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´╗┐Title: The American Church Dictionary and Cyclopedia
Author: Miller, William James
Language: English
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The American Church Dictionary and Cyclopedia


"_Of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God_."--Acts 1:3.






The writer of the following pages has long been convinced, from an
experience of many years in the Ministry, that a great desideratum
among Church people is a Church Dictionary, especially one not so
expensive as the more costly works, and at the same time something
more complete and satisfactory than a mere glossary of terms. What
seems to be needed is an inexpensive, handy volume, "short enough
for busy people, plain enough for common people, cheap enough for
poor people," yet complete enough to give the information needed.
The present work was undertaken with this object in view. It was
thought "worth while"; for if words are things, then greater
familiarity with the phraseology of the Church will lead to greater
knowledge "of the things pertaining to the Kingdom of God." What is
here set forth is really a HANDY BOOK OF READY REFERENCE _arranged
in alphabetical order_; and while some of the articles may seem to
be too brief, yet the system of cross references adopted, it is
believed, will throw considerable light on subjects where it is
employed and thus enables the book to be kept within the limits
already specified.

The title, THE AMERICAN CHURCH DICTIONARY, indicates the purpose
as well as those for whom it is written. In preparing it, the
writer worked under the {3} conviction that not only is it necessary
to set forth the historic facts, doctrines, terminology, customs
and usages of the Church, but also to indicate the _spirit of the
Church_ as well,--the spirit that pervades all her life, her
teachings and her customs, and which when once possessed makes us
deeply conscious of her continuous life from the beginning, as
having a history and glorious traditions.

Many sources of information have been drawn from, the thoughts of
many writers have been laid under contribution, but not always was
it possible to make acknowledgment, as what is here presented is
the result of the writer's general reading and study. As such the
work is sent forth with the hope that all who refer to its pages
may find it adequate to the purpose described and realize the full
meaning of St. Cyprian's word's, "_He cannot have God for his
Father, who has not the Church for his Mother_."

W. J. M.

Dictionary and Cyclopaedia


Ablutions.--A term used to designate the ceremonial washing of the
sacred vessels after Holy Communion, with wine and water which are
reverently consumed by the Priest. These ablutions are in conformity
with the Rubric which directs, "And if any of the consecrated Bread
and Wine remain after the Communion, it shall not be carried out
of the Church; but the Minister and other communicants shall,
immediately after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink the same."

Absolution.--The forgiveness of sins on earth by the Son of Man
through His agents, the Bishops and Priests of the Church. Their
commission is embodied in the words of the Ordination Office,
"Receive the Holy Ghost for the Office and Work of a Priest in
the Church of God, now committed unto thee by the Imposition of
our hands. Whose sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven; and
whose sins thou dost retain, they are retained." This commission
contains our {6} Lord's own words to be found in St. John 20:22 and 23,
and they are His commission to His Ministers. Attempts have been
made to explain away these words; but it is unquestionably the
office of the Holy Ghost to invest those ordained with the power
of dispensing God's Word and Sacraments, and of performing what
is necessary "for the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of
the ministry, and for the edifying of the Body of Christ."

Absolution, The.--The name given to the form of words by which a
penitent person is absolved. There are two forms in the Prayer
Book; the longer form being used at Morning and Evening Prayer,
the shorter one being usually confined to use in the Communion

Absolve.--To loose, to set free from the bondage of sin. (See

Abstinence.--The Church makes a distinction between _abstinence_ and
_fasting_. Abstinence is the reduction of food for the sake of
self-discipline, while fasting is going without food of any kind
as a more severe act of discipline. Abstinence is to be exercised
on "Other Days of Fasting" _i.e._, other than Ash Wednesday and
Good Friday which are absolute Fasts. (See FASTS, TABLE OF; also

Acolyte.--A word derived from the Greek, and used to designate one
who serves the Priest in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist.
His chief duties are to arrange the elements on the Credence, to
light the candles, receive the offerings and present them, and
also the Bread, Wine and water, to the Priest at the proper time
in the Celebration. {7}

Adult Baptism.--The rule of the Church is Infant Baptism. She
brings children even in their tenderest years within her Fold and
there trains them up "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord."
But when in England the Puritans and Anabaptists arose and prevailed,
then there grew up a generation that reached maturity without having
been baptized, and then it was that there arose the necessity for
"The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of Riper Years and able
to answer for themselves." To meet such cases the present service
in the Prayer Book for the Baptism of Adults was prepared and set
forth in A.D. 1661. That the Church of England had no form for
the Baptism of Adults previous to the year 1661 is not only an
interesting fact, but it is also one of those historic side-lights
which brings into bold relief what was the custom of the Church
from time immemorial.

Advent.--Derived from the Latin, and means _coming_. The word is
used of the first coming of Christ at His Birth, and of His Second
Coming to judge the world. These are commemorated in the first
Season of the Church Year, the _Season of Advent_, which begins
on the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day (Nov. 30) whether before
or after, and continues until Christmas Day. The Advent Season is
intended to be a preparation for the due observance of Christmas,
is penitential in character and a time of increased devotions both
public and private. The Benedicite is sung instead of the Te Deum;
the Benedictus is recited in full, and the Collect for the First
Sunday in Advent is used daily throughout the Season. The color
for Altar hangings, etc., is purple or violet.

Advent Sunday.--A name to be found in the Prayer Book for the First
Sunday in Advent. It is commonly regarded as the first day of the
Church Year, and as such the _Christian's New Year's Day_. From the
fact that the Church Year anticipates the Civil New Year by a whole
month it is thought that the Church thereby teaches that the Kingdom
of God should be first in our thoughts, (See ADVENT, also CHRISTIAN

Affusion.--The _pouring_ (which the word means) of water on the
recipient of Baptism, when the Baptism is not by immersion.
Questions have arisen from the very earliest ages as to the matter
and form with which this Sacrament is to be administered. The
original mode was undoubtedly by the descent of the person to be
baptized into a stream or pool of water. The practice of immersion
was not, however, regarded as an essential feature of Baptism. There
can be little doubt that affusion was practiced instead of immersion,
at the discretion of the Priest, in ancient as well as in modern
times. The Prayer Book provides for either mode. The method is a
matter of indifference, the essential point being that the candidate
for Baptism come into actual contact with water while the words, "I
baptize thee in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
Holy Ghost," are spoken.

Agape.--A Greek word meaning _love_. The name given to the "Love
Feast" or social meal which the ancient Christians were accustomed
to have when they came together and which was partaken of before
the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. But owing to abuses, which
St. Paul rebuked in writing to the {9} Corinthians, it was finally
abolished. There seems to be some confusion of ideas in regard to
this ancient custom as is seen in the wrong use that is made of the
term LORD'S SUPPER (which see).

Agnus Dei.--Meaning "The Lamb of God." This is the name given to
the prayer "O Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
have mercy upon us," to be found in the Litany and Gloria in
Excelsis. The Agnus Dei is often sung as an anthem after the Prayer
of Consecration in the Holy Communion. It is also the name given to
a representation of a lamb with banner as an emblem of Christ. (See

Aisle.--This term is often wrongly applied to the alleys or
passageways between the pews of a church. Aisle, properly speaking,
is an architectural term given to the side or wing of a church or
cathedral separated from the nave by rows of pillars and arches.
The word is derived from the Latin _ala_, meaning a wing.

Alb.--A long white linen garment worn as one of the Eucharistic
Vestments. (See VESTMENTS).

Alleluia.--A Hebrew word meaning "Praise ye the Lord." Sometimes
written "Hallelujah." It is used on joyous occasions such as
Christmas and Easter.

All Saints' Day.--A Feast held on November 1, in commemoration
of all saints of the Church who are not commemorated on other
days. This Festival is very dear to the hearts of Christians.
It is a day full of touching memories, when in the Holy Eucharist
we memorialize before God the lives not only of Martyrs and
Confessors and the great army of valiant {10} and faithful souls
in every age and clime, but also of those dear to us by ties of
kindred and affection,--fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters,
little children and noble youth--who "having finished their
course in faith do now rest from their labors." It is thus we
have brought home to us, as in no other way, the meaning and
reality of "The Communion of Saints." Amid the solemnities of
worship "and memorial we thus learn that the living and the dead
are bound together by ties that are eternal, ties that no change
of time can break, because before God they are _one_ in the Mystical
Body of Christ. (See DIPTYCHS).

Almanac, Church.--An annual publication setting forth the dates
and times of the Holy Days and Seasons of the Church's year, with
the table of Lessons, directions concerning the Church colors and
other information about the Church, such as the organization of
the Dioceses, number of communicants; clergy list, the General
Convention and other organizations; also, the list of the American
Bishops, both living and departed. In fact a well-edited Church
Almanac is so full of information no intelligent communicant can
afford to be without one, as a guide and help to his devotions
throughout the year. (See CALENDAR).

Alms Bason.--A shallow dish or plate, usually made of some precious
metal, in which the offerings of the people are received and placed
on the Altar.

Alpha and Omega.--The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet.
They are used of our Lord to set forth His eternal and divine
Nature, as in Revelation I:II, "I am Alpha and Omega, the First
and the Last." In their Greek form these letters are used {11} in
the symbolism and decoration of the Church, either separately or
as a monogram.

Altar.--The Holy Table, of wood or stone, on which the Sacrament of
the Lord's Body and Blood is offered to God as a "Sacrifice of Praise
and Thanksgiving." "Altar" and "Table" are used interchangeably
in Holy Scripture, and both words are used in the Prayer Book for
the same thing. From the very earliest times the Altar has always
been the most prominent object in the Church, being placed at the
end of the chancel and elevated, being approached by three or more
steps. Architecturally as well as devotionally the Altar is the
distinctive feature, the objective point of the building to which
all else conforms. Properly speaking, the building is erected for
the Altar, and not the Altar for the building. (See LORD'S TABLE).

Altar Cross.--The cross surmounting the Altar, made usually of
polished brass or of some precious metal. The Altar Cross is handed
down to us from the Primitive Church, so that to-day wheresoever
the English or the American flag waves there "the Altar and the
Cross" are set up. The Cross is placed over the middle of the
Altar, in the most sacred and prominent part of the Church, "in
order that the holy symbol of our Faith may be constantly before
the eyes of all who worship therein, to shine through the gloom of
this world and point them to the skies."

Altar Lights.--Two candles in candlesticks placed on the retable of
the Altar and lighted at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist;
frequently called Eucharistic Lights. They are used to symbolize
our Lord as {12} the Light of the world in His two Natures, Human
and Divine. The symbolical use of lighted tapers in Divine Service
is of primitive antiquity and their use is being generally restored
in both the English and American branches of the Church. This is
evidenced by the table in the Tourist's Church Guide for 1898, in
which it appears that in 1882 there were 581 churches in which the
Altar Lights were used, while in 1898 the number had increased to

Altar Linen.--The linen pieces used in decorating the Altar for
the celebration of the Holy Communion are so called. There is first
the "fair white linen cloth," the width of the top of the Altar,
and falling over the ends fifteen or twenty inches ending with a
fringe. It is usually embroidered with five crosses to represent
the five wounds of our Lord. Other pieces are the Corporal to cover
the middle part of the Altar and on which are placed the Paten and
Chalice during the Celebration; the "fair linen cloth," or thin
lawn veil required by the rubric to cover the elements after
consecration; the Purificators, and also the Pall,--each of which
is described under its proper title (which see).

Altar Rail.--The railing enclosing the Sanctuary in which the Altar
stands, and at which the communicants kneel in receiving the Holy
Communion, is called, in the Institution Office the _Altar Rail_.
Supposed to have been first introduced by Archbishop Laud as a
protection of the Altar against the lawlessness and irreverence of
the Puritans.

Altar Vessels.--(See VESSELS, SACRED). {13}

Ambulatory.--The name given to the passageway running around and
back of the Altar, being a continuation of the aisles of the church.
Generally used for processionals to and from the choir.

Amen.--A Hebrew word meaning "so be it," or "so it is," as it is
used at the end of prayers, hymns or Creed. It signifies approval
of, or assent to, what has gone before. The use of the "Amen" in
Public Worship emphasizes the Priesthood of the Laity, as for
example, in the consecration of the elements in the Holy Communion,
while the celebrating Priest stands before God offering to Him this
holy Oblation, he does it in company with all the faithful, and to
signify their cooperation with him in this great act they say
"Amen," adopting his words and acts as their own. In the early
Church the "Amen" was said with such heartiness, an ancient writer
describes it as sounding "like a clap of thunder." (See RESPONSIVE

American Church, The.--The name, and one that is growing in
popularity, that is generally given to the body legally known as
"The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America."

The term "American Church" is descriptive of "The Holy Catholic
Church" having this land and people as the field of its operations.
When our Lord commanded His Apostles to go forth and make disciples
of all nations, and they went forth to carry out this command,
they gave to every nation to which they came the Church in its
completeness with powers of perpetuity. To every nation were given
the Christian Faith, the Apostolic Ministry, the Sacraments and the
Christian Worship or Liturgy. Hence there {14} sprung up national
Churches, all equal and having union with one another in these
four essentials of Christian Truth and Order. The Episcopal Church
in the United States by reason of its origin, history and character
is to be regarded as one of these national churches and the name
which is to embody this idea will no doubt be found and set forth
by the proper ecclesiastical authority in due time. It is difficult
to say just how the name "Protestant Episcopal" came into use, but
it has always been a hindrance to our growth because it requires
so much to be said in explanation, which is always a disadvantage.
Meantime the name "American Church" is coming more and more into
general use, as it is clear, definite and historic, following the
analogy of the naming of the ancient national churches.

The Episcopal Church in the United States is the daughter of the
ancient, historic. Catholic and Apostolic Church of England, is
partaker of the same life and the inheritor with the mother Church
of the same worship, rites, customs, doctrines and traditions, and,
therefore, its position, likewise, is ancient and historic, Catholic

The history of the Church in America covers a period of more than
three hundred years, and its first beginnings on these shores are
full of interest. We refer to a few of them. From an old chronicle
it is learned that in the year 1578, on the shores of Frobisher's
Straits, "Master Walfall celebrated a Communion upon land, at the
partaking whereof were the Captain and many others with him. The
celebration {15} of the Divine Mystery was the first signs, seals
and confirmation of Christ's Passion and Death ever known in these

It is a remarkable and interesting fact that the Book of Common
Prayer was first used in the territory now covered by the United
States, not on the Atlantic coast as one would naturally suppose,
but on the Pacific coast, on the shores of Drake's Bay, California.
This took place on St. John Baptist's Day, June 24th, 1579, the
officiating minister having been the Rev. Francis Fletcher, chaplain
to Francis Drake. The place where this service was held has been
marked by a handsome cross, known as the "Prayer Book Cross,"
erected by Bishop Nichols through the munificence of the late Geo.
W. Childs, of Philadelphia.

In the course of time, settlements were made along the Atlantic
coast and evidence is given of the Church's services being held at
very early dates. In A.D. 1607, the first permanent settlement was
effected in Virginia. In May of that year, under the Rev. Robert
Hunt, a Priest of the Church of England, services began to be held
regularly and a church building was erected at Jamestown. This was
thirteen years before the "Pilgrim Fathers" landed on Plymouth Rock.
The Church was planted in all the colonies and included a greater
portion of the population. But in time other religious bodies were
also established and as these organizations had everything necessary
for their growth and development they grew and prospered. With the {16}
Church it was far different. For more than one hundred and fifty
years it existed on these shores an Episcopal Church without an
Episcopate. There could be no confirmations and no ordinations to
the ministry unless candidates were willing to take the long and
perilous voyage to England. The result was the supply of clergy fell
off, and children, although baptized, yet because they could not be
confirmed, finally wandered away to other folds.

Repeated efforts were made to secure the consecration of a Bishop
for the Church in America, but owing to political and ecclesiastical
complications this was not possible until after the Revolutionary
War. In A.D. 1784, on November 14th, the Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D.,
was consecrated in Aberdeen, Scotland, by the Scottish Bishops,
for the Church in Connecticut and as the first Bishop in America.
On February 4th, 1787, the Rev. William White, D.D., of Pennsylvania,
and the Rev. Samuel Provoost, D.D., of New York, were consecrated
Bishops by the two Archbishops of the Church of England and the
Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Peterborough, in Lambeth Palace,
London. A few years later, viz., on September 19th, 1790, the Rev.
James Madison, D.D., of Virginia, was consecrated in England by
the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London and the Bishop
of Rochester. By the consecration of these four Bishops abroad the
American Church secured the Episcopate from the ancient and
Apostolic sources, and thus gained the power of perpetuating itself.
The significance of this may be seen when we reflect that the
ancient canons of the Church require that not less than three
Bishops shall unite in the consecration of a Bishop. This enactment
is designed to provide against any possible defect in the succession
of any one of the {17} consecrating Bishops. We thus see how careful
the Church has always been in conferring this great office, and how
particular the American Church was to meet every ecclesiastical
requirement according to the ancient order and traditions.

It may be interesting to note that the first Bishop consecrated on
American soil was the Rt. Rev. Thomas John Claggett, the first
Bishop of Maryland, in whose consecration all four of the American
Bishops united. This took place in Trinity Church, New York,
September 17th, 1792. From that time to the present, the American
Episcopate has increased greatly by reason of the growing needs of
the Church in this rapidly developing country. More than two hundred
Bishops have been consecrated for the work of the Church in the
United States and for its missions in the foreign field.

The growth of the Church itself, likewise, has been remarkable when
we consider the disadvantages under which it labored in those early
days and the bitter prejudice against it which even yet is not
wholly done away. To-day there is not a State or a Territory which
is not under the pastoral care of a Bishop, many of the states
having several Dioceses each with its Bishop at its head. The quiet,
persistent loyalty to the Truth "as this Church hath received the
same," the reasonable terms of admission to her fold, the missionary
zeal and enterprise, the practical work enlisting so largely the
labors and cooperation of the laity, the far-reaching influence
on the religious thought of the day, the proposal of the terms
for Christian Unity, the multiplying of services and the more {18}
frequent communions, all manifest her inner and outward growth and
demonstrate the reality and high purpose of her Mission to this
land and nation. (See GROWTH OF THE CHURCH.)

Amice.--One of the Eucharistic Vestments. (See VESTMENTS).

Anaphora.--The Greek name for the Offering or, Oblation in the Holy
Eucharist and is usually applied to that portion of the Office
beginning with "Lift up your hearts" and including the Prayer of
Consecration. All that precedes this is called the PROANAPHORA
(which see).

Andrew, Feast of Saint.--A Holy Day of the Church observed on
November 30, and is of very ancient date. It is known to have been
observed since A.D. 360. St. Andrew was of Bethsaida in Galilee
and the brother of St. Peter. He was the first who found the Messiah
and brought others to Him. It was this fact in his life that
suggested to the young men of the American Church the organization
of "THE BROTHERHOOD OF ST. ANDREW" (which see). St. Andrew
was the first called to be a disciple and Apostle, with St. Peter.
After the dispersion of the Apostles, St. Andrew is said to have
carried the Gospel to what is now called Turkey in Asia and also
to Russia and was the first founder of the Russian Church, as St.
Paul was of the English Church. After laboring in Turkey in Europe,
he suffered martyrdom at Patras, A.D. 70, being crucified on a
cross the shape of the letter X, to which his name has been given.
As St. Andrew is greatly reverenced in Scotland, the St. Andrew's
cross was made a part of the national banner {19} of Great Britain
on the union of Scotland with England in 1707. The St. Andrew's
cross (Scotland) with the cross of St. Patrick (Ireland) and the
cross of St. George (England) were made in 1801 to form the present
_Union Jack_ so dear to the English nation. In ecclesiastical art
St. Andrew is represented holding in his hand a cross saltire, or
else leaning upon it.

Angels.--(See HOLY ANGELS.) It is also to be noted that the term
"Angels" is used in the New Testament for the Bishops of the Church,
as in the Epistles to the seven Churches of Asia (Rev. 2 and 3)
which are addressed, "unto the angel of the Church of------",
_i.e_., the Bishop.

Anglican Church, The.--The name given to the Church of England as
being the Church of the Anglo-Saxon race. The Church was introduced
into Britain as early as A.D. 61, probably by St. Paul and it has
continued there the same organization ever since, and the Church
of the whole English nation until within the last 300 years, when
divers and sundry religious bodies have sprung up. Thus the English
nation from that early period of the Church's first introduction
into Britain down to the present time, has never been without the
Orthodox _Faith_; the _Apostolic Ministry_ in three orders--Bishops,
Priests and Deacons; the _Sacraments_ and the ancient _Liturgy_.
Moreover, the Church of England has always affirmed her own national
integrity and independence and although overcome and brought into
subjection to a foreign power, and finally regained her former
independence--yet throughout all she has ever retained the four
essentials of Christian Truth and Order mentioned, and thus {20}
demonstrates that she is a true branch of the Church founded by
Christ, and as such Catholic and Apostolic. For one to say that the
Church of England was founded by Henry VIII, or to say that it is
a "schism from the Roman Church" shows great ignorance of even
the plainest facts of history. The following statement, from a
secular paper, the _Providence_ (R. I.) _Journal_ is worth
reprinting: "It is still quite usual even for intelligent persons
to misunderstand the purposes of the English Reformers, and the
result of the English Reformation. . . . The supremacy of Rome has
never been borne patiently by the English people, whose church
organization was established long before Rome took the trouble to
interfere with it; and several English kings had quarreled before
Henry the Eighth's time with the Holy See. What the English
Reformers wanted, and what they accomplished under Elizabeth,
was Reform _within the Church_. It was on the continent that
Protestantism _without the Church_, built up a new ecclesiastical
organization. All this, it may be, is a matter only of historical
value to the busy nineteenth century. But even if facts in a
historical aspect are of small importance to an intensely practical
generation, it is as well to have these facts right as wrong."

Anglican Communion, The.--The term used to designate the churches
that are in communion with the Church of England and hold the same
Faith, Order and Worship. Under this term are included the Church
of England, the Church of Ireland, the Church of Scotland, the
Churches in British North America, the West Indies, Australia, South
Africa and in all the English colonies {21} throughout the world
wherever established. The Episcopal Church in the United States is
also included in the Anglican Communion, being identical with the
Church of England as is set forth in the Preface to the Prayer
Book, in which it is declared, "This Church is far from intending
to depart from the Church of England in any essential point of
doctrine, discipline and worship; or further than local circumstances
require." The Anglican Communion is one of the most powerful
forces in our modern religious world. From statistics we learn
that it has a larger membership than any other religious body
among English-speaking people. The following Table taken from the
New York _World_ Almanac for 1901 gives some idea of


    Episcopalians                        29,200,000
    Methodists of all descriptions       18,650,000
    Roman Catholics                      15,500,000
    Presbyterians of all descriptions    12,250,000
    Baptists of all descriptions          9,230,000
    Congregationalists                    6,150,000
    Free Thinkers                         5,250,000
    Lutherans, etc                        2,800,000
    Unitarians                            2,600,000
    Minor religious sects                 5,500,000
    Of no particular religion            17,000,000
    English-speaking population         124,130,000

Anglo Catholic--The Historic or Catholic Church exists to-day in
three main branches or Communions, viz.: The Eastern or Greek Church,
the Roman Church, and the Anglican. The term "Anglo Catholic" is
used to describe the Historic Church of the {22} English-speaking
people as being Catholic and Apostolic, and as having an unquestioned
descent from the Church founded by Christ and His Apostles. (See

Anointing the Sick.--The anointing of the sick with oil as
recommended in St. James 5:14 and 15, has generally prevailed in
the Universal Church and came to be called "Extreme Unction." There
was an office for its use in the Prayer Book of 1549, but it was
omitted in subsequent revisions because its use in most parts of
the Church had become mechanical and confined to dying persons. The
rite has been restored in some places on the authority of individual
Bishops as a Scriptural practice. A Scottish Bishop calls it "the
lost pleiad of the Anglican firmament," and says, "one must at once
confess and deplore that a distinctly Scriptural practice has ceased
to be commanded in the Church of England, for no one can doubt that
a sacramental use of anointing the sick has been from the beginning."

Annunciation, The.--A Feast of the Church held on March 25th, to
commemorate the visit of the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin
Mary, to announce to her the Incarnation of the Son of God, his
message to her being, "Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favor
with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring
forth a Son, and shall call His Name Jesus." The Feast of the
Annunciation has been observed from the very earliest times, sermons
being still extant which were preached on this day as early as A.D.
446. It is still observed with great {23} solemnity; Proper Psalms
are appointed, being the 89th, 131st, 132d, and 138th, also Proper
Lessons, as well as Collect, Epistle and Gospel. The Church color
for Altar and other hangings is white. It is to be noted that the
Feast of the Annunciation is placed among the DAYS OF OBLIGATION
(which see).

Antependium.--The name given to the covering hanging in front of
the lectern, pulpit or Altar, and being the color of the Church
Season. The Altar hanging is usually called the _Frontal_.

Anthem.--Originally the same as Antiphon; "anthem" being simply
the Anglicized form of the word. Later, the terms "anthem" and
"antiphon" came to stand for two different ideas. _Anthem_ is any
musical setting of words bearing upon the services of the day,
other than a hymn or canticle, although the canticles are sometimes
called anthems, as in the rubric before the _Venite_ in the Morning
Prayer. The rubric in the Evening Prayer provides for an anthem
after the Collect beginning, "Lighten our darkness." _Antiphon_ has
come to mean a verse of Scripture which is sung wholly or in part
before and after the Psalms or Canticles, and designed to strike
the key-note of the teaching of the day.

Antiphon.--(See ANTHEM).

Antiphonal.--The alternate singing or chanting by two sides of the
choir and congregation, each taking a verse in turn. This mode of
rendering the music of the Church is of very ancient origin; it
prevailed in the ancient Jewish worship as the antiphonal structure
of the Psalms indicates. It is a reproduction of the heavenly
worship as described by Isaiah, "And one {24} cried unto another
and said." It seems to be also a practical following out of the
admonition, "teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and
hymns and spiritual songs." (Col. 3:16.)

Apocalypse.--The name given to the last book of the Bible; a Greek
word meaning _Revelation_. The book of the Revelation was written
by St. John Evangelist about A.D. 96 or 97. Its purpose is set
forth by Bishop Wordsworth as follows: "The Apocalypse is a manual
of consolation to the Church in her pilgrimage through this world
to the heavenly Canaan of her rest."

Apocrypha.--This is the name given to certain books generally bound
with the Old and New Testament Scriptures which the Sixth Article
of Religion describes as "The other books (as Hierome saith) the
Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners;
but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine." They are
called Apocryphal for the reason that while they are usually bound
up with the Bible, yet they are not regarded as canonical. Apocrypha
is a Greek word meaning _hidden_, secret or unknown. Several of the
Lessons are taken from the Apocryphal Books, and the Benedicite,
which is sung as an alternate to the Te Deum, is taken from one of
them, namely, "The Song of the Three Children."

Apostle.--One who is sent; messenger; ambassador. The name given to
our Lord's twelve commissioned disciples who were thus made "the
original fountain of ministerial authority and capacity pouring
forth twelve streams, and from whom were to flow all the branches
of that river whose streams should make {25} glad the city of God
by carrying to it the blessings of His grace." (See BISHOP).

Apostles' Creed.--The shorter form of the Creed as set forth in the
Prayer Book is called the Apostles' Creed because it was generally
believed to have been composed by the Apostles themselves before
they separated and left Jerusalem. However true or untrue this old
tradition may be, it is quite certain that this "Form of sound
words" embodies the "Apostles' Doctrine," or teaching, and each
article finds its corresponding statement in the Bible. It is the
oldest form of the Creed that has come down to us and contains a
brief summary of the fundamental Truths of the Christian Religion.
(See ORTHODOX.) There are twelve articles grouped into three
paragraphs each setting forth what is to be believed concerning
each Person of the Blessed Trinity. In other words the Apostles'
Creed is what we believe concerning the Name into which we are
baptized. It is, therefore, the Creed of the Baptismal Office and
is recited in the Daily Services, while the longer Creed, commonly
called the Nicene, is reserved for the Eucharistic Office.

Apostolate.--The office and dignity of an Apostle; the whole body
of Bishops throughout the world.

Apostolic Fathers.--(See FATHERS, THE).

Apostolic Succession--"The fundamental principle of the Christian
Ministry is, that it is derived from our Blessed Lord Himself,
from whom it is perpetuated by Episcopal Ordination," and just
this is what is meant by Apostolic Succession. The Apostolic
Succession is simply the evidence of the fact that the Christian
Ministry has never failed to exist since {26} the time when our Lord
commissioned it and sent it forth. It is often called the _doctrine_
of the Apostolic Succession, but it is more of a fact than a
doctrine; a fact substantiated by the history of the Church, as
much so as the succession of the Kings and Queens of England is a
fact known of all men acquainted with the history of the English
nation. For this reason we have the statement in the Preface to the
Ordinal: "It is evident unto all men diligently reading Holy
Scripture and ancient Authors, that from the Apostles' time there
have been these Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church,--Bishops,
Priests and Deacons." The Christian Church has not been left without
its records; its history is as well marked on the pages of history
as that of any other kingdom or organization. (See EPISCOPACY;

Apse.--An architectural term descriptive of the semicircular or
polygonal shape in which the Chancel is frequently built. From a
Greek word meaning a joining; also a bow, an arch, a vault.

Apsidal.--Pertaining or relating to an apse; like an apse, as
apsidal chancel.

Archbishop--A Bishop who presides over a province of Dioceses; an
official title, but not an Order.

Archdeacon.--A term introduced from the Church of England and
applied to a Priest who presides over an Archdeaconry or Convocation;
or to one who is the General Missionary of a Diocese, or of a
prescribed district in a Diocese of the American Church.

Articles of Religion, XXXIX--Certain statements of doctrine set
forth by the English Church in a time of great controversy to
define her position as differing {27} from Rome on the one hand
and from Protestantism on the other. They are called _Articles of
Religion_ as distinguished from the Articles of the Faith, which
are contained in the Creed and recited in the services of the
Church. The Thirty-nine Articles were set forth in the year 1562,
then revised as they now stand in 1571 and were adopted with the
exception of the Twenty-first Article, by the American Church in
1801. They are published as an appendix to the Prayer Book.

Ascension Day.--A Feast observed with great solemnity forty days
after Easter in commemoration of our Lord's Ascension into Heaven.
It is also called Holy Thursday. St. Augustine, A.D. 395, calls
this one of the Festivals which are supposed to have been instituted
by the Apostles themselves, so that it must have been generally
observed in his time. In the system of the Church, Ascension Day
is regarded as one of the very highest Festivals set apart in honor
of our Lord. Proper Psalms, Proper Lessons and Proper Preface in the
Communion service place it on the same footing as Christmas Day,
Easter and Whitsun Day. The services are usually brightened with
special music; the Altar is decked with flowers and white hangings
as symbolical of the joy which characterizes the Celebration.
Ascension Day is preceded by the ROGATION DAYS (which see), as days
of preparation for its due observance; it is also one of the Days
OF OBLIGATION (which see).

Ascription--The words used at the end of a sermon, beginning, "And
now to God the Father," etc. During the Ascription the people stand
and at the end respond, Amen. {28}

Ash Wednesday--The first day of Lent; one of the two absolute Fast
Days of the Church, the other being Good Friday. In ancient times
the first day of Lent was called _Caput Jejunii_, _i.e._, "Head
of the Fast," because Lent began on that day. It was also called
_Dies Cinerum_, _i.e._, "Day of Ashes," from the custom of
placing ashes on the head of penitents who presented themselves
before the Bishop on this day. Ash Wednesday is a day of deep
devotion, of prayer, fasting, self-examination and confession of
sin. The public services are most solemn; the Proper Lessons, and
Proper Psalms, the Collect, Epistle and Gospel, together with the
Penitential Office to be especially used on this day, all mark it
as a day of "weeping, fasting and praying." The Psalms appointed
are the seven Penitential Psalms, viz., the 6th, 32d, and 38th,
used at Morning Prayer; the 51st used in the Penitential Office,
and 102d, 130th and 143d read at Evening Prayer. (See PENITENTIAL
PSALMS.) The Church color for Ash Wednesday is purple or violet.

Assistant Minister.--A Priest or Deacon appointed to assist or help
the Rector of a Parish in his work is thus called. Lately the
term "Curate" has been employed to designate the Assistant Minister
of a Parish.


Banners.--On festal occasions banners are often carried in choir
processionals "to signify yet more clearly the progress and future
triumph of the Church, {29} according to that description of her
in the Song of Solomon: 'Who is she that looketh forth as the
morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an
army with banners?'"

Banns of Marriage.--The word "Bann" is derived from the Saxon word
_bannen_, meaning, to proclaim. The term "Banns of Marriage,"
means, therefore, the publication of intended marriages, and are
published for three Sundays before the event, in the Church where
the ceremony is to take place. The publishing of the Banns in the
Church of England is required by law. In the American Prayer Book,
provision is made for the publishing of the Banns of Marriage, but
as it is not required by law the custom has fallen into disuse.

Baptism, Adult.--(See ADULT BAPTISM).

Baptism, Holy.--One of the two great Sacraments ordained by Christ
as generally (universally) necessary to salvation. Holy Baptism is
the initiatory rite by which we are admitted into the fellowship
of Christ's Religion, admitted into His Church. Baptism is a
covenant made between God and man; of this covenant the Christian
name, which was then given us, is the reminder; reminding us of
our new relationship with God. The grace conferred in Holy Baptism
is threefold, (1) Regeneration, or the New Birth (See REGENERATION);
(2) Admission into the Spiritual Kingdom, or the Holy Catholic
Church, and (3) The forgiveness of all our sins, for in the Nicene
Creed we confess, "I acknowledge one Baptism for the Remissions of
sins." The vows of Holy Baptism are three in number, (1) To
Renounce, (2) to Believe and (3) to Obey. These cover "the Whole
Duty of Man," {30} and it is by the use of the Means of Grace with
diligent Prayer that he is enabled to keep them and to grow into
the likeness of Christ, whose member he is because incorporated
into Him by Holy Baptism. The outward, visible sign or form in
Baptism is water, with the unfailing use of the words, "In the Name
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." This effects
a valid Baptism.

Baptism, Conditional.--As Holy Baptism can take place only once in
any individual life, the Church has always been most careful that
it should not be repeated. But it sometimes happens that grave doubts
arise as to the validity of one's Baptism, or the fact of Baptism is
only a matter of conjecture. In such cases the Church has provided
for conditional, or hypothetical Baptism. The form is, "If thou art
not already baptized, (name) I baptize thee in the Name of the
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen." In such a
case if the Baptism has already taken place and was valid, the
hypothetical Baptism passes for naught, but if it were not valid
or had not taken place, the hypothetical Baptism is effective.

Baptism, Infant.--(See INFANT BAPTISM).

Baptism, Private.--The proper place for the administration of Holy
Baptism is in the church, and the Church warns her people "that
without great and reasonable cause and necessity, they procure not
their children to be baptized at home in their houses." But when
need shall compel them so to do, she provides for the emergency by
the service entitled, "The Ministration of Private Baptism of
Children in Houses," as set forth in the Prayer Book. In this
office no {31} provision is made for Sponsors. The child is to
be brought afterwards into the Church to the intent that the
congregation may be certified of the true Form of Baptism privately
before used. Then it is publicly received and the Sponsors answer
for the child and become responsible for its Christian training,
publicly before the congregation.

Baptismal Regeneration.--(See REGENERATION, also NEW BIRTH).

Baptismal Shell.--A scallop shell, either real or made of precious
metal, used by the Priest for pouring the water on the head of the
candidate in Holy Baptism.

Baptistry.--A portion of a church set apart for the administration
of Holy Baptism. Sometimes the Baptistry was erected as a separate
building or attached to a church or cathedral, specially adapted
for Baptism by immersion.

Barnabas, Feast of Saint.--A Holy Day of the Church observed on
June 11th. St. Barnabas was born at Cyprus, but was a Jew of the
tribe of Levi. His original name was Joses, but after our Lord's
Ascension he was called Barnabas, meaning the "Son of Consolation."
(Acts 4:36.) He stands out in the New Testament Scriptures as one
who is ever helpful, which may have suggested his new name; thus
he sold his land, giving the money to the Apostles in order that
the necessities of the infant Church might be met. So also he stood
sponsor, so to speak, for St. Paul, vouching for the sincerity of
his conversion. Having thus brought him to the Apostles and securing
his recognition as an Apostle we find that he was {32} associated
with St. Paul for about fourteen years in his missionary journeys.
After the separation of the Apostles nothing is recorded of St.
Barnabas, but tradition tells us that he returned to Cyprus,
spending the remainder of his life among his countrymen, and that
he suffered martyrdom, being stoned to death by the unbelieving
Jews at Salamis. St. Barnabas is said to have left an Epistle
which bears his name and which is still extant. It is regarded by
many scholars as genuine, but by many others its authenticity is
regarded as very doubtful. In ecclesiastical art St. Barnabas is
represented as holding St. Matthew's Gospel; as being stoned; as
pressing a stone to his breast; as being burned to death; with an
open book and staff; with three stones; with a fire near him.

Bartholomew, Feast of St.--Observed on August 24th, in commemoration
of the life and virtues of the Apostle St. Bartholomew. In Holy
Scripture there is the mere mention of the name of this Apostle,
but it is thought that Bartholomew and Nathanael are one and the
same person. The reason for this supposition lies in the fact that
St. John in his Gospel never mentions Bartholomew, while he often
speaks of Nathanael, and the other Evangelists, though they mention
Bartholomew, never take notice of Nathanael. From this fact, it is
supposed that the same person is designated by these two names. If
St. Bartholomew is the same person as Nathanael, then it is he whom
our Lord described as "an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." St.
Bartholomew is thought to have preached the Gospel in Northern
India, where he is said to have left a Hebrew copy of St. Matthew's
{33} Gospel. He afterwards went to Armenia. He suffered martyrdom
in Albanopolis, by being crucified with his head downwards. In
ecclesiastical art, St. Bartholomew is variously represented with
a knife and book; with a knife in his hand and the devil under his
feet; also as healing a Princess of Armenia.

Bason.--(See ALMS BASON).

Belfry.--That part of the steeple in which a bell is hung. Sometimes
a separate tower is built, in a room of which the bell is placed.
The old name was campanile, from _campana_, a bell. The most
remarkable of the campaniles is that at Pisa, commonly called the
"Leaning Tower."

Benedic, anima mea.--The canticle beginning, "Praise the Lord, O my
soul," which the Latin words mean. It consists of the first four
and the last three verses of the 103d Psalm and is used as an
alternate to the Nunc Dimittis. It is not set forth in the English
Prayer Book as a canticle.

Benedicite.--The Benedicite is taken from the Apocryphal Book of
"The Song of the Three Children" and has been used from very ancient
times as a hymn in Christian Worship. St. Chrysostom, A.D. 425,
spoke of it as "that wonderful and marvelous song which from that
day to this has been sung everywhere throughout the world, and shall
yet be sung by future generations." An analysis of this hymn shows
it to be not simply a haphazard enumeration of the "works of the
Lord," but a fine grouping of them in classes to which they belong.
The Prelude, contained in the first verse, is a call to all the
works of the Lord to "praise Him and magnify Him forever." {34} Then
beginning with the angels as God's ministers we find four great
divisions or classifications as follows:

I. The Heavens, verses 2 to 8.

II. Mid Air, verses 8 to 18.

III. The Earth, verses 18 to 26.

IV. All Mankind, from verse 26 to the end; this last division being
a call to mankind in general--the people of Israel, Priests and
servants of the Lord, Spirits and Souls of the Righteous, and all
"holy and humble men of heart," to praise the Lord and magnify Him
forever,--followed in Christian Worship by the _Gloria Patri_, as an
act of high praise of the holy, blessed and adorable Trinity, made
known to us by the Revelation of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

The Benedicite was first placed in the English Prayer Book in the
year 1549, to be sung as an alternate to the Te Deum. It is usually
sung during Advent and Lent.

Benediction.--A Blessing, such as that given at the end of the
Communion Office and in the Marriage Service.

It is also the act of setting apart for sacred use that which is to
be used in the services of the Church. Reverential instinct teaches
that it is unbecoming to transfer from the shop to the Altar or
Church articles designed for holy use without first being set apart
for such purpose. Hence it is usual to bless by some appropriate
service Altar furniture, linen and other objects for holy use, that
they may be set apart from all unhallowed and common uses. Such is
the meaning of the consecration of our churches, and when new
articles are added it seems but fitting {35} that they also should
be set apart for sacred use, and this is done by an office of
Benediction. The Benediction can only be pronounced by a Bishop or

Benedictus.--The canticle beginning "Blessed be the Lord God of
Israel," used after the Second Lesson at Morning Prayer. It is the
song uttered by Zacharias on the naming of St. John Baptist and is
found in St. Luke I:68-80. The Benedictus has been used as a
responsory canticle to the Gospel Lessons from very ancient times
as the daily memorial of the Incarnation. As such it is the proper
respond to the Second Lesson, the _Jubilate_ being simply an
alternate, to be used when the Benedictus occurs in the Lesson for
the day. During Advent it is to be sung entire; at other times only
four verses may be used.

Betrothal.--That portion of the Marriage Service in which the man
and the woman join hands and give their troth (_i.e._, truth or
promise of fidelity) each to the other. This is the Marriage Vow
and is usually said at the foot of the chancel steps, the marriage
proper (with the ring) taking place at the Altar Rail.

Bible, The English.--The English Version of the Bible as we now
have it, commonly called the "Authorized Version" was set forth A.
D. 1611. It was the work of many hands and of several generations.
The translation made by William Tyndale, A.D. 1525, is regarded as
the foundation or primary version, as the versions that followed
were substantially reproductions of it. Three successive stages
may be recognized in the work of translation; (1) The publication
of the Great Bible in 1540; (2) The Bishop's Bible of 1568 and 1572
in the reign of Elizabeth, and (3) The publication {36} of the King's
Bible in 1611 in the reign of James I. Thus the form in which the
English Bible has now been read for more than 300 years was the
result of various revisions made between 1525 and 1611. This old
and familiar version of the Bible was revised A.D. 1881 by a large
body of English and American scholars, but their revision has never
become very popular. (See LECTIONARY, also SCRIPTURES IN PRAYER

Bidding Prayer.--The 55th canon of the English Church in 1603
enjoined a Bidding Prayer in the form of an Exhortation to be used
before all sermons, each petition or exhortation beginning, "Let us
pray for," or "Ye shall pray for," to which the people responded.
The term "Bidding" is from the old Saxon word "Bede," meaning
_prayer_. The Litany and, also, the Prayer for the Church Militant
in the Communion Office bear some resemblance to the Bidding Prayer,
especially in the enumeration of the objects prayed for. The Bidding
Prayer is now very rarely used, although attempts have been made to
revive its use, especially in purely preaching services.

Biretta.--A black cap of peculiar shape worn by the clergy in outdoor
processions and services and sometimes in Church. When worn by a
Bishop the color is purple.

Bishop.--The highest of the three Orders of the Sacred Ministry
(Bishops, Priests and Deacons). It is derived from the Greek word
_Episcopos_, the transition being, Episcopus, Biscop, Bishop; the
"p" melting into "b." The word means _overseer_. The functions
of a Bishop are to rule his Diocese, ordain to the Ministry,
administer Confirmation, consecrate Church {37} buildings, etc. The
Bishops are the successors of the Apostles and bear the same office.
That they are not now called Apostles will appear from the following
statement: "When the Apostles, in anticipation of their approaching
death, appointed their successors in the superintendence of the
several churches which they had founded, as Timothy at Ephesus and
Titus at Crete, the title of _Apostolos_ was reserved by way of
reverence to those who had been personally sent by Christ Himself;
_Episcopos_ was assigned to those who succeeded them in the highest
office of the Church, as _overseers of Pastors_ as well as of
_flocks_; and _Presbuteros_ became the distinctive appellation of
the _second order_, so that after the first century, _no writer has
designated the office of one of this second order by the term
Episcope. This assertion cannot be controverted, and its great
significance is self-evident_." (See HOLY ORDERS, EPISCOPACY, also

Bishop's Charge--Title I, Canon 19, Sec. IX of the Canons of the
General Convention makes the following provision: "It is deemed
proper that every Bishop of this Church shall deliver, at least
once in three years, a charge to the Clergy of his Diocese, unless
prevented by reasonable cause. And it is also deemed proper that,
from time to time, he shall address to the people of his Diocese
Pastoral Letters on some points of Christian doctrine, worship or
manners." In his charge the Bishop has opportunity to speak on great
questions of the day and to emphasize that which he deems to be for
the best interests of the Church. In addition to his charge, the
Bishop is required to make an Annual Address to his Diocese in
council {38} assembled, in which he reviews the State of the
Diocese, and sets forth his official acts for the year.

Bishop Coadjutor--When a Bishop of a Diocese, by reason of old age
or other permanent cause of infirmity, or by reason of extent of
territory, is unable to discharge his Episcopal duties, one Bishop
may be elected by and for the Diocese to assist him in his work.
The title of such assistant is "Bishop Coadjutor." In case of the
death of the Bishop, the Bishop Coadjutor succeeds him in his office
and becomes Bishop of the Diocese.

Bishop, Election of.--The provisions made by the general canons of
the American Church for the election of a Bishop are as follows:
The Bishop of a Diocese is elected by the Clergy and Laity of the
Diocese in council assembled. (The method of election is different
in different Dioceses.) On a Bishop being chosen, certificates of
his election and also testimonials of his being worthy must be
signed by a constitutional majority of the convention by whom he is
elected. These, together with the approbation of his testimonials
by the House of Deputies in General Convention and its consent to
his consecration are then presented to the House of Bishops. If the
House of Bishops consent to his consecration, the Presiding Bishop
notifies the Bishop-elect of such consent. If the Bishop-elect
accepts, the Presiding Bishop then takes order for his consecration,
either by himself and two other Bishops, or by three Bishops whom
he may appoint for that purpose. In case the election takes place
during a recess of the General Convention and more than three months
before the meeting of the {39} next General Convention, then the
above certificates of election and testimonials must be submitted
to the Standing Committees of the different Dioceses. If a majority
of the Standing Committees consent to the proposed consecration,
the Presiding Bishop is notified of the fact, and the same is
communicated to all the Bishops of this church in the United States
(except those whose resignations have been accepted), and if a
majority of the Bishops consent to the consecration, the Presiding
Bishop takes order for the consecration of the Bishop-elect. It is
further ordered that "no man shall be consecrated a Bishop of this
Church until he shall be thirty years old."

Bishop, Missionary--A Bishop elected by the House of Deputies of
the General Convention, on nomination by the House of Bishops,
and consecrated to exercise Episcopal functions in States or
Territories, or parts thereof, not organized into Dioceses.
Missionary Bishops are in the same manner nominated, elected and
consecrated for the work of the Church in foreign fields.

Bishop, The Presiding.--(See PRESIDING BISHOP).

Bishop, Resignation of.--(See JURISDICTION, RESIGNATION OF).

Bishop's Visitation.--Title I, Canon 19, Sec. X of the general
canons of the American Church provides that, "Every Bishop in this
Church shall visit the Churches within his Diocese at least once
in three years, for the purpose of examining the state of his
Church, inspecting the behavior of his Clergy, administering the
Apostolic rite of Confirmation, ministering the word, and, if he
think fit, administering {40} the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper
to the people committed to his charge." It is usual, however, for
the American Bishops to visit the Parishes of their Dioceses at
least once a year.

Bishopric.--The office or jurisdiction of a Bishop.

Black.--One of the Church colors; to be used only on Good Friday
and at funerals. This usage applies to the Stole as well as to the
Altar hangings. (See CHURCH COLORS).

Blessed Virgin Mary.--The title which the Church has always given
to the Mother of our Lord, and by which all devout churchmen speak
of her of whom the angel declared, "Blessed art thou among women."
"Not even the glorified Saints who have attained to the purity and
bliss of Heaven are raised to higher blessedness and purity than
that saintly maiden was whom Elizabeth was inspired to call 'the
Mother of my Lord.' This sanctity of the Blessed Virgin through her
association with her Divine Son has always been kept vividly in
view by the Church."

The perpetual Virginity of the lowly Mother of our Lord has always
been a very strong tradition among all devout Christians; a belief
which is prompted by reverence for the great mystery of the
Incarnation, and confirmed by the universal consent of the Church.
The term "brethren" of our Lord, which occurs in the New Testament
means simply kindred, according to the Jewish use of the word.

Two days are set apart to the honor of the Blessed Virgin, viz.,
The Feast of the Annunciation, March 25th, and the Feast of the
Purification, February 2d. (See articles on these Festivals.) {41}

Blessing of Peace, The.--The Benediction at the end of the Communion
Service, beginning, "The Peace of God," etc. This beautiful Benediction
is peculiar to the Anglican Liturgy, both as to form and place.
Reverence and a devout mind will not permit any one to leave the
Church before this Blessing is pronounced.

Board of Managers.--The executive committee which has charge of the
general Missions of the American Church, and which, when the Board
of Missions is not in session, exercises all the corporate powers

Board of Missions.--The legislative branch of THE DOMESTIC AND
FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY (which see) and which holds its sessions
during the General Convention.

Bounden Duty.--It is thus the Prayer Book expresses the obligation
of all the Confirmed to attend and participate in the Holy Communion
whenever it is celebrated. The words occur in the Prayer of

Bowing.--The late Canon Liddon, in one of his sermons, said, "The
reverence of the soul is best secured when the body, its companion
and instrument, is reverent also." This truth pervades all the
Church's worship. Besides kneeling and standing, _bowing_, also, was
always and is still customary in the devotions of the true disciple.
Thus in regard to bowing towards the Altar, the 7th canon of the
English Church of 1640, which enjoins the custom, declares, "doing
reverence and obeisance both at their coming in and going out of
churches, chancels, or chapels was a most {42} ancient custom of the
Primitive Church in the purest times." Bowing at the Name of Jesus
is a very old and Scriptural custom according to the spirit of St.
Paul's words in Phil. 2:10. "At the Name of Jesus every knee should
bow," and is enjoined by the 18th canon of 1604 in these words,
"When in the time of divine service the Lord Jesus shall be
mentioned, due and lowly reverence shall be done by all persons
present." Bowing at the _Glorias_ was first introduced about 325 A.D.
as a protest against Arianism, a heresy which denied the Divinity
and coequality of God the Son.

Breaking of the Bread--One of the New Testament Names for the HOLY
COMMUNION (which see) and one of the four marks of the Church's
unbroken continuity. (Acts 2:42.)

Brotherhood of St. Andrew.--The name of an organization of men in
the Church, the object of which is the spread of Christ's Kingdom
among men. The members have two rules for their guidance (1) The
Rule of Prayer; to pray daily that the object of the Society may be
accomplished, and (2) The Rule of Service; to make an earnest effort
each week to bring at least one man within the hearing of the Gospel
of Jesus Christ. This organization has proved to be very popular
and has grown rapidly in power and influence. It began as a Parish
organization in St. James' Church, Chicago, in 1883, and proved to
be so effective in winning men to the service of the Church, that
other parishes heard of it; took up the same line of work; so that
there are now 1,173 active chapters with a membership of 12,000 men.
The Brotherhood has also been organized in {43} Canada, in England,
Scotland, and even in Australia, and in every place it is proving
to be a great help and blessing to the Church. This work was
prompted by the example of the Apostle St. Andrew. (See ANDREW,

Burial.--The Burial Office set forth in the Prayer Book is intended
for the Church's own people, and therefore it cannot be used over
an unbaptized adult, because not being baptized he is not a member
of the Church. It cannot be used over an excommunicated person
because he has been cut off from the Church's privileges. It cannot
be used over one who has committed suicide, even if a member of the
Church, for by this act he has voluntarily removed himself "from
the sphere of its sanctions," and to whom all branches of the
Church as well as our own have ever denied the use of this Office.
The reason for these prohibitions may be learned when we consider
that the Burial Office is founded on the fact of our incorporation
into Christ's Mystical Body, on which is founded our hope of the
General Resurrection. The whole service is colored by this belief
and is illustrated and confirmed by the Lesson read from St. Paul's
Epistle to the Corinthians, setting forth the doctrine that our
Lord's Incarnation is the source of all spiritual life and,
therefore, the source of eternal life in the world to come.

The proper place for the use of the Burial Office is the Church and
it ought not to be used in houses except for great cause.

Burse.--A square pocket or case, in which the corporal and pall are
kept when not in use. {44}


Calendar.--The word "calendar" is derived from the Latin word
_calo_, meaning, to reckon. From this the first day of every Roman
month was called _Calends_, hence Calendar. Calendars are known to
have been in use at a very early date. One is still extant that was
formed as early as A.D. 336, and another drawn up for the Church
in Carthage dates from A.D. 483. The origin of Christian Calendars
is clearly coeval with the commemoration of martyrs, which began at
least as early as the martyrdom of Polycarp, A.D. 168. The Church
Calendar is set forth in the introductory portion of the Prayer
Book, consisting of several Tables giving the Holy Days of the
Church with their Proper Lessons, and also the ordinary days of the
year with the Daily Lessons. It is well to note that the Calendar
as thus set forth is the detailed law of the Church for the daily
Worship of God. There is so much stated and implied in this law it
is well worth our careful study, and the reader is referred to this
introductory portion of the Prayer Book. (See CHRISTIAN YEAR).

Candidate.--The name commonly given to one who is preparing for Holy
Baptism or Confirmation. The name is also applied to one who seeks
admission to the Sacred Ministry, and is therefore enrolled as a
"Candidate for Holy Orders."

Candlemas.--A popular name for the Feast of the Purification,
observed on February 2d, from the custom of lighting up churches
with tapers and lamps in remembrance of our Lord having been
declared {45} on this day by Simeon to be "a light to lighten
the Gentiles." (St. Luke 2:25-32.)

Canon.--A Greek word meaning _rule_, and in the usage of the Church
has various applications, as follows:

1. THE CANON OF SCRIPTURE means those books of Scripture which the
Church has received or accepted as inspired, and therefore declares
them to be canonical, to distinguish them from profane, apocryphal
or disputed books.

2. CANON LAW means the body of ecclesiastical laws enacted by the
Church for the rule and discipline of its clergy and people. There
are ecumenical canons, including the Apostolic canons of unknown
date, and the canons of the undisputed General Councils; the canons
of the English Church which are regarded as binding in this country
where they do not conflict with enactments of the American Church;
the General canons of the American Church, and the Diocesan canons
enacted by the various Dioceses.

3. THE CANON OF THE LITURGY, by which is meant the rule for the
celebration of the Holy Communion by which it is always to be
offered. This includes the Prayer of Consecration, which was formerly
called the "Canon of the Mass."

4. CANON, the name given to a clergyman connected with a cathedral;
an officer of the cathedral staff; a member of the cathedral

Canonical--Pertaining, or according to the Canons.

Canonical Hours.--Seven stated hours appointed for devotional
exercises, viz., Nocturns, Matins with Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext,
Nones, and Vespers with {46} Compline. Each of the Seven Hours is
said to commemorate some point in the Passion of our Lord, as set
forth in the old rhyme,

  "At _mattins_ bound, at _prime_ reviled,
    Condemned to death at _tierce_,
   Nailed to the Cross at _sexts_, at _nones_
    His blessed side they pierced.

  "They take Him down at _vesper_-tide
    In grave at _compline_ lay:
   Who thenceforth bids His Church observe
    The sevenfold hours alway."

Canonical Residence.--By this is meant that every clergyman of the
American Church is connected with some one or other of the various
Dioceses, and is always under some Bishop. His canonical residence
begins with his ordination, or from the Bishop's acceptance of his
letter of transfer from one Diocese to another. (See DIMISSORY

Canticle.--A word derived from the Latin _canticulus_, meaning a
little song, from _cantus_ a song. The term is applied to the
detached Psalms and Hymns used in the services of the Church, such
as the Venite, Benedictus, Magnificat, etc.

Cantoris.--Derived from _cantor_, meaning a singer, and is used to
designate the north side of the choir, where the precentor sits.
Architecturally and ecclesiastically, the Altar is always regarded
as the _east_ whether it is so in reality or not. North side,
therefore, is the left of the Altar as we face it.

Cardinal Virtues.--(See VIRTUES, THE CARDINAL).

Cassock.--A long black coat, fastened in front and {47} reaching to
the feet, worn by the clergy with or without robes and signifying
separation from the world. The cassock is also worn by choristers
and choirmen under their surplices.

Catechism.--A short instruction set forth in the Prayer Book, "to
be learned by every person before he be brought to be confirmed by
the Bishop." The word "catechism" is derived from a Greek word,
and means literally an instruction by word of mouth of such a kind
as to draw out a reply. As it now stands, the catechism is really
an "Unfinished Fragment." It was begun in 1549, under Edward VI. It
was afterwards gradually enlarged, the commandments being given in
full in 1552; the section on the Two Sacraments was added in 1604,
and the "Duty towards my neighbor" was revised in 1662. The
Catechism, as set forth in the Prayer Book, shows five general
divisions, (1) The Christian Covenant; (2) The Christian Faith;
(3) The Christian Duty; (4) The Christian Prayer or Worship, and
(5) The Christian Sacraments or Means of Grace. The rubric at the
end of the catechism provides that "The minister of every Parish
shall diligently, upon Sundays and Holy Days, or on some other
convenient occasions, openly in the Church, instruct or examine so
many children of his Parish sent unto him, as he shall think
convenient, in some part of this Catechism." The object of this
rubric is that the minister may have opportunity to prepare the
younger members of his flock for Confirmation. The Catechism from
its comprehensive exposition of duty and doctrine and its simple,
familiar style of question and answer is well adapted for the
purpose. And on {48} all the five points enumerated the children of
the Parish may be duly instructed in their preparation for Holy
Confirmation, if parents and guardians will be guided by the next
rubric which directs them to send their children to the Minister
for instruction.

Catechumen.--The name given to a convert of the early Church who
was being instructed in Christian doctrine preparatory to Holy

Cathedral.--The word "cathedral," derived from the Greek word
_cathedra_, meaning a seat, is the name given to the Church where
the Bishop's seat or throne is. As such, it is the chief church in
the Diocese and the centre of the Bishop's work. Around it are
gathered the educational and charitable institutions of the Diocese.
It is the centre of Diocesan activities and of the mission work
carried on by the Cathedral clergy under the direction of the
Bishop. Of the Cathedral as an institution a recent writer has
said: "It must be granted that a Cathedral in its origin was
nothing more than a missionary creation, where the Bishop of a
partly unevangelized country placed his seat with his council of
clergy grouped around him, whose duty was to go forth into the
surrounding districts with the message of the Gospel, to plant
smaller churches which should be subordinate or parochial centres,
and to return again periodically to the Diocesan church as
headquarters, for the counsel, direction and inspiration of their
chief." (See DIOCESE).

Catholic.--The word "Catholic" was very early adopted as descriptive
of the Church founded by our Lord and His Apostles. It means
universal, or embracing all. In this sense the Church is catholic
in {49} these three things, (1) It is for all people; (2) It teaches
all the Gospel, and (3) It endures throughout all ages. This
distinguishes the Christian Church from the old Jewish Church which
was but temporal, local, national.

Again, the word Catholic is used as being descriptive of the
orthodoxy of any particular Church or individual as being in
agreement with the one, undivided Church which has expressed
itself in the Ecumenical or General Councils.

The word is, also, used to describe that which is believed on the
Authority of the Church, as for example, the doctrine of the Blessed
Trinity is a _catholic_ doctrine because it is the universally
accepted teaching of the Church and having the sure warrant of Holy

Thus we learn that the word _catholic_ is a very significant term
and sets forth the real nature of the Church and her teachings. It
enables us to test our own orthodoxy, to know whether we are loyal
and true, in accord with "the Faith once delivered to the Saints,"
and, without doubt, will save us from being "carried away with
every blast of vain doctrine."

This word, then, so greatly misunderstood, so wrongly used, yet
meaning what it does, ought to be used with thoughtful care. For
intelligent Churchmen the term "Catholic Church" should not mean,
nor be used to mean, simply the Roman Church, but rather that
glorious body in which we declare our belief when we say in the
Creed, "I believe in the Holy Catholic Church."

Celebrant.--He who celebrates the Holy Eucharist {50} whether
Bishop or Priest, is so called. A deacon cannot celebrate or
administer the Holy Communion.

Ceremonies.--(See RITES AND CEREMONIES).

Chalice.--The cup, made of precious metal, in which the wine is
consecrated at the Holy Communion and from which it is received by
the communicants. Derived from the Latin word _calix_, genitive,
_calicis_, meaning, a cup. (See VESSELS, SACRED).

Chalice Veil.--A square of silk embroidered and fringed, varying
in color according to the Church Season. It is used for covering
the chalice when empty.

Chancel.--That part of the Church building set apart as the place
of the Clergy and others who minister in the Church service. It
includes the Sanctuary where the Holy Communion is celebrated and
the choir where the other offices are said. The Chancel was
formerly, and is even now in many places, divided from the Nave
by a screen or lattice work (cancelli) and is raised by steps
above the level of the body of the Church.

Chancellor.--An officer of the Diocese, learned in the law, whose
duty it is to act as the legal counselor of the Bishop and of the
Standing Committee in matters affecting the interests of the
Church, as his professional counsel may be asked or required.
Chancellor is also the title of a Cathedral officer; the name is
also given to the head of a University.

Chantry.--A small chapel attached to a Parish Church where the
daily offices are said, _e_. _g_., the chantry of Grace Church,
New York. Anciently the chantry was an endowed chapel. {51}

Chasuble.--The vestment worn by the celebrant at the Holy Eucharist.
For full description see VESTMENTS.

Childermas.--The old English popular name for HOLY INNOCENTS DAY
(which see).

Chimere.--The garment worn by a Bishop, now usually of black satin,
but formerly of scarlet. It has lawn sleeves attached to it which
properly belong to the rochet, the white vestment worn underneath.
The derivation of the name is unknown.

Choir.--Properly speaking the word "choir" is an architectural term
used only of Cathedrals and is that part of the building which in
parish churches is called the chancel. It is usually separated from
the cathedral nave by a screen. The term is also used to designate
the body of singers appointed to render the music of the Church

Choir, The Vested.--(See SURPLICED CHOIR).

Choral Service.--(See EVEN SONG, also INTONE and PLAIN SONG.)

Christian.--In the 11th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, the
26th verse, we read, "And the disciples were called _Christians_
first in Antioch." As the result of the persecutions which arose
about St. Stephen, some of the disciples who had to flee for their
lives came to Antioch. In time there grew up a church there, a mixed
society of Jews and Gentiles, and the citizens of Antioch naturally
asked, "What are they?" "What name do they bear?" "What is their
object?" While they were acquainted with the Jews and their
peculiarities, they saw that this was not a Jewish organization,
for it embraced Gentiles as well. When {52} they learned that the
one bond which held this society together was their belief in a
Messiah, a Christ, the people of Antioch, who were celebrated for
their fertility in nicknames, called the members of this society,
_Christians_. Without doubt the name was given in ridicule. It did
not spread widely at first; it is only twice used in the Bible and
each time as a word of reproach. But as often happens with names
thus conferred, this was a name to remain forever; a name that was
to be powerful and far-reaching; a name that was to stand for all
that is lovely, noble and beautiful in human life. Such is the
origin of the name we bear. We are Christians because we know no
other name but that of Christ and no other bond but that of union
with Christ. We are made Christians in our Baptism, for we are then
brought into union with Christ and made members of His Body. The
old word _Christen_, meaning to baptize, really means _to Christian_,
that is, to make Christian by incorporating us into Christ.

Christian Name.--(See NAME, CHRISTIAN.)

Christian Unity.--(See UNITY, CHURCH).

Christian Year, The.--The Church's Year of Festivals and Fasts is
called the _Christian Year_ because as Bishop Cosin says, "the
Church does not number her days, or measure her seasons, so
much by the motion of the sun, as by the course of our Saviour;
beginning and counting her year with Him who, being the true Sun
of Righteousness, began now to rise upon the world."

The Christian Year is one of our richest possessions and has been
handed down to us from the most ancient {53} times. By it the Church
regulates her Public Worship, makes generous provision for the
reading of the Bible and for us, her people, it is the measure of
our coming up to the House of God. By means of it we connect the
passage of time with the great facts of Redemption and thus are
enabled to so number our days that we may apply our hearts unto
wisdom. An examination of its structure reveals the fact that it
insures the Scriptural setting forth of the Gospel, not in part,
but in all its fulness. Its principal divisions are as follows:

I. ADVENT, the Coming of Christ; the Season includes four Sundays.

II. CHRISTMAS, Incarnation and Birth of Christ.

III. EPIPHANY, the Manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles: Season
variable and may include six Sundays.

IV. SEPTUAGESIMA or the PRE-LENTEN SEASON; three Sundays: why God
the Son came to earth; consciousness of sin.

Penitence and Amendment of life; Redemption by the Blood of Christ.

VI. EASTER, the Risen Life; teaching of the Great Forty Days.

VII. ASCENSION, the Hope of Glory.

VIII. WHITSUN TIDE, the Gift of the Holy Ghost.

IX. The TRINITY SEASON, the completed Revelation; the moralities of
the Gospel.

In addition to these great divisions or seasons, there are the
Holy Days dotting the Calendar--SAINTS' DAYS commemorating the
grace given unto God's {54} faithful servants, and other Holy Days
each having its special Scriptural teaching. (See FASTS, TABLE OF,
also FEASTS.)

The value of the Christian Year cannot be too highly estimated,
for after all has been said, the fact remains, that no better
instructor in the truths of the Bible can be found than what is
commonly called THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.

Christmas Day.--Christmas is preeminently a Church Festival, and
observed on December 25th. On this day the Church celebrates with
joy, gladness and exultation the Nativity of her Lord, who became
Incarnate (_i.e._, took our nature upon Him) and was born of a
pure Virgin. As the angels at His Birth, so mankind ever since has
hailed the Day of His Nativity with exceeding great joy. The
Puritans strove with all their ardor to destroy it, but happily
did not succeed. The argument used against it, that the Birthday of
the Child Jesus is not known, and, therefore, cannot be preserved,
does not prevail against the universal longing to celebrate in
some way this great event. We are not surprised, therefore, to find
that from the very earliest period Christmas was observed. St.
Chrysostom, in the fourth century, speaks of it as being even then
of great antiquity. In one of his Epistles he mentions that Julius
I, about A.D. 350, had caused strict inquiry to be made and had
confirmed the observance of Christmas on December 25th.

Christmas has always been observed with several celebrations of
the Holy Eucharist, three at least taking place; one at midnight,
another at early dawn and the third at midday. The growing devotion
of the {55} American Church has demanded this celebration of
Christmas and, therefore, at the last revision of the Prayer Book
a second Collect, Epistle and Gospel for this day was inserted. It
is customary to decorate our churches on Christmas with evergreen
as symbolical of the eternal nature of our Lord; to deck the Altar
with white symbol of joy and purity, and in some places with
lighted candles to typify our Lord as the Light of the world.

Church.--The word used in Holy Scripture for Church is _ecclesia_,
from the Greek word _ek-kaleo_, meaning to call out. An ecclesia,
therefore, is a body _called out_. The Rev. Francis J. Hall has
given the following explanation, "The Church is called the
_ecclesia_ because her membership consists of those who are called
of God, and adopted as His children and heirs of everlasting
life. The name teaches that the origin of the church was due,
not to any human act of organization, but to Divine operations
and a Divine ingathering of the elect. The mark by which the
elect are distinguished in Holy Scripture is membership of the
Church by Baptism, although ultimate salvation requires further
conditions." The use of the term _ecclesia_ came originally from
the calling out of Israel from Egypt; "out of Egypt have I called
my Son;" this is the first use of the word. The true conception
of the Church is a body called out from the world, and set apart
to the service of God, as such it is called the Kingdom of God,
over which God reigns and in which they who are called serve Him.
CHURCH). {56}

Church Building Fund.--A very important and helpful organization
exists in the American Church known as "The American Church
Building Fund Commission." It was established October 25th, 1880,
by the General Convention and consists of all the Bishops, and
one clergyman and one layman from each Diocese and Missionary
Jurisdiction appointed by the Bishop thereof, and of twenty
members-at-large appointed by the Presiding Bishop. Its object is
to create by an annual offering from every congregation, as
recommended by the General Convention, and by individual gifts,
a Fund of One Million Dollars, portions of the principal to be
loaned, and of the interest given, to aid the building of churches
wherever needed. In order to hold property and carry on the work
of loaning money on mortgage in a safe and legal manner, it was
necessary to organize a corporation and this was done under the
laws of the State of New York, the title of the organization being
that given above. This commission is one of the most efficient
agencies in Church extension; many a mission through its aid being
enabled to erect a House of Worship, which otherwise would have
had to give up in despair and abandon all hopes of having the
Church's worship and administration of the Sacraments.

Church Catholic, The.--The kingdom of Christ, partly visible here
on earth, partly invisible behind the veil. The Church Catholic
embraces three great divisions:

I. THE CHURCH MILITANT, here on earth, struggling, fighting
(which militant means) against sin to overcome it. {57}

II. THE CHURCH EXPECTANT where the soul abides after death in a
state of expectancy of the final Resurrection; called, also, the

III. THE CHURCH TRIUMPHANT in Heaven where the soul reunited to
the body has its perfect consummation and bliss in God's eternal
and everlasting glory.

Church Chronology.--Under this head may be given certain dates
and events which may be regarded as "Turning Points" in the history
of the Christian Church:

EVENT.                                                  DATE.

Day of Pentecost, Birthday of the Church             A.D. 33

Death of St. John at Ephesus                               97

The Ten great Persecutions of Christians               64-313

I. General Council, at Nicea                              325

II. General Council, at Constantinople                    381

III. General Council, at Ephesus                          431

IV. General Council, at Chalcedon                         451

Leo the Great revised the Roman Liturgy                   492

V. General Council, at Constantinople                     553

Gregory the Great revised the Roman Liturgy               590

St. Augustine came to England                             595

VI. General Council, at Constantinople                    681

Venerable Bede died at Yarrow, England                    735

Alfred the Great founded Oxford University                887

Final Separation of Church in East and West              1054

Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, revised English Liturgy     1081

Crusades began                                           1095

Bible divided into chapters                              1252

Wickliffe and his work                              1377-1384

First book printed, a Latin Bible, at Mentz              1450

Martin Luther and his work                          1517-1546

John Calvin                                         1530-1564 {58}

English Reformation                                 1534-1559

First English Prayer Book set forth                      1549

Present authorized version of the Bible                  1611

Present English Prayer Book set forth                    1662

Church introduced into America                      1578-1607

Bishop Seabury consecrated in Scotland first
  American Bishop                                        1784

Three additional Bishops consecrated in England for
  American Church                                   1787-1790

Name changed to Protestant Episcopal                     1789

American Prayer Book set forth                  Oct. 16, 1789

American Prayer Book revised                        1883-1892

Church Club.--Throughout the American Church there are a number of
Church Clubs composed of laymen, associated together for the
purpose of discussing problems of Church work and belief and
studying out more thoroughly what this Church teaches and what its
history is. In some of these clubs eminent Bishops and other clergy
and laymen are invited to deliver lectures which are afterwards
printed in book form. The Church Club has done much to raise up a
class of intelligent and well-informed Churchmen who are proving
to be a great help and blessing to the Church.

Church Colors.--Also called Liturgical colors. From the most ancient
times it has been customary to deck the Church's Altar with hangings
of rich material which vary in color with the Church Season. As
commonly used at the present time the Church colors are five in
number, viz., white, red, violet, green and black. Their use may be
briefly set forth as follows: _White_ is used on all the great
Festivals of our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, and of those Saints
who did not suffer martyrdom; it is also the color for All Saints'
Day, and the Feast of St. Michael and All {59} Angels; white is the
symbol of joy and purity. _Red_ is used on the Feasts of Martyrs,
typifying that they shed their blood for the testimony of Jesus; it
is also used at Whitsun Tide, symbolizing the cloven tongues of
fire in the likeness of which the Holy Ghost descended on the
Apostles. _Violet_ is the penitential color and is used in Advent,
Lent, the Ember and Rogation Days, on the Feasts of the Holy
Innocents, etc. _Green_ is the ordinary color for days that are
neither feasts nor Fasts as being the pervading color of nature; it
is chiefly used during the Epiphany Tide and the long period of the
Trinity Season. _Black_ is made use of at funerals and on Good
Friday. This use of the colors applies to the stole as well as to
the Altar hangings. The black stole is always out of place,
incongruous, except at funerals and on Good Friday. Where they are
used, the cope, chasuble, maniple, dalmatic and tunic also vary
with the Season in the same manner. The use of the Church colors,
besides "decking the place of His Sanctuary" is also most helpful
to the devotions of the people, in that it teaches them by the eye
the various Seasons of the Church's joy or mourning.

Church Congress.--An organization of the Clergy and Laity in the
American Church having for its object the general discussion of
living questions of the day and the application of Revealed Truth
to the needs of our modern life. It was organized in 1874 on the
model of the English Church Congress which, no doubt, suggested
such an organization for the Church in the United States. It is
not a legislative body, but rather an "Open Court" for the free {60}
exchange of views. Meetings are held annually and an elaborate
programme of subjects is prepared for each meeting, with appointed
essayists and speakers, and volunteer speakers are permitted. The
proceedings of each Congress are published in book form, of which
the Rev. Dr. Wildes for so many years the General Secretary says,
"The proceedings, addresses and speeches of the several sessions
embodied in annual reports form a _thesaurus_ of ripe learning,
vigorous thought and eloquent utterance upon great questions of
the times, of which the Episcopal Church may well be proud. To the
student in Theology and its cognate topics, no less than to clergymen
and thoughtful laymen, these volumes will be found most valuable."

Church Militant.--(See CHURCH CATHOLIC, THE).

Church Missions House.--This is a name that ought to be familiar to
every American Churchman. It is the name given to the handsome
building which is the headquarters of "The Domestic and Foreign
Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United
States of America." For many years the headquarters of the Society
were in rented rooms in the Bible House, New York City. By special
offerings given for the purpose by many generous Churchmen, the
Society was provided with the means to erect this beautiful and
spacious building. The corner-stone was laid on the southeast corner
of Fourth Avenue and Twenty-Second Street in New York City on
October 3, 1892. The building was occupied by the Society on New
Year's Day, 1894, and on the 25th of the same month, St. Paul's
Day, the building was formally dedicated. "Thus after more than {61}
seventy years, during which the Society had been a tenant, the
Society, representing our whole Church, was established in its own
beautiful home." The Church Mission House is a perfect beehive of
Church work. Here all the leading interests of the Church are
centred. In its spacious, well-lighted rooms are the offices of
the Missionary Society. Here, too, are the headquarters of the
Woman's Auxiliary, the American Building Fund Commission, the
officers of the General Convention, of the General Clergy Relief
Fund, the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, the Girls' Friendly Society
and other Church agencies. Here, too, in its beautiful Chapel the
noontide prayers are daily offered for the spread of the Gospel of
Christ throughout the world. The Church Missions House is well worth
a visit by those who are visiting New York even for only a few days.

Church Temperance Society.--This Society was organized in 1881,
and has for its object the promotion of _temperance_ in its
strict meaning. Its adult membership combines those who temperately
use and those who totally abstain from intoxicating liquors as
beverages. It works on the lines of moral as well as legal suasion,
and its practical objects are: 1. Training the young in habits of
temperance. 2. Rescue of the drunkard. 3. Restriction of the saloon
by legislation, and 4. Counteractive agencies, such as coffee-houses,
working-men's clubs, reading-rooms and other attractive wholesome
resorts. The Church Temperance Legion deals with boys, seeking to
induce them to keep sober, pure, and reverent from the {62} earliest
years of manhood and it endeavors to perpetuate those habits in men.

Church Wardens.--The name given to two officers of a parish usually
distinguished by the titles, Senior and Junior. In some Dioceses
they are elected directly by the people of the parish at the same
time the Vestrymen are elected. In other Dioceses they are appointed
by the newly elected Vestry. The Senior Warden is usually appointed
by the Rector and the Junior Warden is elected by the Vestry. It is
the special duties of the Wardens to see that the Church edifice is
kept from unhallowed use; that it be kept clean and in good repair,
duly lighted and warmed; to provide a sufficient supply of books and
ecclesiastical vestments to be used in the public ministrations by
the Minister, and to provide proper elements for the celebration of
the Holy Communion and preserve due order during service. In the
absence of the Rector one of the Wardens presides at Parish and
Vestry meetings.

Church Year.--(See CHRISTIAN YEAR).

Churching.--Equivalent to the Purification among the Jews, and which
in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary is commemorated as a Feast of
the Church on February 2. The reader is directed to the service set
forth in the Prayer Book under the title, "The Thanksgiving of Women
after Childbirth; commonly called, The Churching of Women."
"Although every deliverance from peril or sorrow demands a tribute
of thanksgiving to God, yet God Himself has placed a mark on the
pains of childbirth (Gen. 3:16); and therefore, as bearing special
reference to the cause of {63} all other misery, the Church has
appointed a special office of praise in acknowledgment of the
primeval curse converted into a blessing."

Circumcision, The.--A Feast of the Church observed on January 1st,
in commemoration of our Lord's obedience to the Law of Circumcision
and His receiving the Name JESUS (which see, also HOLY NAME).
Originally this date was observed as the Octave of Christmas. Its
first mention as the Feast of the Circumcision was about A.D. 1090.
In the Annotated Prayer Book there is the following note: "January
1st was never in any way connected with the opening of the Christian
Year; and the religious observance of this day (New Year's Day) has
never received any sanction from the Church, except as the Octave of
Christmas and the Feast of the Circumcision. The spiritual point of
the season all gathers about Christmas. As the modern New Year's Day
is merely conventionally so (New Year's Day being on March 25th
until about 150 years ago), there is no reason why it should be
allowed at all to dim the lustre of a day so important to all
persons and all ages as Christmas Day." The Feast of the Circumcision
is designed to be observed with great solemnity. There are Proper
Psalms, being the 40th and 90th for Morning Prayer, and the 65th and
103d for Evening Prayer, also Proper Lessons and Collect, Epistle
and Gospel, these last to be used every day until the Epiphany. The
Church color is, white, and the Feast is placed among the DAYS OF
OBLIGATION (which see).

Clergy.--A collective name for the Bishops, Priests and Deacons of
the Church. The Priesthood and the {64} People are generally
distinguished from each other by the titles _Clergy_ and _Laity_.
The term Clergy is derived from the Greek word _Cleros_, meaning
a lot or portion, either because the Clergy--_clerikoi_--are the
Lord's portion, as being allotted to His service; or because God
is their portion and inheritance. The Laity are so called from
the Greek word _Laos_, meaning people, as being the chosen and
peculiar people of God.

Clerical.--Pertaining to the work and office of the Clergy.

Cloister.--A covered walk about a Cathedral or Church or Collegiate
building, oftentimes forming a portion of the quadrangle.

Coadjutor.--(See BISHOP COADJUTOR).

Collect.--The name given to the prayers set forth in the Prayer Book
and especially to the short prayers used in connection with Epistles
and Gospels. The origin of the name is uncertain and various meanings
have been given to it. Some have connected it with the _collected_
assembly of the people; others have interpreted the name as
indicating that the prayer so-called, _collects_ together the topics
of previous prayers or else those of the Epistle and Gospel for the
day. Another interpretation is that which distinguishes the Collect
as the prayer offered by the Priest _alone_ on behalf of the
people, while in the Litanies and Versicles the Priest and people
pray alternately. As of Common Prayer in general, so it may be
concluded especially of the Collect in particular, "that it is the
supplications of many gathered into one by the voice of the Priest
and offered up by him to the Father through our Lord and Mediator
Jesus Christ." {65}

Comfortable Words.--The name given to the short passages of
Scripture read after the Absolution in the Communion service. It
has been pointed out that these are peculiar to our Liturgy and that
"perhaps the object of their introduction was the obvious one
suggested in the title of _Comfortable Words_, of confirming the
words of Absolution with those of Christ and His Apostles; and of
holding forth our Lord and Saviour before the communicants, in the
words of Holy Scripture to prepare them for 'discerning' His Body
in the Sacrament."

Commendatory Prayer.--A beautiful and impressive prayer added to
the Prayer Book in 1661, and which is to be said over a dying
person. This prayer ought to be memorized by every Churchman so
as to use it in any emergency for, as Bishop Coxe suggests in
"Thoughts on the Services," "whether a Clergyman be present or
not, no Christian should be willing to die, or be permitted to die,
without the _Commendatory Prayer_ said by some one present at or
near the moment of departure. Church people are not heathen, that
they should neglect this bounden duty to one who is passing away.
'Father into Thy hands I commend My spirit,' said the Saviour with
His dying breath. So should the sick person in his own behalf; or
those who love him in his behalf, if because of the pain or
unconsciousness of death, he cannot frame the petition for himself."

Commandments, The Ten.--(See DECALOGUE.)

Common Prayer.--Bishop Whitehead has given the following explanation
of this term: "Common Prayer is so called in distinction from
private or {66} special prayer. It comprehends those needs and
expresses those religious feelings which are common to all God's
children who come together to worship. So we make our common
supplications, confess our common sins, and offer our common
sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, of alms and devotion." (See

Communion, Holy.--(See HOLY COMMUNION.)

Communion of Saints.--An article of the Creed by which is meant
the fellowship with, or union in Christ of all who are one with
Him whether they are among the living in the Church on earth or
the departed in Paradise. The Communion of Saints is specially
realized in the Holy Eucharist. This spiritual food is our Lord's
own divine substance and life, by participation in which the faithful
Christian enters into a communion with his Lord which death cannot
end or even interrupt. All who enter, whether in the present or in
the past, into this communion with their risen Lord are thereby
bound together in holy fellowship one with another also. It is this
holy fellowship of those whom the Spirit has sanctified, one with
another and with their Lord, that we call the Communion of Saints.

Compline.--One of the seven CANONICAL HOURS (which see).

Confirmation.--An ordinance of the Church, sacramental in character
and grace conferring. It is administered to those who have been
baptized and is effected by prayer and the Laying on of Hands by
the Bishop. Hence the Scriptural name for it is "The Laying on of
Hands." Its chief grace is the seven-fold {67} gift of the Holy Ghost
by means of which we are sealed, made firm or strong, and equipped
"manfully to fight under Christ's banner against sin, the world
and the devil." Confirmation is a further advance in the Christian
Life and entitles the recipient to be admitted to the Holy Communion.

The Scriptural authority for Confirmation is very manifest. Thus in
Acts 8:5-17, we have the first recorded Confirmation, and in the
19th chapter we find another account of the same administration. In
Hebrews 6:1, 2, we find Confirmation or the Laying on of Hands
mentioned as a first or foundation principle of the Doctrine of
Christ, as necessary to the health of the soul as Repentance, Faith,
Baptism, Resurrection and eternal judgment. In Ephesians 1:13 and 14,
it is spoken of as a "sealing," and made a plea for righteousness
of life: and in the fourth chapter, verse 30, it is spoken of in
the same way, as well as other passages which might be cited.
Confirmation having such Scriptural authority, it is to be noted
that it has always and in all places been practiced by the Historic
Church and that even at this present time nine-tenths of all
Christian people still hold to Confirmation as essential and
necessary to the religious life. While the above Scriptural authority
and universal practice are sufficient evidence that the use of
Confirmation is according to the mind of Christ, yet it will be
interesting to know the estimate of this holy ordinance by those
who have departed from the practice of the Universal Church, which
is given as follows:

Methodist Testimony.--"I was determined {68} not to be without it,
and therefore went and received Confirmation, even since I became a
Methodist preacher."--_Dr. Adam Clarke_.

Baptist Testimony.--"We believe that Laying on of Hands, with
prayer, upon baptized believers as such, is an ordinance of Christ,
and ought to be submitted unto by all persons to partake of the
Lord's Supper."--_Baptist Association, September 17, 1742_.

Congregational Testimony.--"The confession of the Name of Christ
is, after all, very lame, and will be so till the discipline which
Christ ordained be restored, and the Rite of Confirmation be
recovered in its full use and solemnity."--_Dr. Coleman, Boston_.

Presbyterian Testimony.--"The Rite of Confirmation thus administered
to baptized children, when arrived at competent years, shows clearly
that the Primitive Church in her purest days, exercised the authority
of a Mother over her baptized children."--_Committee of the General

Consecrate.--To make sacred; to set apart for sacred use, as the
elements in the Holy Communion, Church buildings, etc. A Bishop is
said to be consecrated to his office by the act of Laying on of
Hands by other Bishops.

Consecration, Prayer of.--That portion of the Communion office
beginning with the words, "All glory be to Thee, Almighty God,"
etc., and by which the Bread and the Wine become the Body and the
Blood of Christ. This is the most solemn act of the whole service
and comprises (1) the words of Institution, (2) the Oblation and
(3) the Invocation, followed by the Intercessions. {69}

Consecration of Church Buildings.--The service provided in the
Prayer Book whereby a church building erected and paid for is
separated, by the administration of the Bishop from all unhallowed,
ordinary and common uses and dedicated to God's service, for reading
His Holy Word, for celebrating His Holy Sacraments, for offering to
His glorious Majesty the sacrifices of prayer and thanksgiving, for
blessing His people in His Name, and for all other holy offices. The
building thus set apart becomes God's House and not man's, and as
such calls for acts of reverence on man's part as he enters it to
meet God where He has thus caused His Name to dwell there.

Convention.--A name quite generally used in the United States for a
also COUNCIL.)

Convocation.--The term "Convocation" as used in the American Church
has reference to certain territorial divisions in a Diocese, or
the grouping together of the Clergy and Laity of certain districts
of a Diocese, for the more efficient and systematic work of missions.
Usually each Diocese is divided into two or more Convocational
Districts, each one presided over by a Priest, either elected by
the Clergy of the Convocation or appointed by the Bishop, and
usually called the "Dean of Convocation." This arrangement has
been found to be very helpful in creating a greater interest in
the work of Diocesan Missions and in promoting Church extension
within the Convocational limits.

The term is also applied to the annual meetings of {70} the Bishop,
Clergy and Laity of a Missionary Jurisdiction, which being a
mission, is not entitled to hold a Diocesan Council or Convention.

Cope.--A long cloak of silk or other rich material, semicircular in
shape, fastened in front at the neck by a clasp or morse and having
on the back a flat hood embroidered. It is worn over the alb or
surplice and varies in color according to the Church season. Usually
worn in processions by Priest or Bishop and is symbolical of rule.

Corporal.--One of the pieces of Altar linen. A napkin of fine linen
to be spread on the Altar, and upon which the sacred vessels are
placed at the Holy Communion. When the Altar breads are on the
Altar, the lower right hand corner of the corporal is turned back
over them, except during the oblation and consecration.

Cotta.--A shorter form of the surplice, not so full and having
short sleeves. The short surplice worn by choir-boys and choirmen
is usually called a cotta.

Council.--An assemblage of the Church met together for the purpose
of considering matters of faith and discipline and legislating upon
them. The Council may be ecumenical, _i.e._, general, or else
of local interest and as such may be National, provincial or
Diocesan. The General Councils are those held by the UNDIVIDED
CHURCH (which see) and which have been universally received. They
are generally regarded as being six in number, as follows:

I. Council of Nicea, held A.D. 325, met to consider the heresy of
Arius and which gave us the Nicene Creed. {71}

II. Council of Constantinople, held A.D. 381, to consider the
heresy of Macedonius and which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed and
completed it as it now stands except the "Filioque."

III. Council of Ephesus, held A.D. 431, to consider the Nestorian

IV. Council of Chalcedon, held A.D. 451, to consider the Heresy of
the Eutychians.

V. Second Council of Constantinople, held A.D. 553, to confirm the
decisions of the first four General Councils.

VI. Third Council of Constantinople, held A.D. 680, against a
development of Eutychianism. (See ECUMENICAL.)

Credence.--A table or shelf made of wood or stone placed at the
side of the Sanctuary to hold the elements and vessels preparatory
to consecration in the Holy Communion. The derivation is not
certainly known. Some suppose it is derived from an Anglo-Saxon
word meaning "to make ready"; while others think it is derived from
the Italian word for "buffet"--_credenzare_, meaning to taste food
or drink before handed to another,--an old court custom. The presence
of the Credence in the Sanctuary is made necessary by the rubric
which directs that the bread and wine shall not be placed on the
Altar until the time of the Offertory.

Creed.--A name derived from the Latin word, _credo_, meaning _I
believe_, and signifying the Belief. The Creed begins with the
words "I believe," because each and every statement in it contains
a truth superior to reason, revealed by Almighty God and proposed
{72} to our faith faculty. In the American Church two forms of the
Creed are used, namely the APOSTLES' and the NICENE, to each of
which the reader is referred. (See also ORTHODOX.) Two customs in
saying the Creed have come down to us from the most ancient times,
(1) that of turning to the East or towards the Altar in saying it,
and (2) that of bowing the head at the holy Name of Jesus.

Cross, The.--Among the ancients death by crucifixion was a very
common mode of execution. Among the Romans, death on the cross was
regarded as the most degraded death possible, and was used in
the punishment of slaves and the lowest class of criminals. It
was thus our Blessed Lord was humiliated; nay, it was thus that "He
humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of
the Cross." (Phil. 2:8.) This humiliating death of our Lord by
crucifixion, led His followers to regard the Cross with feelings
of the greatest reverence. Henceforth, the Cross, the instrument of
a shameful death, became the symbol of glory. It became the emblem
of the Christian Religion. It was placed on all church buildings
and over the Altar as the everlasting sign of the eternal hope of
the Christian's belief. It became also a manual act. The custom of
crossing oneself, as an act of devotion may be traced back to the
very beginnings of Christianity. The Prayer Book makes provision
for the newly baptized to be signed "with the sign of the Cross in
token that hereafter he shall not be ashamed to confess the Faith
of Christ crucified," and it is thought that if it be neither wrong
{73} nor superstitious on this occasion, it cannot be at other
times. (See EMBLEMS.)

Crucifer.--From a Latin word meaning cross-bearer, a name used to
designate one who carries the cross in choir processionals.

Cruets.--For the greater convenience of the Priest in celebrating
the Holy Communion, vessels of glass or precious metal, called
cruets, are placed on the credence to hold the wine and water,
and from which at the proper time in the service, the chalice is

Crypt.--A vault beneath a church, more especially under the Chancel
and sometimes used for burial. The word is sometimes given to the
basement of a church where services are held.

Curate.--Derived from the Latin _curatus_, meaning one who is
charged with the _cura_, _i.e._, the cure or care of souls.
Originally _curate_ meant any one under the rank of Bishop, having
the cure of souls, but now the name is usually given to the
Assistant Minister in a Parish. (See ASSISTANT MINISTER.)


Daily Prayer, The.--By the appointment of Daily Morning and Evening
Prayer set forth in the Prayer Book the Church designs that services
should be held every day in the church throughout the year. This
is usually regarded as being impracticable and therefore the Daily
Prayer does not prevail in our churches. It has been pointed out,
however, that "Churches {74} without such an offering of Morning and
Evening Prayer are clearly alien to the system and principles of
the Book of Common Prayer, and to make the offering in the total
absence of worshippers seems scarcely less so. But as every church
receives blessings from God in proportion as it renders to Him the
honor due unto His Name, so it is much to be wished that increased
knowledge of devotional principles may lead on to such increase of
devotional practice as may make the omission of the Daily Offices
rare in the Churches of our land."

Dalmatic.--A robe of silk or other rich material with wide but short
sleeves, and richly embroidered, worn by the Deacon or Gospeller at
the Holy Eucharist. Not usually worn, although its use is being

Daughters of the King.--An organization of the young women of the
Church, organized in 1885. A careful distinction should be made
between the Daughters of the King and "The King's Daughters." This
organization came into existence some time before The King's
Daughters was organized, and it is to be noted that the Daughters
of the King is more of an _order_ than a Society and is distinctively
a Church organization. The purpose of the Order is "for the Spread
of Christ's Kingdom among young women," and "the active support of
the plans of the Rector in whose parish the particular chapter may
be located." Its badge is a cross of silver, a Greek cross fleury
and its mottoes are, "Magnanimeter Crucem Sustine" and "For His
Sake." Its colors are white and blue. The Order of the Daughters of
the King is very similar to {75} the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, and
is designed to do for young women what the Brotherhood does for
young men.

Days of Obligation.--These are days on which Communicants are bound
by the Faith they profess to be present at the celebration of the
Holy Communion and to rest as much as possible from servile work.
Such Days of Obligation are the following:

  All Sundays in the year, not 12 but 52.
  Christmas Day                             25th December.
  Feast of the Circumcision                   1st January.
  Feast of the Epiphany                       6th January.
  Annunciation Day                             25th March.
  Easter Day                                      Movable.
  Ascension Day                                   Movable.
  Whitsun Day                                     Movable.
  All Saints' day                            1st November.

Deacon.--One who has been ordained to the lowest order of the
Ministry. The account of the institution of the order of Deacons
is found in the Acts of the Apostles 6:1-7. We here learn that
the first Deacons were ordained to attend especially to the
benevolent work of the Church in caring for the poor, but they
were also preachers of the Word. The Office of Deacon is still
retained in the Church as an order of the Ministry, for "it is
evident unto all men reading Holy Scripture and ancient Authors,
that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders of
Ministers in Christ's Church,--Bishops, Priests and Deacons." A
Deacon may assist the Priest at the Altar and administer the cup.
He may baptize, say all choir offices, and if he is learned and {76}
is licensed thereto by the Bishop, he may preach, but he cannot
administer the Holy Communion, or pronounce the Absolution and
the Benediction. He wears his stole over the left shoulder and
fastened under his right arm. If a Candidate for Priest's Orders
and can pass the required examination, he may after a year's
service as a Deacon be advanced to the Priesthood.

Deaconess.--In the Apostles' time there were holy women set apart
for the work of the Church, for example Phoebe, the servant or
deaconess, who was commended by St. Paul. This order of Deaconesses
continued until about the seventh century, when the changed
conditions of the Church interfered with its usefulness. In many
places the order has of late years been revived and is demonstrating
its original usefulness. The American Church has recognized the need
of such an order of women in its work, and in the general canons
provision is made for establishing the order and for its continuance
and regulation. According to these, a woman to be admitted to the
office of Deaconess must be at least twenty-five years of age, a
communicant of the Church, and fit and capable to discharge the
duties of the office. Before she can act as a Deaconess she must
be set apart for that office by an appropriate religious service.
When thus set apart she shall be under the direct oversight of the
Bishop of the Diocese, to whom she may resign her office at any
time, but having once resigned her office she is not privileged to
be reappointed thereto unless the Bishop shall see "weighty cause
for such reappointment." {77}

Training Schools for Deaconesses have been established in various
parts of the country where candidates for this office receive
special instruction and are trained for their work.

Dean.--An Ecclesiastical title; the presiding officer of a Cathedral.
The word is derived from the Latin _decanus_, meaning one presiding
over ten. In England the Dean is a Church dignitary and ranks next
to the Bishop. The word is used in the American Church, but with a
considerable modification of its original meaning. The Cathedral in
the American Church not having become fully developed, the duties
and rights of the Dean as the presiding officer of the Cathedral
have not been fully determined, or at all events not made a
reality. So that for the most part the title as used in this
country is simply honorary.

Decalogue.--The name given to the Ten Commandments and derived from
the Greek word, _dekalogos_, meaning the Ten Words or discourses.
They are divided into two tables; the first four commandments set
forth our duty towards God, and the last six our duty towards man.
The reading of the Ten Commandments in the Communion Office is
peculiar to our Liturgy and were added in the year 1552, together
with the response after each commandment, "Lord, have mercy upon us
and incline our hearts to keep this law." While the commandments
were originally introduced to our Liturgy as a warning and safeguard
against the lawlessness of extreme Puritans, they are, nevertheless,
helpful to all as a preparation for the right reception of the Holy
Communion; leading the congregation to an examination of their
"lives and {78} conversation by the rule of God's commandments." The
translation of the Decalogue used in the Communion Office is not
that of the present Authorized version, but that of the "Great
Bible" of 1539-40, which was retained because the people had grown
familiar with it. To the Commandments is added our Lord's Summary
of the Law, which may be read at the discretion of the Minister.

Decani.--A term used to designate the south side of the choir, (the
right side as we face the Altar) that being the side where the Dean

Dedication, Feast of.--The annual commemoration of the consecration
of a Church building is so called. From ancient authors we
learn that when Christianity became prosperous and flourishing,
churches were everywhere erected and were solemnly consecrated,
the dedications being celebrated with great festivities and
rejoicing. The rites and ceremonies used upon these occasions
were a great gathering of Bishops and others from all parts, the
celebration of divine offices, singing of hymns and psalms, reading
the Holy Scriptures, sermons and orations, receiving the Blessed
Sacrament, prayers and thanksgivings, liberal alms bestowed on
the poor, gifts to the Church; and, in short, mighty expressions
of mutual love and kindness and universal rejoicing with one
another. These dedications from that time forward were always
commemorated once a year and were solemnized with great pomp and
much gathering of the people, the solemnity usually lasting eight

The Feast of the Dedication is frequently kept in many parishes
now and its observance has been found {79} to be most helpful to
both Priest and People, recalling to mind the joy and gladness of
the day of the Consecration of their Church and being the time for
the revival of old faiths and pledges, and consequently of renewed
interest in the Church, its work and its worship.

Deposition.--The name used in the general Canons for degradation
from the office of the Ministry, as the penalty for offenses therein
enumerated. Deposition can only be performed by a Bishop after
sufficient evidence. When a Bishop thus deposes any one, he is
required to send "notice of such deposition from the Ministry to
the Ecclesiastical Authority of every Diocese and Missionary
Jurisdiction of this Church, in the form in which the same is
recorded." The object of this is to prevent any one thus deposed
from officiating anywhere in the Church. He has been cut off from
all office in the Church and from all rights of exercising that

Deprecations.--The name given to certain petitions in the LITANY
(which see).

Descent into Hell.--An article of the Creed in which we confess our
belief that our Lord while His Body lay in the grave, descended into
the place of departed spirits. The word "Hell" as here used is the
English translation of the Greek word _Hades_, which means not the
place of torment, (for which another Greek word is used, viz.,
Gehenna) but that covered, hidden place where the soul awaits the
General Resurrection. The Rubric before the Creed gives this
interpretation of the word, and permission is given to churches
to use instead of it, the words "place of departed spirits," "which
are considered as words of {80} the same meaning in the Creed." (See

Diaconate.--The office of a Deacon, or the order of Deacons

Dies Irae.--The first two words of a Latin hymn, meaning "Day of
Wrath," being the 36th of the Hymnal. It is supposed to have been
written in the Twelfth Century by Thomas of Celano. The translation
of this hymn used in the Hymnal was made by the Rev. W. J. Irons,
in 1869. It seems to be a poetic and devotional embodiment of the
words to be found in Hebrews 10:27, "a certain fearful looking for
of judgment and fiery indignation," and is much used during Advent.
The music to which it is usually sung was written by the Rev. John
B. Dykes in 1861, and is a most beautiful rendering of this ancient
and sublime hymn.

Digest of the Canons.--The name given to the collection of the
laws or canons of the American Church enacted and set forth by
the General Convention. The word "Digest" is derived from the Latin
word _digestus_, meaning carried apart, resolved, digested, and
is applied to a body of laws arranged under their proper heads or
titles. The Canons set forth by the General Convention as thus
arranged come under four titles, viz.:

TITLE I.--Of the Orders of the Ministry and of the Doctrine and
Worship of this Church. Under this head there are Twenty-six Canons.

TITLE II.--Of Discipline, Thirteen Canons.

TITLE III.--Of the Organized Bodies and Officers of the Church,
Nine Canons. {81}

TITLE IV.--Miscellaneous Provisions, Four Canons.

There is also an appendix of Standing Resolutions.

Dimissory Letter.--A letter given to a clergyman removing from one
Diocese to another. The General Canons provide that "before a
clergyman shall be permitted to settle in any Church or Parish, or
be received into union with any Diocese of this Church as a Minister
thereof, he shall produce to the Bishop, or if there be no Bishop,
to the Standing Committee thereof, a letter of dismission from under
the hand and seal of the Bishop with whose Diocese he has been last
connected . . . which shall be delivered within six months from
the date thereof; and when such clergyman shall have been so
received he shall be considered as having passed entirely from
the jurisdiction of the Bishop from whom the letter of dismission
was brought, to the full jurisdiction of the Bishop or other
Ecclesiastical Authority by whom it shall be accepted and become
thereby subject to all the canonical provisions of this Church."
The effect of this law is that in the Episcopal Church there can
be no strolling, irresponsible evangelists or preachers, and thus
the people are protected from imposture, and may know, when the
proper steps are taken, that their ministers come to them fully
accredited and duly authorized to minister to them in Christ's Name.

Diocese.--The territorial limits of a Bishop's Jurisdiction.
Properly speaking the Diocese is the real unit of Church life.
Originally the Bishop went first in the establishing of the Church
in any nation or country; out of this Jurisdiction grew the parishes
or local congregation, being ministered to by the Priests {82} under
the Bishop. In the American Church, through force of circumstances,
the reverse of this has been the case. But notwithstanding, the
fact remains here as elsewhere that the Diocese with the Bishop at
its head is the real unit of Church life and organization, and the
Parish a dependency of it and from which it gets its corporate
existence as a Parish. In the phraseology of the Canons, a missionary
Bishop presides over a "Missionary Jurisdiction" which it is
expected will develop into a Diocese, but according to the true
theory of the Church his _Missionary Jurisdiction_ is really a
Diocese. (See CATHEDRAL.)

Diocesan.--The name given to a Bishop who presides over a Diocese.
The word also means relating or pertaining to a Diocese.

Diocesan Convention.--The annual gathering of the Bishop, Clergy
and people of a Diocese. The Bishop and Clergy represent their own
Order and the people are represented by delegates elected by the
Vestries of the various parishes. The purpose of the Convention is
to review the work of the past year; make provision for the work
of the year following, and by legislative acts provide such laws
as may further the purpose for which the Diocese exists. For cause
special conventions may be called, a month's notice at least being
given to the clergy, and to the parishes within the Diocese. (See

Diocesan Missions.--Church work done in a Diocese outside of its
Parishes and having for its object the extension of the Church
within the territorial limits of the Diocese, is called _Diocesan
Missions_. This work is prompted by those words of our Lord {83}
when He said, "Let us go into the next towns that I may preach there
also; for therefore came I forth." The Diocese embraces all the
people within its limits and for them all it has a message and a
blessing. For the deliverance of this message and the bestowal of
this blessing all, both Clergy and Laity, have responsibilities
and therefore the Church turns to them for the means whereby this
work can be carried on. The support of Diocesan Missions is as
obligatory on all members of the Church as the support of the
Bishop or their own Parish, and to this all will contribute annually
if they love the Lord Jesus in sincerity and truth. (See CONVOCATION.)

Diptychs.--In the early ages of the Church it was customary to
recite in holy commemoration the names of eminent Bishops, of
Saints and Martyrs; the names of those who had lived righteously
and had attained the perfection of a virtuous life. For this purpose
the Church possessed certain books, called _diptychs_, from their
being _folded together_, and in which the names of such persons
"departed in the true faith," were written that the Deacon might
rehearse them at the time when the memorial of the departed was
made at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. This was done to
excite and lead the living to the same happy state by following
their good example; and also to celebrate the memory of them as
still living, according to the principles of our Religion, and not
properly dead, but only translated by death to a more Divine Life.
To this custom is to be traced the origin of the Christian CALENDAR
(which see). In many parishes at the present time a similar {84}
custom obtains, of reciting at the Holy Communion on All Saints'
Day the names of parishioners who, during the year, have departed
in the true faith of God's Holy Name.

Discretion, Years of.--In the Prayer Book the Rite of Confirmation
is described as "The Laying on of Hands on those who are Baptized
and come to years of Discretion." The phrase "years of discretion"
is defined in the Rubric at the end of The Catechism, as follows,
"So soon as children are come to a competent age _and can say the
Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments, and can answer
the other questions of this Short Catechism, they shall be brought
to the Bishop_."  According to the modern capacity of children,
they are able to learn what is required by the time they are
from _twelve_ to _fourteen_ years old; but if they are quick and
intelligent children, they will probably be ready to "be brought
to the Bishop to be confirmed by him" at an even earlier age. From
immemorial usage this is evidently the intention of the Church.

Dispensation.--A formal license, granted by ecclesiastical authority,
to do something which is not ordinarily permitted by the canons,
or to leave undone something that may be prescribed. In the American
Canons, dispensation has special reference to an official act by the
Bishop whereby he may excuse candidates for Holy Orders from pursuing
certain studies required by canon.

Divine Liturgy.--(See HOLY COMMUNION, also LITURGY.)

Divine Service.--In the old rubrical usage of the {85} Church,
"Divine Service" always meant the Holy Communion, which was also
called the _Divine Liturgy_. The central point of all Divine Worship,
towards which all other services gravitate, and around which they
revolve, like planets around the sun, is the great sacrificial act
of the Church, the offering of the Blessed Sacrament of the Lord's
Body and Blood.

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society.--This society is the
largest and most influential working organization in the American
Church. By means of it the Church shows how aggressive she is, for
it has enabled her to place Bishops and Missionaries in many of the
States and in all the Territories in the Union and also in foreign
lands. This society is the Church's established agency, under
the authority and direction of the General Convention, for the
prosecution of missions among the negroes of the South, the Indians
in the North, the people in the New States and Territories in the
West and in some of the older Dioceses; in all the Society maintains
work in forty-three Dioceses and seventeen Missionary Jurisdictions
in this country. It also conducts missions among the nations in
Africa, China, Japan, Haiti, Mexico, Porto Rico and the Philippines.
It pays the salary and expenses of twenty-three Missionary Bishops
and the Bishop of Haiti, and provides entire or partial support for
sixteen hundred and thirty (1,630) other missionaries, besides
maintaining many schools, orphanages and hospitals. For the
prosecution of this work the Society expends about $700,000 a year,
which amount it expects to receive from the devotions of the
faithful. The Society should be {86} remembered in making wills, and
its constant needs should never be forgotten since it must regularly
each and every year provide for so great a work.

The legal title of this important society is, "_The Domestic and
Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in
the United States of America_." The Society was organized by the
General Convention in 1821 and incorporated by the State of New
York, May 13th, 1846, and is organized as follows:

MEMBERS.--The Society is considered as comprehending all persons
who are members of this Church.

BOARD OF MISSIONS.--Composed of all the Bishops of the Church in
the United States and the members for the time being of the House
of Deputies of the General Convention (including the Delegates from
the Missionary Jurisdictions), the members of the Board of Managers
and the Secretary and Treasurer of the Board.

THE MISSIONARY COUNCIL.--Comprises all Bishops of the Church, all
members of the Board of Managers, and such other clergymen and
laymen as may be elected by the General Convention, and in addition
thereto, one Presbyter and one layman from each Diocese and
Missionary Jurisdiction to be chosen by the Convention, Council
or Convocation of such Diocese or Jurisdiction. The Missionary
Council meets annually except in the General Convention years, and
is competent to take all necessary action in regard to the
missionary work of the Church consistent with the general policy
of the Board of Missions.

BOARD OF MANAGERS.--Comprises the Presiding Bishop, fifteen other
Bishops, fifteen Presbyters and {87} fifteen Laymen selected from
the Missionary Council. The Board of Managers, thus composed, has
the management of the general missions of the Church, and when the
Board of Missions is not in session, exercises all the corporate
powers of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society.

(which see) at 281 Fourth Avenue, New York City.

THE PUBLICATIONS of the Society by which its work is made known
are "The Spirit of Missions," published monthly; "The Quarterly
Message," and "The Young Christian Soldier," published weekly and


Dominical Letter.--Meaning Sunday Letter is one of the first seven
letters of the alphabet used in the Calendar to mark the Sundays
throughout the year. The first seven days of the year being marked
by A. B. C. D. E. F. G., the following seven days are similarly
marked, and so throughout the year. The letter which stands against
the Sundays in any given year is called the Dominical or Sunday
letter. For example, the year 1901 began on Tuesday and the first
week of that year with the first seven letters of the alphabet
would give us the following table:

  Jan. 1. Tuesday     A.
   "   2. Wednesday   B.
   "   3. Thursday    C.
   "   4. Friday      D.
   "   5. Saturday    E.
   "   6. Sunday      F.
   "   7. Monday      G. {88}

From this table we learn that the Dominical letter for 1901 is F.,
for that letter falls opposite the first Sunday in that year. The
Dominical letters were first introduced into the Calendar by the
early Christians. They are of use in finding on what day of the
week any day of the month falls in a given year, and especially in
finding the day on which Easter falls. (See TABLES IN THE PRAYER

Dossal. Hangings of silk or other material placed at the back of
the Altar as a decoration and to hide the bare wall. The dossal is
used where there is no reredos and usually is of the Church color
for the Festival or Season. Derived from the Latin word _dorsum_,
meaning back.

Doxology.--Any form or verse in which glory is ascribed to God or
the Blessed Trinity, for example, the _Gloria in Excelsis_, which
is called the greater Doxology, and the _Gloria Patri_, the lesser
Doxology. The concluding words of the Lord's Prayer beginning, "For
Thine is the kingdom," etc., is also called the Doxology. Derived
from the Greek word _Doxologia_, from _doxa_, praise and _logos_,
meaning word.

Duly.--In the prayer of Thanksgiving in the Holy Communion, the
acknowledgment is made, "We heartily thank Thee, for that Thou dost
vouchsafe to feed us who have _duly_ received." The word _duly_ as
here used is the English word for the Latin _rite_, which means
according to proper form and ordinance, _i.e._, as prescribed
by and universally used in the Church Catholic; without which
there can be no proper Sacrament. The word also occurs in the
definition of the Church in the {89} XIX Article of Religion and has
there the same interpretation.


Eagle.--The figure of an eagle is often used in the Church as an
emblem to symbolize the flight of the Gospel message over the world.
To this end the lectern from which the Holy Scriptures are read is
generally constructed in the form of an eagle with outstretched
wings on which the Bible rests. It is usually made of polished
brass, but sometimes carved in wood. The eagle is also used as an
emblem of the Evangelist St. John, who more than any other of the
Apostles, was granted a clearer insight into things heavenly, as
may be seen from the Gospel, Epistles and the Revelation which he
was inspired to write.

Early Communion.--From the very earliest ages of the Church it has
been the custom to begin the devotions of the Lord's Day with the
Holy Communion celebrated at an early hour. Through the influence
of the Puritans in England this beautiful and helpful custom fell
into abeyance for a while, but through the growing devotion of the
revived Church both in England and America it has been restored.
To-day there are very few parishes where the early Communion is
not to be had, and the practice is growing and spreading as the
result of increased knowledge of the Church's devotional system.
The motive of the early Communion, especially on the Lord's Day,
may be said to be twofold: First, the recognition of the Holy {90}
Communion as the distinctive act of worship for each Lord's Day,
without taking part in which no primitive Christian would have been
considered to have properly kept Sunday, and secondly, the reverent
desire to receive fasting, or as Bishop Jeremy Taylor has said, "to
do this honor to the Blessed Sacrament, that It be the first food
we eat and the first beverage we drink on that day." (See HOLY

East, Turning to the.--By this expression is meant turning to the
Altar in saying the Creed and Glorias and in celebrating the Holy
Communion, this last being called the _Eastward position_. This
practice arose from a custom in the early Church. When converts to
Christianity were baptized, which was usually in the early morning,
they first turning to the west where the night was fast receding,
renounced the world and the powers of darkness, then turning to
the east where the sun was rising as the source of all light, they
confessed their belief in Christ who, in Holy Scripture is Himself
called the EAST, "the Dayspring from on high." For this reason
they prayed facing the east, and when they came to build their
churches they built them running east and west; the Chancel, in
which the Altar is placed, being in the east and towards it they
made their prayers and confessed their belief. Thus it came about
that the Altar in our churches is always regarded architecturally
and ecclesiastically as the east whether it is so in reality or

Easter Day.--A festival in honor of our Lord's Resurrection has
been observed from the very {91} foundation of Christianity. This is
evident from the early disputes had concerning it, not as to whether
such a day should be kept, but as to the _particular time when_ the
Festival should be observed. The eastern Christians wished to
celebrate the Feast on the third day after the Jewish Passover, on
whatever day of the week this fell. The western Christians contended
that the Feast of the Resurrection ought always to be observed on a
Sunday. This controversy was finally settled by the Council of
Nicea, A.D. 325, which decreed that everywhere the great Feast of
Easter should be observed upon one and the same day and that a
Sunday. In accordance with this decision Easter Day is always the
first Sunday after the full moon, which happens upon or next after,
the 21st of March; and if the full moon happens upon a Sunday,
Easter Day is the Sunday after. By this rule Easter will always
fall between the 22d of March, the earliest date, and the 25th of
April, the latest day on which it can possibly fall.

The original name of the Festival was _Pascha_, derived from the
Hebrew word for Passover. The more familiar name of _Easter_ is
traceable as far back as the time of the Venerable Bede, A.D.
700. The derivation of the word is uncertain. Some think that it
is derived from a Saxon term meaning "rising"; others think the
word _Eost_ or _East_ refers to the tempestuous character of the
weather at that season of the year and find its root in the
Anglo-Saxon YST, meaning a storm. Again others derive the word
from the old Teutonic _urstan_, to rise. It is worthy of note
that "the idea of sunrise is self-evident in the English {92} name
of the Festival on which the Sun of Righteousness arose from the
darkness of the grave."

Easter was always accounted the Queen of Festivals the highest of
all Holy Days, and celebrated with the greatest solemnity, and the
Prayer Book provisions are in keeping with this fact. Churches are
decorated with flowers and plants as symbolical of the Resurrection.
White hangings for the Altar and White vestments have always been
used at Easter in reference to the angel who brought the tidings
of the Resurrection, who appeared in "garments white as snow" and
"his countenance was as lightning." In the early Church Christians
were wont to greet one another on this day with the joyous
salutation, "Christ is Risen," to which the response was made,
"Christ is risen indeed." This custom is still retained in the
Greek Church. This joyous salutation seems to be retained in our
services, for instead of the _Venite_ we have as the Invitatory,
the Easter anthem, in which we call upon one another to "keep the
Feast," for that "Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us," and
is also "Risen from the dead; and become the first-fruits of them
that slept."

Easter Even.--The day between Good Friday and Easter Day is so called
and commemorates the Descent of our Blessed Lord's soul into Hell
(the place of departed spirits), while His Body rested in the grave.
"There has ever been something of festive gladness in the celebration
of Easter Even which sets it apart from Lent, notwithstanding the
Fast still continues. To the disciples it was a day of mourning
after an absent Master, but the Church of {93} the Resurrection sees
already the triumph of the Lord over Satan and Death." Baptism is
wont to be administered on Easter Even, because this was one of
the two great times for baptizing converts in the Primitive Church,
the other being Pentecost or Whitsun Day.

Easter Monday and Tuesday.--It was a very ancient custom of the
Church to prolong the observance of Easter, as the "Queen of
Festivals." At first the Festival was observed through seven days,
and the Code of Theodosius directed a cessation of labor during
the whole week. Afterwards the special services became limited
to three days, the Council of Constance, A.D. 1094, having enjoined
that Pentecost and Easter should both be celebrated with three
festival days. This is now the custom of the Anglican Communion,
which provides Collect, Epistle and Gospel not only for Easter Day,
but also for Easter Monday and Easter Tuesday.

Easter Tide.--The weeks following Easter Day and reaching to
Ascension Day are so called. They commemorate the forty days our
Lord spent on earth after His Resurrection, commonly called THE
GREAT FORTY DAYS (which see).

Eastern Church.--The collective term by which is designated the
Churches which formerly made part of the Eastern Empire of Rome.
The Greek, Russian, Coptic, Armenian, Syrian and other eastern
churches are those usually included in this Communion. But in
strictness, the term "Eastern" or "Oriental Church" is applied only
to the Graeco-Russian Church in communion with the Patriarch of {94}
Constantinople. The great Schism whereby the communion between the
East and the West was broken took place, A.D. 1054.

Eastward Position.--(See EAST, TURNING TO.)

Ecclesiastical Year.--(See CHRISTIAN YEAR.)

Ecumenical.--From a Greek word meaning general or universal. The
name is given to certain councils composed of Bishops and other
ecclesiastics from the whole Church. A Council to be ecumenical must
meet three requirements: (1) It must be called of the whole Catholic
Church; (2) it must be left perfectly free, and (3) it must be one
whose decrees and definitions were subsequently accepted by the
whole Church. It is commonly believed that there have been only six
great Councils of the Church that satisfy these conditions. For a
list of them see COUNCIL.

Elder.--This is the English translation of the Greek word _Presbuteros_,
meaning Presbyter or Priest, the title of one admitted to the second
Order of the Ministry. It has been pointed out that "in Scriptural
usage and in Church History such a person as a _lay_ Elder is an
impossible person; the words contradict each other. The first hint
of such an office was given by Calvin." (See PRIEST.)

Elements.--The bread and the wine in the Holy Communion, and the
water in Holy Baptism are so-called.

Ember Days.--The Ember Days are the Wednesday, Friday and Saturday
after the First Sunday in Lent; Whitsun Day; the 14th of September
and the 13th day of December, and are regarded as the Fasts {95} of
the four seasons. The time of their observance was definitely fixed
by the Council of Placentia, A.D. 1095. Their origin is ascribed to
Apostolic tradition. The derivation of the name Ember is uncertain.
Some trace it to the Saxon word _ymbren_, meaning a "circuit,"
because they are periodically observed. Others derive it from the
Anglo-Saxon word _aemyrian_, meaning "ashes," because these days are
appointed to be kept as fasts, and ashes, as a sign of humiliation
and mourning, were constantly associated with fasting. The Ember
Days are appointed to be observed at the four seasons named because
the Sundays following are the set times for Ordination to the Sacred
Ministry. For this reason one of the two prayers, entitled, "For
those who are to be admitted into Holy Orders," is to be read daily
throughout the week.

Emblems.--Symbols and emblems of various kinds take a foremost place
in sacred Art. Some of these are here given:

THE CROSS is the special symbol of Christianity. It appears in a
variety of shapes, the most familiar being the Latin Cross, the
Passion Cross, the Greek Cross, St. Andrew's Cross and the Maltese

THE TRIANGLE is the emblem of the Holy Trinity, as is also the
TREFOIL (which see).

THE CIRCLE is the ancient emblem of Eternity, being without
beginning or end; enclosing a triangle it means Three in One or
the Blessed Trinity; enclosing a cross it symbolizes Eternal Life.

THE CROWN is used as the symbol of Victory and sovereignty.

THE LAMB--Agnus Dei--is the chief emblem of {96} our Blessed Lord.
Bearing a banner it signifies Victory and is an emblem of the

THE STAR is a Christmas emblem, commemorating the Star of Bethlehem.
It has generally five points, but sometimes _seven_, the number of

THE FISH was a very early symbol of our Lord. The letters which
form the Greek word for fish, viz.: ICHTHUS are the initials in
Greek of the words _Jesus, Christ, God, Son, and Saviour_.

THE ANCHOR is the emblem of the Christian's hope.

THE SHIP is a symbol of the Church as the Ark of Salvation, in which
we are saved, as Noah was saved by the Ark.

THE LION is the symbol of our Lord who is called in Revelation 5:5,
the "Lion of the Tribe of Judah."

THE DOVE is used as the emblem of the Holy Ghost.

The emblems of the four Evangelists are as follows: ST. MATTHEW, a
winged Man; ST. MARK, a winged Lion; ST. LUKE, a winged Ox, and
ST. JOHN, an Eagle.

Emmanuel.--A Hebrew word used as a name of our Lord, and means,
"God with us." The Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., in his book "The Gospel
and Philosophy," speaking of the word _Emmanuel_, says, "'God
with us' is the sum of the Christian Religion. That is a proper
description of the Religion from the beginning to the end.
Emmanuel: the meaning of the word was not exhausted in those
blessed years, three and thirty in all, during which Christ was
seen in Judea and known as the Prophet of Nazareth. It is as
accurate, as necessary to-day; it shall be true {97} till all be
fulfilled, till the earth and the heavens shall pass away and the
new earth shall appear. . . . This Presence of the Personal God, a
presence not made by our faith, but disclosed to our faith that
we may believe and adore, is secured to the faithful in their
generations by ordinances, instruments and institutions adapted to
that end. . . . That system is known as the Holy Catholic Church."

Epact, The.--The Epact is the moon's age at the beginning of any
given year. The term is derived from the Greek word, _Epacte_,
meaning _carried on_. The Epact is used in the calculations for
finding on what day Easter will fall. (See TABLES IN THE PRAYER

Epiphany, The.--A Feast of the Church observed on January 6th to
commemorate the Manifestation of Christ by the leading of a star.
Occurring twelve days after Christmas, it is frequently called
"Twelfth Day." The word _Epiphany_ is derived from the Greek and
means _Manifestation_ or showing forth. It was originally used both
for Christmas Day when Christ was manifested in the Flesh and for
this day when He was manifested by a Star to the Gentiles. Later
on, about the Fourth Century and in the Western Church the Epiphany
seems to have acquired a more independent position and to be
observed with special reference to the manifestation to the Magi
of the East. It thus became the occasion of the giving of praise
and thanksgiving to God for thus proclaiming the Gospel to the
Gentile world as well as to the Jews, His chosen people. An
examination of the services for the Feast of the Epiphany shows
that the {98} commemoration is really threefold: (1) Our Lord's
Manifestation by a star to the Magi; (2) The Manifestation of
the glorious Trinity at His Baptism, and (3) The Manifestation of
the glory and Divinity of Christ by His miraculous turning water
into wine at the marriage in Cana of Galilee; all of which are said
to have happened on the same day, though not in the same year. "The
Epiphany is a Festival which has always been observed with great
ceremony throughout the whole Church; its threefold meaning and
its close association with the Nativity as the end of the Christmas
Tide, making it a kind of accumulative Festival."

Epiphany, Sundays after.--The Epiphany is continued in the Sundays
following, the number of which is variable being dependent on the
time Easter is kept. There may be one "Sunday after Epiphany" or
there may be six. The Scriptural teachings of these Sundays are
all illustrative of the fact that the Eternal Word was manifested
in the Flesh.

Episcopacy.--The name given to that form of Church government in
which Bishops are the Chief Pastors with Priests and Deacons under
them. The word is derived from the Greek _Episcopos_, meaning
overseer; _Bishop_ being the Anglicized form of the Greek word.
Much controversy has been held in regard to Church government, as
if the form was a matter of uncertainty, or not clearly revealed.
The question can only be decided by first regarding Christianity
as an institution, as the Kingdom of God, and then inquiring whether
this Institution, founded by our Lord, has been characterized always
by the same {99} thing. In regard to Church government we find that
the Church as an institution was always governed by Bishops, and that
for 1500 years after Christ no Christian people recognized any other
Ministry but that of Bishops, Priests and Deacons. Since the
Reformation the controversy has come up and various theories,
especially Presbyterian and Congregationalist, have been advanced.
But even now the question of Church government may be considered
as a matter of fact rather than of theory. If we take the whole
Christian world of to-day, we find that the number of Christians
is in round numbers _five hundred millions_. Of this number only
_one hundred million_ are non-Episcopal, so that we may conclude
from the universal acceptance of Episcopacy before the Reformation
and from the large preponderance of adherents to this form of Church
government at this present time,--from these facts we may safely
conclude that Episcopacy is in accordance with the mind of the
Master. This, at least, is the conclusion of the best scholarship
of the day, both Episcopal and non-Episcopal. For example, a
non-Episcopal divine has set forth his conclusions in the following
statement: "The Apostles embodied the Episcopal element into the
constitution of the Church, and from their days to the time of the
Reformation, or for fifteen hundred years, there was no other form
of Church government anywhere to be found. Wheresoever there were
Christians there were also Bishops; and often where Christians
differed in other points of doctrine or custom, and made schisms
and divisions in the Church, yet did they all remain unanimous in
this, in retaining Bishops." So {100} also, the historian Gibbon
gives his conclusion as follows: "'No Church without a Bishop' has
been a _fact_ well as a maxim since the time of Tertullian and
Irenaeus; after we have passed over the difficulties of the first
century, we find the _Episcopal government established_, till it
was interrupted by the republican genius of the Swiss and German
reformers." (See MINISTRY, THE.)

Episcopate.--The office of a Bishop. The term is variously used. It
means not only the office or dignity of a Bishop, but it may also
mean the period of time during which any particular Bishop exercises
his office in presiding over a Diocese. Again, _Episcopate_ is the
collective name for the whole body of Bishops of the Christian
Church, lists of which have been carefully preserved from the
beginning. The Episcopate of the American Church includes all the
Bishops from Bishop Seabury, our first Bishop, down to the Bishop
who was last consecrated.

Epistle, The.--The portion of Holy Scripture read before the Gospel
in the Communion Office, generally taken from one of the N. T.
Epistles, though sometimes from the Acts of the Apostles or from
one of the books of the Prophets of the Old Testament. It is well
to note that the Collect, Epistle and Gospel embody the special
teaching of the day for which they are appointed.

Epistle Side.--The south or right side of the Altar from which the
Epistle is read. When the Priest celebrates alone, he first reads
the Epistle at the south side and then passes to the north side
where he reads the Gospel. {101}

Epistoler.--The minister who reads the Epistle for the day and acts
as sub-deacon at the Celebration of the Holy Eucharist.

Eschatology.--That department of Theology devoted to inquiry
concerning the "last things,"--the Advent of Christ, Death and the
State of the Departed, the judgment to come and the final award.

Espousal.--That portion of the Marriage Service in which the
contracting parties answer "I will" to the questions, "N. wilt
thou have this woman to thy wedded wife" and "N. wilt thou have
this man to thy wedded husband." This seems to be the remains of
the old form of _espousals_, which was different and distinct from
the Office of Marriage, and which was often performed some weeks
or months or perhaps years before. Something similar to what is
now called "engagement," only that it had the blessing of Mother
Church upon it. In the Greek Church at the present time there are
still two different offices, viz.: the one of espousals and the
other of marriage, which are now performed on the same day, although
formerly on different days.

Eucharist.--Derived from a Greek word meaning "giving of thanks."
It is the name universally applied to the HOLY COMMUNION (which see).

Eucharistic Lights.--(See ALTAR LIGHTS.)

Eucharistic Vestments.--The special vestments worn in celebrating
the Holy Eucharist to mark the dignity of the service and as
symbolical of the Passion of our Lord which is therein commemorated.
They are as follows: the Amice, Alb, Girdle, Stole, Maniple and
Chasuble worn by the celebrant, and the Dalmatic {102} and Tunicle,
worn by the Deacon and sub-Deacon; each of which is described under
the heading, VESTMENTS (which see). From ancient sources we learn
that it was the universal custom of the Church to wear distinctive
vestments at the celebration of the Holy Communion to mark it as
the only service ordained by Christ Himself, and also as the highest
act of Christian Worship. This is evidenced by the fact that the
seven historical churches which have possessed a continuous life
since the Nicene era, viz.: the Latin, Greek, Syrian, Coptic,
Armenian, Nestorian and the Georgian--all use the Eucharistic
Vestments. When we consider that these historic churches have not
been in communion with one another for over a thousand years, we
cannot but conclude that any point on which they are agreed must
go back to the middle of the Fifth Century and must be part of their
united traditions from a still earlier date. From the fact that
these historic churches, having no communion with one another, do
agree in the use of distinctive vestments for the Holy Eucharist,
we learn that their use is not, as is sometimes supposed, an
imitation of Rome but is a Catholic and Primitive custom. The
Eucharistic Vestments are now used in more than two thousand
churches in England and America, thus showing how they recognize
and are reasserting their Catholic heritage.

Evangelical.--Belonging to, or consistent with, the Holy Gospels,
derived from the Greek word for Gospel.

Evangelical Canticles.--The name given to the canticles sung in
the Church service which are taken {103} from the Gospels, viz.:
Benedictus, Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis.

Evangelists.--The name given to the writers of the four Gospels.

Eve, or Even.--The day before a Festival, as Christmas Eve, Easter
Even, and designed to be a preparation for the due observance of
the Festival it precedes. By rubric it is provided that the Collect
appointed for any Sunday or other Feast may be used at the Evening
Service of the day before.

Even Song.--The name given in the Calendar of the English Prayer
Book to the Order for Daily Evening Prayer and is frequently used
in the American Church. It is a very old term and a very significant
one, indicating that the Evening Oblation chorally rendered is
evidently the mind of the Church and its ancient usage. Our beautiful
Evening Prayer thus rendered is certainly much more in keeping with
Scripture and much more elevating than the "Song Services," or
"Vesper Services" of the various denominations. These latter are
not regarded as "Romish" and are very popular. Yet in some places
if a choral Even Song is attempted, at once the cry of "Romanism"
is raised, and yet from Holy Scripture we learn that music is a
divinely ordained element in the public worship of God and the
service thus rendered is an approach to the worship of Heaven. (See

Examination for Holy Orders.--Title I, canon 6 of the Digest
provides that "There shall be assigned to every Candidate for
Priest's Orders three separate examinations." These examinations
are made by the {104} Bishop in the presence of two or more Priests.
The three examinations are on the following subjects:

I. The Books of Holy Scripture, in English, Greek and Hebrew.

II. The Evidences of Christianity, Christian Ethics and Dogmatic

III. Church History, Ecclesiastical Polity, the Book of Common
Prayer, the Constitution and Canons of the Church and those of
the Diocese to which the candidate belongs.

The Examination for Deacon's Orders is on the Books of Holy
Scripture, and on the Book of Common Prayer.

Excommunication.--An ancient discipline of the Church whereby a
person for cause was cut off from all the privileges of the Church.
This discipline has practically fallen into abeyance, people for
the most part excommunicate themselves. In the English Prayer Book
is an Office called "A Commination, or Denouncing of God's Anger
and Judgments against Sinners, with certain Prayers, to be used
on the First Day of Lent," which was set forth until the ancient
Discipline may be restored.

Exhortation.--The name given to the short addresses in the Prayer
Book, beginning, "Dearly Beloved Brethren." The Exhortation was
introduced into the Daily Offices in 1552 and 1661. Formerly Morning
and Evening Prayer began with the Lord's Prayer, but the Revisers
thinking this too abrupt a beginning they introduced the Sentences,
Exhortation, Confession and Absolution as a more fitting preparation
for the worship that follows. It has been pointed out that {105} this
Exhortation was probably inserted under the impression that the
people at large were extremely ignorant of the true nature of
worship at the time. Five principal parts of worship are mentioned
in it: (1) Confession of Sin, (2) Absolution, (3) Thanksgiving and
Praise, (4) Hearing God's Word, and (5) Prayer for spiritual and
bodily benefits. The Exhortations in the Communion Office were
originally set forth in 1548, revised in 1552 and 1661. They were
introduced at a time when the laity of the Church of England were
in danger of two extremes: First, a total neglect of the Holy
Communion which had sprung up during the Middle Ages, and secondly,
that fearful irreverence towards the Holy Communion which arose
from the dreadful principles held respecting it by the Puritans. In
the face of these dangers, these Exhortations were placed where they
are, for the instruction of the people as well as for hortatory

Expectation Sunday.--The Sunday following Ascension Day is so
called. Being the only Lord's Day which intervenes between the
Ascension of our Lord and the Descent of the Holy Ghost, it
represents that period during which the Apostles were obeying the
command of their Master when "He commanded them that they should
not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father."
They remained therefore, in the city _expecting_ the Gift of the
Comforter which was bestowed on the Feast of Pentecost.

Expectation Week.--The week preceding Whitsun Day is so called.


Fair Linen Cloth, Fair White Linen Cloth.--In the Communion Office
there are two rubrics, the first of which reads as follows: "The
Table, at the Communion time having a _fair white linen cloth_ upon
it," etc. By this is meant the long linen cloth the breadth of the
top of the Altar and falling over the ends eighteen or twenty
inches. The other rubric reads, "When all have communicated, the
Minister shall return to the Lord's Table, and reverently place
upon it what remaineth of the consecrated Elements, covering the
same with a _fair linen cloth_." By this is meant the lawn chalice
veil. It is to be noted that when this rubric was made, the word
"fair" meant _beautiful_. The white linen cloth can be made
"fair," _i.e._, beautiful by means of embroidery, and this
is done by embroidering upon it five crosses to symbolize the five
wounds of our Blessed Lord on the Cross, and by having the ends
finished with a heavy linen fringe. Also, the lawn chalice veil is
made "fair" by being similarly beautified with embroidery, a cross
being worked near the edge.

Faith.--"Divine, or as it is called, Catholic Faith is a gift of
God and a light of the soul; illuminated by which, a man assents
fully and unreservedly to all which Almighty God has revealed and
which He proposes to us by His Church to be believed, whether
written or unwritten. It is also a belief in the whole Gospel, as
distinguished from a reception of some portion of it only; and it
is a faith so full of the love of God as that it leads us to act
differently from what we {107} should if we did not believe and
marks us out as a peculiar people among men."--From Manual of

From the above definition we learn that Faith has a twofold
meaning, (1) the act of believing, and (2) the thing believed, or
the deposit of Faith or Doctrine which all members of Christ are
bound to receive. This Deposit of Faith is embodied in the Holy
Scriptures but is summarized for us in the Articles of the Creed
which are grouped around the Name into which we are baptized,--the
Father, and the Son and the Holy Ghost. In the American Church two
forms of the Creed are used, viz. the APOSTLES' and the NICENE
(which see). These embody "the Faith once delivered to the Saints."

Faithful, The.--The New Testament and Prayer Book name for all the
Baptized, who, being admitted into the Household of Faith, are the
people of the Faith--_fideles_, that is, _believers_.

Faldstool.--Literally, a portable folding seat, similar to a camp
stool, and formerly used by a Bishop when officiating in any church
other than his Cathedral. The name now is generally applied to the
LITANY DESK (which see).

Fasting.--Going without food of any kind as a religious discipline
and as a help to the spiritual life, especially on the great Fasts
of the Church. The Homily on Fasting says: "Fasting is found to be
of two sorts; the one outward, pertaining to the body; the other
inward, in the heart and mind. The outward fast is an abstinence
from meat, drink and all natural food, for the determined time of
fasting; yea, from all {108} delicacies, pleasures and delectations
worldly. The inward fast consists in that godly sorrow which leads
us to bewail and detest our sins and to abstain from committing

Fasting Communion.--(See EARLY COMMUNION.)

Fasts, Table of.--The Reformers of the English Church retained and
enjoined _one hundred and twenty-three_ days in each year, to be
sanctified wholly or in part as Fasts and days of abstinence. These,
with the exception of the Table of Vigils, have been retained in the
American Prayer Book and are the following:


Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.


_on which the Church requires such a measure of abstinence as is
more especially suited to extraordinary acts and exercises of
devotion, namely_:

I. The Forty Days of Lent.

II. The Ember Days at the four seasons.

III. The Three Rogation Days.

IV. All Fridays in the year, except Christmas Day.

These Fasting Days must always be announced to the congregation in
Church, the rubric in the Communion Office requiring that "Then the
Minister shall declare unto the People what Holy Days or Fasting
Days are in the week following to be observed."

Fathers, The.--The name used to designate the ancient writers of
the Church. Their writings are of the greatest value as bearing
witness to the N. T. Scriptures and their interpretation, and also
as {109} showing forth the belief and usage of the Church in the
earliest years of its history. (See TRADITIONS, also UNDIVIDED
CHURCH.) The term "Fathers" is generally confined to the writers
of the first five or six hundred years of the Christian Era. They
are usually grouped together according to the period in which they
lived, _e.g._, The _Apostolic Fathers_ are those who lived nearest
to the time, and to some extent contemporary with the Apostles, viz.
St. Barnabas, St. Clement, St. Ignatius, Hermas and St. Polycarp.
Another class is called the _Ante Nicene Fathers_, or those who
lived between the date of St. Polycarp, A.D. 167, and the date of
the Nicene Council, A.D. 325, such as Justin Martyr, St. Irenseus,
Clemens Alexandrinus, Tertullian, Origen, St. Cyprian. A third class
dates from the Nicene Council, such as St. Athanasius; Eusebius, the
Church Historian; St. Cyril of Jerusalem; St. Hilary of Poicters;
St. Basil, the Great; St. Gregory of Nyssa; St. Gregory Nazianzen;
St. Chrysostom, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Leo, who
is commonly regarded as the last of the Fathers, although St.
Gregory of Rome is placed in the List as well as a few later
writers. The above is not a complete list, only a few of the
principal Fathers having been mentioned. It is pointed out in
Milman's "Latin Christianity" that "The Eastern and the Western
Church have each four authors of note, whom they recognize as
Fathers _par excellence_. Those of the Eastern Church are St.
Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Chrysostom and St. Gregory {110}
Nazianzen. Those of the Western Church are St. Jerome, St. Ambrose,
St. Augustine and St. Gregory of Rome,--the Fathers respectively of
her monastic system, of her sacerdotal authority, of her scientific
Theology and of her popular religion."

Feasts or Festivals.--Days set apart for the celebration of some
great event connected with our Blessed Lord or His Saints, also
called Holy Days. The rubric in the Communion Office requires that
each Feast shall be announced to the congregation on the Sunday
preceding the day on which it occurs. They are set forth in a Table
to be found in the introductory portion of the Prayer Book as


_To be observed in this Church throughout the Year_.

  All Sundays in the year.           St. Bartholomew the Apostle.
  The Circumcision of our Lord.      St. Matthew the Apostle.
  The Epiphany.                      St. Michael and All Angels.
  The Conversion of St. Paul.        St. Luke the Evangelist.
  The Purification of the Blessed    St. Simon and St. Jude the
    Virgin.                            Apostles.
  St. Matthias the Apostle.          All Saints,
  The Annunciation of the Blessed    St. Andrew the Apostle.
    Virgin Mary.                     St. Thomas the Apostle.
  St. Mark the Evangelist.           The Nativity of our Lord.
  St. Philip and St. James the       St. Stephen the Martyr.
    Apostles.                        St. John the Evangelist.
  The Ascension of our Lord.         The Holy Innocents.
  St. Barnabas the Apostle.          Monday and Tuesday in Easter
  The Nativity of St. John Baptist.    Week.
  St. Peter the Apostle.             Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun
  St. James the Apostle.               Week.
  The Transfiguration of our Lord.

Feria.--A term derived from the Latin and used to designate days
which are neither Feasts nor Fasts. {111}

Filioque.--The Latin for the words "and the Son" which occur in
our form of the Nicene Creed. They are not found in the original
Creed as used in the Greek Church, but were added by the Third
Council of Toledo, A.D. 589. This addition to the Creed by the
Western Church was the subject of a long controversy between the
East and the West, which with other complications finally led to
their entire separation in A.D. 1054. (See PROCESSION OF THE HOLY

Fish.--The figure of a fish has been used from the very earliest
days as a symbol in the Christian Church. Among the early Christians
it was used as a secret sign by which they knew one another in the
days of persecution. The significance of the fish as a Christian
symbol is set forth under EMBLEMS (which see).

Flagon.--One of the Eucharistic vessels. A large pitcher-shaped
vessel made of precious metal and used to hold the wine before
its consecration in the chalice. It is sometimes used in the

Font.--The vessel which contains the water for the purpose of
Baptism, usually of stone and vase-shaped, _i.e._, a large bowl
on a pedestal, being sometimes circular and sometimes octagonal.
The position of the Font in primitive times was at or near the
Church door to signify that Baptism is the entrance into the Church
Mystical. This position is still retained in some churches at the
present time, but in most churches it is placed near the chancel
for convenience, or because no place at the door was provided by
the architect. Fonts were formerly required to be covered and locked;
originally their covers were simple flat {112} movable lids, but
they were subsequently very highly ornamented, assuming the form of
spires and enriched with various decorations in carved wood or
polished brass. The Font is so called from the Latin word _Fons_,
genitive _Fontis_, meaning a _fountain_ or spring, referring to
Baptism as a Laver of Regeneration, the source of new and spiritual


Forms.--One great objection brought against the Episcopal Church by
many persons not members of it is what they call _forms and
ceremonies_. They say what they want is "spiritual religion," and
this objection seems to be so final with them there is evidently
nothing more to be said. It is not the purpose of this article to
go into a vindication of forms, but rather to point out how
unreasonable this objection is. If it were real, it would do away
with all social forms and all forms in business as well as in
religion. But they who make this objection do not adhere to it in
their own religion. They cannot come together, even in a "Prayer
Meeting" without some method or form which must be gone through
with. Even the Quakers who, above all others, lay the greatest
stress on "spiritual religion," must have their _form_--of silence,
speech, dress and of even the architecture of their meeting-place,
and which form is peculiar to them. This being the case the
question, therefore, is not "Shall we have forms?" but, "_What_ form
shall we have in our Public Worship?" for we have learned that we
_must_ have some kind of FORM. The Episcopal Church simply clings
to that which was from the {113} beginning, because the experience
of centuries demonstrates that this is best, more consonant to reason
and more expressive of the religious wants of man. Hence she values
her Book of Common Prayer which is the outgrowth of the devotions
of the ages and she cherishes the usages and traditions that have
grown up around it. The Episcopal Church does not insist on forms
merely for the sake of forms, but she values them for their
helpfulness, for what they convey to the soul faithfully using
them, and also, because they enable us to worship God as did His
faithful people in all the ages past.

Forty Days, The Great.--Easter Tide which commemorates the period
of Forty Days our Lord spent on earth after His Resurrection with
His Apostles "and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom
of God" (Acts 1:2 and 3). From many of our Lord's Parables as well
as from other utterances by Him in His Teaching we learn that the
words "Kingdom of God" mean _His Church_. So, then, during this
mysterious time of His Resurrection Life our Lord was giving His
final instructions concerning His Church, and to this instruction
is to be traced many of the Church's usages and practices set forth
in the Acts of the Apostles which otherwise are inexplicable--for
example--the choice of St. Matthias in the place of the traitor
Judas--thus indicating the perpetuity of the Apostolate; the
observance of the first day of the week instead of the seventh; the
ordaining of Deacons thus indicating "divers orders" in His Church;
the Rite of Confirmation; Frequent Communion, Infant Baptism and
many other things to be noted in the {114} Acts of the Apostles,
which have become inherent features of the Church; how else are
they to be accounted for and explained but as being among "the things
pertaining to the Kingdom of God" of which the Master spake during
these Great Forty Days? If not, then how came about their universal
acceptance and continuance even unto this present day?

Fourth Sunday in Lent.--The Sundays in Lent are numbered. First,
Second, Third, etc., through the six Sundays. But the last three
Sundays are so striking in their teaching that additional names are
given to them in order to emphasize that special teaching. Thus
the 6th Sunday is called Palm Sunday; the 5th, Passion Sunday. So,
also, the Fourth Sunday in Lent has its special name or names. Thus
it is called _Mid Lent Sunday_ because the middle of Lent has been
reached. It is also called _Refreshment Sunday_ from the Gospel for
the Day which gives the account of our Lord feeding the multitude
in the wilderness, and thereby indicating a more joyous note in the
service for this day than belongs to the other Sundays in Lent. An
old English name for this Sunday is _Mothering Sunday_. Mid Lent
was considered somewhat of a holiday on which servants and children
absent from home were permitted by their employers to visit their
mothers. The name, doubtless, had its origin from the ancient custom
of making pilgrimages to the Mother Church or Cathedral of the
Diocese. (See LENT, SUNDAYS IN.)

Fraction.--The name given to the manual act of breaking the Bread
by the Priest during the Consecration in the Holy Communion,
according to the {115} rubric which directs, "And here to break the
Bread." (See MANUAL ACTS.)

Free and Open Churches.--These words express the idea embodied in a
movement in the American Church that has been making for many years
to make the House of Prayer what it was originally, viz. _free_ for
all people, no reserved or rented pews, but every seat free and
unreserved, so that high and low, rich and poor alike shall be equal
in the Father's House; and open not simply when there is a service,
but open all the time for private prayer as well as public. This
movement is growing rapidly so that to-day more than half of our
churches are thus free, and a great many of them are kept open
all day long every day in the week. It is found that many earnest
and devout souls, homeless perhaps, or dwellers in hotels or
boarding-houses where there is little or no privacy, as well as
others, gladly avail themselves of this privilege of the _Open
Church_ and find comfort in it. A society for the promotion of
Free and Open Churches has been organized for many years with
headquarters in Philadelphia.

Frequent Communion.--The influence of the Puritans on the religious
life of the Church was in many instances tremendous and far-reaching.
While the Prayer Book provides for _frequent Communion_, that is,
every Lord's Day and Holy Day at the least, yet under the Puritan
influence _infrequent_ Communion became prevalent, and four times a
year at the most came to be considered sufficient. When the Church
began to pass out from under this influence we find that a _monthly_
celebration became the universal rule {116} in the Church, and even
with this many seem now to be satisfied. But as the Church grew, as
the study of the Prayer Book and of Church History became more
general and the Church began to assert herself, to claim her
heritage, we find a return to the ancient order and Scriptural
rule. The Sunday and Holy Day Eucharist was more and more restored,
so that to-day there are very few parishes where "Frequent Communion"
is not the rule. On this subject the Bishop of Maryland, the Rt.
Rev. William Paret, D.D., has remarked, "God's Word and all
history show that receiving the Holy Communion every Lord's Day
was the _old way_ and receiving once a month entirely a modern
custom. In often receiving we are copying the whole Church of the
first three hundred years."

Friday.--In the Prayer Book we find that Friday of each week
is placed in the Table of Fasts to be observed in this Church
throughout the year, and the rubric directs that it be announced to
the congregation on the Sunday before. Friday as a Fast is intended
to be the weekly memorial of the Crucifixion of our Lord just as
Sunday is the weekly memorial of the Resurrection. Both are alike
obligatory as both are enjoined by the same authority. It is
encouraging to note a growing recognition of this Fast and a more
general desire to honor weekly the day of our Lord's Crucifixion
with a public service in Church and by personal acts of self-denial
and devotion on the part of the faithful. (See GOOD FRIDAY, also

Frontal.--The name given to a hanging in front of the Altar. The
same as ANTEPENDIUM (which see). {117}

Fruits of the Spirit.--(See SPIRIT, FRUITS OF.)

Funerals.--The solemn BURIAL OF THE DEAD (which see). In the Church
there is no such thing as "Preaching a Funeral," as it is called,
but the reverent and devout committal of the "body to the ground,"
"looking for the General Resurrection in the last day and the life
of the world to come, through our Lord Jesus Christ." Plainness and
simplicity should mark so holy a function.


Gehenna.--In the original Greek of the New Testament Scriptures
there are two words unfortunately translated by our one English
word "Hell." The first of these is _Gehenna_, meaning the "place
of torment." The second is _Hades_, which also occurs in the
original Greek of the Creed, and means the _hidden_, covered,
intermediate world where the soul rests between death and the
general Resurrection. When, therefore, we confess in the Creed
that our Lord "descended into Hell," we do not mean that He entered
the "place of torment," but the "place of departed spirits" or
_Hades_. This difference of meaning of the word "Hell" as used in
our English translation of the Bible and the Creed should be borne
in mind.

General Clergy Relief Fund.--This is the abbreviated title of a
Society organized by the General Convention under the corporate
name, "The Trustees of the Fund for the Relief of the Widows and
Orphans {118} of Deceased Clergymen, and of Aged, Infirm and
Disabled Clergymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United
States of America, a corporation created in the year 1855 by chapter
459 of the laws of the State of New York." This is one of the most
important Funds in the Church and commands the generous support of
all earnest and devoted Church people. As its name implies, it is a
Fund established for the purpose of taking care of Aged and Infirm
clergy who through age or sickness have become disabled and can no
longer fulfil their ministry. The conscience of the Church makes her
feel obligated, like the national government, to take care of her
faithful servants in their old age and disability, and also to
provide for the care of the widows and orphans of deceased
clergymen. The Church, however, cannot do this blessed work of
Relief, unless all her people contribute largely to this Fund.

General Confession, The.--The form of words used by both Minister
and People in humbly acknowledging their sins before God in
preparation for the true worship of His Name about to follow. The
General Confession was placed in the Morning Prayer in 1552 and in
the Evening Prayer in 1661. Such beginning of our Public Worship is
in accordance with the practice of the Primitive Christians, who,
as St. Basil, writing in the Fourth Century, tells us, "in all
churches, immediately upon their entering into the House of Prayer,
made confession of their sins unto God, with much sorrow, concern
and tears, every man pronouncing his own confession with his own
mouth." A similar General Confession, but more heart searching,
{119} is also to be found in the Communion Office, to be said in
preparation for the due reception of the Sacrament. A third
Confession is also set forth in the Penitential Office and commonly
called the "Ash Wednesday Confession."

General Convention, The.--The legislative body of the American
Church which meets triennially and is composed of the Bishops and
Representatives from all the Dioceses and Missionary Jurisdictions.
The Convention is composed of two houses, (1) the House of Bishops
and (2) the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies consisting of four
Clerical and four Lay representatives from each Diocese, and one
delegate of each Order from every Missionary Jurisdiction. Both
Houses together constitute the _General Convention_. All the laws of
the Church in the United States are made by this Convention, but it
can make no alteration in the Constitution or in the Liturgy and
Offices unless the same has been adopted in one Convention, and
submitted to all the Dioceses, and afterwards adopted in another
Convention. For any measure to become a law it must be adopted by
the concurrent action of both Houses. The General Convention
provides also for the admission of New Dioceses; for Church
extension, and for the erection of Missionary Jurisdictions both
in the United States and in foreign lands, electing the Bishops for
them. The Presiding Officer is the Senior Bishop by consecration,
who presides in the House of Bishops and when both Houses meet as
one body. When the Convention is not in session he acts as the
Primate of the American Church. (See PRESIDING BISHOP.) The House
of {120} Clerical and Lay Deputies also has its President or
Presiding Officer who is chosen from among the Clerical Deputies
at each meeting of the Convention.

General Council.--(See COUNCIL, also ECUMENICAL.)

General Thanksgiving, The.--The title of one of the prayers in
Morning and Evening Prayer. It is called General as being suitable
to all men, and in contradistinction to the special Thanksgivings
to be used by request of members of the congregation for special
mercies vouchsafed.

General Theological Seminary.--An institution of learning for the
education of men for the Sacred Ministry, established by the General
Convention of the American Church, May 27th, 1817, and incorporated
April 5th, 1822. The Institution is situated in Chelsea Square, New
York City, and has a very valuable property worth; $1,081,225.42.
The endowments amount to over; $700,000. The number of students
average about 150 each year. Number of Alumni 1,800. Whole number
matriculated since 1822 about 2,300. Volumes in the Library 30,000.

Generally Necessary.--In the definition given in the Church
Catechism of Holy Baptism and the Lord's Supper, these Sacraments
are declared to be "generally necessary to salvation." From the way
many persons postpone their own Baptism, neglect the Baptism of
their children and ignore the Holy Communion, it would seem that they
think the word "generally" in the above clause, means "usually," but
not essential to religious life. This is a mistake. The word
"generally" as used when the Catechism was set forth is simply
the Anglicized form of the Latin word {121} _generaliter_, meaning
_universally_, always, absolutely necessary for every one who would
be saved, and therefore, imperative where the Sacraments may be had.

Genuflexion.--A temporary bending of the knee as distinguished from
actual kneeling; usually made towards the Altar as the symbol of
Christ's Presence.

Ghost. Ghostly.--Ghost is the old Saxon word for _spirit_ and is
still used in the Name of the Third Person of the Holy Trinity.
_Ghostly_, the adjective form of the word, has been retained in the
Prayer Book and means _spiritual_, _e_. _g_., in the Confirmation
service one of the sevenfold gifts of the Holy Ghost is called
"ghostly strength," that is, spiritual strength.

Ghost, The Holy.--(See HOLY GHOST.)

Gifts of the Holy Ghost, Sevenfold.--The gifts bestowed on the
Baptized by the Laying on of Hands in Confirmation, viz.: "the
spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and
ghostly strength, the spirit of knowledge and true godliness and
the spirit of holy fear," as enumerated in Isaiah 11:2. These gifts
may be briefly interpreted as follows:

  WISDOM, to choose the one thing needful.
  UNDERSTANDING, to know how to attain it.
  COUNSEL, the habit of asking guidance of God.
  STRENGTH, to follow where He shall lead.
  KNOWLEDGE, that we may learn to know God.
  GODLINESS, that knowing Him we may grow like Him.
  HOLY FEAR, meaning reverence and adoration.

Girdle.--A white cord to confine the alb at the {122} waist: used
at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. (See VESTMENTS.)

Girls' Friendly Society.--A Society of young women organized in the
American Church in 1877, and is a branch of a similar Society in
the Church of England. The society has for its object the spiritual
welfare of girls and young women through association and friendship
with one another. The Society has (in 1901) 16,316 members in the
United States and 4,022 associate members. A monthly magazine, the
G. F. S. A. _Record_, is published as the official organ of the
Society. Headquarters, the Church Missions House, New York City.

Gloria in Excelsis.--Meaning "Glory in the Highest," the title of
the final hymn in the Communion Office. It is called the "Greater
Doxology," and also, the "Angelic Hymn" as it is based on the song
of the angels at Christ's Birth, which forms its opening words. The
_Gloria in Excelsis_ is the oldest and most inspiring of all
Christian hymns. Its author and the time of its composition are
unknown, but it was in use in the very earliest ages of the Church
as a daily morning hymn. Its introduction into the Liturgy appears
to have been gradual. The first words of it are found in the Liturgy
of St. James, from which fact we learn that the germ of it was
evidently used in Apostolic times. It is interesting to note that in
ancient Liturgies the _Gloria in Excelsis_ was placed at the
beginning and not at the end of the Communion Office. It occupied
such a position in our own Liturgy until A.D. 1552, when it was
placed after the Thanksgiving. By the rubric permission is {123}
given to use a hymn instead of it, and this is often done during
Advent and Lent, thus reserving the _Gloria in Excelsis_ for use
in more joyous seasons such as Christmas, Easter, etc.

Gloria Patri.--Meaning "Glory to the Father," the first words of the
short anthem used after each Psalm and elsewhere in the services,
viz. "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost,
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without
end. Amen." It is often called the "Lesser Doxology." The _Gloria
Patri_ has been used in Christian worship from the beginning and is
traceable to the Baptismal formula. Its frequent use in our
services is not a vain repetition, as some suppose, but is very
devotional and helpful to increased earnestness in worship, drawing
our thoughts from man, his wants and experiences, and directing
them to the Triune God, the Author and Giver of every good and
perfect gift. Sung after the Psalms it gives to them a Christian
meaning and interpretation. In accordance with the ancient usage
_the Gloria_ is said with bowed head as an act of worship and of
faith, and is also said facing the Altar or East. (See EAST,

Gloria Tibi.--The Latin title of the words of praise sung when the
Holy Gospel is announced in the Holy Communion, viz. "Glory be to
Thee, O Lord." This _Gloria_ also comes down to us from the ancient
usage of the Church. It is said with the bowed head as an act of

Godfathers, Godmothers.--(See SPONSORS.)

Golden Number.--The Golden Number is that {124} which marks the
position of any given year in the Lunar Cycle, which is a period
of nineteen years. Meton, an Athenian philosopher, discovered that,
at the end of every such period, the new moons take place on
the same days of the months whereon they occurred before its
commencement. This discovery was considered to be so important,
it became the custom to inscribe the rule for finding the moon's
age on a tablet in _golden_ letters and placed in the market-place
at Athens; hence arose the term _Golden Number_. The Golden Number
may be found by adding one to the year of our Lord, and dividing
the sum by 19, when the remainder, if any, is the _Golden Number_.
If there be no remainder, the Golden Number is 19. _One_ is added
to the year of our Lord because the first year of the Christian era
was the second of the Cycle. The time of Easter may be found by
means of the Golden Number. (See Tables in Prayer Book.)

Good Friday.--The Last Friday in Lent on which we commemorate the
Death of our Lord. It is called Good Friday from the blessed results
of our Saviour's sufferings, for by the shedding of His own most
precious Blood He obtained eternal Redemption for us. It is the most
solemn and binding of all Fridays and should be observed as an
absolute Fast in token of our sorrow for sin, and in preparation for
the Easter Communion. All unnecessary work, all social engagements
and pleasures are especially to be avoided by all those who reverence
their Lord, and remember of what Good Friday is the solemn memorial.
It is a day of Church-going, and it will be found that the Good
Friday services are very {125} impressive, solemn and soul-stirring.
The Proper Psalms are the 22d, 40th and 54th in Morning Prayer, and
the 69th and 88th for Evening Prayer. Proper Lessons and three
special Collects, together with the Epistle and Gospel all set forth,
amid the solemnities of worship, the momentous story of the Saviour's
Passion and Death. In many places, it is usual to have in addition
to the appointed services, the "THREE HOURS SERVICE" (which see),
held from 12 M. to 3 P. M., in commemoration of our Lord's Agony on
the Cross, and consisting of special prayers and hymns with addresses
or meditations. The Holy Communion is not celebrated on Good Friday,
in accordance with the immemorial usage of the Church; only the
introductory portion of the service is used. The Altar is entirely
stripped of its hangings and ornaments, except the cross, and is
sometimes covered with black hangings. The observance of Good Friday
is inwoven into the very texture of the Christian Religion, having
been kept from the very first age of Christianity with strictest
fasting and humiliation. The mind of the Church seems always to
have been, "this day is not one of man's institution, but was
consecrated by our Lord Jesus Christ when He made it the day of His
most Holy Passion."

Good Shepherd, Sunday of.--The name given in the Western Church to
the Second Sunday after Easter. The French know it as the Sunday of
the _Bon Pasteur_. The name is suggested by the Gospel for the day
which sets forth our Lord as "the Good Shepherd," and who in the
Epistle is called the "Shepherd and Bishop of our Souls." {126}

Gospel.--The word "Gospel" is derived from the Anglo-Saxon
_Godspell_, signifying "good news"; founded originally on certain
words used by the angel in announcing the Saviour's Birth, viz.:
"Behold, I bring you _good tidings_ of great joy" (St. Luke 2:10).
The word is greatly misunderstood and frequently misapplied, the
idea seems to be that "Gospel religion," "Gospel sermons" and
"preaching the Gospel," mean certain doctrines such as individual
election, calling, justification, sanctification and the like.
These are regarded as being very Scriptural, and in accordance with
the Scriptural method. When, however, we turn to the Scriptures we
find that such doctrines are not "the Gospel" at all, but simply
deductions from it. In the New Testament the word "Gospel" is applied
_exclusively_ to the announcement of certain events, certain outward
facts connected with the Second Person in the Blessed Trinity,
namely, the Incarnation, Birth, Life, Death, Burial, Resurrection
and Ascension of the Son of God. Such was the "good tidings"
announced by the angelic choir, such is the purpose of the New
Testament Scriptures, and that Gospel religion or Gospel preaching
which brings these sublime facts to bear on the hearts and lives
of men, as living realities and guiding motives, alone can be
Scriptural and truly Gospel. This being the case, we can understand
how the Church's Year with its changing seasons of joy and penitence,
setting forth so clearly all these facts in our Lord's Life,
preaches the very Gospel of Christ and in accordance with the
Scriptural method. (See CHRISTIAN YEAR.)

Gospels, The.--The four canonical records of the {127} Life of our
Lord written by St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke and St. John. The
first three are called the "Synoptic Gospels," because they all look
at the events they describe from the same point of view; while the
standpoint of St. John is quite different. His purpose was not to
give the history of our Lord as did the other Evangelists, but to
teach the mysteries arising out of that history. For example, St.
John says nothing about the circumstances of our Lord's Birth, but
he sets forth the _mystery_ which those circumstances embraced,--the
Incarnation of the Word, or eternal Son of God. For this reason,
the Fourth Gospel is called by ancient writers a "Spiritual Gospel,"
because it contains less of historical narrative than the others
and more of Doctrine.

Gospel, The Holy.--The title given to the passage from the Gospels
read at Holy Communion, commonly called "the Gospel for the Day."
During the reading of the Holy Gospel the people are to stand as
required by the rubric. This custom is intended to show a reverent
regard to the Son of God above all other messengers.

Gospel Side.--The north side of the Altar (the left side as we face
the Altar) at which the Holy Gospel is read. (See EPISTLE SIDE.)

Gospeller.--The Priest or Deacon appointed to read the Holy Gospel
at a celebration of the Holy Eucharist, is so, called.

Government, Church.--(See EPISCOPACY.)

Gown, The Black.--An Academical gown; an official or distinctive
dress worn by students and officers of a College or University,
and also by officials of a {128} Court of Justice. It is not an
ecclesiastical garment, although it was customary during a time
of great spiritual decadence in the Church for the gown with bands
to be worn during the preaching of the sermon in the service. This,
however, has long since been given up; the surplice is more properly

Grace.--The word "grace" means a _special favor_, and is applied to
the whole obedience, merit, Passion and Death of our Lord and the
benefits that flow from them,--justification, wisdom, sanctification,
Redemption. The Church, which is the Body of Christ, is called the
_Kingdom of Grace_, for in it we become members of Christ and
partakers of His grace and heavenly benediction. The Sacraments, as
well as other ordinances, are called "means of grace," because they
are the appointed instrumentalities whereby God gives grace to His
faithful people, to help them in living faithfully and in obtaining

Gradine.--A name sometimes given to the shelf at the back of the
Altar and attached to the wall or reredos, upon which are placed
the candlesticks, flowers and other ornaments. There may be two or
more such shelves.

Gradual.--A portion of Scripture formerly sung after the Epistle
for the Day, from the steps of the Pulpit or Altar, and hence called
_Gradual_, from the Latin _gradus_, meaning a step.

Greek Church.--A name often used for the EASTERN CHURCH (which see).

Green.--One of the Church colors, and used during the Epiphany and
Trinity Seasons. (See CHURCH COLORS.) {129}

Gregorian Music.--The Gregorian tones are certain chants of peculiar
beauty and solemnity handed down to us from remote antiquity. They
are said to have been set forth in their present form by Gregory
the Great in the Sixth Century, from whom they are named. They are
numbered from _one_ to _eight_, with a few added supplementary tones
of great dignity and beauty. Each tone has various endings. Where
the Psalter is sung, the Gregorian chants are usually employed,
being sung antiphonally, but the _Glorias_ in full, that is by both
sides of the choir together.

Growth of the Church.--The course of the Episcopal Church in the
United States has been characterized by a very remarkable growth--a
growth that has attracted the attention of the Public Press, both
religious and secular. Thus the Roman Catholic _News_ said recently,
"The gains of the Episcopalians in this country, steady, onward,
undeniable, and that at the expense of the denominations called
evangelical, is one of the remarkable characteristics of our times."
The following statement appeared in _Public Opinion_: "A good
showing is made by the so-called Protestant Episcopal Church in the
United States. The general growth of the Church far exceeds,
proportionately, that of the population at large, or of any other
religious section of it in particular. It looks like the 'Church of
the future.'" This statement may be illustrated by the returns of
the last census. In the decade ending 1900 the population increased
21 per cent., while the increase of the Episcopal Church was 41 per
cent. During the preceding decade (1880-1890) the increase of
population was 24 per cent., but that of {130} the Church was 46
per cent. Before the Civil War, (in 1850) this Church had one
communicant for about every 300 of the population; in 1880 it had
one for every 148; in 1890, one for every 125, and in 1900 it had
one communicant for every 107 of the population. The comparison of
growth of this Church with other religious bodies was set forth in
a statement by the New York _Independent_, from which it appears that
the rate of increase during the period examined was for the Episcopal
Church 44 per cent.; for the Lutherans, 14; Baptists, 12; Methodists,
11; and Presbyterians, 8 per cent. In the census returns in 1850
the population of the United States was 23,847,884 and the Episcopal
Church had then only 79,987 communicants. To-day (1901) the State
of New York alone with a population of only 7,268,012 has 163,379
communicants, being about one-fourth of the population in that
State. The _Missionary Monthly_, a Presbyterian publication,
speaking of the Church in New York City, said: "The Episcopalians
far outnumber any other denomination in their membership. Their
relative growth also surpasses all others. In 1878 the Presbyterian
membership in this city was 18,704, while the Episcopalians numbered
20,984. Now the Episcopalians almost double the Presbyterians in the
matter of Church membership." These last two items refer only to
New York, but it is a well established fact that the Church is
growing rapidly in all parts of our land. To-day there is not a
State or Territory where the Episcopal Church has not its Bishop or
Bishops and body of Clergy and faithful people; even in far away
Alaska the Altar and the Cross have been set up, and the rate {131}
of increase throughout the United States is larger than that of any
other religious body in this land. Moreover, it is a striking fact
that the Episcopal Church is the only religious body in the United
States (except the Roman Catholic) which covers the entire country.

Guardian Angels.--(See HOLY ANGELS.)

Guild.--An organization or society. A name given to a society in
the Church, having for its object the welfare of the Parish to
which it belongs, or the promotion of some special church work.
Usually the purpose of a Church Guild is to bring the members
together in devotion of spirit and in cooperative work under the
direction of the Rector; and in every way to bring the full Church
system to bear on the hearts and lives of all.


Habit.--The name given to the garb worn by the clergy, _e_. _g_.,
the robes worn by a Bishop are frequently called the "Episcopal
habit"; also, the garb worn by members of a religious order, such
as the Sisters of Charity, etc.

Hades.--The Greek word for the place of departed spirits, translated
in the English Bible and, also, in the Creed by the word "Hell,"
not, however, the place of torment. (See DESCENT INTO HELL, also

Hallelujah.--A Hebrew word, meaning "Praise the Lord"; same as
ALLELUIA (which see). {132}

Heaven.--The final abode of the righteous, where after the general
Resurrection they find their perfect consummation and bliss, both
in body and soul, in God's eternal and everlasting glory.

Hell.--The final abode of the wicked and impenitent. Justin Martyr,
an ancient Father of the Church, who lived A.D. 150, describes
Hell as "a place where those are to be punished who have lived
wickedly, and who do not believe that those things which God hath
taught us by Christ will come to pass." The original Greek word
for "Hell," as the place of torment, is GEHENNA (which see).

Heresy. Heretic.--The word "heresy" is derived from a Greek word,
meaning "a choice," and is applied to doctrines or beliefs that
are contrary to Divine Revelation as witnessed to by the Holy
Catholic Church. A "Heretic" is one who prefers such false teaching
to "the Faith once delivered to the Saints." Concerning such St.
Paul says, "A man that is an heretic, after the first and second
admonition, reject" (St. Titus 3:10). The Church regards the true
Faith as of such vital importance to her life and to the life of
each individual soul, she bids us to pray in the Litany, "From all
false doctrine, _heresy_, and schism, Good Lord, deliver us."

High Celebration.--A term commonly employed to describe the solemn
midday service of the Holy Eucharist with the full adjuncts of
ritual and music. There is always a Gospeller and Epistoler in
addition to the Celebrant. The music is often of an elaborate
character and the ceremonial more imposing. It is generally reserved
for the greater Festivals. {133}

Historic Episcopate.--This is a term that came into prominence when
at the General Convention of 1886, which met in Chicago, the House
of Bishops set forth the terms which it deemed a sufficient basis
for the Reunion of Christendom. By it is meant the Ministry
preserved and perpetuated by APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION (which see, also

Historiographer.--An official custodian and compiler of historical
records pertaining to the Church, appointed by the General
Convention. Several of the Dioceses have also their appointed

Holy Angels.--The service and Ministry of the Holy Angels and their
guardianship over the sons of men is a doctrine set forth by the
Church in her beautiful service for ST. MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS DAY,
(which see). Elsewhere in the Liturgy she brings out the same great
truth. When we gather around the Altar of God in the Holy Eucharist
we do so "with angels and archangels and with all the company of
Heaven." It has always been a tradition of Christianity that "angels
attend at the ministration of Holy Baptism and at the celebration of
the Holy Communion; and that as Lazarus was the object of their
tender care, so in sickness and death they are about the bed of the
faithful and carry their souls to the Presence of Christ in

Holy Communion.--One of the two great Sacraments ordained by Christ
and generally (_i.e._, always) necessary to salvation; this being
the Sacrament of the Lord's Body and Blood. The following explanation
has been given by the Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D.: "Three names are given
to this Sacrament according {134} to the way in which it is regarded.
It is called the _Holy Communion_, because it is the means of keeping
that union with Almighty God through the Incarnation which was
commenced in our Baptism, and because thereby all the faithful are
spiritually one with each other. It is called the _Lord's Supper_
with historical reference to the time and circumstance of its
institution. It is called the _Holy Eucharist_, as being the
great act of praise and thanksgiving rendered by the Church in
acknowledgment of the blessings of Redemption. It is also called
preeminently the _Divine Liturgy_, as including and comprehending
all acts of worship and religion, and as being the first and chief
of all rites and functions; and it is both a Sacrifice and a
Sacrament. It is the great Commemorative Sacrifice of the Church,
unbloody, mystical and spiritual; accompanying the Perpetual
Oblation of Himself which our great High Priest, Jesus Christ,
makes in Heaven, where He ever liveth and intercedes for us. In
it the Passion of Christ is perpetually shown forth to the Almighty
Father, and His Priests on earth unite in the Oblation which He
makes at the Mercy Seat. It is the _Sacrament_ in which the
faithful feed upon His most Blessed Body and Blood, in a divine
mystery and after a spiritual manner, which is to be believed though
it cannot be explained. Our Lord is really present throughout the
whole of this solemn and august action, though in no carnal,
corporal or material manner." (See REAL PRESENCE.)

The Prayer Book provides that this Blessed Sacrament shall be
celebrated at least every Sunday and Holy Day for which Collect,
Epistle and Gospel are {135} provided; the only exception to this
also WORSHIP.)

Holy Days and Seasons.--(See CHRISTIAN YEAR, also articles on

Holy Ghost, The.--The Third Person of the Blessed Trinity. It is of
faith to believe that God the Holy Ghost is a Person, not simply
an influence as the vagueness of modern religionism seems to imply,
but a Person so real that sin can be committed against Him, as in
the case of Ananias who was accused of lying to the Holy Ghost
(Acts 5:3); a Person so real that He is represented as engaged in
such personal acts as teaching, testifying, guiding into all Truth,
and as interceding. The Holy Ghost is to be believed in as very and
eternal God, of one substance, majesty and glory with the Father
and the Son. He, the Comforter, having been given we are now living
under the Dispensation of the Holy Ghost. The third paragraph of the
Creed (each article of which is to be attributed to or affirmed of,
the Holy Ghost) brings out this truth and sets forth His Presence
and work in the Church. This is illustrated by the following
statement: "By being born again of water and the _Holy Ghost_ we
are made members of 'the Holy Catholic Church'; by keeping the unity
of the _Spirit_ in the bond of peace, we enjoy the 'Communion of
Saints'; through the _Holy Ghost_ we receive the 'Remission of
Sins,' first in our Baptism and afterwards in the Holy Communion
and other ordinances; it is through the _Holy Ghost_ that the Lord
shall quicken our mortal bodies in the 'Resurrection,' and by His
grace we {136} shall be enabled to give a good answer at the Judgment
Seat of Christ and so attain to the 'Life Everlasting.'" (See

Holy Innocents' Day.--A Festival of the Church observed on the third
day after Christmas, December 28th, in memory of the children of
Bethlehem, whose death Herod caused, and who have always been
regarded as the Infant Martyrs of the Christian Church, for that
"not in speaking, but in dying, have they confessed Christ." This
Feast is one of the very oldest of Holy Days, having always been
associated with the observance of Christmas.

Holy Name, The.--The name of JESUS (which see). Bishop Jeremy Taylor
says, "This is the Name which we should engrave in our hearts, and
write upon our foreheads, and pronounce with our most harmonious
accents, and rest our faith upon, and place our hopes in, and love
with the overflowings of charity and joy and adoration." An old
custom that has come down to us from the most ancient times is that
of bowing at the Holy Name of Jesus, especially in reciting the
Creed. The 18th Canon of the English Church (1604) gives the meaning
of this custom as follows: "When in time of Divine Service the Lord
Jesus shall be mentioned, _due_ and _lowly reverence_ shall be done
by all persons present, as it hath been accustomed, testifying by
these outward ceremonies and gestures their inward humility,
Christian resolution, and due acknowledgment that the Lord JESUS
CHRIST, the true and Eternal Son of God, is the only Saviour of the
world, in whom alone all mercies, graces and promises {137} of God to
mankind, for this life and the life to come, are fully and wholly

Holy Orders.--A term used to designate the Sacred Ministry, and is
expressive of the position and authority of the Ministry of the
Church. Holy Scripture as well as ancient authors and the universal
practice of the Church bear witness to the fact that Almighty God
of His Divine Providence hath appointed "divers orders" in His
Church and that these orders have always and in all places been
_three_ in number, viz., Bishops, Priests and Deacons. (See BISHOP,

Holy Table.--(See ALTAR.)

Holy Thursday.--A name commonly given to ASCENSION DAY (which see);
not to be confounded with Thursday in Holy Week, which is more
properly known as Maundy Thursday.

Holy Week.--The last week in Lent is so called and among the
ancients was known also as "The Great Week," because of the
important events in the last week in our Lord's Life which it
commemorates. It is a week of solemn and awful memories, a holy
time of deepest devotion and searchings of heart. The Church has
always kept it as such. From day to day, amid the solemnities of
worship, we follow our Lord in His Passion, live it over again, as
in Psalm and Hymn, in Proper Lessons, in Epistles and Gospels and
pleading, prayers the whole record of the Royal Reception, the final
Teachings, Betrayal, the cruel mockery, the desertion, and the
awful Agony on the Cross, the Death and the Burial of the Lord
of Life is solemnly recited as a memorial before God. Each {138} day
is significant, thus: The first day of the week, the Sixth Sunday in
Lent, is called Palm Sunday, in reference to the palms strewn in our
Lord's way on His entrance into Jerusalem; _Monday_ and _Tuesday_
witnessed the final disputations with the Jews; _Wednesday_ stands
out as the day of the Lord's Betrayal and the beginning of the events
which reached their climax on Good Friday; _Thursday_ is ever to be
remembered as the day of the Commands, first, concerning love, and
secondly, the institution of the Blessed Sacrament with its "Do this
in remembrance of Me"; _Good Friday_, the day of the Crucifixion and
Death, and _Saturday_, Easter Even, which commemorates the Descent
of our Lord's soul into Hell while His Body rested in the grave.

Homilies.--The two books of Homilies or Sermons referred to in the
XXXVth Article of Religion. The first volume was written during the
reign of Edward VI, in 1542, and the second in 1563. They treat of
such topics as "Good Works," "Repentance," "Prayer," "The number of
the Sacraments," "The Right Use of the Church," etc. The Books of
Homilies are received in the American Church so far as they are an
explication of Christian Doctrine and instructive in piety and
morals. The list of subjects treated of in the Second Book is given
in the XXXVth Article of Religion.

Hood.--An ornamental fold hanging down the back, denoting the
academical degree which the person officiating has taken in College
or University. It is made of silk, the color indicating the degree
according to the University usage. The Church of England {139} by
canon enjoins that every minister, who is a graduate, shall wear his
proper hood during the time of divine service. The hood is quite
commonly worn in the United States by both Bishops and Clergy.

Hosanna.--A Hebrew word, meaning, "Save, we beseech Thee."

Hours of Prayer.--(See CANONICAL HOURS.)

House of Bishops.--The upper House of the General Convention in
which all Diocesan, Coadjutor and Missionary Bishops have seats,
representing their own Order. The term is often used as a collective
name for all the Bishops of the American Church. (See GENERAL

House of God.--The Church building is so called because it is set
apart for the worship of God. That it is something more than a mere
lecture hall, or concert room or auditorium, as it is commonly
regarded by modern religionism will appear from the following taken
from the Annotated Prayer Book: "The Church is the _House of God_,
not man's house; a place wherein to meet with Him with the closest
approach which can be made in this life. Hence, if Jacob consecrated
with the ceremony of unction the place where God made His covenant
with him, and said of it, 'This is none other but the House of God,
and this is the Gate of Heaven'; so should our churches be set apart
and consecrated with sacred ceremonies making them holy to the Lord.
So also, because they are to be in reality, and not by a mere
stretch of the imagination, the Presence chambers of our Lord, we
must regard them as the nearest to {140} Heaven in holiness of all
places on earth by the virtue of that Presence. And lavishing all
costly material, and all earnest skill upon their first erection and
decoration, we shall ever after frequent them with a consciousness
that 'the Lord is in His holy Temple,' and that all which is done
there should be done under a sense of the greatest reverence towards

Housel.--An old English word for the Holy Eucharist. Thus an old
English canon of A.D. 960 orders every Priest "to give _housel_
(_i.e._ Holy Communion) to the sick when they need it." The word
also appears in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, in Piers Plowman,
Beaumont and Fletcher and also in Shakespeare. So, also, we find
the term _houselling cloth_, meaning a large cloth spread before
the people while receiving. The word evidently meant a _Sacrifice_.

Humble Access, Prayer of.--The name given to the beautiful prayer
offered in great humility just before the Consecration in the Holy
Communion, beginning, "We do not presume," etc. The words are taken
from the most ancient Liturgies.

Hymn Board.--A tablet to which the numbers of the hymns to be sung
at any service are affixed, and which is placed in a conspicuous
place for the greater convenience and guidance of the congregation.
The purpose of the Hymn Board is to do away with the custom of
announcing the day of the month and the hymns, but this is not
generally carried out in practice.

Hymnal, The.--As the Church has a book for her _Common Prayer_, so
also she has a book for her _Common Praise_, and this is known as
THE HYMNAL. The {141} Hymnal as it now stands was set forth by the
action of the General Convention of 1892, and is the outgrowth of
much study, many changes and a great deal of legislation since the
time when there was bound up with the Prayer Book a few hymns for
congregational use. The present imposing volume has 679 hymns drawn
from almost every source and age, and, no doubt, meets every need
and requirement.

Hymns.--The first hymn mentioned in the annals of Christianity was
that sung by the angels at the Birth of our Lord, from which we have
the _Gloria in Excelsis_, and the second was that sung by our Lord
and His Apostles immediately after the Last Supper in the upper
room, known as the _Hallel_. In early times anything sung to the
praise of God was called a hymn. Afterwards the use of the term
became more restricted. Pliny shows that in the year 62 the
Christians instituted a custom of meeting together before sunrise
to sing hymns of praise. Melody only was used, not harmony, and
the tunes employed were, doubtless, of Jewish character. Originally
all music of the Christian Church was almost entirely vocal. In the
Third and Fourth Centuries the Christian Religion began to grow
largely in the number of its followers, in wealth and position;
magnificent churches were built under Constantine the Emperor, and
then it came to pass that choirs were instituted definitely by the
Council of Laodicea, A.D. 367. For two centuries the music of the
Church deteriorated. In the Sixth Century Gregory the Great
instituted many reforms, so that the credit of reviving real
congregational singing belonged to him. (See GREGORIAN MUSIC.) The
{142} connection of religion with music is shown by the fact that
nearly every great revival of religion has been accompanied by a
great outburst of song. Beginning with the Reformation, the form
of hymn, called _chorale_, originated in the reformed Church of
Germany and largely with Martin Luther. The most popular part in
congregational singing was the singing of hymns and there have been
three successive styles in hymn-tunes. The first was the diatonic;
the second the florid (from 1730 to 1840), and the third the modern
style (from 1840 to the present time). This modern style is in some
respects a return to the old style of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries, with this distinction, that the harmonies instead of
being pure diatonic are more chromatic and less plain. (See MUSIC,
also ORGANS.)

Hypothetical Form.--(See BAPTISM, CONDITIONAL.)


Ichthus.--The Greek word for FISH (which see).

I. H. S.--The first three letters of the Greek word for JESUS, and
equivalent to the English letters J. E. S. They are largely used
in Church decorations as symbols of the Holy Name.

Immersion.--The dipping into the water of recipients of Holy
Baptism. For the relative importance of _Immersion_ and _Affusion_,
see article on AFFUSION.

Immovable Feasts.--Those Feasts of the Church which always occur on
the same date such as {143} Christmas Day, Feast of the Epiphany,
etc. As some of the Feasts, such as Ascension Day, Whitsun Day,
etc., are movable depending on the time Easter is kept. Tables and
Rules for the Movable and Immovable Feasts are set forth in the
Prayer Book for convenience and to avoid confusion. (See CHRISTIAN

Imposition of Hands.--A technical term for the _Laying on of Hands_
by the Bishop in Confirmation. Wheatley on the Prayer Book remarks:
"This is one of the most ancient ceremonies in the world. It has
always been used to determine the blessing pronounced to those
particular persons on whom the hands are laid, and to signify that
the persons, who thus lay on their hands, act and bless by divine
authority. Thus Jacob blessed Ephraim and Manasses, not as a parent
only, but as a prophet. Moses laid his hands on Joshua, by express
command from God, and as supreme Minister over his people; and thus
our Blessed Lord laid His Hands upon little children and blessed
them, and upon those that were sick and healed them. . . . And the
Apostles, from so ancient a custom and universal a practice,
continued the rite of _Imposition of Hands_ for communicating the
Holy Spirit in Confirmation, which was so constantly and regularly
observed by them, that St. Paul calls the whole office, _Laying on
of Hands_," and it may be added one of the first "principles of the
Doctrine of Christ" (Hebrews 6:1 and 2).

This term also refers to the Laying on of Hands by the Bishop in
Ordination to the Sacred Ministry, by which is conferred the grace
of Holy Order, and one {144} is admitted to the Office and work of
a Deacon, of Priest or Bishop, "which Offices were evermore had in
such reverend estimation, that no man might presume to execute any
of them except he were first called, tried, examined and known to
have such qualities as are requisite for the same; and also by
public Prayer, with _Imposition of Hands_, were approved and admitted
thereunto by lawful Authority." (Preface to Ordinal in Prayer Book.)

Incarnation, The.--A Latinized name for the act by which the Second
Person of the Blessed Trinity, God's Only Son, the Eternal "Word
was made Flesh," _i.e._, took our nature upon Him; and also for
the Doctrine that "the Godhead and Manhood were joined together in
one Person never to be divided" (II Article of Religion). This
truth is embodied for us in the Creed, in the words, "Jesus Christ,
His Only Son our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, Born of
the Virgin Mary." This great outward fact is the foundation of all
that follows: upon it Christianity depends and all Christian Doctrine
has reference to it. By reason of the Incarnation the Church as a
living Body becomes Christ's Body on earth, and in the Church and
by means of it man is brought into union with Him who is the
beginning of a new race, the Head of a new and spiritual creation.
Thus it is that the Sacraments, which are often called the
"Extension of the Incarnation," become more than they seem. They
are the means of our participation in Christ's Holy Humanity, and
of our growing into His likeness, as we use them with faith and
true repentance. {145}

Incense.--Incense is one of the Six Points of Ritual which it is
claimed have always characterized the worship of the Christian
Church. It was the practice of the Church of England up to the
Reformation, and even after that was frequently used. It is used in
many Churches at the present time. It is more of a Scriptural usage
than a Roman use, and while there is no canon or enactment forbidding
its use, yet in the present state of our Church life it is not
likely to become a very popular restoration for some time to come.

Incumbent.--A term peculiar to the English Church but frequently
used in this country to designate the Rector of a Parish. The word
means one who holds or is in possession of any office; it occurs
in the Institution Office.

Infant Baptism.--If the Church were simply a voluntary society
founded on the Bible, as is commonly supposed, there would be no
special reason why Infants should be baptized, except as a matter
of sentiment. If, on the other hand, the Church is a Divine
Institution, founded on Christ and His Apostles, and is declared
in Holy Scripture to be the Mystical Body of Christ, in which we
are united to Him, admitted into covenant with God and so brought
into a new relationship with God, then _Infant Baptism_ is not only
one of the most reasonable, but one of the most urgent doctrines of
the Christian Religion, because it is in Holy Baptism that all these
blessings are vouchsafed to us. (See BAPTISM, HOLY.) By this
Sacrament the youngest infant is lifted up, so to speak, out of the
world of nature and transplanted into {146} Christ's spiritual
kingdom. It becomes thus a child of grace. Its little life is made
right with God. The old evil of our race has been rectified. It is
henceforth not only a child of Adam, but also a child, or member of
the second Adam, Jesus our Lord. By its new Birth in Holy Baptism,
the child becomes as fully incorporated into the new and spiritual
race of which Christ is the Head, as ever it was incorporated into
the race of mankind by its natural birth. It may not be conscious of
this, any more than it was conscious of its natural birth, but it
has, nevertheless, made a right beginning through the thoughtful care
of others. It has, by this ministration, been grafted into the Body
of Christ. It has been put in the way of true spiritual growth and
training. Henceforth it may be brought up as "the child of God" and
not as an alien. To this end the church gives it spiritual
caretakers, whose duty it is to see that this child is virtuously
brought up to lead a Godly and a Christian life according to this
beginning. This is the meaning of _Infant Baptism_; and the Church
has always regarded such Baptism as a reasonable and benevolent
work, as is exemplified by her universal practice from the beginning.
The "Mercy to Babes" in the Old Dispensation has not been lost out
of the New, the Dispensation of the Spirit of love, which brings to
all, even to the _infant_, as well as to its parents, God's mercy
which "He promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seed
forever." (See NAME, THE CHRISTIAN.)

Inhibit.--Meaning to restrain or prohibit the exercise of the Sacred
Ministry; a discipline exercised by a Bishop for cause. {147}

Innocents, The.--(See HOLY INNOCENTS' DAY.)

I. N. R. I.--The initials of the Latin version of the accusation
placed over our Lord's Head on the Cross, viz.: "Jesus Nazarenus
Rex Judaeorum," and meaning "Jesus of Nazareth (the) King of (the)
Jews." These letters are often used in Church decoration.

Institution, Letter of.--(See INSTITUTION, OFFICE OF.)

Institution, Office of.--The service in the Prayer Book entitled,
"An Office of Institution of Ministers into Parishes or Churches."
Canon 18, Title I of the Digest requires "that on the election of a
Minister into any Church or Parish, the Vestry shall notify the
Bishop of such election, in writing; and if the Minister be a Priest,
the Bishop may, if requested by the Vestry to do so, institute him
according to the Office established by this Church." If the
institution is to take place, the Bishop issues an official letter,
called, "The Letter of Institution," in which he gives and grants
unto the duly elected Rector his license and authority to perform
the Office of a Priest in the parish, stating name and place. The
Rector is then duly instituted according to the service set forth,
either by the Bishop himself, or by a Priest appointed by him, in
which the Letter of Institution is read; God's blessing invoked on
the newly appointed Rector and his work; the keys of the Church are
given him by the Wardens; a sermon is preached on the duties of
Pastor and People by some one appointed by the Bishop, and the Holy
Eucharist is celebrated by the newly instituted Minister. After the
Benediction, it is directed that, the Wardens, Vestry and others
shall {148} salute and welcome him, bidding him Godspeed. By the
wording of the Canon this service is not obligatory and adds nothing
to the contract or agreement already made between the Minister and
Vestry. The service, therefore, is not often used, although it would
be desirable that every Pastorate should be thus inaugurated.

Institution, Words of.--The words used by our Blessed Lord when He
instituted the Sacrament of His Body and Blood, and which are
incorporated in the Prayer of Consecration as set forth in the
Communion Service. These words form the essential part of the
Consecration and the rubric directs that they be accompanied by
certain manual acts which are prescribed. (See MANUAL ACTS.) To
effect a valid Sacrament there must be the unfailing use of our
Lord's own words in instituting the Blessed Sacrament, the elements
of bread and wine, and a duly appointed Priesthood.

Instruction.--The name given to a short, practical address, generally
on some usage, feature or doctrine of the Church, as distinguished
from the more formal sermon.

Intercessions of the Litany.--Those petitions in the Litany which
have for their response the words, "We beseech Thee to hear us,
Good Lord," are so called. (See LITANY.)

Intermediate State.--Death is a separation of the soul and body; the
body becoming lifeless and eventually decomposing into dust, the
soul continuing to live as truly as ever. What becomes of the living
soul when thus separated from the body by death? {149}

"Our Lord," says the Rev. J. H. Blunt, "has answered this question
to a certain extent by the Parable of Lazarus and the Rich Man (St.
Luke 16:19-31). By that Parable He has taught us that the living
souls of the departed live in a condition of happiness or misery
suitable to the judgment which the all-seeing eye of God has passed
upon their lives; the good Lazarus at rest in 'Abraham's Bosom,' the
wicked Dives 'in torments.' At the same time our Lord has clearly
revealed by His own words and those of His Apostles that there will
be a general judgment at the last day, when all, good and bad, will
have to stand before the Throne of God, not as bodiless souls, but
with soul and body. And further, the Book of Revelation follows up
the words of Christ and His Apostles with some very distinct
disclosures as to the _increased_ happiness of the good and the
_increased_ misery of the wicked after the final and open award of
the Judge has been given in the general Judgment. The separate
existence of the soul between death and the Judgment Day is,
therefore, called the _Intermediate State_!" (See HADES, also DESCENT

Intonation.--The first two or three notes of a Gregorian chant
introducing the recitative note; usually sung without the organ, by
one of the Clergy or choir who is called the Cantor or Precentor.

Intone.--To recite or chant on one note with inflections of the
voice at stated places, according to certain rules. The Minister
intones the prayers, Epistle, Gospel, etc. Anciently the entire
service was musically rendered, the Scriptures having their own
peculiar intonation and inflections, the ordinary reading {150} tone
being altogether excluded. This practice has been strictly adhered
to in many of the English Cathedrals from the most ancient times to
the present. In many parishes the services are also musically
rendered, the Clergy intoning the prayers, the responses being sung
by the congregation. The custom is growing in favor as an inspiring
and Scriptural method of rendering the services. (See EVENSONG.)

Introit.--The Psalm which is sung while the Clergy are entering the
Sanctuary for the celebration of the Holy Communion. Its literal
meaning is _The Entrance_. Formerly the Introit was appointed for
every celebration of the Holy Communion as well as Collect, Epistle
and Gospel. In the first Prayer Book of Edward VI, the Introits
were all printed before the Collect. Some of these are selected
with a "striking appropriateness to the days for which they are
appointed and show a deep appreciation of the prophetic sense of
Holy Scripture." They are not often used at the present time as
Hymns have been generally substituted, since the omission of the
Introits from the Prayer Book.

Invitatory.--The name given to the _Venite_ (O come let us sing,
etc.) as being an invitation to the use of the Psalms in worship.
This Psalm, the 95th, has been so named and used since the time of
the Temple Worship at Jerusalem.

Invocation, The.--The words, "In the Name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost," used before sermons, is so called; to
which the people respond "Amen." This is a very ancient usage, and
founded on the belief that so important a work as {151} "preaching
the Word" should be done in the Name of the Lord. The _Invocation_
is the name given also to the third paragraph of the Prayer of
Consecration in the Communion Office, in which the Merciful Father
is invoked that He may "vouchsafe to bless and sanctify with Thy
Word and Holy Spirit, these Thy gifts and creatures of bread and
wine, that we, receiving them according to Thy Son our Saviour Jesus
Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of His Death and Passion,
may be partakers of His most blessed Body and Blood."


James (St.) The Great.--One of the Apostles of our Lord, whose
Festival is observed on July 25th, St. James was the brother of St.
John and the son of Zebedee and Salome. With St. John he received
the appellation of "Boanerges" from our Lord. He has also been
surnamed the _Great_ or the _Greater_ by the Church, but neither of
these designations can be satisfactorily accounted for. St. James
was the first of the Apostles who suffered martyrdom and the only
one whose death is recorded in the New Testament (Acts 12:1). In
ecclesiastical art St. James is variously represented as a pilgrim
with staff; with staff and shell; as a child with staff and wallet
with shell upon it; on a white charger conquering the Saracens;
this last with reference to his being regarded as the Patron Saint
of Spain, Santiago, "St. Iago of Compostella." {152}

James (St.) The Less.--The son of Cleophas, or Alphaeus and Mary,
and brother of Thaddaeus or St. Jude. He was one of the Twelve
Apostles and the writer of the Epistle which bears his name. St.
James was the first Bishop of Jerusalem and was put to death there,
at the Passover A.D. 62, in a popular commotion, probably caused
by the publication of his Epistle. He is commemorated on the double
Festival of St. Philip and St. James, observed on May 1; these two
Apostles having been associated together in the most ancient
calendars, although in other calendars they were commemorated on
different days. In ecclesiastical art St. James the Less is
represented with a fuller's club in his hand; as a child with palm
branch; a saw in his hand, etc.

Jesus.--The human Name of our Lord, given to Him at His circumcision
and meaning _Saviour_. The name _Jesus_ was by no means an uncommon
name among the Jews. It is in the Greek what _Joshua_ is in Hebrew,
who is twice called in the New Testament _Jesus_, as in Acts 7:45
and Heb. 4:8. In both these passages the word Jesus means Joshua,
having reference to his work as a leader and deliverer of Israel.
So also we meet with Jesus the Son of Sirach, who wrote the book
Ecclesiasticus. St. Paul speaks of one Jesus who was called Justus
(Col. 4:11), and in Acts 13:6, we read of "a certain sorcerer, a
false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar-Jesus," _i.e._, son of
Jesus. Josephus mentions many of the same name. Thus our Lord took
a common name, but a Name which henceforth was to be above every

As the Name _Jesus_ is the same as Joshua, its {153} significance may
be learned from its derivation. Joshua the son of Nun was first
called _Oshea_, but Moses changed it to Jehoshea, (contracted to
Joshua) from _Jah_, (Jehovah) and Oshea, Saviour, and meaning, "He
by whom _God will save_ His people from their enemies." Thus Joshua
was a type of the spiritual Saviour of the world. The name as borne
by our Lord means "God our Saviour," as the angel declared, "for He
shall save His people from their sins." The ancient prophecy that
He should be called "_Emmanuel_, God with us," was fulfilled when
our Lord was called JESUS. When then we profess our belief in JESSU
as we do in the Creed, it is as if we said, "I believe that JESUS,
in the highest and utmost importance of that Name, to be the Saviour
of the world. I acknowledge there is no other way to Heaven beside
that which He has shown us; there is no other means which can
procure it for us but His Blood; there is no other person who shall
confer it on us but Himself. And with this full acknowledgment I
_believe_ in JESUS." (See HOLY NAME.)

John Baptist, Saint.--The forerunner of our Lord who was sent to
prepare the way for His coming. He was miraculously born of Zacharias
and Elizabeth, both being "old and well-stricken in years." Although
he suffered martyrdom, he is commemorated on the day of his
Nativity, as his birth heralded the Incarnation. The Festival of the
Nativity of St. John Baptist has been observed since the fourth or
fifth century on June 24th, as this was undoubtedly the day of his
birth, since he was six months older than our Lord. This date, also,
is supposed to be {154} connected with his words, "He must increase,
but I must decrease." The days after June 24th begin to decrease in
length, but after the Christmas Tide they begin to increase. St.
John was beheaded by Herod Antipas, when he was about thirty years
old. He was a Prophet, the greatest of all--the last Prophet of the
Old Dispensation and the first of the New, and our Lord declared
that among all previously born of women none was greater than John
the Baptist. In ecclesiastical art St. John Baptist is variously
represented, with a lamb on a book, small cross, close crown or cap;
with tunic of camel's hair; cope fastened with two leather thongs
crossed; with lamb and locust; his head on a dish.

John Evangelist, Saint.--Commemorated on the second day after
Christmas, December 27th. St. John was the son of Zebedee and Salome
and brother of St. James the Great. The sons of Zebedee were,
doubtless, among the first called of our Lord's disciples and St.
John was from the first among those nearest and dearest to our Lord.
Not only was he one of the Twelve Apostles but he was one of the
three chosen witnesses of our Lord's greatest glory and humiliation
on earth, viz.: in His Transfiguration, and the Agony in Gethsemane.
He delights to call himself "the disciple whom Jesus loved." He lay
on Jesus' bosom at the Paschal Supper and to him the Lord committed
the care of His own mother when He died. St. John "is known to the
affection of the Church as the Apostle of love, and to her intellect
as the _Theologos_, the Divine." Besides his Gospel he wrote the
three Epistles bearing his name and the Revelation. St. {155} John is
said to have spent the later years of his life at Ephesus, and is the
only one of the Apostles who died a natural death. He died at the
age of 100, having been born the same year as our Lord. In the
Emblems of the four Evangelists (See EMBLEMS) the eagle is always
allowed to represent St. John, and most fitly, "for like the eagle
he soars high above the earth basking in the pure sunlight of
Divine Truth."

Joining the Church.--This is a phrase that has been brought over
from the usage and phraseology of the various denominations. Its use
among Church people has been productive of the greatest harm. In the
first place, it is hardly a correct phrase for a Churchman to use.
We may "join" an Odd Fellows' lodge or a debating society, but we do
not _join_ a family or household which God's Church is. We are born
or adopted into a family, and so we are adopted into God's family;
incorporated, grafted into the Body of Christ, His Church, and not
simply "join" it as we would a debating society or a political club.

In the next place, harm has been done by the use of this phrase by
Church people, because as popularly understood it is in direct
contradiction to the belief and practice of the Church. According to
this phraseology Holy Baptism counts for nothing, and yet the Bible
teaches that it is in Holy Baptism that we are made members of
the Church, and that all future blessings are dependent on this
spiritual fact. When then, Church people take up this mode of speech
and use it in reference to Confirmation as is so often done, they
practically ignore the significance of Holy Baptism and the Church's
method and appointed order. {156}

The effect of this becomes apparent in the lives of many of the
Church's baptized children. Because, in whatever religious teaching
they receive, their Baptism is never referred to, and they are never
reminded that they are _now_ God's children by adoption and grace
_because baptized_, it comes to pass that, when these same children
are asked to be confirmed, they think and act as if they were
invited to "join the Church." And as they are more influenced by the
speech and methods of the various religious bodies which prevail in
their community than they are by the Church's teaching, they imagine
that something extraordinary is required; they feel as if they must
somehow "have got" religion; or they do not feel prepared to
"experience religion"; or else they don't know whether they will or
will not "join the Episcopal Church." In all this we see the result
of the application and use of "other systems" rather than that of
the Church. Thus many an earnest and loving young heart has been
lost to the Church, notwithstanding it was given to God in its
tenderest years to be trained up for Him. Confirmation is not
"joining the Church." If we are baptized, we have been "received
into Christ's Holy Church and made a living member of the same." And
because this is true, the Church has a further Blessing in store
for her children. This she would bestow by the ministrations of her
chief Pastors in the Laying on of Hands by the Bishop; and to this
our young people might go naturally and easily and at the same time
soberly and reverently, if they were properly instructed and lovingly
led. There is no reason why {157} any young baptized person might
not thus go to his or her Confirmation, claiming this Blessing as
their right and privilege as children of God and citizens of His

Jubilate Deo.--The Latin title of the One Hundredth Psalm,
translated "O be joyful in the Lord," and which is sung as an
alternate to the _Benedictus_ when the latter occurs in the Lesson
for the day.

Jude, Saint.--Also called Thaddaeus or Labbaeus, "the brother of
James," and whose name sometimes appears as _Judas_, and in one
instance it is added in parenthesis, "not Iscariot." St. Jude was
an Apostle of our Lord and wrote the Epistle which bears his name.
He is sometimes called the Jeremiah of the New Testament, as he
wrote to the Church in "solemn and rugged language of present perils
and coming storms." The object of his Epistle is to contend
earnestly for pure Christian doctrine, and it is he who has given
us that stirring text which is adopted as a motto by all true and
loyal Churchmen, viz.: "that ye should earnestly contend for the
Faith which was once delivered to the Saints." He is said to have
been married and to have left descendants who were summoned before
the Emperor Domitian as confessors for Christ's sake. St. Jude is
commemorated on the double Festival of St. Simon and St. Jude,
observed on October 28th. It may be that the union of these two
names is intended to be an illustration of that unity of the Faith
for which the Epistle of St. Jude so strongly contends, as these
two Apostles ministered and suffered together, (See SIMON, ST.) The
Collect {158} for the Day embodies this idea. In ecclesiastical art
St. Jude is variously represented, as having a boat in his hand; a
boat hook; a carpenter's square; a ship with sails in his hand;
carrying loaves or a fish; with a club; with an inverted cross; with
a medallion of our Saviour on his breast or in his hand; with a
halbert; as a child with a boat in his hand.

Jurisdiction, Episcopal.--By this term is meant the sphere of a
Bishop's rule or ministration. This is defined in Article 4 of the
Constitution adopted by the General Convention which provides, "and
every Bishop of this Church shall confine the exercise of his
Episcopal Office to _his proper Diocese_, unless requested to
ordain, or confirm, or perform any other act of the Episcopal Office
in another Diocese by the Ecclesiastical Authority thereof."

Jurisdiction, Missionary.--A portion of a State or Territory set
apart for the missionary work of the American Church, to the
oversight of which a Missionary Bishop has been appointed, is so
called. The term Missionary Jurisdiction is also applied to the
foreign field where a Missionary Bishop has been appointed to the
exercise of Episcopal functions in any missionary station which the
House of Bishops with the concurrence of the House of Deputies may
have designated.

Jurisdiction, Resignation of.--Sometimes it happens that a Bishop
from old age, or sickness, or other cause desires to resign his
Episcopal Jurisdiction. To do this, he must gain the consent of the
House of Bishops. The canons on this subject are very stringent and
make it difficult for a Bishop to resign. The {159} teaching of the
Church is that "a Bishop is bound to his Diocese for life," and
therefore, she is very reluctant that the relationship should be
broken or interfered with except for great and necessary cause; on
which ground alone the resignation is permitted.

Justification.--A theological word used to designate the forgiveness
of the sinner and his restoration to a right relationship with God.
The cause of Justification may be given as follows:

  THE PRINCIPAL CAUSE.--God's mercy.
  THE MERITORIOUS CAUSE.--Christ's death.
  THE EFFICIENT CAUSE.--The operation of the Holy Ghost.
  THE INSTRUMENTAL CAUSE ON GOD'S SIDE.--The Ministry of the Word,
    Baptism and the Holy Communion.
  THE INSTRUMENTAL CAUSE ON MAN'S SIDE.--Faith which works by love.


Kalendar.--The same as CALENDAR (which see).

Keys of the Church.--To the Rector belongs the control of the keys
of the Church building, and this because he alone can determine what
services shall be held in it. If he chooses he can hold services
every day; he can celebrate the Holy Eucharist every day or as often
as he thinks best, and no one can interfere with him. He has
charge of the spiritualities of the Parish and in this he is left
absolutely free, being amenable to his Bishop only. The Vestry have
nothing to do in determining what use the Rector shall {160} make of
the Church building in carrying out the provisions of the Prayer
Book. The Office of Institution recognizes this right in that one of
its provisions is that "then shall the Senior Warden (or the member
of the Vestry supplying his place) present the keys of the Church to
the new Incumbent, saying, In the name and behalf of------Parish
[or Church] I do receive and acknowledge you, the Reverend, (name)
as Priest and Rector of the same; and in token thereof, give into
your hands the _keys of the Church_."

Keys, Power of the.--A phrase used in reference to the discipline
of the Church which our Lord has intrusted to the Bishops and
Pastors of the Flock as "ministers and stewards of His grace." This
phrase involves the doctrines of Absolution and Excommunication;
the idea of opening and shutting, admission and rejection, and the
administration of the Sacraments. In Holy Scripture, the "Power of
the Keys" is called a "binding and loosing"; also a "remitting and
retaining of sin," having reference to the authority to admit into
communion with the Church or to exclude therefrom. (See St. Matt.
16:19; 18:18; and St. John 20:23.)

Kindred, Table of.--A table set forth in the Prayer Book of the
Church of England, with the title, "Table of Kindred and Affinity,
wherein whosoever are related are forbidden in Scripture and in our
laws to marry together." While this Table is not published in the
American Prayer Book, it is regarded by many American canonists as
the law of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. It
is interesting to note that this Table is (or at least was until a
few {161} years ago) embodied in the Statutes of the State of
Maryland, and that in some other States there are laws forbidding
the marriage of first cousins.

Kingdom of God.--The New Testament name for the Church. St. Matthew
uses the phrase, "kingdom of heaven," while the other Evangelists
employ the term, "kingdom of God," both being equivalent terms
meaning the same thing, viz.: the kingdom of Christ on earth, the
kingdom of the Gospel, the Church of Christ. This is, indeed, a
heavenly and divine kingdom, for though it is now set up on earth
yet its nature, its purpose, its powers and its ends are "of
heaven." That this phrase is used to signify the Church on earth
can be seen most plainly in the various parables in which our Lord
likens the "kingdom of heaven" to such things as of necessity belong
to the present time. See the parables in St. Matt. 13; also in St.
Mark 4:26-32. The Gospel which our Lord delivered to man is not an
abstract Gospel, but "the Gospel of the kingdom ":--see St. Matt.
4:23; 9:35; 24:14; St. Mark 1:14; St. Luke 4:43; 9:2; 10:9; 16:16;
Acts 1:13; 8:12; 19:8; 20:25; 28:23 and 31. From these and many
other passages we learn that our Lord embodied His Truth and
Salvation in an _Institution_ which should be the means of its
preservation, the instrument of its promulgation throughout the
world, and into which men are admitted by Holy Baptism to become
partakers of His Salvation. This truth appears constantly in the
Bible and is the basis of its appeals to live righteously and
godly in this present world. As an example of this see Col. 1:12
and 13. {162}

Kissing the Stole.--The stole represents the yoke of Christ, and
the Priest in recognition of that yoke and of his vows, kisses the
stole each time he puts it on to show his willingness to submit to
that yoke.

Kneeling.--The most fitting posture in which prayer is to be offered
to God. Our blessed Lord Himself by His own example has taught us
this. In regard to kneeling in Public Worship, the Annotated Prayer
Book has this note: "The gesture of kneeling is not only a mark of
personal humility and reverence, but also one of those acts required
of every one as an individual component part of the body which forms
the congregation. To neglect it, is to neglect a duty which is owing
to God and man in this respect as well as the other. We have no
right to conspicuous private gestures in a public devotional
assembly; nor are the gestures which we use (in conformity to the
rules of the Church) to be necessarily interpreted as hypocritical
because our personal habits or feelings may not be entirely
consistent with them. As the Clergy have an official duty in Church,
irrespective of their personal characters, so also have the Laity.
It may be added that a respectful conformity to rules enjoining such
official duties, may often lead onward to true personal reverence
and holiness."

Kyrie.--The Greek title of the responses after the Ten Commandments
in the Communion Office. _Kyrie_ means "Lord," and taken with the
Greek word _eleison_, they form the first words of the response
"Lord, have mercy." {163}


Lady Day.--The English popular name for the FEAST OF THE
ANNUNCIATION (which see).

Laity.--Derived from the Latin _Laicus_, Greek _Laikos_, from _Laos_,
meaning "people." The word means of, or pertaining to the People as
distinguished from the Clergy. The term was first used in the second
century. It ought to be noticed that the term Laity, or Layman does
not mean the mere absence of rank, but denotes a positive order in
the Church. The word is the equivalent of "brethren," as we read in
the Acts of the Apostles, of the first Church Council which issued
the first pastoral letter, which begins "The Apostles and Elders
and _brethren_ send greeting" (Acts 15:23). When in our Conventions
or Councils the vote by orders is called for, the Clergy vote by
themselves and the Laity by themselves; in this we have an
illustration of the Laity as an order in the Church.

Lamb and Flag.--A symbolical representation of our Blessed Lord,
used in Church decorations. The lamb is the chief emblem of our
Saviour who was called by St. John Baptist, "the Lamb of God that
taketh away the sins of the world." The lamb is represented with a
nimbus or glory of four rays, one partly concealed by the head. The
rays are marks of divinity and belong only to our Lord. The lamb
bearing a flag or banner signifies Victory, and is an emblem of the
Resurrection. This symbolism is appropriately used at Easter. {164}

Lambeth Conference.--The name given to the assemblage of the Bishops
of the Anglican Communion on the invitation of the Bishop of
Canterbury, and held in Lambeth Palace. The first meeting was held
in 1867; the second in 1878; the third in 1888, and the fourth in
1897; the Bishops thus coming together every ten years for mutual
counsel and advice concerning the great work of the Anglican
Communion throughout the world. As many as two hundred Bishops have
thus come together in conference, at one time.

Lammas Day.--The old name given to the first day of August because
on that day in Anglo-Saxon times it was the custom to bring into
the Church offerings in kind, loaves, representing the first-fruits,
of the harvest. The word "Lammas" is derived from the Anglo-Saxon
word _hlafmaesse_, _hlaf_ meaning a loaf, and _maesse_ meaning
"mass." As the first of August in old Calendars was the Feast of St.
Peter-in-chains, it is also supposed that _Lammas_ is an abbreviation
of _Vincula Mass_, or the Feast of St. Peter _ad vincula_ in
commemoration of his deliverance from chains.

Last Things, the Four.--These are Death, Judgment, Heaven, Hell.
(See ESCHATOLOGY.) These subjects being so very solemn in their
import, they are frequently taken as topics of instruction or of
sermons during the Advent Season, when our thoughts are turned to
the contemplation of our Lord's second coming "in His glorious
Majesty to judge both the quick and the dead."

Lauds.--One of the seven CANONICAL HOURS (which see). {165}

Lay Baptism.--Baptism administered by a layman. The Church has always
held that Baptism by any man in case of necessity is valid. But only
great necessity, such as sudden danger or sickness and the inability
to secure the services of a clergyman, should be just cause for
baptism by a layman, and then great care should be taken that the
proper form and words are used. (See BAPTISM, HOLY.) It is well to
note that when Holy Baptism is administered by one who is not a
Clergyman _without such necessity_ as mentioned above, the person
baptizing is guilty of a great sin, even though his act may bring a
blessing to the person baptized. His act cannot be undone, but it
ought not to have been done.

Layman.--One of the LAITY (which see).

Lay-Reader.--A layman who reads the Church service in the absence
of the Priest. Usually he is licensed to do so by the Bishop of the
Diocese. The American Church has a canon on the subject, setting
forth the method of appointment and regulating his work, from which
it is learned that the lay-reader is very much limited in the
service he renders being permitted to use only those portions of
the service which do not belong properly to the Ministry. When the
Priest is present a laymen may read the Lessons in the Daily Morning
and Evening Prayer, and also the Litany as far as the Lord's Prayer.

Laying on of Hands.--The ceremony by which one is ordained to the
Sacred Ministry by the Bishop, and by which he administers the Rite
of Confirmation, (See IMPOSITION OF HANDS.) {166}

Lectern.--The desk or stand from which the Scriptural Lessons in
Church are read, and is so called from this fact. The term "lectern"
is derived from the Latin word _lecturni_, meaning a pulpit or from
the Greek _lektron_, a couch or rest for a book. Lecterns as used
in our churches are sometimes constructed of wood or stone,
but frequently of polished brass, in the form of an eagle with
outstretched wings, (on which the Bible rests) to symbolize the
flight of the Gospel message throughout the world.

Lectionary.--The Tables to be found in the Prayer Book setting forth
the portions of Scripture to be read daily in Public Worship
throughout the year, also the Proper Lessons for Sundays and the
Holy Days of the Church. The word is derived from the Latin _lectus_,
from _lego_, to gather, to read. From this origin we have the word
_lection_, meaning a reading or lesson read; he who reads was called
_lector_, a name given to one of the minor orders in the ancient
Church. _The Lectionary_ as found in the Prayer Book contains most
ample provision for the reading of God's Holy Word. By this
appointment the Old Testament is read once during the year, and
some portions of it more frequently. The New Testament is read
three times, while the Book of Psalms is read twelve times or once
a month. No other religious body makes so large provision for the
public reading of the Scriptures, and the Episcopal Church has been
appropriately called a "Bible Reading Church." The Lectionary as it
now stands was set forth by the General Convention of 1883, being a
revision of the old Lectionary which had been in use since 1789, the
time of the first {167} setting forth of the American Prayer Book.

Lent, The Season of.--The word "Lent" has no special significance
save only as it designates the time of the Fast before Easter. The
word is derived from the Anglo-Saxon _lencten_, meaning the spring
season. From this we learn that the _Lenten Fast_ means simply the
Fast that comes in the spring of the year. It was appointed at this
time for the reason that our Lord's Passion and Death occurred at
this time of the year and these devotions of the faithful grouped
themselves around that sad hour on Calvary. At first, the Fast may
not have extended over the Paschal Week, but it was arranged at a
very early period to cover the forty days preceding Easter. Beginning
with Ash Wednesday the Lenten Season really covers a period of
forty-six days, but as Sunday has always been regarded as a Feast,
these six Sundays are not counted as belonging to the Fast. (See
LENT, SUNDAYS in.) There can be no great difficulty in assigning a
reason for this solemnity to be kept for forty days. For many
reasons "Forty" is a Scriptural number. _Forty_ years the children of
Israel were under discipline in their pilgrimage in the wilderness.
Moses fasted _forty_ days in the mount. Elijah was _forty_ days in
the wilderness. _Forty_ days did the Ninevites fast and repent them
of their sins to avert the judgments foretold by the prophet Jonah.
And _forty_ days did our Lord fast in the wilderness when about to
enter upon His public ministry. From these references we learn that
it is both Scriptural and helpful that this Season of Penitence
should be prolonged for us, that bearing {168} in mind these
incidents of "forty years" and "forty days" of devotion and
discipline which characterized the history of God's people, and
also our Lord's example, we may be like minded in prayer, in
discipline and in turning to God. The devotions of the Lenten Fast
are intimately connected with Easter which it precedes and are
intended to prepare the mind and heart for the devout celebration
of the "Queen of Festivals" and for the Easter Communion. Lent being
a penitential season the ecclesiastical color is purple or violet.
The _Benedicite_ takes the place of the _Te Deum_ and the Ash
Wednesday Collect is used every day throughout the Season.

Lent, Sundays in.--As stated in the preceding article the Lenten
fast does not include all the days between Ash Wednesday and Easter,
for the _Sundays_ are so many days above the number forty. They are
excluded because the Lord's Day is always kept as a Festival and
never as a Fast. These six Sundays, therefore, are called "Sundays
IN Lent, not _of_ Lent; they are in the midst of it, but do not form
part of it; on these Sundays we continue without interruption to
celebrate our Saviour's Resurrection." The Sundays in Lent are
named in the Prayer Book First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth; the
last Sunday being set forth as "The Sunday next before Easter."
Popular usage, however, has assigned other names to the closing
Sundays in Lent, for example, the Fourth Sunday is usually called
_Mid Lent Sunday_, for the reason that the Lenten Fast is half over.
It is also called _Refreshment Sunday_, from the Gospel for the Day
which gives the account of our Lord {169} miraculously feeding the
five thousand in the wilderness; another name is _Mothering Sunday_
(which see). The Fifth Sunday is called _Passion Sunday_, from the
fact that on that day the Church begins the solemn recital of our
Lord's sufferings. The Sixth Sunday is known as _Palm Sunday_ as it
was on this day our Lord made His Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem,
when the people hailed Him as King and strewed palm branches in His
way, crying "Hosanna to the Son of David."

Lesser Litany, The.--That portion of the Litany beginning, "O
Christ, hear us," and ending with the prayer, "We humbly beseech
Thee, O Father," is so called. It is often used as a penitential
ending to week-day services during Lent.

Lessons, The.--The word "Lesson" is derived from the Latin _lectio_,
meaning a reading, and signifies a portion of Scripture appointed
to be read during Divine service; applied especially to those
Scriptures read in the Daily Services. Two Lessons are to be read
at each service in accordance with the custom of the early
Christians, one from the Old Testament and one from the New. The
principle upon which the Lessons are thus selected is set forth by
Justin Martyr, who lived A.D. 103-164, as follows: "The Apostles
have taught, as they learned themselves, first the Law and then the
Gospel; for what is the Law but the Gospel foreshadowed; or what is
the Gospel but the Law fulfilled." (See CALENDAR, LECTIONARY, and

Letter Dimissory.--(See DIMISSORY LETTER.)

Letter of Orders.--The name given to the certificate of Ordination
to the Sacred Ministry, with the {170} Bishop's seal, and given by
him to each Priest or Deacon whom he ordains. The form of this
certificate varies in the use of different Bishops.

Letter of Transfer.--Canon 12, Section I, Title 2 of the Digest
provides that, "A communicant removing from one parish to another
shall procure from the Rector (if any) of the parish of his last
residence, or if there be no Rector, from one of the Wardens, a
certificate stating that he or she is a communicant in good standing;
and the Rector of the Parish or Congregation to which he or she
removes shall not be required to receive him or her as a communicant
until such letter be produced."

Lights on the Altar.--(See ALTAR LIGHTS.) In addition to what is
set forth in the article to which the reader is referred, we
reproduce from Wheatley on the Prayer Book the following: "Among
other ornaments of the Church were _two_ lights enjoined by the
Injunctions of King Edward VI to be set upon the Altar as a
significant ceremony to represent the Light which Christ's Gospel
brought into the world. And this, too, was ordered by the very same
Injunction which prohibited all other lights and tapers that used
to be superstitiously set before images or shrines. And these
lights, used time out of mind in the Church, are still continued
in most, if not all, Cathedral and Collegiate churches and
chapels, . . . and ought also by this rubric, to be used in all
parish churches and chapels."

Linen Cloth.--(See FAIR LINEN CLOTH.)

Litany, The.--The word "Litany" is of Greek origin, from _litancia_,
derived from _lite_, meaning a {171} "prayer." In the early Church
Litany included all supplications and prayers whether public or
private. Afterwards it came to mean a special supplication, offered
with intense earnestness, and this will explain the title of
the Litany in the Prayer Book, viz.: "The Litany, or General
Supplication." The Litany as now used is substantially the same as
that compiled by Gregory the Great at the end of the sixth century.
It is a separate and distinct service, but is commonly used as a
matter of convenience after Morning Prayer, and may be used after the
Evening Prayer. It is appointed to be read on Wednesdays, Fridays and
Sundays, and like all other prayers is said kneeling. An examination
of the Litany shows it to be divided into six divisions as follows:
I. _The Invocations_ being earnest appeals for mercy to each Person
in the Godhead, first separately and then collectively. II. _The
Deprecations_, being those petitions having as their response,
"Good Lord, deliver us." III. _The Obsecrations_, being the last
three petitions having as their response, "Good Lord, deliver us,"
beginning with the petition, "By the mystery," etc. IV. _The
Intercessions_, including all the petitions to which the people
respond, "We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord." V. _The
Supplications_, beginning, "O Christ hear us," down to VI. _The
Prayers_ with which the Litany closes. By reason of its responsive
character the Litany is a very soul stirring and heart searching
supplication, is designed to keep the attention constantly on the
alert and to enliven devotion by calling upon the congregation to
make their petitions for those deliverances and blessings recited
by the minister. {172}

Litany Desk.--A kneeling desk, sometimes called a faldstool, from
which the Litany is read. Its customary place in the Church is on
the floor of the nave in front of the chancel in accordance with
the Injunction issued during the reigns of Edward VI and Queen
Elizabeth. The significance of this position may be seen by
reference to the words of the prophet Joel read on Ash Wednesday
as the Epistle, "Let the Priests, the Ministers of the Lord, weep
_between the porch and the Altar_, and let them say, Spare Thy
people, O Lord."

Liturgical Colors.--(See CHURCH COLORS.)

Liturgy.--The word "Liturgy" is derived from the Greek _leitourgia_,
meaning a public work or duty, whether civil or religious. It then
became generally used with reference to sacred offices, whence arose
its ecclesiastical use to signify the solemnization of the rites of
the Christian Church. Afterwards, it came to be especially applied
to the office for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist and as such
the term is technically used in Church History. The Liturgy being
the Office of the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, it has for
its nucleus our Lord's words of Institution. These with their
accompanying Divine acts form the centre around which all subsequent
prayers, praises and ritual customs gathered, and the history of
these is the history of Liturgies. Liturgies have been used in the
Christian Church from the beginning as the ancient Liturgies
demonstrate. Of these there are many still extant in MSS. some of
them fully as old as the oldest MSS. of the Bible. While they vary
in arrangement and phraseology, yet the leading and essential {173}


                          OUR LORD'S WORDS OF INSTITUTION
                          APOSTOLIC NUCLEUS OF A LITURGY
            |                    |                  |                    |
  Liturgy of St. James,   Liturgy of St. Mark,   Liturgy of     Liturgy of St. John,
  Antioch, or Jerusalem   or Alexandria          St. Peter,     St. Paul, or Ephesus
            |                    |               or Rome                 |
     -------------               |                  |                    |
     |            |        Present Liturgy          |             Liturgy of Lyons
  Liturgy of   Syriac      of Egypt                 |                    |
  St. Basil    Liturgy of                           |           ---------------------
     |         St. James                            |           |        |          |
  Liturgy of      |                                 |       Mozarabic   Liturgy     Liturgy
  St. Chrysostom  Monophysite                       |       or Spanish  of Britain  of Tours
     |            Liturgies                         |       Liturgy     |          |
  Present Liturgy                          --------------                -------------
  of Oriental or                           |             |                     |
  Russian Church                       Ambrosian   Sacramentary       Augustine's Revised
                                       Liturgy     of St. Leo         Liturgy of Britain
                                           |             |                     |
                                       Present     Sacramentary       Salisbury, York and
                                       Liturgy     of St. Gelasius    other English Liturgies
                                       of Milan          |                     |
                                                   Sacramentary       Present Liturgy of the
                                                   of St. Gregory     Church of England
                                                         |                     |
                                                   Present Liturgy    --------------------
                                                   of Rome            |                   |
                                                                  Liturgy of         Liturgy of
                                                                  Scottish Church    American

{174} parts are common to them all and are found without substantial
variation, thus pointing to one common source. All Liturgies existing
at the present time trace their origin back to Apostolic times
through four main sources, as follows:

I. The Liturgy of St. James, composed in the first instance for the
Churches of Palestine.

II. The Liturgy of St. Mark, for the Church in Alexandria.

III. The Liturgy of St. Peter, for the Church in Rome, from which
the existing Roman Liturgy is derived.

IV. The Liturgy of St. John, for the Church in Ephesus.

It is from this last that our own Liturgy is derived. This
Ephesine Liturgy was introduced into France at a very early age
by missionaries who came to Lyons. From France missionaries went
over to England and there preached Christ and introduced the Liturgy
which they were accustomed to use, so that when St. Augustine went
from Rome to England, A.D. 596, expecting to find it a heathen
land, he found Christians already there and using a Liturgy somewhat
different from that of Rome. These differences in the English
Liturgy showed an eastern origin, thus confirming its Apostolic
origin and thus demonstrate that our Liturgy did not come from the
Church of Rome. Rome's power and influence being introduced into
England did, indeed, made its impress on the national religious
life, but the English Liturgy never lost its distinctive Eastern
characteristics which remain to this day. At the time of the
Reformation the {175} Liturgy after many revisions was first set
forth in the English language on Whitsun Day, 1549. It was again
revised in 1552, and again other changes were made in 1604 and
finally in 1662. Since which time very slight changes have been
made in it. The American Liturgy was formally set forth on September
29, 1789, being adopted from the English Prayer Book, modified
according to the agreement made with the Scottish Bishops who
consecrated our first Bishop, the Rt. Rev. Samuel Seabury, D.D.,
for the Diocese of Connecticut. (See article entitled PRAYER BOOK.)

Lord's Day.--The first day of the week is not the Sabbath, but the
_Lord's Day_, and as such has been observed since the Resurrection
of our Lord, of which it is the weekly commemoration. From the New
Testament itself we learn that the first day of the week, commonly
called Sunday, has always been the day which Christians have
consecrated to God's service. The Rt. Rev. F. W. Taylor, D.D., has
given us the following clear statement concerning the first day of
the week observed as the Lord's Day: "Our Saviour Jesus Christ, in
the exercise of this His Lordship over the day, has first of all
abolished the ordinance of the Seventh Day, and substituted, by the
Holy Spirit guiding His Church into all Truth, the ordinance of the
First Day, as that one day in seven which the Fourth Commandment
enjoins to be kept sacred to God as a moral obligation. Then our
Lord has made this day one of the highest spiritual privilege, by
uniting it to His own Person and work as the Day of His Resurrection,
the weekly recurrence of the {176} Christian Passover, a perpetual
Easter; and also as the weekly memorial of His supreme Gift of the
Holy Ghost upon the Feast of Pentecost, to abide with His Church
forever. It is preeminently a day of joy and gladness before the
Lord, and should first of all be observed to the Lord, in the
assembling of the Church together for worship and communion with God
and for spiritual instruction and profit. Hence the Prayer Book
prescribes a Collect, Epistle and Gospel for every Sunday in the
year, and its rubrics plainly teach us that according to the mind
of the Church the principal service of every Lord's Day should be
the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. Our Lord has also taught us
by His example as well as by precept, that works of mercy, both
spiritual and corporal, are lawful to be done on this day, and are
peculiarly appropriate to it."

Lord's Prayer, The.--The prayer which our Blessed Lord taught His
disciples when He said, "After this manner, therefore, pray ye," or
as given in another place, "When ye pray, say Our Father," etc. The
Church has always taken these words literally, so that in all her
services--Daily Prayer, Litany, Baptism, Confirmation, Holy
Communion, Marriage, Visitation of the Sick, etc., the Lord's Prayer
is always an integral part. In the Communion Office the Lord's
Prayer occurs twice, but it is to be noted that the rubric directs
the first to be said by the _Priest alone_, as a part of his private
preparation. With regard to the second there is the following
rubric: "Then shall the Minister say the Lord's Prayer, _the people
repeating after him every petition_." {177} These last words (in
italics) are omitted in the first rubric, thus indicating a
difference of use.

Lord's Supper, The.--(See HOLY COMMUNION.) In regard to the use of
the words "Lord's Supper" as a name for the Holy Communion, we
reproduce the following from The Annotated Prayer Book, which is
worth considering: "The term (the Lord's Supper) is borrowed from
1 Cor. 11:21, where St. Paul applies it to the Agape or love-feasts
which then accompanied the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. How
the singular and inexact use of it which is handed down in our
Prayer Book arose, it is difficult to say; and it is a transference
of a Scriptural term from one thing to another which cannot be
wholly justified. The name thus given to the Holy Sacrament has led
many to confuse the Lord's Last Supper with the institution of the
Sacrament itself, which it is expressly said took place '_after_
supper' (St. Luke 22:20) and '_when_ He had supped'" (1 Cor. 11:25).

Lord's Table, The.--A Prayer Book name for the ALTAR (which see).
In Scriptural usage the words "Altar" and "Table" are synonymous,
that is, they are different names for the same thing in different
aspects or as respects different uses of it. The word "Altar" is
also used in the Prayer Book, in the Office of Institution for the
inducting of a Priest to the charge of a Parish, in which he is
described as "one who serves at the Altar"; is directed to be
"received within the rails of the Altar," and again, to "kneel at
the Altar to present his supplication for himself."

Low Celebration.--This is a term commonly used to describe a
celebration of the Holy Eucharist on {178} ordinary week-days and in
the early morning on Sundays and Feasts. At these the celebrant is
unassisted except by a server and there is no choir. All parts of
the Office are consequently said, not sung.

Low Sunday.--The first Sunday after Easter is the Octave of the
Queen of Festivals and is commonly called "Low Sunday." It is so
called from its contrast with the High Festival of Easter Day. The
same note of holy joy is struck, but lower down on the scale.

Luke, Festival of Saint.--A Holy Day of the Church observed on
October 18. Of the life of St. Luke the Evangelist very little is
known, but uniting tradition and the references made to him in Holy
Scripture we learn the following particulars: St. Luke was not one
of the Apostles and was probably not converted until after the
Ascension of our Lord, although one tradition has it that he was
one of the two disciples with whom our Lord conversed on the road
to Emmaus. St. Luke himself testifies that he was not from the
beginning an eye-witness and minister of the Word. He appears to
have studied medicine at Antioch, and St. Paul, in one of his
Epistles, refers to him as "Luke, the beloved Physician." A late
tradition represents him to have been a painter as well as a
physician, and he is said to have painted a picture of the Blessed
Virgin. He was undoubtedly a scholarly and accomplished man. To him
we are indebted for two of the canonical books--the Gospel which
bears his name and the Acts of the Apostles. St. Luke's Gospel gives
more incidents in our Lord's Life than any of the others, and the
beauty and {179} exceeding sweetness of his story of the Great Life
are enriched with those Gospel hymns which have characterized the
Church's worship ever since, viz.: Gloria in Excelsis, Benedictus,
Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis. Our Lord appears in this Gospel as
the Great High Priest, winning by His Sacrifice on the Cross, mercy
and pardon for sinners. It is for this reason that in ecclesiastical
art, St. Luke is represented by the winged Ox as setting forth
Christ's Atonement through sacrifice.

Lych Gate.--The word "lych," derived from the Anglo-Saxon _lie_, or
the German _leiche_, means a body, especially a dead body, a corpse.
The term _lych gate_ is the old name given to a churchyard gate
with a porch or covering, under which a bier may be rested while
the introductory portion of the Burial Service is being read. Such
gates are quite frequently found in England, and occasionally in
this country.


Magna Charta.--The great document exacted by Barons from King John
of England at Runnymede, June 15th, 1215, by which was declared
English liberty and English freedom in Church and State, and the
ancient rights and privileges of the people were clearly defined
and guaranteed. In this document is set forth the independence of
England's Church, and from it we learn how untrue is the popular
belief that the Church of England was founded by Henry VIII, {180}
for among its opening words are these (in Latin): "The _Church of
England_ shall be free and her liberties unimpaired." We here see
The CHURCH OF ENGLAND referred to as a body already existing, in a
_State document_ nearly two hundred years before Henry VIII was born,
which is truly a suggestive fact to all thoughtful people.

Magnificat.--The Latin title, meaning "doth magnify," of the hymn
sung after the First Lesson at Daily Evening Prayer. It is found in
the Gospel of St. Luke I:46-56, and is the song of praise which the
Blessed Virgin Mary gave utterance to "at the very season when the
Divine overshadowing brought about the Incarnation of the Word."
This beautiful hymn is used at the evening service as the daily
commemoration of the Incarnation. This use of the Magnificat can
be traced as far back as the Fifth Century and it has been used in
the English Church at Vespers for over 800 years. For some reason
the Magnificat was omitted from the first American Prayer Book set
forth in 1789, but at the last revision in 1892 it was restored.

Maniple.--A scarf, like a short stole, worn on the left arm over
the alb by the celebrating Priest at the Holy Communion. (See

Manual Acts.--The acts prescribed by the rubrics to be used by the
Priest in consecrating the elements in the Holy Communion. The
rubric reads, "(_a_) Here the Priest is to take the Paten into his
hands, (_b_) And here to break the Bread, (_c_) And here to lay his
hand upon all the Bread, (_d_) Here he is to take the Cup into his
hands, (_e_) And here he is to lay his {181} hand upon every vessel
in which there is any Wine to be consecrated." This is the most
solemn part of the whole ministration of the Liturgy. "There cannot
be too great exactness and reverent formality on the part of the
celebrant in consecrating the elements by means of which, when
consecrated, an acceptable sacrifice is to be carried up to the
Father, and the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ received
by the communicants."

Mark, Feast of Saint.--Observed April 25. St. Mark is called the
Evangelist because he is the writer of the Gospel which bears his
name. He was the companion of St. Peter and accompanied him in his
missionary travels. It is supposed that he wrote his Gospel at the
dictation of St. Peter. St. Mark is said to have founded the Church
in Alexandria, and one of the ancient Liturgies is called by his
name. He suffered martyrdom on Easter Day, April 25th, A.D. 64,
being cruelly bound with cords and dragged through the streets of
the city until he was dead. It is said that his body was removed,
A.D. 465, to Venice, where the famous Church of St. Mark was
erected over his grave. This Festival has been observed since
A.D. 750. In ecclesiastical art, St. Mark is represented with a
lion at his side, with reference to the royal character of the Son
of David, which is emphasized in this Gospel.

Marriage.--The sad prevalence of divorce in the United States might
not have come to pass if people had clear ideas of what Marriage
really is. Marriage is a great deal more than simply a civil
contract. It is a divine institution, "an honorable estate,
instituted {182} by God in the time of man's innocency." It is a
religious ceremony and is sacramental in character. It ought,
therefore, to be clearly understood that marriage simply by a
"squire" or other legal officer, detracts from the sacredness and
dignity of "this holy estate," and belittles the binding character
of the "marriage tie." Even a secular paper could declare, "We do
not believe there should be any civil marriages of any kind. Every
ceremony should be solemnized by the Church and lifted above the
level of a real estate transaction." In this custom of civil or
legal marriages may be found at least one cause, perhaps the
principal cause of divorce, for it encourages such a low view of
the sacredness of the Marriage Rite.

Taught by our Lord and His Apostles, the Church emphasizes the
religious and sacramental character of Holy Matrimony and has
always enjoined its solemnization with ecclesiastical ceremonies
and by ecclesiastical persons. This is clearly set forth by the
earliest Christian writers. Thus St. Ignatius in one of his Epistles
says: "It is fitting for those who purpose matrimony to accomplish
their union with the sanction of the Bishop, that their marriage
may be in the Lord." Tertullian speaks of marriages being "ratified
before God," and adds, "How can we find words to describe the
happiness of that Marriage in which the Church joins together,
which the Oblation confirms, the Benediction seals, the Angels
proclaim when sealed, and the Father ratifies." St. Ambrose calls
Marriage a Sacrament, and says, "Marriage must be sanctified by the
Priest's sanction and blessing." {183}

These utterances unfold the mind of the Church in the times nearest
the days of our Lord and His Apostles, and in all ages ever since
the Church has never abandoned this position in her practice and
formularies. A careful study of the Marriage Service in the Prayer
Book will show it to be a very clear setting forth of the nature of
Marriage. It will also be seen how fully this Service has retained
the belief concerning Marriage which the Church has always held
since the time of our Lord and His Apostles. (See BETROTHAL, also

Mary, The Blessed Virgin.--(See BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.)

Mass--The old name for the Sacrament of the Holy Communion, being
a corruption of the Latin, _Ite, Missa est_, meaning "the people
are now dismissed." "This name was retained in the Prayer Book of
1549, the title of the Office being 'The Supper of the Lord, and
the Holy Communion, commonly called the Mass.'" In the Prayer Book
of 1552 the word "Mass" was dropped and has not since appeared in
the Prayer Book, and in consequence has become generally disused.
The term, however, is still retained in popular usage as in the
words Christmas, Michaelmas, etc. The Swedish and also the German
Reformers retained the name "Mass" for the principal service of the
Church, whether it did or did not include a Celebration of the Holy

Matthew, Feast of Saint.--Observed September 21. A Feast in honor of
St. Matthew has been observed since A.D. 703, and he is known in the
Church as both Apostle and Evangelist. St. Matthew had {184} been
a Publican or tax-gatherer, and while in his office at Capernaum,
receiving the customs from those who passed over the Sea of Galilee
he was called by our Lord and, we read, "he at once arose and
followed Him." He is called Levi by St. Mark and St. Luke. This
was probably his former name and he was named Matthew when he became
a disciple. Being one of the Twelve, he himself saw and heard most
of what he relates in the Gospel which he wrote. It was first
written in Hebrew, especially for the Jews, but was afterwards,
probably by St. Matthew himself, written in Greek. This Gospel
tells us more than the others of our Lord's human life, and it is
for this reason that in ecclesiastical art the symbol assigned to
St. Matthew is "the likeness of a Man" with wings.

Matthias, Feast of Saint.--Observed February 24. The only record we
have of St. Matthias in the New Testament is that to be found in
Acts I:15-26 where it is recorded that he was chosen to be an Apostle
in the place of the traitor Judas. This passage is read for the
Epistle for the Day. We have here the New Testament witness to the
fact that the number of the Apostles was to be increased and the
Apostleship perpetuated to the end of time by its being committed
to others, as in the case of St. Paul and St. Barnabas apparently in
the place of St. James who had been put to death by Herod, and of
some other Apostle whose death is not recorded. According to the
tradition of the Church, St. Matthias ministered for some years
among the Jews; he then went to Cappadocia where he preached the
Gospel and where he eventually suffered martyrdom, being stoned {185}
and afterwards beheaded about A.D. 64. In ecclesiastical art, St.
Matthias is variously represented as bearing a halbert; leaning upon
a sword; holding a sword by the point; with a lance, hatchet or axe;
with a stone in his hand; with a carpenter's square; with a book and

Matins.--The Order for Morning Prayer was called by the ancient
popular name of _Matins_ (abbreviated from Matutinae) in the original
English Prayer Book of 1549. This name is still retained in the
Tables of Lessons set forth in the English Prayer Book. It is often
used now as a brief and convenient substitute for the longer title
in the Prayer Book, "The Order for Daily Morning Prayer." One of the
CANONICAL HOURS (which see).

Matrimony, Holy.--(See MARRIAGE.)

Maundy Thursday.--The name given to Thursday in Holy Week, "Maundy"
being a corruption of _Dies Mandati_, meaning the Day of the
Command; mandati, derived from _Mandatum_, meaning a command. The
name is given from the command our Lord gave on this day, when He
instituted the Holy Communion, viz.: "Do this in remembrance of Me;"
and also His commandment concerning love. "That ye love one another
as I have loved you." Thursday in Holy Week is sometimes incorrectly
called "Holy Thursday," a name which from time immemorial has been
given to Ascension Day. Maundy Thursday is always observed with
great solemnity. The celebration of the Holy Eucharist on this day
has great significance, and is never omitted where it is possible
to be had. The ecclesiastical color for the celebration is white,
but for other services of the day, violet. {186}

Meditation.--An act of the devout life by which the soul seeks
closer intercourse with God. It has been well said that "Meditation
is the correlative of Prayer. In Prayer we speak to God. In
_Meditation_ God speaks to us. We bow our heads to listen; therefore
Meditation should be on our knees. It is the attitude of a humble
and teachable frame of mind, and our acknowledgment of the Divine

Membership, Church.--(See BAPTISM, HOLY; JOINING THE CHURCH, and

Mensa.--A slab of stone used as the surface of the Altar is so
called. _Mensa_ is a Latin word, meaning a table.

Michael (St.) and All Angels.--A Holy Day of the Church observed on
September 29th. A Festival in honor of St. Michael and All Angels,
to commemorate the community of service between angels and men, has
been observed since the Fifth Century. Formerly two days were
dedicated to St. Michael, viz., May 8th and September 29th, and in
medieval times a third, on October 16th, but the day most generally
observed was that which we now keep. In the Eastern Church, St.
Michael's Day is November 8th, while March 26th and July 13th are
observed in honor of the Archangel Gabriel. These two, Michael and
Gabriel, are the only angels or archangels whose names are mentioned
in the Bible. St. Michael and All Angels' Day is observed with great
solemnity. Proper Psalms are appointed being the 91st and 103d for
Morning Prayer, and the 34th and 148th for Evening Prayer. There are
also Proper Lessons, and {187} Collect, Epistle and Gospel. The
Church color is white. (See HOLY ANGELS.)

Mid Lent Sunday.--(See FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT.)

Militant, Church.--A name used to describe the Church on earth,
fighting (which the word _Militant_ means) or contending against the
powers of the world, to distinguish it from the Church Expectant and
the Church Triumphant. (See CHURCH CATHOLIC.) In the Communion
Office the prayer said after the presentation of offerings is called
"The Prayer for the Church Militant," which is a pleading for the
Holy Church throughout the world offered in union with the Great

Ministry, The.--The Scriptural teaching in regard to the Sacred
Ministry is that certain persons are set apart to act as the agents
of God towards men and the agents of men towards God. The power of
the Ministry is inherent in, and derived from Christ, as when He
said, "As My Father hath sent Me, even so send I you." This was His
commission to the Apostles, and to them He promised, "Lo, I am with
you always even unto the end of the world." This promise implies a
transmission of this commission, so that the Ministry should never
die out, but be continued from generation to generation and from
century to century, "even to the end of the world." It also implies
that He will work in them and through them, so that whatsoever they
shall do in His Name shall be His work. As to the nature of this
Ministry it is declared in the Preface to the Ordinal that "It is
evident unto all men diligently reading Holy Scripture and Ancient
Authors, that from the Apostles' time {188} there have been these
Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church,--Bishops, Priests and
Deacons." And we find that these "Offices were evermore had in such
reverend estimation," that for 1,500 years after Christ no Christian
people recognized any other Ministry but that of Bishops, Priests and
Deacons; and we also find that even at this present time nine-tenths
of all Christian people are ministered to by a Ministry in Three

Miserere.--Meaning "Have Mercy." The Latin title of the 51st Psalm
which is used in the Penitential Office appointed to be read on Ash

Missal.--In the early ages of the Church the Office of the Holy
Communion was contained in several separate volumes, one for the
Epistles, one for the Gospels, another for the anthems and a fourth
for the service itself with the Collects. These four volumes were
eventually united into one volume under the name _Missal_, _i.e._,
pertaining to the Mass, and therefore, it is the old title of the
book containing all that pertains to the Office of the Holy

Mission.--A sending forth to preach the Gospel, as when our Lord
sent forth His Apostles. The word involves also the idea of power
and authority and also a definite sphere of operations. Thus when
a Bishop is consecrated, it is for some particular Diocese where he
has, by reason of his consecration, "the power of Mission." So also,
a Priest who is Rector of a Parish has the "power of Mission" in
that Parish. And the Bishop has no authority to minister in any
other Diocese, nor the Priest in any other Parish, save only {189} as
they may be invited to do so by the ecclesiastical authority thereof.
Such "power of Mission" is bestowed by the Church through her
Bishops and it is thus that she maintains order and prevents
confusion in her work.

Mission. Parochial.--The word "Mission" is also applied to a special
effort made in a parish to arouse and quicken its people; to lead
them to a deeper realization and appreciation of the privileges and
blessings of Christ's Religion; to set forth clearly by a series of
addresses and instructions how they can bring the Church's system to
bear on their hearts and lives and to lead them to ask, "Can we not
all do more than we are now doing and do all with a better spirit?"
A Mission is conducted by a Priest specially invited for the purpose
and is chosen for his aptness in carrying on such special work. If
well conducted and blessed of God a Mission brings great spiritual
blessings to the Parish in which it is held and its happy results
are to be seen in the awakened life and renewed energy of its

Missionary.--One who is sent, whether Bishop, Priest, Deacon or
Layman, to do the work of the Church where it has not been
established, whether at home or abroad. As an adjective, the word
means, of or pertaining to Missions.


Missioner.--The name given to the Priest who conducts a Parochial

Missions.--The Missionary work of the Church. This includes _Foreign
Missions_, as in Africa, China, {190} Japan, etc., and _Domestic
Missions_, _i.e._, the Church's work within the United States where
there are no Dioceses; also work in towns and villages in Dioceses
where parishes have not been established. This last is called

Mitre.--The official covering for the head worn by the order of
Bishops. It represents mystically the cloven tongues of fire which
lighted on the heads of the Apostles on the Day of Pentecost. The
mitre is worn by many Bishops of the American Church, and the General
Convention, by its Committee on Vestments, declared, "The first
Bishop of the American Succession (Bishop Seabury) was accustomed to
wear the mitre in certain offices; and the first of our Bishops ever
consecrated in America (Bishop Claggett of Maryland) continued its
use. It has not been generally followed, but in the opinion of this
Committee this historic fact justifies any Bishop in resuming it."

Mixed Chalice.--The symbolical mixing of water with wine in the Holy
Communion to represent the union of the human with the Divine nature
in the Incarnation. It is also a lively memorial of Him who for our
Redemption did shed out of His most precious side both Water and
Blood. This mixing of Water with Wine for this purpose seems to have
been an Apostolical use and very probably was practiced by our Lord
Himself. This ancient practice remained universal for the first
1,500 years after Christ in all Churches, and is now quite common.

Morning Prayer.--The name given to the Church's Daily Office of
prayer offered in the morning. In the {191} first Prayer Book of 1549
both the Morning Service and that for evening began with the Lord's
Prayer and ended with the third Collect. In 1552, the Sentences,
Exhortation, Confession and Absolution were prefixed to Morning
Prayer, but not to the Order for Evening Prayer. In 1661, they were
prefixed to Evening Prayer also; and both Morning and Evening Prayer
were then lengthened at the end by the addition of all that follows
the third Collect. (See DAILY PRAYER; also MATINS.)

Morse.--The clasp used to fasten the cope in front is so called. It
is frequently made of precious metal and set with jewels. From the
Latin _morsus_, meaning a _bite_, hence a clasp.

Mothering Sunday.--A popular name used in England for the Fourth
Sunday in Lent. It is supposed to have derived this name from the
Epistle for the Day in which occur the words "Jerusalem which is
above is free, which is the Mother of us all." This no doubt gave
rise to the custom in England of making pilgrimages to the Mother
Church of the Diocese, _i.e._, the Cathedral. This Sunday also
became a holiday on which young persons in service were permitted
to visit their mothers in their homes. (See FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT;

Movable Feasts and Fasts.--Those Feasts and Fasts which are not
observed on a fixed date, but are variable being dependent on the
time Easter is kept. Easter Day is always the first Sunday after
the full moon which happens upon or next after the Twenty-first day
of March; and if the full moon happen upon a Sunday, Easter Day is
the Sunday after. The {192} _Movable Feasts_ are the following:
Advent Sunday which is always the nearest Sunday to the Feast of St.
Andrew (Nov. 30) whether before or after; the three remaining
Sundays in Advent; Septuagesima, Sexagesima and Quinquagesima
Sundays; the Six Sundays in Lent; Rogation Sunday; Ascension Day,
Whitsun Day and Trinity Sunday; Monday and Tuesday in Easter Week;
Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun Week; also the number of Sundays
during the Epiphany and Trinity Seasons is variable, these Seasons
being longer or shorter according to the time Easter is kept. The
_Movable Fasts_ are the Forty Days of Lent, including Ash Wednesday,
Good Friday, Easter Even and the Lenten Ember Days; the Rogation
Days and the Whitsun Tide Ember Days.

EVEN SONG, also INTONE.) Recognizing the fact that music always
characterized the worship of God's Church both under the Old
Dispensation and under the New, the essential thing is the character
of the music in our churches to-day and the mode of rendering it.
The organist, upon whom so much depends, should be a competent
musician, with a good knowledge of the music of the church, and
the music that he uses should be strictly sacred music. The choir
should consist of the best voices and most cultivated singers
available. They should be trained with care, not only in the music
they are to sing, but also in the Church service. The late Bishop
Thorold remarked on this subject, "We are all coming to feel that
Church Music is a great help to worship. . . .But I also feel that
if members of the choir accept {193} from God and the minister the
privilege of taking part in the services, the one thing they
owe to Almighty God, to the congregation and to themselves, is
REVERENCE. I know choirs where their singing is almost a means of
grace; it is done so beautifully, so reverently and with so much
care that it lifts up the whole service to a higher level. The one
secret of all good and acceptable rendering of the Church's music
is _reverence_."

Mystery.--A Truth or fact of Religion which has been revealed but
not explained is called a mystery, because proposed to our faith
faculty, such as the Incarnation, the Atonement, the Blessed Trinity,
the Doctrine of the Eucharist. St. Paul speaks of the whole
Revelation of Christ as the "Mystery of Godliness." Derived from the
Greek word _musterion_, which in the Greek Church is the equivalent
of our word "Sacrament."

Mystical Body of Christ.--The Church is called the Mystical Body of
Christ because He is the Head and we members of His Body. It is by
means of its Sacraments that we are made members of Him and
partakers of His Nature and Life. (See INCARNATION.)


N or M.--The letters placed after the first question in the Church
Catechism, "What is your name?" to show that the Christian name or
names of the person questioned should be given. "N" stands for {194}
the Latin word _nomen_, meaning name; while the letter "M" is an
abbreviation of double "N. N.," the "N" being doubled according to
an old custom to indicate the plural, viz., _nomina_, meaning names.
The same thing is to be seen in the letters "LL.D." standing for
the degree of "Doctor of Laws," the double "LL" signifying the
plural _legum_, meaning "of laws."

Name, the Holy.--(See HOLY NAME, also JESUS.)

Name, the Christian.--The name received in Holy Baptism. In former
days people in general had only one name, as John, Henry, Mary,
etc., and were further known by their occupation or some other
distinctive word. But the names of trades, place, etc., thus _added
on_ to the Christian name, (_i.e._, _supra_ or _sur nomen_)
gradually became permanent _surnames_, so that now every person after
infancy and Baptism has two names, viz., a Christian name and a
surname. The Christian name we receive at our Christening, that is,
Christianing or Baptism or New Birth. It is _given_, not inherited.
It is a new name given to us in our Baptism because we then become
something new. It is given in Baptism to indicate a new relationship
to God by thus being brought into covenant with Him. We find many
examples in the Bible of new names given in connection with a change
of spiritual conditions. Thus Abram's name was changed to _Abraham_
when God made His covenant with him, and Jacob's name was changed
to _Israel_ when that covenant was renewed with him, which had been
made with Abraham. In the same way and for the same reason Christian
names have great significance. They are the sign that those who bear
them have been brought into covenant with God, that they have been
{195} made in their Baptism, "members of Christ, the children of God,
and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven." (See BAPTISM, HOLY; also

Nativity of our Lord.--The Prayer Book title of the Festival of
Christmas is, "The Nativity of our Lord, or the Birthday of Christ,
commonly called CHRISTMAS DAY" (which see).

Nave.--The body of the Church building; that portion of it before the
choir or chancel, and between the aisles in which the congregation
sits. Derived from the Latin word _navis_ meaning a ship, and is
intended to symbolize "the ark of Christ's Church."

Neophyte.--A term applied in the primitive Church to the newly
baptized--"newly grafted" (which the word means) into Christianity.
It was customary for them to wear white garments at their Baptism
and for eight days after. The word is still frequently used.

New Birth.--The name which the New Testament Scriptures, and the
Church for nearly two thousand years have given to Holy Baptism,
which is the Laver of Regeneration, the new and spiritual Birth.

Nicea, Council of.--The first of the great ecumenical Councils, held
in Nice, or Nicea, A.D. 325. It was at this Council that what we
call the Nicene Creed was set forth although additional definitions
touching the Holy Ghost were inserted at the Second General Council
(the first held at Constantinople, A.D. 381) and therefore, this
form of the Faith is frequently called the Niceno-Constantinopolitan
Creed. It is to {196} be noted that this Council did not originate
the Creed or the Faith; it simply bore witness to it; its members
simply testified to what was always most surely believed among them
in their several Dioceses throughout the world. Thus the Nicene
Council simply reaffirmed the consentient voice and witness of the
Church in general. Or as St. Athanasius, who was a member of this
council, wrote concerning it, "About the Faith they wrote not 'It
seemed good,' but 'Thus believes the Catholic Church'; and therefore
they confessed how they believed, in order to show that their
sentiments were not novel, but Apostolical, and what they wrote
down was no discovery of theirs, but is the same as was taught by
the Apostles." (See COUNCIL.)

Nicene Creed.--The name commonly given to the longer of the two
Creeds set forth in the Prayer Book, from its being settled at the
COUNCIL OF NICEA (which see). It was introduced into the Liturgy,
A.D. 471. The rubric directs that it be specially recited in the
service on Christmas Day, Easter Day, Ascension Day, Whitsun Day
and Trinity Sunday; but it is always used at the Holy Communion
whenever celebrated. The Nicene is the Creed of worship; the
Apostles' the Creed of Instruction and of the Daily Offices.

Nocturns.--A name given to certain services which in ancient times
were held during the night. The Psalter was usually recited during
the three parts into which the night was divided. One of the seven
CANONICAL HOURS (which see).

Nonconformists.--A name given in England {197} to those who do not
conform to the usages and doctrines of the National Church. The
word as used now is practically synonymous with _Dissenter_.

Nones.--One of the seven CANONICAL HOURS (which see). The "ninth
hour," or 3 P. M.

North Side.--That part of the front of the Altar which is on the
right hand of the Cross, and consequently on the left of the
Celebrant as he faces the Altar; the side where the Holy Gospel is

Nowell.--The old English name for Christmas; the same as _Noel_,
derived from _Natale_, meaning a birthday. It is also the old name
for a carol sung in praise of the Incarnation.

Nunc Dimittis.--The Latin title for the Song of Simeon, meaning "Now
lettest Thou (Thy servant) depart (in peace)," which is sung after
the Second Lesson at Evening Prayer in praise of the manifestation
of the Incarnate Word. It is to be found in St. Luke 2:29-32. The
Nunc Dimittis has been so used throughout the Church from the
earliest ages, being mentioned in the Apostolical Constitutions
(written in the early part of the Fifth Century) as an Evening
Canticle. There are English versions of it as early as the
Fourteenth Century. When the American Prayer Book was set forth in
1789, this beautiful hymn, for some reason, was omitted, but always
to the regret of intelligent and devout Church people. When,
however, the Prayer Book was revised in 1892 the Nunc Dimittis was
restored, so that now this ancient song continues to gladden the
hearts of the faithful and devout in the American Church as it did
the hearts of the faithful in the old time before them. {198}


Oblation.--The act of offering the memorial of the Body and Blood
of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, as is done in the second paragraph
of the Prayer of Consecration, entitled "The Oblation." Sometimes
this name is given to the whole office. The _Oblations_ are the Bread
and Wine placed on the Altar at the Offertory preparatory to their

Obligation, Days of.--(See DAYS OF OBLIGATION.)

Obsecrations.--The three petitions of the Litany beginning (1) "By
the Mystery of Thy Holy Incarnation," (2) "By Thine Agony and Bloody
Sweat" and (3) "In all time of our tribulation" are called the
Obsecrations, or entreaties. These petitions "go on the principle
that every several act of our Lord's Mediatorial Life has its
appropriate saving energy; that virtue goes out of each, because
each is the act of a Divine Person and has a Divine preciousness."

Occasional Offices.--Those services of the Prayer Book which are
not in constant use, but used only as occasion may require, such as
the Office for Holy Matrimony, the Order for the Burial of the
Dead, the Order for Confirmation, the Baptismal services, Visitation
of the Sick, etc.

Occasional Prayers.--The prayers set forth in the Prayer Book under
the title, "Prayers and Thanksgivings upon several Occasions," such
as the Prayer for Congress to be used during their session; the
prayer for a Sick Person; Thanksgiving for Recovery from Sickness,
etc., which are read on request. {199}

Occurrence of Holy Days.--The coincidence of two or more Holy Days
falling on the same date. When this happens, the question arises
which is to be observed, which takes precedence. The ancient rule
may be illustrated by the following: When the First Sunday in
Advent and St. Andrew's Day fell on the same date the Sunday took
precedence and only the Collect for the Saint's Day was read; the
Fourth Sunday in Advent took precedence of St. Thomas Day; while the
Feasts of St. Stephen, St. John Evangelist, Holy Innocents, and the
Circumcision, if any of these days occurred on the same date as
the First Sunday after Christmas, the Saint's Day and also the
Circumcision took precedence of the Sunday. A good Church Almanac
will give the needed information concerning the "Occurrence of Holy
Days" which takes place during the year.

Octave.--The eighth day after a Festival. The intervening days are
said to be "of" or within its Octave and partake of the character
of the Festival. The only Feasts mentioned in the Prayer Book,
having an Octave as of obligation are Christmas, Easter, Ascension
and Whitsun Day, each being honored with a Proper Preface in the
Communion Office which is to be used each day during the week.
Trinity Sunday was formerly the Octave of Whitsun Day, and probably
for this reason its Proper Preface is not repeated during the week.

Offertory, The.--That portion of the Communion service during which
the alms of the people, and the Bread and the Wine are received
and solemnly presented on the Altar. The word "offertory" is often
{200} wrongly applied to the _offerings_, a mistake which should be
carefully avoided. It is to be noted that The Offertory is an
important part of worship. It is not an impertinence, but stands in
the line of duties along side of prayer and singing. To give money
each time you go to church, and in the appointed way will bring
blessings from God. Pew rent is not "giving" in this sense,
any more than paying the butter bill or for a seat at the opera
house. We refer to the offering to God for religious or charitable
purposes, regularly through the _Offertory_ in church. So your alms
will go up with your prayers as a memorial before God.

Offertory Sentences.--In the old Liturgies there was formerly a
short anthem after the Gospel, called _Offertorium_; for this in
our Liturgy has been substituted the "Offertory Sentences," being
short selections from Holy Scripture setting forth "instructions,
injunctions and exhortations to the great duty of giving; setting
before us the necessity of performing it and the manner of doing it."

Office.--The term "office," in ecclesiastical usage, means a
formulary of devotions; a form of service appointed for a particular
occasion; a prescribed form or act of worship; thus the Daily
Morning and Evening Prayer are called the "Daily Offices." The word
is commonly used of the various services set forth in the Prayer
Book, as "Baptismal Office," "Communion Office," etc.

Open Churches.--(See FREE AND OPEN CHURCHES.)

Ordain, Ordination.--The act of setting apart to the Sacred Ministry
and whereby {201} the grace of Orders is conferred. The right or power
to ordain belongs solely to the Bishop and this he does with prayer
and Laying on of Hands. (See IMPOSITION OF HANDS.) The times of
Ordination prescribed by Canon Law are the Sundays after the EMBER
DAYS (which see). These became the settled times of Ordination as
early as the Fourth or Fifth Century. But the Bishops are privileged
to ordain at other times if necessity require.

Order.--The word "Order" as used in the Prayer Book means _regulation_
or _ordinance_, according to its derivation from the Latin word
_ordo_. This is seen in the title of the Communion Office which
reads, "The Order for the Administration of the Lord's Supper, or
Holy Communion," _i.e._, the prescribed way in which the Holy
Communion shall be celebrated. So, also, of all other services; the
Prayer Book sets forth the order or manner in which they shall be
ministered, and such they are called.

Orders, Holy.--(See HOLY ORDERS.)

Ordinal, The.--The name given to that portion of the Prayer Book
containing the Offices for the consecration of Bishops and the
ordination of Priests and Deacons. The Ordinal being what it is, is
very properly prefaced with a statement of the witness of history
to the fact "that from the Apostles' time there have been these
Orders of Ministers in Christ's Church--Bishops, Priests and
Deacons." It is interesting to note that "our Ordinal was not taken
word for word from the Roman Pontifical, but was framed on the
comprehensive and broad ground of all known forms and manners of
Ordination used in all branches of the {202} Catholic Church." The
Ordinal is also sometimes called "The Pontifical."

Ordinary.--The name given to the Bishop of the Diocese, or other
ecclesiastical authority who has ordinary jurisdiction.

Organizations, Church.--The American church is not simply a teaching
and worshipping body, but it is also a working organization. Its
activities reach out in all directions and touch almost every
conceivable need. Besides its well organized Dioceses and Parishes
which are working with such effectiveness in their several
localities, there are many other organizations enlisting the
cooperation of Churchmen everywhere. There are the general
Institutions, such as the General Theological Seminary, the
Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, the Woman's Auxiliary,
the American Church Building Fund Commission, Free and Open Church
Association, the Prayer-book Distribution Society, the Brotherhood
of St. Andrew, the Girls' Friendly Society, the Fund for Relief of
Widows and Orphans of Deceased Clergymen and of the Aged and Infirm
and Disabled Clergymen, the Daughters of the King; all of which are
treated of under their proper heads. Other organizations are The
Society for the Increase of the Ministry, the Evangelical Education
Society, the American Church Missionary Society, Society for
Promoting Christianity among the Jews, the Guild of St. Barnabas
for Nurses; Church Temperance Society; Missions among Deaf Mutes;
etc. Besides these, there are religious Orders, Church Clubs,
Sisterhoods, many Charity and Hospital organizations; and while
this enumeration does {203} not include all the various organizations
that are at work, yet these are given that the reader may form some
idea of what this Church is doing and how fully she enlists the
cooperation of the laity in her general work.

Organs.--Musical instruments have been used in the worship of God
from the time when, after the passage of the Red Sea, Moses and
Miriam sang their song of praise accompanied by timbrels. The
worship of the Temple was noted for the great number and variety
of musical instruments employed in it. As to when organs were first
brought into use, it is not clearly known, but it is recorded that
about the year 766 Constantius Copronymus, Emperor of Constantinople,
sent an organ as a present to King Pepin of France. Soon after
Charlemagne's time organs became common. In the Eleventh Century a
monk named Theophilus wrote a curious treatise on organ-building.
But it was not until the Fifteenth Century that the organ began to
be anything like the noble instrument which it now is, the most
comprehensive and important of all wind instruments.

Orientation.--The name given to the act of turning to the east or
Altar as an act of faith and worship in the Church service. (See
EAST, TURNING TO.) It is also an architectural term used in
reference to church buildings running east and west.

Ornaments.--By "ornaments" is meant the necessary furniture of the
church for the proper conduct of divine service, and the vestments
to be worn by the clergy. In this the Church of the present day is
largely guided by what is called the "Ornaments {204} Rubric" of the
English Prayer-book. According to this it would seem that among
the necessary ornaments for the proper furnishing of the church
are the following: the Altar, with its cross, candlesticks and
coverings; Paten and Chalice; Cruets, Font and Pulpit; and that
the necessary vestments of the Priest are the chasuble, alb and
girdle, stole, surplice, cope; for the Bishop the same with the
addition of the rochette, mitre and Pastoral staff.

Orphrey.--A band of embroidery used to ornament the vestments.

Orthodox.--In accordance with the doctrine of the Church; holding
fast "the Faith once delivered to the Saints." The Faith has been
defined by the Ecumenical Councils as set forth in the Creeds which
"ought thoroughly to be received and believed, for they may be
proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture" (VIII Article of


Pall.--A square card, the upper side of which is covered with silk
the color of the Church Season and underneath with linen, loosely
stitched so as to be readily removed in order to be washed. It is
used to cover the Chalice when the Holy Eucharist is celebrated.

Palm Sunday.--The Sixth Sunday in Lent, the first day in Holy Week.
It commemorates the entry of our Lord into Jerusalem when the people
strewed {205} the way with palm branches and cried, "Hosanna to the
Son of David." It was formerly customary for worshippers to appear on
this day in procession carrying in their hands palms, or yew or
willow branches, which were blessed before the beginning of the
Communion Service. On Palm Sunday the Church has always begun to
set before God and man the Gospel account of the Passion of our
Lord, that by St. Matthew being read on this day. (See LENT,

Paraclete.--Another name for the Holy Ghost, signifying one who is
invoked to aid or comfort. It was this word our Lord used when He
said, "I will send you another Comforter," _i.e._, Paraclete.
Elsewhere, the word is also translated _Advocate_.

Paradise.--The place where the souls of the righteous dwell during
the INTERMEDIATE STATE (which see). The name is also applied to the
happy abode of Adam and Eve before the Fall.

Parish.--The term "Parish" as used in the American Church signifies
a local congregation having a church building, and duly organized
under the title of "Rector, Wardens and Vestrymen." It is always
given a name, such as St. John's, Christ Church, Trinity, etc. It
is competent for any number of persons, usually not less than ten,
to associate themselves together to form a Parish. In the articles
of association, the Parish acknowledges and accedes to the
Constitution, Canons, Doctrines, Discipline and Worship of the
Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese in which it is located.
If on presentation of these articles, the Council or Convention of
the Diocese gives its consent, the Parish shall be accounted duly
established. {206}

The word is derived from the Greek _Paroikia_, and was originally
used to designate the sphere of a Bishop's jurisdiction as
distinguished from that of an Archbishop, but when the former was
gradually parcelled out into smaller portions these began to be
called _Parishes_.

Parish House.--By reason of the growing activities of the American
Church, it is found necessary to have some building other than the
church where the active and sometimes secular work of the Parish
can be carried on, a place where societies, guilds, schools, etc.,
can have their own proper "workshop." Such building is called the
"Parish House," and is absolutely necessary for any active and
growing Parish.

Parish Register.--A book in which all births. Baptisms, Confirmations,
deaths, and marriages that occur in the Parish are recorded,
together with the list of Families and Communicants. The importance
of the Parish Register and the care with which it should be kept
will appear when it is considered that it is a legal document.

Parishioner.--One who belongs to a Parish. The Parish partakes of
the character of the people who compose it; if they are earnest and
devoted, loyal and true to the Church's appointments, the Parish is
sure to be prosperous. In other words, the Church lives as they who
are of it live. It is vital with their vitality. It is a live body
as they are live Christians. Thus the success of a Parish is not
wholly dependent on the Rector, but on the people as well.

Parochial Mission.--(See MISSION, PAROCHIAL.)

Parson.--The old name used in England for the {207} rector or
incumbent of a parish. Parson and person are the same word, being
derived from the Latin _Persona_. The Parson is so called, as
Blackstone tells us, "because by his person the Church which is
an invisible body, is represented."

Paschal.--Pertaining to Easter, from the fact that the original
name of the Festival was _Pascha_, _i.e._, the Passover.

Passion.--Meaning _suffering_, and is used almost exclusively of
our Lord's sufferings, as expressed in the article of the Creed,
"Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried."

Passion Sunday.--The Fifth Sunday in Lent is so called because on
this day our Lord began to make open prediction of His sufferings,
and in her round of worship the Church begins the solemn commemoration
of His Passion and Death. (See LENT, SUNDAYS IN.)

Passion Tide.--The name given to the last two weeks of Lent
beginning with the Fifth Sunday in Lent, during which our Lord's
Passion and Death are commemorated.

Passion Week.--The week before Holy Week. This name should not be
applied to the last week of Lent, which is properly called Holy
Week, or as called by the primitive Christians, the "Great Week."

Pastor.--A Latin word meaning Shepherd. Christ having called
Himself the Good Shepherd, or Good Pastor, the name has been
assumed for His Ministers. They bear the same relation to the
Flock over which they are placed. A Pastor is a Teacher, Guide,
Exemplar, Friend, Administrator. He deals with {208} individuals.
His intercourse is personal. His offices are for all and for each.
Pastorship includes many and varied offices,--Minister, Rector,
Preacher, Priest, but all offices and all labors have reference
to men's spiritual interests. He who is a Pastor has the cure, _i_.
_e_., care, charge of men's souls. Pastorship, therefore, is a very
sacred as well as a very responsible office. It is well to note
that a minister is not a Pastor simply because he is ordained;
besides the Divine call and Divine appointment in ordination, there
is also the call from the people to define that number of souls
over which the charge is to be exercised. This is brought out in
the "Office of Institution of Ministers into Parishes or Churches,"
to be found in the Prayer-book.

Pastoral Letter.--A letter issued by the Rector of a Parish, or by
the Bishop of the Diocese on some subject affecting the welfare of
the Church in its devotions or work. Perhaps the most important of
such Pastoral Letters is that which is issued by the House of
Bishops at the close of each General Convention, touching on grave
questions of the day or on the prospects of the Church throughout
the nation, and which is required by canon to be read in all the

Pastoral Staff.--A staff used by a Bishop, as an ensign of his
office, at all public Episcopal Ministrations. It is generally borne
by his chaplain. The Pastoral Staff is made in the shape of a
shepherd's crook and is frequently given to the Bishop at his
consecration, to denote that he is then constituted a shepherd over
the Flock of Christ. This use of the {209} Pastoral Staff comes down
to us from the most ancient times.

Paten.--The plate, made of precious metal, on which the Bread is
consecrated at the Holy Communion and from which it is administered
to the communicants. When properly made, the lower part of the
Paten will fit into or over the edge of the chalice. The word is
derived from the Latin, _Patena_ or the Greek, _Patane_, meaning a
flat, open dish. (See VESSELS, SACRED.)

Paul, Conversion of Saint.--A feast of the Church observed on
January 25th, in memory of the Conversion of St. Paul, through
whose preaching God caused the Light of the Gospel to shine
throughout the world. St. Paul is not commemorated as the other
Apostles are, by his death or martyrdom, but as stated above, by
his Conversion because it was so wonderful in itself and was so
important and beneficial to the Church. He labored more abundantly
than they all. While the other Apostles had their particular fields
of labor, St. Paul had the care of all the churches and by his
labors contributed very much to the propagation of the Gospel
throughout the world. There are good reasons for believing that he
extended his Apostolical labors even to the remote island of
Britain. We find him described by two names, _Saul_ and _Paul_, the
first being Hebrew, relating to his Jewish origin and the other
Latin, assumed by him, as some think, at his conversion, as an act
of humility, styling himself less than the least of all saints. St.
Paul suffered martyrdom, having been beheaded, in the sixty-eighth
year of his age, at Rome, under Nero, in the general {210} persecution
of Christians upon the pretense that they set fire to the city. It
was from the instrument of his execution that the custom arose of
representing him in ecclesiastical art with a sword in his hand.

Penance.--In the early ages of the Church the commission of grievous
error in life or doctrine was, punished by exclusion from the
Communion of the Church; and in order to obtain readmission,
offenders were obliged to submit to a prescribed course of penitence.
The regulations as to the length and manner of this discipline
varied in different times and in the several branches of the Church;
the administration of it was chiefly in the hands of the Bishops.
It is this "godly discipline" to which reference is had in the
Commination Office in the Prayer-book of the Church of England, and
which is used "until the said discipline may be restored again,
which is much to be wished." Penance is also regarded as one of
the lesser Sacraments.

Penitential Office.--An office of deep devotion and contrition to
be used on Ash Wednesday, which was added to the Prayer-book at its
last revision in 1892. Its place in the service is during the latter
part of the Litany. It may be used on other days at the discretion
of the minister. (See ASH WEDNESDAY.)

Penitential Psalms.--Being the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130th
and 143d Psalms of David, all of which are read during the services
on ASH WEDNESDAY (which see). There are no prayers more fitted for
penitent sinners than the Seven Penitential Psalms, if we enter
into the feelings of compunction, {211} love, devotedness and
confidence with which the Royal Psalmist was penetrated. The purport
of each psalm may be briefly stated as follows:

Psalm 6 exhibits a sinner in earnest and hearty prayer after having
sinned, with assured hope and confidence in the mercy of God.

Psalm 32 shows how a sinner is brought to understand his sins, to
confess and bewail them and obtain remission.

Psalm 38, in which the penitent earnestly prays to God to pardon
his sins and mitigate his punishment.

Psalm 51 shows the great sorrow of a sinner for his sins.

Psalm 102 shows how a sinner in affliction of mind prays to God
and derives comfort from His help and goodness.

Psalm 130 shows how a sinner in tribulation cries to God for
deliverance; while

Psalm 143 may be used in any spiritual or temporal tribulation.

Pentecost.--The Greek name for the "Feast of Weeks" in the Jewish
Church. The word means _fiftieth_, the Feast being fifty days after
the Feast of the Passover. Whitsun Day is so called, being observed
fifty days after Easter, the Christian Passover, and because it
was on the Day of Pentecost that the Holy Ghost was given. (See

Peter, festival of Saint.--A Holy Day of the Church observed on
June 29th in honor of the Apostle Saint Peter, and is one of the
oldest of Christian Festivals, having been traced back to the Second
Century. St. Peter was one of the first two disciples {212} whom our
Lord called. His original name was Simon or Simeon, which was changed
into Cephas, which in the Syrian language, signifies a _stone_ or
_rock_; from this it was derived into the Greek _Petros_, and so
termed by us Peter. This new name was to denote the firmness and
constancy which St. Peter should manifest in preaching the Gospel
and in establishing the Church. He has left two Epistles which
appear in the New Testament as the "First and Second Epistles
General of St. Peter." It is said that his later years were spent
at Rome where he was crucified with his head downwards, on the hill
where the Vatican now stands, on the same day, June 29th (as is
generally believed) that St. Paul was beheaded A.D. 63. In
ecclesiastical art St. Peter is variously represented, with a key
in his hand; with a key and church; with keys and cross; in chains
and in prison, etc.

Philip (St.) and St. James' Day.--A Festival observed on May 1st in
memory of two Apostles of our Lord, St. Philip and St. James. The
reason for coupling together the names of these two Apostles is not
quite clear, but it may be taken as an illustration of the manner in
which our Lord sent forth His Apostles, two and two. St. Philip was
a native of Bethsaida, a town bordering on the Sea of Tiberias and
was one of the first of our Lord's disciples and was His constant
companion and follower. He brought Nathanael, a person of great note
and eminence, to the knowledge of the Messiah; and it was to St.
Philip that certain Greeks went with the request, "Sir, we would
see Jesus." St. Philip is said to have carried the Gospel to
Northern Asia, where by his {213} preaching and miracles he made
many converts; his name has also been connected with the Church in
Russia. He suffered martyrdom at Hieropolis, a city of Phrygia,
where he was crucified and stoned on the cross. In ecclesiastical
art St. Philip is variously represented; with a basket in his hand;
with two loaves and a cross; with a tall cross and book, etc. For
notice of St. James see article on James (St.) the Less.

Piscina.--A stone basin with a drain pipe to carry off water used in
the ablutions of the sacred vessels at the celebration of the Holy

Plain Song.--The name given to the ancient music with which
the Church service was rendered. Thus Blunt in the Annotated
Prayer-book, speaking of Church music says, "In the remodeling of
our English services, the great aim was not to discard, but to
utilize the ancient plain song, to adapt it to the translated
offices, to restore it to something more of its primitive
'plainness,' to rid it of its modern corruptions, its wearisome
ornaments and flourishes so that the Priest's part, on the one hand,
might be intelligible and distinct, not veiled in a dense cloud
of unmeaning notes, and the people's part made so easy and
straightforward as to render their restored participation in the
public worship of the Sanctuary at once practicable and pleasurable."

Post Communion.--The name given to that portion of the Communion
Office which is read after all have communicated, and is the giving
of thanks for the grace received.

Postulant.--The canonical name for one who {214} desires to become a
Candidate for Holy Orders and whose name is entered by the Bishop
upon the list of Postulants, as required by Canon 2, Title I of the
Digest. A Postulant having been duly received may afterwards be
recommended by the Standing Committee of the Diocese, to the Bishop
for admission as a Candidate for Holy Orders.

Postures in Public Worship.--The principles involved in the postures
to be taken in Public Worship are set forth in the article on
KNEELING (which see). While to the stranger in the Church the
various postures taken in the services seem complicated, yet the
rule for them is very simple, which is this: We stand in praise,
kneel in prayer and are seated during the hearing of the Word.

Prayer.--Prayer has been defined as the soul's converse with God,
or communion with God in devotional exercises, and may be said to
be a universally recognized necessity in the life of man. But prayer
involves much more than simply asking for certain things, which
seems to be the common conception of this duty. Properly speaking,
prayer consists of five parts, as follows:

  1. Adoration    \
  2. Thanksgiving / which concern Gods glory.
  3. Confession \
  4. Petition   / which concern our individual needs.
  5. Intercession, which concerns the needs of others.

The efficacy of prayer rests on the Mediation of Christ, and its
warrant is to be found in the words, "Ask and it shall be given you;
seek and ye shall {215} find; knock and it shall be opened unto you."
God our Father has promised to hear the petitions of those who ask in
His Son's Name, and who faithfully call upon Him and we know that
His promise cannot fail. There are many remarkable instances of the
power of prayer to be found both in the Old and the New Testaments,
as well, also, in the lives of many earnest and faithful men who, in
this present time, continue "instant in prayer."

Prayer Book, The.--The title of our manual of devotions is "The Book
of Common Prayer." It is called _Common Prayer_, because it is
to be used by the Congregation in Public Worship, and is thus
distinguished from prayer in private. As such it comprehends the
needs, feelings and devotions common to all. The efficacy of Common
Prayer consists in its being a united service and to this end arises
the necessity of a prescribed form. Such prescribed form had its
origin in the Christian Church from the very earliest ages, and so
early were Liturgies introduced that four of them are mentioned
under the names of St. Peter, St. Mark, St. James and St. John. (See
LITURGIES.) Liturgies thus became an inherent feature of the
Christian Church, and wherever it was planted its worship was
according to such prescribed form. Thus when Christianity was
introduced into Britain we find a Liturgy in use there from the
beginning. This Liturgy continued in use, although varying in many
details in different dioceses, until it was superseded by the Book
of Offices set forth by Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, in A.D. 1078,
known as the _Sarum Use_. This was adopted with little variation by
{216} most of the Churches of the Kingdom. But gradually the Public
Offices became defaced by the innovations and corruptions of Rome;
these, however, were expunged at the time of the Reformation and the
Book of Common Prayer was set forth. The Prayer-book as we now have
it is the result of a long period of study and legislation. It is to
be noticed that it was not the object of the English Reformers to
create something new, to introduce innovations, but simply to
exclude errors and corruptions. To this end, they retained those
portions of the ancient Formularies which were sanctioned by the
Holy Scriptures and by primitive usage. The first practical result
of this movement is seen in the First Prayer-book of Edward VI set
forth in English, and which was publicly used on Whitsun Day, June
9th, 1549. Afterwards many other revisions took place, until the
English Prayer-book, as it practically is now, was set forth in
1662; since which time only a few and unimportant changes have been
made. The American Prayer-book, adapted from the English Book was
set forth and ratified October 16th, 1789, and afterwards revised
in 1883-1892, as it now stands. (See RESPONSIVE SERVICE, FORMS, also

Prayers for the Dead.--Prayers for the departed are in accordance
with the devout instinct and loving heart of man, and are sanctioned
by all the Liturgies of the Primitive Church. In these we find
that the commemorations of the departed were not only general
commemorations, but that names of persons who were to be prayed
for were read out from the DIPTYCHS {217} (which see). The devout
mind does not argue about "Prayers for the Dead," he prays them.

  "How can I cease to pray for thee? Somewhere
    In God's great universe thou art to-day.
   Can He not reach thee with His tender care?
    Can He not hear me when for thee I pray?"

Precentor.--The name given to the choirmaster; one who is director
of the music in a choir.

Pre-Lenten Season.--The name commonly given to the weeks preceding
Lent covered by the three Sundays entitled, _Septuagesima_,
_Sexagesima_ and _Quinquagesima_. The Season is so called because
the services on these Sundays are intended to prepare us for the due
observance of Lent. (See SEPTUAGESIMA.)

Presbyter.--The original word for "Elder" in the New Testament
is _Presbuteros_, shortened in English to _Presbyter_; further
shortened to _Prester_, and finally to PRIEST (which see, also

Presentation of Christ.--A Festival of the Church observed on
February 2. It is a double Festival as we learn from its title
which reads, "The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, commonly
called the Purification of Saint Mary the Virgin." "This connection,"
says Blunt, "of the two events is, doubtless, to show the close
relation which the acts of the Blessed Virgin bore to the Incarnation
of our Lord; and that she is most honored by associating her with
her divine Son." The Festival is popularly called CANDLEMAS (which
see). It is the fortieth day after Christmas, that being the period
at which the rites of Purification and Presentation were enjoined by
the Law. {218}

Presiding Bishop.--The name given to the Senior Bishop by
consecration of the American Church, who presides in the House of
Bishops and in the General Convention when both Houses meet as one
body. When the Convention is not in session he acts as Primate of
the American Church. Following is the list of those Bishops who have
acted as

  Presiding Bishops:

   1--Bishop Seabury from Nov. 14, 1784, to Feb. 25, 1796.
   2--Bishop White from Feb. 25, 1796 to July 17, 1836.
   3--Bishop Griswold from July 17, 1836, to Feb. 16, 1842.
   4--Bishop Chase from Feb. 16, 1842, to Sept. 20, 1852.
   5--Bishop Brownell from Sept. 20, 1852, to Jan. 13, 1865.
   6--Bishop Hopkins from Jan. 13, 1865, to Jan. 9, 1868.
   7--Bishop Smith from Jan. 9, 1868, to May 31, 1884.
   8--Bishop Lee from May 31, 1884 to April 12, 1887.
   9--Bishop Williams from April 12, 1887 to Feb. 7, 1899.
  10--Bishop Clark from Feb. 7, 1899.

Priest.--The shortened form for Presbyter. The title of the
second Order of the Ministry. His chief duties are to offer the
Holy Sacrifice in the Eucharist, to administer Baptism, to give
absolution, to give the Priestly Blessing at Marriages, Churchings,
and at other services of the Church: in fact, to exercise every
sacred function which is not properly or exclusively Episcopal,
that is, belonging to the Bishop. (See PRESBYTER, also ELDER.)

Primate.--The name given to a Metropolitan or Archbishop who is the
presiding Bishop of a National Church.

Prime.--One of the seven CANONICAL HOURS (which see). {219}


Private Baptism.--(See BAPTISM, PRIVATE.)

Proanaphora.--A more Churchly name for the introductory parts of
the Communion Office, commonly called "Ante Communion." Properly
speaking, the Proanaphoral service includes all that portion of the
Communion service which precedes the _Sursum Corda_, "Lift up your

Pro-Cathedral.--A Parish Church used for Cathedral or Diocesan
purposes, but without the formation of a legal Cathedral organization
and without a Cathedral chapter.

Procession of the Holy Ghost.--The word "Procession" is used to
express the relation in the Blessed Trinity between the Father and
the Holy Ghost. As we believe that the Son is eternally begotten of
the Father, so we believe that the Holy Ghost is a Person eternally
proceeding from the Father, as set forth in the article of the
Creed, "Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son." The words "and
the Son" were added later, and the article is generally interpreted
as meaning that the Holy Ghost emanates from the Father through the
Son, and therefore proceeds from both; or as an ancient writer
expressed it, "Always hath the Spirit proceeded from the Father and
received of the Son." (See HOLY GHOST, also FILIOQUE.)

Processional Cross.--The standard Cross borne in front of a
procession of Choir and Clergy as they enter or go out of the
church. This method of entering the church is a very old custom
and still prevails where the choir is vested. {220}

Proper Lessons.--The portions of Scripture from the Old and New
Testaments appointed to be read on a Sunday or Holy Day at Morning
and Evening Prayer. The word "Proper" as thus used is intended to
indicate that the Lesson is appropriate to the Sunday or Holy Day
and is to be read on that day instead of the Lesson appointed for
the Daily Office. (See LECTIONARY, also LESSON.)

Proper Preface.--The Preface is that portion of the Communion
Office, beginning with the words "Lift up your hearts," immediately
preceding the TER SANCTUS (which see), and the _Proper Preface_
contains the additional words set forth to emphasize the great
Truths commemorated on certain High Festivals, namely, Christmas
Day, Easter Day, Ascension Day, Whitsun Day and Trinity Sunday.

Proper Psalms.--Certain great days of the Church are so important
in the truths they set forth, the Church hath thought good to order
that all Holy Scriptures that can possibly be used in illustration
thereof shall be read on those days. Thus in addition to the Proper
Lessons there are also _Proper Psalms_, and the days for which they
are appointed with the number of the Psalms to be read are to be
found in the Table prefixed to the Psalter in the Prayer-book.

Protestant.--A name given to certain persons who protested against
a law made by the Emperor Charles V and his Diet in 1529. The name
is commonly applied to what are known as "Evangelical Denominations,"
as opposed to Romanism. But as so many Heretics, Atheists,
Free-thinkers and Nothingarians are included under the name
_Protestant_, the word is going {221} out of use among Church-people,
having lost much of its proper meaning.

Protestant Episcopal.--(See AMERICAN CHURCH.)

Provinces.--The name given to certain grouping together of two or
more Dioceses for the more convenient management of the work and
legislation of the Church. The chief or presiding Bishop of the
Province is generally the Bishop of the metropolis or chief city
and therefore he is styled Metropolitan, and also Archbishop. In
England the Church is divided into two Provinces, Canterbury and
York. The Church in the United States is practically only one
Province. But the growth and increase of the Church here have been
so great, it is being found more and more necessary to seek a proper
division into Provinces, and steps have already been taken to this

Psalter, The.--The name given to the Book of Psalms as set forth
in the Prayer-book for use in Public Worship. The Psalms were
originally set forth to be sung, not said, and this is the only
proper way of rendering them in the Church's service. The colon to
be found in each verse of the Psalter is put there to facilitate
chanting them. The present method of reading the Psalter arose
simply from lack of musical facilities in the early days of the
Church in this country; and because this method still prevails in
many places, the average Churchman thinks this is the proper way of
rendering them. This is a mistake, and in many parishes this mistake
has been corrected; the Psalter for the day being sung just as the
detached Psalms, such as the _Venite_, _Jubilate_, etc., are sung.
It is to be noted that the version of the Psalter {222} is not that
of the Authorized Version of 1611, but that of the Great Bible of
1540. This was retained in the Prayer-book because the people had
become familiar with it, and because it is more rhythmical and suited
to chanting. The Psalter is divided into sixty portions to be used at
Daily Morning and Evening Prayer and is thus designed to be read
through once a month. (See DAILY PRAYER.)

Purification, The.--(See PRESENTATION OF CHRIST, also CANDLEMAS.)

Purificator.--The name given to a small linen napkin used for wiping
the sacred vessels after a Celebration.


Quadragesima.--Meaning _fortieth_; a name to be found in the
Prayer-book for the First Sunday in Lent, because it occurs about
forty days before Easter.

Quadrilateral.--The name commonly given to the summary of the
declaration of the House of Bishops made in the General Convention
held at Chicago in 1886, concerning the terms which they deemed to
be a sufficient basis for the Reunion of Christendom, and which was
reaffirmed by the Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion,
held at Lambeth Palace, England, in July, 1888. This declaration is
summarized under four heads as follows:

I. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing
all things necessary to {223} salvation," and as being the rule and
ultimate standard of faith.

2. The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene
Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith.

3. The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself--Baptism and the
Supper of the Lord--ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words
of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him.

4. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its
administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples
called of God into the Unity of His Church.

Qualifications for Holy Orders.--These are stated in the Preface to
the Ordinal set forth in the Prayer-book as follows: that the
Candidate be of the age required by the Canon in that case provided;
that he be a man of virtuous conversation and without crime; and,
after examination and trial, found to be sufficiently instructed in
the Holy Scripture and otherwise learned as the Canons require. (See

Quick.--A word used in the Creed and elsewhere in the Prayer-book,
being the old English word for the _living_ as distinguished from
the dead.

Quicunque Vult.--The name given to the Athanasian Creed, from the
first Latin words with which it begins, and meaning "Whosoever
will." The Athanasian Creed is not used in the American Church, but
is found in the English Prayer-book and is required to be said on
certain Festivals.

Quiet Day.--The name given to a day set apart {224} for special
devotions, meditation and instruction for the members of a parish,
or school or society. There is always a celebration of the Holy
Eucharist, hours of prayer with a meditation or instruction given by
the Priest, with times of silent prayer and intercession. Such days
have been found to be very helpful in deepening the spiritual life,
and are usually conducted by a Priest well experienced in such work,
and who is specially invited for the purpose.

Quinquagesima.--The name given to the Sunday next before Lent,
because it is the _fiftieth_ day before Easter; Quinquagesima
meaning fiftieth. (See SEPTUAGESIMA.)


Rail.--(See ALTAR RAIL.)

Ratification, The.--The American Prayer-book having been set forth,
it was duly ratified by the action of the General Convention on
October 16th, 1789, and the certificate of such ratification appears
in every copy of the Prayer-book, declaring "it to be the Liturgy of
this Church," and requiring "that it be received as such by all the
members of the same."

Real Presence.--The name given to the Church's doctrine concerning
Christ's Presence in the Holy Eucharist. The term "Real Presence"
is intended to signify that the Presence of our Lord in this
Sacrament is a reality; that while His Presence is spiritual, it
is none the less real, and not simply figurative. The sacrament is
not a mere sign or token of an absent {225} Christ. It is a great deal
more. As it is Christ who invites, bids and calls us to this Feast
and provides the spiritual food for it, it would be strange indeed
if we were uncertain whether He is there to receive us and to feed
us; and if He is present, His Presence must be very _real_. Under
the outward form of Bread and Wine we have the Scriptural warrant
to believe that the Body and the Blood of Christ are given, taken
and received verily and indeed by the faithful in the Lord's Supper,
to the strengthening and refreshing of their souls,--as declared in
the Church Catechism and the Twenty-eighth Article of Religion.
Being assured of this fact, it is useless and only fruitful in
doubt and perplexity, to speculate upon the manner of this Presence,
which is a _Mystery of the Gospel_; as such the Church has received
and taught it, but has never explained or defined. This being the
attitude of the Church, it will be our wisdom to say of this

  "Christ was the Word that spake it;
   He took the Bread and brake it,
   And what that Word did make it,
   That I believe and take it."

Reception into the Church.--(See BAPTISM, PRIVATE.)

Recessional.--The name given to the retiring of choir and clergy in
due order after a church service. Some objection has been raised to
this use of the word, but as nothing better has been substituted
for it, the word continues in use. {226}

Rector.--The official title of the Priest who has charge of a Parish
and as such is its ruler, guide and director. The word means "one
who rules." Like other organizations, the Parish must have a head,
and by the canons of the Church, the Rector is head of the Parish.
As such he is _ex officio_ head of all its organizations. He is the
presiding officer at all Vestry meetings, superintendent of the
Sunday-school, and President of all Guilds, Brotherhoods and other
parochial societies. These offices he may delegate to others, but
_ex officio_ the Rector is head of all, and all that may be done in
the parish is to be done with reference to his consent and approval.

Rectory.--The house owned by the parish, intended for the use of the
Rector as his home.

Red Letter Days.--Those Festivals of the Church for which Collect,
Epistle and Gospel are provided in the Prayer-book. They are so
called from having been printed in the Calendar in red letters. The
words have passed into popular use to denote any notably auspicious
or favorable day; a day to be remembered.

Refreshment Sunday.--The Fourth Sunday in Lent is so called from the
Gospel for the day, which relates the feeding of the five thousand
by our Lord in the wilderness. As the late Bishop Coxe pointed out
in his "Thoughts on the Services," "having thus far (in the Lenten
services) considered the havoc of sin, we come now to consider its
repair; and because the sufficiency of Christ to refresh and satisfy
our hunger and thirst after righteousness is exhibited in the Gospel
for this day. It has little of the austere character of the other
Sundays in Lent; and its design is the {227} encouragement of
catechumens and penitents." (See FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT; also LENT,

Regeneration.--The inward and spiritual gift in Holy Baptism is
_regeneration_, that is being born anew. It is well to note that
Regeneration, or the "New Birth" is often confounded with
"Conversion," or they are regarded as synonymous terms. This is a
mistake and contrary to the teaching of Holy Scripture. Regeneration
is a New Birth unto God whereby we become partakers of the nature of
Christ. As the natural birth, so the new and spiritual Birth can
take place only once, and that in Holy Baptism. A baptized
Christian may repeatedly fall from Grace, and by repentance, by
amendment of life and by forgiveness he may be again restored,
(this is _Conversion_), but he cannot be said to be again _regenerate_
without a grievous misapprehension of the language of the Bible and
a _total departure from the Doctrine of the Primitive Church_. By
_Regeneration_, therefore, is meant that gracious act of God whereby
for Christ's sake. He brings us into a new relationship with
Himself, adopts us as His own children, translates us into the
kingdom of His Son, incorporates us into His Church, and so brings
us under the influence of the Holy Spirit. Regeneration is the name
originated for Baptism by our Lord Himself in His discourse with
Nicodemus, as recorded in the third chapter of St. John's Gospel,
and it is for this reason that this passage is appointed to be read
in the service for the Baptism of Adults. (See BAPTISM, HOLY; also

Register.--(See PARISH REGISTER.)

Registrar.--The title of an officer of the {228} Convention, whether
of the General Convention or of the Convention or Council of a
Diocese. His duty is to collect and preserve such papers, reports,
journals and other documents relating to the history and property of
the Church as are now or may hereafter become the property of the
Convention, and to keep the same in a safe and convenient place.

Religious Orders.--In the American Church there are many religious
orders composed of men or women who have separated themselves from
the world that they may devote themselves by associated effort more
unreservedly to the Church's work. Some are bands of Priests, like
the "Society of the Mission Priests of St. John Evangelist," or
the "Order of the Holy Cross," this latter also including laymen;
others are bands of laymen alone, such as the "Order of the Brothers
of Nazareth"; and others are Sisterhoods, composed of women who
have devoted themselves for life to the work of the Church, such
as the "Sisters of St. Mary," "Sisters of St. Monica," etc. Members
of the Sisterhoods do work in schools, hospitals, and among the
wretched, the poor and neglected. These religious orders have
proved to be very efficient aids in the Church's work in many parts
of our land and are highly commended for the sacrifice they display
and for the admirable methods of their work.

Reproaches, The.--In the ancient observance of Good Friday there
was used a service called "The Reproaches." This consisted of
certain striking passages read from Micah 3:3 and 4, as well as
other Scriptures, with the respond, "Holy God, Holy and Mighty,
Holy and Immortal, have mercy upon us." {229}

They are called "Reproaches" from the character of the first passage
read, namely, "O my people what have I done unto thee, and wherein
have I wearied thee? Answer me;" this being read also as a respond
to the other passages. The Reproaches are now frequently used in
many churches on Good Friday as a separate service and are very
solemn and impressive.

Reredos.--A carved or sculptured screen of wood or stone placed
above and back of the Altar, The word is a compound of the old
English _rere_, the same as "rear," and the French word _dos_,
derived from the Latin _dorsum_, meaning "back."

Responds.--In the old system of reading Holy Scripture in Divine
Service, short selections from different books of the Bible were
read successively, with short Anthems being sung after each, which
were called "responds." This responsory system of reading Holy
Scripture is still retained in its old form in the case of the Ten
Commandments when read in the Communion service. One of the
principal changes made in revising the Prayer-book in 1549 was the
setting forth of longer Lessons with responsory canticles sung at
the end only. Thus the respond to the First Morning Lesson is the
Te Deum, and the respond to the Second Lesson is the Benedictus, etc.

Responses.--The name given to the answers made by the people in the
Church services as in the Versicles, the Litany, after the Ten
Commandments, etc.

Responsive Service.--The glory of the Episcopal Church is its
_responsive service_, as provided by the Book of Common Prayer. By
means of this, the people have their part in the service. Thus {230}
worship becomes general throughout the whole congregation and the
people are not silent spectators, nor yet simply an audience. But
however reasonable and desirable this may be, there is a deeper
principle involved. The responsive character of the services brings
out and emphasizes the "Priesthood of the People." St. Peter, in
his First General Epistle, writing to the Baptized, says of them,
"But ye are a chosen generation, a royal Priesthood, an holy nation,
a peculiar people, that ye should show forth the praise of Him who
hath called you out of darkness into His marvelous Light." Thus the
Baptized are called in Holy Scripture "a royal priesthood," and
this doctrine pervades the Prayer-book. The whole system of
responsive worship is founded upon the Priesthood of the Laity,
and enables them to _show forth the praise_ of Him who hath called
them out of darkness into His marvelous Light. (See AMEN; FORMS;

Retable.--A shelf at the back of the Altar, usually fastened to the
reredos, on which are placed the Altar cross, the vases for flowers,
and the candlesticks. The necessity for the retable arises from
the fact of the reverent usage of the Church, which requires that
nothing shall be placed on the Altar but the Eucharistic vessels,
the book rest and the book.

Retreat.--This is a term used to designate a time of retirement as
a means of deepening the Spiritual life of the Clergy, for whose
benefit it is held. It involves a temporary submission to the
monastic rule of silence, meditation, confession and conference.
In Holy Scripture we read of our Lord and His disciples {231}
constantly going into retreat in some shape or other. Christ on the
hilltop, St. Paul in the desert near Damascus, St. Peter on the roof
of his house, retired for prayer and meditation. The Retreat as now
conducted gives each one the opportunity to make special effort to
see more clearly those great principles of Religion which can only
be seen by such effort and by such special spiritual exercises.
In some Dioceses an annual Pre-Lenten Retreat is held for both
Bishop and clergy in preparation for the solemn and spiritual work
of Lent. It is a cheering sign of spiritual revival which many will
welcome, to see Bishop and Clergy thus meeting and withdrawing for
a season from the world, for prayer, for intercommunion and

Ring.--The custom of the Wedding Ring was probably adopted by the
early Church from the marriage customs of the Jews and also of the
heathen, as its use has been almost universal. From its shape,
having neither beginning nor ending, it is regarded as an emblem
of eternity, constancy, and integrity. It is placed on the fourth
finger of the woman's left hand, and the ancient ceremony of doing
so was to place it first on the thumb at the Name of the first
Person of the Trinity; on the next finger, at the Name of the Son;
on the third at the Name of the Holy Ghost, and then on the fourth
finger, and leaving it there at the word "Amen." The ring is, also,
frequently given at the consecration of a Bishop, to symbolize his
espousal with the Church in his Diocese. Thus bestowed, it is the
symbol of authority and is called the _Episcopal Ring_. {232}

Rites and Ceremonies.--The Rites and Ceremonies of the Church are
based on the Apostolic injunction, "Let all things be done decently
and in order." By _rites_ are meant certain prescribed ordinances,
and by _ceremonies_ certain sacred observances, as distinguished
from Sacraments. These when prescribed by lawful authority are
instrumental in promoting uniformity of worship and are conducive
to regularity and edification. We learn from the Twentieth Article
of Religion that the power to decree Rites and Ceremonies rests with
the Church, and, as set forth in the Twenty-fourth Article, "every
particular and national Church hath authority to ordain, change
and abolish ceremonies, ordained only by man's authority." The
Rites and Ceremonies of the American Church, are set forth and
implied in the Book of Common Prayer, marked out in the rubrics
and the Tables prefixed to it.

Ritual. Ritualism.--By _ritual_ is meant the ceremonial part of
Religion; the name is also applied to the book in which the Rites
and Ceremonies are set forth. By _ritualism_ is meant the system of
ritual or prescribed form of religious worship. Therefore, these
words meaning what they do are to be lifted up out of all party
spirit and are to be regarded as expressive of the Church's real
system of worship. Loyalty to the Prayer-book demands obedience to
the rubrics on the part of both minister and people. Then it is
well to remember that when the Prayer-book was first set forth in
1549, the principal change was that the services should be said in
English; the ritual remained the same. This explains the origin of
many practices which now prevail in the Church as {233} a matter of
course, such as kneeling, bowing at the Name of Jesus, the use of
vestments, etc. These are simply what had been in use in the early
Church, and the use of the Prayer-book presupposes them all. It
is well, also, to observe that Ritualism properly considered,
emphasizes the continuity of the Church before and after the
Reformation, and is a standing protest against the false idea that
the Episcopal Church was founded by Henry the Eighth, or that it
is a mere schism from the Church of Rome. (See ORNAMENTS; also

Rochet.--A Bishop's vestment, and may be described as a long narrow
surplice or alb which he wears under the CHIMERE (which see).

Rogation Days.--The Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday before Ascension
Day. They are days of abstinence preparatory to the great Feast of
the Ascension. They are so called from the Latin word _rogare_,
meaning to ask, and coming as they do in the early part of the year,
it was customary on these days to ask God's blessing on the fruits
of the earth. So that the Rogation Days bear the same relation to
the plowing and sowing that Thanksgiving Day bears to the harvest.
Two special prayers for this purpose, entitled "For Fruitful
Seasons,--To be used on Rogation Sunday and the Rogation Days,"
were introduced into the American Prayer-book at its last revision
in 1892. The Rogation Days were originated about the middle of the
Fifth Century by Mamercus, Bishop of Vienne in Gaul, on the occasion
of a great calamity that threatened his Diocese; whence arose the
custom of saying the Litany and certain Psalms such as 103d {234} and
104th, during perambulations of parishes. This method of celebrating
the Rogation Days still prevails in many parishes in England.

Rogation Sunday.--The Fifth Sunday after Easter, being the Sunday
next before the Rogation Days and Ascension Day is so called, and
no doubt from the words with which the Gospel for the day begins,
"Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall _ask_ the Father
in My Name, He will give it you." (See ROGATION DAYS.)

Rood Screen.--The word "rood" is the old Saxon word for _cross_ or
crucifix; and the term "rood screen" is the name given to the screen
or open partition to be seen in many churches, placed between the
chancel and the nave, and which is always surmounted by the rood,
_i.e._, the cross.

Rubric.--The rules or directions in the Prayer-book, printed in
Italics, concerning the method of conducting the services. While
they are now usually printed in black ink, they are still called
_rubrics_ from the fact that they were formerly always printed in
red; rubric being derived from a Latin word meaning _red_.


Sabaoth.--The Hebrew word for "Hosts." The words "Lord God of
Sabaoth," to be found in the Te Deum, mean the same as "Lord God of
Hosts" in the Ter Sanctus in the Communion Service. {235}

Sabbath.--The Jewish weekly day of _rest_ (which the word means)
observed on the seventh day because God rested on that day from His
work of creation. It is no longer binding on Christians, and the
name is very improperly applied to the first day of the week which
Christians observe as a day of rest and worship. (See LORD'S DAY.)

Sacrament.--The word "Sacrament" is derived from the Latin
_Sacramentum_, meaning the military oath required of the soldiers
of ancient Rome. Its outward sign was the uplifted hand whereby the
soldier pledged himself to loyalty, which may be regarded as the
thing signified by that outward gesture. The word came to be used
for those ordinances of the Christian Church possessing an "outward
sign" and conveying an "inward grace." Thus the Church Catechism
treating of the two Sacraments "generally necessary to salvation,
that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord," defines a
sacrament as being an outward and visible sign ordained by Christ,
of an inward and spiritual grace given by Him as its accompaniment.
This definition has reference to the Sacramental system of the
Church and means that Christ appointed only two Sacraments that are
generally or universally necessary to salvation. It does not imply
that there are not other Sacramental agencies in the Church--but
only that these two are absolutely necessary to salvation. For
example, if a man would be saved he must receive Holy Baptism and
Holy Communion where these Sacraments are to be had; but for his
salvation it is not necessary that he should be married, or ordained
to the Sacred Ministry, and yet Marriage and {236} Ordination are
thoroughly sacramental in character in that they are grace
conferring, and therefore, in her book of Homilies the Church calls
them Sacraments, The great English divines generally take this
position in regard to the Sacraments and the Sacramental System
of the Church. Thus Archbishop Bramhall declares: "The proper and
certain Sacraments of the Christian Church, common to all, or (in
the words of our Church) _generally necessary_ to Salvation, are
but two, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord. . . . The rest we
retain, though not under the notion of such proper and general
Sacraments,--as Confirmation, Ordination, Matrimony, Penitence and
lastly, the Visitation of the Sick." So also, Bishop Jeremy Taylor
says, "it is none of the doctrine of the Church of England, that
there are two Sacraments only, but that 'two only are generally
necessary to salvation.'"

Sacred Vessels.--(See VESSELS, SACRED.)

Sacrifice.--A solemn offering made to God according to His ordinance,
for His honor and for the benefit of sinners, as in the Holy
Communion which is called "our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving,"
and in which the merits and death of Christ are pleaded for the
remission of our sins.

Sacristan.--An old word derived from the Latin _sacra_, meaning
sacred things, still retained to designate one who has charge of
the Sacristy with all its contents, viz., the vestments and sacred
vessels. The word has been corrupted into _sexton_ which is now used
for the man who takes care of the church building.

Sacristy.--The apartment in a church building {237} where the
vestments, books and sacred vessels are kept; sometimes called the

Saint.--The New Testament name for all the Baptized, who are
declared to be "an holy nation," by reason of their incorporation
into Christ's mystical Body. Like the ancient people of God they may
not in their individual lives fully realize their high destiny, yet
are they partakers of an holy calling. The word has since come to be
used only of those of extraordinary virtue and who, perchance,
suffered for the Truth's sake.

Saints' Days.--It has always been characteristic of the devotional
system of the Christian Church to commemorate before God the grace
given to His faithful servants whereby they were enabled to live
righteously and to bear witness to His Truth, and to pray that we
may follow the good examples of these His servants and with them be
made partakers of Everlasting Life. (See DIPTYCHS.) The day
commemorated is generally that of the Saint's death, because like
his Master, he passed through death to the portals of Everlasting
Life. According to the Prayer-book the Saints commemorated in this
Church are the Twelve Apostles; St. John Baptist and St. Barnabas;
the Evangelists St. Mark and St. Luke; the Holy Innocents, St.
Stephen; Conversion of St. Paul; and in addition, St. Michael and
All Angels' Day, and All Saints' Day. The Saints commemorated in
our Calendar are all treated of elsewhere under their proper titles,
to which the reader is referred.

Sanctuary.--Meaning the "Holy Place"; the name given to that
portion of the Chancel within the rail {238} where the Altar stands;
from this fact the whole church building is frequently called the
Sanctuary of God.

Schism.--Derived from a Greek word, meaning _fissure_, or _rent_,
and may be defined as a rending of the Body of Christ, His Church
on earth, and making divisions in the one Body. The divisions
between the East and West, and between Rome and the Anglican
Communion may be described in St. Paul's words as "schism _in_ the
Body," rather than schism _from_ it, inasmuch as none of these three
bodies has lost any of the essentials of Church Unity--the Apostolic
Ministry, the Sacraments, the Creeds and the Holy Scriptures. But
the word also means separation from the Church and is applied to
those religious bodies which have abandoned the Historic Church.
Such wilful separation, whether within the Church or without, St.
Paul, in 1 Corinthians, calls a sin (1 Cor. 1:10; 3:3; 11:18), and
in Romans 16:18, we are directed to avoid those who cause divisions.
The Church regards her unity as of such vital importance to her own
life and to the life of each individual soul, she bids us pray in
the Litany, "From all false doctrine, heresy, and Schism, Good Lord,
deliver us." (See UNITY, CHURCH; and also UNDIVIDED CHURCH.)

Scriptures in the Prayer-book.--It has been pointed out, on the
authority of a careful and detailed calculation that of the whole
Prayer-book, three-fifths of it are taken from the Bible and that
two-fifths of all the Church's worship are carried on in the actual
words of Holy Scripture. Again, that one-half of this Divine Service
is Praise; one-fourth, Prayer; and {239} one-fourth, Reading of the
Bible. From these facts, the Episcopal Church has been rightly called
a "Bible Reading Church." We thus learn the great value of the
Prayer-book in setting forth "the things pertaining to the Kingdom
of God." (See LECTIONARY.)

Seasons, The Church.--(See CHRISTIAN YEAR.)

Sedilia.--From the Latin _sedile_, meaning a seat. The name given to
the seats near the Altar, usually placed against the south wall, to
be used by the Clergy during the sermon at the Holy Communion.

See.--Derived from the Latin word _sedes_, meaning a seat. The word
is used to designate the place of a Bishop's Jurisdiction, and his
place of residence, the city where his cathedral is; usually called
the _See City_.

Sentences, The Opening.--Short passages of Holy Scripture read at
the beginning of Daily Morning and Evening Prayer, are so called,
and are intended to strike the keynote of the service to follow.
Originally the Daily Services began with the Lord's Prayer, but in
1552 the Sentences, with the Exhortation, Confession and absolution
were prefixed to Morning Prayer; they were not placed in the Evening
Prayer until 1661. In the last revision of the American Prayer-book
additional Sentences were added and arranged to strike the keynote
of the Church's great Festivals and Fasts, such as Christmas Day,
Good Friday, Easter, etc.

Septuagesima.--The name given to the third Sunday before Lent. The
explanation of this name for this Sunday has been given as follows:
"There being exactly fifty days between the Sunday next {240} before
Lent and Easter Day inclusive, that Sunday is termed _Quinquagesima_,
_i.e._, the fiftieth; and the two Sundays immediately preceding
are called from the next round numbers, _Sexagesima_, _i.e._,
sixtieth, and _Septuagesima_, _i.e._, the seventieth." The reason
for thus numbering these Sundays has been beautifully set forth
in "Thoughts on the Services" as follows: "The Church now
(Septuagesima Sunday) enters the penumbra of her Lenten Eclipse,
and all her services are shadowed with the sombre hue of her
approaching Season of humiliation. . . .We have turned our back
upon dear old Christmas and the group of holy days that hand in
hand seemed fairly to dance around it; and setting our faces towards
the more sober, but still more glorious, light of Easter we begin
to number the days of preparation, which if duly observed will fit
us to keep the Paschal as the Apostle commands, 'not with the old
leaven. . .but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.'"

Server.--One who attends the Priest at a celebration of the Holy
Communion. The server may be either a layman or one of the Clergy.

Sexagesima.--The second Sunday before Lent is so called, because it
is about sixty days before Easter; _Sexagesima_ meaning sixtieth.

Sexts.--One of the seven CANONICAL HOURS (which see).


Shrove Tuesday.--The old name given to the Tuesday before Ash
Wednesday, because on that day every one was accustomed to go to
the Priest before {241} beginning the observance of Lent, to be
shrived, shriven, shrove, _i.e._, to confess and be absolved. Certain
social customs have been popularly connected with this day, making
it a day of merriment and sports and dining on pancakes or
fritters. The practice of eating pancakes on this day still
survives in many places, and hence it is also called Pancake
Tuesday or Pancake Day.


Sign of the Cross.--(See CROSS, THE.)

Simon (St.) and Saint Jude's Day.--A festival of the Church observed
on October 28th. The union of these two Apostles on this day of
commemoration is intended to teach, as we learn from the Collect,
a lesson of Christian love and that oneness or unity of the Church
for which our Lord prayed. St. Simon was called to be an Apostle
and he is mentioned in Holy Scripture as the "Canaanite" and
"Zelotes," both words meaning a _zealot_. He is supposed to have
labored in Egypt and parts of Africa adjacent. One tradition has
it that he suffered martyrdom by being sawn asunder in Persia, at
the same time with St. Jude who ministered in that country and who
was martyred by the Magi. For this reason St. Simon is usually
represented in Ecclesiastical art with a saw in his hand. For
notice of St. Jude, see Jude, Saint.

Sisterhoods.--(See RELIGIOUS ORDERS.)

Six Points of Ritual.--Certain ritual acts in the celebration of
the Holy Communion which it is claimed have always characterized
the worship of the Christian Church. They are enumerated as follows:
(1) Two Lights on the Altar. (2) The Eastward {242} Position. (3) The
Eucharistic Vestments, (4) Wafer Bread. (5) The Mixed Chalice, and
(6) Incense; each of which is described under its own proper title
to which the reader is referred.

Spirit.--(See HOLY GHOST; also GHOST, GHOSTLY.)

Spirit, Gifts of the.--(See GIFTS OF THE HOLY GHOST, SEVENFOLD.)

Spirit, Fruits of the.--In the fifth chapter of the Epistle to
the Galatians St. Paul sets forth the Fruits of the Spirit as
nine in number, viz: (1) Love, (2) Joy, (3) Peace, (4) Longsuffering,
(5) Gentleness, (6) Goodness, (7) Faith, (8) Meekness, (9)
Temperance. In this enumeration it will be found that the
arrangement is threefold, corresponding to the three great aspects
of life. For example, the first three, "Love, Joy, and Peace," have
reference to the life of a Christian in his intercourse _with God_.
The next four, "Longsuffering, Gentleness, Goodness and Faith,"
describe the qualities which should characterize the Christian in
his bearing towards his _fellow-men_--(Faith, it is to be understood,
in this enumeration means trust, belief in man, and not the
Theological Virtue, which is regarded as a root rather than a
fruit). In the remaining Fruits of the Spirit we have a description
of the Christian Life in respect of _self_ viz., "meekness and
temperance"--"meekness," by which is meant a due estimate of the
place which self ought to hold, and "Temperance," the rigorous
determination to see to it that self is kept in place. It is
interesting to note that the _Fruits of the Spirit_ form the
subject of one of the petitions in the Litany.

Spirit of Missions, The.--The official organ of {243} the American
Church by which knowledge of her missionary work at home and abroad
is made known. It is published monthly, is well edited and filled
each month with very readable and valuable information which all
should possess. The publication office is in the Church Missions
House, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City. (See DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN

Sponsors.--It would be difficult to say with any degree of certainty
at what period the office of _Sponsors_ was established, but it
appeared in the very earliest ages of the Christian Church. It is
supposed that persecution and the presence of heresy led to its
institution. During the time of those early persecutions it stands
to reason that the heads of the Church must have been aware of the
probability of some at least of those who had been baptized of
receding from their vows and thus sinning away their Baptismal
grace. It was but natural that they should adopt every precaution
to ascertain the character of those whom, by Baptism, they admitted
to the Christian covenant. They required, therefore, that some of
their own body answer for the real conversion of the presumed
neophyte, and should also be SURETIES for the fulfilment of the
promises then made. Then there were the probabilities during
persecution that the parents might not outlive the violence of
the times and be enabled to watch over the moral and religious
education of their baptized children. The Church was anxious not
to lose these lambs of the Flock, and so it was a wise and godly
provision that there should be some one who, in default of their
parents, surviving or {244} in case of their apostasy, might see to
it that their godchildren were "brought up to lead a godly and
a Christian life." The advantages arising from this ancient
institution of _Sponsors_ were so great that it has been continued
throughout all ages of the Church. And even in this present time,
if all Sponsors would fulfil their duties, many a child now lost
to the Church, might have been saved to it and brought up in the
nurture and admonition of the Lord. In the case of Baptism of
Infants, the significance of _Sponsors_ is very great, in that
Baptism is a covenant, in which God on the one hand is represented
by His Minister, and the child is represented by his Sponsors,
who answer for him and agree to see to it that this child shall
be virtuously brought up and so trained that it shall lead the
rest of his life according to this beginning. The Sponsors are
called Godfathers and Godmothers because of the spiritual affinity
created in Baptism, their responsibility for the training of the
child being almost parental. (See BAPTISM, HOLY; INFANT BAPTISM;

Stalls.--Seats in the choir (_i.e._, chancel) for Clergy and
Choristers, commonly called Choir Stalls.

Standing Committee.--The general Canons of the American Church
provide that in every Diocese there shall be a _Standing Committee_
(usually composed of not less than three Clergymen and two laymen
who shall be communicants) to be appointed by the Convention
thereof, whose duties, except so far as provided for by the Canons
of the General Convention, may be prescribed by the Canons of the
respective Dioceses. In every Diocese where there is a Bishop the
{245} Standing Committee acts as his Council of Advice. It recommends
to him persons to be admitted to Holy Orders or as Candidates for
Holy Orders, etc. As the representative of the Diocese, it gives its
consent to the consecration of a Bishop elected by any other
Diocese. When there is no Bishop, the Standing Committee becomes
the ecclesiastical Authority of the Diocese for all purposes
declared in the Canons.

State of Salvation.--By Holy Baptism we are admitted into Christ's
Church, His Kingdom of grace, which in the Church Catechism is
declared to be a "State of Salvation," _i.e._, a Christian
condition in which it is quite certain the salvation of God is
within our reach and in which as we are responsive to all its
overtures of grace we may grow into the likeness of God's dear
Son. Our final salvation is dependent on our continuance in this
state of Salvation by God's grace unto our life's end.

Stephen, Festival of Saint.--A Holy Day of the Church observed on
December 26, in memory of St. Stephen the Proto-martyr, _i.e._,
the _first_ Christian martyr. The position of the three Holy Days
after Christmas is remarkable. We have here brought into immediate
nearness to the Birth of Christ the three kinds of members who are
joined to Him by martyrdom, viz., those who are martyrs both in
will and deed, as St. Stephen; those who are martyrs in will but
not in deed, _i.e._, escaped with life as St. John; and lastly,
those who are martyrs in deed, but had no wills of their own to
sacrifice to God, as the Holy Innocents. The Festival of St. Stephen
dates as far back as the Fourth Century. The reason for its
institution is thus {246} given by an ancient writer, "Christ was
born on earth that Stephen might be born in heaven." Nothing is known
of St. Stephen before his selection for ordination as a Deacon, but
in the 6th and 7th chapters of the Book of the Acts of the Apostles
is given a very full account of his being made a Deacon; of his
doing "great wonders and miracles among the people," because he
was "full of faith and power"; of his accusation and eloquent
defense, and finally of his martyrdom by stoning, in the midst of
which, like his Divine Master, he prayed for his murderers. In
ecclesiastical art, St. Stephen is represented as a Deacon holding
stones in a napkin or in his robe or in his hand.

Stir Up Sunday.--A popular name given to the Sunday next before
Advent, from the first two words with which the Collect for the
Day begins, viz.: "Stir up, we beseech Thee, O Lord, the wills of
Thy faithful people," etc. This Sunday is the end of the Christian
Year, and consequently a time of review, gathering up the
fragments that remain, that so with renewed strength and stronger
purpose--_stirred up wills_, we may enter on the new year which
begins on the following Sunday.

Stole.--A long band or scarf of silk worn by the Priest around the
neck and hanging down in front to about the knees. It is one of the
Altar vestments and should be worn when administering any Sacrament.
The stole should be of the proper color of the Church Season and
may be white, green, red, violet or black. It is intended to
symbolize the ropes or bands with which our Lord was bound to
the pillar when He was {247} scourged. It also signifies the yoke of
patience which the Minister of Christ must bear as the servant of
God. When worn by a Deacon, it is placed on the left shoulder and
fastened under the right arm. (See VESTMENTS; also KISSING

Subdeacon.--In former times the name given to him who assisted the
Celebrant at the Holy Communion was Deacon, and the name _Subdeacon_
to one who waited on the Deacon as the Deacon waited on the
Celebrant, and he was permitted to read the Epistle. In time,
however, these attending clergy came to be called by names
characteristic of the most conspicuous parts of their duties, viz.:
the Gospeler and Epistoler.

Substance.--A word derived from the Latin, used in Theology as the
equivalent of the Greek word _ousia_, meaning "essence," and used
in the definition of the nature of the Godhead. Thus we say that
God is one in substance (_i.e._, essence) but in Persons, Three.
The word is found in the Creed in the article which speaks of the
Son as "Being of one substance with the Father."

Suffrages.--The intercessory versicles and responses after the Creed
in Morning and Evening Prayer and towards the end of the Litany,
are so called.

Sunday.--(See LORD'S DAY.)

Sunday Letter.--(See DOMINICAL LETTER.)

Sunday-schools.--Sunday-schools were originated in the Church of
England by one of its clergy, the Rev. Thomas Steck, who afterwards,
in 1780, called in Mr. Robert Raikes, a layman, to assist him. Such
schools gradually spread and increased, until to-day it {248} is
said that the Sunday-schools of the world number three millions
of teachers and over thirty millions of scholars. Of late years
especially the Sunday-school has become a most important factor in
our Church life, and yet notwithstanding its very manifest purpose
it is ever presenting problems very difficult to solve. These
perplexing problems no doubt arise from two main causes, (1)
a practical, though oftentimes unconscious, ignoring of the Church's
own order and method and (2) from the mixed conditions of the
religious world of to-day "by reason of our unhappy divisions." As
far as can be seen, all that has been written, published and preached
on this subject seems to resolve itself into simply this--Try to do
the best you can with the material you have, the short time allotted
to this work, usually one hour a week, and the absolute voluntaryism
of the whole undertaking. And yet in spite of this discouraging
outlook, there can be no doubt that the Sunday-school offers one
of the very best fields for genuine Church work and is "worth
while," as has been fully demonstrated in many places of earnest
toil for God. This work is far-reaching in its influence and no
estimate can be given of the possible good it may do in moulding
lives. The Rev. G. W. Shinn, D.D., speaking of the Sunday-school
sets forth its object as follows: "It offers to aid parents,
sponsors and pastors in developing the religious life of the young,
in filling their minds with the Truths of our most holy Faith,
and in training them to serve God faithfully in their day and
generation. Whatever its defects of administration, this is its aim."

Super-Altar.--A small portable slab of stone used {249} to consecrate
upon and placed on an unconsecrated Altar or a wooden Altar.

Super-Frontal.--A covering on the top of the Altar which hangs down
eight or ten inches in front, varying in color according to the
Church Season.

Sureties.--(See SPONSORS.)

Surplice.--The outer garment, made of linen, worn over the cassock
by the officiating minister during the Church service. It is a loose
flowing vestment, generally reaching to the knees, having broad,
full, open sleeves. It is not specially a Priestly garment, as it
is worn by Deacons and also by Lay-Readers, and in a modified form
by choristers. The word is derived from the Latin, _superpelliceum_,
meaning an over-garment. (See VESTMENTS.)

Surpliced Choir.--When the body of singers of the Church service is
composed of boys and men they are vested in cassocks and surplices
or cottas and given a place in the Chancel. This is a very ancient
usage in the Church of God, reaching back to the Temple service at
Jerusalem. In the description of that service given in 2 Chronicles
5:12 and 13 we read: "Also the Levites which were the singers, all
of them of Asaph, of Heman, of Jeduthun, with their sons and their
brethren, being arrayed in white linen . . . stood at the east end
of the Altar . . . praising and thanking God." In this whole
passage we see the original of those surpliced choirs by which the
same Psalms of David have been sung in every age of the Christian

The surpliced choir has always been a feature of the Anglican Church,
peculiar to it as a national custom. {250} And as the American
Church is the daughter of the English Church, having derived from
her all her great treasures of devotion and beauty in worship, so
she, too, employs the vested choir and encourages its use. In this
connection, it is interesting to note that the first mention of a
surpliced choir in America is in connection with old St. Michael's
Church, Charleston, S. C. In the history of this parish may be
found the following interesting reference to the vested choir: "In
1798 there was a bill for 'washing the surplaces (sic) of clergy
and children.' A little earlier the Vestry requested the Rector
to entertain, at their expense, six of the boys on Sunday as 'an
incitement for their better performance of the service'; and in
1807 the organist was requested to have at least twelve choir boys."

Thus as early as the end of the Eighteenth Century the music of the
Church was rendered by a surpliced choir in a Southern parish. For
some reason vested choirs were given up in the American Church and
for many years little or nothing was heard of them. But after a
while when the Church here got more thoroughly established and
began to put on strength we find that its growing devotion demanded
_the restoration_ of the vested choir. This demand became so general
that to-day there are very few parishes in which the music is not
thus rendered. This is not to be wondered at, for it is found by
actual experience that the surpliced choir of men and boys,
numbering from twenty to sixty voices according to the size of
the parish, is better suited to render the Church's music, more
in keeping with the Church's devotions and {251} more inspiring and
helpful to the congregation. Many a parish has thus been lifted
up, strengthened, the services made more attractive and the
attendance at them increased, because the music rendered in this
manner becomes thoroughly congregational, such as the people
themselves can join in and make it their own.

Sursum Corda.--The Latin title of that portion of the Communion
Office which begins, "Lift up your hearts," which the Latin words
mean. This is found almost word for word in every known Liturgy
from the earliest times, and without doubt has come down to us from
the Apostolic Age. Even at so early a date as A.D. 252 we find St.
Cyprian giving an explanation of the meaning and purpose of the
_Sursum Corda_ as follows: "It is for this cause that the Priest
before worship uses words of introduction and puts the minds of
his brethren in preparation by saying, 'Lift up your hearts'; that
while the people answer, 'We lift them up unto the Lord,' they may
be reminded that there is nothing for them to think of except the

Symbol.--The ancient name for "Creed," which in the Greek language
was called _Symbolon_, _i.e._, watchword, by which as the sentinel
recognizes a friend, so the Christian soldier is distinguished from
the open enemies or false friends of the Religion of Christ.

Synod.--The word used in the Eastern Church for what is called in
the Western Church a _Council_. It is from a Greek word meaning
coming together. (See COUNCIL.) {252}


Table.--(See Lord's Table.)

Te Deum.--The Latin title of the hymn beginning "We praise Thee, O
God," sung after the First Lesson at Morning Prayer. It is one of
the oldest of Christian hymns. The old tradition that it was first
sung impromptu and antiphonally by St. Ambrose and St. Augustine at
the Baptism of the latter in A.D. 386, is not now accepted, as
there is evidence to show that the Te Deum is much older than the
time of St. Ambrose. So early as A.D. 252, we find St. Cyprian
using almost the same words as occur in the Te Deum. It is now
generally believed that this noble canticle in its present form, is
a composition of the Fourth or Fifth Century and that it represents
a still more ancient hymn. The Te Deum is sung in the Church service
every day except during Advent and Lent when the _Benedicite_ is
sung instead.

Ten Commandments.--(See DECALOGUE.)


Ter Sanctus.--Meaning _Thrice Holy_. The Latin title of the hymn in
the Communion Office beginning "Holy, Holy, Holy." This hymn is of
the most ancient origin and forms part of all the oldest Liturgies.
In the Liturgies of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom, it is called the
"Triumphal Hymn."

Testimonials.--The general Canons of the Church prescribe that when
the Standing Committee of a Diocese recommends to the Bishop a
candidate for Holy Orders for ordination to the Diaconate or {253}
Priesthood, that it shall present to the Bishop a certificate or
testimonial to the effect that the candidate "hath lived piously,
soberly and honestly, and hath not since his admission as a
candidate for Orders, written, taught or held anything contrary to
the doctrine and discipline of the Protestant Episcopal Church." The
action of the Committee in recommending such person to be admitted
a candidate for Holy Orders was based on testimonials made by the
Clergy and laymen who knew the candidate personally. So, also, when
a Bishop is elected, testimonials of his election by the Convention
which elected him, and from the House of Deputies of the General
Convention, or from the Standing Committees of the various Dioceses,
of their approbation of his election and also of his fitness for the
office of a Bishop, must be presented to the House of Bishops before
order can be taken for his consecration.


Thanksgiving Day.--The day appointed by the Civil Authority for the
rendering of thanks to God for the blessings bestowed on this land
and nation during the year. It usually partakes of the nature of a
Harvest Home Festival, prompted no doubt by the character of the
service set forth in the Prayer-book to be used on this day,
entitled, "A Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving to Almighty God for
the Fruits of the earth and all other Blessings of His Merciful
Providence." It is interesting to note that the first Thanksgiving
Day in America was appointed, not by the Pilgrims, as many persons
mistakenly believe, but by members of the Church of England. It was
{254} celebrated at Monhegan, off the Maine coast, near the mouth
of the Kennebec river, as far back as 1607--thirteen years prior to
the arrival of the Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor--and Chaplain Seymore
preached a sermon "gyving God thankes for our happy metynge and
saffe aryvall into ye countrie." The earliest Thanksgiving Day of
the Plymouth colonists was in 1621.

Theological Virtues.--The three virtues, _Faith_, _Hope_ and
_Charity_ or _Love_, as enumerated by St. Paul in the 13th chapter
of 1 Corinthians, are called Theological Virtues because they are the
gift of God and have God for their object. They may be explained as

FAITH is a gift of God, infused into our souls, whereby we firmly
believe all these things which God has revealed.

HOPE is a gift of God, which helps us to expect with confidence that
God will give us all things necessary to salvation, if we only do
what He requires of us.

CHARITY is a gift of God, whereby we love Almighty God above all
things for His sake and our neighbors as ourselves.

Thirty-nine Articles.--(See ARTICLES OF RELIGION.)

Thomas (St.) the Apostle.--The Twenty-first Day of December is
observed in memory of St. Thomas, who was called by our Lord to be
an Apostle. We find very little in Holy Scripture concerning St.
Thomas, but there are four sayings of his recorded which are
indicative of his character. They are as follows:

1. "Lord we know not whither Thou goest, and how can we know the
way?"--St. John 14:5. {255}

2. "Let us also go, that we may die with Him."--St. John 11:16.

3. "Except I shall see in His hands the print of the nails and put
my fingers in the print of the nails and thrust my hand into His
side, I will not believe."--St. John 20:25.

4. "My Lord and my God."--St. John 20:28.

From these sayings we see in St. Thomas, (1) the spirit of inquiry,
(2) bravery in the face of danger, (3) his doubt and unbelief, and
(4) strong conviction and the triumph of faith. An ancient writer
declared that "by this doubting of St. Thomas we are more confirmed
in our belief than by the faith of the other Apostles." It is upon
this fact that the Collect for the Day is founded. St. Thomas is
said to have carried the Gospel to the Parthians, Medes, Persians
and Chaldeans, among whom he founded the Church. It is believed,
also, that he preached the Gospel in India. He suffered martyrdom,
having been put to death by the Brahmins at Taprobane, now called
Sumatra. In ecclesiastical art, St. Thomas is represented as
handling our Lord's wounds; or in reference to his martyrdom, with
a lance or spear; also, holding a carpenter's square.

Three Hours' Service.--A solemn service quite generally held in our
Churches on Good Friday, from 12 M. to 3 P. M. in commemoration of
our Lord's Agony on the Cross. It usually consists of meditations,
or short addresses, on the Seven Words on the Cross, or on kindred
topics, interspersed with hymns on the Passion, special prayers, and
spaces of silence for private intercession. If well conducted it is
a {256} most impressive and helpful service and serves to bring out
the awful events of that momentous day when the Saviour of men was
cruelly put to death by those whom He came to save.

Thurifer.--The name given to one who bears the censer in services
where incense is used.

Thursday, Holy.--(See ASCENSION DAY.)

Thursday in Holy Week.--(See MAUNDY THURSDAY.)

Tierce.--The third hour or 9 A. M. One of the SEVEN CANONICAL HOURS
(which see).

Tradition.--A term used in the Thirty-fourth Article of Religion to
denote customs, rites, forms and ceremonies of the Church which have
been transmitted by oral communications or long established usage,
and which though not commanded in so many words in Holy Scripture,
yet have always been used and kept in the Holy Catholic Church. For
this reason they are revered, practiced and retained in its various
branches at the present time. Such traditions are the following:

1. The observance of the first day of the week instead of the

2. The observance of the Christian Year, or the system of Feasts
and Fasts and Holy Seasons according to the events in our Lord's

3. The Baptism of Infants.

4. The use of Liturgical worship.

5. The use of vestments by the ministers in divine service.

6. The arrangement of our churches after the model of the Temple.

7. The observance of the seven hours of prayer.

8. The sign of the Cross in Baptism and at other times.

9. The choral service.

All these traditions of the Universal Church are retained or
permitted by the American branch of the Church.

It is also to be noted that by _tradition_ is meant the uniform
teaching of the Church from the beginning, _i.e._, the witness
that the Church bears by the writings of the Fathers and the
enactments of her General Councils to the Truths of the Christian
Religion and the interpretation of Holy Scripture. This is in
accord with St. Peter's words, "No prophecy of the Scripture is of
any private interpretation." Inasmuch as the Church is the "Witness
and keeper of Holy Writ," and that it is upon her testimony that we
know what is the Bible, it is but reasonable to defer to her
interpretation, her universal customs and traditions as to its

Transepts.--When churches are built in the form of a cross they have
two wings, one on each side, projecting at right angles with the
nave and chancel. These projected wings, forming the arm of the
cross, are called the _transepts_, north and south.

Transfiguration, The.--A Feast of the Church observed on August 6,
in commemoration of our Lord's Transfiguration on the Mount in the
presence of His three disciples, St. Peter, St. James and St. John.
It is a restored Festival in our Calendar. The American Church
having thought good to order a revision of {258} the Prayer-book after
a hundred years use of it as set forth in the year 1789, completed
this revision in 1892 after fifteen years of labor spent upon it.
The first action taken on the subject was by the General Convention
in 1883, when among other changes and restorations the Feast of the
Transfiguration was restored to the Calendar and appointed to be
observed August 6. This date it is thought is the actual time of
the year at which the Transfiguration took place. As a day of
commemoration, this Festival has been observed in the Eastern Church
since A.D. 700, and in the Western Church since the year 450. It
was ordered to be universally observed in A.D. 1457. We cannot
doubt that its restoration to our Calendar is a decided gain to
our spiritual treasury of devotions and instructions, for it
commemorates an event in our Lord's Life which has deep significance
in relation to our Lord Himself and also to our own spiritual life.
Our Lord, before His last journey to Jerusalem, took the three chief
Apostles with Him into a high mountain and then as He prayed, He
was transfigured before them. His raiment became white as the light,
His face shone as the sun, and Moses and Elias appeared and talked
with Him. "And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is
My beloved Son, hear Him." It was thus that His Divine nature was
revealed and enabled the Apostle St. John to testify, "We beheld
His glory, the glory as of the Only Begotten of the Father." Proper
Lessons and Proper Psalms for the services for this day as well as
Collect, Epistle and Gospel emphasize the importance of the Feast
of the Transfiguration and mark it as one of the {259} great days
of the Church. The ecclesiastical color is white.

Trefoil.--An ornament used in Gothic architecture, formed by
mouldings in the head of window lights, tracery, panelings, etc.,
so arranged as to resemble the _trefoil_, (_i.e._, three leaved)
clover, as an emblem of the Trinity.

Trine Immersion.--The name given to the practice in the Primitive
Church, of dipping a person, who was being baptized, three times
beneath the surface of the water, _i.e._, at each name of the
three Persons in the Blessed Trinity. When Baptism was by affusion
or pouring, as is usual at the present time, the affusion was also
trine. The Apostolic canons insisted so strongly on this mode of
Baptism that they enjoined that the Bishop or Priest who did not
thus administer it should be deposed. This threefold method of
Baptism still prevails in the Church and is the only proper method
of administering this sacrament.

Trinity, The Holy.--A name applied to the Godhead and signifying
Three in One and One in Three--the Father, the Son, and the Holy
Ghost--a doctrine which is held by all branches of the Catholic
Church, and by the greater number of the various Christian
denominations. The word "Trinity" is not found in the Bible and is
said to have been first used by Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, in
the second century as a concise expression of the Christian Faith
concerning the Godhead, that "there is but one living and true God,
everlasting, without body, parts or passions; of infinite power,
wisdom and goodness; the Maker and Preserver of all things both
visible and {260} invisible. And in the unity of this Godhead there
be three Persons, of one substance, power and eternity: the Father,
the Son, and the Holy Ghost." (Art. I). The doctrine of the Trinity
deals with matter beyond reason but not contrary to reason; is the
subject of Revelation and as such is proposed to our faith faculty.
For this reason it is called a Mystery of the Gospel.

Trinity Season, The.--The long period between Trinity Sunday and the
First Sunday in Advent is so called. Its length is dependent on the
time Easter is kept and may include as many as twenty-seven Sundays.
The devotions and the Scriptural Lessons are intended to bring
before us the moralities of the Gospel and the practical duties of
the Christian life. Or as Bishop Coxe has finely expressed it, "The
first half of the year is devoted to Doctrine primarily, and to
Duty as seen in direct relation to Doctrine. So, the second half
is devoted to Duty primarily, and to Doctrine only as reduced to
practical Piety, Thus is the Christian Year divided between the
Creed and the Decalogue." The Last Sunday of the Season is observed
as the "Sunday next before Advent," but is popularly called "Stir
up Sunday" from the first two words of the Collect for the Day. The
Church color for the Trinity Season is green.

Trinity Sunday.--Trinity Sunday is a Festival of late institution,
as the day on which it is observed was originally kept as the Octave
of Whitsun Day. It was not until A.D. 1260 that it was first
directed by the Synod of Aries to be observed by the whole Church as
Trinity Sunday, although Thomas a Beckett is said to have instituted
this Festival in England in {261} A.D. 1162, and reference is
made to it as early as A.D. 834. The observance of this day is very
significant and rounds out or completes the former commemorations
of the year. As set forth in "Thoughts on the Services," "The
Church's services have culminated; to-day they mount up to the
Throne of the Godhead; for knowing the Son and the Holy Ghost, we
know the Father also, and that these Three are not three Gods, but
one God. The Church to-day celebrates the glory and majesty of God
in His essence and in His works. In the word _Trinity_, she simply
sums up what is revealed concerning Him,--that in Substance He is
One, but in Persons, Three. . . . The Collect enables us to worship
the _Unity_ which exists in the power of the Divine Majesty, even
while we acknowledge the glory of the Eternal Trinity." Proper
Lessons, Proper Psalms and Proper Preface in the Communion Office
emphasize the importance of the Festival and mark it as one of the
great days of the Church. The ecclesiastical color is white.

Trisagion.--A Greek word meaning the same as _Ter Sanctus_, _i.e._,
"Thrice Holy," but it is not used in the Greek Church for the same
thing, but is the title of the respond used in the Reproaches and
other services, namely, "Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and
Immortal, have mercy upon us."

Triumphal Hymn.--The ancient name given to the Ter Sanctus, the hymn
in the Communion office beginning, "Holy, Holy, Holy."

Triumphant, The Church.--The Church in Heaven. (See CHURCH CATHOLIC.)

Tunicle.--A vestment worn by the Subdeacon or Epistoler at the
celebration of the Holy Communion; somewhat similar to the Dalmatic
worn by the Deacon or Gospeler, but shorter, narrower and not so
elaborately embroidered.

Turning to the East.--(See EAST, TURNING TO.)

Twelfth Day.--A popular name given to the Feast of the Epiphany
which occurs twelve days after Christmas. Many social rites and
customs have long been connected with the evening of this Festival,
which is commonly called "Twelfth Night."



Undivided Church.--In the great work of the Reformation in the
Sixteenth Century, the Church of England did not seek to introduce
innovations, to erect a new church in the place of the old, or to
change the old religion for a new religion. What it aimed to do was
to retain its ancient heritage, but at the same time to free the
old Church from certain grave abuses, to purify the old religion
from many harmful superstitions which had sprung up during the
Middle Ages. Thus "the continuity of the English Church was the
first principle of the English Reformation." In all the work of
Reformation, covering a long period of time, the appeal was
constantly made to the primitive standards of the _Undivided Church_;
to Holy Scripture as interpreted by the teaching and customs of the
Primitive Church, {263} the writings of the Fathers and the decisions
of the General Councils. The reasonableness of this appeal will appear
when we consider that it is this early age of Christianity, the age
nearest to the time of the Apostles, which best preserved the
personal instructions of the Twelve, which was most likely to be in
accord with the Will of our Lord and which maintained the Church's
unity unimpaired. It was during this time, because the Church was
one and undivided, that the Canon of Scripture was established,
that it was possible to hold the Ecumenical Councils which defined
"the Faith once delivered to the Saints," and gave us the Creeds as
the "Rule of Faith." For this reason the English Church in her
Reformation appealed to the practice, teaching and decisions of the
_Undivided Church_. It was thus she was enabled to preserve her
historic continuity. The original Unity of the Church was finally
broken by the great schism between the East and the West which took
place A.D. 1054, (See TRADITIONS; also FATHERS, THE.)

Unity, Church.--The most apparent, most manifest teaching of Holy
Scripture is the unity or oneness of the Church of Christ. It was
for this our Lord prayed, "That they all may be one; as Thou, Father,
art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us: that the
world may believe that Thou hast sent Me" (St. John 17:25). We have
in these words declared the purpose of such unity, viz.: "that the
world may believe." So, also, St. Paul wrote, "Endeavoring to keep
the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. There is one Body and
one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one
Lord, one {264} Faith, one Baptism, one God and Father of all"
(Ephesians 4:3-6). Again, in the New Testament the Church is called
the Body of Christ, the kingdom of heaven, the Bride, and its people
are declared to be branches of the one Vine Jesus Christ Himself.
"The great thought running through all the New Testament descriptions
of the Church is that of the Church's unity in itself through its
union with Christ the Head." There is not the slightest warrant in
the Bible for the present state of our divided Christianity, which is
simply the result of sin and man's waywardness. This truth is
becoming more and more realized among many earnest and thoughtful
men in all religious bodies and they are longing and praying for
the Reunion of Christendom. This desire has also developed a study
of Church History which heretofore has been a much neglected
department of Christian knowledge. This more general study of the
history of the Church has already been productive of the greatest
good. It has given men broader views and a clearer conception of
that kingdom of grace, of which Christ is the Head and which is to
be the one, living witness whereby the world may be brought to
believe that the Divine Father hath sent His Son to be the world's
Saviour. For this blessed consummation many earnest and devout men
in all places and in almost every communion are using daily the
following beautiful


  "O Lord Jesus Christ, who saidst unto Thine Apostles, Peace I leave
  with you, My Peace I give unto you: Regard not our sins, but the
  faith of Thy {265} Church; and grant her that Peace and Unity,
  which is agreeable to Thy Will, Who livest and reignest with the
  Father and the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen."


Unleavened Bread.--From time immemorial the bread used in the Holy
Communion has generally been unleavened, or wafer bread as it is
sometimes called, from its shape, being made round like a wafer.
Unleavened bread is used from a sense of reverence, using something
specially made for so holy a purpose, and also because unleavened
bread is not so likely to crumble as ordinary bread. It is also
believed that this was undoubtedly the kind of bread our Lord used
when He instituted the Blessed Sacrament.

Use.--This is an ecclesiastical term to designate the Liturgy or
Prayer-book peculiar to any Diocese or national Church and differing
from other Liturgies in minor details. For example, in the early
ages of the English Church there were different "uses," or customs,
such as the Salisbury or "Sarum Use "; meaning the Prayer-book set
forth by Osmond in A.D. 1085, and used in the Diocese of Salisbury.
So also, there was the "Use of Bangor," the "Use of York," the
"Hereford Use," etc., but all these differing "uses" were finally
superseded by the one national use, the present Prayer-book of the
Church of England. The American Prayer-book is declared in the title
page to be "The Book of Common Prayer and Administrations of the
Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of THE CHURCH (Catholic)
_According to_ THE USE of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the
United States of America." {266}


Veil.--(See CHALICE VEIL.)

Veni Creator Spiritus.--The Latin title of a very ancient hymn to
the Holy Ghost, sung in the Ordination Offices, appropriate to
Whitsun Day, and formerly sung at the celebration of the Holy
Eucharist. The authorship of this hymn is commonly ascribed to St.
Ambrose, A.D. 350. The first English version (added to the
Prayer-book in 1662) has been attributed to John Dryden.

Venite Exultemus.--Meaning, "O come, let us sing," the Latin title
of the 95th Psalm, sung as the first canticle at Morning Prayer as
an Invitatory to the use of the Psalter. (See INVITATORY.)

Verger.--The name originally given to one who carried the _verge_,
or staff, before a cathedral or collegiate dignitary. The name is
now commonly applied to a paid usher.

Versicles.--Little verses or sentences uttered by the officiating
minister with corresponding replies or responses by the congregation.
For example,

  V. O Lord, open Thou our lips.
  R. And our mouth shall show forth Thy praise.

This feature of Public Worship has prevailed in the Christian Church
from the most ancient times, as we find it mentioned as early as
A.D. 543 as being even then of ancient origin. This is with special
reference to the Versicles after the Lord's Prayer in the Daily
Offices, which have been called the SURSUM CORDA of the Daily
services. (See RESPONSIVE SERVICES.) {267}

Vespers.--One of the SEVEN CANONICAL HOURS (which see). It was from
the ancient offices of Vespers and Compline that the present service
of Evening Prayer was compiled. This service is sometimes now called
Vespers and also EVEN SONG (which see).

Vessels, Sacred.--The vessels used in celebrating the Holy Communion
are so called, from the sacred purpose for which they are intended.
These sacred vessels are the Chalice, Paten and Flagon, which should
be made of silver or gold only--the best that we have for so sacred
a purpose.

Vestments.--It has been pointed out that "The clergy and all who act
ministerially in divine service are clad in surplices and other
vestments, not that they may have a decent and uniform appearance
in sight of the congregation, but as wearing robes distinctive of
their office in ministering before Him whom they worship." In this
statement we have a rationale, so to speak, of the use of vestments,
and it is a very striking fact that such use has universally
prevailed in the Historic Churches from the most ancient times.
(See EUCHARISTIC VESTMENTS.) Of the vestments thus worn in the
Church's services there are first the Eucharistic Vestments, namely:

THE AMICE, is a broad linen band richly embroidered, first placed
on the head and then dropped on the shoulders as a covering for the
neck and is intended to symbolize the Helmet of Salvation. It also
symbolizes the linen cloth with which the Jews blindfolded our Lord.

THE ALB, a long white linen garment with narrow sleeves tied at the
waist by a white cord. It is {268} emblematic of purity and innocence
and also of the ministerial office. It also represents the white
garment in which Herod clothed our Saviour.

THE GIRDLE, used to confine the Alb at the waist, is emblematic of
the work of the Lord, to perform which the sacred ministers gird
up, as it were, their loins. The girdle, and also the stole and
maniple are intended to represent the cords and fetters with which
the officers bound Jesus in His Passion.

THE MANIPLE is a scarf like a short stole, worn on the left arm
over the sleeve of the Alb by the Celebrant. It is made of silk,
with a fringe and embroidered with three crosses.

THE STOLE (which see). When used at the Celebration it is worn
crossed on the breast and kept in place by the girdle. Like the
girdle and maniple, it symbolizes the ropes or bands with which our
Lord was bound to the pillar when He was scourged.

THE CHASUBLE is a circular cloak worn over the Alb and hanging from
the shoulders. It is universally called "the Vestment" because it
is _the_ characteristic Eucharistic robe of all Christendom and has
been so from the earliest age of the Church. The rationale is thus
given: "The over-vesture or chasuble as touching the mystery
signifieth the purple mantle that Pilate's soldiers put upon Christ
after that they had scourged Him. And as touching the Minister, it
signifieth charity, a virtue excellent above all others."

Other vestments worn by the clergy are the cassock, the surplice,
biretta, hood, and when assisting at the Holy Communion, the
Dalmatic and Tunicle; and by Bishops, the chimere, rochet, mitre
and cope (this last {269} may also be worn by a Priest); each of
which is described under its proper head, to which the reader is

Vestry.--The name given to the room attached to or within the church
building, used for vesting in, or in which the vestments are kept.
From the old custom of parish meetings be held in it, such meetings
were called the Vestry; a name that has since been applied to the
representatives of the parish elected annually to manage its
financial and secular affairs. It is to be noted that there is
nothing to be found in the Primitive Church corresponding to the
modern Vestry. This fact may explain why it is that the Vestry
System, as such, is ever presenting problems difficult to solve.
The "Vestry Problem" has commanded the attention of the General
Convention from time to time, but so far nothing has been presented
for its solution. The purpose and duties of the Vestry as commonly
understood may be stated as follows: It is the duty of the Wardens
and Vestry (it ought to be always with the advice of the Bishop) to
consider and determine upon the election of a minister when the
Rectorship is vacant; to see that the minister is well and properly
supported, sufficiently and punctually paid; to make and execute all
contracts for the erection of church edifices, rectories and other
church buildings; to provide for their furnishing and repair and due
preservation; to hold all Church property as Trustees of the Parish,
and as such generally to transact all temporal and financial
business of the Parish. (For the duties of Wardens, see Church

Via Media.--A Latin term, meaning _middle course_ {270} as between
two extremes. The term is used to describe the Anglican or Episcopal
Church as avoiding Romanism on the one hand, and Protestantism on
the other.

Viaticum.--A term used to describe the Holy Communion administered
to a dying person. A Canon of the Nicene Council (A.D. 325)
provided that no one should "be deprived of his perfect and most
necessary _viaticum_ when he departs out of this life." The word
means "a provision made for a journey."

Vicar.--A term introduced from the English Church and applied to
one who has charge of a chapel connected with a Parish, as his sole
charge. For example, the term has been applied to certain clergy of
Trinity Church, New York, who have charge of chapels which possess
the dignity of parishes, but the support of which is derived mainly
from the Parish Corporation. In the English Church, the Rector, or
chapter, or religious house or even a layman, has the whole right
to the income of the Parish but the Vicar only to a certain portion
of it as the Pastor of the Flock. The origin and meaning of
this title as used in the Church of England are thus given in
Blackstone's Commentaries, "These appropriating corporations, or
religious houses, were wont to depute one of their body to perform
divine service in those parishes of which the society was the Parson.
This officiating minister was in reality no more than a curate,
deputy or vicegerent of the appropriator, and therefore called
_vicarius_ or _vicar_."

Vigils.--Vigils are the _Evens_ before certain Feasts. In the
ancient use of the Church, Festivals were {271} commonly ushered in
by the attendance of preceding vigils, or watchings all the night as
a preparation for the solemnities of the following day, and were
observed with fasting and prayer.

Vincent, Rule of Saint.--St. Vincent of Lerins who died A.D. 304
has always been revered in the Church and is known as the author of
the saying, "Quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibus, creditum
est," meaning what has been done or believed _always_, _everywhere_
and _by all_ is to be accepted. The principle involved in these
words is the test of orthodoxy and the sanction for the Church's
usages. St. Vincent's rule, therefore, still holds good, for nothing
can be of the Faith, as necessary to be believed unless it can
satisfy the tests of antiquity, universality and general consent.

Virgin Mary.--(See BLESSED VIRGIN MARY.)

Virtues, The Cardinal.--The four virtues, namely, Prudence, Justice,
Temperance and Fortitude, which Solomon sets forth in the Book of
Wisdom, VIII, 7, are called Cardinal Virtues because they are most
important in the Christian Life. They may be briefly defined as

PRUDENCE, choosing the right and knowing what means to employ for
accomplishing it.

JUSTICE, rendering to all their dues.

TEMPERENCE, the virtue of self-control in all things.

FORTITUDE, bravery in doing God's Will.

Virtues, Theological.--(See THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES.)

Visitation, Episcopal.--(See BISHOP'S VISITATION.)

Visitation of Prisoners.--The title of an Office {272} in the
Prayer-book. It is not contained in the English Prayer-book but was
taken from the Irish Book of Common Prayer of 1771 and inserted in
the American Prayer-book in 1789. This is a very comprehensive and
appropriate Office, proving of great value to the Clergy who are
called to minister to the spiritual wants of prisoners.

Visitation of the Sick.--A requirement of the Church is that "When
any person is sick, notice shall be given thereof to the Minister
of the Parish." When the Minister visits such sick person, the
Prayer-book provides a service which may be used, entitled "The
Order for the Visitation of the Sick." This service was first set
forth in 1549 but was added to in 1662, since which date it has
remained practically unchanged. It is a very beautiful and
affecting service, bringing great peace and comfort to the sick
and is another fine illustration of the tender care our Mother
Church shows for all her children in all conditions of their life.
As there is so much misapprehension as to the meaning and purpose
of the ministrations of Christ's Ministers at the bedside of the
sick, we give the following excellent comment on this Office in
Wheatley's Treatise on the Prayer-book: "Though private friends may
pray for us and with us, yet we can by no means place such confidence
in their prayers, as we may in those sent to Heaven in our behalf
by such as are peculiarly commissioned to offer them. For this
reason it is enjoined by St. James in his Epistle, that if any be
sick, they shall call for the Elders of the Church. From this it
may be observed, that the care of sending for the Minister {273} is
left to the sick. For the Priest himself, it is very probable, may
never have heard of his sickness; or, if he has, may not be so good
a judge when his visit will be seasonable. For this reason it is
ordered by the rubric that 'when any person is sick, notice shall
be given thereof to the Minister of the Parish'; Not when the
person is just expiring (as is too often done), but when the
disease first discovers its approach. To put it off to the last
scene of life, is to defer the Office till it can do no good.
For when the sickness is grown past recovery, to pray for his
restoration is only to mock the Almighty; and what spiritual
advantage can be expected from the Minister's assistance to one
who is unable to do anything for himself?"

Vow.--A promise made to God. Being brought into covenant with
God in Holy Baptism, the vows or promises made unto God in that
Sacrament are three in number:

1. RENUNCIATION, by which we renounce the three great powers of
evil,--world, flesh and devil.

2. FAITH, by which we confess our belief in the Name into which
we are baptized--Father, Son and Holy Ghost, around which the
articles of the Christian Faith as contained in the Apostles' Creed
are grouped.

3. OBEDIENCE, by which we promise to serve God truly all the days
of our life.

These three vows of Baptism cover the whole period of life--past,
present and future, and are the basis of all godly and righteous

Over and above these vows of their Baptism members of Religious
Orders make special vows to God,--vows {274} of poverty, obedience
and chastity for the more efficient prosecution of the work they have
undertaken for the glory of God and the benefit of souls.


Wafer Bread.--(See UNLEAVENED BREAD.)

Wardens.--(See CHURCH WARDENS.)

Warnings.--The Exhortations in the Communion Office announcing a
future celebration are called "Warnings," and are intended to be a
sufficient notification to the Communicants so that they may make
their preparation for the receiving of the Communion. Where there
are frequent celebrations, as on every Sunday and Holy Day, "the
rubric does not seem to enjoin their constant use, but to require
this form of exhortation to be used at those times when the Minister
thinks it necessary to 'give warning,' that is, to exhort his
people, respecting the celebration of the Holy Communion. The tone
of the rubric and of the exhortations is plainly fitted to a time
of infrequent Communion."

Water.--In the Church Catechism it is declared that the outward
visible sign or form in Baptism is, "Water; wherein the person is
baptized. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the
Holy Ghost." By the rubric in the Office for Holy Baptism it is
directed that the Font is to be filled with "pure water." It is
thus the Church fulfils our Lord's command, following literally
His words, "baptizing them with water." Water, therefore, is the
essential element of Holy Baptism, just as the bread and wine are
the {275} elements in the Holy Communion. Water as used in Holy
Baptism signifies "cleansing," The amount of water to be used the
Church has always regarded as matter of indifference.

Wedding Ring.--(See RING.)

Wednesday.--In the earliest ages of the Christian Church its
devotions were always characterized by both weekly and annual
fasts. During the week the first Christians always kept two fasts;
one on _Wednesday_, the day on which our Lord was betrayed, and the
other on Friday, the day on which He was crucified. Both the English
and American Churches have perpetuated this custom by appointing
Wednesday and Friday of each week as Litany Days.

Western Church.--A term frequently met with in Church history and
denoting the Churches which formerly made part of the western empire
of Rome, _i.e._, the Church in western Europe,--Italy, Spain,
France, etc. The Church of England is also included under this term
as being a branch of the Catholic and Apostolic Church.

Whitsun Day.--A high Festival observed in the Church on the fiftieth
day after Easter, in commemoration of the outpouring of the Holy
Spirit upon the Apostles on the day of Pentecost as "they were all
with one accord in one place" in Jerusalem. Whitsun Day is
the Birthday of the Christian Church, and as such it has been
commemorated for nearly two thousand years by Christian people and
observed by them with holy joy and deep thanksgiving for the
fulfilment of our Lord's promise to send the Comforter to His
comfortless people. {276}

By the devotions of Whitsun Day we have brought to our remembrance,
in the most beautiful and striking manner, the operations of God by
the Spirit's power. By Proper Psalms, Proper Lessons and Eucharistic
Scriptures, and by Proper Preface in the Communion Service, we learn
how that in the Holy Ghost and His Presence in the Church we have
the great power and renewing grace of God made availing to us. The
ecclesiastical color is red as symbolical of the "cloven tongues
like as of fire," in which form the Holy Ghost lighted on the head
of each of the Apostles. (See HOLY GHOST.)

As to the derivation of the word "Whitsun" there seems to be great
uncertainty and difference of opinion. Some derive it from the
word _white_, shortened to "whit," in reference to the diffusions
of light and knowledge which on this day were shed upon the Apostles,
in order to the enlightening of the world; also in reference to
this being the time of Baptism in the ancient Church, each candidate
being clothed with white garments. Others derive it from the old
Saxon word _wit_, meaning wisdom which is the special gift of the
Holy Ghost. Again others derive it from the word _Pentecost_, the
original name of the Festival, through the German _Pfingsten_, hence
Pingsten, changed in the Saxon to Wingsten, and this being corrupted
into _Whitsun_, meaning, therefore the same as Pentecost, that is,
the fiftieth day. (This last seems to be the most probable derivation
as is seen in the use of the terms _Whitsun_ Monday, _Whitsun_
Tide, etc.)

This Festival is of especial interest to Churchmen {277} as it was
on Whitsun Day, June 9th, 1549, that the Book of Common Prayer, in
English, was first used. "That day was doubtless chosen," says a
beautiful writer, "as a devout acknowledgment that the Holy Ghost
was with the Church of England in the important work then taken.
May He ever preserve these devotional offices from the attacks of
enmity or _unwisdom_, and continue them in that line of Catholic
unity wherein He has guided the Church hitherto to keep them."

Whitsun Monday; Whitsun Tuesday.--Two days observed with great
solemnity as the continuation of the High Festival of Whitsun Day.
For the origin and appointment of these days see EASTER MONDAY and

Whitsun Tide.--The week beginning with Whitsun Day is so called.
During this week the Whitsun Ember Days are observed, (Wednesday,
Friday, and Saturday), as a preparation for Trinity Sunday, one of
the stated times of Ordination.

Wine.--One of the elements used in the celebration of the Holy
Communion as our Lord commanded. It is to be noticed that unfermented
grape juice, raisin water, and the like do not constitute the proper
element in the Holy Communion, and if these are used the Sacrament
is not valid. In the General Convention which met in Chicago in
1886, the House of Bishops declared by resolution that "the use of
unfermented wine was unwarranted by the example of our Lord, and
contrary to the custom of the Catholic Church." This was still more
strongly affirmed by the Lambeth Conference which met in 1888, in
the {278} following resolution: "That the Bishops assembled in this
conference declare that the use of unfermented juice of the grape
or any other liquid other than true Wine diluted or undiluted, as
the element in the Administration of the Cup in Holy Communion, is
unwarranted by the example of our Lord and is an unauthorized
departure from the custom of the Catholic Church." This declaration
by both these bodies was called forth by the agitation of the
"Temperance people."

Woman's Auxiliary, The.--This is a Society, as its name indicates,
composed of the women of the Church which acts as an auxiliary to
the labors and generous gifts of its members supplements the work
of the general Society. There is also a Junior Department including
the younger women of the Church who have become interested in
missionary work. Besides systematic efforts to raise money for
the work of missions, the members prepare boxes of clothing and
household necessities for the families of missionaries. The
Auxiliary is very helpful and has enlisted the faithful labors of
Christian women in fifty-nine dioceses and twenty-one missionary
districts. An idea of the work accomplished by this organization
may be gained by considering the report made for the year ending
September 1st, 1900, from which it is learned that the Woman's
Auxiliary contributed that year the noble sum of $210,841.55, and
prepared and sent out 4,680 boxes valued at $191,434.96, making a
total for the year of $402,276.51. It may be interesting to note
that the UNITED OFFERING placed {279} on the Altar by the Woman's
Auxiliary at the Triennial meeting held in San Francisco during
the General Convention of 1901, amounted to the handsome sum of
$104,295.53. The Headquarters of the Society are in the Church
Missions House, New York City.

Word, The.--The name given to our Blessed Lord by St. John in the
beginning of his Gospel, to set forth the preexistence and Divinity
of the Son of God and the creation of the world by Him. Pearson on
the Creed makes the following comment: "The Jews were constantly
taught that the Word of God was the same with God, and that by that
Word all things were made. And therefore, St. John delivered so
great a mystery so briefly, as speaking to those who at once
understood him. Only what they knew not was that this Word was made
Flesh, and that this Word made Flesh was Jesus Christ." The Greek
for "The Word" is _Logos_.

Words on the Cross, The Seven.--Our Blessed Lord was nailed to the
Cross at nine o'clock in the morning and hanged thereon until three
o'clock, when He died. During these six hours of His Crucifixion He
uttered seven sayings, called the _Seven Words from the Cross_; they
are as follows:

1. "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do."

2. "To-day thou shalt be with Me in Paradise."

3. "Woman, behold thy Son." "Behold thy Mother."

4. "My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?"

5. "I thirst." {280}

6. "It is finished."

7. "Father, into Thy hands I commend My Spirit." (See THREE HOURS'

Worship.--Our word _worship_ is the modern form of the early English
word _worthship_. And while the word was originally used to denote
honor or respect paid to any one worthy of it, it came in time to
be used exclusively of the giving of honor to God, of which He
above all others is worthy. Thus we have the word applied almost
exclusively to what we now call Public Worship. By this is meant
the united homage of the members of the Church rendered to God as
their Almighty King. And it is to be noted that whilst God accepts
the worship of each individual or family, yet He loves more the
Public Worship of His Church, for we read in the Book of Psalms,
"The Lord loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of
Jacob." While this is very manifest to any careful student of the
Bible, yet in these our days there is nothing so misunderstood as
the nature and obligation of _Public Worship_. So much so is this
the case it has been declared that Worship is a "Lost Art." This
has come to pass, no doubt, from the misapprehension of the purpose
of this "assembling of ourselves together." The common idea is that
we go to Church to "hear preaching." But preaching is not worship,
nor is it the chief purpose of our coming together in the House of
God each Lord's Day. We come together _to worship_, and the true
idea of worship is to give, to render homage. Worship is an
unselfish offering. It is giving God the praise. It is the grateful
homage of grateful creatures to Him who {281} has blessed them and
preserved them. Preaching is but an incident of such an assembly
gathered for such a purpose, and oftentimes is not really necessary.
It is also to be noticed that the Church's true worship is the Holy
Communion; all other services are but adjuncts to the one service
appointed by our Lord Himself. In the Primitive Church an ordinary
Christian would not have considered that he had kept the Lord's Day
as a day of worship if he had not attended a celebration of the
Holy Communion. When, therefore, our people grasp these Scriptural
ideas, then no longer can it be said that worship is a "Lost Art"
among the American people. (See HOLY COMMUNION; also RESPONSIVE


X.--The letter X resembles the shape of the Cross of St. Andrew,
which has come into quite prominent notice as being the badge of
the BROTHERHOOD OF ST. ANDREW (which see).

X P.--These letters belong under this head only in appearance as
they are in reality the first two letters of the Greek word
_Christos_, meaning "Christ." The X is the Greek letter _Chi_ and
is equivalent to the English letters "ch"; the P is called _Rho_
and is the same as the letter "r;" they thus represent the first
three letters of the word _Christ_. These two Greek letters are
used in Church decorations either separately or as a monogram, as
a symbol or emblem of our Lord. {282}


Y Cross.--By reason of its shape, the Cross embroidered on the
CHASUBLE (which see) is called the Y Cross, and is intended to
represent the outstretched arms of our Blessed Lord on the Cross,
and symbolizes the Sacrifice which He there offered for the sins
of the whole world, of which the Holy Eucharist is the perpetual


Yule.--The old English name for CHRISTMAS (which see). A word of
doubtful origin.

Yule Tide.--The season or time of Christmas.


Zealot.--One of a fanatical Jewish sect, which prevailed in the
time of our Lord. In the New Testament, this name is given to one
of our Lord's Apostles, namely, ST. SIMON (which see).

Zuchetto.--The name give to a skull cap worn by the clergy instead
of the biretta; when worn by a Priest the color is black, but that
worn by a Bishop is purple. {283}


  Ablutions 5
  Absolution 5
  Absolution, Declaration of 6
  Absolve 6
  Abstinence 6
  Acolyte, his duties 6
  Adult Baptism 7
  Advent, Season of 7
  Advent Sunday 8
  Affusion 8
  Agape 8
  Age for Confirmation 84
  Agnus Dei 9
  Aisle 9
  Alb 9
  Alleluia 9
  All Saints' Day 9
  Almanac, Church 10
  Alms Bason 10
  Alpha and Omega 10
  Altar 11
  Altar Cross 11
  Altar Lights 11
  Altar Linen 12
  Altar Rail 12
  Altar Vessels. See Vessels, Sacred 267
  Ambulatory 13
  American Church 13
  American Church, meaning of the term 13
  Amice  18
  Anaphora 18
  Andrew, Saint 18
  Angel, one of N. T. names for Bishop 19
  Angels. See Holy Angels 133
  Anglican Church 19
  Anglican Communion  20
  Anglo Catholic 21
  Annual Address, The Bishop's, 37
  Annunciation, The 22
  Anointing the Sick 22
  Antependium 23
  Anthem 23
  Antiphon. See Anthem  23
  Antiphonal 23
  Apocalypse, The 24
  Apocrypha 24
  Apostle 24
  Apostles' Creed 25
   Doctrine 25
  Apostolate 25
  Apostolic Fathers. See Fathers, 109
  Apostolic Succession 25
  Apse 26
  Apsidal 36
  Archbishop 26
  Archdeacon 26 {284}
  Articles of Religion, XXXIX, 26
  Articles of Religion not a Creed, 27
  Ascension Day 27
  Ascription 27
  Ash Wednesday 28
  Assistant Minister 28

  Banners 28
  Banns of Marriage 29
  Baptism, Adult. See Adult
  Baptism 7
  Baptism, Holy 29
  Baptism, Conditional  30
  Baptism, Infant. See Infant Baptism 145
  Baptism, Private 30
  Baptism Should be administered in Church 30
  Baptismal Regeneration. See
  Regeneration 227
  Baptismal Shell 31
  Baptistry 31
  Barnabas, Saint 31
  Bartholomew, Saint 32
  Bason. See Alms Bason 10
  Belfry 33
  Benedic, Anima mea  33
  Benedicite 33
  Benediction 34
  Benedictus 35
  Betrothal 35
  Bible, The English 35
  Bible Reading Church  166, 238
  Bidding Prayer 36
  Biretta 36
  Birthday of the Church 275
  Bishop 36
  Bishop's Charge 37
  Bishop Coadjutor 38
  Bishop consecrated by not less than three Bishops 16
  Bishop, Derivation of the Word 36
  Bishop, Election of 38
  Bishop, Missionary 39
  Bishop, The Presiding. See Presiding Bishop 218
  Bishop's Resignation. See Jurisdiction, Resignation of, 158
  Bishop's Visitation 39
  Bishopric 40
  Black 40
  Blessed Virgin Mary 40
  Blessing Church Furniture 34
  Blessing of Peace 41
  Board of Managers 41
  Board of Missions 41
  Bounden Duty 41
  Bowing 41
  Bowing at the Name of Jesus 41, 136
  Breaking of the Bread 42
  Brotherhood of St Andrew 42
  Burial 43
  Burial Office when not to be used 43
  Burse 43

  Calendar 44
   Origin of 83
  Candidate 44
  Candlemas 44
  Canon 45
   Law 45
   of Scripture 45
   of the Liturgy 45 {285}
  Canonical 45
  Canonical Hours 45
  Canonical Residence 46
  Canticle 46
  Cantoris 46
  Cardinal Virtues. See Virtues,
  Cardinal 271
  Cassock 46
  Catechism 47
   Divisions of 47
   an Unfinished Fragment 47
  Catechumen 48
  Cathedral 48
  Catholic 48
  Celebrant 49
  Ceremonies. See Rites and Ceremonies 232
  Chalice 50
  Chalice Veil 50
  Chancel 50
  Chancellor 50
  Change of Church name 14
  Chantry 50
  Chasuble 51
  Childermas 51
  Chimere 51
  Choir 51
  Choir, The Vested. See Surpliced Choir 249
  Choral Service. See Even Song 103
  Choral Service not "Romish" 103
  Christen, To 52
  Christian 51
  Christian Name. See Name, Christian 194
  Christian Unity. See Unity, Church 263
  Christian Year, Divisions of, 52, 53
  Christian's New Year's Day 8
  Christmas Day 54
  Church 55
   an Institution .... 161
   Introduced into Britain, 19
   Building Fund ... 56
   Catholic 56
   Chronology 57
   Club 58
   Colors 58
   Congress 59
   Militant. See Church Catholic 56
   Missions House 60
   of England not founded by Henry the Eighth 20, 179, 233
   Temperance Society 61
   Wardens 62
   Year, See Christian Year 53
   Year preaches the Gospel 53
  Churching 62
  Circumcision, The 63
  Clergy 63
  Clerical 64
  Cloister 64
  Coadjutor. See Bishop Coadjutor 38
  Collect 64
  Comfortable Words 65
  Commendatory Prayer 65
  Commandments. See Decalogue 77
  Common Prayer, Meaning of 64
  Communion, Holy. See Holy Communion 133 {286}
  Communion of Saints 66
  Compline. See Canonical Hours 45
  Confirmation 66
  Confirmation not joining the Church 156
  Consecrate 68
  Consecration, Prayer of 68
   of Church Buildings 69
   of first Bishop
   on American Soil 17
  Convention 69
  Convocation 69
  Cope 70
  Corporal 70
  Cotta 70
  Council 70
  Credence 71
  Creed 71
  Cross, The 72
  Crucifier 73
  Cruets 73
  Crypt 73
  Curate 73

  Daily Prayer, The 73
  Dalmatic 74
  Daughters of the King 75
  Days in Holy Week, their significance 138
  Days of Obligation, List of 75
  Deacon 75
  Deaconess 76
  Dean 77
  Decalogue 77
   Translation of 78
  Decalogue When added to Communion Office 77
  Decani 78
  Dedication, Feast of 78
  Deposition 79
  Deprecations 79
  Descent into Hell 79
  Diaconate 80
  Dies Irae 80
  Digest of Canons 80
   List of Titles 80
  Dimissory Letter 81
  Diocesan 82
  Diocesan Convention 82
  Diocesan Missions 82
  Diocese 81
  Diptychs 83
  Discretion, Years of 84
  Dispensation 84
  Divine Liturgy. See Holy Communion 133
  Divine Service 84
  Divisions among Christians not Sanctioned by the Bible 264
  Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society 85
  Domestic Missions. See D. and F. Society 85
  Domenical Letter 87
  Dossal 88
  Doxology 88
  Duly, its ecclesiastical meaning 88

  Eagle 89
  Early Communion 80 {287}
  East, Turning to, Origin of Custom 90
  Easter Day 90
  Easter Even 92
  Easter Monday and Tuesday 93
  Easter Tide 93
  Eastern Church 93
  Eastward Position. See East, Turning to 90
  Ecclesiastical Year. See Christian Year 52
  Ecumenical 94
  Elder 94
  Elements 94
  Ember Days 94
  Emblems 95
  Emmanuel 96
  Epact, The 97
  Epiphany, Feast of 97
   Commemoration Threefold 98
   Sundays after 98
  Episcopacy 98
  Episcopal Ring 231
  Episcopate 100
  Epistle of St. Barnabas 32
  Epistle, The 100
  Epistle Side 100
  Epistoler 101
  Eschatology 101
  Espousal 101
  Essentials of Christian Truth and Order 19
  Eucharist 101
  Eucharistic Lights. See Altar Lights 11
  Eucharistic Vestments 101
  Evangelical 102
  Evangelical Canticles 102
  Evangelists 103
  Eve or Even 103
  Even Song 103
  Examination for Holy Orders, List of 103
  Excommunication 104
  Exhortation 104
  Expectation Sunday 105
  Expectation Week 105
  Extension of the Incarnation 144

  Fair Linen Cloth 106
  Fair White Linen Cloth 106
  Faith 106
  Faithful, The 107
  Faldstool 107
  Fasting 107
  Fasting Communion 108
  Fasts, Table of 108
  Fathers, The 108
  Feasts or Festivals 110
  Feria 110
  Filioque 111
  First American Bishop 16
  First Principle of English Reformation 262
  Fish 111
  Flagon 111
  Font 111
  Foreign Missions. See D. and F. Society 85
  Forms 112
  Forty Days, The Great 113
  Fourth Sunday in Lent 114
  Fraction 114
  Free and Open Churches 115
  Frequent Communion 115 {288}
  Friday 116
   as Obligatory as Sunday, 116
  Frontal 116
  Fruits of the Spirit. See Spirit, Fruits of 242
  Funerals 117

  Gehenna 117
  General Clergy Relief Fund 117
  General Confession, The 118
  General Convention 119
  General Councils, List of 70, 71
  General Thanksgiving 120
  General Theological Seminary 120
  Generally Necessary 120
  Genuflexion 121
  Ghost 121
  Ghostly 121
  Ghost, The Holy. See Holy Ghost 135
  Gifts (Sevenfold) of the Holy Ghost 121
  Girdle 121
  Girls' Friendly Society 122
  Gloria in Excelsis 122
  Gloria Patri 123
   not a vain repetition 123
  Gloria Tibi 123
  God Fathers and Mothers. See Sponsors 243
  Golden Number 123
  Good Friday 124
  Good Shepherd, Sunday of 125
  Gospel--meaning of the word 126
  Gospel Hymns 179
  Gospels, The Four 126
  Gospel, The Holy 127
  Gospel Side 127
  Gospeller 127
  Government, Church. See Episcopacy 98
  Gown, The Black 127
  Grace 128
  Grace of Baptism Threefold 29
  Gradine 128
  Gradual 128
  Greek Church. See Eastern Church 93
  Green 128
  Gregorian Music 129
  Growth of the Church 17, 129
  Guardian Angels. See Holy Angels 133
  Guild 131

  Habit 131
  Hades 131
  Hallelujah. See Alleluia 9
  Heaven 132
  Hell 132
  Heresy 132
  Heretic 132
  High Celebration 132
  Historic Episcopate 133
  Historiographer 133
  Holy Angels 133
  Holy Communion 133
   every Lord's Day 115
  Holy Days and Seasons. See Christian Year 52
  Holy Ghost, The 135
   Procession of 219
  Holy Innocents' Day 136 {289}
  Holy Name, The 136
  Holy Orders 137
  Holy Table. See Altar 11
  Holy Thursday 1 37
  Holy Week 137
  Homilies, The 138
  Hood 138
  Hosanna 139
  Hours of Prayer. See Canonical Hours 45
  House of Bishops 139
  House of God 139
  Housel 140
  Humble Access, Prayer of 140
  Hymn Board 140
  Hymnal, The 140
  Hymns 141
  Hypothetical Form 142

  I. H. S 142
  Immersion 142
  Immovable Feasts 142
  Imposition of Hands 143
  Incarnation, The 144
  Incense 145
  Incumbent 145
  Infant Baptism 145
  Inhibit 146
  Innocents. See Holy Innocents' Day 136
  I. N. R. I. 147
  Institution, Office, of 147
   Letter of 147
   Words of 148
  Instruction 148
  Intercessions of the Litany 148
  Intermediate State 148
  Intonation 149
  Intone 149
  Introit 150
  Invitatory 150
  Invocation, The 151
   before the sermon 150

  James (St.) the Great 151
  James (St.) the Less 152
  Jesus, The Holy Name of 152
   Derivation of the word 153
  John Baptist, Saint 153
  John Evangelist, Saint 154
  Joining the Church 155
  Jubilate Deo 157
  Jude, Saint 157
  Jurisdiction, Episcopal 158
   Missionary 158
   Resignation of 158
  Justification, Cause of 159

  Kalendar. See Calendar 159
  Keys of the Church 159
  Keys, Power of the 160
  Kindred, Table of 160
  Kingdom of God 161
  Kissing the Stole 162
  Kneeling 162
  Kyrie 162

  Lady Day 163
  Laity 163
   Why so called 64
  Lamb and Flag 163 {290}
  Lambeth Conference 164
  Lammas Day 164
  Last Things, The Four 164
  Lauds 164
  Lay Baptism 165
  Layman 165
  Lay Reader 165
  Laying on of Hands 165
  Lectern 166
  Lectionary 166
  Lent, Season of 167
   Why observed forty days, 167
   Sundays in 168
  Lesser Litany 169
  Lessons, The 169
  Letter Dimissory. See Dimissory Letter 81
   of Orders 169
   of Transfer 170
  Lights on the Altar 170
  Linen Cloth, See Fair Linen Cloth 106
  Litany, The 170
   Divisions of 171
   Desk 172
  Liturgical Colors. See Church Colors 58
  Liturgy 172
  Liturgies, Table of 173
  Lord's Day, The 175
   not the Sabbath 235
  Lord's Prayer, The 176
   When said by Priest alone 176
  Lord's Supper, wrong use of the term 177
  Lord's Table, The 177
  Low Celebration 177
  Low Sunday 178
  Luke, Festival of Saint 178
  Lych Gate 179

  Magna Charta 179
  Magnificat 180
   Daily Memorial of Incarnation 180
  Maniple 180
  Manual Acts 180
  Mark, Feast of Saint 181
  Marriage 181
   Sacramental 182
   Vow 35
  Mary. See Blessed Virgin Mary 40
  Mass 183
  Matthew, Feast of Saint 183
  Matthias, Feast of Saint 184
  Matins 185
  Matrimony, Holy. See Marriage 181
  Maundy Thursday 185
  Meditation 186
  Membership, Church 186
  Mensa 186
  Mercy to Babes 146
  Michael (St.) and All Angels 186
  Mid Lent Sunday. See Fourth Sunday in Lent 114
  Militant, Church 187
  Ministry, The 187
  Ministry of the Holy Angels 133, 186
  Miserere 188
  Missal 188
  Mission 188
   Parochial 189
  Missionary 189 {291}
  Missionary Bishop. See Bishop, Missionary 39
  Council, See D. and F. Society 85
  Missioner 189
  Missions 189
  Mitre 190
  Mixed Chalice 190
  Mode of Baptism 8, 259
  Morning Prayer 190
  Morse 191
  Mothering Sunday 191
  Movable Feasts and Fasts 191
  Music, Church 192
  Mystery 193
  Mystical Body of Christ 193

  N. or M. 193
  Name, The Holy. See Holy Name 136
   The Christian 194
   why it is given 194
  Nathanael 32
  Nativity of our Lord 195
  Nave 195
  Neophyte 195
  New Birth 195
  Nicea, Council of 195
   did not originate the Creed 196
  Nicene Creed 196
   when introduced into Liturgy 196
  No strolling, irresponsible preachers 81
  Nocturns 196
  Non-conformists 196
  Nones 197
  North Side 197
  Nowell 197
  Nunc Dimittis 197

  Oblation 198
  Obligation. See Days of Obligation 75
  Obsecrations 198
  Occasional Offices 198
   Prayers 198
  Occurrence of Holy Days 199
  Octave 199
  Octaves set forth in Prayer Book 199
  Offertory, The 199
   Sentences 200
  Office, ecclesiastical meaning 200
  Offices of a Pastor 208
  Open Churches. See Free and Open Churches 115
  Ordain 200
  Ordination 200
  Order--its ecclesiastical meaning 201
  Orders, Holy. See Holy Orders 137
  Ordinal, The 201
  Ordinary 202
  Organizations, Church 202
  Organizing a Parish 203
  Organs 203
  Orientation 203
  Ornaments 203
  Orphrey 204
  Orthodox 204 {292}

  Pall 204
  Palm Sunday 204
  Paraclete 205
  Paradise 205
  Parish 205
   partakes of the character of its people 206
   House 206
   Register 206
  Parishioner 206
  Parochial Mission. See Mission, Parochial 189
  Parson 206
  Paschal 207
  Passion 207
   Sunday 207
   Tide 207
   Week 207
  Pastor 207
  Pastoral Letter 208
   Staff 208
  Paten 209
  Paul, Conversion of Saint 209
  Penance 210
  Penitential Office 210
  Penitential Psalms, their meaning 210
  Penitential Psalms used on Ash Wednesday 28
  Pentecost 211
  Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Virgin Mary 40
  Peter, Festival of Saint 211
  Philip (St.) and St. James' Day, 212
  Piscina 213
  Plain Song 213
  Pontifical. See Ordinal 201
  Post Communion 213
  Postulant 213
  Postures in Public Worship 214
  Prayer 214
   Five parts of 214
   for Church Militant . .187
   for Unity 264
  Prayer Book, The 215
   Cross 15
   first used in English 276
  Prayer Book of Eastern Origin 173, 174
  Prayers for the Dead 216
  Precentor 217
  Pre Lenten Season 217
  Presbyter--how shortened to Priest 217
  Presentation of Christ 217
  Presiding Bishop 218
  Presiding Bishops, List of 218
  Priest 218
  Priesthood of the Laity 230
  Primate 218
  Prime 218
  Prisoners. See Visitation of Prisoners 271
  Private Baptism. See Baptism, Private 30
  Proanaphora 219
  Pro-Cathedral 219
  Procession of the Holy Ghost 219
  Processional Cross 219
  Proper Lessons 220
  Proper Preface 220
  Proper Psalms 220
  Protestant 220
  Protestant Episcopal. See American Church 13
  Provinces 221 {293}

  Psalter, The 221
   should be sung 221
   Translation of 222
  Purification, The 222
  Purificator 222
  Purpose of English Reformation 20

  Quadragesima 222
  Quadrilateral, The 222
  Qualifications for Holy Orders, 223
  Quick 223
  Quicunque Vult 223
  Quiet Day 223
  Quinquagesima 224

  Rail. See Altar Rail 12
  Ratification, The 224
  Real Presence 224
  Reception into the Church. See Baptism, Private 30
  Recessional 225
  Rector 226
   Head of the Parish 226
  Rectory 226
  Red Letter Day 226
  Refreshment Sunday 226
  Regeneration 227
   and Conversion not synonymous 227
  Register. See Parish Register, 206
  Registrar 227
  Religion of English-speaking People 21
  Religious Orders 228
  Reproaches, The 228
  Reredos 229
  Responds 229
  Responses 229
  Responsive Service 239
  Retable 230
  Retreat 230
  Reunion of Christendom desired 21
  Revised Bible 36
  Ring 231
  Rites and Ceremonies 232
  Ritual 232
  Ritualism 232
  Rochet 233
  Rogation Days 233
   Special Prayers, 233
  Rogation Sunday 234
  Rood Screen 234
  Rubric 234

  Sabbaoth 234
  Sabbath 235
  Sacraments 235
   necessary to salvation 235
  Sacred Vessels. See Vessels,
  Sacred 267
  Sacrifice 236
  Sacristan 236
  Sacristy 236
  Saint 237
  Saints' Days 237
  Sanctuary 237
  Schism 238
   between East and West 111, 238
  Scriptures in Prayer Book 238
  Seasons, Church. See Christian Year 52 {294}
  Sedilia 239
  See 239
  Sentences, The Opening 239
  Septuagesima 239
  Server 240
  Sexagesima 240
  Sexts. See Canonical hours 45
  Shell. See Baptismal Shell 31
  Shrove Tuesday 240
  Sick. See Visitation of Sick 272
  Sign of the Cross. See Cross 72
  Simon (St.) and St. Jude's Day, 241
  Sisterhoods. See Religious Orders 228
  Six Points of Ritual 241
  Spirit. See Ghost, 121
   and Holy Ghost 135
   Gifts of. See Gifts of Holy Ghost 121
   Fruits of the 242
  Spirit of Missions 242
  Sponsors 243
  Stalls 244
  Standing Committee 244
  State of Salvation 245
  Stephen, Festival of Saint 245
  Stir up Sunday 246
  Stole 246
  Subdeacon 247
  Substance 247
  Suffrages 247
  Sunday. See Lord's Day 175
  Sunday Letter. See Dominical Letter 87
  Sunday schools 247
  Super Altar 248
  Sureties. See Sponsors 243
  Surname, Meaning of word 193
  Surplice 249
  Surpliced Choir 249
  Sursum Corda 251
  Symbol 251
  Synod 251

  Table, See Lord's Table 177
  Te Deum 252
   Old tradition, concerning 252
  Ten Commandments. See Decalogue 77
  Temperance. See Church Temperance Society 61
  Ter Sanctus 252
  Terms of Christian Unity 222
  Testimonials 252
  Testimony to Scriptural Character of Confirmation 67, 68
  Thanksgiving. See General Thanksgiving 120
  Thanksgiving Day 253
   first held 253
  Theological Virtues 254
  The Baptized a Holy Nation 237
  Thirty-Nine Articles. See Articles of Religion 26
  Thomas (St.) the Apostle 254
  Three Hours Service 255
  Thurifer 256
  Thursday, Holy. See Ascension Day 27
  Thursday in Holy Week. See Maundy 185
  Tierce. See Canonical Hours 45
  Time of keeping Easter, when Settled 91
  Times of Baptism 93
   Ordination 95 {295}
  Tradition 259
  Transepts 257
  Transfiguration, The 257
  Translations of the Bible 35
  Trefoil 259
  Trine Immersion 259
  Trinity, The Holy 259
   Season 260
   Sunday 260
  Trisagion 261
  Triumphal Hymn 261
  Triumphant, The Church 261
  Tunicle 262
  Turning to the East. See East, Turning to 90
  Twelfth Day 262

  Unction. See Anointing the Sick 22
  Undivided Church 262
  Union Jack--its origin 19
  Unity, Church, 263
  Unleavened Bread 265
  Use, its Ecclesiastical Meaning, 265

  Veil. See Chalice Veil 50
  Veni Creator Spiritus 266
  Venite Exultemus 266
  Verger 266
  Versicles 266
  Vespers 267
  Vessels, Sacred 267
  Vestments, List of 267
  Vestry, The 269
  Vestries not found in Primitive Church 269
  Via Media 269
  Viaticum 270
  Vicar 270
  Vigils 270
  Vincent, Rule of Saint 271
  Virgin Mary. See Blessed
  Virgin Mary 40
  Virtues, The Cardinal 271
   Theological. See Theological Virtues 254
  Visitation, Episcopal. See  Bishop's Visitation 39
  Visitation of Prisoners 271
   Sick 272
  Vow 273
  Vows of Baptism 29, 273
   Religious Orders 272

  Wafer Bread. See Unleavened Bread 265
  Wardens. See Church Wardens 62
  Warnings 274
  Water 274
  Wedding Ring. See Ring 231
  Wednesday 275
  Western Church 275
  What constitutes a valid Sacrament 148
  What Constitutes an Ecumenical Council 94
  Whitsun Day 275
   Derivation of the word 276 {296}
  Whitsun Monday and Tuesday, 277
   Tide 277
  Whole duty of Man 29
  Why Bishops are not now called Apostles 37
  Why we go to Church  280
  Wine, Declaration concerning, 277
  Witness and Keeper of Holy Writ 257
  Woman's Auxiliary 278
  Word, The 279
  Words on the Cross 279
  Worship 279

  X The Cross of St. Andrew 18
  X P 281

  Y Cross 282
  Year. See Christian Year 52
  Yule 282
   Tide 282

  Zealot 282
  Zuccheto 282

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