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Title: Every-Day Errors of Speech
Author: Meredith, L. P.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  EVERY-DAY
  ERRORS OF SPEECH

  BY
  L. P. MEREDITH, M.D., D.D.S.,
  AUTHOR OF "THE TEETH, AND HOW TO SAVE THEM."

  PHILADELPHIA:
  J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
  1876.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year, 1872, by
  L. P. MEREDITH,
  In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



INTRODUCTION

    _Damas._ * * * The Prince of Como does not
                  understand his own language.

    _Melnotte._ Not as you pronounce it: Who the
                  deuce could?


It may be regarded as one of the commendable peculiarities of the
English language that, despite provincialisms, vulgarisms, neglected
education, foreign accent, and the various corrupting influences to
which it is subjected, it may be understood wherever it is heard,
whatever differences of distance or associations may have existed
between the speaker and the listener, both claiming familiarity with
it. Considering these influences and the arbitrariness of the
orthoepical rules of the language, there has been expressed surprise
that frequent degenerations into uncouth dialects or patois have not
occurred. A decent regard for the common weal should cause
gratification that such degenerations have not taken place, for were
it not for the ability of our tongue to preserve its individuality
against the tendency toward corruption, we might reasonably fear such
a Babel-like confusion, that, when asked, "Do you speak English?" one
might appropriately, _sans_ the profanity, reply in the language of
the text, "Not as you pronounce it: Who the deuce could?" While the
majority of people place no other value upon language than that of
convenience, and are indifferent to any corruption, so long as they
can simply understand and be understood, there is happily a better
class, the æsthetic cultivation of which is such that those who belong
to it are anxious to preserve the purity of our vernacular and are
ashamed of all errors of speech in their daily conversations. For such
it will not be uninteresting to look over a number of errors,
principally of pronunciation, that are not formally laid down as such
in books, and which people, even many of the best educated, are
constantly committing, just because they have never had their
attention called to them. These errors are becoming more deeply rooted
every day and if not soon eradicated, it will not be many years before
our orthoepic standard will be overthrown as it was in England some
years ago.

Smart, one of the most celebrated of English orthoepists, in the
preface of his dictionary says: "The proprietors of Walker's
dictionary, finding it would slide entirely out of use unless it were
adapted to the present day, engaged me as a teacher of elocution,
known in London since Walker's time, to make the necessary changes." A
standard pronouncing dictionary is a work that involves an
extraordinary amount of labor and research in its compilation, and
exerts an influence almost autocratical. The possibility of its
becoming worthless in a short time is strange, especially when it is
not on account of any work claiming superiority, but merely because
error long persisted in finally becomes more authoritative than the
original exemplar. With little effort, however, we can discern the
causes. Persons are apt to acquire the pronunciation and use of the
greater number of words by imitation, rather than by study. With
confidence in the knowledge of the parent, teacher, minister,
physician and others, their examples are followed without ever
considering that they are often very fallible guides.

A complete dictionary is an immense volume, and to turn over its pages
with even a casual observation of each word, requires an amount of
time that few would feel like devoting to it; and yet this is the only
way in which a person can become _assured_ of the sanctioned
pronunciation and meaning of a great many words. If they would make it
an invariable rule to make memoranda of all the words they read or
hear spoken, about the orthoepy and import of which they are not
absolutely certain, and at their first leisure opportunity would
consult their chosen authority, it would not be long before the
majority of errors would be corrected; but this requires memory,
inclination, time, continuity of purpose, possession of dictionaries
or access to them--circumstances that are seldom found combined. It
will doubtless be useless to rehearse any of the arguments commonly
employed to prove the necessity of having some sovereign standard, to
the guidance of which we must be willing to submit. Those for whom
this work is intended will be willing to admit that. Nor is it
necessary to assert that as far as the English speakers of the United
States are interested, the only works that lay claim to such a
position are the dictionaries of Webster and Worcester. If the right
of the opinions of the majority of scholars throughout the land were
alone considered, the former would certainly be entitled to the
preference; but the work of the latter is too full of merit and has
too many adherents in the ranks of the educated to permit any one to
say that it is not worthy of high esteem.

With my own preference for the former and with my willingness to
acknowledge the worth of the latter, I have consulted both authorities
concerning every word in the following vocabulary--that is, every word
requiring reference to either. It will be seen that there is much less
difference between the decisions of the two dictionaries than is
commonly supposed. By this reference to each, I have not only
corrected errors in an impartial manner, but have also stopped up that
loop-hole through which so many try to escape by saying, when they are
called to account according to one dictionary, that they do not accept
that as their standard. As far as the people of this country are
concerned, there is no escape from the conclusion that a person is
considered a correct or an incorrect speaker of English, according to
whether or not he conforms his discourse to one of the above mentioned
authorities. At first glance it will appear that the size of this
volume is not at all commensurate to the task of correcting the many
errors that are heard in our communication with all classes that
pretend to speak the English language. It is not intended to instruct
those whose education has been so neglected that they are guilty of
the grossest violation of syntax and orthoepy, nor to cultivate the
taste of those whose selection of words and cant and slang phrases
betrays the low grade of the associations by which they have been
surrounded. It is designed rather as a collection of the more common
of those errors, chiefly orthoepical, that I have before spoken of as
being of constant occurrence even among people of education, unless
they have paid considerable attention to philology or
_belles-lettres_. If by presenting them in this convenient form, thus
saving much time and trouble in referring to the dictionary, I have
merited the thanks of my readers, or if I have contributed even a mite
toward the conservation of the present usage, I shall feel amply repaid.

I have taken advantage of the alphabetical arrangement to introduce a
few miscellaneous errors that might have been placed under a separate
heading.

Instead of dividing the words into syllables and loading them with
marks as is usually done in dictionaries, I have thought that it would
make a deeper impression on the memory to present the words as they
are commonly seen in print, depending on respelling to furnish the
correct and incorrect accent and pronunciation.

The corrections have first been made according to Webster; if
Worcester is unmentioned, it is to be understood that both authorities
agree.

  _Cincinnati, December 20, 1871._



Errors of Speech.



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE RESPELLING


  The long sounds of a, e, i, o, u, are represented by ā, ē, ī,
      ō, ū.
  The short sounds of a, e, i, o, u,                "  ă, ĕ, ĭ,
      ŏ, ŭ.
  _a_, as in _air_, _pair_, is represented by â.
  _a_,   "   _far_, _arm_,       "         "  ä or ah.
  _a_,   "   _all_, _haul_,      "         "  aw.
  _a_,   "   _what_, _squat_,    "         "  ŏ.
  _e_,   "   _ere_, _where_,     "         "  ê.
  _e_,   "   _obey_, _weight_,   "         "  ā.
  _e_,   "   _her_, _term_,      "         "  ë.
  _i_,   "   _machine_,          "         "  ē or ee.
  _i_,   "   _dirk_, _whirl_,    "         "  ï.
  _o_,   "   _done_, _son_,      "         "  ŭ.
  _o_,   "   _woman_,            "         "  ŏŏ.
  _o_,   "   _do_, _move_,       "         "  ōō.
  _o_,   "   _for_, _storm_,     "         "  ô or aw.
  _oo_,  "   _soon_, _moon_,     "         "  ōō.
  _oo_,  "   _foot_, _good_,     "         "  ŏŏ.
  _u_,   "   _rude_, _rule_,     "         "  ōō.
  _u_,   "   _push_, _pull_,     "         "  ŏŏ.
  _u_,   "   _burn_, _turn_,     "         "  ü.
  _oi_,} "   _oil_, _toy_,       "         "  oi.
  _oy_,}
  _ou_,} "   _found_, _owl_,     "         "  ow.
  _ow_,}

  _c_, as in _city_, _cite_, is represented by s or ç.
  _c_,   "   _can_, _cut_,       "         "  k.
  _ch_,  "   _child_, _much_,    "         "  ch.
  _ch_,  "   _machine_,          "         "  sh.
  _ch_,  "   _chorus_,           "         "  k.
  _g_,   "   _ginger_,           "         "  j.
  _n_,   "   _think_, _uncle_,   "         "  ñ.
  _qu_,  "   _require_,          "         "  kw.
  _s_,   "   _these_, _ease_,    "         "  z.

Obscure vowel sounds, or those which are glided over in a word without
any noticeable accent, are unmarked. In those cases where the
pronunciation is so evident that mistakes seem improbable, the marks
are also omitted.



EVERY-DAY ERRORS OF SPEECH.


     A.

     =Abacus=--ab´a-kŭs, not a-băk´ŭs.

     =Abdomen=--ab-dō´men, not ab´do-men.

     =Acclimate=--ak-klī´māte, not ak´kli-māte.

     =Acclimated= is also accented on the second syllable.

     =Acclimatization=--ak-kli-mat-i-zā´shun, not
       ak-klī´ma-ti-zā-shun.

     =Adult=--a-dŭlt´, not ăd´ult.

     =Aerated=--ā´er-ā-ted, not ā´rē-ā-ted. "_Areated
       bread_" is a mistake that is frequently made.

     =Ailantus=--ā-lăn´tŭs, not ā-lăn´thŭs;
       ăt-lăn´tus is a still worse error.

     =Albumen=--al-bū´men, not al´bu-men.

     =Alder=--awl´der, not ăl´der; it is the name of a _tree_ and
       does not mean the ordinary _elder_.

     =Alike.= It is sufficient to say that two persons or things are
       _alike_, not _both alike_. The word associated with _alike_ is
       just as unnecessary as it is with _resemble_ and _equal_ in the
       following sentences: "These two men _both_ resemble each
       other." "These two sums are _both_ equal."

     =Allopathy=--al-lŏp´a-thy, not al´lo-path-y.

     =Allopathist= is similarly accented.

     =Alpaca=--al-păk´a, not al-la-păk´a.

     =Altercate=--ăl´ter-kāte, not awl´ter-kate.

     =Amenable=--a-mē´na-ble, not a-mĕn´a-ble.

     =Among.= A thing is divided _among_ many and _between_ two.

     =Amour=--a-mōōr´, not am´-mōre nor ā´mōōr.

     =Angry.= Say angry _with_ a person and _at_ a thing.

     =Animalcula= is the plural of _animalculum_; there is no such
       word as _animalculœ_. Animalcule (singular) and animalcules
       (plural), are proper words; the former is pronounced
       an-i-mal´kūle and the latter an-i-mal´kūlz.

     =Antarctic=--ant-ärk´tik, not ant-är´tik.

     =Antepenult=--an-te-pe-nŭlt´, not an-te-pē´nŭlt.

     =Apex=--ā´pex, not ăp´ex.

     =Apparatus=--ap-pa-rā´tus, not ap-pa-răt´us.

     =Aquaria=, not _aquariums_, is the plural of _aquarium_.

     =Arabic=--ăr´a-bĭk, not a-răb´ĭk, a-rā´bĭk, nor
       ăr´a-băk; which errors are very common, especially in the
       compound word _gum-arabic_.

     =Arbitrary= is often incorrectly pronounced as if spelled
       _ar-bi-ta-ry_.

     =Archangel=--ärk-ān´jel, not ärch-ān´jel.

     =Archbishop=--ärch-bish´op, not ärk-bish´op.

     =Archipelago=--ärk-i-pel´a-gō, not ärch-i-pel´a-gō.

     =Architect=--är´ki-tect, not är´chi-tect.

     =Archives=--är´kīvez, not är´chīvez, nor är´kēvez.

     =Arctic=--ärk´tik, not är´tik.

     =Arid=--ăr´id, not ā´rid.

     =Aroma=--a-rō´ma, not ăr´o-ma.

     =At= should not be used when it has no possible connection with
       the other words of a sentence; as, "Where are you living _at_?"

     =At all=, not a tall.

     =Attacked=, not attackted.

     =Auction=--awk´shun, not ŏk´shun.

     =Ay= or =Aye=, meaning _yes_, and =aye=, an affirmative vote, are
       pronounced äĭ and not ī nor ā.

     =Aye=, meaning forever, always (used chiefly in poetry), is
       pronounced ā not ī nor äĭ.


     B.

     =Bade=--băd, not bāde.

     =Badinage=--băd´in-äzh, not băd´in-āje. Worcester gives
       the same pronunciation, but places the accent on the last
       syllable.

     =Balance.= There are two common errors connected with this word.
       One is to write it _ballance_: the other is to use it in the
       sense of _remainder_, _rest_, etc.; as, the _balance_ of the
       day, the _balance_ of the people. Balance means properly "the
       excess on one side, or what added to the other makes equality."
       The corrupt use of the word, as above mentioned, is laid down
       as a vulgarism.

     =Bantam=, not _banty_.

     =Bellows=--bĕl´lŭs, not bĕl´lōz. The plural is the
       same as the singular.

     =Besom=--bē´zum, not bē´sum. A broom.

     =Betroth=--be-trŏth, not be-trōth. =Betrothed=,
       =Betrothal=, etc., are similarly pronounced.

     =Blacking=, not _blackening_ for boots and shoes.

     =Blouse=--blowz, not blowss.

     =Bologna=--bō-lōn´ya, not bō-lō´na. _Bologna_
       sausage, _Bologna_ phial, etc.

     =Bona fide=--bō´na-fī´de, not bō´na-fīde nor
       bŏn´a-fīde.

     =Booth.= The _th_ is sounded as in the preposition _with_, not as
       in _both_.

     =Bouquet=--bōō-kā´ or boōō´kā, not bō-kā´.

     =Bourgeois=, meaning a kind of type, is pronounced bür-jois´, not
       like the following word:

     =Bourgeois=, a citizen, pronounced bōōr-zhwaw´.

     =Brand-new=, not _bran-new_. Although the latter adjective is
       much used, it is evidently a corruption of the former. An
       article in its newness may be bright like a _brand_ of fire, or
       the _brand_ of the manufacturer may remain intact, but there is
       certainly no _bran_ about it.

     =Breeches=--brĭtch´ez, not as spelled.

     =Bretzel=, not _pretzel_. A brittle German cake.

     =Brilliant.= A diamond of the finest cut, with its faces and
       facets so arranged as to secure the greatest degree of
       brilliancy--whence the name. The name to many conveys the idea
       of paste, or imitation. A _rose_ diamond may be just as pure,
       but its depth does not permit it to be made a _brilliant_ of
       without a much greater loss of substance.

     =Brougham=--brōōm or brōō´am, not brō´am nor
       brow´am. A kind of carriage.

     =Burst=, =Burst= and =Bursting=, not _bust_, _busted_ and
       _busting_.


     C.

     =Calculate= is often inappropriately used in lieu of _believe_,
       _suppose_, _expect_, etc., as in the following sentences: "I
       _calculate_ you are my friend;" "I _calculate_ the report is
       true." Still worse than this passive misuse is that active one
       of using the word in some such sense as this: "Doctor, I know
       that you are a man of great intelligence and I have unlimited
       confidence in your honor and ability; but I must say that I
       think the course of treatment pursued by you during this
       epidemic, is _calculated_ to increase the mortality among your
       patients." How inconsistent with the encomium is the dreadful
       accusation just following! As if the Doctor had sat down and
       _calculated_ how he could cause injury rather than benefit.
       Calculate means to ascertain by means of figures or to study
       what means must be used to secure a certain result. A person
       may make a speech, write a book, or do anything else
       _calculated_ to do good, or more rarely, evil, but the
       intention to accomplish the object spoken of must be present,
       before the word can be properly used.

     =Calliope=--kal-lī´o-pe, not kal´li-ōpe.

     =Calvary=, not _cavalry_, when the place of our Saviour's
       crucifixion is meant.

     =Camelopard=--ka-mel´o-pärd or kam´el-o-pärd, not
       kam-el-lĕop´ard.

     =Cantatrice=--kăn-ta-trē´che, not kăn´ta-treess.

     =Canon=--kăn´yun, not kăn´nun. A deep gorge or ravine.
       Spelled also =Canyon=, pronounced kän-yōn´ or kăn´yon.

     =Capoch=--ka-pōōtsh´, not ka-pōch´. =Capouch= is another
       orthography.

     =Caption= in the sense of the heading of a discourse, chapter,
       page, etc., is not sanctioned by good writers.

     =Carminative=--kär-mīn´a-tive, not kär´mi-nā-tive.

     =Casualty=--kăzh´u-al-ty, not kăz-u-ăl´i-ty.

     =Cater-cornered=--kā´ter-cor-nered, not kăt´ty-cor-nered.
       Not down, thus compounded in Webster, but his pronunciation of
       the separate words is as given. Worcester gives the word as
       above and defines it as an adjective--diagonal. It is generally
       used though, I believe, as an adverb; as, "the piano stands
       cater-cornered" (diagonally). It is regarded as an inelegant
       word, diagonal and diagonally being preferred: though it is
       probable that this opinion has been caused by the abominable
       pronunciations _catty_ and _kitty_ cornered.

     =Catalpa=--ka-tăl´pa, not ka-tawl´pa.

     =Catch=, =Catching=--kătch and kătching, not kĕtch and
       kĕtching.

     =Catholic= means liberal, general, not bigoted, and not _Roman_
       Catholic, unless specially so applied.

     =Caucasian=--kaw-kā´sian,not kaw-kāzh´ian, kaw-kăsh´ian,
       kaw-kāz´ian nor kaw-kăss´ian.

     =Cayenne=--kā-ĕn´, not kī-ĕn´.

     =Chaps=--chŏps, not chăps. The jaws. =Chops= is also
       correct orthography.

     =Chasten=--chās´en, not chăs´en. =Chastened=,
       =chastening=, etc., have also the long a.

     =Chew=, not _chaw_. The latter word either as a verb or noun is
       now considered quite vulgar.

     =Chid=, not chī´ded, is the imperfect tense of chide.

     =Chimera=--kĭ-mē´ra, not chi-mē´ra, nor kī-mē´ra.

     =Chivalric=--shĭv´al-rik, not shĭv-ăl´rik. Worcester
       allows the latter.

     =Chivalrous=--shĭv´al-rŭs, not shĭv-ăl´rus. Worcester
       gives chĭv´al-rus also.

     =Chivalry=--shĭv´al-ry, not chĭv´al-ry. Worcester sanctions
       both.

     =Cicerone=--chē-che-rō´ne or sĭs-e-rō´ne, not
       sĭs´e-rōne. A guide.

     =Citrate=--sĭt´rate, not sī´trate. "Citrate of magnesia."

     =Climbed=, not clomb (klum). One climbs _up_ but does not climb
       _down_.

     =Cochineal=--kŏch´i-neel, not kō´chi-neel nor
       kō´ki-neel.

     =Cocoa= (kō´kō) is not made from the cocoa-nut or tree, but
       from the seeds of the _cacao_ (ka-kā´o) or chocolate tree.
       The word is evidently a perversion, but it has gained a
       permanent footing in its present signification.

     =Cognomen=--kŏg-no´men, not kŏg´no-men.

     =Cold-chisel=, not _coal-chisel_. It is a chisel of peculiar
       strength and hardness for cutting _cold_ metal.

     =Cole-slaw.= In the former editions of some dictionaries it has
       been taught that this word is derived from _cole_ meaning
       cabbage, and _slaw_ meaning salad. Cole-slaw--cabbage-salad.
       The uninstructed soon changed the _cole_ into _cold_ and
       substituted _hot_ for the other extreme of temperature, thus
       entirely changing the signification. What was really meant, was
       _hot cole-slaw_ and _cold cole-slaw_. Many persons still regard
       _cole-slaw_ as the proper word, and receipt books give that
       orthography. The last editions of Webster and Worcester,
       however, only give the words _cole_ and _slaw_ in separate
       places and define the latter as "sliced cabbage."

     =Combatant=--kŏm´bat-ant, not kom-băt´ant.

     =Combativeness=--kŏm´bat-ive-ness, not kom-băt´ive-ness.

     =Come= is often thoughtlessly used for _go_ or some other word. If
       How is just leaving Howard's house it is right for How to say,
       "I'll come to see you soon," but Howard could not properly say,
       _at that place_, the same thing. He should say, "I will go to see
       you soon." If they both live in Philadelphia and should meet in
       New York, neither could say appropriately, "I'll come to see you
       after I get home;" that would mean that one would travel back
       from his home in Philadelphia to New York to see the other. But
       either might say, "Come and see me when you get home."

     =Comparable=--kŏm´pa-ra-ble, not kŏm-păr´a-ble.

     =Complaisance=--kŏm´pla-zans, not kŏm-plā´zăns. In
       complaisant and complaisantly, the accent is also on the first
       syllable. Worcester places it on the third, thus: complaisant
       (kom-pla-zănt´), etc.

     =Comptroller=--kon-trōl´ler, not kŏmp-trōl´ler.

     =Conduit=--kŏn´dĭt or kŭn´dit, not kŏn´duĭt or
       kŏn´dūte. A pipe or canal for the conveyance of fluid.

     =Confab=, not _conflab_. A contraction of confabulation.

     =Congeries=--kŏn-jē´rĭ-eez, not kon-jē´rēz nor
       kŏn´je-rēz. A collection of particles into one mass.

     =Contemptuous=, not =contemptible=, when the manifestation of
       contempt for another is meant. I once heard a young lady
       describing how she had withered at a glance a poor young man
       that had incurred her displeasure. "O, I gave him such a
       _contemptible_ look," said she. If in the enthusiasm of the
       rehearsal, the look that dwelt upon her features was akin to
       that given upon the occasion mentioned, no auditor doubted the
       exact truth of what she said; but she meant differently.

     =Contiguous=--kon-tig´ū-ŭs, not kon-tĭj´ū-ŭs.

     =Contour=--kŏn-tōōr´, not kŏn´tōōr. The
       boundary lines of a figure.

     =Contra-dance= is better than _country-dance_, the latter word
       being a corruption; but it has become admissible from long use.
       _Contredanse_ is the French original, and means that the
       parties stand opposite to each other.

     =Contrary=--kŏn´tra-ry, not kon-trā´ry, interfering with
       the rhythm of the distich from Mother Goose's Melodies:

        "Mary, Mary, quite contrary,
        How does your garden grow?"

     =Contumacy=--kŏn´tu-ma-sy, not kon-tū´ma-sy. Obstinacy,
       stubbornness.

     =Contumely=--kŏn´tu-me-ly not kŏn-tū´me-ly. Insolence,
       contemptuousness.

     =Conversant=--kŏn´ver-sant, not kon-vĕr´sănt.

     =Conversazione=--kŏn´ver-sät-se-ō´nā, not
       kon-ver-săs´si-ōne. A meeting for conversation. Worcester
       pronounces it kŏn-ver-sät-ze-ō´nā. The plural is
       conversazioni (-nē).

     =Corporal= punishment, not cor-pō´re-al.

     =Cortege=--kôr´tāzh, not kor´tēje. A train of attendants.

     =Councilor=, is a member of council.

     =Counselor=, one who gives advice. Worcester's spelling is
       councillor and counsellor.

     =Creek=, not krĭck.

     =Creole.= From Webster's dictionary are taken the following
       definitions and remarks:

          1. "One born in America, or the West Indies, of European
          ancestors.

          2. "One born within or near the tropics, of any color. 'The
          term creole negro is employed in the English West Indies to
          distinguish the negroes born there from the Africans
          imported during the time of the slave trade. The application
          of this term to the colored people has led to an idea common
          in some parts of the United States, though wholly unfounded,
          that it implies an admixture greater or less of African
          blood.'--R. Hildreth."

     =Crinoline=--krĭn´o-lĭn, not krĭn´o-līne nor
       krĭn´o-leen.

     =Cuirass=--kwē-răs´ or kwē´răs, not kū´răs. A
       piece of armor.

     =Cuisine=--kwe-zēn´, not kū-seen´ or kū-zīne´.
       Cooking or cooking department.

     =Culinary=--kū´li-na-ry, not kŭl´i-na-ry.

     =Cupola=--kū´po-la, not kū-po-lō´.


     D.

     =Dahlia=--däl´ya or dāl´-ya, not dăl´ya.

     =Dare not=, not darse'nt.

     =Data=--dā´ta, not dăt´a, is the plural of datum (dā´tum).

     =Debris=--dā-brē´, not dē´brĭs nor dā´brē.
       Rubbish, ruins.

     =Decade=--dĕk´ade, not dē´kade nor dē-kāde´. Ten in
       number.

     =Defalcate=--de-făl´kate, not de-fawl´kāte.

     =Defalcation=--dē-făl-kā´shun not dē-fawl-kā´shun.
       Worcester gives dĕf-al-kā´shun. No such word as
       _defalcater_ is seen.

     =Deficit=--dĕf´i-sit, not de-fī´sit nor de-fĭs´sit. A
       deficiency.

     =Delusion=, not _illusion_, when deception occurs from want of
       knowledge of the world, ignorance of business or trade, or from
       lack of acumen generally. Illusions are deceptions arising from
       a temporarily or permanently disordered imagination, or from
       phenomena occurring in nature: thus we speak of the illusions of
       fancy, of dreams, and of optical illusions. The mirage of the
       desert and the fata Morgana are instances of the latter.

     =Demonstrative=--de-mŏn´stra-tive, not dĕm´on-strā-tive.

     =Demonstrator=--dĕm´on-strā-tor, not de-mŏn´strā-tor.
       Worcester allows the latter.

     =Depot=--de-pō´ or dē´pō, not dā´pō, nor
       dĕp´po. Worcester sanctions de-pō´ only. I once had a
       friend, deceased now, of course, who called it de-pŏt´.

     =Dereliction=--der-e-lĭk´shun, not dĕr-e-lĕk´shun. A
       forsaking, abandonment.

     =Deshabille=--dĕs-a-bĭl´, } =Dishabille=--dĭs-a-bĭl´,
       } not dĕs´ha-beel nor dĭs´ha-beel. The French is
       déshabillé, pronounced about like dā-zä-be-yā, without
       any particular accent. Some persons, in their vain efforts to
       get the peculiar liquid sound of the double l, sometimes used,
       distort the word terribly, pronouncing it even as broad as
       dĭs-ha-beel´yuh.

     =Desideratum=--de-sid-e-rā´tum, not de-sĭd-er-ăt´um;
       plural, de-sĭd-er-ā´ta. Something particularly desired.

     =Desperado=--des-per-ā´do, not des-per-ä´do.

     =Dessert=--dĕz-zërt´, not dĕz´zert, nor dĕs´sert:
       _dessert-spoon_ (dez-zërt´-spoon).

     =Die.= One dies _of_ a disease, not with it.

     =Differ.= One differs with a person in opinion; one person or
       thing differs _from_ another in some quality.

     =Disappointed.= One is disappointed _of_ a thing not obtained and
       _in_ a thing obtained. "He will be disappointed of his
       expectations."

     =Discourse=--dis-kōrs´, not dĭs´kōrs.

     =Disputable=--dis´pu-ta-ble, not dis-pū´ta-ble.

     =Disputant=--dis´pu-tant, not dis-pū´tant.

     =Distich=--dĭs´tĭk, not dĭs´tĭch. Two poetic lines
       making sense.

     =Docible=--dŏs´i-ble, not dō´si-ble. Tractable; teachable.

     =Docile=--dŏs´ĭl, not dō´sīle.

     =Dolorous=--dŏl´or-ŭs, not dō´lor-oŭs. =Dolorously=
       and =Dolorousness= are similarly accented; but =dolor= is
       pronounced dō´lor.

     =Doubt.= "I do not doubt but that it is so," is a very common
       error. The meaning conveyed is just the opposite to that which
       the speaker intends. He declares in other words, that he has
       _no_ doubt _but_ a doubt that it is so; or he does not doubt
       that it is false. "I have no doubt but," and "there is no doubt
       but,"--are similar mistakes. The word "but" should be left out.

     =Dough-face= means one that is easily molded to one's will, or
       readily changed in his views, and not a putty-faced or
       white-faced person.

     =Dragomans=, not _dragomen_, is the plural of _dragoman_, an
       Eastern interpreter.

     =Drama=--drä´ma or drā´ma, not drăm´a. Worcester says
       drā´ma or drăm´a.

     =Dramatis Personæ=--drăm´a-tīs per-sō´nē, not
       dra-măt´is pĕr´so-nē.

     =Drank=, not _drunk_, is the imperfect tense of drink.

     =Ducat=--dŭk´at, not dū´kat.


     E.

     =Ear=--ēar, not yēar. Persons frequently speak of the
       _year-ache_, and occasionally "_a year of corn_," may be heard.

     =Ecce Homo=--ĕk´sē hō´mō, not ĕk´kē
       hō´mō.

     =Eider=--ī´der, not ē´der. _Eider-down_ and _eider-duck_.

     =Elm= is pronounced in one syllable and not ĕl´lum.

     =Elysian=--e-lĭz´i-an, not e-lĭs´sian. Worcester gives
       e-lĭzh´e-an.

     =Embryo=--em´bry-ō, not em-bry´ō.

     =Employe= (Fr. employé)--ĕm-ploy-ā´ or ŏng-plwaw-yā´,
       not employ´ē or ong-ploy´ā. Employee is not allowed.

     =Encore=--ŏng-kōr´, not ŏng´kōr nor ĕn´kōr.

     =Eneid=--ē-nē´id not ē´ne-id. A poem of Virgil.
       Worcester sanctions both methods of pronunciation.

     =Ennui=--ŏng-nwē´, not ŏng´wē. Worcester gives a much
       simpler pronunciation, viz: än-wē´.

     =Enquiry=--en-kwī´ry, not ĕn´kwĭ-ry.

     =Epsom Salt=, not Epsom _Salts_.

     =Equable=--ē´kwa-ble, not ĕk´wa-ble.

     =Equally well=, etc., not equally _as_ well, etc.

     =Espionage=--ĕs´pe-on-āje or ĕs´pe-on-äzh, not
       ĕs-pī´o-nāje nor es-pē´on-äzh.

     =Esquimau=--ĕs´ke-mō, not ĕs´qui-maw: plural,
       =Esquimaux= (ĕs´ke-mōz), not ĕs´ke-mawz nor
       ĕs´ke-mō.

     =Etagere=--ĕt-a-zhâr´, not e-tăzh´er-y nor
       at-tăzh´ĭ-a. Worcester's pronunciation is ā-tä-zhâr´.
       A piece of parlor furniture with shelves, used for placing
       small ornaments and fancy articles upon; a what-not.

     =Excrescence=--ex-krĕs´sense not ex-krē´sense. A
       superfluous appendage: morbid outgrowth.

     =Expect= has reference to the future only, and not to the present
       or past. "I _expect_ that you are wrong." "I _expect_ you were
       disappointed yesterday," are errors. There is an abundance of
       words that may be correctly used, as _suppose_, _suspect_,
       _imagine_, _believe_ and _think_.

     =Expose= (Fr. exposé)--ĕks-po-zā´, not ex-pōz´. An
       exposition; statement.

     =Exquisite=--ĕks´quĭ-zĭt, not eks-quĭz´itĕ.
       =Exquisitely= is accented on the first syllable also.

     =Extant=--ex´tant not ex-tănt´.

     =Extol=--ex-tŏl´, not ex-tō´. =Extolled=, ex-tŏld´, etc.


     F.

     =Facet=--făs´set not fā-sĕt´. A small surface or face;
       as one of the _facets_ of a diamond.

     =Falchion=--fawl´chun, not făl´chĭ-on. A sword. Worcester
       sanctions fawl´shun, also.

     =Falcon=--faw´kn, not făl-kŏn.

     =Fang.= When applied to a tooth, _fang_ means the portion that is
       outside of the jaw. This name is often, even by dentists,
       erroneously given to the _root_ or part that is set into the jaw.

     =Far=, not _fur_.

     =Febrile=--fē´brĭl or fĕb´rĭl, not fē´brīle.
       Relating to fever.

     =February=, as it is spelled, and not Fĕb´u-a-ry, as many say
       and write it.

     =Feod=, =feodal=, =feodality=--fūd, fūd´al, and
       fū-dăl´i-ty. Relating to a kind of tenure formerly
       existing in Europe, in which military services were rendered by
       the tenant as a consideration. =Feud=, =feudal=, =feudality=,
       is the orthography generally adopted now.

     =Ferret.= A ferret is an animal of the weasel kind, used to drive
       rabbits out of their burrows, and not a species of dog.

     =Fetid=--fĕt´id, not fē´tid.

     =Fetor=--fē´tor, not fĕt´or.

     =Finale=---fe-nä´lā, not fī´nāle or fī-năl´ly.

     =Finance=--fĭ-năns´, not fī´-năns.

     =Finances=--fĭ-năn´sĕz, not fī´năn-sĕz.

     =Financier=--fĭn-an-seer´, not fī-nan-seer´. =Financial=,
       and =financially=, have also the short i in the first syllable.

     =Finis=--fī´nis, not fĭn´is.

     =Firmament= means the expanse of the sky: the heavens. The
       meaning, solid foundation, is obsolete.

     =Flannel=, not _flannen_.

     =Florid=--flŏr´id, not flō´rĭd.

     =Florin=--flŏr´in, not flō-rĭn. A piece of money.

     =Florist=--flō´rist, not flŏr´ist.

     =Forage=--fŏr´aje, not fō´raje.

     =Forceps=--fôr´seps, not fōr´seps. The word is spelled the
       same in both the singular and the plural numbers. Such mistakes
       as, "hand me a forcep," instead of "hand me a forceps," are
       very common. Strictly speaking, "a pair of forceps," ought, I
       suppose, to mean _two_ forceps; but like the expressions "a
       pair of scissors" and "a pair of stairs," the phrase has been
       in use so long that it must be tolerated.

     =Forehead=--fŏr´ed, not fōr´hĕd. Worcester allows either.

     =Foreign=--fŏr´in, not fŭr´in.

     =Fortnight=--fôrt´nīte, not fōrt´nīte, fōrt´nĭt
       nor fôrt´nĭt. Worcester gives what is authorized above and
       fôrt´nĭt.

     =Fortress=--fôr´tress, not fōr´tress.

     =Fragile=--frăj´ĭl, not frā´jĭl nor frā´jīle.

     =Fritter=, not _flitter_, is the name of a kind of fried cake.

     =Frivolity=--fri-vŏl´i-ty, not frĭv´ol-ty.

     =Frontier=--frŏnt´eer, not frŭnt´eer nor frŭn-teer´.

     =Frontispiece=--frŏnt´is-pēse, not frŭnt´is-pēse.

     =Fuchsia=--fōōk´sĭ-a, not fū´shĭ-a. Worcester
       gives the latter.

     =Fuzz=, not _furze_, is the word to use, if used at all, when the
       embryo whiskers, or the downy surface of fruit, etc., are
       meant. Down is the more appropriate word. _Furze_ is the name
       of an evergreen shrub.


     G.

     =Gallivating=, not _gallivanting_. Gallivanting is a word that is
       used to some extent, being applied to persons that are roaming
       about for amusement or adventure; as, "this young man has been
       _gallivanting_ around." If it is a corruption of _gallanting_,
       it should certainly be abolished as a vulgarism; but if it is a
       corruption of _gallivating_, from _gallivat_, the name of a
       small sailing vessel, it might be clothed in its proper garb
       and retained as a useful word in our language. If either is
       used, the one above preferred should be chosen, at any rate.

     =Gallows=--găl´lus, not găl´lōz. =Gallowses=, plural.

     =Gamin=--ga-măng´, not găm´in nor gā´min. A street child.

     =Gape=--gäpe or gāpe, not găp.

     =Gargle.= One _gargles_, not _gurgles_, the throat.

     =Gaseous=--găz´e-us, not găss-e-us. Worcester gives
       gā´ze-us too.

     =Gather=--găth´er, not gĕth´er.

     =Genealogy=--jĕn-e-ăl´o-jy, not jē-ne-ăl´o-jy nor
       je-ne-ŏl´o-jy.

     =Genealogist= (jĕn-e-ăl´o-jist), =genealogical=
       (jĕn-e-a-lŏj´i-kal) and =genealogically=
       (jĕn-e-a-lŏj´i-kal-ly).

     =Generic=--je-nĕr´ik, not jĕn´er-ik, nor je-nē´rik.
       Relating to a genus, or kind.

     =Gerund=--jĕr´und, not jē-rund. A kind of verbal noun in
       Latin.

     =Get=, not gĭt.

     =Giaour=--jowr, not gī´ōōr, jī-owr´ nor jōōr.
       An epithet applied by the Turks to a disbeliever in Mahomet;
       the name of one of Byron's poems.

     =Gibbet=--jĭb´bet, not gĭb´bet.

     =Glamour=--glā´mōōr, not glăm´mur. Worcester gives
       glā´mer, also. A charm in the eyes, making them see things
       differently from what they really are.

     =Gneiss=--nīs, not nēs nor gnēs. A kind of rock.

     =Gondola=--gŏn´do-la, not gon-dō´la.

     =Got.= There are some sticklers for niceties that overdo
       themselves in contending that the use of the verb _got_ is
       generally unnecessary and incorrect in conjunction with _have_
       and _had_. Get means to procure, to obtain, to come into
       possession of, etc., and it is a very tame assertion that one
       simply _has_ a thing that cost much mental or physical labor. A
       scholar _has_ his lesson, but did it creep into his head while
       he passively shut his eyes and went to sleep? On the contrary,
       he _got_ it or learned it by hard study, and it is proper to
       say that he has _got_ it. A man _has_ a cold, but he _got_ it
       or _took_ it by exposing himself. A person _has_ a sum of
       money, but he _got_ or _earned_ it by his labor. Another _has_
       good friends, but he _got_ or _secured_ them by his pleasant
       address. The great causes of the warfare against this word are,
       I think, that _have_ and _had_, though generally used as
       auxiliaries, can sometimes be used as principal verbs and make
       good sense; and that it has not been recollected that in the
       majority of cases _got_ either stands for, or can be
       substituted for another verb. In confirmation of this last
       statement, is appended the following composed by Dr. Withers:
       "I _got_ on horseback within ten minutes after I _got_ your
       letter. When I _got_ to Canterbury, I _got_ a chaise for town,
       but I _got_ wet before I _got_ to Canterbury; and I have _got_
       such a cold as I shall not be able to _get_ rid of in a hurry.
       I _got_ to the Treasury about noon, but first of all I _got_
       shaved and dressed. I soon _got_ into the secret of getting a
       memorial before the board, but I could not _get_ an answer
       then; however, I _got_ intelligence from the messenger, that I
       should most likely _get_ one the next morning. As soon as I
       _got_ back to my inn, I _got_ my supper and _got_ to bed. It
       was not long before I _got_ asleep. When I _got_ up in the
       morning, I _got_ my breakfast, and then I _got_ myself dressed
       that I might _get_ out in time to _get_ an answer to my
       memorial. As soon as I _got_ it, I _got_ into the chaise and
       _got_ to Canterbury by three, and about tea-time, I got home. I
       have _got_ nothing for you, and so adieu."

       Applying this test of substitution to any doubtful case, I think
       it right to assert that if there is no other verb, or
       participle, that will appropriately take the place of "got,"
       the latter word is _unnecessary_; but it should hardly be
       considered as an error, as it is so slight an impropriety
       compared with many others that are allowed, and especially
       because we have long had the usage of many of the best writers
       to sanction the employment of the word. The very people that
       appear to be so shocked at the use of the superfluous _got_,
       may generally be heard making use of such expressions as "fell
       _down_ upon the ground," "rose _up_ and went away," "covered it
       _over_," and "a great, _big_ fire." The _down_, _up_, _over_
       and _big_ are certainly superfluities, but they have been heard
       so long that they are seldom mentioned as errors.

     =Gourmand=--gōōr´mänd, not gôr´mand, unless the orthography
       =gormand= is used.

     =Gout=--gowt, not gōōt, as actors are sometimes heard
       pronounce it in the following line from Macbeth: "On thy blade
       and dudgeon, _gouts_ of blood."

     =Government=--gŭv´ern-ment not gŭv´er-ment. It is a
       mistake, frequently made, to write and pronounce the word as if
       it had no "n" in the penultimate.

     =Gramercy=--gra-mër´sy, not grăm´er-sy. A word formerly used
       to express thankfulness with surprise.

     =Granary=--grăn´a-ry, not grā´na-ry. There are no such
       words as _grainery_ and _grainary_.

     =Gratis=--grā´tis, not grăt-is.

     =Grenade=--gre-nāde´, not grĕn´ade. A kind of explosive
       shell.

     =Guardian=--gärd´ĭ-an, not gär-dē´an.

     =Guerdon=--gër´don, not gwĕr´don nor jĕr´don. A reward; a
       recompense.

     =Guild=--gĭld, not gīld. A society; a fraternity.

     =Guipure=--ge-pūr´, not gĭm-pūre´ nor gwĭ-pūre´.
       An imitation of antique lace.

     =Gunwale=--commonly pronounced gŭn´nel and spelled so
       sometimes.

     =Gutta-percha=--gŭt´ta-për´cha, not gŭt´ta-për´ka.

     =Gyrfalcon=--jër´faw-kn, not jēr´făl-kun.


     H.

     =Habitue= (Fr. habitué)--ä-bĭt-u-ā´, not hăb-it-u-ē
       nor hăb-ĭt-u-ā´.

     =Halloo= (hal-lōō´), =holla= (hŏl´lä), =hollo=
       (hŏl´lō or hŏl-lō´) or =hollow= (hŏl´lōw),
       but not hŏl´ler. Worcester gives =halloo= (hal-lōō´),
       =holla= (hŏl-lä´), =hollo= (hŏl-lō´) and =hollow=
       (hŏl´lōw or hŏl-lōw´). It is strange that with such
       a variety of words to choose from, people generally say
       "_holler_."

     =Hanged= is preferable to _hung_, when the infliction of the
       death penalty by hanging is meant.

     =Harass=--hăr´ass, not ha-răss´.

     =Harem=--hā´rem, not hăr´em. Worcester gives hä´rem also.
       Written also =haram= (ha-răm´).

     =Hardly.= _Don't_ and _can't_ should not be used with =hardly=.
       Such errors as, "I don't hardly believe it," are not uncommon.
       _Hardly_ means _scarcely_, and the use of don't or can't gives
       an opposite signification to the sentence.

     =Haunt=--hänt, not hănt.

     =Haunted=--hänt´ed, not hănt´ed.

     =Hawaiian=--ha-wī´yan, not ha-waw´yan. Relating to the island
       of Hawaii.

     =Hearth=--härth, not hërth.

     =Hearth-stone=--härth´stone, not hërth´stone.

     =Heather=--hĕth´er, not hēth´er. Worcester gives hēth´er
       as the pronunciation.

     =Heinous=--hā´nus, not hē´nus, hēn´yus nor hān´yus.

     =Herb=--ërb, not hërb.

     =Herbaceous=--her-bā´shus, not er-bā´shus.

     =Herbage=--ërb´ej or hĕrb´ej, not hĕr´bāje.

     =Heroine=--hĕr´o-ĭn, not hē´-ro-īne nor hē´ro-ĭn.
       Worcester gives the first and the last of the above.

     =Heroism=--hĕr´o-izm, not hē´ro-ĭzm. Worcester sanctions
       both.

     =Hieroglyphic=--hī-er-o-glĭf´ik, not hī-er-o-grĭf´ik.

     =Hindoostanee=} =Hindustani= } hin-dōō-stăn´ee, not
       hin-dōō´stăn-ee. Worcester's orthography is
       _Hindostanee_ and _Hindostany_, but the accent is on the penult
       as above.

     =Homage=--hŏm´aje, not ŏm´-aje.

     =Homeopathy=--hō-me-ŏp´a-thy, not hō´me-o-păth-y.

     =Homeopathist=--hō-me-ŏp´a-thist, not
       hō´me-o-păth-ist.

     =Hooping-cough=--hōōp´ing-cough, not hŏŏp´ing-cough.
       Spelled =Whooping-cough=, also.

     =Horizon=--ho-rī´zon, not hŏr´i-zon.

     =Horse-radish=--horse-răd-ish, not horse-rĕd-dish.

     =Hough=--hŏk, not hŭff. To disable by cutting the sinews of
       the ham. As a noun, the word means the joint at the lower
       portion of the leg of a quadruped; written =hock=, also.

     =Houri=--howr´y, not owr´y. A nymph of paradise.

     =Hovel=--hŏv´el, not hŭv´el.

     =Hundred=, as spelled, not _hun´derd_.

     =Hydropathy=--hī-drŏp´a-thy, not hī´drō-păth-y.

     =Hydropathist=--hī-drŏp´a-thist, not
       hī´drō-păth-ist.

     =Hygiene=--hī´ji-ēne, not hī-geen´ nor hī´geen.
       Worcester authorizes the first and last.


     I.

     =Illustrate=--il-lŭs´trate, not ĭl´lus-trāte.
       =Illustrated=, =illustrating=, =illustrative= and
       =illustrator=, are likewise accented on the second syllable.

     =Imbroglio=--ĭm-brōl´yō, not ĭm-brŏl´yō.
       Worcester says ĭm-brōl´ye-ō.

     =Immobile=--im-mŏb´ĭl, not ĭm-mō´bĭl nor
       ĭm-mō´bīle.

     =Imperturbable=--im-per-tür´ba-ble, not
       ĭm-per-tōō´ra-ble, nor ĭm-për´tu-ra-ble. Incapable
       of being disturbed.

     =Implacable=--im-plā´ka-ble, not ĭm-plăk´a-ble.

     =Impotent=--im´po-tent, not ĭm-pō´tent. =Impotency= and
       =impotence= are accented similarly.

     =Improvise=--im-pro-vīze´, not ĭm´pro-vīze.

     =Incognito=--in-kŏg´ni-tō, not in-cŏn´i-to nor
       in-cŏg-nĭsh´ō. =Incog= is an authorized abbreviation.
       =Incognita=, is a female in disguise.

     =Indiscretion=--ĭn-dis-krĕsh´un, not ĭn-dis-krē´shun.

     =Indissoluble=--in-dĭs´so-lu-ble, not
       ĭn-dĭs-sŏl´u-ble. =Indissolubly=, etc.

     =Industry=--in´dus-try, not ĭn-dus´try.

     =Infinitesimal=--in-fin-i-tĕs´i-mal, not
       ĭn-fĭn-tĕs´i-mal.

     =Ingenious=--ĭn-jēn´yŭs, means possessed of genius;
       skillful, etc.

     =Ingenuous=--ĭn-jĕn´yu-us, means noble, open, frank,
       generous, etc.

     =Inquiry=--in-kwī´ry, not ĭn´kwĭ-ry.

     =Inveigle=--ĭn-vē´gle, not ĭn-vā´gle. =Inveigler=
       (in-vē´gler) and =inveiglement= (in-vē´gle-ment).

     =Irate= ī-rāte´, not ī´rāte. Worcester gives the
       latter.

     =Irrational=--ir-răsh´un-al, not ĭr-rā´shun-al.
       =Irrationally= (ĭr-răsh´un-al-ly), etc.

     =Irrecognizable=--ir-re-kŏg´ni-za-ble, not
       ĭr-rĕk´og-nī-za-ble.

     =Irrelevant=, not _irrevelant_. Not applicable; not suited.

     =Isinglass= ī´zĭng-glass, is a kind of gelatine prepared
       from the sounds or air-bladders of certain fish, and is used in
       jellies, for clarifying liquors, etc.; while the transparent
       substance, frequently called _isinglass_, which is used in the
       doors of stoves and lanterns, is really _mica_, a mineral that
       admits of being cleaved into thin plates.

     =Isolate=--ĭs´o-lāte, not ī´so-late. =Isolated=
       (ĭs´o-lā-ted), etc. Worcester gives ĭz´o-lāte, etc.

     =Itch=--ĭtch, not ēch.


     J.

     =Jamb=, not _jam_ is the spelling of the side-piece of a door,
       window or fire-place.

     =Jaundice=--jän´dĭs, not _jan-ders_.

     =Jean=--jāne, not jeen. A twilled cotton cloth. Written also
       =jane=.

     =Jew's-harp=--jūz´härp, not jūs´härp.

     =Jocund=--jŏk´und, not jō´kund. =Jocundity=, =jocundly=,
       =jocundness=, have also the short o.

     =Jugular=--jū´gu-lar, not jŭg´u-lar.

     =Jujube=--jū´jūbe, not jū´jū-be. "Jujube paste."

     =Just=, not jĕst in such sentences as: "I have _just_ done
       it;" "He has _just_ enough," etc.


     K.

     =Knoll=--nōl, not nŏl.


     L.

     =Lamm=, to beat, is not spelled lăm nor lămb.

     =Lapel=--la-pĕl´, not lăp´el. That part of a coat which
       laps over the facing.

     =Lariat=--lăr´i-at, not lā´ri-at. A lasso.

     =Lay=. This word in the sense here considered is a transitive
       verb, or one in which the action or state implied by the verb,
       passes over to an object. The present tense is _lay_; the
       imperfect tense and past participle are _laid_; and the present
       participle _laying_. Requiring an object in each of the various
       meanings attached to it, it is proper to say: "The hen _lays_
       an egg every day;" "The man _laid_ his load on the ground;"
       "The rain has _laid_ the dust;" "The hunter is _laying_ a
       snare." The verb _lie_ is an _intransitive_ verb and can have
       _no object_ after it. The present tense is _lie_; the imperfect
       tense is _lay_; the past participle is _lain_; the present
       participle is _lying_. Having no objective case to which the
       action or state passes over, it is correct to say: "Ohio _lies_
       north of Kentucky;" "The sick man _lay_ upon the bed
       yesterday;" "He has _lain_ there helpless for weeks;" "The
       goods I bought are _lying_ on my hands." Contrasting the
       sentences under each verb it will be readily seen that Ohio
       does not _lie_ Kentucky, but the hen _lays_ the egg; the
       invalid did not _lay_ the bed like the man _laid_ his load; he
       has not _lain_ anything, as the rain has _laid_ the dust; and
       the goods are not _lying_ anything, as the hunter is _laying_
       the snare. If the foregoing differences have been carefully
       observed, I imagine that it will always be easy to select the
       proper word by remembering the following rules:

          1. If the person or thing spoken of exerts an action that
          must pass over to an object, use _lay_, _laid_ and _laying_.

          2. If the person or thing spoken of exerts an action that
          does not pass over to an object, use _lie_, _lay_, _lain_
          and _lying_.

       "He _laid_ upon the bed," then, is incorrect, for the verb has no
       object. It should be: "He _lay_ upon the bed." But, "He _laid
       himself_ upon the bed," would be correct, for there is an
       objective case, _himself_, supplied. "Let these papers _lay_,"
       should be, "Let these papers _lie_." "The ship _lays_ at
       anchor," should be, "The ship _lies_ at anchor." "The ship
       _laid_ at anchor," should be, "The ship _lay_ at anchor." "They
       have _laid_ in wait for you," should be, "They have _lain_ in
       wait for you." "This trunk is _laying_ in our way," should be,
       "This trunk is _lying_ in our way." Errors connected with the
       use of these verbs are more common, probably, than any others
       in our language, being detected in the conversation and
       writings of many of the best educated people. Attention to the
       above rules, and a few trial sentences in the different moods,
       tenses, numbers and persons, ought to make the selection of the
       proper word so simple, that persons should seldom make mistakes.

     =Learn.= _Learning_ is done by the scholar or student, and
       _teaching_ by the instructor. "She will _learn_ me how to
       play," should be, "She will _teach_ me how to play," etc.

     =Leasing=--leez´ing, not lēs´ing. An obsolete word meaning
       falsehood; lying. "Thou shalt destroy them that speak
       leasing."--_Bible._

     =Leg.= Of late years there has become quite popular a prudish
       notion that it is indelicate to say _leg_ when one of the limbs
       that supports the human body is meant, _limb_ being preferred
       instead. _Leg_ is certainly a less euphonious word than _limb_,
       and if the latter had the same signification attached to it,
       there would be no objection to its employment; but _limb_ means
       _arm_ just as much as it does _leg_. There is nothing immodest in
       the sound or meaning of the word _leg_; if there were, it would
       be well to speak of the _limb_ of a table, a _limb_ of mutton, or
       a three _limbed_ stool; and the mention of such words as _legacy_
       or _legate_ should cause the blush to rise to our cheeks. The
       very use of the word _limb_ indicates what is passing in the mind
       of the speaker--a thought of _leg_, an indelicate meaning
       attached to it, and a fear to speak the word. The mind of the
       listener is affected similarly and the result is that a
       conversation intended to be perfectly pure, has a slight stain
       left upon it. If we could pass through life without ever finding
       it necessary to speak of our legs to strangers, there would be no
       danger of compromising ourselves; but run-away and other
       accidents are constantly occurring in which legs are broken or
       otherwise injured. When a surgeon is called, if he is told that a
       _limb_ is injured, he has one chance in four of guessing the
       riddle. It is not always safe to trifle thus with some of the
       serious, practical old followers of Esculapius. Before now they
       have given such rebukes as to make people ashamed that they did
       not say _leg_ in the first place; or they have left the bedside
       abruptly with such a remark as: "When you find out whether it is
       your arm or your leg, send for me again." If people will persist
       in using _limb_ for _leg_, it is to be hoped that they will adopt
       some adjective prefix to remove all ambiguity. How would
       north-east, south-east, etc., do? Any one informed that the
       _south-east limb_ was fractured, would know at once that it was
       the _right leg_.

     =Legate=--lĕg´ate, not lē´gāte.

     =Legendary=--lĕj´end-a-ry, not lē´jĕnd-a-ry.

     =Leisure=--lē´zhur, not lĕzh´ur, nor lā´zhur.
       =Leisurely= (lē´zhur-ly).

     =Length=, not lĕnth. Every letter is sounded, also, in
       =lengthy=, =lengthen=, =lengthiness=, etc.

     =Lenient=--lē´ni-ent, not lĕn´i-ent. =Leniently=
       (lē´ni-ent-ly), etc.

     =Lethe=--lē´the, not lēth; the _th_ is as in _both_. The
       mythological and poetical name of a river of the infernal
       region, the drinking of a portion of which caused forgetfulness
       of the past.

     =Lethean=--lē-thē´an, not lē´the-an.

     =Let's.= It should be remembered that _let's_ is really _let us_,
       the apostrophe denoting the elision of the u. Such expressions
       then as: "let's us go," "let's him and me go," should he, "let
       us go" (or let's go), and "let him and me go;" for who wishes
       to say "let us us go," or "let us him and me go."

     =Leverage=--lĕv´er-aje, not lē´ver-aje.

     =Licorice=--lĭk´o-rĭs, not lĭk´er-ĭsh.

     =Lie.= See =Lay=.

     =Lien=--lē´en or lī´en, not _leen_. A charge upon property
       for the satisfaction of a debt.

     =Lighted= is preferable to lĭt as the imperfect tense and past
       participle of _light_. "He _lighted_ the gas," instead of, "He
       _lit_ the gas." "I have _lighted_ the fire," instead of, "I
       have _lit_ the fire." The same remarks apply to the imperfect
       and participle of _light_ taken as an intransitive verb. "The
       bird has _lighted_ upon the tree," instead of, "has _lit_ upon
       the tree." _Lit_ is condemned as common.

     =Lithographer=--lĭ-thog´ra-pher, not lĭth´o-grăph-er,
       nor lī-thŏg´ra-pher. =Lithography=
       (lĭ-thŏg´ra-phy).

     =Loath=--lōth, not lŏth; the _th_ is as in _both_.
       Reluctant. Written sometimes =loth=. The verb is =loathe=, with
       the _th_ as in _breathe_.

     =Lyceum=--lī-sē´um, not lī´se-um.


     M.

     =Machiavelian=--măk-i-a-vēl´ian, not măsh-i-a-vĕl´ian.
       pertaining to Machiavel; politically cunning.

     =Mad.= In the sense of provoked, wrathful or indignant, _angry_
       is generally considered the more appropriate word. "_Mad as a
       March hare_," is an indelicate term that should not be used on
       account of its origin.

     =Madame=--mä-däm´, not măd´am.

     =Magna Charta=--magna kär´ta, not magna chär´ta.

     =Manes=--mā´nēz, not mānz. The souls of the dead.

     =Manor=--măn´or, not mā´nor.

     =Marigold=--măr´i-gold, not mā´ri-gold.

     =Matin=--măt´in, not mā´tin.

     =Matins=--măt´inz, not mā´tinz.

     =Mattress=--măt´tress, not ma-trăss´. Written also
       =matress= and pronounced as the first.

     =Meaw=--mū, not meyow. To cry like a cat.

     =Mediocre=--me´di-ō-ker, not mē-di-ō´ker, nor
       mē-di-ŏk´er.

     =Melange=--mā-lŏngzh´, not me-lănj´.

     =Melanotype=--me-lăn´o-type, not me-lān´o-type.

     =Melodrama=--mĕl-o-drā´ma, not mĕl-o-drăm´a, nor
       mĕl-o-drä´ma.

     =Memoir=--mĕm´wor or mēm´wor, according to Webster;
       Worcester gives mē-moir´ or mĕm´wär.

     =Mesdames=--mā-däm´, not mĕz-dāmes´.

     =Metallurgy=--mĕt´al-lur-jy, not me-tăl´lur-jy.

     =Metaphor.= The failure to distinguish between metaphors and
       similes, is a very common mistake. In a metaphor the
       resemblance is implied without any words to show the
       similarity; as soon as the latter are added it becomes a
       simile. "Hope is an anchor," and "Judah is a lion's whelp" are
       metaphors. "Hope is _like_ an anchor," and "Judah is _like_ a
       lion's whelp" are similes.

     =Metrical=--mĕt´rik-al, not mē´trik-al.

     =Mezzo=--mĕd´zō or mĕt´zō, not mĕz´zō. An
       Italian word meaning middle; not extreme. =Mezzo-soprano=
       (mĕd´zo-so-prä´no); between contralto and soprano; said of
       the voice of a female singer. =Mezzotinto=, etc.

     =Microscope=--mī´kro-scope, not mĭk´ro-scope. =Microscopic=
       (mī-kro-scŏp´ic). =Microscopy= (mī-kros´co-py).

     =Mien=--meen, not māne.

     =Mineralogy=--min-er-al´o-jy, not min-er-ŏl´o-jy.

     =Minuet=--mĭn´ū-et, not mĭn-ū-ĕt´. A dance.

     =Mischievous=--mĭs´che-vŭs, not mĭs-chē´vŭs, nor
       mis-chē´ve-us. =Mischievously= and =mischievousness= are
       also accented on the first syllable.

     =Modulate.= This word is often used incorrectly instead of
       _moderate_ in such sentences as: "_Modulate_ your voice," when
       it is meant to command or request that the tone be _moderated_
       or lowered. _Modulate_ means to vary or inflect in a musical
       manner, and although the word might often be used with
       propriety in such sentences as the above, yet it is not always
       what is _meant_ by the speaker. A person's voice may be
       perfectly _modulated_ and yet the tone may be so high that it
       is desirable, upon certain occasions, to have it _moderated_.

     =Moire=--mwôr, not mōre nor mō´re. =Moire antique= (mwor
       ăn-tēk´).

     =Molasses.= It may seem incredible to those who have never heard
       the error I am about to mention, that such a ridiculous blunder
       could occur. I should hardly have believed it myself, if I had
       only heard _of_ it; but I was once in a portion of the country
       where all the people for miles around spoke of molasses as if
       it were a plural noun, and I frequently heard such remarks as
       the following: "_These_ molasses are very good; _they_ are the
       best I have seen for some time." I once began to remonstrate
       with one of the champions of the plurality of the treacle, and
       insisted that he should say, "_this_ molasses" and, "_it_ is
       good," etc.; but it was of no avail. He insisted that the word
       was analogous to _ashes_, and if one was plural so was the
       other. There was no good dictionary or other reliable authority
       in the neighborhood, as might be imagined from what has been
       said, so they were left happy in their ignorance.

     =Monad=--mŏn´ad, not mō´nad. An ultimate atom.

     =Monogram=--mŏn´o-gram, not mō´no-gram.

     =Monograph=--mŏn´o-graph, not mō´no-graph.

     =Monomania=--mŏn-o-mā´nia, not mō-no-mā´nia.
       =Monomaniac= (mŏn-o-mā´ni-ac).

     =Moor=--mōōr, not mōre. An extensive waste; a heath.
       _Moor_, the name of a native of North Africa, is similarly
       pronounced.

     =Morale=--mo-räl´, not mŏr´āle nor mō-răl´.

     =Mountainous=--mount´ain-ous, not moun-tā´ni-oŭs.

     =Multiplication=--mŭl-ti-pli-cā´tion, not
       mŭl-ti-pi-cā´tion.

     =Murrain=--mŭr´rĭn, not mŭr´rāne. A disease among
       cattle.

     =Museum=--mu-zē´um, not mū´ze-um.

     =Mushroom=, not _mush-roon_.

     =Musk-melon=, not _mush-melon_; but anything before
       _mush-million_.

     =Mussulmans=, not _musselmen_, is the plural of =Mussulman=.

     =Mythology=--mĭ-thŏl´o-jy, not mī-thŏl´o-jy.


     N.

     =Naiad=--nā´yad, not nā´ĭd nor nā´ăd. A water nymph.

     =Nainsook=--nān-sōōk´, not năn-sōōk´. A kind of
       muslin.

     =Naive=--nä´ēv, not nāve nor näve. Natural; artless.

     =Naivete=--nä´ēv-tā, not nā-vēte´ nor nā-vē´ta.

     =Nape=--nāp, not năp. The back part of the neck.

     =Nasal=--nā´zal, not nā´sal nor năs´al.

     =Nasturtium= or =Nasturtion=, not _asturtion_.

     =Negligee=--nĕg-li-zhā´, not nĕg-li-jē´, nor
       nĕg´li-zhā.

     =Newspaper=--nūz´pā-per, not nūs´pā-per.

     =Niche=--nĭch, not nĭck, when a concave recess in a wall
       for an ornament is meant. If a piece is chopped roughly out of
       anything, it is a _nick_. _Nick_ of time, not _niche_ of time,
       when a critical moment is meant; but in figurative language
       there is no doubt that the phrase "niche of time," may be
       appropriately used. A great event may be said to stand in a
       _niche of time_ as an example for coming ages.

     =Nomad=--nŏm´ad, not nō´-mad. One of a wandering tribe.
       Written =nomade= (nŏm´ade) also.

     =Nomenclature=--no-men-clā´ture, not nō´men-clātūre.

     =Nominative=, not _nom-a-tive_.

     =Nonillion=--nō-nĭll´ion, not nŏn-ĭll´ion.

     =Nook=--nōōk, as given by Webster. Worcester sanctions both
       nōōk and nŏŏk.

     =Notable=--nŏt´a-ble, not nō´ta-ble, when it is applied to
       a person distinguished for thrift, management, care, etc.; as a
       _notable housekeeper_.

     =Nymphean=--nĭm-fē´an, not nĭmf´e-an. Relating to nymphs.


     O.

     =Obesity=--o-bĕs´i-ty, not o-bē´si-ty.

     =Obligatory=--ŏb´li-ga-to-ry, not ŏb-lĭg´a-to-ry.

     =Often=--ŏf´n, not ŏf´tĕn.

     =Omega=--o-mē´ga or o-mĕg´a, not ŏm´e-ga. Worcester
       allows the first only.

     =Onerous=--ŏn´er-ous, not ō´ner-oŭs.

     =Only=--ōn´ly, not ŭn´ly.

     =Onyx=--ō´nyx, not ŏn´yx.

     =Opal=--ō´-pal, not ō-păl´ nor ō-pawl´.

     =Opponent=--op-pō´nent, not ŏp´po-nent.

     =Ordnance=, not _ordinance_, when cannon, artillery, etc., are
       intended. _Ordinance_ is a rule established by authority.

     =Orgeat=--ôr´zhat or ôr´zhā, not ôr´je-at. Worcester gives
       ôr´zhat.

     =Orthoepy=--ôr´tho-e-py, not ôr-thō´e-py.

     =Orthoepist=--ôr´tho-e-pist, not ôr-thō´e-pist.

     =Overflowed=, not _overflown_.


     P.

     =Palaver=--pa-lä´ver, not pa-lăv´er.

     =Pall-mall=--pĕl-mĕl´, not pawl-mawl´. The name of a game
       formerly played in England; and the name of a street in London.
       Written also _pail-mail_ and _pell-mell_, both pronounced as
       above. Pell-mell used as an adverb means mixed together in a
       disorderly manner; but one person can not rush _pell-mell_.

     =Papaw=--pa-paw´, not pŏp´paw as commonly called. Written also
       =pawpaw=.

     =Papyrus=--pa-pī´rus, not păp´i-rŭs. A material used for
       writing upon by the ancients, made from the inner bark of a
       plant.

     =Parent=--pâr´ent, not pā´rent.

     =Parisian=--pa-rĭz´ian, not pa-rĭsh´ian nor pa-rĭss´ian.
       Worcester gives pa-rĭzh´i-an.

     =Paroquet=--păr´o-quet, not păr-o-kĕt´.

     =Parquet=--pär-kā´ or pär-kĕt´. Worcester allows pär-kā´
       only.

     =Parquette=--pär-ket´, not pär-kā´.

     =Partner=, not _pardner_.

     =Partridge=, not _pattrij_.

     =Patent.= The _adjective_ is pronounced either păt´ent or
       pā´tent. When used as a verb or a noun it is pronounced
       păt´ent.

     =Patois=--păt-wŏ´, not păt´wŏ nor păt-waw´.

     =Patriot=--pā´tri-ot, not păt´ri-ot. =Patriotic=,
       =patriotism=, etc., have also the long a. Worcester gives the
       same with the exception of _patriotic_, which he pronounces
       both pā´tri-ot-ic and păt´ri-ot-ic.

     =Patron=--pā´tron, not păt´ron. =Patroness= and
       =patronless= have also the long a.

     =Patronize=--păt´ron-īze, not pā´tron-īze.

     =Patronage=--păt´ron-aje, not pā´tron-aje.

     =Pease=, not _peas_, when an uncounted quantity is referred to,
       as: a bushel of _pease_, a plateful of _pease_, some more
       _pease_, etc. _Peas_ when a certain number is mentioned, as: a
       dozen _peas_, fifty _peas_, etc.

     =Pedal=--pĕd´al, not pē´dal, when that portion of a piano
       or harp that is acted upon by the feet, is meant. Pē´dal is
       an adjective, and means pertaining to the above, or to a foot.

     =Perfect.= I have selected this as the representative of a class
       of adjectives that, strictly speaking, do not admit of
       comparison. I have noticed, invariably, that those who appear
       to be so anxious to correct the error of giving degrees of
       comparison to a few stereotyped words of this class, such as
       _round_, _square_, _universal_, _chief_, _extreme_, etc., are
       singularly remiss in calling attention to a great many other
       mistakes of the same kind that are equally prominent. Amongst
       the latter may be mentioned the comparison of _correct_,
       _complete_, _even_, _level_, _straight_, etc. It will be
       admitted that if anything is _perfect_ it can not be _more_ so;
       and as soon as it is _less_ so it fails to be _perfect_ at all.
       So, if anything is _correct_ it is perfectly free from error;
       it can not be made _more_ correct, and if its correctness is
       detracted from, it is not quite correct any longer. A
       _straight_ line is one that does not vary from a perfectly
       _direct_ course in the slightest degree; it can not be
       _straighter_ and if it could be _less_ straight, it would be
       _curved_. It is ridiculous for any one to insist upon a
       national reformation of a few such errors, and suffer a hundred
       others just like them to exist without remonstrance. Either
       _nearer_ and _nearest_, _more nearly_, and _most nearly_, and
       the like, should be substituted for the degrees of comparison
       and used with all such words; or people should treat them as
       all other adjectives, just as the best writers and speakers
       have always done. The former course is the more desirable; the
       latter is certainly the more probable.

     =Perfidious=--per-fĭd´i-ous, not pĕr´fĭd-oŭs.
       Worcester allows per-fĭd´yŭs in addition to the first.

     =Peony=--pē´o-ny) =Pæony= (pē´o-ny) or =Piony= (pī´o-ny)
       not pī´ny as often called. A flower.

     =Perambulate=, not _preambulate_.

     =Period=--pē´ri-od, not pĕr´i-od. =Periodic=, =Periodical=,
       etc., have also the long e.

     =Perspire=, not _prespire_.

     =Perspiration=, not _prespiration_.

     =Persuade.= This word carries with it the idea of success in
       one's endeavors to convince or induce. "I _persuaded_ him for a
       long time, but he would not grant my request," should be, "I
       _tried_ to _persuade_ him," etc.

     =Petrel=--pĕt´rel, not pē´trel. A bird. Worcester allows
       the latter also.

     =Phaeton=--phā´et-on, not phā'te-on. A vehicle.

     =Pharmaceutist=--fär-ma-sū´tĭst, not fär-mā-kū´tist
       nor fär-mā´kū-tist.

     =Pharmacopœia=--fär-ma-co-pē´ya, not fär-mā-cō´pi-a.

     =Piano=--pi-ä´no, not pī-ăn´o. Worcester allows
       pĭ-ăn´o.

     =Piano-forte=--pĭ-ä´no-fōr´tā, not
       pī-ăn´o-fōrt. Worcester sanctions
       pĭ-ä´no-fōr´te, pĭ-ăn´o-fôr-te, and remarks in
       parenthesis, _often_ pe-ăn´o-fōrt; but the last
       pronunciation is evidently not preferred.

     =Pilaster=--pĭ-lăs´ter, not pĭl´as-ter. A square pillar
       set into a wall and projecting slightly.

     =Piquant=--pĭk´ant, not pĭk´wănt nor pēk´wănt.
       =Piquantly= (pĭk´ant-ly), etc.

     =Placard=--pla-kärd´, not plăk´ard.

     =Placid=--plăs´id, not plā´sid. =Placidly= and =placidness=
       have also the short a.

     =Plait=--plāt, not plăt nor plēt. A braid; or to braid.
       =Plat= (plăt) is a proper word, however, having the same
       meanings, but the difference in pronunciation must be observed,
       when the spelling is as above. =Plait=, meaning a fold of
       cloth, as in a shirt bosom, is also pronounced plāt. How
       common an error it is to speak of the _pleets_ when alluding
       to such folds.

     =Platina=--plăt´i-na or pla-tē´na, not pla-tī´na nor
       pla-tĭn´a. Worcester allows plăt´i-na only.

     =Platinum=--plăt´i-num or pla-tī´num, not pla-tē´num nor
       pla-tĭn´um. Worcester gives plăt´i-num only.

     =Plebeian=--ple-bē´ian, not plē´bi-an. Ple-bŏn´, as some
       pronounce it, is outrageous, neither French, English, nor
       Hottentot.

     =Plenary=--plē´na-ry, not plĕn´a-ry. Full; entire.
       Worcester gives both methods.

     =Poetaster=--pō´et-ăs-ter, not pō´et-tāst-er. A petty
       poet.

     =Poniard=--pŏn´yard, not poin´yard.

     =Posthumous=--pŏst´hu-mous, not pōst´hu-moŭs nor
       pŏst-ū´moŭs. =Posthumously= (pŏst´hu-mous-ly).

     =Potable=--pō´ta-ble, not pŏt´a-ble. Drinkable.

     =Potheen=--po-theen´, not pŏt-teen´. When spelled =potteen=,
       however, as it may be correctly, the latter pronunciation is
       proper.

     =Prairie=--prā´ry, not per-rā´ry.

     =Prebendary=--prĕb´end-a-ry, not prē´bend-a-ry. A clergyman
       of a collegiate or cathedral church, who enjoys a prebend.

     =Prebend=--prĕb´end, not prē´bend. A stipend.

     =Precedence=--pre-sē´dence, not prĕs´e-dence. =Precedency=
       and =precedently=, have the second syllable accented also.

     =Precedent=--pre-sē´dent, not prĕs´e-dent. An adjective
       meaning antecedent.

     =Precedent=--prĕs´e-dent, not pre-sē´dent nor
       prē´se-dent. A noun meaning an example or preceding
       circumstance. =Precedented= and =unprecedented= have also the
       short e.

     =Precocious=--pre-kō´shus, not pre-kŏsh´ŭs.
       =Precociously= and =precociousness= have also the long o.

     =Predatory=--prĕd´a-to-ry, not prē´da-tory. Plundering;
       pillaging.

     =Predecessor=--prĕd-e-cĕs´sor, not prē-de-cĕs´sor.

     =Preface=--prĕf´ace, not prē´face. =Prefatory=
       (prĕf´a-to-ry).

     =Prejudice=, not _predudice_.

     =Prelate=--prĕl´ate, not prē´-late.

     =Presage=, not _prestige_, when something is meant that foreshows
       a future event; an omen. "This is a _presage_ of victory."

     =Prescription=, not _perscription_.

     =Prestige=, not _presage_, when it is meant that some one carries
       weight or influence from past deeds or successes. "The
       _prestige_ of the hero's name was half the battle."

     =Presentiment=--pre-sent´i-ment, not pre-zent´i-ment.

     =Pretty=--prĭt´ty, not prĕ´ty. =Prettily= (prĭt´ti-ly),
       etc.

     =Preventive=, not _preventative_.

     =Primeval=--prī-mē´val, not prĭm´e-val.

     =Process=--prŏs´ess, not prō´sess.

     =Prodigy=, not _projidy_.

     =Produce=--prŏd´uce, not prō´dūce. The noun; the verb is
       pro-dūce´.

     =Product=--prŏd´uct, not prō´duct.

     =Progress=--prŏg´ress, not pro´gress. Noun; the verb is
       pro-gress´.

     =Prosody=--prŏs´o-dy, not prō´so-dy nor prŏz´o-dy.

     =Protean=--prō´te-an, not pro-tē´an. Assuming different
       shapes.

     =Protege= (Fr. protégé)--prō-tā-zhā´, not
       prō´tēje. One under the care of another. =Protegee= (Fr.
       protégée)--prō-tā-zhā´, feminine.

     =Psalm=--säm, not săm. =Psalmist= (säm´ist). Worcester gives
       săm´ist also for the latter word.

     =Psalmody=--săl´mo-dy, not säm´o-dy nor săm-o-dy.

     =Psychical=--sī´kĭk-al, not sĭk´ĭk-al nor
       fĭz´ĭk-al, as it is sometimes thoughtlessly pronounced in
       reading. Pertaining to the human soul.

     =Pumpkin=, not _punkin_. _Pumpkin_ itself is a corruption of
       _pumpion_ or _pompion_, but is the word that is now generally
       used.

     =Purulent=--pū´ru-lent, not pŭr´u-lent. Containing pus or
       matter. =Purulence= and =purulency= have also the long u in the
       first syllable.

     =Put=--pŏŏt, not pŭt. This anomalous pronunciation is
       hard for some to adopt, the natural tendency being to sound the
       _u_ as it is in a host of other words consisting of two
       consonants with a short u between them, as: bun, but, cut, dug,
       fun, gun, hut, nut, etc.

     =Pyrites=--pī-rī´tez, not pe-rī´tez, pĭr´i-tez nor
       pī´rītez.


     Q.

     =Qualm=--kwäm, not kwăm. Worcester allows kwawm also.

     =Quay=--kē, not kwā.

     =Querulous=, means complaining, whining, etc., and not
       _questioning_.

     =Quinine=--kwī´nīne or kwĭ-nīne´, not kwi-neen´.
       Worcester gives kwĭ-nīne´ or kwĭn´īne.

     =Quoit=--kwoit, not kwāte.

     =Quoth=--kwōth or kwŭth, not kwŏth.


     R.

     =Rabies=--rā´bi-ēz, not răb´ēz. Madness, as that of
       dogs.

     =Radish=--răd´ish, not rĕd-ish.

     =Raillery=--răl´ler-y, not rāl´ler-y. Slight ridicule;
       pleasantry.

     =Raise=--=Rise.= _Raise_ is a transitive verb, or one in which
       the action passes over to an object. Present tense, _raise_;
       imperfect tense and past participle, _raised_; present
       participle, _raising_. _Rise_ is an intransitive verb, the
       action not passing over to an object. Present tense, _rise_;
       imperfect tense, _rose_; past participle, _risen_; present
       participle, _rising_. Errors in the use of these words ought to
       be avoided by remembering the following rules:

          1. If the person or thing spoken of exerts an action that
          passes over to an object, use _raise_, _raised_, and
          _raising_.

          2. If the person or thing spoken of exerts an action that
          does not pass over to an object, use _rise_, _rose_,
          _risen_, _rising_. To avoid further repetition in the method
          I have adopted to impress upon the mind the difference
          between transitive and intransitive verbs by contrasted
          sentences, I would refer the reader to the remarks under
          =Lay=. "I will _raise_ in the morning at five," should be,
          "I will _rise_," etc. "I will _raise_ the _window_," etc.,
          is correct, for the action passes to or affects the window.
          "I will _raise myself_ if I have the strength" is correct,
          because an object, _myself_, is furnished. "The price of
          flour is _raising_," should be, "The price of flour is
          _rising_;" but it is right to say, "The merchants are
          _raising_ the price of flour." "Gold has _raised_ in value,"
          should be, "Gold has _risen_ in value." "The price of bonds
          _raised_ in less than an hour," should be, "The price of
          bonds _rose_," etc. "The sun is _raising_," should be, "The
          sun is _rising_." "The sun is _raising_ the temperature," is
          proper. The pulse has _risen_, but excitement has _raised_
          it. The river has _risen_ in its bed and has _raised_ the
          canal. Birds _rise_ in the air. _Arise_ can often be
          appropriately substituted for _rise_.

     =Rampant=--răm´pant, not ram-pant´.

     =Rapine=--răp´ĭn, not răp´een nor rā-peen´.

     =Raspberry=--răz´ber-ry, not răss´ber-ry nor rawz´ber-ry.
       Worcester gives raz´ber-ry and räs´ber-ry.

     =Rational=--răsh´un-al, not rā-shun-al. =Rationalist=
       (răsh´un-al-ĭst), etc.

     =Recess=--re-cĕss´, not rē´cĕss.

     =Recherche= (Fr. recherché)--rŭh-shêr-shā´, not re-shersh´.
       Worcester gives rā-sher-shā´.

     =Recluse=--re-kluse´, not re-kluze´.

     =Reconnoissance=--re-cŏn´noĭs-sänçe, not rek-on-nois´sançe.
       Worcester gives re-cŏn´noĭs-sänçe´. =Reconnaissance= is
       another method of spelling.

     =Recriminations=, not _mutual recriminations_; the word itself
       tells of the _mutuality_.

     =Redolent=--rĕd´o-lent, not redō´lent. Diffusing odor or
       fragrance.

     =Relevant=, not _revelant_. Pertinent; applicable.

     =Relic=, not _relict_, when that which remains, a corpse, or
       anything preserved in remembrance, is meant. =Relict= means a
       widow.

     =Rendezvous=--rĕn´de-vōō, not rŏn´de-vōō nor
       rĕn´de-vōōz. Worcester gives rĕn´de-vōō and
       rĕn´de-vōōz. The plural is =rendezvouses=
       (rĕn´de-vōōz-ez).

     =Requiem=--rē´kwi-em, not rĕk´wĭ-em. Worcester gives
       both pronunciations.

     =Resume= (Fr. résumé)--rā-zū-mā´, not re-zūme´ nor
       re-zū´mā. Worcester gives rez-u-mā´.

     =Reticule=, not _ridicule_, when a little bag of net-work is meant.

     =Reveille=--re-vāl´yā, not rev-a-lē´. Worcester gives
       the first and re-vāl´.

     =Ribald=--rĭb´ald, not rī´bald. Low; obscene. =Ribaldry=
       (rĭb´ald-ry).

     =Rinse=--rĭnss, not rĕnse nor wrĕnch. "_Wrench_ your
       mouth," said an uneducated dentist to a patient after _wrenching_
       out a large molar. "Thank you," replied the patient. "_You_ have
       done that, but I'll _rinse_ it, if you please."

     =Ripples=, not _riffles_.

     =Romance=--ro-manss´, not rō´manss.

     =Roseate=--rō´ze-at, not rōz´āte. Worcester gives
       rō´zhe-at also.

     =Roue= (Fr. roué)--rōō-ā´, not rōō. Worcester
       gives rōō´ā.


     S.

     =Sacerdotal=--săs-er-dō´tal, not sā-ser-dō´tal,
       sā-ker-dō´tal nor săk-er-dō´tal.

     =Sacrament=--săk´ra-ment, not sā´kra-ment. =Sacramental=
       (săk´ra-ment-al), etc.

     =Sacrifice=--săk´rĭ-fīz, not săk´rĭ-fĭs nor
       săk´rĭ-fīse. Verb and noun the same. =Sacrificing=
       (săk´rĭ-fī-zĭng), etc.

     =Sacristan=--săk´rist-an, not sā´krist-an nor
       sā-krĭs´tan. =Sacristy= (săk´rist-y).

     =Salam=--sa-läm´, not sa-lăm´. Written =salaam= also, and
       pronounced similarly.

     =Saline=--sa-līne´ or sā´līne, not sā-lēēn´.
       Worcester gives sa-līne´ only.

     =Salve=--säv, not săv. Worcester gives sälv also.

     =Samaritan=--sa-măr´i-tan, not sa-mā´ri-tan.

     =Sanitary=, not _sanatory_, when _pertaining_ to health is meant.
       =Sanatory= is more restricted in its application, and means
       healing; curative.

     =Saracen=--săr´a-sen, not săr´a-ken.

     =Sarsaparilla=--sär-sa-pa-rĭl´la, not săs-sa-pa-rĭl´la,
       nor sär-sa-fa-rĭl´la.

     =Satyr=--sā´tur, according to Webster. Worcester gives
       săt´ir also.

     =Saucy=--saw´sy, not _sassy_.

     =Said.= _Said_ (sĕd), not says (sĕz), in speaking of past
       remarks. Many of the most cultivated people are guilty of this
       vulgarism. "'I will call to see you soon,' _sez_ he." "'I will
       be glad to see you at any time,' _sez_ I." Where the details of
       a long conversation are given the frequent repetition of _sez_,
       or even _said_, is very grating to the refined ear. The use of
       _asked_, _inquired_, _remarked_, _suggested_, _answered_,
       _replied_, etc., instead, has a pleasing effect upon narrative
       or anecdote. It is preferable, also, to give the _exact words_
       of the speaker after _said_, etc., as: "When he had finished
       reading the letter, he said: 'I will attend to the business the
       first leisure moment I have.'" When the word _that_ follows the
       _said_, the substance only of the remark may be given, as "He
       said that he would attend to the business the first leisure
       moment he had." Whichever form is used in narrative, it is not
       at all harmonious to give the _exact words_ of one speaker and
       only the substance of the remarks of another, at least without
       regard to regularity in alternation.

     =Schism=--sĭzm, not skĭsm.

     =Seckel=, not sĭck-el. A kind of pear.

     =See.= It is not uncommon to meet with people that incorrectly
       use _see_ in the imperfect tense, as: "I _see_ him yesterday,"
       instead of, "I _saw_ him yesterday." See is never used in any
       tense but the present, without an auxiliary, as did, shall, etc.

     =Seignior=--sēn´yur, not sān´yor.

     =Seine=--sēn, not sān. A net for catching fish.

     =Senile=--sē´nīle, not sĕn´īle. Pertaining to old age.

     =Separate=, not _seperate_. The loss of the a is not noticed in
       the pronunciation, but the mistake frequently occurs in writing
       this word as it does in the words =inseparable=,
       =inseparableness=, =separation=, etc.

     =Servile=--sër´vĭl, not sër´vīle.

     =Set.= Noun. There are many who incorrectly use _sett_ in writing
       of a _set_ of dishes, a _set_ of chess-men, a _set_ of teeth,
       or of some other collection of things of the same kind. A
       =sett= is a piece placed upon the head of a pile for striking
       upon, when the pile can not be reached by the weight or hammer.

     =Set=--=Sit.= Blunders in the use of these words are amongst the
       most common we have. _Set_, as we shall first consider it, is a
       transitive verb, or one in which the action passes over to an
       object. Present tense, _set_; imperfect tense and past
       participle, _set_; present participle, _setting_. _Sit_ is an
       intransitive verb, or one which has no object after it. Present
       tense, _sit_; imperfect tense and past participle, _sat_;
       present participle, _sitting_.

       To avoid repetition as much as possible, I would refer any one to
       whom the explanation here given is not perfectly clear, to the
       rules and remarks under =Lay= and =Raise=, which are equally
       applicable here. "Will you _set_ on this chair?" should be, "Will
       you _sit_ on this chair?" "Will you _set_ this _chair_ in the
       other room?" is correct. "I _set_ for my picture yesterday,"
       should be, "I _sat_," etc. "This hat _sets_ well," should be,
       "This hat _sits_ well." "Court _sets_ next month," should be,
       "Court _sits_ next month." "The hen has been _setting_ for a
       week," should be, "The hen has been _sitting_," etc. "As cross as
       a _setting_ hen," should be, "As cross as a _sitting_ hen." But a
       person may _set_ a hen; that is, place her in position on eggs.
       One _sits_ up in a chair, but he _sets_ up a post. One _sits_
       down on the ground, but he _sets_ down figures. _Set_ is also an
       intransitive verb and has special meanings attached to it as
       such, but they may be readily understood by a little study of
       the dictionary, and no confusion need arise. The sun _sets_.
       Plaster of Paris _sets_. A setter dog _sets_. One _sets_ out on a
       journey. _Sit_ may also be used in two senses as a transitive
       verb, as: "The general _sits_ his horse well," and "The woman
       _sat_ herself down."

     =Sew=--sō, not sū.

     =Shampoo=, not _shampoon_. =Shampooing.= Written also =champoo=.

     =Shekel=--shĕk´el, not shē´kel.

     =Shumac=--shū´mak, not shū-mak´. Written also =sumac= and
       =sumach=, both accented on the first syllable.

     =Sick= _of_, not sick _with_, as sick _of_ a fever.

     =Sienna=--si-ĕn´na, not _senna_, when paint is meant. =Senna=
       is a plant used as medicine.

     =Simultaneous=--sī-mul-tā´ne-ous, not
       sĭm´ul-tā´ne-oŭs. =Simultaneously=
       (sī-mul-tā´ne-ous-ly), etc.

     =Since=, not _sence_.

     =Sinecure=--sī´ne-cure, not sĭn´e-cure. An office which
       yields revenue without labor.

     =Sit.= See =Sat=.

     =Slake=--slāke, not slăk, when the word is spelled as
       given, as: _slaked_ lime, to _slake_ one's thirst, etc. If
       spelled =slack=, the ordinary pronunciation is right.

     =Slough=--slow, not slōō nor slō. A mudhole. Written
       =sloo= (slōō) also.

     =Slough=--slŭf, not as above. The cast skin of a serpent. Dead
       flesh which separates from the living. The verb expressing this
       action is pronounced the same.

     =Sobriquet=--so-bri-kā´, not written _soubriquet_. Worcester
       pronounces it sŏb´rē-kā´.

     =Soften=--sŏf´fn, not sawf´ten.

     =Sonnet=--sŏn´net, not sŭn´net.

     =Soot=--sōōt or sŏŏt, not sŭt.

     =Soporific=--sŏp-o-rĭf´ik, not sō-por-ĭf´ik.

     =Sotto voce=--sŏt´tō vō´chā, not sŏt´to vōs´
       nor sŏt´tō vō´sē.

     =Souse=--souss, not sowze. To plunge into water.

     =Spasmodic=, not _spasmotic_.

     =Spectacles=--spĕk´ta-kls, not spĕk´tĭk´els.

     =Spermaceti=--sperm-a-sē´tĭ, not sperm-a-çĭt´y.

     =Spider=, not _spiter_.

     =Splenetic=--splĕn´e-tic, not sple-nĕt´ic. Fretful;
       peevish.

     =Spoliation=--spō-li-ā´tion, not spoil-a´tion.

     =Spurious=--spū´ri-ous, not spŭr´i-oŭs. =Spuriously=
       (spū´ri-ous-ly), etc.

     =Statical=--stăt´i-cal, not stā´ti-cal. Pertaining to
       bodies at rest.

     =Stationery=, not _stationary_, when paper, envelopes, ink, etc.,
       are meant.

     =Statue=, not _statute_, when a carved image is meant.

     =Statute=, not _statue_, when a law or decree is meant.

     =Stearine=--stē´a-rĭn, not stĕr´ĭn.

     =Stereoscope= (stē´re-o-scope), =Stereotype=
       (stē´re-o-type), etc., according to Webster; and
       stĕr´e-o-scope, stĕr´-e-o-type, etc., according to
       Worcester.

     =Stolid=--stŏl´id, not stō´lid. Stupid; dull.

     =Stratum=--strā´tum, not străt´um. =Strata= (strā´ta),
       the Latin plural is used much more than the English =stratums=.
       Errors like "a _strata_ of gravel," are also not infrequently
       heard.

     =Strategic=--stra-tē´jik, not străt´e-jĭk. =Strategical=
       (stra-tē´ji-cal) and =strategist= (străt´e-jist).
       Worcester gives stra-tĕj´ic and stra-tĕj´i-cal.

     =Strum= or =Thrum= should be used, and not _drum_, when the noisy
       and unskillful fingering of a musical instrument is meant.

     =Stupendous=--stu-pen´dŭs, not stu-pĕn´jŭs nor
       stu-pĕn´de-us.

     =Suavity=--swăv´ĭ-ty, not swäv´ĭ-ty nor suăv´i-ty.

     =Subtraction=, not _substraction_, when the act of deducting is
       meant. =Substraction= is a law term meaning the withholding of
       some right, for which, however, the word _subtraction_ is also
       used. =Subtract=, not _substract_.

     =Subtile=--sŭb´tĭl, not sŭt´tle.

     =Subtle=--sŭt´tle, not sŭb´tle.

     =Suffice=--sŭf-fīz´, not sŭf-fīs´.

     =Suicidal=--sū-i-sī´dal, not sū-ĭs´i-dal. Worcester
       placed the principal accent on the first syllable.

     =Suite=--sweet, not sūte. When the word =suit= is used,
       however, the latter pronunciation is correct.

     =Sulphurous=--sŭl´phur-ŭs, not sul-phū´rŭs nor
       sŭl-phū´re-us. =Sulphureous= is another word.

     =Summoned=, not _summonsed_.

     =Supersede=, =superseded=, =superseding=. Observe the s in the
       penultimate. It is a common error to write _supercede_, etc.

     =Supposititious=--sup-pos-i-tĭ´shus, not sup-po-sĭ´shus.
       Put by a trick in the place of another, as, a _supposititious_
       child, a _supposititious_ record.

     =Surtout=--sŭr-tōōt´, not sŭr-towt´ nor
       sŭr´tōōt.

     =Swath=--swawth, not swawthe. Worcester gives swŏth. The sweep
       of the scythe in mowing.


     T.

     =Tabernacle=--tăb´er-na-cle, not tăb´er-năk´cle.

     =Tapestry=--tăp´es-try, not tā´pĕs-try.

     =Tarlatan=--tär´la-tan, not tärl´tun. =Tartan= is a different
       material.

     =Tarpaulin=--tär-paw´lin, not tär-pō´lin. Written also
       =tarpauling= and =tarpawling=.

     =Tartaric=--tar-tăr´ic, not tar-tär´ic. Pertaining to or
       obtained from tartar, as _tartaric_ acid.

     =Tassel=--tăs´sel, not taw´sel. Worcester gives tŏs´sl also.

     =Tatterdemalion=--tăt-ter-de-măl´ion, not
       tăt-ter-de-māl´ion.

     =Telegraphy=--te-lĕg´ra-phy, not tĕl´e-grăph-y.

     =Telegraphist=--te-lĕg´ra-phist, not tel´e-grăph-ist. A
       telegraphic operator. No such word as _telegrapher_ is given.

     =Terpsichorean=--terp-sĭk-o-rē´an, not terp-si-kō´re-an.
       Relating to =Terpsichore= (terp-sik´o-re), the muse who
       presided over dancing.

     =Tete-a-tete=--tāt-ä-tāt´, not teet-ä-teet.

     =Theatre= or =theater=--thē´a-ter, not the-ā´ter.

     =Threshold=--thrĕsh´ōld, not thrĕz´ōld nor
       thrĕz´hold. Worcester gives thrĕsh´hold.

     =Thyme=--tīm, not as spelled.

     =Tic-douloureux=--tĭk´dōō-lōō-rōō´, not
       -dŏl-o-rōō´ nor -dō-lō-rōō´.

     =Tiny=--tī´ny, not tee´ny nor tĭn´y.

     =Tolu=--to-lū´, not tū´lū.

     =Tomato=--to-mā´to or to-mä´to, not to-măt´o.

     =Topographic=--tŏp-o-graph´ic, not tō-po-grăph´ic.
       =Topographical= and =topographically= have also the short o in
       the first syllable.

     =Tour=--tōōr, not towr.

     =Tournament=--tür´na-ment according to Webster. Worcester gives
       tōōr´na-ment also.

     =Toward= and =towards=--tō´-ward and tō´wardz, not to-ward´
       and to-wardz´.

     =Tragacanth=--trăg´a-kănth, not trăj´a-sĭnth nor
       trăg´a-sănth. A gum used for mucilage.

     =Traverse=--trăv´erse, not tra-verse´. =Traversable=,
       =traversing= and =traversed= have also the accent on the first
       syllable.

     =Tremendous=--tre-mĕn´dŭs, not tre-mĕn´de-ŭs nor
       tre-mĕn´jŭs.

     =Trilobite=--trī´lo-bīte, not trĭl´o-bīte nor
       trŏl´lo-bīte, as it is often called.

     =Troche=--trō´kee, not trōsh, trō´she, trōke nor
       trŏtch. Plural, =troches= (trō´keez). A lozenge composed
       of sugar, mucilage and medicine, as: _bronchial troches_.
       =Trochee=--trō´kee, is a foot in poetry.

     =Truculent=--trū´ku-lent, not trŭk´u-lent.

     =Truths=--truths, not truthz, is the plural of =truth=.

     =Tryst=--trĭst, not trīst. An appointment to meet.
       =Tryster= (trĭst´er), =trysting= (trĭst´ing).

     =Turbine=--tür´bĭn, not tür´-bīne. A kind of water wheel.


     U.

     =Umbrella=--um-brĕl´la, not um-ber-rĕl´ nor
       um-ber-rĕl´la.

     =Upas=--ū´păs, not ū´paw nor ū´pawz.

     =Usurp=--yū-zurp´, not yū-surp´. =Usurper= (yū-zurp´er),
       etc.


     V.

     =Vagary=--va-gā´ry, not vā´-ga-ry.

     =Valenciennes=--va-lĕn´si-ĕnz´, not văl-ĕn-seenz´. A
       French lace.

     =Valleys=, not _vallies_, is the plural of =valley=.

     =Vamos= (vä´mōs), or =vamose= (va-mōse´), not vam-moos´. To
       depart. (Inelegant.)

     =Vase=, according to Webster; vāse or vāze, according to
       Worcester. The pronunciations väz and vawz are alluded to but
       not recommended.

     =Vehemence=--vē´he-mence, not ve-hē´mence nor
       ve-hĕm´ence. =Vehemently= and =vehement= have also the
       accent on the first syllable.

     =Vermicelli=---vër-me-chĕl-lĭ or vër-me-sĕl´lĭ, not
       vêr-me-sĭl´ly. Worcester sanctions the first method only.

     =Veterinary=--vĕt´er-ĭn-a-ry, not ve-tĕr´in-a-ry.

     =Vicar=--vĭk´ar, not vī´kar. =Vicarage= and =vicarship=
       have also the short i in the first syllable.

     =Violent= (vī´o-lent), =violence= (vī´o-lence), =violet=
       (vī´o-let), =violin= (vī-o-lĭn´), etc., not
       voi´o-lent, voi´o-lence, voi´o-let, voi-o-lin´, etc.

     =Viscount=--vī´kount, not vĭs´kount. =Viscountess=
       (vī´kountess), etc.

     =Visor=--vĭz´or, not vī´zor.


     W.

     =Wake=, etc. _Wake_ is both a transitive and an intransitive
       verb. Present tense, _wake_; imperfect and past participle,
       _waked_; present participle, _waking_. _Awake_ is also both
       transitive and intransitive. Present, _awake_; imperfect,
       _awoke_ or _awaked_; participles, _awaked_ and _awaking_.
       _Awaken_ is another verb, both transitive and intransitive.
       Present, _awaken_; imperfect and past participle, _awakened_;
       present participle, _awakening_. Thus it is seen that we have a
       great many words to express the fact of _being_ in a conscious
       state, and the arousing of a person who is asleep. With a
       little attention there is no reason for committing an error in
       the use of these words. One may say that he _waked_, _awoke_,
       or _awakened_ early in the morning, but it is wrong to say that
       he _woke_ in the morning, or that he _woke_ another; for there
       is no such word as _woke_. "I _wakened_ at five o'clock,"
       should be, "I _awakened_ at five o'clock;" for there is no such
       word as _wakened_. _Up_ is used only with _wake_, _waked_ and
       _waking_, but even then it is one of our most senseless
       superfluities. There is no stronger meaning in the assertion
       that a man was _waked up_, than that he was _waked_ or
       _awakened_. If _waking up_ meant to _wake_ and make _get up_,
       it would be different, but it does not. One may be _waked up_
       and it is just as likely that he will go to sleep again as if
       he were simply _awakened_. _Awake_ and _awaken_ are more
       elegant words than _wake_.

     =Wassail=--wŏs´sĭl, not wăs´sĭl. A festive occasion,
       carousal, the song sung at such a time, etc. The verb and the
       adjective are spelled and pronounced similarly.

     =Water=--waw´ter, not wŏt´er.

     =Welsh=, not _Welch_. The latter word is seldom used. =Welshman=,
       etc.

     =Whinny=, not _winny_, when the cry of a horse is spoken of.

     =Whisk=, not _whist_, when a small hand-broom is meant. =Wisp=,
       however, is a proper word, meaning the same thing.

     =Whiting= is preferable to _whitening_.

     =Widow.= It is not necessary to say _widow woman_; no one will
       suspect her of being a man.

     =Wrestle=--rĕs´l, not răs´sl.


     Y.

     =Yacht=--yŏt, not yăt. =Yachting= (yŏt´ing), etc.

     =Yeast=--yēst, not ēst.

     =Yellow=--yĕl´lō, not yăl´lō.


     Z.

     =Zoology=--zo-ŏl´o-jy, not zōō-ŏl´o-jy. =Zoological=
       (zo-o-lŏj´i-cal), etc.



SCRIPTURAL, MYTHOLOGICAL AND OTHER PROPER NAMES.


In the vocabulary just completed, it has been the design to point out
the majority of errors occurring in the pronunciation of the words
usually selected by people of fair or excellent education to carry on
ordinary English discourse. In the portion of the work now under
consideration, nothing like such thoroughness is contemplated.

After a moment's reflection, it will appear to any one, that to
mention the thousands upon thousands of proper names, the erroneous
pronunciation of which is rather to be expected than the correct,
would require an elaborate volume. Every one who has striven to become
a fine orthoepist has longed for the ability to comprehend the
pronunciation of that myriad of names, any one of which is apt to
confront him in any book or paper he may chance to pick up. But to
become a proficient in this respect would require years of study and a
knowledge of the principles of many foreign languages.

Amongst geographical names, for example, who but the specially
instructed would think of pronouncing correctly _Goes_ (Hŏŏce),
_Gelves_ (Hĕl´vĕs) or _Jalapa_ (Hä-lä´pä); or amongst
biographical names, _Gaj_ (gī), _Geel_ (Hāl) or _Geijer_
(gī'er).

It is fortunate for the reputation of those who bear the name of being
good scholars, that errors in the pronunciation of most proper names
are excusable, which is not the case with the mistakes that have
before been laid down. But there are some proper names, of such
constant occurrence in daily lectures, reading and conversation, that
errors connected with them are not to be overlooked. It is the
intention here, simply to call attention to the more common of these,
and to lead the reader to appreciate the fact that if one depends upon
the usual power of the English letters to gain a correct pronunciation
of proper names, he will be more often led astray than otherwise.

The Authorities consulted are the best--Webster, Worcester,
Lippincott's Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and
Mythology and Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World.



SCRIPTURAL NAMES.


     =Abednego=--a-bĕd´ne-gō, not ăb-ĕd-nē´go.

     =Abiathar=--a-bī´a-thar, not ab-i-ā´thar.

     =Adonibezek=--a-dŏn-i-bē´zĕk, not a-dŏn´i-be-zek.

     =Adonijah=--ad-o-nī´jah, not a-dŏn´i-jah.

     =Agee=--ăg´e-ē, not ā´jē.

     =Ahasuerus=--a-hăs-u-ē´rus, not a-haz-u-ĕr´us.

     =Aijalon=--ăj´a-lon, not ā´ja-lon.

     =Akrabattine=--ăk-ra-băt-tī´ne, not
       ăk-ra-băt´i-ne.

     =Alpheus=--ăl-phē´us, not ăl´phe-us.

     =Amasai=--a-măs´a-ī, not ăm-a-sā´ī.

     =Andronicus=--an-dron-ī´cus, not an-drŏn´i-cus.

     =Antiochia=--an-ti-o-kī´a, not an-ti-ō´kia.

     =Ararat=--ăr´a-răt, not ā´ra-răt.

     =Arimathea=--ăr´i-ma-thē´a, not ăr-i-mā´the-a.

     =Aristobulus=--ăr-is-to-bū´lus, not ar-is-tŏb´u-lus.

     =Aroer=--ăr´o-er, not a-rō´er.

     =Aroerite=--ăr´o-er-īte, not a-rō´er-ĭte.

     =Asarael=--a-săr´a-el, not az-a-rā´el.

     =Asmodeus=--az-mo-dē´us, not az-mō´de-us.

     =Beelzebub=--be-ĕl´ze-bub, not bĕl´ze-bub.

     =Belial=--bē´li-al, not be-lī´al.

     =Bethhaccerem=--bĕth-hăk´se-rem, not beth-hăs´se-rem.

     =Bethphage=--bĕth´pha-jē, not bĕth´phāje.

     =Bethuel=--be-thū´el, not bĕth´u-el.

     =Cainan=--ka-ī´nan, not kā´nan.

     =Cherub= (a city)--kē´rub, not chĕr´ub.

     =Chittim=--kĭt´tim, not chĭt´tim.

     =Chloe=--klō´e, not klō.

     =Crates=--krā´tēz, not krātz.

     =Cyprians=--sĭp´ri-anz, not sī´pri-anz.

     =Delilah=--dĕl´i-lah, not de-lī´lah.

     =Ecbatana=--ek-băt´a-na, not ek-ba-tā´na.

     =Eloi=--e-lō´ī not ē´loi.

     =Esther=--ĕs´ter, not ĕs´ther.

     =Eumenes=--ū´me-nēz, not ū-mē´nēz.

     =Gennesaret=--gĕn-nĕs´a-rĕt, not jĕn-nĕs´a-ret.

     =Gerar=--geĕ´rar, not jē´rar.

     =Idumea=--ĭd-u-mē´a, not ī-du-mē´a.

     =Iturea=--ĭt-u-rē´a, not ī-tu-rē´a.

     =Jacubus=--ja-kū´bus, not jăk´u-bus.

     =Jadau=--ja-dā´u, not jăd´a-u.

     =Jairus= (Old Test.)--jā´i-rus.

     =Jairus= (New Test.)--jā-ī´rus.

     =Jearim=--jē´a-rĭm, not je-ā´rim.

     =Jeiel=--je-ī´el, not jē´el nor jī´el.

     =Jephthae=--jĕph´tha-ē, not jĕph´tha.

     =Jeshohaiah=--jĕsh-o-ha-ī´ah, not jĕsh-o-hā´yah.

     =Keilah=--kē´lah, not kī´lah nor ke-ī´lah.

     =Kolaiah=--kŏl-a-ī´ah, not kŏl-ā´yah.

     =Labana=--lăb´a-na, not la-bā´na.

     =Lebanah=--lĕb´a-nah, not le-bā´nah.

     =Magdalene=--măg-da-lē´ne, not măg´da-lēne.

     =Mahalath=--mā´ha-lath, not ma-hā´lath.

     =Mardocheus=--mar-do-kē´us, not mar-dō´ke-us.

     =Matthias=--măth-thī´as, not măth´thi-as.

     =Meremoth=--mĕr´e-moth, not me-rē´moth.

     =Meshach=--mē´shăk, not mĕsh´ak.

     =Methuselah=--me-thū´se-lah, not mĕth-ū´ze-lah.

     =Moosias=--mo-o-sī´as, not mō´si-as.

     =Nebuchadnezzar=--nĕb´u-kăd-nez´zar, not
       ne-bŭk´kad-nez´zar.

     =Orthosias=--ôr-tho-sī´as, not ôr-thō´si-as.

     =Othonias=--ŏth-o-nī´as, not ŏth-ō´ni-as.

     =Oziel=--ō´zi-el, not ō-zī´el.

     =Penuel=--pe-nū´el, not pĕn´ū-el.

     =Perseus=--për´sūs, not për´se-us.

     =Pethuel=--pe-thū´el, not pĕth´u-el.

     =Phanuel=--pha-nū´el, not phăn´u-el.

     =Pharaoh=--phā´rō or phā´ra-ō, not phăr´ō nor
       phăr´a-ō.

     =Philippi=--phĭ-lĭp´pi, not phĭl´lip-pi.

     =Philistine=--phĭ-lĭs´tĭn, not phĭl´ĭs-tīne.

     =Pontius=--pŏn´shĭ-us, not pŏn´ti-us.

     =Raguel=--ra-gū´el, not răg´u-el.

     =Sabachthani=--sā-băk-thā´nī, not
       sa-băk´tha-nī.

     =Sathrabuzanes=--săth-ra-bu-zā´nēz, not
       săth-răb´u-zānz.

     =Shabbethai=--shăb-bĕth´a-ī, not
       shăb-bĕth-ā´ī

     =Shadrach=--shā´drăk, not shăd´răk.

     =Shemiramoth=--she-mĭr´a-moth, not shĕm-i-rā´moth.

     =Shemuel=--she-mū´el, not shĕm´ū-el.

     =Sinai=--sī´ā, not sī´nā-ī.

     =Zaccheus=--zak-kē´us, not zăk´ke-us.

     =Zerubbabel=--zē-rŭb´ba-bel, not ze-rub-bā´bel.

     =Zipporah=--zĭp-pō´rah, not zĭp´po-rah.



GREEK AND LATIN PROPER NAMES--MYTHOLOGICAL, ETC.


     =Actæon=--ăk-tē´on, not ăk´te-on.

     =Adonis=--a-dō´nis, not a-dŏn´is.

     =Alcides=--ăl-sī´dēz, not ăl´si-dēz.

     =Amphion=--ăm-phī´on, not ăm´phi-on.

     =Amphitrite=--ăm-phi-trī´te, not ăm´phi-trīte nor
       am-phĭt´ri-te.

     =Anabasis=--a-năb´a-sis, not an-a-bā´sis.

     =Antiope=--ăn-tī´o-pe, not ăn´ti-ōpe nor
       ăn-ti-ō´pe.

     =Anubis=--a-nū´bis, not ăn´u-bis.

     =Arion=--a-rī´on, not ā´ri-on.

     =Aristides=--ar-is-tī´dēz, not ar-ĭs´ti-dēz.

     =Aristogiton=--a-ris-to-jī´ton, not ar-is-tŏj´i-ton.

     =Belides= (singular, masculine)--bĕ-lī´dēz.

     =Belides= (plural, female descendants of
       Belus)--bĕl´-i-dēz.

     =Bellerophon=--bel-lĕr´o-phon, not bel-ler-ō´phon.

     =Cæculus=--sĕk´u-lus, not sē´ku-lus.

     =Calliope=--kal-lī´o-pe, not kal-li-ō´pe nor
       kăl´li-ōpe.

     =Caucasus=--kaw´ka-sus, not kaw-kā´sus.

     =Charon=--kā´ron, not chā´ron nor chăr´on.

     =Chæronea=--ker-o-nē´a, not cher-o-nē´a.

     =Chimera=--ke-mē´ra, not kĭm´er-a nor chī-mĕr´a.

     =Codrus=--kō´drus, not kŏd´rus.

     =Corcyra=--kor-sī´ra, not kor´si-ra.

     =Coriolanus=--ko-ri-o-lā´nus, not kor-i-ŏl´a-nus.

     =Crete=--krē´te, not kreet.

     =Cyclades=--sĭk´la-dēz, not sī´kla-dēz.

     =Cyclops=--sī´klops, not sĭk´lops.

     =Cyclopes=--sī´klo-pēz, not sī´klōps.

     =Cyrene=--sī-rē´ne, not sĭ-rēne´.

     =Cyzicus=--sĭz´i-kus, not sĭ-zī´kus.

     =Danaides=--da-nā´ĭ-dez, not da-nī´dez.

     =Darius=--da-rī´us, not dā´ri-us.

     =Deianira=--de-ī-an-ī´ra, not de-yan-ī´ra.

     =Diodorus=--dī-o-dō´rus, not dī-ŏd´o-rus.

     =Diomedes=--dī-o-mē´dēz, not dī-ŏm´e-dēz.

     =Dodonæus=--do-do-nē´us, not do-dō´ne-us.

     =Echo=--ē´ko, not ĕk´ko.

     =Endymion=--en-dĭm´i-on, not en-dī´mi-on.

     =Epirus=--e-pī´rus, not ĕp´i-rus.

     =Erato=--ĕr´a-to, not e-rā´to.

     =Eumenes=--ū´me-nēz, not ū-mē´nēz.

     =Euripus=--ū-rī´pus, not ū´ri-pus.

     =Eurydice=--ū-rĭd´i-se, not ū´ri-dīce´ nor
       ū-ri-dī´se.

     =Ganymedes=--gan-ĭ-mē´dēz, not gan-ĭ-mēdz´.

     =Geryon=--jē´rĭ-on, not je-rī´on.

     =Halcyone=--hăl-sī´o-ne, not hăl´si-ōne nor
       hal-si-ō´ne.

     =Hebe=--hē´be, not hēb´.

     =Hecate=--hĕk´a-te or hĕk´at, not hē´kāte.

     =Hecuba=--hĕk´u-ba, not he-kū´ba.

     =Helena=--hēl´en-a, not he-lē´na.

     =Hermione=---hĕr-mī´o-ne, not hĕr´mi-ōne nor
       hĕr-mi-ō´ne.

     =Herodotus=--he-rŏd´o-tus, not her-o-dō´tus.

     =Hiero=--hī´er-o, not hī-ē´ro.

     =Hippocrene=--hip-po-krē´ne, not hip-pŏk´re-ne.

     =Hippodromus=--hip-pŏd´ro-mus, not hip-po-drō´mus.

     =Icarus=--ĭk´a-rus, not īk-ā´-rus.

     =Iolaus=--ī-o-lā´us, not ī-ō´la-us.

     =Iphiclus=--ĭph´i-klus, not ĭph-ī´klus.

     =Iphigenia=--ĭph-i-je-nī´a, not ĭph-i-jē´ni-a.

     =Irene=--ī-rē´ne, not ī-rēne´.

     =Ithome=--i-thō´me, not īth´o-me.

     =Lachesis=--lăk´e-sis, not la-kĕ´sis.

     =Laocoon=--la-ŏk´o-on,not lā-o-kōōn´.

     =Lethe=--lē´the, not lēth.

     =Leucothoe=--lū-kŏth´o-e, not lū-kō´tho-e nor
       lū-ko-thō´e.

     =Libitina=--lĭb-i-tī´na, not li-bĭt´i-na.

     =Lycaon=--lī-kā´on, not lĭk´a-on.

     =Lyceus=--lī-sē´us, not lĭs´e-us.

     =Meleager=--mē-le-ā´ger, not me-le-ā´jer nor
       me-lē´a-jer.

     =Meroe=--mĕr´o-e, not me-rō´e.

     =Mitylene=--mĭt-ĭ-lē´ne, not mĭt´i-lēne.

     =Myrmidones=--myr-mĭd´o-nēz, not myr´mĭ-dōnz nor
       myr-mĭ-dō´nēz.

     =Naiades=--nā-ī´a-dēz, not nā´a-dēz.

     =Nemesis=--nĕm´e-sis, not ne-mē´sis.

     =Nereides=--ne-rē´i-dēz, not nēr´yi-dēz.

     =Nereus=--nē´rūs, not ne-rē´us.

     =Nicæa=--ni-sē´a, not nĭs´e-a.

     =Nundina=--nŭn´di-na, not nun-dī´na.

     =Oceanus=--o-sē´a-nus, not o-se-ā´nus.

     =Ocypete=--o-sĭp´e-te, not o-si-pē´te.

     =Œdipus=--ĕd´i-pus, not ē´di-pus nor e-dī´pus.

     =Opigena=--o-pĭj´e-na, not op-i-jē´na.

     =Orion=--o-rī´on, not ō´ri-on.

     =Pactolus=--pak-tō´lus, not păk´to-lus.

     =Palæmon=--pa-lē´mon, not păl´e-mon.

     =Parrhasius=--par-rā´she-us, not par-răs´i-us.

     =Pasiphae=--pa-sĭph´a-e, not păs-i-phā´e.

     =Pegasus=--pĕg´a-sus, not pe-gā´sus.

     =Penelope=--pe-nĕl´o-pe, not pĕn´e-lōpe.

     =Phlegethon=--phlĕj´e-thon, not phlĕg´e-thon.

     =Pleiades=--plē´ya-dĕz not plē´yădz.

     =Polyphemus=--pol-y-phē´mus, not po-lĭph´e-mus.

     =Priapus=--prī-ā´pus, not prī´a-pus.

     =Proserpine=--prŏs´er-pīne, not pro-sĕr´pi-ne.

     =Rhode=--rō´de, not rōde.

     =Sarapis=--sa-rā´pis, not săr´a-pis.

     =Sardanapalus=--sar-da-na-pā´lus, not sar-dan-ăp´a-lus.

     =Semiramis=--se-mĭr´a-mis, not sĕm-i-rā´mis.

     =Tereus=--tē´re-us, not te-rē´us.

     =Terpsichore=--terp-sīk´o-re, not tĕrp´si-kōre.

     =Thebæ=--thē´be, not thēbe.

     =Theodamas=--the-ŏd´a-mas, not the-o-dā´mas.

     =Theodamus=--the-o-dā´mus, not the-ŏd´a-mus.

     =Theodotus=--the-ŏd´o-tus, not the-o-dō´tus.

     =Theodorus=--the-o-dō´rus, not the-ŏd´o-rus.

     =Thessalonica=--thes-sa-lo-nī´ka, not thes-sa-lŏn´i-ka.

     =Thrace=--thrā´se, not thrāse.



MODERN BIOGRAPHICAL NAMES.


     =Adam.= As an English name is pronounced ăd´am; as French,
       ä-dóng´, as German, ä´däm.

     =Annesley=--ănz´le, not ăn´nes-le.

     =Arundel=--ăr´ŭn-dĕl, not a-rŭn´dĕl.

     =Bacciochi=--bät-chō´kee, not băk-ki-ō´kee.

     =Beatrice=--bā-ä-tree´chā or bē´a-treess, not
       be-ăt´rĭs.

     =Beethoven=--bā´tō-ven, not beet´hō-ven.

     =Belvedere=--bĕl-vā-dā´rā, not bĕl-ve-dēre´.

     =Beranger= (Fr. Béranger)--bā-rŏng-zhā´, not
       bĕr´an-jer.

     =Blucher=--blōō´ker, not blū´cher.

     =Boccaccio=--bo-kät´cho, not bŏk-kăs´i-o.

     =Boleyn=--bŏŏl´ĭn, not bō´lĭn nor bō-lĭn´.

     =Boniface=--bŏn´e-fass or Fr. bo-ne-fäss´, not bŏn´e-face.

     =Boucicault= or =Bourcicault=--bōō-se-kō´ or
       bōōr-se-kō´, not bōō´se-kawlt.

     =Bozzaris=--bŏt´zä-rĭs, not boz-zăr´is, as generally
       called.

     =Brown-Sequard= (Fr. Séquard)--brown-sā-kärr´, not see-kward´.

     =Buchanan=--bŭk-ăn´an, not bū-kăn´an.

     =Bull, Ole=--ō´lĕh bŏŏl, not ōl´ bŏŏl.

     =Buonaparte=--bōō-o-nä-pärr´tā, not bō´na-pärt; the
       latter is the allowed English pronunciation when spelled
       =Bonaparte=.

     =Bysshe=--bĭsh, not bĭsh´she.

     =Cecil=--sĕs´ĭl or sĭs´ĭl, not sē´sĭl.

     =Cenci=--chĕn´chee, not sĕn´see.

     =Chevalier=--sheh-vä-le-ā´, not shev-a-leer´.

     =Crichton=--krī´ton, not krĭk´ton.

     =D'Aubigne= (Fr. D'Aubigné)--dō-bēn-yā´, not daw-been´.

     =Daubigny=--dō-bēn-yē´, not daw-bē´ny.

     =Disraeli=--dĭz-rā´el-e, not dĭz´rel-ee.

     =Drouyn de Lhuys=--drōō-ăng´ deh lwee´.

     =Gillot=--zhē-yō´, not jĭl´lot nor jĭl-lō´.

     =Giovanni=--jo-vän´nee, not je-o-văn´nee.

     =Goethe=--pronounced much like gür´teh, leaving out the r; not
       gŏth nor gōth.

     =Hemans=--hĕm´anz, not hē´manz.

     =Ingelow=--ĭn´je-lō, not ĭng´e-lō.

     =Ivan=--e-vän´, not ī´van.

     =Juarez=--jōō-ä´rĕz or Hōō-ä´rĕth, not
       jaw´rĕz.

     =Lancelot=--lŏngss-lō´, not lăn´se-lŏt.

     =Lavater=--lä´vä-ter or lä-vä-tair´, not lăv´a-ter.

     =Macleod=--măk-lowd´, not mak-lē´od.

     =Marat=--mä-rä´, not ma-răt´.

     =Marion=--măr´i-on, not mā´ri-on.

     =Medici=--mĕd´e-chee or mā´de-chee, not mĕd´i-see nor
       me-dē´see.

     =Minie= (Fr. Minié)--me-ne-ā´, not mĭn´ne.

     =Montague=--mŏn´ta-gū, not mŏn´tāg.

     =Moultrie=--mōō´tre, not mōl´tre.

     =Muhlbach=--(Ger. Mühlbach). The u in the first syllable of this
       word is very difficult for those to pronounce who are not
       German or French, and can not be well represented in English;
       but there is no need of coming so far from the mark as is
       generally done, especially in the last syllable. It is not
       mūl´băk nor mēl´băk; meul´bäk is nearer correct.

     =Mundt=--mŏŏnt, not mŭnt.

     =Neumann=--noi´män, not nū´man.

     =Ovid=--ŏv´ĭd, not ō´vid [Ovidius].

     =Paganini=--pä-gä-nee´nee, not păj-a-nĭn´ĭ.

     =Pepin=--pĕp´ĭn or pĭp´ĭn, not pē´pĭn. French
       pronunciation peh-păng´.

     =Piccolomini=--pēk-ko-lŏm´e-nee, not pĭk-ko-lo-mee´nee.

     =Pliny=--plĭn´y, not plī´ny [Plinius].

     =Ponce de Leon=--pōn´chā dā lā-ōn´, not ponss de
       lē´on.

     =Rachel=--rä-shĕl´, not rā´chel as the English name. When a
       German name it is pronounced räk´el.

     =Richelieu=--rēsh´e-lōō, not rĭch´e-lōō.

     =Rochefort=--rosh-for´, not roch´fort.

     =Rothschild=--ros´chīld or rōt´shĭlt, not
       rŏth´chīld.

     =Stael=--stäl, stawl or stä-ĕl´, not stāle.

     =Strauss=--strowss, not strawss.

     =Taliaferro=--tŏl´i-vĕr, not tăl-i-fĕr´ro.

     =Thiers=--te-air´, not theers.



MODERN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.


     =Abomey=--ăb-o-mā´, not a-bŏm´ey nor a-bō´mey.

     =Acapulco=--ä-kä-pōōl´ko, not ăk-a-pŭl´ko.

     =Adriatic=--ăd-ri-ăt´ĭk, not ā-drĭ-ăt´ĭk.

     =Afghanistan=--äf-gän-is-tän´, not ăf-găn-ĭs´tăn.

     =Agulhas=--ä-gōōl´yäs, not a-gŭl´hăs.

     =Aix-la-Chapelle=--ākz-lä-shä-pĕl´, not
       ā-lä-shă-pĕl´.

     =Alsace=--äl-säss´, not ăl´sās.

     =Altai=--äl-tī´, not äl´tā nor äl´tī.

     =Amherst=--ăm´erst, not ăm´herst.

     =Amoor=--ä-mōōr´, not ăm´ōōr nor ā´mōre.

     =Antilles=--ŏng-teel´, not ăn´-teelz.

     =Araguay=--ä-rä-gwī´, not ăr´a-gwā.

     =Aral=--ăr´al, not ā´ral.

     =Arkansas=--är-kăn´sas, not är´kan-saw nor är-kăn-zaz.

     =Asia=--ā´she-a, not ā´zhe-a.

     =Bantam= (Java)--bän-täm´, not băn´tam.

     =Barbados= or =Barbadoes=--bar-bā´dōz, not bär´ba-dōz.
       =Barbados=, a river of Brazil, is pronounced bar-bä´doce.

     =Bayou=--bī´ōō or bī´ō, not bā´ū.

     =Belfast=--bĕl-făst´, not bĕl´făst.

     =Beloochistan=--bĕl-oo-chĭs-tän´, not
       bĕl-oo-chĭs´tan.

     =Bingen=--bĭng´en, not bĭn´jen.

     =Bombay=--bŏm-bā´, not bŏm´bā.

     =Bremen= (Germany)--brĕm´en or brā´men, not brē´men.
       =Bremen= (U. S.)--brē´men.

     =Buena Vista=--bwā´nä vees´tä or bō´na vĭs´ta, not
       bū´na vĭs´ta.

     =Buenos Ayres=--bō´nos ā´riz or bō´nos airz, not
       bū´nos ārz; Spanish pronunciation, bwā´noce
       ī´rĕs.

     =Cairo= (Italy and Egypt)--kī´ro, not kā´ro. =Cairo= (U.
       S.)--kā´ro.

     =Calais=--kăl´ĭs or kä-lā´, not ka-lās´.

     =Canton= (China)--kan-tŏn´, not kăn´ton. =Canton= (U.
       S.)--kăn´ton.

     =Cape Girardeau=--jee-rär-dō´, not jee-rär´dō.

     =Caribbean= or =Carribbean=--kăr-ĭb-bē´an, not
       ka-rĭb´be-an.

     =Cashmere=--käsh-meer´, not kăsh´mere.

     =Cayenne=--kī-ĕn´ or kā-yĕn´, not kā-ĕn´.

     =Cheyenne=--she-ĕn´, not shī-ĕn´ nor chā-ĕn´.

     =Chili=--chĭl´lee, not shē´lee.

     =Christiania=--krĭs-te-ä´ne-ä, not krĭs-te-ā´ne-a nor
       krĭs-te-ăn´a.

     =Chuquisaca=--chōō-ke-sä´kä, not chōō-kwĭs´a-kä.

     =Cincinnati=--sin-sin-nah´tĭ, not sin-sin-năt´ta.

     =Cochin China=--kō´chin chī´na, not kŏch´in chī´na.

     =Delhi= (India)--dĕl´lee, not dĕl´hī. =Delhi= (U.
       S.)--dĕl´hī.

     =Dubuque=--dū-bōōk´, not dū-būk´.

     =Fezzan=--fĕz-zän´, not fĕz´zan nor fĕz-zăn´.

     =Freiburg=--frī´bŏŏrg, not frē´burg.

     =Genoa=--jĕn´o-a, not je-nō´a.

     =Gloucester=--glos´ter, not as spelled. =Gloucestershire=
       (glos´ter-shir).

     =Greenwich= (England)--grĭn´ĭdge, not as spelled.
       =Greenwich= (U. S.)--green´ĭch.

     =Havre de Grace=--hăv´er de grass, not hā´ver de grās´.
       French pronunciation, hä´v'r deh gräss or ä´v'r deh gräss´.

     =Iowa=--ī´o-wa, not ī-ō´wa nor ī´o-wā.

     =Java= (Island)--jä´va, not jăv´a nor jā´va. =Java= (U.
       S.)--jā´va.

     =Jeddo= (Japan)--yĕd´do, not jĕd´do. =Jeddo= (U.
       S.)--jĕd´do.

     =Juniata=--jōō-ne-ah´ta, not jōō-ne-ĕt´a.

     =Kankakee=--kan-kaw´kee, not kang-ka-kee´.

     =Ladoga=--lä´do-gä, not la-dō´ga.

     =Lausanne= (Switzerland)--lō-zän´, not law-san´. =Lausanne=
       (Pennsylvania)--law-săn´.

     =Leicester=--lĕs´ter, not as spelled. =Leicestershire=
       (lĕs´ter-shir).

     =Leipsic= (Saxony)--līp´sĭk, not leep´sĭk. =Leipsic= (U.
       S.)--leep´sĭk.

     =Madrid= (Spain)--mä-drĭd´, not măd´rĭd; Spanish
       pronunciation, mä-DreeD´--almost maTH-reeTH´. =Madrid= (U.
       S.)--măd´rid.

     =Mauch Chunk=--mawk chŭnk´, not mawch shunk´.

     =Milan=--mĭl´an, not mī´lan.

     =Modena= (Italy)--mŏd´en-a, not mo-dē´na. =Modena= (U.
       S.)--mo-dē´na.

     =Nantes=--năntz, not năn´tez; French pronunciation,
       nŏngt.

     =Neufchatel=--nush-ä-tĕl´, not nōōf´chăt-el.

     =Newfoundland=--nū´fond-land´, not nu-found´land.

     =Norwich= (England)--nŏr´rĭj, not nŏr´wich. =Norwich=
       (U. S.)--nŏr´wich or nŏr´rich.

     =Otaheite=--ō-tä-hee´te, not ō-ta-heet´.

     =Panama=--pän-a-mä´, not păn´a-maw.

     =Persia=--per´she-a, not per´zhe-a.

     =Pesth=--pĕst, not pesth; Hungarian pronunciation, pĕsht.

     =Piqua=--pĭk´wa, not pĭk´wā.

     =Pompeii=--pŏm-pā´yee, not pŏm´pe-ī.

     =Popocatapetl=--po-po-kä-tā-pĕtl´, not
       po-po-kăt-a-pē´tel.

     =Poughkeepsie=--po-kĭp´see, not po-keep´see.

     =Quebec=--kwe-bĕk´, not kwē´bek.

     =Queretaro=--kā-rā-tä´ro, not kwer-e-tā´ro.

     =Sahara=--sä-hä´rä or sä´ha-rä, not sā-hā´ra nor
       sa-hăr´a.

     =San Diego=--sän-de-ā´go, not săn-dī-ē´go.

     =Sangamon=--săng´ga-mon, not săng-găm´on.

     =San Joaquin=--sän-Ho-ä-keen´, not săn´jō´a-kwĭn.

     =Shang-Hai=--shang-hī´, not shăng´-hā nor
       shăng´-hī.

     =Siam=--sī-am´ or se-am´, not sī´am.

     =Sumatra=--sōō-mä´tra, not sōō-mā´tra nor
       sōō-măt´ra.

     =Swabia=--swā´bi-a, not swaw´be-a.

     =Taliaferro=--tŏl´e-ver, not tăl-ĭ-a-fĕr´ro.

     =Toulouse=--tōō-lōōz´, not tōō-lōōss´.

     =Truxillo=--trōō-Heel´yo, not trŭx-ĭl´lo.

     =Tyrol=--tĭr´ol or te-rŏl´, not tī´rol.

     =Ulster= (Germany)--ŏŏl´ster, not ŭl´ster. =Ulster=
       (Ireland and U. S.)--ŭl´ster.

     =Valenciennes=--vä-long-se-ĕnn´, not va-lĕn-se-ĕnz´.

     =Valparaiso= (Chili)--väl-pä-rī´so, not văl-pa-rā´zo.
       =Valparaiso= (U. S.)--văl-pa-rā´zo.

     =Venezuela=--ven-ez-wee´la or vā-nĕth-wā´lä, not
       ven-ez-ōō-ē´la.

     =Vevay=--ve-vā´, not vē´vā.

     =Vosges=--vōzh, not vŏs´jez.

     =Worcester=--wŏŏs´ter, not as spelled. =Worcestershire=
       (wŏŏs´ter-shir).

     =Wyandot= or =Wyandotte=--wī-an-dott´, not wī´an-dŏt.

     =Wyoming=--wī-ō´ming, not wī´o-ming.

     =Yang-tse-kiang=--yäng-tse-ke-äng´, not yang´ste-kī´ăng.

     =Yo Semite=--yō-sem´e-te, not yō´se-mīte.

     =Zanzibar=--zän-ze-bär´, not zăn´ze-bär.



ENGLISH CHRISTIAN NAMES.


     =Ada=--ā´da, not ăd´a.

     =Agnes=--ăg´nēz, not ăg´ness.

     =Alphonso=--al-phon´so, not al-phŏn´zo.

     =Artemas=--är´te-mas, not är-tē´mas.

     =Augustine=--aw-gŭs´tĭn, not aw´gŭs-teen.

     =Basil=--băz´il, not bā´sil nor băs´il.

     =Bernard=--bër´nard, not bër-nard´.
       =Bernard= (French)--beR-naR´.

     =Cecily=--sĕs´i-ly, not sē´si-ly.

     =Chloe=--klō´e, not klō.

     =Darius=--da-rī´us, not dā´ri-us.

     =Deborah=--dĕb´o-rah, not de-bō´rah.

     =Eben=--ĕb´en, not ē´ben.

     =Eleanor=--ĕl´e-a-nor, not ĕl´en-or.

     =Esther=--ĕs´ter, not ĕs´ther.

     =Eva=--ē´va, not ĕv´a.

     =Frances=--frăn´sez, not frăn´sess nor frăn´sĭs.

     =Giles=--jīlz, not gīlz.

     =Hosea=--ho-zē´a, not hō´se-a.

     =Ivan=--ĭv´an, not ī´van. =Ivan= (Russian)--e-vän´.

     =Irene=--ī-rē´ne, not ī-reen´.

     =Jacqueline=--jăq´ue-lĭn, not jăk´a-līne.

     =Joan=--jō-ăn´, not jō´an.

     =Joshua=--jŏsh´u-a, not jŏsh´a-wā.

     =Leopold=--lē´o-pōld, not lĕp´ōld. =Leopold=
       (German)--lā-o-pōlt.

     =Lionel=--li´o-nel, not lī-ō´nel.

     =Louisa=--lōō-ē´za, not lōō-ī´za.

     =Marion=--măr´i-on, not mā´ri-on.

     =Penelope=--pe-nĕl´o-pe, not pĕn´el-ōpe.

     =Phebe=--phē´be, not pheeb.

     =Philander=--phī-lăn´der, not phĭl-ăn´der.

     =Philemon=--phī-lē´mon, not phĭl´e-mon.

     =Reginald=--rĕj'i-nald, not rĕg´i-nald.

     =Rosalie=--rŏz´a-lē, not rō´za-lē.

     =Rosalind=--rŏz´a-lind, not rō´za-lind.

     =Rosamond=--rŏz´a-mond, not rō´za-mond.

     =Rowland=--rō´land, not row´land.

     =Sigismund=--sĭj´is-mund, not sĭg´is-mund. =Sigismund=
       (German)--seeG´is-mŏŏnt.

     =Silvester=--sĭl-vĕs´ter, not sĭl´vĕs-ter.

     =Sophia=--so-phī´a, not sō´phi-a.

     =Ursula=---ür´su-la, not ür-sū´la.

     =Viola=---vī´o-la, not vī-ō´la.



NAMES OF ROMANCE, SOBRIQUETS, ETC.

     =Achitophel=--a-kĭt´o-phel, not a-chĭt´o-phel. A nickname
       given to the Earl of Shaftesbury and used by Dryden in his
       satirical poem of "Absalom and Achitophel."

     =Adonais=--ăd-o-nā´is, not a-dō´ni-as nor a-dŏn´i-as. A
       name given to the poet Keats by Shelley.

     =Adriana=--ăd-ri-ăn´a, not ā-dri-ā´na nor
       ā-dri-ăn´a. A character in the "Comedy of Errors."

     =Ægeon=--ē-jē´on, not ē´je-on. A Syracusan merchant in the
       "Comedy of Errors."

     =Æmilia=--ē-mĭl´i-a, not ē-mē´li-a. Wife of Ægeon in
       the "Comedy of Errors."

     =Agramante=--ä-grä-män´tā, not ăg´ra-mănt unless written
       =Agramant=. King of the Moors in "Orlando Furioso."

     =Agricane=--ä-gre-kä´nā, not ăg´ri-kāne. Written also
       =Agrican= (ăg´ri-kăn). King of Tartary in "Orlando
       Innamorato."

     =Al Borak=--äl bŏr´ak, not ăl bō´rak. An imaginary animal
       of wonderful appearance and fleetness, with which it was claimed
       that Mohammed made a journey to the seventh heaven.

     =Alcina=--äl-chē´na, not ăl-sē´na. A fairy in "Orlando
       Innamorato."

     =Alciphron=--ăl´si-phron, not ăl-sĭph´ron. The name of a
       work by Bishop Berkeley and of a character in the same.
       =Alciphron= is also the name of a poem by Thomas Moore and the
       hero of his romance, "The Epicurean."

     =Almanzor=--al-măn´zor, not ăl´man-zor. A character in
       Dryden's "Conquest of Granada."

     =Al Rakim=--är rä-keem´, not ăl rā´kim. The dog in the legend
       of the "Seven Sleepers of Ephesus."

     =Al Sirat=--äs se-rät´, not ăl´ si-răt. An imaginary bridge
       between this world and the Mohammedan paradise.

     =Angelica=--an-jĕl´i-ka, not an-jel-ë´ka. A princess of great
       beauty in "Orlando Innamorato."

     =Angelo=--ăn´je-lo, not an-jĕl´o. A prominent character in
       "Measure for Measure." A goldsmith in the "Comedy of Errors."

     =Archimago=--är-ki-mā´go, not är-chi-mā´go nor
       är-chĭm´a-go. A character in Spenser's "Faëry Queen."

     =Argalia=--aR-gä-lee´ä, not är-gā´li-a. Brother of
       Angelica in "Orlando Innamorato."

     =Argantes=--aR-gän´tess, not är-găn´tēz. An infidel
       hero in "Jerusalem Delivered."

     =Asmodeus=--ăs-mo-dē´us, not ăz-mō´de-us. An evil
       spirit.

     =Baba, Ali=--ä´lee bä´bä, not ăl´i bā´ba. A character in the
       "Forty Thieves."

     =Baba, Cassim=--käs´sim bä´bä, not kăs´sim bā´ba. Brother of
       Ali Baba.

     =Bajardo=--bä-e-aR´do, not ba-jär´do. Rinaldo's steed in
       "Orlando Innamorato."

     =Balwhidder=--băl´hwĭth-er, not bawl´whĭd-der. A pastor in
       Galt's "Annals of the Parish."

     =Banquo=--bănk´wo, not băng´ko. A Scottish warrior and a
       character in "Macbeth."

     =Bassanio=--bas-sä´ni-o, not bas-sā´ni-o. Husband of Portia in
       "Merchant of Venice."

     =Biron=--bĭr´on, not bī´ron. A character in "Love's Labor's
       Lost."

     =Boyet=--boy-ĕt´, not bō´yet. A character in "Love's Labor's
       Lost."

     =Bradamante=--brä-dä-män´tā, not brăd´a-mănt. Sister to
       Rinaldo, in "Orlando Innamorato."

     =Brunehilde=--brōō´nā-hĭl´dā, not
       brŭn-hĭl´dah. Written also =Brunehild=
       (brōō´neh-hĭlt).

     =Carrasco, Sanson=--sän-sōn´ käR-Räs´ko, not
       săn´son kăr-răs´ko. A character in "Don Quixote."

     =Cedric=--sĕd´rik, not sē´drik. A character in "Ivanhoe."

     =Clarchen=--klĕR´ken, not klär´chen. A female character
       in Goethe's "Egmont."

     =Clavileno Aligero=--klä-ve-lān´yo ä-le-Rā´ro, not
       klăv-i-lē´no ăl-i-jē´ro. A celebrated steed in "Don
       Quixote."

     =Consuelo=--kōng-su-ā-lō´, not kŏn-su-ĕl´o. The
       heroine of a novel of the same name by Georges Sand.

     =Don Adriano Armado=--ăd-re-ä´no är-mä´do, not ā-dri-ā´no
       är-mā´do. A character in "Love's Labor's Lost."

     =Don Cleofas=--klē´o-fas, not kle-ō´fas. Hero of "The Devil
       on Two Sticks."

     =Don Juan=--jū´an, not jū-ăn´.

     =Dulcamara=--dŏŏl-kä-mä´rä, not dŭl-sa-mā´ra nor
       dŭl-ka-mā´ra. The itinerant physician in "L'Elisire
       d'Amore."

     =Egeus=--ē-jē´us, not ē´je-us. The Father of Hermia in
       "Midsummer Night's Dream."

     =Eyre, Jane=--êr, not īre.

     =Fata Morgana=--fä´tä moR-gä´nä, not
       fā´ta mor-găn´a.

     =Fatima=--făt´i-ma, not fa-tē´-ma. A female character in the
       story of Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp; also, one of the wives
       of Blue Beard.

     =Fidele=--fī-dē´le, not fī-dēle´. A name assumed by
       Imogen, in "Cymbeline."

     =Fra Diavolo=--frä de-ä´vo-lo, not frä de-ä-vō´lo.

     =Genevra=--je-nĕv´ra, not je-nē´vra. =Ginevra= is pronounced
       the same as the above.

     =Gil Blas=--zhēl bläss, not jĭl blä nor jeel bläz.

     =Gotham=--gō´tham, not gŏth´am. A name applied to New York
       City.

     =Haidee=--hī´dee, not hā´dee. One of the heroines in "Don
       Juan."

     =Iachimo=--yăk´i-mo, not ī-ăk´i-mo. A prominent character
       in "Cymbeline."

     =Iago=--e-ä´go, not ī-ā´go. One of the principal characters
       in "Othello."

     =Jacques=--zhäk, not jăk´kwĕs. A character in "As You Like
       It."

     =Klaus, Peter=--klowss, not klawz. The hero of a German tradition
       similar to that of "Rip Van Winkle."

     =Lalla Rookh=--lä´la rōōk, not lăl´la rŏŏk. The
       heroine of Moore's poem of the same name.

     =Laodamia=--la-ŏd-a-mī´a, not la-o-dā´mi-a. The wife of
       Protesilaus slain by Hector, and the name of a poem by
       Wordsworth.

     =Lara=--lä´ra, not lā´ra nor lăr´a. The hero and name of
       Byron's poem.

     =Le Fevre=--leh fĕv´r, not le fē´ver. A poor lieutenant in
       "Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy."

     =Leonato=--lē-o-nä´to, not lē-o-nā´to. Governor of Messina
       in "Much Ado About Nothing."

     =Mahu=--ma-hōō´ or mä´hoo, not mā´hu. A fiend spoken of in
       "King Lear."

     =Maid of Orleans=--ôr´le-anz, not ôr-lēnz´. Another name of Joan
       of Arc.

     =Meister, Wilhelm=--vĭl´helm mīs´ter, not wĭl´helm
       mēs´ter. The hero of a novel by Goethe.

     =Mohicans, Last of the=--mo-hē´kans, not mo-hĭsh´ans nor
       mō´he-kans.

     =Montague=--mŏn´ta-gū, not mon-tāg´. A noble family in
       "Romeo and Juliet."

     =Moreno, Don Antonio=--än-tō´ne-o mō-rā´no, not
       ăn-tō´ne-o mō-rē´no. A gentleman in "Don Quixote."

     =Munchausen=--mun-chaw´sen, not mun-kaw´sen. German, Münchhausen
       (münK-how´zen).

     =Oberon=--ŏb´er-on, not ō´ber-on. King of the fairies. Takes
       an important part in "Midsummer Night's Dream."

     =Ossian=--ŏsh´an, not aw´si-an.

     =Parizade=--pä-re-zä´dā, not păr´i-zāde´. A princess in
       "Arabian Nights' Entertainments."

     =Parolles=--pa-rŏl´les, not pa-rōlz´. A follower of Bertram
       in "All's Well That Ends Well."

     =Perdita=--për´di-ta, not për-dī´ta nor për-dē´ta. A princess
       in "Winter's Tale."

     =Petruchio=--pe-trōō´chĭ-o, not pe-trōō´kĭ-o. A
       principal character in "Taming of the Shrew."

     =Pisanio=--pĭ-zä´nĭ-o, not pĭ-sā´nĭ-o. A character
       in "Cymbeline."

     =Posthumus=--pŏst´hu-mŭs, not pōst-hū´mŭs. Imogen's
       husband in "Cymbeline."

     =Prospero=--prŏs´pe-ro, not pros-pē´ro. An important
       character in the "Tempest."

     =Rosalind=--rŏz´a-lĭnd, not rōz´a-lind. The lady loved by
       Orlando in "As You Like It."

     =Rosaline=--rŏz´a-lĭn or rŏz´a-līn, not rōz´a-leen.
       A lady in "Love's Labor's Lost;" also the name of a lady loved by
       Romeo before Juliet.

     =Rosamond, Fair=--rŏz´a-mond, not rō´za-mond.

     =Rozinante=--rŏz-i-năn´te, not rō-zi-năn´te. Don
       Quixote's famous horse.

     =Ruggiero=--rōōd-jā´ro, not rŭg-gi-ĕr´o or
       rŭj-ji-ē´ro. A knight in "Orlando Furioso."

     =Sakhrat=--säK-rä´, not săk´rat. A sacred stone of
       great powers, in "Mohammedan mythology."

     =Stephano=--stĕf´a-no, not ste-fā´no. A drunken butler in
       "Tempest;" also a servant of Portia in "Merchant of Venice."

     =Titania=--tĭ-tā´ni-a, not tĭ-tăn´i-a. The wife of
       Oberon, king of the fairies.

     =Tybalt=--tĭb´alt, not tī´balt. One of the Capulets in "Romeo
       and Juliet.

     =Ulrica=--ul-rī´ka, not ŭl´ri-ka. An old sibyl in "Ivanhoe."

     =Ursula=--ür´su-la, not ür-sōō´la. An attendant in "Much Ado
       About Nothing."

     =Viola=--vī´o-la, not vī-ō´la. The disguised page of Duke
       Orsino in "Twelfth Night."



ORTHOEPICAL ERRORS OF THE PROFESSIONS.


Although errors of speech are at all times to be deprecated, and are
generally criticised without much leniency, it must be admitted that
unless they are very gross, reasonable excuses are to be taken for
those who have never made their language a subject of close study, and
whose only use of words is entirely impromptu in the business affairs
of life, in the home circle, or in the social gathering.

Though a person's descent from Belgravia or Billingsgate is in a great
measure revealed by the propriety of his discourse, yet this refers
principally to those words that are employed by the masses in the
every-day conversations of life, rather than to technicalities and
words related to particular professions, the use of which is generally
confined to the specially instructed. But when a man stands forth as
an orator, a teacher, a minister, or a professor of some college, it
is certainly not unreasonable for those that sit under his
instruction, to expect and demand that his speech should be almost
free from errors.

One occupying such a position may well be excused for occasional
embarrassment, poor voice, unpleasant address, hesitation of delivery,
and various failings and peculiarities that can not be overcome, but
little or no allowance can be made for constantly repeated errors.

Probably there has never been a public speaker so perfect in diction,
that he has not in moments of embarrassment, or when much absorbed in
his subject, been guilty of grammatical inaccuracies or mistakes of
pronunciation; and doubtless he is as often aware of them as his
listeners are, as soon as they drop from his lips, but it would be
foolish to call attention to them by going back to correct them. But
when these offenses are so glaring and so frequently repeated that it
is evident the speaker knows no better, it is no wonder that the
educated hearer often thinks that the teacher had better leave his
position and submit to being taught.

What allowance can an intelligent congregation make for their minister
who has nothing else to do but prepare his sermons, if, besides a
multitude of common English mistakes, he pronounces more than half of
his scriptural names in a manner that is not sanctioned by any
authority?

When the orotund medical professor stands up to address his students, or
to engage in the discussions of a convention, and rolls out technicality
after technicality pronounced in a manner that would be disowned by the
original Latin or Greek, and is totally at variance with established
usage, who would not ask for a little less elegance and a little more
education? If it required a great amount of labor outside of the usual
course of study for professional men to acquire a knowledge of the
pronunciation of words peculiar to the professions, the subject might be
treated with more tolerance; but as the definitions and the orthoepy
might be so readily learned together during those years of daily
reference to books that are required before one should be considered
competent to stand as a guide to others, it certainly seems that they do
not properly appreciate the dignity of their position by thus laying
themselves open to public criticism.

Many a student, in order to become instructed in certain branches, has
been compelled to reluctantly sit for months or years at the feet of
those that he felt were far inferior to him in common school
education, hearing hourly such violations of orthoepy and syntax as
would be a discredit to school children. And, doubtless, many such
students have had such a charity for their teachers that they have
wished to direct their attention to their faults, but have been
restrained on account of the fear of enmity, expulsion, or of
lessening the chances for passing the final examination.

The bare thought of being so criticised should be so galling to any
one bearing the dignified title of "professor," that he ought to be
stimulated to endeavor to make himself an authority concerning the
proprieties of speech.

The study of orthoepy was held in such high esteem by the accent
Greeks, and their delicate ears were so offended by any violation of
its rules, that if an orator mispronounced a single word, the entire
audience immediately hissed him.

During the present state of pronunciation it would indeed be
embarrassing to the public speaker, if such a custom existed in this
country. Let us imagine, for instance, our friend Professor Abdominous
Gynæcophonus, with his face ebullient with smiles of self-conceit,
arising to address such an audience. "Gentlemen: I have listened
patiently to this op´po-nent (_hisses_) of al´lo-path-y (_hisses_) and
now arise to make a few remarks and in´quir-ies (_hisses_). In answer
to his objections against hy-os-cy-ā´mus (_hisses_) as an anodyne
and sō´por-if-ic, (_hisses_) I would say that in cases of cough and
sleeplessness, I have long used hyoscyamia combined in trō´chĕz
(_hisses_) without any of those effects that the păt´ron (_hisses_)
of hō´me-o-path-y (_hisses_) mentions. And having made almost a
specialty of the treatment of făç´i-al (_hisses_) neuralgia or
tic-dŏl-o-rōō´" (_hisses_)--and it would certainly be time for
him to dolorously sit down, although he might raise the question--

    "What's in a name? that which we call a rose,
    By any other name would smell as sweet,"

and argue therefrom that the pronunciation of a word should make no
difference so long as its meaning was understood. Amongst professional
men, it has been observed that physicians and dentists are by far more
prone than others to orthoepical errors. Attention is requested to a
few of the more common of these in addition to those found in the
preceding vocabulary connected with words that are alike used by the
professional and the unprofessional, such as: _abdomen_, _acclimated_,
_albumen_, _animalcula arabic_, _citrate_, _embryo_, _excrescence_,
_fetid_, _fetor_, _forceps_, _homeopathy_, _hydropathy_, _jugular_,
_jujube_, _nasal_, _pharmacopœia_, _purulent_, _spasmodic_,
_sulphurous_, _tragacanth_, etc. The authorities appealed to are
Dunglison, Thomas, Webster and Worcester. Notwithstanding the superior
merit of Dunglison's Medical Dictionary, as far as the
comprehensiveness and reliability of its definitions are concerned, it
is evident that it is almost useless as an orthoepical guide. The
principal accent is in many cases marked, but the pronunciation of
preceding and succeeding syllables can not be determined, and there is
no attempt at syllabication.

Dr. Thomas' dictionary, though less comprehensive, is equally reliable
in its definitions, and is excellent authority in regard to orthoepy;
though it is to be regretted that in some words important syllables
are not sufficiently marked. For instance, take the words _as-bes´tos_
and _bis´muth_; how can it be determined whether the first should be
pronounced ăs-bĕs´toss or ăz-bĕs´tōz or the latter
bĭz´muth or bĭss´muth? Webster and Worcester are undoubtedly
good authorities for the pronunciation of the medical words they give.
In the following vocabulary all of the authorities that mention the
words may be considered as agreeing, unless notice is made of their
disagreement.



MEDICAL AND DENTAL WORDS.

     [In Latin and Latinized Greek words, the English sounds of the
     vowels are given as those used by the majority of professional
     men. If any one, however, prefers to adopt the continental
     method, sounding _a_ as in _father_, _y_ and _i_ as _e_ in
     _veto_, etc., and consistently applies it to all such words, no
     one, of course, has a right to object.]


     =Adipose=--ăd´i-pōse, not ad´i-pōze.

     =Ala=--ā´la, not ăl´a. =Alæ=, plural.

     =Alis=--ā´lĭs, not ăl´ĭs. This as a termination of
       many words, such as =abdominalis=, =digitalis=, =frontalis=,
       =lachrymalis=, =transversalis=, etc., is often erroneously
       pronounced ăl´is.

     =Alumen=--al-ū´men, not ăl´u-men.

     =Alveolus=--al-vē´o-lus, not al-ve-ō´lus. Plural, =alveoli=
       (al-vē´o-lī). =Alveolar=--(al-vē´o-lar). Alveolus is
       the name given to the _cavity_ in the jaw that is seen upon the
       removal of the root of a tooth, and it possesses no more
       tangibility than a pinch of air; almost daily, however, we hear
       dentists speak of extracting a tooth with a piece of the
       _alveolus_ attached. What a curiosity for preservation in a
       museum is a tooth with a piece of a little hole fastened to the
       root! What is meant is a piece of the _alveolar process_, or
       portion of bone around the alveolus.

     =Anæmic=--a-nĕm´ĭk, not a-nē´mĭk. Dunglison gives the
       latter.

     =Andral=--ŏng-dräl´, not ăn´-dral.

     =Aphthæ=--ăf´thē, not ăp´thē.

     =Aqua=--ā´kwa, not ăk´wa.

     =Arcus Senilis=--se-nī´lis, not sĕn´i-lis.

     =Areolar=--a-rē´o-lar, not a-re-ō´lar.

     =Aris=--ā´rĭs, not ăr´is in the termination of
       =angularis=, =medullaris=, =palmaris=, =orbicularis=,
       =pulmonaris=, etc.

     =Asarum=--ăs´a-rum, not a-sā´rum.

     =Asbestos=--ăs-bĕs´tŏss, not ăz-bĕs´tōz.

     =Attollens=--at-tŏl´lenz, not at-tō´lenz.

     =Azygos=--az´y-gos, not a-zy´gos.

     =Bagge=--bäg´geh, not băg.

     =Bimana=--bī-mā´na, not bī-mā´nĭ-a.

     =Bismuth=--bĭz´muth, not bĭss´muth.

     =Bitumen=--bĭ-tū´men, not bĭt´u-men.

     =Cadaver=--ka-dā´ver, not ka-dăv´er.

     =Caries=--kā´rĭ-ēz, not kā´rēz nor kăr´rēz.

     =Carminative=--kar-mĭn´a-tive, not kar´mi-nā-tĭve.

     =Caryophillus=--kăr-ĭ-o-phĭl´lus, not
       kăr-ĭ-ŏph´ĭl-lus.

     =Cerebral=--sĕr´e-bral, not ser-ē´bral.

     =Cerebric=--sĕr´e-bric, not ser-ē´bric.

     =Cerebrum=--sĕr´e-brum, not ser-ē´brum. Dunglison gives
       both.

     =Cerumen=--se-rū´men, not sĕr´ū-men.

     =Cheyne=--chān or cheen, not shāne.

     =Choledochus=--ko-lĕd´o-kus, not kŏl-e-dō´kus nor
       ko-lĭd´a-kus.

     =Cicatrix=--si-kā´trix, not sĭk´a-trix nor si-kăt´rix.
       Plural, =cicatrices= (sĭk´a-trī´sēz), not
       sĭ-kăt´rĭ-sēz.

     =Cimicifuga=--sĭm-ĭ-sĭf´u-ga, not
       sĭm-i-sĭ-fū´ga nor sĭm-ĭs´i-fū´ga.

     =Cochlea=--kŏk´le-a, not kōk´le-a.

     =Conein=--ko-nē´ĭn, not kō´ne-ĭn.

     =Conium=--ko-nī´um, not kō´ni-um.

     =Cranium=--krā´ni-um, not krăn´i-um.

     =Cynanche=--sĭ-năn´kē, not sī-năn´chē.

     =Diastase=--dī´as-tāse, not dī-as´tāze.

     =Diastole=--dī-as´to-le, not dī´as-tōle.

     =Diploe=--dĭp´lo-e, not dip-lō´e.

     =Dulcamara=--dul-ka-mā´ra, not dul-sa-mā´ra. Webster gives
       dul-kam´a-ra also.

     =Duodenum=--du-o-dē´num, not du-ŏd´e-num.

     =Dyspnœa=--dĭsp-nē´a, not dĭs-nē´a.

     =Emesis=--ĕm´e-sis,not em-ē´sis.

     =Epiploon=--e-pĭp´lo-on, not ep-ip-lō´on.

     =Facial=--fā´shal, not făsh´i-al.

     =Foramen=--fo-rā´men, not fo-răm´en.

     =Fungi=--fun´jī not fun´gī. Plural of =fungus=.

     =Galbanum=--găl´ba-num, not gal-bā´num.

     =Gingiva=--jĭn-jī´va, not jĭn´ji-va.

     =Glenoid=--glē´noid, not glĕn´oid.

     =Glutæus=--glū´tæ-us, according to Webster. The rest give
       glū-tæ´us.

     =Helleborus=--hel-lĕb´o-rus, not hel-le-bō´rus.

     =Hyoscyamus=--hī-os-sī´a-mus, not hī-os-sy-ăm´us nor
       hi-os-sy-ā´mus. =Hyoscyamine= (hī-os-sī´a-mĭn).

     =Impetigo=--ĭm-pe-tī´go, not ĭm-pĕt´i-go.

     =Incisive=--ĭn-sī´sĭv, not in-sĭs´ive.

     =Iodoform=--ī-ŏd´o-form, not ī-ō´do-form. Dunglison
       gives ī´o-do-form.

     =Itis.= According to Webster and Worcester this termination is
       pronounced ī´tĭs in =bronchitis=, =pleuritis=,
       =gastritis=, etc. Thomas and Dunglison do not specify, but the
       inference is that they intend the same. It is, however, so
       generally pronounced ē´tis, that many would object to the
       attention attracted by calling it ī´tis.

     =Jejunum=--je-jū´num, not jĕj´u-num.

     =Juniperus=--ju-nĭp´e-rus, not jū´ni-per-us nor
       ju-ni-pē´rus.

     =Laudanum=--law´da-num, not lŏd´a-num.

     =Lentigo=--len-tī´go, not lĕn´ti-go.

     =Lepra=--lĕp´ra, not lē´pra. Dunglison gives the latter.

     =Leuwenhoek=--lōō´en-hŏŏk or
       lUh´wen-hŏŏk (U as in fur), not
       lōō´wen-hōke.

     =Levator=--le-vā´tor, not le-văt´or.

     =Liquor= (Latin)--lī´kwor, not lĭk´ur as in English.

     =Magendie=--mä-zhŏng-dē´, not mā-jĕn´dē.

     =Malic=--mā´lic, not măl´ic. Thomas gives the latter.

     =Matrix=--mā´trix, not măt´rix.

     =Mistura=--mĭs-tū´ra, not mĭs´tu-ra.

     =Molecule=--mŏl´e-kūle, not mō´le-kūle.

     =Mollities=--mol-lĭsh´ĭ-ēz, not mŏl´lĭ-tēz.

     =Molybdenum=--mŏl-ĭb-dē´num, not mo-lĭb´de-num.

     =Nasmyth=--nā´smith, not năz´mĭth.

     =Nicolai=--nee´ko-lī, not nĭk´o-lā.

     =Nucleolus=--nu-klē´o-lus, not nu-kle-ō´lus.

     =Oris=--ō´rĭs, not ŏr´is.

     =Ovale=--ō-vā´le, not ō-văl´e.

     =Panizzi=--pä-nĭt´see or pä-nēt´see, not pan-ĭz´zy.

     =Pepys=--pĕps, not pē´pĭs nor pĕp´ĭs.

     =Pes Anserinus=--pēz an-ser-ī´nus, not pĕz
       an-sĕr´i-nus. I once heard a professor describing the facial
       nerve to his class, and he dwelt upon this plexus for some
       time, calling it the "Pons Asinorum."

     =Podagra=--pŏd´a-gra, not po-dā´gra. Worcester gives
       po-dăg´ra also.

     =Podophyllum=---pŏd-o-phyl´um, not po-dŏph´yl-lum.

     =Process=--prŏs´ess, not prō´sess.

     =Prostate=--pros´tāte, not prŏs´trāte.

     =Purkinje=--pŏŏR´kĭn-yeh or pŏŏr´kĭn,
       not par-kĭn´jē.

     =Pylorus=--pĭ-lō´rus, not pī-lôr´us.

     =Pyrethrum=--pĭr´e-thrum, not pī-rē´thrum.

     =Quadrumana=--quad-rū´ma-na, not quad-ru-mā´nia.

     =Rubeola=--ru-bē´o-la, not ru-be-ō´la.

     =Sacrum=--sā´krum, not săk´rum.

     =Sagittal=--săj´it-tal, not sa-jĭt´tal. Danglison gives the
       latter.

     =Sanies=--sā´nĭ-ēz, not sā´nēz nor săn´ēz.

     =Scabies=--scā´bĭ-ez, not scăb´ēz nor scā´bēz.

     =Seidlitz=--sīd´lĭtz, not sĕd´lĭtz, unless spelled
       =Sedlitz=.

     =Sinapis=--si-nā´pis, not sĭn´a-pis.

     =Squamous=--skwā´mus, not skwaw´mus.

     =Systole=--sĭs´to-le, not sĭs´tōle.

     =Tinctura=--tinc-tū´ra, not tinct´u-ra.

     =Titanium=--ti-tā´ni-um, not ti-tăn´i-um.

     =Trachea=--tra-kē´a or trā´ke-a, not trăck´e-a.

     =Tremor=--trē´mor, not trĕm´-or. Webster allows the latter
       also.

     =Trismus=--triss´mus, not trĭz´mus.

     =Umbilicus=--um-bĭ-lī´kus, according to Worcester, Thomas
       and Dunglison. Webster gives um-bil´i-kus.

     =Variola=--va-rī´o-la, not va-ri-ō´la.

     =Veratrum=--ve-rā´trum, not ve-răt´rum.

     =Vertebral=--vĕr´te-bral, not ver-tē´bral.

     =Virchow=--fĭr´ko, not vïr´chow nor vïr´kow.

     =Zinci=--zĭn´si, not zink´ī.



SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.


The following extract is from the letter of a friend, to whom were
sent some of the advance pages of this work: "I am absolutely filled
with astonishment to see how many simple words I have been
mispronouncing all my life, and would have kept on mispronouncing to
the end of my days if my thoughts had not been directed to them. If I
were in your place I would end the book with a story in which all the
words would be used in the course of the narrative. I can imagine no
amusement more instructive or interesting than for a social party to
read in turns, under some penalty for each mistake."

I had myself conceived the idea of presenting the words untrammeled
with explanation of the orthoepy, or marks of accent; but the form was
not decided upon.

The effort to compose a narrative was abandoned after a fair trial;
for to have a plot and also bring the words in natural position would
require a large volume; otherwise, it made senseless jumble. In the
trial sentences given the objects are gained in small space. Those
objects are to allow readers to exercise the memory and test their
friends; and at the same time to use the words syntactically. It is
hoped that the reader will pardon any absurdities of context; as they
can not be avoided where one is compelled to use so many selected
words, and is obliged to force them into a small compass.



MELANGE.


The invalid came from _Bremen_ to America and hoped to be soon
_acclimated_, but was stricken down with a disease that was not
_amenable_ to treatment, although he had many physicians:
_allopathists_, _hydropathists_ and _homeopathists_. He said that the
aim of _allopathy_ was to poison him; of _hydropathy_ to drown him;
and of _homeopathy_ to let him die unaided.

       *       *       *       *       *

One of the _combatants_ struck his _opponent_ in the _abdomen_ with a
club, cut off an _alder_ tree; he was carried under the shade of an
_ailantus_ and immediately expired.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sophia_ found the egg under a _piony_ near the _shumac_ tree; but she
broke it in carrying, and spilled the _albumen_ all over her _alpaca_
dress.

       *       *       *       *       *

The dose for an _adult_ is a _dessert-spoonful_.

       *       *       *       *       *

It was a plain supper--nothing but _aerated_ bread, _Bologna_ sausage
and _radishes_.

       *       *       *       *       *

He told his _demonstrative disputant_ that he did not wish to _get_
into an _altercation_, but it only appeared to arouse his
_combativeness_ still more.

       *       *       *       *       *

Why do you accent the _antepenult_ of _espionage_?

       *       *       *       *       *

He _illustrated_ his proposition by cutting off the _apex_ of the
figure, and then exhibited his _apparatus_ for the production of
_statical_ electricity.

       *       *       *       *       *

Two-thirds _gum-arabic_ and one-third _gum-tragacanth_ make a good
mucilage.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _archbishop_ dreamed that an _archangel_ came to him and told him
to have his _architect_ send to an island in the Grecian _Archipelago_
for white marble for the _pilasters_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Search the _archives_ of history and you will not find another such
_prodigy_ as Admirable _Crichton_.

       *       *       *       *       *

When, after _traversing_ the ocean, you find yourself in the _arid_
desert of _Sahara_, where there is no _aroma_ of sweet flowers, or
anything _at all_ to regale your exhausted energies; where there is no
_herb_ nor _herbaceous_ plant near you; where you are almost famished
for want of some _potable_ fluid; where you are in constant fear of
being _harassed_ by _truculent nomads_--then will you realize that
there are no joys _comparable_ to those that exist around the
_hearthstone_ of your humble home.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the contents of the _museum_ were sold by _auction_, the
antiquary bought a roll of _papyrus_ filled with _hieroglyphics_, a
kind of _bellows_ used by the ancients for starting their fires, and a
fine collection of _trilobites_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The attempt at a _reconnoisance_ in force had been unsuccessful;
immediately after _reveille_, the commander of the _fortress_ _put_ it
to vote amongst his officers, whether or not they should surrender.
The _ayes_ carried it, although some _vehemently_ opposed on account
of the excellent _morale_ of the garrison.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _heroine_ of the _melodrama_ sent to her _betrothed Seignior_ an
_exquisite bouquet_, composed of _catalpa_ flowers, _dahlias_,
_marigold_ and _thyme_, and prayed his forgiveness for not allowing
him the promised _tête-à-tête_ at the _trysting_ place; she had been
suffering with the _tic-douloureux_, she said. He generously forgave
her and sent her a _sonnet_, in which he said that her voice was
sweeter than that of _Piccolomini_, or any other _cantatrice_; that no
_houri_ could be more beautiful than she; he called her a fair
_florist_, and after _extolling_ her _naïveté_, _roseate_ cheeks and
_nymphean_ graces, he swore eternal _homage_ and that he would love
her forever and for _aye_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The judge _bade_ the _desperado_ cease his _badinage_ and answer his
_inquiries_, and threatened that if he did not, he would punish him
for his _contumacy_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _vicar_ was one of the _notable_ men of his day; his wife was a
pattern of _industry_, a _notable_ housekeeper. While the birds were
chirping their _matin_ song, she might be seen with her _besom_ in her
hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Is this a _bona fide_ transaction, or is it a _Machiavelian_ attempt
to _inveigle_ the _prelate_ into an _imbroglio_?

       *       *       *       *       *

A _booth_ was erected at the fair where the _pretty_ Misses _Agnes_
and _Rosalind_ with much _complaisance_ dispensed _gratis_ to the
visitors, _soda-water_ flavored with _orgeat_ or _sarsaparilla_.

       *       *       *       *       *

General _Silvester_ and his _protégé_, _Reginald_, met with a
_casualty_ that nearly cost them their lives. The horses attached to
their _Brougham_ became frightened at a _yacht_ and made a
_tremendous_ leap over a high embankment into a _creek_.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the _zoological_ garden was found nearly every animal _extant_,
from a mouse to a _camelopard_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _rendezvous_ of the _topographical_ surveyors was at the camp of
some hunters on a _knoll_ near the banks of a _cañon_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The monk concealed his features with his _capoch_ and would have been
_irrecognizable_ if his _discourse_ had not betrayed him.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _étagère_ stands _cater-cornered_ in a _recess_ and contains many
beautiful ornaments that his _predecessor_ _gathered_ within the last
_decade_ of years; amongst which may be mentioned the heads of
_Beethoven_, _Béranger_, _Goethe_, Percy _Bysshe_ Shelley, and many
other celebrities, cut in _onyx_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _Caucasian_ races obtained their name on account of originating
near Mount _Caucasus_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _mischievous_ children got _cayenne_ all over their _chaps_, by
which they were sufficiently punished without any further
_chastening_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _chivalric_ Don Quixote, having become a _monomaniac_ on the
subject of _chivalry_, bestrode his _Rosinante_, and, attended by his
squire, started out to perform _chivalrous_ deeds.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lord C. has been absent since _February_, 1870; it is said that he has
been traveling _incognito_, but it is certain that in Italy he has
retained his _cognomen_. He is now at _Modena_ awaiting the recovery
of his _Cicerone_, when he intends to visit _Genoa_ and _Milan_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _obesity_ of the _florid_-faced prebendary is observed to increase
with his _prebend_.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have heard much of the _gamins_ of _Gotham_, but I never realized
what the _gallows_-deserving rascals were till I settled in New York
City. I opened business as a _pharmaceutist_ on a corner that was a
favorite _haunt_ of theirs. Such a crowd of _tatterdemalions_ as stood
in front of my show-window the first day I made my display of
_Parisian_ fancy goods, baffles description. One had the _hooping_
cough, and every now and then would hoop till the _perspiration_
rolled down his face; then he would shriek out the daily _newspapers_,
in a voice like a _calliope_. One dirty-faced _gourmand_ ate _papaws_
till he had to _gape_ for breath, and would shoot the seeds and throw
the skins at his _hundred_ comrades, half of them coming in my front
door. Another, dressed in ragged _jean_, his face covered with _soot_,
played the _jew's-harp_ hour after hour, with as much pride in his
ability as _Paganini_ at his violin. Another, a tall, _jaundice_
visaged youth with an _embryo_ beard of about a dozen hairs, covered
nearly to his heels with his great-grandfather's _surtout_, in the
_lapel_ of which was pinned a death's-head, danced upon the iron
cellar door till it roared like distant artillery.

Then there were many other "_partners_" bearing such _sobriquets_ as
"Sore Snoot," "Pig Eye," "Limpy," etc., _improvising irrational_
songs, boxing, _wrestling_, indulging in _raillery_ and _ribald_
jests, pitching _quoits_, _meawing_ like cats, howling at my _patrons_
and driving reputable _patronage_ away. Every now and then they would
send in little, _saucy_, _precocious_ urchins, who offered to
_patronize_ me by asking for two cents' worth of _jujube_ paste,
_tolu_ or _licorice_, or some _Samaritan_ _salve_ for Jim Biles' sore
nose. At last, when the sun had reached the _horizon_, as a _finale_
of the day's _progress_, one of the young villains hurled a bowlder
through my French plate-glass, which, after its flight through a lot
of _citrate_ of magnesia, _cochineal_ and _quinine_, finally spilled a
large bottle of red ink all over my new _pharmacopœia_. Springing
over the _débris_, I rushed to the door with _implacable_ anger
flashing from my eyes. But one glance at that _imperturbable_ crowd
showed me how _impotent_ I was. One of them with _placid_ countenance
and _stolid_ indifference simply accosted me with, "Say, Mister, are
you going to see the '_Naiad_ Queen' to-night?"

I left that store in less than a _fortnight_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _comptroller_ was appointed by the _government_ upon the
supposition that he was _conversant_ with the details of _finance_;
but he was only a _mediocre financier_ and was not aware of the
_deficit_ in the _finances_, until the conscience-stricken
_defalcating_ officer acknowledged his _defalcation_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The emigrants to the _frontier_ chose a beautiful spot for their
settlement; but they found that the wells dug there and on the
_contiguous prairies_ had a _saline_ taste; so they were obliged to
bring water from the _mountainous_ region beyond, by means of a
_conduit_.

       *       *       *       *       *

From the _congeries_ presented to the professor, he, at his _leisure_,
_isolated_ each genus and gave _generic_ names to each; and at the
next meeting of the _lyceum_, he solicited attention to his _data_ and
the _truths_ he had deduced.

       *       *       *       *       *

The handsome _contour_ of _Madame_ G's face has been spoiled by an
_excrescence_ like a _raspberry_ on her _nasal_ organ.

       *       *       *       *       *

Young _Philemon_ after reading _Lalla Rookh_, _Lara_, Don _Juan_, The
_Giaour_, the productions of Mrs. _Hemans_, and a few others, was
seized with the determination to become a poet; but he has only
succeeded in becoming a _poetaster_, without any ideas of _prosody_.
More _metrical_ excellence and sense can be found in the _distich_:

    "Mary, Mary, quite _contrary_,
    How does your garden grow?"

than in any of the _products_ of his brain that he has given us. His
brothers, _Eben_ and _Philander_, have become stage-struck, and expect
to excel in the _Protean_ art. Their _guardian_, himself a great lover
of _drama_, having foolish confidence in their success, grants them
_plenary_ indulgence in all their whims. They are _habitués_ of the
_theatre_, and have fitted up a _suite_ of apartments next to a _suit_
of rooms occupied by some stock actors, with whom they are bound in
_indissoluble_ bonds of friendship. There they spend the day in
practice, and if you should call at any hour, there is no telling what
will present itself to you. Perhaps Macbeth with the _glamour_ of his
eyes, viewing the imaginary _gouts_ of blood; or _Banquo_ with his
gory locks; or some knight with his _cuirass_ on and his _visor_ down,
plunging, without a _qualm_, his carmine-stained _poniard_ into the
_jugular_ of some _patriot_. Possibly, Othello the _Moor_, King John
with the _Magna Charta_, or a _legendary_ warrior of frightful _mien_
with his _falchion_ drawn, will admit you. Or you may see a
_viscount_ with _falcon_, a _rampant_ villain, a _jocund_ host, or an
_irate_, _splenetic_ old man with _spectacles_, pronouncing with
_senile vehemence_ a curse upon some _fragile_ female in _negligee_
before him, who beseeches the aid of an _immobile statue_ in a _niche_
in the wall. You may get there in the nick of time to save Desdemona
by an _exposé_ of _Iago_'so villainy, to rescue Pythias whom Damon
holds by the _nape_ of the neck on the _threshold_ of eternity, or to
restrain the _suicidal_ design of the _Montague_ by informing him that
the fair Capulet is only under the influence of a _soporific_--not
dead. You may arrive soon enough to arouse the womanhood in the
_docile_ Kate, making her less _docible_, and talk woman's rights to
_Petruchio_, making him more _lenient_.

And you will find the guardian of these promising youths, sitting
there all day shouting _encore_ to their absurdities, and not
_rational_ enough to see his _indiscretion_ in permitting their
_frivolity_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _ennui_, recently complained of, was relieved by an invitation to
a party given by the _Mesdames_ B., the same you met at the
_conversazione_ of the church _guild_. The ladies received their
guests with their usual _suavity_. Their niece, _Rosamond_, recently
from _Madrid_, was the attraction of the evening; she wore an elegant
_moire_ antique with a profusion of _valenciennes_; she had a
beautiful set of jewelry--_opal_ and diamonds. It was marvelous how
her _tiny_ hands flew over the _piano-forte_. She sings very sweetly
too; her voice is a sort of _mezzo-soprano_. The _naïve_ Miss _Ursula_
was present, nearly smothered in black silk and _guipure_. She looks
much prettier in _dishabille_. The little _piquant_ Miss _Irene_, with
her _plaited_ hair, sang with a voice like a _paroquet_ her favorite,
"_Tassels_ on the Boots." That disgusting young _Leopold_ was there,
feeling as important as a _Rothschild_, making his _salams_, and
_palavering sotto voce_ to all the girls, circulating his _monogram_
cards and sporting his paste pin with its dazzling _facets_. He thinks
he cuts a wide _swath_.

Late in the evening those that were fond of _Terpsichorean_ amusement
were ushered into a room where the _tapestry_ was covered and there
spent several hours in _minuets_, waltzes, quadrilles, etc.

The topics of conversation amongst the more sensible during the
evening were the object of the visit of the new _prelate_, and the
recent speeches of _Disraeli_ and _Thiers_.

Madame B. caused a good deal of merriment by describing an improvement
in her _cuisine_ that had been introduced that day. Bridget, a late
importation from _Belfast_, who had charge of the _culinary_
department, was told to send for some _vermicelli_ to put in the soup,
but she ordered _spermaceti_ instead.

       *       *       *       *       *

There was an old superstition that when the _sacristan_ caused the
bell in the _cupola_ to toll its _dolorous_ funeral notes, the _manes_
of former friends joined in the solemn _cortege_, and gathering
around the grave moved their lips in inaudible _requiem_, and wrote in
invisible letters upon the tomb, _omega_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The great _desideratum_ in the successful argument of _disputable_
points, is the possession of an _equable_ temper.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Alphonso_, while out hunting _partridges_, fell into a _slough_.
Being clothed only in _nainsook_, he took a severe cold, which soon
resulted in _febrile_ symptoms.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dr. Mastiff's _posthumous monograph_ on "_Rabies_" will soon appear.
The _frontispiece_ represents a group of dogs. Next to the _preface_
is a _memoir_ of the author. It was his own design to have "_Finis_"
placed upon a cut of a tombstone. It almost seems that he had a
_presentiment_ of his death.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Suffice_ it to say that the dentist gave the patient enough letheon
to produce unconsciousness, and then applied his _forceps_ to the
offending tooth. Letheon, accented on the first syllable, and
_lethean_ are derived from _Lethe_, the name of a river described in
mythology, a draught from which caused forgetfulness.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sulphurous_ acid is _gaseous_, not liquid.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is reported in the _Pall Mall_ Gazette that _Basil_ S., whom you
met several years ago at _Leipsic_, is dead. He lived the life of a
_roué_ for some years in Paris and London, and turned out to be a most
_perfidious_ villain. In the latter city he committed many _heinous_
offenses and acts of _subtle_ knavery that were almost without
_precedent_. He was engaged for a long time in the manufacture of
_spurious_ money by a new _process_, in which dies were taken from
_gutta-percha_ impressions. He had purchased the services of an
experienced professor of _metallurgy_, and the _produce_ of their
crime would have been immense, if some of his other crimes had not
been betrayed. _Placards_, offering a large reward for his arrest,
were posted all over the city. He fled to Venice where he was soon
afterward drowned by falling from a _gondola_, thus cheating the
_gibbet_ of its dues.

       *       *       *       *       *

The foolish lover, _Ivan_, rendered desperate because his rival
_Darius_ had gained the _precedence_ in _Marion's_ esteem, resolved to
commit suicide and rushed _toward_ the _quay_ and plunged into the
water. Some fishermen rescued him with their _seine_, poured some
_potheen_ down his throat, and carried him home on a piece of
_tarpaulin_. His _sousing_ cured him of his folly, but was a poor
_guerdon_ for his faithfulness.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _Saracens_, taking advantage of the _strategic_ point, made a
sudden dash into the territory of the _usurper_; while a detachment
_houghed_ the horses of the enemy's _cavalry_, the rest proceeded on a
_predatory_ raid characterized by _rapine_ and terror, and after the
_spoliation_ of the villages, and the burning of the _granaries_,
returned to their own possessions.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Lionel_, _prejudiced_ against the world on account of _onerous_
cares, concluded to make a _sacrifice_ of his wealth and position and
become a _recluse_. His little _hovel_ on the _heather_, whitened with
lime which he himself _slaked_, and the little flower garden
_redolent_ of spring, present a strange contrast with his former
mansion and magnificent grounds.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Eva_ answered the _inquiry_ of the French gentleman, "Parlez-vous
français?" with a "Oui;" but when she came to converse with him, he
understood about as much of her _patois_ as he did of _Hindoostanee_.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is a fabulous report that the _upas_ tree exhales a _subtile_
vapor that is fatal to animal life.

       *       *       *       *       *

Since _Joshua_ has obtained his lucrative _sinecure_, he spends his
time in riding about in his _phaeton_ and reading _romances_. He is
_loth_ to acknowledge that he was ever a _plebeian_ and did all kinds
of _servile_ work. He is confident that his _genealogy_, if known,
would show that he was unto a _manor_ born, and that some
_supposititious_ child robbed him of his rights.

       *       *       *       *       *

The knight dropped his _wassail cup_ and sprang to the assistance of
the ladies. "_Gramercy_," _quoth_ they, _simultaneously_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _veterinary_ physician said that the disease was _murrain_.

       *       *       *       *       *

An _infinitesimal_ quantity of _yeast_ excited the fermentation.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Augustine_ studied _microscopy_ just long enough to learn that a
_monad_ is one of the simplest kind of minute _animalcules_; he then
tried chemistry and _mineralogy_, but he could not master the
_nomenclature_; he then took a fancy for _telegraphy_, but soon
abandoned the idea of becoming a _telegraphist_. At last accounts, he
apprenticed himself to a druggist, but was told to _vamos_ soon after
making up a lot of _Seidlitz_ powders with oxalic instead of
_tartaric_ acid.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Artemas_ has applied for a _patent_ on an improved _turbine_ wheel.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. B., recollecting the _precedent_ services of his servant, advanced
him money enough to lift the _lien_ on his dwelling.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _lithographer_ had only a poor _melanotype_ to copy from, but he
succeeded in making an excellent print.

       *       *       *       *       *

"Thou shalt destroy them that speak _leasing_," is found in the sixth
verse of the fifth _psalm_.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the examination in _orthoepy_, _Deborah_ had the following words
given to her: _contumely_, _crinoline_, _feudal_, _fetid_, _fetor_,
_gerund_, _gneiss_, _gyrfalcon_, _harem_, _Hawaiian_, _hygiene_,
_lariat_, _leverage_, _nonillion_, _obligatory_, _platina_,
_platinum_, _psalmody_, _psychical_, _purulent_, _pyrites_,
_recherché_, _résumé_, _sacerdotal_, _sacrament_, _schism_, _shekel_,
_stearine_ and _troches_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The objective, me, is _often_ erroneously used instead of the
_nominative_, I, in answer to the question--"Who is there?"

       *       *       *       *       *

In the _dramatis personæ_ of "Midsummer Night's Dream," _Oberon_ and
_Titania_, king and queen of the fairies, are introduced.

       *       *       *       *       *

At the examination in geography, _Ada_ was required to draw a map of
_Asia_, which would have been well done, if she had not drawn
_Persia_, _Afghanistan_ and _Beloochistan_ nearly twice their proper
size. She was then asked to give the location and length of the
_Altai_ and _Vosges_ mountains, and the height of their principal
peaks; a description of the _Aral_, _Adriatic_ and _Caribbean_ seas;
the course and length of the _Amoor_ and _Yang tse-kiang_; and the
location and population of _Valparaiso_ (_Chili_), _Bantam_, (_Java_),
_Norwich_, (Eng.), _Pesth_, _Quebec_, _Valenciennes_, _Neufchatel_,
_Nantes_ and _Aix-la-Chapelle_.

Her sister, _Frances_, was told to draw maps of _Buenos Ayres_ and
_Otaheite_, and to bound _Venezuela_ and _Arkansas_; to give the
length and direction of the _Araguay_, _Juniata_, _Kankakee_,
_Barbados_ and _San Joaquin_; the location of Cape _Agulhas_; the
situation and population of _Bingen_, _Calais_, _Canton_, _Acapulco_,
_Chuquisaca_, _Delhi_, _Dubuque_, _Jeddo_, _Quereturo_, _Truxillo_,
_Leicester_ and _Vevay_, and a description of _Sumatra_, _Zanzibar_,
_Barbadoes_ and the _Antilles_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sigismund_ has just returned from _Yosemite_ Valley.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Cecily_, _Chloe_ and _Viola_ have just passed their examination in
biography. The names presented to them were the following: _N. S.
Adam_ (Fr.), _G. Adam_ (Ger.), _Beatrice Cenci_, _Blucher_,
_Boccaccio_, _Anne Boleyn_, _Marco Bozzaris_, _Joseph Buonaparte_,
_D'Aubigné_, _Daubigny_, _Drouyn de Lhuys_, _Juarez_, _Lavater_,
_Marat_, _Marion_, _Catherine de Medici_, _Moultrie_, _Ovid_, _Pliny_,
_Ponce de Leon_ and _Richelieu_.



VIOLATED RULES OF GRAMMAR.


Many, who claim to be good grammarians, are occasionally guilty of the
violation of certain important rules. Attention is solicited to a few
of the more common errors of this nature.


NUMBER.

Certain compounds change the form of the first word in pluralizing,
as: _court-martial_, _brother-in-law_, _sister-in-law_. Plural,
_courts-martial_, _brothers-in-law_, etc. "John has three
brother-in-laws," then, is incorrect.

But _tea-spoonful_, _table-spoonful_, _cupful_, _pocketful_, etc., are
not considered such compounds; therefore, "two tea-spoonsful of
medicine" and "two-cupsful of flour," should be, "two tea-spoonfuls of
medicine," and "two cupfuls of flour."

When name and title are given, with a numeral adjective prefixed, the
_name_ is pluralized. "Are the two Misses Wilson at home?" should be,
"Are the two Miss Wilsons at home?" But when the numeral is omitted
the _title_ must be pluralized. "Were the Dr. Browns there?" should
be, "Were the Drs. Brown there?" The rule has been given that the
_name_ only of married ladies is pluralized, but there appears to be
no reason except that of euphony: the _Mrs. Clarks_ certainly sounds
more agreeably than the _Mistresses Clark_. In giving the plural of
such titles as: _Hon._, _Rev._, _Squire_ and _Capt._, euphony is also
often considered; but in such cases it would doubtless be better to
add the numeral, as: the _three Hon. Jacksons_.


EACH OTHER--ONE ANOTHER.

_Each other_ applies to two; _one another_ to more than two. "The
three witnesses contradicted each other," and "the two men accused one
another," are incorrect.


NEITHER, NOT--NOR.

_Neither_ and _not_ are followed by _nor_, not _or_. "Neither James or
Charles will come," and "it is not white or black," are incorrect.


TO BE, UNITING WORDS.

Words united by _to be_, referring to the same person, must be of the
same case.

"It is me," "It may have been him," "It could not be her," and "It
was not them," are not correct: _it_, in each of the sentences, is
_nominative_ and the other pronouns should be _I_, _he_, _she_ and
_they_. "I took it to be he," and "I understood it to be they," are
also wrong; for _it_ is objective in both instances, and the following
pronouns should be _him_ and _them_.


THAN, AS.

_Than_ and _as_ implying comparison, have the same case after as
before. "He loses more than me," "John knows more than him" and "James
is not so tall as her," should be, "He loses more than I" (lose),
"John knows more than he" (knows) and "James is not so tall as she"
(is tall).


WHO.

Errors connected with the use of this word are very common, even
amongst good speakers.

"Who did you see?" "Who do you know?" and "Who did you hear?" are
wrong: _whom_ should be used, for it is the object of the transitive
verbs, _see_, _know_ and _hear_. _Who_ in such sentences as: "Who are
you looking at?" and "Who are you writing to?" should likewise be
changed into _whom_, for it is the _object_ of the prepositions _at_
and _to_.


ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

Adjectives are often erroneously used for adverbs in sentences like
the following: "This is an uncommon good portrait," "It is a miserable
poor painting. "_Uncommonly good_ and _miserably poor_ are right.

Adverbs are still more commonly used for adjectives. "Mary looked
_beautifully_ at the party," and "Janauschek looked _majestically_ on
the stage," are incorrect, for it is intended to describe the
appearance of Mary and Janauschek, not their manner of looking;
therefore the adjectives _beautiful_ and _majestic_ should be used.

When _two_ objects are compared, the _comparative_ degree should be
used. "William is the heaviest of the two," and "Which is the most
desirable--health or wealth?" ought to be, "William is the heavier of
the two," and "Which is the more desirable--health or wealth?"


THESE, THOSE.

The plural demonstratives _these_ and _those_ are often erroneously
used with singular nouns, as: "I don't like these kind of people," and
"Those sort of things are very embarrassing." _Kind_ and _sort_ are
singular and should have _this_ and _that_.


INTO.

_Into_, not _in_, is used to show the relation between verbs
expressing motion, entrance, change of state, etc., and an objective
case, as: "Come into the house," "Step into the carriage," and "Look
into the room."



[Transcriber's Note:


* Text enclosed between equal signs was in bold face in the original
(=bold=).

* Added punctuation as needed to preserve the author's and publisher's
intent.

* Addition to the pronunciation guide:

    Small capital "D" indicates a sound similar to "th" (this).
    Small capital "G" and "K" indicates the sound of the German "ch".
    Small capital "H" resembles a guttural and strongly-aspirated "h".
    Small capital "R" resembles the sound of "rr" (terror).
    Small capital "U" indicates the sound of the French "eu", and
      resembles the sound of the German "ö".
    The sound for the small capitals "TH" is unknown.

* Page 17 Corrected spelling of "spellling" to "spelling" in
"Worcestor's spellling is".

* Page 29 Corrected spelling of "lenghten" to "lengthen" in "also, in
lengthy, lenghten".]





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