the edge of the basket. Take any spoke, as
No. 1, bring from right to left over No. 2, then No. 2 over No. 3, and
so on until the ends of all the spokes are turned to the inside of the
basket. Keep both basket and weaver well dampened while weaving. After
the basket is finished press it into shape while still damp. When it is
thoroughly dry trim off the ends of the spokes which appear too long on
the inside of the basket, leaving them just long enough to be held in
place by the curved spoke under which each passes. This makes a
beautiful hamper basket.

[Illustration: HAMPER BASKET]

A handle may be added to this little basket, but it is not advisable to
encourage a child to add a handle until he has made his third basket or
has shown in some way proficiency in what has been taught so far.

_To add a handle._ Take a length of reed, of the same number as the
spokes, for the handle bow. For a small-sized basket take ten inches.
Insert one end down through the weaving beside one of the spokes. Bend
the bow into the shape you wish for the handle and insert the other end
of the bow beside a spoke on the opposite side of the basket, being
careful that the two spaces between the two ends of the handle are
equal. The handle should be about as high above the border as the
border is above the bottom of the basket. The width of the handle
should be a little less than the width of the basket at the top.

You are now ready to cover the handle. Take a long weaver; push one end
of it through the wale under the second row. Hold the end in place and
wrap the weaver about the handle bow, keeping the spaces about equal,
and drawing taut enough to be graceful, until it reaches the opposite
side. Then draw the weaver through the wale and under the second row
and up on that side; next wind about the handle bow again, back to the
starting-point. Push the weaver through the wale, under the second row
and out again, and once more wind across the handle bow. Repeat this
operation from side to side until the handle bow is covered. Keep each
row of winder close to the preceding one and parallel to it. When the
bow is covered, tuck the end of the weaver through the wale and under
the second row and clip the end, leaving it just long enough to stay in
place. The handle bow needs to be damp enough to be flexible, but
unless the winding weaver is well soaked it will crack and make
trouble.


5 Basket Tray

     _Problem_--To construct a reed basket or tray, having an
     even number of spokes, and using same number reed for both
     spokes and weaver.

     _Material_--Sixteen spokes, each 11 inches long, of No. 3 or
     No. 4 reed. Weaver of reed of same number as spokes.

Separate the spokes into groups of four. Place set No. 1 on and at
right angles to set No. 2. Sets 3 and 4 are laid diagonally across sets
1 and 2.

[Illustration: HOW TO BEGIN THE BASKET TRAY]

Hold the spokes firmly, attach the weaver and go in and out four times
round, over and under the same set of spokes each time. At the end of
the fourth round, pass the weaver over two sets of spokes and weave
four rows. Next separate the spokes into sets of two and weave one row;
now each time that the weaver comes to starting-point in the circle,
pass it over two sets of spokes instead of one, and then weave the next
round. When you have been around seven times using double spokes, bend
the spokes up for sides and weave two more rows over double spokes.
Then separate into single spokes and weave six rows, remembering each
time to pass the weaver at the end of a new round over two spokes
instead of one, so as to have them properly alternated. Trim the ends
of the spokes to an equal length and start the border by bending any
given spoke to the right and inside the tray, holding it in place.
Continue with each succeeding one until all the spokes have been bent
into position. These spokes being bent so closely and consecutively
over each other, form a coil resembling the handle of a basket. The
points of the spokes are pushed under the coil, through from the inside
to the outside of the basket. Keep a vessel of water at hand and wet
the material constantly as you weave. When the tray is finished, press
it into shape and set aside to dry. When it is well dried, clip off the
projecting ends.

[Illustration: REED BASKET TRAY]


6 Basket with Handle

     _Problem_--To construct a basket using an uneven number of
     spokes, spokes and weaver the same number reed; and to add a
     handle.

     _Material_--No. 3 reed: eight stakes, each 20 inches long;
     one stake 11 inches long. Weavers of No. 3 reed.

Make two groups of four each of the twenty-inch stakes. Place one set
at right angles across the other, and beside the under set insert the
eleven-inch spoke. Hold the spokes firmly between the thumb and the
forefinger of the left hand, and with the weaver in the right hand
place the starting end under the edge of the upper set; bring it
around and over set No. 1, under No. 2, over No. 3, under No. 4, and
repeat this operation four times. Now separate the spokes into groups
of eight twos and one single, and weave four rounds. Next cut seventeen
eleven-inch stakes and push one in beside each stake already used.
Divide them into seventeen pairs. Weave round and round until you have
a base three and one-half inches in diameter. Being sure that the
weaver is damp and pliable, with fingers, or "pliers," bend up the
stakes close to the weaving, at right angles with the base, and
continue weaving until the basket is four inches deep. Then trim the
stakes, if necessary, to uniform length and bend them over to form the
border. Take any stake, as No. 1, and work from right to left. Bend
down No. 1, pass under No. 2 and over No. 3. Then take No. 2, pass
under No. 3 and over No. 4. Continue until every pair of stakes has
been turned down and worked into the border. All ends must come inside
the basket; after it is dry, trim them off. You will find that in
working with the wet reed your basket may seem not to have the proper
shape. Soak it well and you will be able to mould as you wish it. Add a
handle.

[Illustration: REED BASKET WITH HANDLE]

This basket is made almost exactly like the little hamper basket
previously described, except that in this one, we use double stakes,
while in that one, single stakes were used; the sides of this one are
vertical, those of that one slightly curved.

       *       *       *       *       *

In passing from the reed basket, the next step would be the raffia and
then the combination of reed and raffia, which is worked out in all
forms of Indian basketry. The most common stitch is known as the "lazy
squaw," and is made by winding the raffia round the reed one, two, or
three times, as space is desired; and then the needle is taken through
the row below to make the stitch. Each stitch is a repetition of the
one before and the mat, tray or basket grows with the effort. There are
innumerable opportunities for design in Indian basketry, and it is here
that the work of an artist may be realized and recognized.


RAFFIA CONSTRUCTION

We may correlate and combine raffia with reed in construction. The two
materials may be worked together to great advantage and interest to the
child. For instance, when a napkin ring has been made of reed let the
child next construct one of raffia, and then compare the finished
article as to the material vised, the beauty, the flexibility, the
durability, and the nativity of each.

As in the case of reed, so with raffia before constructing with it,
pass a piece to each child and give the life history of the plant.
Madagascar may be a name only to the small child, but the very
vagueness of his knowledge concerning it may cause him to realize the
distance of the island from us and appreciate that this simple material
with which he is working has traveled thousands of miles to bring him a
story and an occupation.

Raffia, a native of the South Sea Islands and of Madagascar, is the
inner bark of the raphia palm, pulled off, torn into narrow strips,
dried in the sun, and bound into bunches, which are plaited together
and stored ready for use or shipping.

We receive the raffia in its natural state, but many colors may easily
be had by dyeing. In _Practical Basket Making_, by George Wharton
James, some valuable suggestions on dyeing are given; but the small
quantity of raffia a teacher will need may be dyed with very little
trouble with the "Easy Dyes" manufactured by the American Color
Company. Follow directions and the results will be most satisfactory.
Be very careful to have the dyes strong enough, as raffia absorbs an
enormous amount of coloring. All raffia should be washed before dyeing;
it should be well dried before being put into the dye pot, since it
takes the color better when dry.

If you have pupils old enough, or a class on which you can rely,
nothing will delight them more than to do their own dyeing. A
fourth-grade class in one of the Baltimore schools has successfully
dyed all the raffia, cord, cotton, and textiles used in their
classroom. The child dearly loves color; the possibility of having
different shades to work with will arouse an intense interest in
procuring these colors. It will be unusual if the pupils do not handle
with care the materials and the dye pot.

In adapting a commodity to circumstances in this way, the broader
knowledge of how the colors in clothing are obtained will develop and
there will be created in the child a new idea of life and of man's
work.

The natural color of the raffia is much improved by washing; therefore,
before using it loosen it and soak it in clean water so that all dust
and dirt may be removed and the strips or strings straightened out;
then hang it in the air until thoroughly dry.

Before offering any models of the combined reed and raffia, we shall
give a few of raffia alone, as we did of the reed.


7 Plaited Rope

     _Problem_--To teach different ways in which the plaited rope
     of raffia may be applied.

     _Material_--Raffia.

Begin the use of raffia by teaching the child the three-strand plait,
adding a new thread from time to time, until a long rope is made. Next
teach how to coil this rope into a mat, a purse, a basket, or a hat.

In plaiting, keep the raffia damp and use strands of equal size.
Dampness adds gloss and smoothness to the finished article.

[Illustration: THREE-STRAND PLAIT]

In the construction of articles of plaited raffia an opportunity opens
up to bring the child's inventive ingenuity into play. Get him to think
of something he might make, and to construct it roughly of paper. With
his model as a guide for shape and size, he can easily reproduce it in
raffia. The first pattern may be crude, but each repetition will
produce a better one, and interest will lend enchantment, until both
pattern and reproduction will be most creditable.


8 Plaited Mat

     _Problem_--To construct a mat of plaited raffia rope.

     _Material_--Raffia.

[Illustration: MAT OF PLAITED BRAID]

The starting-point in all these designs is the little round coil,
called the button.

To make a mat, first plait a rope several feet long. To form the button
hold the end of the rope between thumb and forefinger, and begin to
roll the rope just as a watch spring is coiled. With a needle and fine
thread of raffia, make the button firm; then keep on coiling around
the button and, as each row is added, tack it to the preceding row by
pushing the needle in and out at right angles with the braid, so that
the stitch may be invisible. When finished the mat should be about four
inches in diameter. The object of winding the plait sideways is to give
the mat firmness and thickness.


9 Purse

     _Problem_--To construct a purse or bag of plaited raffia
     rope. (See page 87.)

     _Material_--Raffia.

To make a purse, plait enough rope to make two mats three and a half
inches in diameter. To construct these mats first make the button. Work
this time with the braid flat. Sew by holding the inner edge of the
plait just under the outer edge of the preceding row. When both mats
are finished, place them flat against each other, and overseam or
buttonhole the edges together for about two-thirds of the
circumference. Plait a rope, seven inches long, for a handle. Tie a
knot in each end, and ravel the ends of raffia to form a tassel. Attach
this handle to the purse at each side, where the opening begins. Girls
especially delight in this little purse or bag.


10 Plaited Basket

     _Problem_--To sew braid together to form ONE angle. (See
     page 88.)

     _Material_--Raffia.

     _Dimensions_--Bottom three inches in diameter; sides two
     inches high; handle six inches long and two braids wide.

Using three threads of raffia, plait a rope several feet long. Proceed
just as with purse, and sew until you have a mat three inches in
diameter. Now place the braid at right angles with the base, and sew
round and round to form the sides. When these are two inches high
fasten the braid; and, without cutting it, carry it to the opposite
side to form the handle. Fasten it there and bring it back again, to
make the handle two braids wide. Either overseam these together to make
a broad handle, or leave them separated to form a double handle.

An easy way to obtain a more uniform shape in constructing this basket
is to have a smooth tumbler or a tin box, and, as you work, fit the
material to the form. When it is finished, dampen it and let it remain
on the form until it dries.

[Illustration: PURSE OR BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA--(For description see
page 86.)]

[Illustration: BASKET OF PLAITED RAFFIA--(For description see page
86.)]


11 Hat of Plaited Rope

     _Problem_--To sew the braid together to form two angles.

     _Material_--Raffia.

[Illustration: HAT OF PLAITED RAFFIA]

First plait the raffia together until you have a very long braid. Take
the starting end, make the button, and sew round and round, as in
making the purse. When the top of the crown is as large as you wish it,
turn the braid at right angles and form the sides. When, in your
judgment, the crown is high enough, make a second right angle to form
the brim, which may be wide or narrow as taste dictates. Use a blunt
needle (Smith's tapestry, No. 18).


12 Napkin Ring

     _Problem_--To construct a raffia napkin ring.

     _Material_--Raffia. A piece of tag-board 1-1/2 or 2 inches
     wide and 6 inches long. Quarter-inch ribbon or strip of
     paper, or raffia of a contrasting color.

There is mentioned a raffia napkin ring in comparison with the one of
reed.

Take the strip of tag-board, fasten the ends together and wrap with
raffia until the board is covered.

It may be ornamented with a narrow strip of ribbon, paper or colored
raffia woven around the center. If ribbon or raffia is used tie the
ends in a bow. If paper is used the ends must be glued.


13 Indian Basket

     _Problem_--To teach construction with twisted raffia rope.
     (See page 91.)

     _Material_--Two contrasting colors of raffia.

First think of what shape and size you would like a basket; then
roughly sketch a design, in order that an idea of shape, size, and
proportion may be had. Keep the design before you and work as closely
from it as possible.

Take three thick strands of raffia and twist them into a rope. In
starting have the threads unequal in length, as it is much neater to
add one new thread at a time than two or three. Keep the rope of the
same thickness throughout, and as each thread is used up, insert
another overlapping the old one two or three inches. Around this rope,
and twisted in the same way, wrap a contrasting color of raffia, aiming
to have the spaces equal and using threads of the same size. Having
twisted and wound four or five inches start the basket by forming a
button, then, holding the button firmly with the left hand, coil the
rope round and round and sew it. Use the sharp-pointed needle and join
the coils in such a way that the threads will coincide with the twist.

When the basket is finished, the opening at the top should be either
greater or less in diameter than the base. Make a lid exactly as the
base is made, and have it just a shade wider than the opening so that
it will be supported. The ring with which to lift the lid is made by
wrapping raffia three or four times over the finger, and then
buttonholing it over. Sew the ring to the middle of the lid and attach
the lid to the basket.

[Illustration: INDIAN BASKETS]

The model here given is made of white raffia twisted with red. Diameter
of base, 4 inches; height, 2-1/2 inches; opening at top, 3-1/2 inches;
diameter of lid, 3-3/4 inches.

[Illustration: INDIAN BASKET--(For description see pages 89 and 90.)]


14 Grass Basket or Tray

     _Problem_--To teach how to construct a basket of grass, pine
     needles, or corn husks.

     _Material_--Narrow-blade marsh or sweet grass. Raffia for
     sewing.

Make a design in pencil, ink, or colored crayon.

Here the adaptability of material gathered about the home is
illustrated. The tall, fine marsh grasses may be collected, spread out
for three or four days where they will dry, and then utilized. You will
find that almost every blade of this grass varies in color. The root
end may be brown, while toward the tip the leaf shades into a light
green, or white, or vice versa; this blending, when the grass is
bunched, is most artistic.

Bunch a sufficient number of blades to make a coil a half or
three-quarters of an inch in diameter. Do not twist. Never allow the
coil to lessen in size. Keep adding fresh strands by slipping the root
ends of the new blades up between those already in the coil. When we
begin to sew we do not wrap the grasses as we wrapped the strands of
raffia, but simply use as a sewing thread raffia of a contrasting or
blending color. To form the button, wrap the threads three or four
times around the root ends of the bunch, fasten tightly, then coil to
form the center. Take the needle through the center and over the coil
as many times as you think necessary to make the button firm. These
stitches are the beginning of the spiral rays which radiate to the edge
of the basket. Take the stitches at equal distances from each other.
Handle the needle so as to pass from back to front, and always have the
new stitch pass through the stitch of the coil just below it from right
to left. When the coil has been wound around four or five times, the
stitches will be seen to interlock and form a spiral. Soon the spaces
will become too wide; then take an extra stitch in the center of each
space, thus adding another set of rays. Continue adding new sets of
rays as the spaces widen, until the basket is finished.

[Illustration: BEGINNING OF BASKET TRAY]

When the base has grown to the required size, turn up for sides and
continue sewing in the same way until the necessary depth is obtained.
To give a finish add enough grass to make a thick coil around the edge.

Colored hemp may be woven in with the grass either as a lining or so
inserted as to make a beautiful pattern. The value of the basket will
be enhanced by the use of sweetgrass, if this material is obtainable.

The model given is made of marsh grass, sewed with raffia of natural
color, and the design is made in pink hemp. Its base is five inches in
diameter; its depth one and one-fourth inches.

Corn husks may be used instead of grasses, and are unexcelled for
beauty and artistic effect. Use the inner husk from the ear when green;
though the husks will dry, the varied color will not be lost. When made
up with a contrasting color of green or golden brown raffia they are
most attractive. Grasses may be kept a long time; but before using them
soak them thoroughly, and let them dry out. This treatment will make
them so pliable that they may be handled as easily as though freshly
gathered. The long needles of the southern pine also are thus worked
up.

[Illustration: BASKET TRAY]


15 Basket of Splints and Raffia

     _Problem_--To teach construction, using splints and raffia.

     _Material_--Splints of ash or flat reed: eighteen splints,
     each 1/4×12 inches; 3 splints, each 1/4×18 inches, for
     binding of edge. Raffia of two or three colors.

     _Dimensions_--Base, 4×4 inches. Depth, 2 inches. Sides, 2×4
     inches.

Lay a set of nine splints flat on a surface. Take one of the remaining
nine and weave across for the first row. Add a second splint, weaving
in and out through alternate ones. Continue until all the nine splits
are woven in and the square base of the basket is formed. Have splints
sufficiently damp to be flexible; otherwise they may break. Bend up the
splints at right angles to the base for sides, thus making corners. Now
with the raffia weave in and out, interlace the thread at the corners,
and draw it tight enough to hold the splints in place. Introduce color
to suit taste.

[Illustration: BOTTOM OF SPLINT AND RAFFIA BASKET]

When the sides are finished, take an eighteen-inch splint and lay it
around on the inside of the basket close to the last row of raffia.
Hold it in place and turn the ends of the basket splints over it
inward. These end splints must be trimmed evenly and left just long
enough to bend over the splint running round on the inner side. Take
two more eighteen-inch splints; having placed one inside the edge and
the other outside the edge of the basket, with a needle and a long
thread of raffia whip over and over. Bring the needle through each
opening between the splints until you have gone around the four sides.
This makes a suitable border and completes the basket.

[Illustration: BASKET OF SPLINTS AND RAFFIA]

The model given here has ten rows of natural color, ten rows of green,
six rows of brown, ten of green and ten of natural color, which
combination makes it two inches deep.


COMBINED REED AND RAFFIA

     _Problem_--To teach how reed and raffia may be combined in
     construction.

The models suggested here are very simple and can be made by the
younger children of the lower grades. These have been held to
purposely, for the child needs first to learn how both to use his
fingers and to handle a needle; and afterward he must have much
practice before he can take up the more difficult stitch in the Indian
basketry.

In beginning the combined reed and raffia work, the first thing I
should make is a miniature umbrella.

[Illustration: UMBRELLA
(For description see opposite page.)]


16 Umbrella

     _Material_--One 9-inch spoke of No. 4 reed for handle. Nine
     4-inch spokes of No. 1 reed for ribs. Raffia for weaver.

Have the spokes thoroughly soaked and keep them wet. Also, have the
raffia damp. Place the four-inch spokes around the nine-inch spoke,
hold them firmly, and wrap tightly with the damp weaver four or five
times; then tie, but do not cut the weaver. Now stand this bunch of
spokes on end on a board or desk top, press the nine spokes out so as
to form a circle parallel with the surface of the desk, and with the
weaver work in and out among the spokes. The convex top of the umbrella
will soon form. To lengthen the weaver, tie on a new piece of raffia.
Continue weaving until within an inch of the ends of the ribs, or until
the umbrella is four or four and one-half inches across; then fasten by
tying the weaver to one of the ribs.

To form a ferrule, slide end No. 1 of the handle reed down until it
stands three-quarters of an inch above the outside of the umbrella.
Drop a little glue into the cavity to hold the reed in place. Now take
end No. 2 of the handle reed and curve it to form a ring or to appear
like the handle of a real umbrella. Tie it with raffia to keep it in
place and lay the umbrella aside to dry. When it is thoroughly dry,
clip the points of the ribs to equal lengths.

This little toy suggests the invention of primitive life or of an
uncivilized nation of which the pupil has some previous knowledge. It
is most attractive, and to have made it greatly pleases the child.


17 Miniature Chair No. I

     _Material_--No. 4 reed: one piece 15 inches long; one piece
     6 inches long; four pieces 10 inches long. Several lengths
     of raffia.

Take three ten-inch lengths of reed and bend them so: [Illustration]
Fasten them together at the joints and wrap with the raffia for about
two inches to form the front legs. Next attach the fifteen-inch length
of reed, placing the ends together to form the back legs and allowing
the extra amount to extend above in a bow to form the back.

You now have the framework of back, seat, and legs. At the back, where
the bow extends above the line of the seat, place a five-inch piece of
very wet reed to the front of the bow and at the edge of the seat;
carry it around and lap it at the back and fasten to hold the back legs
together and shape the seat.

[Illustration: CHAIR No. I
Made of reed and raffia.]

This chair has a woven seat of raffia. Use a very long needle and carry
the raffia from one side of the seat to the other in close lines until
the space is covered one way. Then reverse the action and work from
front to back, weaving in and out among the cross threads exactly as
you do in darning. Be careful to keep the thread even, to prevent
sagging. When the seat is woven whip the edge all around with raffia
for a finish.

Next take the remaining ten-inch piece of reed, bend it to a four-inch
square and insert it between the legs one inch below the seat. Tie it
to each leg and wrap the intervening space with the raffia as you go
from leg to leg. This forms the brace which holds the legs in position.

For the back take a very long thread of raffia in your needle, make
seven cross threads and weave a spider's web, having the center fill
about one-fourth the space. When the web is finished, buttonhole around
the reed to fasten the spirals in position and to give a finish to the
frame of the back.

Lastly measure and trim off the legs to equal length. The back should
extend two and one-half inches above the seat, and the legs should be
two and one-fourth inches long.


18 Miniature Chair No. II

     _Material_--No. 1 reed: six spokes, 10 inches long; one
     spoke, 6 inches long. No. 4 reed: two 15-inch lengths; six
     10-inch lengths and one 12-inch length. Several lengths of
     raffia.

Weave two mats two inches in diameter in the following manner: Lay
three ten-inch spokes across three ten-inch spokes at right angles.
Place beside the under set the six-inch spoke. Take a piece of raffia,
not too thick, for a weaver, and beginning as you would begin a basket
or mat with a reed weaver, weave until the mat is two inches in
diameter. Do not cut either spokes or weaver. Have the reed well
soaked, that it may be very pliable and in no danger of breaking.

To construct the back, take a mat and a fifteen-inch length of reed,
bend the latter to a bow and place it back of the spokes at the edge of
the last row of weaving. Bend each spoke consecutively over this reed
and bring the end of the spoke through between the last row of weaving
and the reed. This forms a loop over the No. 4 reed. Thread the weaver
into a needle, and take it in and out where the No. 1 reed, or spoke,
crosses between the mat edge and the No. 4 reed in the form of a back
stitch. The first one fastened, continue in the same way until ten
spokes are bent over and tied down. Next take the twelve-inch length of
No. 4 reed, bend it to this shape: [Illustration] then fasten the three
remaining spokes to the two-inch space as you have done with the other
ten. Take the second fifteen-inch length of No. 4 reed, bend around
again and fasten by running a piece of raffia in and out and over
through each space between the loops. Lay it aside until the seat is
prepared.

[Illustration: CHAIR No. II
Made of reed and raffia.]

_Seat._ The mat is ready. Bend a ten-inch length of No. 4 reed into a
2-1/4-inch square. Set this around the mat, bend the spokes over it and
fasten as you did those of the back. Again take three ten-inch lengths
of No. 4 reed and bend so: [Illustration] Place these around three
sides of the prepared seat and fasten them by wrapping them over and
over with raffia, and the front and two sides of the chair are formed.
Adjust the back to the fourth side of the seat; fasten it by wrapping
it closely with raffia. Next bend to a form near the size of the seat a
piece of No. 4 reed. Place this around the legs, to form a brace, about
one inch below the seat in front and about three-fourths of an inch
below in the back. Let the joining point of the reed come at the back.
With a piece of raffia fasten this to one leg, then wrap the raffia
over and over along the brace until the next leg is reached, secure it
and pass on to the third, then to the fourth, when the entire brace
will be wrapped with raffia and the four legs held in place.

[Illustration: BACK OF CHAIR No. II]

Where the back is attached to the seat, you will have four No. 4 reeds
coming together to form the back legs. This would make them too thick
and clumsy and they would not be symmetrical with the front ones. To
prevent this, clip two of the reeds between the seat and the brace on
the legs. Cut out the ends of the one of the back first worked in, and
the ends of the one forming the back brace. There is left the outer
fifteen-inch spoke you put on and the one which came around from the
side of the seat. These two form the back leg on each side. Wrap
closely with raffia the intervening spaces between the seat and the
brace so as to leave no unsightly ends.

In bending the reed to fashion the legs it is impossible to have it all
the same length; adjust this by letting the unevenness come out at the
foot of the leg and when the chair is finished measure and cut off the
legs to the same length.


RULES FOR CANING CHAIRS

_First: Verticals._

Setting up: Begin at the center hole of the front, pass the cane up
through the hole from the underside and down through the corresponding
hole at the back, leaving about four inches to tie off; then up through
the next hole to the right, pass to the corresponding hole to the
front, continue to the right and then to the left, until all the holes
are filled except the corner ones.

_Second: Horizontals._

Begin at the center hole at the left, pass the cane up through the hole
and over all the verticals and down through the corresponding hole on
the right, filling all the holes toward the front and then toward the
back until all the holes are filled except the corner ones.

_Third: Verticals._

Begin at the center hole at the back, pass the cane up through the hole
at the front, then fill all the holes to the right and the left, except
the corner ones.

_Fourth: Weaving Horizontally._

Begin at the right-hand side, pass the cane over the upper vertical and
under the lower vertical, pulling the upper one to the right and
keeping the weaver to the back of the first horizontal: continue this
until you have two horizontals in each hole.

_Fifth: Diagonals Running from Left to Right._

Pass the cane up through the front left-hand corner, under the
verticals and over the horizontals, working toward the upper right-hand
corner; first the right, and then the left-hand side of the frame is
filled in this manner.

_Sixth: Diagonals Running from Right to Left._

Pass the cane up through the front right-hand corner and work toward
the back left-hand corner, passing the cane over the vertical and under
the horizontal pairs; continue in this way until the entire frame is
filled with these diagonals.

Tie all the ends securely on the under side of the frame.

_Bind Off._

Lay a piece of cane over the holes on the upper side of the frame. Take
a second long piece of cane as a weaver, pass it from the under side of
the frame up through a hole, over the cane, and down through the same
hole to the under side again. Carry it along to the next or second next
hole, pass up, over cane, and down in the same way. Continue this until
the entire frame is bound around.



PART V

THE SCHOOL GARDEN



[Illustration]

THE SCHOOL GARDEN


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

In the spring of 1906, at the request of President R. W. Silvester of
the Maryland Agricultural College, I wrote, for publication as a
_College Bulletin_, my experience of one year's work in a city school
garden. The introduction of school gardens as a factor in the school
curriculums was then in its infancy. Three years have shown great
advancement along this line, though the main issue is the same to-day
as it was then. This paper is a revised edition of the _M. A. C.
Bulletin_. That President Silvester was a pioneer in the thought that
"agriculture should enter into education" is shown by the following
quotation from his introduction to my article of 1906:--

     "The time must come when the child of rural environment must
     find in the only school which ninety per cent will ever
     attend, a training which will give it an intelligent
     adjustment to its environment. With this adjustment, the
     future work of the child cannot reasonably expect to escape
     the state of drudgery. When a life's work degenerates into
     this condition, then contentment with it, or happiness as a
     result of it, becomes an idle dream. Can the accuracy of
     this statement be questioned? If so, it would be a great
     privilege for the writer to receive from some teacher a
     letter setting forth the particulars in which he is wrong.

     "Let all who are interested in the child from the country,
     and every one should be, take this as a motto in this great
     work before us: 'The country is entitled from its state and
     from its county, to that consideration which will give him
     every opportunity to secure an education as well suited to
     his conditions, as is enjoyed by his city brothers and
     sisters.'"


A CITY SCHOOL GARDEN

If a country boy were to hear his little city brother say, "Our class
has a garden and I have a share in the working of it," the country chap
would "non plus" him by quickly exclaiming, "What's that! I work in my
father's garden every year and know all about raising and gathering
vegetables."

But to the city child, who sees only cobblestones beneath his feet,
whose view is contracted by rows of dingy houses, or who plays on a lot
used both as a dump-pile and as a baseball ground, the privilege of
working in a garden plat is a great one and the products of its soil a
revelation.

[Illustration: WEEDING THE BEDS]

The aim here is to give an account of one season's work in such a
garden--a garden treasured by children whose only knowledge of
vegetable foods was that mother got them in the market.

Through the courtesy of the City Park Superintendent of Baltimore,
sections of ground in some of the parks are placed at the disposal of
the Board of Education for school gardens, and the privilege of
cultivating these gardens is granted to teachers in an adjacent
building.

It is of the section in Riverside Park that I am writing, and the
accompanying illustrations are pictures of this garden, taken at
various times through the season.

These sections are not in prominent places, but for the most part in
undesirable corners that the park gardener is willing to relinquish for
the good of the cause. In Riverside Park the plat is adjacent to the
summer playground, and the second year that I had the garden, at the
end of June when school closed, a few of the children volunteered to
attend to it during vacation.

[Illustration: GIRL INTEREST]

The interest of these children attracted the attention of the director
of the playground and she offered to oversee the work while the
playground was in session if some of her children might have the
privilege of working in the garden.

This proved to be an amicable arrangement, as by it the garden was kept
in good condition all summer. When school opened in September I took
charge again, that the children might have the full experience. In my
memory lingers a most vivid picture of a cold November afternoon when
we gathered what remained of the crops, cleaned off the beds, heaped
the refuse in the center of the garden, and had a most glorious
bonfire, though it was not election day. We watched the last spark die
out, closed the gate, and with regretful steps wended our way back to
the schoolroom, to await the coming of another spring.

Our plat measures fifty by twenty-five feet and is enclosed by a fence.
The park gardener became interested in the children's effort and added
to the success of the work by giving the necessary top soil, lending
wheelbarrows, and offering occasional suggestions.

[Illustration: MAY I COME IN?]

As a preparation for the outside work we made a thorough study of soil
composition and seed germination early in the winter. The children
brought pieces of rock, pebbles, shells, wood, and leaves as concrete
illustrations and with these before us the following lessons were
developed:--

      I That soil is made from the wasting away of all kinds of rock.
     II That soil is made by decaying wood.
    III That soil is made by decaying leaves.
     IV That the above composites combine to form productive soil.

The object of the first lesson was to teach that soil is made from
rock.

The pupils examined stones, pebbles, and shells. They found some
rough, some smooth. Through the teacher's questions--"Why are some
rough?" "Why are some smooth?" "If those having a smooth surface now
were once rough, what has become of the particles which must have
broken away?"--the class was led to express opinions until the final
generalization was made: Soil may be formed from the breaking up of
rocks and shells.

Each topic was treated in a similar manner, the specific qualities of
the specimen being brought out, until we were able to make the
summary:--

"Soil is made from decayed rocks and shells; soil is made from decayed
leaves; the rocks make a coarse soil called sand; the wood and leaves
make finer soil called loam; the mixture of these soils makes
productive soil."

[Illustration: WHOSE BED LOOKS THE BEST?]

This summary led to the next lesson, "The Productive Qualities of
Soil." The question was asked, "How can we determine the productive
quality of soil?"

"We can plant some seeds in each kind of soil," said a child. Several
pupils volunteered to bring pots of earth.

Ready for the experiment, we proceeded to analyze as follows the soil
brought by the children:--

"Take some of the soil in your hands, powder it as finely as
possible.--John, what do you find in yours?"

"I can feel grains of sand," said John.

"Do you think there is more sand or more loam?"

"I think there is more loam," said another child.

"Why do you think there is more loam?"

"Because, when I rub it between my fingers there seems to be more soft
material than grains," came the answer.

"Can any one suggest a means of proving that there is some of each kind
of soil in what we have here?"

Various suggestions were made, but none directly to the point.

[Illustration: LAST DAY OF SCHOOL]

"Mary, fill that glass jar three parts full of water. We will now drop
into the water some of this soil and mix it well. What do you think
will happen when we stop stirring?"

"The sand will settle at the bottom of the jar," was the ready reply
from a bright child.

"The coarse loam will settle next," was a second answer; and then came
the statement that the finest loam would remain on top.

We waited a few days and were rewarded by seeing the soil in distinct
layers in the jar.

"Now we will try to discover which kind will produce the best plant.
How shall we determine this?"

"Plant some seeds," was the immediate suggestion.

One pot was filled with the original soil, and one each with the kinds
of soil that we had gotten from our experiment. A seed bean was placed
in each pot, and all pots subjected to the same conditions and watched
by anxious eyes.

[Illustration: STUDYING NATURE]

"I see a bean pushing up," came the statement one morning and every
child wished for a peep at the tiny plant.

"In which soil did the plant appear?"

Another look was taken and answer given that the plant came from the
mixed soil.

The second plant to appear came from the bed of coarse loam; the one
in the pot of fine loam came third; and last the one in the sand
struggled to a small shoot, then died of starvation.

After this the life of one plant was studied. Thus slowly and
cautiously the study of seed germination was made, the teacher getting
all from the child possible, and aiming to have him cull his
information from the plant before his eyes.

Now that we were familiar with the facts concerning soil composition
and seed germination, we felt prepared to take up the outside work.

Between the first and the fifteenth of April our first visit to the
garden was made. The ground was so saturated with water that it was
impossible to think of working it in that condition. After taking a
view of the surroundings we discovered that the plat was on low ground
and that the water from the rising slopes at the back ran down and
settled upon it.

The question which naturally arose was, "How may this water be gotten
rid of?" A short talk on drainage solved this problem. The children
decided that ditches, ten feet apart, should be dug crosswise in the
garden. They were dug, and, as the weather was favorable, in a week's
time the soil was in condition to be worked.

Meanwhile interest did not flag, though it was impossible to accomplish
any outside work. Writing letters to an imaginary hardware dealer,
stating what tools we needed and inquiring the price, became an
all-absorbing exercise. Next, we turned dealers ourselves and rendered
itemized bills and receipts to purchasers of garden materials. In this
way two forms of letter-writing were taught and the children derived
both pleasure and profit from the work.

In the construction period were made the labels they would need when
the planting-time came. These were cut from small pieces of wood with
penknives and marked ready for use.

A plan by which to landscape this same plat had been drawn the year
before by the supervisor of our city school gardens. This plan
suggested a talk on landscape gardening and intense interest was at
once aroused. The talk developed such questions as these:--

"Is the plan before us a good one?"

"Can we improve on it?"

"Is there any waste space which we should utilize?"

"Is the plan artistic in its arrangement?"

"Suppose we work out some plans to see what is possible."

A lesson such as this followed:--

A rectangle was drawn on the board to represent the plat. Beside it was
a statement of the number of beds to be laid off and the width of the
paths between. In the arrangement of these beds and paths there must be
artistic effect.

[Illustration: A FLOWER FROM THE COUNTRY]

Each child then drew a rectangle on paper and made an original plan for
landscaping. Those showing most thought were placed before the class
and their good points commended. The children decided that not one met
every requirement. The supervisor's plan was again shown, discussed,
and adopted.

This plan called for twenty rectangular beds 3×11 feet in area, four
shorter rectangular beds with a triangular section marked off from the
end of each toward the center of the garden; and a circular bed, four
feet in diameter, in the middle of the plat. It also allowed for one
three-foot path running through the center the entire length of the
garden, and a one-foot path separating the beds. There was to be a
1-1/2-foot path around the middle circle.

In a further study of this plan the following arithmetic problems were
developed:--

"What is the area of a garden plat fifty feet long and twenty-five feet
wide?"

"What would be the cost of this plat at one dollar and twenty-five
cents a square foot?"

"How many feet of fence will be required to enclose this plat?"

"If the posts are set five feet apart, how many posts will be
required?"

"There are two rows of cross beams, and each beam is ten feet long; how
many will be needed for the fence?"

"How much will it cost to fence this garden at twelve cents a foot?"

"What is the area of a garden bed three feet by eleven feet? the
perimeter?"

"What is the circumference of a circular flower bed four feet in
diameter?"

By this time the ground was in condition to be worked. Which should we
do first, spade it up, or lay it off? We decided that we would first
dig up the entire plat and level it. Now, in spacing off, should we
begin at the center or from opposite ends? The advantages of each
method were strongly advocated, and finally, the children themselves
concluded that it would be easier to measure for the center and space
off from that point.

Stakes and cord had been brought. Children stood at the sides and ends
of the garden. The middle points of the sides were determined and
connected with a cord, and likewise the two ends. The intersection of
the cords was the center of the plat and here a stake was driven.
Attaching a cord to this stake two feet along the cord was measured and
a small stick tied there. Using the cord as a radius, a circle was made
and the middle bed staked off. Next the three-foot path to opposite
ends was marked off, then the center one-foot path to opposite sides.
This much accomplished, spacing the rest of the plat was easy. Two
small boys, with lines and stakes, marked off the remaining portion and
when the ends were reached the measurements were found to be accurate.
The paths between the beds were next made and the ground prepared for
planting.

[Illustration: A SUGGESTION FOR RECESS HOUR]

After spading, leveling, and thoroughly pulverizing the native soil, we
added a top layer of foreign soil as a fertilizer. The latter came from
a compost heap of street sweepings which had been standing two years
and was supposed to be nutritious. As it turned out, however, this soil
contained little nutriment and was productive of more fine weeds than
fine vegetables, and it required much labor to fight these enemies.

Now came the seed-planting, which was intensely interesting to the
children. Rows twelve inches apart were marked off across the beds and
the seeds planted according to the relative height of the plants which
they would produce, those that would grow tallest being placed next to
the fence, and the rest graduating to the center; thus:--

    Fence
    Corn
    Pole Beans
    Peas
    String Beans
    Lettuce
    Radishes
    Lettuce
    Parsley
    Flowers

First came corn, three grains to a hill, the hills twelve inches apart.
Then pole beans, three beans to a hill and these hills separated twelve
inches. Next we planted two peas in a hill and made the hills six
inches apart. The string beans were planted just as the peas had been.
Then came a row of lettuce, next radishes, a second row of lettuce, and
last parsley. The end of the bed was left for flowers. On Arbor Day, in
the classroom, we had sown tomato and lettuce seeds in boxes, that we
might have the plants ready for transplanting when our outside soil was
in condition. The lettuce plants turned out satisfactorily, but, for
some unaccountable reason, the tomatoes were a failure. To replace the
latter, we took a corner bed in the garden, divided it into three
sections and planted tomato, onion, and cabbage seeds. In five weeks
the tomato and cabbage plants were large enough to transplant, and, as
the radishes and lettuce matured and were used, tomato and cabbage
plants were put in the vacant places.

Two pumpkin seeds were planted in each bed, but if they both came up,
after the plants had reached a good size, the weaker one of the two was
weeded out (as the bed was too small to support both) and the stronger
one left to bear fruit.

Why had we planted onion seed? One of the boys had brought an onion and
asked if he might plant it in his bed, and if it would produce other
onions. I explained to him and then allowed him to plant the seeds in
the supply bed at the same time that he planted the onion in his own
bed. The onion planted produced seed, while the seeds sown yielded the
small sets for the next year's planting. Thus by the act of one child
the fact was clearly demonstrated to the class that fruit produces
seed, and seed produces fruit.

The supervisor had given us a wren-box, made by a child in a more
advanced class as manual work. The children were delighted with the
gift; they built a framework around a stout pole in the center bed and
set the wren-box on the pole. They then suggested that a vine should
cover this framework. Consequently, Japanese morning glories were
chosen as the vine and the remaining space in the bed was filled with
marigolds, nasturtiums and coleus.

[Illustration: A GARDEN IN THE YARD OF A CITY SCHOOL]

The seeds being planted, the work in the garden was at a standstill
until the plants appeared, then systematic visits began. The class was
divided into three groups and two children were assigned to a plat. We
worked in the garden on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays for half an
hour each day. Thus, each group had its day once a week regularly.
Finding that it was impossible to direct satisfactorily more than
twelve children at a time, I devised the above plan, which worked
admirably. To go to and come from the garden took a half-hour, and with
half an hour's work there the child was away from the classroom one
hour a week. This allowed ample time to keep the beds in order, for two
children were apportioned to a bed, and these two went on separate
days, so that each plat was worked twice a week.

[Illustration: GARDEN BEDS AROUND THREE SIDES OF THE PLAYGROUND]

The first crop of peas and of beans were gathered as vegetables. When
the plants ceased to bear a second planting was made and the yield from
this was left to mature as seedlings. When ripe, the seeds were
gathered and carefully put away in the sectional seed-boxes which the
children had constructed for the purpose.

[Illustration: ANOTHER SECTION OF THE SAME GARDEN]

The children took care of the garden during vacation, gathered the
vegetables as they ripened, and with pardonable pride carried them home
to their parents. The parents, in turn, were gratified and as much
interested as the children. Several of the boys had individual
appliances made by their fathers for use in the garden. Often on Monday
mornings would come the account of the Sunday walk with mother and
father, the visit to the garden and how much the parents admired it.

One instance occurred which proved the value of this garden work and
showed how devoid of a knowledge of vegetable growth many city children
are. I noticed a boy digging around the root of his tomato vine as
though he were searching for something. I asked what he was doing.

"I want to see if there are any small tomatoes there," he replied. As
the fruit of the radish had come from under the ground he expected to
find the tomato there, too.

The value of educating the child through his self-activity was proved
in several instances, one of which I will mention. A large boy of the
fourth grade, though a poor student, was placed on the list of garden
children and proved to be the most industrious and active child of the
group. Why? His father was a baker; the boy worked in the bakery until
eleven every night; slept until four, then arose and delivered goods
until eight, and was in the classroom at nine. Is there any wonder that
this child lacked energy as a student? When he was removed from the
confinement of the classroom the pure outside air acted as a tonic, his
interest was awakened and his work well done.

This same child, whenever relieved of home duties out of school hours,
spent the time in the garden instead of devoting it to play. He hauled
a quantity of shells with which to pave the paths, and brought all the
sod we needed to form a firm edge around the center bed. Can there be
any doubt that this boy was benefited?

There is a social side to this industrial outside work which is
superior to that of the classroom.

First: The teacher has but a small number of children under her care at
one time; consequently, she is enabled to learn more of each individual
nature.

Secondly: The child is under no apparent restraint, so expresses
himself freely and shows his natural self.

Thirdly: The boys and girls mingle with one another with the same
freedom that they have on their own playground.

In the two months spent in the garden not a single child took undue
advantage of the privileges allowed, and the opportunity afforded the
teacher for the study of child-nature was of great value.

Some one might ask, "While garden work is being done, does not the work
of the classroom suffer?" No, it does not. When classes are taught in
sections, this outside work may be fitted in as a sectional part and
the routine be kept intact.

In summarizing, the lessons developed from garden work were these:
Science (soil physics and seed germination); geography; arithmetic;
spelling; English; drawing, and construction. The greatest benefit to
the teacher was the chance to study the child under natural conditions.
The greatest benefit to the child was his awakening to a knowledge of
things by personal contact. I sincerely believe that the after-life of
each one of these children will be the richer for this experience of
outdoor study.

[Illustration: GATHERING THE VEGETABLES]

In some of the school yards the pavement near the fence has been
removed, and the space divided into small beds for gardening. Many of
these gardens make a fine showing and you will find here three
pictures of such a yard, illustrating what may be done within the
limits of the playground of a city school. When you consider that
between six and eight hundred children play in this yard at the same
recess time every day, you can appreciate what it means to yield a
portion of the limited space to vegetables and flowers; and, since
these plants are never molested, how much the children are pleased to
have their playground so decorated.

Nearly all the garden products may be correlated with the classroom
work. The kindergarten children use peas in construction. The peas
raised in the garden may be applied here. The first-grade children use
lentils in construction. Why not as well use pumpkin seed and grains of
corn--the product of the garden? Every class enjoys having a
Jack-o'-lantern at Hallowe'en, so here again the pumpkin from the
garden comes into play. In the construction of miniature wagons and
wheelbarrows of paper, peas may be soaked and used as axles for the
wheels. Both peas and beans may be soaked and given to the small
children to string for chains, thus teaching number and spacing. Every
layer of husk (beneath the outside one) from the ear of corn may be
dried and made into a basket by the more advanced pupil.

If a city teacher, with opportunities so limited and numberless
disadvantages, can accomplish even a little in this line for the
children in her charge, how much more should the teacher of the rural
school accomplish when she has space at her command, children in the
environment of country life, and seemingly all things that tend to work
together to produce good results!

So much interest is shown in this phase of industrial work all over the
country that I doubt that there is anywhere a teacher who does not wish
to add the study of it to the curriculum, unless she is already working
along these lines. Feeling sure of the sympathy aroused in every
teacher's heart, I have included among the illustrations of this
article three scenes from rural school life. (See pages 113, 115, and
117.)

In connection with these pictures let me say a few more words to the
rural teacher. You may think yourself much poorer than your city
co-worker, but the fact is that you are the one of affluence, she is
the struggler. You have all about you the materials that a city teacher
can secure only at second hand. All the riches of nature are at your
command--the birds that nest at your door, the fishes that swim in the
brook, the grasses that grow by the roadside, the trees of the forest,
and the flowers that spring up everywhere; the ground space for your
garden; the intelligent child of country environment who does not need
to work the garden to learn how vegetables grow, but who does need to
work it for the education, the aim and object of school gardens. If you
are not interested in such work, try doing it once because you should.
Next year there will be no should; love will lead you on.

I have the same feeling in my heart about the school garden that the
poet who wrote "The Little Fir Trees" must have had about them. Each
stanza winds up with

      And so,
    Little evergreens, grow!
      Grow, grow!
    Grow, little evergreens, grow!

I would say:

      And so,
    Grow, school gardens, grow!
      Grow, grow!
    Grow, school gardens, grow!

The three pictures, "Studying Nature," "A Flower from the Country" and
"A Suggestion for Recess Hour," came to me from a country school. They
speak so vividly for themselves that I feel that each one carries with
it its own message and appeals so strongly in behalf of the deepest
love of nature in even the youngest child as to point to the
possibilities of what might be when this love is fed and made to grow
with the physical nature of the child.



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Notes


Corrected minor punctuation typos. Moved some of the illustrations to
avoid breaking up paragraphs of text. Page references pertain to the
original book but link to the correct image/topic in the HTML version.

Page 17: Changed Portiere to Portière for consistency.
  (9 Miniature Portiere--Knotted)

Page 55: Changed sand-papered to sandpapered for consistency:
  (and nothing is properly sand-papered until all roughness)

Page 56: Changed the page reference from 59 to 57:
  (with the grain of the wood, and how to cut corners. (See page 59.))

Page 65: Changed exend to extend:
  (To construct a box having lid and bottom exend beyond sides.)

Page 107: Original text might be missing "child" after country:
  ('The country is entitled from its state and from its county,)

Page 109: Changed attenion to attention:
  (The interest of these children attracted the attenion of the)





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