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Title: Early English Alliterative Poems - in the West-Midland Dialect of the Fourteenth Century
Author: Morris, Richard, 1833-1894 [Editor]
Language: English
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  [1] Introductory Material
  [2] The Pearl
  [3] Cleanness
  [4] Patience
  [5] Glossarial Index (excluding Postscript)
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  Early English

  Alliterative Poems

  in the

  West-Midland Dialect

  of the

  Fourteenth Century


  Edited From
  The Unique Manuscript
  British Museum MS. Cotton
  Nero A. x

  by

  Richard Morris


  _Published for_
  THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY
  _by the_
  OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
  London  New York  Toronto



  First Published 1864
  Second Edition 1869
  Reprinted (1869 Version) 1965


  Original Series, No. 1

  Originally Printed by Stephen Austin, Hertford
  and now Reprinted Lithographically in Great Britain
  at the University Press, Oxford
  by Vivian Ridler, Printer to the University



CONTENTS

[List added by transcriber. Items in brackets do not have headers in the
body text, but were treated as subsections for grouping footnotes.]

  Preface
    [Introduction to _The Pearl_]
    [Introduction to _Cleanness_]
    [Introduction to _Patience_]
    [General Introduction]
    Remarks Upon the Dialect and Grammar
    Grammatical Details
      I. Nouns
      II. Adjectives
      III. Pronouns
      IV. Verbs
      V. Adverbs
      VI. Prepositions
      VII. Conjunctions
  Description of the Manuscript
  Contractions Used in the Glossary

  The Pearl
  Cleanness
  Patience

  Notes [distributed among the three poems]
  Glossarial Index



PREFACE.


The following poems are taken from a well known manuscript in the
Cottonian collection, marked Nero A. x, which also contains, in the same
handwriting and dialect, a metrical romance,[1] wherein the adventures
of Sir Gawayne with the “Knight in Green,” are most ably and
interestingly described.

Unfortunately nothing can be affirmed with any certainty concerning the
authorship of these most valuable and interesting compositions. The
editor of “Syr Gawayn and the Green Knight” considers that Huchowne, a
supposed[2] Scotch _maker_ of the fourteenth century, has the best
claims to be recognised as the author, inasmuch as he is specially
referred to by Wyntown as the writer of the _Gret gest of Arthure_ and
the _Awntyre of Gawayne_.

I do not think that any certain conclusions are to be drawn from the
Scotch historian’s assertion. It is well known that more versifiers than
one during the fourteenth century attempted romance composition in the
English language, having for their theme the knightly deeds of Arthur or
Sir Gawayne. These they compiled from French originals, from which they
selected the most striking incidents and those best suited to an
Englishman’s taste for the marvellous. We are not surprised, then, at
finding so many romance poems treating of the exploits of the same hero,
and laying claim to be considered as original productions. In Scotland,
Huchowne’s works might no doubt have been regarded as the standard
romances of the period, but that they were the only English _gests_ is
indeed very doubtful.

The Early English alliterative romance, entitled the _Morte Arthure_,
published from a manuscript in Lincoln Cathedral by Mr. Halliwell,[3] is
considered by Sir F. Madden to be the veritable _gest of Arthure_
composed by Huchowne. An examination of this romance does not lead me to
the same conclusion, unless Huchowne was a Midland man, for the poem is
not written in the old Scotch dialect,[4] but seems to have been
originally composed in one of the Northumbrian dialects spoken _South_
of the Tweed.[5]

The manuscript from which Mr. Halliwell has taken his text is not the
original copy, nor even a literal transcript of it. It exhibits certain
orthographical and grammatical peculiarities unknown to the Northumbrian
dialect which have been introduced by a Midland transcriber, who has
here and there taken the liberty to adapt the original text to the
dialect of his own locality, probably that one of the North Midland
counties, where many of the Northumbrian forms of speech would be
intelligible.[6]

A comparison of the Arthurian romance with the following poems throws no
light whatever upon the authorship of the poems. The dialect of the two
works is altogether different, although many of the terms employed are
common to both, being well known over the whole of the North of England.
The grammatical forms (the best test we can have) in the poems are quite
distinct from those in the _Morte Arthure_, and of course go far to
prove that they do not proceed from the pen of the same writer.

The Editor of “Syr Gawayn and the Green Knight” acknowledges that the
poems in the present volume, as now preserved to us in the manuscript,
are not in the Scottish dialect, but he says “there is sufficient
internal evidence of their being _Northern_,[7] although the manuscript
containing them appears to have been written by a scribe of the Midland
counties, which will account for the introduction of forms differing
from those used by writers beyond the Tweed.”

Now, with regard to this subsequent transcription of the poems from the
Scotch into a Midland dialect,--it cannot be said to be improbable, for
we have abundant instances of the multiplication of copies by scribes of
different localities, so that we are not surprised at finding the works
of some of our popular Early English writers appearing in two or three
forms; but, on the other hand, a comparison of the original copy with
the _adapted transcriptions_, or even the reading of a transcribed copy,
always shows how the author’s productions have suffered by the change.
Poetical works, especially those with final rhymes, of course undergo
the greatest amount of transformation and depreciation. The changes
incident upon the kind of transcription referred to are truly
surprising, and most perplexing to those who make the subject of Early
English _dialects_ a matter of investigation.

But, in the present poems, the uniformity and consistency of the
grammatical forms is so entire, that there is indeed no internal
evidence of subsequent transcription into any other dialect than that in
which they were originally written. However, the dialect and grammatical
peculiarities will be considered hereafter.

Again, in the course of transcription into another dialect, any literary
merit that the author’s copy may have originally possessed would
certainly be destroyed. But the poems before us are evidently the work
of a man of birth and education; the productions of a true poet, and of
one who had acquired a perfect mastery over that form of the English
tongue spoken in his own immediate locality during the earlier part of
the fourteenth century. Leaving out of consideration their great
philological worth, they possess an intrinsic value of their own as
literary compositions, very different from anything to be found in the
works of Robert of Gloucester, Manning, and many other Early English
authors, which are very important as philological records, but in the
light of poetical productions, cannot be said to hold a very
distinguished place in English literature. The poems in the present
volume contain many passages which, as Sir F. Madden truly remarks, will
bear comparison with any similar ones in the works of Douglas or
Spenser.

I conclude, therefore, that these poems were not transcribed from the
Scotch dialect into any other, but were written in their own
West-Midland speech in which we now have them.

Mr. Donaldson, who is now editing for the Early English Text Society the
Troy Book, translated from Guido di Colonna, puts forward a plea for
Huchowne as its author, to whom he would also assign the _Morte Arthure_
(ed. Perry) and the Pistel of Sweet Susan.[8] But Mr. Donaldson seems to
have been misled by the similarity of vocabulary, which is not at all a
safe criterion in judging of works written in a Northumbrian, West or
East Midland speech. The dialect, I venture to think, is a far safer
test. A careful examination of the Troy Book compels me to differ in
toto from Mr. Donaldson, and, instead of assigning the Troy Book to a
Scotchman, say that it cannot even be claimed, in its present form, by
any Northumbrian south of the Tweed; moreover, it presents no appearance
of having been tampered with by one unacquainted with the dialect,
though it has perhaps been slightly modernised in the course of
transcription.

The work is evidently a genuine West-Midland production,[9] having most
of the peculiarities of vocabulary and inflexions that are found in
these _Alliterative Poems_.[10] I feel greatly inclined to claim this
English Troy Book as the production of the author of the _Alliterative
Poems_; for, leaving out identical and by no means common expressions,
we find the same power of description,[11] and the same tendency to
inculcate moral and religious truths on all occasions where an
opportunity presents itself.[12] Without dwelling upon this topic, which
properly falls to the Editor of the Troy Book, it may not be out of
place to ask the reader to compare the following description of a storm
from the Troy Book, with that selected from the present volume on pp. 14
and 18.


A TEMPEST ON ÞE SEE.

    There a tempest _hom_ toke on þe torres hegh:--
    A _rak_ and a royde wynde rose in _hor_ saile,
    A myst & a _merkenes_ was mervell to se;
    With a _routond_ rayn ruthe to be-holde,
    Thonr{et}[13] full _throly_ with a thicke haile;
    With a leuenyng light as a _low_ fyre,
    Blas{et} all the brode see as it bren wold.
    The flode with a felle cours flow{et} on hepis,
    Rose uppon rockes as any _ranke_ hylles.
    So wode were the waghes & þe wilde _ythes_,
    All was like to be lost þat no lond hade
    The ship ay shot furth o þe _shire waghes_,
    As qwo clymbe at a clyffe, or a clent[14] hille.
    Eft _dump_ in the depe as all drowne wolde.
    Was no _stightlyng_ with stere ne no stithe ropes,
    Ne no sayle, þat might serue for _unsound_ wedur.
  But all the buernes in the bote, as _hom_ best liked,
  Besoght unto sainttes & to sere goddes; (p. 65)


A STORME ON THE SE.

  All the company enclin{et} cair{yn} to ship;
  Cach{yn} in cables, knyt up _hor_ ancres,
  Sesit vp _hor_ sailes in a sad hast;
  _Richet_ þere rapes, rapit unto see.
  Hokit out of hauyn, all the hepe somyn,
  _Hade bir at hor bake_, blawen to þe depe;
  Sail{yn} forthe _soberly_, somyn but a while,
  Noght fyftene forlong fairly to the end.
    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  When sodenly the softe aire _unsoberly_ rose;
  The cloudis overcast, _claterrit_ aboute;
  Wyndes full wodely _walt_ up the ythes;
  Wex _merke_ as the mydnighte mystes full thicke:
  Thunret in the _thestur throly_ with all;
  With a _launchant laite_ lightonyd the water;
  And a _ropand_ rayne _raiked_ fro the heuyn.
  The storme was full stithe with mony stout windes,
  Hit _walt_ up the wilde se vppon wan hilles.
  The ffolke was so ferd, that _on flete_ were,
  All drede for to drowne with dryft of the se;
  And in perell were put all the proude kynges. --(p. 150.)

    [Footnote 1: Edited by Sir Frederic Madden for the Bannatyne Club,
    under the title of “Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt,” and by me for
    the Early English Text Soc., 1865.]

    [Footnote 2: Wyntown nowhere asserts that Huchowne is a
    Scotchman.]

    [Footnote 3: Edited for E. E. T. Soc. by Rev. G. G. Perry, M.A.]

    [Footnote 4: This is evident from the following particulars:--

    I. In old Scotch manuscripts we find the guttural _gh_ (or ȝ)
    represented by _ch_; thus, _aght_, _laght_, _saght_, _wight_, are
    the English forms which, in the Scotch orthography, become _aucht_
    (owed), _laucht_ (seized), _saucht_ (peace), _wicht_ (active). It
    is the former orthography, however, that prevails in the Morte
    Arthure.

    II. We miss the Scotch use of (1) _-is_ or _-ys_, for _-es_ or
    _-s_, in the plural number, and of possessive cases of nouns, and
    in the person endings of the present tense indicative mood of
    verbs; (2) _-it_ or _-yt_, for _-ed_ or _-d_, in the preterites or
    passive participles of regular verbs.

    III. There is a total absence of the well-known Scotch forms
    _begouth_ (began), _sa_ (so), _sic_ (such), _throuch_, _thorow_
    (through). Instead of these _bigan_, _so_, _syche_, _thrughe_
    (_thurgh_) are employed. See Preface to Hampole’s Pricke of
    Conscience, pp. vii, viii.]

    [Footnote 5: This is shown by the frequent employment of _-es_ as
    the person ending of the verb in the present tense, plural number.
    The corresponding Southern verbal inflexion _-eth_ _never_ occurs;
    while the Midland _-en_ is only occasionally met with in the third
    person plural present, and has been introduced by a later copyist.
    There are other characteristics, such as the predominance of words
    containing the A.S. long _a_; as _hame_ (home), _stane_ (stone),
    _thra_ (bold), _walde_ (would), etc.; the frequent use of _thir_
    (these), _tha_ (the, those), etc.]

    [Footnote 6: The peculiarities referred to do not appear to be
    owing to the copyist of the Lincoln manuscript (Robert de
    Thornton, a native of Oswaldkirk in Yorkshire), who, being a
    Northumbrian, would probably have restored the original readings.
    The non-Northumbrian forms in the Morte Arthure are-- 1. The
    change of _a_ into _o_, as _bolde_ for _balde_, _bote_ for _bate_,
    _one_ for _ane_, _honde_ for _hande_, _londe_ for _lande_;
    2. _they_, _theyre_, _them_, _theym_, for _thay_, _thaire_,
    _tham_; 3. _gayliche_, _kindliche_, _semlyche_, etc., for _gayly_,
    _kindly_, _seemly_, etc. (the termination _lich_, _liche_, was
    wholly unknown to the Northumbrian dialect, being represented by
    _ly_ or _like_); 4. _churle_, _churche_, _iche_, _mache_, _myche_,
    _syche_, _wyrche_, etc., for _carle_, _kirke_, _ilk_, _make_,
    _mykelle_, _swilk_, _wyrk_, etc.; 5. infinitives in _-en_, as
    _drenschen_, _schewenne_, _wacchenne_, etc.; 6. the use of _eke_,
    _thos_, for _als_ (_alswa_), _thas_; 7. the employment of _aye_
    for _egg_. The former word _never_ occurs in any pure Northumbrian
    work, while the latter is seldom met with in any Southern
    production.]

    [Footnote 7: The poems are _Northern_ in contradistinction to
    _Southern_, but they are not Northern or Northumbrian in
    contradistinction to _Midland_.]

    [Footnote 8: Printed by Mr. D. Laing in his “Inedited Pieces,”
    from a MS. of Mr. Heber’s. Other copies are in the Vernon MS., and
    Cotton Calig. A. ii.; the latter imperfect.]

    [Footnote 9: Other specimens of this dialect will doubtless turn
    up. Mr. Brock has found a MS. in British Museum (Harl. 3909) with
    most of the peculiarities pointed out by me in the preface to the
    present work, and I believe that this dialect was probably a
    flourishing one in the 13th century. See O.E. Homilies, p. li.]

    [Footnote 10: (1) _en_ as the inflexion of the pres. tense pl.,
    indic. mood of verbs; (2) _s_ in the second and third pers. sing.
    of verbs; (3) _ho_ = she; (4) _hit_ = its; (5) _tow_ = two;
    (6) _deȝter_ = daughters, etc.]

    [Footnote 11: See p. 36, ll. 1052-1066; p. 37, ll. 1074-1089; pp.
    161-162, ll. 4956-4975.]

    [Footnote 12: See pp. 25, 26 (Jason’s unfaithfulness); pp. 74, 75,
    ll. 2241-2255; p. 75, ll. 2256-2263; p. 69, ll. 2267-2081; p. 158,
    ll. 4839-4850; p. 189, ll. 4881-4885; p. 165, ll. 5078-5086, etc.]

    [Footnote 13: In the Harl. MS. 3909, nearly all the p. part. and
    preterites end in _-et_ (_-ut_ and _-et_ occur in Romances ed. by
    Robson).]

    [Footnote 14: This seems to furnish an etymology for _Clent_
    Hills, Worcestershire--_brent_ is the term employed in
    Alliterative.]


The poems in the present volume, three in number, seem to have been
written for the purpose of enforcing, by line upon line and precept upon
precept, Resignation to the will of God; Purity of life as manifested in
thought, word, and deed; Obedience to the Divine command; and Patience
under affliction.

In the first poem, entitled by me “_The Pearl_”, the author evidently
gives expression to his own sorrow for the loss of his infant child, a
girl of two years old, whom he describes as a

  Perle plesaunte to prynces paye
  _Pearl pleasant to princes’ pleasure,_
  To clanly clos in golde so clere
  _Most neatly set in gold so clear._

Of her death he says:

  Allas! I leste hyr in on erbere
  _Alas! I lost her in an arbour,_
  Þurȝ gresse to grounde hit fro me yot
  _Through grass to ground it from me got._ --(p. 1.)

The writer then represents himself as visiting his child’s grave (or
arbour) in the “high season of August,” and giving way to his grief
(p. 2). He falls asleep, and in a dream is carried toward a forest,
where he saw rich rocks gleaming gloriously, hill sides decked with
crystal cliffs, and trees the leaves of which were as burnished silver.
The gravel under his feet was “precious pearls of orient,” and birds “of
flaming hues” flew about in company, whose notes were far sweeter than
those of the cytole or gittern (guitar) (p. 3). The dreamer arrives at
the bank of a stream, which flows over stones (shining like stars in the
welkin on a winter’s night) and pebbles of emeralds, sapphires, or other
precious gems, so

  Þat all the loȝe lemed of lyȝt
  _That all the deep gleamed of light,_
  So dere watȝ hit adubbement
  _So dear was its adornment._ --(p. 4.)

Following the course of the stream, he perceives on the opposite side a
crystal cliff, from which was reflected many a “royal ray” (p. 5).

  At þe fote þer-of þer sete a faunt
  _At the foot thereof there sat a child,_
  A mayden of menske, ful debonere
  _A maiden of honour, full debonnair;_
  Blysnande whyt watȝ hyr bleaunt
  _Glistening white was her robe,_
  (I knew hyr wel, I hade sen hyr ere)
  _(I knew her well, I had seen her before)_
  At glysnande golde þat man con schore
  _As shining gold that man did purify,_
  So schon þat schene an-vnder schore
  _So shone that sheen (bright one) on the opposite shore;_
  On lenghe I loked to hyr þere
  _Long I looked to her there,_
  Þe lenger I knew hyr more & more
  _The longer I knew her, more and more._ --(pp. 6, 7.)

The maiden rises, and, proceeding along the bank of the stream,
approaches him. He tells her that he has done nothing but mourn for the
loss of his Pearl, and has been indeed a “joyless jeweller” (p. 8).
However, now that he has found his Pearl, he declares that he is no
longer sorrowful, but would be a “joyful jeweller” were he allowed to
cross the stream (p. 8). The maiden blames her father for his rash
speech, tells him that his Pearl is not lost, and that he cannot pass
the stream till after death (p. 10). The dreamer is in great grief; he
does not, he says, care what may happen if he is again to lose his
Pearl. The maiden advises him to bear his loss patiently, and to abide
God’s doom (p. 11). She describes to him her blissful state in heaven,
where she reigns as a queen (p. 12). She explains to him that Mary is
the Empress of Heaven, and all others kings and queens (p. 13). The
parable of the labourers in the vineyard[15] (pp. 15-18) is then
rehearsed at length, to prove that “innocents” are admitted to the same
privileges as are enjoyed by those who have lived longer upon the earth
(p. 18). The maiden then speaks to her father of Christ and his one
hundred and forty thousand brides (p. 24), and describes their blissful
state (p. 26). She points out to him the heavenly Jerusalem, which was
“all of bright burnished gold, gleaming like glass” (p. 29). Then the
dreamer beholds a procession of virgins going to salute the Lamb, among
whom he perceives his “little queen” (p. 33). On attempting to cross the
stream to follow her, he is aroused from his dream (p. 35), laments his
rash curiosity in seeking to know so much of God’s mysteries, and
declares that man ever desires more happiness than he has any right to
expect (p. 35).

    [Footnote 15: Matthew, chapter xx.]


The second poem, entitled “_Cleanness_,” is a collection of Biblical
stories, in which the writer endeavours to enforce Purity of Life, by
showing how greatly God is displeased at every kind of impurity, and how
sudden and severe is the punishment which falls upon the sinner for
every violation of the Divine law.

After commending cleanness and its “fair forms,” the author relates (I.)
The Parable of the Marriage Feast (p. 39); (II.) the Fall of the Angels
(p. 43); (III.) The wickedness of the antediluvian world (p. 44),

  He watȝ famed for fre þat feȝt loued best
  _He was famous as free that fight loved best,_
  & ay þe bigest in bale þe best watȝ halden
  _And ever the biggest in sin the best was held;_ (p. 45.)

(IV.) The destruction of mankind by the Flood. When all were safely
stowed in the ark,

  Thenne sone com þe seuenþe day, when samned wern alle
  _Then soon came the seventh day when assembled were all,_
  & alle woned in þe whichche þe wylde & þe tame.
  _And all abode in the ark (hutch), the wild and the tame._
  Þen bolned þe abyme & bonkeȝ con ryse
  _Then swelled the abyss and banks did rise,_
  Waltes out vch walle-heued, in ful wode stremeȝ
  _Bursts out each well-head in full wild streams,_
  Watȝ no brymme þat abod vnbrosten bylyue
  _There was no brim (stream) that abode unburst by then,_
  Þe mukel lauande loghe to þe lyfte rered
  _The much (great) flowing deep (loch) to the loft (sky) reared._
  Mony clustered clowde clef alle in clowteȝ
  _Many a clustering cloud cleft all in clouts (pieces),_
  To-rent vch a rayn-ryfte & rusched to þe vrþe
  _Rent was each a rain-rift and rushed to the earth;_
  Fon neuer in forty dayeȝ, & þen þe flod ryses
  _Failed never in forty days, and then the flood rises,_
  Ouer-walteȝ vche a wod and þe wyde feldeȝ
  _Over-flows each wood and the wide fields;_
  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
  Water wylger ay wax, woneȝ þat stryede
  _Water wildly ever waxed, abodes that destroyed,_
  Hurled in-to vch hous, hent þat þer dowelled
  _Hurled into each house, seized those that there dwelt._
  Fyrst feng to þe flyȝt alle þat fle myȝt
  _First took to flight all that flee might,_
  Vuche burde with her barne þe byggyng þay leueȝ
  _Each bride (woman) with her bairn their abode they leave,_
  & bowed to þe hyȝ bonk þer brentest hit wern
  _And hied to the high bank where highest it were,_
  & heterly to þe hyȝe hilleȝ þay [h]aled on faste
  _And hastily to the high hills they rushed on fast;_
  Bot al watȝ nedleȝ her note, for neuer cowþe stynt
  _But all was needless their device, for never could stop_
  Þe roȝe raynande ryg [&] þe raykande waweȝ
  _The rough raining shower and the rushing waves,_
  Er vch boþom watȝ brurd-ful to þe bonkeȝ eggeȝ
  _Ere each bottom (valley) was brim-ful to the banks’ edges,_
  & vche a dale so depe þat demmed at þe brynkeȝ
  _And each dale so deep that dammed at the brinks._ --(pp. 47, 48).

The ark is described as “heaved on high with hurling streams.”

  Kest to kyþeȝ vncouþe þe clowdeȝ ful nere
  _Cast to kingdoms uncouth the clouds ful near,_
  Hit waltered on the wylde flod, went as hit lyste
  _It tossed on the wild flood, went as it list,_
  Drof vpon þe depe dam, in daunger hit semed
  _It drove upon the deep dam, in danger it seemed,_
  With-outen mast, oþer myke, oþer myry bawe-lyne
  _Without mast, or mike,[16] or merry bow-line,_
  Kable, oþer capstan to clyppe to her ankreȝ
  _Cable or capstan to clip to their anchors,_
  Hurrok, oþer hande-helme hasped on roþer
  _Oar or hand-helm hooked on rudder,_
  Oþer any sweande sayl to seche after hauen
  _Or any swinging sail to seek after haven,_
  Bot flote forthe with þe flyt of þe felle wyndeȝ
  _But floated forth with the force of the fell winds._
  Wheder-warde so þe water wafte, hit rebounde
  _Whither-ward so (as) the water waft, it rebounded,_
  Ofte hit roled on-rounde & rered on ende
  _Oft it rolled around and reared on end,_
  Nyf our lorde hade ben her lodeȝ-mon hem had lumpen harde
  _Had our Lord not been their (pilot) leader hardship had befallen
them._ --(p. 49.)

(V.) The Visit of Three Angels to Abraham (p. 54).

(VI.) The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (pp. 64, 65), including a
description of the Dead Sea, the tarn (lake) of traitors (p. 66).

(VII.) The invasion of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (p. 71), and the
captivity of Judah (p. 74).

The following is a paraphrase of the fourth and fifth verses in the
twenty-fifth chapter of the second book of Kings.[17]

  Þenne þe kyng of þe kyth a counsayl hym takes
  _Then the king of the kingdom a counsel him takes,_
  Wyth þe best of his burnes, a blench for to make
  _With the best of his men a device for to make;_
  Þay stel out on a stylle nyȝt er any steuen rysed
  _They stole out on a still night ere any sound arose,_
  & harde hurles þurȝ þe oste, er enmies hit wyste
  _And hard hurled through the host, ere enemies it wist,_
  Bot er þay at-wappe ne moȝt þe wach wyth oute
  _But ere they could escape the watch without,_
  Hiȝe skelt watȝ þe askry þe skewes an-vnder
  _High scattered was the cry, the skies there under,_
  Loude alarom vpon launde lulted was þenne
  _Loud alarm upon land sounded was then;_
  Ryche, ruþed of her rest, ran to here wedes,
  _Rich (men) roused from their rest, ran to their weeds,_
  Hard hattes þay hent & on hors lepes
  _Kettle hats they seized, and on horse leap;_
  Cler claryoun crak cryed on-lofte
  _Clear clarion’s crack cried aloft._
  By þat watȝ alle on a hepe hurlande swyþee
  _By that (time) was all on a heap, hurling fast,_
  Folȝande þat oþer flote, & fonde hem bilyue
  _Following that other fleet (host), and found them soon,_
  Ouer-tok hem, as tyd,[18] tult hem of sadeles
  _Over-took them in a trice, tilted them off saddles,_
  Tyl vche prynce hade his per put to þe grounde
  _Till each prince had his peer put to the ground;_
  & þer watȝ þe kyng kaȝt wyth calde prynces
  _And there was the king caught with crafty princes,_
  & alle hise gentyle for-iusted on Ierico playnes
  _And all his nobles vanquished on Jericho’s plains._ --(pp. 71, 72.)

(VIII.) Belshazzar’s impious feast (pp. 76-80), and the handwriting upon
the wall (pp. 80, 81).

  In þe palays pryncipale vpon þe playn wowe
  _In the palace principal upon the plain wall,_
  In contrary of þe candelstik þat clerest hit schyned
  _Opposite to the candlestick that clearest there shone._
  Þer apered a paume, with poyntel in fyngres
  _There appeared a palm with a pointel in its fingers,_
  Þat watȝ grysly & gret, & grymly he wrytes
  _That was grisly and great, and grimly it writes,_
  None oþer forme bot a fust faylaynde þe wryst
  _None other form but a fist failing the wrist_
  Pared on þe parget, purtrayed lettres
  _Pared on the plaister, pourtrayed letters._
  When þat bolde Baltaȝar blusched to þat neue
  _When that bold Belshazzar looked to that fist,_
  Such a dasande drede dusched to his hert
  _Such a dazzling dread dashed to his heart._
  Þat al falewed his face & fayled þe chere
  _That all paled his face and failed the cheer;_
  Þe stronge strok of þe stonde strayned his ioyntes
  _The strong stroke of the blow strained his joints,_
  His cnes cachcheȝ to close & cluchches his hommes
  _His knees catch to close, and he clutches his hams,_
  & he with plat-tyng his paumes displayes his lers[19]
  _And he with striking his palms displays his fears,_
  & romyes as a rad ryth þat roreȝ for drede
  _And howls as a frightened hound that roars for dread,_
  Ay biholdand þe honde til hit hade al grauen,
  _Ever beholding the hand till it had all graven,_
  & rasped on þe roȝ woȝe runisch saueȝ
  _And rasped on the rough wall uncouth saws (words)._

(IX.) The story of Nebuchadnezzar’s pride and its punishment (pp. 84,
85), and the interpretation of the handwriting by Daniel (p. 86).

(X.) The invasion of Babylon by the Medes (pp. 87, 88).

  Baltaȝar in his bed watȝ beten to deþe
  _Belshazzar in his bed was beaten to death,_
  Þat boþe his blood & his brayn blende on þe cloþes
  _That both his blood and his brains blended on the clothes;_
  Þe kyng in his cortyn watȝ kaȝt by þe heles
  _The king in his curtain was caught by the heels,_
  Feryed out bi þe fete & fowle dispysed
  _Ferried out by the feet and foully despised;_
  Þat watȝ so doȝty þat day & drank of þe vessayl
  _He that was so doughty that day and drank of the vessels,_
  Now is a dogge also dere þat in a dych lygges
  _Now is as dear (valuable) as a dog that in a ditch lies._ --(p. 88.)

    [Footnote 16: See Glossary.]

    [Footnote 17: “4. And the city was broken up, and all the men of
    war fled by night by the way of the gate between two walls, which
    is by the king’s garden: (now the Chaldees were against the city
    round about:) and the king went the way toward the plain.

    “5. And the army of the Chaldees pursued after the king, and
    overtook him in the plains of Jericho: and all his army were
    scattered from him.”]

    [Footnote 18: Immediately.]

    [Footnote 19: ? feres.]


The third poem, entitled “_Patience_,” is a paraphrase of the book of
Jonah. The writer prefaces it with a few remarks of his own in order to
show that “patience is a noble point though it displease oft.”

The following extract contains a description of the sea-storm which
overtook Jonah:--

  Anon out of þe norþ est þe noys bigynes
  _Anon out of the north east the noise begins,_
  When boþe breþes[20] con blowe vpon blo watteres
  _When both breezes did blow upon blue waters:_
  Roȝ rakkes þer ros with rudnyng an-vnder
  _Rough clouds there arose with lightning there under,_
  Þe see souȝed ful sore, gret selly to here
  _The sea sobbed full sore, great marvel to hear;_
  Þe wyndes on þe wonne water so wrastel togeder,
  _The winds on the wan water so wrestle together,_
  Þat þe wawes ful wode waltered so hiȝe
  _That the waves full wild rolled so high,_
  & efte busched to þe abyme þat breed fyssches
  _And again bent to the abyss that bred fishes;_
  Durst nowhere for roȝ arest at þe bothem.
  _Durst it nowhere for roughness rest at the bottom._
  When þe breth & þe brok & þe bote metten
  _When the breeze and the brook and the boat met,_
  Hit watȝ a ioyles gyn þat Ionas watȝ inne
  _It was a joyless engine that Jonah was in,_
  For hit reled on round vpon þe roȝe yþes
  _For it reeled around upon the rough waves._
  Þe bur ber to hit baft þat braste alle her gere
  _The bore (wave) bear to it abaft that burst all her gear,_
  Þen hurled on a hepe þe helme & þe sterne
  _Then hurled on a heap the helm and the stern,_
  Furste to murte[21] mony rop & þe mast after
  _First marred[21] many a rope and the mast after._
  Þe sayl sweyed on þe see, þenne suppe bihoued
  _The sail swung on the sea, then sup behoved_
  Þe coge of þe colde water, & þenne þe cry ryses
  _The boat of the cold water, and then the cry rises;_
  Ȝet coruen þay þe cordes & kest al þer-oute
  _Yet cut they the cords and cast all there-out._
  Mony ladde þer forth-lep to laue & to kest
  _Many a lad there forth leapt to lave and to cast,_
  Scopen out þe scaþel water, þat fayn scape wolde
  _To scoop out the scathful water that fain escape would;_
  For be monnes lode neuer so luþer, þe lyf is ay swete
  _For be man’s lot never so bad, the life is aye sweet._ --(p. 93.)

The writer, in concluding the story of Jonah, exhorts his readers to be
“patient in pain and in joy.”

  For he þat is to rakel to renden his cloþeȝ,
  Mot efte sitte with more vn-sounde to sewe hem togeder.
  _For he that is too rash to rend his clothes,
  Must afterwards sit with more unsound (worse ones)
      to sew them together._ (p. 104.)

    [Footnote 20: Eurus and Aquilo.]

    [Footnote 21: ? = to-marte.]


This brief outline of the poems, together with the short extracts from
them, will, it is hoped, give the reader stomach to digest the whole. It
is true that they contain many “uncouth” terms; but this will be their
highest merit with the student of language, as is shown, by Dr. Guest’s
testimony, that they are “for several reasons curious, and especially so
to the philologist.”[22] To those readers who do not appreciate the
importance of such a very large addition to the vocabulary of our Early
Language as is made by these treatises, let Sir Frederic Madden’s
opinion of their literary merit suffice. That distinguished editor says,
of the author’s “poetical talent, the pieces contained in the MS. afford
unquestionable proofs; and the description of the change of the seasons,
the bitter aspect of winter, the tempest which preceded the destruction
of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the sea storm occasioned by the wickedness of
Jonas, _are equal to any similar passages_ in Douglas or Spenser.”[23]
Moreover, as to the hardness of the language--inasmuch as the subject
matter of the poem will be familiar to all who may take up the present
volume, the difficulty on the word-point will not be such as to deter
the reader from understanding and appreciating the production of an old
English poet, who--though his very name, unfortunately, has yet to be
discovered--may claim to stand in the foremost rank of England’s early
bards.

The Editor of the present volume has endeavoured to do justice to his
author by giving the text, with some few exceptions, as it stands in the
manuscript.[24] The contractions of the scribe have been expanded and
printed in italics, a plan which he hopes to see adopted in every future
edition of an early English author.

The Glossary has been compiled not only for the benefit of the reader,
but for the convenience of those who are studying the older forms of our
language, and who know how valuable a mere index of words and references
sometimes proves.

In conclusion, I take the present opportunity of acknowledging the kind
assistance of Sir Frederic Madden and E. A. Bond, Esq., of the British
Museum, who, on every occasion, were most ready to render me any help in
deciphering the manuscript, in parts almost illegible, from which the
poems in the present volume are printed.

    [Footnote 22: History of English Rhythms, vol. i. p. 159.]

    [Footnote 23: Syr Gawayn, ed. Madden, p. 302.]

    [Footnote 24: Wherever the Text has been altered, the reading of
    the MS. will be found in a foot-note.]


REMARKS UPON THE DIALECT AND GRAMMAR.

Higden, writing about the year A.D. 1350, affirms, distinctly, the
existence of three different forms of speech or dialects, namely,
Southern, Midland, and Northern;[25] or, as they are sometimes
designated, West-Saxon, Mercian, and Northumbrian. Garnett objects to
Higden’s classification, and considers it certain “that there were in
his (Higden’s) time, and probably long before, five distinctly marked
forms, which may be classed as follows:-- 1. Southern or standard
English, which in the fourteenth century was perhaps best spoken in Kent
and Surrey by the body of the inhabitants. 2. Western English, of which
traces may be found from Hampshire to Devonshire, and northward as far
as the Avon. 3. Mercian, vestiges of which appear in Shropshire,
Staffordshire, and South and West Derbyshire, becoming distinctly marked
in Cheshire, and still more so in South Lancashire. 4. Anglian, of which
there are three sub-divisions--the East Anglian of Norfolk and Suffolk;
the Middle Anglian of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and East Derbyshire;
and the North Anglian of the West Riding of Yorkshire--spoken most
purely in the central part of the mountainous district of Craven.
5. Northumbrian,” spoken throughout the Lowlands of Scotland,
Northumberland, Durham, and nearly the whole of Yorkshire.

Garnett’s division is based upon peculiarities of pronunciation, which
will be found well marked in the _modern_ provincial dialects, and not
upon any essential differences of inflexion that are to be found in our
Early English manuscripts.[26]

The distinction between Southern and Western English was not at all
required, as the Kentish Ayenbite of Inwyt (A.D. 1340) exhibits most of
the peculiarities that mark the Chronicles of Robert of Gloucester
(Cottonian MS. Calig. A. xi.) as a Southern (or West-Saxon) production.
The Anglian of Norfolk, Lincolnshire, and Nottinghamshire may be
referred to one group with the Mercian of Lancashire, as varieties of
the Midland dialect.

A careful examination of our early literature leads us to adopt Higden’s
classification as not only a convenient but a correct one.

There is, perhaps, no better test for distinguishing these dialects from
one another than the verbal inflexions of the plural number in the
present tense, indicative mood.

To state this test in the briefest manner, we may say that the Southern
dialect employs _-eth_, the Midland _-en_, and the Northumbrian _-es_ as
the inflexion for all persons of the plural present indicative:[27]--

              Southern.   Midland.   Northern.

  1st pers.   Hop-_eth_.  Hop-_en_.  Hop-_es_.  (we) hope.
  2nd  „      Hop-_eth_.  Hop-_en_.  Hop-_es_.  (ye) hope.
  3rd  „      Hop-_eth_.  Hop-_en_.  Hop-_es_.  (they) hope.

It is the constant and systematic employment of these inflexions, and
not their occasional use that must be taken as the criterion of
dialectical varieties.

In a pure specimen of the Southern dialect, we never find the
Northumbrian _-es_. We do occasionally meet with the Midland _-en_, but
only in those works written in localities where, from their geographical
position, Southern and Midland forms would be intelligible.[28] We might
look in vain for the Southern plural _-eth_ in a pure Northumbrian
production, but might be more successful in finding the Midland _-en_ in
the third person plural; as, “thay _arn_” for “they _ar_”, or “thay
_er_.”

In a work composed in Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, or Lancashire, we
should be sure to find the occasional use of the Northumbrian plural
_-es_.[29]

The inflexions of the verb in the singular are of value in enabling us
to discriminate between the several varieties of the Midland
dialect.[30] The Southern and Midland idioms (with the exception of the
West-Midland of Lancashire, Cheshire, etc.) conjugated the verb in the
singular present indicative, as follows:--

  1st pers.  hope            (I) hope.
  2nd  „     hop-_est_  (thou) hopest.
  3rd  „     hop-_eth_  (he) hopes.

The West-Midland, corresponding to Garnett’s Mercian, instead of _-est_
and _-eth_ employs the inflexions that are so common in the so-called
Northumbrian documents of the ninth and tenth centuries:--

  1st pers.  hope      (I) hope.
  2nd  „     hop-_es_  (thou) hopest.
  3rd  „     hop-_es_  (he) hopes.

The Northumbrian dialect takes _-es_ in all three persons; but mostly
drops it in the first person.

The peasantry of Cheshire and Lancashire still preserve the verbal
inflexions which prevailed in the fourteenth century, and conjugate
their verbs in the present indicative according to the following
model:--

             Singular.  Plural.
  1st pers.  hope       hopen.
  2nd  „     hopes      hopen.
  3rd  „     hopes      hopen.

Inasmuch as the poems in the present volume exhibit the systematic use
of these forms, we cannot but believe that they were originally composed
in one of those counties where these verbal inflexions were well known
and extensively used. We have to choose between several localities, but
if we assign the poems to Lancashire we are enabled to account for the
large number of Norse terms employed. It is true that the ancient
examples of the Lancashire dialect contained in Mr. Robson’s Metrical
Romances,[31] the Boke of Curtasye,[32] and Liber Cure Cocorum,[33]
present us with much broader forms, as _-us_ for _-es_ in the plural
number and possessive case of nouns, _-un_ for _-en_ in the plural
present indicative mood, in passive participles of irregular (or strong)
verbs, _-ud_ (_-ut_) for _-ed_ in the past tense and passive participle
of regular (or weak) verbs, and the pronominal forms _hor_ (their),
_hom_ (them), for _her_ and _hem_.[34]

These forms are evidence of a broad pronunciation which, at the present
time, is said to be a characteristic of the northwestern division of
Lancashire, but I think that there is good evidence for asserting that
this strong provincialism was not confined, formerly, to the
West-Midland dialect, much less to a division of any particular county.
We find traces of it in Audelay’s Poems (Shropshire), the Romance of
William and the Werwolf,[35] and even in the Wickliffite version of the
Scriptures.

Formerly, being influenced by these broad forms, I was led to select
Cheshire or Staffordshire as the probable locality where the poems were
written; but I do not, now, think that either of these counties ever
employed a vocabulary containing so many Norse terms as are to be found
in the Lancashire dialect. But although we may not be able to fix, with
certainty, upon any one county in particular, the fact of the present
poems being composed in the West-Midland dialect cannot be denied. Much
may be said in favour of their Lancashire origin, and there are one or
two points of resemblance between our poems, the Lancashire Romances,
and Liber Cure Cocorum, that deserve especial notice.

I. In Sir Amadace,[36] lxviii. 9, there occurs the curious form _miȝtus_
= _miȝtes_ = _mightst_.[37] As it appears only once throughout the
Romances we might conclude that it is an error of the scribe for
_miȝtest_, but when we find in the poems before us not only _myȝteȝ_ =
_myȝtes_ (mightst), but _woldeȝ_ = _woldes_ (wouldst), _coutheȝ_ =
_couthes_ (couldst), _dippteȝ_ (dippedest), _travayledeȝ_ (travelledst),
etc., we are bound to consider _miȝtus_ as a genuine form.[38] In no
other Early English works of the fourteenth century have I been able to
find this peculiarity. It is very common in _the Wohunge of Ure Lauerd_
(xiiith cent.). See O.E. Homilies, p. 51. The Northumbrian dialect at
this period rejected the inflexion in the second person preterite
singular, of regular verbs,[39] and in our poems we find the _-es_ often
dropped, so that we get two conjugations, which may be called the
inflected and the uninflected form.

             Inflected.  Uninflected.
  1st pers.  hopede      hoped         (I) hoped.
  2nd  „     hoped_es_   hoped         (thou) hopedest.
  3rd  „     hopede      hoped         (he) hoped.

Originally the inflected form may have prevailed over the whole of the
North of England, but have gradually become confined to the West-Midland
dialect.

II. The next point of resemblance is the use of the verb SCHIN or SCHUN
= schal = shall. It is still preserved in the modern dialect of
Lancashire in combination with the adverb _not_, as schunnot[40] = shall
not. The following examples will serve to illustrate the use of this
curious form:--

  “---- þay _schin_ knawe sone,
  Þere is no bounté in burne lyk Baltaȝar þewes.”[41] --(B. l. 1435.)

  “& þose þat seme arn & swete _schyn_ se his face.”[42]
      --(_Ibid._ l. 1810.)

  “Pekokys and pertrikys perboylyd _schyn_ be.”[43]
      --(Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 29.)

  “For þer bene bestes þat _schyn_ be rost.”[44] --(_Ibid._ p. 34.)

  “Alle _schun_ be draȝun, Syr, at þo syde.”[45] --(_Ibid._ p. 35.)

  “Seche ferlies _schyn_ falle.”[46]
      --(Robson’s Met. Rom. p. 12, l. 4.)

III. Nothing is more common in the present poems than the use of _hit_
as a genitive = its, which is also found in the Lancashire romances.

  “Forþy þe derk dede see hit is demed ever more,
  For _hit_ dedeȝ of deþe duren þere ȝet.”[47] --(Patience, l. 1021.)

  “And, as hit is corsed of kynde & _hit_ coosteȝ als,
  Þe clay þat clenges þer-by arn corsyes strong.”[48]
      --(_Ibid._ l. 1033.)

  “For I wille speke with the sprete,
  And of _hit_ woe wille I wete,
  Gif that I may _hit_ bales bete.”[49]
      --(Robson’s Met. Romances, p. 5, ll. 3, 4.)

The present dialect of Lancashire still retains the uninflected
genitive:--

  “So I geet up be strike o’ dey, on seet eawt; on went ogreath tilly
  welly coom within two mile oth’ teawn; when, os tha dule woud
  height, o tit wur stonning ot an ale heawse dur; on me kawve (the
  dule bore eawt _it_ een for me) took th’ tit for _it_ mother, on
  woud seawk her.”[50] (Tummus and Meary).

Thus much for the dialectical peculiarities of our author. The scanty
material at our disposal must be a sufficient excuse for the very meagre
outline which is here presented to the reader. As our materials
increase, the whole question of Early English dialects will no doubt
receive that attention from English philologists which the subject
really demands, and editors of old English works will then be enabled to
speak with greater confidence as to the language and peculiarities of
their authors. Something might surely be done to help the student by a
proper classification of our manuscripts both as to date and place of
composition. We are sadly in want of unadulterated specimens of the
Northumbrian and East-Midland idioms during the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries. There must surely be some records of these dialects in our
university libraries which would well repay editing.[51]

    [Footnote 25: Polychronicon R. Higdeni, ap. Gale, p. 210, 211. See
    Garnett’s Philological Essays, p. 43, and Specimens of Early
    English, p. 338.]

    [Footnote 26: It is to be regretted that Garnett did not enter
    upon details, and give his readers some tests by which to
    distinguish the “five distinctly marked forms.”]

    [Footnote 27: In English works of the fourteenth century the _-en_
    of the Midland, and the _-es_ of the Northumbrian is frequently
    dropped, thus gradually approximating to our modern conjugation.]

    [Footnote 28: We are here speaking of works written in the
    thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.]

    [Footnote 29: Robert of Brunne, in his “Handlyng Synne,” often
    employs it instead of _-en_, but only for the sake of the rhyme.]

    [Footnote 30: The Midland dialect is a very difficult one to deal
    with, as it presents us with no uniform type; and, moreover, works
    written in this idiom are marked by Northern or Southern
    peculiarities, which have led many of our editors altogether
    astray in determining the locality of their composition.]

    [Footnote 31: Published by the Camden Society, 1842.]

    [Footnote 32: Edited by Mr. Halliwell for the Percy Society.]

    [Footnote 33: Edited by me for the Philological Society, 1862.]

    [Footnote 34: _-us_ and _-ud_ for _-es_ and _-ed_, as well as
    _hom_, _hor_, do occasionally occur in the MS. containing our
    poems.]

    [Footnote 35: The Romance of William and the Werwolf is written in
    the West-Midland dialect as spoken probably in Shropshire.]

    [Footnote 36: Robson’s Metrical Romances, p. 54, l. 9.]

    [Footnote 37: _Woldus_ = _woldes_ = _wouldst_, appears in
    Audelay’s poems (in the Shropshire dialect of the fifteenth
    century), p. 32, l. 6.]

    [Footnote 38: The so-called Northumbrian records of the ninth and
    tenth centuries frequently use _-es_ instead of _-est_, in the 2nd
    pers. preterite of regular verbs, _e.g._,

    _ðu forcerdes usic on-bec_ = Thou turnedst us hindward.
        --(Ps. xliii. 11.)
    _ðu saldes usic_ = Thou gavest us. --(Ps. xliii. 12.)
    _ðu bi-bohtes folc ðin butan weorðe_ = Thou soldest thy folk
        without price. --(Ps. xliii. 12.)
    ðu _ge-hiowades_ me & _settes_ ofer me hond ðine = Thou madest me
        and settest over me thy hand. --(Ps. cxxxviii. 5.)
    ðu _ðreades ða_ ofer-hygdan = Thou hast rebuked the proud.
        --(Ps. cxviii. 21.)

    Ic ondeto ðe fader drihten heofnes forðon ðu _gedeigeldes_ ðas
    ilco from snotrum & hogum & _ædeaudes_ ða ðæm lytlum = I thank
    thee, O father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid
    these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them
    unto babes. --(Matt. xi. 25).]

    [Footnote 39: Þou _torned_ us hindward. --(Early English Nn.
    Psalter, xliii. 11.)

    Þou _salde_ þi folk. --(_Ibid._ xliii. 12.)
    Þou _meked_ us. --(_Ibid._ xliii. 20.)
    Þou _made_ me and set þi hand over me. --(_Ibid._ cxxxviii. 5.)
    Þou _snibbed_ proude. --(_Ibid._ cxviii. 21.)]

    [Footnote 40: I am informed by a Shropshire friend that it
    prevails in his county under the form _shinneh_.

    _Win_ = will, in _winnot_, _wunnot_ = will not, is still heard in
    the West-Midland districts. It is found in Robson’s Romances and
    in Liber Cure Cocorum.]

    [Footnote 41: They _shall_ know soon there is no goodness in man
    like Belshazzar’s virtues.]

    [Footnote 42: And those that seemly are and sweet _shall_ see His
    (God’s) face.]

    [Footnote 43: Peacocks and partriches parboiled _shall_ be.]

    [Footnote 44: For þer are beasts þat _shall_ be roasted.]

    [Footnote 45: All _shall_ be drawn (have the entrails removed),
    Sir, at the side.]

    [Footnote 46: Such marvels _shall_ happen.]

    [Footnote 47:
      Wherefore the dark dead sea it is called ever more.
      For _its_ deeds of death endure there yet.]

    [Footnote 48:
      And as it is cursed of kind and _its_ properties also,
      The clay that clings thereby are corrosives strong.]

    [Footnote 49:
      I will speak with the spirit,
      And of _its_ woe will I wit (know),
      If that I may _its_ bales (grief) abate.]

    [Footnote 50: So I got up by break of day and set out; and went
    straight till I well nigh came within two miles of the town, when,
    as the devil would have it, a horse was standing at an ale-house
    door; and my calf (the devil bore out _its_ eyes for me) took the
    horse for _its_ mother, and would suck her.]

    [Footnote 51: Three specimens of the East-Midland dialect have
    come to light since writing the above. Harl. MS. 3909; Troy Book,
    ed. Donaldson, E. E. T. Soc.; The Lay-folks Mass-Book, ed.
    Simpson, E. E. T. Soc.]


GRAMMATICAL DETAILS.

I. +Nouns.+

(1) _Number._--The plurals generally end in _-es_ (_eȝ_), _-s_. _Yȝen_
(eyes), _trumpen_ (trumpets), are the only plurals in _-en_ that occur
in the poems. In Robson’s Metrical Romances we find _fellun_ (fells,
hills,), _dellun_ (dells), and _eyren_ (eggs), in Liber Cure Cocorum.
The plurals of _brother_, _child_, _cow_, _doȝter_ (daughter), are
_brether_, _childer_, _kuy_, and _deȝter_.

(2) _Gender._--The names of inanimate things are in the neuter gender,
as in modern English. The exceptions are _deep_ (fem.), _gladnes_
(fem.), and _wind_ (masc.).

(3) _Case._--The genitive singular (masc. and fem.) ends in _-es_
(_-eȝ_), _-s_, but occasionally the inflexion is dropped; as, “Baltaȝar
thewes,” the virtues of Balshazzar.[52] If “_honde_ myȝt,” “_honde_
werk,” “_hellen_ wombe,” are not compounds, we have instances of the
final _-e_ (_en_) which formed the genitive case of _feminine_ nouns in
the Southern English of the fourteenth century.

In the phrases “_besten_ blod” (blood of beasts), “_blonkken_ bak” (back
of horses), “_chyldryn_ fader” (father of children), “_nakeryn_ noyse”
(noise of nakers), we have a trace of the genitive plural _-ene_ (A.S.
_-ena_).

    [Footnote 52: In the romance of “Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt”
    we find “_blonk_ (horse) sadele,” “_fox_ felle” (skin). In _blonk_
    an _e_ has probably been dropped.]


II. +Adjectives.+

(1) _Number._--The final _e_, as a sign of the plural, is very
frequently dropped. _Pover_ (poor), _sturn_ (strong), make the plurals
_poveren_ and _sturnen_. In the phrase, “þo syȝteȝ so _quykeȝ_”[53]
(those sights so living), the _-eȝ_ (= _-es_) is a mark of the plural,
very common in Southern writers of the fourteenth century, and employed
as a plural inflexion of the adjective until a very late period in our
literature.

The Article exhibits the following forms:

  SINGULAR.        PLURAL.
  Masc.  Fem.
  The.   tho.[54]  tho.

_This_ forms the plural _thise_ and _thes_ (_these_). _That_ is always
used as a demonstrative, and never as the neuter of the article; its
plural is _thos_ (those).[55] The older form, _theos_ = _these_, shows
that the _e_ is not a sign of the plural, as many English grammarians
have asserted.

(2) _Degrees of Comparison._--The comparative degree ends in _-er_, and
the superlative in _-est_.

Adjectives and adverbs terminating in the syllable _-lyche_ form the
comparative in _-loker_ and the superlative in _-lokest_; as, positive
_uglyche_ (= ugly), comp. _ugloker_, superl. _uglokest_. The long vowel
of the positive is often shortened in the comp. and superl., as in the
modern English _late_, _latter_, _last_.

  Positive.          Comparative.    Superlative.
  Brade (broad),     bradder,        braddest.
  Dere (dear),       derrer,         derrest.
  Lyke (like),       lykker,         lykkest.
  Swete (sweet),     swetter,        swettest.
  Wayke (weak),      wakker,         wakkest.
  Wode (mad),        wodder,         woddest.

The following irregular forms are occasionally met with:

  Positive.          Comparative.    Superlative.
  Fer (far),         ferre (fyrre),  ferrest.
  Heȝe (high),       herre,          heȝest (hest).
  Neȝe (nigh, near)  nerre,          nerrest (nest).
  Sare (sore),       sarre,          sarrest.
  Forme (first),                     formast.
  Mikelle (great),   mo              most.
  Yvel, ill (bad),   wers (worre),   werst.

_Numerals._--_Twinne_ and _thrinne_ occur for two and three. The ordinal
numbers are--

  first (fyrste), the forme,
  secunde, that other, tother,
  thryd,   }
  thrydde, }
  furþe,
  fyfþe,
  sexte,
  sevenþe,
  aȝtþe,
  nente,
  tenþe, }
  tyþe.  }

The Northumbrian numerals corresponding to _sevenþe_, _aȝtþe_, _nente_,
_tenþe_, are _sevend_, _aghtend_, _neghend_, _tend_. The Southern forms
end in _-the_, as _sevenþe_, _eiȝteoþe_, _nyþe_, _teoþe_ (_tyþe_).

    [Footnote 53: The feminine form is seldom employed.]

    [Footnote 54: The Northumbrian plural article is _tha_.]

    [Footnote 55: The Northumbrian corresponding form is _thas_.]


III. +Pronouns.+

In the following poems we find the pronoun _ho_, she, still keeping its
ground against the Northumbrian _scho_.[56] _Ho_ is identical with the
modern Lancashire _hoo_ (or _huh_ as it is sometimes written), which in
some parts of England has nearly the same pronunciation as the
accusative _her_.

The Northumbrian _thay_ (they) has displaced the older Midland _he_,
corresponding to the Southern pronoun _hii_, _hi_ (A.S. _hí_). _Hores_
and _thayreȝ_ (theirs) occasionally occur for _here_.[57] The genitives
in _-es_, due no doubt to Scandinavian influence, are very common in
Northumbrian writers of the fourteenth century, but are never found in
any Southern work of the same period.

_Hit_ is frequently employed as an indefinite pronoun of all genders,
and is plural as well as singular. It is, as has been previously shown,
uninflected in the genitive or possessive case.

_Me_ in Southern writers is used as an indefinite pronoun of the _third_
person, and represents our _one_, but in the present poems it is of all
persons, and seems to be placed in apposition with the subject of the
sentence corresponding to our use of myself, thyself, himself, etc.; as,

  “_He_ swenges _me_ þys,” etc. = He himself sends this, etc.[58]
  “Now sweȝe _me_ þider swyftly” = Now go (thou) thyself thither
      swiftly.[59]
  “_He_ meteȝ _me_ þis good man” = He himself meets this good man.[60]

Sturzen-Becker (“Some Notes on the leading Grammatical Characteristics
of the Principal Early English Dialects, Copenhagen, 1868”) thinks that
I have been led astray with regard to this use of _me_, which he says is
nothing more than the _dativus ethicus_.

The _me_ in these examples may be merely an expletive, having arisen out
of the general use of the dative ethicus, but the context does not
satisfy me that it has the force of a dative. Dr. Guest (Proceedings of
Philolog. Soc., vol. i. p. 151-153, 1842-1844) has discussed this
construction at some length, and he carefully distinguishes the dative
of the 1st person from the indeterminate (or indefinite) pronoun _me_ =
Fr. one. He says that in Old Frisian the indefinite pronoun has two
forms, _min_ and _me_, “the latter of which seems to be always used as a
suffix to the verb, as _momme_, one may; _somme_, one should,” etc. The
same construction was occasionally used in our own language, and it no
doubt gave rise to those curious idioms which are noticed by Pegge in
his “Anecdotes of the Eng. Lang.,” p. 217. This writer, whose evidence
to a _fact_ we may avail ourselves of, whatever we think of his
criticism or his scholarship, quotes the following as forms of speech
then prevalent among the Londoners: “and so says _me_ I;” “well what
does _me_ I;” “so says _me_ she;” “then away goes _me_ he;” “what does
_me_ they?” Here it is obvious that _me_ is the indeterminate pronoun,
and represents the _subject_, while the personal pronoun is put in
apposition to it, so that “says _me_ I” is equivalent to “_one says,
that is I_,”[61]. These idioms are not unknown to our literature.

  (1) ‘But as he was by diverse principall young gentlemen, to his no
  small glorie, lifted up on horseback, _comes me a page_ of
  Amphialus, etc.’ Pembr. Arcad. B. iii.

Other idioms, which have generally been confounded with those last
mentioned, have the indeterminate pronoun preceded by a nominative
absolute.

  (2) ‘_I_, having been acquainted with the smell before, knew it was
  Crab, and--_goes me_ to the fellow, who whips the dogs,’ etc. Two
  Gent. of Verona, 4. 4.

  (3) ‘_He thrusts me_ himself into the company of three or four
  gentlemanlike dogs under the Duke’s Table.’ _Ib._ See B. Jons. Ev.
  Man in his Humour, 3, 1.

Johnson considers the _me_ in examples 2 and 3 to be the oblique case of
the first pers. pron., and treats it as “a ludicrous expletive.” It is
difficult to say how he would have parsed example 2 on such a
hypothesis.

With these instances of the use of _me_ (indef. or reflexive), the
reader may compare the following:

  (1) “Suche a touche in that tyde, _he_ taȝte (Gauan) hym in tene
      And _gurdes me_, Sir Gallerun, evyn grovelonges on grounde.”
        (The Anturs of Arther at the Tarnewathelan, p. 22.)

  (2) There at the dore he (the Fox) cast _me_ downe hys pack.
        Spenser’s Shep. Cal. ed. Morris, p. 460, l. 243.

Cp. _Cut me_, i. Hen. IV. Act 4. Sc. 4; _steps me_, Ib. Act 4, Sc. 3;
_comes me, runs me_, Ib. Act 3, Sc. 1.

  (3) “Juno enraged, and fretting thus,
      _Runs me_ unto one Æolus.” --(Virgile Travestie, 1664.)

The indefinite _me_ = one is not uncommon in Elizabethan writers. Cf.
“_touch me_ his hat;” “_touch me_ hir with a pint of sack,” etc.; “and
_stop me_ his dice you are a villaine” (Lodge’s Wit’s Miserie).

The following table exhibits the declension of the personal and relative
pronouns:--

  SINGULAR.
  Nom. I,            thou,        he,   ho,         hit.
  Gen. My, myn,      thy, thyn,   his,  hir, her,   hit.
  Dat. Me,           the,         him,  hir, her,   hit.
  Acc. Me,           the,         him,  hir, her,   hit.

  PLURAL.
  Nom. We,           ȝe,          thay,             hit.
  Gen. Oure,         yor, youre,  her (here), hor,  hit.
  Dat. Vus (= uus),  yow, you,    hem, hom,         hit.
  Acc. Vus (= uus),  yow, you,    hem, hom,         hit.

  Nom. Who (quo).
  Gen. Whose (quos).
  Dat. { Whom, Wham } (quom).
  Acc. { Whom, Wham } (quom).

    [Footnote 56: _Scho_ occurs _once_ in the present poems.]

    [Footnote 57: _Yowreȝ_ (yours) sometimes takes the place of
    _youre_ in the romance of “Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knyȝt.”]

    [Footnote 58: Page 92, l. 108.]

    [Footnote 59: Page 91, l. 72.]

    [Footnote 60: Syr Gawayn, l. 1932.]

    [Footnote 61: I would say that _says me I_ = I myself say. --R. M.]


IV. +Verbs.+

_Infinitive Mood._--The _-en_ of the infinitive is frequently dropped,
without even a final _-e_ to mark its omission. Infinitives in _-y_, as
_louy_ (love), _schony_ (shun), _spotty_ (spot, defile), _styry_ (stir),
_wony_ (dwell), occasionally occur, and probably owe their appearance to
the author’s acquaintance with Southern literature.[62]

_Indicative Mood._--The final _e_ often disappears in the first and
third persons of the preterite tense, as I _loved_, he _loved_, instead
of I _lovede_, he _lovede_.

The _-en_ in the plural of the present and preterite tenses is
frequently dropped. The pl. present in _-eȝ_ occasionally occurs.

_Imperative Mood._--The imperative plural ends in _-es_ (_eȝ_), and not
in _-eth_ as in the Southern and ordinary Midland dialects.

_Participles._--The active or imperfect participle ends in _-ande_[63]
and never in _-ing_.

The participle passive or perfect of regular verbs terminates in _-ed_;
of irregular verbs in _-en_. Occasionally we find the _n_ disappearing,
as _bigonn-e_, _fund-e_, _runn-e_, _wonn-e_, where perhaps it is
represented by the final _-e_.

The prefix _-i_ or _-y_ (A.S. _-ge_) occurs twice only in the poems, in
_i-chose_ (chosen), and _i-brad_ (extended); but, while common enough in
the Southern and Midland dialects, it seems to be wholly unknown to the
Northumbrian speech.

The verb in the West-Midland dialect is conjugated according to the
following model:--

  I.--+Conjugation of Regular Verbs.+

  INDICATIVE MOOD.

    PRESENT TENSE.
  Singular.                 Plural.
  (I) hope,                 (We) hopen.
  (Thou) hopes,             (Ȝe) hopen.
  (He) hopes,               (Thay) hopen.

    PRETERITE TENSE.
  (I) hopede[64] (hoped),   (We) hopeden.
  (Thou) hopedes (hoped),   (Ȝe) hopeden.
  (He) hopede[64] (hoped),  (Thay) hopeden.

  IMPERATIVE MOOD.

  Hope (thou).              Hopes (ȝe).

  PARTICIPLES.

  Imperfect or Active.      Perfect or Passive.
  Hopande.                  Hoped.

  II.--+Conjugation of Irregular Verbs.+

  INDICATIVE MOOD.

    PRESENT TENSE.

  Singular.
  (I) kerve,      renne,   smite,   stonde.
  (Thou) kerves,  rennes,  smites,  stondes.
  (He) kerves,    rennes,  smites,  stondes.

  Plural.
  (We) kerven,    rennen,  smiten,  stonden.
  (Ȝe)    „         „         „        „
  (Thay)  „         „         „        „

    PRETERITE TENSE.

  Singular.
  (I) carf,       ran,     smot,    stod.
  (Thou) carve,   ranne,   smote,   stode.
  (He) carf,      ran,     smot,    stod.

Very frequently the _e_ in the second person is dropped,[65] as in the
Northumbrian dialect, but we never meet with such forms as carves
(= carvedest), rannes (= ranst), smotes (= smotest), etc.

  Plural.
  (We) corven,    runnen,  smiten,  stonden.
  (Ȝe)    „          „       „         „
  (Thay)  „          „       „         „

  PASSIVE PARTICIPLES.

  Corven,         runnen,  smiten,  stonden.

The Northumbrian dialect does not preserve any separate form for the
preterite plural, and this distinction is not always observed in the
present poems.

+Table of Verbs.+

  A.--SIMPLE ORDER.

    Present.            Preterite.  Passive Participle.

  Class I.
    Hate,               hatede,     hated.

  Class II. (_a_)
    Bede (offer),       bedde,      bed.
    Dype (dip),         dypte,      dypt.
    Kythe (show),       kydde,      kyd.
    Lende,              lende,      lent.
    Rende,              rende,      rent.
    Sende,              sende,      sent.
  (_b_)
    Clothe,             cladde,     clad.
    Dele (deal),        dalte,      dalt.
    Lede,               ladde,      lad.
    Leve,               lafte,      laft.
    Rede (advise),      radde,      rad.
    Sprede (spread),    spradde,    sprad.
    Swelt (die),        swalte,     ----
    Swette (sweat),     swatte,     ----
    Threte (threaten),  thratte,    thrat.

  Class III.
    Byye (buy),         boȝte,      boȝt
    Bringe,             broȝte,     broȝt.
    Cache (catch),      caȝte,      caȝt.
    Lache (seize),      laȝte,      laȝt.
    Reche (reck),       roȝte,      ----
    Reche (reach),      raȝte,      ----
    Selle,              solde,      sold.
    Worche (work),      wroȝte,     wroȝt.

  B.--COMPLEX ORDER.

    Present.           Preterite.        Passive Participle.

  +Division I.+
  Class I.
    Bere (bear),       ber,              born.
    Bete (beat),       bet,              beten.
    Breke (break),     brek,             broken.
    Chese (choose),    ches (chos),      chosen.
    Cleve (cleave),    clef,             cloven.
    Ete (eat),         ette (_for_ et),  eten.
    Forȝete (forget),  forȝet,           forȝeten.
    Frese (freeze),    fres,             frosen.
    Gife (give),       gef,              given, geven.
    Heve (heave),      hef,              hoven.
    Ligge (lie),       leȝ,              leyen, leȝen.
    Lepe (leap),       lep,              lopen.
    Nemme } (take),    nem (nam),        nomen.
    Nimme }
    Schere (shear),    scher,            schorn.
    Slepe (sleep),     slep,             slepen.
    Speke (speak),     spek,             spoken.
    Stele (steal),     stel,             stolen.
    Swere (swear),     swer,             sworen.
    Wepe (weep),       wep,              wopen.
    Wreke (avenge),    wrek,             wroken.

  Class II.
    Falle,             fell,             fallen.
    Fonge (take),      feng,             fongen.
    Growe,             grew,             growen.
    Hange, honge,      heng,             hangen, hongen.
    Knowe, knawe,      knew,             knawen, knowen.
    Schape (make),     schep,            schapen.
    Walke,             welk,             walken.
    Wasche,            wesch,            waschen.

  Class III.
    Drawe, draȝe,      droȝ,             drawen.
    Fare (go),         for,              faren.
    Laȝe (laugh),      loȝ,              laȝen.
    Stande, stonde,    stod,             standen.
    Slaye,             slow, slew,       slayn.
    Take,              tok,              tane, tone.
    Wake,              wok,              waken.

  +Division II.+

    Present.        Preterite.          Passive Participle.

  Class I.
    Biginne,        bigon,              bigonnen, bigunnen.
    Breste,         brast, borst,       brusten, bursten.
    Climbe,         clamb, clomb,       clumben.
    Drinke,         dronk, drank,       drunken, dronken.
    Finde,          fand, fond,         funden.
    Fiȝte,          faȝt, feȝt,         foȝten.
    Helpe,          halp,               holpen.
    Kerve (cut),    carf,               corven.
    Melte,          malt,               molten.
    Renne (run),    ran,                runnen.
    Ringe,          rong,               rungen, rongen.
    Singe,          song, sang,         sungen.
    Steke,          stac,               stoken.
    Sterve (die),   starf,              storven.
    Werpe (throw),  warp,               worpen.
    Win,            wan, won,           wonnen, wunnen.
    Ȝelde (yield),  ȝald,               ȝolden.

  Class II.
    Bide (abide),   bod,                biden.
    Bite,           bot,                biten.
    Drive,          drof,               driven.
    Fine (cease),   fon,                ----
    Glide,          glod,               gliden.
    Ride,           rod,                riden.
    Rise,           ros,                risen.
    Schine,         schon,              ----
    Slide,          slod,               sliden.
    Smite,          smot,               smiten.
    Trine (go),     tron,               ----

  Class III.
    Fly,            fleȝ, flegh, flaȝ,  flowen.
    See,            seȝ, segh, syȝ,     seen.
    Stiȝe, steȝe,   steȝ                ----

  +Anomalous Verbs.+

    Can,       pret. couthe.
    Dare,       „    dorste.
    May,        „    miȝte.
    Mot,        „    moste.
    Oȝe (owe),  „    oȝte.
    Schal,      „    scholde, schulde.
    Thar,       „    thurte.
    Wote,       „    wiste.
    Wille,      „    wolde.

_Schal_ (shall) in the second person singular is _schal_ or _schalt_;
so, too, we occasionally find _wyl_ for _wylt_.

The present plural of _schal_ is _schul_, _schulen_, or _schyn_.

The verb _to be_ is thus conjugated:--

  INDICATIVE MOOD.

  PRESENT TENSE.        PAST TENSE.

  Singular.
  (I) am.               (I) was, watȝ.
  (Thou) art.           (Thou) was, watȝ.
  (He) is, bes, betȝ.   (He) was, watȝ.

  Plural.
  (We) arn, are, ar.    (We) wern, were.
  (Ȝe) arn, are, ar.    (Ȝe) wern, were.
  (Thay) arn, are, ar.  (Thay) wern, were.

The verbs _be_, _have_, _wille_, have negative forms; as, _nam_ = am
not; _nar_ = are not; _nas_ = was not; _naf_ = have not; _nade_ = had
not; _nyl_ = will not.

The following contractions are occasionally met with: _bos_ = behoves;
_byhod_ = behoved; _ha_ = have; _ma_ = make; _man_ = make (pl.) _matȝ_
(_mas_) = makes; _ta_ = take; _tatȝ_ (= _tas_) = takes; _tane_, _tone_ =
taken.

    [Footnote 62: _Schonied_ occurs for _schoned_. No Southern writer
    would retain, I think, the _i_ in the preterite.]

    [Footnote 63: Garnett asserts that the present participle in
    _-ande_ is “a _certain criterion_ of a Northern dialect subsequent
    to the thirteenth century.” It is never found in any Southern
    writer, but is common to many Midland dialects. Capgrave employs
    it frequently in his Chronicles. It is, however, no safe criterion
    by itself.]

    [Footnote 64: The final _e_ is often dropped.]

    [Footnote 65: In _The Wohunge of Ure Lauerd_ the _e_ is constantly
    omitted.]


V. +Adverbs.+

The Norse forms _hethen_, _quethen_ (_whethen_),[66] and _thethen_, seem
to have been known to the West-Midland dialect as well as the Saxon
forms _hence_ (_hennes_, _henne_), _whence_ (_whennes_), _thence_
(_thennes_), etc. The adverbs _in-blande_ (together), _in-lyche_
(alike), _in-mydde_ (amidst), _in-monge_ (amongst), are due, perhaps, to
Scandinavian influence.

    [Footnote 66: “Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt.”]


VI. +Prepositions.+

The preposition _from_ never occurs in the following poems; it is
replaced by _fro_, _fra_ (Northumbrian), O.N. _frá_.


VII. +Conjunctions.+

The conjunction _if_ takes a negative form; as, _nif_ = if not, unless.



DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPT USED IN THE PRESENT VOLUME.[67]


+Cotton MS. Nero A. x.+ A small quarto volume, consisting of three
different MSS. bound together, which originally had no connection with
each other. Prefixed is an imperfect list of contents in the
hand-writing of James, the Bodley Librarian.

The first portion consists of a panegyrical oration in Latin by Justus
de Justis, on John Chedworth, archdeacon of Lincoln, dated at Verona
16th July, 1468. It occupies thirty-six folios, written on vellum, and
is the original copy presented by the author.

The second portion is that we are more immediately concerned with. It is
described by James as “_Vetus poema Anglicanum, in quo sub insomnii
figmento multa ad religionem et mores spectantia explicantur_,” and this
account, with some slight changes, is adopted by Smith and Planta, in
their catalogues; both of whom assign it to the fifteenth century. It
will appear, by what follows, that no less than four distinct poems have
been confounded together by these writers.

This portion of the volume extends from fol. 37 to fol. 126, inclusive,
and is written by one and the same hand, in a small, sharp, irregular
character, which is often, from the paleness of the ink, and the
contractions used, difficult to read. There are no titles or rubrics,
but the divisions are marked by large initial letters of blue,
flourished with red, and several illuminations, coarsely executed, serve
by way of illustration, each of which occupies a page.

  1. Four of these are prefixed to the first poem. In the first the
  Author is represented slumbering in a meadow, by the side of a
  streamlet, clad in a long red gown, having falling sleeves, turned
  up with white, and a blue hood attached round the neck.

  In the second the same person appears, drawn on a larger scale, and
  standing by the stream. In the third he occurs nearly in the same
  position, with his hands raised, and on the opposite side a lady
  dressed in white, in the costume of Richard the Second’s and Henry
  the Fourth’s time, buttoned tight up to the neck, with long hanging
  sleeves. Her hair is plaited on each side, and on her head is a
  crown. In the fourth we see the author kneeling by the water, and
  beyond the stream is depicted a castle or palace, on the embattled
  wall of which appears the same lady, with her arm extended towards
  him.

The poem commences on fol. 39, and consists of one hundred and one
twelve-line stanzas,[68] every five of which conclude with the same
line, and are connected by the iteration of a leading expression. It
concludes on fol. 55b.

  2. Then follow two more illuminations; in the first of which Noah
  and his family are represented in the ark; in the second the prophet
  Daniel expounding the writing on the wall to the affrighted
  Belshazzar and his queen. These serve as illustrations to the second
  poem, which begins at fol. 57, and is written in long alliterative
  lines. It concludes on fol. 82.

  3. Two illuminations precede, as before; one of which represents the
  sailors throwing the prophet Jonas into the sea, the other depicts
  the prophet in the attitude of preaching to the people of Nineveh.
  The poem is in the same metre as the last, and commences at fol. 83.

It is occupied wholly with the story of Jonas, as applicable to the
praise of meekness and patience; and ends on fol. 90.

  4. The Romance intitled _Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knyȝt_ follows,
  fol. 91. Prefixed is an illumination of a headless knight on
  horseback, carrying his head by its hair in his right hand, and
  looking benignly at an odd-eyed bill-man before him; while from a
  raised structure above, a king armed with a knife, his queen, an
  attendant with a sabre, and another bill-man scowling looks on. Here
  and elsewhere the only colours used are green, red, blue, and
  yellow. It ends on fol. 124b., and at the conclusion, in a later
  hand, is written “Hony soit q̃ mal penc,” which may, perhaps, allude
  to the illumination on the opposite page, fol. 125, representing the
  stolen interview between the wife of the Grene Knyȝt and Sir
  Gawayne. Above the lady’s head is written:

    Mi mind is mukel on on, þ{a}t wil me noȝt amende,
    Sum time was trewe as ston, & fro schame couþ{e} hir defende.

It does not appear very clearly how these lines apply to the painting.
Two additional illuminations follow; in the first of which Gawayne is
seen approaching the _Grene Chapel_, whilst his enemy appears above,
wielding his huge axe; and in the second Sir Gawayne, fully equipped in
armour, is represented in the presence of king Arthur and queen
Guenever, after his return to the court.

The third and concluding portion of the Cotton volume extends from fol.
127 to fol. 140b, inclusive, and consists of theological excerpts, in
Latin, written in a hand of the end of the thirteenth century. At the
conclusion is added _Epitaphium de Ranulfo, abbate Ramesiensi_, who was
abbot from the year 1231 to 1253, and who is erroneously called _Ralph_
in the _Monasticon_, vol. ii. p. 548, new ed.

    [Footnote 67: Taken with some few alterations from Sir F. Madden’s
    “Syr Gawayn.”]

    [Footnote 68: A line, however, is missing from the MS. on fol.
    55b. See page 15.]



CONTRACTIONS USED IN THE GLOSSARY.


The letters A. B. C. refer severally to the poems, entitled by me, “The
Pearl,” “Cleanness,” and “Patience.”

  A.S.          Anglo-Saxon.
  Dan.          Danish.
  Du.           Dutch.
  E.            English.
  O.E.          Old English.
  Prov.E.       Provincial English.
  N.Prov.E. }   North Provincial English.
  N.P.E.    }
  Fr.           French.
  O.Fr.         Old French.
  Prov.         Fr. Provincial French.
  Fris.         Frisian.
  G. Doug.      Gawin Douglas’s Æneid, published by the
                    Bannatyne Club, 2 vols.
  Ger.          German.
  Goth.         Gothic.
  Icel.         Icelandic.
  Jam.          Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary.
  K. Alex.      King Alexander, Romance of (Ed. Stevenson).
  Met. Hom.     Metrical Homilies (Ed. Small).
  O.N.          Old Norse.
  O.S.          Old Saxon.
  Prompt. Parv. Promptorium Parvulorum (Ed. Way).
  Sc.           Scotch.
  O.Sc.         Old Scotch.
  S.Sax.        Semi-Saxon.
  Sw.           Swedish.
  O.Sw.         Old Swedish.
  Town. Myst.   Townley Mysteries.
  T. B.         Troy Book (Ed. Donaldson).



  Errata (noted by transcriber)

  PREFACE:
  [Footnote 4.III]
  ... for _-ed_ or _-d_  [or _d_]
  ... pp. vii, viii.  [vii. viii.]
  [Footnote 5]
  ... verbal inflexion _-eth_ _never_ occurs  [_-eth_. _never_]
  [Footnote 9]
  ... See O.E. Homilies, p. li.  [O.E]
  [Footnote 10]
  ... (5) _tow_ = two;  [two:]
  their blissful state (p. 26).  [(p. 26),]
  (IX.) ... by Daniel (p. 86).  [p, 86]
  _First marred[21] many a rope and the mast after._
    [_footnote number misprinted “2”; shared note is 1_]

  DIALECT AND GRAMMAR:
  “For þer bene bestes þat _schyn_ be rost.”[44]  [““For þer bene]

  GRAMMATICAL DETAILS: Pronouns
  [Footnote 59]
  ... Page 91, l. 72.  [l, 72.]
  _hi_ (A.S. _hí_)  [_closing ) missing_]
  The same construction  [“The same]
  ----: Verbs
  _comes me, runs me_, Ib. Act 3, Sc. 1.  [me_. Ib.]
  Nom. I, thou, he, ho, hit.  [he ho]
  PRETERITE TENSE.  [_. missing_]
  (I) hopede[64] (hoped), (We) hopeden.  [hopeden,]
  Wreke (avenge), wrek, wroken.  [(avenge) wrek,]
  Class III. Drawe, draȝe, droȝ, drawen.  [drawen,]
  Helpe, halp, holpen.  [holpen,]
  Sterve (die), starf, storven. [storveu]
  Schal, „ scholde, schulde.  [_. missing_]
  ----: Adverbs
  The Norse forms _hethen_, _quethen_  [Ths Norse]
  _thence_, (_thennes_), etc.
    [_opening ( missing; “etc{t}” with italic {t} for ._]

  CONTRACTIONS:
  Ger.  [_the abbreviations O.H.G. and M.H.G. are not listed_]
  N.P.E.  [_note that this abbreviation is never used_]
  Prompt. Parv.  Promptorium Parvulorum  [Prampt.]


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


THE PEARL.


  [Headnotes:
  A FATHER VISITS HIS CHILD’S GRAVE, AND THERE FALLING ASLEEP,
    HE DREAMS.
  HE SEES A BEAUTIFUL FOREST, WHICH CAUSES HIS GRIEF TO ABATE.
  THE FATHER SEES HIS LOST CHILD DRESSED IN WHITE ROBES.
  THE MAIDEN ADDRESSES HER FATHER.
  SHE TELLS HIM OF HER BLISS.
  DEATH IS THE ROAD TO PARADISE.
  ALL MUST ABIDE GOD’S DOOM.
  THE BEREAVED PARENT ASKS HIS CHILD’S PITY.
  SHE DESCRIBES HER MODE OF LIFE.
  MARY IS THE EMPRESS OF HEAVEN.
  THE PARABLE OF THE LABOURERS IN THE VINEYARD.
  THE PAYMENT OF THE LABOURERS.
  THE APPLICATION OF THE PARABLE.
  GOD IS NO NIGGARD.
  PARADISE WAS LOST THROUGH AN APPLE.
  INNOCENTS ARE SAVED BY RIGHT.
  CHRIST BLESSED LITTLE CHILDREN.
  FORSAKE THE MAD WORLD.
  THE LAMB AND HIS BRIDES.
  THE LAMB WAS SLAIN IN JERUSALEM.
  THE VISION OF SAINT JOHN.
  THE ABODE OF CHRIST’S BRIDES.
  THE OLD AND NEW JERUSALEM.
  A DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM.
  NO SUN NOR MOON IN HEAVEN.
  NO CHURCH IN HEAVEN.
  A PROCESSION OF VIRGINS.
  HE WISHES TO CROSS THE STREAM.
  THE FATHER OF THE MAIDEN AWAKES.
  GOD GIVE US GRACE TO SERVE HIM.]


[Headnote: A FATHER VISITS HIS CHILD’S GRAVE, AND THERE FALLING
ASLEEP, HE DREAMS.]

I.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 39a.]]
    [Sidenote: Description of a lost pearl (_i.e._ a beloved child).
    The father laments the loss of his pearl.]
    Perle plesau{n}te to prynces paye,
  To clanly clos in golde so clere,
  Oute of oryent I hardyly saye,
  Ne proued I neu{er} her precios pere,                                4
  So rou{n}de, so reken in vche araye,
  So smal, so smoþe her sydeȝ were.
  Quere-so-eu{er} I Iugged ge{m}meȝ gaye,
  I sette hyr sengeley i{n} synglure;                                  8
  Allas! I leste hyr i{n} on erbere,
  Þurȝ gresse to grou{n}de hit fro me yot;[1]
  I dewyne for-dolked of luf daungere,
  Of þat pryuy perle w{i}t{h}-outen spot.                             12

    [Sidenote 1: ? _got._]

    [Sidenote: He often visits the spot where his pearl disappeared,
    and hears a sweet song.]
    Syþen i{n} þat spote hit fro me sprange,
  Ofte haf I wayted wyschande þat wele,
  Þat wont watȝ whyle deuoyde my wrange,
  & heuen my happe & al my hele,                                      16
  Þ{a}t dotȝ bot þrych my hert þrange,
  My breste in bale bot bolne & bele.
  Ȝet þoȝt me neu{er} so swete a sange,
  As stylle stou{n}de let to me stele,                                20
  For-soþe þ{er} fleten to me fele,
  To þenke hir color so clad i{n} clot;
  O moul[2] þ{o}u marreȝ a myry mele.
  My p{r}iuy perle w{i}t{h}-outen spotte,                             24

    [Sidenote 2: ? _mould._]

    [Sidenote: Where the pearl was buried there he found lovely
    flowers. Each blade of grass springs from a dead grain.]
    Þat spot of spyseȝ myȝt nedeȝ sprede,
  Þer such rycheȝ to rot[3] is ru{n}nen;
  Blomeȝ blayke & blwe & rede,
  Þer schyneȝ ful schyr agayn þe su{n}ne.                             28
  Flor & fryte may not be fede,
  Þer hit dou{n} drof i{n} moldeȝ du{n}ne,
  For vch gresse mot grow of grayneȝ dede,
  No whete were elleȝ to woneȝ wo{n}ne;                               32
  Of goud vche goude is ay by-go{n}ne.
  So semly a sede moȝt fayly not,
  Þ{a}t spry{n}gande[4] spyceȝ vp ne spo{n}ne,
  Of þat p{re}cios perle wyth-outen spotte.                           36

    [Sidenote 3: ? _rote._]
    [Sidenote 4: The MS. reads _sprygande_.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 39b.]]
    [Sidenote: In the high season of August the parent visits the
    grave of his lost child. Beautiful flowers covered the grave.
    From them came a delicious odour.]
    To þat spot þat I in speche expou{n}
  I entred in þat erber grene,
  In augoste in a hyȝ seysou{n},
  Quen corne is coruen wyth crokeȝ kene.                              40
  On huyle þer perle hit trendeled dou{n},
  Schadowed þis worteȝ ful schyre & schene
  Gilofre, gyngure & gromylyou{n},
  & pyonys powdered ay by-twene.                                      44
  Ȝif hit watȝ semly on to sene,
  A fayr reflayr ȝet fro hit flot,
  Þer wonys þat worþyly I wot & wene,
  My p{re}cio{us} perle, wyth-outen spot.                             48

    [Sidenote: The bereaved father wrings his hands for sorrow,
    falls asleep upon the flowery plot, and dreams.]
    Bifore þat spot my honde I spe{n}n[e]d,
  For care ful colde þat to me caȝt[e];
  A denely dele in my hert de{n}ned,
  Þaȝ resou{n} sette my seluen saȝt[e].                               52
  I playned my perle þ{a}t þ{er} watȝ spe{n}ned
  Wyth fyrte skylleȝ þat faste faȝt[e],
  Þaȝ kynde of kryst me comfort ke{n}ned,
  My wreched wylle i{n} wo ay wraȝte.                                 56
  I felle vpon þat flo{ur}y flaȝt[e],
  Suche odo{ur} to my herneȝ schot;
  I slode vpon a slepy{n}g slaȝte,
  On þat p{re}c[i]os perle w{i}t{h}-outen spot.                       60


[Headnote: HE SEES A BEAUTIFUL FOREST, WHICH CAUSES HIS GRIEF
TO ABATE.]

II.

    [Sidenote: In spirit he is carried to an unknown region,
    where the rocks and cliffs gleamed gloriously.]
    Fro spot my spyryt þer sprang i{n} space,
  My body on balke þer bod i{n} sweuen,
  My goste is gon in godeȝ grace,
  In auenture þ{er} meruayleȝ meuen;                                  64
  I ne wyste in þis worlde quere þ{a}t hit wace,
  Bot I knew me keste þ{er} klyfeȝ cleuen;
  Towarde a foreste I bere þe face,
  Where rych rokkeȝ wer to dyscreuen;                                 68
  Þe lyȝt of hem myȝt no mon leuen,
  Þe glemande glory þat of hem gle{n}t;
  For wern neu{er} webbeȝ þat wyȝeȝ weuen,
  Of half so dere adubmente.                                          72

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 40a.]]
    [Sidenote: The hill sides were decked with crystal cliffs.
    The leaves of the trees were like burnished silver. The gravel
    consisted of precious pearls.]
    Dubbed wern alle þo downeȝ sydeȝ
  W{i}t{h} crystal klyffeȝ so cler of kynde,
  Holte-wodeȝ bryȝt aboute hem bydeȝ;
  Of bolleȝ as blwe as ble of ynde,                                   76
  As bornyst syluer þe lef onslydeȝ,
  Þat þike con trylle on vch a tynde,
  Quen glem of glodeȝ agaynȝ hem glydeȝ,
  Wyth schym{er}y{n}g schene ful schrylle þay schynde.                80
  Þe grauayl þat on grou{n}de con grynde
  Wern p{re}cio{us} perleȝ of oryente;
  Þe su{n}ne bemeȝ bot blo & blynde,
  In respecte of þat adubbement.                                      84

    [Sidenote: The father forgets his sorrow. He sees birds of the
    most beautiful hues, and hears their sweet melody.]
    The adubbemente of þo downeȝ dere
  Garten my goste al greffe for-ȝete
  So frech flauoreȝ of fryteȝ were,
  As fode hit con me fayre refete.                                    88
  Fowleȝ þ{er} flowen i{n} fryth i{n} fere,
  Of flau{m}bande hweȝ,[5] boþe smale & grete,
  Bot sytole stry{n}g & gyt{er}nere,
  Her reken myrþe moȝt not retrete,                                   92
  For quen þose bryddeȝ her wyngeȝ bete
  Þay songen wyth a swete asent;
  So grac[i]os gle couþe no mon gete
  As here & se her adubbement.                                        96

    [Sidenote 5: Or _hiweȝ_.]

    [Sidenote: No tongue could describe the beauty of the forest.
    All shone like gold. The dreamer arrives at the bank of a river,
    which gave forth sweet sounds.]
    So al watȝ dubbet on dere asyse;
  Þat fryth þer fortwne forth me fereȝ,
  Þe derþe þer-of for to deuyse
  Nis no wyȝ worþe þat tonge bereȝ.                                  100
  I welke ay forth i{n} wely wyse,
  No bonk so byg þ{a}t did me dereȝ,
  Þe fyrre i{n} þe fryth þe feier con ryse,
  Þe playn, þe plontteȝ, þe spyse, þe pereȝ,                         104
  & raweȝ & randeȝ & rych reuereȝ,
  As fyldor fyn her b[o]nkes brent.
  I wan to a water by schore þat schereȝ,
  Lorde! dere watȝ hit adubbement!                                   108

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 40b.]]
    [Sidenote: In it, stones glittered like stars in the welkin on a
    winter night.]
    The dubbemente of þo derworth depe
  Wern bonkeȝ bene of beryl bryȝt;
  Swangeande swete þe water con swepe
  Wyth a rownande rourde raykande aryȝt;                             112
  I{n} þe fou{n}ce þ{er} stonden stoneȝ stepe,
  As glente þurȝ glas þat glowed & glyȝt,
  A[6] stremande sterneȝ quen stroþe me{n} slepe,
  Staren i{n} welkyn i{n} wynt{er} nyȝt;                             116
  For vche a pobbel i{n} pole þer pyȝt
  Watȝ Emerad, saffer, oþ{er} ge{m}me gente,
  Þat alle þe loȝe lemed of lyȝt,
  So dere watȝ hit adubbeme{n}t.                                     120

    [Sidenote 6: ? _As._]


III.

    [Sidenote: His grief abates, and he follows the course of the
    stream.]
    The dubbeme{n}t dere of dou{n} & daleȝ,
  Of wod & wat{er} & wlonk playneȝ,
  Bylde in me blys, abated my baleȝ,
  For-didden my [dis]tresse, dystryed my payneȝ.                     124
  Dou{n} after a strem þat dryȝly haleȝ,
  I bowed in blys, bred ful my brayneȝ;
  Þe fyrre I folȝed þose floty valeȝ,
  Þe more strenghþe of ioye myn herte strayneȝ,                      128
  As fortune fares þ{er} as ho frayneȝ,
  Wheþ{er} solace ho sende oþ{er} elleȝ sore,
  Þe wyȝ, to wham her wylle ho wayneȝ,
  Hytteȝ to haue ay more & more.                                     132

    [Sidenote: No one could describe his great joy. He thought that
    Paradise was on the opposite bank. The stream was not fordable.]
    More of wele watȝ i{n} þat wyse
  Þe{n} I cowþe telle þaȝ I tom hade,
  For vrþely herte myȝt not suffyse
  To þe tenþe dole of þo gladneȝ glade;                              136
  For-þy I þoȝt þ{a}t paradyse
  Watȝ þer oþ{er} gayn þo bonkeȝ brade;
  I hoped þe water were a deuyse
  By-twene myrþeȝ by mereȝ made,                                     140
  By-ȝonde þe broke by slente oþ{er} slade,
  I hope[de] þ{a}t mote merked wore.
  Bot þe water watȝ depe I dorst not wade
  & eu{er} me longed a more & more.                                  144

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 41a.]]
    [Sidenote: More and more he desires to see what is beyond the
    brook. But the way seemed difficult. The dreamer finds new
    marvels.]
    More & more, & ȝet wel mare,
  Me lyste to se þe broke by-ȝonde,
  For if hit watȝ fayr þ{er} I con fare,
  Wel loueloker watȝ þe fyrre londe.                                 148
  Abowte me con I stote & stare
  To fynde a forþe, faste con I fonde,
  Bot woþeȝ mo i-wysse þ{er} ware,
  Þe fyrre I stalked by þe stronde,                                  152
  & euer me þoȝt I schulde not wonde
  For wo, þer weleȝ so wy{n}ne wore.
  Þe{n}ne nwe note me com on honde
  Þat meued my mynde ay more & more,                                 156

[Headnote: THE FATHER SEES HIS LOST CHILD DRESSED IN WHITE ROBES.]

    [Sidenote: He sees a crystal cliff, at the foot of which, sits
    a maiden clothed in glistening white. He knows that he has seen
    her before.]
    More meruayle con my dom adau{n}t;
  I seȝ by-ȝonde þat myry mere,
  A crystal clyffe ful relusau{n}t,
  Mony ryal ray con fro hit rere;                                    160
  At þe fote þ{er}-of þ{er} sete a fau{n}t,
  A mayden of menske, ful debonere;
  Blysnande whyt watȝ hyr bleau{n}t,
  (I knew hyr wel, I hade sen hyr ere)                               164
  As glysnande golde þat man con schere,
  So schon þat schene an vnder schore;
  On lengh{e} I loked to hyr þere,
  Þe lenger I knew hyr more & more                                   168

    [Sidenote: He desires to call her but is afraid, at finding her
    in such a strange place.]
    The more I frayste hyr fayre face.
  Her fygure fyn, quen I had fonte,
  Suche gladande glory con to me glace,
  As lyttel byfore þerto watȝ wonte;                                 172
  To calle hyr lyste con me enchace,
  Bot baysme{n}t gef myn hert a bru{n}t,
  I seȝ hyr in so strange a place,
  Such a burre myȝt make my{n} herte blu{n}t                         176
  Þe{n}ne vereȝ ho vp her fayre frou{n}t,
  Hyr vysayge whyt as playn yuore,
  Þat stonge my{n} hert ful stray atou{n}t,
  & eu{er} þe lenger, þe more & more.                                180


IV.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 41b.]]
    [Sidenote: So he stands still, like a well trained hawk.
    He fears lest she should escape before he could speak to her.
    His long lost one is dressed in royal array--decked with
    precious pearls.]
    More þen me lyste my drede aros,
  I stod ful stylle & dorste not calle,
  Wyth yȝen open & mouth ful clos,
  I stod as hende as hawk i{n} halle;                                184
  I hope þ{a}t gostly watȝ þ{a}t porpose,
  I dred on ende quat schulde byfalle,
  Lest ho me eschaped þat I þ{er} chos,
  Er I at steuen hir moȝt stalle.                                    188
  Þat gracios gay w{i}t{h}-outen galle,
  So smoþe, so smal, so seme slyȝt,
  Ryseȝ vp i{n} hir araye ryalle,
  A p{re}c[i]os pyece[7] i{n} perleȝ pyȝt.                           192

    [Sidenote 7: MS. looks like _pyete_.]

    [Sidenote: She comes along the stream towards him.
    Her kirtle is composed of ‘sute,’ ornamented with pearls.]
    Perleȝ pyȝte of ryal prys,
  Þere moȝt mon by grace haf sene,
  Quen þat frech as flor-de-lys,
  Dou{n} þe bonke con boȝe by-dene.                                  196
  Al blysnande whyt watȝ hir beau uiys,
  Vpon at sydeȝ & bou{n}den bene
  Wyth þe myryeste margarys at my deuyse,
  Þat eu{er} I seȝ ȝet with myn yȝen;                                200
  Wyth lappeȝ large I wot & I wene,
  Dubbed with double perle & dyȝte,
  Her cortel of self sute schene,
  W{i}t{h} p{re}cios perleȝ al vmbe-pyȝte.                           204

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 42a.]]
    [Sidenote: She wore a crown of pearls. Her hair hung down
    about her. Her colour was whiter than whalebone. Her hair
    shone as gold.]
    A pyȝt coroune ȝet wer þat gyrle,
  Of mariorys & non oþ{er} ston,
  Hiȝe pynakled of cler quyt perle,
  Wyth flurted flowreȝ perfet vpon;                                  208
  To hed hade ho non oþ{er} werle,
  Her here heke[8] al hyr vmbe-gon;
  Her semblau{n}t sade, for doc oþ{er} erle,
  Her ble more blaȝt þen whalleȝ bon;                                212
  As schorne golde schyr her fax þe{n}ne schon,
  On schyldereȝ þat legh{e} vnlapped lyȝte;
  Her depe colo{ur} ȝet wonted non,
  Of p{re}cios perle i{n} porfyl pyȝte,                              216

    [Sidenote 8: In the MS. it is _lere leke_.]

    [Sidenote: The trimming of her robe consisted of precious
    pearls. A wonderful pearl was set in her breast.]
    Pyȝt watȝ poyned & vche a he{m}me,
  At honde, at sydeȝ, at ouerture,
  Wyth whyte perle & non oþ{er} ge{m}me,
  & bornyste quyte watȝ hyr uesture.                                 220
  Bot a wonder perle w{i}t{h}-outen we{m}me,
  In myddeȝ hyr breste watȝ sette so sure;
  A ma{n}neȝ dom moȝt dryȝly de{m}me,
  Er mynde moȝt malte i{n} hit mesure;                               224
  I hope no tong moȝt endure
  No sau{er}ly saghe say of þ{a}t syȝt,
  So watȝ hit clene & cler & pure,
  Þat p{re}cios perle þ{er} hit watȝ pyȝt,                           228

    [Sidenote: No man from here to Greece, was so glad as the father,
    when he saw his pearl on the bank of the stream. The maiden
    salutes him.]
    Pyȝt in perle þat p{re}cios p[r]yse.
  On wyþ{er} half wat{er} com dou{n} þe schore,
  No gladder gome heþen i{n} to grece,
  Þe{n} I, quen ho on bry{m}me wore;                                 232
  Ho watȝ me nerre þen au{n}te or nece,
  My Ioy for-þy watȝ much þe more.
  Ho p{ro}fered me speche þ{a}t special spyce,
  Enclynande lowe i{n} wo{m}mon lore,                                236
  Caȝte of her corou{n} of grete tresore,
  & haylsed me wyth a lote lyȝte.
  Wel watȝ me þ{a}t eu{er} I watȝ bore,
  To sware þat swete i{n} perleȝ pyȝte!                              240


[Headnote: THE MAIDEN ADDRESSES HER FATHER.]

V.

    [Sidenote: The father enquires of the maiden whether she is his
    long-lost pearl, and longs to know who has deprived him of his
    treasure.]
    “O perle,” q{uod} I, “in perleȝ pyȝt,
  Art þ{o}u my perle þat I haf playned,
  Regretted by my{n} one, on nyȝte?
  Much longey{n}g haf I for þe layned,                               244
  Syþen into gresse þ{o}u me aglyȝte;
  Pensyf, payred, I am for-payned,
  & þ{o}u i{n} a lyf of lyky{n}g lyȝte
  In paradys erde, of stryf vnstrayned.                              248
  What wyrde hatȝ hyder my iuel vayned,
  & don me in þys del & gret dau{n}ger?
  Fro we i{n} twy{n}ne wern towen & twayned,
  I haf ben a Ioyleȝ Iuelere.”                                       252

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 42b.]]
    [Sidenote: The maiden tells him that his pearl is not really
    lost. She is in a garden of delight, where sin and mourning
    are unknown.]
    That Iuel þe{n}ne in ge{m}myȝ gente,
  Vered vp her vyse w{i}t{h} yȝen graye,
  Set on hyr corou{n} of perle orie{n}t,
  & soberly after þe{n}ne con ho say:                                256
  “Si{r} ȝe haf yo{ur} tale myse-tente,
  To say yo{ur} perle is al awaye,
  Þat is i{n} cofer, so comly clente,
  As i{n} þis gardyn gracios gaye,                                   260
  Here-i{n}ne to lenge for eu{er} & play.
  Þer mys nee morny{n}g com neu{er} here,
  Her were a forser for þe i{n} faye,
  If þ{o}u were a gentyl Iueler.                                     264

[Headnote: SHE TELLS HIM OF HER BLISS.]

    [Sidenote: The rose that he had lost is become a pearl of price.
    The pearl blames his rash speech.]
    Bot Iueler gente if þ{o}u schal lose
  Þy ioy for a ge{m}me þat þe watȝ lef,
  Me þynk þe put i{n} a mad porpose,
  & busyeȝ[9] þe aboute a raysou{n} bref,                            268
  For þat þ{o}u lesteȝ watȝ bot a rose,
  Þat flowred & fayled as kynde hyt gef;
  Now þurȝ kynde of þe kyste þ{a}t hyt con close,
  To a perle of prys hit is put i{n} pref;                           272
  & þ{o}u hatȝ called þy wyrde a þef,
  Þat oȝt of noȝt hatȝ mad þe cler;
  Þ{o}u blameȝ þe bote of þy meschef,
  Þ{o}u art no kynde Iueler.”                                        276

    [Sidenote 9: Looks like _husyeȝ_ in MS.]

    [Sidenote: The father begs the maiden to excuse his speech, for
    he really thought his pearl was wholly lost to him.]
    A Iuel to me þen watȝ þys geste,
  & iueleȝ wern hyr ge{n}tyl saweȝ,
  “I-wyse,” q{uod} I, “my blysfol beste,
  My grete dystresse þ{o}u al to-draweȝ,                             280
  To be excused I make requeste;
  I trawed my perle don out of daweȝ,
  Now haf I fonde hyt I schal ma feste,
  & wony w{i}t{h} hyt i{n} schyr wod schaweȝ,                        284
  & loue my lorde & al his laweȝ,
  Þat hatȝ me broȝ[t] þys blys ner;
  Now were I at yow by-ȝonde þise waweȝ,
  I were a ioyfol Iueler.”                                           288

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 43a.]]
    [Sidenote: The maiden tells her father that he has spoken
    three words without knowing the meaning of one. The first word.
    The second. The third.]
    “Iueler,” sayde þat ge{m}me clene,
  “Wy borde ȝe men, so madde ȝe be?
  Þre wordeȝ hatȝ þ{o}u spoken at ene,
  Vn-avysed, for soþe, wern alle þre,                                292
  Þou ne woste in worlde quat on dotȝ mene,
  Þy worde byfore þy wytte con fle.
  Þou says þ{o}u traweȝ me i{n} þis dene,
  By cawse þ{o}u may w{i}t{h} yȝen me se;                            296
  Anoþ{er} þ{o}u says, i{n} þys cou{n}tre
  Þy self schal won w{i}t{h} me ryȝt here;
  Þe þrydde, to passe þys wat{er} fre,
  Þat may no ioyfol Iueler.                                          300


[Headnote: DEATH IS THE ROAD TO PARADISE.]

VI.

    [Sidenote: He is little to be praised who loves what he sees.
    To love nothing but what one sees is great presumption.]
    I halde þat iueler lyttel to prayse.
  Þat loueȝ wel þ{a}t he seȝ wyth yȝe,
  & much to blame & vn-cortoyse,
  Þat loueȝ[10] oure lorde wolde make a lyȝe,                        304
  Þat lelly hyȝte yo{ur} lyf to rayse,
  Þaȝ fortune dyd yo{ur} flesch to dyȝe;
  Ȝe setten hys wordeȝ ful westernays
  Þat loueȝ[11] no þy{n}k bot ȝe hit syȝe,                           308
  & þat is[12] a poy{n}t o sorquydryȝe,
  Þat vche god mon may euel byseme
  To leue no tale be t{ru}e to tryȝe,
  Bot þat hys one skyl may dem[e].                                   312

    [Sidenote 10: Looks at first sight like _lyueȝ_--MS. rubbed, but
    read _leueȝ_.]
    [Sidenote 11: Read _leueȝ_.]
    [Sidenote 12: The MS. reads _īs_.]

    [Sidenote: To live in this kingdom (_i.e._ heaven) leave must be
    asked. This stream must be passed over by death.]
    Deme now þy-self, if þ{o}u con, dayly
  As man to god wordeȝ schulde heue.
  Þ{o}u saytȝ þ{o}u schal won i{n} þis bayly;
  Me þynk þe burde fyrst aske leue,                                  316
  & ȝet of grau{n}t þ{o}u myȝteȝ fayle;
  Þ{o}u wylneȝ ou{er} þys water to weue,
  Er moste þ{o}u ceuer to oþ{er} cou{n}sayl,
  Þy corse i{n} clot mot calder keue,                                320
  For hit watȝ for-garte, at paradys greue
  Oure ȝore fader hit con mysseȝeme;
  Þurȝ drwry deth boȝ vch ma dreue,
  Er ou{er} þys dam hy{m} dryȝty{n} deme.”                           324

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 43b.]]
    [Sidenote: The father asks his pearl whether she is about to
    doom him to sorrow again. If he loses his pearl he does not care
    what happens to him.]
    “Demeȝ þ{o}u me,” q{uod} I, “my swete
  To dol agayn, þe{n}ne I dowyne;
  Now haf I fonte þat I for-lete
  Schal I efte for-go hit er eu{er} I fyne?                          328
  Why schal I hit boþe mysse & mete?
  My p{re}cios perle dotȝ me gret pyne,
  What serueȝ tresor, bot gareȝ men grete
  When he hit schal efte w{i}t{h} teneȝ tyne?                        332
  Now rech I neu{er} forto declyne,
  Ne how fer of folde þat man me fleme,
  When I am partleȝ of perleȝ myne.
  Bot durande doel what may men deme?”                               336

[Headnote: ALL MUST ABIDE GOD’S DOOM.]

    [Sidenote: The maiden tells her father to suffer patiently.
    Though he may dance as any doe, yet he must abide God’s doom.]
    “Thow demeȝ noȝt bot doel dystresse,”
  Þenne sayde þat wyȝt “why dotȝ þ{o}u so?
  For dyne of doel, of lureȝ lesse,
  Ofte mony mon for-gos þe mo;                                       340
  Þe oȝte better þy seluen blesse,
  & loue ay god &[13] wele & wo,
  For anger gayneȝ þe not a cresse.
  Who nedeȝ schal þole be not so þro;                                344
  For þoȝ þ{o}u dau{n}ce as any do
  Brau{n}dysch & bray þy braþeȝ breme,
  When þ{o}u no fyrre may, to ne fro,
  Þ{o}u moste abyde þat he schal deme.                               348

    [Sidenote 13: _in_ or _an_ (?).]

    [Sidenote: He must cease to strive. All lies in God’s power
    to make men joyful or sad.]
    Deme dryȝtyn, euer hy{m} adyte,
  Of þe way a fote ne wyl he wryþe,
  Þy mendeȝ mou{n}teȝ not a myte,
  Þaȝ þ{o}u for sorȝe be neu{er} blyþe;                              352
  Sty{n}st of þy strot & fyne to flyte,
  & sech hys blyþe ful swefte[14] & swyþe,
  Þy prayer may hys pyte byte,
  Þat mercy schal hyr crafteȝ kyþe;                                  356
  Hys comforte may þy lango{ur} lyþe,
  & þy lureȝ of lyȝtly leme,
  For marre oþ{er} madde, morne & myþe,
  Al lys i{n} hym to dyȝt & deme.”                                   360

    [Sidenote 14: MS. _sweste_.]


[Headnote: THE BEREAVED PARENT ASKS HIS CHILD’S PITY.]

VII.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 44a.]]
    [Sidenote: The father beseeches the pearl to have pity upon him.]
    Thenne demed I to þat damyselle,
  Ne worþe no wrath þe vnto my lorde,
  If rapely raue[15] spornande i{n} spelle.
  My herte watȝ al w{i}t{h} mysse remorde,                           364
  As wallande water gotȝ out of welle;
  I do me ay i{n} hys myserecorde.
  Rebuke me neu{er} w{i}t{h} wordeȝ felle,
  Þaȝ I forloyne my dere endorde,                                    368
  Bot lyþeȝ me kyndely yo{ur} cou{m}forde,
  Pytosly þenkande vpon þysse;
  Of care & me ȝe made acorde,
  Þat er watȝ grou{n}de of alle my blysse;                           372

    [Sidenote 15: _rane_ (?).]

    [Sidenote: He says that she has been both his bale and bliss.
    And when he lost her, he knew not what had become of her.]
    My blysse, my bale ȝe han ben boþe,
  Bot much þe bygger ȝet watȝ my mon,
  Fro þ{o}u watȝ wroken fro vch a woþe.
  I wyste neu{er} quere my perle watȝ gon;                           376
  Now I hit se, now leþeȝ my loþe,
  & quen we departed we wern at on,
  God forbede we be now wroþe,
  We meten so selden by stok oþ{er} ston;                            380
  Þaȝ cortaysly ȝe carp con,
  I am bot mol & marereȝ mysse,
  Bot crystes mersy & mary & Ion,
  Þise arn þe grou{n}de of alle my blysse.                           384

    [Sidenote: And now that he sees her in bliss, she takes little
    heed of his sorrow. He desires to know what life she leads.]
    In blysse I se þe blyþely blent
  & I a man al mornyf mate,
  Ȝe take þ{er}-on ful lyttel tente,
  Þaȝ I hente ofte harmeȝ hate.                                      388
  Bot now I am here i{n} yo{ur} p{re}sente,
  I wolde bysech wythouten debate,
  Ȝe wolde me say i{n} sobre asente,
  What lyf ȝe lede, erly & late,                                     392
  For I am ful fayn þat yo{ur} astate
  Is worþen to worschyp & wele I wysse,
  Of alle my Ioy þe hyȝe gate
  Hit is i{n} grou{n}de of alle my blysse.”                          396

[Headnote: SHE DESCRIBES HER MODE OF LIFE.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 44b.]]
    [Sidenote: The maiden tells him that he may walk and abide
    with her, now that he is humble. All are meek that dwell
    in the abode of bliss.]
    “Now blysse burne mot þe bytyde;”
  Þen sayde þat lufsou{m} of lyth & lere,
  “& welcu{m} here to walk & byde,
  For now þy speche is to me dere;                                   400
  Maysterful mod & hyȝe pryde
  I hete þe arn heterly hated here;
  My lorde ne loueȝ not forto chyde,
  For meke arn alle þ{a}t woneȝ hy{m} nere,                          404
  & when i{n} hys place þ{o}u schal apere,
  Be dep deuote i{n} hol mekenesse;
  My lorde þe lamb, loueȝ ay such chere,
  Þat is þe grou{n}de of alle my blysse.                             408

    [Sidenote: All lead a blissful life. She reminds her father
    that she was very young when she died. Now she is crowned
    a queen in heaven.]
    A blysful lyf þ{o}u says I lede,
  Þou woldeȝ knaw þ{er}-of þe stage;
  Þow wost wel when þy perle con schede,
  I watȝ ful ȝong & tender of age,                                   412
  Bot my lorde þe lombe, þurȝ hys god-hede,
  He toke my self to hys maryage,
  Corou{n}de me quene i{n} blysse to brede,
  I{n} lengh{e} of dayeȝ þat eu{er} schal wage,                      416
  & sesed i{n} alle hys herytage
  Hys lef is, I am holy hysse;
  Hys prese, hys prys & hys parage,
  Is rote & grou{n}de of alle my blysse.”                            420


[Headnote: MARY IS THE EMPRESS OF HEAVEN.]

VIII.

    [Sidenote: The father of the maiden does not fully understand
    her. Mary, he says, is the queen of heaven. No one is able
    to remove the crown from her.]
    “Blysful,” q{uod} I, “may þys be trwe,
  Dyspleseȝ not if I speke erro{ur};
  Art þou þe quene of heueneȝ blwe,
  Þ{a}t al þys worlde schal do hono{ur}?                             424
  We leuen on marye þat grace of grewe,
  Þat ber a barne of vyrgyn flo{ur},
  Þe croune fro hyr quo moȝt remwe,
  Bot ho hir passed i{n} su{m} fauo{ur}?                             428
  Now for synglerty o hyr douso{ur},
  We calle hyr fenyx of arraby,
  Þat freles fleȝe of hyr fasor,
  Lyk to þe quen of cortaysye.”                                      432

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 45a.]]
    [Sidenote: The maiden addresses the Virgin. She then explains
    to her father that each has his place in heaven.]
    “Cortayse quen” þe{n}ne s[a]yde þat gaye,
  Knelande to grou{n}de, folde vp hyr face,
  “Makeleȝ moder & myryest may,
  Blessed bygy{n}ner[16] of vch a grace!”                            436
  Þe{n}ne ros ho vp & con restay,
  & speke me towarde i{n} þat space:
  “S{ir} fele here porchaseȝ & fongeȝ pray
  Bot supplantoreȝ none w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne þys place;                   440
  Þat emp{er}ise al heue{n}ȝ hatȝ,
  & vrþe & helle i{n} her bayly;
  Of erytage ȝet non wyl ho chace,
  For ho is quen of cortaysye.                                       444

    [Sidenote 16: MS. reads _bȳgyner_.]

    [Sidenote: The court of God has a property in its own being.
    Each one in it is a king or queen. The mother of Christ holds
    the chief place.]
    The co{ur}t of þe kyndom of god alyue,
  Hatȝ a p{ro}perty i{n} hyt self bey{n}g;
  Alle þat may þer-i{n}ne aryue
  Of alle þe reme is quen oþ{er} ky{n}g,                             448
  & neu{er} oþ{er} ȝet schal depryue,
  Bot vchon fayn of oþ{er}eȝ hafy{n}g,
  & wolde her corou{n}eȝ wern worþe þo fyue,
  If possyble were her mendy{n}g.                                    452
  Bot my lady of quom Iesu con spry{n}g,
  Ho haldeȝ þe empyre ou{er} v{us} ful hyȝe,
  & þat dyspleseȝ non of oure gy{n}g,
  For ho is quene of cortaysye.                                      456

    [Sidenote: We are all members of Christ’s body. Look that
    each limb be perfect.]
    Of co{ur}taysye, as saytȝ say{n}t poule,
  Al arn we me{m}breȝ of ih{es}u kryst,
  As heued & arme & legg & naule,
  Temen to hys body ful trwe & t[r]yste;                             460
  Ryȝt so is vch a krysten sawle,
  A longande lym to þe mayster of myste;
  Þe{n}ne loke what hate oþ{er} any gawle,
  Is tached oþ{er} tyȝed þy ly{m}meȝ by-twyste,                      464
  Þy heued hatȝ nauþer greme ne gryste,
  On arme oþ{er} fynger, þaȝ þ{o}u ber byȝe;
  So fare we alle wyth luf & lyste,
  To ky{n}g & quene by cortaysye.”                                   468

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 45b.]]
    [Sidenote: The father replies that he cannot understand how
    his pearl can be a queen. He desires to know what greater
    honour she can have.]
    “Cortayse,” q{uod} I, “I leue
  & charyte grete be yow amo{n}g,
  Bot my speche þat yow ne greue,
      .    .    .    .    .                                          472
  Þy self in heuen ou{er} hyȝ þ{o}u heue,
  To make þe quen þat watȝ so ȝonge,
  What more-hond moȝte he acheue
  Þat hade endured i{n} worlde stronge,                              476
  & lyued i{n} penau{n}ce hys lyueȝ longe,
  W{i}t{h} bodyly bale hy{m} blysse to byye?
  What more worschyp moȝt ho fonge,
  Þen corou{n}de be ky{n}g by cortayse?                              480


[Headnote: THE PARABLE OF THE LABOURERS IN THE VINEYARD.]

IX.

    [Sidenote: She was only two years old when she died,
    and could do nothing to please God. She might be a countess
    or some great lady but not a queen.]
    That cortayse is to fre of dede,
  Ȝyf hyt be soth þat þ{o}u coneȝ saye,
  Þ{o}u lyfed not two ȝer i{n} oure þede,
  Þ{o}u cowþeȝ neu{er} god nauþ{er} plese ne pray,                   484
  Ne neu{er} nawþer pater ne crede,
  & quen mad on þe fyrst day!
  I may not traw, so god me spede,
  Þat god wolde wryþe so wrange away;                                488
  Of cou{n}tes damysel, par ma fay,
  Wer fayr i{n} heuen to halde asstate
  Aþ{er} elleȝ a lady of lasse aray,
  Bot a quene, hit is to dere a date.”                               492

    [Sidenote: The maiden informs her father that there is no limit
    to God’s power. The parable of the labourers in the vineyard.]
    “Þer is no date of hys god-nesse,”
  Þen sayde to me þat worþy wyȝte,
  “For al is trawþe þat he con dresse,
  & he may do no þynk bot ryȝt,                                      496
  As mathew meleȝ i{n} yo{ur} messe,
  I{n} sothfol gospel of god al-myȝt
  I{n} sample he can ful grayþely gesse,
  & lykneȝ hit to heuen lyȝte.”                                      500
  “My regne, he saytȝ, is lyk on hyȝt,
  To a lorde þat hade a uyne I wate,
  Of tyme of ȝere þe terme watȝ tyȝt,
  To labor vyne watȝ dere þe date,                                   504

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 46a.]]
    [Sidenote: The lord of the vineyard hires workmen for a penny a
    day. At noon the lord hires other men standing idle in the
    market place.]
    Þat date of ȝere wel knawe þys hyne;
  Þe lorde ful erly vp he ros,
  To hyre werkmen to hys vyne,
  & fyndeȝ þ{er} su{m}me to hys porpos,                              508
  Into acorde þay con de-clyne,
  For a pené on a day & forth þay gotȝ,
  Wryþen & worchen & don gret pyne,
  Keruen & caggen & man hit clos;                                    512
  Aboute vnder, þe lorde to marked totȝ
  & ydel men stande he fyndeȝ þer-ate,
  “Why stande ȝe ydel” he sayde to þos,
  Ne knawe ȝe of þis day no date?                                    516

    [Sidenote: He commands them to go into his vineyard, and he will
    give them what is right.]
    “Er date of daye hider arn we won{n}e,”
  So watȝ al samen her answar soȝt;
  “We haf standen her syn ros þe su{n}ne,
  & no mo{n} byddeȝ v{us} do, ryȝt noȝt.”                            520
  “Gos i{n}-to my vyne, dotȝ þat ȝe co{n}ne.”
  So sayde þe lorde & made hit toȝt.
  “What resonabele hyre be naȝt be ru{n}ne,
  I yow pray i{n} dede & þoȝte.”                                     524
  Þay wente i{n} to þe vyne & wroȝte,
  & al day þe lorde þ{us} ȝede his gate,
  & nw men to hys vyne he broȝte;
  Wel neȝ wyl day watȝ passed date,                                  528

    [Sidenote: At an hour before the sun went down the lord sees
    other men standing idle. Tells them to go into the vineyard.]
    At þe day of date of euen-songe,
  On oure byfore þe so{n}ne go dou{n}
  He seȝ þer ydel men ful stronge
  & sa[y]de to hem[17] w{i}t{h} sobre sou{n};                        532
  “Wy stonde ȝe ydel þise dayeȝ longe.”
  Þay sayden her hyre watȝ nawhere bou{n}.
  “Gotȝ to my vyne ȝemen ȝonge
  & wyrkeȝ & dotȝ þ{a}t at ȝe mou{n}.”                               536
  Sone þe worlde by-com wel brou{n},
  Þe su{n}ne watȝ doun &[18] hit wex late;
  To take her hyre he mad su{m}ou{n};
  Þe day watȝ al apassed date.                                       540

    [Sidenote 17: MS. _hen_.]
    [Sidenote 18: MS. & &.]


[Headnote: THE PAYMENT OF THE LABOURERS.]

X.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 46b.]]
    [Sidenote: As soon as the sun was gone down the “reeve” was told
    to pay the workmen. To give each a penny. The first began to
    complain.]
    The date of þe daye þe lorde con knaw,
  Called to þe reue “lede pay þe meyny,
  Gyf hem þe hyre þat I hem owe,
  & fyrre, þat non me may repreue,                                   544
  Set hem alle vpon a rawe,
  & gyf vchon i{n}-lyche a peny.
  Bygyn at þe laste þat sta{n}deȝ lowe,
  Tyl to þe fyrste þat þ{o}u atteny;”                                548
  & þe{n}ne þe fyrst by-go{n}ne to pleny
  & sayden þat þay hade trauayled sore,
  Þese bot an [h]oure hem con streny,
  V{us} þy{n}k v{us} oȝe to take more.                               552

    [Sidenote: Having borne the heat of the day he thinks that he
    deserves more. The lord tells him that he agreed only to give
    him a penny.]
    More haf we serued v{us} þy{n}k so,
  Þat suffred han þe dayeȝ hete,
  Þe{n}n þyse þat wroȝt[e] not houreȝ two,
  & þ{o}u dotȝ hem v{us} to cou{n}terfete.                           556
  Þe{n}ne sayde þe lorde to on of þo,
  “Frende no wrang[19] I wyl þe ȝete,
  Take þat is þyn owne & go;
  & I hyred þe for a peny a grete,                                   560
  Quy bygy{n}neȝ þ{o}u now to þrete;
  Watȝ not a pené þy couenau{n}t þore?
  Fyrre þe{n} couenau{n}de is noȝt to plete,
  Wy schalte þou þe{n}ne ask more?                                   564

    [Sidenote 19: MS. _wanig_.]

[Headnote: THE APPLICATION OF THE PARABLE.]

    [Sidenote: The last shall be first, and the first last.
    The maiden applies the parable to herself.]
    More weþ{er} louyly is me my gyfte
  To do wyth myn quat so me lykeȝ?
  Oþ{er} elleȝ þyn yȝe to lyþ{er} is lyfte,
  For I am goude & no{n} by-swykeȝ.”                                 568
  “Þ{us} schal I,” q{uod} kryste, “hit skyfte,
  Þe laste schal be þe fyrst þat strykeȝ,
  & þe fyrst þe laste, be he neu{er} so swyft,
  For mony ben calle[d] þaȝ fewe be mykeȝ.”                          572
  Þ{us} pore men her part ay pykeȝ,
  Þaȝ þay com late & lyttel wore,
  & þaȝ her sweng wyth lyttel at-slykeȝ,
  Þe merci of god is much þe more.                                   576

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 47a.]]
    [Sidenote: She came to the vine in eventide, and yet received
    more than others who had lived longer.]
    “More haf I of ioye & blysse here-i{n}ne,
  Of ladyschyp gret & lyueȝ blom,
  Þen alle þe wyȝeȝ i{n} þe worlde myȝt wy{n}ne
  By þe way of ryȝt to aske dome.                                    580
  Wheþer wel nygh[t] now I con bygy{n}ne,
  In euentyde in-to þe vyne I come,
  Fyrst of my hyre my lorde con my{n}ne,
  I watȝ payed anon of al & sum;                                     584
  Ȝet oþ{er} þer werne þ{a}t toke more tom,
  Þat swange & swat for long ȝore,
  Þat ȝet of hyre no þynk þay nom,
  Parau{n}t{er} noȝt schal to ȝere more.”                            588

    [Sidenote: The father says that his daughter’s tale is
    unreasonable.]
    Then more I meled & sayde apert,
  “Me þynk þy tale vnresou{n}able,
  Goddeȝ ryȝt is redy & eu{er} more rert,[20]
  Oþ{er} holy wryt is bot a fable;                                   592
  I{n} sauter is sayd a verce ouerte
  Þat spekeȝ a poy{n}t determynable,
  ‘Þ{o}u quyteȝ vchon as hys desserte,
  Þ{o}u hyȝe ky{n}g ay p{re}termynable,’[21]                         596
  Now he þat stod þe long day stable,
  & þ{o}u to payment com hym byfore,
  Þe{n}ne þe lasse i{n} werke to take more able,
  & eu{er} þe lenger þe lasse þe more.”                              600

    [Sidenote 20: _ert_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 21: MS. p{er}termynable.]


[Headnote: GOD IS NO NIGGARD.]

XI.

    [Sidenote: In heaven, the maiden says, each man is paid alike.
    God is no niggard. The grace of God is sufficient for all.]
    “Of more & lasse in godeȝ ryche,”
  Þat gentyl sayde “lys no Ioparde,
  For þer is vch mon payed inliche,
  Wheþer lyttel oþ{er} much be hys rewarde,                          604
  For þe gentyl cheuentayn is no chyche,
  Queþ{er}-so-eu{er} he dele nesch oþ{er} harde,
  He laueȝ hys gyfteȝ[22] as wat{er} of dyche,
  Oþ{er} goteȝ of golf þat neu{er} charde;                           608
  Hys frau{n}chyse is large þ{a}t eu{er} dard,
  To hy{m} þat matȝ i{n} sy{n}ne no scogh{e}[23]
  No blysse betȝ fro hem reparde,
  For þe grace of god is gret I-nogh{e}.                             612

    [Sidenote 22: MS. _gysteȝ_.]
    [Sidenote 23: In the MS. it looks like _rescoghe_.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 47b.]]
    [Sidenote: Those who live long on the earth often forfeit heaven
    by sinning.]
    Bot now þ{o}u moteȝ me for to mate
  Þat I my peny haf wrang tan here,
  Þ{o}u sayȝ þat I þat com to late,
  Am not worþy so gret lere.                                         616
  Where wysteȝ þ{o}u eu{er} any bourne abate
  Euer so holy i{n} hys prayere,
  Þat he ne forfeted by su{m}kyn gate,
  Þe mede su{m}-tyme of heueneȝ clere;                               620
  & ay þe ofter, þe alder þay were,
  Þay laften ryȝt & wroȝten wogh{e}
  Mercy & g{ra}ce moste hem þe{n} stere,
  For þe g{ra}ce of god is gret i{n}-noȝe.                           624

    [Sidenote: Innocents are saved by baptism. Why should not
    God allow their labour.]
    Bot i{n}-nogh{e} of grace hatȝ i{n}nocent,
  As sone as þay arn borne by lyne
  I{n} þe water of babtem þay dyssente,
  Þ{en} arne þay boroȝt i{n}-to þe vyne,                             628
  Anon þe day w{i}t{h} derk endente,
  Þe myȝt of deth dotȝ to en-clyne
  Þat wroȝt neuer wrang er þe{n}ne þay wente;
  Þe gentyle lorde þe{n}ne payeȝ hys hyne,                           632
  Þay dyden hys heste, þay wern þere-ine,
  Why schulde he not her labo{ur} alow,
  Ȝy[rd] & pay hem[24] at þe fyrst fyne
  For þe grace of god is gret i{n}-nogh{e}?                          636

    [Sidenote 24: MS. _hym_.]

[Headnote: PARADISE WAS LOST THROUGH AN APPLE.]

    [Sidenote: Our first father lost heaven by eating an apple.
    And all are damned for the sin of Adam. But there came one
    who paid the penalty of our sins.]
    Inoȝe is knawen þ{a}t man-kyn grete,
  Fyrste watȝ wroȝt to blysse parfyt;
  Oure forme-fader hit con forfete,
  Þurȝ an apple þat he vpon con byte;                                640
  Al wer we dampned for þat mete,
  To dyȝe i{n} doel out of delyt,
  & syþen wende to helle hete,
  Þ{er}-i{n}ne to won w{i}t{h}-oute respyt;                          644
  Bot þer on com a bote as-tyt.
  Ryche blod ran on rode so rogh{e},
  & wy{n}ne [&] wat{er}, þe{n} at þat plyt
  Þe g{ra}ce of god wex gret i{n}-nogh{e}.                           648

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 48a.]]
    [Sidenote: The water that came from the pierced side of Christ
    was baptism.]
    Innogh{e} þer wax out[25] of þat welle,
  Blod & wat{er} of brode wou{n}de;
  Þe blod v{us} boȝt fro bale of helle,
  & delyu{er}ed v{us} of þe deth secou{n}de;                         652
  Þe water is baptem þe soþe to telle;
  Þat folȝed þe glayue so gry{m}ly grou{n}de,
  Þat wascheȝ away þe gylteȝ felle,
  Þat adam wyth i{n}ne deth v{us} drou{n}de.                         656
  Now is þ{er} noȝt i{n} þe worlde rou{n}de
  Bytwene v{us} & blysse bot þat he w{i}t{h}-droȝ
  & þat is restored i{n} sely stou{n}de,
  & þe grace of god is gret i{n}-nogh.                               660

    [Sidenote 25: MS. _out out_.]


XII.

    [Sidenote: Repentance must be sought by prayer with sorrow and
    affliction. The guilty may be saved by contrition.]
    Grace i{n}-nogh þe mon may haue,
  Þat sy{n}neȝ þe{n}ne new, ȝif hy{m} repente,
  Bot w{i}t{h} sorȝ & syt he mot hit craue,
  & byde þe payne þer-to is bent,                                    664
  Bot resou{n} of ryȝt þat con not raue,
  Saueȝ eu{er} more þe i{n}nosse{n}t;
  Hit is a dom þ{a}t neu{er} god gaue,
  Þat eu{er} þe gyltleȝ schulde be schente.                          668
  Þe gyltyf may contryssyou{n} hente
  & be þurȝ mercy to grace þryȝt;
  Bot he to gyle þat neu{er} glente,
  At i{n}-oscente is saf & ryȝte.                                    672

[Headnote: INNOCENTS ARE SAVED BY RIGHT.]

    [Sidenote: Two sorts of people are saved, the _righteous_ and
    the _innocent_. The words of David. The innocent is saved by
    right.]
    Ryȝt þ{us}[26] I knaw wel i{n} þis cas,
  Two men to saue is god by skylle;
  Þe ryȝt-wys man schal se hys face,[27]
  Þe harmleȝ haþel schal com hym tylle,                              676
  Þe saut{er} hyt satȝ þ{us} i{n} a pace:
  “Lorde quo schal klymbe þy hyȝ hylleȝ
  Oþ{er} rest w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne þy holy place?”
  Hymself to on-sware he is not dylle;                               680
  “Hondely{n}geȝ harme þat dyt not ille,
  Þat is of hert boþe clene & lyȝt,
  Þer schal hys step stable stylle,”
  Þe i{n}nosent is ay saf by ryȝt.                                   684

    [Sidenote 26: MS. þ{us} þ{us}.]
    [Sidenote 27: MS. _fate_.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 48b.]]
    [Sidenote: The words of Solomon.]
    The ryȝtwys man also sertayn
  Aproche he schal þ{a}t proper pyle,
  Þat takeȝ not her lyf in vayne
  Ne glauereȝ her nieȝbor wyth no gyle;                              688
  Of þys ryȝt-wys saȝ[28] salamon playn,
  How kyntly oure con aquyle
  By wayeȝ ful streȝt he con hym strayn,
  & scheued hy{m} þe rengne of god a whyle,                          692
  As quo says “lo ȝon louely yle,
  Þ{o}u may hit wy{n}ne if þ{o}u be wyȝte,”
  Bot hardyly w{i}t{h}-oute peryle,
  Þe i{n}nosent is ay saue by ryȝte!                                 696

    [Sidenote 28: _satȝ_ (?).]

    [Sidenote: David says no man living is justified.
    Pray to be saved by innocence and not by right.]
    An-ende ryȝtwys men, ȝet saytȝ a gome
  Dauid in sauter, if eu{er} ȝe seȝ hit,
  “Lorde þy seruau{n}t draȝ neuer to dome,
  For[29] non lyuyunde to þe is Iustyfyet.”                          700
  For-þy to corte quen þ{o}u schal com,
  Þer alle oure causeȝ schal be tryed,
  Alegge þe ryȝt þ{o}u may be i{n}-nome,
  By þys ilke spech I haue asspyed;                                  704
  Bot he on rode þat blody dyed,
  Delfully þurȝ hondeȝ þryȝt
  Gyue þe to passe when þ{o}u arte tryed
  By in{n}ocens & not by ryȝte.                                      708

    [Sidenote 29: MS. _sor._]

[Headnote: CHRIST BLESSED LITTLE CHILDREN.]

    [Sidenote: When Jesus was on earth, little children were brought
    unto him. The disciples rebuked the parents. Christ said,
    “Suffer little children to come unto me,” etc.]
    Ryȝt-wysly quo con rede,
  He loke on bok & be awayed
  How Ih{esu}c hy{m} welke in are þede,
  & burneȝ her barneȝ vnto hy{m} brayde,                             712
  For happe & hele þat fro hy{m} ȝede,
  To touch[30] her chylder þay fayr hym prayed.
  His dessypeleȝ w{i}t{h} blame let be hy{m} bede,
  & wyth her resou{n}eȝ ful fele restayed;                           716
  Ih{esu}c þe{n}ne hem swetely sayde,
  “Do way, let chylder vnto me tyȝt.
  To suche is heuen-ryche arayed,”
  Þe i{n}nocent is ay saf by ryȝt.                                   720

    [Sidenote 30: MS. _touth_.]


XIII.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 49a.]]
    [Sidenote: No one can win heaven except he be meek as a child.]
    Ih{esu}c con calle to hy{m} hys mylde
  & sayde hys ryche no wyȝ myȝt wy{n}ne.
  Bot he com þyder ryȝt as a chylde,
  Oþ{er} elleȝ neu{er} more com þer-i{n}ne,                          724
  Harmleȝ, trwe & vnde-fylde,
  W{i}t{h}-outen mote oþ{er} mascle of sulpande sy{n}ne;
  Quen such þer cnoken on þe bylde,
  Tyt schal hem men þe ȝate vnpy{n}ne,                               728
  Þer is þe blys þat con not bly{n}ne,
  Þat þe Iueler soȝte þurȝ perre pres
  & solde alle hys goud boþe wolen & ly{n}ne,
  To bye hy{m} a perle [þat] watȝ mascelleȝ.                         732

[Headnote: FORSAKE THE MAD WORLD.]

    [Sidenote: The pearl of price is like the kingdom of heaven,
    pure and clean. Forsake the mad world and purchase the spotless
    pearl.]
    This makelleȝ perle þat boȝt is dere,
  Þe Ioueler gef fore alle hys god,
  Is lyke þe reme of heuenesse clere
  So sayde þe fader of folde & flode,                                736
  For hit is we{m}leȝ, clene & clere,
  & endeleȝ rou{n}de & blyþe of mode,
  & co{m}mune to alle þat ryȝtwys[31] were,
  Lo! euen i{n} myddeȝ my breste hit stode;                          740
  My lorde þe lombe þat schede hys blode,
  He pyȝt hit þere i{n} token of pes;
  I rede þe forsake þe worlde wode,
  & porchace þy perle maskelles.”                                    744

    [Sidenote 31: MS. _ryȝtywys_.]

    [Sidenote: The father of the maiden desires to know who formed
    her figure and wrought her garments. Her beauty, he says,
    is not natural. Her colour passes the fleur-de-lis.]
    “O maskeleȝ perle i{n} perleȝ pure
  Þat bereȝ,” q{uod} I, “þe perle of prys,
  Quo formed þe þy fayre fygure?
  Þat wroȝt þy wede, he watȝ ful wys;                                748
  Þy beaute com neu{er} of nature,
  Pymalyon paynted neu{er} þy vys,
  Ne arystotel nawþ{er} by hys lettrure
  Of carpe þe kynde þese p{ro}perteȝ.                                752
  Þy colo{ur} passeȝ þe flo{ur}-de-lys,
  Þyn angel hauy{n}g so clene corteȝ
  Breue me bryȝt, quat-kyn of p{r}iys[32]
  Bereȝ þe perle so maskelleȝ.”                                      756

    [Sidenote 32: The MS. has _triys_.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 49b.]]
    [Sidenote: The maiden explains to her father that she is a bride
    of Christ. She is without spot or blemish. Her weeds are washed
    in the blood of Christ.]
    “My makeleȝ lambe þat al may bete,”
  Q{uod} scho, “my dere destyné
  Me ches to hys make al-þaȝ vnmete,
  Su{m} tyme semed þ{a}t assemblé                                    760
  When I wente fro yor worlde wete.
  He calde me to hys bon{er}té,
  ‘Cu{m} hyder to me my le{m}man swete,
  For mote ne spot is non i{n} þe:’                                  764
  He gef me myȝt & als bewté.
  I{n} hys blod he wesch my wede on dese,
  & coronde clene i{n} v{er}gynté,
  & pyȝt me i{n} perleȝ maskelleȝ.”                                  768

    [Sidenote: The father asks the nature of the Lamb that has
    chosen his daughter, and why she is selected as a bride.]
    “Why maskelleȝ bryd þat bryȝt con flambe
  Þat reiateȝ hatȝ so ryche & ryf,
  Quat-kyn þy{n}g may be þat lambe,
  Þat þe wolde wedde vnto hys vyf?                                   772
  Ou{er} alle oþ{er} so hyȝ þ{o}u clambe,
  To lede w{i}t{h} hy{m} so ladyly lyf
  So mony a cumly on v{n}der cambe,
  For kryst han lyued i{n} much stryf,                               776
  & þ{o}u con alle þo dere out-dryf,
  & fro þat maryag al oþ{er} depres,
  Al only þyself so stout & styf,
  A makeleȝ may & maskelleȝ.”                                        780


[Headnote: THE LAMB AND HIS BRIDES.]

XIV.

    [Sidenote: The Lamb has one hundred and forty thousand brides.
    St. John saw them on the hill of Sion in a dream, in the new
    city of Jerusalem.]
    “Maskelles,” q{uod} þat myry quene,
  “Vnblemyst I am wyth-outen blot,
  & þat may I w{i}t{h} mensk me{n}teene;
  Bot makeleȝ quene þe{n}ne sade I not,                              784
  Þe lambes vyueȝ i{n} blysse we bene,
  A hondred & forty þowsande flot
  As i{n} þe apocalyppeȝ hit is sene;
  Sant Ioh{a}n hem syȝ al i{n} a knot,                               788
  On þe hyl of syon þat semly clot.
  Þe apostel hem segh i{n} gostly drem
  Arayed to þe weddy{n}g i{n} þ{a}t hyl coppe,
  Þe nwe cyte u I{e}r{usa}l{e}m.                                     792

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 50a.]]
    [Sidenote: Isaiah speaks of Christ or the Lamb. He says that
    He was led as a lamb to the slaughter.]
    Of I{e}r{usa}l{e}m I in speche spelle.
  If þ{o}u wyl knaw what-kyn he be,
  My lombe, my lorde, my dere Iuelle,
  My ioy, my blys, my le{m}man fre,                                  796
  Þe p{ro}fete ysaye of hy{m} con melle,
  Pitously of hys debonerté
  Þat gloryo{us} gyltleȝ[33] þ{a}t mon con quelle,
  W{i}t{h}-outen any sake of felonye,                                800
  As a schep to þe slaȝt þ{er} lad watȝ he
  & as lombe þat clypper i{n} lande nem,[34]
  So closed he hys mouth fro vch query,
  Quen Iueȝ hy{m} iugged i{n} Ih{erusal}em.                          804

    [Sidenote 33: MS. reads _gystleȝ_.]
    [Sidenote 34: MS. _men_.]

    [Sidenote: In Jerusalem was Christ slain. With buffets
    was His face flayed. He endured all patiently as a lamb.
    For us He died in Jerusalem.]
    In I{e}r{usa}l{e}m watȝ my le{m}man slayn
  & rent on rode w{i}t{h} boyeȝ bolde;
  Al oure baleȝ to bere ful bayn,
  He toke on hy{m} self oure careȝ colde,                            808
  W{i}t{h} boffeteȝ watȝ hys face flayn,
  Þat watȝ so fayr on to byholde;
  For sy{n}ne he set hy{m} self i{n} vayn,
  Þat neu{er} hade non hym self to wolde,                            812
  For v{us} he lette hy{m} flyȝe & folde
  & brede vpon a bostwys bem,
  As meke as lomb[35] þat no playnt tolde.
  For v{us} he swalt i{n} I{e}r{usa}l{e}m:                           816

    [Sidenote 35: The MS. reads _lomp_.]

[Headnote: THE LAMB WAS SLAIN IN JERUSALEM.]

    [Sidenote: The declaration of St. John, “Behold the Lamb
    of God,” etc. Who can reckon His generation, that died
    in Jerusalem?]
    I{e}r{usa}l{e}m, Iordan & galalye,
  Þer as baptysed þe goude say{n}t Ion,
  His wordeȝ acorded to ysaye;
  When Ih{esu}c con to hy{m} warde gon                               820
  He sayde of hy{m} þys p{ro}fessye,
  “Lo godeȝ lombe as trwe as ston,
  Þat dotȝ away þe sy{n}neȝ dryȝe!”
  Þat alle þys worlde hatȝ wroȝt vpon,                               824
  Hy{m} self ne wroȝt neu{er} ȝet non,
  Wheþ{er} on hym self he con al clem,
  Hys generacyou{n} quo recen con,
  Þat dyȝed for v{us} i{n} I{e}r{usa}l{e}m?                          828

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 50b.]]
    [Sidenote: In the New Jerusalem St. John saw the Lamb sitting
    upon the throne.]
    In I{e}r{usa}l{e}m þ{us} my le{m}man swatte,
  Twyeȝ, for lombe watȝ taken þere,
  By trw recorde of ayþ{er} p{ro}phete,
  For mode so meke & al hys fare,                                    832
  Þe þryde tyme is þ{er}-to ful mete
  In apokalypeȝ wryten ful ȝare.
  In mydeȝ þe trone þere saynteȝ sete,
  Þe apostel ioh{a}n hy{m} saytȝ as bare,                            836
  Lesande þe boke with leueȝ sware,
  Þere seuen sy{n}gnetteȝ wern sette i{n}-seme
  & at þ{a}t syȝt vche douth con dare,
  In helle, i{n} erþe & I{e}r{usa}l{e}m.                             840


XV.

    [Sidenote: The Lamb is without blemish. Every spotless soul
    is a worthy bride for the Lamb. No strife or envy among
    the brides.]
    Thys I{e}r{usa}l{e}m lombe hade neu{er} pechche
  Of oþ{er} huee bot quyt Iolyf
  Þat mot ne masklle moȝt on streche
  For wolle quyte so ronk & ryf,                                     844
  For-þy vche saule þat hade neu{er} teche,[36]
  Is to þat lombe a worthyly wyf;
  And þaȝ vch day a store he feche,
  Among v{us} co{m}meȝ non oþ{er} strot ne stryf,                    848
  Bot vchon enle[37] we wolde were fyf,
  Þe mo þe myryer so god me blesse.
  I{n} compayny gret our luf con þryf
  In hono{ur} more & neu{er} þe lesse.                               852

    [Sidenote 36: MS. _tethe_.]
    [Sidenote 37: _vch onlepi_ (?).]

    [Sidenote: None can have less bliss than another.
    Our death leads us to bliss.]
    Lasse of blysse may non v{us} bry{n}g
  Þat beren þys perle vpon oure bereste,
  For þay of mote couþe neu{er} my{n}ge,
  Of spotleȝ perleȝ þa[y] beren þe creste,                           856
  Al-þaȝ oure corses i{n} clotteȝ cly{n}ge,
  & ȝe remen for rauþe wyth-outen reste,
  We þurȝ-outly hauen cnawy{n}g;
  Of [o]n dethe ful oure hope is drest,                              860
  Þe lonbe v{us} gladeȝ, oure care is kest;
  He myrþeȝ v{us} alle at vch a mes,
  Vchoneȝ blysse is breme & beste,
  & neu{er} oneȝ hono{ur} ȝet neu{er} þe les.                        864

[Headnote: THE VISION OF SAINT JOHN.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 51a.]]
    [Sidenote: What St. John saw upon the Mount of Sion.
    About the Lamb he saw one hundred and forty thousand maidens.
    He heard a voice from heaven, like many floods.]
    Lest les þ{o}u leue my tale[38] farande,
  I{n} appocalyppece is wryten i{n} wro
  I segh{e}, says Ioh{a}n, þe lou{m}be hy{m} stande,
  On þe mou{n}t of syon ful þryuen & þro,                            868
  & wyth hym mayde{n}neȝ an hu{n}dreþe þowsande
  & fowre & forty þowsande mo
  On alle her forhedeȝ wryten I fande,
  Þe lombeȝ nome, hys fadereȝ also.                                  872
  A hue fro heuen I herde þoo,
  Lyk flodeȝ fele laden, ru{n}ne{n} on resse,
  & as þu{n}der þroweȝ i{n} torreȝ blo,
  Þat lote I leue watȝ neu{er} þe les.                               876

    [Sidenote 38: MS. _talle_, but _tale_ in the catchwords.]

    [Sidenote: He heard the maiden sing a new song. So did
    the four beasts and the elders “so sad of cheer.”]
    Nauþeles þaȝ hit schowted scharpe,
  & ledden loude al-þaȝ hit were.
  A note ful nwe I herde hem warpe,
  To lysten þat watȝ ful lufly dere,                                 880
  As harporeȝ harpen in her harpe,
  Þat nwe songe þay so{n}gen ful cler.
  In sou{n}ande noteȝ a gentyl carpe,
  Ful fayre þe modeȝ þay fonge i{n} fere                             884
  Ryȝt byfore godeȝ chayere,
  & þe fowre besteȝ þat hy{m} obes,
  & þe alder-men so sadde of chere,
  Her songe þay songen neu{er} þe les;                               888

    [Sidenote: This assembly was like the Lamb, spotless and pure.]
    Nowþe-lese non watȝ neu{er} so quoy{n}t,
  For alle þe crafteȝ þat eu{er} þay knewe.
  Þat of þat songe myȝt sy{n}ge a poy{n}t,
  Bot þat meyny þe lombe þay swe,                                    892
  For þay arn boȝt fro þe vrþe aloynte.
  As newe fryt to god ful due
  & to þe gentyl lombe hit arn amoy{n}t,
  As lyk to hym self of lote & hwe,                                  896
  For neu{er} lesy{n}g ne tale vn-trwe,
  Ne towched her tonge for no dysstresse.
  Þat moteles meyny may neu{er} remwe,
  Fro þat maskeleȝ mayster neu{er} þe les.”                          900

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 51b.]]
    [Sidenote: The father replies to the maiden. He says he is
    but dust and ashes. He wishes to ask one question,]
    “Neuer þe les let be my þonc,”
  Q{uod} I, “my perle þaȝ I appose,
  I schulde not tempte þy wyt so wlonc,
  To krysteȝ chambre þat art Ichose,                                 904
  I am bot mokke & mul amo{n}g,
  & þ{o}u so ryche a reken rose,
  & bydeȝ here by þys blysful bonc
  Þer lyueȝ lyste may neu{er} lose,                                  908
  Now hynde þat sympelnesse co{n}eȝ enclose,
  I wolde þe aske a þy{n}ge expresse,
  & þaȝ I be bustwys as a blose
  Let my bone vayl neu{er} þe lese.                                  912


[Headnote: THE ABODE OF CHRIST’S BRIDES.]

XVI.

    [Sidenote: whether the brides have their abode in castle-walls
    or in manor. Jerusalem, he says, in Judea. But the dwelling
    of the brides should be perfect.]
    Neuer þe lese cler I yow by-calle
  If ȝe con se hyt be to done,
  As þ{o}u art gloryo{u}s w{i}t{h}-outen galle,
  W{i}t{h}-nay þ{o}u neu{er} my ruful bone.                          916
  Haf ȝe no woneȝ i{n} castel walle,
  Ne man{er} þer ȝe may mete & won?
  Þ{o}u telleȝ me of I{e}r{usa}l{e}m þe ryche ryalle,
  Þer dauid dere watȝ dyȝt on trone,                                 920
  Bot by þyse holteȝ hit con not hone
  Bot in Iudee hit is þ{a}t noble note;
  As ȝe ar maskeleȝ vnder mone,
  Yo{ur} woneȝ schulde by wyth-outen mote.                           924

    [Sidenote: For such “a comely pack” a great castle would be
    required.]
    Þys moteleȝ meyny þ{o}u coneȝ of mele,
  Of þousandeȝ þryȝt so gret a route,
  A gret cete, for ȝe arn fele,
  Yow by-hod haue w{i}t{h}-outen doute;                              928
  So cu{m}ly a pakke of Ioly Iuele,
  Wer euel don schulde lyȝ þ{er}-oute;
  & by þyse bonkeȝ þer I con gele
  & I se no bygy{n}g nawhere aboute,                                 932
  I trowe al-one ȝe lenge & loute,
  To loke on þe glory of þys g{ra}c[i]o{us} gote;
  If þ{o}u hatȝ oþer lygy{n}geȝ stoute,
  Now tech me to þat myry mote.                                      936

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 52a.]]
    [Sidenote: The city in Judæa, answers the maiden, is where
    Christ suffered, and is the Old Jerusalem. The New Jerusalem is
    where the Lamb has assembled his brides.]
    “That mote þ{o}u meneȝ in Iudy londe,”
  Þat specyal spyce þen to me spakk,
  “Þat is þe cyte þat þe lombe con fonde
  To soffer i{n}ne sor for maneȝ sake,                               940
  Þe olde I{e}r{usa}l{e}m to vnder-stonde,
  For þere þe olde gulte watȝ don to slake,
  Bot þe nwe þat lyȝt of godeȝ sonde,
  Þe apostel in apocalyppce i{n} theme con take.                     944
  Þe lombe[39] þ{er}, w{i}t{h}-outen spotteȝ blake,
  Hatȝ feryed þyder hys fayre flote,
  & as hys flok is w{i}t{h}-outen flake,
  So is hys mote w{i}t{h}-outen moote.                               948

    [Sidenote 39: The MS. reads _lompe_.]

[Headnote: THE OLD AND NEW JERUSALEM.]

    [Sidenote: Jerusalem means the city of God. In the Old city
    our peace was made at one. In the New city is eternal peace.]
    Of motes two to carpe clene
  & I{e}r{usa}l{e}m hyȝt boþe nawþeles,
  Þat nys to yow no more to mene,
  Bot cete of god oþ{er} syȝt of pes.                                952
  I{n} þat on oure pes watȝ mad at ene,
  W{i}t{h} payne to suffer þe lombe hit chese,
  In þat oþ{er} is noȝt bot pes to glene,
  Þat ay schal laste w{i}t{h}-outen reles,                           956
  Þat is þe borȝ þat we to pres,
  Fro þ{a}t oure flesch[40] be layd to rote;
  Þer glory & blysse schal eu{er} encres,
  To þe meyny þ{a}t is w{i}t{h}-outen mote.                          960

    [Sidenote 40: MS. _fresth_.]


XVII.

    [Sidenote: The father prays his daughter to bring him to the
    blissful bower. His daughter tells him that he shall see
    the outside, but not a foot may he put in the city.]
    “Moteleȝ may so meke & mylde,”
  Þen sayde I to þat lufly flor,
  “Bry{n}g me to þat bygly bylde,
  & let me se þy blysful bor.”                                       964
  Þat schene sayde, þat god wyl schylde,
  “Þ{o}u may not enter w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne hys tor,
  Bot of þe lombe I haue þe aquylde
  For a syȝt þer-of þurȝ gret fauor.                                 968
  Vt-wyth to se þat clene cloystor,
  Þ{o}u may, bot i{n}wyth not a fote,
  To strech in þe strete þ{o}u hatȝ no vygo{ur},
  Bot þ{o}u wer clene w{i}t{h}-outen mote.                           972


[Headnote: A DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM.]

XVIII.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 52b.]]
    [Sidenote: The maiden then tells her father to go along the bank
    till he comes to a hill. He reaches the hill, and beholds the
    heavenly city.]
    If I þis mote þe schal vn-hyde,
  Bow vp to-warde þys borneȝ heued,
  & I an-endeȝ þe on þis syde
  Schal sve, tyl þ{o}u to a hil be veued,                            976
  Þe{n} wolde [I] no lenger byde,
  Bot lurked by lau{n}ceȝ so lufly leued,
  Tyl on a hyl þat I asspyed
  & blusched on þe burgh{e}, as I forth dreued,                      980
  By-ȝonde þe brok fro me warde keued,
  Þat schyrrer þen su{n}ne w{i}t{h} schafteȝ schon;
  I{n} þe apokalypce is þe fasou{n} preued,
  As deuyseȝ hit þe apostel Ihoñ.                                    984

    [Sidenote: As St. John saw it, so he beheld it. The city was
    of burnished gold. Pitched upon gems, the foundation composed
    of twelve stones.]
    As Ioh{a}n þe apostel hit syȝ w{i}t{h} syȝt
  I syȝe þat cyty of gret renou{n},
  I{e}r{usa}l{e}m so nwe & ryally dyȝt,
  As hit watȝ lyȝt fro þe heuen adou{n}.                             988
  Þe borȝ watȝ al of brende golde bryȝt,
  As glemande glas burnist brou{n},
  W{i}t{h} gentyl ge{m}meȝ an-vnder pyȝt;
  W{i}t{h} banteleȝ twelue on basy{n}g boun,                         992
  Þe fou{n}dementeȝ twelue of riche tenou{n};
  Vch tabelment watȝ a serlypeȝ ston,
  As derely deuyseȝ þis ilk tou{n},
  I{n} apocalyppeȝ þe apostel Ioh{a}n.                               996

    [Sidenote: The names of the precious stones.]
    [Sidenote: i. Jasper. ii. Sapphire. iii. Chalcedony.
    iv. Emerald. v. Sardonyx. vi. Ruby.]
    As þise stoneȝ i{n} writ con ne{m}me
  I knew þe name aft{er} his tale;
  Iasper hyȝt þe fyrst ge{m}me,
  Þat I on þe fyrst basse con wale,                                 1000
  He glente grene i{n} þe lowest he{m}me.
  Saffer helde þe secou{n}de stale,
  Þe calsydoyne þe{n}ne w{i}t{h}-outen we{m}me,
  I{n} þe þryd table con purly pale;                                1004
  Þe emerade þe furþe so grene of scale;
  Þe sardonyse þe fyfþe ston;
  Þe sexte þe rybe he con hit wale,
  I{n} þe apocalyppce þe apostel Ioh{a}n.                           1008

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 53a.]]
    [Sidenote: vii. Chrysolite. viii. Beryl. ix. Topaz.
    x. Chrysoprasus. xi. Jacinth. xii. Amethyst.]
    Ȝet Ioyned Ioh{a}n þe crysolyt,
  Þe seuenþe ge{m}me i{n} fundament;
  Þe aȝtþe þe beryl cler & quyt
  Þe topasye twy{n}ne how þe ne{n}te endent;                        1012
  Þe crysopase þe tenþe is tyȝt;
  Þe Iacy{n}gh[41] þe enleuenþe gent;
  Þe twelfþe þe gentyleste i{n} veh a plyt,
  Þe amatyst purpre w{i}t{h} ynde blente;                           1016
  Þe wal abof þe bantels bent,
  Masporye as glas þat glysnande schon,
  I knew hit by his deuysement,
  I{n} þe apocalyppeȝ þe apostel I{o}h{a}n.                         1020

    [Sidenote 41: _Iacynth_ (?).]

    [Sidenote: The city was square. The wall was of jasper.
    Twelve thousand furlongs in length and breadth.]
    As Ioh{a}n deuysed ȝet saȝ I þare.
  Þise twelue de-gres wern brode & stayre,
  Þe cyte stod abof ful sware,
  As longe as brode as hyȝe ful fayre;                              1024
  Þe streteȝ of golde as glasse al bare,
  Þe wal of Iasper þat glent as glayre;
  Þe woneȝ w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne enurned ware
  Wyth alle ky{n}neȝ perre þat moȝt repayre,                        1028
  Þe{n}ne helde vch sware of þis manayre,
  Twelue forlonge space er eu{er} hit fon,
  Of heȝt, of brede, of lenþe to cayre,
  For meten hit syȝ þe apostel Ioh{a}n.                             1032


[Headnote: NO SUN NOR MOON IN HEAVEN.]

XIX.

    [Sidenote: Each “pane” had three gates. Each gate adorned with
    a pearl. Such light gleamed in all the streets, that there
    was no need of the sun or moon.]
    As Ioh{a}n hy{m} wryteȝ ȝet more I syȝe
  Vch pane of þat place had þre ȝateȝ,
  So twelue i{n} po{ur}sent I con asspye
  Þe portaleȝ pyked of rych plateȝ                                  1036
  & vch ȝate of a margyrye,
  A parfyt perle þat neu{er} fateȝ;
  Vchon i{n} scrypture a name con plye,
  Of isr{ae}l barneȝ folewande her dateȝ,                           1040
  Þat is to say as her byrþ whateȝ;
  Þe aldest ay fyrst þ{er}-on watȝ done.
  Such lyȝt þer lemed i{n} alle þe strateȝ
  Hem nedde nawþ{er} su{n}ne ne mone.                               1044

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 53b.]]
    [Sidenote: God was the light of those in the city.
    The high throne might be seen, upon which the “high God” sat.
    A river ran out of the throne;]
    Of su{n}ne ne mone had þay no nede
  Þe self god watȝ her lompe[42] lyȝt,
  Þe lombe her lantyrne w{i}t{h}-outen drede,
  Þurȝ hy{m} blysned þe borȝ al bryȝt.                              1048
  Þurȝ woȝe & won my loky{n}g ȝede,
  For sotyle cler moȝt[43] lette no lyȝt;
  Þe hyȝe trone þer moȝt ȝe hede
  W{i}t{h} alle þe apparaylmente vmbe-pyȝte,                        1052
  As Ioh{a}n þe appostel in termeȝ tyȝte;
  Þe hyȝe godeȝ self hit set vpone.
  A reu{er} of þe trone þer ran out-ryȝte
  Watȝ bryȝter þen boþe þe su{n}ne & mone.                          1056

    [Sidenote 42: MS. _lombe_.]
    [Sidenote 43: MS. _noȝt_.]

[Headnote: NO CHURCH IN HEAVEN.]

    [Sidenote: it flowed through each street. No church was seen.
    God was the church; Christ the sacrifice. The gates were
    ever open.]
    Su{n}ne ne mone schon neu{er} so swete;
  A! þat foysou{n} flode out of þat flet,
  Swyþe hit swange þurȝ vch a strete,
  W{i}t{h}-outen fylþe oþ{er} galle oþ{er} glet.                    1060
  Kyrk þer-i{n}ne watȝ non ȝete,
  Chapel ne temple þat eu{er} watȝ set,
  Þe al-myȝty watȝ her mynyster mete,
  Þe lombe þe saker-fyse þer to reget;                              1064
  Þe ȝates stoken watȝ neu{er} ȝet,
  Bot eu{er} more vpen at vche a lone;
  Þer entreȝ non to take reset,
  Þat bereȝ any spot an-vnder[44] mone.                             1068

    [Sidenote: There is no night in the city. The planets,
    and the sun itself, are dim compared to the divine light.
    Trees there renew their fruit every month.]
    The mone may þer-of acroche no myȝte
  To spotty, ho is of body to grym,
  & al-so þ{er} ne is neu{er} nyȝt.
  What schulde þe mone þer compas clym                              1072
  & to euen wyth þat worþly lyȝt[45],
  Þat schyneȝ vpon þe brokeȝ brym?
  Þe planeteȝ arn i{n} to pou{er} a plyȝt,
  & þe self su{n}ne ful fer to dym.                                 1076
  Aboute þat wat{er} arn tres ful schym,
  Þat twelue fryteȝ of lyf con bere ful sone;
  Twelue syþeȝ on ȝer þay beren ful frym
  & re-nowleȝ nwe i{n} vche a mone.                                 1080

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 54a.]]
    [Sidenote: The beholder of this fair city stood still as a
    “dased quail.”]
    An-vnder mone so gret m{er}wayle
  No fleschly hert ne myȝt endeure,
  As quen I blusched vpon þat baly,
  So ferly þ{er}-of watȝ þe falure.                                 1084
  I stod as stylle as dased quayle,
  For ferly of þat french[46] fygure,
  Þat felde I nawþ{er} reste ne t{ra}uayle,
  So watȝ I rauyste wyth gly{m}me pure;                             1088
  For I dar say, w{i}t{h} conciens sure,
  Hade bodyly burne abiden þat bone,
  Þaȝ alle clerkeȝ hy{m} hade i{n} cure,
  His lyf wer loste an-vnder mone.                                  1092

    [Sidenote 44: MS. _an-vndeȝ_.]
    [Sidenote 45: Or _syȝt_.]
    [Sidenote 46: _fresch_ (?).]


[Headnote: A PROCESSION OF VIRGINS.]

XX.

    [Sidenote: As the moon began to rise he was aware of a
    procession of virgins crowned with pearls, in white robes,
    with a pearl in their breast.]
    Ryȝt as þe maynful mone con rys,
  Er þe{n}ne þe day-glem dryue al dou{n},
  So sodanly on a wonder wyse,
  I watȝ war of a prosessyou{n},                                    1096
  Þis noble cite of ryche enpresse
  Watȝ sodanly ful w{i}t{h}-outen so{m}mou{n}
  Of such v{er}gyneȝ i{n} þe same gyse
  Þat watȝ my blysful an-vnder crou{n},                             1100
  & coronde wern alle of þe same fasou{n}
  Depaynt i{n} perleȝ & wedeȝ qwyte,
  I{n} vchoneȝ breste watȝ bou{n}den bou{n},
  Þe blysful perle w{i}t{h} gret[47] delyt.                         1104

    [Sidenote 47: MS. _with outen_.]

    [Sidenote: As they went along they shone as glass.
    The Lamb went before them. There was no pressing.]
    W{i}t{h} gret delyt þay glod i{n} fere,
  On golden gateȝ þat glent as glasse;
  Hu{n}dreth þowsandeȝ I wot þer were,
  & alle in sute her liureȝ wasse,                                  1108
  Tor to knaw þe gladdest chere.
  Þe lombe byfore con proudly passe,
  Wyth horneȝ seuen of red golde[48] cler,
  As praysed perleȝ his wedeȝ wasse;                                1112
  Towarde þe throne þay trone a tras.
  Þaȝ þay wern fele no pres i{n} plyt,
  Bot mylde as maydeneȝ seme at mas,
  So droȝ þay forth w{i}t{h} gret delyt.                            1116

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 54b.]]
    [Sidenote: The “alder men” fell groveling at the feet of the
    Lamb. All sang in praise of the Lamb.]
    Delyt þ{a}t hys come encroched,
  To much hit were of for to melle;
  Þise alder men quen he aproched,
  Grouely{n}g to his fete þay felle;                                1120
  Legyou{n}es of au{n}geleȝ togeder uoched,
  Þer kesten ensens of swete smelle,
  Þen glory & gle watȝ nwe abroched.
  Al songe to loue þat gay Iuelle,                                  1124
  Þe steuen moȝt stryke þurȝ þe vrþe to helle,
  Þat þe v{er}tues of heuen of Ioye endyte,
  To loue þe lombe his meyny in melle,
  I-wysse I laȝt a gret delyt;                                      1128

    [Sidenote 48: MS. _glode_.]

    [Sidenote: The Lamb wore white weeds. A wide wound was seen
    near his breast.]
    Delit þe lo{m}be forto deuise,
  W{i}t{h} much meruayle in mynde went.
  Best watȝ he, blyþest & moste to pryse,
  Þat eu{er} I herde of speche spent,                               1132
  So worþly whyt wern wedeȝ hys;
  His lokeȝ symple, hy{m} self so gent,
  Bot a wou{n}de ful wyde & weete con wyse
  An-ende hys hert þurȝ hyde to-rente;                              1136
  Of his quyte syde his blod out-sprent,
  A-las! þoȝt I, who did þat spyt?
  Ani breste for bale aȝt haf for-brent,
  Er he þer-to hade had delyt,                                      1140

    [Sidenote: Joy was in his looks. The father perceives
    his little queen.]
    The lombe delyt non lyste to wene,
  Þaȝ he were hurt & wou{n}de hade,
  I{n} his sembelau{n}t watȝ neu{er} sene,
  So wern his glenteȝ gloryo{us} glade.                             1144
  I loked amo{n}g his meyny schene,
  How þay wyth lyf wern laste & lade,
  Þe{n} saȝ I þer my lyttel quene,
  Þat I wende had standen by me i{n} sclade;                        1148
  Lorde! much of mirþe watȝ þat ho made,
  Amo{n}g her fereȝ þat watȝ so quyt!
  Þat syȝt me gart to þenk to wade,
  For luf longy{n}g i{n} gret delyt.                                1152


[Headnote: HE WISHES TO CROSS THE STREAM.]

XXI.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 55a.]]
    [Sidenote: Great delight takes possession of his mind.
    He attempts to cross the stream. It was not pleasing to the Lord.]
    Delyt me drof i{n} yȝe & ere,
  My maneȝ mynde to maddy{n}g malte;
  Quen I seȝ my frely I wolde be þere,
  Byȝonde þe water, þaȝ ho were walte,                              1156
  I þoȝt þat no þy{n}g myȝt me dere
  To fech me bur & take me halte;
  & to start in þe strem schulde non me stere,
  To swy{m}me þe remnau{n}t, þaȝ I þer swalte,                      1160
  Bot of þat mu{n}t I watȝ bi-talt;
  When I schulde start i{n} þe strem astraye,
  Out of þat caste I watȝ by-calt;
  Hit watȝ not at my prynceȝ paye,                                  1164

[Headnote: THE FATHER OF THE MAIDEN AWAKES.]

    [Sidenote: The dreamer awakes, and is in great sorrow.]
    Hit payed hym not þat I so flonc,
  Ou{er} meruelo{us} mereȝ so mad arayde,
  Of raas þaȝ I were rasch & ronk,
  Ȝet rapely þer-i{n}ne I watȝ restayed;                            1168
  For ryȝt as I sparred vn-to þe bonc,
  Þat brathe out of my drem me brayde;
  Þen wakned I i{n} þat erber wlonk,
  My hede vpon þat hylle watȝ layde,                                1172
  Þer as my perle to grou{n}de strayd;
  I raxled & fel i{n} gret affray,
  & syky{n}g to my self I sayd:
  “Now al be to þat prynceȝ paye.”                                  1176

    [Sidenote: He addresses his pearl; laments his rash curiosity.]
    Me payed ful ille to be out-fleme,
  So sodenly of þat fayre regiou{n},
  Fro alle þo syȝteȝ so quykeȝ & queme.
  A longey{n}g heuy me strok i{n} swone,                            1180
  & rewfully þe{n}ne I con to reme;
  “O perle,” q{uod} I, “of rych renou{n},
  So watȝ hit me dere þ{a}t þ{o}u con deme,
  I{n} þys v{er}ay avysyou{n};                                      1184
  If[49] hit be ueray & soth sermou{n},
  Þat þ{o}u so stykeȝ i{n} garlande gay,
  So wel is me i{n} þys doel dou{n}gou{n},
  Þat þ{o}u art to þat prynseȝ paye.”                               1188

    [Sidenote 49: MS. _inf_.]

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 55b.]]
    [Sidenote: Men desire more than they have any right to expect.]
    To þat prynceȝ paye hade I ay bente,
  & ȝerned no more þen watȝ me geuen,
  & halden me þer in trwe entent,
  As þe perle me prayed þat watȝ so þryuen,                         1192
  As helde drawen to goddeȝ p{re}sent,
  To mo of his mysterys I hade ben dryuen.
  Bot ay wolde man of happe more hente
  Þen moȝten by ryȝt vpon hem clyuen;                               1196
  Þer-fore my ioye watȝ sone to-riuen,
  & I kaste of kytheȝ þat lasteȝ aye.
  Lorde! mad hit arn þat agayn þe stryuen,
  Oþ{er} proferen þe oȝt agayn þy paye;                             1200

[Headnote: GOD GIVE US GRACE TO SERVE HIM.]

    [Sidenote: The good Christian knows how to make peace
    with God. God give us grace to be his servants!]
    To pay þe p{r}ince oþ{er} sete saȝte,
  Hit is ful eþe to þe god krystyin;
  For I haf fou{n}den hym boþe day & naȝte,
  A god, a lorde, a frende ful fyin.                                1204
  Ou{er} þis hyl[50] þis lote I laȝte,
  For pyty of my perle enclyin,
  & syþen to god I hit by-taȝte,
  In krysteȝ dere blessy{n}g & myn,                                 1208
  Þat in þe forme of bred & wyn,
  Þe preste v{us} scheweȝ vch a daye;
  He gef v{us} to be his homly hyne,
  Ande precio{us} perleȝ vnto his pay. Amen. Amen.                  1212

    [Sidenote 50: MS. _hyiıl_.]



NOTES: _The Pearl_.


Page 1.

  l. 2, _to_, very.
  8 _sengeley in synglure_, ever in singleness (uniqueness).
    Now is Susan in sale _sengeliche_ arayed.
      Pistel of Susan, Vernon MS., fol. 317.
  11 _dewyne_, pine; _for-dolked_, for-wounded (severely hurt).
  16 _heuen my happe_, increase my happiness.
  17 _þrych my hert þrange_, through my heart pierce.
  20 _stylle stounde_, a secret sorrow.
  23
    _O moul þou marreȝ a myry mele_,
    O mould (earth) thou spoilest a merry discourse.

P. 2.

  l. 27
    _Blomeȝ blayke & blwe & rede_,
    Flowers yellow, blue, and red.
  49 _spenned_, wrung.
  51, 52
    A secret grief in my heart dinned (resounded),
    Though reason set myself at peace.
  53 _spenned_, allured, enticed away.
  54
    _Wyth fyrte skylleȝ þat faste faȝt_,
    With trembling doubts that fast fought (struggled).

P. 3.

  l. 76 bolleȝ = _boleȝ_, trunks of trees.
  78 _on vch a tynde_, on each branch.
  92 _reken myrþe_, pleasant, joyous mirth.

P. 4.

  l. 99 _Þe derþe þer-of_, the value (preciousness) thereof.
  101 _in wely wyse_, in joyful mood.
  102 _dereȝ_, injuries, harms.
  103 _fyrre_, farther.
  105 _raweȝ & randeȝ_, borders and paths.
  107 _I wan to_, I reached. _Winne_ in O.E. was used much in the same
      way as we now employ the word _get_.
  112
    _Wyth a rownande rourde raykande aryȝt_,
    With a murmuring (whispering) sound flowing aright.
  113 _founce_, bottom; _stepe_, bright.
  114 _glente_, shone; _glyȝt_, glistened.
  115 _A[s] stremande sterneȝ_, as glittering stars; _stroþe_, stout,
      brave.
  119 _loȝe_, deep.
  125 _dryȝly haleȝ_, strongly (_or_ deeply) flows.
  126 _bred ful_ = _bred-ful_ = _bretful_ (?), full to the brim.

P. 5.

  l. 131 _wayneȝ_, grants.
  132 _hitteȝ_, seeks.
  138 _gayn_, opposite.
  142
    _I hopede þat mote merked wore_,
    I supposed that building was devised.
  149 _stote & stare_, stand (loiter) and gape.
  150-1
    _To fynde a forþe, faste con I fonde,
    Bot woþeȝ mo I-wysse þer ware,_
    To find a way fast did I go,
    But paths more indeed there were.
  153 _wonde_, cease, abstain (from fear).
  155 _nwe note_, a new matter.
  163 _blysnande whyt_, glistening white. See 197.

P. 6.

  l. 165 _schere_, purify, refine.
  169
    _Þe more I frayste hyr fayre face._
    The more I examined her fair face.
  _frayst_ (_fraist_) usually signifies to try, tempt.
  170 _fonte_, tried, examined, _found_.
  176
    _Such a burre myȝt make myn herte blunt_,
    Such a blow might make mine heart faint.
  179
    _Þat stonge myn hert ful stray atount_,
  Should we not read--Þat stonge myn hert ful stray a stount (?),
      “full stray a stount” = a blow full stray.
  187 _chos_, was following, was seeking.
  188
    _Er I at steuen hir moȝt stalle_,
    Before I could place her within reach of discourse.
  190 _seme_ = _semely_, seemly.

P. 7.

  l. 208 _flurted_, figured. Cf. _flurt_-silk, figured-silk.
  210
    _Her here heke al hyr vmbe-gon_,
    Her hair eke (also) all her about gone.
  212 _Her ble more blaȝt_, her complexion whiter.
  213 _schorne golde schyr_, refined gold pure.
  216 _porfyl_, hem of a dress, or rather an embroidered hem.
  217 _poyned_, ornamented, trimmed.
  223-4 _A manneȝ dom myȝt dryȝly demme,_
    _Er mynde moȝt malte in hit mesure,_
    A man’s judgment might greatly dim,
    Before (his) mind could discourse of it in sufficient terms
      of praise.
  226 _No_ = _ne_ (nor) would be a better reading.
  230 _wyþer half_, opposite side.

P. 8.

  l. 243 _myn one_, myself.
  244 _layned_, kept secret, hidden.
  251 _Fro_, from the time that.
  _towen & twayned_, made two and separated.

P. 9.

  l. 272 _is put in pref_, has been proved.
  275 _bote of þy meschef_, the remedy of thy misfortune (misery).
  290 _Wy borde ȝe men so madde ȝe be?_
    Why should you talk, so foolish you are?

P. 10.

  l. 307 _westernays_, wrongly, in vain? It may be another form of
      westernways, from the A.Sax. _wéste_, barren, empty; _wéstern_,
      a desert place. Or is it connected with A.Sax. _winstre_, the
      left hand?
  320
    _Þy corse in clot mot colder keue_,
    Thy body in earth (clods) must colder plunge.
  321 _for-garte_ forfeited.
  322 _ȝore fader_ for _form-fader_, first-father.
  323 _drwry_ = _drery_, dreary (?). _boȝ_ (= _bos_ = _bus_ ?) _vch ma_
      (_man_ ?) _dreue_, behoves each man to drive (go). See B. l. 687.
  327-8
    _Now haf I fonte þat I for-lete
    Schal I efte forgo hit er euer I fyne?_
    Now I have found what I have lost.
    Shall I again forego it ere ever I die?

P. 11.

  l. 336 _durande doel_, lasting grief.
  343
    _For anger gayneȝ þe not a cresse_,
    For anger avails the not a cress, (_i.e._ not a mite).
  Cf. the following passage from “Piers Ploughman,” p. 174, l. 5629:
    “Wisdom and wit now
    Is noght worth a _kerse_.”
  353
    _Stynst (stynt?) of þy strot & fyne to flyte_,
    Leave off thy complaining and cease to chide.
  354 _blyþe_ is here used as a substantive in the sense of bliss, joy.
  _swefte_ = swift.
  356 _hyr crafteȝ kyþe_, manifest her powers.
  359-60
    _For marre oþer madde, morne & myþe,
    Al lys in him to dyȝt & deme._
    For to ruin, or make foolish, grieve or to soothe,
    All lies in him to order and doom.
  363 _If rapely raue_, etc. = _If rapely I raue_, etc. (?)
  368 Though I go astray, my dear, adored one.

P. 12.

  l. 369 _lyþeȝ_, grant.
  374
    _Bot much þe bygger ȝet watȝ my mon,
    Fro þou watȝ wroken fro vch a woþe._
    But much the greater yet was my moan (sorrow),
    From (the time) thou wast banished from every path.
  377 _now leþeȝ my loþe_, now my sorrow ceases (is softened).
  382 _marereȝ_ = _mareȝ_ (?).
  386 _mate_, dejected.
  402 _I hete þe_, I promise the.

P. 14.

  l. 446 _in hyt self beyng_, in its very being.
  455 _gyng_, company.
  460 _Temen_, are united, joined.
  _tryste_, trusty, faithful, firm.

P. 16.

  l. 511 _wryþen_, toil, literally to turn, twist.
  512 _keruen_, dig.
  _caggen_, draw.
  _man_ = _maken_, make. Cf. _ma_ = make, _ta_ = take, _tan_ = taken.
  522 _toȝt_, binding, firm.
  524 _pray_ (so in MS.), read _pay_.
  536 _at ȝe moun_, that ye are able.

P. 17.

  l. 560 _a grete_, in the gross, a head.
  563 _plete_, plead, ask for.
  572 _be_ = _he_ (?).

P. 18.

  l. 575
    _Þaȝ her sweng wyth lyttel at-slykeȝ_,
    Though their labour (blow) with little falls off (fails to
      accomplish much).
  605 _chyche_, niggard.
  608 _goteȝ_, streams; _charde_, past tense of _charre_, to turn,
      deviate.

P. 19.

  l. 617 _bourne abate_ = _burne abade_, man continued.
  626 _by lyne_, by lineage descent.

P. 20.

  l. 645
    _Bot þer on com a bote as-tyt_,
    But there came one as a remedy at once.
  659 _in sely stounde_, in a happy moment.
  671 _glente_, fell, slided.

P. 21.

  l. 680 _dylle_, slow, sluggish.
  681 _dyt_ = _dyde_, did (?), or _dotȝ_, does (?).
  690 _oure_, prayer.

P. 22.

  l. 726 _sulpande synne_, defiling, polluting, sin.
  727 _bylde_, building.
  735 _reme_, realm.

P. 23.

  l. 752 _Of carpe_, discourse of.
  754 _hauyng_, condition, behaviour.
  757 _bete_, save, ransom.
  759 _make_, wife.
  775 _vnder cambe_ = _under-cam_, came under, took an inferior
      position (?).

P. 24.

  l. 802
    _& as a lombe þat clypper in lande nem_,
    And as a lamb that a _shearer_ has taken, etc.
  813-4 For us he let himself be scourged and buffetted, and stretched
      upon a rough tree (_i.e._ nailed to the cross).

P. 25.

  l. 836 _as bare_, (?) _al bare_, openly. See 1025.
  837
    _Lesande þe boke with leueȝ sware_,
    Opening the book with leaves square.
  839
    _& at þat syȝt vche douth con dare_,
    And at that sight each doughty (one) did tremble (with fear).
  849 enle = _eneli_ = onely or _onlepi_ (?) = singly, alone.

P. 26.

  l. 865 _talle farande_ = _tale farande_, pleasing story.
  873 _hue_, cry, voice.
  876 _lote_, sound.

P. 27.

  l. 896 _lote_, features.
  909 _hynde_ = _hende_, gentle, courteous (one).
  911 _bustwys as a blose_, boisterous (wild) as a blaze (flame).
  916
    _With nay þou neuer my ruful bone_,
    Do thou never refuse my mournful request.

P. 28.

  l. 948
    _So is hys mote with-outen moote_,
    So is his building without mote (blemish).

P. 29.

  ll. 975-6 _& I an-endeȝ þe on his syde
    Schal sve, tyl þou to a hil be veued,_
    And I opposite thee on this side
    Shall go, till thou to a hill be passed.
  980-81
    _& blusched on þe burghe, as I forth dreued,
    Byȝonde þe brok fro me warde keued,_
    And looked on the city, as I forth drove (urged),
    Beyond the brook that cut me off from (the object of my desire).

P. 30.

  l. 1018 _Masporye_ = _was pure_ (?).
  1022 _brode & stayre_, broad and steep (high).
  1026 _þat glent as glayre_, that shone as amber.

P. 31.

  l. 1030 _fon_, ceased, the preterite of _fine_.
  1038 _fateȝ_ = _fadeȝ_, fades.
  1041 _whateȝ_ = _watȝ_, was.

P. 32.

  ll. 1065-66 _Þe ȝates stoken watȝ neuer ȝet,
    Bot euer more vpen at vche a lone._
    The gates shut were never yet,
    But ever more open at every lane.
  1073 _to euen with_, to equal with, to match with.
  1084 _falure_ = _fasure_, form (?).

P. 33.

  l. 1124 _to loue_, to praise.
  1127 _in melle_ = _in-melle_ = _i-melle_, among. Cf. _in-lyche_ and
      _i-lyche_, etc.

P. 34.

  l. 1141
    _Þe lombe delyt non lyste to wene_,
    The lamb’s delight none desired to doubt.
  1146 _laste and lade_, followed and preceded (?).
  1161
    _Bot of þat munt I watȝ bi-talt_,
    But from that purpose I was aroused (shaken).
  1163 _bi-calt_ = _bi-called_ (?), called away.

P. 35.

  l. 1165 _flonc_ = _flong_ (?), flung.
  1193 _helde_, willingly (inclined).



  Errata (noted by transcriber)

Minor spelling variations-- such as added or missing final “e”-- between
the main text and endnotes were left as printed.

  [61 Sidenote] ... where the rocks and cliffs ...  [Where]
  [278] & iueleȝ wern hyr ge{n}tyl saweȝ,  [saweȝ”]
  [373 Sidenote] ... his bale and bliss.  [bliss,]
  [775] So mony a cumly on v{n}der cambe,  [vu{n}der]
    [_spelling changed to agree with Note_]
  [993 Sidenote] the foundation composed of twelve stones.  [The]
  [1059 Sidenote] it flowed through each street.  [It]
  [1205] Ou{er} þis hyl[50] þis lote I laȝte,
  [Sidenote 50] MS. _hyiil_.
    [_1864 edition had “hyiil” in the body text,
    with note “_hye-hil_ or _hyul_?”]

  ORPHANED QUOTATION MARKS
  [396] Hit is i{n} grou{n}de of alle my blysse.”
  [501] “My regne, he saytȝ, is lyk on hyȝt,
  [602] Þat gentyl sayde “lys no Ioparde,
  [744] & porchace þy perle maskelles.”
  [902] Q{uod} I, “my perle þaȝ I appose,
  [939] “Þat is þe cyte þat þe lombe con fonde
  [966] “Þ{o}u may not enter w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne hys tor,

  NOTES
  78 _on vch a tynde_, on each branch.  [vcha]
  213 _schorne golde schyr_, refined gold pure.  [_, missing_]
  223-4 _A manneȝ dom myȝt dryȝly demme,  [_. for ,_]
  343 For anger avails the not a cress
      [_modern text unchanged: error for “thee”?_]
    Cf. the following passage from “Piers Ploughman,”  [Piers’]
  536  [535]
  865  [864]
  1026  [1025]


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


CLEANNESS.


  [Headnotes:
  THE PARABLE OF THE MARRIAGE FEAST.
  THOSE INVITED TO THE FEAST REFUSE TO COME.
  THE HALT AND THE BLIND ARE INVITED.
  THE MAN WITHOUT A WEDDING GARMENT.
  GOD IS DISPLEASED WITH THE WICKED.
  THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.
  THE WICKEDNESS OF THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.
  GOD DETERMINES TO DESTROY ALL FLESH.
  NOAH IS COMMANDED TO BUILD AN ARK.
  THE RAIN DESCENDS.
  ALL ROT IN THE MUD.
  THE ARK RESTS ON MOUNT ARARAT.
  NOAH SENDS FORTH A DOVE.
  NOAH LEAVES THE ARK.
  THE BEASTS ARE DISPERSED.
  GOD’S HATRED OF WICKEDNESS.
  ABRAHAM RECEIVES THREE GUESTS, AND ENTERTAINS THEM.
  GOD DISCLOSES HIS PURPOSE TO ABRAHAM.
  THE FILTHINESS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH.
  ABRAHAM PLEADS FOR THE CITIES.
  MESSENGERS ARE SENT TO LOT.
  LOT ENTERTAINS THE MESSENGERS.
  LOT’S HOUSE IS BESET.
  THE MEN OF SODOM SMITTEN WITH BLINDNESS.
  LOT IS SENT OUT OF THE CITY.
  THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CITIES.
  LOT’S WIFE BECOMES A STIFF STONE.
  THE DEAD SEA COVERS THE FIVE CITIES.
  IT IS A TOKEN OF WICKEDNESS AND VENGEANCE.
  CHRIST WAS EVER PURE.
  PENANCE MAKES MAN PURE AS A PEARL.
  GOD PUNISHES IMPURITY.
  NEBUCHADNEZZAR BESIEGES JERUSALEM.
  THE KING OF JUDAH IS MADE PRISONER.
  NEBUZARDAN PILLAGES THE TEMPLE.
  NEBUCHADNEZZAR IS PLEASED WITH THE SPOIL.
  HE PRIZES GREATLY THE SACRED JEWELRY.
  BELSHAZZAR PROCLAIMS A FEAST, TO WHICH KINGS AND EMPERORS
    ARE INVITED.
  BELSHAZZAR BRINGS OUT THE SACRED VESSELS TO DECK THE FESTIVE HALL.
  THE SACRED VESSELS ARE DEFILED.
  THE HANDWRITING ON THE WALL.
  THE KING CONSULTS HIS DIVINERS.
  DANIEL IS SENT FOR.
  DANIEL DESCRIBES HOW NEBUCHADNEZZAR WAS PUNISHED FOR HIS PRIDE.
  THE INTERPRETATION OF THE HANDWRITING.
  DARIUS LAYS SIEGE TO BABYLON.
  BELSHAZZAR IS BEATEN TO DEATH.]


I.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 57a.]]
    [Sidenote: Cleanness discloses fair forms.]
  Cla{n}nesse who-so kyndly cowþe co{m}ende,
  & rekken vp alle þe resou{n}ȝ þ{a}t ho by riȝt askeȝ,
  Fayre formeȝ myȝt he fy{n}de i{n} foreri{n}g his speche,
  & in þe co{n}traré, kark & co{m}brau{n}ce huge;                      4
    [Sidenote: God is angry with the unclean worshipper, and with
    false priests.]
  For wonder wroth is þe wyȝ þ{a}t wroȝt alle þi{n}g{es},
  Wyth þe freke þat i{n} fylþe folȝes hy{m} aft{er},
  As renkeȝ of relygiou{n} þat reden & sy{n}gen,
  & aprochen to hys presens, & presteȝ arn called;                     8
  Thay teen vnto his te{m}mple & teme{n} to hy{m} seluen,
  Reken w{i}t{h} reu{er}ence þay r[ec]hen his auter,
  Þay hondel þer his aune body & vsen hit boþe.
    [Sidenote: The pure worshipper receives great reward.]
  If þay in cla{n}nes be clos þay cleche gret mede,                   12
  Bot if þay conterfete crafte, & cortaysye wont,
    [Sidenote: The impure will bring upon them the anger of God, Who
    is pure and holy.]
  As be honest vtwyth, & i{n}-with alle fylþeȝ,
  Þen ar þay synful hemself & sulped altogeder,
  Boþe god & his gere, & hy{m} to greme cachen.                       16
  He is so clene in his co{ur}te, þe ky{n}g þ{a}t al weldeȝ,
  & honeste in his ho{us}-holde & hagherlych serued,
  With angeleȝ eno{ur}led in alle þat is clene,
    [Sidenote: It would be a marvel if God did not hate evil.]
  Boþe w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne & w{i}t{h}-outen, i{n} wedeȝ ful bryȝt.        20
  Nif he nere scoym{us} & skyg & non scaþe louied,
  Hit were a meruayl to much, hit moȝt not falle;
    [Sidenote: Christ showed us that himself.]
  Kryst kydde hit hym self i{n} a carp oneȝ,
  Þer as he heuened aȝt happeȝ & hyȝt hem her medeȝ;                  24
    [Sidenote: St. Matthew records the discourse.]
  Me myneȝ on one amo{n}ge oþ{er}, as maþew recordeȝ,
  Þat þ{us} of clannesse vn-closeȝ a ful cler speche.
    [Sidenote: The clean of heart shall look on our Lord.]
  Þe haþel clene of his hert hapeneȝ ful fayre,
  For he schal loke on oure lorde w{i}t{h} a bone chere,              28
  As so saytȝ, to þat syȝt seche schal he neu{er},
  Þat any vncla{n}nesse hatȝ on, anwhere[1] abowte:
  For he þ{a}t flem{us} vch fylþe fer fro his hert,
  May not byde þat burne[2] þat hit his body neȝen;                   32
  For-þy hyȝ not to heuen i{n} hatereȝ to-torne,
  Ne i{n} þe harloteȝ hod & handeȝ vnwaschen;
    [Sidenote: What earthly noble, when seated at table above dukes,
    would like to see a lad badly attired approach the table with
    “rent cockers,” his coat torn and his toes out?]
  For what vrþly haþel þat hyȝ hono{ur} haldeȝ
  Wolde lyke, if a ladde com lyþ{er}ly attyred,                       36
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 57b.]]
  When he were sette solempnely i{n} a sete ryche,
  Abof dukes on dece, w{i}t{h} dayntys serued,
  Þen þe harlot w{i}t{h} haste helded to þe table
  W{i}t{h} rent cokreȝ at þe kne & his clutte trasches,               40
  & his tabarde to-torne & his toteȝ oute;
    [Sidenote: For any one of these he would be turned out with a
    “big buffet,” and be forbidden to re-enter, and thus be ruined
    through his vile clothes.]
  Oþ{er} ani on of alle þyse he schulde be halden vtt{er},
  With mony blame ful bygge, a boffet, p{er}au{n}t{er},
  Hurled to þe halle dore & harde þ{er}-oute schowued,                44
  & be forboden þat borȝe to bowe þider neu{er},
  On payne of enprysonment & putty{n}g i{n} stokkeȝ;
  & þ{us} schal he be schent for his schrowde feble,
  Þaȝ neu{er} i{n} talle ne in tuch he trespas more.                  48

[Headnote: THE PARABLE OF THE MARRIAGE FEAST.]

    [Sidenote: The parable of the “Marriage of the King’s Son.”]
  & if vnwelcu{m} he were to a worþlych prynce
  Ȝet hy{m} is þe hyȝe ky{n}g harder i{n} her euen,
  As maþew meleȝ in his masse of þat man ryche,
  Þat made þe mukel mangerye to marie his here dere,                  52
  & sende his sonde þen to say þat þay samne schulde,
  & in comly quoyntis to com to his feste;
    [Sidenote: The king’s invitation.]
  “For my boles & my boreȝ arn bayted & slayne,
  & my fedde fouleȝ fatted w{i}t{h} sclaȝt,                           56
  My polyle þat is pe{n}ne-fed & partrykes boþe,
  Wyth scheldeȝ of wylde swyn, swaneȝ & croneȝ;
  Al is roþeled & rosted ryȝt to þe sete,
  Comeȝ cof to my corte, er hit colde worþe.”                         60

[Headnote: THOSE INVITED TO THE FEAST REFUSE TO COME.]

    [Sidenote: Those invited begin to make excuses.]
  When þay knewen his cal þ{a}t þider com schulde,
  Alle ex-cused hem by þe skyly he scape by moȝt:
    [Sidenote: One had bought an estate and must go to see it.]
  On hade boȝt hym a borȝ he sayde by hys t{ra}wþe,
  Now t[ur]ne I þeder als tyd, þe tou{n} to by-holde;                 64
    [Sidenote: Another had purchased some oxen and wished to see
    them “pull in the plough.”]
  An oþ{er} nayed also & nurned þis cawse:
  I haf ȝerned & ȝat ȝokkeȝ of oxen,
  & for my hyȝeȝ hem boȝt, to bowe haf I mest{er},
  To see hem pulle in þe plow aproche me byhoueȝ;                     68
    [A third had married a wife and could not come.]
  & I haf wedded a wyf, sower[3] hy{m} þe þryd,
  Excuse me at þe co{ur}t, I may not com þere;
  Þ{us} þay droȝ hem adreȝ w{i}t{h} dau{n}g{er} vchone,
  Þat non passed to þe place[4] þaȝ he prayed were.                   72
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 58a.]]
    [Sidenote: The Lord was greatly displeased, and commanded his
    servants to invite the wayfaring, both men and women, the better
    and the worse, that his palace might be full.]
  The{n}ne þe ludych lorde lyked ful ille
  & hade dedayn of þat dede, ful dryȝly he carpeȝ:
  He saytȝ “now for her owne sorȝe þay for-saken habbeȝ,
  More to wyte is her wrange, þen any wylle gentyl;                   76
  Þe{n}ne gotȝ forth my gomeȝ to þe grete streeteȝ,
  & forsetteȝ on vche a syde þe cete aboute;
  Þe wayferande frekeȝ, on fote & on hors,
  Boþe burneȝ & burdeȝ, þe bett{er} & þe wers,                        80
  Laþeȝ hem alle luflyly to lenge at my fest,
  & bry{n}geȝ hem blyþly to borȝe as barou{n}eȝ þay were,
  So þat my palays plat-ful be pyȝt al aboute,
  Þise oþ{er} wrecheȝ I-wysse worþy noȝt wern.”                       84
    [Sidenote: The servants brought in bachelors and squires.]
  Þe{n} þay cayred & com þat þe cost waked,
  Broȝten bachlereȝ hem wyth þat þay by bonkeȝ metten,
  Swyereȝ þat swyftly swyed on blonkeȝ,
  & also fele vpon fote, of fre & of bonde.                           88
    [Sidenote: When they came to the court they were well
    entertained.]
  When þay com to þe co{ur}te keppte wern þay fayre,
  Styȝtled w{i}t{h} þe stewarde, stad i{n} þe halle,
  Ful man{er}ly w{i}t{h} marchal mad forto sitte,
  As he watȝ dere of de-gre dressed his seete.                        92
    [Sidenote: The servants tell their lord that they have done his
    behest, and there is still room for more guests.]
  Þe{n}ne seggeȝ to þe souerayn sayden þer-aft{er},
  “Lo! lorde w{i}t{h} yo{ur} leue at yo{ur} lege heste,
  & at þi ba{n}ne we haf broȝt, as þ{o}u beden habbeȝ,
  Mony renischche renkeȝ & ȝet is rou{m} more.”                       96

[Headnote: THE HALT AND THE BLIND ARE INVITED.]

    [Sidenote: The Lord commands them to go out into the fields, and
    bring in the halt, blind, and “one-eyed.”]
  Sayde þe lorde to þo ledeȝ, “layteȝ ȝet ferre,
  Ferre out i{n} þe felde, & fecheȝ mo gesteȝ,
  Wayteȝ gorsteȝ & greueȝ, if ani gomeȝ lyggeȝ,
  What-kyn folk so þer fare, fecheȝ hem hider,                       100
  Be þay fers, be þay feble for-loteȝ[5] none,
  Be þay hol, be þay halt, be þay onyȝed,
  & þaȝ þay ben boþe blynde & balt{er}ande cruppeleȝ,
    [Sidenote: For those who denied shall not taste “one sup” to
    save them from death.]
  Þat my ho{us} may holly by halkes by fylled;                       104
  For certeȝ þyse ilk renkeȝ þat me renayed habbe
  & de-nou{n}ced me, noȝt now at þis tyme,
  Schul neu{er} sitte in my sale my sop{er} to fele,
  Ne suppe on sope of my seve, þaȝ[6] þay swelt schulde.”            108
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 58b.]]
    [Sidenote: The palace soon became full of “people of all
    plights.”]
  The{n}ne þe sergau{n}teȝ, at þat sawe, swengen þ{er}-oute,
  & diden þe dede þat [is] demed, as he deuised hade,
  & w{i}t{h} peple of alle plyteȝ þe palays þay fyllen;
    [Sidenote: They were not all one wife’s sons, nor had they all
    one father.]
  Hit weren not alle on wyueȝ su{n}eȝ, wonen w{i}t{h} on fader;      112
  Wheþ{er} þay wern worþy, oþ{er} wers, wel wern þay stowed,
    [Sidenote: The “brightest attired” had the best place.]
  Ay þe best byfore & bryȝtest atyred,
  Þe derrest at þe hyȝe dese þat dubbed wer fayrest;
    [Sidenote: Below sat those with “poor weeds.”]
  & syþen on lenþe biloogh{e} ledeȝ inogh,                           116
  & ay a segge soerly[7] semed by her wedeȝ;
  So with marschal at her mete mensked þay were,
  Clene men i{n} compaynye for-knowen wern lyte,
    [Sidenote: All are well entertained “with meat and minstrelsy.”]
  & ȝet þe symplest in þ{a}t sale watȝ serued to þe fulle,           120
  Boþe with menske, & w{i}t{h} mete & mynstrasy noble,
  & alle þe laykeȝ þat a lorde aȝt i{n} londe schewe.
    [Sidenote: Each with his “mate” made him at ease.]
  & þay bigo{n}ne to be glad þat god dri{n}k haden,
  & vch mon w{i}t{h} his mach made hy{m} at ese.                     124

    [Sidenote 1: _aywhere_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 2: Looks like _burre_ in MS.]
    [Sidenote 3: _swer_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 4: MS. _plate_.]
    [Sidenote 5: _forleteȝ_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 6: MS. þaȝ þaȝ.]
    [Sidenote 7: _soberly_ (?).]


[Headnote: THE MAN WITHOUT A WEDDING GARMENT.]

II.

    [Sidenote: The lord of the feast goes among his guests.]
  Now i{n}-myddeȝ þe mete þe mayst{er} hym biþoȝt,
  Þat he wolde se þe semblé þ{a}t samned was þ{er}e,
  & re-hayte rekenly þe riche & þe pou{er}en,[8]
  & cherisch hem alle w{i}t{h} his cher, & chaufen her Ioye,         128
  Þen he boweȝ fro his bour i{n} to þe brode halle,
    [Sidenote: Bids them be merry.]
  & to þe best on þe bench, & bede hy{m} be myry,
  Solased hem w{i}t{h} semblau{n}t & syled fyrre;
  Tron fro table to table & talkede ay myrþe,                        132
    [Sidenote: On the floor he finds one not arrayed for a holyday.]
  Bot as he ferked ou{er} þe flor he fande w{i}t{h} his yȝe,
  Hit watȝ not for a haly day honestly arayed,
  A þral þryȝt i{n} þe þrong vnþryuandely cloþed,
  Ne no festiual frok, bot fyled with werkkeȝ.                       136
  Þe gome watȝ vn-garnyst w{i}t{h} god me{n} to dele,
  & gremed þ{er}-w{i}t{h} þe grete lord & greue hy{m} he þoȝt;
    [Sidenote: Asks him how he obtained entrance, and how he was so
    bold as to appear in such rags.]
  “Say me, frende,” q{uod} þe freke w{i}t{h} a felle chere,
  “Hov wan þ{o}u into þis won i{n} wedeȝ so fowle?                   140
  Þe abyt þat þ{o}u hatȝ vpon, no haly day hit menskeȝ;
  Þ{o}u burne for no brydale art busked i{n} wedeȝ!
  How watȝ þ{o}u hardy þis ho{us} for þyn vnhap [to] neȝe,
  I{n} on so ratted a robe & rent at þe sydeȝ?                       144
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 59a.]]
  Þow art a gome vn-goderly i{n} þat gou{n} febele;
  Þ{o}u praysed me & my place ful pou{er} & ful [g]nede,
    [Sidenote: Does he take him to be a harlot?]
  Þat watȝ so prest to aproche my p{re}sens here-i{n}ne;
  Hopeȝ þ{o}u I be a harlot þi erigant to prayse?”                   148
  Þat oþ{er} burne watȝ abayst of his broþe wordeȝ,
    [Sidenote: The man becomes discomfited.]
  & hurkeleȝ dou{n} with his hede, þe vrþe he bi-holdeȝ;
  He watȝ so scou{m}fit of his scylle, lest he skaþe hent,
    [Sidenote: He is unable to reply.]
  Þat he ne wyst on worde what he warp schulde.                      152
    [Sidenote: The lord commands him to be bound, and cast into a
    deep dungeon.]
  Þe{n} þe lorde wonder loude laled & cryed,
  & talkeȝ to his tormentto{ur}eȝ: “takeȝ hym,” he biddeȝ,
  “Byndeȝ byhynde, at his bak, boþe two his handeȝ,
  & felle fett{er}eȝ to his fete festeneȝ bylyue;                    156
  Stik hym stifly i{n} stokeȝ, & stekeȝ hy{m} þ{er}-aft{er}
  Depe i{n} my dou{n}gou{n} þ{er} doel eu{er} dwelleȝ,
  Greui{n}g, & grety{n}g, & gryspy{n}g harde
  Of teþe tenfully to-geder, to teche hy{m} be quoy{n}t.”            160
    [Sidenote: This feast is likened to the kingdom of heaven, to
    which all are invited.]
  Thus comparisu{n}eȝ kryst þe kyndom of heueñ,
  To þis frelych feste þat fele arn to called,
  For alle arn laþed luflyly, þe luþ{er} & þe bett{er},
  Þat eu{er} wern fulȝed i{n} font þat fest to haue.                 164
    [Sidenote: See that thy weeds are clean.]
  Bot war þe wel, if þ{o}u wylt, þy wedeȝ ben clene,
  & honest for þe haly day, lest þ{o}u harme lache,
  For aproch þ{o}u to þat prynce of parage noble.
  He hat{es} helle no more þe{n} hem þat ar sowle.[9]                168

[Headnote: GOD IS DISPLEASED WITH THE WICKED.]

    [Sidenote: Thy weeds are thy works that thou hast wrought.]
  Wich arn þe{n}ne þy wedeȝ þ{o}u wrappeȝ þe i{n}ne,
  Þat schal schewe he{m} so schene schrowde of þe best?
  Hit arn þy werkeȝ wyt{er}ly, þ{a}t þ{o}u wroȝt haueȝ,
  & lyued w{i}t{h} þe lyky{n}g þ{a}t lyȝe in þy{n} hert,             172
  Þat þo be frely & fresch fonde i{n} þy lyue,
  & fetyse of a fayr forme, to fote & to honde,
  & syþe{n} alle þy{n} oþ{er} lymeȝ lapped ful clene,
    [Sidenote: For many faults may a man forfeit bliss.]
  Þe{n}ne may þ{o}u se þy sauior & his sete ryche.                   176
  For fele fauteȝ may a freke forfete his blysse,
    [Sidenote: For sloth and pride he is thrust into the devil’s
    throat.]
  Þat he þe sou{er}ayn ne se þen, for slauþe one,
  As for bobau{n}ce & bost & bolnande p{r}iyde,
  Þroly i{n}-to þe deueleȝ þrote man þry{n}geȝ bylyue,               180
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 59b.]]
    [Sidenote: He is ruined by covetousness, perjury, murder, theft,
    and strife.]
  For couetyse, & colwarde & croked dedeȝ,
  For mon-sworne, & men-sclaȝt, & to much drynk,
  For þefte, & for þrepy{n}g, vn-þonk may mon haue;
    [Sidenote: For robbery and ribaldry, for preventing marriages,
    and supporting the wicked, for treason, treachery, and tyranny,
    man may lose eternal bliss.]
  For roborrye, & riboudrye & resou{n}eȝ vntrwe,                     184
  & dysheriete & depryue dowrie of wydoeȝ,
  For marry{n}g of maryageȝ & may{n}tnau{n}ce of schreweȝ,
  For traysou{n}, & trichcherye, & tyrau{n}tyré boþe,[10]
  & for fals famacions & fayned laweȝ;                               188
  Man may mysse þe myrþe, þat much is to prayse,
  For such vnþeweȝ as þise & þole much payne,
  & i{n} þe creatores cort com neu{er} more,
  Ne neu{er} see hym with syȝt for such sour to{ur}neȝ.              192

    [Sidenote 8: MS. poueu{er}.]
    [Sidenote 9: _fowle_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 10: loþe (?).]


[Headnote: THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.]

III.

  Bot I haue herkned & herde of mony hyȝe clerkeȝ,
  & als i{n} resou{n}eȝ of ryȝt red hit my seluen,
    [Sidenote: The high Prince of all is displeased with those who
    work wickedly.]
  Þ{a}t þat ilk prop{er} prynce þat paradys weldeȝ
  Is displesed at vch a poy{n}t þat plyes to scaþe.                  196
  Bot neu{er} ȝet i{n} no boke breued I herde
  Þat eu{er} he wrek so wyþ{er}ly on werk þat he made,
  Ne venged for no vilté of vice ne sy{n}ne,
  Ne so hastyfly watȝ hot for hatel of his wylle,                    200
  Ne neu{er} so sodenly soȝt vn-sou{n}dely to weng,
  As for fylþe of þe flesch þat foles han vsed;
  For as I fynde þ{er} he forȝet alle his fre þewes,
    [Sidenote: For the first fault the devil committed, he felt
    God’s vengeance.]
  & wex wod to þe wrache, for wrath at his hert,                     204
  For þe fyrste felonye þe falce fende wroȝt.
  Whyl he watȝ hyȝe i{n} þe heuen houen vpon lofte,
  Of alle þyse aþel au{n}geleȝ attled þe fayrest,
    [Sidenote: He, the fairest of all angels, forsook his sovereign,
    and boasted that his throne should be as high as God’s.]
  & he vnkyndely as a karle kydde areward,                           208
  He seȝ noȝt bot hym self how semly he were,
  Bot his sou{er}ayn he forsoke & sade þyse wordeȝ:
  “I schal telde vp my trone i{n} þe tra mou{n}tayne
  & by lyke to þat lorde þat þe lyft made.                           212
  With þis worde þat he warp, þe wrake on hy{m} lyȝt,
    [Sidenote: For these words he was cast down to hell.]
      Dryȝtyn w{i}t{h} his dere dom hym drof to þe abyme,
  I{n} þe mesure of his mode, his metȝ neu{er} þe lasse,
  Bot þer he tynt þe tyþe dool of his to{ur} ryche,                  216
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 60a.]]
  Þaȝ þe felou{n} were so fers for his fayre wedeȝ
  & his glorio{us} glem þat glent so bryȝt;
  As sone as dryȝtyneȝ dome drof to hy{m} seluen,
  [Þi]kke þowsandeȝ þro þrwen þer-oute                               220
    [Sidenote: The fiends fell from heaven, like the thick snow, for
    forty days.]
  Fellen fro þe fyrmame{n}t, fendeȝ ful blake
  Weued[11] at þe fyrst swap as þe snaw þikke,
  Hurled i{n}-to helle-hole as þe hyue swarmeȝ;
  Fyltyr fenden folk forty dayeȝ lencþe,                             224
  Er þat styngande storme stynt ne myȝt;
  Bot as smylt mele vnder smal siue smokes for-þikke,
    [Sidenote: From heaven to hell the shower lasted.]
  So fro heuen to helle þat hatel schor laste,
  On vche syde of þe worlde aywhere ilyche.                          228
  Þis[12] hit watȝ a brem brest & a byge wrache,
    [Sidenote: The devil would not make peace with God.]
  & ȝet wrathed not þe wyȝ, ne þe wrech saȝtled,
  Ne neu{er} wolde, for wylnesful, his worþy god knawe,
  Ne pray hym for no pité, so proud watȝ his wylle,                  232
    [Sidenote: Affliction makes him none the better.]
  For-þy þaȝ þe rape were rank, þe rawþe watȝ lyttel;[13]
  Þaȝ he be kest into kare he kepes no bett{er}.
    [Sidenote: For the fault of one, vengeance alighted upon all men.]
  Bot þat oþ{er} wrake þat wex on wyȝeȝ, hit lyȝt
  Þurȝ þe faut of a freke þat fayled i{n} trawþe.                    236
    [Sidenote: Adam was ordained to live in bliss.]
  A{da}m i{n} obedyent[14] ordaynt to blysse,
  Þer pryuely i{n} paradys his place watȝ de-vised,
  To lyue þer i{n} lyky{n}g þe lenþe of a terme,
  & þe{n}ne en-herite þat home þat au{n}geleȝ for-gart,              240
    [Sidenote: Through Eve he ate an apple.]
  Bot þurȝ þe eggy{n}g of eue he ete of an apple
  Þat en-poysened alle pepleȝ þat parted fro hem boþe,
    [Sidenote: Thus all his descendants became poisoned.]
  For a defence þat watȝ dyȝt of dryȝtyn seluen,
  & a payne þer-on put & pertly halden;                              244
  Þe defence watȝ þe fryt þat þe freke towched,
  & þe dom is þe deþe þat drepeȝ v{us} alle.
    [Sidenote: A maiden brought a remedy for mankind.]
  Al i{n} mesure & meþe watȝ mad þe vengiau{n}ce,
  & efte amended w{i}t{h} a mayden þat make hade neu{er}.            248

    [Sidenote 11: _wened_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 12: _ȝis_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 13: MS. _lyttlel_.]
    [Sidenote 14: _obedience_ (?).]


[Headnote: THE WICKEDNESS OF THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.]

IV.

  Bot in þe þryd watȝ forþrast al þat þryue schuld,
    [Sidenote: Malice was merciless.]
  Þer watȝ malys mercyles & mawgre much scheued,
  Þat watȝ for fylþe vpon folde þ{a}t þe folk vsed,
    [Sidenote: A race of men came into the world, the fairest, the
    merriest, and the strongest that ever were created.]
  [Þ]at þen wonyed i{n} þe worlde w{i}t{h}-outen any mayst{er}ȝ;     252
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 60b.]]
  Hit wern þe fayrest of forme & of face als,
  Þe most & þe myriest þat maked wern euer,
  Þe styfest, þe stalworþest þat stod eu{er} on fete;
  & lengest lyf i{n} hem lent of ledeȝ alle oþ{er},                  256
  For hit was þe forme-foster þat þe folde bred,
    [Sidenote: They were sons of Adam.]
  Þe aþel au{n}cetereȝ su{n}eȝ þat ad{a}m watȝ called,
  To wham god hade geuen alle þat gayn were,
  Alle þe blysse boute blame þat bodi myȝt haue,                     260
  & þose lykkest to þe lede þat lyued next aft{er},
  For-þy so semly to see syþe{n} wern none.
    [Sidenote: No law was laid upon them.]
  Þer watȝ no law to hem layd bot loke to kynde,
  & kepe to hit, & alle hit cors clanly ful-fylle;                   264
    [Sidenote: Nevertheless they acted unnaturally.]
  & þe{n}ne fou{n}den þay fylþe i{n} fleschlych dedeȝ
  & controeued agayn kynde contraré werkeȝ,
  & vsed hem vn-þryftyly vchon on oþ{er},
  & als with oþ{er}, wylsfully, vpon a wrange wyse.                  268
    [Sidenote: The “_fiends_” beheld how fair were the daughters of
    these mighty men, and made fellowship with them and begat a race
    of giants.]
  So ferly fowled her flesch þat þe fende loked,
  How þe deȝt{er} of þe douþe wern dere-lych fayre,
  & fallen i{n} felaȝschyp w{i}t{h} hem on folken wyse
  & en-gendered on hem ieau{n}teȝ w{i}t{h} her Iapeȝ ille.           272
  Þose wern men meþeleȝ & maȝty on vrþe,
  Þat for her lodlych laykeȝ alosed þay were.
  He watȝ famed[15] for fre þat feȝt loued best,
    [Sidenote: The greatest fighter was reckoned the most famous.]
  & ay þe bigest i{n} bale þe best watȝ halden;                      276
  & þe{n}ne eueleȝ on erþe ernestly grewen
  & multyplyed mony-folde i{n}-mongeȝ mankynde,
    [Sidenote: The Creater of all becomes exceedingly wroth.]
  For þat þe maȝty on molde so marre þise oþ{er}.
  Þat þe wyȝe þat al wroȝt ful wroþly bygy{n}neȝ.                    280

[Headnote: GOD DETERMINES TO DESTROY ALL FLESH.]

  When he knew vche contre corupte i{n} hit seluen,
  & vch freke forloyned fro þe ryȝt wayeȝ,
    [Sidenote: Fell anger touches His heart.]
  Felle temptande tene towched his hert;
  As wyȝe, wo hy{m} with-i{n}ne werp to hy{m} seluen:                284
    [Sidenote: It repents Him that He has made man.]
  “Me for-þy{n}keȝ ful much þat eu{er} I mon made,
  Bot I schal delyu{er} & do away þat doten on þis molde,
    [Sidenote: He declares that all flesh shall be destroyed, both
    man and beast.]
  & fleme out of þe folde al þat flesch wereȝ,
  Fro þe burne to þe best, fro bryddeȝ to fyscheȝ;                   288
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 61a.]]
  Al schal dou{n} & be ded & dryuen out of erþe,
  Þat eu{er} I sette saule i{n}ne; & sore hit me rweȝ
  Þat eu{er} I made hem my self; bot if I may her-aft{er},
  I schal wayte to be war her wrencheȝ to kepe.”                     292
    [Sidenote: There was at this time living on the earth a very
    righteous man: Noah was his name.]
  Þe{n}ne i{n} worlde watȝ a wyȝe wonyande on lyue,
  Ful redy & ful ryȝtwys, & rewled hy{m} fayre;
  In þe drede of dryȝtyn his dayeȝ he vseȝ,
  & ay glydande wyth his god his g{ra}ce watȝ þe more.               296
  Hy{m} watȝ þe nome Noe, as is i{n}noghe knawen,
    [Sidenote: Three bold sons he had.]
  He had þre þryuen su{n}eȝ & þay þre wyueȝ;
  Sem soþly þat on, þat oþ{er} hyȝt cam
  & þe Iolef Iapheth watȝ gendered þe þryd.                          300
    [Sidenote: God in great anger speaks to Noah.]
  Now god i{n} nwy to Noe co{n} speke,
  Wylde wrakful wordeȝ i{n} his wylle greued:
  “Þe ende of alle-kyneȝ flesch þat on vrþe meueȝ,
  Is fallen forþ wyth my face & forþ{er} hit I þenk,                 304
  W{i}t{h} her vn-worþelych werk me wlateȝ w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne,
  Þe gore þ{er}-of me hatȝ greued & þe glette nwyed;
    [Sidenote: Declares that He will destroy all “that life has.”]
  I schal strenkle my distresse & strye al to-geder,
  Boþe ledeȝ & londe & alle þat lyf habbeȝ.                          308

[Headnote: NOAH IS COMMANDED TO BUILD AN ARK.]

    [Sidenote: Commands him to make “a mansion” with dwellings for
    wild and tame.]
  Bot make to þe a manciou{n} & þat is my wylle,
  A cofer closed of tres, clanlych planed;
  Wyrk woneȝ þ{er}i{n}ne for wylde & for tame,
  & þe{n}ne cleme hit w{i}t{h} clay comly w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne[16]        312
  & alle þe endentur dryuen daube w{i}t{h}-outen.
    [Sidenote: To let the ark be three hundred cubits in length,
    and fifty in breadth, and thirty in height, and a window in it a
    cubit square.]
  & þ{us} of lenþe & of large þat lome þ{o}u make,
  Þre hundred of cupydeȝ þ{o}u holde to þe lenþe,
  Of fyfty fayre ou{er}-þwert forme þe brede;                        316
  & loke euen þat þyn ark haue of heȝþe þretté,
  & a wyndow wyd vpon, wroȝt vpon lofte,
  In þe compas of a cubit kyndely sware,
    [Sidenote: Also a good shutting door in the side, together with
    halls, recesses, bushes, and bowers, and well-formed pens.]
  A wel dutande dor, don on þe syde;                                 320
  Haf halleȝ þer-i{n}ne & halkeȝ ful mony,
  Boþe boskeȝ & bo{ur}eȝ & wel bou{n}den peneȝ;
  For I schal waken vp a wat{er} to wasch alle þe worlde,
  & quelle alle þat is quik w{i}t{h} quauende flodeȝ.                324
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 61b.]]
    [Sidenote: For all flesh shall be destroyed, except Noah and his
    family.]
  Alle þat glydeȝ & gotȝ, & gost of lyf habbeȝ,
  I schal wast with my wrath þat wons vpon vrþe;
  Bot my forwarde w{i}t{h} þe I festen on þis wyse,
  For þ{o}u in reysou{n} hatȝ rengned & ryȝtwys ben eu{er};          328
  Þ{o}u schal ent{er} þis ark w{i}t{h} þyn aþel barneȝ
  & þy wedded wyf; with þe þ{o}u take
  Þe makeȝ of þy myry su{n}eȝ; þis meyny of aȝte
    [Sidenote: Noah is told to take into the ark seven pairs of
    every clean beast, and one of unclean kind, and to furnish the
    ark with proper food.]
  I schal saue of mo{n}neȝ sauleȝ, & swelt þose oþ{er}.              332
  Of vche best þat bereȝ lyf busk þe a cupple,
  Of vche clene comly kynde enclose seuen makeȝ,
  Of vche horwed, i{n} ark halde bot a payre,
  For to saue me þe sede of alle ser kyndeȝ;                         336
  & ay þ{o}u meng w{i}t{h} þe maleȝ þe mete ho-besteȝ,
  Vche payre by payre to plese ayþ{er} oþ{er};
  W{i}t{h} alle þe fode þat may be fou{n}de frette þy cofer,
  For sustnau{n}ce to yow self & also þose oþ{er}.”                  340
    [Sidenote: Noah fills the ark.]
  Ful grayþely gotȝ þis god ma{n} & dos godeȝ hestes,
  In dryȝ dred & dau{n}ger, þat durst do non oþer.
  Wen hit watȝ fettled & forged & to þe fulle grayþed,
  Þe{n}n con dryȝttyn hym dele dryȝly þyse wordeȝ:                   344

    [Sidenote 15: _fained_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 16: MS. w{i}t{h}i{n}me]


[Headnote: THE RAIN DESCENDS.]

V.

    [Sidenote: God asks Noah whether all is ready.]
  “Now Noe,” q{uod} oure lorde, “art þ{o}u al redy?
  Hatȝ þ{o}u closed þy kyst w{i}t{h} clay alle aboute?”
    [Sidenote: Noah replies that all is fully prepared.]
  “Ȝe lorde w{i}t{h} þy leue,” sayde þe lede þe{n}ne,
  “Al is wroȝt at þi worde, as þ{o}u me wyt lanteȝ.”                 348
    [Sidenote: He is commanded to enter the ark, for God tells him
    that he will send a rain to destroy all flesh.]
  “Enter in þe{n}n,” q{uod} he, “& haf þi wyf w{i}t{h} þe,
  Þy þre su{n}eȝ w{i}t{h}-outen þrep & her þre wyueȝ;
  Besteȝ, as I bedene haue, bosk þ{er}-i{n}ne als,
  & when ȝe arn staued, styfly stekeȝ yow þ{er}i{n}ne;               352
  Fro seuen dayeȝ ben seyed I sende out by-lyue,
  Such a rowtande ryge þat rayne schal swyþe,
  Þat schal wasch alle þe worlde of werkeȝ of fylþe;
  Schal no flesch vpon folde by fonden onlyue;                       356
    [Sidenote: Noah stows all safely in the ark.]
  Out-taken yow aȝt i{n} þis ark staued,
  & sed þat I wyl saue of þyse ser besteȝ.”
  Now Noe neu{er} stysteȝ[17] (þat niyȝ[t] he bygy{n}neȝ),
  Er al wer stawed & stoken, as þe steuen wolde.                     360
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 62a.]]
    [Sidenote: Seven days are passed.]
  The{n}ne sone com þe seuenþe day, when samned wern alle,
  & alle woned i{n} þe whichche þe wylde & þe tame.
    [Sidenote: The deep begins to swell, banks are broken down, and
    the clouds burst.]
  Þe{n} bolned þe abyme & bonkeȝ con ryse,
  Walt{es} out vch walle-heued, i{n} ful wode stremeȝ,               364
  Watȝ no bry{m}me þat abod vnbrosten bylyue,
  Þe mukel lauande logh{e} to þe lyfte rered.
  Mony clust{er}ed clowde clef alle i{n} clowteȝ,
  To-rent vch a rayn-ryfte & rusched to þe vrþe;                     368
    [Sidenote: It rains for forty days, and the flood rises, and
    flows over the woods and fields.]
  Fon neu{er} i{n} forty dayeȝ, & þe{n} þe flod ryses,
  Ou{er}-walteȝ vche a wod & þe wyde feldeȝ;
  For when þe wat{er} of þe welkyn w{i}t{h} þe worlde mette,
  Alle þat deth moȝt dryȝe drowned þer-i{n}ne;                       372
  Þer watȝ moon forto make when meschef was cnowen,
    [Sidenote: All must drown.]
  Þat noȝt dowed bot þe deth in þe depe stremeȝ.
  Wat{er} wylger ay wax, woneȝ þat stryede,
  Hurled i{n}-to vch ho{us}, hent þat þer dowelled.                  376
    [Sidenote: The water enters the houses.]
  Fyrst feng to þe flyȝt alle þat fle myȝt,
  Vuche burde w{i}t{h} her barne þe byggy{n}g þay leueȝ,
    [Sidenote: Each woman with her bairns flees to the hills.]
  & bowed to þe hyȝ bonk þer brentest hit wern,
  & het{er}ly to þe hyȝe hylleȝ þay [h]aled on faste;                380
    [Sidenote: The rain never ceases.]
  Bot al watȝ nedleȝ her note, for neu{er} cowþe stynt
  Þe roȝe raynande ryg [&] þe raykande waweȝ,
    [Sidenote: The valleys are filled.]
  Er vch boþom watȝ brurd-ful to þe bonkeȝ eggeȝ,
  & vche a dale so depe þat de{m}med at þe brynkeȝ.                  384
  Þe moste mou{n}tay{n}eȝ on mor þe{n}ne watȝ no more dryȝe,
    [Sidenote: People flock to the mountains.]
  & þ{er}-on flokked þe folke, for ferde of þe wrake,
  Syþen þe wylde of þe wode on þe wat{er} flette;
    [Sidenote: Some swim for their lives.]
  Su{m}me swy{m}med þ{er}-on þat saue hemself trawed,                388
  Su{m}me styȝe to a stud & stared to þe heuen,
    [Sidenote: Others roar for fear.]
  Rwly wyth a loud rurd rored for drede.
    [Sidenote: Animals of all kinds run to the hills.]
  Hareȝ, hertteȝ also, to þe hyȝe ru{n}nen,
  Bukkeȝ, bauseneȝ & buleȝ to þe bonkkeȝ hyȝed,                      392
    [Sidenote: All pray for mercy.]
  & alle cryed for care to þe ky{n}g of heuen,
  Re-cou{er}er of þe creator, þay cryed vchone,
    [Sidenote: God’s mercy is passed from them.]
  Þat amou{n}ted þe masse, þe mase his mercy watȝ passed,
  & alle his pyte departed fro peple þat he hated.                   396
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 62b.]]
  Bi þat þe flod to her fete floȝed & waxed,
    [Sidenote: Each sees that he must sink.]
  Þen vche a segge seȝ wel þat synk hy{m} byhoued;
  Frendeȝ fellen i{n} fere & faþmed togeder
  To dryȝ her delful deystyné & dyȝen alle samen;                    400
    [Sidenote: Friends take leave of one another.]
  Luf lokeȝ to luf & his leue takeȝ,
  For to ende alle at oneȝ & for eu{er} twy{n}ne.
    [Sidenote: Forty days have gone by, and all are destroyed.]
  By forty dayeȝ wern faren, on folde no flesch styryed,
  Þat þe flod nade al freten w{i}t{h} feȝtande waȝeȝ[18],            404
  For hit clam vche a clyffe cubit{es} fyftene,
  Ou{er} þe hyȝest hylle þat hurkled on erþe.

[Headnote: ALL ROT IN THE MUD.]

    [Sidenote: All rot in the mud, except Noah and his family, who
    are safe in the ark.]
  Þe{n}ne mo{ur}kne i{n} þe mudde most ful nede
  Alle þat spyrakle i{n}-spranc,[19] no sprawly{n}g awayled,         408
  Saue þe haþel vnder hach & his here strau{n}ge,
  Noe þat ofte neuened þe name of oure lorde,
  Hy{m} aȝt-su{m} i{n} þat ark as aþel god lyked,
  Þer alle ledeȝ i{n} lome lenged druye,                             412
    [Sidenote: The ark is lifted as high as the clouds, and is
    driven about, without mast, bowline, cables, anchors, or sail to
    guide its course.]
  Þe arc houen watȝ on hyȝe w{i}t{h} hurlande goteȝ,
  Kest to kytheȝ vncouþe þe clowdeȝ ful nere.
  Hit walt{er}ed on þe wylde flod, went as hit lyste,
  Drof vpon þe depe dam, i{n} dau{n}g{er} hit semed,                 416
  With-oute{n} mast, oþ{er} myke, oþ{er} myry bawelyne,
  Kable, oþ{er} capstan to clyppe to he{r} ankreȝ,
  Hurrok, oþ{er} hande-helme hasped on roþ{er},
  Oþ{er} any sweande sayl to seche aft{er} hauen,                    420
    [Sidenote: At the mercy of the winds.]
  Bot flote forthe w{i}t{h} þe flyt of þe felle wyndeȝ;
  Wheder-warde so þe wat{er} wafte, hit rebou{n}de.
    [Sidenote: Oft it rolled around and reared on end.]
  Ofte hit roled on-rou{n}de & rered on ende,
  Nyf oure lorde hade ben her lodeȝ-mon he{m} had lu{m}pen harde.    424
    [Sidenote: The age of the patriarch Noah.]
  Of þe lenþe of noe lyf to lay a lel date,
  Þe sex hundreth of his age & none odde ȝereȝ,
  Of seco{n}de monyth, þe seue{n}þe day ryȝteȝ,
    [Sidenote: Duration of the flood.]
  To-walten alle þyse welle-hedeȝ & þe wat{er} flowed,               428
  & þryeȝ fyfty þe flod of folwande dayeȝ,
  Vche hille watȝ þer hidde w{i}t{h} yreȝ[20] ful graye;
    [Sidenote: The completeness of the destruction.]
  Al watȝ wasted þat þer wonyed þe worlde w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne,
  Þer eu{er} flote, oþ{er} flwe, oþ{er} on fote ȝede,                432
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 63a.]]
  That roȝly watȝ þe remnau{n}t þat þe rac dryueȝ,
  Þat alle gendreȝ so ioyst wern ioyned wyth-i{n}ne.
    [Sidenote: God remembers those in the ark.]
  Bot quen þe lorde of þe lyfte lyked hymseluen
  For to my{n}ne on his mon his meth þat abydeȝ,                     436
    [Sidenote: He causes a wind to blow, and closes the lakes and
    wells, and the great deep.]
  Þe{n} he wakened a wynde on watt{er}eȝ to blowe;
  Þe{n}ne lasned þe llak[21] þat large watȝ are,
  Þen he stac vp þe stangeȝ, stoped þo welleȝ,
  Bed bly{n}ne of þe rayn, hit batede as fast,                       440
  Þe{n}ne lasned þe loȝ lowkande to-geder.
  Aft{er} harde dayeȝ wern out an hundreth & fyfté,
  As þat lyftande lome luged aboute,
  Where þe wynde & þe weder warpen hit wolde,                        444
  Hit saȝtled on a softe day synkande to grou{n}de.

[Headnote: THE ARK RESTS ON MOUNT ARARAT.]

    [Sidenote: The ark settles on Mount Ararat.]
  On a rasse of a rok, hit rest at þe laste,
  On þe mou{n}te of mararach of armene hilles,
  Þat oþ{er}-wayeȝ on ebrv hit hat þe thanes.                        448
  Bot þaȝ þe kyste in þe crageȝ wern closed to byde,
  Ȝet fyned not þe flod ne fel to þe boþemeȝ,
    [Sidenote: Noah beholds the bare earth.]
  Bot þe hyȝest of þe eggeȝ vnhuled wern a lyttel,
  Þat þe burne by{n}ne borde byhelde þe bare erþe;                   452
    [Sidenote: He opens his window and sends out the raven to seek
    dry land.]
  Þe{n}ne wafte he vpon his wyndowe, & wysed þ{er}-oute
  A message fro þat meyny hem moldeȝ to seche,
  Þat watȝ þe rauen so ronk þat rebel watȝ eu{er};
  He watȝ colored as þe cole, corbyal vn-trwe.                       456
  & he fongeȝ to þe flyȝt, & fa{n}neȝ on þe wyndeȝ,
  Houeȝ hyȝe upon hyȝt to herken tyþy{n}ges.
    [Sidenote: The raven “croaks for comfort” on finding carrion.]
  He croukeȝ for comfort when carayne he fyndeȝ;
  Kast vp on a clyffe þer costese lay drye,                          460
  He hade þe smelle of þe smach & smolt{es} þeder sone,
    [Sidenote: He fills his belly with the foul flesh.]
  Falleȝ on þe foule flesch & fylleȝ his wombe,
  & sone ȝederly for-ȝete ȝister-day steuen,
  How þe cheuetayn hy{m} charged þ{a}t þe kyst ȝemed.                464
  Þe rauen raykeȝ hy{m} forth þat reches ful lyttel
  How alle fodeȝ þer fare, elleȝ he fynde mete;

[Headnote: NOAH SENDS FORTH A DOVE.]

    [Sidenote: The lord of the ark curses the raven, and sends out
    the dove.]
  Bot þe burne by{n}ne borde[22] þat bod to hys come,
  Ba{n}ned hy{m} ful bytt{er}ly w{i}t{h} best{es} alle samen,        468
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 63b.]]
  He secheȝ an oþ{er} sondeȝmon & setteȝ on þe dou{n}e;[23]
  Bry{n}geȝ þat bryȝt vpon borde blessed & sayde,
  “Wende worþelych wyȝt v{us} woneȝ to seche,
  Dryf ou{er} þis dy{m}me wat{er}; if þ{o}u druye fyndeȝ             472
  Bry{n}g bodworde to bot blysse to v{us} alle;
  Þaȝ þat fowle be false, fre be þ{o}u euer.”
    [Sidenote: The bird wanders about the whole day.]
  Ho wyrl{e} out on þe weder o{n} wy{n}geȝ ful scharpe,
  Dreȝly alle a longe day þ{a}t dorst neu{er} lyȝt;                  476
    [Sidenote: Finding no rest, she returns about eventide to Noah.]
  & when ho fyndeȝ no folde her fote on to pyche,
  Ho vmbe-kesteȝ þe coste & þe kyst secheȝ,
  Ho hitteȝ on þe euentyde & on þe ark sitteȝ;
  Noe ny{m}mes hir anon & naytly hir staueȝ.                         480
    [Sidenote: Noah again sends out the dove.]
  Noe on anoþ{er} day ny{m}meȝ efte þe dovene,
  & byddeȝ hir bowe ou{er} þe borne efte bonkeȝ to seche;
  & ho skyrmeȝ vnder skwe & skowteȝ aboute,
  Tyl hit watȝ nyȝe at þe naȝt & noe þe{n} secheȝ.                   484

    [Sidenote 17: _stynteȝ_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 18: _waweȝ_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 19: _in-sprang_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 20: _yþeȝ_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 21: So in MS.]
    [Sidenote 22: MS. _lorde_.]
    [Sidenote 23: _douue_ or _douene_ (?).]


[Headnote: NOAH LEAVES THE ARK.]

VI.

    [Sidenote: The dove returns with an olive branch in her beak.]
  On ark on an euentyde houeȝ þe downe,
  On stamyn ho stod & stylle hy{m} abydeȝ;
  What! ho broȝt i{n} hir beke a bronch of olyue,
  G{ra}cyo{us}ly vmbe-grouen al w{i}t{h} grene leueȝ;                488
    [Sidenote: This was a token of peace and reconciliation.]
  Þat watȝ þe sy{n}gne of sauyté þ{a}t sende he{m} oure lorde,
  & þe saȝtly{n}g of hy{m}-self w{i}t{h} þo sely besteȝ.
    [Sidenote: Joy reigns in the ark.]
  Þe{n} watȝ þer ioy i{n} pat gyn where Iu{m}pred er dryȝed,
  & much comfort i{n} þat cofer þat watȝ clay-daubed.                492
    [Sidenote: The people therein laugh and look thereout.]
  Myryly on a fayr morn, monyth þe fyrst,
  Þat falleȝ formast i{n} þe ȝer, & þe fyrst day,
  Ledeȝ loȝen i{n} þat lome & loked þ{er}-oute,
  How þat watt{er}eȝ wern woned & þe worlde dryed.                   496
  Vchon loued oure lorde, bot lenged ay stylle,
  Tyl þay had tyþy{n}g fro þe tolke þat tyned he{m} þ{er}-i{n}ne;
    [Sidenote: God permits Noah and his sons to leave the ark.]
  Þe{n} godeȝ glam to hem glod þat gladed hem alle,
  Bede hem drawe to þe dor, delyu{er} hem he wolde;                  500
  Þe{n} went þay to þe wykket, hit walt vpon sone,
  Boþe þe burne & his barneȝ bowed þ{er}-oute;
  Her wyueȝ walkeȝ hem wyth & þe wylde aft{er},
  Þroly þrublande i{n} þronge, þrowen ful þykke;                     504
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 64a.]]
    [Sidenote: Noah offers sacrifice to God.]
  Bot Noe of vche honest kynde nem out an odde
  & heuened vp an auter & halȝed hit fayre,
  & sette a sakerfyse þ{er}-on of vch a ser kynde,
  Þat watȝ comly & clene, god kepeȝ non oþ{er}.                      508
  When bremly brened þose besteȝ, & þe breþe rysed,
    [Sidenote: It is pleasing to Him that “all speeds or spoils.”]
  Þe sauo{ur} of his sacrafyse soȝt to hym euen
  Þat al spedeȝ & spylleȝ; he spek{es} w{i}t{h} þat ilke
  I{n} comly comfort ful clos & cortays wordeȝ:                      512
    [Sidenote: God declares that He will never destroy the world for
    the sin of man.]
  “Now noe no more nel I neu{er} wary,
  Alle þe mukel mayny [on] molde for no ma{n}neȝ sy{n}neȝ,
  For I se wel þat hit is sothe, þat alle ma{n}neȝ wytteȝ
  To vn-þryfte arn alle þrawen w{i}t{h} þoȝt of her hertteȝ,         516
  & ay hatȝ ben & wyl be ȝet fro her barnage;
  Al is þe mynde of þe man to malyce enclyned,
  For-þy schal I neu{er} schende so schortly at ones,
  As dysstrye al for maneȝ sy{n}ne [in] dayeȝ of þis erþe.           520
  Bot waxeȝ now & wendeȝ forth & worþeȝ to monye,
  Multyplyeȝ on þis molde & menske yow by-tyde.
    [Sidenote: That summer and winter shall never cease.]
  Sesou{n}eȝ schal yow neu{er} sese of sede ne of heruest,
  Ne hete, ne no harde forst, vmbre ne droȝþe,                       524
  Ne þe swetnesse of somer, ne þe sadde wynt{er},
    [Sidenote: Nor night nor day, nor the new years.]
  Ne þe nyȝt, ne þe day, ne þe newe ȝereȝ,
  Bot eu{er} re{n}ne restleȝ rengneȝ ȝe þ{er}-i{n}ne.”
    [Sidenote: God blesses every beast.]
  Þ{er}wyth he blesseȝ vch a best, & bytaȝt hem þis erþe.            528

[Headnote: THE BEASTS ARE DISPERSED.]

  Þe{n} watȝ a skylly skyualde, quen scaped alle þe wylde;
    [Sidenote: Each fowl takes its flight.]
  Vche fowle to þe flyȝt þat fyþereȝ myȝt serue,
    [Sidenote: Each fish goes to the flood.]
  Vche fysch to þe flod þat fy{n}ne couþe nayte,
    [Sidenote: Each beast makes for the plain.]
  Vche beste to þe bent þat[24] byt{es} on erbeȝ;                    532
    [Sidenote: Wild worms wriggle to their abodes in the earth.]
  Wylde wormeȝ to her won wryþeȝ i{n} þe erþe,
    [Sidenote: The fox goes to the woods.]
  Þe fox & þe folmarde to þe fryth wyndeȝ,
    [Sidenote: Harts to the heath, and hares to the gorse.]
  Hertt{es} to hyȝe heþe, hareȝ to gorsteȝ,
    [Sidenote: Lions and leopards go to the lakes.]
  & lyou{n}eȝ & lebardeȝ to þe lake ryft{es},                        536
    [Sidenote: Eagles and hawks to the high rocks.]
  Herneȝ & hauekeȝ to þe hyȝe rocheȝ;
  Þe hole-foted fowle to þe flod hyȝeȝ,
  & vche best at a brayde þer hy{m} best lykeȝ;
    [Sidenote: The four ‘frekes’ take the empire.]
  Þe fowre frekeȝ of þe folde fongeȝ þe empyre.                      540
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 64b.]]
    [Sidenote: Behold what woe God brought on mankind for their
    hateful deeds!]
  Lo! suche a wrakful wo for wlatsu{m} dedeȝ
  Parformed þe hyȝe fader on folke þat he made;
  Þat he chysly hade cherisched he chastysed ful hardee,
  I{n} de-voydy{n}ge þe vylanye þ{a}t venkquyst his þeweȝ.           544
  For-þy war þe now, wyȝe, þat worschyp desyres,
  I{n} his comlych co{ur}te þat ky{n}g is of blysse,
    [Sidenote: Beware of the filth of the flesh.]
  I{n} þe fylþe of þe flesch þat þ{o}u be fou{n}den neu{er},
  Tyl any wat{er} i{n} þe worlde to wasche þe fayly,                 548
  For is no segge vnder su{n}ne so seme of his crafteȝ,
  If he be sulped i{n} sy{n}ne, þat [ne] sytteȝ vnclene.
    [Sidenote: “One speck of a spot” will ruin us in the sight of
    God.]
  On spec of a spote may spede to mysse
  Of þe syȝte of þe sou{er}ayn þat sytteȝ so hyȝe,                   552
  For þat schewe me schale i{n} þo schyre howseȝ,
    [Sidenote: The beryl is clean and sound,--it has no seam.]
  As þe beryl bornyst byhoueȝ be clene,
  Þat is sou{n}de on vche a syde & no sem habes,
  W{i}t{h}-outen maskle oþ{er} mote as margerye p{er}le.             556

    [Sidenote 24: MS. _þat þat_.]


[Headnote: GOD’S HATRED OF WICKEDNESS.]

VII.

    [Sidenote: When God repented that he had made man, he destroyed
    all flesh.]
  Syþe{n} þe sou{er}ayn i{n} sete so sore for-þoȝt
  Þat eu{er} he man vpon molde merked to lyuy,
  For he i{n} fylþe watȝ fallen, felly he uenged,
  Quen fo{ur}ferde[25] alle þe flesch þat he formed hade,            560
    [Sidenote: But afterwards He was sorry, and made a covenant with
    mankind that He would not again destroy all the living.]
  Hy{m} rwed þat he hem vp-rerde & raȝt hem lyflode,
  & efte þat he he{m} vndyd, hard hit hym þoȝt;
  For quen þe swemande sorȝe soȝt to his hert,
  He knyt a couenau{n}de cortaysly w{i}t{h} monkynde þ{er}e,         564
  In þe mesure of his mode & meþe of his wylle,
  Þat he schulde neu{er} for no syt smyte al at oneȝ,
  As to quelle alle quykeȝ for qued þat myȝt falle,
  Whyl of þe lenþe of þe londe lasteȝ þe t{er}me.                    568
  Þat ilke skyl for no scaþe ascaped hy{m} neu{er},
  Wheder wonderly he wrak on wykked men aft{er};
    [Sidenote: For the filth of the flesh God destroyed a rich city.]
  Ful felly for þat ilk faute forferde a kyth ryche,
  I{n} þe anger of his ire þat arȝed mony;                           572
  & al watȝ for þis ilk euel, þat vn-happen glette,
  Þe venym & þe vylanye & þe vycios fylþe,
  Þat by-sulpeȝ ma{n}neȝ saule i{n} vnsou{n}de hert,
  Þat he his saueour ne see w{i}t{h} syȝt of his yȝen,               576
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 65a.]]
    [Sidenote: God hates the wicked as “hell that stinks.”]
  Þat alle illeȝ he hates as helle þat stynkkeȝ;
  Bot non nuyeȝ hy{m}, on naȝt ne neu{er} vpon dayeȝ,
    [Sidenote: Especially harlotry and blasphemy.]
  As harlottrye vn-honest, heþy{n}g of seluen;
  Þat schameȝ for no schrewedschyp schent mot he worþe!              580
  Bot sauyo{ur} mon i{n} þy self, þaȝ þ{o}u a sotte lyuie,
  Þaȝ þ{o}u bere þy self babel, by-þenk þe su{m}-tyme,
  Wheþer he þat stykked vche a stare i{n} vche steppe yȝe,
  Ȝif hy{m} self[26] be bore blynd{e} hit is a brod wonder;          584
  & he þat fetly i{n} face fettled alle eres
  If he[27] hatȝ losed þe lysten hit lyfteȝ meruayle;
    [Sidenote: Nothing is hidden from God.]
  Trave þ{o}u neu{er} þat tale, vn-trwe þ{o}u hit fyndeȝ,
  Þer is no dede so derne þat ditteȝ his yȝen;                       588
  Þer is no wyȝe i{n} his werk so war ne so stylle
  Þat hit ne þraweȝ to hym þre[28] er he hit þoȝt haue;
    [Sidenote: God is the ground of all deeds.]
  For he is þe gropande god, þe grou{n}de of alle dedeȝ,
  Rypande of vche a ri{n}g[29] þe reynyeȝ & hert;                    592
    [Sidenote: He honours the man that is honest and whole.]
  & þere he fyndeȝ al fayre a freke wyth-i{n}ne
  Þat hert honest & hol, þat haþel he hono{ur}eȝ,
  Sendeȝ hy{m} a sad syȝt to se his auen face,
  & harde honyseȝ þise oþ{er} & of his erde flemeȝ.                  596
    [Sidenote: But for deeds of shame He destroys the mighty ones.]
  Bot of þe dome of þe douþe for dedeȝ of schame
  He is so skoymos of þat skaþe, he scarreȝ bylyue,
  He may not dryȝe to draw allyt, bot drepeȝ i{n} hast
  & þat watȝ schewed schortly by a scaþe oneȝ.                       600

    [Sidenote 25: _for-ferde_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 26: MS. _sele._]
    [Sidenote 27: MS. _he he._]
    [Sidenote 28: _þer_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 29: _rink_ or _renk_ (?).]


[Headnote: ABRAHAM RECEIVES THREE GUESTS, AND ENTERTAINS THEM.]

VIII.

    [Sidenote: Abraham is sitting before his house-door under a
    green oak.]
  Olde Abraham i{n} erde oneȝ he sytteȝ
  Euen byfore his ho{us}-dore vnder an oke grene;
  Bryȝt blykked þe bem of þe brode heuen,
  I{n} þe hyȝe hete þ{er}-of Abraham bideȝ,                          604
  He watȝ schu{n}t to þe schadow vnder schyre leueȝ;
    [Sidenote: He sees three men coming along, and goes toward them.]
  Þe{n}ne watȝ he war on þe waye of wlonk wyȝeȝ þry{n}ne.
  If þay wer farande & fre & fayre to beholde,
  Hit is eþe to leue by þe last ende;                                608
  For þe lede þat þer laye þe leueȝ an-vnder,
  When he hade of hem syȝt he hyȝeȝ bylyue,
  & as to god þe good mon gos hem agayneȝ
  & haylsed hem i{n} onhede & sayde, “hende lorde                    612
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 65b.]]
  Ȝif eu{er} þy mon vpon molde merit disserued,
    [Sidenote: He entreats them to rest awhile, that he may wash
    their feet, and bring them a morsel of bread.]
  Lenge a lyttel with þy lede I loȝly bi-seche;
  Passe neu{er} fro þi pou{er}e, ȝif I hit pray durst,
  Er þ{o}u haf biden with þi burne & vnder boȝe restted;             616
  & I schal wy{n}ne yow wyȝt of wat{er} a lyttel,
  & fast aboute schal I fare yo{ur} fette wer waschene;
  Restteȝ here on þis rote & I schal rachche aft{er}
  & bry{n}ge a morsel of bred to banne yo{ur} hertte.”               620
  “Fare forthe,” q{uod} þe frekeȝ, “& fech as þ{o}u seggeȝ;
  By bole of þis brode tre we byde þe here.”
    [Sidenote: Abraham commands Sarah to make some cakes quickly,
    and tells his servant to seethe a tender kid.]
  Þe{n}ne orppedly i{n}-to his ho{us} he hyȝed to Saré
  Comau{n}ded hir to be cof & quyk at þis oneȝ;                      624
  “Þre metteȝ of mele menge & ma kakeȝ,
  Vnder askeȝ ful hote happe hem byliue;
  Quyl I fete su{m}quat fat þ{o}u þe fyr bete,
  Prestly at þis ilke poynte su{m} polment to make.”                 628
  He cached to his cobho{us}[30] & a calf bry{n}geȝ
  Þat watȝ tender & not toȝe; bed tyrne of þe hyde,
  & sayde to his seruau{n}t þ{a}t he hit seþe faste
  & he deruely at his dome dyȝt hit bylyue.                          632
    [Sidenote: Abraham appears bare-headed before his guests.]
  Þe burne to be bare-heued buskeȝ hy{m} þe{n}ne,
    [Sidenote: He casts a clean cloth on the green, and sets before
    them cakes, butter, milk, and pottage.]
  Clecheȝ to a clene cloþe & kesteȝ on þe grene,
  Þrwe þryftyly þ{er}-on þo þre þerue kakeȝ,
  & bry{n}geȝ butt{er} wyth-al, & by þe bred setteȝ                  636
  Mete; messeȝ of mylke he merkkeȝ bytwene,
  Syþe{n} potage & polment i{n} plater honest;
  As sewer i{n} a god assyse he serued hem fayre,
  Wyth sadde semblau{n}t & swete of such as he hade,                 640

[Headnote: GOD DISCLOSES HIS PURPOSE TO ABRAHAM.]

    [Sidenote: God praises his friend’s feast, and after the meat is
    removed, He tells Abraham that Sarah shall bear him a son.]
  & god as a glad gest mad god chere,
  Þat watȝ fayn of his frende & his fest praysed.
  Abraham, al hodleȝ w{i}t{h} armeȝ vp-folden,
  Mynystred mete byfore þo men þat myȝtes al weldeȝ;                 644
  Þe{n}ne þay sayden, as þay sete same{n} alle þry{n}ne,
  When þe mete watȝ remued & þay of mensk speken,
  “I schal efte here away abram,” þay sayden,
  “Ȝet er þy lyueȝ lyȝt leþe vpon erþe,                              648
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 66a.]]
  & þe{n}ne schal saré consayue & a su{n} bere,
  Þat schal be abrahameȝ ayre, & aft{er} hy{m} wy{n}ne
  W{i}t{h} wele & wyth worschyp þe worþely peple
  Þat schal halde i{n} heritage, þat I haf men ȝark.”                652
    [Sidenote: Sarah, who is behind the door, laughs in unbelief.]
  Þe{n}ne þe burde byhynde þe dor for busmar laȝed;
  & sayde sothly[31] to hir-self saré þe madde:
  “May þ{o}u traw for tykle þat þ{o}u to{n}ne moȝteȝ,
  & I so hyȝe out of age & also my lorde,”                           656
  For soþely, as says þe wryt, he wern of sadde elde,
  Boþe þe wyȝe & his wyf, such werk watȝ hem fayled,
  Fro mony a brod day by-fore ho barayn ay byene,[32]
  Þat selue saré w{i}t{h}-outen sede i{n}-to þat same tyme.          660
    [Sidenote: God tells Abraham that Sarah laughs at His words.]
  Þe{n}ne sayde oure syre þer he sete “se! so saré laȝes,
  Not trawande þe tale þat I þe to schewed;
  Hopeȝ ho oȝt may be harde my hondeȝ to work?
  & ȝet I a-vow v{er}ayly þe avau{n}t þat I made,                    664
  I schal ȝeply aȝayn & ȝelde þat I hyȝt,
  & sothely sende to saré a soñ & an hayre.”
    [Sidenote: Sarah denies that she laughed.]
  Þe{n}ne swenged forth saré & swer by hir trawþe,
  Þat for lot þat þay lansed[33] ho laȝed neu{er}.                   668
  “Now i{n}nogh{e} hit is not so” þe{n}ne n{ur}ned þe dryȝtyn,
  “For þ{o}u laȝed aloȝ, bot let we hit one.”
    [Sidenote: Abraham’s guests set out towards Sodom, two miles
    from Mamre.]
  With þat þay ros vp radly as þay rayke schulde,
  & setten toward sodamas her syȝt alle at-oneȝ;                     672
  For þat Cite þ{er} bysyde watȝ sette i{n} a vale,
  No myleȝ fro mambre mo þe{n} tweyne,
  Where-so wonyed þis ilke wyȝ þat wendeȝ w{i}t{h} oure lorde,
  For to tent hy{m} w{i}t{h} tale & teche hy{m} þe gate,             676
    [Sidenote: The patriarch accompanies them.]
  Þen glydeȝ forth god, þe godmo{n} hy{m} folȝeȝ.
  Abraham heldeȝ hem wyth, he{m} to co{n}ueye,
  I{n} towarde þe Cety of sodamas þat sy{n}ned had þe{n}ne
  I{n} þe faute of þis fylþe; þe fader hem þretes,                   680
  & sayde þ{us} to þe segg þat sued hy{m} aft{er}:
    [Sidenote: God determines to reveal to Abraham his secret
    purposes.]
  “How myȝt I hyde myn hert fro habraham þe trwe,
  Þat I ne dyscou{er}ed to his corse my cou{n}sayl so dere.
  Syþen he is chosen to be chef chyldryn fader,                      684
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 66b.]]
  Þat so folk schal falle fro, to flete alle þe worlde,
  & vche blod i{n} þat burne blessed schal worþe.
  Me bos telle to þat tolk þe tene of my wylle
  & alle myn atly{n}g to abraham vn-haspe bilyue.                    688

    [Sidenote 30: _cov-hous_ = cow-house (?).]
    [Sidenote 31: ? _softly_ or _sotly_ = foolishly]
    [Sidenote 32: ? _bycame_.]
    [Sidenote 33: _laused_ (?).]


[Headnote: THE FILTHINESS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH.]

IX.

    [Sidenote: He informs him of the destruction about to fall upon
    the cities of the plain, for their great wickedness, in abusing
    the gifts bestowed upon them.]
  “The grete sou{n} of sodamas synkkeȝ i{n} my{n} ereȝ,
  & þe gult of gomorre gareȝ me to wrath;
  I schal lyȝt i{n}-to þat led & loke my seluen,
  If[34] þay haf don as þe dyne dryueȝ on-lofte,                     692
  Þay han lerned a lyst þat lykeȝ me ille,
  Þat þay han fou{n}den i{n} her flesch of fauteȝ þe werst,
  Vch male matȝ his mach a man as hy{m} seluen,
  & fylt{er} folyly i{n} fere, on fe{m}maleȝ wyse.                   696
  I compast hem a kynde crafte & kende hit hem derne,
    [Sidenote: The ordinance of marriage had been made for them, but
    they foully set it at nought.]
  & amed hit i{n} my{n} ordenau{n}ce oddely dere,
  & dyȝt drwry þer-i{n}ne, doole alþ{er}-swettest,
  & þe play of paramoreȝ I portrayed my seluen;                      700
  & made þer-to a man{er} myriest of oþ{er},
  When two true togeder had tyȝed hem seluen,
  By-twene a male & his make such m{er}þe schulde conne;[35]
  Wel nyȝe pure paradys moȝt preue no bett{er},                      704
  Elleȝ þay moȝt honestly ayþ{er} oþ{er} welde.
  At a stylle stollen steuen, vnstered wyth syȝt,
    [Sidenote: The flame of love.]
  Luf lowe hem bytwene lasched so hote,
  Þat alle þe meschefeȝ on mold moȝt hit not sleke;                  708
  Now haf þay skyfted my skyl & scorned natwre,
    [Sidenote: Therefore shall they be destroyed as an example to
    all men for ever.]
  & hentteȝ hem i{n} heþy{n}g an vsage vn-clene;
  Hem to smyte for þat smod smartly I þenk
  Þat wyȝeȝ schal be by hem war, worlde w{i}t{h}-outen ende.”        712

[Headnote: ABRAHAM PLEADS FOR THE CITIES.]

    [Sidenote: Abraham is full of fear, and asks God whether the
    “sinful and the sinless” are to suffer together.]
  Þe{n}ne arȝed abraham & alle his mod chau{n}ge[d],
  For hope of þe harde hate þat hyȝt hatȝ oure lorde;
  Al sykande he sayde “s{ir} w{i}t{h} yor leue,
  Schal synful & sakleȝ suffer al on payne;                          716
  Weþ{er} eu{er} hit lyke my lorde to lyfte such domeȝ,
  Þat þe wykked & þe worþy schal on wrake suffer,
  & weye vpon þe worre half þat wrathed þe neu{er}?
  Þat watȝ neu{er} þy won þat wroȝteȝ v{us} alle.                    720
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 67a.]]
    [Sidenote: Whether he will spare the cities provided fifty
    righteous are found in them?]
  Now fyfty fyn frendeȝ wer fou{n}de i{n} ȝonde toune
  In þe Cety of Sodamas & also gomorré
  Þat neu{er} lakked þy laue, bot loued ay trauþe,
  & reȝt-ful wern & resou{n}able & redy þe to serue,                 724
  Schal þay falle i{n} þe faute þat oþ{er} frekeȝ wroȝt
  & ioyne to her iuggement her iuise to haue?
  Þat nas neu{er} þyn note, vnneuened hit worþe,
  Þat art so gaynly a god & of goste mylde!”                         728
    [Sidenote: For the sake of fifty the cities shall be spared.]
  “Nay for fyfty,” q{uod} þe fader, “& þy fayre speche,
  &[36] þay be fou{n}den i{n} þat folk of her fylþe clene,
  I schal for-gyue alle þe gylt þurȝ my g{ra}ce one,
  & let hem smolt al unsmyten smoþely atoneȝ.”                       732
    [Sidenote: The patriarch beseeches God to spare the city for the
    sake of forty-five righteous.]
  “AA! blessed be þow,” q{uod} þe burne, “so boner & þewed,
  & al haldeȝ i{n} þy honde, þe heuen & þe erþe,
  Bot for I haf þis talke tatȝ to non ille,
  Ȝif I mele a lyttel more þat mul am & askeȝ;                       736
  What if fyue faylen of fyfty þe nou{m}bre,
  & þe remnau{n}t be reken, how restes þy wylle?”
    [Sidenote: For the lack of five the cities shall not be
    destroyed.]
  “And fyue wont of fyfty,” q{uod} god, “I schal forȝete alle
  & wyth-halde my honde for horty{n}g on lede.”                      740
  “& quat if faurty be fre & fauty þyse oþ{er}
  Schalt þow schortly al schende & schape non oþ{er}.”
    [Sidenote: For forty the cities shall be spared.]
  “Nay þaȝ faurty forfete ȝet fryst I a whyle,
  & voyde away my vengau{n}ce, þaȝ me vyl þynk.”                     744
  Þe{n} abraham obeched hym & loȝly hi{m} þonkkeȝ,
  “Now sayned be þou sauio{ur}, so symple i{n} þy wrath!
  I am bot erþe ful euel & vsle so blake,
    [Sidenote: Abraham entreats God’s forbearance for his speech.]
  Forto mele wyth such a mayst{er} as myȝteȝ hatȝ alle,              748
  Bot I haue by-go{n}nen wyth my god, & he hit gay{n} þynkeȝ,
  Ȝif I for-loyne as a fol þy frau{n}chyse may serue;
  What if þretty þryuande be þrad i{n} ȝon tou{n}eȝ,
  What schal I leue if my lorde, if he hem leþe wolde?”              752
  Þe{n}ne þe godlych god gef hy{m} onsware,
    [Sidenote: Thirty righteous, found in the cities, shall save
    them from destruction.]
  “Ȝet for þretty i{n} þrong I schal my þro steke,
  & spare spakly of spyt i{n} space of my þeweȝ,
  & my rankor refrayne fo{ur} þy reken wordeȝ.”                      756
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 67b.]]
  “What for twenty,” q{uod} þe tolke, “vntwyneȝ þ{o}u hem þe{n}ne?”
  “Nay, ȝif þ{o}u ȝerneȝ hit, ȝet ȝark I hem g{ra}ce;
    [Sidenote: For the sake of twenty guiltless ones God will
    release the rest.]
  If þat twenty be trwe I tene hem no more,
  Bot relece alle þat regiou{n} of her ronk werkkeȝ.”                760
  “Now aþel lorde,” q{uod} Abraham, “oneȝ a speche
  & I schal schape no more þo schalkkeȝ to helpe;
  If ten trysty i{n} toune be tan i{n} þi werkkeȝ
    [Sidenote: Or if ten only should be found pure.]
  Wylt þ{o}u mese þy mode & menddy{n}g abyde?”                       764
  “I grau{n}t,” q{uod} þe grete god, “grau{n}t mercy,” þ{a}t oþ{er}.
  & þe{n}ne arest þe renk & raȝt no fyrre;
  & godde glydeȝ his gate by þose grene wayeȝ
  & he co{n}ueyen hy{m} con w{i}t{h} cast of his yȝe,                768
    [Sidenote: The patriarch intercedes for Lot.]
  & als he loked along þere as oure lorde passed,
  Ȝet he cryed hy{m} aft{er} w{i}t{h} careful steuen:
  “Meke mayst{er} on þy mon to my{n}ne if þe lyked,
  Loth lengeȝ i{n} ȝon leede þat is my lef broþ{er},                 772
  He sytteȝ þer i{n} sodomis, þy seruau{n}t so pou{er}e
  Among þo mansed men þat han þe much g{r}eued;
    [Sidenote: Beseeches Him to “temper His ire,” and then departs
    weeping for sorrow.]
  Ȝif þ{o}u tyneȝ þat tou{n}, te{m}pre þyn yre
  As þy mersy may malte þy meke to spare.”                           776
  Þe{n} he wendeȝ, wendeȝ his way wepande for care
  To-warde þe mere of mambre wepande for so[rȝe,][37]
  & þere i{n} longy{n}g al nyȝt he lengeȝ i{n} wones,
  Whyl þe sou{er}ayn to sodamas sende to spye.                       780

    [Sidenote 34: MS. i{n}f.]
    [Sidenote 35: _come_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 36: _An_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 37: _sorewe_ is written by a late hand over the
    original word.]


[Headnote: MESSENGERS ARE SENT TO LOT.]

X.

    [Sidenote: God’s messengers go to Sodom.]
  His sondes i{n}-to sodamas watȝ sende i{n} þat tyme,
  I{n} þat ilk euentyde, by au{n}gels tweyne,
  Meuand meuande[38] mekely togeder as myry me{n} ȝonge,
    [Sidenote: Lot is sitting alone at the “door of his lodge.”]
  As loot i{n} a loge dor lened hy{m} alone,                         784
  I{n} a porche of þat place pyȝt to þe ȝat{es},
  Þat watȝ ryal & ryche, so watȝ þe renk{es} seluen.
    [Sidenote: Staring into the street he sees two men.]
  As he stared i{n}-to þe strete þ{er} stout men played
  He syȝe þer swey i{n} asent swete men tweyne;                      788
    [Sidenote: Beardless chins they had, and hair like raw silk.]
  Bolde burneȝ wer þay boþe w{i}t{h} berdles chy{n}neȝ,
  Royl rollande fax to raw sylk lyke,
  Of ble as þe brere flo{ur} where-so þe bare scheweed,
  Ful clene watȝ þe cou{n}tenau{n}ce of her cler yȝen;               792
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 68a.]]
    [Sidenote: Beautifully white were their weeds.]
  Wlonk whit watȝ her wede & wel hit hem semed.
  Of alle fetureȝ ful fyn & fautleȝ boþe;
  Watȝ non autly i{n} ouþ{er}, for aungels hit wern,
  & þat þe ȝep vnder-ȝede þat i{n} þe ȝate sytteȝ.                   796

[Headnote: LOT ENTERTAINS THE MESSENGERS.]

    [Sidenote: Lot runs to meet them.]
  He ros vp ful radly & ran hem to mete
  & loȝe he louteȝ hem to, loth, to þe grou{n}de,
  & syþen soberly [satȝ] “syreȝ I yow by-seche,
    [Sidenote: Invites them to remain awhile in his house, and in
    the morning they may take their way.]
  Þat ȝe wolde lyȝt at my loge & lenge þ{er}-i{n}ne,                 800
  Comeȝ to yo{ur} knaues kote I craue at þis oneȝ;
  I schal fette yow a fatte yo{ur} fette forto wasche;
  I norne yow bot for on nyȝt neȝe me to lenge,
  & i{n} þe myry morny{n}g ȝe may yo{ur} waye take.”                 804
  & þay nay þat þay nolde neȝ no howseȝ,
  Bot stylly þer i{n} þe strete as þay stadde wern,
  Þay wolde lenge þe long naȝt & logge þ{er}-oute;
  Hit watȝ ho{us} innoȝe to hem þe heuen vpon lofte.                 808
    [Sidenote: Lot invites them so long that at last they comply.]
  Loth laþed so longe wyth luflych wordeȝ,
  Þat þay hy{m} grau{n}ted to go & gruȝt no leng{er}.
  Þe bolde to his byggy{n}g bryngeȝ hem bylyue,
    [Sidenote: The wife and daughters of Lot welcome their visitors.]
  Þat ryally [watȝ] arayed, for he watȝ ryche eu{er}.                812
  Þe wyȝeȝ wern welcom as þe wyf couþe,
  His two dere doȝt{er}eȝ deuoutly he{m} haylsed,
  Þat wer maydeneȝ ful meke, maryed not ȝet,
  & þay wer semly & swete, & swyþe wel arayed.                       816
    [Sidenote: Lot admonishes his men to prepare the meat, and to
    serve no salt with it.]
  Loth þe{n}ne ful lyȝtly lokeȝ hy{m} aboute,
  & his me{n} amonest{es} mete forto dyȝt,
  Bot þenkkeȝ on hit be þrefte what þynk[39] so ȝe make,
  For wyth no so{ur}[40] ne no salt serueȝ hy{m} neu{er}.            820
  Bot ȝet I wene þat þe wyf hit wroth[41] to dyspyt,
  & sayde softely to hir self “þis vn-sau{er}e[42] hyne
  Loueȝ no salt i{n} her sauce ȝet hit no skyl were
  Þat oþ{er} burne be boute þaȝ boþe be nyse.”                       824
    [Sidenote: Lot’s wife disregards the injunction.]
  Þe{n}ne ho sau{er}eȝ w{i}t{h} salt her seueȝ vchone
  Agayne þe bone of þe burne þat hit forboden hade,
  & als ho scelt he{m} i{n} scorne þat wel her skyl knewen.
  Why watȝ ho wrech so wod, ho wrathed oure lorde!                   828
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 68b.]]
    [Sidenote: The guests are well entertained.]
  Þe{n}ne seten þay at þe soper, wern serued by-lyue,
  Þe gest{es} gay & ful glad, of glam debonere,
  Welawy{n}nely wlonk tyl þay waschen hade,
  Þe trest{es} tylt to þe woȝe & þe table boþe.                      832

[Headnote: LOT’S HOUSE IS BESET.]

    [Sidenote: But before they go to rest the city is up in arms.]
  Fro þe seggeȝ haden souped & seten bot a whyle,
  Er eu{er} þay bosked to bedde þe borȝ watȝ al vp;
  Alle þat weppen myȝt welde, þe wakker & þe stronger,
  To vmbe-lyȝe lotheȝ ho{us} þe ledeȝ to take,                       836
  In grete flokkeȝ of folk, þay fallen to his ȝateȝ,
  As a scowte-wach scarred, so þe asscry rysed;
    [Sidenote: With “keen clubs” the folk clatter on the walls, and
    demand that Lot should deliver up his guests.]
  W{i}t{h} kene clobbeȝ of þat clos þay clatȝ on þe woweȝ,
  & wyth a schrylle scharp schout þay schewe þyse worde:             840
  “If þ{o}u louyeȝ þy lyf loth i{n} þyse woneȝ
  Ȝete v{us} out þose ȝong men þat ȝore-whyle here entred,
  Þat we may lere hym[43] of lof, as oure lyst biddeȝ,
  As is þe asyse of Sodomas to seggeȝ þ{a}t passen.”                 844
  Whatt! þay sputen & speken of so spito{us} fylþe,
  What! þay ȝeȝed & ȝolped of ȝestande sorȝe,
    [Sidenote: The wind yet stinks with their filthy speech.]
  Þat ȝet þe wynd, & þe weder, & þe worlde stynk{es}
  Of þe brych þat vp-braydeȝ þose broþelych wordeȝ.                  848
  Þe god man glyfte w{i}t{h} þ{a}t glam & gloped for noyse,
  So scharpe schame to hy{m} schot, he schrank at þe hert,
  For he knew þe costou{m} þat kyþed þose wrecheȝ,
  He doted neu{er} for no doel so depe i{n} his my{n}de.             852
    [Sidenote: Lot is in great trouble.]
  Allas! sayd hy{m} þe{n}ne loth, & lyȝtly he ryseȝ
  & boweȝ forth fro þe bench i{n}-to þe brode ȝat{es}.
  What! he wonded no woþe of wekked knaueȝ,
  Þat he ne passed þe port þe p{er}il[44] to abide.                  856
    [Sidenote: He leaves his guests and addresses the Sodomites.]
  He went forthe at þe wyket & waft hit hy{m} aft{er},
  Þat a clyket hit cleȝt clos hy{m} byhynde.
  Þe{n}ne he meled to þo men mesurable wordeȝ,
  For harloteȝ w{i}t{h} his hendelayk he hoped to chast;             860
  “Oo! my frendeȝ so fre, yo{ur} fare is to strange,
  Dotȝ away yo{ur} derf dyn & dereȝ neu{er} my gest{es},
  Avoy! hit is yo{ur} vylaynye, ȝe vylen yo{ur} seluen;
  &[45] ȝe ar iolyf gentylmen yo{ur} iapes ar ille.                  864
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 69a.]]
  Bot I schal ke{n}ne yow by kynde a crafte þat is bett{er};
    [Sidenote: He offers to give up to them his two daughters.]
  I haf a tresor i{n} my telde of tow my fayre deȝt{er},
  Þat ar maydeneȝ vnmard for alle men ȝette;
  In sodamas, þaȝ I hit say, non semloker burdes,                    868
  Hit arn ronk, hit arn rype & redy to ma{n}ne;
  To samen wyth þo semly þe solace is bett{er},
  I schal biteche yow þo two þat tayt arn & quoy{n}t,
  & laykeȝ wyth hem as yow lyst & leteȝ my gest{es} one.”            872
    [Sidenote: The rebels raise a great noise, and ask who made him
    a justice to judge their deeds, who was but a boy when he came
    to Sodom.]
  Þe{n}ne þe rebaudeȝ so ronk rerd such a noyse,
  Þat aȝly hurled i{n} his ereȝ her harloteȝ speche;
  “Wost þ{o}u not wel þ{a}t þ{o}u woneȝ here a wyȝe strange,
  An out-comly{n}g, a carle, we kylle of þyn heued.                  876
  Who Ioyned þe be iostyse oure iapeȝ to blame,
  Þat com a boy to þis borȝ, þaȝ þ{o}u be burne ryche?”
  Þ{us} þay þrobled & þrong & þrwe vmbe his ereȝ,
  & distresed hy{m} wonder strayt, w{i}t{h} strenkþe i{n} þe prece,  880

[Headnote: THE MEN OF SODOM SMITTEN WITH BLINDNESS.]

    [Sidenote: The young men bring Lot within doors, and smite those
    outside with blindness.]
  Bot þat þe ȝonge me{n}, so ȝepe, ȝornen þ{er}-oute,
  Wapped vpon þe wyket & wo{n}nen hem tylle,
  & by þe hondeȝ hy{m} hent & horyed hy{m} w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne,
  & steken þe ȝat{es} ston-harde wyth stalworth barreȝ.              884
  Þay blwe a boffet i{n} blande þat ba{n}ned peple,
  Þat þay blust{er}ed as blynde as bayard watȝ eu{er};
    [Sidenote: In vain they try to find the door of Lot’s house.]
  Þay lest of loteȝ loggi{n}g any lysou{n} to fynde,
  Bot nyteled þ{er} alle þe nyȝt for noȝt at þe last;                888
  Þe{n}ne vch tolke tyȝt hem þat hade of tayt fayled,
  & vchon roþeled to þe rest þat he reche moȝt;
  Bot þay wern wakned al wrank[46] þat þ{er} i{n} won lenged,
  Of on þe vglokest vnhap þat eu{er} on erd suffred.                 892

    [Sidenote 38: So in MS.]
    [Sidenote 39: _þyng_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 40: savo{ur} (?).]
    [Sidenote 41: _wroȝt_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 42: MS. vnfau{er}e.]
    [Sidenote 43: _hem_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 44: MS. _pil_.]
    [Sidenote 45: _And_ = _An_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 46: _wrang_ (?).]


[Headnote: LOT IS SENT OUT OF THE CITY.]

XI.

    [Sidenote: Early in the morning the angels command Lot to
    depart from Sodom, with his wife and two daughters, and to look
    straight before him, for Sodom and Gomorrah shall be destroyed.]
  Ruddon of þe day-rawe ros vpon vȝten,
  When merk of þe mydnyȝt moȝt no more last,
  Ful erly þose aungeleȝ þis haþel þay ruþen
  & glopnedly on godeȝ halue gart hy{m} vpryse,                      896
  Fast þe freke ferkeȝ vp ful ferd at his hert;
  Þay comau{n}ded hy{m} cof to cach þat he hade,
  “Wyth þy wyf & þy wyȝeȝ & þy wlone deȝtters,
  For we laþe þe, s{ir} loth, þat þ{o}u þy lyf haue;                 900
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 69b.]]
  Cayre tid of þis kythe er combred þ{o}u worþe,
  With alle þi here vpon haste, tyl þ{o}u a hil fynde;
  Fou{n}deȝ faste on yo{ur} fete, bifore yo{ur} face lokes,
  Bot bes neu{er} so bolde to blusch yow bihynde,                    904
  & loke ȝe ste{m}me no stepe, bot strecheȝ on faste,
  Til ȝe reche to a reset, rest ȝe neu{er};
  For we schal tyne þis tou{n} & trayþely disstrye,
  Wyth alle þise wyȝeȝ so wykke wyȝtly de-voyde                      908
  & alle þe londe w{i}t{h} þise ledeȝ we losen at oneȝ;
  Sodomas schal ful sodenly synk i{n}-to grou{n}de,
  & þe grou{n}de of gomorre gorde i{n}-to helle,
  & vche a koste of þis kyth{e} clater vpon hepes.                   912
    [Sidenote: Lot asks what is best to be done, that he may escape.]
  Þe{n} laled loth, “lorde what is best?
  If I me fele vpon fote þat I fle moȝt,
  Hov schulde I huyde me fro hem þ{a}t hatȝ his hate ky{n}ned,
  I{n} þe brath of his breth þat bre{n}neȝ alle þi{n}keȝ,[47]        916
  To crepe fro my creato{ur} & know not wheder,
  Ne wheþer his fooschip me folȝeȝ bifore oþ{er} bihynde?”
  Þe freke sayde “no foschip oure fader hatȝ þe schewed,
  Bot hiȝly heuened þi hele fro hem þat arn combred:                 920
    [Sidenote: He is told to choose himself a dwelling which shall
    be saved from destruction.]
  Nov walle þe a wo{n}ny{n}g þat þe warisch myȝt,
  & he schal saue hit for þy sake þat hatȝ v{us} sende hider,
  For þ{o}u art oddely þyn one out of þis fylþe,
  & als Abraham þyn em[48] hit at hi{m} self asked.”                 924
  “Lorde, loued he worþe,” q{uod} loth, “vpon erþe!
    [Sidenote: He chooses Zoar.]
  Þe{n} is a cite herbisyde þat segor hit hatte,
  Here vtt{er} on a rou{n}de hil hit houeȝ hit one,
  I wolde, if his wylle wore, to þat won scape.”                     928
    [Sidenote: The angels command Lot to depart quickly.]
  “Þe{n}n fare forth,” q{uod} þat fre, “& fyne þ{o}u neu{er}
  W{i}t{h} þose ilk þat þow wylt þ{a}t þrenge þe aft{er},
  & ay goande on yo{ur} gate, wyth-outen agayn-tote,
  For alle þis londe schal be lorne, longe er þe son{n}e rise.”      932
    [Sidenote: He wakes his wife and daughters.]
  Þe wyȝe wakened his wyf & his wlonk deȝt{er}es,
  & oþ{er} two myri men þo maydeneȝ schulde wedde;
  & þay token hit as tyt & tented hit lyttel,
  Þaȝ fast laþed hem loth, þay leȝen ful stylle.                     936
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 70a.]]
    [Sidenote: All four are hastened on by the angels,
    who “preach to them the peril” of delay.]
  Þe aungeleȝ hasted þise oþ{er} & aȝly hem þratten,
  & enforsed alle fawre forth at þe ȝateȝ,
  Þo wern loth & his lef, his luflyche deȝt{er},
  Þer soȝt no mo to sauement of cities aþel fyue.                    940
  Þise aungeleȝ hade hem by hande out at þe ȝateȝ,
  Prechande hem þe perile, & beden hem passe fast.
  “Lest ȝe be taken i{n} þe teche of tyrau{n}teȝ here,
  Loke ȝe bowe now bi bot, boweȝ fast hence!”                        944
    [Sidenote: Before daylight Lot comes to a hill.]
  & þay kayre-ne con & kenely flowen;
  Erly, er any heuen glem, þay to a hil comen.

[Headnote: THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CITIES.]

    [Sidenote: God aloft raises a storm.]
  Þe grete god i{n} his greme bygy{n}neȝ onlofte;
  To wakan wedereȝ so wylde þe wyndeȝ he calleȝ,                     948
  & þay wroþely vp-wafte & wrastled togeder,
  Fro fawre half of þe folde, flytande loude.
  Clowdeȝ clust{er}ed bytwene kesten vp torres,
  Þat þe þik þu{n}der þrast þirled hem ofte.                         952
    [Sidenote: A rain falls thick of fire and sulphur.]
  Þe rayn rueled adou{n}, ridlande þikke,
  Of felle flau{n}kes of fyr & flakes of soufre,
  Al in smolderande smoke smachande ful ille,
    [Sidenote: Upon the four cities it comes, and frightens all
    folks therein.]
  Swe[49] aboute sodamas & hit sydeȝ alle,                           956
  Gorde to gomorra þat þe grou{n}de lansed;
  Abdama & syboym, þise ceteis alle faure,
  Al birolled wyth þe rayn, rostted & bre{n}ned,
  & ferly flayed þat folk þat i{n} þose fees lenged;                 960
  For when þat þe helle herde þe hou{n}deȝ of heuen
  He watȝ ferlyly fayn, vnfolded bylyue.
    [Sidenote: The great bars of the abyss do burst.]
  Þe grete barreȝ of þe abyme he barst vp at oneȝ,
  Þat alle þe regiou{n} to-rof i{n} riftes ful grete,                964
    [Sidenote: Cliffs cleave asunder.]
  & clouen alle i{n} lyttel cloutes þe clyffeȝ aywhere,
  As lance leueȝ of þe boke þat lepes i{n} twy{n}ne.
    [Sidenote: The cities sink to hell.]
  Þe brethe of þe brynston bi þat hit blende were,
  Al þo citees & her sydes sunkken to helle.                         968
  Rydelles wern þo grete rowtes of renkkes w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne,
  When þay wern war of þe wrake þ{a}t no wyȝe achaped,
    [Sidenote: Such a cry arises that the clouds clatter again.]
  Such a ȝom{er}ly ȝarm of ȝelly{n}g þer rysed;
  Þer-of clat{er}ed þe cloudes þat kryst myȝt haf rawþe.             972
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 70b.]]
  Þe segge herde þat sou{n} to segor þat ȝede,
  & þe wenches hy{m} wyth þat by þe way folȝed;
    [Sidenote: Lot and his companions are frightened, but continue
    to follow their face.]
  Ferly ferde watȝ her flesch, þat flowen ay ilyche,
  Trynande ay a hyȝe trot þat torne neu{er} dorsten.                 976
  Loth & þo luly-whit his lefly two deȝt{er},
  Ay folȝed here face, bifore her boþe yȝen;
  Bot þe balleful burde, þat neu{er} bode keped,

[Headnote: LOT’S WIFE BECOMES A STIFF STONE.]

    [Sidenote: Lot’s wife looks behind her, and is turned to a stiff
    stone “as salt as any sea.”]
  Blusched by-hynden her bak, þat bale forto herkken;                980
  Hit watȝ lusty lothes wyf þat ou{er} he[r] lyfte schulder.
  Ones ho bluschet to þe burȝe, bot bod ho no lenger,
  Þat ho nas stadde a stiffe ston, a stalworth image
  Al so salt as ani se & so ho ȝet standeȝ.                          984
    [Sidenote: Her companions do not miss her till they reach Zoar.]
  Þay slypped bi & syȝe hir not þat wern hir samen feres,
  Tyl þay i{n} segor wern sette, & sayned our lorde;
  Wyth lyȝt loueȝ vplyfte þay loued hy{m} swyþe,
  Þat so his seruau{n}tes wolde see & saue of such woþe.             988
    [Sidenote: By this time all were drowned.]
  Al watȝ dampped & don, & drowned by þe{n}ne;
    [Sidenote: The people of Zoar, for dread, rush into the sea and
    are destroyed.]
  Þe ledeȝ of þat lyttel tou{n} wern lopen out for drede,
  I{n}-to þat malscrande mere, marred bylyue,
  Þat noȝt saued watȝ bot segor þat sat on a lawe,                   992
    [Sidenote: Only Zoar with three therein (Lot and his daughters)
    are saved.]
  Þe þre ledeȝ þer-i{n}, loth & his deȝter;
  For his make watȝ myst, þat on þe mou{n}t lenged
  In a stonen statue þat salt sauor habbes,
    [Sidenote: Lot’s wife is an image of salt for two faults:
    1. She served salt before the Lord at supper.
    2. She looked behind her.]
  For two fautes þat þe fol watȝ fou{n}de i{n} mistrauþe;            996
  On, ho serued at þe soper salt bifore dryȝtyn
  & syþen, ho blusched hir bihynde, þaȝ hir forboden were;
  For on ho standes a ston, & salt for þat oþ{er},
  & alle lyst on hir lik þat arn on launde bestes.                  1000
    [Sidenote: Abraham is up full early on the morn.]
  Abraham ful erly watȝ vp on þe morne,
  Þat alle naȝt [so] much niye hade no mon i{n} his hert,
  Al i{n} longi{n}g for loth leyen i{n} a wache,
  Þer he lafte hade oure lorde, he is on lofte wo{n}nen;            1004
    [Sidenote: He looks towards Sodom, now only a pit filled with
    pitch, from which rise smoke, ashes and cinders, as from a
    furnace.]
  He sende toward sodomas þe syȝt of his yȝen,
  Þat eu{er} hade ben an erde of erþe þe swettest
  As aparau{n}t to paradis þat plantted þe dryȝtyn,
  Nov is hit plu{n}ged i{n} a pit like of pich fylled.              1008
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 71a.]]
  Suche a roþu{n} of a reche ros fro þe blake,
  Askeȝ vpe i{n} þe ayre & vselleȝ þer flowen,
  As a fornes ful of flot þat vpon fyr boyles,
  When bryȝt bre{n}nande brondeȝ ar bet þ{er} an-vnder.             1012
  Þis watȝ a uengau{n}ce violent þat voyded þise places,
  Þat fou{n}dered hatȝ so fayr a folk & þe folde sonkken.

[Headnote: THE DEAD SEA COVERS THE FIVE CITIES.]

    [Sidenote: A sea now occupies the place of the four cities.]
  Þer faur{e} citees wern set, nov is a see called,
  Þat ay is drouy & dym, & ded i{n} hit kynde,                      1016
  Blo, blubrande, & blak, vnblyþe to neȝe,
    [Sidenote: It is a stinking pool, and is called the Dead Sea.]
  As a stynkande stanc þat stryed sy{n}ne,
  Þat eu{er} of sy{n}ne & of smach, smart is to fele;
  For-þy þe derk dede see hit is demed eu{er} more,                 1020
  For hit dedeȝ of deþe duren þere ȝet.
  For hit is brod & boþe{m}leȝ, & bitter as þe galle,
    [Sidenote: Nothing may live in it.]
  & noȝt may lenge i{n} þat lake þat any lyf bereȝ,
  & alle þe costeȝ of kynde hit combreȝ vchone;                     1024
    [Sidenote: Lead floats on its surface.]
  For lay þ{er}-on a lump of led & hit on loft fleteȝ,
    [Sidenote: A feather sinks to the bottom of it.]
  & folde þ{er}-on a lyȝt fyþ{er} & hit to fou{n}s synkkeȝ.
    [Sidenote: Lands, watered by this sea, never bear grass or weed.]
  & þ{er} wat{er} may walt{er} to wete any erþe,
  Schal neu{er} grene þ{er}-on growe, gresse ne wod nawþ{er}.       1028
  If any schalke to be schent wer schowued þ{er}-i{n}ne,
  Þaȝ he bode i{n} þat boþe{m} broþely a monyth,
    [Sidenote: A man cannot be drowned in it.]
  He most ay lyue i{n} þat loȝe i{n} losy{n}g eu{er}-more,
  & neu{er} dryȝe no dethe, to dayes of ende;                       1032
  & as hit is corsed of kynde & hit coosteȝ als,
    [Sidenote: The clay clinging to it is corrosive, as alum,
    alkaran, sulphur, etc., which fret the flesh and fester the
    bones.]
  Þe clay þat clenges þ{er}-by arn corsyes strong,
  As alu{m} & alkaran,[50] þat angré[51] arn boþe,
  Soufre so{ur}, & sau{n}dyu{er}, & oþ{er} such mony;               1036
  & þer walteȝ of þat wat{er} i{n} waxlokes grete,
  Þe spuniande[52] aspaltou{n} þat spysereȝ sellen;
  & suche is alle þe soyle by þat se halues,
  Þat fel fretes þe flesch & festred[53] bones.                     1040
    [Sidenote: On the shores of this lake grow trees bearing fair
    fruits, which, when broken or bitten, taste like ashes.]
  & þer ar tres by þat terne of trayto{ur}es;
  & þay borgou{n}eȝ & beres blomeȝ ful fayre,
  & þe fayrest fryt þat may on folde growe,
  As orenge & oþ{er} fryt & apple garnade                           1044
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 71b.]]
  Also red & so ripe & rychely hwed,
  As any dom myȝt deuice of dayntyeȝ oute;
  Bot quen hit is brused oþ{er} broken, oþ{er} byten i{n} twy{n}ne,
  No worldeȝ goud hit wyth-i{n}ne, bot wydowande[54] askes;         1048

[Headnote: IT IS A TOKEN OF WICKEDNESS AND VENGEANCE.]

    [Sidenote: All these are tokens of wickedness and vengeance.]
  Alle þyse ar teches & tokenes to trow vpon ȝet,
  & wittnesse of þat wykked werk & þe wrake aft{er},
  Þat oure fader forferde for fylþe of þose ledes.
    [Sidenote: God loves the pure in heart.]
  Þe{n}ne vch wyȝe may wel wyt þat he þe wlonk louies,              1052
  & if he louyes clene layk þat is oure lorde ryche,
    [Sidenote: Strive to be clean.]
  & to be couþe i{n} his co{ur}te þ{o}u coueytes þe{n}ne
  To se þat semly i{n} sete & his swete face,
  Clerrer cou{n}seyl, cou{n}sayl con I non,
        bot þat þ{o}u clene worþe.                                  1056
    [Sidenote: Jean de Meun tells how a lady is to be loved.]
  For clopy{n}gnel i{n} þe compas of his clene rose,
  Þer he expouneȝ a speche, to hy{m} þat spede wolde,
  Of a lady to be loued, loke to hir sone,
    [Sidenote: By doing what pleases her best.]
  Of wich bery{n}g þat ho be, & wych ho best louyes,                1060
  & be ryȝt such i{n} vch a borȝe of body & of dedes,
  & folȝ þe fet of þat fere þat þ{o}u fre haldes.
  & if þ{o}u wyrkkes on þis wyse, þaȝ ho wyk were,
  Hir schal lyke þat layk þat lyknes hir tylle.                     1064
  If þ{o}u wyl dele drwrye wyth dryȝtyn þe{n}ne,
    [Sidenote: Love thy Lord!]
  & lelly louy þy lorde & his leef worþe.
    [Sidenote: Conform to Christ, who is polished as a pearl.]
  Þe{n}ne co{n}fo{ur}me þe to kryst, & þe clene make,
  Þat eu{er} is polyced als playn as þe p{er}le seluen.             1068
  For loke fro fyrst þat he lyȝt w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne þe lel mayden!
    [Sidenote: By how comely a contrivance did he enter the womb of
    the virgin!]
  By how comly a kest he watȝ clos þere,
  When venkkyst watȝ no v{er}gynyté, ne vyole{n}ce maked,
  Bot much clener watȝ hir corse, god ky{n}ned þeri{n}ne;           1072
    [Sidenote: In what purity did he part from her!]
  & efte when he borne watȝ i{n} beþelen þe ryche,
  I{n} wych puryté þay dep{ar}ted; þaȝ þay pou{er} were,
  Watȝ neu{er} so blysful a bo{ur} as watȝ abos[55] þe{n}ne
    [Sidenote: No abode was better than his.]
  Ne no schroude ho{us} so schene as a schepon þare,                1076
  Ne non so glad vnder god as ho þat grone schulde;
    [Sidenote: The sorrow of childbirth was turned to joy.]
  For þer watȝ seknesse al sou{n}de þat sarrest is halden,
  & þer watȝ rose reflayr where rote hatȝ ben eu{er},
  & þer watȝ solace & songe wher sorȝ hatȝ ay cryed;                1080
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 72a.]]
    [Sidenote: Angels solaced the virgin with organs and pipes.]
  For au{n}gelles w{i}t{h} i{n}strumentes of organes & pypes,
  & rial ry{n}gande rotes & þe reken fyþel,
  & alle hende þat honestly moȝt an hert glade,
  Aboutte my lady watȝ lent, quen ho delyu{er} were.                1084

[Headnote: CHRIST WAS EVER PURE.]

    [Sidenote: The child Christ was so clean that ox and ass
    worshipped him.]
  Þe{n}ne watȝ her blyþe barne burnyst so clene,
  Þat boþe þe ox & þe asse hym hered at-ones;
  Þay knewe hy{m} by his clannes for ky{n}g of nature,
  For non so clene of such a clos com neu{er} er þe{n}ne;           1088
  & ȝif clanly he þe{n}ne com, ful cortays þ{er}-aft{er},
    [Sidenote: He hated wickedness, and would never touch ought that
    was vile.]
  Þat alle þat longed to luþ{er} ful lodly he hated;
  By nobleye of his norture he nolde neu{er} towche
  Oȝt þat watȝ vngoderly oþ{er} ordure watȝ i{n}ne.                 1092
    [Sidenote: Yet there came to him lazars and lepers, lame and
    blind.]
  Ȝet comen lodly to þat lede, as laȝares monye,
  Su{m}me lepre, su{m}me lome, & lom{er}ande blynde,
  Poysened & parlatyk & pyned i{n} fyres,
    [Sidenote: Dry and dropsical folk.]
  Drye folk & ydropike, & dede at þe laste;                         1096
  Alle called on þat cortayse & claymed his g{ra}ce.
    [Sidenote: He healed all with kind speech.]
  He heled hem wyth hynde speche of þat þay ask aft{er},
  For what-so he towched also-tyd to{ur}ned to hele,
  Wel cla{n}ner þen any crafte cowþe devyse;                        1100
  So clene watȝ his hondely{n}g vche ordure hit schonied,
    [Sidenote: His handling was so good, that he needed no knife to
    cut or carve with.]
  & þe gropy{n}g so goud of god & man boþe,
  Þat for fetys of his fyngeres fonded he neu{er}
  Nauþ{er} to cout[56] ne to kerue, w{i}t{h} knyf ne wyth egge,     1104
  For-þy brek he þe bred blades wyth-outen;
    [Sidenote: The bread he broke more perfectly than could all the
    tools of Toulouse.]
  For hit ferde freloker i{n} fete i{n} his fayre honde,
  Displayed more pryuyly when he hit part schulde,
  Þe{n}ne alle þe toles of tolowse moȝt tyȝt hit to kerue,          1108
    [Sidenote: How can we approach his court except we be clean?]
  Þ{us} is he kyryo{us} & clene þat þ{o}u his cort askes;
  Hov schulde þ{o}u com to his kyth bot if þ{o}u clene were?
  Nov ar we sore & synful & sov[_er_]ly[57] vch one,
  How schulde we se, þe{n} may we say, þ{a}t syre vpon throne?      1112
    [Sidenote: God is merciful.]
  Ȝis, þat mayst{er} is mercyable; þaȝ þ{o}u be man fe{n}ny,
  & al to-marred i{n} myre whyl þ{o}u on molde lyuyes,
  Þ{o}u may schyne þurȝ schryfte, þaȝ þ{o}u haf schome serued,

[Headnote: PENANCE MAKES MAN PURE AS A PEARL.]

    [Sidenote: Through penance we may shine as a pearl.]
  & pure þe with penau{n}ce tyl þ{o}u a perle worþe.                1116
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 72b.]]
    [Sidenote: Why is the pearl so prized?]
  Perle praysed is prys, þ{er} perre is schewed,
  Þaȝ hy{m} not derrest be demed to dele for penies,
  Quat may þe cause be called, bot for hir clene hwes,
  Þat wy{n}nes worschyp, abof alle whyte stones?                    1120
  For ho schynes so schyr þat is of schap rou{n}de,
  Wyth-outen faut oþ{er} fylþe ȝif ho fyn were;
    [Sidenote: She becomes none the worse for wear.]
  & wax eu{er} i{n} þe worlde i{n} wery{n}g so olde,
  Ȝet þe perle payres not whyle ho i{n} pyese lasttes               1124
    [Sidenote: If she should become dim, wash her in wine.]
  & if hit cheue þe chau{n}ce vncheryst ho worþe,
  Þat ho blyndes of ble i{n} bo{ur} þ{er} ho lygges,
  No-bot wasch hir wyth wo{ur}chyp i{n} wyn as ho askes,
    [Sidenote: She then becomes clearer than before.]
  Ho by kynde schal be-com clerer þen are;                          1128
  So if folk be defowled by vnfre chau{n}ce,
    [Sidenote: So may the sinner polish him by penance.]
  Þat he be sulped i{n} sawle, seche to schryfte
  & he may polyce hym at þe prest, by penau{n}ce taken,
  Wel bryȝt{er} þen þe beryl oþ{er} browden perles.                 1132
    [Sidenote: Beware of returning to sin.]
  Bot war þe wel, if þ{o}u be waschen wyth wat{er} of schryfte,
  & polysed als playn as parchmen schauen,
  Sulp no more þe{n}ne i{n} sy{n}ne þy saule þ{er}-aft{er},
    [Sidenote: For then God is more displeased than ever.]
  For þe{n}ne þ{o}u dryȝtyn dyspleses w{i}t{h} dedes ful sore,      1136
  & entyses hy{m} to tene more trayþly þe{n} eu{er}
  & wel hatt{er} to hate þe{n} hade þ{o}u not waschen;
    [Sidenote: The reconciled soul God holds as His own.]
  For when a sawele is saȝtled & sakred to dryȝtyn,
  He holly haldes hit his & haue hit he wolde,                      1140
  Þe{n}ne efte lastes hit likkes, he loses hit ille,
    [Sidenote: Ill deeds rob Him of it.]
  As hit were rafte wyth vn-ryȝt & robbed wyth þewes.[58]
  War þe þe{n}ne for þe wrake, his wrath is achaufed,

[Headnote: GOD PUNISHES IMPURITY.]

    [Sidenote: God forbids us to defile any vessels used in His
    service.]
  For þat þat ones watȝ his schulde efte be vn-clene,               1144
  Þaȝ hit be bot a bassy{n}, a bolle, oþ{er} a scole,
  A dysche oþ{er} a dobler þ{a}t dryȝtyn oneȝ serued,
  To defowle hit eu{er} vpon folde fast he for-bedes,
  So is he scoym{us} of scaþe þat scylful is eu{er}.                1148
    [Sidenote: In Belshazzar’s time, the defiling of God’s vessels
    brought wrath upon the king.]
  & þat watȝ bared i{n} babyloyn i{n} Baltaȝar tyme,
  Hov harde vnhap þer hy{m} hent & hastyly sone,
  For he þe vesselles avyled þat vayled i{n} þe temple
  I{n} seruyse of þe sou{er}ayn su{m} tyme byfore.                  1152
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 73a.]]
  Ȝif ȝe wolde tyȝt me a tom telle hit I wolde,
  Hov charged more watȝ his chau{n}ce þat he{m} cherych nolde
  Þen his fader forloyne þat feched he{m} wyth strenþe,
  & robbed þe relygiou{n} of relykes alle.                          1156

    [Sidenote 47: þi{n}geȝ.]
    [Sidenote 48: _broþer_ is written over in a later hand.]
    [Sidenote 49: _Sweyed_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 50: _alkatran_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 51: _augre_ = _aigre_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 52: _spinnande_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 53: _festres_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 54: MS. wy{n}dowande.]
    [Sidenote 55: _abof_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 56: _cut_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 57: MS. _sovly_.]
    [Sidenote 58: _þeues_. (?).]


XII.

    [Sidenote: Daniel in his prophecies tells of the destruction of
    the Jews.]
  Danyel i{n} his dialokeȝ de-vysed su{m} tyme,
  As ȝet is proued ex-presse i{n} his p{ro}fecies,
  Hov þe gentryse of Iuise & Ih{e}r{usa}l{e}m þe ryche
  Watȝ disstryed wyth distres, & drawen to þe erþe,                 1160
    [Sidenote: For their unfaithfulness in following other gods, God
    allowed the heathen to destroy them, in the reign of Zedekiah,
    who practised idolatry.]
  For þat folke i{n} her fayth watȝ fou{n}den vntrwe,
  Þat haden hyȝt þe hyȝe god to halde of hy{m} eu{er};
  & he hem halȝed for his & help at her nede
  In mukel meschefes mony, þat meruayl [is] to here;                1164
  & þay forloyne her fayth & folȝed oþ{er} goddes,
  & þat wakned his wrath & wrast hit so hyȝe,
  Þat he fylsened þe faythful i{n} þe falce lawe
  To for-fare þe falce i{n} þe faythe trwe;                         1168
  Hit watȝ sen i{n} þat syþe þat ȝedechyas[59] re{n}gned,
  I{n} Iuda, þat iustised þe iuyne ky{n}ges.
  He sete on Salamones solie, on solemne wyse,
  Bot of leaute he watȝ lat to his lorde hende;                     1172
  He vsed abominaciones of idolatrye,
  & lette lyȝt bi þe lawe þat he watȝ lege tylle;
  For-þi oure fader vpon folde a foman hy{m} wakned,

[Headnote: NEBUCHADNEZZAR BESIEGES JERUSALEM.]

    [Sidenote: Nebuchadnezzar becomes his foe.]
  Nabigo-de-noȝar nuyed hy{m} swyþe.                                1176
  He pur-sued i{n} to palastyn w{i}t{h} proude men mony,
  & þer he wast wyth[60] werre þe wones of þorpes.
  He herȝed vp alle isr{ae}l & hent of þe beste,
    [Sidenote: He besieges Jerusalem, and surrounds the walls.]
  & þe gentylest of Iudee i{n} I{e}r{usa}l{e}m biseged,             1180
  Vmbe-walt alle þe walles wyth wyȝes ful stronge,
  At vche a dor a doȝty duk, & dutte hem wyth-i{n}ne;
    [Sidenote: The city is stuffed full of men.]
  For þe borȝ watȝ so bygge baytayled alofte,
  & stoffed wyth-i{n}ne w{i}t{h} stout men
        to stalle hem þ{er}-oute.                                   1184
  Þe{n}ne watȝ þe sege sette þe Cete aboute,
    [Sidenote: Brisk is the skirmish.]
  Skete skarmoch skelt, much skaþe lached;
  At vch brugge a berfray on basteles wyse,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 73b.]]
    [Sidenote: Seven times a day are the gates assailed.]
  Þat seuen syþe vch a day asayled þe ȝates,                        1188
  Trwe tulkkes i{n} to{ur}es teueled wyth-i{n}ne,
  In bigge brutage of borde, bulde on þe walles;
    [Sidenote: For two years the fight goes on, yet the city is not
    taken.]
  Þay feȝt & þay fende of, & fylt{er} togeder
  Til two ȝer ou{er}-torned, ȝet tok þay hit neu{er}.               1192
    [Sidenote: The folk within are in want of food.]
  At þe laste vpon longe, þo ledes wyth-i{n}ne,
  Faste fayled hem þe fode, enfaminied monie;
  Þe hote hunger wyth-i{n}ne hert hem wel sarre,
  Þen any dunt of þat douthe þat dowelled þ{er}-oute.               1196
  Þe{n}ne wern þo rowtes redles i{n} þo ryche wones,
    [Sidenote: Meager they become.]
  Fro þat mete watȝ myst, megre þay wexen,
    [Sidenote: For so shut up are they that escape seems impossible.]
  & þay stoken so strayt, þ{a}t þay ne stray myȝt
  A fote fro þat forselet to forray no goudes.                      1200
  Þe{n}ne þe ky{n}g of þe kyth a cou{n}sayl hy{m} takes,
  Wyth þe best of his burnes, a blench forto make;
    [Sidenote: But on a quiet night they steal out, and rush through
    the host.]
  Þay stel out on a stylle nyȝt er any steuen rysed,
  & harde hurles þurȝ þe oste, er enmies hit wyste,                 1204
  Bot er þay at-wappe ne moȝt þe wach wyth-oute,
    [Sidenote: They are discovered by the enemy.]
  Hiȝe skelt watȝ þe askry þe skewes an-vnder,
    [Sidenote: A loud alarm is given.]
  Loude alarom vpon lau{n}de lulted watȝ þe{n}ne;
  Ryche, ruþed of her rest, ran to here wedes,                      1208
  Hard hattes þay hent & on hors lepes;
  Cler claryou{n} crak cryed onlofte.
    [Sidenote: They are pursued and overtaken.]
  By þat watȝ alle on a hepe hurlande swyþee,
  Folȝande þat oþ{er} flote, & fonde hem bilyue,                    1212
  Ou{er}-tok hem, as tyd, tult hem of sadeles,
  Tyl vche prynce hade his per put to þe grou{n}de;

[Headnote: THE KING OF JUDAH IS MADE PRISONER.]

    [Sidenote: Their king is made prisoner.]
  & þer watȝ þe ky{n}g kaȝt wyth calde pry{n}ces,
  & alle hise gentyle for-iusted on ierico playnes,                 1216
    [Sidenote: His chief men are presented as prisoners to
    Nebuchadnezzar.]
  & presented wern as presoneres to þe prynce rychest,
  Nabigo-de-noȝar noble i{n} his chayer,
  & he þe faynest freke þat he his fo hade,
  & speke spito{us}ly hem to & spylt þ{er}aft{er}.                  1220
    [Sidenote: His sons are slain.]
  Þe ky{n}g{es} su{n}nes i{n} his syȝt he slow eu{er} vch one,
    [Sidenote: His own eyes are put out.]
  & holkked out his auen yȝen het{er}ly boþe
    [Sidenote: He is placed in a dungeon in Babylon.]
  & bede þe burne to be broȝt to babyloyn þe ryche,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 74a.]]
  & þere i{n} dongou{n} be don to dreȝe þ{er} his wyrdes.           1224
  Now se, so þe sou{er}ay[n] set hatȝ his wrake;
  Nas hit not for nabugo ne his noble nauþ{er},
  Þat oþ{er} depryued watȝ of pryde with paynes stronge,
    [Sidenote: All for his “bad bearing” against the Lord, who might
    otherwise have been his friend.]
  Bot for his bery{n}g so badde agayn his blyþe lorde;              1228
  For hade þe fader ben his frende þat hy{m} bifore keped,
  Ne neu{er} trespast to him i{n} teche of mysseleue.
  To Colde wer alle Calde & kythes of ynde,
  Ȝet take torkye hem wyth her tene hade ben little;                1232
    [Sidenote: Nebuchadnezzar ceased not until he had destroyed
    Jerusalem.]
  Ȝet nolde neu{er} nabugo þis ilke note leue,
  Er he hade tuyred þis tou{n} & torne hit to grou{n}de;
  He ioyned vnto I{e}r{usa}l{e}m a gentyle duc þe{n}ne,
    [Sidenote: Nebuzaradan was “chief of the chivalry.”]
  His name watȝ nabu-ȝardan, to noye þe iues;                       1236
  He watȝ mayster of his men & myȝty hi{m} seluen,
  Þe chef of his cheualrye his chekkes to make,
  He brek þe bareres as bylyue, & þe burȝ aft{er},
  & enteres i{n} ful ernestly, i{n} yre of his hert.                1240
  What! þe maysterry watȝ mene, þe me{n} wern away,
    [Sidenote: The best men were taken out of the city.]
  Þe best boȝed wyth þe burne þat þe borȝ ȝemed;
  & þo þat byden wer so[61] biten with þe bale hunger,
  Þat on wyf hade ben worþe þe welgest fo{ur}re;                    1244
    [Sidenote: Nevertheless Nebuzaradan spared not those left.]
  Nabiȝardan noȝt for-þy nolde not spare,
  Bot bede al to þe bronde vnder bare egge.
  Þay slowen of swettest semlych burdes,
    [Sidenote: Brains of bairns were spilt.]
  Baþed barnes i{n} blod & her brayn spylled;                       1248
    [Sidenote: Priests pressed to death.]
  Prestes & prelates þay presed to deþe,
    [Sidenote: Wives and wenches foully killed.]
  Wyues & wenches her wombes tocoruen,
  Þat her boweles out-borst aboute þe diches,
    [Sidenote: All that escaped the sword were taken to Babylon, and
    were made to drag the cart or milk the kine.]
  & al watȝ carfully kylde þat þay cach myȝt,                       1252
  & alle [þat] swypped vnswolȝed of þe sworde kene,
  Þay wer cagged & kaȝt on capeles al bare,
  Festned fettres to her fete vnder fole wombes,
  & broþely broȝt to babyloyn þer bale to suffer,                   1256
  To sytte i{n} seruage & syte; þat su{m}tyme wer ge{n}tyle,
  Now ar chau{n}ged to chorles & charged wyth werkkes,
  Boþe to cayre at þe kart & þe kuy mylke,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 74b.]]
  Þat su{m}tyme sete i{n} her sale syres & burdes.                  1260

[Headnote: NEBUZARDAN PILLAGES THE TEMPLE.]

    [Sidenote: Nebuzaradan burst open the temple, and slew those
    therein.]
  & ȝet nabuȝardan nyl neu{er} stynt,
  Er he to þe tempple tee wyth his tulkkes alle;
  Betes on þe barers, brestes vp þe ȝates,
  Slouen alle at a slyp þat serued þer-i{n}ne,                      1264
    [Sidenote: Priests, pulled by the poll, were slain along with
    deacons, clerks, and maidens.]
  Pulden prestes bi þe polle & plat of her hedes,
  Diȝten dekenes to deþe, dungen dou{n} clerkkes,
  & alle þe maydenes of þe mu{n}st{er} maȝtyly hokyllen
  Wyth þe swayf of þe sworde þat swolȝed he{m} alle.                1268
    [Sidenote: The enemy pillages the temple of its pillars of brass,
    and the golden candlestick from off the altar.]
  Þe{n}ne ran þay to þe relykes as robbors wylde,
  & pyled alle þe apparement þat pented to þe kyrke,
  Þe pure pyleres [o]f bras po{ur}trayd i{n} golde,
  & þe chef chau{n}deler charged with þe lyȝt,                      1272
  Þat ber þe lamp vpon lofte, þat lemed eu{er} more,
  Bifore þ[e] sancta s{an}c{t}or{um} þer selcouth watȝ ofte.
  Þay caȝt away þat condelstik, & þe crowne als,
  Þat þe aut{er} hade vpon, of aþel golde ryche;                    1276
    [Sidenote: Goblets, basins, golden dishes, all are taken by
    Nebuzaradan, and hampered together.]
  Þe gredirne & þe goblot{es} garnyst of sylu{er},
  Þe bases of þe bryȝt postes & bassynes so schyre;
  Dere disches of golde & dubleres fayre,
  Þe vyoles & þe vesselment of v{er}tuo{us} stones.                 1280
  Now hatȝ nabuȝardan nome{n} alle þyse noble þy{n}ges,
  & pyled þat p{re}cio{us} place & pakked þose godes;
  Þe golde of þe gaȝafylace to swyþe gret nou{m}bre,
  Wyth alle þe vrnmentes of þat ho{us}, he hamppred to-geder.       1284
  Alle he spoyled spito{us}ly i{n} a sped whyle,
    [Sidenote: Solomon had made them with much labour.]
  Þat salomon so mony a sadde ȝer soȝt to make,
  Wyth alle þe coyntyse þat he cowþe clene to wyrke;
  De-uised he þe vesselment, þe vestures clene,                     1288
  Wyth slyȝt of his ciences, his sou{er}ayn to loue,
  Þe ho{us} & þe ano{ur}nementes he hyȝtled to-gedere.
  Now hatȝ nabuȝardan nu{m}ne{n}d[62] hit al samen,
    [Sidenote: The temple he beats down, and returns to Babylon.]
  & syþen bet dou{n} þe burȝ & brend hit i{n} askes;                1292
  Þe{n}ne wyth legiou{n}es of ledes ou{er} londes he rydes,
  Herȝeȝ of Israel þe hyrne aboute.
  Wyth charged chariotes þe cheftayn he fynde[ȝ],
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 75a.]]
    [Sidenote: Presents the prisoners to the king, among whom were
    Daniel and his three companions.]
  Bike{n}nes þe catel to þe ky{n}g, þat he caȝt hade,               1296
  P{re}sented him þe p{r}isoneres i{n} pray þat þay token,
  Moni a worþly wyȝe whil her worlde laste,
  Moni semly syre son{e}, & swyþe rych maydenes,
  Þe pruddest of þe p{ro}uince, & p{ro}phetes childer,              1300
  As Ananie & aȝarie & als Miȝael,
  & dere daniel also, þat watȝ deuine noble,
  With moni a modey moder chylde mo þe{n} i{n}-noghe.

[Headnote: NEBUCHADNEZZAR IS PLEASED WITH THE SPOIL.]

    [Sidenote: Nebuchadnezzar has great joy, because his enemies are
    slain.]
  & nabugo-de-noȝar makes much ioye,                                1304
  Nov he þe ky{n}g hatȝ c{on}quest & þe kyth wu{n}nen,
  & dreped alle þe doȝtyest & derrest i{n} armes,
  & þe lederes of her lawe layd to þe grou{n}de,
  & þe pryce of þe p{ro}fecie p{r}isoners maked;                    1308

[Headnote: HE PRIZES GREATLY THE SACRED JEWELRY.]

    [Sidenote: Great was his wonder when he saw the sacred jewelry.]
  Bot þe ioy of þe iuelrye so gentyle & ryche,
  When hit watȝ schewed hy{m} so schene, scharp watȝ his wonder,
  Of such vessel auayed þat vayled so huge,
  Neu{er} ȝet nas nabugo-de-noȝar er þe{n}ne.                       1312
    [Sidenote: He praises the God of Israel.]
  He sesed hem w{i}t{h} solemneté, þe sou{er}ayn he praysed,
  þat watȝ aþel ou{er} alle, israel dryȝtyn;
    [Sidenote: Such vessels never before came to Chaldea.]
  Such god, such gomes, such gay vesselles
  Comen neu{er} out of kyth, to Caldee reames.                      1316
    [Sidenote: They are thrust into the treasury.]
  He trussed hem i{n} his tresorye i{n} a tryed place
  Rekenly wyth reu{er}ens, as he ryȝt hade;
  & þ{er} he wroȝt as þe wyse, as ȝe may wyt here-aft{er},
  For hade he let of hem lyȝt, hy{m} moȝt haf lu{m}pen worse.       1320
  Þat ryche i{n} gret rialté rengned his lyue,
    [Sidenote: Nebuchadnezzar reigns as emperor of all the earth,
    through the “doom of Daniel,” who gave him good counsel.]
  As {con}quero{ur} of vche a cost he cayser watȝ hatte,
  Emp{er}o{ur} of alle þe erþe & also þe saudan,
  & als þe god of þe grou{n}de watȝ grauen his name                 1324
  & al þurȝ dome of daniel, fro[63] he deuised hade,
  Þat alle goudes com of god, & gef hit hy{m} bi samples,
  Þat he ful clanly bi-cnv[64] his carp bi þe laste,
  & ofte hit mekned his my{n}de, his mayst{er}ful werkkes.          1328
  Bot al drawes to dyȝe w{i}t{h} doel vp[o]n ende;
  Bi[65] a haþel neu{er} so hyȝe he heldes to grou{n}de,
    [Sidenote: Nebuchadnezzar dies and is buried.]
  & so nabugo-de-noȝar as he nedes moste;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 75b.]]
  For alle his empire so hiȝe i{n} erþe is he g{ra}uen.             1332
    [Sidenote: Belshazzar succeeds him.]
  Bot þe{n}n þe bolde baltaȝar, þat watȝ his barn aldest,
  He watȝ stalled i{n} his stud, & stabled þe rengne;
    [Sidenote: He holds himself the biggest in heaven or on earth.]
  I{n} þe burȝ of babiloyne þe biggest he trawed,
  Þat nauþ{er} i{n} heuen ne no[66] erþe hade no pere;              1336
  For he bigan i{n} alle þe glori þat hy{m} þe gome lafte,
  Nabugo-de-Noȝar, þat watȝ his noble fader;
  So kene a ky{n}g i{n} Caldee com neu{er} er þe{n}ne.
    [Sidenote: He honours not God, but worships false phantoms.]
  Bot hono{ur}ed he not hy{m} þat in heuen wonies,                  1340
  Bot fals fantu{m}mes of fendes, formed with handes
  Wyth tool out of harde tre, & telded on lofte,
  & of stokkes & stones, he stoute goddes callȝ
  When þay ar gilde al with golde & gered wyth sylu{er},            1344
  & þere he kneles & calleȝ, & clepes after help.
    [Sidenote: He promises them rewards if good fortune befal.]
  &[67] þay reden hi{m} ryȝt rewarde he hem hetes,
  & if þay gruchen hi{m} his grace to gremen his hert,
    [Sidenote: If they vex him he knocks them in pieces.]
  He cleches to a gret klubbe & knokkes hem to peces;               1348
  Þ{us} in pryde & oliprau{n}ce his Empyre he haldes,
  In lust & i{n} lecherye, & loþelych werkkes;
    [Sidenote: He has a wife, and many concubines.]
  & hade a wyf forto welde, a worþelych quene,
  & mony a le{m}man, neu{er} þe lat{er}, þat ladis wer called.      1352
  In þe clernes of his {con}cubines & curio{us} wedeȝ,
    [Sidenote: The mind of the king was fixed upon new meats and
    other vain things.]
  In noty{n}g of nwe metes & of nice gettes,
  Al watȝ þe mynde of þat man, o{n} misschapen þi{n}ges,
  Til þe lorde of þe lyfte liste hit abate.                         1356

    [Sidenote 59: MS. _ȝedethyas_.]
    [Sidenote 60: MS. _wyth with_.]
    [Sidenote 61: The MS. reads _fo._]
    [Sidenote 62: _nummen_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 63: _for_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 64: Looks like bicuv{er} in MS.]
    [Sidenote 65: _be_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 66: _on_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 67: _An_ (?).]


[Headnote: BELSHAZZAR PROCLAIMS A FEAST, TO WHICH KINGS AND EMPERORS
ARE INVITED.]

XIII.

    [Sidenote: Belshazzar, to exhibit his vainglory, proclaims
    throughout Babylon, that all the great ones should assemble on a
    set day, at the Sultan’s feast.]
  The{n}ne þis bolde Baltaȝar biþenkkes hy{m} ones,
  To vouche on a vayment of his vayne g[l]orie;
  Hit is not i{n}nogh{e} to þe nice al noȝty þi{n}k[68] vse,
  Bot if alle þe worlde wyt his wykked dedes.                       1360
  Baltaȝar þurȝ babiloyn his ba{n}ne gart crye,
  & þurȝ þe cu{n}tre of caldee his cally{n}g con spry{n}g,
  Þat alle þe grete vpon grou{n}de schulde geder hem samen
  & assemble at a set day at þe saudans fest.                       1364
    [Sidenote: Kings, dukes, and lords were commanded to attend the
    court.]
  Such a mangerie to make þe man watȝ auised,
  Þat vche a kythyn ky{n}g schuld com þider;
  Vche duk wyth his duthe & oþ{er} dere lordes,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 76a.]]
  Schulde com to his co{ur}t to kyþe hy{m} for lege,                1368
  & to reche hy{m} reu{er}ens & his reuel herkken;
    [Sidenote: To do the king honour many nobles came to Babylon.]
  To loke on his lemanes & ladis hem calle,
  To rose hy{m} i{n} his rialty rych me{n} soȝtten,
  & mony a barou{n} ful bolde, to babyloyn þe noble.                1372
  Þer bowed toward babiloyn burnes so mony,
  Ky{n}ges, Cayseres ful kene, to þe co{ur}t wo{n}nen,
  Mony ludisch lordes þat ladies broȝten,
    [Sidenote: It would take too long to name the number.]
  Þat to neuen þe nou{m}bre to much nye were.                       1376
    [Sidenote: The city of Babylon is broad and big.]
  For þe bo{ur}ȝ watȝ so brod & so bigge alce,
  Stalled i{n} þe fayrest stud þe sterreȝ an-vnder,
    [Sidenote: It is situated on a plain, surrounded by seven
    streams, a high wall, and towers.]
  Prudly on a plat playn, plek alþ{er}-fayrest,
  Vmbe-sweyed on vch a syde w{i}t{h} seuen grete wat{er}es,         1380
  W{i}t{h} a wonder wroȝt walle wruxeled ful hiȝe,
  W{i}t{h} koy{n}t carneles aboue, coruen ful clene,
  Troched toures bitwene twenty spere lenþe,
  & þiker þrowen vmbe þo{ur}[69]-w{i}t{h} ou{er}-þwert palle.       1384
    [Sidenote: The palace was long and large, each side being seven
    miles in length.]
  Þe place, þat plyed þe pursau{n}t wyth-i{n}ne,
  Watȝ longe & ful large & eu{er} ilych sware,
  & vch a syde vpon soyle helde seuen myle,
  & þe saudans sete sette i{n} þe myddes;                           1388
  Þat watȝ a palayce of pryde passande alle oþ{er},
  Boþe of werk & of wu{n}der & walle al aboute;
    [Sidenote: High houses were within the walls.]
  Heȝe houses w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne þe halle to hit med,
  So brod bilde i{n} a bay, þ{a}t blonkkes myȝt re{n}ne.            1392
    [Sidenote: The time of the feast has come.]
  When þe terme of þe tyde watȝ to vsched of þe feste,
  Dere droȝen þ{er}-to & vpon des metten,
    [Sidenote: Belshazzar sits upon his throne: the hall floor is
    covered with knights.]
  & baltaȝar vpon bench was busked to sete,
  Stepe stayred stones of his stoute throne.                        1396
  Þe{n}ne watȝ alle þe halle flor hiled w{i}t{h} knyȝtes,
  & barou{n}es at þe side-bordes bounet ay-where,
  For non watȝ dressed vpon dece bot þe dere seluen,
  & his clere concubynes i{n} cloþes ful bryȝt.                     1400
    [Sidenote: When all are seated, service begins.]
  When alle segges were þ{er} set, þe{n} seruyse bygy{n}nes,
    [Sidenote: Trumpets sound everywhere.]
  Sturnen trumpen strake steuen i{n} halle,
  Aywhere by þe wowes wrasten krakkes,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 76b.]]
  & brode baneres þer-bi blusnande of gold;                         1404
    [Sidenote: Bread is served upon silver dishes.]
  Burnes berande þe[70] bredes vpon brode skeles,
  Þat were of sylu{er}en syȝt & se{er}ved[71] þ{er}-wyth,
  Lyfte logges þer-ou{er} & on lofte coruen,
  Pared out of paper & poynted of golde,[72]                        1408
  Broþe baboynes abof, besttes an-vnder,
  Foles i{n} foler flakerande bi-twene,
  & al i{n} asure & ynde enaumayld ryche,
    [Sidenote: All sorts of musical instruments are heard in the
    hall.]
  & al on blonkken bak bere hit on honde.                           1412
  & ay þe nakeryn noyse, notes of pipes,
  Ty{m}bres & tabornes, tulket amo{n}g,
  Sy{m}bales & soneteȝ sware þe noyse,
  & bougou{n}ȝ busch bat{er}ed so þikke;                            1416
  So watȝ serued fele syþe þe sale alle aboute,
    [Sidenote: The king, surrounded by his loves, drinks copiously
    of wine.]
  W{i}t{h} solace at þe sere course, bifore þe self lorde,
  Þer þe lede & alle his loue lenged at þe table.
    [Sidenote: It gets into his head and stupifies him.]
  So faste þay weȝed to hi{m} wyne, hit warmed his hert             1420
  & breyþed vppe i{n} to his brayn & blemyst his my{n}de,
  & al waykned his wyt, & wel neȝe he foles,
  For he wayteȝ onwyde, his wenches he byholdes,
  & his bolde baronage, aboute bi þe woȝes;                         1424
    [Sidenote: A cursed thought takes possession of him.]
  Þe{n}ne a dotage ful depe drof to his hert,
  & a caytif cou{n}sayl he caȝt bi hy{m} seluen.

[Headnote: BELSHAZZAR BRINGS OUT THE SACRED VESSELS TO DECK THE
FESTIVE HALL.]

    [Sidenote: He commands his marshal to bring him the vessels
    taken from the temple by Nebuchadnezzar, and to fill them with
    wine.]
  Maynly his marschal þe mayst{er} vpon calles,
  & comau{n}des hym cofly coferes to lance,                         1428
  & fech forþe vessel þ{a}t his fader broȝt
  Nabugo-de-noȝar, noble i{n} his strenþe,
  Conquerd with his knyȝtes & of kyrk rafte
  I{n} iude, i{n} i{e}r{usa}l{e}m i{n} gentyle wyse:                1432
  “Bry{n}g hem now to my borde, of beu{er}age he{m} fylles,
  Let þise ladyes of hem lape, I luf he{m} i{n} hert;
  Þat schal I cortaysly kyþe & þay schi{n} knawe sone,
  Þer is no bou{n}té i{n} burne lyk baltaȝar þewes.”                1436
    [Sidenote: The marshal opens the chests.]
  Þe{n}ne towched to þe treso{ur} þis tale watȝ sone,
  & he w{i}t{h} keyes vn-closes kystes ful mony;
  Mony burþen ful bryȝt watȝ broȝt i{n}-to halle,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 77a.]]
    [Sidenote: Covers the cupboard with vessels.]
  & cou{er}ed mony a cupborde with cloþes ful quite.                1440
  Þe iueles out of i{e}r{u}s{a}l{e}m[73] w{i}t{h} ge{m}mes ful bryȝt,
    [Sidenote: The Jewels of Jerusalem deck the sides of the hall.]
  Bi þe syde of þe sale were semely arayed;
    [Sidenote: The altar and crown, blessed by bishop’s hands, and
    anointed with the blood of beasts, are set before the bold
    Belshazzar.]
  Þe aþel auter of brasse watȝ hade i{n}-to place;
  Þe gay corou{n} of golde gered on lofte,                          1444
  Þat hade ben blessed bifore wyth bischopes hondes
  & wyth besten blod busily anoynted,
  In þe solempne sacrefyce þat goud sauor hade,
  Bifore þe lorde of þe lyfte i{n} louy{n}g hy{m} seluen,           1448
  Now is sette for to serue satanas þe blake,
  Bifore þe bolde baltaȝar wyth bost & wyth pryde.
    [Sidenote: Upon this altar were noble vessels curiously carved,
    basins of gold, cups arrayed like castles with battlements, and
    towers with lofty pinnacles.]
  Houen vpon þis auter watȝ aþel vessel,
  Þat wyth so[74] curio{us} a crafte coruen watȝ wyly;              1452
  Salamon sete him s[eue]n ȝere & a syþe more,
  W{i}t{h} alle þe syence þat hy{m} sende þe sou{er}ayn lorde,
  For to compas & kest to haf hem clene wroȝt;
  For þer wer bassynes ful bryȝt of brende golde clere,             1456
  En-aumaylde w{i}t{h} aȝer & eweres of sute;
  Cou{er}ed cowpes foul[75] clene, as casteles arayed,
  Enbaned vnder batelment w{i}t{h} bantelles quoy{n}t,
  & fyled out of fygures of ferlyle[76] schappes.                   1460
  Þe cop{er}ou{n}es of þe canacles þat on þe cuppe reres,
  Wer fetysely formed out i{n} fylyoles longe,
    [Sidenote: Upon them were pourtrayed branches and leaves, the
    flowers of which were white pearls, and the fruit flaming gems.]
  Pinacles pyȝt þer apert þat p{ro}fert bitwene,
  & al boiled abof w{i}t{h} brau{n}ches & leues,                    1464
  Pyes & papeiayes purtrayed with-i{n}ne,
  As þay prudly hade piked of pomgarnades;
  For alle þe blomes of þe boȝes wer blyknande perles
  & alle þe fruyt i{n} þo formes of flau{m}beande ge{m}mes,         1468
  Ande safyres, & sardiners, & semely topace,
  Alabau{n}derynes, & amarau{n}ȝ & amaffised stones,
  Casydoynes, & crysolytes, & clere rubies,
  Penitotes, & pynkardines, ay perles bitwene,                      1472
  So trayled & tryfled a trau{er}ce wer alle,
  Bi vche bekyrande þe bolde, þe brurdes al vmbe;
  Þe gobelotes of golde grauen aboute,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 77b.]]
    [Sidenote: The goblets were ornamented with flowers of gold.]
  & fyoles fretted w{i}t{h} flores & fleeȝ of golde,                1476
  Vpon þat avter watȝ al aliche dresset.
    [Sidenote: The candlestick was brought in, with its pillars of
    brass, and ornamental boughs, upon which sat birds of various
    hues.]
  Þe candelstik bi a cost watȝ cayred þider sone,
  [V]pon þe pyleres apyked þat praysed hit mony,
  Vpon hit baseȝ of brasse þat ber vp þe werkes,                    1480
  Þe boȝes bryȝt þer abof, brayden of golde,
  Brau{n}ches bredande þer-on, & bryddes þer seten
  Of mony kyndes, of fele-kyn hues,
  As þay w{i}t{h} wy{n}ge vpon wynde hade waged her fyþ{er}es,      1484
    [Sidenote: Lights shone bright from the candlestick, which once
    stood before the “Holy of Holies.”]
  In-mo{n}g þe leues of þe lampes wer grayþed;
  & oþ{er} louelych[77] lyȝt þat lemed ful fayre,
  As mony mort{er}es of wax merkked w{i}t{h}-oute,
  W{i}t{h} mony a borlych best al of brende golde.                  1488
  Hit watȝ not wonte i{n} þat wone to wast no serges,
  Bot i{n} te{m}ple of þe trauþe trwly to stonde;
  Bifore þe s{an}c{t}a, s{an}c{t}or{um} soþefast dryȝtyn,
  Expouned his speche sp{irit}ually to special p{ro}phetes.         1492
    [Sidenote: The pollution of the sacred vessels is displeasing
    to God.]
  Leue þ{o}u wel þat þe lorde þ{a}t þe lyfte ȝemes
  Displesed much, at þat play i{n} þat plyt stronge,
  Þat his ineles so gent wyth iaueles wer fouled,
  Þat p{re}syo{us} i{n} his presens wer proued su{m} whyle.         1496
  Soberly i{n} his sacrafyce su{m}me wer anoynted,
  Þurȝ þe somones of him selfe þat syttes so hyȝe;
    [Sidenote: For “a boaster on bench” drinks from them till he is
    as “drunken as the devil.”]
  Now a bost{er} on benche bibbes þerof
  Tyl he be dronkken as þe deuel, & dotes þ{er} he syttes;          1500
    [Sidenote: God is very angry.]
  So þe worcher of þis worlde wlates þer-wyth,
  Þat i{n} þe poynt of her play he poruayes a mynde;
    [Sidenote: Before harming the revellers He sends them a warning.]
  Bot er harme hem he wolde i{n} haste of his yre,
  He wayned hem a warny{n}g þat wonder hem þoȝt.                    1504
  Nov is alle þis guere geten glotou{n}es to serue;
  Stad i{n} a ryche stal & stared ful bryȝtȝ,[78]

[Headnote: THE SACRED VESSELS ARE DEFILED.]

    [Sidenote: Belshazzar commands the sacred vessels to be filled
    with wine.]
  Baltaȝar i{n} a brayd bede v{us} þ{er}-of.
  “Weȝe wyn i{n} þis won, wassayl!” he cryes.                       1508
  Swyfte swaynes ful swyþe swepen þ{er}-tylle,
    [Sidenote: The cups and bowls are soon filled.]
  Kyppe kowpes i{n} honde ky{n}geȝ to serue,
  I{n} bryȝt bolleȝ, ful bayn birlen þise oþ{er},
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 78a.]]
  & vche mon for his mayst{er} machches alone.                      1512
    [Sidenote: Music of all kind is heard in the hall.]
  Þer watȝ ry{n}gi{n}g, on ryȝt, of ryche metalles,
  Quen renkkes i{n} þat ryche rok re{n}nen hit to cache,
  Clat{er}i{n}g of conacleȝ þat kesten þo burdes,
  As sonet out of sau[t]{er}ay songe als myry.                      1516
  Þen þe dotel on dece drank þat he myȝt,
    [Sidenote: Dukes, princes, concubines, and knights, all are
    merry.]
  & þe{n}ne arn dressed dukeȝ & prynces,
  Concubines & knyȝtes, bi cause of þat m{er}the;
  As vchon hade hy{m} i{n} helde he haled of þe cuppe,              1520
    [Sidenote: Drinking of the sweet liquors they ask favours of
    their gods, who, although dumb, are as highly praised “as if
    heaven were theirs.”]
  So long likked þise lordes þise lykores swete,
  & gloryed on her falce goddes & her g{ra}ce calles,
  Þat were of stokkes & stones, stille euer more;
  Neu{er} steuen hem astel, so stoken is[79] hor tonge,             1524
  Alle þe goude golden goddes þe gauleȝ ȝet neuenen,
  Belfagor & belyal & belssabub als,
  Heyred hem as hyȝly as heuen wer þayres,
  Bot hy{m} þat alle goudes giues, þat god þay for-ȝeten,           1528
    [Sidenote: A marvel befals the feasters.]
  For þer a ferly bifel þat fele folk seȝen;
    [Sidenote: The king first saw it.]
  Fyrst knew hit þe ky{n}g & alle þe cort aft{er},

[Headnote: THE HANDWRITING ON THE WALL.]

    [Sidenote: Upon the plain wall, “a palm with pointel in fingers”
    is seen writing.]
  I{n} þe palays pryncipale vpon þe playn wowe,
  I{n} contrary of þe candelstik þat clerest hit schyned.           1532
  Þer apered a paume, w{i}t{h} poyntel i{n} fyngres
  Þat watȝ grysly & gret, & grymly he wrytes,
  Non oþ{er} forme bot a fust faylande þe wryste,
  Pared on þe parget, purtrayed lettres.                            1536
    [Sidenote: The bold Belshazzar becomes frightened.]
  When þat bolde baltaȝar blusched to þat neue,
  Such a dasande drede dusched to his hert,
  Þat al falewed his face & fayled þe chere;
  Þe stronge strok of þe stonde strayned his ioy{n}tes,             1540
    [Sidenote: His knees knock together.]
  His cnes cachches to close & cluchches his ho{m}mes,
  & he w{i}t{h} plat-ty{n}g his paumes displayes his lers,[80]
    [Sidenote: He roars for dread, still beholding the hand, as it
    wrote on the rough wall.]
  & romyes as a rad ryth þat roreȝ for drede,
  Ay biholdand þe honde til hit hade al g{ra}uen,                   1544
  & rasped on þe roȝ woȝe runisch saueȝ.
  When hit þe scrypture hade scraped wyth a scrof[81] pe{n}ne,
  As a colto{ur} i{n} clay cerues þ{o} forȝes,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 78b.]]
    [Sidenote: The hand vanishes but the letters remain.]
  Þe{n}ne hit vanist v{er}ayly & voyded of syȝt,                    1548
  Bot þe lettres bileued ful large vpon plast{er}.

[Headnote: THE KING CONSULTS HIS DIVINERS.]

    [Sidenote: The king recovers his speech and sends for the
    “book-learned;” but none of the scholars were wise enough to
    read it.]
  Sone so þe ky{n}ge for his care carpi{n}g myȝt wy{n}ne,
  He bede his burnes boȝ to þat wer{e} bok lered,
  To wayte þe wryt þat hit wolde & wyt{er} hym to say,              1552
  “For al hit frayes my flesche þe fyngres so gry{m}me.”
  Scoleres skelten þeratte þe skyl forto fynde,
  Bot þer watȝ neu{er} on so wyse couþe on worde rede,
  Ne what ledisch lore ne langage nauþ{er}                          1556
  What tyþy{n}g ne tale tokened þo draȝtes.
    [Sidenote: Belshazzar is nearly mad.]
  Þe{n}ne þe bolde baltaȝar bred ner wode.
    [Sidenote: Commands the city to be searched throughout for the
    “wise of witchcraft.”]
  & ede[82] þe Ceté to seche segges þurȝ-out,
  Þat wer wyse of wyche-crafte & warlaȝes oþ{er},                   1560
  Þat con dele wyth dem{er}layk, & deuine lettres:
  “Calle hem alle to my cort þo calde clerkkes,
  Vn-folde hem alle þis ferly þat is bifallen here,
    [Sidenote: He who expounds the strange letters, shall be clothed
    in “gowns of purple.”]
  & calle wyth a hiȝe cry; ‘he þat þe ky{n}g wysses,                1564
  In expouny{n}g of speche þat spredes i{n} þise lettres,
  & make þe mat{er} to malt my mynde wyth-i{n}ne,
  Þat I may wyt{er}ly wyt what þat wryt menes,
  He schal þe gered ful gaye i{n} gounes of porpre,                 1568
    [Sidenote: A collar of gold shall encircle his throat.]
  & a coler of cler golde clos vmbe his þrote;
    [Sidenote: He shall be the third lord in the realm.]
  He schal be prymate & prynce of pure clergye,
  & of my þreuenest lordeȝ þe þrydde he schal
  & of my reme þe rychest to ryde wyth myseluen,                    1572
  Out-taken bare two & þe{n}ne he þe þrydde.’”
    [Sidenote: As soon as this cry was upcast, to the hall came
    clerks out of Chaldea, witches and diviners, sorcerers and
    exorcists.]
  Þis cry watȝ vp-caste, & þer comen mony
  Clerkes out of caldye þat ke{n}nest wer knauen,
  As þe sage sathrapas þat sorsory couþe;                           1576
  Wycheȝ & walkyries wo{n}nen to þat sale,
  Deuinores of demorlaykes þat dremes cowþe rede,
  Sorsers & exorsism{us} & fele such clerkes;
    [Sidenote: But after looking on the letters they were as
    ignorant as if they had looked into the leather of the left
    boot.]
  & alle þat loked on þat lett{er} as lewed þay were,               1580
  As þay had loked i{n} þe leþ{er} of my lyft bote.
  Þe{n}ne cryes þe ky{n}g & kerues his wedes;
    [Sidenote: The king curses them all and calls them churls.]
  What! he corsed his clerkes & calde hem chorles,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 79a.]]
    [Sidenote: He orders the harlots to be hanged.]
  To henge þe harlotes he heȝed ful ofte,                           1584
  So watȝ þe wyȝe wytles, he wed wel ner.
    [Sidenote: The queen hears the king chide.]
  Ho herde hy{m} chyde to þe chambre þat watȝ þe chef quene;
    [Sidenote: She inquires the cause.]
  When ho watȝ wyt{er}ed bi wyȝes what watȝ þe cause,
  Suche a chau{n}gande chau{n}ce i{n} þe chef halle,                1588
  Þe lady to lauce[83] þat los þat þe lorde hade,
    [Sidenote: Goes to the king, kneels before him, and asks why he
    has rent his robes for grief, when there is one that has the
    Spirit of God, the counsellor of Nebuchadnezzar, the interpreter
    of his dreams, through the holy Spirit of God.]
  Glydes dou{n} by þe grece & gos to þe ky{n}g;
  Ho kneles on þe colde erþe & carpes to hy{m} seluen,
  Wordes of worchyp wyth a wys speche.                              1592
  “Kene ky{n}g,” q{uod} þe quene, “kayser of vrþe,
  Eu{er} laste þy lyf i{n} lenþe of dayes;
  Why hatȝ þou rended þy robe for redles here-i{n}ne,
  Þaȝ þose ledes ben lewed lettres to rede,                         1596
  & hatȝ a haþel i{n} þy holde, as I haf herde ofte,
  Þat hatȝ þe gostes of god þat gyes alle soþes;
  His sawle is ful of syence, saȝes to schawe,
  To open vch a hide þy{ng} of aunt{er}es vn-cowþe;                 1600
  Þat is he þat ful ofte hatȝ heuened þy fader
  Of mony ang{er} ful hote w{i}t{h} his holy speche.
  When nabugo-de-noȝar watȝ nyed i{n} stou{n}des,
  He de-vysed his dremes to þe dere trawþe,                         1604
  He keu{er}ed hy{m} w{i}t{h} his cou{n}sayl of caytyf wyrdes;
  Alle þat he spured hym i{n} space he expowned clene,
  Þurȝ þe sped of þe spyryt þat sprad hy{m} w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne,
  Of þe godelest goddeȝ þat gaynes ay-where.                        1608
  For his depe diuinité & his dere sawes,
    [Sidenote: The name of this man is Daniel, who was brought a
    captive from Judæa.]
  Þy bolde fader baltaȝar bede by[84] his name,
  Þat now is demed danyel of derne coni{n}ges,
  Þat caȝt watȝ i{n} þe captyuidé i{n} cu{n}tre of iues;            1612
  Nabuȝardan hy{m} nome & now is he here,
  A prophete of þat prouince & pryce of þe worlde.

[Headnote: DANIEL IS SENT FOR.]

    [Sidenote: The queen tells the king to send for Daniel.]
  Sende i{n}-to þe ceté to seche hy{m} bylyue,
  & wy{n}ne hy{m} w{i}t{h} þe worchyp to wayne þe bote,             1616
  & þaȝ þe mat{er} be merk þat merked is ȝender,
  He schal de-clar hit also, as hit on clay stande.”
    [Sidenote: Her counsel is accepted.]
  Þat gode cou{n}seyl at þe quene watȝ cached as[85] swyþe,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 79b.]]
  Þe burne byfore baltaȝar watȝ broȝt i{n} a whyle,                 1620
    [Sidenote: Daniel comes before Belshazzar.]
  When he com bifore þe ky{n}g & clanly had halsed,
  Baltaȝar vmbe-brayde hy{m} & “leue s{ir},” he sayde,
    [Sidenote: The king tells him that he has heard of his wisdom,
    and his power to discover hidden things, and that he wants to
    know the meaning of the writing on the wall.]
  “Hit is tolde me bi tulkes, þat þ{o}u trwe were
  Profete of þat prouynce þat prayed my fader,                      1624
  Ande þat þ{o}u hatȝ i{n} þy hert holy co{n}ny{n}g,
  Of sapyence þi sawle ful soþes to schawe;
  Goddes gost is þe geuen þat gyes alle þy{n}g{es},
  & þ{o}u vnhyles vch hidde þat heuen ky{n}g my{n}tes;              1628
  & here is a ferly byfallen, & I fayn wolde
  Wyt þe wytte of þe wryt, þat on þe wowe clyues,
  For alle calde clerkes han cowwardely fayled;
    [Sidenote: Promises him, if he can explain the text of the
    letters and their interpretation, to clothe him in purple and
    pall, and put a ring about his neck, and to make him “a baron
    upon bench.”]
  If þ{o}u w{i}t{h} quay{n}tyse co{n}quere hit,
        I quyte þe þy mede.                                         1632
  For if þ{o}u redes hit by ryȝt & hit to resou{n} bry{n}ges,
  Fyrst telle me þe tyxte of þe tede lettres,
  & syþen þe mat{er} of þe mode, mene me þ{er}-aft{er},
  & I schal halde þe þe hest þat I þe hyȝt haue;                    1636
  Apyke þe i{n} porpre cloþe, palle alþer-fynest,
  & þe byȝe of bryȝt golde abowte þy{n} nekke,
  & þe þryd þryuenest þat þry{n}ges me aft{er},
  Þ{o}u schal be barou{n} vpon benche, bede I þe no lasse.”         1640

[Headnote: DANIEL DESCRIBES HOW NEBUCHADNEZZAR WAS PUNISHED FOR
HIS PRIDE.]

    [Sidenote: Daniel addresses the king, and reminds him how that
    God supported his father, and gave him power to exalt or abase
    whomsoever he pleased.]
  Derfly þe{n}ne danyel deles þyse wordes:
  “Ryche ky{n}g of þis rengne rede þe oure lorde,
  Hit is surely soth, þe sou{er}ayn of heuen
  Fylsened eu{er} þy fader & vpon folde cheryched,                  1644
  Gart hy{m} grattest to be of gou{er}nores alle,
  & alle þe worlde i{n} his wylle welde as hy{m} lykes.
  Who-so wolde wel do, wel hy{m} bityde,
  & quos deth so he deȝyre he dreped als fast;                      1648
  Who-so hy{m} lyked to lyft, on lofte watȝ he sone,
  & quo-so hy{m} lyked to lay, watȝ loȝed bylyue.
    [Sidenote: Nebuchadnezzar was established on account of his
    faith in God.]
  So watȝ noted þe note of nabugo-de-noȝar,
  Styfly stabled þe rengne bi þe stronge dryȝty{n},                 1652
  For of þe hyȝest he hade a hope i{n} his hert,
  Þat vche pou{er} past out of [þ]at prynce euen;
    [Sidenote: So long as he remained true, no man was greater.]
  & whyle þat watȝ cleȝt clos i{n} his hert,
  Þere watȝ no mon vpon molde of myȝt as hy{m} selue{n},            1656
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 80a.]]
    [Sidenote: But at last pride touches his heart.]
  Til hit bitide on a tyme, towched hy{m} pryde
  For his lordeschyp so large, & his lyf ryche;
  He hade so huge an insyȝt to his aune dedes,
    [Sidenote: He forgets the power of God, and blasphemes His name.]
  Þat þe power of þe hyȝe prynce he purely forȝetes.                1660
  Þe{n}ne bly{n}nes he not of blasfemyon to blame þe dryȝty{n},
  His myȝt mete to goddes he made w{i}t{h} his wordes:
    [Sidenote: He says that he is “god of the ground,” and the
    builder of Babylon.]
  “I am god of þe grou{n}de, to gye as me lykes,
  As he þat hyȝe is i{n} heuen his au{n}geles þ{a}t weldes;         1664
  If he hatȝ formed þe folde & folk þ{er} vpone,
  I haf bigged babiloyne, burȝ alþ{er}-rychest,
  Stabled þer-i{n}ne vche a ston i{n} strenkþe of my{n} armes,
  Moȝt neu{er} myȝt bot myn make such anoþ{er}.”                    1668
    [Sidenote: Hardly had Nebuchadnezzar spoken, when God’s voice is
    heard, saying, “Thy principality is departed.]
  Watȝ not þis ilke worde wo{n}nen of his mowþe one,
  Er þe{n}ne þe sou{er}ayn saȝe souned i{n} his eres,
  “Now nabugo-de-noȝar i{n}noȝe hatȝ spoken,
  Now is alle þy pryncipalté past at ones,                          1672
    [Sidenote: Thou, removed from men, must abide on the moor, and
    walk with wild beasts, eat herbs, and dwell with wolves and
    asses.”]
  & þ{o}u, remued fro mo{n}nes su{n}es, on mor most abide,
  & in wast{ur}ne walk & wyth þe wylde dowelle,
  As best, byte on þe bent of braken & erbes,
  W{i}t{h} wroþe wolfes to won & wyth wylde asses.”                 1676
  In mydde þe poynt of his pryde de-parted he þere,
  Fro þe soly of his solempneté, his solace he leues,
    [Sidenote: For his pride he becomes an outcast.]
  & carfully is out-kast to contré vnknawen,
  Fer i{n}-to a fyr fryth þere frekes neu{er} comen.                1680
    [Sidenote: He believes himself to be a bull or an ox.]
  His hert heldet vnhole, he hoped non oþ{er}
  Bot a best þat he be, a bol oþ{er} an oxe.
    [Sidenote: Goes “on all fours,” like a cow, for seven summers.]
  He fares forth on alle faure, fogge watȝ his mete,
  & ete ay as a horce when erbes were fallen,                       1684
  Þus he cou{n}tes hy{m} a kow, þat watȝ a ky{n}g ryche,
  Quyle seuen syþeȝ were ou{er}-seyed som{er}es I trawe.
    [Sidenote: His thighs grew thick.]
  By þat, mony þik thyȝe þryȝt vmbe his lyre,
  Þat alle watȝ dubbed & dyȝt i{n} þe dew of heuen;                 1688
    [Sidenote: His hair became matted and thick, from the shoulders
    to the toes.]
  Faxe fylt{er}ed, & felt flosed hy{m} vmbe,
  Þat schad fro his schulderes to his schyre wykes,
  & twenty-folde twyna{n}de hit to his tos raȝt
  Þer mony clyuy as clyde hit clyȝt to-geder.                       1692
    [Sidenote: His beard touched the earth.]
  His berde I-brad alle his brest to þe bare vrþe,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 80b.]]
    [Sidenote: His brows were like briars.]
  His browes bresed as breres aboute his brode chekes;
    [Sidenote: His eyes were hollow, and grey as the kite’s.]
  Holȝe were his yȝen & vnder campe hores,
  & al watȝ gray as þe glede, w{i}t{h} ful gry{m}me clawres         1696
  Þat were croked & kene as þe kyte paune;[86]
    [Sidenote: Eagle-hued he was.]
  Erne-hwed he watȝ & al ou{er}-brawden,
  Til he wyst ful wel who wroȝt alle myȝtes,
  & cowþe vche kyndam tokerue & keu{er} when hy{m} lyked;           1700
    [Sidenote: At last he recovered his “wit,” and believed in God.]
  Þe{n}ne he wayned hy{m} his wyt þat hade wo soffered,
  Þat he com to knawlach & ke{n}ned hy{m} seluen,
  Þe{n}ne he laued[87] þat lorde & leued i{n} trawþe,
  Hit watȝ non oþ{er} þen he þat hade al i{n} honde.                1704
    [Sidenote: Then soon was he restored to his seat.]
  Þe{n}ne sone watȝ he sende agayn, his sete restored;
  His barou{n}es boȝed hy{m} to, blyþe of his come,
  Haȝerly i{n} his aune hwe his heued watȝ cou{er}ed,
  & so ȝeply watȝ ȝarked & ȝolden his state.                        1708
    [Sidenote: But thou, Belshazzar, hast disregarded these signs,
    and hast blasphemed the Lord, defiled his vessels, filling them
    with wine for thy wenches, and praising thy lifeless gods.]
  Bot þ{o}u baltaȝar his barne & his bolde ayre,
  Seȝ þese sy{n}gnes w{i}t{h} syȝt & set hem at lyttel,
  Bot ay hatȝ hofen þy hert agaynes þe hyȝe dryȝt[y]n,
  W{i}t{h} bobau{n}ce & w{i}t{h} blasfamye bost at hy{m} kest,      1712
  & now his vessayles avyled i{n} vanyté vnclene,
  Þat i{n} his hows hy{m} to hono{ur} were heue{n}ed of fyrst;
  Bifore þe barou{n}ȝ hatȝ hom broȝt, & byrled þ{er}i{n}ne
  Wale wyne to þy wenches i{n} waryed stou{n}des;                   1716
  Bifore þy borde hatȝ þ{o}u broȝt beu{er}age i{n} þede,
  Þat blyþely were fyrst blest w{i}t{h} bischopes hondes,
  Louande þeron lese goddeȝ, þat lyf haden neu{er},
  Made of stokkes & stoneȝ þat neu{er} styry moȝt.                  1720
    [Sidenote: For this sin God has sent thee this strange sight,
    the fist with the fingers writing on the wall.]
  & for þat froþande fylþe, þe fader of heuen
  Hatȝ sende[88] i{n}-to þis sale þise syȝtes vncowþe,
  Þe fyste w{i}t{h} þe fy{n}g{er}es þat flayed þi hert,
  Þat rasped renyschly þe woȝe w{i}t{h} þe roȝ pe{n}ne.             1724

[Headnote: THE INTERPRETATION OF THE HANDWRITING.]

    [Sidenote: These are the words: “Mene, Tekel, Peres.]
  Þise ar þe wordes here wryten w{i}t{h}-oute werk more,
  By vch fygure, as I fynde, as oure fader lykes.
  “Mane, techal, phares, merked i{n} þry{n}ne,
  Þat þretes þe of þy{n} vnþryfte vpon þre wyse;                    1728
  Now expowne þe þis speche spedly I þenk.
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 81a.]]
    [Sidenote: Mene.-- God has counted thy kingdom and finished it.]
  Mane menes als much as, maynful gode
  Hatȝ cou{n}ted þy kyndam bi a clene nou{m}bre,
  & ful-fylled hit i{n} fayth to þe fyrre ende.                     1732
    [Sidenote: Tekel.-- Thy reign is weighed and is found wanting in
    deeds of faith.]
  To teche þe of techal, þat terme þ{us} menes,
  Þy wale rengne is walt i{n} weȝtes to heng,
  & is fu{n}de ful fewe of hit fayth dedes.
  & phares folȝes for þose fawtes to frayst þe trawþe,              1736
    [Sidenote: Peres.-- Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the
    Persians.]
  In phares fynde I forsoþe þise felle saȝes;
  De-parted is þy pryncipalté, depryued þ{o}u worþes,
  Þy rengne rafte is þe fro, & raȝt is þe perses,
    [Sidenote: The Medes shall be masters here.”]
  Þe medes schal be mayst{er}es here, & þ{o}u of menske schowued.”  1740
    [Sidenote: The king commands Daniel to be clothed in a frock of
    fine cloth.]
  Þe ky{n}g comau{n}ded anon to cleþe þ{a}t wyse,
  In frokkes of fyn cloþ, as forward hit asked;
    [Sidenote: Soon is he arrayed in purple, with a chain about his
    neck.]
  Þe{n}ne sone watȝ danyel dubbed i{n} ful dere porpor
  & a coler[89] of cler golde kest vmbe his swyre.                  1744
  Þe{n} watȝ demed a de-cre bi þe duk seluen,
    [Sidenote: A decree is made, that all should bow to him, as the
    third lord that followed Belshazzar.]
  Bolde baltaȝa[r] bed þat hy{m} bowe schulde
  Þe comynes a lof calde þat to þe ky{n}g lo{n}ged,
  As to þe prynce pryuyest preued þe þrydde,                        1748
  Heȝest of alle oþ{er}, saf onelych tweyne,
  To boȝ aft{er} baltaȝar i{n} borȝe & i{n} felde.
    [Sidenote: The decree was made known, and all were glad.]
  Þys watȝ cryed & knawen i{n} cort als fast,
  & alle þe folk þer-of fayn þat folȝed hy{m} tylle;                1752
    [Sidenote: The day, however, past.]
  Bot how-so danyel watȝ dyȝt, þat day ou{er}-ȝede,
    [Sidenote: Night came on.]
  Nyȝt neȝed ryȝt now w{i}t{h} nyes fol mony,
    [Sidenote: Before another day dawned, Daniel’s words were
    fulfilled.]
  For daȝed neu{er} an oþ{er} day þat ilk derk aft{er},
  Er dalt were þat ilk dome þat danyel deuysed,                     1756
    [Sidenote: The feast lasts till the sun falls.]
  Þe solace of þe solempneté i{n} þat sale dured
  Of þat farand fest, tyl fayled þe su{n}ne;
    [Sidenote: The skies become dark.]
  Þe{n}ne blykned[90] þe ble of þe bryȝt skwes,
  Mo{ur}kenes þe mery weder, & þe myst dryues                       1760
  Þorȝ þe lyst of þe lyfte, bi þe loȝ medoes;
    [Sidenote: Each noble hies home to his supper.]
  Vche haþel to his home hyȝes ful fast,
  Seten at her sop{er} & songen þ{er}-aft{er},
  Þen fou{n}deȝ vch a felaȝschyp fyrre at forþ naȝtes.              1764
    [Sidenote: Belshazzar is carried to bed, but never rises from it,
    for his foes are seeking to destroy his land, and are assembled
    suddenly.]
  Baltaȝar to his bedd with blysse watȝ caryed,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 81b.]]
  Reche þe rest as hy{m} lyst, he ros neu{er} þer-aft{er};
  For his foes i{n} þe felde i{n} flokkes ful grete
  Þat longe hade layted þat lede his londes to strye,               1768
  Now ar þay sodenly assembled at þe self tyme,
  Of hem wyst no wyȝe þat i{n} þat won dowelled.

[Headnote: DARIUS LAYS SIEGE TO BABYLON.]

    [Sidenote: The enemy is Darius, leader of the Medes.]
  Hit watȝ þe dere daryus þe duk of þise medes,
  Þe prowde prynce of perce & porros of ynde,                       1772
    [Sidenote: He has legions of armed men.]
  W{i}t{h} mony a legiou{n} ful large, w{i}t{h} ledes of armes,
  Þat now hatȝ spyed a space to spoyle caldeeȝ.
    [Sidenote: Under cover of the darkness, they cross the river.]
  Þay þrongen þeder i{n} þe þest{er} on þrawen hepes,
  Asscaped ou{er} þe skyre watt{er}es & scaþed þe walles,           1776
    [Sidenote: By means of ladders they get upon the walls, and
    within an hour enter the city, without disturbing any of the
    watch.]
  Lyfte laddres ful longe & vpon lofte wonen,
  Stelen stylly þe tou{n} er any steue{n} rysed,
  W{i}t{h}-i{n}ne an oure of þe nyȝt[91] an entré þay hade;
  Ȝet afrayed þay no freke, fyrre þay passen,                       1780
  & to þe palays pry{n}cipal þay aproched ful stylle;
    [Sidenote: They run into the palace, and raise a great cry.]
  Þe{n}ne ran þay i{n} on a res, on rowtes ful grete,
  Blastes out of bryȝt brasse brestes so hyȝe,
  Ascry scarred on þe scue þat scomfyted mony.                      1784
    [Sidenote: Men are slain in their beds.]
  Segges slepande were slayne er þay slyppe myȝt,
  Vche ho{us} heyred watȝ, w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne a honde-whyle;

[Headnote: BELSHAZZAR IS BEATEN TO DEATH.]

    [Sidenote: Belshazzar is beaten to death, and caught by the
    heels, is foully cast into a ditch.]
  Baltaȝar i{n} his bed watȝ beten to deþe,
  Þat boþe his blod & his brayn blende on þe cloþes;                1788
  The ky{n}g i{n} his cortyn watȝ kaȝt bi þe heles,
  Feryed out bi þe fete & fowle dispysed;
  Þat watȝ so doȝty þat day & drank of þe vessayl,
  Now is a dogge al so dere þat in a dych lygges;                   1792
    [Sidenote: Darius is crowned king, and makes peace with the
    barons.]
  For þe mayst{er} of þyse medes on þe morne ryses,
  Dere daryo{us} þat day dyȝt vpon trone,
  Þat ceté seses ful sou{n}de, & saȝtly{n}g makes
  Wyth alle þe barou{n}ȝ þ{er}-aboute, þat bowed hy{m} aft{er}.     1796
    [Sidenote: Thus the land was lost for the king’s sin.]
  & þ{us} watȝ þat londe lost for þe lordes sy{n}ne,
  & þe fylþe of þe freke þat defowled hade
  Þe orne-mentes of goddeȝ ho{us} þat holy were maked;
    [Sidenote: He was cursed for his uncleanness, and deprived of
    his honour, as well as of the joys of heaven.]
  He watȝ corsed for his vn-cla{n}nes, & cached þ{er}-i{n}ne,       1800
  Done dou{n} of his dy{n}gneté for dedeȝ vnfayre,
  & of þyse worldes worchyp wrast out for eu{er},
  & ȝet of lyky{n}ges on lofte letted, I trowe,
    [Sidenote: Thus in three ways has it been shown, that
    uncleanness makes God angry.]
  To loke on oure lofly lorde late bitydes.                         1804
  Þus vpon þry{n}ne wyses I haf yow þro schewed,
  Þat vn-cla{n}nes to-cleues i{n} corage dere
  Of þat wy{n}nelych lorde þat wonyes i{n} heuen,
  Entyses hy{m} to be tene, telled[92] vp his wrake;                1808
    [Sidenote: Cleanness is His comfort.]
  Ande cla{n}nes is his comfort, & coyntyse he louyes,
    [Sidenote: The seemly shall see his face.]
  & þose þat seme arn & swete schy{n} se his face.
    [Sidenote: God give us grace to serve in His sight!]
  Þat we gon gay i{n} oure gere þat g{ra}ce he v{us} sende,
  Þat we may serue i{n} his syȝt, þ{er} solace neu{er} bly{n}neȝ.
        Amen.

    [Sidenote 68: _þing_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 69: _þore_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 70: MS. þe þe.]
    [Sidenote 71: MS. sev{er}ed.]
    [Sidenote 72: MS. _glolde_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 73: MS. i{e}s{u}r{a}l{e}m.]
    [Sidenote 74: MS. _fo_.]
    [Sidenote 75: _ful_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 76: _ferlyke_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 77: Looks like _louflych_.]
    [Sidenote 78: ? _bryȝte_.]
    [Sidenote 79: MS. īs.]
    [Sidenote 80: MS. ler{n}s.]
    [Sidenote 81: MS. _strof_.]
    [Sidenote 82: _bede_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 83: _lance_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 84: _be_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 85: MS. _as as_.]
    [Sidenote 86: ? _panne_.]
    [Sidenote 87: _loued_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 88: MS. _hatȝ sende hatȝ sende_.]
    [Sidenote 89: MS. _cloler_.]
    [Sidenote 90: _blaykned_ (?)]
    [Sidenote 91: MS. _myȝt_.]
    [Sidenote 92: _telles_ (?).]



NOTES: _Cleanness_.


P. 37.

  l. 3 _forering_ = _for-bering_. (?)
  10 _reken_, reverently, solemnly.
  12 _cleche gret mede_, take great reward.
  16 _& hym to greme cachen_, and him to wrath drive.
  18 _hagherlych_, fitly, decently.
  21 _scoymous & skyg_, scrupulous and particular; _skyg_ implies
      dread, fear, shyness.
  23 _in a carp_, in a discourse.
  24 _heuened aȝt happeȝ_, exhibited eight blessings.
  25 _me myneȝ_, I remember.

P. 38.

  l. 27 _hapeneȝ_, is happy, blessed.
  29 _as so saytȝ_, as one says.
  32 _May not byde þat burne_ (? _burre_) _þat hit his body neȝen_,
    May not abide (suffer) that man (? blow), that it (? he) should
      approach his body.
  39 _helded_, approached.
  41 _toteȝ_ = _totȝ_ = toes.
  49 _worþlych_, worshipful (? _worldlych_, worldly).
  50 _in her_ (? _herin_).
  52 _here dere_, beloved heir.
  54 _comly quoyntis_, comely attire.
  56 _with sclaȝt_, against (for) slaughter.
  59 _roþeled_, ready prepared, literally hastened.
  62 _skyly_, device, excuse.

P. 39.

  l. 65 _nayed_, refused; _nurned_, uttered.
  71 _a-dreȝ_, aback, aside.
  76
    _More to wyte is her wrange, þen any wylle gentyl_,
    More to blame is their fault, than any forlorn gentile.
  _Wylle_ has the significations of wandering, astray; as “_wyl
      dremes_,” wandering dreams, “_wylle of wone_,” astray from human
      habitations, having lost one’s way; and hence _wylle_ is often
      used to denote uncertainty, bewilderment.
  81 _laþeȝ_, invite.
  90 _styȝtled_, established, placed.
  91 _þe marchal_, i.e. the marshal of the hall, whose duty it was,
      at public festivals, to place every person according to his rank
      and station.
  95 _at þi banne_, at thy command.
  96 _renischche renkeȝ_, strange men.
  97 _layteȝ ȝet ferre_, search yet farther.

P. 40.

  l. 99 _wayteȝ_, watch.
  103 _balterande cruppeleȝ_, limping cripples. _Balter_ signifies to
      jump, skip, hop, etc.
  110 _demed_, decreed.
  112
    _Hit weren not alle on wyueȝ suneȝ, wonen with on fader_,
    They were not all one wife’s sons, begotten with one father.
  127
    _& rehayte rekenly þe riche & þe poueren_,
    And cheer, prince-like (nobly), the rich and the poor.
  _Rehete_ is the most common form of the word:
    “Him would I comforte and _rehete_.” --Rom. Rose, l. 6509.
  131 _syled fyrre_, proceeded farther.
  132 _Tron fro table to table_, went from table to table. _Tron_ is
      the pret. of the verb _tryne_, to go, walk.

P. 41.

  l. 134 _Hit watȝ not_, there was one (who) was not.
  135 _þryȝt_, thrust; _unþryuandely_, badly.
  144 _ratted_, rent, torn.
  145 _goun febele_. Cf. _feble wede_, bad or poor clothing.
      --Havelok the Dane, l. 418.
  149 _broþe wordeȝ_, angry (fierce) words.
  150 _Hurkele_, cower, hang. _Hurkele_ signifies, literally, to squat,
      nestle, rest.
  153 _laled_, spoke (quickly).
  164 _fulȝed_, baptised.
  166 _harme lache_, take hurt.

P. 42.

  l. 179 _As_, also; _bolnande priyde_, swelling pride.
  180
    _Þroly in-to þe deueleȝ þrote man þryngeȝ bylyue_,
    Roughly into the devil’s throat man is thrust soon.
  181 _colwarde_, deceitful, treacherous. I have not been able to meet
      with the word _colle_ used as noun or verb in any writer of the
      14th or 15th century. _Col_ occurs, however, as a prefix, in
      _Col-prophet_ (false prophet), _Col-fox_ (crafty fox), used by
      Chaucer; _Col-knyfe_ (treacherous knife), which occurs in the
      “Townley Mysteries.”
  200 _hatel of his wylle_, anger of his will.

P. 43.

  l. 207 _attled_, endowed.
  215 _metȝ_ = _mess_ (?), pity.
  216 _tynt þe tyþe dool_, lost the tenth part.
  222 _weued_, cut off. _swap_, blow.
  230 _þe wrech saȝtled_, appeased the vengeance.
  231 _wylnesful_, wilfulness.
  233
    _For-þy þaȝ þe rape were rank, þe rawþe watȝ lyttel_,
    Wherefore, though the blow were smart, the sorrow was little.
  237 _in obedyent_ = _in-obedyent_ (?), disobedient.

P. 44.

  l. 246 _drepe_, destroy (slay).
  257 _forme-foster_ should be _forme-fostereȝ_, being in apposition
      with _auncetereȝ_.
  261 For _lede_ read _ledeȝ_ (?).
  270 _deȝter of þe douþe_, the daughters of the mighty (doughty) ones.
  271 _on folken wyse_, after the manner of men.

P. 45.

  l. 273 _meþeleȝ_, immoderate, intemperate.
  274 _alosed_, (? noted).
  298 _þryuen_, grown up, adult.
  306 _nwyed_ = annoyed, _i.e._ displeased.

P. 46.

  l. 320 _dutande_, shutting.
  321 _halkeȝ_, recesses.
  331 _þis meyny of aȝte_, this company (household) of eight.
  335 _horwed_, unclean.

P. 47.

  l. 350 _with-outen þrep_, without contradiction, gainsaying.
  354 _a rowtande ryge_, a rattling shower.
  359 _stysteȝ_ = _stynteȝ_ stops, ceases.
  362 _& alle woned in þe whichche_, and all abode in the ark.
      _Whichche_ is another (and genuine) form of _hutch_.
  364
    _Waltes out vch walle-heued, in ful wode stremeȝ_,
    Bursts out each well-head (spring, fountain) in full wild streams.
  365 _brymme_, stream.
  366 _þe mukel lauande loghe_, the great flowing deep.
  369 _fon_, ceased.
  373 _moon_, moan, sorrow.
  374 _dowed_, availed.
  375 _wylger_, wilder, fiercer.
  376 _dowelled_ = _dwelled_.
  377 _feng to þe flyȝt_, took to flight.
  378 _Vuche burde with her barne_, each woman with her child (bairn).

P. 48.

  l. 379 _bowed_, hastened; _brentest_, highest, steepest.
  380 _heterly_, quickly, (hotly); _haled_, rushed.
  381 _Bot al watȝ nedleȝ her note_, but their device was altogether
      in vain.
  382 _þe roȝe raynande ryg_, the rough raining shower; _raykande
      waweȝ_, flowing waves.
  383 _boþom_, a _bottom_ or valley.
  384 _demmed_, collected, accumulated.
  391 _þe hyȝe_, the heights, high grounds.
  392 _bauseneȝ_, badgers.
  394 _re-coverer_, succour, refuge.
  395 _Þat amounted_, etc., read _Þat amounted þe mase_, etc., that
      the astonishment increased. (Professor Child).
  397 _Bi þat_, by that time. This phrase is still preserved in the
      North of England.
  399
    _Frendeȝ, fellen in fere, faþmed to-geder_.
    Friends, fallen in company, _embraced_ (fathomed) together.
  The verb _faþme_ in Early English also signifies to _grope_.
  400 _dryȝ_, suffer; _delful_, doleful.
  404 _freten_, devoured; _waȝeȝ_, waves.
  406 _hurkled_, rested. This word is still preserved in the local
      dialects of the North of England, with the sense of “to cower,”
      “squat.”
  407 _mourkne_, rotten.
  409 _here_, company.
  411 _aȝt-sum_, in care, sorrowful.
  413 _hurlande goteȝ_, rushing streams.
  414 _kytheȝ vncouþe_, unknown regions.

P. 49.

  l. 421 _flyt_, current, flitting.
  424 _lumpen_, the passive participle of _lympen_, to befal, happen.
  430 _yreȝ_ is evidently an error for _yþeȝ_, waves.
  433 _Rac_, moving clouds, mists. Still in provincial use.
  436 _meth_, pity, mercy.
  438 _lasned_, lessened, became smaller.
  439 _stac vp þe stangeȝ_, closed up the pools. _Stang_ = _stanc_,
      _stank_, a word still used in the North of England.
  441 _loȝ_ = _logh_, deep.
  443 _lome_ = _loom_, i.e., the ark.
  446 _rasse_ = the provincial _raise_, a mound.
  449 _kyste_ = chest (ark); _wern_ = _were_ (?).

P. 50.

  l. 451 _eggeȝ_, _edges_, banks, hills; _vnhuled_, uncovered.
  452 _bynne_, within. Cf. _boute_, without.
  461 _smach_ smack, scent; _smoltes_ (? _smolte_, i.e. smelt).
  463 _ȝederly_, quickly, soon; _steuen_, command, literally voice.
  466 _fodeȝ_, persons; _elleȝ_, provided that.
  469 _doune_ = _dovene_, a female dove (see line 481).
  476 _dreȝly_, drearily, sorrowfully.
  480 _naytly_, dexterously (neatly).
  482 _borne_ = _burne_, stream.
  483 _skwe_, sky, cloud; _skowteȝ_, looks.

P. 51.

  l. 485 _downe_ = _dovene_ (see ll. 469, 481).
  487 _What!_ lo!
  490 _saȝtlyng_, reconciliation.
  496 _woned_ = _waned_, decreased, gone down.
  498 _tyned_, enclosed.
  499 _godeȝ glam_, God’s message (word); _glod_, came, literally
      glided.
  501 _walt_ _wafte_ (?) (see B. l. 857).
  504 _þroly þrublande in þronge_, quickly pressing in throng (crowd),
      _i.e._, huddling together.
  509 _breþe_, steam, savour.
  511 _spedeȝ & spylleȝ_, prospers (speeds) and spoils.
  517 _barnage_, childhood.

P. 52.

  l. 525 _sadde_, sharp, bitter.
  529 _þen watȝ a skylly skyualde_, then was a design (purpose)
      manifested (ordered).
  531 _nayte_, use, employ.
  533 _wryþeȝ_, crawl, creep.
  534 _folmarde_, polecat.
  536 _lake ryftes_, fissures of the lake.
  537 _Herneȝ_ = _erneȝ_, eagles.
  539 _at a brayde_, in a moment.

P. 53.

  l. 558 _merked_, ordained.
  561 _raȝt_, extended to, gave.
  566 _syt_, fault.
  567 _quykeȝ_, living (things); _qued_, wickedness.
  573 _vnhappen glette_, unfortunate filth, unhappy sin.
  579 _heþyng of seluen_, contempt of [God’s] self.
  583 _steppe yȝe_, bright eye; _steppe_ = _stepe_ is often explained
      by steep, deep set; but we often meet with such phrases as
      “_stepe_ stones,” bright stones, “_stepe_ starres,” bright stars.
  586 _losed þe listen_, lost the hearing; _lysten_, in O.E. has
      frequently the meaning of _to hear_.
  587 _trave_ = _trawe_, trow, believe.
  588
    _þer is no dede so derne þat ditteȝ his yȝen_.
    There is no deed so secret that closes His eyes
      (_i.e._ that He does not see).

P. 54.

  l. 591 _gropande_, searching, examining.
  592
    _Rypande of vche a ring þe reynyeȝ & hert_
    Trying (probing) the reins and heart of every man.
  _Rype_ is still used in the North of England in the sense of to
      plunder. Cf. our modern use of the word _ransack_ with its
      earlier meanings of to try, probe, search.
  596 _honyseȝ_, disgraces, ruins, destroys.
  598 _scarreȝ_, literally _scares_, is frightened, startled.
  599 _to drawe allyt_ = _to draw a lyte_ = to draw back a little.
  603 _blykked_, shone, glared.
  605 _schunt_, aside, from _schunt_, to slip away, retreat.

P. 55.

  l. 623 _orppedly_, quickly, hastily.
  626 _happe_, cover, still in use in the north provincial dialects.
  627 _som quat fat_, some sort of a vessel; _þe fyr bete_, make up the
      fire; _bete_ signifies, literally, to mend.
  632 _deruely_ = _derfely_, quickly.
  635 _þerue kakeȝ_ = _therfe_ or _tharfe_ cakes, _i.e._, cakes made
      without leaven.
  646 _mensk_, thanks.
  648 _leþe_, cease.
  652 _ȝark_, select, chosen.
  653 _for busmar_, in scorn.
  655
    _May þou traw for tykel þat þou tonne moȝteȝ_,
    Mayst thou trow (believe) for the uncertainty (of such a thing)
      that thou mightest conceive;
  _for tykel_, on account of the uncertainty.
  654 _sothly_ = truly (? _sotly_, foolishly or _softly_).

P. 56.

  l. 659 _byene_ = _ben_, been or _bycame_. The sense would require
      _hade_ before _byene_, if _byene_ = _ben_.
  668
    _Þat for lot þat þay lansed ho laȝed neuer_,
    That for (any) sound that they uttered, she never laughed;
  _lot_ = late, in the sense of _sound_, is not very common in Old
      English authors.
  670 _a-loȝ_ = lowly, softly.
  686 _blod_, child.
  687 _bos_, behoves.
  688 _atlyng_, intention, purpose; _vn-haspe_, disclose.

P. 57.

  l. 696 _fylter_, join.
  698 _amed_, placed; _oddely dere_, singularly dear. _Oddely_ occurs
      in some northern works with the sense of illustriously, nobly.
  699 _drwry_, love; _doole alþer-swettest_, the sweetest of all gifts;
      gift the sweetest of all.
  703 _conne_ is probably an error for _come_, but it may signify, be
      kindled, produced, begotten.
  706 _stollen_, stealthy, secret.
  711 _smod_ = the Scotch _smot_, _smad_, stain, filth.
  719 _þe worre half_, the weaker portion, literally, the worse half.
  723 _laue_, law.

P. 58.

  l. 732 _smolt_, be at peace.
  740 _for hortyng_, for hurting = for fear of hurting. This sense of
      _for_ is very common in writers of the 16th and 17th centuries.
  743 _fryst_, delay, put off.
  747 _vsle_, ashes, cinders.
  752 _leþe_, destroy.
  754 _I schal my þro steke_, I shall moderate (literally, shut up) my
      anger.
  756 _reken_, wise.

P. 59.

  l. 764 _mese þy mode_, temper thy wrath.
  778 _mere_, boundary, _meer_.
  784 _lened_ = leaned, reclined; but we may read _leued_ = _beleued_,
      remained.

P. 60.

  l. 796 _vnder-ȝede_ = _vnder-ȝete_, understood.
  801 _knaueȝ kote_, servant’s house. It looks at first sight like
      _kuchieȝ kote_.
  802 _fatte_ = _vat_, vessel.
  803 _norne_ = _nurne_, request.
  810 _gruȝt_, gruched = begrudged.
  813 _couþe_, knew.
  814 _haylsed_, saluted.
  824 _boute_, without.
  830 _of glam debonere_, of pleasant, courteous conversation.
  831 _wela-wynnely_, very joyfully.

P. 61.

  l. 832 _woȝe_ = _wowe_, wall.
  835 _wakker_ comp. _wayk_, weak.
  836 _vmbe-lyȝe_, surround.
  838 _scowte-wach_, sentinel; _asscry_, cry, shout, noise.
  846 _ȝeȝed_ = chattered, gaggled; _ȝestande sorȝe_, afflicting (or
      frothing) sorrow.
  848 _brych_ = what is low, vile, filthy (? _bryth_, breath);
      _vpbraydeȝ_, raises.
  849 _glyfte with þat glam_, was frightened at that speech.
  855 _wonded no woþe_, avoided no danger (hurt).
  859 _meled_, spoke.
  860 _hendelayk_, courtesy, civility.

P. 62.

  l. 871 _tayt_ = lively.
  874 _aȝly_ = _awly_, fearfully.
  876 _out-comlyng_, a stranger. In this form it is still known in the
      North of England. _Comlyng_ is the more usual form of the word in
      our early literature; _carle = churl_.
  881 _ȝornen_, ran.
  882 _wapped_, beat.
  885 _in blande_ = together (?); _banned_, cursed.
  888 _nyteled_, laboured, toiled.
  889 _of tayt_, from fear. _Teyt_, fear, alarm, occurs in the northern
      romance of Alexander.
  890 _roþeled_, hastened.
  892 _vglokest vnhap_, the most dreadful misfortune.
  893
    _Ruddon of þe day-rawe ros vpon vȝten_.
    The light of the day-break rose on the morn.
  894 _merk_, darkness.
  895 _ruþen_, rouse.
  901 _cayre tid of þis kythe_, depart quickly from this land.

P. 63.

  l. 905 _stemme no stepe_, stop (keep back), no step. Cf. our modern
      phrase “_stem_ the tide.”
  909 _losen_, destroy.
  911 _gorde_, rush.
  912 _clater_, shatter.
  915 _kynned_, kindled.
  916 _þe brath of his breth_, the fierceness of his wrath.
  918 _foo-schip_, enmity.
  921 _walle_ = _wale_, choose; _wonnyng_, dwelling, abode.
  927 _vtter_, without.
  928 _wore_ = _ware_ = were. Cf. _thore_ = _thare_ = there.
  931 _agayn-tote_, looking back; _tote_ (toot) occurs frequently with
      the sense of “to peep,” “look,” in Early English.

P. 64.

  l. 944 _Loke ȝe bowe now bi bot_, Look ye go now by (according to)
      command.
  947 _greme_, wrath.
  948 _wakan_, arouse, stir up.
  950 _flytande_, chiding, murmuring.
  955 _smachande_, savouring, smelling.
  964 _riftes_, fissures.
  965 _cloutes_, pieces.
  969 _Rydelles_ = _redeless_ = without counsel, helpless; _rowtes_,
      companies.
  971
    _Such a ȝomerly ȝarm of ȝellyng þer rysed_,
    Such a mournful (pitiful) outcry of yelling there rose.

P. 65.

  l. 976 _Trynande ay a hyȝe trot_, going ever (at) a great pace.
  987 _loueȝ_, not _loaves_, but = the provincial _looves_ = hands.
  989 _dampped_ = _dumped_, beaten down.
  991 _malscrande mere_, accursed lake.
  992 _on a lawe_, on a hill.
  1000 _& alle lyste on hir lik_ (i.e. _lick_) _þat arn on launde
      bestes._
    “Als so sco loked hir behind,
    A stan sco standes bi þat way
    And sua sal do to domesday;
    In a salt stan men seis hir stand
    Þat best likes o þat land;
    Þat anes o þe wok day,
    Þan is sco liked al away
    And þan þai find hir on þe morn,
    Hale als sco was ar beforn.”
      (Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 17b.)
  1002 _niye_, anguish.

P. 66.

  l. 1009 _a roþun of a reche_, a rush of smoke, a mass of vapour;
      _blake_, the black (pit).
  1011 _flot_, fat, grease.
  1016 _drouy_, turbid, from _droue_, to trouble.
  1024 _costeȝ of kynde_ = natural properties.
  1030 _boþem broþely_, filthy pit.
  1031 _losyng_, perdition.
  1033 _coosteȝ_ = properties.
  1035 _alkaran_, Mandeville employs the term _alkatran_;
      _angré_ = poisonous or grievous, or _augre_ = _aigre_, sharp.
  1036 _saundyuer_ = _sandiver_, glass-gall.
  1037 _waxlokes_, waves.
  1038 _spuniande_, cleaving, sticky.
  1039 _se halues_, sea coasts.
  1041 _terne_ = _tarne_, lake.
  1044 _apple garnade_ = pomegranate.

P. 67.

  l. 1072 _kynned_, conceived.
  1076 _a schepon_ = a stable.

P. 68.

  l. 1079 _reflayr_, smell, odour; _rote_, decay.
  1082 _þe reken fyþel_, the merry fiddle.
  1094 _lomerande blynde_, the hesitating (slow, creeping), blind.
      The primitive meaning of _lomerande_ seems to be that of _slow_,
      sluggish.
  1108 _tyȝt_, endeavour.

P. 69.

  l. 1113 _fenny_, dirty, filthy, and hence sinful.
  1118 _to dele_, to exchange.
  1123 For “_& wax euer_,” etc., the sense seems to require that we
      should read “_& wax ho euer_,” etc.
  1124 _in pyese_ = whole.
  1126 _blyndes of ble_, becomes dull of hue, loses its colour.
  1127 _No-bot_, only.
  1141 _lastes_, vices.
  1142 _þewes_ = _þeues_ (?), thieves, or _unþewes_, vices (?)

P. 70.

  l. 1153 _tyȝt me a tom_ = give me an opportunity; _tom_ has the sense
      of _leisure_ and not of _time_.
  1167 _fylsened_, helped, aided.
  1172 _lat_, late, slow.
  1178 _þorpes_, cities.

P. 71.

  l. 1186 _skete skarmoch_, _skelt_, brisk skirmish, hastened (came on
      quickly).
  1190 _brutage_ = _bretage_, parapets of a wall.
  1202 _blench_, stratagem.
  1205 _at-wappe_, escape.
  1206 _skelt_, spread.
  1208 _ruþed_, roused.
  1209 _hard hattes_, (?) hats made of tow; _herd_, _hard_ (_harden_,
      _hards_), in O. English signify cloth made of tow.

P. 72.

  l. 1219 _faynest_, gladdest.
  1224 _dreȝe þer his wyrdes_, endure there his destiny.
  1246 _to þe bronde_, to the sword.

P. 73.

  l. 1254 _on capeles_, on horses.
  1255 _fole wombes_, bellies of foals.
  1259 _to cayre at þe kart & þe kuy mylke_, to drag at the cart and
      milk the cows.
  1265 _plat of_, strike off.
  1284 _hamppred_ = _hampered_, packed up for removal.

P. 74.

  l. 1290 _hyȝtled_, ornamented.
  1303 _modey_ = _moody_, proud.
  1313 _sesed_, took possession of.

P. 75.

  l. 1327 _bi-cnv_ = _bicneu_, acknowledged.
  1330 _heldes_, descends.
  1332 _grauen_, buried.
  1334 _stalled in his stud_, placed in his stead (position).
  1342 _tre_, wood; _telded_, raised.
  1344 _gered_, covered, decked.
  1346 _reden_, advise.
  1354 _notyng_, devising, contriving; _gettes_, devices.

P. 76.

  l. 1358 _avayment_, exhibition.
  1361 _banne_, proclamation.
  1362 _callyng_, decree.
  1366 _vche a kythyn kyng_, every king of countries.
  1375 _ludisch lordes_, lords of nations.
  1379 _plek_, spot (plot of ground).

P. 77.

  l. 1396
    _Stepe stayred_ [_þe_] _stones of his stoute throne_,
    Bright shone the stones of his firm throne.
  1397 _hiled_ = covered.
  1398 _bounet_, went about.
  1402 _strake steuen_ = struck up sound.
  1403 _wrasten krakkes_, sounds (notes) are raised.
  1410 _foles_, fowls, birds. _flakerande_, flickering, fluttering.
  1412 _on blonkken bak_, on the back of horses. In lines 1407-1412 we
      have evidently an allusion to the “table subtilties” of the
      fourteenth century.
  1420 _weȝed_, served.
  1425 _dotage_, folly.

P. 78.

  l. 1435 _schin_, shall.
  1446 _besten blod_, blood of beasts; _busily_, laboriously.
  1462 _fylyoles_, round towers.

P. 79.

  l. 1472 Penitotes. So in MS., but read _Peritotes_.
  1478 _cost_, contrivance.
  1495 _iaueles_ = worthless wretches, used by Hall and Spenser.

P. 80.

  l. 1501 _wlates_, is disgusted.
  1504 _wayned_, granted.
  1505 _glotoun_, a general term of reproach.
  1507 _vus_ = _use_, drink.
  1510 _kyppe_, take, seize, catch up.
  1511 _birlen_, pour out.
  1517 _dotel_, fool.
  1520 as each one was disposed so tossed he off the cup.

P. 81.

  l. 1537 _neue_, fist.
  1542 _lers_, features, but (?) _fers_, fears.
  1543 _as a rad ryth_, as a frightened hound (literally mastiff).
  1545 _runisch saueȝ_, strange words.
  1554 _skelten_, hasten.
  1557 _þo draȝtes_, the characters.
  1559 _ede_ = went, but _bede_, bade, commanded.
  1560 _warlaȝes_, wizards.
  1566 _malt_, to soothe.
  1568 _gered_, clothed.

P. 82.

  l. 1585 _he wed wel ner_, he became nearly mad.
  1603 _in stoundes_, at times.

P. 83.

  l. 1606 _spured_, asked, enquired of.
  1634 _tede_ = _tene_, ten (?)
  1637 _apyke_, adorn, clothe.

P. 84.

  l. 1650 _loȝed_, made low.
  1654 _pouer_, power.
  1674 _wasterne_, wilderness; _dowelle_, dwelle.
  1675 _braken_, fern.

P. 85.

  l. 1678 _soly_, seat.
  1684 _ay_ (?) = hay.
  1686 _ouer-seyed_, passed over.
  1690 _wykes_, members.
  1692 _clyde_, plaister (?).
  1694 _bresed_, rough, bristly; Sir F. Madden interprets it _broken_.
  1695 _campe hores_, shaggy hairs.
  1697 _glede_, kite.
  1701 _wayned_, recovered.
  1707 _haȝerly_, properly.

P. 86.

  l. 1713 _auyled_, defiled.
  1716 _wale wyne_, choice wine; _in waryed stoundes_, in accursed
      moments.

P. 87.

  l. 1755 _daȝed_, dawned.
  1759 _blykned_ = _blaykned_, became dark, blackened.
  1760 _Mourkenes_, becomes murky.
  1761 _lyst_, path.
  1768 _layted_, sought.
  1773 _ledes of armes_, men of arms.
  1775 _þester_, darkness.

P. 88.

  l. 1785 _slyppe_, escape.
  1786 _honde-whyle_, a moment.
  1788 _blende_, mingled.
  1792 _now is a dogge also dere_, now is as valuable as a dog.
  1808 _telled_ = raised (?) _telles_ = raises.
  1811 _gere_, clothing.



  Errata (noted by transcriber)

  Line 91 text: w{i}t{h} marchal
  Note to line 91: þe marchal
    [_Each line printed as shown_]

Minor spelling variations-- such as added or missing final “e”-- between
the main text and endnotes were left as printed.

  [Sidenote 9] _fowle_ (?).  [_fowle_ (?),]
  [65 Sidenote] ... “pull in the plough.”  [plough,”]
  [263 Sidenote] No law was laid upon them.]  [them,]
  [320 Sidenote] ... door in the side, together with ...
    [side. together]
  [349 Sidenote] ... to destroy all flesh.  [flesh,]
  [577 Sidenote] [Fol. 65a.]  [Fol. 65.]
  [614 Sidenote] ... wash their feet, and bring ...  [feet. and]
  [667] Þe{n}ne swenged forth saré & swer by hir trawþe,
    [swer hy hir _but 1864 edition has “by”_]
  [721 Sidenote] [Fol. 67a.]  [Fol, 67a]
  [937 Sidenote] [Fol. 70a.]  [Fol. 70a,]
  [937 Sidenote] ... “preach to them the peril” of delay.
    [“preach to them the peril” of delay.”]
  [1674] & in wast{er}ne walk
    [wast{ur}ne _corrected from Notes and 1864 edition_]
  [1737 Sidenote] ... divided, and given ...  [divided. and]

  ORPHANED QUOTATION MARKS
  [211] “I schal telde vp my trone i{n} þe tra mou{n}tayne
  [682] “How myȝt I hyde myn hert fro habraham þe trwe,
  [899] “Wyth þy wyf & þy wyȝeȝ & þy wlone deȝtters,
  [1642] “Ryche ky{n}g of þis rengne rede þe oure lorde,

  NOTES
  365  [364]
  414 kytheȝ vncouþe  [kytheȝ, vncouþe]
  449 ... _wern_ = _were_ (?).
    [_second note numbered 448 and printed on previous line_]
  461 _smach_ smack, scent  [_definition printed in italics_]
  501 ... (see B. l. 857).  [_Printed as shown, with superfluous “B.”_]
  654 _sothly_ = truly (? _sotly_, foolishly or _softly_).
    [_Note is numbered 655 and printed after longer note for 655. The
    word “sothely” also occurs in 657, but the text note (“sotly...”)
    refers to 654._]
  1358 _avayment_, exhibition.  [_body text has two words “a vayment”_]
  1696  [1697]
  1792 _Now is a dogge also dere_  [_body text has two words “al so”_]


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


PATIENCE.


  [Headnotes:
  PATIENCE IS TO BE COMMENDED.
  JONAH IS SENT TO NINEVEH.
  HE SAILS FOR TARSHISH.
  HE IS OVERTAKEN BY A TEMPEST.
  JONAH IS CONDEMNED TO DEATH, AND IS CAST OVERBOARD.
  A WILD WHALE SWALLOWS JONAH.
  THE WHALE WANDERS ABOUT.
  JONAH PRAYS FOR HIS DELIVERANCE.
  THE WHALE VOMITS UP JONAH.
  THE PROPHET PREACHES AGAINST NINEVEH.
  GOD’S MERCY DISPLEASES JONAH.
  JONAH IS SHELTERED BY A WOODBINE.
  HE LAMENTS ITS DESTRUCTION.
  GOD JUSTIFIES HIS MERCY AND FORBEARANCE.]


[Headnote: PATIENCE IS TO BE COMMENDED.]

I.

    [Sidenote: [Fol. 83a.]]
    [Sidenote: Patience is often displeasing, but it assuages heavy
    hearts, and quenches malice.]
  Pacience is a poynt, þaȝ hit displese ofte,
  When heuy herttes ben hurt wyth heþy{n}g oþ{er} elles,
  Suffrau{n}ce may aswage{n}[1] hem & þe swelme leþe,
  For ho quelles vche a qued, & quenches malyce;                       4
  For quo-so suffer cowþe syt, sele wolde folȝe,
    [Sidenote: Happiness follows sorrow.]
  & quo for þro may noȝt þole, þe þikker he sufferes;
    [Sidenote: It is better to suffer than to be angry.]
  Þe{n} is bett{er} to abyde þe bur vmbe-stou{n}des,
  Þen ay þrow forth my þro, þaȝ me þynk ylle.                          8
  I herde on a halyday at a hyȝe masse,
    [Sidenote: Matthew tells us of the promises made by Christ:
    Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.]
  How mathew melede, þat his mayst{er} his meyny con teche,
  Aȝt happes he hem hyȝt & vche on a mede,
  Su{n}derlupes for hit dissert vpon a ser wyse:                      12
  Thay arn happen þat han i{n} hert pouerté,
  For hores is þe heuen-ryche to holde for eu{er};
    [Sidenote: Blessed are the meek, for they shall “wield the
    world.”]
  Þay ar happen also þat hau{n}te mekenesse,
  For þay schal welde þis worlde & alle her wylle haue;               16
    [Sidenote: Blessed are the mourners, for they shall be comforted.]
  Thay ar happen also þat for her harme wepes,
  For þay schal comfort encroche i{n} kythes ful mony;
    [Sidenote: Blessed are the hungry, for they shall be filled.]
  Þay ar happen also þat hungeres aft{er} ryȝt,
  For þay schal frely be refete ful of alle gode;                     20
    [Sidenote: Blessed are the merciful, for mercy shall be their
    reward.]
  Thay ar happen also þat han i{n} hert rauþe,
  For mercy i{n} alle man{er}es her mede schal worþe;
    [Sidenote: Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see
    the Saviour.]
  Þay ar happen also þat arn of hert clene,
  For þay her sauyo{ur} in sete schal se w{i}t{h} her yȝen;           24
    [Sidenote: Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be
    called God’s sons.]
  Thay ar happen also þat halden her pese,
  For þay þe g{ra}cio{us} godes su{n}es schal godly be called;
    [Sidenote: Blessed are they that live aright, for theirs is the
    kingdom of heaven.]
  Þay ar happen also þat con her hert stere,
  For hores is þe heuen-ryche, as I er sayde.                         28
    [Sidenote: These blessings are promised to those who follow
    poverty, pity, penance, meekness, mercy, chastity, peace and
    patience.]
  These arn þe happes alle aȝt þat v{us} bihyȝt weren,
  If we þyse ladyes wolde lof i{n} lykny{n}g of þewes;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 83b.]]
  Dame pouert, Dame pitee, Dame penau{n}ce þe þrydde,
  Dame Mekenesse, Dame mercy & Miry cla{n}nesse,                      32
  & þe{n}ne Dame pes & pacyence put i{n} þ{er}-aft{er}.
  He were happen þat hade one, alle were þe bett{er},
  Bot syn[2] I am put to a poy{n}t þat pou{er}te hatte,
    [Sidenote: Poverty and patience are to be treated together.]
  I schal me poruay pacyence, & play me w{i}t{h} boþe;                36
  For in þe tyxte, þere þyse two arn i{n} teme layde,
    [Sidenote: They are “fettled in one form,” and have one meed.]
  Hit arn fettled in on forme, þe forme & þe laste,
  & by quest of her quoyntyse enquylen on mede,
  & als i{n} myn vpynyou{n} hit arn of on kynde;                      40
    [Sidenote: Poverty will dwell where she lists, and man must
    needs suffer.]
  For þer as pouert hir proferes ho nyl be put vtt{er},
  Bot lenge where-so-eu{er} hir lyst, lyke oþ{er} greme,
  & þere as pouert enpresses, þaȝ mon pyne þynk,
  Much maugre his mun,[3] he mot nede suffer,                         44
    [Sidenote: Poverty and patience are play-fellows.]
  Thus pou{er}te & pacyence arn nedes play-feres.
  Syþen I am sette w{i}t{h} he{m} samen, suffer me by-houes,
  Þe{n}ne is me lyȝtloker hit lyke & her lotes prayse,
  Þe{n}ne wyþ{er} wyth & be wroth & þe wers haue.                     48
    [Sidenote: What avails impatience, if God send affliction?]
  Ȝif me be dyȝt a destyné due to haue,
  What dowes me þe dedayn, oþ{er} dispit make?
  Oþ{er} ȝif my lege lorde lyst on lyue me to bidde,
  Oþ{er} to ryde, oþ{er} to re{n}ne, to rome i{n} his ernde,          52
  What grayþed me þe grychchy{n}g bot grame more seche?
  Much ȝif he me ne made, maugref my chekes,
    [Sidenote: Patience is best.]
  & þe{n}ne þrat moste I þole, & vnþonk to mede,
  Þe[t] had bowed to his bode, bongre my hyure.                       56
    [Sidenote: Did not Jonah incur danger by his folly?]
  Did not Ionas i{n} Iude suche Iape su{m}-whyle,
  To sette hy{m} to sewrte, vnsou{n}de he hy{m} feches?
  Wyl ȝe tary a lyttel tyme[4] & tent me a whyle,
  I schal wysse yow þer-wyth as holy wryt telles.                     60

    [Sidenote 1: MS. _aswagend_.]
    [Sidenote 2: MS. _fyn_.]
    [Sidenote 3: _mon_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 4: MS. _tyne_.]


[Headnote: JONAH IS SENT TO NINEVEH.]

II.

    [Sidenote: Jonah was a prophet of the gentiles.]
  Hit bi-tydde su{m}-tyme i{n} þe termes of Iude,
  Ionas ioyned watȝ þ{er}-i{n}ne ientyle p{ro}phete;
    [Sidenote: God’s word came to him, saying, “Rise quickly, take
    the way to Nineveh.]
  Goddes glam to hy{m} glod, þat hy{m} vnglad made,
  W{i}t{h} a roghlych rurd rowned i{n} his ere;                       64
  “Rys radly,” he says, “& rayke forth euen,
  Nym þe way to nynyue, wyth-outen oþ{er} speche,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 84a.]]
  & in þat cete my saȝes sogh{e} alle aboute,
    [Sidenote: Say that which I shall put in thine heart.]
  Þat, i{n} þat place at þe poy{n}t, I put i{n} þi hert;              68
  For Iwysse hit arn so wykke þat i{n} þat won dowelleȝ,
    [Sidenote: Wickedness dwells in that city.]
  & her malys is so much I may not abide,
  Bot venge me on her vilanye & venym bilyue;
    [Sidenote: Go swiftly and carry my message.”]
  Now sweȝe me þider swyftly & say me þis arende.”                    72
  When þat steuen watȝ stynt, þat stowned his my{n}de,
    [Sidenote: Jonah is full of wrath.]
  Al he wrathed i{n} his wyt & wyþ{er}ly he þoȝt,
  If I bowe to his bode & bry{n}g he{m} þis tale,
    [Sidenote: He is afraid that the shrews will put him in the
    stocks, or put out his eyes.]
  & I be Nu{m}men in Nuniue, my nyes begy{n}es;                       76
  He telles me þose trayto{ur}es arn typped schrewes,
  I com wyth þose tyþy{n}ges, þay ta me bylyue,
  Pyneȝ me i{n} a prysou{n}, put me i{n} stokkes,
  Wryþe me i{n} a warlok, wrast out myn yȝen.                         80
  Þis is a m{er}uayl message a man for to preche,
  Amonge enmyes so mony & mansed fendes;
    [Sidenote: He thinks that God desires his death.]
  Bot if my gaynlych god such gref to me wolde,
  For[5] desert of su{m} sake þat I slayn were,                       84

[Headnote: HE SAILS FOR TARSHISH.]

    [Sidenote: He determines not to go near the city, but fly to
    Tarshish.]
  At alle peryles, q{uod} þe p{ro}phete, I aproche hit no nerre,
  I wyl me su{m} oþ{er} waye, þat he ne wayte aft{er};
  I schal tee i{n}-to tarce, & tary þere a whyle,
  & lyȝtly, when I am lest, he letes me alone.                        88
    [Sidenote: Grumbling, he goes to port Joppa.]
  Þe{n}ne he ryses radly, & raykes bilyue
  Ionas toward port Iaph, ay Ianglande for tene,
  Þat he nolde þole, for no-þy{n}g, non of þose pynes,
    [Sidenote: He says that God will not be able to protect him.]
  Þaȝ þe fader þat hy{m} formed were fale of his hele.                92
  “Oure syre syttes,” he says, “on sege so hyȝe
  I{n} his g[l]wande glorye, & glou{m}bes ful lyttel,
  Þaȝ I be nu{m}men i{n} nuniue & naked dispoyled,
  On rode rwly to-rent, w{i}t{h} rybaudes mony.”                      96
    [Sidenote: Jonah reaches the port, finds a ship ready to sail.]
  Þ{us} he passes to þat port, his passage to seche,
  Fyndes he a fayr schyp to þe fare redy;
  Maches hy{m} w{i}t{h} þe maryneres, makes her paye,
  For to towe hy{m} i{n}-to tarce, as tyd as þay myȝt.               100
    [Sidenote: The seamen catch up the cross-sail, fasten the cables,
    weigh their anchors, and spread sail.]
  Then he tron on þo tres & þay her tra{m}me ruchen,
  Cachen vp þe crossayl, cables þay fasten,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 84b.]]
  Wiȝt at þe wyndlas weȝen her ankres,
  Sprude spak to þe sprete þe spare bawe-lyne,                       104
  Gederen to þe gyde ropes, þe grete cloþ falles;
  Þay layden i{n} on ladde-borde & þe lofe wy{n}nes.
    [Sidenote: A gentle wind wafts the ship along.]
  Þe blyþe breþe at her bak þe bosum he fyndes,
  He swenges me þys swete schip swefte fro þe hauen.                 108
    [Sidenote: Was never a Jew so joyful as was Jonah then.]
  Watȝ neu{er} so Ioyful a Iue, as Ionas watȝ þe{n}ne,
  Þat þe daunger of dryȝtyn so derfly ascaped;
  He wende wel þat þat wyȝ þ{a}t al þe world planted,
  Hade no maȝt i{n} þat mere no man forto greue.                     112
    [Sidenote: He has, however, put himself in peril, in fleeing
    from God.]
  Lo! þe wytles wrechche, for he wolde noȝt suffer,
  Now hatȝ he put hy{m} i{n} plyt of p{er}il wel more;
  Hit watȝ a weny{n}g vn-war þat welt i{n} his mynde,
  Þaȝ he were soȝt fro samarye þat god seȝ no fyrre,                 116
  Ȝise he blusched ful brode, þat burde hy{m} by sure,
    [Sidenote: The words of David.]
  Þat ofte kyd hy{m} þe carpe þat ky{n}g sayde,
  Dy{n}gne dauid on des, þat demed þis speche,
  I{n} a psalme þat he set þe saut{er} w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne;              120
  O Foleȝ i{n} folk feleȝ oþ{er} whyle,
    [Sidenote: Does He not hear, who made all ears?]
  & vnderstondes vmbe-stou{n}de, þaȝ he be stape fole,
  Hope ȝe þat he heres not þat eres alle made?
    [Sidenote: He is not blind that formed each eye.]
  Hit may not be þat he is blynde þ{a}t bigged vche yȝe.             124
    [Sidenote: Jonah is now in no dread.]
  Bot he dredes no dynt þat dotes for elde,
  For he watȝ fer i{n} þe flod fou{n}dande to tarce;
    [Sidenote: He is, however, soon overtaken.]
  Bot, I trow, ful tyd, ou{er}-tan þat he were,
  So þat schomely to schort he schote of his ame.                    128
    [Sidenote: The wielder of all things has devices at will.]
  For þe welder of wyt, þat wot alle þy{n}ges,
  Þat ay wakes & waytes, at wylle hatȝ he slyȝtes;
  He calde on þat ilk crafte he carf w{i}t{h} his hondes,
  Þay wakened wel þe wroþeloker, for wroþely he cleped:              132

[Headnote: HE IS OVERTAKEN BY A TEMPEST.]

    [Sidenote: He commands Eurus and Aquilo to blow.]
  “Ewr{us} & aq{u}ilou{n}, þat on est sittes,
  Blowes boþe at my bode vpon blo watt{er}es.”
    [Sidenote: The winds blow obedient to His word.]
  Þe{n}ne watȝ no tom þer bytwene his tale & her dede,
  So bayn wer þay boþe two, his bone for to wyrk.                    136
    [Sidenote: Out of the north-east the noise begins.]
  An-on out of þe norþ est þe noys bigynes,
  When boþe breþes con blowe vpon blo watteres;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 85a.]]
  Roȝ rakkes þer ros w{i}t{h} rudny{n}g an-vnder,
    [Sidenote: Storms arose, winds wrestled together, the waves
    rolled high, and never rested.]
  Þe see souȝed ful sore, gret selly to here;                        140
  Þe wyndes on þe wo{n}ne wat{er} so wrastel to-geder,
  Þat þe wawes ful wode walt{er}ed so hiȝe,
  & efte busched to þe abyme þat breed fysches;
  Durst nowhere for roȝ arest at þe bothem.                          144
  When þe breth & þe brok & þe bote metten,
    [Sidenote: Then was Jonah joyless.]
  Hit watȝ a ioyles gyn þat Ionas watȝ i{n}ne,
    [Sidenote: The boat reeled around.]
  For hit reled on rou{n}[d] vpon þe roȝe yþes.
    [Sidenote: The gear became out of order.]
  Þe bur ber to hit baft þat braste alle her gere,                   148
  Þen hurled on a hepe þe helme & þe sterne,
    [Sidenote: Ropes and mast were broken.]
  Furst to murte mony rop & þe mast aft{er}.
  Þe sayl sweyed on þe see, þe{n}ne suppe bihoued
    [Sidenote: A loud cry is raised, Many a lad labours to lighten
    the ship.]
  Þe coge of þe colde[6] wat{er}, & þe{n}ne þe cry ryses;            152
  Ȝet coruen þay þe cordes & kest al þ{er}-oute.
  Mony ladde þer forth-lep to laue & to kest,
  Scopen out þe scaþel wat{er}, þat fayn scape wolde;
  For be mo{n}nes lode[7] neu{er} so luþ{er}, þe lyf is ay swete.    156
    [Sidenote: They throw overboard their bags and feather beds.]
  Þer watȝ busy ou{er}-borde bal{e} to kest
  Her bagges, & her feþ{er} beddes, & her bryȝt wedes,
  Her kysttes, & her coferes, her caraldes alle,
  & al to lyȝten þat lome, ȝif leþe wolde schape;                    160
    [Sidenote: But still the wind rages, and the waves become wilder.]
  Bot eu{er} watȝ ilyche loud þe lot of þe wy{n}des,
  & eu{er} wroþ{er} þe wat{er}, & wodder þe stremes.
  Þe{n} þo wery for-wroȝt wyst no bote,
    [Sidenote: Each man calls upon his god.]
  Bot vchon glewed on his god þat gayned hy{m} beste;                164
    [Sidenote: Some called upon Vernagu, Diana, and Neptune, to the
    sun and to the moon.]
  Summe to vernagu þ{er} vouched a-vowes solemne,
  Summe to diana deuout, & derf nepturne,
  To mahou{n} & to mergot, þe mone & þe su{n}ne,
  & vche lede as he loued & layde had his hert.                      168
    [Sidenote: Then said one of the sailors: “Some lawless wretch,
    that has grieved his God, is in the ship.]
  Þe{n}ne bispeke þe spakest dispayred wel nere:
  I leue here be su{m} losynger, su{m} lawles wrech,
  Þat hatȝ greued his god & gotȝ here amonge v{us};
  Lo al synkes i{n} his sy{n}ne & for his sake marres!               172
    [Sidenote: I advise that we lay lots upon each man.]
  I lovne þat we lay lotes on ledes vchone,
  & who-so ly{m}pes þe losse, lay hy{m} þ{er}-oute;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 85b.]]
    [Sidenote: When the guilty is gone the tempest may cease.”]
  & quen þe gulty is gon what may gome trawe,
  Bot he þat rules þe rak may rwe on þose oþ{er}?                    176
    [Sidenote: This is agreed to.]
  Þis watȝ sette i{n} asent, & sembled þay were,
    [Sidenote: All are assembled, from all corners of the ship, save
    Jonah the Jew, who had fled into the bottom of the boat.]
  Herȝed out of vche hyrne to hent þat falles.
  A lodes-mon lyȝtly lep vnder hachches,
  For to layte mo ledes & hem to lote bry{n}g,                       180
  Bot hy{m} fayled no freke þat he fynde myȝt,
  Saf Ionas þe Iwe þat Iowked i{n} derne.
  He watȝ flowen for ferde of þe flode lotes
  I{n}-to þe boþem of þe bot, & on a brede lyggede,                  184
  On helde by þe hurrok, for þe heuen wrache,
    [Sidenote: There he falls asleep.]
  Slypped vpon a slou{m}be, selepe, & sloberande he routes.
    [Sidenote: Soon he is aroused, and brought on board.]
  Þe freke hy{m} fru{n}t w{i}t{h} his fot & bede hy{m} ferk vp,
  Þer ragnel i{n} his rakentes hy{m} rere of his dremes;             188
  Bi þe haspede he hentes hy{m} þe{n}ne,
  & broȝt hy{m} vp by þe brest & vpon borde sette,
    [Sidenote: Full roughly is he questioned.]
  Arayned hy{m} ful runyschly what raysou{n} he hade
  I{n} such slaȝtes of sorȝe to slepe so faste;                      192
  Sone haf þay her sortes sette & serelych deled,

[Headnote: JONAH IS CONDEMNED TO DEATH, AND IS CAST OVERBOARD.]

    [Sidenote: The lot falls upon Jonah.]
  & ay þe[8] lote, vpon laste, lymped on Ionas.
    [Sidenote: Then quickly they said: “What the devil hast thou
    done, doted wretch?]
  Þe{n}ne ascryed þay hy{m} sckete, & asked ful loude,
  “What þe deuel hatȝ þ{o}u don, doted wrech?                        196
    [Sidenote: What seekest thou on the sea?]
  What seches þ{o}u on see, sy{n}ful schrewe,
  W{i}t{h} þy lastes so luþ{er} to lose v{us} vchone?
    [Sidenote: Hast thou no God to call upon?]
  Hatȝ þ{o}u, gome, no gou{er}no{ur} ne god on to calle,
  Þat þ{o}u þ{us} slydes on slepe when þ{o}u slayn worþes?           200
    [Sidenote: Of what land art thou?]
  Of what londe art þ{o}u lent, what laytes þ{o}u here
  Whyder i{n} worlde þat þ{o}u wylt, & what is þyn arnde?
    [Sidenote: Thou art doomed for thy ill deeds.”]
  Lo þy dom is þe dyȝt, for þy dedes ille!
  Do gyf glory to þy godde, er þ{o}u glyde hens.”                    204
    [Sidenote: Jonah says: “I am a Hebrew, a worshipper of the
    world’s Creator.]
  “I am an Ebru,” q{uod} he, “of Israyl borne;
  Þat wyȝe I worchyp, Iwysse, þat wroȝt alle þy{n}ges,
  Alle þe worlde w{i}t{h} þe welkyn, þe wynde & þe sternes,
  & alle þat woneȝ þer w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne, at a worde one.              208
    [Sidenote: All this mischief is caused by me, therefore cast me
    overboard.”]
  Alle þis meschef for me is made at þys tyme,
  For I haf greued my god & gulty am fou{n}den;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 86a.]]
  For-þy bereȝ me to þe borde, & baþeþes[9] me þ{er}-oute,
  Er gete ȝe no happe, I hope forsoþe.”                              212
  He ossed hy{m}[10] by vnny{n}ges þat þay vnder-nomen,
    [Sidenote: He proves to them that he was guilty.]
  Þat he watȝ flawen fro þe face of frelych dryȝtyn;
    [Sidenote: The mariners are exceedingly frightened.]
  Þe{n}ne such a ferde on hem fel & flayed he{m} w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne,
  Þat þay ruyt hy{m} to rowwe & letten þe ry{n}k one.                216
    [Sidenote: They try to make way with their oars, but their
    endeavours are useless.]
  Haþeles hyȝed i{n} haste w{i}t{h} ores ful longe,
  Sy{n} her sayl watȝ hem aslypped on sydeȝ to rowe;
  Hef & hale vpon hyȝt to helpen hym seluen,
  Bot al watȝ nedles note, þat nolde not bityde:                     220
  In bluber of þe blo flod bursten her ores,
    [Sidenote: Jonah must be doomed to death.]
  Þe{n}ne hade þay noȝt i{n} her honde þat hem help myȝt;
  Þe{n}ne nas no cou{m}fort to keu{er}, ne cou{n}sel non oþer,
  Bot ionas i{n}-to his Iuis Iugge bylyue.                           224
    [Sidenote: They pray to God, that they may not shed innocent
    blood.]
  Fyrst þay prayen to þe prynce þ{a}t p{ro}phetes seruen,
  Þat he gef hem þe g{ra}ce to greuen hy{m} neu{er},
  Þat þay i{n} baleleȝ blod þer blenden her handeȝ,
  Þaȝ þat haþel wer his, þ{a}t þay here quelled.                     228
    [Sidenote: Jonah is cast overboard.]
  Tyd by top & bi to þay token hy{m} sy{n}ne,
  I{n}-to þat lodlych loȝe þay luche hy{m} sone;
    [Sidenote: The tempest ceases and the sea settles.]
  He watȝ no tytter out-tulde[11] þat tempest ne sessed,
  Þe se saȝtled þ{er}-w{i}t{h}, as sone as ho moȝt.                  232
  Þe{n}ne þaȝ her takel were torne, þ{a}t tot{er}ed on yþeȝ,
    [Sidenote: The stiff streams drive the ship about.]
  Styffe stremes & streȝt hem strayned a whyle,
  Þat drof hem dryȝlych adou{n} þe depe to serue,[12]
    [Sidenote: At last they reach a bank.]
  Tyl a swetter ful swyþe he{m} sweȝed to bonk.                      236
    [Sidenote: The seamen thank God, and perform solemn vows.]
  Þer watȝ louy{n}g on lofte, when þay þe londe wo{n}nen,
  To oure mercyable god, on moyses wyse,
  W{i}t{h} sacrafyse vp-set, & solempne vowes,
  & grau{n}ted hy{m} vn-to be god & graythly non oþ{er};             240
    [Sidenote: Jonah is in great dread.]
  Þaȝ þay be Iolef for Ioye, Ionas ȝet dredes,
  Þaȝ he nolde suffer no sore, his seele is on ant{er};
  For what-so worþed of þat wyȝe, fro he i{n} wat{er} dipped,
  Hit were a wonder to wene, ȝif holy wryt nere.                     244

    [Sidenote 5: MS. _fof_.]
    [Sidenote 6: MS. _clolde_.]
    [Sidenote 7: _lote_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 8: MS. _þe þe_.]
    [Sidenote 9: _baþes_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 10: _hem_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 11: _out-tulte_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 12: _sterue_ (?).]


[Headnote: A WILD WHALE SWALLOWS JONAH.]

III.

    [Sidenote: Jonah is shoved from the ship.]
  Now is ionas þe Iwe Iugged to[13] drowne;
  Of þat schended schyp men schowued hy{m} sone.
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 86b.]]
    [Sidenote: A wild whale swims by the boat.]
  A wylde walt{er}ande whal, as wyrde þe{n} schaped,
  Þat watȝ beten fro þe abyme, bi þat bot flotte,                    248
  & watȝ war of þat wyȝe þat þe wat{er} soȝte,
    [Sidenote: He opens his swallow, and seizes the prophet.]
  & swyftely swenged hy{m} to swepe & his swolȝ opened;
  Þe folk ȝet haldande his fete þe fysch hy{m} tyd hentes,
  W{i}t{h}-outen towche of any tothe he tult i{n} his þrote.         252
  The{n}ne he swengeȝ & swayues[14] to þe se boþem,
  Bi mony rokkeȝ ful roȝe & rydelande strondes,
  Wyth þe mo{n} i{n} his mawe, malskred i{n} drede.
    [Sidenote: It is not to be wondered at that Jonah suffered woe.]
  As lyttel wonder hit watȝ ȝif he wo dreȝed,                        256
  For nade þe hyȝe heuen ky{n}g, þurȝ his honde myȝt,
  Warded þis wrech man i{n} warlowes gutteȝ,
  What lede moȝt lyue bi lawe of any kynde,
  Þat any lyf myȝt be lent so longe hy{m} w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne?           260
  Bot he watȝ sokored by þat syre þat syttes so hiȝe,
    [Sidenote: The prophet is without hope.]
  Þaȝ were wauleȝ[15] of wele, i{n} wombe of þat fissche,
  & also dryuen þurȝ þe depe, & in derk walt{er}eȝ.
    [Sidenote: Cold was his comfort.]
  Lorde! colde watȝ his cu{m}fort & his care huge,                   264
  For he knew vche a cace & kark þat hy{m} lymped;
  How fro þe bot i{n}-to þe blober watȝ w{i}t{h} a best lachched,
  & þrwe[16] i{n} at hit þrote, w{i}t{h}-outen þret more,
    [Sidenote: Jonah was only a mote in the whale’s jaws.]
  As mote i{n} at a mu{n}ster dor, so mukel wern his chawleȝ,        268
    [Sidenote: He entered in by the gills, and by means of one of
    the intestines of the fish, came into a space as large as a
    hall.]
  He glydes i{n} by þe giles, þurȝ glaymande glette,
  Relande i{n} by a rop, a rode þat hy{m} þoȝt,
  Ay hele ou{er} hed, ho{ur}lande aboute,
  Til he blu{n}t i{n} a blok as brod as a halle;                     272
    [Sidenote: The prophet fixes his feet firmly in the belly of the
    whale.]
  & þer he festnes þe fete & fathmeȝ aboute,
  & stod vp i{n} his stomak, þat stank as þe deuel;
  Þ{er} in saym & i{n} sorȝe þat sauo{ur}ed as helle,
  Þ{er} watȝ bylded his bour, þat wyl no bale suffer;                276
  & þe{n}ne he lurkkes & laytes where watȝ le best,
    [Sidenote: He searches into every nook of its navel.]
  In vche a nok of his nauel, bot nowhere he fyndeȝ
  No rest ne recou{er}er, bot ramelande myre,
  In wych gut so eu{er} he gotȝ; bot eu{er} is god swete;            280
    [Sidenote: The prophet calls upon God.]
  & þer he lenged at þe last & to þe lede called.
  “Now prynce, of þy p{ro}phete pité þ{o}u haue!
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 87a.]]
  Þaȝ I be fol, & fykel, & falce of my hert,
    [Sidenote: He cries for mercy.]
  De-woyde now þy vengau{n}ce, þurȝ v{er}tu of rauthe;               284
  Thaȝ I be gulty of gyle as gaule of p{ro}phet{es},
  Þ{o}u art god, & alle gowdeȝ ar grayþely þyn owen;
  Haf now m{er}cy of þy man & his mys-dedes,
  & preue þe lyȝtly a lorde, i{n} londe & i{n} wat{er}.”             288
    [Sidenote: He sits safely in a recess, in a bowel of the beast,
    for three days and three nights.]
  With þat he hitte to a hyrne & helde hy{m} þ{er}-i{n}ne,
  Þ{er} no de-foule of no fylþe watȝ fest hy{m} abute;
  Þer he sete also sou{n}de, saf for merk one,
  As i{n} þe bulk of þe bote, þer he by-fore sleped.                 292
  So in a bouel of þat best he bideȝ on lyue,
  Þre dayes & þ[r]e nyȝt ay þenkande on dryȝtyn,
  His myȝt & his m{er}ci, his mesure þe{n}ne;
  Now he knaweȝ hy{m} i{n} care þat couþe not i{n} sele.             296

[Headnote: THE WHALE WANDERS ABOUT.]

    [Sidenote: The whale passes through many a rough region.]
  Ande eu{er} walt{er}es þis whal bi wyldren depe,
  Þurȝ mony a regiou{n} ful roȝe, þurȝ ronk of his wylle,
    [Sidenote: Jonah makes the whale feel sick.]
  For þat mote i{n} his mawe mad hy{m}, I trowe,
  Þaȝ hit lyttel were, hy{m} wyth to wamel at his hert,              300
  Ande assayled þe segge; ay sykerly he herde
  Þe bygge borne on his bak & bete on his sydes;
    [Sidenote: The prophet prays to God in this wise:]
  Þen a prayer ful prest þe p{ro}phete þ{er} maked
  On þis wyse, as I wene, his wordeȝ were mony:                      304

    [Sidenote 13: MS. to to.]
    [Sidenote 14: _swaynes_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 15: _wanleȝ_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 16: _þrwen_ (?).]


[Headnote: JONAH PRAYS FOR HIS DELIVERANCE.]

IV.

    [Sidenote: “Lord! to thee have I cried out of hell’s womb.]
  “Lorde to þe haf I cleped, i{n} careȝ ful stronge,
  Out of þe hole þ{o}u me herde, of hellen wombe
  I calde, & þ{o}u knew myn vncler steuen;
    [Sidenote: Thou dippedst me in the sea.]
  Þ{o}u dipteȝ me of þe depe se, i{n}-to þe dy{m}me hert,            308
    [Sidenote: Thy great floods passed over me.]
  Þe grete flem of þy flod folded me vmbe;
  Alle þe goteȝ of þy guferes, & grou{n}deleȝ powleȝ,
    [Sidenote: The streams drive over me.]
  & þy stryuande stremeȝ of stryndeȝ so mony,
  I{n} on daschande dam, dryueȝ me ou{er};                           312
    [Sidenote: I am cast out from thy sight.]
  & ȝet I say, as I seet i{n} þe se boþem,
  ‘Care-ful am I kest out fro þy cler yȝen
  & deseu{er}ed fro þy syȝt; ȝet surely I hope,
  Efte to trede on þy temple & teme to þy seluen.’                   316
  I am wrapped i{n} wat{er} to my wo stou{n}deȝ,
    [Sidenote: The abyss binds me.]
  Þe abyme byndes þe body þat I byde i{n}ne;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 87b.]]
    [Sidenote: The rushing waves play on my head.]
  Þe pure poplande ho{ur}le playes on my heued,
  To laste mere of vche a mou{n}t man am I fallen;                   320
  Þe barreȝ of vche a bonk ful bigly me haldes,
    [Sidenote: Thou possessest my life.]
  Þat I may lachche no lont[17] & þ{o}u my lyf weldes;
  Þ{o}u schal releue me renk, whil þy ryȝt slepeȝ,
  Þurȝ myȝt of þy m{er}cy þ{a}t mukel is to tryste.                  324
    [Sidenote: In my anguish I remembered my God, and besought His
    pity.]
  For when þacces of anguych watȝ hid i{n} my sawle,
  Þe{n}ne I remembred me ryȝt of my rych lorde,
  Prayande hi{m} for peté his prophete to here,
  Þat in-to his holy ho{us} myn orisou{n} moȝt entre.                328
  I haf meled w{i}t{h} þy maystres mony longe day,
  Bot now I wot wyt{er}ly, þat þose vnwyse ledes
  Þat affyen hy{m}[18] i{n} vanyté & i{n} vayne þy{n}ges,
  For þi{n}k[19] þat mou{n}tes to noȝt, her mercy forsaken;          332
    [Sidenote: When I am delivered from this danger, I will obey thy
    commands.”]
  Bot I dewoutly awowe þat v{er}ray betȝ halden,
  Soberly to do þe sacrafyse when I schal saue worþe,
  & offer þe for my hele a ful hol gyfte,
  & halde goud þat þ{o}u me hetes; haf here my trauthe.”             336

[Headnote: THE WHALE VOMITS UP JONAH.]

    [Sidenote: God speaks fiercely to the whale, and he vomits out
    the prophet on a dry space.]
  The{n}ne oure fader to þe fysch ferslych biddeȝ,
  Þat he hy{m} sput spakly vpon spare drye;
  Þe whal wendeȝ at his wylle & a warþe fyndeȝ,
  & þ{er} he brakeȝ vp þe buyrne, as bede hy{m} oure lorde.          340
    [Sidenote: Jonah has need to wash his clothes.]
  Þe{n}ne he swepe to þe sonde i{n} sluchched cloþes,
  Hit may wel be þat mest{er} were his mantyle to wasche;
  Þe bonk þat he blosched to & bode hy{m} bisyde,
  Wern of þe regiou{n}es ryȝt þat he renayed hade;                   344
    [Sidenote: God’s word comes to the prophet.]
  Þe{n}ne a wynde of goddeȝ worde efte þe wyȝe bruxleȝ,
  “Nylt þ{o}u neu{er} to nuniue bi no-ky{n}neȝ wayeȝ?”
  “Ȝisse lorde,” q{uod} þe lede, “lene me þy g{ra}ce
    [Sidenote: He is told to preach in Nineveh.]
  For to go at þi gre, me gayneȝ non[20] oþ{er}.”                    348
  “Ris, aproche þe{n} to prech, lo þe place here!
  Lo! my lore is i{n} þe loke,[21] lance hit þer-{in}ne.”
  Þe{n}ne þe renk radly ros as he myȝt,
    [Sidenote: By night Jonah reaches the city.]
  & to niniue þat naȝt he neȝed ful euen;                            352
    [Sidenote: Nineveh was a very great city.]
  Hit watȝ a ceté ful syde & selly of brede,
  On to þrenge þ{er}-þurȝe watȝ þre dayes dede.
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 88a.]]
  Þat on Io{ur}nay ful Ioynt Ionas hy{m} ȝede,
  Er eu{er} he warpped any worde to wyȝe þ{a}t he mette,             356

[Headnote: THE PROPHET PREACHES AGAINST NINEVEH.]

    [Sidenote: Jonah delivers his message; “Yet forty days and
    Nineveh shall come to an end.]
  & þe{n}ne he cryed so cler, þat ke{n}ne myȝt alle;
  Þe trwe tenor of his teme he tolde on þis wyse:
  “Ȝet schal forty dayeȝ fully fare to an ende,
  & þe{n}ne schal Niniue be nomen & to noȝt worþe;                   360
  Truly þis ilk tou{n} schal tylte to grou{n}de,
    [Sidenote: It shall be turned upside down, and swallowed quickly
    by the black earth.”]
  Vp-so-dou{n} schal ȝe du{m}pe depe to þe abyme,
  To be swolȝed swyftly wyth þe swart erþe,
  & alle þat lyuyes here-i{n}ne lose þe swete.”                      364
    [Sidenote: This speech spreads throughout the city.]
  Þis speche sprang i{n} þat space & spradde alle aboute,
  To borges & to bacheleres, þat i{n} þat burȝ lenged;
    [Sidenote: Great fear seizes all.]
  Such a hidor hem bent & a hatel drede,
  Þat al chau{n}ged her chere & chylled at þe hert.                  368
  Þe segge sesed not ȝet, bot sayde eu{er} ilyche
  “Þe verray vengau{n}ce of god schal voyde þis place.”
    [Sidenote: The people mourn secretly, clothe themselves in
    sackcloth, and cast ashes upon their heads.]
  Þe{n}ne þe peple pitosly pleyned ful stylle,
  & for þe drede of dryȝtyn doured i{n} hert;                        372
  Het{er} hayreȝ þay hent þat asperly bited,
  & þose þay bou{n}den to her bak & to her bare sydeȝ,
  Dropped dust on her hede & dy{m}ly bisoȝten,
  Þat þat penau{n}ce plesed hi{m} þ{a}t playneȝ on her wronge.       376
    [Sidenote: The message reaches the ears of the king.]
  & ay he cryes i{n} þ{a}t kyth tyl þe ky{n}g herde;
  & he radly vp-ros & ran fro his chayer,
    [Sidenote: He rends his robes, clothes himself in sackloth, and
    mourns in the dust.]
  His ryche robe he to-rof of his rigge naked,
  & of a hep of askes he hitte i{n} þe myddeȝ;                       380
  He askeȝ heterly a hayre & hasped hy{m} vmbe,
  Sewed a sekke þer abof, & syked ful colde;
  Þer he dased i{n} þat duste, w{i}t{h} droppande teres,
  Wepande ful wonderly alle his wrange dedes.                        384
    [Sidenote: He issues a decree, that all in the city, men,
    beasts, women and children, prince, priest, and prelates,
    should fast for their sins.]
  Þe{n}ne sayde he to his seriau{n}tes, “samnes yow bilyue,
  Do dryue out a decre demed of my seluen,
  Þat alle þe bodyes þat ben w{i}t{h}-i{n}ne þis borȝ quyk,
  Boþe burnes & bestes, burdeȝ & childer,                            388
  Vch prynce, vche prest & prelates alle,
  Alle faste frely for her falce werkes;
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 88b.]]
    [Sidenote: Children are to be weaned from the breast.]
  Seseȝ childer of her sok, sogh{e} hem so neu{er},
  Ne best bite on no brom, ne no bent nauþ{er},                      392
  Passe to no pasture, ne pike non erbes,
    [Sidenote: The ox is to have no hay, nor the horse any water.]
  Ne non oxe to no hay, ne no horse to wat{er};
  Al schal crye for-cle{m}med, w{i}t{h} alle oure clere strenþe,
  Þe rurd schal ryse to hy{m} þat rawþe schal haue;                  396
    [Sidenote: Who can tell if God will have mercy?]
  What wote oþer wyte may ȝif þe wyȝe lykes,
  Þat is hende i{n} þe hyȝt of his gentryse?
    [Sidenote: Though He is mighty, He is merciful,
    and may forgive us our guilt.]
  I wot his myȝt is so much, þaȝ he be mysse-payed,
  Þat i{n} his mylde amesy{n}g he m{er}cy may fynde;                 400
  & if we leuen þe layk of oure layth sy{n}nes,
  & stylle steppen i{n} þe styȝe he styȝtleȝ hy{m} seluen,
  He wyl wende of his wodschip, & his wrath leue,
  & for-gif v{us} þis gult ȝif we hy{m} god leuen.”                  404
    [Sidenote: All believed and repented.]
  Þe{n}ne al leued on his lawe & laften her sy{n}nes,
  Par-formed alle þe penau{n}ce þat þe prynce radde;
    [Sidenote: God forgave them through his goodness.]
  & god þurȝ his godnesse forgef as he sayde,
  Þaȝ he oþ{er} bihyȝt, [&] w{i}t{h}-helde his vengau{n}ce.          408

    [Sidenote 17: _lond_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 18: _hem_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 19: _þing_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 20: MS. _mon_.]
    [Sidenote 21: _loken_ (?).]


[Headnote: GOD’S MERCY DISPLEASES JONAH.]

V.

    [Sidenote: Much sorrow settles upon Jonah.]
  Muche sorȝe þe{n}ne satteled vpon segge Ionas,
  He wex as wroth as þe wynde towarde oure lorde,
    [Sidenote: He becomes very angry.]
  So hatȝ ang{er} onhit his hert; he calleȝ
    [Sidenote: He prays to God and says: “Was not this my saying,
    when Thy message reached me in my own country?]
  A prayer to þe hyȝe prynce, for pyne, on þys wyse:                 412
  “I biseche þe syre now þ{o}u self iugge,
  Watȝ not þis ilk my worde þat worþen is nouþe,
  Þat I kest i{n} my cu{n}tre, when þ{o}u þy carp sendeȝ,
  Þat I schulde tee to þys tou{n}, þi talent to preche?              416
    [Sidenote: I knew Thy great goodness, Thy long-suffering,
    and Thy mercy.]
  Wel knew I þi cortaysye, þy quoy{n}t soffrau{n}ce.
  Þy bou{n}té of debonerté & þy bene g{ra}ce,
  Þy longe abydy{n}g wyth lur, þy late vengau{n}ce,
  & ay þy mercy is mete, be mysse neu{er} so huge.                   420
  I wyst wel when I hade worded quatsoeu{er} I cowþe,
    [Sidenote: I knew these men might make their peace with Thee,
    therefore I fled unto Tarshish.]
  To manace alle þise mody men þat i{n} þis mote dowelleȝ,
  Wyth a prayer & a pyne þay myȝt her pese gete,
  & þer-fore I wolde haf flowen fer i{n}-to tarce.                   424
    [Sidenote: Take my life from me, O Lord!]
  Now lorde lach out my lyf, hit lastes to longe,
  Bed me bilyue my bale sto{ur}, & bry{n}g me on ende,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 89a.]]
    [Sidenote: It is better for me to die than live.”]
  For me were swett{er} to swelt, as swyþe as me þynk,
  Þe{n} lede lenger þi lore, þat þ{us} me les makeȝ.”                428
    [Sidenote: God upbraids Jonah, saying: “Is this right to be so
    wroth?”]
  Þe sou{n} of oure sou{er}ayn þen swey i{n} his ere,
  Þat vpbraydes þis burne vpon a breme wyse:
  “Herk renk! is þis ryȝt so ronkly to wrath,
  For any dede þat I haf don oþ{er} demed þe ȝet?”                   432
    [Sidenote: Jonah, jangling, uprises, and makes himself a bower,
    of hay and ever-fern, to shield him from the sun.]
  Ionas al Ioyles & Ianglande vp-ryses
  & haldeȝ out on est half of þe hyȝe place,
  & farandely on a felde he fetteleȝ hy{m} to bide,
  For to wayte on þat won what schulde worþe aft{er}.                436
  Þer he busked hy{m} a bo{ur}, þe best þat he myȝt,
  Of hay & of eu{er}-ferne & erbeȝ a fewe,
  For hit watȝ playn i{n} þat place for plyande greueȝ,
  For to schylde fro þe schene, oþ{er} any schade keste.             440
  He bowed vnder his lyttel boþe, his bak to þe su{n}ne,

[Headnote: JONAH IS SHELTERED BY A WOODBINE.]

    [Sidenote: He slept heavily all night.]
  & þer he swowed & slept sadly al nyȝt,
    [Sidenote: God prepared a woodbine.]
  Þe whyle god of his grace ded growe of þat soyle,
  Þe fayrest bynde hy{m} abof þat eu{er} burne wyste.                444
  When þe dawande day dryȝtyn con sende,
    [Sidenote: Jonah awakes, and is exceedingly glad of the bower.]
  Þe{n}ne wakened þe wyȝ vnder wodbynde,
  Loked alofte on þe lef þat lylled grene;
  Such a lefsel of lof neu{er} lede hade,                            448
  For hit watȝ brod at þe boþem, boȝted onlofte,
  Happed vpon ayþ{er} half a ho{us} as hit were,
  A nos on þe norþ syde & nowhere non elleȝ,
  Bot al schet i{n} a schaȝe þat schaded ful cole.                   452
    [Sidenote: The prophet, under its gracious leaves, is protected
    from the sun’s rays.]
  Þe gome glyȝt on þe grene g{ra}ciouse leues,
  Þat eu{er} wayued a wynde so wyþe & so cole;
  Þe schyre su{n}ne hit vmbe-schon, þaȝ no schafte myȝt
  Þe mou{n}tau{n}ce of a lyttel mote, vpon þat man schyne,           456
  Þe{n}ne watȝ þe gome so glad of his gay logge,
  Lys loltrande þer-i{n}ne, lokande to toune,
  So blyþe of his wodbynde he balt{er}es þer vnde[r],
  Þat of no diete þat day þe[22] deuel haf, he roȝt;                 460
  & eu{er} he laȝed as he loked þe loge alle aboute,
    [Sidenote: Jonah wishes he had such a lodge in his own country.]
  & wysched hit were i{n} his kyth, þer he wony schulde,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 89b.]]
  On heȝe vpon Effraym oþ{er} ermo{n}nes hilleȝ,
  “I-wysse a worþloker won to welde I neu{er} keped.”                464
  & quen hit neȝed to naȝt nappe hy{m} bihoued;
  He slydeȝ on a slou{m}be, slep slogh{e} vnder leues,
    [Sidenote: God prepared a worm, that made the woodbine wither.]
  Whil god wayned a worme þat wrot vpe þe rote,
  & wyddered watȝ þe wodbynde bi þat þe wyȝe wakned;                 468
  & syþen he warneȝ þe west to waken ful softe,
  & sayeȝ vnte[23] ȝefer{us} þat he syfle warme,
  Þat þer quikken no cloude bi-fore þe cler su{n}ne,
  & ho schal busch vp ful brode & bre{n}ne as a candel.              472
    [Sidenote: Jonah awakes and finds his woodbine destroyed.]
  Þen wakened þe wyȝe of his wyl dremes,
  & blusched to his wodbynde þat broþely watȝ marred,
    [Sidenote: The leaves were all faded.]
  Al welwed & wasted þo worþelych leues;
  Þe schyre su{n}ne hade hem schent, er eu{er} þe schalk wyst,       476
    [Sidenote: The sun beat upon the head of Jonah.]
  & þe{n} hef vp þe hete & het{er}ly bre{n}ned;
  Þe warm wynde of þe weste wert{es} he swyþeȝ.
  Þe man marred on þe molde þat moȝt hy{m} not hyde,
  His wodbynde watȝ away, he weped for sorȝe,                        480

[Headnote: HE LAMENTS ITS DESTRUCTION.]

    [Sidenote: He is exceedingly angry, and prays God that he may
    die.]
  “With hatel ang{er} & hot, het{er}ly he calleȝ:
  A! þ{o}u maker of man, what mayst{er}y þe þynkeȝ
  Þ{us} þy freke to forfare forbi alle oþ{er},
  W{i}t{h} alle meschef þat þ{o}u may, neu{er} þ{o}u me spareȝ?      484
  I keu{er}ed me a cu{m}fort þat now is caȝt fro me,
  My wod-bynde so wlonk þat wered my heued,
  Bot now I se þ{o}u art sette my solace to reue;
  Why ne dyȝtteȝ þ{o}u me to diȝe; I dure to longe?”                 488
    [Sidenote: God rebukes the prophet.]
  Ȝet oure lorde to þe lede lansed a speche:
    [Sidenote: “Dost thou well,” He says, “to be angry for the
    gourd?”]
  “Is þis ryȝt-wys þ{o}u renk, alle þy ronk noyse,
  So wroth for a wodbynde to wax so sone,
  Why art þ{o}u so waymot wyȝe for so lyttel?”                       492
    [Sidenote: Jonah replies, “I would I were dead.”]
  “Hit is not lyttel,” q{uod} þe lede, “bot lykker to ryȝt,
  I wolde I were of þis worlde wrapped i{n} moldeȝ.”
    [Sidenote: God asks if it is to be wondered at that He should
    help His handy work.]
  “Þe{n}ne byþenk þe mon, if þe for-þynk sore,
  If I wolde help my honde werk, haf þ{o}u no wonder;                496
    [Sidenote: Is not Jonah angry that his woodbine is destroyed,
    which cost him no labour?]
  Þ{o}u art waxen so wroth for þy wod-bynde,
  & trauayledeȝ neu{er} to tent hit þe tyme of an howre,
    [Sidenote: [Fol. 89a.]]
  Bot at a wap hit here wax & away at an oþ{er},
  & ȝet lykeȝ þe so luþ{er}, þi lyf woldeȝ þ{o}u tyne;               500
    [Sidenote: God is not to be blamed for taking pity upon people
    that He made.]
  Þe{n}ne wyte not me for þe werk þat I hit wolde help,
  & rwe on þo redles þat remen for sy{n}ne.
  Fyrst I made he{m} myself of mat{er}es my{n} one,
  & syþen I loked he{m} ful longe & hem on lode hade;                504
  & if I my trauayl schulde tyne of t{er}mes so longe,
    [Sidenote: Should He destroy Nineveh the sorrow of such a sweet
    place would sink to His heart.]
  & type dou{n} ȝonder tou{n} when hit turned were,
  Þe sor of such a swete place burde synk to my hert,
  So mony malicio{us} mon as mo{ur}neȝ þ{er}-i{n}ne;                 508
    [Sidenote: In the city there are little bairns who have done no
    wrong.]
  & of þat sou{m}me ȝet arn su{m}me such sotteȝ for madde,
  As lyttel barneȝ on barme þat neuer bale wroȝt,
  & wy{m}men vnwytté þat wale ne couþe
  Þat on hande fro þat oþ{er} for[24] alle þis hyȝe worlde,          512
    [Sidenote: And there are others who cannot discern between their
    right hand and their left hand.]
  Bitwene þe stele & þe stayre disserne noȝt cu{n}en,
  What rule renes i{n} rou{n} bitwene þe ryȝt hande
  & his lyfte, þaȝ his lyf schulde lost be þer-for;
    [Sidenote: There are also dumb beasts in the city incapable of
    sinning.]
  & als þer ben dou{m}be besteȝ i{n} þe burȝ mony,                   516
  Þat may not sy{n}ne i{n} no syt hem seluen to greue,
  Why schulde I wrath wyth hem, syþe{n} wyȝeȝ wyl torne,
  & cu{m}[25] & cnawe me for ky{n}g, & my carpe leue?
  Wer I as hastif a[s] þ{o}u, heere were harme lu{m}pen,             520
  Couþe I not þole bot as þ{o}u þer þryued ful fewe;
  I may not be so mal[i]cio{us} & mylde be halden,

[Headnote: GOD JUSTIFIES HIS MERCY AND FORBEARANCE.]

    [Sidenote: Judgment must be tempered with mercy.]
  For malyse is noȝ[t] to may{n}tyne boute mercy w{i}t{h}i{n}ne;
  Be noȝt so gryndel god man, bot go forth þy wayes.”                524
    [Sidenote: He that is too hasty to rend his clothes must
    afterwards sit with worse ones to sew them together.]
  Be preue & be pacient, i{n} payne & i{n} Ioye,
  For he þat is to rakel to renden his cloþeȝ,
  Mot efte sitte w{i}t{h} more vn-sou{n}de to sewe he{m} togeder.
    [Sidenote: Poverty and pain must be endured.]
  For-þy when pou{er}té me enpreceȝ & payneȝ i{n}-noȝe,              528
  Ful softly w{i}t{h} suffrau{n}ce saȝttel me bihoueȝ,
    [Sidenote: Patience is a noble point, though it displeases oft.]
  For þe penau{n}ce & payne to preue hit i{n} syȝt,
  Þat pacience is a nobel poy{n}t, þaȝ hit displese ofte. Amen.

    [Sidenote 22: _de_ altered to þe.]
    [Sidenote 23: _vnto_ (?).]
    [Sidenote 24: MS. _fol_.]
    [Sidenote 25: _Or_ cu{n}.]



NOTES: _Patience_.


P. 89.

  l. 3 _þe swelme leþe_, lessen the heat.
  4 _qued_, evil.
  5 _syt_, sorrow; _sele_, happiness.
  6 _þro_, anger.
  7
    _þen is better to abyde þe bur vmbe-stoundes_,
    Then is it better to abide the blow sometimes.
  10 _melede_, related.
  11 _aȝt_, eight.
  12 _sunder-lupes_, severally.
  13 _happen_, blessed.

P. 90.

  l. 30 _lyknyng_, likeness; _þewes_, virtues.
  42 _lyke oþer greme_, pleasing or displeasing.
  47 _lyȝtloker_, more easily; _lotes_, forms.
  50 _what dowes me þe dedayn_, what avails me anger.
  53 _grayþed_, availed.
  56 _þe(t) had bowed_, etc., That should have been obedient.

P. 91.

  l. 63 _Goddes glam to hym glod_, God’s message came to him.
  66 _wythouten oþer speche_, without contradiction, without more words.
  67 _my saȝes soghe_, etc., my saws (words) sow, etc.
  77 _typped schrewes_, great sinners; literally, extreme, tip-top,
      schrews.
  78 _ta me_, take me, seize me.
  82 _mansed_, cursed.
  94 _glwande_, glowing, bright; _gloumbes_, sees (indistinctly).

P. 92.

  l. 98 _to the fare_, to the voyage.
  101 _tramme_, gear.
  104
    _Sprude spak to þe sprete þe spare bawlyne_,
    Spread quickly to the sprit the spar bowline (?).
  106 _ladde-borde_, larboard.
  107 _blyþe breþe_, gentle wind; _bosum_, tide.
  108 _He_ refers to _breþe_.
  112 _maȝt_, might; _mere_, sea.
  115 _wenyng_, supposition.
  117 _burde_, behoved.
  119 _demed_, uttered.
  122 _stapefole_ = _stapeful_ = high (?)

P. 93.

  l. 131 _crafte_, power.
  135 _tom_, interval.
  140 _souȝed_, sobbed, moaned; _selly_, marvel.
  141 _wonne_, pale.
  143 _busched_ = _busked_, went.
  144 _for roȝ_ = for roughness.
  148 _bur_ = wave.
  150 _to murte_, (?) _to-marte_, crushed, broken in pieces.
  152 _coge_, boat.
  155 _scaþel_, hurtful, dangerous.
  156 _lode_ = _lote_, lot.
  160 _leþe_, calm, quiet.
  161 _lot_, noise, roar.

P. 94.

  l. 173 _I lovne_, I offer (this advice), propose.
  183 _flode lotes_, the noises of the flood.
  184 _brede_, board.
  185 _hurrok_, oar.
  191 _runyschly_, fiercely.
  192 _slaȝte_, strokes.
  198 _lastes_, crimes.

P. 95.

  l. 208 _at a worde one_, at a word alone.
  213 _ossed_, showed, proved; _vnnynges_, signs.
  216 _ruyt_, rush, hasten.
  227 _baleleȝ_, innocent.
  229 _synne_, after.

P. 96.

  l. 247 _as wyrde þen schaped_, as fate then devised.
  255 _malskred_, entranced, bewildered.
  258 _warlowes_, monster’s.
  259 _lyue_ = _leue_, believe.
  262 _wauleȝ_ = shelterless, destitute, but _wanleȝ_ = _wonleȝ_
      = hopeless, is perhaps a better reading.
  268 _chawleȝ_, jaws.
  269 _glaymande glette_, slimy mud.
  270 _rop_, gut, intestine.

P. 97.

  l. 273 _faþmeȝ_, gropes.
  275 _saym_, fat, grease.
  277 _le_, shelter.
  291 _merk_, darkness.
  292 _bulk_, stern.
  302 _borne_ = _burne_, man.

P. 98.

  l. 309 _flem_ = _flum_, stream.
  317 _to my wo stoundeȝ_ = ? until my woe over-powers (confounds) me.
  320 _to laste_ ? to the last; _mere_, boundary.
  325 _þacces_, blows.
  329 _meled_, conversed.
  338 _spare drye_ dry _spar_ (rafter) but ? _spare_ = _space_.
  339 _a warthe_, a ford.
  341 _sluchched_ = _sluched_, dirty, muddy.
  342 _mester_, need.

P. 99.

  l. 345 _bruxleȝ_, reproaches, upbraids,
  350 _loke_ = _loken_, fastened.
  362 _dumpe_, be thrust.
  364 _swete_, life; _to lose þe swete_ = to lose the (sweet) life.
  372 _doured_, mourned, grieved. Cf. Sc. _dour_.
  373 _Heter hayreȝ þay hent_, etc., rough hair shirts they took, etc.

P. 100.

  l. 395 _for-clemmed_, very hungry, starved.
  396 _rurd_, cry.
  400 _amesyng_ = _mesyng_ = _mese_, pity, mercy.
  403 _wodschip_, wrath.
  411 _on-hit_, struck or inflamed (?); _calleȝ_, addresses.

P. 101.

  l. 418 _bene_, bountiful, kind.
  419 _lur_, loss.
  426 _bale-stour_, death-pang; _bale_ in the sense of death is not
      very common.
  447 _lylled_, flourished.
  448 _lefsel_ = _leaf-bower_. See Glossary.

P. 102.

  l. 449 _boȝted_, curved.
  450 _happed_, covered.
  451 _a nos_ = a projection, opening (?) or is it a clerical error
      for _abof_ = _above_.
  452 _schaȝe_ = wood, shaw.
  453 _glyȝt_, glanced.
  460 _þe deuel_ ? _ded euel_, did evil.
  470 _syfle_, blow.
  473 _wyl_, wandering.
  478 _wertes he swyþeȝ_, herbs he scorches.

P. 103.

  l. 486 _wered_, protected.
  489 _lansed_, uttered.
  492 _waymot_ = angry, passionate.
  502 _remen_, mourn, lament.
  509 _soumme_, company.

P. 104.

  l. 524 _gryndel_, angry.
  526 _rakel_, hasty.



  Errata (noted by transcriber)

Minor spelling variations-- such as added or missing final “e”-- between
the main text and endnotes were left as printed.

  [33 Sidenote] ... peace and patience.  [patience,]
  [237 Sidenote] ... thank God, and perform ...  [God. and]
  [391 Sidenote] [Fol. 88b.]
    [_missing folio number supplied from 1864 edition_]
  [463 Sidenote] [Fol. 89b.]
  [499 Sidenote] [Fol. 89a.]
    [_text unchanged: 1864 edition has same error_]

  NOTES

  273 _faþmeȝ_, gropes.
    [_body text and glossary have “fathme(ȝ)”_]
  317  [316]


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


GLOSSARIAL INDEX


  Abate, lessen, put an end to, A. 123; B. 1356.
  Abate, abode, A. 617.
  Abayst, downcast, abashed, B. 149, pret. of _abaisse_ or _abash_, Fr.
    _esbahir_.
  Able, A. 599.
  Abof, above, A. 1023.
  Abominacione, B. 1173.
  Abroched, commenced, A. 1123.
  Abyde, (_a_) await, B. 436, 486; (_b_) endure, C. 7. A.S. _abidan_.
  Abydyng, _sb._ C. 419.
  Abyme, abyss, B. 363; C. 143.
  Abyt, habit, dress, B. 141.
  {Accorde, Acorde,} agreement, A. 509, Fr. _accorder_, to agree with.
  Achaped, escaped, B. 970.
  Achaufe, kindle, B. 1143.
  Acheue, accomplish, A. 475.
  Acroche, encroach, A. 1069, Fr. _accrocher_, to hook on; from _croc_,
    a hook.
  Adaunt = daunt, A. 157.
  Adoun, down, A. 988; B. 953.
  Adreȝ, aside, aback, B. 71. The word is used by Gower under the form
    _adrigh_. _O-dreghe_, _one-dreghe_, are other forms of the word. Sc.
    _on-dreich_.
      “The tother withdrewe, _one-dreghe_
      And durste do none other.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 352.)
      “The tother droȝhe him _o-dreghe_ for drede of the knyȝte.”
        --(Anturs of Arther, xliv. 3.)
      “He with drogh hym _a draght_ & a dyn made.” --(T. B. 1224.)
  {Adubbement, Adubmente,} adornment, A. 84, 85, O.Fr. _adoubement_;
    _dober_, _douber_, garnish, deck; Fr. _douber_, to rig or trim a
    ship; Prov. Fr. _adobar_, to arrange, prepare.
  Adyte, A. 349.
  Affraye, _sb._ fear, A. 1174; _vb._ frighten, B. 1780; Fr. _effrayer_,
    to scare, affright; _effroi_, terror. Cf. _fray_, to scare birds.
  Affyen, trust, C. 331.
  {Agayn, Agayne, Agaynes,} against, B. 266, 826, 1711.
  Agayneȝ, towards, B. 611.
  Agayn-tote, _sb._ a looking back, B. 931. _Tote_, look, peep, as a
    verb or a noun, is common in Old English writers.
      “She went up wightly by a wall syde,
      To the toppe of a tower, & _tot_ ouer the water.” --(T. B. 862.)
  Age, A. 412, B. 426.
  Aglyȝte, slipped from, A. 245. _Glyȝt_, as a verb, signifies not only
    to slip but to _glance_, look. Cf. _leme_ = gleam, glance, slip.
  Alabaunderynes, B. 1470.
  Alarom, alarm, B. 1207.
  Al-bare, clearly, A. 1025.
  Alce = als, also, B. 1377.
  Alder = elder, A. 621, _Aldest_, A. 1042, B. 1333.
  Alder-men, elders, A. 887.
  Alegge, alledge, A. 703.
  Aliche, alike, B. 1477.
  Alkaran = alkatran, B. 1035.
  Alle-kynneȝ, all kinds of, A. 1028.
  Allyt = a lyt = ? a little, B. 599.
  Almyȝt, almighty, A. 498.
  Alofte, on high, B. 1183.
  Al-one, A. 933.
  Al-only, except, A. 779.
  Alosed, destroyed, B. 274. See _lose_.
  Alow, approve, praise, reward, A. 634. O.Fr. _louer_. Lat. _laudare_.
  Aloynte, removed, far from (from O.E. _aloigne_, _alogne_, to remove,
    carry off. O.Fr. _aloigner_).
  Aloȝ, alow, softly, B. 670.
  Als, also, B. 253, 827, C. 516.
  Also, as, B. 984, 1045, 1792.
  {Also-tyd, Als-tyd, As-tyd,} at once, immediately, B. 64. See _tyd_.
  Al-þaȝ, although, A. 759.
  Alþer-fayrest, fairest of all, B. 1379.
  Alþer-fynest, finest of all, B. 1637.
  Alþer-rychest, richest of all, B. 1666.
  Alþer-swettest, sweetest of all, B. 699.
  Alum, B. 1035.
  Amaffised, B. 1470.
  Amaraunȝ, B. 1470.
  Amatyst, amethyst, A. 1016.
  Ame, (1) _vb._ place, B. 698; (2) _sb._ purpose, C. 128. Germ.
    _ahmen_. Bavarian, _amen_, _hämen_, to guage a cask, fathom,
    measure.
  Amended, B. 248.
  Amesyng, _sb._ moderation, C. 400. See _mese_.
  Amoneste, admonish, B. 818.
  Amounted, B. 395.
  Amoynt, company, A. 895.
  And = an, if, B. 864.
  An-ende (on-ende), lastly, finally, A. 186.
  An-ende = anente, opposite, A. 1136; respecting, A. 697.
  An-endeȝ = anentes, opposite, A. 975. Sc. _anens_.
  Anger, A. 343, B. 572.
  Angré, bitter, B. 1035.
  Anguych, anguish, C. 325.
  Ankreȝ, anchors, B. 418, C. 103.
  Anon, at once (= anane, onane, in one moment), A. 584.
  Anournement, ornament, B. 1290.
  Anoynted, B. 1446.
  Answar, answer, A. 518.
  Anter, peril, C. 242. To _aunter_, put a thyng in daunger, or
    adventure, _adventurer_ (Palsgrave).
  An-vnder, under, A. 1081. Sc. _anonder_. Cf. _down_ and _adown_, _low_
    and _alow_.
  Aparaunt, B. 1007.
  Apassed, past, A. 540.
  Apert, openly, A. 589.
  Apparaylmente, ornaments, A. 1052.
  Apparement, ornaments, B. 1270. Fr. _appareiller_, to fit, suit.
  Appose, _vb._ question, A. 902. Fr. _apposer_, to lay or set on, or
    near to.
  Aproche, A. 686, B. 8, 167. Fr. _approcher_, draw near. Lat. _prope_,
    near.
  Apyke, adorn, B. 1479, 1637.
  Aquyle, demand, ask, obtain, A. 690, 966. O.Fr. _aquillir_, to gather.
  {Aray, Araye,} A. 719, 1166; B. 816, 1442. O.Fr. _arroyer_, _arréer_,
    dispose, set in order.
  Arayned, arraigned, C. 191. O.Fr. _arraisonner_, _arraigner_.
  Are, before, previously, B. 438, 1128.
  Arende, errand, message, C. 72, A.S. _aerend_, _aerende_.
  Arest, _sb._ abode, resting place, B. 906.
  Areset, _vb._ stop, cease, B. 766, remain, C. 144. Fr. _arrester_.
    Lat. _arestare_.
  Arewarde, apostate, B. 208. Sc. _areird_, backward.
  {Arn, Arne,} are, A. 458, 628, B. 8, 1810.
  Aryue, A. 447.
  Aryȝt, aright, A. 112.
  Arȝe, terrify, frighten, fear, B. 572, 713. Provincial _arfe_,
    _arghe_, afraid. Cf. “_Arwe_ or ferefulle (_arwhe_, K. arowe or
    ferdfulle P.). Timidus, pavidus, formidolus.” (Prompt. Parv.) The
    original notion is that of laziness, inertness, and hence timidity,
    fear, etc. A.S. _earg_, inert, timid, weak. Ger. _arg_, bad. Du.
    _erg_. Icel. _argr_, lazy, cowardly. Sc. _argh_, _arch_, to
    hesitate, be reluctant.
      “Antenor _arghet_ with austerne wordes.” --(T. B. 1977.)
      “Antenor, _arghly_ auntrid of ship.” --(T. B. 1831.)
      “A! Anec. quoth the qwene
      me _arȝes_ of my selfe,
      I am all in aunter, sa
      akis me the wame.” --(K. Alex. p. 29.)
      “Sir Alexander and his ost was _arȝed_ unfaire.”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 132.)
  Ar, are, B. 1725.
  Are ? ane, one, A. 711.
  As, also, B. 179.
  As-bare, ? _al bare_, clearly, openly, A. 836.
  Asayl, B. 1188.
  Ascape, escape, B. 569.
  Ascry, _sb._ cry, outcry, B. 1784. _vb_. C. 195. Swed. _anskri_,
    outcry, scream. O.N. _skri_, cry.
  {Asent, Asente,} A. 391, “in _asent_,” B. 788.
  Askeȝ, ashes, B. 626.
  Askry, shout, cry, B. 1206. See _ascry_.
  Aslypped, escaped, lost, C. 218.
  Aspaltoun, asphalt, B. 1038.
  Asperly, sharply, C. 373.
  Assayl, C. 301.
  Asscaped, escaped, B. 1776.
  Asscry, cry, shout. See _ascry_.
  Assemble, B. 1364, 1769.
  Assemblé, A. 760.
  Asspye, espy, see, A. 704, 1035.
  {Assyse, Asyse,} form, fashion, A. 97, B. 844, service, B. 639.
  Astate, state, A. 393.
  Astraye, A. 1162.
  Astel, stole from, B. 1524.
  As-tyt, immediately, at once, A. 645, B. 935.
  Asure, B. 1411.
  Aswage, C. 3.
  At, that, A. 672.
  Atlyng, purpose, B. 688. Sc. _ettle_, to endeavour. N.Prov.E. _ettle_,
    _attle_, intend. Icel. _aetla_.
      “Armur & all thing _atlet_ before.” --(T. B. 855.)
  Aþel, noble, B. 258, 411, 940, gracious, B. 761, fine, B. 1276, A.S.
    aeþele, noble, excellent.
  Atount, so much (?), A. 179.
  At-slyke, slip away, A. 575.
  Atteny, attain, reach, A. 548.
  Attled, endeavoured. See _atlyng_.
  Attled, endowed, B. 207. It sometimes occurs under the form _aghteld_.
    N.Prov.E. _ettle_, to deal out, distribute. A.S. _aeht_, possession.
      “She was eldist & heire _etlit_ to his londes.” --(T. B. 394.)
  At-wappe, escape, B. 1205. See _Wap_.
  Atyre, B. 114.
  Augoste, august, A. 39.
  Auncetereȝ, auncestors, B. 258.
  {Aven, Aune,} own, B. 11, 1222.
  Aunte, A. 233.
  Aunter, adventure, marvel, B. 1600. See T. B. 1899.
  Auter, altar, B. 10.
  Autly, noble, B. 795. A.S. _áhtlíce_, courageously, manfully.
  Avaunt, _sb._ promise, B. 664.
  Avayment, show, B. 1358. F. _avoier_.
  Auaye, show, B. 1311.
  Auenture, adventure, A. 64. O.Fr. _aventure_.
  Auise, advise, B. 1365.
  Avow, B. 664.
  Avoy, away! B. 863.
  Avyle, defile, B. 1151, 1713.
  Avysyoun, vision, A. 1184.
  Awayed, shown, A. 710.
  Awayle, avail, B. 408.
  Awowe, avow, C. 333.
  Ay, always, ever, A. 33, 720. A.S. _áva_, _a_, all, ever. O.Fris. _a_.
    Germ. _je_, ever.
  Ayre, heir, B. 650, 1709.
  Ayþer, each, A. 831.
  Aywhere, everywhere, B. 228.
  Aȝer = asure, B. 1457.
  Aȝly = awly, fearfully, B. 874, 937. Dan. _ave_, fear. Eng. _awe_.
    O.Eng. _agh_. Cf. A.S. _aglác_, misery, grief.
  {Aȝt, Aȝte,} ought, _pret._ of _aȝe_, _agh_, or _awe_, B. 122.
  Aȝt, eight, B. 357, C. 11, 29.
  Aȝt-sum, sorrowful, B. 411.
  Aȝtþe, eighth, A. 1011.

  Baboyne, baboon, B. 1409.
  Babtem, A. 627. See _Baptem_.
  Bachlereȝ, batchelors, young men not yet raised to the order of
    knighthood, B. 86.
  Baft, abaft, C. 148. A.S. _baefta_, the hinder part.
  Bagge, baggage. C. 158.
  Bale, bales, C. 157. Sw. _bal_. Fr. _balle_, _bal_, a ball or pack.
  Bale, sorrow, woe; also misery, calamity, A. 18, 373; B. 1243, 1256;
    _baleȝ_, A. 123, 807. O.Fris. _bale_. A.S. _bealu_, torment,
    destruction. Icel. _böl_. Phrases: “bodyly _bale_” (pain), A. 478;
    “_bale_ (torment) of helle,” A. 651, “_bale_-stour,” death pang,
    C. 426.
  Baleleȝ = baleless, innocent, C. 227.
  Balke, ridge of land, balk, A. 62. Icel. _balkr_, the division between
    the stalls in a cow-house. Sw. _balka_, to partition off.
      “To my shepe wylle I stalk, and herkyn anone,
      Ther abyde on a _balk_, or sytt on a stone.”
        --(Town. Myst. p. 99.)
  Balleful = baleful, wretched, wicked, B. 979.
  Balter, hop, jump, skip, C. 459.
  Balterande, halting, limping, B. 103. Sc. _balter_, to dance.
      “He baltyrde, he bleryde.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 66.)
    Etymologically it is connected with _palter_ and _falter_, and is
    applicable either to the unsteady gait of the lame or faltering
    steps of the blind.
  Baly = bayly, authority, jurisdiction, dominion, A. 1083.
  Baneres, B. 1404.
  Banne, proclamation, decree, B. 95, 1361.
  Banne, curse, B. 468, 885. Sw. _bann_, excommunication; _banna_, to
    reprove, chide, curse.
      “_Bannet_ worthe the bale tyme þat ho borne was.”
        T. B. 1388.
  Banne, comfort, strengthen, B. 620. O.Sc. _bawne_.
  Bantel, A. 991, 1017; B. 1459, posts, pillars.
  Baptem, baptism, A. 627, 653.
  Baptysed, A. 818.
  Barayn, barren, B. 659.
  Bare, _adj._ naked, B. 452; _sb._ 791.
  Bare, only, B. 1573. Sw. _bara_.
  Bared, disclosed, B. 1149.
  Bare-heued, bare-headed, B. 633.
  {Bareres, Barreȝ,} bars, barriers, B. 963, 1239; C. 321. W. _bar_,
    rail, shaft. Fr. _barre_; _barrière_, a barrier. Cf. Sw. _s-parre_.
    Eng. _s-par_.
  Barme, bosom, C. 510. A.S. _bearm_. “_Barme_ gremium.” (Prompt. Parv.)
      “He fond Horn in arme
      On Rymenhilde _barme_.” --(K. Horn, p. 294.)
  Barnage, childhood, B. 517.
  Barne, child, son, A. 426; _barneȝ_, A. 1040; B. 1085. Sc. _bairn_.
    A.S. _bearn_.
  Baronage, nobility, B. 1424. See T. B. 211.
  Barouneȝ, barons, B. 82, 1398.
  {Barreȝ, Barers,} bars, B. 884, 1263.
  Barst, burst, B. 963.
  {Base, Basse,} base, foundation, A. 1000, B. 1278. See T. B. 1652.
  Bassyn, basin, B. 1145, 1278.
  Bastele, B. 1187. “_Bastyle_ of a castelle or cytye. Fascennia.”
    (Prompt. Parv.)
  Basyng, base, A. 992.
  Bated, abated, B. 440.
  Bater, B. 1416.
  Batelment, B. 1459.
  Baþe, dip, plunge, B. 1248.
  Bausen, badger, B. 392. “_Bawstone_ or _bawsone_, or a gray, Taxus,
    melota.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Bawelyne, bow-line, B. 417.
  Bay, recess, B. 1392. The original meaning seems to be _opening_ of
    any kind. Cf. _bay_, space in a building between two main beams
    (Forby).
  Bayly, dominion, A. 315, 442.
  Bayn, _adv._ readily, willingly, A. 807, B. 1511; ready, C. 136.
    N.Prov.E. _bane_, near, convenient. “_Beyn_ or plyaunte.
    Flexibilis.” (Prompt. Parv.) _Bainly_, readily, T. B. 135.
  Baysment, abasement, A. 174.
  Bayte, B. 55. O.N. _beita_.
  Baytayled, fortified, B. 1183.
  Beauté, A. 749.
  {Bed, Bede,} bid, command, invite; _p.p._ _beden_, A. 715, B. 95, 440.
    See T. B. 389.
  Beke, beak, B. 487.
  Bekyrande, _sb._ bikering, fighting, B. 1474. “_Bekyryn_ or fyghtyn
    (_bikkeringe_), Pugno, dimico.” (Prompt. Parv.)
      “Bolde men to batell and _biker_ with hond.”
        T. B. 2944.
  Bele, _vb._ boil, A. 18. N.Prov.E. _bele_.
  Bem, beam, ray, “_bem_ of þe brode heuen,” B. 603.
  Bem, tree, A. 814.
  {Ben, Bene,} are, _3rd pers. pl._ A. 572.
  Bench, seat, B. 130, 854.
  Bene, fair, A. 198.
  Bene, _adj._ kind, merciful, C. 418.
  Bent, field, plain, B. 532, 1675. See T. B. 1192.
  Ber, bore, _pret._ of _bere_, to bear, A. 426, B. 1480.
  Berdles, beardless, B. 789.
  Bereste, breast, A. 854.
  Berfray, watch tower, B. 1187. O.F. _berfroi_, _beffroit_. Fr.
    _beffroir_. M.Lat. _belfredum_. The modern English _belfry_ is a
    corruption of _berfray_.
  Beryl, A. 110, 1011.
  Beryng, condition, state, behaviour, B. 1060, 1228.
  Best, beast, B. 288, 351.
  Beste, _sb._ best (one), A. 279.
  Besten, of beasts, B. 1446.
  Bete, (the fire) mend, repair, kindle, B. 627, _p.p._ _bet_, B. 1012.
    Prov.E. _beat_, to mend, repair. A.S. _bétan_, (1) to improve,
    repair; (2) joined with _fyr_ to mend a fire, to light or make a
    fire, to kindle.
  Bete, save, A. 757. A.S. _bétan_, to remedy. Du. _boeten_, mend, fine,
    expiate.
  Betȝ = bes, shall be, A. 611. Present tense with future signification.
  Beuerage, drink, liquor, B. 1433, 1717. Fr. _beuvrage_, from Lat.
    _bibere_.
  Bewar, beware, B. 292.
  Bewté, A. 765.
  Beyng, _sb._ being, existence, A. 446.
  Bibbe, sip, drink, B. 1499. Prov.E. _beb_. Du. _biberen_, to drink
    much.
      “Bacus he was brayne-wode for _bebbing_ of wynes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 154.)
  Bicalt, becalled, called from, A. 1163.
      “The kyng was full curteus, _calt_ on a maiden.” --(T. B. 388.)
  Bi-cnv, acknowledged, B. 1327.
  Bidde, bide, abide. C. 51.
  Biden, _p.p._ of _bide_ = _abide_, B. 616.
  {Bifalle, Byfalle,} befal, A. 186.
  Bifore, before, A. 49.
  {Bigge, Bygge,} great, B. 43, _bygger_, A. 374.
  Bigge, build, B. 1666. A.Sax. _byggan_. Icel. _byggia_. O.Sw. _bygga_,
    build, also inhabit.
  Bigly, strongly, C. 321. See T. B. 904.
  Bigonne, began, B. 123.
  Bihynde, behind, B. 918.
  Biholde, behold, B. 150.
  Bihyȝt, promised, C. 29.
  Bikenne, give, hand over, B. 1296.
  Bilde, built, B. 1392.
  Bileue, remain, B. 1549.
  Bilooghe, below, B. 116.
  Birle, pour out, B. 1511. Prov.E. _burl_. A.S. _byrelian_, to give to
    drink.
      “And seruanz war at this bridale
      That _birled_ win in cupp and schal.” --(Met. Hom. p. 120.)
  Birolled, berolled, B. 959.
  Biseche, beseech, B. 614.
  Bisoȝten, besought, C. 375.
  Bispeke, speak, C. 169.
  Bisyde, beside, B. 926.
  Bi-talt, aroused, A. 1161. A.S. _tealtian_, _tealtrian_; (1) to
    _tilt_, shake; (2) to be in danger. William of Shoreham uses one
    form of this word:
      “For ȝef that water his kende lest
      That cristninge stant _te-tealte_.” --(Poems, p. 9.)
      “For if that water its kind loseth,
      That christening standeth tottery, insecure” (_i.e._ not binding).
  Biteche, give up to, entrust to, B. 871; pret. _bitaȝt_.
  Bited, bit, C. 373.
  {Biþenkke, Biþenke,} bethink, B. 1357.
  Biþoȝt, bethought, B. 125.
  Bityde, betide; _pret._ bitydde, C. 61.
  Bityde, befall, B. 1804.
  Blade, B. 1105.
  Blake, black, A. 945; B. 747, 1449.
  Blame, _vb._ A. 275; B. 877, 1661; _sb._ B. 43.
  Blande, “in blande,” together, B. 885. See _blende_.
  {Blasfamye, Blasfemyon,} B. 1661, 1712.
  Blayke, yellow, A. 27. Brockett has _blayke_ with the sense of yellow,
    of a golden colour. “_Bleyke_ of coloure.” Pallidus, subalbus.
    (Prompt. Parv.)
      “Ther (in paradyse) were floures bothe blew and _blake_,
      Of alle frutes thei myth ther take.” --(Cov. Myst. p. 2.)
  Blaȝt, white, A. 212, _p.p._ of _bleach_, just as _raȝt_ is of
    _reach_. Sc. _blaucht_.
      “As _blaȝt_ ere thaire wedis
      As any snyppand snawe.” --(K. Alex. p. 54.)
  Ble, colour, complexion, A. 76, 212; B. 791, 1759. Prov.E. _ble_,
    _bly_. A.S. _bleo_.
  Bleaunt, a robe of fine linen, A. 163. O.Eng. _bliant_, fine linen,
    W. _llian_, linen. The _bl_ is merely an imitation of the Celtic
    _ll_.
      “A blewe _bleaunt_ obofe brade him al ovir.” --(K. Alex. p. 167.)
  Blench, stratagem, device, B. 1202. O.N. _blekkia_.
  Blemyst, blemished, B. 1421. O.Fr. _blesmir_.
  {Blende, Blente,} blended, mingled, mixt. A. 385, 1016; B. 967, 1788.
    A.S. _blendian_. Icel. _blanda_, to mix.
  Blo = bla, blue, livid, pale. B. 1017; C. 134. O.H.G. _blao_, N.Fris.
    _bla_. O.Sc. _bla_.
  {Blober, Bluber,} = blubber, waves, C. 221, 266. Prov.E. _blubber_,
    bubble; _blob_, _bleb_, a bubble. “_Blobure_ (blobyre, P.)
    Burbulium.” (Prompt. Parv.) “_Blober_ upon water (or bubble)
    bouteillis.” (Palsg.) “The water _blubbers_ up.” (Baker,
    Northamptonshire Glossary.)
  Blod, a child, B. 686. Supposing the _bl_ to represent _ll_ we might
    refer it to the W. _llawd_, a youth, _lad_. O.Sw. _g-lott_. Cf.
    _bliant_, _bleant_, from W. _llian_.
      “þis Abel was a blissid _blod_,
      Bot Caim was the findes (devil’s) fode (offspring).”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 7b.)
  Blod, blood, A. 650.
  Blok, space, C. 272.
  {Blom, Blome,} flower, bloom, A. 578, B. 1467. Sw. _bloma_, a flower.
    Du. _bloeme_. Ger. _blume_. “_Blome_ flowre. Flos.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Blomeȝ, blooms, flowers, A. 27.
  Blonk, horse, _pl._ _blonkeȝ_, B. 87, 1392. See T. B. 2371.
  Blonkken, _gen. pl._ of horses, B. 1412.
  Blosched, looked, C. 343. See _Blusch_.
  Blose = blese, blaze, flame. A. 911. Icel. _blossi_, a flame. A.S.
    _blaese_, a torch. Dan. _blus_.
  Blot, spot, blemish, defilement, A. 782.
    “Ye ben worthy, he saide, to be _blottede_ and _spottede_, foulede
    and defoulede with fenne (mire) and with drit of water (_luto
    inquinari_), and of blode, that in tyme of werre ne were nat be
    bespreynt, ne be wette with ennemyes blode.” (Quoted by Way, from
    Roy. MS. 18, A. xii. B. iii. c. 10.)
  Blubrande = blubbering, bubbling, foaming, B. 1017. See _blobber_.
  Blunt, rushed, C. 272.
  Blunt, faint, A. 176. Icel. _blunda_, to sleep. Sw. _blunda_, to close
    the eyes. Dan. _blende_, to dazzle. Cf. “Blunt of wytte. Hebes.”
    (Prompt. Parv.)
  {Blusch, Blusche,} look, glance, A. 980, 1083, B. 904, 998, 1537.
    N.Prov.E. _blush_, resemblance. Cf. “At the first _blush_,” at the
    first appearance, at first sight. Dan. _blusse_, to blaze, flame,
    glow. There seems to be an etymological connection with words
    signifying to look, glow, blaze, shine, etc.
      “The kyng _blyschit_ on the beryne (man) with his brode eghne.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 10.)
      “He _blusshed_ ouer backeward to þe brodesee.” --(See T. B. 1316.)
  {Blusnande, Blysnande,} shining, B. 1404. Icel. _blys_. Dan. _blus_,
    a torch. Du. _blos_, redness. Dan. _blusse_, to glow. Icel. _lysa_,
    to shine. Pl. D. _bleistern_, to glisten.
  Bluster, B. 886, to wander or stray about.
      “Ac there was wight noon so wys
      The wey thider kouthe,
      But _blustreden_ forth as beestes
      Over bankes and hilles.” --(Piers Ploughman, p. 108.)
  Blwe, blue, A. 423.
  Blwe, blew, B. 885.
  Blykked, shone, B. 603. A.S. _blican_, glitter, dazzle. Ger.
    _blicken_, shine, glance, look. Du. _blicken_, glitter; _blick_,
    a flash.
      “Hire bleo _blyketh_ so bryht
      So feyr heo is ant fyn.” --(Lyric Poems, p. 52.)
  Blyknande, shining, B. 1467.
  Blykned = blaykned, became black, B. 1759.
  Blynde, to become faded, dull, B. 1126.
  Blynne, cease, A. 729, B. 440, 1661, 1812. A.S. _blinnan_ (for
    _be-linnan_).
  {Blysfol, Blysful,} blissful, A. 279, 409.
  Blysnande, shining, A. 163. See _blusnande_.
  Blysned, shone, A. 1048.
  Blyþe, joy, A. 354. Blythe is still used as a noun in the North of
    England.
  Blyþely, joyfully, A. 385.
  Bobaunce, boasting, Fr. _bobance_, B. 179, 1712.
  {Bod, Bode,} command, B. 979; C. 56. A.S. _bod_, _gebod_, command,
    precept, message. “_Bode_ or massage (_boode_, H.) nuncium.”
    (Prompt. Parv.)
  Bod = abode, _pret._ of _bide_ = abide, A. 62; B. 982; wait for,
    B. 467.
  Bodworde, message, B. 473. See T. B. 6262.
  Bodyly, A. 478.
  Boffet, blast, B. 885.
  Boffeteȝ, buffets, blows, A. 809; _boffet_, B. 43.
  Bok-lered, book-learned, B. 1551.
  Bold, bad, A. 806. A.S. _báld_, audacious. Sw. _båld_, proud, haughty,
    warlike. In early English writers the term was applied indifferently
    to men and women of bad character.
      “Þou do me bote again þis _bald_ (bad one)
      For al þe soth I haf þe tald.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 48b.)
  Bol, bull, B. 1682; _pl._ _boleȝ_, B. 55.
  Bole, the round stem of a tree, B. 622. It enters also into
    composition in the word _throte_-bolle. _Pl._ _bolleȝ_, A. 76.
    Icel. _bolr_. Dan. _bul_. Sw. _bål_, trunk of a man’s body. See
    T. B. 4960.
  Bolle, bowl, B. 1145, 1511. A.S. _bolla_. Icel. _bolli_.
  Bolled, embossed, B. 1464.
  Bolnande, swelling, B. 179.
  Bolne, swell, A. 18; B. 363. Icel. _bolgna_. Sw. _bulna_, to swell. In
    some early English works we find _bollen_ (ibolȝe) the _p.p._ of a
    verb _bolȝe_ = bulge, swell. “Bolnyn, Tumeo, turgeo, tumesco.”
    (Prompt. Parv.)
  Bonc, bank, A. 907.
  Bone, prayer, petition, command (= boon). A. 912, 916; B. 826. A.S.
    _ben_. S.Sax. _bone_. O.N. _bón_ rogatio. “_Bone_ or graunte of
    prayer (_boone_ P.) Precarium, peticio.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Bone, good, B. 28.
  {Boner, Bonere,} good, B. 733.
  Bonerté, goodness, A. 762.
  Bongre, willingly, agreeably to, C. 56. See _Gre_.
  Bonk, bank, hill, A. 931, B. 379. Ger. _bank_, bench, bank of a river,
    etc.
  Bor, bower, chamber, dwelling, A. 964. A.S. _bur_, a chamber. Icel.
    _bur_. N.Prov.E. _boor_, a parlour.
  Bore, born, A. 239, B. 584.
  Borde, table, B. 1433, 1717.
  Borde, board of a vessel, B. 470; C. 211.
  Boreȝ, boars, B. 55.
  Borges, burgess; sometimes written _burgeise_, C. 366. O.Fr.
    _bourgeois_, from Lat. _burgensis_.
  Borgoun, to burgeon, bud forth, B. 1042. Fr. _bourgeon_, _bourjon_,
    young bud or sprig. Prov. Fr. _boure_, bud. Fr. _abourioner_, to bud
    or sprout forth. See T. B. 4964.
  Borlych, burly, B. 1488.
  Borne = burne, stream, water, B. 482; _borneȝ heued_, head of the
    stream, source, A. 974. A.S. _burne_. Goth. _brunna_. Icel.
    _brunnr_. G. _born_, _brunnen_, well, spring.
  Bornyst, burnished, A. 77, 220, B. 554. Fr. _brunir_, to polish.
  Boroȝt = broȝt, brought, A. 628.
  {Borȝ, Borȝe,} city, town, A. 957, 989, B. 45, 834, 1750. A.S. _burg_,
    _burh_. Goth. _baurgs_. Icel. _borg_.
  Bos = bus = behoves, B. 687.
  Bosk, take, B. 351; _boske_ to, go to, B. 834. See _Busk_.
  Boskeȝ, bushes, B. 322. Icel. _buskr_.
  Bosum, bay, C. 107. Cf. N.Prov.E. _bosom_, the eddy.
      “Eneas and his feris on the strand
      Wery and forwrocht, sped thame to the nerrest land,
      And at the cost of Lyby arryvit he.
      Ane havyn place with a lang hals or entre
      Thar is, with an ile enveronyt on ather part,
      To brek the wallis and storm of every art,
      Within, the water in a _bosum_ gays.” --(G. Doug. vol. i. p. 33.)
  Bost, boast, arrogance. B. 179, 1450.
  Boster, boaster, B. 1499.
  Bostwys = busteous, boisterous, rough, fierce, A. 814. Pl. Du.
    _büster_, wild, fearful, savage. Cf. “_Boystows_, rudis.” (Prompt.
    Parv.) _Bustus_, rudis, rigidus, to be _bustus_, rudere. (Cath.
    Angl.) The form _bostwys_ would seem to point to _bost_, boast, as
    the probable root.
  Bot, “to bot,” to boot, B. 473.
  Bot, command, B. 944. A.S. _beot_, threat, promise.
  Bot, only, A. 18, 382, except, A. 972; _bot-if_, unless, B. 1110.
  Bote, saviour, A. 275, 645; remedy, safety, C. 163. A.S. _bót_,
    amends, atonement; _gebétan_, to make amends. Du. _boet_, remedy;
    _boeten_, to mend.
  Boþe, booth, tent, C. 441.
  {Boþem, Boþom,} valley, dale, B. 383, 450; pit, sea, B. 1030.
    _Bottom_, a valley, is still used in many of our provincial
    dialects, and is a frequent element in local names. A.S. _botm_,
    lowest point, depth, abyss. Du. _bodem_. Germ. _boden_. Icel.
    _botn_.
  Bothem, bottom, C. 144.
  Boþemleȝ, bottomless, B. 1022.
  {Bouel, Bowel,} bowel, gut, B. 1251; C. 293.
  Bougoun (?) B. 1416.
  Boun, (1) ready; (2) finished, A. 534, 992, 1103. See T. B. 827.
    N.Prov.E. _boun_. Icel. _bua_, to prepare, p.p. _buinn_, prepared,
    ready.
  Bounden, fastened, B. 322; bound (_p.p._ of _binde_), A. 1103.
  Bounet, went, _pret._ of _boun_ or _bown_, to go, B. 1398. See _boun_.
    See T. B. 827, 5230.
      “And (he) _bownnes_ over a brode mede
      With breth (anger) at his herte.” --(M. Arthure, p. 290.)
  Bounté, goodness, B. 1436.
  Boureȝ (bowers), chambers. B. 322. See _Bor_.
  Bourne = burne, man, A. 617.
  Bourȝ = borȝ, city, B. 1377. See _Borȝ_.
  Boute, without, B. 260, 824; C. 523.
  {Bow, Bowe,} to go, walk, literally, to bend (one’s steps). A. 126,
    974; B. 45, 379, 482.
      “Forth heo gunnen _bugen_
      In to Bruttaine.” --(Laȝ. 2, 410.)
      “The burd _bowet_ from þe bede.” --(T. B. 775.)
    A.S. _búgan_, to _bow_, _bend_, avoid, flee.
  Bowe, obey (bend to), C. 56, 75.
  Boy, a boy, youth, B. 878.
  Boyeȝ, boys, men of low position, servants; generally used in a bad
    sense, “_boyeȝ bolde_,” A. 806.
      “---- bot a _boye_ one (alone)
      Hoves by hym on a blonke (horse) and his spere holdes.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 211.)
      “I wende no Bretones walde bee basschede for so lyttille
      And fore bare-legyde _boyes_ that one the bente houys.”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 178.)
  Boȝ = bow, go, A. 196; B. 1242, 1551. See _Bow_.
  Boȝe, bough, B. 616, 1467.
  Boȝt, bought, A. 651.
  Boȝted, curved, C. 449. A.S. _bugan_, to bend. Dan. _bugt_, bend,
    turn. Sc. _bought_, to fold, bend.
  Brade, broad, A. 138.
  Brake vp = break up, throw up, spew, C. 340. Ger. _sich brechen_. Du.
    _braeken_, to vomit. “_Brakyn_, or castyn or spewe. Vomo.” (Prompt.
    Parv.)
  Braken (_brake_, _bracken_), fern, B. 1675, Sw. _bräken_, Dan.
    _bregne_, Icel. _brok_, sedge. “A _brakane_ filix, a _brakan_,
    _buske_ filicarium.” (Cath. Angl.)
  Braste, burst, C. 148.
  Brathe = breþe, anger, ire, also fierceness. A. 1170; B. 916. O.N.
    _braedi_, anger. It sometimes signifies angry.
      “Bade hom blyn of hor _brathe_.” --(T. B. 5075.)
      “For this word was Saul wrath,
      For oft-sith was he bremli brath.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 42b.)
  Braþeȝ, _pl._ of braþe, A. 346.
  Braunches, B. 1464.
  Braundysch, display, A. 346.
  Bray, utter (aloud), roar, A. 346. Sw. _bräka_.
  Brayde, brought, A. 712; aroused, awakened, A. 1170; “at a _brayde_,”
    at a start (Icel. at _bragdi_), at once, B. 539; “in a _brayd_,” in
    a moment, B. 1507. O.N. _bregtha_, weave, move, brandish, seize,
    awake, to leap, start. _Bragth_, quick motion.
      “Þe Philistienes wituten les
      Ran on Sampson in a res,
      Bot Sampson þat selcuth smert,
      Ute o þair handes son he stert
      And gave a _braid_ sa fers and fast,
      Þat alle þe bandes of him brast.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 40b.)
  Brayden, ornamented, _p.p._ of _braid_, B. 1481.
  Bred, bread, B. 636.
  {Brede, Bred,} = breed, become, B. 1558; replenish, A. 415, 814;
    B. 257.
  Brede, board, C. 184. “_Brede_ or lytylle borde. Mensula, tabula,
    tabella, asserulus.” (Prompt. Parv.) A.S. _bred_, plank, board, etc.
  Brede, breadth, A. 1030.
  Brede, stretch out, A. 814.
  Breed, bred, C. 143.
  Bref, short, brief, A. 268.
  Brek, broke, B. 1105, 1239.
  Breme, full, complete, A. 863. A.S. _breme_, famous, glorious.
  Breme, fierce, A. 346; B. 229; C. 430. Du. _bremen_, to burn with
    desire. Fris. _brimme_, to rage.
      “A _brem_ lowe.” (T. B. 860.)
  Bremly, vigorously, B. 509.
  {Brend, Brende,} = brente, burnt, bright, A. 989; B. 1292.
  Brennande, burning, B. 1012.
  Brenne, burn, B. 509, 916.
  Brent, burnt, bright, A. 106.
  Brent, steep; _superl._ _brentest_, highest, B. 379. N.Prov.E.
    _brant_, steep. Sw. _brant_, steep, a precipice.
      “A man may syt on a _brante_ hyll syde.”
        --(Ascham’s Toxoph. p. 58, ed. Arber.)
      “Apon the bald Bucifelon _brant_ up he sittes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 124.)
      “Thane come thai blesnande till a barme of a _brent_ lawe (hill).”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 164.)
  Brere, briar, B. 791, 1694. N.Prov.E. _brere_, _breer_. A.S. _brér_.
  Bresed, rough, like bristles, shaggy (?), B. 1694. Cf. Sc. _birs_,
    _birse_, bristle.
  Brest, attack, outburst, B. 229. N.Prov.E. _birst_, attack (Brockett).
    O.E. _burst_ = injury, A.S. _byrst_.
  Breste, to burst, B. 1783.
  {Breth, Brethe,} wind, C. 107, 138; smell, vapour, B. 509, 967. Cf.
    “_brethe_ of smoke.” (Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience, l. 4727.) Sc.
    _broth_. Ger. _brodem_, _broden_, steam, vapour. A.S. _bræth_, an
    odour, scent, breath. “_Brethe_ at his wille.” (T. B. 1945.)
  Breth, wrath, B. 916. See _Brath_.
  Breue, tell, A. 755.
      “_Breve_ us thi name.” (K. Alex. p. 78.)
  Breued, related, written, B. 197. O.N. _brefa_.
  Breyþed, rushed, B. 1421. See _Braid_.
  Brod, great; “_brod_ wonder,” B. 584.
  Brode, broad, A. 650.
  {Brok, Broke,} brook, river, stream, A. 981; _pl._ _brokeȝ_. A. 1074,
    sea; C. 145. A.S. _broca_.
  Brom (broom), heath, C. 392. A.S. _bróm_.
  Bronch, branch, B. 487.
  Bronde, sword, B. 1246. O.N. _brandr_.
  Brond, brand, B. 1012.
  Broþe, angry, fierce, rough, B. 149, 1409. The original form in O.E.
    is _brathe_. It is connected with _brethe_, _brathe_, anger, wrath.
      “Wreth it es a _brath_ on-fall (outburst)
      Menging o mode that cums o galle.”
        --(The Deadly Sins, in Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)
  {Broþely, Broþlych,} fierce, rough, and hence vile, bad, B. 848, 1030;
    vilely, B. 1256; C. 474. The original form is _braþly_, fiercely,
    vigorously.
      “Thoner o-loft fal sal he (Antichrist) gar,
      And tres _brathli_ blomes bere;
      _Brathli_ to do the see be reth (stormy)
      And _brathli_ to do it be smeth.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 124a.)
  Broun, brown, A. 537, 990.
  Browden, clustered, B. 1132.
  Broȝt, brought, A. 286.
  Brugge = brigge, bridge, B. 1187. A.S. _bricge_.
  Brunt, blow, A. 174.
      “All þat was bitten of the best (beast)
      was at a brunt dede.” --(K. Alex. p. 134.)
  Brurd, border, edge, B. 1474. Sc. _breard_. A.S. _brerd_, _breard_,
    _briord_, _breord_, brim, margin, rim, shore, brink.
  Brurd-ful, brimful, full up to the brim, B. 383. Chaucer uses
    _bret-ful_ in the same sense.
  Brutage = bretage, parapets of a wall, ramparts, B. 1190. Fr.
    _breteche_.
  Bruxle, upbraid, reprove, C. 345. O.N. _bríxla_, to reprove, reproach.
  Brych, filth, uncleanness, B. 848. The meaning here assigned to
    _brych_ is conjectural. Cf. Du. _brack_, refuse, damaged. Ger.
    _brechen_, to vomit, _Bryche_ as an adjective occurs in Robt.
    Brunne’s “Handlyng Synne,” p. 182, where it is glossed low (loghe)
    _i.e._ vile.
      “Now ys Pers bycome _bryche_
      That er was bothe stoute and ryche.”
    In the Romance of Alexander, ed. Stevenson, we find the form
    _bicchid_ = _briched_ (?). Cf. _shille_ and _shrille_, etc.
      “And on the aȝtent day, eftire the prime
      A basilisk in a browe, breis (annoys) thaim unfaire,
      A straȝtill and a stithe worme _stinkande_ of elde,
      And es so bitter, and so breme, and _bicchid_ (foul) in himselfe,
      That with the _stinke_ and the strenth he stroyes noȝt allane,
      Bot quat he settes on his siȝt, he slaes in a stonde.” --(p. 165.)
  Bryd, lady, A. 769. A.S. _bryd_, a bride, a wife, woman.
  Brydde, bird, B. 288, 1482.
  Brydale, wedding, marriage, B. 142.
  {Brym, Brymme,} bank, shore, A. 232, 1074. Dan. _bremme_.
  Brymme, stream, water, B. 365. A.S. _brym_, the sea. In this sense
    _brymme_ seems to have been unknown to the Southern dialect.
      “O þis water þat sua stanc
      Wa was þam þat it nedings dranc,
      Þat toþer oncom þat him felle,
      Was frosse þat na tung moght telle,
      Þat ute o _brim_ and brokes bred,
      And siþen over al Egypte spred.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 32b.)
  Brynkeȝ, brinks, banks, B. 384.
  Brynston, brimstone, B. 967.
  Bryȝt, _adj._ bright, A. 110; _sb._ bright one, A. 755.
  Bukkeȝ, bucks, B. 392.
  Bulde, built, B. 1190.
  Buleȝ, bulls, B. 392.
  Bulk, stern of a ship. A.S. _bolca_, O.H.G. _pl._ _balkun_. Agiavia,
    loca per quæ ad remiges acceditur. (Graff. iii. p. 108.)
  {Bur, Burre,} blow, assault, A. 176; C. 7. O.Sc. _byr_, a blow.
    N.Prov. _birre_, _burr_. W. _bur_, violence, rage. See Wicliffe, St.
    Luke, viii. 33.
      “---- no buerne might ffor the _birre_ it abide.”
        --(T. B. 170. Cf. T. B. 571, 1902.)
  Bur, wave, C. 148. Prov.E. _bore_. Icel. _bara_. O.Ger. _bare_. Du.
    _baar_, wave, billow. In Laȝamon, vol. iii. p. 121, _Þe beares_
    occurs in the latter version for _þa vðen_ of the older copy.
  Burde, behoved, A. 316; C. 117, 507. O.N. _byrjar_. Dan. _bör_.
  Burde, a woman, lady. B. 80, 653. See _Bryd_. See T. B. 3984.
  {Burghe, Burȝ, Burȝe,} city, town, A. 980; B. 982; C. 366.
  Burne, man, A. 397, 712; B. 1202; “_burneȝ & burdeȝ_,” men and women,
    B. 80. A.S. _beorn_, warrior, hero.
  {Burnist, Burnyst,} burnished, B. 1085.
  Burre, blow, A. 176. See _bur_.
  Burþen, burden, B. 1439.
  Butter, B. 636.
  Burȝ, city, town, B. 1666. See _burghe_.
  {Busch, Busche,} = buske, to go, B. 1416; C. 143, 472.
      “& he (she) wist it as wel or bet as ȝif it were hire owne,
      Til hit big was & bold to _buschen_, on felde.”
        --(William and the Werwolf, p. 7.)
  Busily, laboriously, B. 1446.
  Busk, prepare, made ready, dress, to direct one’s steps towards a
    place, to go, hasten. B. 142, 333, 351, 633, 1395; C. 437. Icel. _at
    buast_ (for _at buasc_) = _at bua sig_, to bend one’s steps, to
    prepare, etc. See T. B. 1186.
  Busmar, scorn, mockery, B. 653. A.S. _bismer_, reproach, blasphemy.
  Bustwys, impetuous, fiery, A. 911. See _bostwys_.
  Busyeȝ = busies, troubles, A. 268.
  Buyrne = burne, man, C. 340. See _Burne_.
  Bycalle, call, A. 913.
  Bycalt, aroused, called, A. 1163.
  Bycom, became, A. 537.
  Byde, abide, A. 399; suffer, A. 664; B. 32; remain, B. 449, 622.
  Bydene, quickly, A. 196.
  Bye, buy, A. 732.
  Byfallen, befallen, B. 1629.
  Byfore, before, A. 530.
  {Bigge, Byge,} great, B. 229.
  {Byggyng, Bygyng,} building, A. 932; dwelling, B. 378. A.S. _byggan_,
    to build, Icel. _byggia_. See T. B. 1379.
  Bygly, great, strong; “_bygly bylde_,” great building, A. 963. See
    T. B. 5216.
  {Bygonne, Bygonnen,} begun, _p.p._ of _byginne_, A. 33; B. 749; began,
    A. 549.
  Bygyn, begin, A. 547.
  Bygynner, beginner, A. 436.
  Byhelde, beheld, B. 452.
  Byhod, behoved, A. 928. Cf. _bud_, behoved; _bus_, behoves.
  Byholde, behold, A. 810; B. 64.
  {Byhynde, Byhynden,} behind, B. 653, 980.
  {Byld, Bylded,} built, See _Bulde_.
  Bylde, building, A. 727, 963.
  Bylyue, immediately, at once, quickly, B. 353, 610.
  Bynde, bine, woodbine, C. 444. Sw. _binda_. Ger. _winde_. Eng.
    _bind_-weed.
  Bynne, within, B. 452, 467.
  Byrled, poured out, B. 1715. See _Birle_.
  {Bysech, Byseche,} beseech, A. 390.
  Byseme, beseem, A. 310.
  Bysulpe, defile, B. 575. See _Sulpe_.
  Byswyke, defraud, A. 568. A.S. _swícan_, deceive.
  Bysyde, beside, B. 673.
  {Bytaȝt, Bytaȝte,} = betaught, entrusted, confided; _pret._ of
    _biteche_, A. 1207; B. 528.
  Byte, fierce, A. 355.
  Byþenk, repent, B. 582.
  Bytterly, _adv._ B. 468.
  Bytwene, between, A. 140, 658.
  Bytwyste, betwixt, A. 464.
  Bytyde, betide, happen, A. 397; B. 522.
  Byye, buy, A. 478.
  Byȝe, crown, A. 466; ring, collar, B. 1638. A.S. _beáh_, _beág_, ring,
    collar, diadem.
  Byȝonde, beyond, A. 141, 146, 158, 981.

  Cable, C. 102.
  Cace, case, chance, C. 265.
  {Cache, Cachche,} = catch, drive away, take away. (1) “_cache_ to,”
    run to, B. 629; (2) take, B. 898, 1252. _Cachche_, to knock
    together, B. 1541. _Cached_, caught, B. 1800. Prov. Fr. _cacher_.
    Fr. _chasser_. It. _cacciare_.
  Cachen (_3d pers. pl._ of _cache_), B. 16.
  Cagged, drawn along (?), B. 1254.
  Caggen (_3d pers. pl. pres._ of _cagge_), draw (?), A. 512.
      “Cables were _caget_ togedur.” --(T. B. 3703.)
      “He plyes ovir the pavement with pallene webis.
      Mas on hiȝt ovir his hede for hete of the sone,
      Sylours of sendale to sele ovire the gatis,
      And sammes thaim on aither side with silken rapis,
      And then he _caggis_ up one
      Cordis, as curteyns it ware.” --(K. Alex. p. 52.)
  Cal, _sb._ call, invitation, B. 61.
  Calder, colder, A. 320.
  Calleȝ, addresses, C. 411.
  Callyng, _sb._ proclamation, B. 1362. N.Prov.E. calling, notice.
      “_Callynge_, or clepyng to mete: Invitacio.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Calsydoyne, chalcedony, A. 1003.
  Cambe, came, A. 775.
  Canacle, B. 1461. M.Lat. _canicellus_, a little box, chest.
  Candel, C. 472.
  Candelstik, B. 1478.
  Capeles, horses, B. 1254. _Capul_ or _caple_, horse. Caballus.
    (Prompt. Parv.)
  Capstan, B. 418.
  Captyuidé, captivity, B. 1612.
  Caraldes, C. 159.
  Carayne, carrion, B. 459.
  Care, sorrow, A. 50, 371; B. 777. A.S. _cáru_. Goth. _kara_.
  Careful, sorrowful, B. 770.
  Carf, carved, formed, C. 131.
  Carfully, sorrowfully, B. 1252.
  Carle, a low fellow, a churl, B. 876. A.S. _ceorl_, a man, countryman.
    Du. _kaerle_. Ger. _kerl_.
  Carneles, battlements, embrasures, B. 1382.
  Carpe, _sb._ discourse, A. 883; parable, B. 23; speech, B. 1327.
  Carpe, _vb._ to discourse, talk, speak, A. 381; B. 74; of carpe,
    discourse of, A. 752. “_Carpyn_ or talkyn, fabulor, confabulor,
    garrulo.” (Prompt. Parv.) Port. _carpire_, cry.
  Carping, discourse, speech, B. 1550.
  Cas, case, A. 673.
  {Cast, Caste, Kest,} condition, A. 1163.
  Cast, look, B. 768.
  Casydoyne, B. 1471. See _Calsydoyne_.
  Catel, wealth, B. 1296.
  Cawse, reason, B. 65.
  Cause, A. 702.
  Cayre, to turn one’s steps to a place, to go, A. 1031; B. 85, 901,
    1259. “Kaire to þi londe,” T. B. 836. A.S. _cérran_. Ger. _kehren_.
    Du. _keeren_, to turn.
  Cayser, emperor, B. 1322.
  Caytif, wretched, B. 1426.
  {Caȝt, Caȝte,} caught, A. 50; caȝte of, took off, A. 237; caȝt away,
    B. 1275; C. 485. See _Cache_.
  Certeȝ, truly, B. 105.
  Cerue, cut, dig, B. 1547.
  Ceté, city, A. 927.
  Ceuer, recover, reach, A. 319.
  Chace, drive, A. 443.
  Chambre, A. 904; B. 1586.
  Chapel, A. 1062.
  Charde, turned, A. 608. A.S. _cérran_, to turn, avert. Cf. _ajar_,
    older form a-_char_, on-_char_.
  Charged, commanded, B. 464.
  Charged, loaded, B. 1154, 1295.
  Chariote, B. 1295.
  Charyté, A. 470.
  Chast, chasten, B. 860.
  Chastyse, B. 543.
  Chaufen, heat, increase, B. 128.
  Chaunce, chance, B. 1125.
  Chaundeler, candlestick, B. 1272.
  Chaunge, change, B. 1588.
  Chawleȝ, jaws, C. 268. N.Prov.E. _chavel_. A.S. _ceafl_. S.Sax.
    _cheuele_. Cp. the vulgar phrase “cheek by _jowl_.”
  {Chayer, Chayere,} chair, seat, A. 885; B. 1218.
  Chef, chief, B. 684, 1238.
  Cheftayn, chieftain, B. 1295.
  Chekke, B. 1238.
  Chere, cheer, A. 407; countenance, A. 887. Prov. Sp. _cara_, O.Fr.
    _chiere_, countenance, favour, look.
  {Cheryche, Cherisch,} cherish, B. 128, 543, 1154, 1644.
  Ches, chose (_pret._ of _chese_), A. 759.
  Cheualrye, chivalry, B. 1238.
  Cheue, achieve, accomplish, B. 1125. Fr. _achever_, to bring to a
    head, accomplish. Fr. _chevir_, to compass.
  {Cheuetayn, Cheuentayn,} chieftain, A. 605; B. 464. O.Fr.
    _chevetaine_.
  {Childer, Chylder,} children, A. 718; B. 1300.
  Chorles, churl, B. 1258. See _Carle_.
  Chos, went. See “chosen,” T. B. 490.
  Chyche, niggard, A. 605. Fr. _chice_, avarice. _Chynche_ and _kynche_
    are other forms of the same word.
  Chyde, A. 403.
  Chyldryn, (_gen. pl._) of children, B. 684.
  Chylled = chilled, shivered, became cold, C. 368.
  Chysly = choysly, aptly, well, B. 543.
  Ciences, sciences, knowledge, B. 1289.
  Clam (_pret._), climbed, B. 405.
  Clambe (_2 sing. pret._), climbedst, A. 773.
  Clanner, cleaner, B. 1100.
  {Clanly, Clanlych,} cleanly, purely, A. 2; B. 264, 1089, 1327; neatly,
    B. 310. T. B. 53.
  Clannes, clannesse, cleanness, purity, B. 1, 12, 1809.
  Claryoun, clarion, B. 1210.
  {Clater, Clatter,} shatter, B. 912.
      “So hard was she beseged soth for to telle,
      And so harde sautes to the cite were ȝeuen,
      That the komli kerneles were to-_clatered_ with engines.”
        --(William and the Werwolf, p. 103.)
  Clatering, clattering, B. 1515. Du. _klateren_, to rattle.
  Clatȝ, clash, clatter, B. 839. Ger. _klatschen_, to clap; _klatsch_,
    slap, clash.
  Clawres, claws, B. 1696. _Clawres_ is perhaps an error for _clawes_.
    It may, however, be another form of O.E. _clever_, _claver_, a claw.
    Du. _klaveren_, _kleveren_. N.Prov.E. _claiver_, to claw oneself up,
    to scramble.
  Clay, B. 312. _Clay_-daubed, B. 492.
  Clayme, call for, cry for, B. 1096.
  Cleche, receive, take, B. 12. “_Cleches_ to,” takes, lays hold of,
    B. 634. Sc. _cleik_, _clek_, _cluke_, claw, hook; _cleke_, _cleik_,
    catch, snatch. O.Sw. _klaencka_, to snatch, seize.
  Clef, cleft, split (_pret._ of _cleve_), B. 367.
  Clem, claim, A. 826.
  Cleme, daub, plaster with clay, B. 312. N.Prov.E. _cleam_. _Clam_, to
    daub, glue. S.Prov.E. _cloam_, earthenware; _clomer_, a potter. A.S.
    _clem_, _clám_, clay; _clæmian_, to _clam_, smear.
      “I stoppe thys ouyn wythowtyn dowte,
      With clay I _clome_ yt uppe ryght fast,
      That non heat cum [ther] owte.”
        --(The Play of the Sacrament, p. 132.)
  Clene, perfect, whole, B. 1731.
  Clenge, cling, stick, B. 1034. Dan. _klynge_, to cluster, crowd.
    S.Prov.E. _clunge_, to crowd, squeeze; _clungy_, sticky.
  Clente, clenched, fastened, A. 259. Cf. _queynte_ = quenched,
    _dreynte_ = drenched.
  Clepe, to call, B. 1345. A.S. _clypian_.
  {Cler, Clere,} clear, A. 2, 207; bright, A. 620, 735; plain, B. 26.
  Clergye, learning, B. 1570.
  Clerkeȝ, clerks, scholars, B. 193.
  Clernes, clearness, beauty, B. 1353.
  Cleþe, clothe, B. 1741.
  {Cleȝt, Clyȝt,} = clutched, fastened, (_p.p._ of _cleche_), B. 858;
    fixed, B. 1655.
  Clobbeȝ, clubs, B. 839.
  Clos, enclosure, house, B. 839.
  Clos, closed, A. 183; B. 12.
  Closed, enclosed, B. 310.
  Clot, mount, hill, A. 789. In the “Owl and Nightingale,” 999, we find
    _clude_, a hill. A.S. _clúd_. Low Ger. _kloot_, a hill.
  Clot, soil, earth, A. 22, 320. Du. _klot_, _klotte_, clod, clot.
  Clotteȝ, clods, A. 857.
  Cloþ, sail, C. 105.
  {Cloutes, Clowteȝ,} pieces, B. 367, 965.
  Cloystor, cloister, A. 969.
  Cluchche, clutch, B. 1541.
  Clustered, B. 367, 951. See T. B. 1647.
  Clutte, clouted, patched (?), B. 40. A.S. _clút_, a clout.
  Clyde, plaister (?), B. 1692. A.S. _clitha_. Cf. “_Clyte_, _clete_, or
    vegge (_clete_ or wegge, K.) cuneus.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Clyffe, cliff, A. 159; B. 405, 965.
  Clyket, clicket, latch, B. 858. Prov. Fr. _cliche_, a latch, bolt.
    _Clyket_ of a dore, _clicquette_. (Palsgrave.)
  Clynge, wither, decay, A. 857. A.S. _clingan_.
  Clyppe, fasten, B. 418. A.S. _clyppan_, to embrace.
      “I wold yonder worthy weddit me hade,
      So comly, so cleane to _clippe_ uppon nightes.” --(T. B. 474.)
  Clypper, shearer, A. 802.
  {Clyue, Clyuy,} cleave, cling to, B. 1630, 1692. Du. _kleeven_,
    _klijven_, to fasten. A.S. _clífan_.
  Clyuen, cleave, A. 1196.
  Clyȝt, clutched, stuck, B. 1692.
  Cnawe, know, acknowledge, C. 519.
  Cnawyng, _sb._ knowledge, A. 859.
  Cnoken, knock, A. 727.
  Cob-hous = cov (cow)-house (?), B. 629. _Cob_ may be another form of
    Prov. Ger. _colb_, a heifer.
  Cof, quickly, B. 60, 898; quick, B. 624. A.S. _cáf_, quick, expert.
  {Cofer, Cofere,} coffer, chest, coffin, A. 259; ship, ark, B. 310,
    339; jewel box, 1428. Fr. _coffre_.
  Cofly, quickly, B. 1428.
  Coge, boat, C. 152. _Cogges_ with cablis cachyn to londe, T. B. 1077.
  Cokreȝ, cockers, a kind of rustic high shoes or half boots fastened
    with laces or buttons, B. 40. “_Cocur_ boote. Ocrea. coturnus.”
    (Prompt. Parv.) The term is still used in the north of England =
    gaiters, leggings.
  Cole, coal, B. 456.
  Cole, cool, C. 452.
  Colde, great, severe, A. 50; “_careȝ_ colde,” great sorrow, A. 808.
  Coler, collar, B. 1569, 1744.
  Colored, B. 456.
  Colour, A. 753.
  Coltour = coulter, (of a plough), B. 1547. Fr. _coultre_. Lat.
    _culter_.
  Colwarde, deceitful, B. 181. See note on this word. Cf. _kolsipe_
    (col-ship), deceit.
  Comaunde, B. 1428.
  Combre, to trouble, destroy, B. 901, 1024. Du. _kommer_, _kombre_,
    loss, adversity, care, grief.
  Combraunce, trouble, B. 4. See T. B. 726.
  Come, _sb._ coming, arrival, A. 1116; B. 467
      “Of his _come_ fayne.” --(T. B. 975.)
  Comende, B. 1.
  {Comfort, Comforte,} _sb._ A. 55, 357.
  {Comly, Comlych,} comely, A. 259; B. 546.
  Commune, common, A. 739.
  Comparisune, _vb._ compare, B. 161.
  Compas, A. 1072, B. 319, 1455.
  Compast, B. 697.
  Compaynye, company, B. 119.
  Comyne, B.   . See T. B. 12863.
  Con = can, did (used as an auxiliary of the past tense), A. 453;
    B. 1561; _coneȝ_, didst, A. 482.
  Conacle = canacle, cup, B. 1515.
  Conciens, conscience, A. 1089.
  Concubine, B. 1353.
  Condelstik, candlestick, B. 1275.
  Confourme, conform, B. 1067.
  {Coninge, Connyng,} wisdom, science, B. 1611, 1625.
  Conquere, B. 1431, 1632.
  Conquerour, B. 1322.
  Conquest, conquered, B. 1305.
  Consayue, conceive, B. 649.
  Conterfete, counterfeit, feign, B. 13.
  Contraré, contrary, B. 4, 266; in _contrary_, opposite, B. 1532.
  Controeued, contrived, B. 266.
  Contryssyoun, contrition, A. 669.
  Conueye, guide, B. 678, 768.
  Coosteȝ, properties, B. 1033.
  Coperounes, tops, B. 1461. “_Coporne_ or _coporoun_ of a thyng
    (_coperone_, K. H. _coperun_, P.), capitellum.” (Prompt. Parv.) “The
    Catholicon explains _capitellum_ as signifying merely the capital of
    a column, but in the Medulla it is rendered ‘_summa pars capitis_.’”
    (A. Way, in Prompt. Parv.)
  Coppe, top; “hyl _coppe_,” A. 791. A.S. _copp_, head, top, apex.
      “Now bowis forth this baratour and bidis na langir,
      Up at a martene mountane, he myns with his ost,
      And viii daies bedene the driȝe was and mare,
      Or he miȝt covir to the _copp_, fra the cave undire.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 163.)
  Corage, heart, B. 1806.
  Corbyal, raven, B. 456.
  Cordes, C. 153.
  Coroun, _sb._ A. 237; _vb._ A. 415, 767.
  Cors, course, B. 264.
  Corse, corpse, A. 320.
  Corse, to curse, B. 1032, 1583.
  Corsye, corrosive, B. 1034.
  {Cortays, Cortayse,} courteous, A. 433; B. 512; pure, B. 1089.
  Cortaysye, courtesy, A. 468, 480; good conduct, B. 13.
  Cortaysly, courteously, A. 381; kindly, B. 564, 1435.
  Corte, court, A. 701.
  Cortel, kirtle, A. 203. A.S._cyrtel_. Dan. _kjortel_, a garment either
    for a man or woman.
  Corteȝ, courteous, A. 754.
  Corupte, B. 281.
  Coruen (_p.p._ of _kerue_), cut, reaped. A. 40; B. 1407.
  Cost, contrivance, B. 1478. A.S. _costian_. O.Sw. _kosta_. Du.
    _koste_, to try, attempt. This word is sometimes written _cast_.
    See “William and the Werwolf,” p. 167.
  Cost, coost, property, B. 1024, 1033.
  Cost, coast, border, side, B. 85.
  Costoum, custom, B. 851.
  Coumforde, comfort, A. 369.
  {Counseyl, Counsayl,} counsel, A. 319; B. 683, 1201.
  Counte, B. 1685, 1731.
  Countenaunce, appearance, B. 792.
  Counterfete, defraud, A. 556.
  Countes, countess, A. 489.
  Courtaysye, courtesy, A. 457.
  Cout, cut, B. 1104.
  Couthe, knew, known, B. 813, 1054.
  Coueyte, covet, desire, B. 1054.
  {Couenaunde, Couenaunt,} covenant, A. 562, 563.
  Couetyse, covetousness, B. 181.
  Cowpe, cup, B. 1458.
  Cowþe, could; cowþeȝ, couldst, A. 484.
  Cowwardely, cowardly, B. 1631.
  Coyntyse, skill, craft, B. 1287. _Coint_, skilful, occurs in
    T. B. 125.
      “hir _coint_ artys.”
    Cf. _Coyntly_, T. B. 164.
  Crafte, power, wisdom; _pl._ crafteȝ, A. 356; contrivance, A. 890;
    power, C. 131.
  Crageȝ, crags, B. 449.
  Crak, sound, B. 1210.
  Craue, ask, pray for, A. 663; beg, B. 801.
  Crede, creed, A. 485.
  Cresse, cress, A. 343.
  Creste, A. 856.
  Croked, bad, B. 181.
  Crokeȝ, reapinghooks, sickles, A. 40.
  Croneȝ, cranes, B. 58.
  Crossayl, cross-sail, C. 102.
  Croukeȝ, croaks, B. 459.
  Cruppeleȝ, cripples, B. 103.
  Cry, proclamation, B. 1574.
  {Crysolite, Crysolyt,} chrysolite, A. 1009.
  Crysopase, chrysoprasus, A. 1013.
  Crystal, A. 159.
  Cumly, A. 929. See _Comly_.
  Cupborde, B. 1440.
  {Cupyde, Cubit,} B. 315, 319, 405.
  Cumfort, C. 485.
  Cupple, pair, B. 333.
  Cure, care, A. 1091.
  Curious, B. 1353.
  {Cyté, Ceté,} city, A. 927, 939.

  Dale, B. 384 (phrase: “doun and _daleȝ_,” hill and dale), A. 121.
  Dalt, dealt, fulfilled, B. 1756.
  Dam, stream, A. 324; the deep, B. 416. Icel. _dammr_. Dan. _dam_,
    a fish pond.
  Dampned, damned, condemned, A. 641.
  Dampped, quelled, B. 989. Ger. _dampfen_, to suffocate, choke. Du.
    _dempen_. Sw. _dåmpa_, to extinguish, repress, damp.
  Damysel, damsel, A. 489.
  Dare, to tremble, be afraid, A. 839. Sw. _darra_, to tremble, shake.
  Dard = dured, endured, A. 609.
  Daschande, dashing, C. 312.
  Dasande, stupefying, B. 1538.
  Dase, lie hid, cower, C. 383. Cf. _dare_, to lie hid, cower. For the
    interchange of _r_ and _s_ compare O.E. _gaure_, to gaze.
  Dased, stupid, frightened, A. 1085. Sc. _dozen_, _dosen_, to stupefy,
    benumb. Du. _daesen_, to lose one’s wits; _daes_, _dwaes_, foolish,
    mad. (Kil.) Prov. Ger. _dasen_, to be still.
      “For he was _dased_ of the dint and half dede him semyd.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 136.)
  Date, A. 492; limit, A. 493; time, A. 504, 516; age, A. 1040.
  Daube, daub, plaister, B. 313, 492. Prov.E. _daub_, clay. “_Dawber_ or
    cleyman; _dawbyn_, lino, muro.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Daunce, dance, A. 345.
  Daunger, power, A. 11; insolence, B. 71.
  Dawande, dawning, C. 445. A.S. _dagian_, to become day. Icel. _dagan_,
    dawn.
  Daweȝ, days; “don out of _daweȝ_,” deprived of life, dead, A. 282.
  Dayly, A. 313.
  Daynty, B. 38, 1046.
  Day-rawe, daybreak, B. 893; _rawe_ or _rewe_ signifies a _streak_. Cf.
    _day-rim_, in “Owl and Nightingale,” l. 328.
      “Qwen the _day-rawe_ rase, he rysis belyfe.” --(K. Alex. p. 14.)
  Daȝed, dawned, became day, B. 1755. See _Dawande_.
  Debate, strife, contest, A. 390.
  Debonere, gracious, courteous, kind, A. 162; B. 830.
  Debonerté, goodness, A. 798; C. 418.
  Dece = dese, seat of honour, B. 38, 1399. See _Dese_.
  Declar, explain, B. 1618.
  Declyne, A. 333.
  Decre, decree, B. 1745; C. 386.
  Dedayn, disdain, displeasure, B. 74; C. 50.
  Defence, prohibition, B. 243, 245.
  Defoule, defilement, C. 290.
  Defowle, to defile, B. 1129, 1147.
  Degre, degree, condition, B. 92.
  Degres, steps, A. 1022.
  Dekenes, deacons, B. 1266.
  Dele, deal, distribute, give, A. 606; exchange, B. 1118.
  Dele, utter, B. 344.
  Dele (dole), sorrow, A. 51.
  Deled, dealt, C. 193.
  Delful, doleful, sorrowful, B. 400.
  Delfully, dolefully, sorrowfully, A. 706.
  Delyt, delight, A. 642, 1116.
  Delyuer, delivered, B. 1084.
  Delyuer, deliver, A. 652; B. 500.
  Deme, deem, judge, A. 312, 313; B. 1118; utter, decree, B. 1745;
    C. 119; call, name, B. 1020, 1611. A.S. _déman_.
  {Demerlayk, Demorlayk,} magic, glamour, B. 1561, 1578. S.Sax.
    _dweomer-lake_, magic. A.S. _dweomere_, a juggler.
      “And all this _demerlayke_ he did bot be the devylle craftes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 15.)
  Demme, _vb._ become faded, lost, A. 223. A.S. _dem_, damage, hurt,
    loss.
  Demmed = dammed, collected (?), B. 384. A.S. _demman_, to dam, stop
    water. Carr gives _demin_, a term applied to clouds when collected
    in masses. Sw. _dämma_. O.Fris. _demma_, to stop, obstruct.
  Dene, vale, dale, A. 295. A.S. _dene_, _denu_.
  Denely, loud, A. 51.
  Denned, resounded. If it does not signify _dinned_, it must mean
    settled, took up its abode. A. 51.
  Denounce, renounce, forsake, B. 106.
  Departe, separate, part, A. 378; B. 396, 1677.
  Depaynt, painted, adorned, A. 1102.
  {Dep, Depe,} profound, A. 406; B. 1609.
  Depres, depress, A. 778.
  Depryue, A. 449; take away, B. 185.
  Dere, _vb._ to harm, injure, A. 1157; B. 862. See T. B. 1260. A.S.
    _derian_, to hurt, damage, injure.
  Dere, precious, A. 400; valuable, B. 1792. A.S. _deóre_, dear,
    precious.
  Dere, dear ones, A. 777.
  {Derelych, Derely,} = dearly, beautifully, excellently, A. 995; very,
    B. 270.
  Dereȝ, _sb._ harms, injuries, A. 102. See T. B. 920. A.S. _dar_,
    _daru_, hurt, harm.
      “Thai dreȝe him up to the drye (land), and he na _dere_ sufird.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 189.)
  Derf, great, bold, B. 862. O.N. _diafr_. Sw. _djerf_, strong, bold. “A
    _derfe_ dragon,” T. B. 166. “Dang him _derffly_ don in a ded hate.”
    _Ib._ 1339.
  Derfly, quickly, B. 1641; C. 110.
  Derk, dark, B. 1020; C. 263; night, B. 1755. A.S. _deorc_.
  Derne, _adj._ secret, hidden, B. 588, 1611; _adv._ secretly, B. 697.
    See T. B. 1962. A.S. _dearn_, dark, secret, hidden.
  Derrest, dearest, B. 115, 1306.
  Derþe = dearth, preciousness, value, worth, A. 99. See _Dere_.
  Deruely = derfely, quickly, B. 632.
  Derworth, precious, beautiful, A. 109. See _Dere_.
  {Des, Dese,} dais, seat of honour, A. 766; B. 115, 1394.
  Desert, C. 84.
  Desserte, desert, A. 595.
  Deseuered, severed, C. 315.
  Dessypele, disciple, A. 715.
  Destyné, A. 758; C. 49.
  Desyre, B. 545.
  Determynable, A. 594.
  Deuine, _sb._ divine, B. 1302; _vb._ B. 1561.
  Deuinores, diviner, B. 1578.
  Deuote, devout, A. 406.
  Deuoutly, B. 814.
  Deuoyde, do away with, destroy, A. 15; B. 908.
  {Deuyce, Deuyse, Deuice,} devise, imagine, B. 1046, 1100; describe,
    A. 99, 984; order, B. 110, 238.
  Deuyse, _sb._ device, A. 139.
  Deuysement, description, A. 1019.
  Devoydynge, putting away, _sb._ B. 544.
  Dewoutly, devoutly, C. 333.
  Dewoyde = devoyde, C. 284.
  Dewyne = dwine, pine, A. 11.
  Deystyné, destiny, B. 400.
  {Deȝter, Deȝteres, Deȝtters,} daughters, B. 270, 866, 899, 933, 939.
    See T. B. 1489.
  Dialoke, discourse, B. 1157.
  Dispayred, in despair, C. 169.
  Display, B. 1107.
  Displese, C. 1.
  Dispit, spite, C. 50.
  Dispoyled, stripped, C. 95.
  Disserued, B. 613.
  Disstrye, destroy, B. 907, 1160.
  Disserne, discern, C. 513.
  Dissert, desert, C. 12.
  Distres, B. 880, 1160.
  Diuinité, B. 1609.
  Ditteȝ, stops up, closes, B. 588. N.Prov.E. _ditt_, to stop up. A.S.
    _dyttan_.
  Diȝe, die, C. 488.
  Diȝte, order, arrange, B. 1266. A.S. _dihtan_, to set in order,
    dispose, arrange, direct, etc.
  Do, doe, “_daunce as any do_,” A. 345.
  Dobler, dish, B. 1146. O.Fr. _doublier_.
  Doc, duke, A. 211.
  {Doel, Dol,} sorrow, A. 326, 339, 642; B. 852.
  Dole, part, A. 136.
  {Dom, Dome,} doom, judgment, purpose, A. 157, 580, 667; B. 597;
    command, B. 632; doom, C. 203.
  Dongoun, dungeon, B. 1224.
  Dool, part, B. 216.
  Dool (dole), sorrow. See _Doel_.
  Doole, gift, B. 699.
  Dor, door, B. 320.
  Dotage, folly, B. 1425.
  Dote, act foolishly, B. 286, 1500; C. 125; be astonished, frightened,
    B. 852. Sc. _doit_. Icel. _dotta_, to slumber. Du. _doten_,
    _dutten_, delirare, desipere. (Kilian.) “Maddyn, or _dotyn_,
    desipio.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Doted, foolish, wicked, C. 196. N.Prov.E. _doited_, stupid.
  Dotel, a fool, B. 1517.
  Doun, down, A. 230.
  Doun, down, hill, A. 121.
  Doungoun, dungeon, A. 1187.
  Doured, grieved, mourned, C. 372. Sc. _dour_.
  Dousour, sweetness, A. 429.
  Doute, doubt, A. 928.
  {Douth, Douþe,} brave, noble, A. 839, B. 270, 597, A.S. _duguth_, the
    nobility, senate, etc. _Dugeth_, good, virtuous. _Dugan_, to profit,
    avail, be good, etc.
  {Doune, Dovene,} a female dove, B. 469, 481. Cf. O.E. _wulvene_, a
    female wolf, and E. _vixen_, a female fox.
  Dowe, avail, profit, B. 374; C. 50. See T. B. 5001. See _Douth_.
  Dowelle, dwell, B. 376, 1770; C. 69.
  Downe, dove, B. 485.
  Downeȝ, downs, hills, A. 73, 85.
  Dowyne, dwine, pine, A. 326.
  Dowrie, B. 185.
  Doȝter, daughter, B. 814.
  Doȝty, doughty, valiant, B. 1182, 1791. See _Douthe_.
  Doȝtyest, bravest, B. 1306.
  Draȝ, draw, A. 699.
  Draȝt = draught, character, B. 1557.
  Drede, doubt, A. 1047.
  Drepe, to kill, slay, B. 246; destroy, B. 599, 1306.
      “This stone with his stremys stroyed all the venym,
      And _drepit_ the dragon to the dethe negh.” --(T. B. 929.)
    A.S. _drepan_. O.N. _drepa_.
  Dresse, order, direct, prepare, A. 495, 860; B. 92; _pret._ _dressed_,
    _drest_.
  Dreue, drive, A. 323.
  Dreued, drove, went, A. 980.
  Dreȝe = dreghe, suffer, endure, B. 1224. Sc. _dree_. A.S. _dreógan_,
    to bear, suffer, endure. Cf. “dyntes full _dregh_.” T. B. 935.
  Dreȝly, sorrowfully, B. 476. See T. B. 2379.
  Drof, drove, A. 30, 1153.
  Drouy, turbid, B. 1016. A.S. _dréfe_, muddy, foul; _dréfan_, to
    trouble, make turbid. O.E. _drove_, to trouble. Goth. _drobjan_, to
    trouble. Du. _droeven_. “_Drovy_ turbidus, turbulentus.” (Cath.
    Ang.)
    “He (the fool-large) is like to an hors that seketh rather to
    drynke _drovy_ watir and trouble, than for to drinke water of the
    welle that is cleer.” (The Persones Tale: _Remedium contra
    avariciam_.)
  Drowned, was drowned, B. 372.
  Droȝ, drew, A. 1116; B. 71; _pl._ _droȝen_, B. 1394.
  Droȝthe = drouthe, drought. A.S. _druguth_. Du. _drooghte_. Sc.
    _drouth_, from A.S. _dryg_. Du. _droogh_, dry.
  Druye, dry, B. 412; dry land, B. 472.
  Drwry, dreary (?), A. 323.
  Drwry = drury, love, B. 699, 1065. O.Fr. _druerie_, _drurie_.
  {Dryȝ, Dryȝe,} dry, B. 385.
  {Dryȝ, Dryȝe,} heavy, sorrowful, A. 823; B. 342.
  Dryȝe, suffer, B. 372, 400, 1032. See _Dreȝe_.
  {Dryȝly, Dryȝlych,} strongly, rapidly, A. 125; wrathfully, angrily,
    B. 74, 344; C. 235.
  Dryȝtyn, Lord, A. 349; B. 1065. A.S. _drihten_.
  {Dubbed, Dubbet,} decked, A. 73, 97, 202; adorned, B. 115. See T. B.
    1683.
  Dubbement, adornment, A. 121.
  Dublere, a dish, B. 1279. See _Dobler_.
  Due, A. 894; C. 49.
  Duk, duke, B. 38, 1182; leader, B. 1771.
  Dumpe, be dashed, fall, C. 362.
      “_Dumpe_ in þe depe.” --(T. B. 1996.)
      “Þan sal þe rainbow descend,
      In hu o galle it sal be kend;
      Wit þe wind sal it melle,
      And drive þam dun alle until helle;
      And _dump_ the devels þider in,
      In þair bale alle for to brin.”
        --(_Signa Ante Judicium_, in Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)
  Dungen, _3d pers. pl. pret._ of _ding_, to beat, B. 1266. Sw. _dänga_.
      “So _dang_ he þat dog with dynt of his wappon.” --(T. B. 302.)
  Dunne, dun, A. 30. See T. B. 925.
  Dunt, blow. See _Dynt_.
  Durande, lasting, during, A. 336.
  Dure, last, B. 1021; C. 488.
  Dusched, struck, B. 1538. Sc. _dusche_, to smite; _dusch_, a blow.
      “All _dusshet_ into the diche.” --(T. B. 4776.)
    Dan. _daske_, to slap. Icel. _dust_ a blow.
  Dutande, shutting, closing (from _dutte_, to shut), B. 320. See
    _Ditteȝ_.
  Dutte, fasten, close, B. 1182. Prov.E. _dyt_, stop up. O.N. _ditta_.
  Dych, ditch, A. 607; B. 1792.
  Dyd, caused, A. 306.
  Dylle = dull, slow, sluggish, foolish, A. 680. N.Prov.E. _dull_, hard
    of hearing. O.N. _dilla_, lallare.
  Dym, black, B. 1016.
  Dymly, secretly, C. 375.
  Dymme, dark, B. 472.
  Dyn, noise, B. 862.
      “All _dynnet_ the _dyn_ the dales aboute.” --(T. B. 1197.)
  Dyngne, worthy, C. 119.
  Dyngneté, dignity, B. 1801.
  Dynt, blow, C. 125.
  Dyscreuen, describe, A. 68.
  Dyscouere, reveal, make known, B. 683.
  Dysheriete, disinherit, B. 185.
  Dysplese, to be displeased, A. 422; to displease, A. 455; B. 1136.
  Dyspyt, spite, B. 821.
  Dyssente, descend, A. 627.
  Dysstrye, destroy, B. 520.
  Dystresse, distress, A. 280, 337.
  Dystryed, destroyed, A. 124.
  Dyt, doeth, A. 681.
  Dyȝe, die, A. 306.
  Dyȝt, decked, A. 202, 987; ordered, prepared, B. 243, 632; ordained,
    C. 49; placed, seated, A. 920; B. 1794.
  Dyȝtteȝ, causest, C. 488.

  Efte, again, A. 328; afterwards, A. 332; B. 562.
  Egge = _edge_, hill, B. 451.
  Egge, edge (of a knife), B. 1104; of a hill, B. 383. A.S. _ecge_. O.N.
    _egg_, edge. Du. _egghe_, an angle, corner, angle. Ger. _ecke_,
    a corner.
  Eggyng, instigation, B. 241. Prov.E. “egg on.” O.N. _egg_, an edge;
    _eggia_, to sharpen, and hence instigate.
  Elde, age, B. 657; C. 125. A.S. _eld_, _yld_, age.
  Elleȝ, else, otherwise, A. 32; 724; so that, B. 466.
  {Emerad, Emerade,} emerald, A. 118, 1005.
  Emperise, empress, A. 441.
  {Empire, Empyre,} A. 454; B. 540, 1332.
  {Enaumayld, Enaumaylde,} enamelled, B. 1411, 1457.
  Enbaned, supported (?), B. 1459. Sir F. Madden renders it
    _ornamented_.
  Enclose, B. 334.
  Enclynande, inclining, bowing, A. 236.
  Enclyned, prone, B. 518.
  {Enclyin, Enclyne,} incline, A. 630, 1206.
  Encres, increase, A. 959.
  Encroche, approach, A. 1117; receive, C. 18.
  Ende, die, B. 402; _on ende_, to death, C. 426. Cf. _ender-day_, and
    _ending_ day = the day of one’s death.
  Endeleȝ, endless, A. 738.
  Endente, A. 639, 1012.
  Endentur, crevices, holes, B. 313. O.Fr. _endenter_, to notch, jag.
  Endorde, adored, A. 368.
  {Endure, Endeure,} A. 476, 1082.
  Endyte, indite, A. 1126.
  Ene, once; _at ene_, at once, A. 291; _at ene_, at one, A. 953. A.S.
    _æne_, once.
  Enfaminied, famished, B. 1194.
  Enforsed, forced, B. 938.
  Engendered, begat, B. 272.
  Enherite, inherit, B. 240.
  Enle = enely (? _onlepi_), alone, singly, A. 849.
  Enleuenþe, eleventh, A. 1014.
  {Enmie, Enmye,} enemy, B. 1204.
  Enourled, encircled, surrounded, B. 18. Fr. _ourler_, to hem. _Orle_
    in Heraldry = border. Ital. Orlo = hem, edge. Spanish and Portug.
    Orla = selvedge, border.
  {Enprece, Enpresse,} press, C. 43, 528.
  Enpresse, impress, A. 1097.
  Enpoysened, poisoned, B. 242.
  Enprysonment, imprisonment, B. 46.
  Enquylen, obtain, C. 39. See _Aquyle_.
  Ensens, incense, A. 1122.
  Entent, intent, A. 1191.
  Entre, enter, A. 38, 1067.
  Entré, entrance, B. 1779.
  Entyse, to provoke, B. 1137, 1808.
  Enurned, adorned, decked, A. 1027.
  Er, ere, before, A. 324, 328; B. 648.
  {Erber, Erbere,} arbour, A. 9, 38, 1171.
  Erbes, herbs, B. 1684.
  Erde, land, abode, A. 248; B. 596, 601, 1006. A.S. _eard_, native
    soil, country, region; _eardian_, to dwell, inhabit.
      “Eson afterward _erdand_ on lyffe,
      Endured his dayes drowpyaite (? _drowpande_) on age.”
        --(T. B. 121.)
  Erigant, arrogance, B. 148.
  Erly, early, A. 392.
  Ernde, errand, message, C. 52. See _Arende_.
  Erne, eagle, B. 1698. A.S. _earn_, eagle.
  Ernestly, quickly, rapidly, B. 277, 1240. A.S. _eornostlíce_.
  Errour, A. 422.
  Erytage, heritage, A. 443.
  Eþe, easy, A. 1202; B. 608. A.S. _eáth_.
  Euen (wyth), _vb._ to be equal to, A. 1073.
  Euen-songe, vespers, A. 529.
  Euentyde, A. 582; B. 479.
  Euer-ferne, ever-fern, C. 438. A.S. _eforfearn_, polypodium vulgare.
    See Gloss. to Saxon Leechdoms, ii. 381.
  Ewere, ewer, B. 1457.
  Excuse, A. 281.
  {Expoun, Expoune, Expowne,} expound, A. 37; B. 1058, 1729.
  Expounyng, _sb._ expounding, B. 1565.
  Expresse, A. 910; B. 1158.

  Fable, A. 592.
  Face, B. 1539.
  Fader, father, A. 872.
  {Falce, False,} B. 205, 474.
  Falewed, became pale, faded, B. 1539. Ger. _falb_, pale, faded. A.S.
    _fealo_, pale, reddish or yellowish; _fealwian_, to grow yellow.
  Fale, good, C. 92. A.S. _fæl_, clean, good, true.
  Falleȝ, falls, happens, B. 494.
  Falure, A. 1084.
  Famacion, defamation, B. 188.
  Famed, celebrated, B. 275.
  Fande, found, A. 871.
  Fanneȝ, fans, flaps, B. 457.
  Fantumme, phantom, B. 1341.
  Farande, pleasing, A. 865; handsome, B. 607; joyous, B. 1758.
    N.Prov.E. _farant_, decent, pleasant, nice. Gael, _farranta_, stout,
    brave.
  Farandely, pleasantly, C. 435. N.Prov.E. _farantly_.
  Fare, _vb._ go, A. 129, 147; B. 100, 621, 929; fare, B. 466. A.S.
    _faran_. O.N. _fara_.
  Fare, _sb._ voyage, course, C. 98. A.S. _faru_, _fær_.
      “Þe caf he cast o corn sum quile,
      In þe flum þat hatt þe Nile;
      For-qui þat flum þat rennes þar,
      Til Joseph hus it has þe _fare_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27b.)
  Fare, conduct, A. 832; B. 861.
  Faren, gone, passed, B. 403.
  Fasor, form, A. 431. See T. B. 3956.
  Fasoun, fashion, A. 983, 1101.
  Fat, B. 627.
  Fateȝ, fades, A. 1038.
  Fathme, (_a_) embrace, B. 399; (_b_) grope, C. 273.
      (_a_) “Als I sat upon that lawe,
      I bigan Denemark for to awe,
      The borwes, and the castles stronge,
      And mine armes weren so longe,
      That I _fadmede_, al at ones,
      Denemark with mine longe bones.” --(Havelok the Dane, l. 1291.)
    O.N. _fadma_. Dan. _fadme_. A.S. _fæthmian_, to embrace.
  Fatte, vessel, B. 802. A.S. _fæt_.
  Fatted, fattened, B. 56.
  Faunt, child, maiden, A. 161.
  Faure, four, B. 958.
  Faurty, forty, B. 741, 743.
  {Faut, Faute,} fault, B. 177, 236, 571.
  Fautleȝ, faultless, B. 794.
  Fauty, faulty, sinful, B. 741.
  {Fauor, Fauour,} A. 428; “gret fauor,” A. 968.
  Fawre, four, B. 938.
  Fawte, fault, B. 1736.
  {Fax, Faxe,} hair, B. 790, 1689. A.S. _feax_.
  Fay, _in faye_, in faith, indeed, A. 263; _par ma fay_, by my faith,
    A. 489.
  Faylande, failing, lacking, B. 1535.
  Fayle, be wanting, B. 737. Set (of the sun), B. 1758.
  Fayly, fail, A. 34; B. 548.
  Fayn, glad, A. 393; _fayn of_, B. 642; _faynest_, B. 1219.
  Fayned, false, B. 188.
  Fayth, “in _fayth_” indeed, B. 1732; gen. sing, B. 1735.
  Faȝte, fought, A. 54.
  {Febele, Feble,} poor, bad, B. 47, 101, 145.
  {Fech, Feche,} fetch, A. 847, 1158; B. 621.
  Fede, A. 29.
  Fees, cities, B. 960. Fr. _fief_. Prov. Fr. _feu_, _fieu_. M.Lat.
    _feudum_. Eng. _fee_. The origin of this term is to be found in
    Goth. _faihu_, possessions. O.H.G. _fihu_, _fehu_, cattle. O.N.
    _fe_. A.S. _feoh_, cattle, money.
  Fel, bitterly, B. 1040. A.S. _fell_, cruel, severe.
  Felaȝschyp, fellowship, B. 271.
  Felde, field, B. 1750.
  Fele, (?) hide, B. 914.
  Fele, many, A. 21, 927. A.S. _féla_.
  Fele (feel), taste, B. 107.
  Fele-kyn, many kinds of, B. 1483.
  Felle, cruel, severe; _felle chere_, stern countenance, B. 139; sharp,
    A. 367; B. 156, 1737; boisterous, rough, B. 421; bitter, B. 954.
  Felly, fiercely, bitterly, B. 559, 571.
  Felonye, crime, sin, A. 800; B. 205.
  Feloun, sinner, criminal, B. 217.
  Felt, hair, B. 1689. A.S. _felt_. Du. _velt_, felt, cloth. Cf. W.
    _gwallt_, Gael. _falt_, hair of the head.
  Femmale, female, B. 696.
  Fende, fiend, devil, B. 205, 1341.
  Fende, fend, B. 1191. Fr. _defendre_.
  Fenden, of fiends, B. 224.
  Feng, took (_pret._ of fonge), B. 377.
  Fenny, dirty, vile, B. 1113. Cf. S.Prov.E. _venny_, mouldy. A.S.
    _fenn_, mud, dirt. Goth. _fani_.
  Fenyx, phenix, A. 430.
  Fer, far, A. 334.
  Ferd, Ferde, frightened, B. 897, 975.
  Ferde, fear, B. 386; C. 215. A.S. _forhtian_, to fear; _forht_, fear.
  Ferde, went, _pret._ of _fare_, B. 1106.
  Fere, a companion; _in fere_, in company, together, A. 89, 884;
    B. 985, 1062. A.S. _fera_, _gefera_, a companion.
  Fereȝ, carries, A. 98. A.S. _férian_.
  Fereȝ, companions, A. 1150. See _fere_.
  Ferke up, get up, B. 897; ferke over, go, walk over, B. 133.
      “The freike upon faire
      wise _ferke_ out of lyne.” --(T. B. 145.)
      “He salle _ferkke_ before
          And I salle come aftyre.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 347.)
      “Now _ferkes_ to the fyrthe,
          thees fresche mene of armes.” --(_Ibid._ p. 209.)
      “The kyng _ferkes_ furthe
          on a faire stede.” --(_Ibid._ p. 202.)
    In T. B. 185, it is used transitively. The verb _to ferk_ seems
    to be related to the Eng. _firk_, a quick movement, jerk, etc.
    A.S. _frician_, to dance.
  Ferly, _adj._ wondrous, A. 1084; _adv._ wonderfully, B. 269, 960;
    _sb._ wonder, astonishment, A. 1086; marvel, B. 1529. A.S. _fær_,
    _færlice_, sudden.
  Ferlyly, exceedingly, B. 962.
  Ferre, farther, _comp._ of _fer_, B. 97, 98.
  Fers, fierce, B. 101.
  Ferslych, fiercely, C. 337.
  Feryed, ferried, A. 946. O.N. _feria_ (from _fara_, to go),
    to transport; set over.
  Fest, fast, C. 290.
  Fest, Feste, feast, A. 283; B. 642, 1758.
  Festen, fasten, establish, B. 156, 327, 1255; C. 273.
  Fester, B. 1040.
  Festiual, festive, B. 136.
  Fete, _in fete_, indeed, B. 1106. O.Fr. _faict_. Fr. _fait_, a deed,
    feat.
  Feþer-beddes, C. 158.
  Fetly = featly, aptly, fitly, B. 585. See _fete_.
  Fette, fetch, B. 802.
  Fettle, set in order, provide, make, B. 343, 585; C. 38, 435.
    Prov.E. _fettle_, set in order, etc. O.Fris. _fitia_, to adorn.
    Goth. _fetjan_. Norse, _fitla_, to labour at a thing in order to get
    it right. Pl.D. _fisseln_, to bustle about.
  Fettre, fetter, B. 1255.
  Feture, feature, B. 794.
  {Fetys, Fetyse,} neat, well made, B. 174; dexterity, B. 1103. O.Fr.
    _faictis_. Lat. _factitius_, well made, neat, handsome.
  Fetysely, handsomely, beautifully, B. 1462.
  Feȝt, fight, B. 275, 1191. A.S. _feoht_. Ger. _fecht_, fight. See
    T. B. 1751.
  Feȝtande, fighting, struggling, B. 404.
  Filed, defiled. See _Fyled_.
  Flake, flake; _flake of soufre_, B. 954. O.N. _flak_, plank, slice.
  Flake = fleck, spot, blemish, A. 947. O.N. _fleckr_. Ger. _fleck_,
    spot, blot, stain.
  Flakerande, flickering, fluttering, B. 1410. Ger. _flackern_, to
    flare, blaze, flutter.
  Flambe, flame, A. 769.
  Flaumbande, flaming, A. 90; shining, B. 1468.
  Flaunke, spark, B. 954. Prov.E. _flanker_, a flying spark. Pl. D.
    _flunkern_, to flicker, sparkle. Ger. _flunke_, spark.
  Flauore, flavour, A. 87.
  Flawen, fled, C. 214.
  Flay, terrify, B. 960, 1723; C. 215. See T. B. 4593. N.Prov.E. _flay_,
    _flee_.
  Flayn, flayed, A. 809.
  Flaȝt, plot of ground, a flat, A. 57.
  Fleeȝ, fleece (of golde), B. 1476.
  {Flem, Fleme,} banish, A. 334; B. 31, 596. A.S. _flyman_.
  Flem, stream, C. 309. Cf. Prov.E. _flume_, _flem_, _fleme_,
    a mill-stream. Norse, _flom_, _flaum_, flood, overflow of water;
    _flauma_, to overflow.
  {Fleschlych, Fleschly,} fleshly, carnal, B. 265; A. 1082.
  Flet, _pret._ of flete, to flow, A. 1058.
  {Flete, Flet,} flow, B. 1025; to people, B. 685. See T. B. 278, 4715.
    A.S. _fleotan_. Sw. _flyta_, flow, float. O.N. _fliota_. Prov.E.
    _fleet_.
  Flette, floated, _pret._ of _flete_, to float, B. 387.
      “Childer,” he said, “yee list and lete,
      I sagh caf on þe water _flete_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27b.)
  Fleȝe, flew, A. 431.
  {Flod, Flode,} flood, A. 874, 1058; B. 369.
  Flokke, flock, company, B. 386, 1767.
  Flonc = flong = flung, A. 1165.
  Flor, flower, A. 29, 962; _pl._ _flores_.
  Flor, floor, B. 133.
  Flosed, flossed, B. 1689. Cf. _floss_-silk. Ital. _floscio flosso_,
    drooping, flaccid.
  Flot, grease, fat, B. 1011. A.S. _flótan_, to float; _flót-smere_,
    scum of a pot, floating fat. O.N. _flót_, the act of floating, the
    grease swimming on the surface of broth. Prov.E. _fleet_.
  {Flot, Flote,} company, A. 786, 946; army, B. 1212. O.Fr. _flote_,
    a crowd.
  {Flot, Flote, Flotte,} flowed, floated, A. 46; B. 421, 432; C. 248.
  Floty (? _flotery_), waving, A. 127.
  Flour-de-lys, lily, A. 753.
  Floury, flowery, A. 57.
  Flowen, flew, fled, A. 89; B. 945.
  Flowred, flowered, A. 270.
  Floȝed, flowed, B. 397.
  Flurted, flowered, figured, A. 208.
  Flyt, force, literally chiding, B. 421. O.S. _flit_, contention.
  Flyte, to quarrel, strive, A. 353. Prov.E. _flite_, scold. A.S.
    _flitan_.
  Flytande, chiding, B. 950.
  Flyȝe, flay (?), A. 813.
  Flyȝt, flight, B. 377.
  Fo, enemy, B. 1219.
  Fode, person, people, B. 466; _fode_, a child (King Horn, 1384);
    _fodder_, producer, mother (King Alys. 645); A.S. _fedan_, _afedan_,
    to bring forth, give birth to, rear. O.N._fæda_. Dan. _föde_.
  Fogge, dry grass, B. 1683. W. _fwg_.
  Fol, full, B. 1754.
  Fol, fool, B. 750, 996.
  Fol, foolish, C. 283.
  Folde, folded, A. 434.
  Folde, earth, A. 334; B. 403, 950.
  Folde, to beat, buffet, A. 813.
  Fole, fowl, B. 1410.
  Fole, fool, B. 202.
  Fole, foal, B. 1255.
  Foler, B. 1410.
  Foles, acts foolishly, B. 1422.
  {Folewande, Folwande,} following, A. 1040, B. 429, 1212.
  {Folk, Folke,} people, B. 100, 542, 960.
  Folken, of people, B. 271.
  Folmarde. Properly the beech-martin, but commonly applied to the
    pole-cat. O.Fr. _foine_, _faine_ (Lat. _fagina_), beechmast.
  Folyly, foolishly, B. 696. See T. B. 575.
  Folȝe, follow, A. 127; B. 6, 677, 918, 1752. A.S. _folgian_.
  Folȝed, baptized, A. 654. A.S. _fullian_, _fulwian_, to baptize.
  Foman, enemy, B. 1175.
  Fon, ceased, _pret._, of _fyne_, A. 1030; B. 369. The northern form is
    _fan_.
      “Bot ai þe quils he ne _fan_
      To behald þe leve maidan.” --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii, fol. 20a.)
  Fonde, to found, establish, A. 939; B. 173.
  Fonde, to go, proceed, A. 150.
  Fonde, try, B. 1103. A.S. _fandian_.
  Fonden, found, B. 356.
  Fonge, take, receive, A. 439, 479; B. 540; _fongeȝ to the flyȝt_,
    takes to flight, B. 457. A.S. _fon_. Ger. _fangen_, take, seize.
    Goth. _fahan_.
  Font, B. 164.
  Fonte = _fond_, examined, A. 170, 327.
  {Fooschyp, Foschip,} enmity, B. 918, 919.
  For, from, B. 740; because, B. 323.
  Forbede, forbid, A. 379; B. 1147.
  Forbi, beyond, C. 483.
  Forboden, forbidden, B. 826, 998.
  Forbrent, burnt, A. 1139.
  For-clemmed, starved, C. 395. Prov.E. _clem_, to starve, pinch with
    hunger. Du. _klemmen_, to pinch, compress.
  For-didden, did away with, A. 124.
  For-dolked, severely wounded, A. 11. A.S. _dolc_, _dolh_, _dolg_,
    a wound; _dilgian_, to destroy.
  Forering, B. 3. See Note.
  Forfare, destroy; also to perish, B. 1168; C. 483; _forferde_,
    (_pret._), B. 571, 1051.
  Forfete, A. 619, 639; B. 743.
  Forfyne, lastly.
  {Forgart, Forgarte,} = for-did, lost, _pret._ of for-gar, ruin,
    destroy, lose, A. 321; B. 240. See _Gar_.
  Forged, made, B. 343.
  Forhede, forehead, A. 871.
  Foriusted, overthrown, defeated, B. 1216. Fr. _jouster_, to tilt.
      “So mony groundes he _for-justede_ & of joy broght.”
        --(T. B. 296.)
  Forlete, lost, A. 327.
  For long, very long, A. 586.
  Forlonge, furlong, A. 1030.
  Forloteȝ = forleteȝ, forsake, B. 101.
      “Þe laghes bath he (Adam) þan _forlete_
      Bath naturel and positif.” --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 52b.)
  Forloyne, forsake, depart, go astray, err, A. 368; B. 282, 750, 1155,
    1165. Fr. _loin_, far.
  For-madde, very mad (foolish), C. 509.
  Formast, first, foremost, B. 494.
  Forme, first, C. 38.
  {Forme-fader, Forme-foster,} first-father, progenitor, A. 639; B. 257.
  Fornes, furnace, B. 1011.
  For-payned, severely troubled, A. 246.
  Forray, forage, B. 1200. Fr. _fourrager_, to fodder, forrage, prey.
    O.Fr. _fourrer_. Mid. Lat. _foderare_, _forrare_, from A.S. _foder_.
    Ger. _futter_, food, victuals.
  Forselet, a fortified place, B. 1200. “_Forcelet_, stronge place
    (_forslet_, H. P.) Fortalicium.” (Prompt. Parv.) O.Fr. _forcier_.
    It. _forciere_. Mid. Lat. _forsarius_, a strong box, safe, coffer.
  Forser = forcer, forcet, A. 263. See preceding word.
  Forsette, compass, B. 78.
  Forsothe, forsooth, indeed, C. 212.
  Forst, frost, B. 524. A.S. _forst_.
  Forþe, way, passage, A. 150. See T. B. 4094, 4166. Welsh, _ffordd_,
    a way.
      “The kyng fraystez [seeks] a _furth_ over the fresche strandez,
      One a strenghe by a streme in thas straytt landez.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 103.)
  Forth-lep, forth-leapt, C. 154.
  Forþoȝt, repented, B. 557.
  Forþrast, for-thrust, B. 249.
  Forþy, therefore, wherefore, A. 234; B. 545, 1020.
  Forþynke, repent, B. 285.
  Fortune, A. 306.
  Forwarde = forward, covenant, promise, B. 327, 1742. A.S.
    _fore-weard_. “_Forwarde_, or cuuinawnt, convencio, pactum.”
    (Prompt. Parv.)
  Forwroȝt, over-worked, weary, C. 163.
  Forȝes, furrows, B. 1547. A.S. _furh_. Ger. _furche_, a furrow.
  Forȝete, forgat, B. 203.
  Fote, foot, A. 970.
  Foted, footed, B. 538.
  Founce, bottom, A. 113. See _Founs_.
  Foundande, going, C. 126.
  Founde, to go, B. 903.
      “Quen we suppose in our sele
          to sit alther heist,
      Than _fondis_ furth dame fortoun
          to the flode ȝates,
      Draȝes up the damme borde
          and drenchis us evir.” --(K. Alex. p. 64.)
      “Fflorent and Floridas with fyve
          score knyghttez,
      ffollowede in the foreste, and on the
          way _foundys_,
      Fflyngande a faste trott,
        and on the folke dryffes.”
          (Morte Arthure, p. 231.)
  Foundemente, foundation, A. 993.
  Founden, found, B. 547.
  Foundered, destroyed, perished, B. 1014.
  {Founs, Founce,} bottom, B. 1026.
      “Onone as thai on Alexander
          and on his ost waites,
      Thai flee as fast into flode,
          and to the _founce_ plungid.”
      (K. Alex. p. 141.)
  Fourferde, perished, _pret._ of _forfare_, B. 560.
  Fowle, foully, B. 1790.
  Fowled, became defiled, foul. B. 269.
  Fowre, four, A. 886.
  Foysoun, abundant, A. 1058. Fr. _foison_. O.Fr. _fuson_, from Lat.
    _fusio_, pouring out.
  Fraunchyse, liberality, A. 609; B. 750.
  Fray, terrify, B. 1553. See _Afray_.
  Frayneȝ, demands, asks, desires, A. 129. A.S. _fregnan_, to ask. Goth.
    _fraihnan_.
  Frayste (_a_), sought, A. 169; (_b_) literally, to try, prove,
    B. 1736. O.N. _fresta_.
    (_a_)
      “Bot wete thou wele this iwis, within a wale time,
      Fra that I _fraist_ have that faire (faice?) of my faire lady,
      I sall the seke with a sowme of seggis enarmed.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 69.)
  {Frek, Freke,} man, B. 6, 79, 540. This word is used by Skelton. A.S.
    _freca_, a daring warrior, from _frec_, _freca_, bold, daring,
    eager. The adjective _freke_ (_frek_, _frike_), was not unknown to
    O.E. writers of the 14th century.
      “Israel wit þis uplepp,
      Þat moght noght forwit strid a step,
      Witouten asking help of sun;
      Þat quak wit ilk lim was won,
      Þat first for eild moght noght spek,
      To bidd hast now es nan sa frek.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 29b.)
  Freles, blameless, A. 431. O.N. _fryja_, to blame. _Frie_, to blame,
    occurs in the romance of _Havelok the Dane_, 1998.
  Freloker, more freely, B. 1106.
  Frely, lordly, B. 162; beautiful, B. 173; freely, C. 20.
  Frelych, lordly, B. 162; bountiful, C. 214.
  French, an error for _frech_ (_fresh_) or _frelich_, A. 1086.
  Frete, gnaw, eat, devour, B. 1040. A.S. _fretan_.
  Freten, devoured, B. 404.
  Frette, furnish, B. 339; ornament, B. 1476. A.S. _frætu_, ornament;
    _frætewian_, _frætwian_, trim, deck, adorn.
  Fro, from, A. 427; B. 396. This is another form of the Northumbrian
    _fra_. O.N. _frá_; “_to ne fro_,” A. 347.
  {Frok, Frokke,} dress, garment, frock, B. 136, 1742.
  Froþande, frothing, frothy, filthy, B. 1721.
  Frunt, kicked, C. 187. See T. B. 5968.
  Frym, beautiful, fresh, vigorous, A. 1079. Prov.E. _frim_; _frum_,
    tender, fresh. A.S. _freme_, advantageous, good. Drayton uses the
    phrase “_frim_ pastures,” _i.e._ luxuriant pastures.
  Fryst, delay, put off, B. 743. A.S. _fyrstan_, to give respite;
    _fyrst_, a space of time, interval. Icel. _frest_, delay; “_to
    frist_, to trust for a time” (Ray); to delay (Jam.).
  {Fryt, Fryte,} fruit, A. 29; B. 1044.
  Fryth, wood, A. 89; B. 534, 1680. Gael, _frith_, a heath, deer park,
    forest.
  Ful, foul, B. 231.
  Fulfille, accomplish, B. 264, 1732.
  Fulȝed, baptized, B. 164. See _Folȝed_.
  Fundament, foundation, A. 1010.
  Funde, found, B. 1735.
  Fust, fist, B. 1535.
  Fyf, five, A. 849.
  Fygure, A. 170, 747.
  Fykel, treacherous, deceitful, C. 283.
  Fyldor, gold thread, A. 106. Fr. _fil d’or_.
  Fyled, defiled, dirty, B. 136.
  Fyled, formed, B. 1460.
  Fylsened, strengthened, aided, supported, B. 1167, 1644. A.S. _fylst_,
    help, assistance; _fylstan_, to help, aid.
  Fylter, huddle together, B. 224; join, B. 696; meet together in
    battle, B. 1191; become ragged, entangled. Prov.E. _felter_,
    entangle, clot. Fairfax uses the phrase “_feltred_ locks.” Cf. the
    phrase a “_filtered_ fole,” a shaggy foal. Baker says that the term
    _felt_ is applied to a matted growth of grass.
      “His fax and his foretoppe was _filterede_ togeder.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 91.)
  Fylyoles (= _fyells_, _phiolls_), round towers, B. 1462. Cf. _Fala_,
    a tour of tre. Med. Gram.
  Fyne, _vb._ end, die, A. 328; cease, A. 353; B. 450; delay, B. 929.
  Fyne, _sb._ cessation, A. 635.
  Fynne, fin, B. 531.
  Fyole, B. 1476.
  Fyrmament, B. 221.
  Fyrre, _adv._ farther, comp. of _fer_, A. 103, 127; B. 766; C. 116;
    _adj._ distant, A. 148. A.S. _fyrre_.
  Fyrte, fearful, trembling, A. 54. A.S. _fyrhto_; _fyrhtu_, fear,
    fright, trembling; _forht_, fearful, timid.
  Fyþel, fiddle, B. 1082.
  Fyþere, feather, B. 530, 1026.

  Galle, gall, stain, filth, A. 1060; B. 1022. Cf. to _gall_, fret. Fr.
    _galler_. W. _gwall_. O.N. _galli_, fault, imperfection. Dan. _gal_,
    wrong, ill.
  Gain, against, A. 138.
  Gardyn, A. 260.
  Gare, cause, make, drive, A. 331; B. 690. N.Prov.E. _gar_. O.N.
    _göra_, _gera_.
  Garlande, A. 1186.
  Garnyst, garnished, ornamented, B. 1277.
  Gart, forced, made, A. 1151. See _gare_; _garten_, _3d pers. pl._
    A. 86.
  Gate, way, A. 395, 526; B. 676, 931. See T. B. 6292. O.N. _gata_.
  {Gaule, Gawle,} A. 463; C. 285. See _galle_.
  {Gay, Gaye,} A. 260; B. 830, 1315.
  Gayn, _vb._ avail, A. 343; C. 164; prevail, B. 1608. Sc. _gane_;
    _gain_, to be fit or suitable.
  {Gayn, Gayne,} useful, available, good, B. 259, 749.
  {Gaynly, Gaynlych,} gainly, gracious, B. 728; C. 83. Cf. ungainly =
    awkward. O.N. _gegn_, convenient, suitable; _gegna_, to meet.
  Gaȝafylace, royal treasury, B. 1283.
  Geder, gather, C. 105.
  Gef, gave, A. 174.
  Gele, spy, see, A. 931.
  Gemme, A. 253.
  Gendered, engendered, B. 300.
  Gendreȝ, genders, kinds, B. 434.
  Generacyoun, A. 827.
  {Gent, Gente,} gentle, noble, gracious, A. 118, 253, 265; B. 1495.
  Gentryse, nobleness, B. 1159, 1216.
  Gentyl, noble, A. 278; _gentyleste_, A. 1015; B. 1180.
  Gentylmen, B. 864.
  Gere, gear, B. 16; C. 148.
  Gere, clothing, attire, B. 1811.
  Gered, covered, clothed, ornamented, B. 1344, 1568. O.N. _gerfi_. A.S.
    _gearwa_, habiliments. O.H.G. _garawi_, ornament, dress. A.S.
    _gearwan_; _gearwian_, make ready, prepare, supply.
  Gesse, tell, A. 499. Norse, _gissa_.
  Geste, tale, saying, A. 277.
  {Geste, Gest,} guest, B. 98, 640.
  Gettes, devices, B. 1354. O.N. _geta_, to conceive. A.S.
    “and-_gitan_,” get, know, understand.
  Geuen, given, A. 1190.
  Gilde, gilt, B. 1344.
  Giles, gills, C. 269.
  Gilofre, gilly flower, A. 43. Fr. _giroflée_. Lat. _caryophyllus_,
    a clove.
  Glace = glance, A. 171. Fr. _glacer_, _glacier_, slide, slip. Cf. O.E.
    _glace_, to polish, glance as an arrow turned aside.
  Glade, _vb._ to gladden, A. 861.
  Glam, word, message, B. 499; C. 63; talk, speech, B. 830; noise,
    B. 849. Obsolete Swedish, _glamm_, talk, chatter; _glamma_, to talk,
    chatter. Gael. _glam_, outcry. O.N. _glam_, clash; _glamra_, to
    rattle. Sc. _glamer_, noise, clatter.
      “Alle thire he closis in that cliffe, and cairis on forthire,
      To the occyann at the erthes ende, and, ther in an ilee, he heres
      A grete _glaver_ and a _glaam_ of grekin tongis.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 188.)
  {Glas, Glasse,} A. 990, 1025.
  Glauere, to deceive, A. 688. Cf. N.Prov.E. _glaver_, _glaiver_, to
    talk foolishly; _glauver_, flattery. W. _glafr_. Irish _glafaire_,
    a babbler.
      “Sir,” sais syr Gawayne,
          “So me gode helpe,
      Siche _glaverande_ gomes
          greves me bot lyttille.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 212.)
    See extract under word _glam_.
  Glaymande, slimy, C. 269. Cf. “gleyme or rewme, reuma;” “gleymyn or
    _yngleymyn_, visco, invisco.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Glayre, glare, amber, A. 1026. A.S. _glære_, amber. O.N. _gler_. Dan.
    _glar_, glass.
  Glayue, a sword, A. 654. Fr. _glaive_. Lat. _gladius_.
  Gle, joy, glee, A. 95, 1123.
  Glede, kite, B. 1696. A.S. _glída_.
  {Glem, Gleme,} gleam, light, A. 79; brightness, B. 218; _day-glem_,
    daylight, A. 1094; _heven-glem_, heaven light, B. 946.
  Glemande, gleaming, shining, A. 70, 990.
  Glene, glean, gather, A. 955.
  {Glent, Glente,} shone, A. 70, 114, 1026; B. 218. Sc. _glent_,
    _glint_, to gleam. Dan. _glindse_, to glisten; _glindre_, to
    glitter.
      “The schaftes of the schire sone schirkind the cloudis,
      And gods glorious gleme _glent_ tham emannge.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 164.)
  {Glent, Glente,} slipped, fell, A. 671. Sc. _glint_, _glent_, not only
    signifies to gleam, shine, but also to glide, slide. W. _ysglentio_,
    to slide.
      “Glissonand as the glemes þat _glenttes_ of þe snaw.”
        --(T. B. 3067.)
  Glenteȝ, _sb._ looks, A. 1144.
  {Glet, Glette,} dirt, mud, slime, and hence filth, sin, A. 1060;
    B. 306, 573; C. 269. Pl. D. _glett_, slippery. Sc. _glít_, pus. O.N.
    _glæta_, wet.
  Glewed, called, prayed, C. 164. Fr. _glay_, cry.
  Glodeȝ, glades, A. 79.
  Gloped, was terrified, frightened, amazed, B. 849. O.N. _glapa_,
    stare, gaze, gape. O.Fris. _glupa_, to look, peep. Dan. _glippe_,
    to wink. N.Prov.E. _glop_, _gloppen_, to be amazed, to frighten.
      “Bees not _aglopened_ madame ne greved at my fadire.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 30.)
      “Thane _glopned_ the glotone and glorede unfaire.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 90.)
      “O, my hart is rysand in a _glope_!
      For this nobylle tythand thou shalle have a droppe.”
        --(Town. Myst. p. 146.)
  Glopnedly, fearfully, B. 896.
  Glory, A. 934; B. 1522.
  {Gloryous, Glorious, Gloryus,} A. 799, 915.
  Glotoun, a wicked wretch, a loose fellow, a ribald, B. 1505.
  Gloumb, look, observe, C. 94. Chaucer uses _glombe_ in the sense of
    looking gloomy, sullen, frowning. It seems to be connected with O.N.
    _glampa_, to glitter, shine. Cf. O.E. _glent_, to shine, and
    _glent_, to look. So also _stare_ signifies not only to look
    steadfastly at, but to shine, glitter.
  Glowed, shone, A. 114. O.N. _gloá_, to glow, burn, shine.
  Glwande, glowing, shining, bright, C. 94.
  Glydande, going, walking, B. 296.
  Glyde, to go, walk, slip along, B. 325, 677, 1590. Pl. D. _gliden_,
    _glien_, slip, glide.
  Glyfte, became frightened, B. 849. Originally to stare, look
    astonished.
      “Þys munke stode ande lokede þarto,
      And hade þerof so moche drede,
      Þat he wende have go to wede:
      As he stode so sore _aglyfte_
      Hys ryȝt hande up he lyfte,
      Ande blessede hym self stedfastly.”
        --(Handlyng Synne, l. 3590.)
    _Gliffe_, in O.E. signifies also to look, shine, glow. Sc. _glevin_,
    to glow; _gliff_, a glimpse; _gliffin_, to wink. Dan. _glippe_, to
    wink.
  Glymme, brightness, A. 1088. O.Sw. _glimma_, to shine.
  Glysnande, shining, glistening. A. 1018. A.S. _glisnian_. O.N.
    _glyssa_, to sparkle, glitter.
  Glyȝt, shone, A. 114; looked, C. 453. Du. _glicken_, to shine. Icel.
    _glugga_, to peep. _A-glyȝte_, slipped from, in line 245, is
    evidently another form of _glyȝt_. Cf. N.Prov.E. _glea_, _aglea_,
    crooked, aside; _gledge_, to look asquint. Sc. _gley_, _gly_, to
    squint, all of which originally signified simply to look, shine. See
    T. B. 3943.
  Gnede, niggardly, beggarly, B. 146. The MS. reads nede, but _gnede_ is
    the correct form. Dan. _gnide_, to rub. A.S. _gnidan_. Cf. O.E.
    _nithing_, a miser. A.S. _gnethen_, moderate, sparing.
      “Sua lang has thir tua boght þair sede,
      Þat þair moné wex al _gnede_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 31a.)
      “Bot fra þair store bigan to sprede
      The pastur þam bigan to _knede_.” --(_Ibid._ fol. 15a.)
      “Bot al he tok in godds nam,
      And thold luveli al þat scam;
      For al to _gnede_ him thoght þe gram
      Þat he moght thol on his licam” --(_Ibid._ fol. 51a.)
  Goande, going, B. 931.
  Goblote, goblet, B. 1277.
  {God, Gode,} good, wealth. See _Goud_.
  Godhede, godhead, A. 413.
  Godlych, good, B. 753.
  Golf, deep, abyss, A. 608.
  Gome, man, A. 231; B. 1315.
  Gorde = _girde_, rush, go headlong, B. 911, 957. See T. B. 169.
  Gore, filth, B. 306. A.S. _gor_, wet, filth, mud. N. _gor_.
  Gorste, gorse, B. 99, 534. W. _gores_, _gorest_, waste, open.
  {Gost, Goste,} spirit, A. 86; B. 325, 1598.
  Gostly, spiritual, ghostly, A. 790.
  Gote, stream, A. 934; B. 413; C. 310; _pl._ goteȝ, A. 608. Prov.E.
    _gote_, _goit_, _gowt_, ditch, sluice, mill-stream. Du. _gote_,
    kennel, conduit. A.S. _geotan_, to pour.
      “As _gotes_ out of _guttars_ in golanand, (glomand ?) wedors,
      So voidis doun the venom be vermyns schaftes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 163.)
  {Goud, Goude, God,} _adj._ good, A. 33, 568; _sb._ wealth, riches,
    A. 731, 734; B. 1326.
  {Goun, Goune,} gown, dress, B. 145, 1568.
  Governor, B. 1645; C. 199.
  Gowdeȝ, goods, C. 286.
  Grace, A. 436.
  {Gracios, Gracious,} A. 95, 260, 934; C. 26.
  Gracyously, B. 488.
  Grame, wrath, vengeance, C. 53. A.S. _grama_. Ger. _gram_, anger,
    displeasure.
  Graunt, _sb._ leave, permission, A. 317; _vb._ grant, B. 765; C. 240.
  Grauayl, gravel, pebbles, A. 81.
  Grauen, graven, B. 1324.
  Grauen, buried, B. 1332.
  Grayneȝ, grains, A. 31.
  Grayþed, prepared, B. 343, placed, B. 1485; availed, C. 53. See T. B.
    229. O.N. _greitha_, to make ready. N.Prov.E. _graid_.
  Grayþely, quickly, readily, B. 341; truly, A. 499; C. 240. N.Prov.E.
    _gradely_. See T. B. 54.
      “On Gydo, a gome þat _graidly_ had soght,
      And wist all þe werks by weghes he hade.” --(T. B. 229.)
    Cf. _Graiþe_ = ready.
  Gre, will, desire, C. 348; hence _bongre_, _malgre_, etc. O.Fr.
    _gret_. Fr. _gré_, will, pleasure. Lat. _gratus_, pleasing.
  Grece, step, B. 1590.
  Gredirne, gridiron, B. 1277.
  Greffe, grief, A. 86.
  Greme, _adj._ displeasing, C. 42; wrath, B. 16, 947; _vb._ to make
    angry, displease, B. 138, 1347. A.S. _gremian_, to displease.
  Greme, spot, blemish, A. 465. Norse _grima_, a spot.
  Gresse, grass, A. 10, 245; B. 1028.
  Grete, the whole, A. 637, ? altogether A. 851; a _grete_, in the
    gross--a head, A. 560.
  Grete, weep, A. 331. A.S. _grætan_, Prov.E. _greet_.
  Gretyng, _sb._ weeping, B. 159.
  Greue, grieve, A. 471; B. 138, 302, 306.
  Greue, grove, A. 321; B. 99.
  Greuing, _sb._ sorrowing, grief, B. 159.
  Gromylyoun, the herb _gromwell_, grey millet, (Lithospermum
    officinale), A. 43. “_Gromaly_ herbe. Milium solis.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Grone, groan, B. 1077.
  Gropande, searching, trying, B. 591. A.S. _grápian_, to touch, feel,
    seize, grope. O.N. _greipa_.
  Gropyng, _sb._ handling, B. 1102.
  Grounde, ground, sharpened, A. 654.
  Groundeleȝ, bottomless, C. 310.
  Grouelyng, on the face, A. 1120. O.N. _grufa_; _grufa nidr_, to stoop
    down. _Liggia á grufu_, to lie face downwards, to lie groveling.
  Gruche, begrudge, B. 1347.
  Gruȝt, _pret._ of _gruche_, B. 810.
  Grychchyng, _sb._ murmuring, repining, C. 53.
  Grym, black, A. 1070.
  Grymly, sharply, A. 654; roughly, B. 1534.
  Grymme, horrible, B. 1553; sharp, B. 1696. A.S. _grim_; _grimm_, fury,
    rage; sharp, bitter; “a _grym_ toole,” T. B. 938.
  Grynde, A. 81.
  Gryndel, angry, C. 524. Norse _grina_, wry the mouth; _grinall_, sour
    looking. Du. _grinnen_, _grinden_, to grin, snarl.
  Grysly, horrible, B. 1534. A.S. _grislíc_, horrible; _a-grísan_, to
    dread, fear greatly.
  Gryspyng, _sb._ gnashing of the teeth. A.S. _grist-bítung_.
  Gryste, dirt (?), A. 465.
  Guere, gear, B. 1505.
  Guferes, evidently an error for _guteres_, C. 310. See T. B. 3072. See
    extract under word _gote_.
  {Gult, Gulte,} guilt, A. 942; B. 690.
  Gulty, guilty, C. 210, 285.
  Gut, C. 280.
  Gyde-ropes, C. 105.
  Gye, govern, B. 1598. Fr. _guider_; _guier_, direct, guide.
  Gyle, guile, A. 671, 688; C. 285.
  Gylt, guilt, B. 731.
  Gylteȝ, A. 655.
  Gyltleȝ, guiltless, A. 668.
  Gyltyf, guilty, A. 669.
  Gyn, machine; applied to the ark, B. 491; to a boat, C. 146.
  Gyng, company, A. 455. A.S. _genge_. See T. B. 1225.
      “Þan was Jacob busked yare,
      Wit al þe _gynge_ þat wit him ware.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 30a.)
  Gyngure, ginger, A. 43.
  Gyse, guise, A. 1099.
  Gyternere, A. 91. Fr. _guiterre_; _guiterne_, a gittern. (Cot.) Lat.
    _cithara_, a harp.

  Habbe, have, B. 75; _habes_, _habbes_, has, B. 555, 995.
  {Hach, Hachche,} hatch (of a ship), B. 409; C. 179.
  Hafyng. See _Hauyng_.
  Hagherlych, fitly, B. 18. See _Haȝerly_.
  Haldande, holding, C. 251.
  Halde, hold, A. 454, 490; B. 652.
  Halden, held, A. 1191; B. 42.
  Hale, flow, A. 125. The original meaning is to drag along. Ger.
    _holen_. O.N. _hala_. Fr. _haler_. Cf. T. B. 1782.
  Hale, toss, B. 1520; C. 219.
  Half, side, quarter, B. 950. O.N. _halfa_.
  Halke, recess, B. 104, 321. A.S. _hylca_, hooks, turnings. “_Halke_ or
    hyrne. Angulus, latibulum.” (Prompt. Parv.) See Canterbury Tales,
    11433.
  Halse, salute, wish one health, B. 1621. O.N. _heilsa_. Sw. _halsa_,
    to salute. O.N. _heilsa_, health. See T. B. 367.
  Halt, lame, B. 102. O.N. _halltr_, lame; _haltra_, _halta_, to limp.
  Halue, behalf, B. 896.
  Halue, side, border, B. 1039.
  Halyday, holy day, B. 134; C. 9.
  Halȝed, hallowed, sanctified, B. 506, 1163.
  Hampre, to pack up for removal, B. 1284.
  Han (_3d pers. pl. pres._), have, A. 776.
  Hande-helme, B. 419.
  Hapeneȝ, is blessed, B. 27.
  Happe, joy, A. 16, 1195; _happeȝ_, blessings, B. 24; C. 11. O.N.
    _happ_.
  Happe, cover, B. 626; C. 450. Prov.E. _hap_, to cover; _happing_,
    covering.
      “Lord, what (lo) these weders ar cold, and I am ylle _happyd_.”
        --(Town. Myst. p. 98.)
    “_Happyn_ or _whappyn’_ yn cloþys.” “_Lappyn’_, or _whappyn’_ yn
    cloþys (_happyn_ to-gedyr, S.; _wrap_ to-geder in clothes, P.)
    Involvo.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Happen, _adj._ happy, blessed, C. 13, 17, 19, 21.
  Hard, coarse cloth made of tow, “_hard_ hattes,” B. 1209. A.S.
    _heordan_, _heordas_, hards, refuse of tow.
      “Sum araies thaim in ringes, and sum in row breuys,
      With _hard hattes_ on thaire hedis hied to thaire horsis.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 102.)
  Hardy, bold, B. 143.
  Hardyly, boldly, A. 3.
  Hare, B. 391.
  Harlot, underling, B. 39; servant, profane jester, B. 860, 1584;
    _harloteȝ_, harlot’s, B. 34; harlots, B. 860. This term was not
    originally confined to females, nor even to persons of bad
    character. W. _herlawd_, _herlod_, a youth; _herlodes_, a damsel.
    Cf. “_harlotte_ scurrus.” “Gerro a tryfelour or a harlott.” Med. MS.
    Cant. “An _harlott_, balator, rusticus, gerror, mima, joculator,
    nugatur, scurrulus, manducus. An _harlottry_, lecacitas,
    inurbanitas,” etc. To “do _harlottry_, scurrari.” Cath. Ang. in
    Prompt. Parv.
      “Ffore _harlottez_ and _hause-mene_ (house-men) salle helpe bott
      littille.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 229.)
  Harlottrye, profane speaking, B. 579.
  Harme, _sb._ wrong, sin, C. 17; _pl._ _harmeȝ_, harms, A. 388.
  Harmleȝ, guiltless, A. 676, 725.
  Harpe, A. 881.
  Harpen (_3d pers. pl. pres._), play on the harp, A. 881.
  Harporeȝ, harpers, A. 881.
  Haspe, fasten, B. 419; clothe, cover, C. 381. O.N. _hespa_, a clasp,
    buckle. Cf. “_haspyng_ in armys.” T. B. 367.
  Haspede, hook, C. 189. Cf. Dan. _haspe_, windlass, reel; _haspevinde_
    capstan of a ship.
  {Hastif, Hastyf,} hasty, C. 520.
  {Hastyfly, Hastyly,} hastily, quickly, B. 200, 1150.
  Hat, call, B. 448. A.S. _hátan_, to call.
  {Hatel, Hattel,} anger, B. 200; fierce, B. 227; keen, sharp, C. 367,
    481. S.Saxon _hatel_, _hetel_, keen, sharp, bitter. A.S. _hétel_,
    fierce. O.Sax. _hatol_. A.S. _atol_, dire, cruel.
  Hatere, clothing, garments, B. 33. A.S. _hætern_, _hæter_, clothing,
    apparel.
  Haþel, man, literally noble, A. 676; B. 27, 409, 1597. A.S. _æthele_,
    noble; _ætheling_, a ruler, man.
      “Homer was holden _haithill_ of dedis.” --(T. B. 38.)
  Hatte, is called, B. 926; C. 35.
  Haunte, practise, C. 15. Fr. _hanter_, frequent, haunt, literally, to
    follow a certain course.
  Haueke, hawk, B. 537.
  Hauen, haven, port, B. 420.
  Hauyng, condition, behaviour, A. 450, 754.
  Haylsed, saluted, A. 238; B. 612, 814. See _Halse_. See T. B. 1792.
  Hayre, heir, B. 666.
  Hayreȝ, shirts of horse-hair, hair-cloth, sack-cloth, C. 373. A.S.
    _héra_.
  Haȝerly, fitly, properly, B. 18. This word occurs in the Ormulum under
    _haȝherrlike_. O.N. _hægr_, dexter, facilis. Dan. _haage_, to
    please; _haagelig_, agreeable, acceptable.
  Hede, notice, A. 1051.
  Hef, heaved, raised, C. 219.
  Heke = eke, also, A. 210.
  Helde, bend to, come to, B. 1330. A.S. _healdan_; _hyldan_, incline,
    lean to. Dan. _helde_.
  Helde, _adv._ willingly, A. 1193; _in helde_, in mind, in purpose,
    disposed, B. 1520.
  Helded, approached, B. 39.
  Heldeȝ, goes, walks, B. 678.
      “Þir brether _helid_ ai forth þair wai
      Þat to þair fader ful suith com þai.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 29b.)
  Hele, safety, C. 335; health, B. 1099; pleasure, A. 16. A.S. _hél_.
  Helle-hole, B. 223.
  Hellen, of hell, C. 306.
  Helme, C. 149.
  Hem, them, C. 180.
  Hemme, border, A. 1001.
  Hende, gracious, B. 612; C. 398; pleasant, B. 1083. Norse _hendt_,
    adapted; _hendug_. Dan. _hændig_, handy, dextrous. Cf. _hendly_,
    T. B. 1792.
  Hendelayk, mildness, civility, B. 860. Hard-_laike_ occurs in T. B.
    2213.
  {Heng, Henge,} hang, B. 1584, 1734.
  Hens, hence, C. 204.
  {Hent, Hente,} take, seize, receive, A. 388, 669; B. 151, 376, 883,
    1150. O.N. _henda_. A.S. _hentan_.
  Hepe, heap, company. B. 1775.
  Her, their, A. 888.
  Here, heir, B. 52.
    “Bede his doughter come downe and his _dere heire_.” (T. B. 389.)
  Here, hair, A. 210.
  Here, company, B. 409, 902. T. B. 6253. A.S. _here_, an army, host,
    etc.
  Hered, honoured, B. 1086. A.S. _hérian_, to praise, commend.
  {Herken, Herkne,} hearken, B. 193, 458.
  Herneȝ, brains, A. 58. O.N. _hjarni_. Sw. _hjerna_.
  Herneȝ = erneȝ, eagles, B. 537.
  Hert, heart, B. 1723.
  Hertte, hart, B. 391, 535.
  Heruest, harvest, B. 523.
  Hery, honour, praise, B. 1527. See _hered_.
  {Herytage, Heritage,} A. 417; B. 652.
  Herȝe, harry, B. 1179, 1294; drag out, C. 178. Sc. _herry_; _harry_,
    rob, spoil, pillage. A.S. _hergian_, _herian_, to plunder, afflict,
    vex. Fr. _harrier_, provoke, molest. O.N. _heria_, to make an inroad
    on.
  {Hest, Heste,} command, A. 633; B. 94, 341; promise, B. 1636.
  Hete, promise, vow, A. 402; B. 1346; C. 336. O.N. _haeta_, to
    threaten. T. B. 240.
  Heter, rough, C. 373. See T. B. 5254. N.Prov. _hetter_, _hitter_,
    eager, earnest.
  Heterly, quickly, greatly, fiercely, A. 402; B. 380, 1222; C. 381,
    477. See T. B. 3499.
  Heþe, heath, B. 535.
  Heþen, hence, A. 231. O.N. _hëthan_. See T. B. 5115.
  Heþyng, scorn, contempt, B. 579, 710; C. 2. O.N. _háthung_. See T. B.
    1753, 1818.
  Heue, heave, raise, A. 314, 473. O.N. _hefia_.
  Heued, head, A. 459, 465.
  Heuen, raise, exalt, A. 16; B. 24, 506; increase, “_heuen þi hele_.”
    B. 920. We also meet with the phrase to “_heuen harm_.”
      “Qua folus lang wit uten turn,
      Oft his fote sal find a spurn;
      Reu his res þan sal he sare,
      Or _heuen_ his harme with foli mare.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 25a.)
  Heuen-ryche, the kingdom of heaven, A. 719; C. 14.
  Heuy, sorrowful, A. 1180; C. 2.
  Heyred, harried, dragged, pulled, B. 1786. See _Herȝe_. “_Harryn’_ or
    _drawyn’_ trahicio, pertraho” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Heyred = heryed, honoured, B. 1527. See _Hered_.
  Heȝe, high, lofty, B. 1391, 1749.
  Heȝe, hasten, B. 1584. See _Hyȝe_.
  {Heȝt, Heȝþe,} height, A. 1031; B. 317.
  {Hide, Hidde,} hid, hidden, B. 1600, 1628.
  Hidor, fear, C. 367. O.Fr. _hisdour_; _hidour_, dread.
  Hiled, covered, B. 1397. A.S. _hélan_, _hélian_. Prov.E. _hele_,
    _hill_, _hile_, to cover. O.N. _hylia_, to hide.
  Hitte, to make for, C. 289; come, B. 479; C. 380. O.N. _hitta_, to
    light on, find.
      “Þai turne into Tessaile withouten tale more,
      _Hit_ up into a havyn all the hepe samyn.” --(T. B. 991.)
  Hiȝe = high, loud, B. 1564.
  Hiȝly, greatly, B. 920.
  Ho, she, A. 232, 233; B. 659. A.S. _heo_. Prov.E. _hoo_.
  Ho-besteȝ, she-heasts, B. 337.
  Hod, hood, B. 34.
  Hodleȝ, hoodless, B. 643.
  Hofen, (_p.p._ of _heve_), exalted, raised, B. 1711.
  Hokyllen, beat, B. 1267. Is this an error for _hollkyen_? See
    _Holkke_.
  Hol, whole, B. 102, 594.
  Hole-foted, B. 538.
  Holde, dominion, B. 1597.
  Holkke, thrust out, B. 1222. The original meaning seems to be “to make
    hollow, dig out, pierce.” A.S. _holian_, to hollow; _hol_, _holh_,
    a hole. Cf. O.Sc. and O.E. _holket_, hollow; _holk_, dig out.
    Prov.E. _hulk_, to take out entrails of rabbits and hares (Baker).
    Sw. _holka_, _hulka_, to hollow.
  Holly, wholly, B. 104, 1140.
  Holteȝ, woods, A. 921. A.S. _holt_, wood, grove; “_holte woddes_,”
    T. B. 1351.
  Holȝe, hollow, B. 1695. A.S. _holh_.
  Homly, familiar, domestic, A. 1211.
  Hommes, hams, thighs, B. 1541. O.N. _höm_, the back of the thigh.
  Honde, hand, A. 49, 706; B. 174.
  Hondel, handle, B. 11.
  Hondelyng, _sb._ handling, B. 1101.
  Hondelynge, _adv._ with hands, A. 681.
  Honde-werk, handwork, C. 496.
  Honde-whyle, a moment, B. 1786. A.S. _hand-hwíl_; “in a _hond-while_,”
    T. B. 406.
  Hone, to delay, abide, A. 921. See Met. Hom., p. 129.
  Honest, B. 14, 18.
  Honestly, B. 134, 705.
  Honour, A. 852; B. 594.
  Honyseȝ, destroys, ruins, B. 596. O.Fr. _honeison_, shame; _honnir_,
    to shame, blame, borrowed from Goth, _haunjan_. Ger. _höhnen_.
      “And Alexander alle that quile asperly rydis
      To the grete flode of Granton, and it one a glance fyndes,
      Or he was soȝt to the side ȝit sondird the qweryns,
      His hors it _hunyschist_ for evir, and he with hard schapid.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 102.)
  Hope, expect, think, suppose, A. 142; B. 663.
  Hores, theirs, C. 14.
  Hores (?), B. 1695.
  Hortyng, _sb._ hurting, harm, B. 740.
  Horwed, unclean, B. 335. A.S. _horwa_, _hóru_, dirt; _hyrwian_, to
    defile.
  Horyed, hurried, B. 883.
  {Hot, Hote,} angry, B. 200.
  Hourlande, rolling, rushing, hurling, C. 271.
  Hourle, wave, C. 319.
  Household, B. 18.
  Houe, abide, B. 927. W. _hofian_; _hofio_, to fluctuate, hover,
    suspend.
  Houeȝ, hovers, B. 458, 485.
  Houen, exalted, raised, B. 206, 413, 1451.
  Hue, cry, voice, A. 873.
  {Hue, Huee,} hue, complexion, A. 842; B. 1483.
  Huge, great, B. 4, 1659.
  Hunger, _vb._ C. 19.
  Hurkele, hang, B. 150; rest, 406. The original meaning is to nestle,
    crouch, squat. N.Prov.E. _hurkle_, to squat, crouch, nestle. Du.
    _hurken_, to squat. O.N. _hruka_.
      “Then come ther in a litill brid into his arme fleȝe,
      And ther _hurkils_ and hydis as sche were hande tame,
      Fast scho flekirs about his fete, and fleȝtirs aboute.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 18.)
  Hurlande, hurling, rushing, B. 413, 1211.
  Hurle, rush, B. 44, 223, 376, 874, 1204; “_hurlet_ out of houses,”
    T. B. 1365.
  Hurrok, oar, B. 419; C. 185. Prov.E. _orruck_. “_Orruck_-holes,
    oar-drawing holes, as distinct from thole-pins, which are less used
    in our boats: _rykke_, to draw (Dan.). Compare English _rullocks_.”
    Norfolk Words: Miss A. Gurney in Transactions of Philological
    Society for 1855, p. 34.
  Huyde, hide, B. 915.
  Huyle, while, A. 41.
  Hwe, hue, A. 896; _hwes_, B. 1119.
  Hwed, coloured, B. 1045.
  Hyde, skin, A. 1136.
  Hyl-coppe, hill-top, A. 791. See _Coppe_.
  Hynde = hende, courteous, A. 909; B. 1098.
  Hyne, servants; _hinds_, A. 505, 632, 1211. A.S. _hina_, _hine_ (for
    _higna_, _higne_), a domestic. O.N. _hion_, family.
  Hyre, _sb._ hire, wages, A. 534, 539.
  Hyre, _vb._ A. 507, 560.
  Hyrne, corner, B. 1294; C. 178. A.S. _hyrne_. “Hyd hom in houles and
    _hyrnys_ aboute,” T. B. 1362.
  Hytteȝ, strives, seeks, A. 132.
  Hyue, hive, B. 223.
  Hyure, hire, C. 56.
  Hyȝe, high grounds, heights, B. 391.
  {Hyȝe, Hyȝ,} high, A. 39, 395; B. 380; “on _hyȝe_,” B. 413; “_hyȝe_
    trot,” quick pace, B. 976.
  Hyȝe, hie, hasten, B. 33, 392, 538; C. 217. A.S. _higan_, _higian_.
  Hyȝe, labourer, servant, B. 67. A.S. _higo_, a servant. See _Hine_.
  Hyȝly, greatly, B. 1527.
  Hyȝt, named, called, promised, A. 305, 950; B. 24, 665, 1162.
  Hyȝt, height, B. 458; C. 398.
  Hyȝtled, ornamented, decorated, B. 1290.
      “He had a hatt on his hede _hiȝtild_ o floures.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 155.)

  I-brad, extended, reached, B. 1693. See _Brayde_.
  Ichose, chosen, A. 904.
  Idolatrye, B. 1173.
  Ilk, same, B. 1755.
  Ille, bad, evil, B. 577.
  Ilyche = alike, B. 228, 975; C. 161. A.S. _gelíc_.
  Image, B. 983.
  In-blande, together, B. 885. Dan. _iblandt_. See _Bland_.
  Inflokke, flock in, B. 1767.
  Inlyche, alike, A. 546, 603.
  In-melle, among, A 1127. This word is usually written _i-melle_. Icel.
    _á-milli_.
  {In-monge, In-mongeȝ,} among, amidst, B. 278, 1485.
  {In-mydde, In-myddeȝ,} amidst, B. 125, 1677.
  Innocens, innocence, A. 708.
  {Innoghe, Innoȝe,} enough, sufficiently, A. 612, 625, 637; abundant,
    C. 528.
  In-nome, taken in, A. 703.
  {Innossent, Inoscente,} innocent, A. 666, 672, 684.
  Inobedyent, disobedient, B. 237. Fr. _inobedient_.
  In-seme, together, A. 838. A.S. _gesome_. O.E. _ysome_.
  In-stoundes, at times, B. 1603.
  Instrumente, B. 1081.
  Insyȝt, opinion, B. 1659.
  Ire, wrath, B. 572.
  Iwysse, truly, indeed, B. 84. A.S. _gewis_.
  In-wyth, within, A. 970.

  Jacynth, A. 1014.
  Janglande, muttering, C. 90. O.Fr. _jangler_, to chatter.
  Jape, device, sin, B. 272, 864; C. 57. Fr. _japper_, to yelp, chatter.
    The original meaning of _jape_ is in O.E. to deceive, to lie.
  Jasper, A. 999.
  Jauele, a wicked wretch, a base fellow, B. 1495. “_Javel_, Joppus,
    gerro.” (Prompt. Parv.)
    “The Lieutenant of the Tower advising Sir Thomas Moor to put on
    worse cloaths at his execution, gives this reason, because he that
    is to have them is but a _javel_; to which Sir Thomas replied,
    shall I count him a _javel_ who is to doe me so great a benefit.”
      --(MS. Lansd. 1033, in Hall.)
  Jeaunte, giant, B. 272.
  {Jolef, Jolyf, Joly,} handsome, happy, true, A. 842, 929; B. 300, 864;
    C. 241.
  Joparde, jeopardy, A. 602.
  Jostyse, justice, judge, B. 877.
  Journay, C. 355.
  Jowked, slept, C. 182.
  {Joy, Joye,} A. 266.
  Joyfol, A. 288.
  Joyleȝ, joyless, sorrowful, A. 252; C. 146.
  Joyne, B. 726.
  Joyned, A. 1009; B. 434.
  Joyned, enjoined, B. 877; C. 62, 355.
  Joynte, B. 1540.
  Joyst, B. 434.
  {Juel, Juele,} jewel, A. 249, 253, 278.
  {Jueler, Juelere,} jeweller, A. 252, 264.
  Juelrye, jewelry, B. 1309.
  Jugge, judge, A. 7, 804; C. 224.
  Juggement, judgment, B. 726.
  {Juis, Juise,} judgment, doom, B. 726; C. 224.
  Jumpred (? _Jumpre_ from A.S. _geomer_, miserable, sad), trouble,
    B. 491.
  Justyfyet, justified, A. 700.

  Kable, B. 418.
  Kake, B. 625, 635.
  Kark, sorrow, C. 265. W. and Gael. _carc_, care.
  Karle, churl, B. 208. See _Chorle_.
  Kart, B. 1259.
  Kayrene, to go, B. 945. See _Cayre_.
  Kayser, emperor, B. 1593.
  Kaȝt, caught, B. 1215.
  Kene, great, noble, B. 839, 1593; sharp, B. 1697.
  Kenely, quickly, B. 945.
  Kenne, to know, make known, show, A. 55; B. 865, 1707; C. 357. O.N.
    _kenna_. Norse _kjenna_, to perceive by sense, recognise, observe.
  Kennest, keenest, B. 1575.
  Kepe, care for, regard, B. 508.
  Kerve, dig, A. 512; cut, B. 1104; rend, B. 1582.
  {Kest, Keste,} contrive, B. 1070, 1455; cast, A. 66; B. 414.
  Keue, depart, A. 320.
  Keued, separated, A. 981.
  Keuer, recover, restore, B. 1605, 1700.
  Keye, key, B. 1438.
  Klubbe, club, B. 1348.
  Klyffeȝ, cliffs, A. 66, 74.
  Knaue, knave, B. 855; servant, B. 801.
  {Knaue, Knaw, Knawe,} know; _knawen_, known, A. 637; B. 1435, 1575.
  Knawlach, knowledge, B. 1702; See T. B. 1083.
  Knot, crowd, company, A. 788.
  Knyt, knit, unite, establish, B. 564.
  Kost, coast, border, B. 912.
  Kote, house, B. 801.
  Koynt = quaint, curious, crafty, B. 1382.
  Krakke, sound, B. 1403.
  Kuy, kine, cows, B. 1259.
  {Kyd, Kydde,} showed, proved, (_pret._ of _kythe_), B. 23, 208.
    _Kyde_, as an _adj._ = renowned.
      “This kyde realme.” --(T. B. 213.)
  Kylle, to strike, B. 876. See T. B. 1211, 1213.
  Kyndam, kingdom, B. 1700.
  Kynde, nature, species, B. 266, 505, 507.
  {Kyndely, Kyndly,} naturally, properly, B. 1, 319.
  Kynne, conceive, B. 1072. A.S. _cennan_, to conceive, beget.
  Kynned, kindled, B. 915. O.N. _kynda_.
  Kynneȝ, “alle kynneȝ = of every kind,” A. 1028.
  Kyntly = kyndly, naturally, A. 690.
  Kyppe, take up, seize, B. 1510. Prov.E. _kep_. O.N. _kippa_. A.S.
    _cépan_. See Robt. of Glouc. 125. Havelok the Dane, 2407. “_Kyppyn’_
    idem quod _Hynton_;” “_Kyppynge_ or _hyntynge_ (_hentynge_, K. P.),
    Raptus.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  {Kyrk, Kyrke,} church, temple, A. 1061; B. 1270.
  Kyryous = curious, careful, particular, B. 1109.
  {Kyst, Kyste,} chest, ark, B. 449, 1438; C. 159.
  Kyþe, show, exhibit, A. 356; B. 851, acknowledge, B. 1368. A.S.
    _cíthan_, to make known.
      “Ye _kyþe_ me suche kyndnes,” --(T. B. 557.)
  {Kyþ, Kyþe,} city, land, region, A. 1198; B. 414, 571, 901, 912;
    C. 18. A.S. _cyth_, a region, home, native place.
      “Ther was a kyng in þat coste þat þe _kithe_ ought.”
        --(T. B. 103.)
  Kyþyn (_gen. pl._ of _kyþe_), of cities, B. 1366.

  Labour, _sb._ A. 634; _vb._ A. 504.
  {Lache, Lachche,} = latch, take, receive, B. 166; _lached_, received,
    B. 1186; taken, C. 266; reach, C. 322; “_lach_ out,” take away,
    C. 425. A.S. _læccan_.
  Lad, led, A. 801.
  Ladde = lad, man (of inferior station), B. 36; C. 154. O.H.G. _laz_,
    libertinus. Ger. _lasse_. Du. _laete_, a peasant.
  Ladde-borde, larboard, C. 106.
  Laddres, ladders, B. 1777.
  Lade, led, A. 1146.
  Ladyly, A. 774.
  Ladyschyp, A. 578.
  Lafte, left, B. 1004.
  Laften, (_3d pers. pl. pret._) left, A. 622; C. 405.
  {Lake, Llak,} lake, deep, B. 438, 536.
  Lakke, sin against, abuse, B. 723. Dan. and Sw. _lak_, fault, vice.
    Dan. _lakke_, decay, decline.
  {Lalled, Laled,} spoke, B. 153, 913. Dan. _lalle_, to prattle.
    Bavarian _lallen_, to speak thick, talk. Gr. λαλειν, to
    talk.
  Lance, take, C. 350.
  Langage, language, B. 1556.
  Langour, sorrow, A. 357.
  Lansed (? _laused_), uttered, B. 668; C. 489. _Launch_, in the dialect
    of Worcestershire, signifies to cry out, groan.
  Lansed, ? quaked, B. 957.
  Lanteȝ (? _lanceȝ_), lentest, gavest, B. 348.
  Lantyrne, A. 1047.
  Lape, lap, taste, B. 1434. _Lape_, lape, taste (Baker’s Northampton
    Glossary).
  Lappe, _sb._ A. 201. A.S. _læppa_, border, hem. “_Lappe_, skyrte
    (_lappe_, barme, K.). Gremium.” (Prompt. Parv.)
    “The word _lap_, according to many ancient writers, signified the
    skirt of a garment. Thus G. de Bibelsworth says,
      ‘Car par deuant avez eskours (_lappes_),
      Et d’en costé sont vos girouns (sidgoren).’
    It denoted, likewise, the hinder skirt.” (Way in Prompt. Parv.)
  Lapped, folded, clothed, B. 175. See T. B. 236.
  Lasched, B. 707. ? became hot, lascivious.
  Lasned = lessened, made smaller, B. 438, 441.
  Lasse, less, A. 599, 600; B. 1640.
  Laste, follow, A. 1146; C. 320. A.S. _last_, footstep. Goth,
    _laistjan_, to follow after.
  Laste, fault, crime, C. 198.
  Lastes, becomes faulty, B. 1141. Dan. _last_, vice, fault. O.N.
    _löstr_. S.Sax. _last_, calumny, blame. Icel. _last_. Ger.
    _lästerung_, slander.
  Lat, slow, late, B. 1172. A.S. _læt_, slow, late. Cf. _“lat_-a foot,
    slow in moving.” (Wilbraham’s Cheshire Glossary.)
  Laþe, to invite, B. 81. A.S. _lathian_. O.Sax. _lathian_. O.N. _lada_.
    Prov.E. _lathe_, to invite. A.S. _lathu_, invitation. N.Prov.E.
    _lathing_, invitation.
  Lauce, loosen, do away with (?), B. 1589.
  Laue, law, B. 723.
  Lauande, pouring, flowing, B. 366.
  Laue, pour out, A. 607; C. 154. A.S. _lafian_.
  Launceȝ, branches (of trees), A. 978.
  Launde, an open space between woods, a park; _lawn_, B. 1000, 1207.
    “_Saltus_ a lawnd.” (Nominale MS.) Welsh _llan_. “_Lawnde_ of a
    wode. Saltus.” (Prompt. Parv.) “_Indago_, a parke, a huntynge place,
    or a _launde_.” (Ortus.) “_Lande_, a _land_ or _launde_, a wild
    untilled shrubbie or bushy plaine.” (Cotg.) O.Fr. _lande_, saltus.
      “Sythyne [he] wente into Wales wyth his wyes alle;
      Sweys into Swaldye with his snelle houndes,
      For to hunt at the hartes in thas hye _laundes_.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 6.)
  Lawe, hill, B. 992. Sc. _law_. A.S. _hlæw_, mound, mount. Goth.
    _hlaiw_.
  Lawles, C. 170.
  Lay, put down, B. 1650.
  Layke, _sb._ sport, play, amusement, B. 122, 1053.
  Layke, _vb._ to play, B. 872. A.S. _lác_, play; _lácan_, to play.
  Layke, device, B. 274; C. 401.
  Layned, kept secret, A. 244. N.Prov.E. _lane_, to hide. O.N. _leyna_.
  Layth, vile, evil, C. 401. A.S. _láth_, evil, harm; _láth_, hateful,
    evil; “_laithe_ hurtes,” T. B. 1351.
  Layte, seek, search, B. 97, 1768. N.Prov.E. _late_. Icel. _leita_. Sw.
    _leta_, to look for; “_laytyng_ aboute,” T. B. 2348.
  Laȝares, lepers, B. 1093.
  Laȝe, laugh, B. 653, 661.
  {Laȝte, Laȝt,} = laught, took, A. 1128, 1205. See _Lache_.
  Le, shelter, C. 277. A.S. _hleo_, shade, shelter. Cf. T. B. 2806. O.N.
    _hlja_, to protect. Cf. _Leeside_ = the sheltered side of a ship.
      “---- thar I the tell
      Is the richt place and sted for ȝour cite,
      And of ȝour travell ferm hald to rest in _le_.”
        --(G. Doug. vol. i. p. 152.)
      “Þe wicked alsua þe gode sal se,
      Wit-in þair gamen stad and gle,
      Þat þai þe sorfuller sal be,
      Þat losen folili has þat _le_.” (_i.e._, heaven).
        --(“De Penis,” quoted in “Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience,” l. 4,
        p. xii.)
  Leauty, loyalty, B. 1172.
  Lebarde, leopard, B. 536.
  Lecherye, B. 1350.
  {Led, Lede,} man, person, A. 542; B. 412. A.S. _leód_, man.
  {Led, Leede,} people, nation, B. 691, 772, 909. A.S. _leóde_, people,
    folk.
  Ledden = leden, sound, A. 878. Chaucer uses the word _leden_ in the
    sense of _speech_, _language_. A.S. _hlyd_. O.N. _hliod_, a sound.
  Ledisch, national, pertaining to a people or country, B. 1556. S.Sax.
    _leodisce_. See _Lede_.
  {Leef, Lef,} _adj._ dear, precious; _sb._ dear one, wife, A. 266, 418;
    B. 772, 939, 1066. A.S. _leóf_.
  Lefly, dear, beloved, B. 977. A.S. _leóflíc_.
  Lefsel, bower, house formed of leaves, C. 448.
      “By a lauryel ho (Dame Gaynour) lay, vndur a _lefe-sale_,
      Of box and of barberè, byggyt ful bene.”
        --(The Anturs of Arther in Robson’s Met. Rom. p. 3, vi. 5.)
      “With _lefsales_ uppon lofte lustie and faire.” (T. B. 337.)
    A.S. _leaf_, a leaf, and _sel_, dwelling, hall. Sw. _löfsal_, a hut
    built of green boughs. _Levesel_ (another form of _lefsel_) is used
    by Chaucer (Reve’s Tale, 4059), but is left unexplained in the
    glossary to Wright’s edition. Tyrwhitt’s derivation of this term
    from A.S. _lefe_, folium, and _setl_, sedes, is certainly very near
    the mark. Cf. “_levecel_ beforne a wyndowe, or other place.
    Umbraculum.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Lege, liege, subject, B. 94, 1174.
  Legioune, A. 1121, B. 1293.
  Lel, true, B. 425. “Leve this for _lell_.” T. B. 239.
  Lelly, truly, faithfully, A. 305; B. 1066. See T. B. 420.
  Leme, glide away, A. 358.
  Leme, shine, gleam, A. 119, 1043; B. 1273. A.S. _leóma_, a ray of
    light; _leóman_, to shine. See T. B. 699.
  Lemman = leof-man, beloved one, mistress, A. 763, 796, 805; B. 1352.
    A.S. _leóf_, dear, and _man_. O.E. _leofmon_, a lover.
  Lene, grant, C. 347. A.S. _lænian._
  Lenge, dwell, abide, A. 261, 933; B. 81, 412, 497, 994; C. 42. See
    T. B. 1937.
  Lenger, longer, A. 600, 977; B. 810; _lengest_, B. 256.
  Lenghe, length, A. 416.
  Lent (_pret._ of _lend_), abode, dwelt, B. 256; _watȝ lent_, had
    dwelt, B. 1084.
  Lent, arrived, C. 201. A.S. _gelandian_, to land, arrive.
      “Langour _lent_ is in land, all lychtnes is lost.”
        --(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 447.)
  Lenþe, length, A. 1031; B. 425, 1594.
  Lep, leaped, C. 179.
  Lere, to teach, B. 843. A.S. _læran_
  Lere, reward, ? _here_, A. 616.
  {Ler, Lere,} countenance, A. 398; _pl._ _lers_, features, B. 1542 A.S.
    _hleor_. See T. B. 480.
  Lese, false, A. 865. See _Lese_.
  Lesande, loosening, opening, A. 837. O.E. _lese_, _les_, to loose.
    Goth. _lausjan_.
  Lese, false, B. 1719. A.S. _leas_.
  {Lest, Leste,} lost, A. 9; B. 887.
  Lesyng, _sb._ lie, A. 897. A.S. _leasung_.
  Leþe, assuage, lessen, cease, bate, cool. A. 377; B. 648; C. 3. A.S.
    _leothian_, to release, slacken. See Met. Hom. p. 135.
  Leþe, _sb._ calm, C. 160. N.Prov.E. _leath_, rest, quiet. Stratmann
    compares O.Du. _lede_, ease, _leath_.
  Lether, leather, B. 1581.
  Lette, hinder, prevent, A. 1050; B. 1803.
  Letter, B. 1580.
  Lettrure, letters, learning, A. 751.
  Leue, “_aske leue_,” A. 316; “_take leue_,” B. 401.
  Leue, forsake, C. 401.
  Leue, believe, A. 69, 865, 876; B. 1493.
  Leued, leaved, A. 978.
  Lewed, ignorant, B. 1580. A.S. _leóde_, _leúd_, the people.
  Lik, to lick, B. 1000.
  Likke, sip, drink, B. 1521.
  Liureȝ, dresses, garments, A. 1108. O.Fr. _livree_.
  Lode, lot, C. 156.
  Lode, course, conduct, guidance, C. 504. A.S. _lád_, _ládu_, way. O.N.
    _leid_, course. Cf. _lode_, a way for water.
  Lodesmon, conductor, pilot, B. 424; C. 179. A.S. _ládman_, a leader.
  {Lodly, Lodlych,} loathsome, hateful, vile, B. 274, 1090, 1093.
    N.Prov.E. _laidly_, ugly, foul. A.S. _láthlíc_, odious, detestable.
      “He laid on þat _loodly_, lettyd he noght.” (T. B. 934.)
  Lofly, dear, lovely, B. 1804.
  Lofte, “_upon lofte_,” on high, B. 206, 318, 808. O.N. _lopt_, sky,
    air.
  {Loge, Logge,} tent, lodge, B. 784, 807, 1407; C. 457. Fr. _loge_,
    a hut. See T. B. 1140, 1369.
  Logging, lodging, B. 887.
  {Loghe, Loȝ,} = low, lau, pit, deep, abyss, B. 366. O.N. _lagr_. Sw.
    _låg_, low.
  Lokande, looking, C. 458.
  Loke = loken, enclosed, C. 350.
  Loke, guard, watch over, C. 504.
  Lokyng, _sb._ sight, looking, A. 1049.
  Loltrande, ? _loitrande_, lolling, loitering, C. 458. Du. _loteren_,
    to loiter. O.N. _lotra_, to go lazily.
  Lombe, lamb, A. 841, 1047.
  Lome, lame, B. 1094.
  Lome, vessel, instrument of any kind; (1) ark; (2) boat, B. 314, 412,
    443; C. 160. A.S. _gelóma_, _lóma_.
  Lomerande, hesitating, creeping, B. 1094. This term seems to be
    connected with _lumber_. O.E. _lumer_, _lomer_, to move heavily.
    O.Du. _lammer_, _lemmer_, impedimentum, molestia. (Kil.) Dan.
    _belemre_. Du. _belemmern_, to encumber, impede.
  Lompe, lamp, A. 1046.
  Londe, land, A. 148, 937.
  Lone, path, lane, A. 1066. N.Prov.E. _lone_, _lannin_. Fris. _lona_,
    _lana_, a narrow way between gardens and houses. Is it connected
    with O.N. _leyna_, to hide, conceal?
  Longande, belonging, A. 462.
  Longed, belonged, B. 1090, 1747.
  Lont, land, C. 322.
  Lopen (_p.p._ of _lepe_, to leap), leapt, B. 990.
  Lore, wisdom, learning, B. 1556. A.S. _lár_.
  Lore, mode, wise, A. 236.
  Lorn, lost, destroyed, B. 932.
  Los, loss, B. 1589.
  Lose, destroy, B. 909; C. 198; depart, be lost, A. 908.
  Losed, lost, B. 586.
  Losyng, perdition, B. 1031.
  Losynger, _sb._ liar, deceiver. O.Fr. _losengier_.
  {Lot, Lote,} sound, noise, roar, A. 876; C. 161, 183; word, B. 668.
    Sw. _låta_, to sound; _låt_, sound; _låte_, cry, voice. A.S.
    _hleóthor_, a sound, noise. O.E. _lud_, voice. The original form of
    the word is _late_.
      “Than have we liking to lithe (listen to) the _lates_ of the
      foules.” --(K. Alex. p. 149.)
      “(He) _late_ so lathely a _late_ and sa loude cried
      That all the fest was aferd and othire folke bathe.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 17.)
      “He gaped, he groned faste, with grucchande _latez_.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 90.)
  Lote = late, countenance, feature, form, manner, A. 899; C. 47. This
    word occurs in Laȝamon under the form _late_, looks, glances.
    Glossarial remarks to Laȝamon, p. 449. _Lete_, countenance, is found
    in the Owl and Nightingale, 35, 403. A.S. _wlite_. O.N. _læti_.
  Lote, lot, A. 1205; C. 173.
  Lote = lout, bow, A. 238. A.S. _lútan_, to bend, bow, stoop. Sw.
    _luta_. See T. B. 1900.
  Loþe, _sb._ sorrow, A. 377. A.S. _láth_, evil, harm.
  Loþelych, wicked, bad, B. 1350.
  Loute, abide, sit, A. 933.
  Loute, bow, make obeisance. B. 798. See _Lote_.
  Louande, praising, B. 1719.
  Loue, praise, A. 285, 1124, 1127; B. 497, 987. A.S. _lofian_.
  Loueȝ, hands, B. 987. N.Prov.E. _leuf_, palm of the hand, and hence
    used for the hand itself. _Palm_ is used for the hand in early
    English authors. O.N. _lofi_. Sc. _loof_.
      “(He) held the letter in his _love_.” --(K. Alex. p. 71.)
      “----he takis
      The licor in his awen (one) _loove_,
      the letter in the tothire.” --(_Ibid._ l. 2569.)
  Loueloker, more lovely, A. 148.
  Lovne, offer (advice), propose, C. 173. N.Prov.E. _loave_, _loff_, to
    offer. O.N. _lofa_, promise, praise. Du. _looven_. Flem. _loven_,
    estimate. Cf. “_Lovon_ and bedyn as chapmen, Licitor.” (Prompt.
    Parv.)
  Louy, love, B. 841, 1053.
  {Louely, Louyely, Louyly, Louelych,} lovely, A. 565, 693; B. 1486.
  Lowe, flame; “_luf lowe_,” flame of love, B. 707. O.E. _logh_ (see
    T. B. 168) “the _lowe hot_,” T. B. 494.
  Lowkande, locking, shutting, B. 441.
  {Loȝ, Loȝe,} the deep, pit, sea, A. 119; B. 441, 1031; C. 230. See
    _Loghe_.
  Loȝ, Loȝe, low, B. 798, 1761.
  Loȝed, made low, abased, B. 1650.
  Loȝen, laughed (_3rd pers. pl. pret._ of _laȝe_, B. 495.
  Loȝly, humbly, B. 614, 745.
  Luche, pitch, throw, C. 230. N.Prov.E. _lutch_, to pulsate strongly.
    W. _lluchio_, to fling, throw violently. Stratmann suggests A.S.
    _lyccan_, pull, lutch.
  {Ludych, Ludisch,} national, B. 73, 1375. See _Ledisch_.
  Luf, _gen. sing._, of love, B. 707.
  {Lufly, Luflych, Luflyly,} lovely, A. 880; B. 81; 939; C. 419.
  Lufsoum, _sb._ lovesome, beloved one, A. 398.
  Luged, was pulled, B. 443. O.N. _lugga_.
  Lulted, sounded, B. 1207. O.N. _lulla_, to lull, sing to sleep. Cf.
    “_lullit_ on slepe,” T. B. 648. Ger. _lallen_, to sing without
    words, only repeating the syllable _la_. N.Prov.E. _lilt_, to sing
    with a loud voice; _lilt_, a song.
  Luly-whit, lilly-white, B. 977.
  Lumpen, befallen, B. 424, 1320. See _Lympe_.
  Lur, loss, C. 419.
      “What _lure_ is of my lyfe & I lyffe here.” --(T. B. 582.)
  Lureȝ, losses, A. 339, 358. A.S. _lyre_, _lor_.
  {Lurke, Lurkke,} A. 978; C. 277. See T. B. 1140.
  Lusty, B. 981.
  Luther, bad, wicked, B. 163, 1090; C. 156. A.S. _lyther_.
  Luuy, love. See _Louy_.
  Lyf, life, B. 1719.
  Lyflode, sustenance in life, B. 561. A.S. _lif-láde_, from _lád_,
    a way.
  {Lyft, Lyfte,} heavens, firmament, sky, B. 212, 366, 1356, 1448. A.S.
    _lyft_.
  Lyftande, lifting, rising, B. 443.
  Lyfte, raised, A. 567.
  Lyfte, left, B. 981, 1581.
  Lygge, lie, B. 1126, 1792. A.S. _licgan_.
  Lyke, _vb. impers._ please, A. 566; B. 36, 411, 693, 1646.
  Lyke, _adj._ pleasing, C. 42.
  Lykker, more like, C. 493.
  Lykneȝ, likens, compares, A. 500; is like, B. 1064.
  Lyknyng, _sb._ likeness, C. 30.
  Lykoreȝ, liquors, drinks, B. 1521.
  Lykyng, _sb._ pleasure, A. 247; B. 172, 1803. See T. B. 2912.
  Lylled, flourished, shone, C. 447. N.Prov.E. _lilli-lo_, a bright
    flame. Cf. Mod. Gr. λουλούδι, a blossom; λουλουδιαζω, to flourish,
    bloom. Is _lylle_, to flourish, connected with the word _lilly_?
  Lympe, befall, happen, C. 174, 194. See T. B. 36. A.S. _limpan_, to
    happen, concern.
  Lyne, lineage, A. 626.
  Lynne, linen, A. 731.
  Lyre, flesh, B. 1687. A.S. _lira_.
  Lysoun, trace, B. 887.
  {Lyst, Lyste,} _sb._ pleasure, A. 467, 908; B. 843; lust, B. 693;
    _vb._ desire, please, A. 146; B. 415, 1766.
  Lyst, path, border, B. 1761. Du. _lijst_, edge, border.
  Lysten, to hear, A. 880.
  Lysten, hearing, B. 586. A.S. _hlist_, hearing; _hlistan_, to hear,
    listen. O.N. _hlust_, an ear.
  Lyte, little, B. 119.
  Lyth, limb, A. 398. A.S. _lith_.
  Lyþe, assuage, lessen, A. 357. See _Leþe_.
  Lyþe, grant, A. 369.
  Lyþer, evil, wickedly, A. 567. See _Luþer_.
  Lyþerly, badly, negligently, B. 36.
  {Lyuie, Lyuy,} live, B. 558, 581; C. 364.
  Lyuyande, living, A. 700.
  Lyȝe, lie, A. 304.
  Lyȝt, light, A. 69, 1043; bright, A. 500; innocent, guiltless, pure,
    A. 682; B. 987; _lette_ _lyȝt_, esteem, treat lightly, B. 1174,
    1320.
  {Lyȝt, Lyȝte,} _vb._ to light, fall upon, A. 247, 943, 988; B. 213,
    1069.
  Lyȝten, to lighten, C. 160.
  Lyȝtly, easily, A. 358; soon, quickly, B. 817, 853; C. 88. Comp.
    _lyȝtloker_, C. 47.

  Ma, make, A. 283; B. 625.
  Ma, man (?), A. 323.
  {Mach, Machche,} = make, fellow, companion, B. 124, 695, 1512. See
    _Make_.
  Mache, to make familiar with, C. 99.
  {Mad, Madde,} foolish, A. 267, 290, 1166; B. 654. Prov. Ger. _maden_,
    to tattle; _madeln_, to mutter.
      “Thi momlyng and thi _mad_ wordes.” --(See T. B. 1864.)
  Madde, _vb._ to render foolish, A. 359.
  Maddyng, folly, A. 1154.
      “_Madding_ marrid has thi mode, and thi mynd changid.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 121.)
  {Mak, Make,} = mach, match, equal, fellow, wife, A. 759; B. 248, 331,
    994. A.S. _maca_, a mate; _mace_, a wife.
      “Þe king him (Joseph) did a wiif to tak,
      Hight Assener, a doghti _mak_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27a.)
  Makeleȝ, matchless, A. 435, 733, 757, 780.
  Male, B. 337, 695.
  Malicious, C. 508.
  Malscrande, accursed, B. 991.
  Malskred, bewildered, C. 255. Bosworth quotes “_malscra_, a
    bewitching,” upon the authority of Somner.
  {Malt, Malte,} ease, assuage, soothe, B. 776, 1566. O.N. _melta_, to
    dissolve.
  Malte, discourse, speak, A. 224, 1154. A.S. _mælan_, to speak,
    converse; _mathelian_, _mæthlan_, to discourse.
  {Malyce, Malys,} B. 250, 518; C. 4.
  Man = maken (_3d pers. pl. pres._), make, A. 512.
  Manace, threaten, C. 422.
  Manayre, manor, A. 1029.
  Mancioun, mansion, B. 309.
  Maner, manner, B. 701.
  Maner, manor, A. 918.
  Manerly, properly, decently, B. 91.
  Mangerie, feast, B. 52, 1365. Fr. _manger_, to eat, from Lat.
    _manducare_.
  Mankyn, mankind, A. 637.
  Mansed, cursed, B. 774; C. 82. A.S. _a-mánsumian_, to excommunicate.
  Mantyle, mantle, C. 342.
  Marchal, marshal, B. 91, 118.
  Mare, more, A. 145.
  {Margary, Margyrye,} pearl, A. 199, 1037; B. 556.
  Marie, marry, B. 52.
  Marked, market, A. 513.
  Marre, corrupt, spoil, destroy, perish, A. 23; B. 279, 991; C. 172,
    474. O.H.G. _marrjan_, to hinder, make void. A.S. _merran_,
    _myrran_, to hinder. Du. _merren_, to obstruct.
  Marereȝ = marreȝ (?). A. 382.
  {Maryag, Maryage,} A. 414, 778; B. 186.
  Maryed, married, B. 815.
  Marryng, _sb._ spoiling, preventing, B. 186.
  Marschal, B. 1427.
  Maryners, C. 99.
  Mas, mass, A. 1115.
  Mascelleȝ, spotless, A. 732.
  Mascle, spot, A. 726. Du. _maese_, _masche_, _maschel_, a spot, stain;
    _maschelen_, to stain.
  Mase (masse), astonishment, alarm, B. 395.
  {Maskeleȝ, Maskelles, Maskelleȝ,} spotless, A. 744, 745, 756, 768.
  Maskle, spot, stain, B. 556. See _Mascle_.
  Masporye (?), A. 1018.
  Mate, dejected, downcast, subdued, A. 386. Fr. _mat_.
  Mate, to overcome, A. 613. Fr. _mater_. O.Fr. _amater_. Cf. Du. _mat_,
    exhausted, overcome. Ger. _matt_, feeble, faint.
  Mater, subject, B. 1617.
  Matere, matter, C. 503.
  {Maugre, Maugref, Mawgre,} C. 44, 54. Fr. _malgré_, in spite of,
    against the will of; _mal_, ill; _gré_, will, pleasure. In B. 250
    _mawgre_ is used as a _sb._ = displeasure.
  Mawe, stomach, C. 255. Ger. _magen_. Du. _maag_.
  May, maid. A. 435, 780. A.S. _mæg_.
  Maynful, great, powerful, A. 1093; B. 1730. A.S. _mægen_, power,
    force, strength. O.N. _megin_, strength; _mega_, to be able.
  Maynly, loudly, B. 1427.
  Mayntnaunce, maintenance, B. 186.
  Mayntyne, maintain, C. 523.
  Mayster, master, lord, A. 462, 900; B. 1793.
  Maysterful, powerful, A. 401; B. 1328.
  Maystery, mastery, C. 482.
  Maȝt, power, C. 112. Goth. _mahts_. Ger. _macht_, might, power.
  Maȝty, mighty, B. 273, 279.
  Maȝtyly, mightily, B. 1267.
  Mede = meed, reward, B. 1632.
  Medoes, meadows, B. 1761.
  Megre, meagre, lean, B. 1198. Fr. _maigre_. Lat. _macer_, lean.
  Mekne, make meek, B. 1328.
  Mele, meal, B. 625.
  Mele, _sb._ discourse, A. 23.
  Mele, _vb._ to talk, relate, say, A. 497, 589; B. 736; C. 10.
    “To _mele_ of this mater.” (T. B. 209.)
  Melle, speak, A. 797. See _Malte_.
  Membreȝ, members, A. 458.
  Mendes, amends, A. 351.
  Mendyng, _sb._ improvement, repentance, A. 452; B. 764.
  Mene, general, common, B. 1241. A.S. _gemæne_. Ger. _gemein_.
  Mene, mean, A. 293.
  Mene, tell, explain, B. 1635. A.S. _mænan_, to tell.
  {Meng, Menge,} mix, join, B. 337, 625. A.S. _mengan_.
  {Mensk, Menske,} _sb._ honour, A. 162, 783; B. 121, 522; thanks,
    B. 646; _vb._ to honour, B. 141, 1740. A.S. _mennisc_, human.
    N.Prov.E. _mense_, to grace, deck; _mense_, decency, good manners.
  Mensked, honoured, B. 118.
  Menteene, maintain, A. 783.
  Mercy, A. 576, 623.
  Mercyable, merciful, B. 1113; C. 238.
  Mercyles, B. 250.
  Mere = meer, boundary, B. 778; C. 320. Du. _meere_. O.N. _mæri_,
    boundary.
  Mere, sea, lake, stream, A. 140, 158, 1166; B. 991; C. 112. A.S.
    _mere_. O.Sax. _meri_. O.N. _mar_.
  Merit, B. 613.
  Merk, _adj._ dark, obscure, B. 1617.
  Merk, _sb._ darkness, B. 894; C. 291. A.S. _myrc_, dark. O.N. _myrkr_,
    darkness; _myrka_, to darken, grow dark.
  Merke, make, devise, order, place, B. 558, 637, 1487, 1617. A.S.
    _mearcian_. O.N. _merkia_, to mark, perceive, signify.
  Mersy, A. 383; B. 776.
  {Meruayle, Merwayle,} _adj._ marvellous, C. 81; _sb._ a marvel,
    A. 1081, 1130; B. 586.
  Meruelous, A. 1166.
  Mery, pleasant, B. 1760.
  Mes, A. 862. See _Messe_.
  Message, B. 454; C. 81.
  Meschef, evil, misfortune, A. 275; B. 373, 1164.
  Mese, moderate, temper, assuage, B. 764. See _Methe_.
      “Sir Pylate mefe you now no more,
      But _mese_ youre hart, and mend youre mode.”
        --(Town. Myst. p. 175.)
      “Kyng Eolus set hie apon his chare,
      With ceptoure in hand, thar muyd (mood) to _meys_ and stille.”
        --(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 27.)
      “The blastis _mesit_.” --(_Ibid._ p. 130.)
      “A _mes_ you of malice,
      but a mene qwile.” --(T. B. 12842.)
  Messe, mass, service, A. 497.
  Messeȝ, messes (of meat), B. 637.
  Mester, need, B. 67; C. 342.
  Mesure, measure, moderation, A. 224; B. 215, 247, 565; C. 295.
  Mesurable, mild, temperate, B. 859.
  Metalles, B. 1513.
  Mete, meat, food, applied to an apple, A. 641.
  Meten, to measure, A. 1032.
  {Meth, Meþe,} moderation, mildness, pity, B. 247, 436, 565.
      “And Mari ledd hir life with _methe_
      In a toun that hiht Nazarethe.” --(Met. Hom. p. 107.)
    A.S. _mæthian_, to measure, estimate, use gently; _mæth_, measure,
    degree; _mæthlic_, kind, courteous. N.Prov.E. _meedless_, without
    measure, immoderate.
  Meþeleȝ, immoderate, B. 273.
  Mette, measure, B. 625.
  Metȝ = mese (?), pity, B. 215.
  Meuande, moving, B. 783.
  Meue, move, A. 156; B. 303.
  Meuen (_3rd pers. pl. pres._), move, A. 64. See T. B. 384.
  Meyny, labourers, servants, A. 542; household, B. 331; company,
    A. 892, 899, 925; B. 454; C. 10.
  Miry, pleasant, C. 32.
  Misschapen (monstrous), wicked, B. 1355.
  Mistrauthe, unbelief, B. 996.
  Mo, more, A. 870, 1194; B. 674.
  {Mod, Mode,} = mood, pride, A. 401, 738; B. 565, 764.
  Moder, mother, A. 435.
  {Modey, Mody,} = proud, haughty, B. 1303; C. 422.
  Mokke, muck, dirt, A. 905.
  Mol = mul, dust, A. 382. Flem. _mul_, _gemul_, dust. Du. _mullen_, to
    crumble. Pl. D. _mull_, loose earth, dust. Cf. “peat-_mull_,” the
    dust and fragments of peat. (Brockett.)
  Molde, earth, B. 279; _moldeȝ_, lands, B. 454; “_on molde_,” on earth,
    B. 514, 1114; “_in moldeȝ_,” in earth, C. 494. A.S. _molde_, mould,
    earth. Goth. _mulda_. O.H.G. _molta_. Dan. _muld_.
      “Loo! here the duchez dere to daye was cho takyne,
      Depe dolvene and dede, dyked _in moldez_.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 82.)
  Mon, man, A. 310.
  Mon, moan, sorrow, A. 374.
  Mone, moon, A. 923.
  Monkynd, mankind, B. 564.
  Mon-sworne, perjury, B. 182. Other forms of this word are
    _main-sworn_, _man-sworn_. O.H.Ger. _meinsweridi_, perjury, from
    _main_, _mein_, spot, stain, injury, impure, bad. O.N. _mein_, sore,
    crime.
  Mony, many, A. 572; B. 1164.
  Monyth, month, B. 493, 1030.
  Moon, moan, sorrow, B. 373.
  Moote = mote, spot, blemish, A. 948.
  Mor, moor, B. 385, 1673. A.S. _mór_, a moor, heath.
  Morehond, more, A. 475. Cf. _nerehande_, near; _betuixande_, betwixt.
  {Morn, Morne,} morning, B. 493; morrow, B. 1001.
  Mornyf, mournful, A. 386.
  Mornyng, _sb._ mourning, A. 262.
  Morteres, mortars, B. 1487.
  {Most, Moste,} greatest, B. 254, 385.
  Mot, must, may, A. 397, 663.
  {Mot, Mote,} spot, blemish, sin, A. 764, 843, 855. Du. _mot_, dust.
  Mote, _vb._ speak to, A. 613. A.S. _mótian_, to moot, debate. Then
    Medea with mowthe _motys_ thus agayne. T. B. 610.
  Mote, building, dwelling, abode, A. 142, 936, 937, 948, 949; city,
    C. 422. _Mote_ signifies a hill, mound, moat, and hence a city on
    a hill (?). Mid. Lat. _mota_, hill or mound. O.Fr. _mote_.
      “Þe bryght ceté of heven is large and brade,
      Of whilk may na comparyson be made
      Tille na ceté þat on erth may stand,
      Ffor it was never made with mans hand.
      Bot yhit, als I ymagyn in my thoght,
      I lyken it tylle a ceté þat war wroght
      Of gold, of precyouse stones sere,
      Opon a _mote_, sett of berylle clere,
      With walles, and wardes, and turrettes,
      And entré, and yhates, and garrettes.”
        --(Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience, p. 239, l. 8896.)
    MS. Lansd. 348, reads _mount_ for _mote_.
  {Moteles, Moteleȝ,} spotless, A. 899.
  Moul = mould, earth, A. 23.
  Moun (_3rd pers. pl._ of _mowe_, to be able), are able, A. 536.
  Mount, A. 868; B. 447.
  Mountaunce, amount, C. 456.
  Mountayne, B. 385.
  {Mountes, Mounteȝ,} = amounts, avails, A. 351; C. 332.
  Mourkenes, _mirkens_, becomes dark, B. 1760. O.N. _myrka_, to darken,
    Dan. _mörkne_.
  Mourkne, to rot, become rotten, B. 407. From this verb is derived the
    O.E. _morkin_, a dead beast, carrion, a scarecrow. O.N. _morkinn_,
    rotten; _morkna_, to rot.
  Mourne, to mourn, C. 508.
  Moȝt, might, could, B. 1108, 1668.
  Mudde, B. 407.
  Mukel, great, B. 52, 366, 1164. O.N. _mikill_.
  Mul, dust, dirt, A. 905; B. 736. See _Mol_.
  Multyplyed, B. 278.
  Mun, C. 44. This may be another form of _mon_ = moan. But the phrase
    “_maugre his mun_,” leads us to reject this interpretation. _Maugre_
    is generally used with some part of the body, as “_mawgre his
    tethe_,” “_maugre his chekes_,” etc. _Mun_ may therefore signify the
    mouth. (Sw. _mun_, a mouth.) The term is still retained in the north
    of England. Halliwell quotes the following:
      “A common cry at Coventry on Good Friday is--
        ‘One a penny, two a penny, hot cross buns,
        Butter them and sugar them and put them in your _muns_.’”
  Munster = minster, church, cathedral, temple, B. 1267; C. 268.
  Munt, purpose, A. 1161. N.Prov.E. _munt_, a hint. See _Mynt_.
  Murte, break, crush, C. 150. Pl. D. _murten_, to crush. See
    _to-murte_. In T. B. 4312 we have _myrte_ = to crush. Bothe
    mawhownus & maumettes _myrtild_ in peces.
  Myddeȝ, midst, A. 740. See _In-myddeȝ_.
  Mydnyȝt, midnight, B. 894.
  Myke, _sb._ B. 417. Cf. Du. _mik_. The crutches of a boat, which
    sustain the main boom or mast and sail when they are lowered for the
    convenience of rowing.
  Mykeȝ, free labourers (?), A. 572. A.S. _mecg_, a man. In the _Cursor
    Mundi_, Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 17, the angels are represented
    as speaking to Lot as follows:
      “‘Has þou her,’ þai said, ‘ani man,
      Sun or doghter, _mik_ or mau,
      To þe langand, or hei or lau
      Þou lede þam suith out o þis tun
      Ar þat hit be sunken don.’”
    But ? _be mykeȝ_ = he _mykeȝ_, he chooses.
  Myneȝ, “_me myneȝ_,” I remember, B. 25. A.S. _mynan_, to remember.
    O.N. _minna_.
  Mynge, record, mention, A. 855. A.S. _myngian_, to remind.
  Mynne, recollect, remember, A. 583; B. 436, 771. See T. B. 1434. See
    _Myneȝ_.
  Mynte, devise, purpose, B. 1628. A.S. _myntan_, _myntian_ to dispose,
    settle, appoint. “_Myntyn’_ or _amyn’_ towarde for to assayen.
    Attempto.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Mynstralsy, B. 121.
  Mynyster, minster, temple, A. 1063.
  Mynystre, _vb._ B. 644.
  Myre, B. 1114.
  Myrþeȝ, joys, A. 140.
  Myrþeȝ, gladdens, A. 862.
  {Myri, Myry,} = merry, pleasant, A. 23, 158; B. 417, 804; _myryer_,
    A. 850; _myryest_, A. 435.
  Myryly, pleasantly, joyously, B. 493.
  {Mys, Mysse,} wrong, sin, A. 262; C. 420.
  Myserecorde, mercy, A. 366.
  Myse-tente, misunderstood, A. 257.
  Mysse, to lose, A. 329; B. 189. O.N. _missa_, to lose. Du. _missen_,
    to fail, miss.
  Mysse, loss, grief, A. 364.
  Mysseleue, unbelief, B. 1230.
  Mysse-payed, displeased, C. 399.
  Mysse-ȝeme, mis-use, A. 322.
  Myst, B. 1760.
  Myste, mysteries, secrets, (?), A. 462.
  Mysterys, A. 1194.
  Myþe, to trouble, weary (?), A. 359. A.S. _méthe_, wearied; _méth_,
    feeble.
  Myȝt, might, A. 630.
  Myȝtes = mights, powers, B. 644, 1699.

  Nadde = ne hadde, had not, B. 404.
  Nakeryne (_gen. pl._ of _naker_), B. 1413; _naker_, _nacaire_, seems
    to signify a kettle-drum.
  Nas = ne was, was not, B. 727, 983.
  Nature, A. 749.
  Nauel, C. 278.
  Naule, nail, A. 459.
  {Nauþeleȝ, Nawþeles,} nevertheless, A. 877, 950.
  {Nauþer, Nawþer,} neither, A. 1087; B. 1226.
  Nawhere, nowhere, A. 534.
  Nay, refuse, deny, B. 805.
  Nayed, refused, B. 65.
  Nayt, use, employ, B. 531. See T. B. 1038. A.S. _neotan_. O.N. _nyta_.
  Naytly, neatly, dexterously, B. 480. See T. B. 2427. Nestor, a noble
    man, _naitest_ in werre. T. B. 1038. N.Prov.E. _nately_, neatly.
  Naȝte, night, A. 1203; B. 484, 807, 1002.
  Ne, nor, B. 1226.
  Nece, niece, A. 233.
  Nedde, needed, A. 1044; hem nedde = they needed.
  {Nede, Nedeȝ,} of necessity, A. 344.
  Nedleȝ, needless, useless, B. 381; C. 220.
  Nee = ne, nor, A. 262.
  Nel, ne wille, will not, B. 513.
  Nem, took (_pret._ of _nimme_), A. 802; B. 505.
  Nemme, name, A. 997. See T. B. 152.
  Nente, ninth, A. 1012.
  Nere, _ne were_, were not, B. 21.
  {Nere, Ner,} near, nigh, A. 286, 404; _wel ner_, nearly, B. 1585.
  Nerre, nearer, A. 233; C. 85.
  Nesch, gently, A. 606. A.S. _hnesc_, soft, tender.
  Neue, fist, hand, B. 1537. N.Prov.E. _neve_, _neif_, a fist. O.N.
    _hnefi_.
  Neuen, name, B. 410, 1376, 1525. O.N. _nafn_, a name; _nefna_, to
    name.
  {Neȝ, Neȝe,} nigh, near, A. 528; B. 803.
  {Neȝ, Neȝe, Neȝen,} approach, B. 32, 143, 805, 1017, 1754.
  Nice, _adj._ foolish, B. 1354; _sb._ B. 1359. Fr. _nice_, foolish,
    simple.
  Nif, ne-if, if not, B. 30.
  Niye, trouble, B. 1002.
  Noble, A. 1097.
  Nobley, nobleness, B. 1091.
  No-bot, only, B. 1127. N.Prov.E. _no-bot_.
  Nok, nook, C. 278.
  Nolde, ne wolde, would not, B. 805, 1091.
  {Nom, Nome,} took, A. 587; B. 1613; _pret._ of _nimme_, to take.
  Nome, name, A. 872.
  Nomen, seized, taken; _p.p._ of _nimme_, B. 1281; C. 360.
  Norne, entreat, ask, B. 803. A.S. _gnornian_, to complain, murmur.
  Norture, nurture, B. 1091.
  Note, city, A. 922; B. 1233.
  Note, devise, ordain, B. 1651; C. 220.
  Note, device, purpose, A. 155; B. 381, 727. A.S. _nota_, use, duty,
    employment; _notian_, to employ, use.
      “The Bibel telles us openlye
      Of Nembrot and his maistri,
      Hou the fole that was wit him
      Bigan to mak a tour that tim,
      That suld reche to the lifte;
      Bot Godd that skilfulli kan skift.
      Mad them alle serely spekand,
      That nan moht other understand,
      And gert them lef thair wilgern werk,
      Bot of thair _not_ yet standes merk,
      In Babilony the tour ȝet standes,
      That that folk mad wit thair handes.” --(Met. Hom. p. 61.)
      “Mony noble for þe nonest to þe _note_ gode.” --(T. B. 284.)
  Note, A. 879, 883.
  Notyng, device, devising, B. 1354. See _Note_.
  Noumbre, number, B. 1283, 1376.
  Nouþe, now, C. 414.
  Nowþelese, nevertheless, A. 889.
  Noye, trouble, annoy, B. 1236.
  {Noys, Noyse,} B. 849; C. 490.
  Noȝt, naught, nothing, A. 520; B. 888; not, B. 106.
  Noȝty, bad, B. 1359.
  Nummen (_p.p._ _nimme_), taken, B. 1291; C. 76.
  Nurne, speak, say, B. 669.
  Nuye, displease, B. 578.
  Nuyed, troubled, B. 1176.
  {Nw, Nwe,} new, A. 527; anew, A. 1079.
  Nwy, wrath, B. 301.
  Nwyed, displeased, B. 306.
  Nye, trouble, B. 1376; _nyes_, troubles, B. 1754; C. 76.
  Nyed, troubled, B. 1603.
  Nyf = ne if, if not, B. 424.
  Nyl, ne wyl, will not, B. 1261; C. 41.
  Nylt, ne wylt, wilt not, C. 346.
  {Nym, Nymme,} take, B. 481. A.S. _niman_.
  Nys, ne ys, is not, A. 951.
  Nyse, nice, dainty, B. 824.
  Nyteled, laboured, toiled, B. 888. Prov.E. _nattle_, to endeavour, to
    be busy about trifles. O.E. _nyte_, to use, employ, enjoy. O.N.
    _nyta_.
  Nyȝe, nigh, B. 484; _wel nyȝe_, B. 704.
  {Nyȝt, Nyȝte,} night, A. 243; B. 526.

  Obeche, reverence, B. 745. Prov. Fr. _obezir_.
  Obes, obey, A. 886.
  Odde, (1) not even, B. 426; (2) spotless, faultless, B. 505. See T. B.
    4401, 6157, 6172, 6179, 6189, 6194, 6198.
  Oddely, (_a_) alone, B. 923; (_b_) nobly, B. 698.
    (_b_)
      “I Alexandre the aire and eldest childe hattene,
      Of kyng Philip the fers, that fest am in Grece,
      And of the quene Olimpades, the _oddest_ under heven,
      To all ȝow of Athenes, thus I etill my saȝes.” --(K. Alex. p. 79.)
      “For thai the mesure and the mett of alle the mulde couthe,
      The sise of alle the grete see and of the gryme wawys,
      Of the ordere of that _odde_ home [heaven] that overe the aire
          hingis.” --(_Ibid._ p. 2.)
  Oke, oak, B. 602.
  Olipraunce, vanity, fondness for gay apparel, B. 1349. Prov.E.
    _olypraunce_, a merry making.
      “Of tournamentys y preue thereynne
      Seven poyntes of dedly synne;
      Fyrst ys pryde, as þou wel wost
      Avauntement, bobaunce and bost;
      Of rych atyre ys here avaunce,
      Prykyng here hors wyth _olypraunce_.”
        --(Robt. of Brunne’s Handlyng Synne, p. 145.)
  On, an, A. 9.
  One, alone, self, B. 872, 923, 1669.
  Onelych, only, B. 1749.
  Oneȝ, once, B. 801.
  Onhede, unity, concord, B. 612.
  On-hit, struck, inflamed with anger (?), C. 411. A.S. _onhætan_ to
    inflame, heat.
  On-lofte, aloft, on high, B. 692; 947.
  On-ryȝt, aright, B. 1513.
  On-sydeȝ, aside, C. 219.
  On-wyde, about, B. 1423.
  On-yȝed, one-eyed, B. 102.
  Ordaynt, ordained, B. 237.
  Ordenaunce, ordinance, B. 698.
  Ordure, filth, B. 1092.
  Ore, oar, C. 218.
  Orenge, orange, B. 1044.
  Organe, B. 1081.
  Orisoun, prayer, C. 328.
  Ornemente, ornament, B. 1799.
  Orppedly, quickly, B. 623. N.Prov.E. _orput_, quick (at learning).
    Orped is generally derived from O.N. _verpa_, to throw; _p.p._
    _orpinn_. But this etymology is very doubtful. Cf. “_Orpud_, audax,
    bellipotens.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Ossed, showed, C. 213. N.Prov.E. _awse_, _oss_, to attempt, offer. W.
    _osi_.
      “Quat and has thou _ossed_ to Alexander
      this _ayndain_ (angry) wirdes.” --(K. Alex., p. 79.)
  Oste, host, army, B. 1204.
  Oþer, or, A. 141.
  Ouer-borde, C. 157.
  Ouer-brawden, covered over, B. 1698.
  Ouer-seyed, passed over, gone, B. 1686.
  Ouer-tan, overtaken, C. 127.
  Ouer-þwert, across, B. 316, 1384.
  Ouer-tok, B. 1213.
  Ouer-torne, past, B. 1192.
  Ouer-walte, overflowed, B. 370.
  Ouer-ȝede, past, went, B. 1753.
  Ouerte, open, clear, A. 593.
  Ouerture, opening, A. 218.
  Oure, prayer, A. 690.
  Out-borst, _vb._ outburst, B. 1251.
  Out-comlyng, a stranger, B. 876. N.Prov.E. _out-cumling_, a foreigner,
    stranger. The more usual form in early English is _comling_.
  Out-dryf, drive out, A. 777.
  Out-fleme, banished, A. 1177. See _Fleme_.
  Out-kast, B. 1679.
  Out-sprent, outburst, A. 1137.
  Out-taken, excepted, B. 1573.
  Out-tulde, thrown out, C. 231.
  Oȝe = owe, ought, A. 552.
  {Oȝt, Oȝte,} _vb._ ought, A. 341.
  {Oȝt, Oȝte,} _pr._ aught, A. 274; B. 663.

  Pace, passage, A. 677.
  {Pacience, Pacyence,} C. 1, 36.
  Pakke, pack, B. 1282.
  Pakke, company, A. 929.
  {Palayce, Palays,} B. 83, 1389, 1531.
  Pale, A. 1004.
  Palle = pall, fine cloth, B. 1384, 1637.
  Pane, a side, division of a building, A. 1034. Lat. _pagina_, a leaf,
    any flat expanse. “A _pane_, piece or pannel of a wall, of wainscot,
    of a glasse window.” (Cotg.) “_Pane_ of a wall, _pan de
    mur_.” (Palsg.)
  Panne, head, but we may read _paune_, paws, claws, B. 1697.
  Papeiay = a popinjay, a parrot, B. 1465. It. _papagallo_. O.Fr.
    _papegau_, _papegay_. Sp. _papagayo_, parrot.
  Parage, kindred, rank, nobleness, A. 419; B. 167. O.Fr. _parage_.
  Paramoreȝ, paramours, lovers, B. 700. Fr. _par amour_, by way of love.
  Paraunter, peradventure, A. 588.
  Parchmen, parchment, B. 1134.
  Pare, cut, B. 1408, 1536.
  Parform, perform, B. 542; C. 406.
  Parfyt, perfect, A. 638.
  Parget, plaister of a wall, B. 1536. “_Pariette_ for walles,
    blanchissure.” (Palsg.)
  Parlatyk, paralytic, B. 1095.
  Partleȝ, partless, portionless, A. 335.
  Partrykes, partridges, B. 57.
  Pass, surpass, A. 428.
  Passage, journey, C. 97.
  Passande, passing, B. 1389.
  Pasture, C. 393.
  Pater, paternoster, A. 485.
  Paume, palm, hand, B. 1533, 1542.
  {Pay, Paye,} pleasure, A. 1, 1164, 1176; C. 99.
  Pay, please, A. 1165, 1177.
  Payment, A. 598.
  Paynt, A. 750.
  Payre, pair, B. 335.
  Payre = appayre, become worse, fade, B. 1124. Lat. _pejor_, worse.
    “To _appayre_ to waxe worse.” (Palsg.)
  Payred, impaired, A. 246.
  Pechche, sin, fault, A. 841. Fr. _péché_.
  {Penance, Penaunce,} A. 477.
  Peneȝ, pens, folds (for cattle), B. 322.
  Penitotes, (? _Peritotes_), a kind of stone (the _peritot_ or
    _peridot_ Marsh), B. 1472.
  Penne, B. 1724.
  Penne-fed, B. 57.
  Pensyf, pensive, A. 246.
  Pented, appertained, belonged to, B. 1270.
  Peraunter, peradventure, B. 43.
  {Pere, Per,} equal, peer, A. 4; B. 1214, 1336.
  Pereȝ, pears, A. 104.
  Perile, B. 856, 942.
  Perré, precious stones, jewelry, A. 730; B. 1117.
  Pertly = apertly, openly, B. 244. See T. B. 1130. Cf. “_pert_ wordes,”
    T. B. 977.
  Peryle, A. 695; C. 85.
  Pes, peace, A. 952.
  Pich, pitch, B. 1008.
  Pike = pick, pluck, B. 1464.
  Pinnacle, B. 1463.
  Pité, pity, B. 232.
  {Pitously, Pytosly,} A. 370, 798.
  Planed, B. 310.
  Planete, A. 1075.
  Plaster, B. 1549.
  Plat, flat, B. 1379.
  Plat, struck (_pret._ of _plette_, to strike), B. 1265. A.S.
    _plættian_.
      “Hwan he hauede him so schamed,
      His hand (he) of _plat_, and yvele lamed.”
        --(Havelok the Dane, 2755.)
  Plater, plate, platter, B. 638.
  Plateȝ, A. 1036.
  Plat-ful, brimful, B. 83.
  Plattyng, _sb._ striking (or folding?), B. 1542.
  Play, A. 261.
  Play-fere, play-fellow, companion, C. 45.
  Playn, _adj._ even, clear, A. 178, 689; B. 1068; C. 439.
  Playn, _sb._ A. 104, 122; B. 1216.
  Playned, lamented, A. 53, 242.
  Playneȝ, complains, C. 376.
  Playnt, complaint, A. 815.
  Plek, place, plot of ground, B. 1379. “_Pleckke_ or plott,
    porculetum.” (Prompt. Parv.) N.Prov.E. _pleck_. A.S. _plæc_.
    “Se that the hare hathe be at pasture in grene corne, or in eny
    other _plek_.” --(Quoted by Way from MS. Harl. 5086, fol. 47.)
  Pleny, to complain, A. 549.
  Plete, demand, plead for, A. 563.
  Pleyn, mourn, C. 371.
  Plontte, plant, A. 104.
  Plow, plough, B. 68.
  Plyande, pliant, C. 439.
  Plye, A. 1039; B. 196, 1385.
  Plyt, danger, fault, A. 647; B. 1494; C. 114. A.S. _pliht_.
  Plyȝt, condition, A. 1075; B. 111.
  Pobbel, pebble, A. 117.
  Pole, pool, stream, A. 117.
  Polle, poll, head, B. 1265. Du. _polle_, _pol_, head, top, crown.
  Polmente, a kind of pottage, B. 628. O.Fr. _polment_. Lat.
    _pulmentum_. “_Pulmentarium_ a _pulment_.” Nominale, MS.
      “His brother (Jacob) he fand give--and his tent
      To grayth a riche _pulment_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 21a.)
  {Polyce, Polyse,} polish, B. 1068, 1131, 1134.
  Polyle, poultry, B. 57. Fr. _poule_, a hen; _poulet_, a chicken. Lat.
    _pullus_. “_Polayle_, bryddys or fowlys, Altilis.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Pomgarnade, pomegranate, B. 1466. Cf. Lat. _malum granatum_. It.
    _granata_. Sp. _granada_.
  Poplande, rushing, foaming, C. 319. N.Prov.E. _popple_, to tumble
    about with a quick motion. O.Sc. _pople_, to flow, rush.
      “The wawis of the wild see apone the wallis betes,
      The pure _populand_ hurle passis it umby.” --(K. Alex. p. 40.)
      “And on the stanys owt thar harnys [he] dang,
      Quhil brayn and eyn and blude al _poplit_ owt.”
        --(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 167.)
  Porchase, purchase, A. 439.
  Porche, B. 785.
  Pore, poor, A. 873.
  Porfyl, hem, A. 216. Fr. _pourfiler_, to work upon the edge,
    embroider; _fil_, a thread. O.E. _purfle_, to overlay with gems or
    gold. “_Purfyll_ or hemme of a gowne, bort.” (Palsg.)
  Porpre, purple, B. 1568.
  Porros, B. 1772.
  Port, gate, B. 856; harbour, C. 90.
  Portale, A. 1036.
  Portray, B. 700.
  {Poruay, Poruaye,} to provide, B. 1502; C. 36.
  Possyble, A. 452.
  Potage, B. 638.
  Poursent, course, A. 1035.
  Pourtray, B. 1271. Fr. _pourtraire_.
  Pouer, power, B. 1654.
  {Pouer, Pouere,} poor, B. 615, 1074.
  Poueren (_pl._ of _pouer_), poor, B. 127.
  Pouert, poverty, C. 43.
  Pouerté, C. 13.
  Powdered, A. 44.
  Powleȝ, pools, C. 310.
  Poyned, trimmed, ornamented, A. 217.
  Poynt, _sb._ particle, A. 891.
  Poysened, B. 1095.
  Poyntel, a style, B. 1533.
  Pray, _sb._ prey, B. 1297; _vb._ to plunder, B. 1624.
  Prayse, A. 301.
  Prece, press, B. 880.
  Prechande, preaching, B. 942.
  {Precios, Precious,} A. 4, 216; B. 1282.
  Prelate, B. 1249; C. 389.
  Pres, press, A. 730; to press, A. 957.
  Prese, praise, honour; “his _prese_, his _prys_,” A. 419. Sp. _prez_,
    honour, glory. Fr. _prix_, value, worth, price.
      “Fra þan forth heild Sir Moyses
      Þis wandes bath in _pris_ and _pres_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 36a.)
  {Prese, Pres,} _sb._ press, A. 1114; _vb._ B. 1249.
  {Presens, Presente,} presence, A. 389; B. 8, 1496.
  Present, _vb._ B. 1217.
  Presonere, prisoner, B. 1217.
  Prest, ready, B. 147; C. 303. Ital. _presto_.
  Prestly, quickly, B. 628.
  Presyous, B. 1496.
  Pretermynable, A. 596.
  Preue, prove, A. 983; B. 704, 1748.
  Prisoner, B. 1297.
  Profecie, B. 1158, 1308.
  Profere, A. 235, 1200.
  Profert, B. 1463.
  Professye, A. 821.
  Profete, prophet, A. 797.
  Proper, A. 686.
  Propertéȝ, properties, A. 752.
  Property, A. 446.
  Prophete, A. 831; B. 1300.
  Prosessyoun, procession, A. 1096.
  Prouince, B. 1300.
  Pruddest, proudest, B. 1300.
  Prudly, proudly, B. 1379, 1466. See T. B. 857.
  Pryce, chief, B. 1308.
  Prymate, B. 1570.
  Pryncipale, B. 1531, 1781.
  Pryncipalté, dominion, B. 1672, 1738.
  {Priys, Prys,} value, worth, A. 272, 419, 755; B. 1117. See _Prese_.
  Prysoun, C. 79.
  Pryuely, B. 238.
  Pryuy, A. 12; _pryuyest_, B. 1748.
  Pulde, pulled, B. 1265.
  Pulle, draw, B. 68.
  Pure, _adj._ A. 227; B. 704; _vb._ B. 1116.
  {Purely, Purly,} A. 1004; B. 1660.
  Purpre, purple, A. 1016.
  Pursaunt, a sergeant, B. 1385. O.Fr. _pursuivant_.
  Pursue, B. 1177.
  Purtraye, B. 1465, 1536.
  Puryté, B. 1074.
  Pyche, pitch, fix, B. 477.
  Pye, B. 1465.
  Pyked, adorned, A. 1036.
  Pykeȝ, pick, choose, A. 573.
  Pyle, building, A. 686.
  Pyle, to rob, B. 1270, 1282. Fr. _piller_, to rob.
  Pylere, pillar, B. 1271.
  Pyne, _vb._ to torment, B. 1095; _sb._ pain, A. 330. Du. _pijnen_, to
    torture.
  Pyne = pynd, fasten, C. 79. A.S. _pyndan_, to shut in.
  Pynkardine, ? _perre carnadine_, carnelian stone (Marsh), B. 1472.
  Pyony, A. 44.
  Pytosly, pitifully, A. 370.
  Pyty, A. 1206.
  Pyȝt, fixed, placed (_pret._ of _pyche_), A. 117, 228, 742; B. 785.

  Quat, what, A. 293.
  Quat-kyn, what kind of, A. 771.
  Quauende, flowing, waving, B. 324.
  Quayle, _sb._ quail, A. 1085.
  Quayntyse, wisdom, craft, B. 1632. O.Fr. _accointer_, to make known;
    _coint_, informed, acquainted with. Lat. _cognitus_.
  Qued, _sb._ evil, crime, ill, B. 567; C. 4. Du. _kwaad_, bad. Pl. D.
    _quat_.
  Quelle, kill, A. 799; B. 324; subdue, C. 4. A.S. _cwellan_.
  Queme, _adj._ pleasing, A. 1179. A.S. _cweman_, to please. Your
    _qweme_ spouse, T. B. 634.
  Quen, when, A. 40, 93, 232, 804.
  Quenche, C. 4.
  Quere, where, A. 65.
  Query, A. 803.
  Quest, C. 39.
  Queþer-so-euer, whether-so-ever, A. 606.
  Quikken, C. 471.
  Quo, who, A. 747.
  Quo-so, who-so, B. 1647; C. 5.
  Quos, whose, B. 1648.
  Quoynt, wise, A. 889; B. 160, 871; curious, B. 1459. See _Quayntyse_.
  Quoyntis, clothing, B. 54. “_Quoyntyse_, yn gay floryschynge, or other
    lyke. Virilia.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Quoyntyse, device, C. 39. See _Quayntyse_.
  {Quyk, Quik,} quick, living (_pl._ _quykeȝ_, A. 1179; B. 567), B. 324.
  Quyl, while, B. 627.
  Quyte, requite, reward, A. 595; B. 1632.
  Quyte, white, A. 220, 842, 844.

  Raas = rase, rese, way, course, A. 1167. A.S. _ræs_, way, course,
    race. Sw. _resa_.
  Rac, storm, vapour, B. 433. N.Prov.E. _rack_, driving clouds, clouds
    driven along by the wind.
      “A _rak_ and a royde wynde rose in her saile.” --(T. B. 1984)
  Rachche, proceed, go, B. 619. A.S. _ræcan_, to reach, extend. O.H.G.
    _rechen_. N.Prov.E. _ratch_, stretch. Perhaps _rachche_ is a
    softened form of _rayke_ (Icel. _reika_, to go), to go. S.Sax.
    _ruchen_.
  Rad, frightened, B. 1543. Sw. _raedd_, afraid. N.Prov.E. _rade_.
      “In a _rad_ haste.” --(T. B. 917.)
      “Vn-to the gryselyche gost Syr Gauane is gone,
      And rayket to hit in a res, for he was neuyr _radde_;
      _Rad_ was he neuyr ȝette, quoso ryȝte redus.”
        --(The Anturs of Arther, p. 5; ix. 8, 9.)
  Radde, advised, C. 406 (_pret._ of _rede_, to advise). See _Rede_.
  Radly, readily, quickly. A.S. _rád_, ready, quick; _rádlice_,
    speedily.
      “The sight of þat semely sanke in hir herte,
      And rauysshed hir _radly_ þe rest of hir sawle.” --(T. B. 462)
  Raft, bereft, took, (_pret._ of _reve_), B. 1142, 1431; taken,
    B. 1739. See _Reue_.
  Rak, C. 176. See _Rac_.
  Rakel, hasty, rash, C. 526. N.Prov.E. _rackle_.
  Rakente, chain (?), C. 188. A.S. _raccenta_.
  Rakke, C. 139. See _Rac_.
  Ramelande, fetid, filthy, C. 279. Prov.E. _ram_, fetid; _rammely_,
    tall, rank; _ramel_, rubbish, dirt.
  Randeȝ, paths, borders, A. 105. A.S. _rand_, _rond_, a border, rim,
    edge.
  Rank, strong, severe, B. 233. Fris. _rank_, long-grown, rank. Dan.
    _rank_, upright. See T. B. 1392, 1879.
  Ranker, rancour, B. 756.
  Rape, blow, B. 233. Sw. _rapp_.
  Rapely, quickly, A. 363, 1168. O.E. _rape_, haste. O.N. _rápa_,
    cursitare. In T. B. rape = to hasten (818).
  Rasch, A. 1167.
  Rasp, B. 1545, 1724.
  Rasse, summit, top, B. 446. N.Prov.E. _raise_, a mound, cairn. O.N.
    _reysa_.
  Ratted, rent, ragged, B. 144; from O.E. _ratte_, to tear, rend.
    N.Prov.E. _rats_, pieces, fragments. Fris. _rite_, tear, pull.
      “Thane the Romayns relevyde that are ware rebuykkyde,
      And alle _to-rattys_ oure mene with theire risté horsses.”
        --(Morte Arthure, E. E. T. S. 2235.)
  {Rauþe, Rawþe,} = ruth, pity, sorrow, A. 858; B. 233, 972; mercy,
    C. 21.
  Raue, A. 363, 665.
  Rauen, B. 455.
  Rauyste, ravished, A. 1088.
  Rawe, row, “vpon a _rawe_,” in a row, in order, A. 545.
  Raweȝ, rows, borders, A. 105.
  Raw-sylk, B. 790.
  Raxled, roused up, A. 1174. A.S. _ræscian_, to shake, rustle. O.N.
    _ruska_. Sc. _rax_, to stretch.
  Ray, A. 160.
  Raykande, going, flowing, A. 112; B. 382.
  Rayke, go, B. 465, 671; C. 89. O.N. _reka_. N.Prov.E. _rake_, to go
    about.
  Raynande, raining, B. 382.
  Rayn-ryfte, rain-fissure, B. 368.
  Raysoun, reason, cause, A. 268; C. 191.
  {Raȝt, Raȝte,} afforded, extended (_pret._ of _rache_), B. 561, 766,
    1691. See _Rachche_.
  Reame, realm, B. 1316.
  Rebaude, ribald, B. 873. Fr. _ribald_, from O.H.G. _hrúpa_,
    a prostitute. (Burguy.)
  Rebel, B. 455.
  Rebounde, B. 422.
  Rebuke, A. 367.
  Recen, tell, A. 827. A.S. _recan_.
  Reche, reach, extend, B. 10, 1369.
  {Rech, Reche,} reck, care, A. 333; B. 465. A.S. _récan_.
  Reche = reke, smoke, B. 1009. A.S. _reác_.
  Recorde, _sb._ A. 831; _vb._ B. 25.
  Recoverer, recovery, B. 394.
  Rede, _vb._ to counsel, advise, B. 1346; explain, B. 1578. A.S.
    _rædan_.
  {Redles, Redeles,} without counsel, uncertain, fearful, B. 1197;
    C. 502.
  Refete, feed, refresh, A. 88; C. 20.
  Reflayr, smell, A. 46; odour, B. 1079. Fr. _flairer_, to smell. Prov.
    Fr. _flairar_, to smell, sniff.
  Refrayne, B. 756.
  Reget, A. 1064.
  Regretted, A. 243.
  Regioun, A. 1178; B. 760, 964.
  Rehayte, cheer, B. 127. O.Fr. _rehaiter._
  Reiatéȝ, kingdoms, royalties, A. 769. O.Fr. _reiauté_ = _reialté_,
    royalty.
  Reken, beautiful, A. 5, 906; joyous, A. 92; merry, B. 1082; pious,
    B. 10, 738; wise, B. 756. See Wright’s Lyrical Poems, p. 27. A.S.
    _recan_. O.S. _recon_, to order, direct. Pl. D. _reken_, right,
    straight, orderly.
  Rekenly, nobly, princely, B. 127, 1318.
  Rekken up, B. 2.
  Relande, reeling, C. 270.
  Rele, reel, roll, C. 147.
  {Reles, Relece,} cessation, A. 956; B. 760.
  Releue, C. 323.
  Relusaunt, shining, A. 159. O.Fr. _reluire_, to shine.
  Relygioun, B. 7, 1156.
  Relyke, B. 1156, 1269.
  Reme, realm, A. 448, 735.
  Reme, lament, cry, A. 858, 1181; C. 502. A.S. _hreman_.
  Remembre, C. 326.
  Remnaunt, remainder, A. 1160; B. 433.
  Remorde, grieved, A. 364.
  {Remue, Remwe,} remove, A. 427, 899; B. 646, 1673.
  Renay, reject, forsake, B. 105; C. 344.
  {Renge, Rengne,} reign, B. 328, 1321.
  Rengneȝ, courses, B. 527. A.S. _ryne_, course.
  Renischche, foreign, strange, B. 96. See _Runische_.
  {Renk, Renke,} a man, originally a warrior, B. 7, 96, 766, 969. A.S.
    _rinc_. O.N. _reckr_.
  Renne, run, B. 527, 1392.
  Renoun, A. 986, 1182.
  Renowleȝ, renews, A. 1080.
  Renyschly, fiercely, B. 1724. See _Runische_.
  Reparde, kept back, A. 611.
  Repayre, _vb._ A. 1028.
  Repente, A. 662.
  Repreue, reprove, A. 544.
  Requeste, A. 281.
  Rere, rise, B. 366, 423; C. 188; raise, B. 873; proceed, A. 160.
  Rert, if not _rered_, raised = _ert_, powerful, A. 591. Cf. _ertid_.
    T. B. 2641, 4841.
  Res, onset, assault, B. 1782. See _Raas_.
  Reset, resting place, seat, abode, A. 1067.
  {Resonabele, Resounable,} A. 523; B. 724.
  Resoun, A. 665, 716; B. 1633.
  Respecte, “in respecte of,” A. 84.
  Respyt, A. 644.
  Resse, “on resse,” in course, A. 874. See _Raas_.
  Restay, keep back, restrain, A. 716, 1168.
  Restleȝ = restless, unceasing, B. 527.
  Restore, A. 659; B. 1705.
  Retrete, treat of, A. 92.
  Reue, bereave, C. 487. A.S. _refian_, _reafian_. O.Fris. _râva_.
  Reuel, B. 1369.
  Reuer, river, A. 105.
  {Reuerence, Reverens,} B. 10, 1318.
  Rewarde, A. 604.
  Rewfully, sorrowfully, A. 1181.
  Rewled, ruled, ordered, B. 294.
  Reynyeȝ, reins, B. 592.
  Reȝtful, rightful, B. 724.
  Rial, royal, B. 1082.
  Rialté, royalty, B. 1321.
  Ridlande, dropping (as out of a sieve), oozing, B. 953. A.S.
    _hriddel_, a sieve; _hridrian_, to sift.
  Riboudrye, ribaldry, B. 184.
  Rigge, back, C. 379. A.S. _hrycg_.
  Rifteȝ, pieces, fragments, B. 964.
  Ring = rink, man, B. 592. See _Renk_.
  Robbor, B. 1269.
  Roborrye, B. 184.
  Roche, rock, B. 537.
  Rode, cross, A. 705; C. 96.
  Rok, crowd, throng, B. 1514. Sc. _rok_. O.Sw. _rok_, cumulus.
  Rollande, curly, waving, B. 790.
  Rome = roam, go, C. 52.
  Romy, roar, howl, B. 1543. A.S. _reomian_, to cry out. O.E. _rome_.
    Sc. _rame_. Sw. _raama_.
  Ronk = rank, fine, A. 844; bold, A. 1167; C. 490; bad, B. 455, 760;
    full grown, B. 869; _sb._ boldness, C. 298.
  Ronkly, fiercely, C. 431.
  Rop, rope, C. 150.
  Rop, gut, intestine, C. 270. N.Prov.E. _ropps_, the guts. A.S.
    _roppas_, the bowels, entrails, the _raps_. Cf. A.S. _rop_-weorc,
    the colic.
    “Huervore he (the liar) is ase the gamelos (chameleon), thet
    leveth by the eyr, and naȝt ne heth ine his _roppes_ bote wynd,
    and heth ech manere colour, thet ne heth non (of) his oȝen.”
      --(The Ayenbite of Inwyt, E. E. T. S. p. 62.)
  Rore, roar, cry, B. 390, 1543.
  Rose, praise, B. 1371. Sc. _ruse_. Sw. _rosa_. Dan. _rose_, to praise.
  {Rot, Rote,} root, A. 26.
  Rote, _sb._ rot, decay, B. 1079.
  Rote, lyre of seven strings, B. 1082. O.H.G. _hrotta_. M.H.G. _rotte_.
    W. _crwth_. Eng. _crowd_.
  Roþeled, prepared, B. 59; rushed, hastened, B. 890. A.S. _hrathian_,
    to be quick. Or from Welsh _rhuthr_, a sudden gust, onset, assault.
    Lanc. _rhute_, passion. Sc. _ruther_, uproar.
  Roþer, rudder, B. 419.
  Roþun, rush, B. 1009. See _Roþeled_.
  Roum, room, B. 96.
  Roun = rune, discourse, C. 514. A.S. _rún_, a letter, character,
    mystery, council, conversation.
  Rourde, sound, A. 112. A.S. _reord_, _reard_, speech, language.
  Route, snore, C. 186. Fr. _router_. O.N. _rauta_, to roar, bellow.
      “Dormiendo sonare, Anglice to _rowtyn_.”
        --(MS. Bibl. Reg. 12 B. i. f. 88.)
  Rownande, murmuring, A. 112.
  Rowned, sounded, C. 64. A.S. _rúnian_, to whisper.
  Rowtande, rushing, B. 354. “A _routond_ rayn,” T. B. 1986.
  Rowte, company, band, host, B. 969, 1197, 1782.
  Rowwe, row, C. 216.
  Royl, royal, B. 790.
  {Roȝ, Roȝe,} rough, B. 382, 1724; C. 139, 147; roughness, B. 1545;
    C. 144.
  Roȝly, roughly, B. 433. Is it an error for _rwly_, sorrowful?
  Roȝt, cared for (_pret._ of _reche_), C. 460.
  Ruchen, fettle, set in order, C. 101. M.H.G. _rechen_. O.S. _recon_.
    A.S. _recan_, to order, direct.
      “(He) _riches_ him radly to ride and remowis his ost.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 172.)
      “[The king] Ricchis his reynys.” --(T. B. 1231.)
  Ruddon, light, literally redness, B. 893. O.N. _rodna_, rubescere,
    erubescere; _rodi_, rubor, rubigo. Prov.E. _roaded_, _rody_,
    streaked.
  Rudnyng, ? lightning, C. 139. See _Ruddon_.
  Rueled, rushed, B. 953. O.N. _hrolla_. Dan. _rulle_.
  Ruful, sorrowful, pitiful, A. 916.
  Runnen (_p.p._ of _rinne_), run, A. 26, 874.
  Runisch, strange, B. 1545. A.S. _rénisc_, hidden; from _rún_,
    a mystery.
  Runyschly, fiercely, roughly, C. 191. _Renisch_ or _runisch_,
    signifies not only strange but fierce, rough. N.Prov.E. _rennish_,
    _rinnish_, furious.
      “Than has sire Dary dedeyne and derfely he lokes;
      Rysys him up _renysche_ and reȝt in his sete.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 100.)
  Rurd, cry, noise, B. 390; C. 64. A.S. _reord_.
  Ruþe, arouse, B. 895, 1208. See _Roþeled_.
  Ruyt, hasten, endeavour, C. 216. Fris. _rite_, to pull.
  Rwe, to pity, C. 176, 502; _vb. impers._ _rwe_, repent, B. 290, 561.
    A.S. _hreówan_, to rue, repent, grieve; _hreówian_, to be sorry for.
  Rwly = ruly, sorrowfully, piteously, B. 390; C. 96.
  Ryal, royal, A. 160; B. 786.
  Ryally, royally, A. 987; B. 812.
  Rybaude, ribald, C. 96.
  Rybe, ruby, A. 1007.
  Ryche, kingdom, A. 601, 722. A.S. _ríce_.
  Ryche, rich, A. 770.
  Rydelande, drifting, C. 254. See _Ridlande_.
  Rydelles, without counsel, uncertain, B. 969. See _Redeles_.
  Ryf = rife, abundant, plentiful, A. 770, 844. A.S. _ryf_, frequent.
    O.N. _rifr_.
      “Forþi he hight (promised) þam giftes _riif_,
      Þat suld bring David of his liif;
      In feild and tun, in frith and felle,
      Saul soght David for to quelle.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 43a.)
  {Ryg, Ryge,} rain, torrent, shower, B. 354, 382. O.N. _hregg_. A.S.
    _racu_. N.Prov.E. _rag_.
  Ryngande, ringing, B. 1082.
  Rynk, man, C. 216. See _Renk_.
  Rypande, searching, trying, B. 592. O.E. _rype_, to probe, plunder.
    A.S. _rypan_; N.Prov.E. to investigate.
      “Now if ye have suspowse to Gille or to me,
      Com and _rype_ oure howse, and then may ye se who had hir.”
        --(Town. Myst. p. 112.)
    See State Papers, i. 295.
  Rysed, rose, B. 1778.
  Ryth, a hound, mastiff, B. 1543. A.S. _riththa_, a mastiff.
  Ryȝt, right, A. 622.
  Ryȝtwys, righteous, right, A. 675; C. 490.
  Ryȝtwysly, aright, A. 709.

  {Sacrafyce, Sacrefyce,} B. 510, 1447; C. 239.
  {Sad, Sade, Sadde,} sad, staid, solemn, A. 211, 887; B. 595; long,
    B. 1286; bitter, B. 525.
  Sadele, saddle, B. 1213.
  Sadly, soundly, heavily, C. 442.
  Saf, safe, secure, A. 672.
  Saf, save, except, B. 1749.
  {Saffer, Safyre,} sapphire, A. 1002; B. 1469.
  Sage, B. 1576.
  Saghe = saw, word, A. 226. See _Saw_.
  Sake, fault, A. 800; C. 84. A.S. _sacu_.
  Sakerfyse, sacrifice, A. 1064; B. 507.
  Sakleȝ = sakeless, innocent, faultless, B. 716. Sc. _sackless_. O.N.
    _saklaus_, innocent. See _Sake_.
  Sakred, hallowed, B. 1139.
  Sale, hall, palace, B. 120, 1260, 1722. A.S. _sal_. T. B. 1657.
  Samen, _adv._ together, at once, A. 518; B. 400, 468; _adj._ B. 985.
    O.N. _saman_.
  Samen, to consort with, B. 870. A.S. _samnian_, to assemble, collect.
  Samne, assemble, B. 53.
  Samned, assembled, B. 126, 361.
  Samnes (_imp._ of _samne_), C. 385.
  Sample, example, A. 499; B. 1326.
  Sapyence, wisdom, B. 1626.
  Sardiner, sardine stone, B. 1469.
  Sardonyse, sardonyx, A. 1006.
  Sarre (_comp._ of _sare_), sorer, more painful, B. 1195; _superl._
    _sarrest_, B. 1078.
  Sattle, settle, C. 409. N.Prov.E. _sattle_.
  {Sau, Saue,} = saw, word, B. 1545.
  Sauce, B. 823.
  Saudan, sultan, B. 1323.
  {Saule, Sawle,} soul, A. 461; B. 290; C. 325.
  Saundyuer, sandever, glass-gall, B. 1036.
  Sauter, psalter, A. 677.
  Sauteray, psaltery, B. 1516.
  Saue, A. 666.
  Sauer, _vb._ savour, B. 825.
  Sauerly, savourly, sweet, A. 226.
  {Sauor, Savour,} B. 510, 995, 1447; C. 275.
  Sauyté, safety, B. 489.
  {Saw, Sawe,} word, A. 278; B. 109. A.S. _sagu_.
  Sayde = sadde, stedfast, B. 470.
  Saym, fat, grease, C. 275. Prov.E. _saim_, seam, lard. W. _saim_.
  Sayned, blessed, B. 746. A.S. _senian_. Ger. _segnen_, to bless.
      “Swa sal I _saine_ þe in lif mine,
      Sic benedicam te in vita mea,
      And sal lift mi handes in name thine,
      Et in nomine tuo levabo manus meas.” --(Psalm lxii. 5.)
  Saynt, A. 835.
  {Saȝ, Saȝe,} word, B. 1599, 1737. See _Saw_.
  Saȝ, saw, A. 1021.
  {Saȝt, Saȝte,} reconciliation, A. 1201; _adj._ at peace, A. 52. A.S.
    _saht_, peace; _saht_, reconciled; _sahtlian_, to reconcile.
  Saȝtled, appeased, reconciled, B. 230, 1139.
  Saȝtled, settled, restored, B. 445; became calm, C. 232.
  Saȝtlyng, reconciliation, peace, B. 490, 1795.
  Saȝttel, to be calm, patient, C. 529.
  Scale, A. 1005.
  Scape, escape, B. 62, 529, 928; C. 155.
  Scarre = scare, _vb._ be frightened, B. 598, 838; scatter, B. 1784.
    N.Prov.E. _skair_, wild, timid. S.Sax. _skerren_, to terrify.
  Scaþe, harm, ruin, wrong, sin, B. 21, 196, 569, 600, 1148.
  Scaþe, to break, destroy, B. 1776. A.S. _scethan_, to injure, hurt,
    harm. _Sceththe_, injury, loss, guilt.
  Scaþel, dangerous, C. 155. Goth. _skathuls_. O.H.G. _scadhal_,
    hurtful.
      “Lokez the contree be clere the corners are large:
      Discoveres now sekerly skrogges and other,
      That no _skathelle_ (hurtful thing) in the skroggez skorne us
          here-aftyre;
      Loke ȝe skyfte it so that no _skathe_ lympe.”
        --(Morte Arthure, pp. 137-8.)
    Ascalphus, a _skathel_ duke, T. B. 4067.
  Scelt, spread, served (?), B. 827.
  Schad, descended, B. 1690.
  Schadowed, shaded, A. 42.
  Schaftes, beams, rays, A. 982; C. 455. A.S. _sceaft_, dart, arrow.
      “(He) had on a mitre
      Was forged all of fyne gold, and fret fulle of perrils,
      Stiȝt staffulle of stanes that straȝt out bemes
      As it ware schemerand _schaftis_ of the schire sonne.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 53.)
  {Schalk, Schalkke,} man, fellow, B. 762, 1029; C. 476. A.S. _scealc_,
    a warrior, serving man. Goth. _skalks_. O.S. _scalc_. O.N. _skálkr_.
  Schape, devise, form, C. 247; endeavour, B. 762; happen, C. 160. A.S.
    _scapan_, to appoint, shape, create. O.N. _skapa_.
  Schauen, shaven, scraped, B. 1134.
  Schawe, show, B. 1599.
  {Schawe, Schaȝe,} grove, thicket, wood, A. 284; C. 452. Prov.E.
    _scow_, _shaw_. O.N. _skógr_, Dan. _skov_, a wood.
  Schede, depart, A. 411.
  Scheldeȝ, shields (of a boar), B. 58.
  Schende, ruin, destroy, B. 519. A.S. _scendan_, to confound, shame,
    destroy.
  Schended, accursed, C. 246.
  Schene = sheen, _sb._ bright, beautiful, A. 166, 965; brightness,
    C. 440; _adj._ A. 203, 1145; B. 1076, 1310. A.S. _sceone_,
    beautiful; _scine_, splendour.
  {Schent, Schente,} destroyed, A. 668; B. 1029; ruined, B. 47, 580.
  Schep, sheep, A. 801.
  Schepon, stall, stable, B. 1076. A.S. _scypen_.
  Schere, divide, separate, A. 107; purify, A. 165. A.S. _scéran_, to
    divide.
  Schet, shut, C. 452.
  Schin, shall, B. 1435. See “Liber Cure Cocorum,” p. 29, l. 29.
      “For in a slac thou shalle be slayn,
      Seche ferlès _schyn_ falle!”
        --(The Anturs of Arther, p. 12, xxiii. 13.)
  Schome, shame, B. 1115.
  Schomely, shamefully, C. 128.
  Schonied, shunned, B. 1101.
  Schor, shower, B. 227.
  Schore, shore, A. 230.
  Schorne (gold), purified, refined, A. 213. See _Schere_.
  Schortly, quickly, hastily, B. 519, 600.
  Schowte, shout, A. 877.
  Schowue, shove, B. 44, 1029, 1740.
  Schrewe, a wicked person, a wretch, B. 186; C. 77.
  Schrewedschyp, wickedness, B. 580.
  Schrowde, clothing, B. 47, 170. A.S. _scrúd_, garment, shroud.
  Schrylle = shrill, clear, A. 80.
  Schulder, shoulder, B. 981, 1690.
  Schunt = aside, aslant, B. 605. O.E. _shunt_, to slip aside, withdraw.
    A.S. _scunian_, to shun. Du. _schuins_, slope, slant.
      “He schodirde and schrenkys and _shontes_ bott lyttille.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 354.)
      “ȝa werpes tham up (the ȝates) quoth
          the wee, and wide open settes,
      If at ȝe schap ȝow to _schount_ unschent
          of oure handes.” --(K. Alex. p. 73.)
  Schylde, to shield, A. 965; C. 440.
  Schyldere, shoulder, A. 214.
  Schym, bright, A. 1077. A.S. _scima_, a brightness. M.H.G. _schîm_.
    A.S. _sciman_, to glitter, shine. See T. B. 4974.
  Schymeryng, _sb._ brightness, A. 80. A.S. _scimrian_, to shine. Du.
    _schémeren_, to dazzle. Sw. _skimra_, to glitter.
  Schyn, shall, B. 1810. See _Schin_.
  Schynde, shone, A. 80.
  {Schyr, Schyre,} brightly, A. 28; bright, beautiful, A. 42, 284;
    B. 553, 605, 1278; bare, B. 1690. Comp. _schyrrer_, A. 982. A.S.
    _scír_, _sheer_, pure, clear, bright. See T. B. 1269.
  Sclade = slade, valley, green plain, A. 1148. A.S. _slæd_.
  Sclaȝt, slaughter, B. 56.
  Scoghe, scoff, or perhaps perverseness, backsliding, A. 610. A.S.
    _sceoh_, askew, perverse.
  Scole, cup, B. 1145. O.N. _skál_. Dan. _skaal_.
  Scolere, scholar, B. 1554.
  Scomfyt, to discomfit, B. 1784.
  Scope, scoop, C. 155.
  {Scorn, Scorne,} _vb._ B. 709; _sb._ B. 827.
  Scoumfit, discomfited, B. 151.
  Scowte-wach, sentinel, guard, B. 838.
      “Thane the price mene prekes and proves theire horsez,
      Satilles to the cete appone sere halfes;
      Enserches the subbarbes sadly thare-aftyre,
      And skyrmys a lyttille;
      Skayres thaire skottefers
      And theire _skowtte-waches_.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 206.)
  Scoymous, particular, scrupulous, fearful, B. 21, 1148.
  Scrof, rough, B. 1546.
  Scrypture, writing, B. 1546.
  Scue. See _Skewe_.
  Scylle, wit, B. 151. It signifies also reason, cause. O.N. _skil_.
  Scylful, wise, B. 1148.
  {Sech, Seche,} seek, A. 354; B. 29, 420.
  Seele, joy, happiness, C. 242. A.S. _sél_, good, excellent. Cf.
    _unsell_, T. B. 1961.
  Sege, seat, C. 93. Fr. _siége_.
  Sege, siege, B. 1185.
  {Segg, Segge,} a man, servant, B. 93, 398, 549, 681. A.S. _secg_,
    a man, literally a messenger, speaker; from _secgan_, to say.
  Segge, say, B. 621.
  Segh, saw, A. 790.
  Sekke, sack, C. 382.
  Selconth, a marvel, B. 1274. A.S. _sel-cúth_ = _seld-cúth_, rare,
    seldom known.
  Selden, seldom, A. 380. A.S. _seldan_.
  Sele, happiness, bliss, C. 5. See _Seele_.
  Selepe = slep, slept, C. 186.
  Self, very, A. 1046; same, B. 1769.
  Selly, a marvel, C. 140; wonderfully, C. 353. A.S. _séllíc_, _síllíc_,
    worthy, wonderful; _séllíce_, wonderfully.
      “For thou has samned, as men sais, a _selly_ noimbre
      Of wrichis and wirlinges out of the west endis,
      Of laddis and of losengers and of litille thevys.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 59.)
    See T. B. 1544.
  Sely, fortunate, blessed, happy, A. 659; B. 490. See _Seele_.
  Sem, seam, B. 555.
  Semblaunt, appearance, cheer, A. 211, 1143; B. 131, 640.
  Semblé, assembly, B. 126.
  Sembled, assembled, C. 177.
  Seme, seemly, A. 190; B. 549, 1810. O.Sw. _sæma_. Dan. _sömme_, to be
    fitting, bear one’s self becomingly. O.N. _sæmr_, seemly.
  Seme, to be fitting, become, B. 793.
  Semed, A. 760.
  {Semely, Semly, Semlych,} seemly, beautiful, A. 34, 789; B. 209, 1442.
    Comp. _sem-loker_, B. 868.
  Sengeley, ever, constantly, A. 8. A.S. _singallíce_, perpetually.
  {Ser, Sere,} diverse, various, separate, B. 358; _ser kynde_, B. 507;
    _sere course_, B. 1418; _ser wyse_, C. 12.
  Serelych, severally, separately, C. 193.
  Sergaunt, a royal servant, a squire, B. 109.
  Serges, wax tapers, B. 1489. Lat. _cerea_.
  Seriaunte, sergeant, C. 385. See _Sergaunt_.
  Serkyndeȝ, diverse kinds, B. 336.
  Serlypeȝ, diverse, different, separate, A. 994.
  Sermoun, discourse, speech, A. 1185.
  Sertain, certainly, A. 685.
  Seruage, bondage, B. 1257.
  Seruaunt, A. 699; B. 631.
  Serue, avail, A. 331.
  Serue, deserve, A. 553; B. 1115.
  Seruyse, B. 1152, 1401.
  Sese, cease, B. 523; _seseȝ_, let cease, C. 391.
  Sesoune, season, B. 523.
  {Sessed, Sesed,} took possession of, A. 417; B. 1313.
  {Sete, Seete,} sat, A. 161; B. 1171. _pl._ _seten_, B. 1763.
  Sete, seat, C. 24.
  Seþe = seethe, boil, B. 631.
  {Seue, Seve,} = sewe, sew, a kind of pottage, B. 108, 825.
  Sewer, the officer who set and removed the dishes, tasted them, etc.,
    B. 639.
  Sewrté, surety, C. 58.
  Sexte, sixth, A. 1007.
  Seyed, passed, B. 353.
      “_Seyet_ furth with sory chere.” --(T. B. 2512.)
  Seysoun, season, A. 39.
  Seȝ, saw, A. 158, 531, 698; B. 209.
  Side-borde, B. 1398.
  Siue, sieve, B. 226.
  Skarmoch, fight, skirmish, B. 1186.
  Skaþe, harm, danger, sin, B. 151, 598, 1186. See _Scaþe_.
  Skele, dish, B. 1405.
  Skelt, scattered, spread, B. 1186, 1206. O.E. _skale_, to scatter.
    N.Prov.E. _scale_, to spread. See Hall, Richard III. f. 15. A.S.
    _scylan_, to separate, divide; _pret._ _scel_.
      “Skairen out skoute wacche for _skeltyng_ of harme.”
        --(T. B. 1089, 6042.)
  Skelt, hasten, run, B. 1554. Sw. _skala_, to scamper, scour.
  Skete, quick, sudden, B. 1186; quickly, C. 195. See T. B. 13672. O.N.
    _skjótt_.
  Skewe, sky, cloud, B. 1206, 1759. Sw. _sky_, a cloud. A.S. _scúa_,
    a shadow.
  Skowte, look, search, B. 483. See T. B. 1089.
  Skoymous, B. 598. See _Scoymous_.
  Skwe, sky, B. 483.
  Skyfte, devise, order, ordain, A. 569. A.S. _scyftan_.
  Skyfte, shift, change, B. 709. Sw. _skifta_.
  Skyg, scrupulous, careful, B. 21. Sw. _skygg_, shy. N.Prov.E. _sky_,
    to shun.
  {Skyl, Skyle,} reason, wit, A. 312; _by skylle_, rightly, reasonably,
    A. 674; ordinance, B. 709; meaning, B. 1554. See _Scylle_.
  Skylleȝ, doubts, A. 54.
  Skylly, device, purpose, B. 529.
  Skyly, excuse, B. 62.
  Skyre = shire = sheer, clear, B. 1776. See _Schyre_.
  Skyrme, screams (?), B. 483.
      “Scho gaffe _skirmande_ skrikes at all the skowis range.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 176.)
    Or does it here signify to look about, like Prov.E. skime? O.N.
    _Skima_, to look about.
  Skyualde, ordained, manifested, B. 529. Prof. Child suggests Somerset,
    _scaffle_, scramble, scuffle. See _Skyfte_.
  Slade, valley, A. 141.
  Slake, absolve (lit. to loosen), A. 942. A.S. _sleacian_, to slacken.
  Slauþe, sloth, B. 178.
  Slaȝt, slaughter, A. 801.
  Slaȝte, stroke, A. 59; C. 192. A.S. _slagan_, to strike, beat, kill.
  Sleke, assuage, lessen, B. 708. See _Slake_.
  Slente = slant, a slope, declivity, A. 141. Sw. _slinta_, to slip.
  Slep, slept, C. 466.
  Sloberande, slobbering, drivelling, C. 186. _Slobber_ is evidently
    formed from _slob_, _slab_, in the same way as _blubber_ is formed
    from _blob_, _blab_, a drop. Cf. “_Slobur_ or _blobur_, of fysshe
    and other like Burbulum.” (Prompt. Parv.) O.E. _slab_. Prov.E.
    _slob_, thick, slimy. Ir. _slaib_, mud, ooze. O.N. _sluppra_. Dan.
    _slubbre_, to sip, sup. Du. _slubberen_, to hang loose and slack.
  Slode, slid, A. 59.
  Sloghe, slow, C. 466.
  Sloue, slew, B. 1264.
  Sloumbe, slumber, C. 186, 466. N.Prov.E. _sloomy_, dronish, slow;
    _sloum_, _sloom_, slumber. O.E. _slome_, _sleme_, to sleep. A.S.
    _sluma_, a slumber. O.N. _slæmi_. Cf. the modern phrase, “to slumber
    and sleep.”
      “(Sire Telomew) cairys into a cabayne, quare the kyng ligges,
      Fand him _slomande_ and on slepe, and sleely him rayses.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 176.)
  Slow, slew, B. 1221.
  Sluchched, muddy, dirty, C. 341. Prov.E. _slutch_, mud; _slotch_,
    a sloven; _slotching_, slovenly.
  Slyde, fall, C. 466.
      “And _slydyn_ uppon slepe by slomeryng of age.” --(T. B. 6.)
  Slyke, slide, slip. O.N. _slikja_, to make smooth. See _Atslyke_.
  Slyp, stroke, blow, B. 1264.
  Slyppe, go, glide, make off, slip away, B. 985; fall, C. 186. A.S.
    _slipan_.
  Slyppe, escape, B. 1785. Sw. _slippa_, to escape.
  Slyȝt, slight, A. 190.
  Slyȝt, wisdom, B. 1289; device, C. 130. O.E. _sleghe_, _sleȝe_, wise.
    O.N. _slægr_.
  Smach, scent, smell, B. 461, 1019. A.S. _smæc_. Prov.E. _smatch_,
    flavour.
  Smachande, smelling, savouring, B. 955.
  Smartly, quickly, B. 711.
  Smod, stain, filth, B. 711. Sc. _smot_, _smad_. O.Sw. _smuts_, spot,
    stain. Dan. _smuds_, dirty. Pl. D. _smuddern_, to dirty.
  Smolderande, smouldering, smothering, B. 955.
  Smolt, be at peace, quiet, B. 732. A.S. _smolt_, serene, clear.
    Prov.E. _molt_-water, clear exudation; _smolt_, smooth, clear.
    See _Smelt_, T. B. 1669.
  Smolt{es}; so in MS., but ? an error for smolt{e} = smelt, B. 461.
      “A smoke _smulte_ through his nase.” --(T. B. 911.)
  Smoþe, smooth, A. 6.
  Smoþely, quietly, B. 732.
  Smylt, decayed (?), B. 226. Sw. _multna_, to moulder. Dan. _smuldre_,
    to crumble, moulder.
  Snaw, snow, B. 222.
  Soberly, quietly, A. 256; courteously, decently, B. 117, 799, 1497.
    See T. B. 248.
  Sobre, gentle, A. 532.
  Sodanly, suddenly, A. 1098; B. 1769.
  Soerly, an error for _Soberly_, B. 117.
  Soffer, suffer, A. 940.
  Soffraunce, forbearance, C. 417.
  Soghe, sow, C. 67.
  Soghe, moan, C. 391. A.S. _swógan_, _swégan_, to make a noise, howl.
    O.S. _suôgan_.
  Sok, _sb._ suck, C. 391.
  Sokored, succoured, C. 261.
  Solace, A. 130; B. 870, 1080.
  Solased, B. 131.
  {Solemne, Solempne,} B. 1171, 1447; C. 239.
  Solempnely, B. 37.
  {Solemneté, Solempneté,} B. 1313, 1678, 1757.
  {Solie, Soly,} throne, B. 1171, 1678. A.S. _sylla_, a chair; _salo_,
    a hall, palace.
  Somere, B. 1686.
  {Sommoun, Somone,} _vb._ B. 1498; _sb._ summons, A. 1098.
  Sonde, sand, C. 341.
  Sonde = sande, message, word, A. 943; messenger, B. 53, 781. A.S.
    _sánd_.
  Sondeȝ-mon, messenger, B. 469.
  Sone, soon, B. 461.
  {Sonet, Sonete,} B. 1415, 1516.
  Songen, _pl._ sang, B. 1763.
  Sope, sup, B. 108.
  Soper, supper, B. 107, 829, 997, 1763.
  {Sor, Sore,} sorrow, A. 130; C. 242, 507; _adv._ sorely, A. 550;
    B. 290.
  Sorewe, sorrow, B. 778.
  Sorquydryȝe = surquedrie, presumption, arrogance, conceit, A. 309.
  Sorsers, sorcerers, B. 1579.
  Sorsory, sorcery, B. 1576.
  Sorte, lot, C. 193.
  {Sorȝ, Sorȝe,} sorrow, A. 352; B. 75, 563, 1080.
  {Soth, Soþe,} true, truth, A. 482, 653; B. 515; _soþes_, truths,
    B. 1598. A.S. _sóth_.
  Soþefast, faithful, B. 1491.
  Sothfol, truthful, A. 498.
  {Soþly, Soþely,} truly, B. 299, 654, 657.
  Sotte, fool, sot, B. 581; C. 501. A.S. _sot_. See T. B. 1961.
  Sotyle, subtle, A. 1050.
  Soufre, sulphur, B. 954.
  Soumme, company, C. 509.
  Soun, sound, word, A. 532; C. 429; to sound, B. 973, 1670.
  Sounande, sounding, A. 883.
  Souped, supped, B. 833.
  Sour, bad, vile, B. 192. Cf. “Soory or defowlyd yn _sowr_ or filth.
    Cenosus.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Souȝed, sobbed, sighed, C. 140. See T. B. 342. Prov.E. _sugh_, _sow_,
    _suff_, to murmur. O.Sc. _swouch_, a noise, sound. A.S. _swoeg_,
    a noise; _swógan_, to sound, howl. Du. _zwoegen_, to pant, puff.
  Souerayn, B. 93, 552.
  Soyle, soil, earth, B. 1039, 1387; C. 443.
  Soȝt, sought, A. 518, 730; _soȝt to_, reached, B. 510, 563; made for,
    C. 249; endeavoured, B. 1286.
  Spak, quickly, C. 104; _spakest_, boldest, C. 169.
  Spakk, spake, A. 938.
  Spakly, certainly, surely, quickly, B. 755; C. 338.
  Spare, spar, C. 104, 338. Sw. _sparre_. O.H.G. _sparro_.
  Sparred, spurred, rushed, A. 1169.
  Spec, speck, B. 551.
  {Special, Specyal,} A. 235, 938; B. 1492.
  Sped, help, B. 1607.
  Spede, prosper, B. 511; hasten, B. 551.
  Spedly, quickly, B. 1729.
  Sped-whyle, a short space of time, a moment, B. 1285.
  Speke, spoke, B. 1220.
  Spelle, tell, relate, A. 793.
  Spelle, speech, A. 363. A.S. _spell_.
  Spenned, folded, A. 49. O.N. _spenna_. A.S. _spannan_.
  Spenned, allured, enticed away, A. 53. A.S. _spanan_. N.Prov.E.
    _span_, to wean from.
  Spiritually, B. 1492.
  Spitous, fell, abominable, B. 845.
  Spitously, fiercely, angrily, B. 1220.
  Sponne = spun, grew, A. 35.
  Spornande, rushing, dashing, A. 363. O.E. _sporn_, _spurn_, to dash.
    A.S. _spurnan_.
      “Now aithir stoure on ther stedis,
      _Spurnes_ out spakly with speris in hand.” --(K. Alex. p. 27.)
  Spot, blemish, A. 12, 764.
  Spote, place, spot, A. 13; B. 551.
  Spotleȝ, spotless, pure, A. 856.
  Spotty, to defile, A. 1070.
  Spoyle, B. 1285, 1774.
  {Sprad, Spradde,} spread (_pret._ of _sprede_), B. 1607; C. 365.
  Sprange, sprung, A. 13.
  Sprawlyng, B. 408.
  Sprete = sprit (as in bow-sprit), C. 104. A.S. _sprit_.
  Sprude = spread, fasten, C. 104.
  Spryngande, springing, A. 35.
  Spuniande = spinnande, sticky, cleaving, B. 1038. _Pynnand_ occurs in
    this sense in the Northern Romance of Alexander, p. 142.
      “Than vmbyclappis thaim a cloude and covirs all ovir,
      As any _pynnand_ pik (pitch) the planets it hidis.”
  Spure = spere, ask, inquire of, B. 1606. Sc. _speer_. A.S. _spirian_.
    See T. B. 823.
  Sputen = spouted, uttered, B. 845.
  Sput = spat, vomited, C. 338.
  {Spyce, Spyse,} A. 235, 938; _pl._ _spyseȝ_, A. 25, 35.
  Spye, B. 780, 1774.
  Spylt, destroyed, B. 1220.
  Spyrakle, breath, spirit, B. 408.
  Spysereȝ, spice-mongers, B. 1038.
  Spyt, cruelty, A. 1138; vengeance, B. 755.
  Spytously, B. 1285. See _Spitously_.
  Stable, _adj._ A. 597; _vb._ B. 1334, 1652.
  Stac (_pret._ of _steke_), closed, fastened, B. 439. See _Steke_.
  {Stad, Stadde,} placed, fixed (_pret._ of _stede_), B. 806, 983, 1506.
  Stage, state, A. 410.
  Stal, seat, B. 1506. A.S. _stal_, _steal_.
  Stale, step, degree, place, A. 1002.
  Stalke, A. 152.
  Stalle, place, fix, B. 1334. A.S. _stælan_.
  Stalle, _vb._ bring, place, A. 188; B. 1184.
      “Lia he (Jacob) _stalle_ until his bedd.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 22b.)
  Stalworth, strong, B. 884; great, B. 983.
  Stalworþest, bravest, B. 255.
  Stamyn, threshold, B. 486.
  Stanc, pool, B. 1018. N.Prov.E. _stank_. Gael. _stang_, a pool.
      “_Stagnum_, a pounde, a _stanke_, a dam.”
        --(MS. Harl. 2270, f. 181.)
  Standen (_p.p._), stood, A. 519, 1148.
  Stange, pool, B. 439. See _Stanc_.
  Stape-fole, high, C. 122.
  Stare, _vb._ A. 149; B. 389.
  Stare, star, B. 583.
  Stared, shone, B. 1506.
  Staren (_3rd pers. pl. pres._), shine, A. 116. “_Staring_ stone,”
    T. B. 3037. Cf. “_Staryng_, or schynyng as gaye thyngys. Rutilans.”
      “_Staryñ_ or schynyñ and glyderyñ, niteo.” (Prompt. Parv.)
      “Many _starand_ stanes strikes of thair helmes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 28.)
      “As ai stremande sternes _stared_ alle thaire wedes.”
        --(_Ibid._, p. 129.)
  Start, A. 1159.
  Statue, B. 995.
  {Staue, Staw,} = stow, place, B. 352, 360, 480.
  Stayre, shine, B. 1396. See _Staren_.
  Stayre, ladder, C. 513.
  Stayre, steep, high, A. 1022. A.S. _stígan_, to ascend; _stæger_,
    a stair. O.E. _staire_, to ascend.
      “A hundreth daies and a halfe he held be tha playnes,
      Till he was comen till a cliffe, at to the cloudis semed,
      That was so _staire_ and so stepe, the storé me tellis,
      Miȝt ther no wee, bot with wynges, winne to the topp.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 164, l. 4828.)
      “With that _stairis_ he forth the stye that streȝt to the est.”
        --(_Ibid._, 4834.)
  Steke, fasten, shut up, close, B. 157, 352, 754, 884. N.Prov.E.
    _steek_. A.S. _stician_, to stick in. O.N. _steckr_, a fold.
  Stel, stole, B. 1203.
  Stele, approach stealthily, B. 1778. A.S. _stélan_.
  Stele, a step (of a ladder), C. 513. See _Stale_.
      “This ilke laddre (that may to hevene leste) is charite,
      The _stales_ gode theawis.” --(Poems of Wm. of Shoreham, p. 3.)
  Stemme = stem, to stop, delay, B. 905. The same root occurs in
    _stammer_, stumble, etc. Sw. _stämma_, to dam.
  Stepe, step, B. 905.
  {Stepe, Steppe,} bright, B. 583, 1396. S.Sax. _steap_, bright,
    brilliant. “Stepe ene.” T. B. 3101. Cf. “eyen _stepe_.” Chaucer.
    C. T. Prologue, l. 201.
  Stere, direct, A. 623; rule, C. 27.
  Sterne, star, A. 115; C. 207. O.N. _stjarna_.
  Sterne (of a boat), C. 149.
  Sterre, star, B. 1378.
  Stewarde, B. 90.
  Steuen, voice, A. 188; sound, A. 1125; B. 1203, 1402; noise, B. 1778;
    command, B. 360, 463. A.S. _stefen_.
  Stiffe, B. 983.
  Stifly, firmly, B. 157.
  Stik, fix, fasten, B. 157. See _Steke_.
  Stille, dumb, B. 1523.
  Stoffe, fill, B. 1184. See T. B. 2748.
  Stoken, fastened, enclosed, shut (_p.p._ of _steke_), A. 1065; B. 360,
    1199, 1524.
      “Sothe stories ben _stoken_ up & straught out of mind.”
        --(T. B. 11.)
  {Stokke, Stoke,} stocks, B. 46, 157.
  Stonde, stand, B. 1490.
  Stonde, blow, B. 1540. A.S. _stunian_, to beat, strike. O.E. _stund_,
    to strike.
      “Quat! wyns (wenis) þou I am a hund,
      Wit þi stans me for to _stund_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 42b.)
  Stonen, _adj._ of stone, B. 995.
  Ston-harde, fast, B. 884.
  Store, a great (number), A. 847.
      “A _store_ man of strength and of stuerne will.” --(T. B. 538.)
  Stote, stand, stop still, A. 149. Dan. _stötte_, stay, support.
    S.Sax. _stuten_, to stop. Sc. _stoit_, stumble. “_Stotyng_,
    Titubatus.” (Prompt. Parv.)
      “Anone to the forest they found (go),
      There they _stoted_ a stound.” --(Sir Degrevant, 225.)
      “Ffurth he stalkis a stye, by tha stille euys,
      _Stotays_ at a hey strette, studyande hym one.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 290.)
      “Than he _stotays_ for made, and alle his strenghe faylez.”
        --(_Ibid._, p. 357.)
  Stound, Stounde, a space of time, moment, A. 659; B. 1716; _in
    stoundes_, at times, B. 1603. A.S. _stund_.
  Stounde, blow, and hence sorrow, A. 20. See _Stonde_.
  Stour, conflict; _bale-stour_, death pang, C. 426. Cf. _dede-stoure_,
    death conflict. Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience, 1820, 5812. O.N.
    _styr_.
      “Son efter-ward, it was not lang,
      Gain Saul þai gaf batail strang;
      Þaa sarȝins þan þe king umsett,
      In hard _stur_ þai samen mett;
      Ful snaip it was þair, _stur_ and snelle,
      The folk al fled of Israel.” --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 43b.)
  Stout, firm, stable, A. 779, 935; brave, B. 1184.
  Stowed, placed, B. 113.
  Stowned, troubled, astonished, C. 73. A.S. _stunian_.
  Strake, struck up, sounded, B. 1402.
  Strate, street, A. 1043.
  Straunge, strange, B. 409.
  Stray, A. 1173; B. 1199. See T. B. 6258.
  Strayne, strain, A. 128; labour, A. 691; pain, B. 1540; trouble,
    C. 234.
  Strayt, B. 880, 1199.
  {Strech, Streche,} stretch, A. 843, 971; B. 905.
  Stremande, shining, A. 115. See extract under the word _Staren_.
  Strenkle, scatter, B. 307.
  Strenþe, strength, B. 1155, 1430.
  Streny, strain, toil, labour, A. 551.
  Streȝt, strait, A. 691; C. 234. Cf. streght, T. B. 351.
  Stronde = strand, stream, river, A. 152; C. 254, 311.
      “Midward þat land a wel springes,
      Þat rennes out wit four _strandes_,
      Fflummes farand in fer landes.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 7b.)
      “Quen thai war passed over _strand_,
      And raght apon þe toiþer land,
      Witte yee þat þai war ful gladd.” --(_Ibid._, fol. 46a.)
  Strot = strut, contest, chiding, A. 353, 848.
      “O pride bicums unbuxumnes,
      Strif and _strutt_ and frawardnes.”
        --(The Seven Deadly Sins, in Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)
  Stroþe, bold, fierce (?), A. 115.
  Strye, destroy, B. 307, 1768; _stryed_, B. 1018.
  Stryf, A. 248.
  Stryke, pass, go, A. 1125. A.S. _strican_.
  Strynde = strond, stream, C. 311.
  Stryuande, striving, C. 311.
  Stud = stede, place, B. 389, 1334.
  Sturnen, strong, B. 1402.
  {Styf, Styffe,} strong, A. 779; C. 234; _styfest_, strongest, B. 255.
  Styfly, fast, firmly, B. 352, 1652.
  Styke = stryke, walk, go (?), A. 1186.
  Stykked, fixed, placed, B. 583. See _Steke_.
  Stylle, secret, A. 20; B. 589, 706; quiet, B. 1203; quietly, B. 486.
    See T. B. 1778.
      “State from þe slyth kyng _styllé_ by night.” --(T. B. 988.)
  Stylle, secretly, B. 806, 1778.
  Styngande, stinging, B. 225.
  Stynkande, stinking, B. 1018.
  Stynst, a mistake for stynt, stop, A. 353.
  Stynt, stop, B. 225, 381, 1261; stopped, C. 73. A.S. _stintan_.
  Styry, stir, move, B. 403, 1720.
  Stysteȝ = stynteȝ, stops, B. 359.
  Styȝe, path, C. 402. A.S. _stíg_.
  Styȝe, ascend, climb, B. 389. A.S. _stígan_, to ascend.
  Styȝtle, place, order, fix, B. 90; C. 402. A.S. _stihtan_, to arrange,
    dispose. See T. B. 1997.
      “Unstithe for to stire or _stightill_ the Realme.” --(T. B. 117.)
  Sued, followed, B. 681.
  {Suffer, Suffre,} A. 554.
  Suffraunce, endurance, patience, C. 3, 529.
  Suffyse, A. 135.
  {Sulp, Sulpe,} defile, pollute, B. 15, 550, 1130, 1135. O.E. _sulwe_,
    to defile, soil. M.H.D. _be-sulwen_. O.N. _söla_, to pollute. Prov.
    Ger. _sulpern_, unclean, to defile. The word _sulp_ (_solp_) occurs
    in the Romance of K. Alexander, ed. Stevenson, but the editor
    renders it “_to swallow_”!
      “Oure inward enmys ilkane we inwardly drepis,
      That is to say alle the sin, at _solp_ may ȝe (the ?) saule.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 146.)
  Sulpande, defiling, A. 726.
  Sumkyn, of some kind, A. 619.
  Sumoun, to summon, A. 539.
  Sum quat, some sort of, B. 627.
  Sum-while, formerly, C. 57.
  Sunderlupes, severally, C. 12.
  Suppe, B. 108; C. 151.
  Supplantor, A. 440.
  Sure, A. 1089.
  Sum, one, “_al & sum_,” one and all, A. 584.
  Surely, B. 1643; C. 315.
  Sustnaunce, B. 340.
  Sute (?) A. 203, 1108.
  Sve = sue, follow, go after, A. 976.
  Swalt, died, A. 816, 1160. See T. B. 1200, 4687. See _Swelt_.
  Swaneȝ, swans, B. 58.
  Swange (_pret._ of _swenge_ or _swinge_), toiled, worked, A. 586. A.S.
    _swingan_, to dash, to labour.
  Swange, flowed, A. 1059.
  Swangeande, flowing, rushing, A. 111. See T. B. 13024.
  Swap, blow, B. 222. A.S. _swipian_. O.N. _svipa_, to shake. O.E.
    _swepe_, _swappe_, to beat. See T. B. 1889.
      “He swynges out with a swerd and _swappis_ him to dethe.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 38.)
      “With a swinge of his sworde _swappit_ hym in þe fase.”
        --(T. B. 1271.)
  Sware, square, A. 837; B. 1386.
  Sware, answer, A. 240; B. 1415. O.N. _svara_. See T. B. 1200.
  Swarme, B. 223.
  Swart, black, C. 363.
  {Swat, Swatte,} sweated (_pret._ of _swete_), A. 586, 829.
  Swayf, blow, literally, a sudden movement. See _Swayue_.
      “Than Alexander . . . . .
      Swythe swyngis out his swerde and his _swayfe_ feches,
      The nolle of Nicollas, the kyng, he fra the nebb partis.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 28.)
  Swayne, swain, servant, B. 1509.
  Swayue, swims. T. B. 2358. Dan. _swæve_, to wave, move, flutter.
  Swe, follow, A. 892; ran, B. 956.
  Sweande, flowing, B. 420.
  Sweft, swift, C. 108.
  Swelme, heat, C. 3. A.S. _swell_, a burning; _swélan_, to burn,
    _sweal_.
      “[He] lete asauage, or he sware (spoke), the _swelme_ of his
      angirs.” --(K. Alex. p. 21.)
  Swelt, die, perish, B. 108; C. 427; destroy, B. 332. A.S. _sweltan_.
    O.N. _svelta_.
  Swemande (_pres. part._ of _sweme_), afflicting, B. 563. A.S. _swima_,
    a stupor. S.Sax. _sweamen_, to grieve, vex.
      “Whan this was seide, his hert began to melt
      For veray _sweme_ of this _swemeful_ tale.”
        --(Lydgate’s Minor Poems, p. 38.)
      “Sum swalt in a _swym_ with outen sware more.” --(T. B. 1200.)
  Sweng, _sb._ toil, labour, A. 575. A.S. _sweng_, a stroke, blow. See
    _Swange_. See T. B. 1271.
  Swenge, hasten, rush, dash out, B. 109, 667; C. 108, 250, 253.
      “He _swynges_ out with a swerd and swappis him to dethe.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 33.)
    A.S. _swingan_, to swing, dash.
  Swepe, glide, A. 111; hasten, B. 1509. See T. B. 342. O.E. _swippe_,
    to pass quickly. O.N. _svip_, a rapid movement; _svipa_, to whip, do
    quickly, turn.
  Swepe, to seize, C. 341. A.S. _swipian_, to take by violence.
  Swer, swore, B. 69, 667.
  Swete, life; _to lose the swete_ = to die, C. 364. _Swete_ may here
    signify _sweet_, the word _life_ being understood.
      “And alle at lent ware on loft loste ther the _swete_.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 105.)
      “---- the brande es myne awene
      Many swayne, with the swynge [struck], has the _swete_ levede.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 281.)
      “All the kene mene of kampe, knyghtes and other,
      Killyd are colde dede and castyne over burdez
      Theire swyers sweyftly has the _swete_ levyde.”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 309.)
  Swetter, sweeter, C. 236.
  Sweuen, dream, A. 62. A.S. _swefen_.
  Swey, go, walk, B. 788; came, C. 429. See T. B. 2512. O.N. _sweigia_.
    Dan. _sveje_, to bend. N.Prov.E. _swey_, to swing; _sweigh_, to
    press. See _Sve_.
  Sweyed, swayed, C. 151.
  Sweȝe, go, C. 72; drove, C. 236.
  Swolȝe, swallow, C. 250, 363; kill, B. 1268.
  Swone, swoon, A. 1180. A.S. _aswunan_.
  Swowed, swooned, C. 442. S.Sax. _swowen_, to swoon.
  Swyed = sweyed, followed, B. 87.
  Swyere, squire, B. 87,
  Swypped, escaped, B. 1253. See _Swepe_.
  Swyre, neck, B. 1744. A.S. _sweora_.
  Swyþe, firm, strong, A. 354; C. 236; great, B. 1283; very, B. 816;
    many, B. 1299; quickly, A. 1059; B. 354; greatly, B. 987. A.S.
    _swíth_, strong, great; _swíthe_, very, greatly.
  Swyþe, burn, scorch, C. 478 (_pret._ _swath_). N.Prov.E. _swither_, to
    singe; _swidden_, to scorch. O.N. _svítha_.
      “Mi Gode, als whele set þam,
      Als stubble bi-fore wind lickam
      Als fire that brennes wode swa;
      Als lowe _swiþand_ hilles ma.” --(Ps. lxxxii. 15.)
  Syence, B. 1454, 1599.
  Syfle, blow, C. 470. _Syfle_ sometimes signifies to _whistle_. It may
    he connected with the Prov.E. _suffe_, to pant, blow. A.S.
    _siofian_, mourn, lament.
  Sykande, sighing, B. 715. A.S. _sycan_, to sigh.
  Syked, sighed, C. 382.
  Sykerly, surely, C. 301. O.Fris. _sikur_. Ger. _sicher_, sure.
  Syle, to glide, go, proceed, B. 131. See T. B. 364, 1307. Prov.E.
    _sile_, to go. O.N. _síla_.
      “With that the segge all himselfe _silis_ to his chambre.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 5.)
    See T. B. 364.
  Sylueren, silver, B. 1406.
  Symbale, B. 1415.
  Symple, A. 1134; B. 746.
  Sympelnesse, A. 909.
  Syn, since, C. 218.
  Syngne, sign, B. 489, 1710.
  Synglerty, singularity, singleness, A. 429.
  Synglure, uniqueness, A. 8.
  Syngnetteȝ, signets, A. 838.
  Synne, after, B. 229.
  Syre, lord, B. 1260.
  {Syt, Syte,} sorrow, sin, B. 566, 1257; C. 5, 517. O.N. _sút_.
      “Jacob wen he was mast in _siit_,
      God lighted him witouten _liit_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27b.)
      “This tre in forbot haf I laid,
      If þou sa bald be it to bite,
      Þou sal be ded in sorou and _site_,
      And if þou haldes mi forbot,
      Þou sal be laverd ouer ilk crot.” --(_Ibid._ fol. 52b.)
  Syþe, time, A. 1079; B. 1169, 1417, 1686. A.S. _sith_.
  Syþen, afterwards, A. 13, 643, 1207; B. 998; since, A. 245.
  Sytole, citole, guitar, A. 91.
  {Syȝ, Syȝe,} saw, A. 308, 788, 985; B. 985.
  {Syȝt, Syȝte,} sight, A. 226; B. 552, 1710.

  Ta, take, arrest, C. 78. “Ta me,” take, arrest me. Tatȝ, take, B. 735.
    (Cf. O.E. _ma_ = make.)
  Tabarde, coat. It sometimes signifies a short coat or mantle, B. 41.
    Fr. _tabar_. Ital. _tabaro_.
  Tabelment, A. 994.
  Taborne, tabour, B. 1414.
  Tached, fixed, fastened, A. 464.
  Takel, C. 233.
  Tale, tale, message, B. 1437.
  Talent, will, pleasure, C. 416. See T. B. 464.
  Talle = tuly (?), B. 48.
  Tan, taken, B. 763.
  Tatȝ, take, B. 735. See _Ta_.
  Tayt, agreeable, lively, B. 871. O.N. _teitr_.
      “The laddes were kaske and _teyte_.” --(Havelok the Dane, 1841.)
      “Ther mouhte men se the boles beyte,
      And the bores with hundes _teyte_.” --(_Ibid._ 2331.)
  Tayt, fear, B. 889.
      “Brynges furthe, [as] sayd the boke, bestes out of noumbre,
      And trottes on toward Tyre with _taite_ at thaire hertes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 42.)
  Teche, teach, B. 160.
  Teche, mark, sign, B. 1049.
  Teche, fault, B. 1230; device, B. 943. Fr. _tache_.
  Tede, an error for _tene_ = ten (?), B. 1634.
  Tee, go, B. 9, 1262; C. 87.
      “Let hym _tegh_ to þe tempull.”
        --(T. B. 2541.)
    A.S. _teon_. Cf. _teght_, T. B. 1786.
  Telde, tent, B. 866. A.S. _teld_.
  Telded, raised, B. 1342. See T. B. 6075.
  Telle, raise, excite, B. 1808. Du. _tillen_, to lift up.
  Teme, approach, A. 460; B. 9; C. 316. See T. B. 3306. It seems to be
    connected with the A.S. _geteman_, to bear witness; _teama_, to
    cite, summon. In Laȝamon _teman_ signifies to go, proceed, approach,
    vol. i. p. 53, l. 1245.
      “Albion hatte that lond;
      Ah leode ne beoth thar nane,
      Ther to thu scalt _teman_ [wende]
      & ane neowe Troye thar makian.”
  Teme, team, C. 37.
  Teme, theme, C. 358.
  Tempest, C. 231.
  Temple, A. 1062.
  Tempre, moderate, B. 775.
  Temptande, tempting, B. 283.
  Tender, A. 412; B. 630.
  Tene, _sb._ anger, sorrow, A. 332; B. 283, 687, 1137; C. 90; _adj._
    angry, B. 1808; _vb._ punish, B. 759. A.S. _teonan_, _tynan_, to
    anger; _teona_, wrong, mischief.
  Tenfully, sorrowfully, bitterly, B. 160.
  Tenor, C. 358.
  Tenoun, A. 993.
  {Tent, Tente,} attend, care for, B. 676, 935; C. 59, 498; heed,
    A. 387.
  Terme, term, A. 1053; B. 1393.
  Terne, lake, B. 1041. N.Prov.E. _tarn_. O.N. _tjörn_.
  Teuel (or _tenel_ ?), enclose, or ? _undermine_, B. 1189.
  Þacce, blow, C. 325. A.S. _thaccian_, to stroke.
  Þayreȝ, theirs, B. 1527.
  Þaȝ, though, A. 134.
  Þede, country, A. 711. A.S. _theód_.
      “I sett ȝowe ane ensample ȝe se it alle day,
      In thorps and in many _thede_ ther ȝe thurȝe ride,
      At ilka cote a kene curr, as he the chache walde,
      Bot as bremely as he baies, he bitis never the faster.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 62.)
  Þede, vessel, B. 1717. Prov.E. _thead_, a strainer used in brewing.
    “_Thede_, bruares instrument, qualus.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Þeder, thither, B. 461.
  Þef, thief, A. 273.
  Theme, A. 944; C. 358.
  {Þen, Þenne,} than, A. 134.
  Þenkande, thinking, C. 294.
  Þerue, unleavened, B. 635. Prov.E. _therf_, _tharf_, _thar_. A.S.
    _theorf_, _therf_.
  Þester, darkness, B. 1775. A.S. _theostru_. See T. B. 2362.
  Þewe, virtue, B. 1436; C. 30; ordinances, B. 544, 755.
  Þewed, virtuous, B. 733.
  Þewes, thieves, B. 1142.
  Þikker, oftener, C. 6.
  Þirled, pierced, B. 952.
  Þo, the (_pl._), B. 635; those, A. 557.
  Þole, suffer, A. 344; B. 190; C. 6. A.S. _thólian_, to suffer, endure.
  Þonc, _sb._ thank, A. 901.
  Þonkke, _vb._ thank, B. 745.
  Þore, there, A. 562.
  Þorpe, city, B. 1178. O.N. _thorp_.
  Þorȝ, through. See _Þurȝ_.
  Þoȝ, though, A. 345.
  Þoȝt, seemed, A. 153; B. 562.
  Þoȝt, imagination, B. 516.
  Þrad, reproached, tormented, B. 751. A.S. _threagan_ (_pret. threáde_,
    _p.p._ _thread_), to blame, vex, torment.
  Þrange, pierce, A. 17. See _Þrenge_.
  Þrast, stroke, thrust, B. 952.
  Þrat, vexation, torment, C. 55. A.S. _threat_, threat; _threatian_, to
    vex, distress.
  Þratten (_3d pers. pl. pret._) threatened, B. 937.
  Þrawe, to reach, B. 590.
  Þrawen, close, thick, B. 1775.
  Þrenge, press, crowd after, follow, B. 930; pass, C. 354. A.S.
    _thringan_, to press, crowd, throng. O.N. _threnga_.
  Þrep, contradiction, B. 350. N.Prov.E. _threap_, _threpe_, to dispute.
    A.S. _threapian_, to reprove, chide.
      “_Withoutyn threp_ more.” --(T. B. 1127.)
  Þrepyng, _sb._ strife, B. 183. A.S. _threapung_.
  {Þret, Þrete,} threaten, A. 561; B. 680, 1728.
  Þretty, thirty, B. 751.
  Þreuenest, wisest, noblest, B. 1571.
  Þro, anger, B. 754; C. 6; angry, A. 344. N.Prov.E. _thro_, keen,
    eager. O.N. _thrá_.
      “Be þou noght in þi hert so _thra_.” --(MS. Harl. 4196. fol. 94.)
    Cf. “his _throo_ hert,” T. B. 147. “A _throo_ (bold) knight.”
    _Ib._ 1482.
  Þro, good, A. 868.
  Þro, sharply, quickly, B. 220. A.S. _threá_.
  Þro, thoroughly, B. 1805.
  Þroble, press, B. 879.
  Þroly, fiercely, quickly, B. 180, 514.
      “_Throly_ he thoght in his hert.” --(T. B. 209.)
  {Þrong, Þronge,} _sb._ crowd, B. 135, 504, 754.
  Þrongen (_3d pers. pl. pret._ of _thringe_), crowded, pressed,
    B. 1775.
      “Mony thoughtes full thro _thronge_ in hir brest.” --(T. B. 470.)
  Þrublande, pressing, B. 504. See _Þroble_.
  {Þrwen, Þrowen,} thrown, B. 220, 504.
  Þrych, through, A. 17. O.Sc. _throuch_.
  {Þryd, Þryde, Þrydde,} third, A. 833; B. 249, 300, 1639.
  Þryeȝ, thrice, B. 429.
  Þrynge, press, B. 180; follow, B. 1639. See _Þrenge_.
  Þrynne, three, B. 606, 1727.
  Þryuande, good, pure, B. 751. See T. B. 1482.
  Þryue, prosper, thrive, B. 249; C. 521.
  Þryuen, prudent, wise, A. 868, 1192; grown up, adult, B. 298;
    _þryuenest_, wisest, noblest, B. 1639.
  Þryȝt, thrust, pressed, thronged, A. 670, 706, 926; B. 135; Cf.
    _thriccing_ of hondys. T. B. 1522. A.S. _thryccan_ (_pret._
    _thrycte_), to thrust, press, tread on.
  Þurȝ, through, A. 670.
  Þykke, closely, B. 504.
  Þyȝe, thigh, B. 1687.
  To, toe, C. 229.
  To-cleues, separate, B. 1806.
  To-corue (_3d pers. pl. pret._), slit, ript up, B. 1250.
  Token, betoken, B. 1557.
  To-kerue, divide, B. 1700.
  {Tole, Tool,} tool, B. 1108, 1342.
  {Tolk, Tolkke, Tulkke,} man, B. 687, 757. _Tolk_, like _segge_,
    signified originally a speaker, an interpreter. O.N. _túlka_, to
    explain, interpret; _túlkr_, an interpreter, a mediator. See
    T. B. 63.
  Tom, (1) leisure, A. 134; opportunity, B. 1153; interval, C. 135;
    (2) time, A. 585. O.Sw. and O.N. _tóm_. “_Toom_ oportunitas.”
    (Prompt. Parv.)
      “Tharfore þis _tyme_ I may noght cum
      Telle þi lord I haue no _tome_.”
        --(MS. Harl, 4196, fol. 105.)
    In T. B. 1088, we have _tomly_.
  To-marred, spoilt, B. 1114.
  To-murte, crushed to pieces, C. 150. See _murte_, T. B. 6128.
  Tonne (or toune?), conceive, B. 655.
  Top, head, C. 229.
  Topace, topaz, B. 1469.
  Tor, tower, A. 966.
  Tor, hard, A. 1109. O.N. _tor_. Sans. _dus_, hard, difficult. Cf. O.E.
    _torfer_, hardship, T. B. 81.
      “But this tyme is so _tore_.” --(T. B. 645.)
  {To-rente, To-rent,} rent asunder, A. 1136; B. 368; C. 96.
  To-riuen, torn away, A. 1197.
  Tormenttour, B. 154.
  To-rof (_pret._ of _to-riue_), burst, B. 964; C. 379.
  Torreȝ, towers, A. 875,
  Toter, totter, C. 233.
  Toteȝ = totȝ, toes; Cf. _gotȝ_ = goes, etc., B. 41.
  To-torne, torn, B. 41.
  Totȝ, goes, A. 513. Sw. _tota_.
  Tour, tower, B. 216.
  Tourneȝ = turns, devices, B. 192.
  Tow, two, B. 866.
      “_Two_ pyllers he pight in a place low.” --(T. B. 310.)
  To-walten, overflowed (_3d pers. pl._), B. 428.
  Towche, to relate, deliver a message, speak, A. 898; B. 1437.
      “Litille kyngis there come . . . . .
      _Touches_ titly thair tale and tribute him askis.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 31.)
  Towche, _sb._ touch, C. 252.
  Towe, C. 100.
  Towen, drawn, A. 251.
  Toȝe, tough, B. 630.
  Toȝt, firm, binding, A. 522.
  Tra, high (?), B. 211, or (?) _tor_, great, difficult of access.
      “This castel es o luve and grace,
      Bath o socur and o solace,
      Apon the mathe it standes traist;
      O fede ne dredes it na fraist;
      It is hei sett upon þe crag,
      _Trai_ and hard wituten hag.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 55a.)
  Tramme, tackle, gear? C. 101. In the northern Romance of Alexander,
    p. 5, _tramme_ signifies an instrument (optical).
      “He toke _trammes_ him with to tute (look) in the sternes.”
  Tras = trace, path, course, A. 1113. “_Trace_, a streyght way,
    _trace_.” (Palsg.)
  Trasches = trauses or trossers, drawers or trousers? B. 40.
  Trauayle, _sb._ labour, C. 505; _vb._ A. 550; C. 498.
  Trave = trawe, believe, B. 587.
  Trauerce = traverse, B. 1473.
  {Traw, Trawe,} = trow, believe, suppose, A. 282, 295; B. 655, 1335,
    1686. See T. B. 298.
  Trawande, believing, B. 662.
  {Trawþe, Trauþe,} truth, A. 495; B. 63, 667; belief, 1490, 1703.
  Trayled, B. 1473.
  Traysoun, treason, B. 187.
  {Trayþly, Trayþely,} certainly, surely? B. 907, 1137. If _trayþly_ be
    derived from _trauth_, _truth_, the meaning here assigned to it may
    be correct; but the sense of _fiercely_, _fearfully_, would suit the
    context better.
  Traytoure, B. 1041; C. 77.
  Tre, wood, B. 1342.
  Trendel, roll, A. 41.
  Tres, yards (of a ship), C. 101.
  {Tresor, Tresore,} treasure, A. 237, 331, B. 866.
  Tresorye, treasury, B. 1317.
  Trespas, B. 48.
  Trespast, B. 1230.
  Trestes, trestles, B. 832.
  Trichcherye, treachery, B. 187.
  Troched, ornamented? An architectural term of uncertain meaning,
    B. 1383.
  {Tron, Trone,} went (_pret._ of _tryne_), A. 1113; B. 132; C. 101. See
    _Trynande_.
  Trone, throne, A. 1055.
  Trot, _sb._ pace, step, B. 976.
  Trow, believe, B. 1049.
  Trumpen, trumpets, B. 1402.
  Trussed, deposited, B. 1317. See T. B. 1819.
  Trwe, true, A. 460.
  Tryed, select, trusty, B. 1317. O.E. _trie_, choice. See T. B. 695.
  Tryfled = trayfoled, ornamented with knots, B. 1473. Fr. _treffilier_,
    a chain maker.
  Trynande, going, walking, B. 976. Dan. _trine_, to go.
      “Than the traytoure treunted the Tyesday thar aftyre,
      _Trynnys_ in with a trayne tresone to wirke.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 326.)
      “The trays (path) of the traytoure he _trynys_ fulle evenne,
      And turnys in be Treynte, the traytoure to seche.”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 339.)
      “They _tryne_ unto a tente whare tables whare raysede.”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 267.)
  Tryste, trusty, A. 460; _vb._ to trust, C. 324.
  Trysty, trusty, B. 763.
  Tryȝe, to trust in, rely upon, A. 311. N.Prov.E. _trigg_, firm,
    faithful. Sw. _trygg_, safe, sure.
  Tuch, cloth, B. 48. Ger. _tuch_. Cf. Eng. _tuck_ and _tucker_.
  Tulkke, man, soldier, B. 1189, 1262. See _Tolk_.
      “The Tothyr was a _Tulke_ out of Troy selfe.” --(T. B. 63.)
  Tulket = tulked, sounded, B. 1414. The original meaning of _tulk_ is
    to speak, explain (O.N. _túlka_), hence to utter, sound.
      “The Tebies _tulked_ (addressed) us with tene (anger).”
        --(K. Alex. p. 83.)
  Tult, threw, pitched. B. 1213; C. 252. See _Tilt_, in T. B. 914, 3704.
    A.S. _tealtian_, to tilt, shake.
  Tuyred, destroyed, B. 1234.
  Twayned, separated, A. 251.
  Tweyne, two, B. 674, 1749.
  Twynande, entwining, B. 1691. Sw. _twinna_, to twine.
  Twynne, two, A. 251; B. 1047.
  Twynne, separate, B. 402.
  Tyd, quickly, B. 64, 1213; C. 100, 229. A.S. _tíd_, _tídlíce_. Sw.
    _tida_, frequently.
  Tyde, time, B. 1393.
  Tykel, uncertain, B. 655.
  Tylle, to, B. 1064.
  Tymbre, B. 1414. “Tymbyr a lytyl taboure, timpanellum.” (Prompt.
    Parv.)
  Tylte, overturn, B. 832; tumble, C. 361.
      “_Tylude_ ouer borde.” --(T. B. 3704.)
  Tynde, branch, A. 78. A.S. _tine_. O.E. _tind_, a tine, tooth, prong,
    fork.
  Tyne, lose, A. 332; destroy, B. 775, 907. O.N. _tyna_.
  Tynt, lost, B. 216. See T. B. 1208.
  Type, overturn, C. 506.
  Typped, extreme, C. 77.
  Tyraunte, B. 943.
  Tyrauntyré, tyranny, B. 187.
  Tyrne, flay, B. 630. Du. _tornen_, to rend, rip up.
      “And so thai did al bidene and sum oure douth sloȝe,
      Tuke out the tuskis and the tethe, and _ternen_ of the skinnes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 140.)
  Tyt, quickly, A. 728. N.Prov.E. _tite_, soon. Cf. _tytly_, T. B. 1094.
    See _Tyd_.
  Tyþe, tenth, B. 216.
  Tyþynge, tiding, B. 458, 498; C. 78.
  Tytter, sooner, C. 231. N.Prov.E. _titter_. See _Tyt_.
  Tyxt, text, B. 1634; C. 37.
  Tyȝed, tied, A. 464; B. 702.
  {Tyȝt, Tyȝte,} described, A. 1053; give, B. 1153; endeavour, B. 1108;
    near, A. 503. See T. B. 1358. A.S. _tihtan_, to draw.

  U = o = of, A. 792.

  {Vch, Vche, Vcha,} = ilk, ilka, each, every. A. 33, 117.
  Vchon, each one, A. 546.
  Vglokest (_superl._ of _vgly_), most horrid, dreadful, B. 892. See
    _vgsome_, horrible, T. B. 877.
  Vmbe, about, B. 879, 1384; C. 309. A.S. _ymbe_.
      “Grete toures full toure all þe toune _vmbe_.” --(T. B. 320.)
  Vmbe-brayde, accost, B. 1622. See _Brayde_.
  Vmbe-grouen, overgrown, B. 488.
  Vmbe-kest, look about, B. 478.
  Vmbe-lyȝe, compass, surround, B. 836.
  Vmbe-pyȝte, surrounded, A. 1052.
  Vmbre, rain, B. 524. Cf. _ymur_, in T. B. 897. Lat. _imber_.
  Vmbe-schon, shone about, C. 455.
  {Vmbe-stounde, Vmbe-stoundes,} at times, sometimes, C. 7, 122.
  Vmbe-sweyed, encircled, B. 1380.
  Vmbe-walt, surrounded, B. 1181.
  Vnavysed, unadvised, thoughtless, A. 292.
  Vnblemyst, unblemished, A. 782.
  Vn-brosten, unburst, B. 365.
  Vnblyþe, dismal, B. 1017.
  Vncheryst, uncherished, uncared for, B. 1125.
  Vnclannesse, uncleanness. B. 30, 1800, 1806.
  Vnclene, B. 550, 1713.
  Vncler, indistinct, C. 307.
  Vnclose, disclose, B. 26, 1438.
  Vncortoyse, uncourteous, A. 303.
  {Vncouþe, Vncowþe,} unknown, B. 414, 1600, 1722.
  Vnder, the third hour of the day, A. 513. A.S. _undern_. Goth.
    _undaurns_.
  Vnder-nomen, understood, perceived, C. 213.
  Vnder-stonde, understand, A. 941; C. 122.
  Vnder-ȝede = under-ȝete, understood, B. 796. A.S. _undergitan_, to
    perceive.
  Vndyd, destroyed, B. 562.
  Vnfayre, bad, B. 1801.
  Vnfolde, B. 1563.
  Vnfre, unfortunate, B. 1129.
  Vngarnyst, unadorned, B. 137.
  Vnglad, sorry, C. 63.
  Vngoderly, bad, wicked, B. 145, 1092.
  Vnhap, misfortune, B. 143, 1150; misery, B. 892. See T. B. 1402.
  Vnhappen, unfortunate; and hence bad, B. 573.
  Vnhaspe, disclose, B. 688.
  Vnhole, badly, B. 1681.
  Vnhonest, vile, B. 579.
  Vnhuled, uncovered, B. 451. See _Hile_.
  Vnhyde, disclose, A. 973.
  Vnhyle, disclose, B. 1628. See _Hile_.
  Vnknawen, unknown, B. 1679.
  Vnkyndely, wickedly, B. 208.
  Vnmard, undefiled, B. 867.
  Vnmete, unmeet, unfit, A. 759.
  Vnneuened, unnamed, B. 727. See _Neuen_.
  Vnnynges, signs, C. 213. A.S. _unnan_, to give, grant, permit.
  Vnpynne, to unpin, unfasten, A. 728.
  Vnresounable, unreasonable, A. 590.
  Vnryȝt, wrong, B. 1142.
  Vnsmyten, B. 732.
  Vnsounde, wicked, evil, bad, B. 575; C. 527; misfortune, wretched
    state, C. 58. See T. B. 495.
  Vnsoundely, badly, B. 201. See T. B. 1826.
  Vnstered, unmoved, B. 706.
  Vnstrayned, untroubled, A. 248.
  Vnswolȝed, unhurt, B. 1253. See _Swolȝe_.
  {Vnþank, Vnþonk,} wrath, displeasure, B. 183; C. 55.
  Vnþewe, fault, vice, B. 190. See _Thewe_.
  Vnþryfte, folly, wickedness, B. 516, 1728.
  Vnþryftyly, unwisely, badly, B. 267.
  Vnþryuandly = unthrivingly, badly, B. 135. See T. B. 4893.
  Vntrwe, untrue, A. 897; B. 456; unfaithful, B. 1160.
  Vntwynne, separate; and hence, destroy, B. 757.
  Vnwar, foolish, C. 115.
  Vnwaschen, unwashed, B. 34.
  Vnwelcum, B. 49.
  Vnworþelych, unworthy, B. 305.
  Vnwytté, unwise, foolish, simple, C. 511.
  Vpbrayde, literally to raise; and hence to utter loudly, rebuke,
    C. 430. See _Brayde_. In the sense of to utter, speak, we find
    _upbrayde_ used in the following passage.
      “Again my brether haue I bene
      Oft-sith lightly for to tene,
      Wit flitt, wit brixil, strive and strut;
      Myn euen cristen haue I hurt,
      And oft unsaght o him I said,
      And of his lastes (faults) gane upbraid.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 156.)
  Vp-caste, spoken, B. 1574.
  Vp-folden, up-folded, B. 643.
  Vp-lyfte, uplifted, B. 987.
  Vpon, open, B. 453.
  Vp-rerde, upreared, B. 561.
  Vp-ros, uprose, C. 378.
  Vpryse, C. 433.
  Vp-set, raised, C. 239.
  Vp-so-doun, upside down, C. 362.
  Vp-wafte, uprose, B. 949.
  Vpynyoun, opinion, C. 40.
  Vrnementes, ornaments, B. 1284.
  Vrþe, earth, A. 442.
  Vrþely, earthly, A. 135; B. 35.
  Vsage, B. 710.
  Vsched, B. 1393, _to vsched_ = ? _tousched_ = _towched_, approached.
    See B. 1437.
  Vse, B. 11.
  {Vsle, Vslle,} ashes, cinders, B. 747, 1010. A.S. _ysle_, ashes. O.N.
    _usli_, fire. “Isyl, of fyre. Favilla.” (Prompt. Parv.) Prov.E.
    _isle_, _easle_, embers; _eizle_, ashes.
  Vtter, out, B. 42; without, B. 927.
  Vt-wyth, without, outside, A. 969.
  Vus, us, B. 842.
  Vȝten, the morning, dawn, B. 893. A.S. _uhta_.
      “Hi sloȝen and fuȝten
      Þe niȝt and þe _uȝten_.” --(K. Horn, 1424.)

  Vale, A. 127; B. 673.
  Vanyté, B. 1713; C. 331.
  Vanyste, vanished, B. 1548.
  Vayle, avail, A. 912; B. 1151, 1311.
  Vayment, exhibition, show, B. 1358.
  Vayn, A. 811; B. 1358.
  Vayned, brought, A. 249. See _Wayned_.
  Venge, avenge, B. 199, 559; C. 71.
  Vengeaunce, B. 247, 1013.
  {Venkkyst, Venquyst,} vanquished, B. 544, 1071.
  Venym, venom, filth, B. 574; C. 71.
  {Veray, Verray,} true, A. 1184, 1185; truly, C. 333; very, C. 370.
  Verayly, verily, B. 664, 1548.
  Vered, veered, raised, A. 254.
  Vergyne, virgin, A. 1099.
  {Vergynté, Vergynyté,} virginity, A. 767; B. 1071.
  Vertue, A. 1126.
  Vertuous, precious, B. 1280.
  Vessayl, vessel, B. 1713.
  Vesselment, vessels, B. 1280, 1288.
  Vesture, B. 1288.
  Veued = weued, passed, A. 976. See _Weue_.
  Vilanye, C. 71.
  Vilté, filth, vileness, B. 199. O.Fr. _vilté_.
  Violent, B. 1013.
  Voched, prayed, A. 1121. Fr. _voucher_.
  Vouche, resolve, B. 1358.
  Vouched, vowed, C. 165.
  Vowe, C. 239.
  Voyde, do away with; B. 744; destroy, B. 1013; C. 370; depart,
    B. 1548.
  Vus, use, or ? drink, B. 1507. We may, however read, and thus preserve
    the alliteration, _bus_ = _bous_ = _bouse_, to drink deeply. Du.
    _buysen_.
  Vycios, vicious, B. 574.
  Vyf, wife, A. 772.
  Vygour, 971.
  Vyl, vile, evil, B. 744.
  Vylanye, crime, sin, B. 544, 574.
  Vyle, defile, B. 863.
  Vyole, vial, B. 1280.
  Vyolence, B. 1071.
  Vyrgyn, A. 426.
  {Vys, Vyse,} face, A. 254. O.Fr. _vis_.
  Vyueȝ, wives, A. 785.

  Wach, watch, B. 1205.
  Wade, A. 143, 1151.
  Waft, closed, B. 857. A.S. _wefan_, _wæfan_, to cover. O.N. _vefa_.
  Wafte, move, lift up, raise, B. 453 O.N. _veifa_, to raise, move,
    swing. _Waft_, B. 857, in the sense of _closed_ may be of the same
    origin with _wafte_.
  Wage, endure, A. 416.
  Wage, wave, B. 1484. A.S. _wágian_.
  Wake, watch, B. 85; C. 130. A.S. _wæccan_. O.N. _vaka_.
  Waken, raise, arouse, awake, A. 1171; B. 323, 437, 891, 933, 948;
    C. 132; O.N. _vakna_.
      “Wyndis at hir wille to _wakyn_ in the aire.” --(T. B. 404.)
  Wakker (_comp._ of _wayke_), weaker B. 835.
  {Wale, Walle,} _vb._ discern, A. 1000; choose, select, B. 921; C. 511;
    _adj._ noble, choice, B. 1734. Sc. _wale_. See T. 386, 4716. Ger.
    _wählen_, to choose, select. O.N. _val_, electio, optio, delectus.
      “O mister was ther wimmen tuin,
      Þat ledd þar liif wit sike and sin,
      Ffor þai had husing nan to _wale_,
      Þai lended in a littel scale.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 48a.)
      “Of choys men syne, _walit_ by cut (lot), thai tuke
      A gret numbyr, and hyd in bylgis dern.”
        --(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 72.)
      “Awai þan drou him son Davi,
      Bot Saul dred him mo forþi,
      And of a thusand men o _wal_ (worth)
      He made him ledder and marscal.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 43a.)
      “That worthy had a wyfe _walit_ hym seluon.” --(T. B. 105.)
  Walkyries, witches, fate-readers, B. 1577. O.N. _valkyriur_; _f. pl._
    _Parcæ_. Dan. _valkyrier_.
  Wallande, boiling, bubbling up, A. 365. A.S. _weallan_, to boil up.
  Walle-heued = well-head, spring, B. 364.
  {Walt, Walte,} rolled, turned, B. 501, 1734. Prov.E. _walt_, _welt_.
    A.S. _wealtian_, to roll. O.N. _vella_.
      “Hit _walt_ up the wilde se.” --(T. B. 4633.)
  Walter, roll, flow, B. 415, 1027; C. 142. O.Sc. _welter_, _walter_.
    Dan. _vælte_, to roll. See _Walt_.
  Waltereȝ, an error for watterez = waters? C. 263.
  Walterande, swimming, C. 247.
  Walteȝ, pours, rushes, flows, B. 364, 1037. See _Walte_, T. B. 3699,
    4632.
  Wame, belly. See _Wombe_.
  Wamel, to wamble, C. 300. O.N. _vambla_. Dan. _vamle_, to wamble, to
    create or cause a squeamishness or loathing. “_Wamelyn’_ in the
    stomake. Nauseo.” “_Wamelynge_ of the stomake, Nausia.” (Prompt.
    Parv.)
  Wan (_pret._ of _wynne_), got, reached, A. 107; B. 140.
  Wap, a step, C. 449. O.N. _vapp_. It is generally explained by a blow,
    stroke, which was probably its original meaning.
      “The werld wannes at a _wappe_ and the wedire gloumes.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 141.)
      “It (worldly wealth) wites away at a _wapp_, as the wynd turnes.”
        --(_Ibid._ p. 181.)
    See T. B. 207, 6405.
  Wappe, to strike, knock, B. 882.
  War, aware, A. 1096; crafty, B. 589. A.S. _wær_, wary. O.N. _var_.
  {War, Ware,} guard, beware, B. 165, 545, 1133. A.S. _wárian_.
  Warded, guarded, C. 258. A.S. _weardian_, to guard.
  Ware, were, A. 151.
  Warisch, protect, B. 921.
  Warlaȝe, wizard, B. 1560. See _Warlow_.
  Warlok, prison, C. 80.
  Warlow, a monster, C. 258. A.S. _wér-loga_, a liar, a faith-breaker.
      “Þe warlaȝ was wete of his wan atter.” --(T. B. 303.)
  Warne, bid, C. 469.
  Warnyng, _sb._ B. 1504.
  {Warpe, Warpen,} cast, hurl, B. 444; ejaculate, utter, A. 879; B. 152,
    213. O.N. _varpa_. A.S. _weorpan_, to throw, cast.
  Warþe, a water-ford, C. 339. A.S. _warth_, _waroth_, the shore.
  Wary, curse, B. 513. A.S. _wærgian_, to curse.
  Waryed, accursed, B. 1716.
  Wassayl, B. 1508.
  {Wast, Waste,} destroy, B. 326, 431, 1178. A.S. _wéstan_.
  Wasturne, a wilderness, B. 1674. _Wasterne_ signifies a desert place,
    from the A.S. _wéste_, desert, barren, and _ærn_, a place.
      “Methoughte I was in a wode willed myne one,
      That I ne wiste no waye whedire that I scholde,
      Ffore wolueȝ and whilde swynne, swykkyde bestez,
      Walkede in that _wasterne_ wathes to seche.”
        --(Morte Arthure, p. 270.)
  Wate = wot, know, A. 502. A.S. _witan_ (_Ic wát_, _þu wást_, _he
    wát_).
  Water, stream, A. 107, 139; river, B. 1380.
  Wauleȝ, shelterless, from the A.S. _wáh_, a wall (?), C. 262. We
    should perhaps read wanleȝ = wonleȝ, hopeless, from the A.S. _wén_.
    O.N. _von_. O.E. _wone_, hope.
  Wawe, wave, A. 287; B. 382; C. 142. A.S. _wæg_.
  Wax, increase, B. 521.
  Waxlokes, waves (?), B. 1037.
  Wayferand, wayfaring, B. 79.
  Waykned, weakened, B. 1422. O.N. _veikr_. A.S. _wác_, weak; _wácan_,
    to become weak.
  Wayle, select, choice, B. 1716. See _Wale_.
  Waymot, passionate, C. 492. A.S. _weamod_.
  Wayne, give, B. 1504; gain, recover, 1616, 1701. The original meaning
    seems to be that of gaining, getting. O.Fr. _gaagnier_. In some O.E.
    works _wayne_ is used like our word _get_.
      “Than past up the proude quene into prevé chambre,
      _Waynes_ (_i.e._ puts out her head) out at wyndow and waytes
        aboute.” --(K. Alex. p. 33.)
  Wayte, look into, search, B. 99; be careful, B. 292; look about,
    B. 1423; inquire, B. 1552. See T. B. 876. “_Waytyn_ or _aspyyn_,
    observo.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Waȝeȝes, _waȝes_, waves, B. 404.
      “Girdon ouer the grym _waghes_.” --(T. B. 1410.)
    See _Wawe_.
  Webbe, cloth, A. 71.
  Wedde, A. 772; B. 69.
  Wedded wyf, B. 330.
  Weddyng, A. 791.
  {Wed, Wede,} garments, weeds, A. 748, 766; B. 793. A.S. _wæd_.
  {Wed, Wede,} become mad, B. 1585. A.S. _wédan_, to rave, be mad.
  Weder, storm, B. 444, 948.
  Weder, weather, B. 1760.
  Wela-wynnely, very joyfully, B. 831. A.S. _welig_, rich, bountiful;
    _wyn_, pleasure, joy.
  {Welcom, Welcum,} B. 813.
  Welde, govern, rule, wield, B. 195, 835; use, employ, possess, B. 705,
    1351; C. 16. A.S. _wealdan_, rule, exercise, possess.
  Welder, ruler, C. 129.
  Wele, joy (_pl._ _weleȝ_), A. 14, 154, 394; B. 651; C. 262. A.S.
    _wela_.
  Welgest, worthiest, B. 1244. A.S. _welig_ (_welga_), rich, wealthy.
  Welke, walked, A. 101.
  Welkyn, welkin, the sky. A.S. _welcn_, _wolcen_. O.Sc. _walk_,
    a cloud.
  Welle-hedeȝ, springs, B. 428.
  Welt, revolved, C. 115. See _Walter_.
  Welwed, faded, C. 475. A.S. _wealwian_.
      “The grond stud burrant, widderit dosk or gray,
      Herbis, flowris and gersis _wallowyt_ away.”
        --(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 378.)
  Wely, joyous, happy, A. 101. A.S. _welig_.
      “_Welli_ make, Laverd, and noght ille,
      To Syon in þi gode wille.” --(Ps. i. 20.)
      “Þan was þar never suilk a hald,
      Ne nan in _welier_ in werld to wald.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 55b.)
  {Wem, Wemme,} spot, blemish, A. 1003. A.S. _wem_.
  Wemleȝ, spotless, without blemish.
  Wenche, woman, B. 974, 1250; concubine, B. 1716. A.S. _wencle_, a
    maid. S.Sax. _wenchell_, a child.
  Wende = wened, thought, A. 1148; C. 111.
  Wene = ween, believe, A. 47; B. 821; C. 244. A.S. _wénan_.
  Wene, doubt, A. 1141.
  Weng, avenge, B. 201.
  Wenyng, supposition, C. 115.
  Wepande, weeping, C. 384.
  Weppen, weapon, B. 835.
  Wered, guarded, protected, C. 486. A.S. _weren_. Ger. _wehren_,
    defend.
  Werkeȝ, labours, B. 136.
  Werp (_pret._ of _warp_), threw, B. 284.
  Werre, war, B. 1178.
  Wers, worse, B. 80.
  Werte, root, herb, C. 478. A.S. _wyrt_.
  Weryng, wearing, age, B. 1123. “_Weryn_ or wax olde, febyl,
    veterasco.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Wesch, washed, A. 766.
  Westernays, wrongly, A. 307. See Note on this word, p. 106. ?
    wiþer-ways, wrong-wise.
  Wete, wet, A. 761.
  Weue, pass, A. 318.
  Weued, cut off (?), B. 222.
  Wex (_pret._ of _wax_), became, A. 538; B. 204.
  Weȝe, weigh (anchor), C. 103; carry round, B. 1420, 1508. A.S.
    _wegan_, to weigh, carry.
  Weȝte, weight, B. 1734.
  Wham, whom, A. 131.
  Whateȝ = watȝ, was, A. 1041.
  What-kyn, what kind of, B. 100.
  Whichche = hutch, ark, B. 362. “_Hutche_ or _whyche_, cista, archa.”
    (Prompt. Parv.) A.S. _hwæcca_.
  Whyle, moment, B. 1620.
  Wite, blame. See _Wyte_.
  With-droȝ, withdrew, A. 658.
  With-nay, refuse, deny, A. 916.
  Wiȝt = wight, quickly, C. 103. See _Wyȝt_.
  Wlate, to abhor, hate, detest, B. 305; to be disgusted at, B. 1501.
    A.S. _wlættian_.
  Wlatsum, hateful, abominable, B. 541.
  {Wlonc, Wlonk,} beautiful, A. 122, 1171; B. 606, 793, 933; C. 486;
    good, A. 903. A.S. _wlanc_.
  {Wod, Wode,} mad, enraged, B. 204, 1558; foolish, B. 828; fierce,
    strong, B. 364; C. 142. A.S. _wód_.
  Wodbynde, woodbine, C. 446.
  Wodder (_comp._ of _wode_), fiercer, rougher, C. 162.
  Woghe, wrong, sin, A. 622. A.S. _woh_.
  Wolde = walde, perform, do, A. 812. See _Welde_.
  Wolde, would, A. 772.
  Wolen, woollen, A. 731.
  Wolle, wool, A. 844.
  Wombe, belly, B. 462, 1250.
  {Won, Wone,} _sb._ dwelling, abode, A. 32, 1049; B. 140, 928; woneȝ,
    A. 917, 924; _vb._ to dwell, A. 404, 298; B. 875. A.S. _wunian_.
    O.Fris. _wona_.
  Won = wone, custom, usage, B. 720. A.S. _wune_.
  Wonde, fear, hesitate, B. 855. A.S. _wandian_.
  Wonde = wande, delay, cease, A. 153.
      “[I wole] for no dethe _wonde_.” --(T. B. 591.)
      “I wille noghte _wonde_ for no werre,
      To wende whare me likes.” --(Morte Arthure, p. 292.)
      “Sua did þis wiif I yow of redd,
      Sco folud Joseph ai þar he fledd,
      And for sco foluand fand a spurn,
      Sco waited him wit a werr turn,
      Hirself in godds gram and gilt,
      And almast did him to be spilt;
      How sco broght him to the fand (trial),
      Fforth to telle wil I noght _waand_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 25a.)
  Wonder, _adj._ wonderful, A. 1095; B. 153.
  Wonderly, wonderfully, B. 570; C. 384.
  Woned = waned, decreased, B. 496. A.S. _wanian_, to decrease.
  Wonen (_pret. pl._) got, B. 1777.
  Wonne, pale, wan, C. 141. A.S. _wonn_, wan.
  Wonne, got, A. 32.
  Wonnen, begotten, B. 112.
  Wonnyng, dwelling, B. 921. See _Won_.
  Wont, be wanting, B. 739.
  Wony, dwell, abide, live, A. 284; B. 431; C. 462. See _Won_.
  Wonyande, dwelling, living, B. 293.
  Wonys, dwells, A. 47.
  Worche, _vb._ work, labour, A. 511.
  Worcher = worker, maker, B. 1501.
  Worchyp, honour, B. 1802.
  Worded, spoken, uttered, C. 421.
  Wore, were, A. 142, 232; B. 928.
  Worme, reptile, B. 533.
  Worre, weaker, literally, worse, B. 719. O.N. _verr_. Sw. _värre_.
    O.Sc. _war_. O.E. _werr_, worse.
  Worschyp, honour, A. 394.
  Worteȝ, herbs, A. 42. See _Werte_.
  Worþe, to be, C. 22.
  {Worþely, Worþelych, Worþly, Worþlych, Worþyly,} worthy, A. 47, 846,
    1073; B. 471, 651, 1298, 1351; beautiful, C. 475.
  Worþloker, more worthy (_comp._ of _worþelych_), C. 464.
  {Wost, Woste,} knowest, A. 293, 411; B. 875. See _Wot_.
  Wot, know, A. 47, 1107; C. 129.
  Wote, knows, C. 397.
  Woþe, hurt, harm, B. 855. This word occurs under the forms _quathe_,
    _wathe_, and seems to be related to O.E. _qued_. Low Ger. _quat_,
    bad. O.E. _wathe_, bad; _wathely_, badly.
      “Ffor _woþe_ of þe worse.” --(T. B. 1223.)
  Woþe, path, A. 151, 375. A.S. _wáth_, _wáthu_. O.E. _wathe_, a way,
    path. See extract under the word _Wasturne_.
  {Wowe, Woȝe,} wall, A. 1049; B. 832, 839, 1403, 1531. A.S. _wáh_.
    “_Wowe_ or wal, murus.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Wrache, vengeance, B. 204, 229; C. 185. A.S. _wrec_, _wracu_.
  Wrak (_pret._ of _wreke_), avenged, B. 570.
  Wrake, vengeance, B. 213, 235, 718, 970, 1225.
  Wrakful, angry, bitter, B. 302, 541.
  Wrang, wrong, A. 15; B. 76; wrongly, A. 488, 631; bad, C. 384.
  Wraste (_pret._ of _wreste_), raised, uplifted, B. 1166, 1403; thrust,
    1802; C. 80.
  {Wrastel, Wrastle,} wrestle, B. 949; C. 141.
  Wraþe, become angry, B. 230; C. 74; make angry, B. 719.
  Wraȝte, wrought, A. 56.
  Wrech = wrache, vengeance, B. 230.
  {Wrech, Wreche, Wrechche,} wretch, B. 84, 828; C. 113.
  Wrech, wretched, C. 258. A.S. _wrec_, wretched. With _wrech_ and
    _wretched_, cf. _wik_ and _wikked_.
  {Wrek, Wreke,} avenged, B. 198.
  Wrenche, device, B. 292. A.S. _wrence_.
  Wro, passage; literally, corner, A. 866. O.Sw. _wraa_. Dan. _vraa_.
  Wroken, (_pret._ of _wreke_), banished, exiled, A. 375. A.S. _wrecan_,
    to exile, banish.
  Wrot (_pret._ of _wrote_), grubbed up, C. 467. A.S. _wrótan_, to turn
    up with the snout; _wrót_, a snout.
      “With wrathe he begynnus to _wrote_,
      He ruskes vppe mony a rote
      With tusshes of iij. fote.” --(Avowynge of Arthur, xii. 13.)
  Wroþe, fierce, B. 1676. A.S. _wráth_, wroth, enraged.
  Wroþeloker (_comp._ of _wroþely_), more fiercely, angrily, C. 132.
  {Wroþely, Wroþly,} angrily, fiercely, B. 280, 949; C. 132.
  Wroþer (_comp._ of _wroþe_), fiercer, C. 162.
  {Wroȝt, Wroȝte,} wrought, worked, A. 525, 748.
  Wruxeled, raised, B. 1381. _Wrixle_ = change, turn, occurs in T. B.
    445.
    “Þis unwarnes of wit _wrixlis_ hys mynd.”
  Wryst, B. 1535.
  Wryt, B. 1552.
  Wryþe, turn, A. 350, 488; wriggle, B. 533; toil, A. 511; bind, thrust,
    C. 80. A.S. _writhan_, to writhe, bind, twist. “_Writhen_ like a
    wilde eddur.” T. B. 4432.
  Wunder, B. 1390.
  Wunnen, won, B. 1305.
  Wyche, B. 1577.
  Wyche-crafte, B. 1560.
  Wyddere, wither, C. 468.
  Wydowande (_wyndowande_), withering, dry, B. 1048; _wyndowand_ = burnt
    up. N.Prov.E. _winny_, to dry, burn up.
  Wyke, member, part, B. 1690. O.N. _vik_.
  {Wykke, Wyk,} wicked, B. 908, 1063. A.S. _wícan_, to become weak, to
    yield. O.N. _víkia_.
  {Wykket, Wyket,} wicket, gate, door, B. 501, 857.
  {Wyl, Wylle,} wandering, C. 473; forlorn, B. 76. O.N. _villa_, error;
    _villa_, to lead astray, beguile. Phrase, _wille o wan_, astray from
    abode, uncertain where to go; _wil-sum_, _wil-ful_, lonely,
    solitary, desert.
      “So I _wilt_ in the wod.” --(T. B. 2359.)
      “Adam went out ful _wille_ o wan.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 7a.)
      “All wery I wex and _wyle_ of my _gate_.” --(T. B. 2369.)
      “Sone ware thay _willid_ fra the way the wod was so thick.”
        --(K. Alex. p. 102.)
      “Sorful bicom þat fals file (the devil)
      And thoght how he moght man _bi-wille_;
      Agains God wex he sa gril,
      Þat alle his werk he wend to spil.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 5b.)
      “His suns þat (we) of forwit melt,
      Al þe werld bituix þam delt;
      Asie to Sem, to Cham Affrik,
      To Japhet Europ þat _wilful_ wike:
      Al þer þre þai war ful rike.” --(_Ibid._ fol. 13a.)
  Wyldren = wyldern (?), waste, wilderness, C. 297. A.S. _wild_, wild,
    and _ærn_, a place (?). See _Wasturne_.
      “In _wildrin_ land and in wastin,
      I wil tham (the Israelites) bring of þair nocin;
      Bot wel I wat he (Pharaoh) is ful thra,
      Lath sal him think to let þam ga.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 33a.)
  Wylsfully, wilfully, B. 268.
  Wylger, wild, fierce, B. 375. See extract under the word _Note_.
  Wylle, forlorn, B. 76. See _Wyl_.
  Wylnes, apostacy, B. 231.
  Wylneȝ, desirest (_2d pers. sing_ of _wylne_), A. 318. A.S. _wilnian_.
  Wyly, curiously, craftily, B. 1452. A.S. _wile_, a device.
  Wyndas, windlass, C. 103.
  Wyndowe, B. 453.
  Wynne, joyful, A. 154. A.S. _wyn_, pleasure, delight.
  Wynne, obtain, get, A. 579; B. 617. A.S. _winnan_. See T. B. 1165.
  Wynnelych, gracious, B. 1807, Cp. _wynly_ = dexterously, 1165.
  Wyrde, fate, destiny, A. 249, 273; B. 1224. Sc. _wird_. A.S. _wyrd_.
  Wyrle, flew, B. 475.
  Wyschande, hoping for, wishing, A. 14.
  Wyse, manner, A. 1095; _wyses_, B. 1805.
  {Wyse, Wysse,} show, appear, A. 1135, B. 1564; direct, send out,
    B. 453; instruct, C. 60. A.S. _wissian_.
  {Wyst, Wyste,} knew, A. 376; B. 152.
  Wyt, wisdom, B. 348; C. 129.
  Wyt, know, learn, B. 1319, 1360. A.S. _witan_.
  Wyte, blame, B. 76; C. 501. A.S. _wítian_.
  Wyte, pass away (?), C. 397. A.S. _wítan_.
  Wyter, true, truly, B. 1552. O.N. _vitr_, wise, prudent.
      “& her ice wile shæwenn ȝaw
      Summ þing to _witter_ tákenn.” --(Ormulum, vol. i. p. 115.)
      “Ne þe nedder was noght bitter
      Þan, þowf he was ever _witter_;
      Ffor of alle, als sheus þe boke,
      Mast he cuth o crafte and crok.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 5b.)
  Wytered, informed, B. 1587.
  Wyterly, truly, B. 171, 1567. Dan. _vitterlig_, known, manifest.
  Wyþe, gentle, soft, C. 454. A.S. _wéthe_, soft, pleasant.
  Wyþer, contrary, opposite, A. 230; adverse, hostile, C. 48. S.Sax.
    _witherr_, adverse, evil. A.S. _witherian_, to oppose, resist.
    Cf. _wetheruns_ = _wetherings_, enemies, T. B. 5048.
      “Ga, _witherr_ gast, o bacch fra me.” --(Ormulum, vol. ii. p. 41.)
  Wyþerly, fiercely, angrily, B. 198; C. 74.
  Wyth-halde, withhold, B. 740.
  Wythouten, without, A. 390.
  Wytles, foolish, B. 1585; C. 113.
  Wytte, meaning, B. 1630; wit, A. 294; _wytteȝ_, devices, B. 515.
  {Wyȝ, Wyȝe,} person, being, A. 131, 579; B. 545. A.S. _wiga_,
    a warrior, soldier; _wig_, war.
  Wyȝt, quick, quickly, B. 617; C. 103. O.E. _wight_. Sw. _vig_, active.
  Wyȝtly, quickly, B. 908.
      “He waites vmbe hym _wightly_.” --(T. B. 876.)

  Ydropike, dropsical, B. 1096.
  Yle, isle, A. 693.
  Ylle, bad, evil, C. 8.
  Ynde, blue, A. 1016; B. 1411.
      “Þe toiþer heu neist (to grennes) for to find,
      Es al o _bleu_, men cals it _ynd_.”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 53a.)
  Yow, you, A. 287.
  Yor, your, A. 761.
  Yre, anger, B. 775, 1240.
  Yþe, wave, B. 430; C. 147. A.S. _ythu_, a wave, flood. S.Sax. _uthe_.
    “Þe roghe _yþes_.” --T. B. 1045.
  Yȝe, eye (_pl._ _yȝen_), A. 254, 302.

  Ȝare = yare, plainly, accurately, A. 834. A.S. _gearo_, ready,
    prepared, accurate.
  Ȝark, _adj._ select, B. 652; prepare, B. 1708; _vb._ to grant, B. 758.
    A.S. _gearcian_, to prepare, make ready. See T. B. 414.
  Ȝarm, cry, B. 971. As the character ȝ in these poems always represents
    _g_ or _gh_, _ȝarm_ is evidently not derived from the A.S. _cyrm_,
    noise, retained in O.E. _charm_, a humming noise, the cry of birds,
    etc., but is from the Welsh _garm_, shout, outcry; _garmio_, to set
    up a cry, from which the A.S. _cyrm_, is itself derived.
  Ȝate, gate, A. 1034.
  Ȝe, ye, A. 381.
  Ȝede (_pret._ of _go_), went, A. 526, 1049; B. 432.
  Ȝederly, quickly, soon, B. 463. O.N. _gedugr_, exceedingly. The
    adjective _ȝeder_ does not occur in the poems, but was not unknown
    to O.E. literature. It occurs in the glossary to the Romance of King
    Alexander, ed. Stevenson, but is left unexplained by the editor.
      “Then bownes agayn the bald kyng, baldly he wepis,
      That he so skitly suld skifte and fo his skars terme;
      So did his princes, sais the profe, for pete of himselfe,
      With _ȝedire_ ȝoskinges and ȝerre ȝette out to grete.”
      (p. 172.)
      “_Ȝedire ȝoskinges_ = great (frequent) sobbings.”
  Ȝelde, yield, perform, B. 665.
  Ȝellyng = yelling, outcry, B. 971. A.S. _geallian_, to yell.
    “_Ȝellyn’_ or hydowsly cryin’, Vociferor.” (Prompt. Parv.)
  Ȝeme, protect, guard, B. 1242, 1493. A.S. _géman_, to care for, take
    care of.
  Ȝemen, yeomen, A. 535.
  Ȝender, yonder, B. 1617.
  {Ȝep, Ȝepe,} quick, active, bold, B. 796, 881. A.S. _gæp_.
    “So yonge & so _ȝepe_.” T. B. 357.
  Ȝeply, quickly, B. 665, 1708. See T. B. 414.
  {Ȝer, Ȝere,} year, A. 483, 588.
  Ȝerne = yearn, desire, A. 1190; B. 66, 758.
  Ȝestande, B. 846. If from the A.S. _gæston_, “afflicted,” we may
    render this term “afflicting,” but if, as is more probable, it is
    from the A.S. _gist_, froth, yeast, we may explain it as “frothing,”
    “overflowing.” Cf. the phrase, “the _yesty_ waves.”
  Ȝete, offer, give, A. 558. O.E. _yate_ (_pret._ _yatte_). O.N. _géta_.
      “He _yatte_ hir freli al hir bone (prayer).”
        --(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 47a.)
    _Gate_, in T. B. 979, seems to mean a request.
      “And he hir graunted þat _gate_ with a good wille.”
  Ȝete, yet, A. 1061.
  Ȝeȝed, spoke, B. 846. Prov. Ger. _gaggen_, to stutter, gabble.
  Ȝif, if, B. 758.
  Ȝise, truly, yes, C. 117.
  Ȝisterday, yesterday, B. 463.
  Ȝokke, yoke, B. 66.
  Ȝolden, restored, B. 1708.
  Ȝolpe, _vb._ boast, B. 846. A.S. _gilpan_.
  Ȝomerly, sorrowful, lamentable, B. 971. A.S. _geomor_, sad;
    _geomorlíc_, doleful. Cf. _ȝomeryng_, T. B. 1722.
  Ȝon, yon, A. 693; B. 772.
  Ȝonde, yonder, B. 721.
  {Ȝong, Ȝonge,} young, A. 412, 474; B. 783.
  Ȝore, before, A. 586. A.S. _geara_.
  Ȝore-fader, forefather, A. 322.
  Ȝore-whyle, ere-while, B. 842.
  Ȝornen (_3rd pers. pl. pret._), ran, B. 881. A.S. _ge-yrnan_, to run.
  Ȝyrd, go, hasten, A. 635. The original meaning of _ȝyrd_ is perhaps a
    sudden sting, blow, hence to strike, then to start forward. Goth.
    _gazd_, a sting, goad. Lat. _hasta_. O.E. _gird_, to strike.
      “_Gird_ out the grete teth of the grym best.” --(T. B. 177.)



Errata (noted by transcriber)

Typographical Errors

  “Bacus he was brayne-wode for _bebbing_ of wynes.”  [ofwynes]
  Comyne, B.    . See T. B. 12863.
    [_printed as shown: the word “comynes” appears at B. 1747_]
    [_The only number that fits the space is 111. This entry is not in
    the 1864 edition; the editor may have left a space, intending to
    come back and fill in the correct line number._]
  {Endure, Endeure,} A. 476, 1082.
    [_“Eudeure” but body text and 1864 edition both have “Endeure”_]
  Harlot, underling ... To “do _harlottry_, scurrari.”
    [_open quote conjectural: also missing in 1864 edition_]
  Soerly, an error for _Soberly_, B. 117.
    [_“on error” but 1864 edition has “an error“_]
  {Sulp, Sulpe,} ... M.H.D. _be-sulwen_.
    [_printed as shown: error for “M.H.G.”?_]
  Styȝtle ... _stightill_ the Realme.”
    [_“the / the” at line break_]


Punctuation and Mechanics

  Abate, lessen, put an end to, A. 123; B. 1356.  [end to.]
  Atlyng ... (T. B. 855.)  [(T. B., 855).]
  Attled ... (T. B. 394.)  [T. B.,]
  Aunter, adventure, marvel, B. 1600. See T. B. 1899.  [T. B.,]
  Bagge, baggage. C. 158.  [C. 158,]
  Babtem, A. 627. See _Baptem_.  [_cross-reference not italicized_]
  Baronage, nobility, B. 1424. See T. B. 211.  [T. B.,]
  {Ben, Bene,} are _3rd. pers. pl._ A. 572.  [A 572.]
  “The kyng was full curteus, _calt_ on a maiden.”  [_” missing_]
  Bityde, betide; _pret._ bitydde, C. 61.  [_. missing_]
  Brych ... B. 848. ... Ger. _brechen_  [B. 848, ... Gr.]
  Byde, abide ... B. 449, 622.  [B. 449, 622,]
  Bysyde, beside, B. 673.  [B. 673,]
  {Cheuetayn, Cheuentayn,} ... O.Fr. _chevetaine_.  [_chevetaine_,]
  {Childer, Chylder,} children, A. 718; B. 1300.  [A. 718:]
  Enquylen, obtain, C. 39. See _Aquyle_.  [_Aquyle_..]
  Fest, Feste, feast, A. 283; B. 642, 1758.  [1758..]
  Flyte, to quarrel, strive ... _flitan_.  [_flitan_,]
  Founce ... See _Founs_.  [_cross-reference not italicized_]
  Grymme, horrible ... _grimm_, fury, rage;  [rage,;]
  Haspe, fasten, B. 419 ... Cf. “_haspyng_ in armys”  [_” missing_]
  {Hatel, Hattel,} ... S.Saxon _hatel_, _hetel_  [S.Saxon,]
  Heuen ... Or _heuen_ his harme with foli mare.”  [_” missing_]
  Hyre, _sb._ hire, wages, A. 534, 539.  [wages.,]
  Jauele ... --missing (MS. Lansd. 1033, in Hall.)  [_open ( missing_]
  {Kyþ, Kyþe,} ... (T. B. 103.)  [T. B.,]
  Lefsel ... Sw. _löfsal_  [_ö printed as small e over o_]
  Lote ... See T. B. 1900.  [T. B.,]
  {Neȝ, Neȝe, Neȝen,} approach, B. 32, 143, 805, 1017, 1754.
    [805 1017, 1754,]
  Pray, _sb._ prey, B. 1297; _vb._ to plunder, B. 1624.  [Pray.]
  Rowtande, rushing, B. 354. “A _routond_ rayn,” T. B. 1986.
    [_” missing_]
  Ruchen ... “[The king] Ricchis his reynys.”  [_. invisible_]
  Rwe, to pity, C. 176, 502  [C, 176,]
  Ryche, kingdom, A. 601, 722. A.S. _ríce_.  [A, 601,]
  Schauen, shaven, scraped, B. 1134.  [B, 1134.]
  Soberly, quietly ... B. 117, 799, 1497.  [799.]
  Stalle ... “Lia he (Jacob) _stalle_ until his bedd.”  [_. invisible_]
  Stour, conflict ... The folk al fled of Israel.”  [_. invisible_]
  Strot ... (... Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)  [_final . missing_]
  Swap ... “He swynges out with a swerd and _swappis_ him to dethe.”
    [_” missing_]
  Tenfully, sorrowfully, bitterly, B. 160.  [B. B.]
  Towche ... A. 898; B. 1437.  [_. missing_]
  Vglokest ... T. B. 877.  [T. B.,]
  Wafte ... same origin with _wafte_.  [_wafte_,]
  Waken ... (T. B. 404.)  [(T. B. 404).]
  {Wale, Walle,} ... T. 386, 4716  [_text unchanged_]
  {Walt, Walte,} ... Prov.E. _walt_, _welt_.  [_walt_.]
  {Wast, Waste,} destroy, B. 326, 431  [326, .431]
  {Worþely ... Worþyly,} ... beautiful, C. 475.  [beautiful;]
  Wyldren ... (Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 33a.)
    [_a in “33a” not italicized_]
  Wyȝtly ... (T. B. 876.)  [(T. B. 876).]
  Ȝete, offer, give ... O.N. _géta_.  [O.N,]
  Ȝyrd ... (T. B. 177.)  [(T. B. 177).]


      *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


The Pearl: Sidenotes

I.
Description of a lost pearl (_i.e._ a beloved child).
The father laments the loss of his pearl.
He often visits the spot where his pearl disappeared, and hears a
sweet song.
Where the pearl was buried there he found lovely flowers.
Each blade of grass springs from a dead grain.
In the high season of August the parent visits the grave of his lost
child.
Beautiful flowers covered the grave.
From them came a delicious odour.
The bereaved father wrings his hands for sorrow, falls asleep upon the
flowery plot, and dreams.

II.
In spirit he is carried to an unknown region, where the rocks and cliffs
gleamed gloriously.
The hill sides were decked with crystal cliffs.
The leaves of the trees were like burnished silver.
The gravel consisted of precious pearls.
The father forgets his sorrow.
He sees birds of the most beautiful hues, and hears their sweet melody.
No tongue could describe the beauty of the forest.
All shone like gold.
The dreamer arrives at the bank of a river, which gave forth sweet
sounds.
In it, stones glittered like stars in the welkin on a winter night.

III.
His grief abates, and he follows the course of the stream.
No one could describe his great joy.
He thought that Paradise was on the opposite bank.
The stream was not fordable.
More and more he desires to see what is beyond the brook.
But the way seemed difficult.
The dreamer finds new marvels.
He sees a crystal cliff, at the foot of which, sits a maiden clothed in
glistening white.
He knows that he has seen her before.
He desires to call her but is afraid, at finding her in such a strange
place.

IV.
So he stands still, like a well trained hawk.
He fears lest she should escape before he could speak to her.
His long lost one is dressed in royal array--decked with precious
pearls.
She comes along the stream towards him.
Her kirtle is composed of ‘sute,’ ornamented with pearls.
She wore a crown of pearls.
Her hair hung down about her.
Her colour was whiter than whalebone.
Her hair shone as gold.
The trimming of her robe consisted of precious pearls.
A wonderful pearl was set in her breast.
No man from here to Greece, was so glad as the father, when he saw his
pearl on the bank of the stream.
The maiden salutes him.

V.
The father enquires of the maiden whether she is his long-lost pearl,
and longs to know who has deprived him of his treasure.
The maiden tells him that his pearl is not really lost.
She is in a garden of delight, where sin and mourning are unknown.
The rose that he had lost is become a pearl of price.
The pearl blames his rash speech.
The father begs the maiden to excuse his speech, for he really thought
his pearl was wholly lost to him.
The maiden tells her father that he has spoken three words without
knowing the meaning of one.
The first word. The second. The third.

VI.
He is little to be praised who loves what he sees.
To love nothing but what one sees is great presumption.
To live in this kingdom (_i.e._ heaven) leave must be asked.
This stream must be passed over by death.
The father asks his pearl whether she is about to doom him to sorrow
again.
If he loses his pearl he does not care what happens to him.
The maiden tells her father to suffer patiently.
Though he may dance as any doe, yet he must abide God’s doom.
He must cease to strive.
All lies in God’s power to make men joyful or sad.

VII.
The father beseeches the pearl to have pity upon him.
He says that she has been both his bale and bliss.
And when he lost her, he knew not what had become of her.
And now that he sees her in bliss, she takes little heed of his sorrow.
He desires to know what life she leads.
The maiden tells him that he may walk and abide with her, now that he is
humble.
All are meek that dwell in the abode of bliss.
All lead a blissful life.
She reminds her father that she was very young when she died.
Now she is crowned a queen in heaven.

VIII.
The father of the maiden does not fully understand her.
Mary, he says, is the queen of heaven.
No one is able to remove the crown from her.
The maiden addresses the Virgin.
She then explains to her father that each has his place in heaven.
The court of God has a property in its own being.
Each one in it is a king or queen.
The mother of Christ holds the chief place.
We are all members of Christ’s body.
Look that each limb be perfect.
The father replies that he cannot understand how his pearl can be a
queen.
He desires to know what greater honour she can have.

IX.
She was only two years old when she died, and could do nothing to
please God.
She might be a countess or some great lady but not a queen.
The maiden informs her father that there is no limit to God’s power.
The parable of the labourers in the vineyard.
The lord of the vineyard hires workmen for a penny a day.
At noon the lord hires other men standing idle in the market place.
He commands them to go into his vineyard, and he will give them what is
right.
At an hour before the sun went down the lord sees other men
standing idle.
Tells them to go into the vineyard.

X.
As soon as the sun was gone down the “reeve” was told to pay the
workmen.
To give each a penny.
The first began to complain.
Having borne the heat of the day he thinks that he deserves more.
The lord tells him that he agreed only to give him a penny.
The last shall be first, and the first last.
The maiden applies the parable to herself.
She came to the vine in eventide, and yet received more than others who
had lived longer.
The father says that his daughter’s tale is unreasonable.

XI.
In heaven, the maiden says, each man is paid alike.
God is no niggard.
The grace of God is sufficient for all.
Those who live long on the earth often forfeit heaven by sinning.
Innocents are saved by baptism.
Why should not God allow their labour.
Our first father lost heaven by eating an apple.
And all are damned for the sin of Adam.
But there came one who paid the penalty of our sins.
The water that came from the pierced side of Christ was baptism.

XII.
Repentance must be sought by prayer with sorrow and affliction.
The guilty may be saved by contrition.
Two sorts of people are saved, the _righteous_ and the _innocent_.
The words of David.
The innocent is saved by right.
The words of Solomon.
David says no man living is justified.
Pray to be saved by innocence and not by right.
When Jesus was on earth, little children were brought unto him.
The disciples rebuked the parents.
Christ said, “Suffer little children to come unto me,” etc.

XIII.
No one can win heaven except he be meek as a child.
The pearl of price is like the kingdom of heaven, pure and clean.
Forsake the mad world and purchase the spotless pearl.
The father of the maiden desires to know who formed her figure and
wrought her garments.
Her beauty, he says, is not natural.
Her colour passes the fleur-de-lis.
The maiden explains to her father that she is a bride of Christ.
She is without spot or blemish.
Her weeds are washed in the blood of Christ.
The father asks the nature of the Lamb that has chosen his daughter, and
why she is selected as a bride.

XIV.
The Lamb has one hundred and forty thousand brides.
St. John saw them on the hill of Sion in a dream, in the new city of
Jerusalem.
Isaiah speaks of Christ or the Lamb.
He says that He was led as a lamb to the slaughter.
In Jerusalem was Christ slain.
With buffets was His face flayed.
He endured all patiently as a lamb.
For us He died in Jerusalem.
The declaration of St. John, “Behold the Lamb of God,” etc.
Who can reckon His generation, that died in Jerusalem?
In the New Jerusalem St. John saw the Lamb sitting upon the throne.

XV.
The Lamb is without blemish.
Every spotless soul is a worthy bride for the Lamb.
No strife or envy among the brides.
None can have less bliss than another.
Our death leads us to bliss.
What St. John saw upon the Mount of Sion.
About the Lamb he saw one hundred and forty thousand maidens.
He heard a voice from heaven, like many floods.
He heard the maiden sing a new song.
So did the four beasts and the elders “so sad of cheer.”
This assembly was like the Lamb, spotless and pure.
The father replies to the maiden.
He says he is but dust and ashes.
He wishes to ask one question, whether the brides have their abode in
castle-walls or in manor.

XVI.
Jerusalem, he says, in Judea.
But the dwelling of the brides should be perfect.
For such “a comely pack” a great castle would be required.
The city in Judæa, answers the maiden, is where Christ suffered, and is
the Old Jerusalem.
The New Jerusalem is where the Lamb has assembled his brides.
Jerusalem means the city of God.
In the Old city our peace was made at one.
In the New city is eternal peace.

XVII.
The father prays his daughter to bring him to the blissful bower.
His daughter tells him that he shall see the outside, but not a foot may
he put in the city.

XVIII.
The maiden then tells her father to go along the bank till he comes to
a hill.
He reaches the hill, and beholds the heavenly city.
As St. John saw it, so he beheld it.
The city was of burnished gold.
Pitched upon gems, the foundation composed of twelve stones.
The names of the precious stones.
i. Jasper. ii. Sapphire. iii. Chalcedony. iv. Emerald.
v. Sardonyx. vi. Ruby. vii. Chrysolite. viii. Beryl.
ix. Topaz. x. Chrysoprasus. xi. Jacinth. xii. Amethyst.
The city was square.
The wall was of jasper.
Twelve thousand furlongs in length and breadth.

XIX.
Each “pane” had three gates.
Each gate adorned with a pearl.
Such light gleamed in all the streets, that there was no need of the sun
or moon.
God was the light of those in the city.
The high throne might be seen, upon which the “high God” sat.
A river ran out of the throne; it flowed through each street.
No church was seen.
God was the church; Christ the sacrifice.
The gates were ever open.
There is no night in the city.
The planets, and the sun itself, are dim compared to the divine light.
Trees there renew their fruit every month.
The beholder of this fair city stood still as a “dased quail.”

XX.
As the moon began to rise he was aware of a procession of virgins
crowned with pearls, in white robes, with a pearl in their breast.
As they went along they shone as glass.
The Lamb went before them.
There was no pressing.
The “alder men” fell groveling at the feet of the Lamb.
All sang in praise of the Lamb.
The Lamb wore white weeds.
A wide wound was seen near his breast.
Joy was in his looks.
The father perceives his little queen.

XIX.
Great delight takes possession of his mind.
He attempts to cross the stream.
It was not pleasing to the Lord.
The dreamer awakes, and is in great sorrow.
He addresses his pearl; laments his rash curiosity.
Men desire more than they have any right to expect.
The good Christian knows how to make peace with God.
God give us grace to be his servants!

       *       *       *       *
   *       *       *       *       *

Cleanness: Sidenotes

I.
Cleanness discloses fair forms.
God is angry with the unclean worshipper, and with false priests.
The pure worshipper receives great reward.
The impure will bring upon them the anger of God, Who is pure and holy.
It would be a marvel if God did not hate evil.
Christ showed us that himself.
St. Matthew records the discourse.
The clean of heart shall look on our Lord.
What earthly noble, when seated at table above dukes, would like to see
a lad badly attired approach the table with “rent cockers,” his coat
torn and his toes out?
For any one of these he would be turned out with a “big buffet,” and be
forbidden to re-enter, and thus be ruined through his vile clothes.
The parable of the “Marriage of the King’s Son.”
The king’s invitation.
Those invited begin to make excuses.
One had bought an estate and must go to see it.
Another had purchased some oxen and wished to see them “pull in the
plough.”
A third had married a wife and could not come.
The Lord was greatly displeased, and commanded his servants to invite
the wayfaring, both men and women, the better and the worse, that his
palace might be full.
The servants brought in bachelors and squires.
When they came to the court they were well entertained.
The servants tell their lord that they have done his behest, and there
is still room for more guests.
The Lord commands them to go out into the fields, and bring in the halt,
blind, and “one-eyed.”
For those who denied shall not taste “one sup” to save them from death.
The palace soon became full of “people of all plights.”
They were not all one wife’s sons, nor had they all one father.
The “brightest attired” had the best place.
Below sat those with “poor weeds.”
All are well entertained “with meat and minstrelsy.”
Each with his “mate” made him at ease.

II.
The lord of the feast goes among his guests.
Bids them be merry.
On the floor he finds one not arrayed for a holyday.
Asks him how he obtained entrance, and how he was so bold as to appear
in such rags.
Does he take him to be a harlot?
The man becomes discomfited.
He is unable to reply.
The lord commands him to be bound, and cast into a deep dungeon.
This feast is likened to the kingdom of heaven, to which all are
invited.
See that thy weeds are clean.
Thy weeds are thy works that thou hast wrought.
For many faults may a man forfeit bliss.
For sloth and pride he is thrust into the devil’s throat.
He is ruined by covetousness, perjury, murder, theft, and strife.
For robbery and ribaldry, for preventing marriages, and supporting the
wicked, for treason, treachery, and tyranny, man may lose eternal bliss.

III.
The high Prince of all is displeased with those who work wickedly.
For the first fault the devil committed, he felt God’s vengeance.
He, the fairest of all angels, forsook his sovereign, and boasted that
his throne should be as high as God’s.
For these words he was cast down to hell.
The fiends fell from heaven, like the thick snow, for forty days.
From heaven to hell the shower lasted.
The devil would not make peace with God.
Affliction makes him none the better.
For the fault of one, vengeance alighted upon all men.
Adam was ordained to live in bliss.
Through Eve he ate an apple.
Thus all his descendants became poisoned.
A maiden brought a remedy for mankind.

IV.
Malice was merciless.
A race of men came into the world, the fairest, the merriest, and the
strongest that ever were created.
They were sons of Adam.
No law was laid upon them.
Nevertheless they acted unnaturally.
The “_fiends_” beheld how fair were the daughters of these mighty men,
and made fellowship with them and begat a race of giants.
The greatest fighter was reckoned the most famous.
The Creater of all becomes exceedingly wroth.
Fell anger touches His heart.
It repents Him that He has made man.
He declares that all flesh shall be destroyed, both man and beast.
There was at this time living on the earth a very righteous man: Noah
was his name.
Three bold sons he had.
God in great anger speaks to Noah.
Declares that He will destroy all “that life has.”
Commands him to make “a mansion” with dwellings for wild and tame.
To let the ark be three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in breadth,
and thirty in height, and a window in it a cubit square.
Also a good shutting door in the side, together with halls, recesses,
bushes, and bowers, and well-formed pens.
For all flesh shall be destroyed, except Noah and his family.
Noah is told to take into the ark seven pairs of every clean beast, and
one of unclean kind, and to furnish the ark with proper food.
Noah fills the ark.

V.
God asks Noah whether all is ready.
Noah replies that all is fully prepared.
He is commanded to enter the ark, for God tells him that he will send a
rain to destroy all flesh.
Noah stows all safely in the ark.
Seven days are passed.
The deep begins to swell, banks are broken down, and the clouds burst.
It rains for forty days, and the flood rises, and flows over the woods
and fields.
All must drown.
The water enters the houses.
Each woman with her bairns flees to the hills.
The rain never ceases.
The valleys are filled.
People flock to the mountains.
Some swim for their lives.
Others roar for fear.
Animals of all kinds run to the hills.
All pray for mercy.
God’s mercy is passed from them.
Each sees that he must sink.
Friends take leave of one another.
Forty days have gone by, and all are destroyed.
All rot in the mud, except Noah and his family, who are safe in the ark.
The ark is lifted as high as the clouds, and is driven about, without
mast, bowline, cables, anchors, or sail to guide its course.
At the mercy of the winds.
Oft it rolled around and reared on end.
The age of the patriarch Noah.
Duration of the flood.
The completeness of the destruction.
God remembers those in the ark.
He causes a wind to blow, and closes the lakes and wells, and the
great deep.
The ark settles on Mount Ararat.
Noah beholds the bare earth.
He opens his window and sends out the raven to seek dry land.
The raven “croaks for comfort” on finding carrion.
He fills his belly with the foul flesh.
The lord of the ark curses the raven, and sends out the dove.
The bird wanders about the whole day.
Finding no rest, she returns about eventide to Noah.
Noah again sends out the dove.

VI.
The dove returns with an olive branch in her beak.
This was a token of peace and reconciliation.
Joy reigns in the ark.
The people therein laugh and look thereout.
God permits Noah and his sons to leave the ark.
Noah offers sacrifice to God.
It is pleasing to Him that “all speeds or spoils.”
God declares that He will never destroy the world for the sin of man.
That summer and winter shall never cease.
Nor night nor day, nor the new years.
God blesses every beast.
Each fowl takes its flight.
Each fish goes to the flood.
Each beast makes for the plain.
Wild worms wriggle to their abodes in the earth.
The fox goes to the woods.
Harts to the heath, and hares to the gorse.
Lions and leopards go to the lakes.
Eagles and hawks to the high rocks.
The four ‘frekes’ take the empire.
Behold what woe God brought on mankind for their hateful deeds!
Beware of the filth of the flesh.
“One speck of a spot” will ruin us in the sight of God.
The beryl is clean and sound,--it has no seam.

VII.
When God repented that he had made man, he destroyed all flesh.
But afterwards He was sorry, and made a covenant with mankind that He
would not again destroy all the living.
For the filth of the flesh God destroyed a rich city.
God hates the wicked as “hell that stinks.”
Especially harlotry and blasphemy.
Nothing is hidden from God.
God is the ground of all deeds.
He honours the man that is honest and whole.
But for deeds of shame He destroys the mighty ones.

VIII.
Abraham is sitting before his house-door under a green oak.
He sees three men coming along, and goes toward them.
He entreats them to rest awhile, that he may wash their feet, and bring
them a morsel of bread.
Abraham commands Sarah to make some cakes quickly, and tells his servant
to seethe a tender kid.
Abraham appears bare-headed before his guests.
He casts a clean cloth on the green, and sets before them cakes, butter,
milk, and pottage.
God praises his friend’s feast, and after the meat is removed, He tells
Abraham that Sarah shall bear him a son.
Sarah, who is behind the door, laughs in unbelief.
God tells Abraham that Sarah laughs at His words.
Sarah denies that she laughed.
Abraham’s guests set out towards Sodom, two miles from Mamre.
The patriarch accompanies them.
God determines to reveal to Abraham his secret purposes.

IX.
He informs him of the destruction about to fall upon the cities of
the plain, for their great wickedness, in abusing the gifts bestowed
upon them.
The ordinance of marriage had been made for them, but they foully set it
at nought.
The flame of love.
Therefore shall they be destroyed as an example to all men for ever.
Abraham is full of fear, and asks God whether the “sinful and the
sinless” are to suffer together.
Whether he will spare the cities provided fifty righteous are found
in them?
For the sake of fifty the cities shall be spared.
The patriarch beseeches God to spare the city for the sake of forty-five
righteous.
For the lack of five the cities shall not be destroyed.
For forty the cities shall be spared.
Abraham entreats God’s forbearance for his speech.
Thirty righteous, found in the cities, shall save them from destruction.
For the sake of twenty guiltless ones God will release the rest.
Or if ten only should be found pure.
The patriarch intercedes for Lot.
Beseeches Him to “temper His ire,” and then departs weeping for sorrow.

X.
God’s messengers go to Sodom.
Lot is sitting alone at the “door of his lodge.”
Staring into the street he sees two men.
Beardless chins they had, and hair like raw silk.
Beautifully white were their weeds.
Lot runs to meet them.
Invites them to remain awhile in his house, and in the morning they may
take their way.
Lot invites them so long that at last they comply.
The wife and daughters of Lot welcome their visitors.
Lot admonishes his men to prepare the meat, and to serve no salt
with it.
Lot’s wife disregards the injunction.
The guests are well entertained.
But before they go to rest the city is up in arms.
With “keen clubs” the folk clatter on the walls, and demand that Lot
should deliver up his guests.
The wind yet stinks with their filthy speech.
Lot is in great trouble.
He leaves his guests and addresses the Sodomites.
He offers to give up to them his two daughters.
The rebels raise a great noise, and ask who made him a justice to judge
their deeds, who was but a boy when he came to Sodom.
The young men bring Lot within doors, and smite those outside with
blindness.
In vain they try to find the door of Lot’s house.

XI.
Early in the morning the angels command Lot to depart from Sodom, with
his wife and two daughters, and to look straight before him, for Sodom
and Gomorrah shall be destroyed.
Lot asks what is best to be done, that he may escape.
He is told to choose himself a dwelling which shall be saved from
destruction.
He chooses Zoar.
The angels command Lot to depart quickly.
He wakes his wife and daughters.
All four are hastened on by the angels, who “preach to them the peril”
of delay.
Before daylight Lot comes to a hill.
God aloft raises a storm.
A rain falls thick of fire and sulphur.
Upon the four cities it comes, and frightens all folks therein.
The great bars of the abyss do burst.
Cliffs cleave asunder.
The cities sink to hell.
Such a cry arises that the clouds clatter again.
Lot and his companions are frightened, but continue to follow
their face.
Lot’s wife looks behind her, and is turned to a stiff stone “as salt as
any sea.”
Her companions do not miss her till they reach Zoar.
By this time all were drowned.
The people of Zoar, for dread, rush into the sea and are destroyed.
Only Zoar with three therein (Lot and his daughters) are saved.
Lot’s wife is an image of salt for two faults:
1. She served salt before the Lord at supper.
2. She looked behind her.
Abraham is up full early on the morn.
He looks towards Sodom, now only a pit filled with pitch, from which
rise smoke, ashes and cinders, as from a furnace.
A sea now occupies the place of the four cities.
It is a stinking pool, and is called the Dead Sea.
Nothing may live in it.
Lead floats on its surface.
A feather sinks to the bottom of it.
Lands, watered by this sea, never bear grass or weed.
A man cannot be drowned in it.
The clay clinging to it is corrosive, as alum, alkaran, sulphur, etc.,
which fret the flesh and fester the bones.
On the shores of this lake grow trees bearing fair fruits, which, when
broken or bitten, taste like ashes.
All these are tokens of wickedness and vengeance.
God loves the pure in heart.
Strive to be clean.
Jean de Meun tells how a lady is to be loved.
By doing what pleases her best.
Love thy Lord!
Conform to Christ, who is polished as a pearl.
By how comely a contrivance did he enter the womb of the virgin!
In what purity did he part from her!
No abode was better than his.
The sorrow of childbirth was turned to joy.
Angels solaced the virgin with organs and pipes.
The child Christ was so clean that ox and ass worshipped him.
He hated wickedness, and would never touch ought that was vile.
Yet there came to him lazars and lepers, lame and blind.
Dry and dropsical folk.
He healed all with kind speech.
His handling was so good, that he needed no knife to cut or carve with.
The bread he broke more perfectly than could all the tools of Toulouse.
How can we approach his court except we be clean?
God is merciful.
Through penance we may shine as a pearl.
Why is the pearl so prized?
She becomes none the worse for wear.
If she should become dim, wash her in wine.
She then becomes clearer than before.
So may the sinner polish him by penance.
Beware of returning to sin.
For then God is more displeased than ever.
The reconciled soul God holds as His own.
Ill deeds rob Him of it.
God forbids us to defile any vessels used in His service.
In Belshazzar’s time, the defiling of God’s vessels brought wrath upon
the king.

XII.
Daniel in his prophecies tells of the destruction of the Jews.
For their unfaithfulness in following other gods, God allowed the
heathen to destroy them, in the reign of Zedekiah, who practised
idolatry.
Nebuchadnezzar becomes his foe.
He besieges Jerusalem, and surrounds the walls.
The city is stuffed full of men.
Brisk is the skirmish.
Seven times a day are the gates assailed.
For two years the fight goes on, yet the city is not taken.
The folk within are in want of food.
Meager they become.
For so shut up are they that escape seems impossible.
But on a quiet night they steal out, and rush through the host.
They are discovered by the enemy.
A loud alarm is given.
They are pursued and overtaken.
Their king is made prisoner.
His chief men are presented as prisoners to Nebuchadnezzar.
His sons are slain.
His own eyes are put out.
He is placed in a dungeon in Babylon.
All for his “bad bearing” against the Lord, who might otherwise have
been his friend.
Nebuchadnezzar ceased not until he had destroyed Jerusalem.
Nebuzaradan was “chief of the chivalry.”
The best men were taken out of the city.
Nevertheless Nebuzaradan spared not those left.
Brains of bairns were spilt.
Priests pressed to death.
Wives and wenches foully killed.
All that escaped the sword were taken to Babylon, and were made to drag
the cart or milk the kine.
Nebuzaradan burst open the temple, and slew those therein.
Priests, pulled by the poll, were slain along with deacons, clerks, and
maidens.
The enemy pillages the temple of its pillars of brass, and the golden
candlestick from off the altar.
Goblets, basins, golden dishes, all are taken by Nebuzaradan, and
hampered together.
Solomon had made them with much labour.
The temple he beats down, and returns to Babylon.
Presents the prisoners to the king, among whom were Daniel and his three
companions.
Nebuchadnezzar has great joy, because his enemies are slain.
Great was his wonder when he saw the sacred jewelry.
He praises the God of Israel.
Such vessels never before came to Chaldea.
They are thrust into the treasury.
Nebuchadnezzar reigns as emperor of all the earth, through the “doom of
Daniel,” who gave him good counsel.
Nebuchadnezzar dies and is buried.
Belshazzar succeeds him.
He holds himself the biggest in heaven or on earth.
He honours not God, but worships false phantoms.
He promises them rewards if good fortune befal.
If they vex him he knocks them in pieces.
He has a wife, and many concubines.
The mind of the king was fixed upon new meats and other vain things.

XIII.
Belshazzar, to exhibit his vainglory, proclaims throughout Babylon, that
all the great ones should assemble on a set day, at the Sultan’s feast.
Kings, dukes, and lords were commanded to attend the court.
To do the king honour many nobles came to Babylon.
It would take too long to name the number.
The city of Babylon is broad and big.
It is situated on a plain, surrounded by seven streams, a high wall, and
towers.
The palace was long and large, each side being seven miles in length.
High houses were within the walls.
The time of the feast has come.
Belshazzar sits upon his throne: the hall floor is covered with knights.
When all are seated, service begins.
Trumpets sound everywhere.
Bread is served upon silver dishes.
All sorts of musical instruments are heard in the hall.
The king, surrounded by his loves, drinks copiously of wine.
It gets into his head and stupifies him.
A cursed thought takes possession of him.
He commands his marshal to bring him the vessels taken from the temple
by Nebuchadnezzar, and to fill them with wine.
The marshal opens the chests.
Covers the cupboard with vessels.
The Jewels of Jerusalem deck the sides of the hall.
The altar and crown, blessed by bishop’s hands, and anointed with the
blood of beasts, are set before the bold Belshazzar.
Upon this altar were noble vessels curiously carved, basins of gold,
cups arrayed like castles with battlements, and towers with lofty
pinnacles.
Upon them were pourtrayed branches and leaves, the flowers of which were
white pearls, and the fruit flaming gems.
The goblets were ornamented with flowers of gold.
The candlestick was brought in, with its pillars of brass, and
ornamental boughs, upon which sat birds of various hues.
Lights shone bright from the candlestick, which once stood before the
“Holy of Holies.”
The pollution of the sacred vessels is displeasing to God.
For “a boaster on bench” drinks from them till he is as “drunken as the
devil.”
God is very angry.
Before harming the revellers He sends them a warning.
Belshazzar commands the sacred vessels to be filled with wine.
The cups and bowls are soon filled.
Music of all kind is heard in the hall.
Dukes, princes, concubines, and knights, all are merry.
Drinking of the sweet liquors they ask favours of their gods, who,
although dumb, are as highly praised “as if heaven were theirs.”
A marvel befals the feasters.
The king first saw it.
Upon the plain wall, “a palm with pointel in fingers” is seen writing.
The bold Belshazzar becomes frightened.
His knees knock together.
He roars for dread, still beholding the hand, as it wrote on the
rough wall.
The hand vanishes but the letters remain.
The king recovers his speech and sends for the “book-learned;” but none
of the scholars were wise enough to read it.
Belshazzar is nearly mad.
Commands the city to be searched throughout for the “wise of
witchcraft.”
He who expounds the strange letters, shall be clothed in “gowns of
purple.”
A collar of gold shall encircle his throat.
He shall be the third lord in the realm.
As soon as this cry was upcast, to the hall came clerks out of Chaldea,
witches and diviners, sorcerers and exorcists.
But after looking on the letters they were as ignorant as if they had
looked into the leather of the left boot.
The king curses them all and calls them churls.
He orders the harlots to be hanged.
The queen hears the king chide.
She inquires the cause.
Goes to the king, kneels before him, and asks why he has rent his robes
for grief, when there is one that has the Spirit of God, the counsellor
of Nebuchadnezzar, the interpreter of his dreams, through the holy
Spirit of God.
The name of this man is Daniel, who was brought a captive from Judæa.
The queen tells the king to send for Daniel.
Her counsel is accepted.
Daniel comes before Belshazzar.
The king tells him that he has heard of his wisdom, and his power to
discover hidden things, and that he wants to know the meaning of the
writing on the wall.
Promises him, if he can explain the text of the letters and their
interpretation, to clothe him in purple and pall, and put a ring about
his neck, and to make him “a baron upon bench.”
Daniel addresses the king, and reminds him how that God supported his
father, and gave him power to exalt or abase whomsoever he pleased.
Nebuchadnezzar was established on account of his faith in God.
So long as he remained true, no man was greater.
But at last pride touches his heart.
He forgets the power of God, and blasphemes His name.
He says that he is “god of the ground,” and the builder of Babylon.
Hardly had Nebuchadnezzar spoken, when God’s voice is heard, saying,
“Thy principality is departed.
Thou, removed from men, must abide on the moor, and walk with wild
beasts, eat herbs, and dwell with wolves and asses.”
For his pride he becomes an outcast.
He believes himself to be a bull or an ox.
Goes “on all fours,” like a cow, for seven summers.
His thighs grew thick.
His hair became matted and thick, from the shoulders to the toes.
His beard touched the earth.
His brows were like briars.
His eyes were hollow, and grey as the kite’s.
Eagle-hued he was.
At last he recovered his “wit,” and believed in God.
Then soon was he restored to his seat.
But thou, Belshazzar, hast disregarded these signs, and hast blasphemed
the Lord, defiled his vessels, filling them with wine for thy wenches,
and praising thy lifeless gods.
For this sin God has sent thee this strange sight, the fist with the
fingers writing on the wall.
These are the words: “Mene, Tekel, Peres.
Mene.-- God has counted thy kingdom and finished it.
Tekel.-- Thy reign is weighed and is found wanting in deeds of faith.
Peres.-- Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Persians.
The Medes shall be masters here.”
The king commands Daniel to be clothed in a frock of fine cloth.
Soon is he arrayed in purple, with a chain about his neck.
A decree is made, that all should bow to him, as the third lord that
followed Belshazzar.
The decree was made known, and all were glad.
The day, however, past.
Night came on.
Before another day dawned, Daniel’s words were fulfilled.
The feast lasts till the sun falls.
The skies become dark.
Each noble hies home to his supper.
Belshazzar is carried to bed, but never rises from it, for his foes are
seeking to destroy his land, and are assembled suddenly.
The enemy is Darius, leader of the Medes.
He has legions of armed men.
Under cover of the darkness, they cross the river.
By means of ladders they get upon the walls, and within an hour enter
the city, without disturbing any of the watch.
They run into the palace, and raise a great cry.
Men are slain in their beds.
Belshazzar is beaten to death, and caught by the heels, is foully cast
into a ditch.
Darius is crowned king, and makes peace with the barons.
Thus the land was lost for the king’s sin.
He was cursed for his uncleanness, and deprived of his honour, as well
as of the joys of heaven.
Thus in three ways has it been shown, that uncleanness makes God angry.
Cleanness is His comfort.
The seemly shall see his face.
God give us grace to serve in His sight!

       *       *       *       *
   *       *       *       *       *

Patience: Sidenotes

I.
Patience is often displeasing, but it assuages heavy hearts, and
quenches malice.
Happiness follows sorrow.
It is better to suffer than to be angry.
Matthew tells us of the promises made by Christ: Blessed are the poor,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are the meek, for they shall “wield the world.”
Blessed are the mourners, for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the hungry, for they shall be filled.
Blessed are the merciful, for mercy shall be their reward.
Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see the Saviour.
Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called God’s sons.
Blessed are they that live aright, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
These blessings are promised to those who follow poverty, pity, penance,
meekness, mercy, chastity, peace and patience.
Poverty and patience are to be treated together.
They are “fettled in one form,” and have one meed.
Poverty will dwell where she lists, and man must needs suffer.
Poverty and patience are play-fellows.
What avails impatience, if God send affliction?
Patience is best.
Did not Jonah incur danger by his folly?

II.
Jonah was a prophet of the gentiles.
God’s word came to him, saying, “Rise quickly, take the way to Nineveh.
Say that which I shall put in thine heart.
Wickedness dwells in that city.
Go swiftly and carry my message.”
Jonah is full of wrath.
He is afraid that the shrews will put him in the stocks, or put out
his eyes.
He thinks that God desires his death.
He determines not to go near the city, but fly to Tarshish.
Grumbling, he goes to port Joppa.
He says that God will not be able to protect him.
Jonah reaches the port, finds a ship ready to sail.
The seamen catch up the cross-sail, fasten the cables, weigh their
anchors, and spread sail.
A gentle wind wafts the ship along.
Was never a Jew so joyful as was Jonah then.
He has, however, put himself in peril, in fleeing from God.
The words of David.
Does He not hear, who made all ears?
He is not blind that formed each eye.
Jonah is now in no dread.
He is, however, soon overtaken.
The wielder of all things has devices at will.
He commands Eurus and Aquilo to blow.
The winds blow obedient to His word.
Out of the north-east the noise begins.
Storms arose, winds wrestled together, the waves rolled high, and never
rested.
Then was Jonah joyless.
The boat reeled around.
The gear became out of order.
Ropes and mast were broken.
A loud cry is raised, Many a lad labours to lighten the ship.
They throw overboard their bags and feather beds.
But still the wind rages, and the waves become wilder.
Each man calls upon his god.
Some called upon Vernagu, Diana, and Neptune, to the sun and to
the moon.
Then said one of the sailors: “Some lawless wretch, that has grieved his
God, is in the ship.
I advise that we lay lots upon each man.
When the guilty is gone the tempest may cease.”
This is agreed to.
All are assembled, from all corners of the ship, save Jonah the Jew, who
had fled into the bottom of the boat.
There he falls asleep.
Soon he is aroused, and brought on board.
Full roughly is he questioned.
The lot falls upon Jonah.
Then quickly they said: “What the devil hast thou done, doted wretch?
What seekest thou on the sea?
Hast thou no God to call upon?
Of what land art thou?
Thou art doomed for thy ill deeds.”
Jonah says: “I am a Hebrew, a worshipper of the world’s Creator.
All this mischief is caused by me, therefore cast me overboard.”
He proves to them that he was guilty.
The mariners are exceedingly frightened.
They try to make way with their oars, but their endeavours are useless.
Jonah must be doomed to death.
They pray to God, that they may not shed innocent blood.
Jonah is cast overboard.
The tempest ceases and the sea settles.
The stiff streams drive the ship about.
At last they reach a bank.
The seamen thank God, and perform solemn vows.
Jonah is in great dread.

III.
Jonah is shoved from the ship.
A wild whale swims by the boat.
He opens his swallow, and seizes the prophet.
It is not to be wondered at that Jonah suffered woe.
The prophet is without hope.
Cold was his comfort.
Jonah was only a mote in the whale’s jaws.
He entered in by the gills, and by means of one of the intestines of the
fish, came into a space as large as a hall.
The prophet fixes his feet firmly in the belly of the whale.
He searches into every nook of its navel.
The prophet calls upon God.
He cries for mercy.
He sits safely in a recess, in a bowel of the beast, for three days and
three nights.
The whale passes through many a rough region.
Jonah makes the whale feel sick.
The prophet prays to God in this wise:

IV.
“Lord! to thee have I cried out of hell’s womb.
Thou dippedst me in the sea.
Thy great floods passed over me.
The streams drive over me.
I am cast out from thy sight.
The abyss binds me.
The rushing waves play on my head.
Thou possessest my life.
In my anguish I remembered my God, and besought His pity.
When I am delivered from this danger, I will obey thy commands.”
God speaks fiercely to the whale, and he vomits out the prophet on a dry
space.
Jonah has need to wash his clothes.
God’s word comes to the prophet.
He is told to preach in Nineveh.
By night Jonah reaches the city.
Nineveh was a very great city.
Jonah delivers his message; “Yet forty days and Nineveh shall come to
an end.
It shall be turned upside down, and swallowed quickly by the black
earth.”
This speech spreads throughout the city.
Great fear seizes all.
The people mourn secretly, clothe themselves in sackcloth, and cast
ashes upon their heads.
The message reaches the ears of the king.
He rends his robes, clothes himself in sackloth, and mourns in the dust.
He issues a decree, that all in the city, men, beasts, women and
children, prince, priest, and prelates, should fast for their sins.
Children are to be weaned from the breast.
The ox is to have no hay, nor the horse any water.
Who can tell if God will have mercy?
Though He is mighty, He is merciful, and may forgive us our guilt.
All believed and repented.
God forgave them through his goodness.

V.
Much sorrow settles upon Jonah.
He becomes very angry.
He prays to God and says: “Was not this my saying, when Thy message
reached me in my own country?
I knew Thy great goodness, Thy long-suffering, and Thy mercy.
I knew these men might make their peace with Thee, therefore I fled unto
Tarshish.
Take my life from me, O Lord!
It is better for me to die than live.”
God upbraids Jonah, saying: “Is this right to be so wroth?”
Jonah, jangling, uprises, and makes himself a bower, of hay and
ever-fern, to shield him from the sun.
He slept heavily all night.
God prepared a woodbine.
Jonah awakes, and is exceedingly glad of the bower.
The prophet, under its gracious leaves, is protected from the
sun’s rays.
Jonah wishes he had such a lodge in his own country.
God prepared a worm, that made the woodbine wither.
Jonah awakes and finds his woodbine destroyed.
The leaves were all faded.
The sun beat upon the head of Jonah.
He is exceedingly angry, and prays God that he may die.
God rebukes the prophet.
“Dost thou well,” He says, “to be angry for the gourd?”
Jonah replies, “I would I were dead.”
God asks if it is to be wondered at that He should help His handy work.
Is not Jonah angry that his woodbine is destroyed, which cost him no
labour?
God is not to be blamed for taking pity upon people that He made.
Should He destroy Nineveh the sorrow of such a sweet place would sink to
His heart.
In the city there are little bairns who have done no wrong.
And there are others who cannot discern between their right hand and
their left hand.
There are also dumb beasts in the city incapable of sinning.
Judgment must be tempered with mercy.
He that is too hasty to rend his clothes must afterwards sit with worse
ones to sew them together.
Poverty and pain must be endured.
Patience is a noble point, though it displeases oft.





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translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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