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Title: Fishes of Chautauqua, Cowley and Elk Counties, Kansas
Author: Metcalf, Artie L.
Language: English
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  ====================================================================
                   UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
                       MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

  Volume 11, No. 6, pp. 345-400, 2 plates, 2 figs. in text, 10 tables
  ----------------------     May 6, 1959     -------------------------


                               Fishes of
                         Chautauqua, Cowley and
                          Elk Counties, Kansas


                                   BY

                            ARTIE L. METCALF


                          UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                                LAWRENCE
                                  1959



     UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

          Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
                            Robert W. Wilson

  Volume 11, No. 6, pp. 345-400, 2 plates, 2 figs. in text, 10 tables
                         Published May 6, 1959


                          UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                            Lawrence, Kansas


                          A CONTRIBUTION FROM
                 THE STATE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KANSAS


                              PRINTED IN
                       THE STATE PRINTING PLANT
                            TOPEKA, KANSAS
                                 1959

                               27-7079



                               Fishes of
                         Chautauqua, Cowley and
                          Elk Counties, Kansas

                                  BY
                            ARTIE L. METCALF


CONTENTS


                                                      PAGE
  Introduction                                         347
  Physical characteristics of the streams              351
  Climate                                              351
  Present flora                                        353
  History                                              354
  Conservation                                         357
  Previous ichthyological collections                  357
  Acknowledgments                                      358
  Materials and methods                                358
  Collecting stations                                  359
  Annotated list of species                            362
  Fishes of doubtful or possible occurrence            383
  Faunal comparisons of different streams              384
  Distributional variations within the same stream     387
  Faunas of intermittent streams                       390
  East-west distribution                               392
  Summary                                              394
  Literature cited                                     397



INTRODUCTION


Aims of the distributional study here reported on concerning the fishes
of a part of the Arkansas River Basin of south-central Kansas were as
follows:

(1) Ascertain what species occur in streams of the three counties.

(2) Ascertain habitat preferences for the species found.

(3) Distinguish faunal associations existing in different parts of the
same stream.

(4) Describe differences and similarities among the fish faunas of the
several streams in the area.

(5) Relate the findings to the over-all picture of east-west
distribution of fishes in Kansas.

(6) List any demonstrable effects of intermittency of streams on fish
distribution within the area.

Cowley and Chautauqua counties form part of the southern border of
Kansas, and Elk County lies directly north of Chautauqua. The following
report concerns data only from those three counties unless otherwise
noted. They make up an area of 2,430 square miles having a population of
50,960 persons in 1950 (55,552 in 1940, and 60,375 in 1930). The most
populous portion of the area is western Cowley County where Arkansas
City with 12,903 inhabitants and Winfield with 10,264 inhabitants are
located. Each of the other towns has less than 2,000 inhabitants. In the
Flint Hills, which cross the central portion of the area surveyed,
population is sparse and chiefly in the valleys.

Topographically, the area is divisible into three general sections: the
extensive Wellington formation and the floodplain of the Arkansas River
in western Cowley County; the Flint Hills in the central part of the
area; and the "Chautauqua Hills" in the eastern part. The drainage
pattern is shown in Figure 1.

The Wellington formation, which is devoid of sharp relief, borders the
floodplain of the Arkansas River through most of its course in Cowley
County. A short distance south of Arkansas City, however, the Arkansas
is joined by the Walnut River and enters a narrow valley walled by
steep, wooded slopes. Frye and Leonard (1952:198) suggest that this
valley was originally carved by the Walnut River, when the Arkansas
River flowed southward west of its present course. They further suggest
that during Nebraskan glacial time the Arkansas probably was diverted to
the rapidly downcutting Walnut. The Arkansas River has a gradient of 3.0
ft. per mile in Cowley County. This gradient and others cited were
computed, by use of a cartometer, from maps made by the State Geological
Survey of Kansas and the United States Geological Survey.

Northward along the Walnut, steep bluffs and eroded gulleys characterize
both sides of the river, especially in southern Cowley County. Two
massive limestones, the Fort Riley and the Winfield, form the bluffs in
most places. The well-defined Winfield limestone is persistent on the
west bank of the river across the entire county. The Walnut has only a
few small tributaries in the southern half of Cowley County (Fig. 1). In
the northern half, however, it is joined from the east by Timber Creek
and Rock Creek. Timber Creek drains a large level area, formed by the
eroded upper portion of the Fort Riley limestone, in the north-central
portion of the county. The gradient of Timber Creek is 12.9 feet per
mile. The gradient of the Walnut River is only 2.3 ft. per mile from its
point of entrance into the county to its mouth.

    [Illustration: FIG. 1.
      Map of Cowley, Chautauqua and Elk counties, Kansas,
      showing the streams mentioned in the text.]

Grouse Creek, like the Walnut, has formed a valley of one to three miles
in width, rimmed by prominent wooded bluffs. Those on the west side are
capped by the Fort Riley limestone with the resistant Wreford and Crouse
limestones forming lower escarpments. On the east side the Wreford and
Crouse limestones provide the only escarpments along the stream above
the Vinton community, except for occasional lower outcrops of Morrill
limestone. Below Vinton the Fort Riley limestone again appears, capping
the hills above the Wreford limestone. The headwaters of the western
tributaries of Grouse Creek are generally in the Doyle shale formation;
the eastern tributaries are in the Wreford limestone, Matfield shale,
and Barnestone limestone formations. The gradient of Grouse Creek is 9
ft. per mile, of Silver Creek 14.6 ft. per mile, and of Crab Creek 14.4
ft. per mile.

The Big Caney River (Fig. 1), having a gradient of 15.4 ft. per mile in
the area studied, drains an area with considerable geological and
topographic variation. The main stream and its western tributaries
originate in Permian formations, whereas the eastern tributaries
originate in Pennsylvanian formations. Cedar Creek is exemplary of
western tributaries of Big Caney. This creek arises in the Wreford
limestone, as do several nearby tributaries of Grouse Creek. Although
the Grouse tributaries descend through only part of the Council Grove
group, Cedar Creek flows downward through the entire Grove, Admire, and
Wabaunsee groups and part of the Shawnee Group (Moore, 1951). In only 15
miles, Cedar Creek traverses formations comprising more than 60 per cent
of the entire exposed stratigraphic section in Cowley County. Bass
(1929:16) states that reliefs of 350 feet within a mile are present in
parts of this area.

Large terraces of limestone characterize the eastern flank of the Flint
Hills, which the western tributaries of Big Caney drain. Most striking
is the Foraker limestone. It characteristically consists of three
massive members in Cowley County, the uppermost of which forms the
prominent first crest of the Flint Hills. As the rapid-flowing western
tributaries of Big Caney descend over these successive limestone
members, large quantities of chert and limestone rubble are transported
and deposited in stream beds of the system. In many places the streams
of the Big Caney system flow over resistant limestone members, which
form a bedrock bottom. The eastern tributaries of Big Caney drain, for
the most part, formations of the Wabaunsee group of the Pennsylvanian.
Most of these streams have lower gradients than those entering Big Caney
from the west. The tributaries of Big Caney, along with length in miles
and gradient in feet per mile, are as follows: Spring Creek, 7.1, 54.5;
Union Creek, 6.3, 42.9; Otter Creek, 14.6, 27.4; Cedar Creek, 11.6,
31.0; Rock Creek, 15.9, 26.5; Wolf Creek, 9.3, 17.2; Turkey Creek, 8.5,
26.4; Grant Creek, 13.9, 23.4; and Sycamore Creek, 8.9, 27.0.

Spring Creek and Union Creek are short and have formed no extensive
floodplain. The high gradients of these creeks are characteristic also
of the upper portions of several other tributaries such as Cedar Creek
and Otter Creek.

Middle Caney Creek (Fig. 1) has its source in the Wabaunsee and Shawnee
groups of the Pennsylvanian but its watershed is dominated by the
"Chautauqua Hills" of the Douglas Group. This area is described by Moore
(1949:127) as "an upland formed by hard sandstone layers." The rough
rounded hills supporting thick growths of oaks differ in appearance from
both the Big Caney watershed on the west and the Verdigris River
watershed on the east. The gradient of Middle Caney in Chautauqua County
is 10.8 feet per mile. Its largest tributary, North Caney Creek, has a
gradient of 15.5 feet per mile.

The Elk River Basin resembles the Big Caney River Basin topographically.
Elk River has a gradient of 14.4 feet per mile.



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STREAMS


The stream channels derive their physical characteristics from the
geological make-up of the area and from land-use. The Arkansas River
typically has low banks; however, in a few places, as in the NE 1/4 of
Section 21, T. 33 S, R. 3 E, it cuts into limestone members to form
steep rocky banks. The bottom is predominantly sand. In years of heavy
rainfall the river is turbid, but during 1956, when it occupied only a
small portion of its channel, it was clear each time observed. All
streams surveyed were clear except after short periods of flooding in
June, and except in some isolated pools where cattle had access to the
water.

In the Walnut River, sand bottoms occur in the lower part of the stream
but the sand is coarser than that of the Arkansas River. Upstream,
gravel and rubble bottoms become more common. Steep rocky banks border
most of the course of the Walnut. During 1956, stream-flow was confined
to the center of the channel, remote from these rocky banks.

The rubble and bedrock bottoms found in most streams of the Flint Hills
have been described. In the alluvial valleys of their lower courses mud
bottoms are found. Gravel is present in some places but sand is absent.
Banks are variable but often steep and wooded. Along east- or
west-flowing streams the north bank characteristically is low and
sloping whereas the south bank is high, rises abruptly, and in many
places is continuous with wooded hills. The lower sections of Otter
Creek, Cedar Creek, and Rock Creek fit this description (Bass, 1929:19)
especially well, as does Elk River near Howard.

Streams in the Chautauqua Hills resemble those of the Flint Hills in
physical characteristics, except that a larger admixture of sandstone
occurs in the rubble.



CLIMATE


The climate of the area is characterized by those fluctuations of
temperature, wind, and rainfall typical of the Great Plains. The mean
annual temperature is 58 degrees; the mean July temperature is 81
degrees; the mean January temperature is approximately 34 degrees. The
mean annual precipitation is 32.9 in Cowley County, 38.5 in Chautauqua
County, and 35.1 in Elk County. Wind movement is great; Flora (1948:6)
states that south-central Kansas ranks close to some of the windiest
inland areas in the United States.

The area has been periodically subjected to droughts and floods. Such
phenomena are of special interest to ichthyological workers in the area.
At the time of this study drought conditions, which began in 1952,
prevailed. Even in this period of drought, however, flooding occurred on
Grouse Creek and water was high in Big Caney River after heavy local
rains on the headwaters of these streams on June 22, 1956. Some of the
lower tributaries of these same streams (such as Crab Creek and Cedar
Creek) did not flow while the mainstreams were flooding. This
illustrates the local nature of many of the summer rains in the area.

Table 1 indicates maximum, minimum, and average discharges in cubic feet
per second at several stations in the area and on nearby streams. These
figures were provided by the U. S. Geological Survey.

    TABLE 1.--CUBIC FEET PER SECOND OF WATER DISCHARGED AT GAUGING
              STATIONS IN CHAUTAUQUA, ELK, MONTGOMERY, AND COWLEY
              COUNTIES FOR YEARS PRIOR TO 1951.

 =======================================================================
   Gauging      |Drainage |Avg   |Maximum|          |Minimum|
   station      |area     |dis-  |dis-   |          |dis-   |
                |(sq. mi.)|charge|charge |  Date    |charge | Date
 ---------------|---------|------|-------|----------|-------|-----------
 Arkansas River |  43,713 |1,630 |103,000| June 10, |  1    |October 9,
 at Arkansas    |         |      |       | 1923     |       | 1921
 City           |         |      |       |          |       |
 ---------------|---------|------|-------|----------|-------|----------
 Walnut River   |   1,840 |  738 |105,000| April 23,|  0    |1928, 1936
 at Winfield    |         |      |       | 1944     |       |
 ---------------|---------|------|-------|----------|-------|----------
 Big Caney River|     445 |  264 | 35,500| April 10,|  0    |1939, 1940,
 at Elgin       |         |      |       | 1944     |       |1946, 1947
 ---------------|---------|------|-------|----------|-------|----------
 Elk River near |     575 |  393 | 39,200| April 16,|  0    |1939, 1940,
 Elk City       |         |      |       | 1945     |       |1946
 ---------------|---------|------|-------|----------|-------|----------
 Fall River near|     591 |  359 | 45,600| April 16,|  0    |1939, 1940,
 Fall River     |         |      |       | 1945     |       |1946
 ---------------|---------|------|-------|----------|-------|----------
 Verdigris River|   2,892 |1,649 |117,000| April 17,|  0    |1932, 1934,
 at Independence|         |      |       | 1945     |       |1936, 1939,
                |         |      |       |          |       |1940
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Something of the effect that drought and flash-flood have had on Big
Caney River is shown by the monthly means of daily discharge from
October, 1954, to September, 1956, at the stream-gauging station near
Elgin, Kansas (Table 2). Within these monthly variations there are also
pronounced daily fluctuations; on Big Caney River approximately 1/4 mile
south of Elgin, Kansas, discharge in cubic feet per second for May,
1944, ranged from .7 to 9,270.0 and for May, 1956, from .03 to 20.0.

    TABLE 2.--MONTHLY MEANS OF DAILY DISCHARGE IN CUBIC FEET PER
              SECOND FOR BIG CANEY RIVER AT ELGIN, KANSAS

    _Month_    _1954-55_    _1955-56_

    October       103.00        69.60
    November         .31          .78
    December         .18         1.92
    January          .78         1.65
    February        4.76         2.08
    March           3.37         1.27
    April           4.91          .47
    May           624.00         7.37
    June           51.30        35.20
    July            1.20         1.85
    August          0.00         0.00
    September        .04         0.00



PRESENT FLORA


The flora of the region varies greatly at the present time. Land-use has
altered the original floral communities, especially in the intensively
cultivated area of western Cowley County and in the river valleys.

The sandy Arkansas River floodplain exhibits several stages ranging from
sparsely vegetated sandy mounds near the river through stages of Johnson
grass, willow, and cottonwood, to an elm-hackberry fringe-forest. The
Wellington formation bordering the floodplain supports a prairie flora
where not disturbed by cultivation; Gates (1936:15) designates this as a
part of the mixed bluestem and short-grass region. _Andropogon gerardi_
Vitman., _Andropogon scoparius_ Michx., _Sorghastrum nutans_ (L.), and
_Panicum virgatum_ L. are important grasses in the hilly pasture-lands.
Although much of this land is virgin prairie, the tall, lush condition
of the grasses described by early writers such as Mooso (1888:304), and
by local residents, is not seen today. These residents speak of slough
grasses (probably _Tripsacum dactyloides_ L. and _Spartina pectinata_
Link.) that originally formed rank growths. These no doubt helped
conserve water and stabilize flow in small headwater creeks. Remnants of
some of these sloughs can still be found. The streams in the Flint Hills
have fringe-forests of elm, hackberry, walnut, ash, and willow.

Eastward from the Flint Hills these fringe-forests become thicker with a
greater admixture of hickories and oaks. The north slopes of hills also
become more wooded. However, grassland remains predominant over woodland
in western Chautauqua and Elk counties, whereas in the eastern one-half
of Chautauqua County and the eastern one-third of Elk County the wooded
Chautauqua Hills prevail. This is one of the most extensive wooded
upland areas in Kansas. Hale (1955:167) describes this woodland as part
of an ecotonal scrub-oak forest bordering the Great Plains south through
Texas. He found stand dominants in these wooded areas to be _Quercus
marilandica_ Muenchh., _Quercus stellata_ Wang., and _Quercus velutina_
Lam.

Few true aquatic plants were observed in the Arkansas River although
mats of duckweed were found in shallow backwater pools at station A-3
(Fig. 2) on December 22, 1956. In the Walnut River _Najas guadalupensis_
Spreng. was common at station W-2. Stones were usually covered with
algae in both the Arkansas and Walnut rivers. A red bloom, possibly
attributable to _Euglena rubra_ (Johnson), was observed on a tributary
of the Walnut River on July 9, 1956, at station W-4.

Green algae were abundant at all stations in the Caney, Elk, and Grouse
systems during May and June, 1956, and reappeared late in September.
_Chara_ sp. was common in these streams in April and May.

The most characteristic rooted aquatic of streams in the Flint Hills was
_Justicia americana_ L. At station G-7 on Grouse Creek and Station C-8
on Big Caney River (Fig. 3), _Nelumbo lutea_ (Willd.) was found.
_Myriophyllum heterophyllum_ Michx. formed dense floating mats at a
number of stations. Other aquatic plants observed in the Caney, Elk, and
Grouse systems included _Potamogeton gramineus_ L., _Potamogeton
nodosus_ Poir., _Potamogeton foliosus_ Raf., _Sagittaria latifolia_
Willd., _Typha latifolia_ L., and _Jussiaea diffusa_ Forsk.



HISTORY


In 1857, a survey was made of the southern boundary of Kansas. Several
diaries (Miller, 1932; Caldwell, 1937; Bieber, 1932) were kept by
members of the surveying party, which traveled from east to west. These
accounts contain complaints of difficulty in traversing a country of
broken ridges and gulleys as the party approached the area now
comprising Chautauqua County. One account by Hugh Campbell, astronomical
computer for the party (Caldwell, 1937) mentions rocky ridges covered
with dense growth of "black jack," while another by Col. Joseph Johnson,
Commander (Miller, 1932) speaks of "a good deal of oakes in the
heights"--indicating that the upland oak forest of the Chautauqua Hills
was in existence at that time. On reaching Big Caney River near Elgin,
Campbell wrote of a stream with very high banks and of a valley timbered
with oak and black walnut. While the party was encamped on Big Caney
River some fishing was done. Campbell (Caldwell, 1937:353) described the
fish taken as "Cat, Trout or Bass, Buffalo and Garr." Eugene Bandel
(Bieber, 1932:152) wrote, "This forenoon we did not expect to leave
camp, and therefore we went fishing. In about two hours we caught more
fish than the whole company could eat. There were some forty fish
caught, some of them weighing over ten pounds." It was noted that the
waters of Big Caney and its tributaries were "very clear." Progressing
up Rock Creek, Johnson wrote of entering a high rolling plain covered
with fine grass, and crossed occasionally by clear wooded streams
(probably Big and Little Beaver Creeks and Grouse Creek). The diary of
Hugh Campbell (Caldwell, 1937:354) contains a description of the
Arkansas River Valley near the Oklahoma border. "The Arkansas River at
this point is about 300 yards wide, its waters are muddy, not quite so
much so, as those of the Mississippi or Rio Bravo. Its valley is wooded
and about two miles in width, the main bottom here, being on the east
side. On the west it is a rolling prairie as far as the eye can see,
affording excellent grass." Some seining was done while encamped on the
Arkansas River and "buffalo, catfish, sturgeons, and gars" were taken
(Bieber, 1932:156).

An editorial in the Winfield Courier of November 16, 1899, vigorously
registers concern about a direct effect of settlement on fish
populations in rivers of the area:

"The fish in the streams of Cowley County are being slaughtered by the
thousands, by the unlawful use of the seine and the deadly hoop net.
Fish are sold on the market every day, sometimes a tubful at a time,
which never swallowed a hook.

"The fish law says it is unlawful to seine, snare, or trap fish but some
of the smaller streams in the county, it is said are so full of hoop and
trammel nets that a minnow cannot get up or down stream. These nets not
only destroy what fish there are in the streams but they keep other fish
from coming in, they are not operated as a rule by farmers to supply
their own tables but by fellows who catch the fish to sell with no
thought or care for the welfare of others who like to catch and eat
fish.

"If there is a fishwarden in Cowley County so far as his utility goes
the county would be as well off without him and his inactivity has
caused many of those interested to get together for the purpose of
seeing that the law is enforced.

"Depredations like this work injury in more ways than one. They not only
deplete the streams of fish large enough to eat and destroy the source
of supply but if the U. S. Fish Commission discovers that the law is not
enforced and the fish not protected, there will be no free government
fish placed in Cowley County streams. It is useless for the Government
to spend thousands of dollars to keep the streams well supplied if a few
outlaws are allowed to ruthlessly destroy them. The new organization has
its eye on certain parties now and something is liable to drop
unexpectedly soon."

Graham (1885:78) listed 13 species of fish that had already been
introduced into Kansas waters prior to 1885 by the State Fish
Commission.

These early references indicate that direct effects of settlement on the
native flora and fauna were recognized early. Concern such as that
expressed in the editorial above persists today; however, it is not
clear whether the fish fauna of the streams of the area has been
essentially changed by man's predation. The indirect effects through
human modifications of the environment seem to be of much importance.
Three modifications which have especially affected streams have been
agricultural use, urbanization, and industrialization.

The effect of land-use on streams is closely related to its effect on
the flora of the watershed. Turbidity, sedimentation, and the rate,
periodicity, and manner of flow all bear some relationship to the
land-use of the watershed. Stream-flow in the area has been discussed in
the section on climate.

The effects of urbanization are more tangible and better recognized than
those of agricultural land-use. Streams that flow through cities and
other populous areas undergo some modification, especially of the
streamside flora. Another effect of urbanization has been increased
loads of sewage discharged into the streams. The combined populations of
Arkansas City and Winfield rose from 3,986 in 1880 to 23,167 in 1950.
Arkansas City found it necessary to construct a sewage system in 1889;
Winfield in 1907.

There are, at the present time, nine towns within the area that have
municipal sewage systems. The State Training Home at Winfield also has a
sewage system. The Kansas State Board of Health, Division of Sanitation,
has provided information concerning adequacy of these systems and
certain others in nearby counties as of February 5, 1957. This
information is shown in Table 3.

Representatives of the Division of Sanitation, Kansas State Board of
Health, expressed the belief that pollution by both domestic sewage and
industrial wastes would be largely eliminated in the "lower Arkansas"
and in the Walnut watershed by 1959.

Important oil and gas resources have been discovered in each of the
three counties. The first producing wells were drilled between 1900 and
1902 (Jewett and Abernathy, 1945:24). The Arkansas River flows through
several oilfields in its course across Cowley County (Jewett and
Abernathy, 1945:97). A number of producing wells have been drilled in
the Grouse Creek watershed since 1939 and many of these wells are near
the banks of the creek. In the Big Caney watershed of Cowley and
Chautauqua counties there has been little oil production in recent
years; however, a few small pools are presently producing in
southwestern Elk County.

Clapp (1920:33) stated that "Many of the finest streams of our state are
now destitute of fish on account of oil and salt pollution. The Walnut
River, once as  fine a bass stream as could be found anywhere, and a
beautiful stream, too, is now a murky oil run, and does not contain a
single fish so far as I know. The Fall and Verdigris rivers are
practically ruined. Both the Caney rivers are affected, and may soon be
ruined for fishing." Doze (1924:31) noted "Some of the finest streams in
the state have been ruined as habitat for wild life, the Walnut River is
probably the most flagrant example."

    TABLE 3.--SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SOME SOUTH-CENTRAL KANSAS
              COMMUNITIES.

 =======================================================================
        Community       |  Status on February 5, |     Remarks
                        |             1957       |
 -----------------------+------------------------+----------------------
 Cowley County:         |                        |
   Arkansas City        | Discharging raw sewage | Adequate plant in
                        |                        |  design stage.
   Geuda Springs        | Discharging raw sewage |
   Winfield             | Inadequate             |
   State training school| Adequate               |
   Udall                | Adequate               |
 -----------------------+------------------------+----------------------
 Chautauqua County:     |                        |
   Cedar Vale           | Inadequate             |
   Sedan                | Adequate               | In operation 30
                        |                        |  days.
   Elgin                | Adequate               |
 -----------------------+------------------------+----------------------
 Elk County:            |                        |
   Moline               | Inadequate             |
   Howard               | Adequate               |
 -----------------------+------------------------+----------------------
 Sumner County:         |                        |
   Belle Plaine         | Discharging raw sewage | Adequate plant under
                        |                        |  construction.
   Mulvane              | Discharging raw sewage | Adequate plant under
                        |                        |  construction.
   Oxford               | Discharging raw sewage | Construction on
                        |                        |  adequate plant to
                        |                        |  start soon.
 -----------------------+------------------------+----------------------
 Butler County:         |                        |
   Augusta              | Adequate               |
   El Dorado            | Discharging raw sewage | Adequate plant under
                        |                        |  construction.
   Douglass             | Discharging raw sewage | Adequate plant to
                        |                        |  go into operation
                        |                        |  within 30 days.
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Pollution by petroleum wastes from refineries has also affected the
streams studied. The only refinery within the area is at Arkansas City.
In Butler County there are four refineries on the Walnut watershed
upstream from the area surveyed. Metzler (1952) noted that "fish-kills"
occurred from the mid-1940's until 1952 in connection with wastes
periodically discharged from these refineries. However, the largest
kill, in 1944, was attributed to excessive brine pollution.

In Arkansas City a meat-packing plant, a large railroad workshop, two
flour mills, two milk plants, and several small manufacturing plants
contribute wastes which may figure in industrial pollution. There are
milk plants and small poultry processing plants at Winfield. In
Chautauqua and Elk Counties there is little industrial activity.



CONSERVATION


In recent years several measures have been implemented or proposed to
conserve the water and land resources of the Arkansas River Basin.
Droughts and floods have focused public attention on such conservation.
Less spectacular, but nevertheless important, problems confronting
conservationists include streambank erosion, channel deterioration,
silting, recreational demands for water, and irrigation needs.

Congress has authorized the U. S. Corps of Engineers (by the Flood
Control Act of 1941) to construct six dam and reservoir projects in the
Verdigris watershed. Two of these--Hulah Reservoir in Osage County,
Oklahoma, on Big Caney River, and Fall River Reservoir in Greenwood
County, Kansas--have been completed. Other reservoirs authorized in the
Verdigris watershed include Toronto, Neodesha, and Elk City (Table
Mound) in Kansas and Oologah in Oklahoma. Construction is underway on
the Toronto Reservoir and some planning has been accomplished on the
Neodesha and Elk City projects.

The possibilities of irrigation projects in the Verdigris and Walnut
River basins are under investigation by the United States Bureau of
Reclamation (Foley, _et al._, 1955:F18).

An area of 11 square miles in Chautauqua and Montgomery Counties is
included in the Aiken Creek "Pilot Watershed Project," a co-operative
effort by federal, state, and local agencies to obtain information as to
the effects of an integrated watershed protection program (Foley, _et
al._, 1955:131).



PREVIOUS ICHTHYOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS


Few accounts of fishes in the area here reported on have been published.
Evermann and Fordice (1886:184) made a collection from Timber Creek at
Winfield in 1884.

The State Biological Survey collected actively from 1910 to 1912, but
localities visited in the Arkansas River System were limited to the
Neosho and Verdigris River basins (Breukelman, 1940:377). The only
collection made in the area considered here was on the Elk River in Elk
County on July 11, 1912. The total species list of this collection is
not known.

In the years 1924-1929 Minna E. Jewell collected at various places in
central Kansas. On June 30, 1925, Jewell and Frank Jobes made
collections on Timber Creek and Silver Creek in Cowley County.

Hoyle (1936:285) mentions collections made by himself and Dr. Charles E.
Burt, who was then Professor of Biology at Southwestern College,
Winfield, Kansas. Records in the Department of Biology, Kansas State
Teachers College at Emporia, indicate that Dr. Burt and others made
collections in the area which have not been published on.

    TABLE 4.--COLLECTIONS MADE BY DR. FRANK B. CROSS OF THE STATE
              BIOLOGICAL SURVEY IN 1955.

  ====================================================================
  Collection number |     Date      | River     |      Location
  ------------------+---------------+-----------+---------------------
        C-131       | April 5, 1955 |  Elk      | Sec. 3, T31S, R11E
  ------------------+---------------+-----------+---------------------
        C-132       | April 5, 1955 | Sycamore  | Sec. 5, T34S, R10E
  ------------------+---------------+-----------+---------------------
        C-133       | April 5, 1955 | Big Caney | Sec. 12, T34S, R8E
  ------------------+---------------+-----------+---------------------
        C-136       | April 6, 1955 |  Walnut   | Sec. 29 or 32, T32S,
                    |               |           |   R4E
  --------------------------------------------------------------------

Claire Schelske (1957) studied fishes of the Fall and Verdigris Rivers
in Wilson and Montgomery counties from March, 1954, to February, 1955.

In the annotated list of species that follows, records other than mine
are designated by the following symbols:

  E&F--Evermann and Fordice
  SBS--State Biological Survey (1910-1912)
  J&J--Jewell and Jobes (collection on Silver Creek)
  C--Collection number--Cross (State Biological Survey, 1955)
  UMMZ--University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
  OAM--Oklahoma A&M College Museum of Zoology



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I am grateful to Professor Frank B. Cross for his interest in my
investigation, for his counsel, and for his penetrating criticism of
this paper. This study would have been impossible without the assistance
of several persons who helped in the field. Mr. Artie C. Metcalf and Mr.
Delbert Metcalf deserve special thanks for their enthusiastic and
untiring co-operation in collecting and preserving of specimens. Mrs.
Artie C. Metcalf, Miss Patricia Metcalf, Mr. Chester Metcalf, and Mr.
Forrest W. Metcalf gave help which is much appreciated. I am indebted to
the following persons for numerous valuable suggestions: Dr. John
Breukelman, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas; Dr. George
Moore, Oklahoma A&M College, and Mr. W. L. Minckley, Lawrence, Kansas.



MATERIALS AND METHODS


Collections were made by means of: (1) a four-foot net of nylon screen;
(2) a 10×4-foot "common-sense" woven seine with 1/4-inch mesh; (3) a
15×4-foot knotted mesh seine; (4) a 20×5-foot 1/4-inch mesh seine; (5)
pole and line (natural and artificial baits). At most stations the
four-foot, ten-foot, and twenty-foot seines were used; however, the
equipment that was used varied according to the size of pool, number of
obstructions, nature of bottom, amount of flow, and type of streambank.
Usually several hours were spent at each station and several stations
were revisited from time to time. Percentages noted in the List of
Species represent the relative number taken in the first five
seine-hauls at each station.



COLLECTING STATIONS


Collecting was done at stations listed below and shown in Fig. 2. Each
station was assigned a letter, designating the stream system on which
the station was located, and a number which indicates the position of
the station on the stream. This number increases progressively upstream
from mouth to source. Code letters used are as follows: A--Arkansas
River; W--Walnut River System; B--Beaver Creek System; C--Big Caney
River System; G--Grouse Creek System; M--Middle Caney Creek System;
E--Elk River System. All dates are in the year 1956.

    [Illustration: FIG. 2.
      Map of Cowley, Chautauqua and Elk counties, Kansas,
      showing stations at which collecting was done.]

A-1. Arkansas River. Sec. 2 and 3, T. 35 S, R. 4 E. June 14 and August
20. Braided channel with sand bottom. Water slightly turbid, with layer
of oil sludge on bottom.

A-2. Arkansas River. Sec. 22, T. 34 S, R. 3 E. August 25. Flowing
through diverse channels. Average depth 12 inches. Bottom sand. (Plate
9, fig. 1.)

A-3. Arkansas River. Sec. 21, T. 33 S, R. 3 E. August 27 and December
22. Flowing over fine sand. Average depth 11 inches. Some areas of
backwater with oil sludge on bottom.

W-1. Walnut River. Sec. 20, T. 34 S, R. 4 E. July 7. Flowing rapidly,
with large volume, because of recent rains. Average width 300 feet.
Bottom gravel. Water turbid.

W-2. Walnut River. Sec. 11, T. 34 S, R. 4 E. July 20. Rubble riffles and
large shallow pools with gravel bottoms. Average width, 100 feet. Water
clear.

W-3. Walnut River. Sec. 29, T. 32 S, R. 4 E. July 17. Pools and riffles
below Tunnel Mill Dam at Winfield. Water clear.

W-4. Badger Creek. Sec. 6, T. 33 S, R. 5 E. July 17. Small pools.
Average width 7 feet, average length 40 feet, average depth 8 inches.
Water turbid and malodorous. Bottoms and banks mud. Much detritus
present.

W-5. Timber Creek. Sec. 35, T. 31 S, R. 4 E. June 6. Intermittent pools,
widely separated. Average width 9 feet, average depth 8 inches. Bottom
mud and gravel.

B-1. Big Beaver Creek. Sec. 8, T. 35 S, R. 7 E. May 28. Isolated pools.
Average width 10 feet, average depth one foot. Water turbid. Bottom
rubble.

B-2. Little Beaver Creek. Sec. 18, T. 35 S, R. 6 E. July 21.
Intermittent pools. Average width 10 feet, average length 35 feet,
average depth 10 inches. Bottoms rubble, mud, and bedrock.

B-3. Big Beaver Creek. Sec. 28, T. 34 S, R. 7 E. July 22. Series of
small turbid pools.

G-1. Grouse Creek. Sec. 5, T. 35 S, R. 5 E. May 30, September 5, and
September 24. Intermittent pools in close succession. Average width 22
feet, average depth 16 inches. Water turbid on May 30 but clear in
September. Bottom rubble. Steep banks. Little shade for pools.

G-2. Grouse Creek. Sec. 23, T. 34 S, R. 5 E. August 29. Series of
shallow intermittent pools. Average width 42 feet, average length 120
feet, average depth 15 inches. Bottom bedrock and mud. (Plate 9, fig.
2.)

G-3. Grouse Creek. Sec. 6, T. 34 S, R. 6 E. July 12. Intermittent pools.
Average width 20 feet, average length 65 feet, average depth 14 inches.
Bottom bedrock and gravel. _Justicia americana_ L. abundant.

G-4. Grouse Creek. Sec. 12, T. 33 S, R. 6 E. June 1 and September 7.
Intermittent pools. Average width 15 feet, average length 100 feet,
average depth 18 inches. Water turbid in June, clear in September.
_Najas guadalupensis_ Spreng., and _Myriophyllum heterophyllum_ Michx.
common.

G-5. Grouse Creek. Sec. 19, T. 32 S, R. 7 E. July 2. Succession of
riffles and pools. Water clear. Volume of flow approximately one cubic
foot per second, but creek bankful after heavy rains on June 22. Average
width 20 feet, average depth 18 inches.

G-6. Grouse Creek. Sec. 32, T. 31 S, R. 7 E. July 8. Small intermittent
pools to which cattle had access. Water turbid, bottom mud and rubble.
Average width 10 feet, average depth 8 inches. Stream-bed covered with
tangled growths of _Sorghum halepense_ (L.).

G-7. Grouse Creek. Sec. 34, T. 30 S, R. 7 E. July 8. Stream flowing
slightly. Water clear. Average width of pools 30 feet; average depth 20
inches. Bottom bedrock and gravel. _Myriophyllum heterophyllum_ Michx.,
_Nelumbo lutea_ (Willd.), and _Justicia americana_ L. common in shallow
water.

G-8. Silver Creek. Sec. 1, T. 33 S, R. 5 E. July 17. Intermittent pools.
Average width 30 feet, average length 120 feet, average depth 12 inches.
Water clear.

G-9. Silver Creek. Sec. 4, T. 32 S, R. 6 E. July 17. Small upland brook
with volume less than one-half cfs. Average width 12 feet, average depth
10 inches. Water clear, bottom mostly rubble.

G-10. Crab Creek. Sec. 33, T. 33 S, R. 6 E. June 24. Intermittent pools,
showing evidence of having flowed after rains on June 22. Average width
15 feet, average depth 16 inches.

G-11. Crab Creek. Sec. 35, T. 33 S, R. 6 E. July 16. Small intermittent
pools. Average width 13 feet, average length 55 feet, average depth 11
inches. Water clear. Bottom rubble and mud.

G-12. Crab Creek. Sec. 28, T. 33 S, R. 7 E. June 2 and July 20. Isolated
pools. Average width 18 feet, average depth one foot. Water turbid.
Bottom bedrock and rubble. _Myriophyllum heterophyllum_ and _Justicia
americana_ abundant.

G-13. Crab Creek. Sec. 21, T. 33 S, R. 7 E. July 29. Isolated pools 300
feet by 24 feet. Average depth 12 inches. Water turbid.

G-14. Unnamed creek (hereafter called Grand Summit Creek). Sec. 26, T.
31 S, R. 7 E. August 30. Intermittent pools. Average width 15 feet,
average length 45 feet, average depth 11 inches. Water clear. Bottom
rubble.

    [Illustration: PLATE 9

      1. Station A-2. Arkansas River. (Cowley County, Section 22,
         T. 34 S, R. 3 E.)

      2. Station G-2. Grouse Creek. (Cowley County, Section 23,
         T. 34 S, R. 5 E.)]

    [Illustration: PLATE 10

      1. Station C-12. Cedar Creek. (Cowley County, Section 17,
         T. 34 S, R. 8 E.)

      2. Station C-16. Spring Creek. (Elk County, Section 26,
         T. 31 S, R. 8 E.) Volume of flow of this small creek
         is indicated by riffle in foreground.]

G-15. Unnamed creek (same as above). Sec. 17, T. 31 S, R. 8 E. July 27.
Small upland creek bordered by bluestem pastures. Pools with average
width of 10 feet, average length 30 feet, average depth 9 inches. Water
slightly turbid. Bottom rubble and mud.

G-16. Crab Creek. Sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 7 E. July 25. Small isolated
pools. Average width 17 feet, average length 58 feet, average depth 9
inches. Water turbid.

G-17. Crab Creek. Sec. 23, T. 33 S, R. 7 E. July 25. Upland brook
bordered by bluestem pastures. Unshaded intermittent pools. Average
width 7 feet, average length 40 feet, average depth 9 inches. Water
turbid.

C-1. Big Caney River. Sec. 16, T. 33 S, R. 10 E. July 19. Intermittent
pools. Average width 47 feet, average length 90 feet, average depth 13
inches. Bottom rubble and bedrock. Water clear to slightly turbid.

C-2. Big Caney River. Sec. 1, T. 35 S, R. 9 E. September 5. Series of
intermittent pools. Bottom rubble and large stones.

C-3. Big Caney River. Sec. 29, T. 34 S, R. 9 E. June 17. Large shallow
pool below ledge 3 feet high forming "Osro Falls." Bottom bedrock.

C-4. Big Caney River. Sec. 32, T. 34 S, R. 9 E. June 3. Three large
pools (50 feet by 300 feet) with connecting riffles. Water turbid.
Bottom bedrock and rubble.

C-5. Big Caney River. Sec. 11 and 12, T. 34 S, R. 8 E. May 27, May 29,
June 11, June 18, June 19, and June 27. From a low-water dam, 6 feet
high, downstream for 1/4 mile. Pools alternating with rubble and bedrock
riffles. Collecting was done at different times of day and night, and
when stream was flowing and intermittent.

C-6. Big Caney River. Sec. 26, T. 33 S, R. 8 E. June 16. Intermittent
pools with bedrock bottom. Water slightly turbid. Average width 16 feet,
average depth 10 inches.

C-7. Otter Creek. Sec. 26, T. 33 S, R. 8 E. June 16. Pools and riffles.
Water clear. Algae abundant. Average width 10 feet, average depth 10
inches.

C-8. Big Caney River. Sec. 1, T. 33 S, R. 8 E. June 10. Intermittent
pools. Average width 10 feet, average depth 14 inches. Water clear.
Bottom rubble and gravel. Aquatic plants included _Chara_ sp.,
_Sagittaria latifolia_ Willd., _Jussiaea diffusa_ Forsk., and _Nelumbo
lutea_ (Willd.).

C-9. Big Caney River. Sec. 6 and 7, T. 32 S, R. 9 E. June 27. Clear,
flowing stream, 20 feet wide, volume estimated at 5 cfs. Bottom gravel
and rubble. Extensive gravel riffles.

C-10. Big Caney River. Sec. 29 and 32, T. 31 S, R. 9 E. June 27. Water
clear and flowing rapidly, volume estimated at 5-6 cfs. Bottom rubble
with a few muddy backwater areas.

C-11. Big Caney River. Sec. 7, T. 31 S, R. 9 E. July 26. Flowing, with
less than 1 cfs. Average width 20 feet, average depth 22 inches. Water
extremely clear. Bottom gravel and rubble. _Myriophyllum heterophyllum_,
_Potamogeton foliosus_, and _Justicia americana_ common.

C-12. Cedar Creek. Sec. 17, T. 34 S, R. 8 E. March 10, April 2, June 1,
June 6, and August 24. Pools and riffles along 1/4 mile of stream were
seined in the early collections. In August only small isolated pools
remained. Bottom bedrock and rubble. Much detritus along streambanks.
(Plate 10, fig. 1.)

C-13. Otter Creek. Sec. 16, T. 33 S, R. 8 E. June 15. Flowing, less than
1 cfs. Pools interspersed with rubble riffles. Water clear.

C-14. Otter Creek. Sec. 30, T. 32 S, R. 8 E. May 31, and September 3.
Series of small pools. Average width 10 feet, average depth 15 inches.
Shallow rubble riffles. Water extremely clear. Temperature 68° at 6:30
p.m. on May 31; 78° at 2:00 p.m. on September 3.

C-15. Spring Creek. Sec. 35, T. 31 S, R. 8 E. June 28. Small, clear,
upland brook with rubble bottom. Pools 10 feet in average width and
11 inches in average depth. Numerous shallow rubble riffles.

C-16. Spring Creek. Sec. 26, T. 31 S, R. 8 E. July 9. Small intermittent
pools. Average width 10 feet; average depth 8 inches. Bottom gravel.
(Plate 10, fig. 2.)

C-17. West Fork Big Caney River. Sec. 36, T. 30 S, R. 8 E. July 27.
Small pool below low-water dam. Pool 20 feet by 30 feet with average
depth of 20 inches.

C-18. East Fork Big Caney River. Sec. 31, T. 30 S, R. 9 E. July 27.
Isolated pool 25 feet by 25 feet with an average depth of 15 inches.

M-1. Middle Caney Creek. Sec. 23, T. 33 S, R. 10 E. July 4. Intermittent
pools. Average width 45 feet, average depth 15 inches. Water stained
brown. Oil fields nearby but no sludge or surface film of oil noted.
Bottom rubble and bedrock.

M-2. Pool Creek. Sec. 25, T. 33 S, R. 10 E. May 26. Pool 120 feet by 40
feet below limestone ledge approximately 12 feet high forming Butcher's
Falls. Other smaller pools sampled. Water clear. Bottom bedrock and
rubble.

E-1. Elk River. Sec. 12, T. 31 S, R. 11 E. July 9. Four intermittent
pools seined. Average width 32 feet, average depth 13 inches. Bottom
bedrock, rubble, and mud. Water turbid.

E-2. Elk River. Sec. 3, T. 31 S, R. 11 E. June 28. Intermittent pools
below and above sandstone ledge approximately 6 feet high forming
"falls" at Elk Falls. Average width 33 feet, average depth 15 inches.
Bottom bedrock, rubble and mud. Water slightly turbid.

E-3. Elk River. Sec. 21, T. 30 S, R. 11 E. June 28. Two small pools, 10
feet by 30 feet with average depth of 6 inches. Bottom bedrock.

E-4. Elk River. Sec. 12, T. 30 S, R. 10 E. June 28. One long pool 500
feet by 50 feet with a variety of depths and bottom conditions ranging
from mud to bedrock. Average depth 18 inches. Water turbid and pools
unshaded.

E-5. Elk River. Sec. 32, T. 29 S, R. 10 E. August 30. Intermittent
pools. Average width 21 feet, average depth 20 inches. Bottom rubble.
Water clear.

E-6. Elk River. Sec. 23, T. 29 S, R. 9 E. August 30. Small isolated
pools. River mostly dry. Bottom bedrock. Water slightly turbid with
gray-green "bloom."

E-7. Wildcat Creek. Sec. 11, T. 31 S, R. 10 E. Volume of flow less than
one cfs. Average width 20 feet, average depth 18 inches. Domestic sewage
pollution from town of Moline suspected.



ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES


#Lepisosteus osseus oxyurus# (Linnaeus): Stations A-1, W-2, W-3, G-2,
G-3, G-4, C-1, C-2, C-3, C-5, C-8.

Of 34 longnose gar taken, 27 were young-of-the-year. The latter were
from shallow isolated pools (bedrock bottom at C-1, C-3, C-4; gravel
bottom at C-6). At station W-1 in moderate flood conditions several
young-of-the-year were found in the most sheltered water next to the
banks.

The longnose gar was found only in the lower parts of the streams
surveyed (but were observed by me in smaller tributaries of these
streams in years when the streams had a greater volume of flow). A
preference for downstream habitat is suggested in several other surveys:
Cross (1950:134, 1954a:307) on the South Fork of the Cottonwood and on
Stillwater Creek; Cross and Moore (1952:401) on the Poteau and Fourche
Maline rivers; Moore and Buck (1953:21) on the Chikaskia River.


#Lepisosteus platostomus# Rafinesque: One shortnose gar (K. U. 3157) has
been taken from the Arkansas River in Cowley County. This gar was taken
by Mr. Richard Rinker on a bank line on April 10, 1955, at station A-3.


#Dorosoma cepedianum# (Le Sueur): Stations W-3, G-4, C-4, C-5, M-1, E-1,
E-4.

In smaller streams such as the Elk and Caney rivers adult gizzard shad
seemed scarce. They were more common in collections made in larger
rivers (Walnut, Verdigris, and Neosho). In impoundments of this region
shad often become extremely abundant. Schoonover (1954:173) found that
shad comprised 97 per cent by number and 83 per cent by weight of fishes
taken in a survey of Fall River Reservoir.


#Carpiodes carpio carpio# (Rafinesque): Stations A-1, A-2, A-3, W-3,
G-1, C-3.

Hubbs and Lagler (1947:50) stated that the river carpsucker was "Mostly
confined to large silty rivers." Of the stations listed above C-3 least
fits this description being a large shallow pool about 1/3 acre in area
having bedrock bottom and slightly turbid water. The other stations
conform to conditions described by Hubbs and Lagler (_loc. cit._).


#Carpiodes velifer# (Rafinesque): SBS. Three specimens of the highfin
carpsucker (K. U. 177-179) were collected on July 11, 1912, from an
unspecified location on Elk River in Elk County.


#Ictiobus bubalus# (Rafinesque): Stations W-3, G-1, G-2, C-1, C-3, C-4,
C-6, E-1, E-2, E-3.

The smallmouth buffalo shared the downstream proclivities of the river
carpsucker. In half of the collections (G-2, C-1, E-1, E-2, E-3) only
large juveniles were taken; in the other half only young-of-the-year
were found. In one pool at station C-1 hundreds of young buffalo and gar
were observed. This large shallow pool was 100 × 150 feet, with an
average depth of 8 inches. The bottom consisted of bedrock. Station C-6
was a small pool with bedrock bottom, eight feet in diameter, with an
average depth of only 4 inches. Station E-3 was also a small isolated
pool with bedrock bottom and an average depth of 6 inches.


#Ictiobus niger# (Rafinesque): Station C-5.

Only two specimens of the black buffalo were taken. An adult was caught
on spinning tackle, with doughballs for bait. The second specimen was a
juvenile taken by seining one mile below Station C-5 on September 22.


#Ictiobus cyprinella# (Valenciennes): Station G-2.

Two juvenal bigmouth buffalo were taken in a shallow pool, along with
several juvenal smallmouth buffalo.


#Moxostoma aureolum pisolabrum# Trautman and #Moxostoma carinatum#
(Cope): SBS.

Two specimens of _Moxostoma aureolum pisolabrum_ (K. U. 242-243) and one
specimen of _Moxostoma carinatum_ (K. U. 223) were taken from an
unspecified locality on Elk River in Elk County on July 11, 1912. There
are no other records for any of these fish in the collection area. _M.
aureolum pisolabrum_ has been taken in recent years in eastern Kansas
(Trautman, 1951:3) and has been found as far west as the Chikaskia
drainage in northern Oklahoma by Moore and Buck (1953:21). That
occasional northern redhorse enter the larger rivers of the area here
reported on seems probable.

_M. carinatum_ has been reported only a few times from Kansas. The only
recent records are from the Verdigris River (Schelske, 1957:39). Elkins
(1954:28) took four specimens of _M. carinatum_ from cutoff pools on
Salt Creek in Osage County, Oklahoma, in 1954. This recent record
suggests that occurrences in southern Kansas are probable.


#Moxostoma erythrurum# (Rafinesque): Stations G-5, G-7, G-10, G-12, C-4,
C-5, C-6, C-8, C-10, C-11, C-12, C-13, C-15, E-1, E-2, E-4 (C-131,
C-133, C-136).

The golden redhorse was common in several of the streams surveyed, and
utilized the upland parts of streams more extensively than any of the
other catostomids occurring in the area. _M. erythrurum_ and _Ictiobus
bubalus_ were taken together at only two stations. In no case was _I.
bubalus_ taken from a tributary of Grouse Creek or of Big Caney River.
In contrast _M. erythrurum_ reached its greatest concentrations in such
habitat, although it was always a minor component of the total fish
population. Stations C-5 and E-2 were the lowermost environments in
which this redhorse was taken.

The largest relative number of golden redhorse was found at station G-12
on Crab Creek where 7.5 per cent of the fishes taken were of this
species. This station consisted of intermittent pools averaging one foot
in depth. Bottoms were bedrock and rubble and the water was clear and
shaded. The fish were consistently taken in the deeper, open part of
the pool where aquatic vegetation, which covered most of the pool, was
absent.

Another station at which _M. erythrurum_ was abundant was C-12 on Cedar
Creek. Here a long, narrow, clear pool was the habitat, with average
depth of 17 inches, and bottom of bedrock.


#Minytrema melanops# (Rafinesque): Stations G-10, C-4, C-12, E-1.

Occurrences of the spotted sucker were scattered. At stations C-4 and
G-10 single specimens were taken. At station E-1 (July 9) one specimen
was taken at the mouth of a small tributary where water was turbid and
quiet. This specimen (K. U. 3708) was the largest (9-3/8 inches total
length) found, and possessed pits of lost tubercles.


#Cyprinus carpio# Linnaeus: Stations A-1, W-1, W-2, W-3, W-4, G-3, G-4,
G-6, G-8, C-3, C-5, E-4.

Carp were taken most often in downstream habitat. No carp were taken
above station C-5 on Big Caney River.

The earliest date on which young were taken was July 7, when 46
specimens, approximately 1/2 inch in total length, were taken from the
Walnut River at station W-1. The small carp showed a preference for
small shallow pools; adults were found in deeper pools.


#Hybopsis aestivalis tetranemus# (Gilbert): Station A-3.

Only one specimen of the speckled chub was taken. The species has been
recorded from nearby localities in the Arkansas River and its
tributaries both in Kansas and Oklahoma. Its habitat seems to be shallow
water over clean, fine sand, and it occurs in strong current in
mid-channel in the Arkansas River. Suitable habitat does not occur in
other parts of the area covered by this report.


#Notropis blennius# (Girard): Stations A-1, A-2, A-3.

The river shiner was taken only in the Arkansas River and in small
numbers. In all instances _N. blennius_ was found over sandy bottom in
flowing water. Females were gravid at station A-1 on June 14. To my
knowledge there are no published records of this shiner from the
Arkansas River Basin in Kansas. In Oklahoma this species prefers the
large, sandy streams such as the Arkansas River. Cross and Moore
(1952:403) found it in the Poteau River only near the mouth.


#Notropis boops# Gilbert: Stations G-5, G-7, C-3, C-5, C-8, C-9, C-10,
C-11, C-12, C-15, C-16, E-4, E-5, M-1, M-2.

Widespread occurrence of the bigeye shiner in this area seems
surprising. Except for this area it is known in Kansas only from the
Spring River drainage in the southeastern corner of the state (Cross,
1954b:474). _N. boops_ chose habitats that seemed most nearly like
Ozarkian terrain. The largest relative number of bigeye shiners was
taken at C-11 in a clear stream described in the discussion of _Notropis
rubellus_. At this station _N. boops_ comprised 14.11 per cent, and _N.
boops_ and _N. rubellus_ together comprised 24.78 per cent of all fish
taken.

At station G-7 on Grouse Creek the percentage of _N. boops_ was 7.15.
Here, as at station C-11, water was clear. At both stations
_Myriophyllum heterophyllum_ was abundant and at G-7 _Nelumbo lutea_ was
also common. At G-7 _N. boops_ seemed most abundant in the deeper water,
but at C-11 most shiners were found in the shallower part of a large
pool.

Two other collections in which _N. boops_ were common were from Spring
Creek. It is a small, clear Flint Hills brook running swiftly over clean
gravel and rubble. It had, however, been intermittent or completely dry
in its upper portion throughout the winter of 1955-'56 and until June
22, 1956. In collections at C-15 on June 28, _N. boops_ formed 6.5 per
cent of the fish taken. Farther upstream, at C-16 on July 9, in an area
one mile from the nearest pool of water that existed prior to the rains
of June 22, _N. boops_ made up 7.2 per cent of the fish taken.

In streams heading in the hilly area of western Elk County, the relative
abundance of _Notropis boops_ decreased progressively downstream. On
upper Elk River percentages were lower than on upper Grouse Creek and
upper Big Caney River.

Hubbs and Lagler (1947:66) characterize the habitat of this species as
clear creeks of limestone uplands. There are numerous records of the
bigeye shiner from extreme eastern Oklahoma. It has been reported as far
west as Beaver Creek in Osage County, Oklahoma. Beaver Creek originates
in Cowley County, Kansas, near the origin of Cedar Creek and Crab Creek.
Drought had left a few pools of water in Beaver Creek in Kansas at the
time of my survey. The fish-fauna seemed sparse and _N. boops_ was not
among the species taken. Of interest in considering the somewhat
isolated occurrence of the bigeye shiner in the Flint Hills area of
Kansas is a record of it by Ortenburger and Hubbs (1926:126) from
Panther Creek, Comanche County, Oklahoma, in the Wichita Mountain area
of that state.


#Notropis buchanani# Meek: Stations G-1, E-4 (C-131).

At station G-1 the ghost shiner was taken in small numbers in the
shallow end of a long pool (150 × 40 feet.) The three individuals taken
at station E-4 were in an isolated pool (50 × 510 feet) averaging 1-1/2
feet in depth. Water was turbid, and warm due to lack of shade.

The habitat preferences of this species and of the related species _N.
volucellus_ have been described as follows by Hubbs and Ortenburger
(1929b:68): "It seems probable that _volucellus_ when occurring in the
range of _buchanani_ occupies upland streams, whereas _buchanani_ is
chiefly a form of the large rivers and adjacent creek mouths." The
results of this survey and impressions gained from other collections,
some of which are unpublished, are in agreement with this view. A
collection on the Verdigris River at Independence, Kansas, directly
downstream from the mouth of the Elk River, showed _N. buchanani_ to be
common while _N. volucellus_ was not taken. At station E-5 upstream from
E-4, however, _N. volucellus_ was taken but _N. buchanani_ was not
found.

In the upper Neosho basin, Cross (1954a:310) took _N. volucellus_ but
not _N. buchanani_. Other collections have shown _N. buchanani_ to be
abundant in the lower Neosho River in Kansas. Moore and Paden (1950:85)
observe that _N. buchanani_ was found only near the mouth of the
Illinois River in Oklahoma and was sharply segregated ecologically from
_N. volucellus_ that occupied a niche in the clear main channels in
contrast to the more sluggish waters inhabited by _N. buchanani_.


#Notropis camurus# (Jordan and Meek): Stations C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-7,
C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11, C-12, C-13, E-1, E-5 (C-131).

Highest concentrations of the bluntface shiner were found close to the
mouths of two tributaries of Big Caney River: Rock Creek and Otter
Creek. On Rock Creek (Station C-4) this shiner was abundant in a shallow
pool below a riffle where water was flowing rapidly. Many large males in
breeding condition were taken (June 3). The species formed 20.2 per cent
of the fish taken.

On Otter Creek (Station C-13) the species was common in shallow bedrock
pools below riffles. It formed 12.1 per cent of the fish taken.

At station C-5, _N. camurus_ was characteristically found in an area of
shallow pools and riffles. At station C-10 it was found in clear flowing
water over rubble bottom and in small coves over mud bottom. At C-11
(July 26) _N. camurus_ was taken only in one small pool with rapidly
flowing water below a riffle. In this pool _N. camurus_ was the dominant
fish. At station C-12, on April 2, _N. camurus_ was abundant in the
stream, which was then clear and flowing. On August 24, it was not taken
from the same pool, which was then turbid and drying.

The frequent occurrence of this species in clear, flowing water seems
significant. Cross (1954a:309) notes that the bluntface shiner prefers
moderately fast, clear water. Hall (1952:57) found _N. camurus_ only in
upland tributaries east of Grand River and not in lowland tributaries
west of the river. Moore and Buck (1953:22) took this species in the
Chikaskia River, which was at that time a clear, flowing stream. They
noted that in Oklahoma it seems to be found only in relatively clear
water.

_N. camurus_ did not seem to ascend the smaller tributaries of Big Caney
River as did _N. rubellus_ and _N. boops_ even when these tributaries
were flowing.


#Notropis deliciosus missuriensis# (Cope): Stations A-1, A-2, A-3, W-1,
W-2, W-3 (C-136).

Sand shiners seemed to be abundant in the Arkansas River, rare in the
Walnut River and absent from other streams surveyed. This shiner was
most abundant in shallow, flowing water in the Arkansas River; in
backwaters, where _Gambusia affinis_ prevailed, _N. deliciosus_ formed
only a small percentage of the fish population.


#Notropis girardi# Hubbs and Ortenburger: Stations A-2 and A-3.

At station A-2 the Arkansas River shiner made up 14.6 per cent of all
fish taken. At A-2, it was found only in rapidly-flowing water over
clean sand in the main channels. It was absent from the shallow,
slowly-flowing water where _N. deliciosus missuriensis_ was abundant. At
A-3 _N. girardi_ made up 22 per cent of the total catch, and again
preferred the deeper, faster water over clean-swept sand. Failure to
find _N. girardi_ at station A-1 is not understood.

Females were gravid in both collections (August 25 and 27). In neither
collection were young-of-the-year taken. Moore (1944:210) has suggested
that _N. girardi_ requires periods of high water and turbidity to spawn.
Additional collecting was done at station A-3 on December 22, 1957. A
few adults were taken in flowing water but no young were found.

In this area, _N. girardi_ showed no tendency to ascend tributaries of
the Arkansas River. Not far to the west, however, this pattern changes
as shown by Hubbs and Ortenburger (1929a:32) who took this fish at seven
of ten stations on the Cimarron, Canadian, and Salt Fork of the
Arkansas. _N. girardi_ was taken only in the lowermost stations on both
Stillwater Creek (Cross, 1950:136) and the Chikaskia River (Moore and
Buck, 1953:22). In the next major stream west of the Chikaskia, the
Medicine River, _N. girardi_ seems to occur farther upstream than in the
Chikaskia. (Collection C-5-51 by Dr. A. B. Leonard and Dr. Frank B.
Cross on Elm Creek near Medicine Lodge on July 20, 1951.)


#Notropis lutrensis# (Baird and Girard): Stations A-1, A-2, W-1, W-2,
W-3, W-4, G-1, G-2, G-4, G-5, G-8, G-9, G-10, G-11, G-12, G-13, G-14,
G-15, G-16, B-1, B-2, B-3, C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-9, C-10,
C-11, C-12, C-13, C-14, M-1, E-1, E-2, E-4, E-7 (E&F, C-131, C-133,
C-136).

The red shiner was taken in every stream surveyed. The relative
abundance seemed to be greatest in two types of habitat which were
separated geographically. The first habitat was in large rivers such as
the Arkansas and Walnut. In the Arkansas River the red shiner
consistently made up 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the catch. On the
Walnut River percentages ranged from 10 per cent (station W-3) to 45 per
cent (station W-2).

The second habitat in which numbers of _N. lutrensis_ reached high
proportions was in the upper parts of the most intermittent tributaries.
At the uppermost station in Silver Creek this species formed 30 per cent
of the fish taken. In Crab Creek the following percentages were taken in
six collections from mouth to source: 20.6%, 26.1%, 25%, 85%, 14.6%, and
1%. In the mainstream of Grouse Creek the highest percentage taken was
19.27 near the mouth at station G-1. In middle sections of Grouse Creek
this species was either absent or made up less than 2 per cent of the
fish taken.

At no station on Big Caney River was the red shiner abundant. The
smallest relative numbers were found at upstream stations, in contrast
to collections made on tributaries of Grouse Creek. This distributional
pattern possibly may be explained by the severe conditions under which
fish have been forced to live in the upper tributaries of Grouse Creek.
Water was more turbid, and pools were smaller than in Big Caney. These
factors possibly decimate numbers of the less hardy species permitting
expansion by more adaptable species, among which seems to be _N.
lutrensis_. In the upper tributaries of Big Caney River conditions have
not been so severe due to greater flow from springs and less cultivation
of the watershed in most places. Under such conditions _N. lutrensis_
seems to remain a minor faunal constituent.


#Notropis percobromus# (Cope): Stations A-1, A-2, W-1, W-2, W-3, G-1.

At station W-1 the plains shiner constituted 20 per cent of the fish
taken. The river was flowing rapidly with large volume at the time of
this collection, and all specimens were taken near the bank in
comparatively quiet water over gravel bottom. At station W-3, below
Tunnel Mill Dam at Winfield, _N. percobromus_ comprised 18.7 per cent of
the fish taken, second only to _Lepomis humilis_ in relative abundance.
Immediately below the west end of the dam, plains shiners were so
concentrated that fifty or more were taken in one haul of a four-foot
nylon net. The amount of water overflowing the dam at this point was
slight. Water was shallow (8-12 inches) and the bottom consisted of the
pitted apron or of fine gravel. At the east end of the dam where water
was deeper (1-3 feet) and the flow over the dam greater, large numbers
of _Lepomis humilis_ were taken while _N. percobromus_ was rare.

In the Arkansas River smaller relative numbers of this shiner were
obtained. At station A-2, it formed 4.68 per cent of the total. At this
station _N. percobromus_ was taken with _N. lutrensis_ in water about 18
inches deep next to a bank where the current was sluggish and tangled
roots and detritus offered some shelter.

At station G-1 on Grouse Creek the plains shiner made up 7.68 per cent
of the fish taken. The habitat consisted of intermittent pools with
rubble bottoms at this station, which was four miles upstream from the
mouth of the creek. The plains shiner seems rarely to ascend the upland
streams of the area.


#Notropis rubellus# (Agassiz): Stations C-3, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-10,
C-11, C-12, C-13, C-14 (J&J).

No fish in these collections showed a more persistent preference than
_Notropis rubellus_ for clear, cool streams. All collections of the
rosyface shiner were in the Big Caney River system, but at only four
stations in this system was it common. At station C-11 the highest
relative numbers (10.6 per cent) were obtained. This site possessed the
most limpid water of any station on the mainstream of Big Caney. Aquatic
plants (_Myriophyllum heterophyllum_ and _Potamogeton nodosus_) were
common. Other fishes that flourished at this station were _N. boops_,
_N. camurus_, _Campostoma anomalum_, and _Etheostoma spectabile_. The
water temperature was 86° at surface and 80° at bottom whereas air
temperature was 97°.

_N. rubellus_ was common at all stations in Otter Creek, the clear,
upland character of which has been discussed. In May and June only
adults were found. On September 1, examination of several pools in upper
Otter Creek revealed numerous young-of-the-year in small spring-fed
pools.

Literature is scarce concerning this shiner in Kansas. Cross (1954a:308)
stated that it was abundant in the South Fork of the Cottonwood River
and was one of those fishes primarily associated with the Ozarkian
fauna, rather than with the fauna of the plains. Elliott (1947) found
_N. rubellus_ in Spring Creek, a tributary of Fall River which seems
similar to Otter Creek in physical features. Between the Fall River and
Big Caney River systems is the Elk River, from which there is no record
of the rosyface shiner. Perhaps its absence is related to the
intermittent condition of this stream at present. The Elk River is poor
in spring-fed tributaries, which seem to be favorite environs of the
rosyface shiner.

_N. rubellus_ was taken by Minna Jewell and Frank Jobes in Silver Creek
on June 30, 1925 (UMMZ 67818). The shiner was not found in any stream
west of the Big Caney system in my collections.

In Oklahoma, Hall (1952:57) found _N. rubellus_ in upland tributaries on
the east side of Grand River and not in the lowland tributaries on the
west side. Martin and Campbell (1953:51) characterize _N. rubellus_ as
preferring riffle channels in moderate to fast current in the Black
River, Missouri. It is the only species so characterized by them which
was taken in my collections. Moore and Paden (1950:84) state "_Notropis
rubellus_ is one of the most abundant fishes of the Illinois River,
being found in all habitats but showing a distinct preference for fast
water...."


#Notropis topeka# (Gilbert): Two specimens (formerly Indiana University
4605) of the Topeka shiner labeled "Winfield, Kansas" are now at the
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Collector and other data are
not given. Evermann and Fordice (1886:185) noted that two specimens of
_N. topeka_ were taken from Sand Creek near Newton in Harvey County, but
do not list it from Cowley County near Winfield. They deposited their
fish in the museum of Indiana University.


#Notropis umbratilis# (Girard): Stations G-1, G-3, G-4, G-7, G-8, G-9,
G-12, G-14, B-2, B-3, C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10,
C-11, C-12, C-13, C-14, C-15, C-16, E-1, E-2, E-4, E-5, M-1, M-2 (J&J,
C-131, C-132).

The redfin shiner flourished in all the streams surveyed except the
Arkansas and Walnut Rivers. _N. umbratilis_ has been found in upland
tributaries of the Walnut River, some of which originate in terrain
similar to that in which Elk River, Big Caney River, and Grouse Creek
originate. (Collection C-26-51 by Cross on Durechon Creek, October 7,
1951.) This suggests downstream reduction in relative numbers of this
species, a tendency which also seemed to exist on both Big Caney River
and Grouse Creek. _N. umbratilis_ was the most abundant species in Big
Caney River except at the lowermost stations where it was surpassed in
relative abundance by _N. lutrensis_ and _Gambusia affinis_.

_N. umbratilis_ was a pool-dweller, becoming more concentrated in the
deeper pools as summer advanced. In May and early June, large
concentrations of adult _N. umbratilis_ were common in the shallow ends
of pools together with _N. rubellus_, _N. boops_, _Pimephales notatus_,
and _Pimephales tenellus_. By July and August, only young of the year
were taken in shallow water, and adults were scarcely in evidence.


#Notropis volucellus# (Cope): Stations G-5, G-8, C-3, C-5, C-7, C-8,
C-9, C-10, M-1, E-4, E-5.

The mimic shiner was a minor element in the fauna, 2.02 per cent at
station C-5 being the largest percentage taken. In the Big Caney River
system _N. volucellus_ was taken only in the main stream. In the Grouse
Creek drainage it was found at two stations in the upper part of the
watershed, where water is clearer, gradient greater, and pools
well-shaded and cool.

In the Elk River the mimic shiner was taken only in the upper part of
the main stream. The dominant shiner in situations where _N. volucellus_
was taken was, in all cases, _N. umbratilis_. Elliott (1947) found _N.
volucellus_ in Spring Creek, a tributary of Fall River. Farther north in
the Flint Hills region, _N. volucellus_ was reported by Cross
(1954a:310).


#Notemigonus crysoleucas# (Mitchell): Station W-5.

This isolated record for the golden shiner consisted of nine specimens
collected on June 6 in Timber Creek, a tributary of the Walnut River.
Most of the creek was dry. _N. crysoleucas_ was taken in one pool with
dimensions of 8 feet by 4 feet with an average depth of 4 inches. This
creek is sluggish and silt-laden, even under conditions of favorable
precipitation. Hubbs and Ortenburger (1929b:89) observed that the golden
shiner prefers sluggish water. Hall (1952:58) took the golden shiner
only in the lowland tributaries west of Grand River and not east of the
river in upland tributaries.


#Phenacobius mirabilis# Girard: Stations W-3, C-3.

In no case was the suckermouth minnow common; it never comprised more
than 1 per cent of the fish population.


#Pimephales notatus# (Rafinesque): Stations W-4, G-5, G-7, G-9, G-12,
G-13, B-3, C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11,
C-12, C-13, C-14, C-15, C-16, C-17, C-18, M-1, M-2, E-1, E-2, E-4, E-5,
E-7 (J&J, C-131, C-132, C-133).

This was much the most abundant of the four species of _Pimephales_ in
this area. It was taken at 33 stations as compared with 10 for _P.
tenellus_, 8 for _P. promelas_, and 3 for _P. vigilax_.

The bluntnose minnow was taken almost everywhere except in the main
stream of the Arkansas and Walnut rivers and in lower Grouse Creek. _P.
notatus_ seemed to prefer clearer streams of the Flint Hills part of my
area. There was a marked increase in percentages taken in the upland
tributaries of both Caney River and Grouse Creek. In the Elk River, too,
higher concentrations were found upstream.

The highest relative numbers of bluntnose minnows were taken at station
G-12 on Crab Creek, station C-12 on Cedar Creek and station C-16 on
Spring Creek. At G-12, this minnow was abundant in the deeper isolated
pools. Males in breeding condition were taken on June 9. In Cedar Creek
the population of bluntnose minnows was observed periodically in one
pool in which they were dominant. This pool was 100 feet by 50 feet,
shallow, and with bedrock bottom. At its upper end, however, there was a
small area of heavily-shaded deeper water. Throughout the spring
bluntnose minnows were found in large schools in the shallow area. As
the summer progressed they were no longer there, but seining revealed
their presence in the deeper, upper end.

At station C-16 on Spring Creek on July 9 male _P. notatus_ were taken
in extreme breeding condition, being light brick-red in color and with
large tubercles.


#Pimephales tenellus# (Girard): Stations G-1, C-2, C-3, C-5, C-6, C-7,
C-8, M-1, E-2, E-4 (C-131 C-133).

The mountain minnow was never taken far from the mainstream of Big
Caney, Middle Caney, or Elk River. In this respect it differed from _P.
notatus_, which reached large concentrations in the small upland
tributaries. On the other hand, _P. tenellus_ was not so abundant as _P.
vigilax_ in the silty larger streams. In no collection was the mountain
minnow common. The highest percentages were 2.4 per cent (Station C-5),
and 2.1 per cent (Station C-7) on Big Caney River. These stations
consisted of clear, flowing water over rubble bottoms. Males at C-7
(June 16) were in breeding condition.

Moore and Buck (1953:23) reported finding this species among rocks in
very fast water rather than in the quiet backwaters frequented by _P.
vigilax_. Other records of the mountain minnow from the Flint Hills
indicate that it seeks areas of maximum gradient and flow; in this
distributional respect it is like _Notropis camurus_. The two species
are recorded together from other streams in this region such as the
Chikaskia (Moore and Buck, 1953:23), Cottonwood (Cross, 1954a:310), and
Spring Creek, tributary of Fall River (Elliott, 1947). It is conceivable
that a preference for flowing water might explain its restriction to
the medium-sized, less intermittent streams in this area. The only
tributary which the species seemed to ascend to any extent was Otter
Creek, which is seldom intermittent downstream.


#Pimephales vigilax perspicuus# (Girard): Stations A-3, C-1, C-4.

The parrot minnow was found only in downstream habitats. Collection C-4
(June 3) on Rock Creek was made about 1/2 mile from the mouth of this
tributary of Big Caney and the creek here had almost the same character
as the river proper. The presence of other channel fishes such as
_Ictiobus bubalus_ indicates the downstream nature of the creek. Some
males of _P. vigilax_ in breeding condition were taken in this
collection.

At C-1, only one specimen was found in a turbid, isolated pool with
bedrock bottom. At A-1 only one parrot minnow was taken; it was in deep,
fairly quiet water near the bank.

Other collections outside the three-county area revealed the following:
In the Neosho River, several parrot minnows were found in quiet
backwaters and in shallow pools. In the Verdigris River three were taken
directly under water spilling over the dam at this station, while others
were found, together with _P. promelas_, in the mouth of a small creek
that provided a backwater habitat with mud bottom.

Cross and Moore (1952:405) found this species only at stations in the
lower portion of the Poteau River. Farther west the minnow may ascend
the smaller sandy streams to greater distances. Moore and Buck (1953:23)
took parrot minnows at six of 15 stations on the Chikaskia River and
found the species as far upstream as Drury, Kansas. Elliott (1947), in
comparing the South Ninnescah and Spring Creek fish faunas, found only
_P. vigilax_ and _P. promelas_ on the sandy, "flatter" Ninnescah and
only _P. notatus_ and _P. tenellus_ on Spring Creek, an upland, Flint
Hills stream in Greenwood County.


#Pimephales promelas# Rafinesque: Stations A-2, A-3, W-3, W-4, G-9, B-1,
M-1, E-4 (E&F, C-136).

Occurrences of the fathead minnow were scattered, but included all
streams sampled except Big Caney.

Three of the collections were in small intermittent streams where
conditions were generally unfavorable for fishes and in one instance
extremely foul. Two of these stations had turbid water and all suffered
from siltation.

In Middle Caney Creek the species was rare but in the Elk River (June
28) more than 100 specimens, predominantly young, were taken. This
station consisted of a large isolated pool with a variety of bottom
types. Water was turbid and the surface temperature was high (93° F.).
In different parts of the pool the following numbers of specimens were
taken in single seine-hauls: 15 over shallow bedrock; 35 over gravel
(1-1/2 feet deep); 50 over mud bottom (1 foot deep).

_P. promelas_ was found also in the large, flowing rivers: Arkansas,
Walnut, Verdigris, and Neosho. The species was scarce in the Arkansas
River, and was found principally in muddy coves. In the Walnut (W-3),
this minnow comprised 7.65 per cent of the fish taken and was common in
quiet pools.


#Campostoma anomalum# Rafinesque: Stations W-4, G-4, C-1, C-3, C-5, C-6,
C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11, C-12, C-13, C-14, C-15, C-16, C-17, C-18, B-3
(E&F, C-131, C-136).

Although the stoneroller was found in most streams surveyed, it was
taken most often in the Big Caney system, where it occurred at 16 of the
18 stations. In contrast, it was represented at only one of 17 stations
on Grouse Creek. High percentages were found in three creeks--Cedar,
Otter, and Spring. As noted above, these streams are normally clear,
swift and have steep gradients and many rubble and gravel riffles. On
these riffles young stonerollers abounded. Station C-16 on Spring Creek
typifies the habitat in which this species was most abundant. The stream
has an average width of 10 feet and depth of a few inches. The volume of
flow was less than 1 cubic foot per second but turbulence was great.
Water was clear and the bottom was gravel and rubble. Following rains in
June, stonerollers quickly occupied parts of Spring Creek (upstream from
C-16) that had been dry throughout the previous winter.

On April 2 many _C. anomalum_ and _Etheostoma spectabile_ were taken in
shallow pools and riffles in an extensive bedrock-riffle area on Cedar
Creek near station C-12. Most of the females were gravid and the males
were in breeding condition. On June 6 these pools were revisited. Flow
had ceased and the pools were drying up. Young-of-the-year of the two
species were abundant, but only a few mature stonerollers were taken. On
August 24, prolonged drought had drastically altered the stream and all
areas from which stonerollers and darters had been taken were dry.
Seining of other pools which were almost dry revealed no stonerollers.

Collections on May 31, June 15, and June 16 in Otter Creek revealed
large numbers of stonerollers. They were found in riffle areas, in
aquatic vegetation, and especially in detritus alongside banks. Most of
the specimens were young-of-the-year.


#Anguilla bostoniensis# (Le Sueur): An American eel was caught by me in
Grouse Creek in 1949.


#Gambusia affinis# (Baird and Girard): Stations A-1, A-2, A-3, W-1, W-2,
W-3, W-4, W-5, G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-9, C-1, C-2, C-3,
C-4, C-6, C-15, E-1.

Mosquitofish occurred widely but in varied abundance. Huge populations
were in the shallow sandy backwaters and cut-off pools of the Arkansas
River. In the shallow pools of several intermittent streams such as
station G-8 on Silver Creek this fish also flourished.

_G. affinis_ was taken at every station in the Arkansas, Walnut and
Grouse systems except those stations on two upland tributaries of Grouse
Creek (Crab Creek and Grand Summit Creek). The mosquitofish was not
observed in the clear upland tributaries of Big Caney, nor on upper Big
Caney River itself in May, June, and July. On September 3, however,
_Gambusia_ were taken at station C-15 on Otter Creek and others were
seen at station C-14 on the same date.

Hubbs and Ortenburger (1929b:99) and Cross and Moore (1952:407) observed
that _G. affinis_ usually was absent from small upland tributaries, even
though it was abundant in lower parts of the same river systems.


#Fundulus kansae# (Garman): Stations A-2, A-3, Evermann and Fordice as
_Fundulus zebrinus_.

At station A-2, seven plains killifish were taken together with a great
many _Notropis deliciosus_ and _Gambusia affinis_ in a shallow,
algae-covered channel with slight flow and sand bottom. At station A-3
many young killifish were taken in small shallow pools on December 22.
_Fundulus kansae_ has been found in the lower part of the Walnut River
Basin, especially where petroleum pollution was evident. Eastward from
the Walnut River plains killifish have not been taken.


#Fundulus notatus# (Rafinesque): Stations B-1, G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5,
G-7, G-8, G-10, G-11, G-14, C-1, M-1, E-1, Evermann and Fordice as
_Zygonectes notatus_.

The black-banded topminnow was not taken in the Arkansas River but was
common in the Walnut and Grouse systems. It was common also in Middle
Caney, but in Big Caney and Elk River it was taken only at the lowermost
stations.

This species did not seem to ascend far into smaller tributaries of
Grouse Creek. In Crab Creek it was taken at the lower two of six
stations and in Grand Summit Creek at the lower of two stations.

The highest relative numbers were taken at stations G-3 (17.5 per cent),
G-4 (24 per cent), G-10 (25.75 per cent) and G-11 (41.52 per
cent), on Crab Creek and Grouse Creek. Both upstream and downstream from
these stations, which were within five miles of each other, the relative
abundance dropped off sharply. The bottoms at these stations were mostly
rubble and mud, and water was turbid at three of the stations. At G-10
(June 24) and G-11 (July 16) young-of-the-year were abundant.


#Ictalurus melas# (Girard): Stations W-2, W-3, W-4, W-5, B-1, B-2, B-3,
G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5, G-8, G-9, G-11, G-12, G-13, G-14, G-17, C-1,
C-9, C-11, C-12, C-14, C-15, C-17, C-18, E-1, E-2, E-4, E-5, E-6, N-1,
Evermann and Fordice as _Ameiurus melas_ (C-133).

The black bullhead was taken at slightly more than half of the stations,
and probably was present at others. Larger numbers were taken in Grouse
Creek than in any other stream system. In many small, shallow pools in
the Grouse Creek system young black bullheads shared dominance with
_Gambusia affinis_ in the late summer. _I. melas_ was also abundant in
isolated pools at the extreme upper ends of Crab Creek, Beaver Creek and
Grand Summit Creek. _I. melas_ was most common in areas with silty
bottoms. The species seemed scarce in the main stream of Big Caney River
but was common in some of its tributaries.


#Pylodictis olivaris# (Rafinesque): Stations A-3, G-1, C-5.

Flathead catfish were taken by angling at stations A-3 and C-5. At
station G-1 (September 5) a flathead catfish five inches long was taken
in the four-foot nylon net.


#Ictalurus punctatus# (Rafinesque): Stations A-3, W-2, W-3, G-2, C-5,
E-4.

Channel catfish from stations W-3, A-3, and C-5 were taken on hook and
line. At station G-2 (August 29) twenty young-of-the-year were seined
from the shallow narrow end of a large pool. All collections of both _I.
punctatus_ and _P. olivaris_ were in the larger streams surveyed.


#Ictalurus natalis# (LeSueur): Stations G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-8, G-11,
C-12, C-14, C-15.

The yellow bullhead was taken at only 9 stations, compared with 33
stations for the black bullhead. _I. natalis_ was represented in 7 of
17 stations in the Grouse Creek system but in only 3 of 18 stations in
the Big Caney system. Of the seven records from Grouse Creek four were
from the main stream. At every station where yellow bullheads were
taken, black bullheads were found also and were abundant, usually
several times more abundant than _I. natalis_.

At G-11 on Crab Creek (July 16), _I. natalis_ made up 3.8 per cent of
the fish taken. All were young-of-the-year, existing in a tiny, gravelly
pool containing not more than five gallons of water, and were the only
fish present. Young yellow bullheads were also found in small pools with
gravel bottoms at station G-4 on September 7.


#Labidesthes sicculus# (Cope): Stations G-1, G-2, G-3, G-7, G-10, B-2,
C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-12, E-1, E-2, E-3, E-7, M-1 (E&F, C-131).

The brook silversides was taken, sometimes abundantly, in all stream
systems except the Walnut and Arkansas. At station G-7 on July 8, 41.8
per cent of the fish taken were of this species. _L. sicculus_ was most
abundant in large pools where the bottom was predominantly bedrock and
gravel. The highest concentrations were in the mainstreams of Big Caney,
Grouse, and Elk Rivers. Brook silversides were taken rarely in the
smaller tributaries of these streams.


#Percina phoxocephala# (Nelson): Stations C-2, C-3, C-5, G-1 (C-133).

Slenderhead darters were scarce, and were found only over gravel
bottoms. Specimens were taken from flowing and quiet water, and from
both shallow and deep water.

Larger numbers of _P. phoxocephala_ were taken by the writer in other
collections made during 1956 on the Neosho and Verdigris Rivers over
bottoms of rubble or gravel. Restriction of this darter to the larger
streams follows a pattern observed by Cross (1954a:313) who noted it was
absent from smaller riffles in minor tributaries. Elliott (1947),
however, took one specimen of _P. phoxocephala_ in Spring Creek, a
tributary of Fall River.


#Percina caprodes carbonaria# (Baird and Girard): Stations G-3, G-4,
G-7, G-12, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-9, C-12, C-13, C-14 (J&J, C-131, C-133).

The logperch was generally distributed in the Caney, Elk, and Grouse
systems. This species usually comprised less than 1 per cent of the fish
taken; however, at station G-12 it formed 3.76 per cent of the total.

In many instances the logperch was taken over submerged gravel bars,
often along the edges of the larger pools. At 8 of 13 stations where the
logperch was taken, the golden redhorse was also found. At every station
where logperch were found, _Notropis umbratilis_ was taken and
_Pimephales notatus_ also occurred at all but three of these stations.


#Percina copelandi# (Jordan): Stations C-4, C-5, C-6, C-8, G-1 (C-131,
C-133, J&J).

Channel darters were collected over bottoms of rubble or gravel, both in
flowing streams and in isolated pools. Although _P. copelandi_ was found
only in Big Caney River and at the lowermost station on Grouse Creek
(G-1) in this survey, this species has been taken previously from Elk
River (K. U. 3463 and K. U. 3197) and from Silver Creek. _Notropis
camurus_ occurred everywhere that _H. copelandi_ was found. In several
instances the two species were taken in the same seine-haul.


#Etheostoma spectabile pulchellum# (Girard): Stations W-4, G-1, G-4,
G-5, C-6, C-9, C-11, C-12, C-13, C-14, C-15, C-16, C-17, C-18, E-1, E-5.
Evermann and Fordice as _Etheostoma coeruleum_ (C-131, C-132).

The habitat preferences of the orangethroat darter seemed similar to
those of _Campostoma anomalum_. There were sixteen stations at which
both species were taken, seven where only _E. spectabile pulchellum_ was
taken and six where only _C. anomalum_ was taken. The largest relative
numbers of both species were found in the same small, clear upland
tributaries of Big Caney River. On May 31, collections from riffles at
station C-15 (upper Otter Creek) consisted almost entirely of these two
species. On September 1 at this station the stream was intermittent, but
even the tiniest pools abounded with young darters and stonerollers.

Gravid females and males in breeding condition were taken in riffles in
Cedar Creek on April 2. During June numerous young and adult
orangethroat darters were taken in Cedar Creek, in partly decayed leaves
which lined the banks. On June 15 in Otter Creek young darters were
abundant in streamside detritus and in clear, shallow, rubble riffles.
At station C-11 a few darters were taken on rubble riffles; however,
large numbers were found inhabiting thick mats of _Potamogeton foliosus_
Raf., which grew in shallow water. Many darters (_Etheostoma spectabile
pulchellum_ and _Percina phoxocephala_) were taken in September along
gravelly banks at stations C-2 and C-3 by disturbing small rocks and
leaf-litter along the shores. Young orangethroat darters seemed to
seek out sheltered areas and in some cases were found in sluggish, even
foul, water (Stations W-4, B-1 and G-12). Moore and Buck (1953:26) note
that the orangethroat darter is able to thrive in Oklahoma in rather
sluggish and even intermittent waters which reach quite high summer
temperatures.

Unlike other darters taken in this survey, the orangethroat darter was
common to abundant at several stations and was found at a great many
more stations than any other darter. The comparatively great tolerance
of this species to varying habitats, suggested by this survey, is also
reflected by its widespread distribution in Kansas.


#Micropterus salmoides salmoides# (Lacepede): Stations B-1, G-4, G-5,
G-7, G-12, C-1, C-3, E-1, E-2, E-3.

Most of the largemouth bass taken were young-of-the-year. In Big Caney
River this species seemed rare, being found at only two downstream
stations compared with eight stations at which _M. punctulatus_ was
taken.

Many ponds in the Flint Hills have been stocked with largemouth bass. At
present largemouth bass are frequently caught by hook and line in Crab
Creek (Station G-12); however, Mr. A. C. Metcalf, who has fished this
stream for approximately 45 years, states that he took no bass in the
creek prior to the building and stocking of large ponds on nearby
ranches.


#Micropterus punctulatus# (Rafinesque): Stations C-4, C-5, C-6, C-7,
C-8, C-10, C-14, C-15, E-2, E-5 (C-133).

The spotted bass was taken only in tributaries of the Verdigris River,
where it seemed more numerous than the preceding species. It has been
reported from other Verdigris tributaries such as Fall River (Elliott,
1947) and is common eastward from the Verdigris Basin. A spotted bass
(K. U. 3467) was taken by Cross on the Little Walnut River in Butler
County on April 5, 1955. This seems to be the only record of this
species from the Walnut River Basin at the present time.


#Pomoxis annularis# (Rafinesque): Stations W-3, W-5, G-1, G-2, G-5,
G-10, G-11, G-12, C-1, C-2, C-4, C-5, C-6, M-1, E-1, E-2, E-4, E-5
(C-136).

White crappie were found in almost all habitats and were taken in all
rivers except the Arkansas. The relative abundance of this species was
greater at downstream than at upstream stations on Grouse Creek, Big
Caney, and Elk River. Schools of young crappie were frequently found and
the factor of chance in taking or failing to take a school of crappie
prevented confident appraisal of abundance. White crappie usually sought
quiet waters. Often they were found in backwaters and many times
schools were taken over bottoms where mud and detritus had been
deposited. It was not uncommon to take _Pomoxis annularis_ and
_Ictalurus melas_ in the same seine-haul in such areas.


#Pomoxis nigromaculatus# (LeSueur): Station C-1.

Black crappie were taken in Otter Creek on May 29 and September 3.
Several ponds in eastern Cowley County are stocked with black crappie,
but none was taken from streams into which these ponds drain.


#Lepomis cyanellus# (Rafinesque): Stations W-3, W-4, W-5, B-1, B-2, B-3,
G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5, G-8, G-9, G-10, G-12, G-13, G-14, G-15, G-16,
G-17, C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11, C-12,
C-13, C-14, C-16, C-17, C-18, E-1, E-4, E-5, E-6, E-7, M-2 (C-131,
C-132, C-133, C-136, E&F).

The green sunfish was taken at 45 of 60 stations, which is the greatest
number recorded for one species. The only stream from which it was not
obtained was the Arkansas River. Green sunfish constituted a minor but
consistent part of the fauna in Big Caney River except for some
intermittent pools on small tributaries, where it was high in relative
abundance. It usually comprised approximately 4 per cent of the fish
taken at stations on Grouse Creek. In some intermittent tributaries of
Grouse Creek and Elk River percentages also were high.

Funk and Campbell (1953:74) observed that _L. cyanellus_ held a definite
but minor place in all collections made on the Black River in Missouri.
This pattern was also observed by the writer in collections made on the
Neosho and Spring Rivers in southeastern Kansas. This seems to indicate
that the Big Caney River populations (exclusive of the upstream stations
in intermittent streams) follow a pattern commonly found in southeastern
Kansas and probably in the Ozark region.


#Lepomis humilis# (Girard): Stations A-3, W-2, W-3, W-4, W-5, G-1, G-2,
G-3, G-4, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-9, G-10, G-11, G-12, G-14, G-15, C-1, C-2,
C-3, C-4, C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11, C-12, C-13, C-16, C-17,
B-2, B-3, E-1, E-2, E-4, E-5, E-6, E-7, M-1. (C-131, C-132, C-133,
C-136, J&J, E&F.)

The orangespotted sunfish was found in every stream surveyed, although
only one specimen was taken from the Arkansas River.

The largest relative number of this species (44.6) was taken at station
G-1. Percentages at other stations on Grouse Creek and its tributaries
progressively declined in an upstream direction.

In Big Caney River representation of _L. humilis_ in collections varied
from 1.56 per cent at station C-1 to 23.47 per cent at station
C-7. This sunfish was usually the dominant species in collections made
from the Elk River, where the relative abundance ranged from 10 to 30
per cent.

The orangespotted sunfish is widespread in Kansas and seems to be a
diagnostic constituent of the Plains Fauna. Moore and Buck (1953:26)
found it "very common" in the Chikaskia River in Kansas and Oklahoma.
Cross (1950:140) noted that in Stillwater Creek it seemed to be the most
tolerant and consequently the most abundant of the stream's cent
rarchids. Moore and Paden (1950:91) note that _L. humilis_ is most
common in muddy waters and found in overflow pools, backwaters, and
oxbow lakes. This species is frequently found in farm ponds in the area
surveyed, which further suggests a wide range of habitat tolerance.


#Lepomis megalotis breviceps# (Baird and Girard): Stations W-3, W-4,
W-5, B-1, B-2, G-1, G-4, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-9, G-10, G-11, G-12, G-13 (all
Big Caney River stations except C-18), E-1, E-2, E-3, E-4, E-5, E-6,
M-1, M-2 (C-131, C-132, C-133, J&J, E&F).

In Big Caney River the longear sunfish shared dominance with the redfin
shiner (_Notropis umbratilis_) at almost every station. The average of
its relative abundance at all stations in the Big Caney system was 16.5
per cent. It was also abundant at several stations on Grouse Creek and
made up 43.25 per cent of all fish taken at station G-4.

Cross (1950:140) observed that _L. megalotis breviceps_ increased in
Stillwater Creek probably as a result of clearer water and stabilized
water level.

In collections made west of the area treated here (Moore and Buck,
1953:26; Elliott, 1947) the longear sunfish is less abundant than in Big
Caney River and Grouse Creek.


#Lepomis macrochirus# (Rafinesque): Stations W-3, G-3, G-4, G-5, C-3,
C-5, E-1, E-2 (C-131, C-132, C-133).

The bluegill was, in all cases, a minor constituent in the fish fauna.
No clear pattern of habitat preference can be deduced. In the Verdigris
River at Independence (collection AM-53, August 22, 1956) bluegills were
common in quiet pools and coves below a low-water dam. Moore and Paden
(1950:91) note that _L. macrochirus_ prefers quiet waters and Hubbs and
Lagler (1947:94) state that it is "generally restricted to the quieter
pools."

The bluegill is widely-stocked in impoundments of the area treated
here.


#Aplodinotus grunniens# (Rafinesque): Stations C-4, E-2.

The dearth of stations from which the freshwater drum is reported may
indicate difficulty in taking this species with seines, rather than
scarcity. Both collections were at downstream stations. At station C-4
three half-grown drum were taken. Fishermen take "drum" at least as far
upstream as station C-5 on Big Caney River. In the Elk River one
specimen was taken in a 20-foot seine below a dam at Elk Falls.



FISHES OF DOUBTFUL OR POSSIBLE OCCURRENCE


In addition to the species listed above, the following species have been
reported nearby and may occur within the area surveyed.

_Lepisosteus productus_ (Cope)--This gar has not been reported from
Kansas. It has been taken at several points in the northern half of
Oklahoma and as far west as Canton Reservoir by Buck and Cross (1951). A
specimen of the spotted gar was taken by Elkin (1954:28) in Salt Creek
in Osage County, Oklahoma.

_Polyodon spathula_ (Walbaum)--The paddlefish has never been reported
from the Arkansas River system in Kansas. Several reports by fishermen
were traced by the writer, but authentication was not achieved. One
mounted specimen was examined in a sporting goods store in Arkansas
City. This fish was said to have been taken on the Arkansas River south
of Arkansas City but information on the date and method of capture were
vague. Mr. Darrell Wheat of Arkansas City reported taking four
paddlefish below a dam at Oxford, Kansas, in 1948 and 1949.

_Hiodon alosoides_ (Rafinesque)--One specimen (K. U. 3095) of the
goldeye was taken in 1953 on the Arkansas River near Oxford in Sumner
County. Fishermen also report taking this fish occasionally in the
Walnut River in Cowley County.

_Noturus flavus_ (Rafinesque)--The stonecat was taken in the Verdigris
system by R. D. Lindsay in 1911 (K. U. 2058) and more recently by Cross
in Montgomery County (C-120) and Schelske (1957:46) in Wilson and
Montgomery Counties. The close proximity of these collection areas to
lower portions of the Elk River indicate probable occurrence in Elk
River and other Verdigris tributaries.

_Noturus nocturnus_ (Jordan and Gilbert)--The freckled madtom has been
taken on all sides of the area studied making its occurrence therein
highly probable. This madtom has been taken in Beaver Creek in Osage
County, Oklahoma (OAM 4771); from a tributary of the Walnut River in
Sedgwick County by Cross (1954); from the Chikaskia River (Moore and
Buck, 1953:24); and from several localities on the Verdigris River
(Schelske, 1957:47).

_Etheostoma cragini_ (Gilbert)--One Cragin's darter (K. U. 3470) was
taken by Cross in the Arkansas River near the Sumner-Cowley county line
(Sec. 25, T31S, R2E). Records of this darter are few and widely
scattered geographically. Several collections from north-eastern
Oklahoma are noted by Moore and Cross (1950:144).

_Etheostoma whipplii_ (Girard)--Schelske (1957:38) reports the redfin
darter from the Verdigris River three miles southeast of Benedict,
Kansas. Dr. George Moore of Oklahoma A. & M. College states that it has
been taken in the Verdigris drainage in Oklahoma at several locations.

_Etheostoma zonale arcansanum_ (Jordan and Gilbert)--Two banded darters
(K. U. 3213) have been reported by Schelske (1957:49) from Fall River
near Neodesha, Kansas. Because a tributary of Fall River enters Elk
County its presence in this and other Verdigris tributaries in the area
seems possible. This darter has been reported from only one other stream
in Kansas, Shoal Creek in Cherokee County, where it has been collected
often.

_Roccus chrysops_ (Rafinesque)--The white bass has been stocked in Hulah
Reservoir on Big Caney River in Oklahoma. To date it has not been
reported from the Big Caney in Kansas. White bass are common in many
reservoirs of Kansas and Oklahoma and have been taken in rivers in both
states. Mr. Clement Gillespie of Arkansas City, Kansas Forestry, Fish
and Game Commission wildlife protector for the area, states that two
hundred young of _R. chrysops_ were released in Grouse Creek several
years ago under auspices of the Commission. The fish has not been
reported by fishermen since that time to the knowledge of Mr. Gillespie
or of the writer.

_Lepomis microlophus_ (Gunther)--One redear sunfish was taken on Salt
Creek in Osage County, Oklahoma, by Elkin (1954:28). Because this
species has been stocked widely in Oklahoma its eventual occurrence in
Kansas seems probable.

_Chaenobryttus gulosus_ (Cuvier)--The warmouth has been taken south of
the collection area in Osage County on Salt Creek by Elkin (1954:28).



FAUNAL COMPARISONS OF DIFFERENT STREAMS


The faunas of Elk River, Big Caney River, and Grouse Creek were
generally similar. These streams and most of their tributaries originate
in the same hilly area of eastern Cowley County and western Elk and
Chautauqua counties; their similarities and differences have been
pointed out.

The following species were taken in all of these streams:

  _Lepisosteus osseus_
  _Dorosoma cepedianum_
  _Ictiobus bubalus_
  _Moxostoma erythrurum_
  _Minytrema melanops_
  _Cyprinus carpio_
  _Campostoma anomalum_
  _Notropis boops_
  _Notropis lutrensis_
  _Notropis umbratilis_
  _Notropis volucellus_
  _Pimephales notatus_
  _Pimephales tenellus_
  _Fundulus notatus_
  _Gambusia affinis_
  _Ictalurus melas_
  _Ictalurus punctatus_
  _Etheostoma spectabile_
  _Percina caprodes_
  _Micropterus salmoides_
  _Pomoxis annularis_
  _Lepomis cyanellus_
  _Lepomis humilis_
  _Lepomis megalotis_
  _Lepomis macrochirus_
  _Labidesthes sicculus_

No species was found in Elk River to the exclusion of Big Caney and
Grouse Creek. Fish taken exclusively in Grouse Creek were _Ictiobus
cyprinella_ at station G-2 and _Notropis percobromus_ at station G-1.
The following species were taken only in Big Caney River: _Ictiobus
niger_, _Notropis rubellus_, _Phenacobius mirabilis_, _Pimephales
vigilax_, and _Pomoxis nigromaculatus_.

_Notropis buchanani_ and _Pimephales promelas_ were taken in Grouse
Creek and Elk River, but not in Big Caney River, although the watershed
of Big Caney lies largely between these two streams. Three species,
_Notropis camurus_, _Micropterus punctulatus_, and _Aplodinotus
grunniens_, were found in Elk River and Big Caney but not in Grouse
Creek. _Ictalurus natalis_, _Pylodictis olivaris_, and _Percina
phoxocephala_ were taken in Big Caney River and Grouse Creek but not in
Elk River. _Percina copelandi_ was taken by Cross on Elk River in 1954
and 1955 (K. U. 3464 and K. U. 3197).

Forty species were taken in Big Caney River, 35 in Grouse Creek and 31
in Elk River. Collections were made from only six stations on Elk River
as compared with 18 from Big Caney and 17 from Grouse Creek.

Twenty-four species were taken in the Walnut River system, only one of
which (_Notemigonus crysoleucas_) was taken exclusively there.

In the Arkansas River 18 species were found, four of which did not occur
elsewhere. These were _Hybopsis aestivalis_, _Notropis blennius_, _N.
girardi_, and _Fundulus kansae_.

Table 5 lists the number of stations in each of the streams surveyed
from which each species was taken.

    TABLE 5.--SPECIES OF FISHES COLLECTED AND NUMBER OF STATIONS IN
              EACH STREAM SYSTEM AT WHICH EACH SPECIES WAS FOUND.

    KEY:
    A: Arkansas River 3 stations
    B: Walnut River 5 stations
    C: Grouse Creek 17 stations
    D: Big Caney River 18 stations
    E: Elk River 6 stations
    F: Middle Caney 2 stations
    G: Beaver Creek 3 stations

  ============================================================
     Total number     |       |   |    |    |        |   |
     of stations      |   A   | B |  C |  D |   E    | F | G
  --------------------+-------+---+----+----+--------+---+----
  _L. osseus_         |   1   | 3 |  3 |  6 |  Seen  |   |
  _D. cepedianum_     | Seen  | 1 |  1 |  3 |    2   | 1 |
  _Carpiodes carpio_  |   2   | 1 |  1 |  1 |        |   |
  _I. bubalus_        |       | 1 |  2 |  4 |    3   |   |
  _I. cyprinella_     |       |   |  1 |    |        |   |
  _I. niger_          |       |   |    |  2 |        |   |
  _M. erythrurum_     |       |   |  4 | 10 |    3   |   |
  _M. melanops_       |       |   |  1 |  3 |    1   |   |
  _Cyprinus carpio_   |   1   | 4 |  4 |  2 |    1   |   |
  _C. anomalum_       |       | 1 |  1 | 14 |    2   |   | 1
  _H. aestivalis_     |   1   |   |    |    |        |   |
  _N. blennius_       |   2   |   |    |    |        |   |
  _N. boops_          |       |   |  2 | 14 |    2   | 2 |
  _N. buchanani_      |       |   |  1 |    |    1   |   |
  _N. camurus_        |       |   |    | 13 |    2   |   |
  _N. deliciosus_     |   3   | 3 |    |    |        |   |
  _N. girardi_        |   2   |   |    |    |        |   |
  _N. lutrensis_      |   3   | 4 | 13 | 14 |    5   | 1 | 3
  _N. rubellus_       |       |   |    | 11 |        |   |
  _N. percobromus_    |   3   | 3 |  1 |    |        |   |
  _N. umbratilis_     |       |   |  8 | 18 |    4   | 2 | 2
  _N. volucellus_     |       |   |  2 |  5 |    2   | 1 |
  _N. crysoleucas_    |       | 1 |    |    |        |   |
  _H. placita_        |   3   | 2 |    |    |        |   |
  _P. mirabilis_      |       | 1 |    |  1 |        |   |
  _P. notatus_        |       | 1 |  6 | 18 |    5   | 2 | 1
  _P. promelas_       |   2   | 2 |  1 |    |    1   | 1 | 1
  _P. vigilax_        |   1   |   |    |  3 |        | 1 |
  _P. tenellus_       |       |   |  1 |  7 |    1   | 2 |
  _F. notatus_        |       | 4 | 10 |  1 |    1   |   | 1
  _F. kansae_         |   2   |   |    |    |        |   |
  _G. affinis_        |   3   | 5 |  8 |  8 |    1   |   |
  _I. melas_          |   1   | 4 | 12 |  9 |    5   |   | 3
  _I. natalis_        |       |   |  6 |  3 |        |   |
  _I. punctatus_      |   1   | 2 |  1 |  5 |    1   |   |
  _P. olivaris_       |   1   |   |  1 |  1 |        |   |
  _E. spectabile_     |       | 1 |  4 | 17 |    2   |   | 1
  _P. copelandi_      |       |   |  1 |  5 |        |   |
  _P. phoxocephala_   |       |   |  1 |  4 |        |   |
  _P. caprodes_       |       |   |  5 |  8 |    1   |   |
  _M. salmoides_      |       |   |  4 |  2 |    3   |   | 1
  _M. punctulatus_    |       |   |    |  7 |    1   |   |
  _P. annularis_      |       | 2 |  7 |  1 |    4   | 1 |
  _P. nigromaculatus_ |       |   |    |  1 |        |   |
  _L. cyanellus_      |       | 3 | 14 | 17 |    5   | 1 | 3
  _L. humilis_        |   1   | 4 | 13 | 17 |    6   | 1 | 2
  _L. megalotis_      |       | 3 |  9 | 18 |    6   | 2 | 2
  _L. macrochirus_    |       | 1 |  3 |  3 |    2   |   |
  _A. grunniens_      |       |   |    |  1 |    1   |   |
  _L. sicculus_       |       |   |  5 |  7 |    4   | 1 | 1
  ------------------------------------------------------------



DISTRIBUTIONAL VARIATIONS WITHIN THE SAME STREAM


An analysis of faunal variations in different parts of the same stream
system was made for Big Caney River and Grouse Creek. Collecting was
more extensive in these streams, and sampling was done over a wider
range of habitat, than in the Arkansas and Walnut rivers.

The fish taken in the first five seine hauls at each station were
counted and the number of each species was recorded as a percentage of
the total number of fish taken. These percentages were calculated for
the main stream and for each tributary in an attempt to discern possible
intra-stream faunal patterns. In Table 6 lower, middle, and upper
segments of each stream have been segregated and the average of all
stations within each segment is shown.

The results are subject to several sources of error, some of which are
discussed below:

(1) Seining techniques could not be entirely standardized. One station
might present a series of long narrow riffles and narrow, shallow pools
in which only a small seine could be used effectively; another station
might consist of a large, deep, isolated pool in which a larger seine
was needed for effective sampling. In practice, the five seine hauls
were made with any of several seines ranging from ten to twenty feet in
length.

(2) Seines are species-selective, due partly to the preference of
certain fishes for special habitat niches. Fishes that are often found
under stones or in weedy pools require special collecting techniques and
frequently were not represented in the initial five hauls. If work
subsequent to the first five hauls indicated that such fish were a
prominent part of the fauna at a particular station, these results were
considered before percentages were calculated.

(3) Temporal variations occur in populations at the same station. There
were both seasonal and diurnal differences in relative numbers of
species taken in these collections. This was noted especially at station
C-5 where collecting was done both at night and by day. Spawning by
certain species during the course of the study complicated estimates of
their relative abundance.

(4) In tabulating percentages of fishes obtained an arbitrary element is
often unavoidable in deciding whether a station, especially a station on
a tributary, should be considered as part of the lower, middle, or upper
segment of a river system.

Despite these disadvantages it is felt that table 6 has factual basis
permitting some reliable interpretation.

    TABLE 6.--RELATIVE ABUNDANCE IN PER CENT OF FISHES IN
              COLLECTIONS FROM THREE STREAM SEGMENTS.

  ====================================================================
                     |      Big Caney River           Grouse Creek
                     |------------------------+-----------------------
                     | Lower | Middle | Upper | Lower | Middle | Upper
  -------------------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------+------
  _L. osseus_        |   .7  |   .5   |       |   .6  |    .02 |
  _D. cepedianum_    |   .3  |        |       |       |    .02 |
  _Carpiodes carpio_ |   .06 |        |       |  1.0  |        |
  _I. bubalus_       |   .6  |   .45  |       |  1.4  |        |
  _I. cyprinella_    |       |        |       |   .1  |        |
  _I. niger_         |   .01 |        |       |       |        |
  _M. erythrurum_    |   .2  |  1.1   |  1.0  |   .03 |    .5  |  1.1
  _M. melanops_      |   .1  |   .01  |       |       |    .1  |
  _Cyprinus carpio_  |   .7  |        |       |  1.3  |    .2  |
  _C. anomalum_      |   .6  |  5.9   | 18.0  |       |    .1  |
  _N. boops_         |   .6  |   .6   |  5.1  |       |   1.3  |
  _N. buchanani_     |       |        |       |   .01 |        |
  _N. camurus_       |  6.4  |  5.5   |   .4  |       |        |
  _N. lutrensis_     |  8.8  |  1.0   |   .5  |  6.4  |  11.4  | 15.2
  _N. percobromus_   |       |        |       |  1.1  |        |
  _N. rubellus_      |   .4  |  1.4   |  3.9  |       |        |
  _N. umbratilis_    | 17.6  | 28.3   | 15.4  |  2.5  |   3.9  |  5.5
  _N. volucellus_    |   .3  |   .4   |       |       |    .3  |
  _P. mirabilis_     |   .3  |        |       |       |        |
  _P. notatus_       |  3.5  |  5.7   | 13.0  |       |    .9  |  6.6
  _P. vigilax_       |   .8  |        |       |       |        |
  _P. promelas_      |       |        |       |       |        |  2.9
  _P. tenellus_      |   .7  |   .5   |       |   .01 |        |
  _G. affinis_       | 14.6  |   .4   |   .4  | 20.8  |  10.2  |  1.0
  _F. notatus_       |   .1  |        |       |  6.6  |  17.2  |  1.4
  _I. melas_         |   .9  |  2.2   |  2.4  |  5.6  |   2.3  | 18.0
  _I. natalis_       |       |        |   .5  |   .5  |    .8  |
  _P. olivaris_      |   .01 |        |       |   .01 |        |
  _I. punctatus_     |   .3  |        |       |   .4  |        |
  _E. spectabile_    |  1.9  |  4.9   | 18.0  |   .4  |    .3  |   .3
  _P. copelandi_     |   .8  |   .1   |       |   .01 |        |
  _P. phoxocephala_  |   .1  |        |       |   .1  |        |
  _P. caprodes_      |   .4  |   .6   |   .2  |   .2  |    .2  |   .4
  _M. salmoides_     |   .06 |        |       |       |   1.1  |   .3
  _M. punctulatus_   |   .5  |  1.7   |   .4  |       |        |
  _P. annularis_     |  3.9  |   .8   |       |  2.9  |   4.2  |   .3
  _L. cyanellus_     |  3.4  |   .8   |  6.6  |  5.2  |   1.8  | 30.5
  _L. humilis_       | 10.6  | 13.1   |  1.8  | 31.4  |  17.7  | 14.8
  _L. megalotis_     | 12.4  | 22.3   | 12.0  |  3.6  |  14.0  |  1.7
  _L. macrochirus_   |   .3  |        |       |   .2  |   1.3  |
  _A. grunniens_     |   .1  |        |       |       |        |
  _L. sicculus_      |  7.1  |  1.6   |   .4  |  7.7  |  10.2  |
  --------------------------------------------------------------------


_Big Caney River_

The "lower segment" of Big Caney River is immediately upstream from
Hulah Reservoir, and is not the lowermost portion of the entire river
basin, but merely the lower part of the river in the area studied. A
conspicuous characteristic of the lower segment was the general
restriction of the deep-bodied suckers and the carp to this part of the
stream. Other fishes that were most common in the lower section were
_Pimephales vigilax_, _Percina phoxocephala_, _Gambusia affinis_, and
_Aplodinotus grunniens_. _Labidesthes sicculus_ and _Lepisosteus osseus_
ranged into the middle section of the stream, but were present in larger
numbers downstream. _Ictalurus punctatus_, _Pomoxis annularis_, and
_Lepomis macrochirus_ were taken chiefly in downstream habitats;
however, stocking has confused the distributional pattern of these
species. _Notropis lutrensis_, although found throughout the system,
progressively declined in numbers taken in the middle and upper
sections. Approximately 18 species were usually taken in downstream
collections.

No species were found exclusively in the middle section of the Big Caney
system. _Micropterus punctulatus_, _Notropis umbratilis_, and _Lepomis
megalotis_ tended to be most common in the middle section of the main
stream. These three species were taken together at stations C-5, C-6,
C-8, and C-10.

The upper section yielded no species that did not occur also in another
section. Fishes most abundant in the upper section included: _Campostoma
anomalum_, _Etheostoma spectabile_, _Notropis boops_, _Notropis
rubellus_, _Pimephales notatus_, and _Lepomis cyanellus_. _Ictalurus
natalis_ also seemed more common upstream than in lower parts of the
basin.

_Campostoma anomalum_ was one of the most common fishes taken at many of
the stations on small upland tributaries. In downstream collections its
relative abundance was less, although it was often concentrated on
riffles.

In the Big Caney system as a whole _Notropis umbratilis_ was the most
abundant species. Several species were present throughout the system in
proportions varying, sometimes greatly, from station to station.
_Lepomis megalotis_ and _Lepomis humilis_ were erratic in occurrence,
and the numbers of _Notropis camurus_ and _Ictalurus melas_ varied
without pattern.


_Grouse Creek_

The fauna of the main stream of Grouse Creek fluctuated more in number
and kinds of fish from station to station than did the fauna of Big
Caney River. Again, the deep-bodied suckers showed downstream
proclivities. In addition, _Notropis buchanani_, _Pimephales tenellus_,
_Percina copelandi_, _Percina phoxocephala_, _Notropis percobromus_ and
_Pylodictis olivaris_ were taken only at the lowermost station (G-1). At
stations G-2 and G-3 the creek is sluggish and often turbid, meandering
between high mud banks in a flood plain. At these stations _Fundulus
notatus_, _Gambusia affinis, La_-_bidesthes sicculus_, _Ictalurus
melas,_ and _Lepomis humilis_ were the most common fishes. Shiners
(_Notropis_ spp.) and _Lepomis megalotis_ were rarely taken. Hall
(1953:36) states that _Gambusia affinis_, _Fundulus notatus_, and
_Labidesthes sicculus_ are usually associated with overflow pools,
oxbows, and vegetated backwaters.

Those fishes mentioned in the preceding paragraph remained common in
the middle section of the stream. In addition _Notropis lutrensis_,
_Notropis umbratilis_, and _Lepomis megalotis_ were important members
of the fauna.

In the uppermost section shiners (_Notropis_ spp.) were common. In the
few upstream stations that were still in good condition with clear
flowing water, the fauna resembled that of the upstream stations on Big
Caney River. Most upstream stations on Grouse Creek were located on
highly intermittent streams that are treated below.



FAUNAS OF INTERMITTENT STREAMS


Because of severe, protracted drought, most of the streams studied had
ceased to flow by the close of the survey period. However, the duration
of intermittency varied greatly in different streams, as did its effect
in terms of the number and sizes of residual pools, water temperatures,
pollution, and turbidity. Crab Creek, Beaver Creek, and a small unnamed
tributary of Grouse Creek were severely affected by intermittency. Their
faunas are discussed below.

In Crab Creek six collections were made from points near the mouth to
the uppermost pool in which water was found. Pools near the mouth were
as large as thirty feet in width and ninety feet in length, while those
that were uppermost were shallow puddles averaging ten feet in length
and five feet in width. The uppermost station was situated in bluestem
pasture without benefit of shade from trees.

The species taken and their relative abundances based on five seine
hauls at each station are shown in Table 7. At the uppermost pool (G-17)
only small green sunfish were found. At G-16, next downstream, this
species was joined by large numbers of black bullheads and a few redfin
shiners and red shiners. G-13 was similar to G-16, but two additional
species occurred there. G-12 was a clear, deep pool much larger than any
at the stations upstream. Here, seven species were added to the fauna,
and the percentages of _Ictalurus melas_ and _Lepomis cyanellus_ were
much less. At G-10 _Fundulus notatus_, _Labidesthes sicculus_, and
_Minytrema melanops_ appeared. Nevertheless, fewer species (10) were
captured here than at station G-12 upstream.

    TABLE 7.--PERCENTAGES OF FISHES TAKEN ON CRAB CREEK.

  ====================================================================
         Stations           | G-10 | G-11 | G-12 | G-13 | G-16 | G-17
  --------------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------
  _Minytrema melanops_      |  8.7 |      |      |      |      |
  _Labidesthes sicculus_    | 20.0 |  1.0 |      |      |      |
  _Fundulus notatus_        | 25.7 | 41.0 |      |      |      |
  _Ictalurus natalis_       |      |  3.8 |   .43|      |      |
  _Pomoxis annularis_       |  8.8 | 11.8 |  1.9 |      |      |
  _Lepomis humilis_         | 15.45|  9.9 |  8.5 |      |      |
  _Micropterus salmoides_   |      |      |  1.9 |      |      |
  _Etheostoma spectabile_   |  1.0 |      |  1.9 |      |      |
  _Percina caprodes_        |      |      |  3.8 |      |      |
  _Moxostoma erythrurum_    |  1.0 |      |  7.0 |      |      |
  _Lepomis megalotis_       |  5.7 |  2.3 |  7.0 |  2.0 |      |
  _Pimephales notatus_      |      | 34.0 |  9.0 |      |      |
  _Ictalurus melas_         |  5.3 |   .5 | 29.0 | 49.0 |      |
  _Notropis umbratilis_     |      |  4.7 |  9.0 |  1.0 |      |
  _Notropis lutrensis_      | 20.6 | 26.0 | 25.0 | 14.0 |  1.0 |
  _Lepomis cyanellus_       |  1.0 |      |  1.9 | 34.0 | 49.0 | 100.0
  --------------------------+------+------+------+------+------+------


    TABLE 8.--FISH TAKEN IN NINE POOLS ON UPPER BEAVER CREEK
              (PROGRESSING FROM DOWNSTREAM TO UPSTREAM).

  =====================================================================
        | _Notropis   | _Notropis | _Lepomis | _Lepomis   | _Ictalurus
        | umbratilis_ | lutrensis_| humilis_ | cyanellus_ | melas_
  ------+-------------+-----------+----------+------------+------------
  Pools:|             |           |          |            |
   1    | 5 adults    | 4 adults  |  adults  |  young     | 1 juvenile
        |             | 7 young   | abundant | abundant   |
        |             |           |          |            |
   2    | 2 adults    | 4 adults  | 6 adults |  young     |
        |             |           |          | abundant   |
        |             |           |          |            |
   3    |             | 1 adult   | 7 adults | 3 juveniles| 2 juveniles
        |             |           |          |            |
   4    |             |           | 4 adults |  young     |  young
        |             |           |          | abundant   | abundant
        |             |           |          |            |
   5    |             |           | 2 adults |            |
        |             |           |          |            |
   6    |             |           |          | 28 young   |
        |             |           |          |            |
   7    |             |           |          |            |
        |             |           |          |            |
   8    |             |           |          |            | 1 adult
        |             |           |          |            |
   9    |             |           |          |            | 1 adult
 -------+-------------+-----------+----------+------------+------------

A series of collections similar to that on Crab Creek was carried out
along 1-1/2 miles of Beaver Creek on July 22, 1956. Nine pools were
sampled (Table 8) of which number nine was the uppermost point where
water was found (except for farm ponds). Mainly young of _Lepomis
cyanellus_ and _Ictalurus melas_ were found in the uppermost stations,
as on Crab Creek. Only adults of _Notropis lutrensis_ and _Notropis
umbratilis_ were taken.

In another small intermittent tributary of Grouse Creek two collections
(G-14 and G-15) were made. One was from several isolated pools near the
source of the creek and the other was 1-1/2 miles upstream from the
mouth. The two stations were approximately four miles apart. Table 9
indicates approximate percentages of fish taken in five seine hauls at
these stations.

    TABLE 9.--FISHES TAKEN IN A TRIBUTARY OF GROUSE CREEK.

      =================================================
      Species                   | Upstream | Downstream
                                | station  | station
      --------------------------+----------+-----------
      _Ictalurus melas_         |    45%   |
      _Lepomis humilis_         |    48%   |    40%
      _Notropis lutrensis_      |    5%    |    30%
      _Lepomis cyanellus_       |    2%    |    20%
      _Fundulus notatus_        |          |    10%
      --------------------------+----------+-----------

At two other stations, only _Lepomis cyanellus_ was found. One of these
stations consisted of several small spring-fed pools in a dry arroyo
tributary to Little Beaver Creek. Around these small "oases" rushes and
smartweeds grew and blackbirds were nesting in the rushes. Although
green sunfish up to eight inches in length were common in the shallow
pools, no other species was found. The second station (C-17) on the East
Fork Big Caney River is of special interest. The pool was isolated, had
dimensions of about 25×25 feet, and had an average depth of 15 inches.
The water was foul; cows had been fed fodder in a sheltered area above
the pool during the preceding winter and the entire bottom was covered
to a depth of 6 inches to 1 foot with a detritus of decomposing fodder,
cattle feces, and leaves. The water became almost inky in consistency
when the bottom was stirred and its odor was offensive. A thick
gray-green bloom lay on the surface. This bloom was full of bubbles
indicating gases rising from the bottom muds. One hundred fifty-three
green sunfish, all less than 5 inches in length, were taken in one
seine-haul at this station.



EAST-WEST DISTRIBUTION


In the Arkansas River system in Kansas there are marked differences
between fish faunas of the western and eastern parts of the state. This
can be illustrated by comparison of Spring River in Cherokee County with
the Cimarron River in southwestern Kansas. Single collections from
Spring River or its tributaries usually contain 25 or more species of
fish. Collections from the Cimarron rarely contain more than five or six
species. Many of those fishes found in Spring River are characteristic
of an Ozarkian fauna, and some are endemic to the Ozark uplands. Fish
found in the Cimarron or Arkansas in western Kansas are members of a
plains fauna of wide distribution. There is mingling of these two faunal
groups across the state, with the number of Ozarkian species diminishing
westward, and certain plains species diminishing eastward. A number of
species such as _Moxostoma duquesnii_ and _Notropis spilopterus_ are
limited, on the basis of present records, to Spring River and its
tributaries in Kansas. Others have not been taken west of the Neosho
drainage. The Verdigris River provides the next major avenue of westward
dispersal followed by Caney River, Grouse Creek, and the Walnut River.
West of the Walnut River system Ozarkian species have been almost always
absent from collections. The Chikaskia River is somewhat exceptional.
Moore and Buck (1953) reported from this river several species that seem
more typical of eastern faunal associations. Table 10 indicates the
stream system in which the present westernmost records are located for a
number of fishes found in the Arkansas River system in Kansas.

    TABLE 10.--PRESENT WESTERNMOST RECORDS OF SOME FISHES IN THE
               ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN IN KANSAS.

  Spring River
    _Cottus carolinae_
    _Dionda nubila_
    _Etheostoma blennioides_
    _Etheostoma gracile_
    _Etheostoma nigrum nigrum_
    _Etheostoma punctulatum_
    _Etheostoma saxatile_
    _Hypentelium nigricans_
    _Moxostoma duquesnii_
    _Notropis spilopterus_
    _Noturus exilis_

  Neosho River
    _Cycleptus elongatus_
    _Etheostoma chlorosomum_
    _Etheostoma flabellare lineolatum_
    _Hybopsis amblops_
    _Hybopsis biguttata_
    _Hybopsis x-punctata_
    _Notropis zonatus pilsbryi_

  Verdigris River
    _Etheostoma whipplii_
    _Etheostoma zonale arcansanum_
    _Percina copelandi_
    _Moxostoma carinatum_
    _Notropis boops_
    _Notropis volucellus_
    _Noturus miurus_

  Chikaskia River
    _Ictalurus natalis_
    _Percina phoxocephala_
    _Labidesthes sicculus_
    _Lepomis megalotis breviceps_
    _Micropterus punctulatus_
    _Moxostoma aureolum pisolabrum_
    _Moxostoma erythrurum_
    _Notropis camurus_
    _Pimephales notatus_
    _Pimephales tenellus_
    _Noturus nocturnus_

The westernmost records for seven species are in the area studied.

1. _Lepisosteus platostomus._

2. _Carpiodes velifer._

3. _Moxostoma carinatum._

4. _Minytrema melanops._ One specimen taken at station G-10 near the
mouth of Crab Creek constitutes the present westernmost record. A
specimen has been taken by Cross (C-24-51) in the headwaters of the
Walnut River.

5. _Notropis boops._ The westernmost record is station G-5 on Grouse
Creek. This fish has been reported slightly west of this in Oklahoma on
Big Beaver Creek in Kay County (number 4776, Oklahoma A & M College
Museum of Zoology).

6. _Notropis volucellus._ Two specimens were taken at station G-8 on
Silver Creek.

7. _Percina copelandi._ The westernmost record is from station G-1, two
miles above the mouth of Grouse Creek.

The easternmost occurrences of four species are in the area studied.
These species are _Hybopsis aestivalis tetranemus_ (Station A-2),
_Notropis blennius_ (Station A-1), _Notropis girardi_ (Station A-2),
and _Fundulus kansae_ (Station A-2 and Walnut River). These fish are
associated with the Arkansas River proper and its sandy western
tributaries. In Oklahoma, these fish are found in the Arkansas River
as it proceeds eastward and in the downstream portions of some of its
tributaries. These fish show little tendency to ascend the streams of
the Flint Hills.



SUMMARY


The fish fauna of the area studied is transitional between the Ozarkian
and Great Plains faunas.

Fluctuation in water level seemed especially important in determining
distribution of fishes in the area studied. Variable climate
characteristic of the region studied causes recurrent floods and
intermittency in streams. Both of these conditions have probably been
accentuated by man's modifications of the habitat. The effects of
intermittency were most strikingly demonstrated in small creeks of the
uplands. The number of species of fish in the highly intermittent
streams was small--especially in the uppermost pools sampled--but the
actual number of fish was often high even though the number of species
was low. In several instances the only fishes found in these isolated
pools were _Lepomis cyanellus_ and _Ictalurus melas_. This phenomenon of
concentrated numbers of individuals of a few species would indicate the
presence of limiting factors that allow only those species most
tolerant of the particular factor to flourish.

Soon after rains restored flow in these intermittent creeks _L.
cyanellus_ and _I. melas_ appeared in parts of the channels that had
previously been several miles from the nearest water. Rapid upstream
movements of other species after rains was also noted.

It was impossible to ascertain the precise effects of gradient and
bottom-type on distribution, but certain species such as _Notropis
blennius_, _Notropis girardi_, and _Fundulus kansae_ were taken only in
streams with sandy bottoms. _Notropis deliciosus_ and _Hybognathus
placita_ were most abundant over sandy bottoms.

The high gradient of upland tributaries in the Flint Hills area produced
turbulence and bottoms predominantly of rubble. A fauna of which
_Etheostoma spectabile_ and _Campostoma anomalum_ were characteristic
existed in these waters while they were flowing. As flow decreased and
intermittency commenced, qualitative and quantitative changes in the
fish faunas were observed. Gradient did not change during drought, but
turbulence did. Because turbulence varies with water level as well as
gradient, the effect of gradient on fish distribution ultimately is
linked to climate.

Probably the small number of fish taken on the Walnut River in
comparison with other eastern Kansas rivers (Verdigris, Neosho) results,
in part, from the long-term pollution of the stream noted by Clapp
(1920:33) and Doze (1924). No percid fishes, black bass, or madtom
catfish were taken on the Walnut in Cowley County and the species of
_Notropis_ numbered only three.

Four faunal associations seem to be recognizable in the area.


_Arkansas River Fauna_

This fauna contained _Notropis girardi_, _Notropis blennius_, _Hybopsis
aestivalis tetranemus_, and _Fundulus kansae_ which, in this area, did
not seem to wander far from the sandy main stream of the Arkansas.
Minnows abounded; _Notropis lutrensis_ and _N. deliciosus missuriensis_
predominated; and _Notropis girardi_, _N. percobromus_, and _Hybognathus
placita_ were common. In quiet backwaters, coves, and shallow pools
_Gambusia affinis_ occurred in great numbers. _Lepisosteus osseus_
seemed to be the most important predator.


_Lower Walnut River Fauna_

The Walnut River in Cowley County supported large populations of
deep-bodied suckers, carp, and gar. _Notropis lutrensis_ and _N.
percobromus_ were characteristic minnows. _Lepomis_ _humilis_ abounded
at some stations. The fauna of the main stream of the Walnut River was
somewhat intermediate between that of the Arkansas River and that of the
three streams considered below. Fifteen of the species common to the Big
Caney, Elk, and Grouse systems were also taken in the Walnut River main
stream. Thirteen species were common to the Walnut and Arkansas rivers.
Seven species were common to all these streams.


_Caney-Elk-Grouse Main Stream Fauna_

This fauna includes fishes living not only in the main streams but also
in the lower parts of the larger tributaries of these streams. The fauna
was comparatively rich: in the main stream of Big Caney River 39 species
were taken, in Grouse Creek 35 species, in the Walnut River main stream
21 species, and in the Arkansas River 19 species. It has been pointed
out that large rivers such as the Walnut and Arkansas have been
subjected to greater direct and indirect modification by man, possibly
resulting in a less diverse fauna than would otherwise occur in these
streams. At present, there is a paucity of ecological niches in the
upland tributaries and large rivers, as compared with streams of
intermediate size. Fishes typical of the Caney-Elk-Grouse association
were _Notropis umbratilis_, _Lepomis megalotis_, _Lepomis humilis_,
_Labidesthes sicculus_, _Fundulus notatus_, and the two species of
_Micropterus (Micropterus punctulatus_ was not taken in Grouse Creek).


_Upland Tributary Fauna_

Tributary faunas were divisible into two categories: (1) Those of the
Walnut River and Grouse Creek (intermittency was severe, species were
few, with _Ictalurus melas_ and _Lepomis cyanellus_ predominating); (2)
those of Big Caney River (stream-flow was more stable, and eastern
fishes, some of which have Ozarkian affinities, occurred in greater
abundance than in any other part of the area surveyed). In the latter
streams _Campostoma anomalum_ and _Etheostoma spectabile_ usually were
dominant. _Pimephales notatus_, _Notropis volucellus_, _N. camurus_, _N.
boops_, and _N. rubellus_ characteristically occurred. _Notropis
lutrensis_ was sparsely represented in flowing tributaries. _Notropis
umbratilis_, which seems to prefer habitats intermediate between those
of _Notropis lutrensis_ and Ozarkian shiners, was usually represented.
Deep-bodied suckers and carp were not taken in upland tributaries but
_Moxostoma erythrurum_ was common and _Minytrema melanops_ was taken.

The kinds and numbers of shiners (_Notropis_) taken at different points
along Grouse Creek seem significant. _N. lutrensis_ and _N. umbratilis_
occurred throughout the stream but were rare in sluggish areas where
populations of _Gambusia affinis_, _Fundulus notatus_, and _Labidesthes
sicculus_ flourished. At the lowermost station _Notropis percobromus_
and _N. buchanani_ were taken; these were not present in other
collections. In the uppermost stations where water remained plentiful,
_N. boops_ and _N. volucellus_ were taken, and _N. rubellus_ has been
recorded.

In the broader distributional sense those fishes that seemed most
tolerant of intermittency (_Lepomis cyanellus_, _Lepomis humilis_,
_Ictalurus melas_, _Notropis lutrensis_) are widely distributed in the
Arkansas River Basin, and are common in the western part of the Arkansas
River Basin. Species less tolerant of intermittency are _Notropis
boops_, _Notropis camurus_, _Notropis rubellus_, _Notropis volucellus_,
and _Pimephales tenellus_; they have not been taken far west of the area
studied, and become more common east of it.



LITERATURE CITED


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  BREUKELMAN, J.

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  BUCK, H., and CROSS, F. B.

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  CROSS, F. B.

    1950. Effects of sewage and of a headwaters impoundment on the
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          Midl. Nat., 43 (1):128-145, 1 fig.

   1954a. Fishes of Cedar Creek and the south fork of the Cottonwood
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   1954b. Records of fishes little-known from Kansas. Trans. Kansas
          Acad. Sci. 57:473-479.

  CROSS, F. B., and MOORE, G. A.

    1952. The fishes of the Poteau River, Oklahoma and Arkansas.
          American Midl. Nat., 47 (2):396-412.

  DOZE, J. B.

    1924. Stream pollution. Bien. Report. Kansas Fish and Game Dept.
          5:1-42.

  ELKIN, R. E.

    1954. The fish population of two cut-off pools in Salt Creek, Osage
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  ELLIOTT, A.

    1947. A preliminary survey and ecological study of the fishes of
          the South Ninnescah and Spring Creek. Unpublished thesis,
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  EVERMANN, B. W., and FORDICE, M. W.

    1886. List of fishes collected in Harvey and Cowley counties,
          Kansas. Bull. Washburn Lab. Nat. Hist., 1:184-186.

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    1948. Climate of Kansas. Rept. Kansas State Board Agric.
          67:xii-320, Illus.

  FOLEY, F. C., SMRHA, R. V., and METZLER, D. F.

    1955. Water in Kansas. A report to the Kansas State Legislature as
          directed by the Kansas State Finance Council. University of
          Kansas, pp. 1-216--A1-J6.

  FRYE, J. C., and LEONARD, A. B.

    1952. Pleistocene geology of Kansas. Bull. Kansas Geol. Surv.,
          99:1-230. 17 figs., 19 pls.

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    1953. The population of larger fishes in Black River, Missouri.
          Univ. Missouri Studies, 26:69-82.

  GATES, F. C.

    1936. Grasses in Kansas. Rept. Kansas State Board Agric., 55
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    1885. Preliminary list of Kansas fishes. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.,
          9:69-78.

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    1955. A survey of upland forests in the Chautauqua Hills, Kansas.
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  HALL, G. E.

    1952. Observations on the fishes of the Fort Gibson and Tenkiller
          reservoir areas, 1952. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci., 33:55-63.

    1953. Preliminary observations on the presence of stream-inhabiting
          fishes in Tenkiller Reservoir, a new Oklahoma impoundment.
          Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci., 34:34-40.

  HOYLE, W. L.

    1936. Notes on faunal collecting in Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad.
          Sci., 39:283-293.

  HUBBS, C. L., and ORTENBURGER, A. I.

   1929a. Further notes on the fishes of Oklahoma with descriptions of
          new species of cyprinidae. Publ. Univ. Oklahoma Biol. Surv.,
          1(2):17-43.

   1929b. Fishes collected in Oklahoma and Arkansas in 1927. Publ.
          Univ. Oklahoma Biol. Surv., 1 (3):47-112, 13 pls.

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    1947. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull.,
          26 (Revised Edition):i-xi-1-186, illus.

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          57:1-244, 21 figs., 4 pls.

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    1952. Water Pollution Report, Walnut River Basin. Department of
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    1932. Surveying the southern boundary line of Kansas. Kansas Hist.
          Quarterly, 1:104-139.

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    1944. Notes on the early life history of _Notropis girardi_.
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          parvipinnis_ (Gilbert and Swain). Copeia, 1950 (2):139-148.

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  MOORE, G. A., and BUCK, D. H.

    1953. The fishes of the Chikaskia River in Oklahoma and Kansas.
          Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci., 34:19-27.

  MOORE, R. C.

    1949. Divisions of the Pennsylvanian system in Kansas. Bull. Kansas
          Geol. Survey, 83:1-203, 37 Figs.

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    1951. The Kansas rock column. Bull. Kansas Geol. Survey, 89:1-132,
          52 Figs.

  MOOSO, J.

    1888. The life and travels of Josiah Mooso. Telegram Post,
          Winfield, Kansas, pp. 1-400.

  ORTENBURGER, A. I., and HUBBS, C. L.

    1926. A report on the fishes of Oklahoma, with descriptions of new
          genera and species. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci., 6:132-141.

  SCHELSKE, C. L.

    1957. An ecological study of the fishes of the Fall and Verdigris
          rivers in Wilson and Montgomery counties, Kansas, March 1954,
          to February 1955. Emporia State Research Studies, 5(3):31-56.

  SCHOONOVER, R., and THOMPSON, W. H.

    1954. A post-impoundment study of the fisheries resources of Fall
          River Reservoir, Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 57:172-179.

  TRAUTMAN, M. B.

    1951. _Moxostoma aureolum pisolabrum_, a new subspecies of sucker
          from the ozarkian streams of the Mississippi River System.
          Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 534:1-10, 1 pl.


  _Transmitted December 19, 1958._


                                27-7079



                   UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
                       MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


Institutional libraries interested in publications exchange may obtain
this series by addressing the Exchange Librarian, University of Kansas
Library, Lawrence, Kansas. Copies for individuals, persons working in a
particular field of study, may be obtained by addressing instead the
Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. There
is no provision for sale of this series by the University Library which
meets institutional requests, or by the Museum of Natural History which
meets the requests of individuals. However, when individuals request
copies from the Museum, 25 cents should be included, for each separate
number that is 100 pages or more in length, for the purpose of defraying
the costs of wrapping and mailing.

* An asterisk designates those numbers of which the Museum's supply (not
the Library's supply) is exhausted. Numbers published to date, in this
series, are as follows:

  Vol. 1. Nos. 1-26 and index. Pp. 1-638, 1946-1950.

 *Vol. 2. (Complete) Mammals of Washington. By Walter W. Dalquest.
          Pp. 1-444, 140 figures in text. April 9, 1948.

  Vol. 3. *1. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and
              distribution. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 1-359, 16 figures
              in text. June 12, 1951.

          *2. A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds.
              By George H. Lowery, Jr. Pp. 361-472, 47 figures in text.
              June 29, 1951.

           3. Phylogeny of the waxwings and allied birds. By M. Dale
              Arvey. Pp. 473-530, 49 figures in text, 13 tables.
              October 10, 1951.

           4. Birds from the state of Veracruz, Mexico. By George H.
              Lowery, Jr., and Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 531-649,
              7 figures in text, 2 tables. October 10, 1951.

          Index. Pp. 651-681.

 *Vol. 4. (Complete) American weasels. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 1-466,
          41 plates, 31 figures in text. December 27, 1951.

  Vol. 5. Nos. 1-37 and index. Pp. 1-676, 1951-1953.

 *Vol. 6. (Complete) Mammals of Utah, _taxonomy and distribution_.
          By Stephen D. Durrant. Pp. 1-549, 91 figures in text,
          30 tables. August 10, 1952.

  Vol. 7. *1. Mammals of Kansas. By E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 1-303,
              73 figures in text, 37 tables. August 25, 1952.

           2. Ecology of the opossum on a natural area in
              northeastern Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch and Lewis L.
              Sandidge. Pp. 305-338, 5 figures in text. August 24,
              1953.

           3. The silky pocket mice (Perognathus flavus) of Mexico.
              By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 339-347, 1 figure in text.
              February 15, 1954.

           4. North American jumping mice (Genus Zapus). By Philip
              H. Krutzsch. Pp. 349-472, 47 figures in text, 4 tables.
              April 21, 1954.

           5. Mammals from Southeastern Alaska. By Rollin H. Baker
              and James S. Findley. Pp. 473-477. April 21, 1954.

           6. Distribution of Some Nebraskan Mammals. By J. Knox
              Jones, Jr. Pp. 479-487. April 21, 1954.

           7. Subspeciation in the montane meadow mouse. Microtus
              montanus, in Wyoming and Colorado. By Sydney Anderson.
              Pp. 489-506, 2 figures in text. July 23, 1954.

           8. A new subspecies of bat (Myotis velifer) from
              southeastern California and Arizona. By Terry A.
              Vaughan. Pp. 507-512. July 23, 1954.

           9. Mammals of the San Gabriel mountains of California.
              By Terry A. Vaughan. Pp. 513-582, 1 figure in text, 12
              tables. November 15, 1954.

          10. A new bat (Genus Pipistrellus) from northeastern
              Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 583-586. November 15,
              1954.

          11. A new subspecies of pocket mouse from Kansas. By E.
              Raymond Hall. Pp. 587-590. November 15, 1954.

          12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher,
              Cratogeomys castanops, in Coahuila, Mexico. By Robert J.
              Russell and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 591-608. March 15,
              1955.

          13. A new cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from
              northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 609-612.
              April 8, 1955.

          14. Taxonomy and distribution of some American shrews.
              By James S. Findley. Pp. 613-618. June 10, 1955.

          15. The pigmy woodrat, Neotoma goldmani, its
              distribution and systematic position. By Dennis G.
              Rainey and Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 619-624, 2 figures in
              text. June 10, 1955.

          Index. Pp. 625-651.

  Vol. 8.  1. Life history and ecology of the five-lined skink,
              Eumeces fasciatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 1-156,
              26 figs, in text. September 1, 1954.

           2. Myology and serology of the Avian Family
              Fringillidae, a taxonomic study. By William B. Stallcup.
              Pp. 157-211, 23 figures in text, 4 tables. November 15,
              1954.

           3. An ecological study of the collared lizard
              (Crotaphytus collaris). By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 213-274,
              10 figures in text. February 10, 1956.

           4. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog,
              Gastrophryne olivacea. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 275-306, 9
              figures in text. February 10, 1956.

           5. Check-list of the birds of Kansas. By Harrison B.
              Tordoff. Pp. 307-359, 1 figure in text. March 10, 1956.

           6. A population study of the prairie vole (Microtus
              ochrogaster) in northeastern Kansas. By Edwin P. Martin.
              Pp. 361-416, 19 figures in text. April 2, 1956.

           7. Temperature responses in free-living amphibians and
              reptiles of northeastern Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp.
              417-476, 10 figures in text, 6 tables. June 1, 1956.

           8. Food of the crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, in
              south-central Kansas. By Dwight Platt. Pp. 477-498, 4
              tables. June 8, 1956.

           9. Ecological observations on the woodrat, Neotoma
              floridana. By Henry S. Fitch and Dennis G. Rainey. Pp.
              499-533, 3 figures in text. June 12, 1956.

          10. Eastern woodrat, Neotoma floridana: Life history and
              ecology. By Dennis G. Rainey. Pp. 535-646, 12 plates, 13
              figures in text. August 15, 1956.

          Index. Pp. 647-675.

  Vol. 9.  1. Speciation of the wandering shrew. By James S. Findley.
              Pp. 1-68, 18 figures in text. December 10, 1955.

           2. Additional records and extensions of ranges of
              mammals from Utah. By Stephen D, Durrant, M. Raymond
              Lee, and Richard M. Hansen. Pp. 69-80. December 10,
              1955.

           3. A new long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) from
              northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker and Howard J.
              Stains. Pp. 81-84. December 10, 1955.

           4. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus
              pennsylvanicus, in Wyoming. By Sydney Anderson. Pp.
              85-104, 2 figures in text. May 10, 1956.

           5. The condylarth genus Ellipsodon. By Robert W. Wilson.
              Pp. 105-116, 6 figures in text. May 19, 1956.

           6. Additional remains of the multituberculate genus
              Eucosmodon. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 117-123, 10 figures
              in text. May 19, 1956.

           7. Mammals of Coahuila, Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp.
              125-335, 75 figures in text. June 15, 1956.

           8. Comments on the taxonomic status of Apodemus
              peninsulae, with description of a new subspecies from
              North China. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 337-346, 1 figure
              in text, 1 table. August 15, 1956.

           9. Extensions of known ranges of Mexican bats. By Sydney
              Anderson. Pp. 347-351. August 15, 1956.

          10. A new bat (Genus Leptonycteris) from Coahuila. By
              Howard J. Stains. Pp. 353-356. January 21, 1957.

          11. A new species of pocket gopher (Genus Pappogeomys)
              from Jalisco, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 357-361.
              January 21, 1957.

          12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Thomomys
              bottae, in Colorado. By Phillip M. Youngman. Pp.
              363-387, 7 figures in text. February 21, 1958.

          13. New bog lemming (genus Synaptomys) from Nebraska. By
              J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 385-388. May 12, 1958.

          14. Pleistocene bats from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon,
              Mexico. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 389-396. December 19,
              1958.

          15. New Subspecies of the rodent Baiomys from Central
              America. By Robert L. Packard. Pp. 397-404. December 19,
              1958.

          More numbers will appear in volume 9.

  Vol. 10. 1. Studies of birds killed in nocturnal migration. By
              Harrison B. Tordoff and Robert M. Mengel. Pp. 1-44,
              6 figures in text, 2 tables. September 12, 1956.

           2. Comparative breeding behavior of Ammospiza caudacuta
              and A. maritima. By Glen E. Woolfenden. Pp. 45-75, 6
              plates, 1 figure. December 20, 1956.

           3. The forest habitat of the University of Kansas
              Natural History Reservation. By Henry S. Fitch and
              Ronald R. McGregor. Pp. 77-127, 2 plates, 7 figures in
              text, 4 tables. December 31, 1956.

           4. Aspects of reproduction and development in the
              prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). By Henry S. Fitch.
              Pp. 129-161, 8 figures in text, 4 tables. December 19,
              1957.

           5. Birds found on the Arctic slope of northern Alaska.
              By James W. Bee. Pp. 163-211, pls. 9-10, 1 figure in
              text. March 12, 1958.

           6. The wood rats of Colorado: distribution and ecology.
              By Robert B. Finley, Jr. Pp. 213-552, 34 plates, 8
              figures in text, 35 tables. November 7, 1958.

          More number will appear in volume 10.

  Vol. 11. 1. The systematic status of the colubrid snake, Leptodeira
              discolor Günther. By William E. Duellman. Pp. 1-9,
              4 figs. July 14, 1958.

           2. Natural history of the six-lined racerunner,
              Cnemidophorus sexlineatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 11-62,
              9 figs., 9 tables. September 19, 1958.

           3. Home ranges, territories, and seasonal movements of
              vertebrates of the Natural History Reservation. By Henry
              S. Fitch. Pp. 63-326, 6 plates, 24 figures in text, 3
              tables. December 12, 1958.

           4. A new snake of the genus Geophis from Chihuahua,
              Mexico. By John M. Legler. Pp. 327-334, 2 figures in
              text. January 28, 1959.

           5. A new tortoise, genus Gopherus, from north-central
              Mexico. By John M. Legler. Pp. 335-343, 2 plates. April
              24, 1959.

           6. Fishes of Chautauqua, Cowley and Elk counties,
              Kansas. By Artie L. Metcalf. Pp. 345-400, 2 plates, 2
              figures in text, 10 tables. May 6, 1959.

          More numbers will appear in Volume 11.

       *       *       *       *       *



                          TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


1. Passages in italics are surrounded by _underscores_.

2. Passages in bold-italics are surrounded by #bold#.

3. Images and tables have been moved from the middle of a paragraph to
the closest paragraph break.





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