Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
Author: Moss, James A. (James Alfred), 1872-1941
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Manual of Military Training

(SECOND, REVISED EDITION)

BY

COLONEL JAMES A. MOSS

UNITED STATES ARMY

(Officially adopted by ONE HUNDRED AND FIVE [105] of our military
schools and colleges.)

Intended, primarily, for use in connection with the instruction and
training of Cadets in our military schools and colleges and of COMPANY
officers of the National Army, National Guard, and Officers' Reserve
Corps; and secondarily, as a guide for COMPANY officers of the Regular
Army, the aim being to make efficient fighting COMPANIES and to
qualify our Cadets and our National Army, National Guard and Reserve
Corps officers for the duties and responsibilities of COMPANY officers
in time of war.

[Illustration]

Price $2.25

GENERAL AGENTS

GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Army and College Printers
MENASHA--WISCONSIN



_Copyright 1917_

_By_

JAS. A. MOSS


    FIRST EDITION

    First impression (October, 1914)            10,000
    Second impression (September, 1915)         10,000
    Third impression (March, 1916)              10,000
    Fourth impression (July, 1916)              10,000
    Fifth impression (February, 1917)            3,000
    Sixth impression (April, 1917)               4,000

    SECOND EDITION

    First impression (May, 1917)                40,000
    Second impression (August, 1917)            30,000
    Third impression (November, 1917)           50,000
                                               -------
    Total                                      167,000


Publishers and General Distributers
GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING CO., MENASHA, WIS.


OTHER DISTRIBUTERS
(Order from nearest one)

    =Boston, Mass.= The Harding Uniform and Regalia Co., 22 School St.
    =Chicago, Ill.= A. C. McClurg & Co.
    =Columbus, Ohio.= The M. C. Lilley & Co.
    =Fort Leavenworth, Kan.=
      U. S. Cavalry Association.
      Book Dept., Army Service Schools.
    =Fort Monroe, Va.= Journal U. S. Artillery.
    =Kalamazoo, Mich.= Henderson-Ames Co.
    =New York.=
      Baker & Taylor Co., 4th Ave.
      Army and Navy Coöperative Co., 16 East 42nd St.
      Ridabock & Co., 140 West 36th St.
      Warnock Uniform Co., 16 West 46th St.
    =Philadelphia, Pa.= Jacob Reed's Sons, 1424 Chestnut.
    =Portland, Ore.= J. K. Gill Co.
    =San Antonio, Tex.= Frank Brothers Alamo Plaza.
    =San Francisco, Cal.= B. Pasquale Co., 115-117 Post St.
    =Washington, D. C.=
      Army and Navy Register, 511 Eleventh St. N. W.
      Meyer's Military Shops, 1331 F. St. N. W.
      U. S. Infantry Association, Union Trust Bldg.
    PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Philippine Education Co., Manila, P. I.
    HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Hawaiian News Co., Honolulu, H. T.
    CANAL ZONE: Post Exchange, Empire, C. Z.



NOTE


In order to learn thoroughly the contents of this manual it is
suggested that you use in connection with your study of the book the
pamphlet, "QUESTIONS ON MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING," which, by means
of questions, brings out and emphasizes every point mentioned in the
manual.

"QUESTIONS ON MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING" is especially useful to
students of schools and colleges using the manual, as it enables them,
as nothing else will, to prepare for recitations and examinations.

The pamphlet can be gotten from the publishers, Geo. Banta Publishing
Co., Menasha, Wis., or from any of the distributers of "MANUAL OF
MILITARY TRAINING." Price 50 cts., postpaid.



PREFATORY


Not only does this manual cover all the subjects prescribed by War
Department orders for the Junior Division, and the Basic Course,
Senior Division, of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, but it also
contains considerable additional material which broadens its scope,
rounding it out and making it answer the purpose of a general,
all-around book, complete in itself, for training and instruction in
the fundamentals of the art of war.

The Company is the _basic fighting tactical unit_--it is the
foundation rock upon which an army is built--and the fighting
efficiency of a COMPANY is based on systematic and thorough training.

This manual is a presentation of MILITARY TRAINING as manifested in
the training and instruction of a COMPANY. The book contains all the
essentials pertaining to the training and instruction of COMPANY
officers, noncommissioned officers and privates, and the officer who
masters its contents and who makes his COMPANY proficient in the
subjects embodied herein, will be in every way qualified, _without the
assistance of a single other book_, to command with credit and
satisfaction, in peace and in war, a COMPANY that will be an
_efficient fighting weapon_.

This manual, as indicated below, is divided into a Prelude and nine
Parts, subjects of a similar or correlative nature being thus grouped
together.

    PRELUDE.    THE OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES OF MILITARY TRAINING.
    PART    I.  DRILLS, EXERCISES, CEREMONIES, AND INSPECTIONS.
    PART   II.  COMPANY COMMAND.
    PART  III.  MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO COMPANY TRAINING
                  AND INSTRUCTION.
    PART   IV.  RIFLE TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION.
    PART    V.  HEALTH AND KINDRED SUBJECTS.
    PART   VI.  MILITARY COURTESY AND KINDRED SUBJECTS.
    PART  VII.  GUARD DUTY.
    PART VIII.  MILITARY ORGANIZATION.
    PART   IX.  MAP READING AND SKETCHING.

A schedule of training and instruction covering a given period and
suitable to the local conditions that obtain in any given school or
command, can be readily arranged by looking over the TABLE OF
CONTENTS, and selecting therefrom such subjects as it is desired to
use, the number and kind, and the time to be devoted to each,
depending upon the time available, and climatic and other conditions.

It is suggested that, for the sake of variety, in drawing up a program
of instruction and training, when practicable a part of each day or a
part of each drill time, be devoted to theoretical work and a part to
practical work, theoretical work, when possible, being followed by
corresponding practical work, the practice (the _doing_ of a thing)
thus putting a clincher, as it were, on the theory (the explaining of
a thing). The theoretical work, for example, could be carried on in
the forenoon and the practical work in the afternoon, or the
theoretical work could be carried on from, say, 8 to 9:30 a. m., and
the practical work from 9:30 to 10:30 or 11 a. m.

Attention is invited to the completeness of the Index, whereby one is
enabled to locate at once any point covered in the book.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance received in the
revision of this Manual in the form of suggestions from a large number
of officers on duty at our military schools and colleges, suggestions
that enabled him not only to improve the Manual in subject-matter as
well as in arrangement, but that have also enabled him to give our
military schools and colleges a textbook which, in a way, may be said
to represent the consensus of opinion of our Professors of Military
Science and Tactics as to what such a book should embody in both
subject-matter and arrangement.

Suggestions received from a number of Professors of Military Science
and Tactics show conclusively that local conditions as to average age
and aptitude of students, interest taken in military training by the
student body, support given by the school authorities, etc., are so
different in different schools that it would be impossible to write a
book for general use that would, in amount of material, arrangement
and otherwise, just exactly fit, in toto, the conditions, and meet the
requirements of each particular school.

Therefore, the only practical, satisfactory solution of the problem is
to produce a book that meets _all_ the requirements of the strictly
military schools, where the conditions for military training and
instruction are the most favorable, and the requirements the greatest,
and then let other schools take only such parts of the book as are
necessary to meet their own particular local needs and requirements.

"MANUAL OF MILITARY TRAINING" is such a book.

                              [Illustration: (Signature) Jas. A. Moss]

Camp Gaillard, C. Z.,
     March 4, 1917.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


                             PRELUDE

           OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES OF MILITARY TRAINING

                                                              Par. No.

    =Object of:= Setting-Up Exercises, Calisthenics, Facings      1-23
    and Marchings, Saluting, Manual of Arms, School of the
    Squad, Company Drill, Close Order, Extended Order,
    Ceremonies, Discipline--=Advantages:= Handiness,
    Self-Control, Loyalty, Orderliness, Self-Confidence,
    Self-Respect, Training Eyes, Teamwork, Heeding Law and
    Order, Sound Body.

                             PART I

    CHAPTER I. =INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS=--Definitions--      24-710
    General Remarks--General Rules for Drills and Formations--
    Orders, Commands, and Signals--School of the Soldier--
    School of the Squad--School of the Company--School of the
    Battalion--Combat--Leadership--Combat Reconnaissance--Fire
    Superiority--Fire Direction and Control--Deployment--
    Attack--Defense--Meeting Engagements--Machine Guns--
    Ammunition Supply--Mounted Scouts--Night Operations--
    Infantry Against Cavalry--Infantry Against Artillery--
    Artillery Supports--Minor Warfare--Ceremonies--Inspections--
    Muster--The Color--Manual of the Saber--Manual of Tent
    Pitching--Appendices A and B.

    CHAPTER II. =MANUAL OF THE BAYONET=--Nomenclature and      711-824
    Description of the Bayonet--Instruction without the
    Rifle--Instruction with the Rifle--Instruction without
    the Bayonet--Combined Movements--Fencing Exercises--Fencing
    at Will--Lessons of the European War--The "Short point"--
    The "Jab."

    CHAPTER III. =MANUAL OF PHYSICAL TRAINING=--Methods--      825-860
    Commands--Setting-Up Exercises--Rifle Exercises.

    CHAPTER IV. =SIGNALING=--General Service Code--Wigwag--    861-866
    The Two-Arm Semaphore Code--Signaling with Heliograph,
    Flash Lanterns, and Searchlight--Sound Signals--Morse Code.

                             PART II

                         COMPANY COMMAND

    CHAPTER I. =GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF A             867-909
    COMPANY=--Duties and Responsibilities of the Captain and
    the Lieutenants--Devolution of Work and
    Responsibility--Duties and Responsibilities of the First
    Sergeant and other Noncommissioned Officers--Contentment
    and Harmony--Efficacious Forms of Company
    Punishment--Property Responsibility--Books and Records.

    CHAPTER II. =DISCIPLINE=--Definition--Methods of           910-916
    Attaining Good Discipline--Importance--Sound Discipline--
    Punishment--General Principles.

                            PART III

          MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO COMPANY
                    TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION

    CHAPTER I. =GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF COMPANY TRAINING AND     917-941
    INSTRUCTION=--Object of Training and Instruction--Method
    and Progression--Individual Initiative--The Human Element--
    Art of Instruction on the Ground--Ocular Demonstration.

    CHAPTER II. =GENERAL COMMON SENSE PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED    942-953
    MINOR TACTICS=--Art of War Defined--Responsibilities of
    Officers and Noncommissioned Officers in War--General
    Rules and Principles of Map Problems, Terrain Exercises,
    the War Game, and Maneuvers--Estimating the Situation--
    Mission.

    CHAPTER III. =GENERAL PLAN OF INSTRUCTION IN MAP PROBLEMS  954-958
    FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES--INSTRUCTION
    IN DELIVERING MESSAGES.=

    CHAPTER IV. =THE SERVICE OF INFORMATION=--General         959-1019
    Principles of Patrolling--Sizes of Patrols--Patrol
    Leaders--Patrol Formations--Messages and Reports--
    Suggestions for Gaining Information about the Enemy--
    Suggestions for the Reconnaissance of Various Positions
    and Localities--Demolitions--Problems in Patrolling.

    CHAPTER V. =THE SERVICE OF SECURITY=--General            1020-1079
    principles--Advance Guard--Advance Guard Problems--
    Flank Guards--Rear Guard--Outposts--Formation of
    Outposts--Outguards--Flags of Truce--Detached Posts--
    Examining Posts--Establishing the Outpost--Outpost
    Order--Intercommunication--Outpost Problems.

    CHAPTER VI. =THE COMPANY ON OUTPOST=--Establishing            1080
    the Outpost.

    CHAPTER VII. =THE COMPANY IN SCOUTING AND PATROLLING=    1081-1090
    --Requisites of a Good Scout--Eyesight and hearing--
    Finding Way in Strange Country--What to do when Lost--
    Landmarks--Concealment and Dodging--Tracking--The Mouse
    and Cat Contest--Flag Stealing Contest.

    CHAPTER VIII. =NIGHT OPERATIONS=--Importance--Training   1091-1108
    of the Company--Individual Training--Collective
    Training--Outposts.

    CHAPTER IX. =FIELD ENGINEERING=--Bridges--Corduroying--  1109-1139
    Tascines--Hurdles--Brush Revetment--Gabions--Other
    Revetments--Knots--Lashings.

    CHAPTER X. =FIELD FORTIFICATIONS=--Object--              1140-1172
    Classification--Hasty Intrenchments--Lying Trench--
    Kneeling Trench--Standing Trench--Deliberate
    Intrenchments--Fire Trenches--Traverses--Trench
    recesses; sortie steps--Parados--Head Cover--Notches
    and Loopholes--Cover Trenches--Dugouts--Communicating
    Trenches--Lookouts--Supporting Points--Example of Trench
    System--Location of Trenches--Concealment of Trenches--
    Dummy Trenches--Length of Trench--Preparation of
    Foreground--Revetments--Drainage--Water Supply--
    Latrines--Illumination of the foreground--Telephones--
    Siege Works.

    CHAPTER XI. =OBSTACLES=--Object--Necessity for           1173-1193
    Obstacles--Location--Abatis--Palisades--Fraises--
    Cheveaux de Frise--Obstacles against Cavalry--Wire
    Entanglements--Time and Materials--Wire Fence--Military
    Pits or Trous de Loup--Miscellaneous Barricades--
    Inundations--Obstacles in Front of Outguards--Lessons
    from the European War--Wire Cheveaux de Frise--Guarding
    Obstacles--Listening Posts--Automatic Alarms--Search
    Lights.

    CHAPTER XII. =TRENCH AND MINE WARFARE=--Asphyxiating     1194-1211
    Gases--Protection against Gases--Liquid Fire--
    Grenades--Bombs--Aerial Mines--Winged Torpedoes--Bombs
    from Air-Craft--Protection against Hand Grenades--
    Tanks--Helmets--Masks--Periscopes--Sniperscopes--Aids
    to Firing--Mining--Countermining.

    CHAPTER XIII. =MARCHES=--Marching Principal Occupation   1212-1229
    of Troops in Campaign-Physical Training Hardening New
    Troops--Long Marches Not to Be Made with Untrained
    Troops--A Successful March--Preparation--Starting--
    Conduct of March--Rate--Marching Capacity--Halts--
    Crossing Bridges and Fords--Straggling and Elongation
    of Column--Forced Marches--Night Marches--No Compliments
    Paid on March--Protection on March--Fitting of Shoes and
    Care of Feet.

    CHAPTER XIV. =CAMPS=--Selection of Camp Sites--          1230-1240
    Desirable Camp Sites--Undesirable Camp Sites--Form and
    Dimensions of Camps--Making Camp--Retreat in Camp--
    Parade Ground--Windstorms--Making Tent Poles and Pegs
    Fast in Loose Soil--Trees.

    CHAPTER XV. =CAMP SANITATION=--Definition--Camp          1241-1255
    Expedients--Latrines--Urinal Tubs--Kitchens--Kitchen
    Pits--Incinerators--Drainage--Avoiding Old Camp Sites--
    Changing Camp Sites--Bunks--Wood--Water--Rules of
    Sanitation--Your Camp, Your Home.

    CHAPTER XVI. =INDIVIDUAL COOKING=--Making Fire--         1256-1275
    Recipes--Meats--Vegetables--Drinks--Hot Breads--
    Emergency Ration.

    CHAPTER XVII. =CARE AND PRESERVATION OF CLOTHING AND     1276-1320
    EQUIPMENT=--Clothing--Pressing--Removing Stains--
    Shoes--Cloth Equipment--Washing--Shelter Tent--Mess
    Outfit--Leather Equipment--Points to Be Remembered.

    CHAPTER XVIII. =CARE AND DESCRIPTION OF THE RIFLE=       1321-1343
    --Importance--Care of Bore--How to Remove Fouling--Care
    of Mechanism and Various Parts--How to Apply Oil--Army
    Regulation Paragraphs About Rifle--Nomenclature of Rifle.

                             PART IV

                  RIFLE TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION

    Object and Explanation of Our System of Instruction--    1344-1450
    Individual Instruction--Theory of Sighting--Kinds of
    Sights--Preliminary Drills--Position and Aiming Drills--
    Deflection and Elevation Correction Drills--Gallery
    Practice--Range Practice--Use of Sling--Designation of
    Winds--Zero of Rifle--Estimating Distances--Wind--
    Temperature--Light--Mirage--Combat Practice--Fire
    Discipline--Technical Principles of Firing--Ballistic
    Qualities of the Rifle--Cone of Fire--Shot Group--Center
    of Impact--Beaten Zone--Zone of Effective Fire--
    Effectiveness of Fire--Influence of Ground--Grazing
    Fire--Ricochet Shots--Occupation of Ground--Adjustment
    of Fire--Determination of Range--Combined Sights--
    Auxiliary Aiming Points--Firing at Moving Targets--
    Night Firing--Fire Direction and Control--Distribution
    of Fire--Individual Instruction in Fire Distribution--
    Designation of Targets--Exercises in Ranging, Target
    Designation Communication, etc.

                             PART V

               CARE OF HEALTH AND KINDRED SUBJECTS

    CHAPTER I. =CARE OF THE HEALTH=--Importance of Good      1451-1469
    Health--Germs--The Five Ways of Catching Disease--
    Diseases Caught by Breathing in Germs--Diseases Caught
    by Swallowing Germs--Disease Caught by Touching Germs--
    Diseases Caught from Biting Insects.

    CHAPTER II. =PERSONAL HYGIENE=--Keep the Skin Clean--    1470-1477
    Keep the Body Properly Protected against the Weather--
    Keep the Body Properly Fed--Keep the Body Supplied with
    Fresh Air--Keep the Body well Exercised--Keep the Body
    Rested by Sufficient Sleep--Keep the Body Free of Wastes.

    CHAPTER III. =FIRST AID TO THE SICK AND INJURED=         1478-1522
    --Objectof Teaching First Aid--Asphyxiation by Gas--
    Bite of Dog--Bite of Snake--Bleeding--Broken Bones
    (Fractures)--Burns--Bruises--Cuts--Dislocations--
    Drowning--Electric Shock--Fainting--Foreign Body in Eye,
    in Ear--Freezing--Frost Bite--Headache--Heat Exhaustion--
    Poison--Sprains--Sunburn--Sunstroke--Wounds--Improvised
    Litters.

                             PART VI

              MILITARY COURTESY AND KINDRED SUBJECTS

    CHAPTER I. =MILITARY DEPORTMENT AND APPEARANCE--         1523-1531
    PERSONAL CLEANLINESS--FORMS OF SPEECH--DELIVERY OF
    MESSAGES.=

    CHAPTER II. =MILITARY COURTESY=--Its Importance--Nature  1532-1575
    of Salutes and Their Origin--Whom to Salute--When and
    How to Salute--Usual Mistakes in Saluting--Respect to
    Be Paid the National Anthem, the Colors and Standards.

                            PART VII

                           GUARD DUTY

    Importance--Respect for Sentinels--Classification of     1576-1857
    Guards--General Rules--The Commanding Officer--The
    Officer of the Day--The Commander of the Guard--Sergeant
    of the Guard--Corporal of the Guard--Musicians of the
    Guard--Orderlies and Color Sentinels--Privates of the
    Guard--Countersigns and Paroles--Guard Patrols--
    Compliments from Guards--General Rules Concerning Guard
    Duty--Stable Guards--Troop Stable Guards--Reveille and
    Retreat Gun--Formal Guard Mounting--Informal Guard
    Mounting.

                            PART VIII

                       MILITARY ORGANIZATION

    Composition of Infantry, Cavalry and Field Artillery          1858
    Units up to and Including the Regiment.

                             PART IX

                    MAP READING AND SKETCHING

    CHAPTER I. =MAP READING=--Definition of Map--Ability to  1859-1877
    Read a Map--Scales--Methods of Representing Scales--
    Construction of Scales--Scale Problems--Scaling
    Distances from a Map--Contours--Map Distances--Slopes--
    Meridians--Determination of Positions of Points on Map--
    Orientation--Conventional Signs--Visibility.

    CHAPTER II. =MILITARY SKETCHING=--The Different Methods  1878-1893
    of Sketching--Location of Points by Intersection--
    Location of points by Resection--Location of Points by
    Traversing--Contours--Form Lines--Scales--Position
    Sketching--Outpost Sketching--Road Sketching--Combined
    Sketching--Points for Beginners to Remember.



PRELUDE

THE OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES OF MILITARY TRAINING


=1. Prelude.= We will first consider the object and advantages of
military training, as they are the natural and logical prelude to the
subject of military training and instruction.


Object

=2. The object of all military training is to win battles.=

Everything that you do in military training is done with some
immediate object in view, which, in turn, has in view the _final_
object of winning battles. For example:

=3. Setting-up exercises.= The object of the setting-up exercises, as
the name indicates, is to give the new men the _set-up_,--the bearing
and carriage,--of the military man.

In addition these exercises serve to loosen up his muscles and prepare
them for his later experiences and development.

=4. Calisthenics.= Calisthenics may be called the big brother, the
grown-up form, of the setting-up exercise.

The object of calisthenics is to develop and strengthen all parts and
muscles of the human body,--the back, the legs, the arms, the lungs,
the heart and all other parts of the body.

First and foremost a fighting man's work depends upon his physical
fitness.

To begin with, a soldier's mind must always be on the alert and equal
to any strain, and no man's mind can be at its best when he is
handicapped by a weak or ailing body.

The work of the fighting man makes harsh demands on his body. It must
be strong enough to undergo the strain of marching when every muscle
cries out for rest; strong enough to hold a rifle steady under fatigue
and excitement; strong enough to withstand all sorts of weather, and
the terrible nervous and physical strain of modern battle; and more,
it must be strong enough to resist those diseases of campaign which
kill more men than do the bullets of the enemy.

Hence the necessity of developing and strengthening every part and
muscle of the body.

=5. Facings and Marchings.= The object of the facings and marchings is
to give the soldier complete control of his body in drills, so that he
can get around with ease and promptness at every command.

The marchings,--the military walk and run,--also teach the soldier how
to get from one place to another in campaign with the least amount of
physical exertion.

Every man knows how to walk and run, but few of them how to do so
without making extra work of it. One of the first principles in
training the body of the soldier is to make each set of muscles do its
own work and save the strength of the other muscles for their work.
Thus the soldier marches in quick time,--walks,--with his legs,
keeping the rest of his body as free from motion as possible. He
marches in double time,--runs,--with an easy swinging stride which
requires no effort on the part of the muscles of the body.

The marchings also teach the soldier to walk and run at a steady gait.
For example, in marching in quick time, he takes 120 steps each
minute; in double time, he takes 180 per minute.

Furthermore, the marchings teach the soldier to walk and run with
others,--that is, in a body.

=6. Saluting.= The form of salutation and greeting for the civilian
consists in raising the hat.

The form of salutation and greeting for the military man consists in
rendering the military salute,--a form of salutation which marks you
as a member of the Fraternity of Men-at-arms, men banded together for
national defense, bound to each other by love of country and pledged
to the loyal support of its symbol, the Flag. For the full
significance of the military salute see paragraph 1534.

=7. Manual of Arms.= The rifle is the soldier's fighting weapon and he
must become so accustomed to the _feel_ of it that he handles it
without a thought,--just as he handles his arms or legs without a
thought,--and this is what the manual of arms accomplishes.

The different movements and positions of the rifle are the ones that
experience has taught are the best and the easiest to accomplish the
object in view.

=8. School of the Squad.= The object of squad drill is to teach the
soldier his first lesson in _team-work_,--and team-work is the thing
that wins battles.

In the squad the soldier is associated with seven other men with whom
he drills, eats, sleeps, marches, and fights.

The squad is the unit upon which all of the work of the company
depends. Unless the men of each squad work together as a single
man,--unless there is _team-work_,--the work of the company is almost
impossible.

=9. Company Drill.= Several squads are banded together into a
company,--the basic fighting unit. In order for a company to be able
to comply promptly with the will of its commander, it must be like a
pliable, easily managed instrument. And in order to win battles a
company on the firing line must be able to comply promptly with the
will of its commander.

The object of company drill is to get such team-work amongst the
squads that the company will at all times move and act like a pliable,
easily managed whole.

=10. Close Order.= In close order drill the strictest attention is
paid to all the little details, all movements being executed with the
greatest precision. The soldiers being close together,--in _close
order_,--they form a compact body that is easily managed, and
consequently that lends itself well to teaching the soldier habits of
attention, precision, team-work and instant obedience to the voice of
his commander.

In order to control and handle bodies of men quickly and without
confusion, they must be taught to group themselves in an orderly
arrangement and to move in an orderly manner. For example, soldiers
are grouped or formed in line, in column of squads, column of files,
etc.

In close order drill soldiers are taught to move in an orderly manner
from one group or formation to another; how to stand, step off, march,
halt and handle their rifles all together.

This practice makes the soldier feel perfectly at home and at ease in
the squad and company. He becomes accustomed to working side by side
with the man next to him, and, unconsciously, both get into the habit
of working together, thus learning the first principles of
_team-work_.

=11. Extended Order.= This is the fighting drill.

Modern fire arms have such great penetration that if the soldiers were
all bunched together a single bullet might kill or disable several men
and the explosion of a single shell might kill or disable a whole
company. Consequently, soldiers must be scattered,--_extended
out_,--to fight.

In extended order not only do the soldiers furnish a smaller target
for the enemy to shoot at, but they also get room in which to fight
with greater ease and freedom.

The object of extended order drill is to practice the squads in
team-work by which they are welded into a single fighting machine that
can be readily controlled by its commander.

=12. Parades, reviews, and other ceremonies.= Parades, reviews and
other ceremonies, with their martial music, the presence of
spectators, etc., are intended to stimulate the interest and excite
the military spirit of the command. Also, being occasions for which
the soldiers dress up and appear spruce and trim, they inculcate
habits of tidiness,--they teach a lesson in cleanliness of body and
clothes.

While it is true it may be said that parades, reviews and other
ceremonies form no practical part of the fighting man's training for
battle, they nevertheless serve a very useful purpose in his general
training. In these ceremonies in which soldiers march to martial music
with flags flying, moving and going through the manual of arms with
perfect precision and unison, there results a concerted movement that
produces a feeling such as we have when we dance or when we sing in
chorus. In other words, ceremonies are a sort of "get-together"
exercise which pulls men together in spite of themselves, giving them
a shoulder-to-shoulder feeling of solidity and power that helps to
build up that confidence and spirit which wins battles.

=13. Discipline.= By discipline we mean the _habit_ of observing all
rules and regulations and of obeying promptly all orders. By observing
day after day all rules and regulations and obeying promptly all
orders, it becomes second nature,--a fixed habit,--to do these things.

Of course, in the Army, like in any other walk of life, there must be
law and order, which is impossible unless everyone obeys the rules and
regulations gotten up by those in authority.

When a man has cultivated the habit of obeying,--when obedience has
become second nature with him,--he obeys the orders of his leaders
instinctively, even when under the stress of great excitement, such as
when in battle, his own reasoning is confused and his mind is not
working.

In order to win a battle the _will_ of the commander as expressed
through his subordinates down the line from the second in command to
the squad leaders, must be carried out by everyone. Hence the vital
importance of prompt, instinctive obedience on the part of everybody,
and of discipline, which is the mainspring of obedience and also the
foundation rock of law and order.

And so could we go on indefinitely pointing out the object of each and
every requirement of military training, for there is none that has no
object and that answers no useful purpose, although the object and
purpose may not always be apparent to the young soldier.

_And remember that the final object of all military training is to win
battles._


Advantages of Military Training

The following are the principal advantages of military training:

=14. Handiness.= The average man does one thing well. He is more or
less apt to be clumsy about doing other things. The soldier is
constantly called upon to do all sorts of things, and he has to do all
of them well. His hands thus become trained and useful to him, and his
mind gets into the habit of making his hands do what is required of
them,--that is to say, the soldier becomes handy.

Handy arms are a valuable asset.

=15. Self-control.= In the work of the soldier, control does not stop
with the hands.

The mind reaches out,--control of the body becomes a habit. The feet,
legs, arms and body gradually come under the sway of the mind. In the
position of the soldier, for instance, the mind holds the body
motionless. In marching, the mind drives the legs to machine-like
regularity. In shooting, the mind assumes command of the arms, hands,
fingers and eye, linking them up and making them work in harmony.

Control of the body, together with the habit of discipline that the
soldier acquires, leads to control of the mind,--that is, to
_self-control_.

Self-control is an important factor in success in any walk of life.

=16. Loyalty.= Loyalty to his comrades, to his company, to his
battalion, to his regiment becomes a religion with the soldier. They
are a part of his life. Their reputation is his; their good name, his
good name; their interests, his interests,--so, loyalty to them is but
natural, and this loyalty soon extends to loyalty in general.

When you say a man is loyal the world considers that you have paid him
a high tribute.

=17. Orderliness.= In the military service order and system are
watchwords. The smooth running of the military machine depends on
them.

The care and attention that the soldier is required to give at all
times to his clothes, accouterments, equipment and other belongings,
instill in him habits of orderliness.

Orderliness increases the value of a man.

=18. Self-confidence and self-respect.= Self-confidence is founded on
one's ability to do things. The soldier is taught to defend himself
with his rifle, and to take care of himself and to do things in almost
any sort of a situation, all of which gives him confidence in
himself,--_self-confidence_.

Respect for constituted authority, which is a part of the soldier's
creed, teaches him respect for himself,--_self-respect_.

Self-confidence and self-respect are a credit to any man.

=19. Eyes trained to observe.= Guard duty, outpost duty, patrolling,
scouting and target practice, train both the eye and the mind to
observe.

Power of observation is a valuable faculty for a man to possess.

=20. Teamwork.= In drilling, patrolling, marching, maneuvers and in
other phases of his training and instruction, the soldier is taught
the principles of team-work,--coöperation,--whose soul is _loyalty_, a
trait of every good soldier.

Teamwork,--coöperation,--leads to success in life.

=21. Heeding law and order.= The cardinal habit of the soldier is
obedience. To obey orders and regulations is a habit with the soldier.
And this habit of obeying orders and regulations teaches him to heed
law and order.

The man who heeds law and order is a welcome member of any community.

=22. Sound body.= Military training, with its drills, marches, and
other forms of physical exercise, together with its regular habits and
outdoor work, keeps a man physically fit, giving him a sound body.

A sound body, with the physical exercise and outdoor life of the
soldier, means good digestion, strength, hardiness and endurance.

A sound body is, indeed, one of the greatest blessings of life.


The Trained Soldier

=23.= Look at the trained soldier on the following page; study him
carefully from top to bottom, and see what military training does for
a man.

[Illustration: THE TRAINED SOLDIER

WHAT DO YOU THINK OF HIM, EH?]



PART I

DRILLS, EXERCISES, CEREMONIES AND INSPECTIONS



CHAPTER I

INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS

(To include Changes No. 20, Aug. 18, 1917.)

DEFINITIONS


    (The numbers following the paragraphs are those of the Drill
    Regulations, and references in the text to certain paragraph
    numbers refer to these numbers and not to the numbers preceding
    the paragraphs.)

    (NOTE.--Company drills naturally become monotonous. The monotony,
    however, can be greatly reduced by repeating the drills under
    varying circumstances. In the manual of arms, for instance, the
    company may be brought to open ranks and the officers and
    sergeants directed to superintend the drill in the front and rear
    ranks. As the men make mistakes they are fallen out and drilled
    nearby by an officer or noncommissioned officer. Or, the company
    may be divided into squads, each squad leader drilling his squad,
    falling out the men as they make mistakes, the men thus fallen out
    reporting to a designated officer or noncommissioned officer for
    drill. The men who have drilled the longest in the different
    squads are then formed into one squad and drilled and fallen out
    in like manner. The variety thus introduced stimulates a spirit of
    interest and rivalry that robs the drill of much of its monotony.

    It is thought the instruction of a company in drill is best
    attained by placing special stress on squad drill. The
    noncommissioned officers should be thoroughly instructed,
    practically and theoretically, by one of the company officers and
    then be required to instruct their squads. The squads are then
    united and drilled in the school of the company.--Author.)


DEFINITIONS

=24. Alignment:= A straight line upon which several elements are
formed, or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon
a straight line.

[Illustration: Fig. 1

NOTE.--The line A-B, on which a body of troops is formed or is to be
formed, or the act of dressing a body of troops on the line, is called
an alignment.--Author.]

=25. Base:= The element on which a movement is regulated.

=26. Battle sight:= The position of the rear sight when the leaf is
laid down.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

=27. Center:= The middle point or element of a command. (See Figs. 2,
3 and 5.) (The designation "center company," indicates the right
center or the actual center company, according as the number of
companies is even or odd.--Par. 298.)

=28. Column:= A formation in which the elements are placed one behind
another. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6.)

=29. Deploy:= To extend the front. In general to change from column to
line, or from close order to extended order.

=30. Depth:= The space from head to rear of any formation, including
the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed to be 12
inches. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6.)

=31. Distance:= Space between elements in the direction of depth.
Distance is measured from the back of the man in front to the breast
of the man in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both
line and column. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6.)

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

=32. Element:= A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body,
forming part of a still larger body.

=33. File:= Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of
the rear rank. The front-rank man is the file leader. A file which has
no rear-rank man is a blank file. The term file applies also to a
single man in a single-rank formation.

=34. File closers:= Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a
company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all men
posted in the line of file closers.

=35. Flank:= The right or left of a command in line or in column; also
the element on the right or left of the line. (See Figs. 2, 3 and 4.)

=36. Formation:= Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing
of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.

=37. Front:= The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in
line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches.
Front also denotes the direction of the enemy. (See Figs. 2, 3 and 5).

=38. Guide:= An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom
the command or elements thereof regulates its march.

=39. Head:= The leading element of a column. (See Figs. 4, 5 and 6.)

=40. Interval:= Space between elements of the same line. The interval
between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from elbow to elbow.
Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the left elbow of
the left man or guide of the group on the right, to the right elbow of
the right man or guide of the group on the left. (See Fig. 3.)

=41. Left:= The left extremity or element of a body of troops.

=42. Line:= A formation in which the different elements are abreast of
each other. (See Figs. 2 and 3.)

=43. Order, close:= The formation in which the units, in double rank,
are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and distances.

=44. Order, extended:= The formation in which the units are separated
by intervals greater than in close order.

=45. Pace:= Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.

=46. Point of rest:= The point at which a formation begins.
Specifically, the point toward which units are aligned in successive
movements.

=47. Rank:= A line of men placed side by side.

=48. Right:= The right extremity or element of a body of troops.

=49.= NOTE. In view of the fact that the word "Echelon" is a term of
such common usage, the following definition is given: By echelon we
mean a formation in which the subdivisions are placed one behind
another, extending beyond and unmasking one another either wholly or
in part.--Author.

[Illustration: BATTALION IN ECHELON: COMPANIES UNMASKING WHOLLY]

[Illustration: BATTALION IN ECHELON: COMPANIES UNMASKING IN PART]


INTRODUCTION

=50. Object of military training.= Success in battle is the ultimate
object of all military training; success may be looked for only when
the training is intelligent and thorough. (1)

=51. Commanding officers accountable for proper training of
organizations; field efficiency; team-work.= Commanding officers are
accountable for the proper training of their respective organizations
within the limits prescribed by regulations and orders. (2)

The excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency.
The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily upon its
effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity in the training
of the units of an organization are indispensable to the efficiency of
the whole; it is by such means alone that the requisite team-work may
be developed.

=52. Simple movements and elastic formations.= Simple movements and
elastic formations are essential to correct training for battle. (3)

=53. Drill Regulations a Guide; their interpretation.= The Drill
Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide the principles for
training and for increasing the probability of success in battle. (4)

In the interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be sought.
Quibbling over the minutiae of form is indicative of failure to grasp
the spirit.

=54. Combat principles.= The principles of combat are considered in
Pars. 50-363. They are treated in the various schools included in Part
I of the Drill Regulations only to the extent necessary to indicate
the functions of the various commanders and the division of
responsibility between them. The amplification necessary to a proper
understanding of their application is to be sought in Pars. 364-613.
(5)

=55. Drills at attention, ceremonies, extended order, field exercises
and combat exercises.= The following important distinctions must be
observed:

(a) Drills executed at =attention= and the ceremonies are
=disciplinary exercises= designed to teach precise and soldierly
movement, and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience
which is essential to proper military control. To this end, smartness
and precision should be exacted in the execution of every detail. Such
drills should be frequent, but short.

(b) The purpose of =extended order drill= is to teach the =mechanism=
of deployment of the firing, and, in general, of the employment of
troops in combat. Such drills are in the nature of disciplinary
exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and exact, in order to
habituate men to the firm control of their leaders. Extended order
drill is executed =at ease=. The company is the largest unit which
executes extended order drill.

(c) =Field exercises= are for instruction in the duties incident to
campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise should
conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise and
principles involved.

(d) The =combat exercise, a form of field exercise= of the company,
battalion, and larger units, consists of the =application of tactical
principles= to assumed situations, employing in the execution the
appropriate formations and movements of close and extended order.

Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle
conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and men with
such conditions, companies and battalions will frequently be
consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. Officers and
noncommissioned officers not required to complete the full quota of
the units participating are assigned as observers or umpires.

The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone; thorough
training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals is necessary.

The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention in order
to restore smartness and control. (6)

=56. Imaginary, outlined and represented enemy.= In field exercises
the enemy is said to be =imaginary= when his position and force are
merely assumed; =outlined= when his position and force are indicated
by a few men; =represented= when a body of troops acts as such. (7)


General Rules for Drills and Formations

=57. Arrangement of elements of preparatory command.= When the
=preparatory= command consists of more than one part, its elements are
arranged as follows:

(1) For movements to be executed successively by the subdivisions or
elements of an organization: (a) Description of the movement; (b) how
executed, or on what element executed.

(For example: =1. Column of Companies, first company, squads right. 2.
March.=--Author.)

(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the subdivisions of
an organization: (a) The designation of the subdivisions; (b) The
movement to be executed. (For example: =1. Squads right. 2.
March.=--Author.) (8)

=58. Movements executed toward either flank explained toward but one
flank.= Movements that may be executed toward either flank are
explained as toward but one flank, it being necessary to substitute
the word "left" for "right," and the reverse, to have the explanation
of the corresponding movement toward the other flank. The commands are
given for the execution of the movements toward either flank. The
substitute word of the command is placed within parentheses. (9)

=59. Any movement may be executed from halt or when marching unless
otherwise prescribed.= Any movement may be executed either from the
halt or when marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the
command for movements involving marching need not be prefaced by
=forward=, as =1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH=. (10)

=60. Any movement may be executed in double time unless specially
excepted.= Any movement not specially excepted may be executed in
double time.

If at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command =double time=
precedes the command of execution. (11)

=61. Successive movements executed in double time.= In successive
movements executed in double time the leading or =base= unit marches
in =quick time= when not otherwise prescribed; the other units march
in =double time= to their places in the formation ordered and then
conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. If marching in double
time, the command =double time= is omitted. The leading or base unit
marches in =quick time=; the other units continue at double time to
their places in the formation ordered and then conform to the gait of
the leading or base unit. (12)

=62. To hasten execution of movement begun in quick time.= To hasten
the execution of a movement begun in quick time, the command: =1.
Double time, 2. MARCH=, is given. The leading or base unit continues
to march in quick time, or remains at halt, if already halted; the
other units complete the execution of the movement in double time and
then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. (13)

=63. To stay execution of movement when marching, for correction of
errors.= To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for the
correction of errors, the command: =1. In place, 2. HALT=, is given.
All halt and stand fast without changing the position of the pieces.
To resume the movement the command: =1. Resume, 2. MARCH=, is given.
(14)

=64. To revoke preparatory command or begin anew movement improperly
begun.= To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt, to begin
anew a movement improperly begun, the command, =AS YOU WERE=, is
given, at which the movement ceases and the former position is
resumed. (15)

=65. Guide.= Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or
subdivision of a company in line is =right=; of a battalion in line or
line of subdivisions or of a deployed line, =center=; of a rank in
column of squads, toward the side of the guide of the company.

To march with guide other than as prescribed above, or to change the
guide: =Guide (right, left, or center).=

In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the point of
rest; in platoons or larger subdivisions it is so announced.

The announcement of the guide, when given in connection with a
movement follows the command of execution for that. Exception: =1. As
skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH.= (16)

=66. Turn on fixed and moving pivots.= The turn on the fixed pivot by
subdivisions is used in all formations from line into column and the
reverse.

The turn on the =moving pivot= is used by subdivisions of a column in
executing changes of direction. (17)

=67. Partial changes of direction.= Partial changes of direction may
be executed:

By interpolating in the preparatory command the word =half, as Column
half right (left), or Right (left) half turn=. A change of direction
of 45° is executed.

By the command: =INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT).= The guide, or guiding
element, moves in the indicated direction and the remainder of the
command conforms. This movement effects slight changes of direction.
(18)

=68. Line of platoons, companies, etc.= The =designations line of
platoons, line of companies, line of battalions=, etc., refer to the
formations in which the platoons, companies, battalions, etc., each in
column of squads, are in line. (19)

=69. Full distance in column of subdivisions; guide of leading
subdivision charged with step and direction.= Full distance in column
of subdivisions is such that in forming line to the right or left the
subdivisions will have their proper intervals.

In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is
charged with the step and direction; the guides in rear preserve the
trace, step, and distance. (20)

=70. Double rank, habitual close order formation; uniformity of
interval between files obtained by placing hand on hip.= In close
order, all details, detachments, and other bodies of troops are
habitually formed in double rank.

To insure uniformity of interval between files when falling in, and in
alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand upon the hip,
fingers pointing downward. In the first case, the hand is dropped by
the side when the next man on the left has his interval; in the second
case, at the command front. (21)

=71. Posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, and special units;
duties of file closers.= The posts of officers, noncommissioned
officers, special units (such as band or machine-gun company), etc.,
in the various formations of the company, battalion, or regiment, are
shown in plates.

In all changes from one formation to another involving a change of
post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly taken by the most
convenient route as soon as practicable after the command of execution
for the movement; officers and noncommissioned officers who have
prescribed duties in connection with the movement ordered, take their
new posts when such duties are completed.

As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go wherever
their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their duty to
rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks.
(22)

=72. Special units have no fixed posts except at ceremonies.=

Except at ceremonies, the special units have no fixed places. They
take places as directed; in the absence of directions, they conform as
nearly as practicable to the plates, and in subsequent movements
maintain their relative positions with respect to the flank or end of
the command on which they were originally posted. (23)

[Illustration]

=73. General, field and staff officers habitually mounted; formation
of staff; drawing and returning saber.= General, field, and staff
officers are habitually mounted. The staff of any officer forms in
single rank, 3 paces in rear of him, the right of the rank extending 1
pace to the right of a point directly in rear of him. Members of the
staff are arranged in order from right to left as follows: General
staff officers, adjutant, aids, other staff officers, arranged in each
classification in order of rank, the senior on the right. The flag of
the general officer and the orderlies are 3 paces in rear of the
staff, the flag on the right. When necessary to reduce the front of
the staff and orderlies, each line executes =twos right or fours
right=, as explained in the Cavalry Drill Regulations, and follows the
commander.

When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return saber
with their chief. (24)

=74. Mounted officer turns to left in executing about; when commander
faces about to give commands, staff and others stand fast.= In making
the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns to the left.

When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, and
orderlies do not change position. (25)

=75. Saluting when making and receiving reports; saluting on meeting.=
When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out of doors,
all officers will salute.

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when the
salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony or
formation, to the representative of a common superior (as, for
example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the officer
making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first; the officer
to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting that he has
received and understood the report. (26)

=76. Formation of mounted enlisted men for ceremonies.= For
ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regiment or smaller unit,
except those belonging to the machine-gun organizations, are
consolidated into a detachment; the senior present commands if no
officer is in charge. The detachment is formed as a platoon or squad
of cavalry in line or column of fours; noncommissioned staff officers
are on the right or in the leading ranks. (27)

=77. Post of dismounted noncommissioned staff officers for
ceremonies.= For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff
officers as are dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color, in
order of rank from right to left. In column of squads they march as
file closers. (28)

=78. Post of noncommissioned staff officers and orderlies other than
for ceremonies.= Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned staff
officers and orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless
otherwise directed. If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers are
ordinarily posted on the right or at the head of the orderlies. (29)

=79. Noncommissioned officer commanding platoon or company, carrying
of piece and taking of post.= In all formations and movements a
noncommissioned officer commanding a platoon or company carries his
piece as the men do, if he is so armed, and takes the same post as an
officer in like situation. When the command is formed in line for
ceremonies, a noncommissioned officer commanding a company takes post
on the right of the right guide after the company has been aligned.
(30)


ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS

=80. When commands, signals, and orders are used.= =Commands= only are
employed in drill at attention. Otherwise either a =command, signal,
or order= is employed, as best suits the occasion, or one may be used
in conjunction with another. (31)

=81. Instruction in use of signals; use of headdress, etc., in making
signals.= =Signals= should be freely used in instruction, in order
that officers and men may readily know them. In making arm signals,
the saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand. (32)

=82. Fixing of attention; a signal includes command of preparation and
of execution.= Officers and men fix their attention at the first word
of command, the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first
motion of the signal. A signal includes both the preparatory command
and the command of execution; the movement commences as soon as the
signal is understood, unless otherwise prescribed. (33)

=83. Repeating orders, commands and signals; officers, platoon
leaders, guides and musicians equipped with whistles; whistles with
different tones.= Except in movements executed at =attention=,
commanders or leaders of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or
signals whenever such repetition is deemed necessary to insure
=prompt= and correct execution.

Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon leaders,
guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles.

The Major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone; the
captain and company musicians a second and distinctive whistle; the
platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive whistle. (34)

=84. Limitation of prescribed signals; special prearranged signals.=
Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential as a
substitute for the voice under conditions which render the voice
inadequate.

Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed upon to
facilitate the solution of such special difficulties as the particular
situation is likely to develop, but it must be remembered that
simplicity and certainty are indispensable qualities of a signal. (35)


Orders

=85. Orders defined; when employed.= In these regulations an =order=
embraces instructions or directions given orally or in writing in
terms suited to the particular occasion and not prescribed herein.

=Orders= are employed only when the =commands= prescribed herein do
not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander.

Orders are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, inclusive.
(36)


Commands

=86. Command defined.= In these regulations a =command= is the will of
the commander expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein. (37)

=87. Kinds of commands; how given.= There are two kinds of commands:

The =preparatory= command, such as =forward=, indicates the movement
that is to be executed.

The command of =execution=, such as =MARCH=, =HALT=, or =ARMS=, causes
the execution.

=Preparatory= commands are distinguished by =italics=; those of
execution by =CAPITALS=.

Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the commands
prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the unit
concerned.

The =preparatory= command should be given at such an interval of time
before the command of =execution= as to admit of being properly
understood; the command of =execution= should be given at the instant
the movement is to commence.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness
proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Each =preparatory= command is enunciated distinctly, with a rising
inflection at the end, and in such manner that the command of
=execution= may be more energetic.

The command of =execution= is firm in tone and brief. (38)

=88. Battalion and higher commanders repeat commands of superiors;
battalion largest unit executing movement at command of its
commander.= Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion
repeat such commands of their superiors as are to be executed by their
units, facing their units for that purpose. The battalion is the
largest unit that executes a movement at the command of execution of
its commander. (39)

=89. Facing troops and avoiding indifference when giving commands.=
When giving commands to troops it is usually best to face toward them.

Indifference in giving commands must be avoided as it leads to laxity
in execution. Commands should be given with spirit at all times. (40)


Bugle Signals

=90. Bugle signals that may be used on and off the field of battle.=
The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of these
regulations.

The following bugle signals may be used off the battlefield, when not
likely to convey information to the enemy:

    =Attention:= Troops are brought to attention.
    =Attention to orders:= Troops to fix their attention.
    =Forward, march:= Used also to execute quick time from double time.
    =Double time, march.=
    =To the rear, march:= In close order, execute =squads right about=.
    =Halt.=
    =Assemble, march.=

The following bugle signals may be used on the battlefield:

    =Fix bayonets.=
    =Charge.=
    =Assemble, march.=

These signals are used only when intended for the entire firing line;
hence they can be authorized only by the commander of a unit (for
example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies a distinct section of
the battlefield. Exception: =Fix bayonet.= (See par. 355.)

The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on the
battlefield. Their principal uses are in field exercises and practice
firing.

=Commence firing:= Officers charged with fire direction and control
open fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing line, the
signal is equivalent to =fire at will=.

=Cease firing:= All parts of the line execute =cease firing= at once.

These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, except
when such unit is independent or detached from its regiment. (41)


Whistle Signals

=91. Attention to orders.= A =short blast= of the whistle. This signal
is used on the march or in combat when necessary to fix the attention
of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, preparatory to giving
commands, orders, or signals.

When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends firing and
fixes his attention at a =short blast= of his platoon leader's
whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or signals are
repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a squad leader's
attention is attracted by a whistle other than that of his platoon
leader, or if there are no orders or commands to convey to his squad,
he resumes firing at once.

=Suspend firing.= A =long blast= of the whistle. All other whistle
signals are prohibited. (42)


Arm Signals

=92.= The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals
either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing
line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.

[Illustration]

=Forward, MARCH.= Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold
the arm horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of march.

This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

[Illustration]

=Halt.= Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and
hold the arm vertically.

=Double time, MARCH.= Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust
the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

[Illustration]

=Squads right, MARCH.= Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry
it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times
between the vertical and horizontal positions.

[Illustration]

=Squads left, MARCH.= Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry
it downward to the side and swing it several times between the
downward and horizontal positions.

[Illustration]

=Squads right about, MARCH= (if in close order) or, =To the rear,
MARCH= (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above the
head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it several
times between the vertical and downward positions.

[Illustration]

=Change direction or Column right (left), MARCH.= The hand on the side
toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across
the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a
horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.

[Illustration]

=As skirmishers, MARCH.= Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

[Illustration]

=As skirmishers, guide center, MARCH.= Raise both arms laterally until
horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return
to the horizontal; repeat several times.

[Illustration]

=As skirmishers, guide right (left), MARCH.= Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in
the horizontal position: swing the other upward until vertical and
return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

[Illustration]

=Assemble, March.= Raise the arm vertically to full extent and
describe horizontal circles.

[Illustration]

=Range or Change elevation.= To announce range, extend the arm toward
the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist closed; by
keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated;

[Illustration]

by opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number
equal to the hundreds of yards;

[Illustration]

to add yards describe a short horizontal line with forefinger.

[Illustration]

=To change elevation=, indicate the =amount of increase or decrease=
by fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and downward to
indicate decrease.

[Illustration]

=What range are you using?= or =What is the range?= Extend the arms
toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting
on the other hand, fist closed.

[Illustration]

=Are you ready?= or =I am ready.= Raise the hand, fingers extended and
joined, palm toward the person addressed.

[Illustration]

=Commence firing.= Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm
down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.

=Fire faster.= Execute rapidly the signal, "Commence Firing."

=Fire slower.= Execute slowly the signal, "Commence Firing."

[Illustration]

=Swing the cone of fire to the right, or left.= Extend the arm in full
length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to right
(left), and point in the direction of the new target.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

=Fix Bayonet.= Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix
bayonet." (See par. 142.)

[Illustration]

=Suspend firing.= Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

=Cease firing.= Raise the forearm as in =suspend firing= and swing it
up and down several times in front of the face.

[Illustration]

=Platoon.= Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
describe small circles with the hand. (See par. 93.)

[Illustration]

=Squad.= Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing
the hand up and down from the wrist. (See par. 93.)

=Rush.= Same as =double time=. (43)

=93. Use of signals "platoon" and "squad."= The signals =platoon= and
=squad= are intended primarily for communication between the captain
and his platoon leaders. The signal platoon or squad indicates that
the platoon commander is to cause the signal which follows to be
executed by platoon or squad.

=Note.=--The following signals, while not prescribed, are very
convenient:

=Combined Sights.= Extend the arm toward the leaders for whom the
signal is intended, hand open and turn hand rapidly from right to left
a number of times. Then indicate ranges in the manner prescribed,
giving the mean of the two ranges. (For example: If the combined
sights are 1050 and 1150, indicate a range of 1100 yards. The leaders
who give the oral commands, give the command, "Range 1050 and 1150,"
whereupon every man in the front rank, before deployment, fixes his
sight at 1150, and every man in the rear rank, before deployment,
fixes his sight at 1050.)

=Company.= Bring the hand up near the shoulder and then thrust to the
front, snapping fingers in usual way; repeat several times.

=Contract fire.= Extend both arms horizontally, fingers extended, arms
parallel, palms facing each other; bring hands together =once=, and
hold them so and look at the leader concerned.

=Disperse fire.= Bring hands together, fingers extended, pointing in
direction of leader concerned, arms extended horizontally; swing arms
outward once, and hold them so and look at the leader concerned.

=Platoon column.= Raise both arms vertically, full length, arms
parallel, fingers joined and extended, palms to the front.

=Prepare to rush.= Cross the arms horizontally several times.

=Squad Column.= Raise both arms vertically from elbows, elbows at side
of body, fingers joined and extended, palms to the front.--Author.
(44)


Flag Signals

=94. Signal flags carried by company musicians; description of flags.=
The signal Hags described below are carried by the company musicians
in the field.

In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent
battalion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are as
shown; flags are assigned to the companies alphabetically, within
their respective battalions, in the order given below.

First battalion:

    Company A. Red field, white square.
    Company B. Red field, blue square.
    Company C. Red field, white diagonals.
    Company D. Red field, blue diagonals.

Second battalion:

    Company E. White field, red square.
    Company F. White field, blue square.
    Company G. White field, red diagonals.
    Company H. White field, blue diagonals.

Third battalion:

    Company I. Blue field, red square.
    Company K. Blue field, white square.
    Company L. Blue field, red diagonals.
    Company M. Blue field, white diagonals.

    =Note.=--An analysis of the above system of signal flags will
    show: 1. The color of the field indicates the battalion and the
    colors run in the order that is so natural to us all, viz: =Red=,
    =White= and =Blue=. Hence =red= field indicates the =first=
    battalion; =white= field, the =second=; =blue= field, the =third=.

    2. The =squares= indicate the first two companies of each
    battalion, and the =diagonals=, the second two. Hence,

    +-----------+----------------+
    | Companies |  Indicated by  |
    |-----------+----------------+
    | A | E | I |    Squares     |
    | B | F | K |                |
    |-----------+----------------+
    | C | G | L |   Diagonals    |
    | D | H | M |                |
    +-----------+----------------+

    3. The colors of the squares and diagonals in combination with
    those of the fields, run in the order that is so natural to us
    all, viz.: =Red=, =White= and =Blue=, the color of any given field
    being, of course, omitted from the squares and diagonals, as a
    white square for instance, would not show on a white field, nor
    would a blue diagonal show on a blue field. For example, with a
    =red= field we would have =white= and =blue= for the square and
    diagonal colors; with a =white= field, =red= and =blue= for the
    square and diagonal colors; with a =blue= field, =red= and =white=
    for the square and diagonal colors.

    4. From what has been said, the following table explains itself:

    +-----------+-------+-----+---------+-----------+
    | Battalion | Field | Co. | Squares | Diagonals |
    +-----------+-------+-----+---------+-----------+
    | First     | Red   |  A  | White   |           |
    |           |       |  B  | Blue    |           |
    |           |       |  C  |         | White     |
    |           |       |  D  |         | Blue      |
    +-----------+-------+-----+---------+-----------+
    | Second    | White |  E  | Red     |           |
    |           |       |  F  | Blue    |           |
    |           |       |  G  |         | Red       |
    |           |       |  H  |         | Blue      |
    +-----------+-------+-----+---------+-----------+
    | Third     | Blue  |  I  | Red     |           |
    |           |       |  K  | White   |           |
    |           |       |  L  |         | Red       |
    |           |       |  M  |         | White     |
    +-----------+-------+-----+---------+-----------+

    Note how the square and diagonal colors always follow in the
    natural order of =red=, =white=, and =blue=, with the color of the
    field omitted.--Author. (45)

=95. Signal flags used to mark assembly point of company, etc.= In
addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags serve to mark
the assembly point of the company when disorganized by combat, and to
mark the location of the company in bivouac and elsewhere, when such
use is desirable. (46)

=96. Signals used between firing line and reserve or commander in
rear.= (1) For communication between the firing line and the reserve
or commander in the rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps codes)
are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission, their
concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In the absence of
signal flags, the headdress or other substitute may be used. (See par.
863 for the semaphore code and par. 861 for the General Service, or
International Morse Code.) (47)

  ---------------+---------------------------+----------------------------
     Letter of   | If signaled from the rear | If signaled from the firing
     alphabet    |    to the firing line     |      line to the rear
  ---------------+---------------------------+----------------------------
  A M            | Ammunition going forward. | Ammunition required.
                 |                           |
  C C C          | Charge (mandatory at all  | Am about to charge if no
                 | times).                   | instructions to the
                 |                           | contrary.
                 |                           |
  C F            | Cease firing.             | Cease firing.
                 |                           |
  D T            | Double time or "rush."    | Double time or "rush."
                 |                           |
  F              | Commence firing.          | Commence firing.
                 |                           |
  F B            | Fix bayonets.             | Fix bayonets.
                 |                           |
  F L            | Artillery fire is causing | Artillery fire is causing
                 | us losses.                | us losses.
                 |                           |
  G              | Move forward.             | Preparing to move forward.
                 |                           |
  H H H          | Halt.                     | Halt.
                 |                           |
  K              | Negative.                 | Negative.
                 |                           |
  L T            | Left.                     | Left.
                 |                           |
  O              | What is the (R. N. etc.)? | What is the (R. N. etc.)?
  (Ardois and    | Interrogatory.            | Interrogatory.
  semaphore      |                           |
  only.)         |                           |
  ---------------|                           |
  (All methods   | What is the (R. N. etc.)? | What is the (R. N. etc.)?
  but ardois     | Interrogatory.            | Interrogatory.
  and semaphore.)|                           |
                 |                           |
  P              | Affirmative.              | Affirmative.
                 |                           |
  R              | Acknowledgment.           | Acknowledgment.
                 |                           |
  R N            | Range.                    | Range.
                 |                           |
  R T            | Right.                    | Right.
                 |                           |
  S S S          | Support going forward.    | Support needed.
                 |                           |
  S U F          | Suspend firing.           | Suspend firing.
                 |                           |
  T              | Target.                   | Target.
  ---------------+---------------------------+----------------------------

For the semaphore signals, see par. 863.


SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

=97. Duties of instructor.= The instructor explains briefly each
movement, first executing it himself if practicable. He requires the
recruits to take the proper positions unassisted and does not touch
them for the purpose of correcting them, except when they are unable
to correct themselves. He avoids keeping them too long at the same
movement, although each should be understood before passing to
another. He exacts by degrees the desired precision and uniformity.
(48)

=98. Grouping of recruits according to proficiency.= In order that all
may advance as rapidly as their abilities permit, the recruits are
grouped according to proficiency as instruction progresses. Those who
lack aptitude and quickness are separated from the others and placed
under experienced drill masters. (49)


Instruction Without Arms

=98a. Formation of squad for preliminary instruction.= For preliminary
instruction a number of recruits, usually not exceeding three or four,
are formed as a squad in single rank. (50)


Position of the Soldier, or Attention

=99.= Heels on the same line and as near each other as the
conformation of the man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45°.

=Knees straight without stiffness.=

Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting equally on
hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and falling equally.

Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of the
trousers.

Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the axis
of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front.

Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of the
feet. (51)


The Rests

=100.= Being at a halt, the commands are: =FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE=;
and, =1. Parade, 2. REST=.

At the command =fall out=, the men may leave the ranks, but are
required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former
places, at attention, at the command =fall in=.

At the command =rest= each man keeps one foot in place, but is not
required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command =at ease= each man keeps one foot in place and is
required to preserve silence but =not= immobility. (52)

[Illustration]

=101. 1. Parade, 2. REST.= Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to
the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands, without
constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, left
hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and forefinger of the
right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of position. (53)

=102.= To resume the attention: =1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.=

The men take the position of the soldier. (54)


Eyes Right or Left

=103. 1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.=

[Illustration]

At the command =right=, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed
on the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same
rank. At the command =front=, turn the head and eyes to the front.
(55)


Facings

=104. To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE.=

Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning
on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the
left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left face is
executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

=Right (left) half face= is executed similarly, facing 45°.

"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of either foot and
step off with the other foot in the new line of direction; to face in
marching without gaining ground in the new direction, turn on the ball
of either foot and mark time. (56)

=105.= To the rear: =1. About, 2. FACE.=

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the rear
and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the
position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on
the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the
left. (57)


Salute with the Hand

=106. 1. Hand, 2. SALUTE.=

[Illustration]

Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches
the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye, thumb
and fingers extended and joined palm to the left, forearm inclined at
about 45°, hand and wrist straight; =at the same time look toward the
person saluted=. (=TWO=) Drop the arm smartly by the side. (58)

(For rules governing salutes, see "Military Courtesy," Chapter XI,
Part II.)


Steps and Marchings

=107. Steps and marchings begin with left foot.= All steps and
marchings executed from a halt, except right step, begin with the left
foot. (59)

=108. Length and cadence of full step; indicating cadence.= The length
of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured from heel to
heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence
is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by
calling =one, two, three, four=, or =left, right=, the instant the
left and right foot, respectively, should be planted. (60)

=109. Steps and marchings and movements involving marchings habitually
executed in quick time.= All steps and marchings and movements
involving march are executed in =quick time= unless the squad be
marching in =double time=, or =double time= be added to the command;
in the latter case double time is added to the preparatory command.
Example: =1. Squad right, double time, 2. MARCH= (School of the
Squad). (61)


Quick Time

=110.= Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: =1. Forward,
2. MARCH.=

At the command =forward=, shift the weight of the body to the right
leg, left knee straight.

At the command =march=, move the left foot smartly straight forward 30
inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without
shock; next in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as
above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally. (62)

=111.= Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double
time: =1. Double time, 2. MARCH.=

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the
right leg. At the command =march=, raise the forearms, fingers closed,
to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run
with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging
motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command march, given as either foot
strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in
double time. (63)

To resume the quick time: =1. Quick time, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march=, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick
time, dropping the hands by the sides. (64)


To Mark Time

=112.= Being in march: =1. Mark time, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march=, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and
continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2 inches
and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command march, raise and plant the feet as
described above. (65)


The Half Step

=113. 1. Half step, 2. MARCH.=

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time. (66)

=Forward=, =half step=, =halt=, and =mark time= may be executed one
from the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: =1. Forward, 2.
MARCH.= (67)


Side Step

=114.= Being at a halt or mark time: =1. Right (left) step, 2. MARCH.=

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the left
foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed at trail without command.
(68)


Back Step

=115.= Being at a halt or mark time: =1. Backward, 2. MARCH.=

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed at trail without command.
(69)


To Halt

=116.= To arrest the march in quick or double time: =1. Squad, 2.
HALT.=

At the command =halt=, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant
the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the
side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.
(70)


To March by the Flank

=117.= Being in march: =1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march=, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; then face to the right in marching
and step off in the new direction with the right foot. (71)


To March to the Rear

=118.= Being in march: =1. To the rear, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march= given as the right foot strikes the ground
advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls
of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps
in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.
(72)


Change Step

=119.= Being in march: =1. Change step, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march=, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near
the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command march
being given as the left foot strikes the ground. (73)


MANUAL OF ARMS

=120. Instruction of recruit in use of rifle, manual of arms, etc.= As
soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use, nomenclature, and
care of his rifle. (See "The Care, Description, and Management of the
Rifle," Chapter XIV, Part II.); when fair progress has been made in
the instruction without arms, he is taught the manual of arms;
instruction without arms and that with arms alternate. (74)

=121. Rules governing carrying of piece.= The following rules
governing the carrying of the piece:

First. =Piece habitually carried without cartridges in chamber or
magazine.= The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the
chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When so
loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked;
that is, with the =safety lock= turned to the "safe." At all other
times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. =Inspection of pieces when troops are formed and when
dismissed.= Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are
immediately inspected at the commands: =1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3.
Order (Right shoulder port), 4. ARMS=, which are executed as explained
in pars. 145-146.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed
and placed in the belt.

Third. =Cut-off habitually turned "off."= The cut-off is kept turned
"off" except when cartridges are actually used.

Fourth. =Bayonet habitually not carried fixed.= The bayonet is not
fixed (See par. 142), except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or for
combat.

Fifth. ="Fall in" executed at order; "attention" resumed at order.=
Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. =Fall out=,
=rest=, and =at ease= are executed as without arms, as explained in
par. 100. On resuming =attention= the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. =If at order, pieces brought to right shoulder at command
"march"; execution of movements at trail; piece brought to trail in
certain movements executed from order.= If at the order, unless
otherwise prescribed, the piece is brought to the right shoulder at
the command march, the three motions corresponding with the first
three steps. Movements may be executed at the trail by prefacing the
preparatory command with the words =at trail=; as, =1. At trail,
forward, 2. MARCH=; the trail is taken at the command =march=.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or
distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece
to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Seventh. =Piece brought to order on halting.= The piece is brought to
the order on halting. The execution of the order begins when the halt
is completed.

Eighth. =Holding disengaged hand in double time.= A disengaged hand in
double time is held as when without arms. (75)

=122. Rules governing manual of arms.= The following rules govern the
execution of the manual of arms:

First. =Position of left hand at balance.= In all positions of the
left hand at the balance (center of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the
thumb clasps the piece; the sling is included in the grasp of the
hand.

Second. =Positions of piece "diagonally across the body."= In all
positions of the piece "diagonally across the body" the position of
the piece, left arm and hand are the same as in port arms. (See par.
125.)

[Illustration]

Third. =Next to last motion in resuming order from any position; piece
to strike ground gently.= In resuming the order from any position in
the manual, the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the
piece about 3 inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left
hand above and near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended
and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward, all
fingers of the right hand grasping the piece. To complete the order,
lower the piece gently to the ground with the right hand, drop the
left quickly by the side, and take the position of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground, or
other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing the
manual is prohibited.

Fourth. =Cadence of motions; at first attention to be paid to details
of motion.= The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the
recruits are first required to give their whole attention to the
details of the motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as they
become accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor may require
them to count aloud in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. =Execution of manual "by the numbers."= The manual is taught at
a halt and the movements are for the purpose of instruction, divided
into motions and executed in detail; in this case the command of
=execution= determines the prompt execution of the first motion, and
the commands, =two, three, four=, that of the other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: =By
the numbers=; all movements divided into motions are then executed as
above explained until he cautions: =Without the numbers=; or commands
movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. =Regular positions assumed without regard to previous
positions; carrying rifle in any position.= Whenever circumstances
require, the regular positions of the manual of arms and the firings
may be ordered without regard to the previous position of the piece.

Under the exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may
be carried in any manner directed. (76)

[Illustration]

=123. Position of order arms standing:= The butt rests evenly on the
ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with toe of, and
touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging naturally, right hand
holding the piece between the thumb and fingers. (77)

=124.= Being at order arms: =1. Present, 2. ARMS.=

[Illustration]

With the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of the
body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the left hand at
the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against the body. (=TWO=)
Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand. (78)

=125.= Being at order arms: =1. Port, 2. ARMS.=

[Illustration]

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the
body, grasp it smartly with both hands; the right, palm down, at the
small of the stock: the left, palm up, at the balance; barrel up,
sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the neck
with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal; left forearm resting
against the body; the piece in a vertical plane parallel to the front.
(79)

=126.= Being at present arms: =1. Port, 2. ARMS.=

Carry the piece =diagonally across= the body and take the position of
port arms. (80)

=127.= Being at port arms: =1. Present, 2. ARMS.=

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center of the
body and take the position of present arms. (81)

=128.= Being at present or port arms: =1. Order, 2. ARMS.=

Let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the right
with the left hand: regrasp it with the right hand just above the
lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the next to the last
position in coming to the order. (=TWO=) Complete the order. (82)

=129.= Being at order arms: =1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.=

[Illustration]

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the
body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, embracing it, the heel
between the first two fingers. (=TWO=) Without changing the grasp of
the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up and
inclined at an angle of about 45° from the horizontal, trigger guard
in the hollow of the shoulder, right elbow near the side, the piece in
a vertical plane perpendicular to the front; carry the left hand,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, to the small of the stock, tip
of the forefinger touching the cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow
down. (=THREE=) Drop the left hand by the side. (83)

=130.= Being at right shoulder arms: =1. Order, 2. ARMS.=

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the
body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. (=TWO=),
(=THREE=) Execute order arms as described from port arms. (84)

=131.= Being at port arms: =1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.=

Change the right hand to the butt. (=TWO=), (=THREE=) As in right
shoulder arms from order arms. (85)

=132.= Being at right shoulder arms: =1. Port, 2. ARMS.=

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the
body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. (=TWO=) Change
the right hand to the small of the stock. (86)

=133.= Being at right shoulder arms: =1. Present, 2. ARMS.=

Execute port arms. (=THREE=) execute present arms. (87)

=134.= Being at present arms: =1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS.=

Execute port arms. (=TWO=), (=THREE=), (=FOUR=) Execute right shoulder
arms as from port arms. (88)

=135.= Being at port arms: =1. Left shoulder, 2. ARMS.=

[Illustration]

Carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left shoulder,
barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder; at the same
time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between first and second
fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock. (=TWO=) Drop the right
hand by the side.

=136.= Being at left shoulder arms: =1. Port, 2. ARMS.=

Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock. (=TWO=)
Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, =regrasp= it with
the left, and take the position of port arms.

=Left shoulder arms= may be ordered directly from the order, right
shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command =arms= execute
port arms and continue in cadence to the position ordered. (89)

=137.= Being at order arms: =1. Parade, 2. REST.=

[Illustration]

Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly
bent; carry the muzzle in front of the center of the body, barrel to
the left; grasp the piece with the left hand just below the stacking
swivel, and with the right hand below and against the left.

=138.= Being at parade rest: =1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.=

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the right
hip. (90)

=139.= Being at order arms: =1. Trail, 2. ARMS.=

[Illustration]

Raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle
forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30° with the
vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others, the
piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the
piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left hand may be used.
(91)

=140.= Being at trail arms: =1. Order, 2. ARMS.=

Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the order. (92)


Rifle Salute

=141.= Being at right shoulder arms: =1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.=

[Illustration]

Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm
horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined,
forefinger touching end of cocking piece; look toward the person
saluted. (=TWO=) Drop left hand by the side; turn head and eyes to the
front. (93)

Being at order or trail arms: =1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.=

[Illustration]

Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against piece near
the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. (=TWO=) Drop the left hand
by the side; turn the head and eyes to the front.

For rules governing salutes, see "Military Courtesy," Chapter XI, Part
II.


The Bayonet

=142.= Being at order arms: =1. Fix, 2. BAYONET.=

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward the body;
draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing
at the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: Draw the bayonet with the
left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner. (95)

=143.= Being at our arms: =1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET.=

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing
the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise the bayonet
until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece;
drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and,
glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing
between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right
hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the
most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the
original position.

=Fix= and =unfix= bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity
but not in cadence. (For unfixing bayonet with Krag rifle, see Par.
697.) (96)

=144. CHARGE BAYONET.= Whether executed at halt or in motion, the
bayonet is held toward the opponent as in the position of =guard= in
the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in the
Manual for Bayonet Exercise. (97)


The Inspection

[Illustration]

=145.= Being at order arms: =1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.=

At the second command take the position of port arms. (=TWO=) Seize
the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, turn
the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber. Having
found the chamber empty, or having emptied it, raise the head and eyes
to the front. (For inspection of arms with Krag rifle see par. 698.)
(98)

=146.= Being at inspection arms: =1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 2.
ARMS.=

At the preparatory command push the bolt forward, turn the handle
down, pull the trigger, and resume =port arms=. At the command =arms=,
complete the movement ordered. (To execute with Krag rifle see par.
699.) (99)


To Dismiss the Squad

=147.= Being at halt: =1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5.
DISMISSED.= (100)


SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD

=148. Grouping into Squads.= Soldiers are grouped into squads for
purposes of instruction, discipline, control, and order. (101)

=149. Composition of squad; object of squad movements.= The squad
proper consists of a corporal and seven privates.

The movements in the School of the Squad are designed to make the
squad a fixed unit and to facilitate the control and movement of the
company. If the number of men grouped is more than 3 and less than 12,
they are formed as a squad of 4 files, the excess above 8 being posted
as file closers. If the number grouped is greater than 11, 2 or more
squads are formed and the group is termed a platoon.

For the instruction of recruits, these rules may be modified. (102)

=150. Squad leader; his post.= The corporal is the squad leader, and
when absent is replaced by a designated private. If no private is
designated, the senior in length of service acts as leader.

The corporal, when in ranks, is posted as the left man in the front
rank of the squad.

When the corporal leaves the ranks to lead his squad, his rear rank
man steps into the front rank, and the file remains blank until the
corporal returns to his place in ranks, when his rear rank man steps
back into the rear rank. (103)

=151. Preservation of integrity of squads in battle.= In battle
officers and sergeants endeavor to preserve the integrity of squads;
they designate new leaders to replace those disabled, organize new
squads when necessary, and see that every man is placed in a squad.

Men are taught the necessity of remaining with the squad to which they
belong and, in case it be broken up or they become separated
therefrom, to attach themselves to the nearest squad and platoon
leaders, whether these be of their own or of another organization.
(104)

=152. Certain movements executed by squad as in School of the
Soldier.= The squad executes the =halt= (See par. 116), =rests= (See
par. 100-101), =facings= (See pars. 104-105), =steps and marchings=
(See pars. 107-119), and the =manual of arms= (See pars. 120-147), as
explained in the School of the Soldier. (105)


To Form the Squad

=153.= To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in
front of where the center is to be and commands: =FALL IN.=

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged
by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order of
height from right to left, each man dropping his left hand as soon as
the man in his left has his interval. The rear rank forms with
distance of 40 inches.

The instructor then commands: =COUNT OFF.=

At this command all except the right file execute eyes right, and
beginning on the right, the men in each rank count =one, two, three,
four=; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as he counts.

Pieces are then inspected. (106)


Alignments

=154.= To align the squad, the base file or files having been
established: =1. Right (Left), 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT.=

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each hip
(whether dressing to the right or left); each man, except the base
file, when on or near the new line executes =eyes right=, and taking
steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his right arm rests
lightly against the arm of the man on his right, and so that his eyes
and shoulders are in line with those of the men on his right; the rear
rank men cover in file.

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right
flank and orders up or back such men as may be in rear, or in advance,
of the line; only the men designated move.

At the command =dress= all men place the left hand upon the man turns
his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand by his side.

In the first drills the basis of the alignment is established on, or
parallel to, the front of the squad; afterwards, in oblique
directions.

Whenever the position of the base file or files necessitates a
considerable movement by the squad, such movement will be executed by
marching to the front or oblique, to the flank or backward, as the
case may be, without other command, and at the trail. (107)

=155.= To preserve the alignment when marching: =GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT).=

The men preserve their intervals from the side of the guide, yielding
to pressure from that side and resisting pressure from the opposite
direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually opening out
or closing in; they recover alignment by slightly lengthening or
shortening the step; the rear-rank men cover their file leaders at 40
inches.

In double rank, the front-rank man on the right, or designated flank,
conducts the march; when marching faced to the flank, the leading man
of the front rank is the guide. (108)


To Take Intervals and Distances

=156.= Being in line at a halt: =1. Take interval, 2. To the right
(left), 3. MARCH, 4. Squad, 5. HALT.=

[Illustration]

Being in line at a halt.

=1. Take interval, 2. To the right (left)=

[Illustration]

At the second command the rear-rank men march backward 4 steps and
halt;

=3. MARCH=

[Illustration]

At the command =march= all face to the right and the leading man of
each rank steps off; the other men step off in succession, each
following the preceding man at 4 paces, rear-rank men marching abreast
of their file leaders.

=4. Squad, 5. HALT=

[Illustration]

At the command =halt=, given when all have their intervals, all halt
and face to the front. (109)

[Illustration: (AT INTERVALS)]

=157. Being at intervals, to assemble the squad:=

=1. Assemble, to the right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration: (ASSEMBLE)]

The front-rank man on the right stands fast, the rear rank man on the
right closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right, close by
the shortest line, and face to the front. (110)

[Illustration: (ASSEMBLED)]

=158.= Being in line at a halt and having counted off: =1. Take
distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.=

[Illustration]

At the command =March= No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the
front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of
the rear rank, in the order named, move straight to the front, each
stepping off so as to follow the preceding man at 4 paces. The command
=halt= is given when all have their distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the
movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right. (111)

=159.= Being at distances, to assemble the squad: =1. Assemble, 2.
MARCH.=

[Illustration]

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward to
their proper places in line. (112)


To Stack and Take Arms

[Illustration]

=160.= Being in line at a halt: =STACK ARMS.= Each =even= number of
the =front= rank grasps his piece with the left hand at the upper
band

[Illustration]

and rests the butt between his feet, barrel to the front, muzzle
inclined slightly to the front and opposite the center of the interval
on his right, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel;
each =even= number of the =rear= rank then passes his piece, barrel to
the rear, to his file leader, who grasps it between the bands with his
right hand

[Illustration]

and throws the butt about 2 feet in advance of that of his own piece
and opposite the right of the interval, the right hand slipping to the
upper band, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking swivel,
which he engages with that of his own piece;

[Illustration]

each =odd= number of the =front= rank raises his piece with the right
hand, carries it well forward, barrel to the front; the left hand,
guiding the stacking swivel,

[Illustration]

engages the lower hook of the swivel of his own piece with the free
hook of that of the even number of the rear rank; he then turns the
barrel outward into the angle formed by the other two pieces and
lowers the butt to the ground, =to the right= and =against the toe= of
his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the =even=
numbers of the front rank. When each man has finished handling pieces,
he takes the position of the soldier. (113)

=161.= Being in line behind the stacks: =TAKE ARMS.=

(See preceding illustration.)

The loose pieces are returned by the =even= numbers of the =front=
rank; each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece with the
left hand, the piece of his rear rank man with his right hand,
grasping both between the bands; each =odd= number of the =front= rank
grasps his piece in the same way with the right hand; disengages it by
raising the butt from the ground and then turning the piece to the
right, detaches it from the stack; each =even= number of the front
rank disengages and detaches his piece by turning it to the left,

[Illustration]

and, then passes the piece of his rear-rank man to him, and all resume
the order. (114)

Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear rank takes
the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking the stack; the
stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stacks are termed =loose pieces=.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed. (115)


The Oblique March

=162.= For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column or
correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face half right
or half left, points out to the men their relative positions, and
explains that these are to be maintained in the oblique march. (116)

=163. Right (Left) oblique, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

Each man steps off in a direction 45° to the right of his original
front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his shoulders
parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of the line
or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks remain parallel
to their original front.

At the command =halt= the men halt faced to front.

To resume the original direction: =1. Forward 2. MARCH.=

The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight to
the front.

If at =halfstep= or =mark time= while obliquing, the oblique march is
resumed by the commands: =1. Oblique, 2. MARCH.= (117)


To Turn on Moving Pivot

=164.= Being in line: =1. Right (Left) turn, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the same
ground. At the second command, the pivot man of the front rank faces
to the right in marching and takes the half step; the other men of the
rank oblique to the right until opposite their places in line, then
execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving
abreast of the pivot man. All glance toward the marching flank while
at half step and take the full step without command as the last man
arrives on the line.

=Right (Left) half turn= is executed in a similar manner. The pivot
man makes a half change of direction to the right and the other men
make quarter changes in obliquing. (118)


To Turn on Fixed Pivot

=165.= Being in line, to turn and march: =1. Squad right (left), 2.
MARCH.=

[Illustration]

At the second command, the right flank man in the front rank faces to
the right in marching and marks time; the other front rank men oblique
to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time. In
the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by the
second and first, move straight to the front

[Illustration]

until in rear of his front-rank man,

[Illustration]

when all face to the right in marching and mark time; the other number
of the rear rank moves straight to the front four paces and places
himself abreast of the man on his right. Men on the new line glance
toward the marching flank while marking time and, as the last man
arrives on the line, both ranks execute =forward, MARCH=, without
command. (119)

=166.= Being in line, to turn and halt: =1. Squad right (left), 2.
MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.=

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is
executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all men,
on arriving on the new line, mark time until the fourth command is
given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last
man arrives on the line. (120)

=167.= Being in line, to turn about and march: =1. Squad right (left)
about, 2. MARCH.=

At the second command, the front rank twice executes squad right
initiating the second squad right when the man on the marching flank
has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third man from
the right, followed by the second and first in column, moves straight
to the front until on the prolongation of the line to be occupied by
the rear rank; changes direction to the right; moves in the new
direction until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the
right in marching, mark time, and glance toward the marching flank.
The fourth man marches on the left of the third to his new position;
as he arrives on the line, both ranks execute =forward, MARCH=,
without command. (121)

=168.= Being in line, to turn about and halt: =1. Squad right (left)
about, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.=

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is
executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all men,
on arriving on the new line, mark time until the fourth command is
given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last
man arrives on the line. (122)


To Follow the Corporal

[Illustration: (IN LINE)]

=169.= Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without
unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of it and
commands: =FOLLOW ME.=

[Illustration: (AS SKIRMISHERS)]

If in line or skirmish line, No. 2 of the front rank follows in the
trace of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men conform to the
movements of No. 2, guiding on him and maintaining their relative
positions.

[Illustration: (IN COLUMN)]

If in column, the head of the column follows the corporal. (123)


To Deploy as Skirmishers

[Illustration]

=170.= Being in any formation, assembled: =1. As skirmishers, 2.
MARCH.=

The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not already
there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the
corporal at half-pace intervals, Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos. 3
and 4 on his left, rear rank men on the right of their file leaders,
extra men on the left of No. 4; all then conform to the corporal's
gait.

[Illustration]

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed on
No. 2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the march, as
the case may be; the corporal places himself in front of the squad
when advancing and in rear when halted.

[Illustration]

When deployed as skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at the
trail unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front rank
is the guide. (124)

=171.= The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace,
resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The front of a
squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces. (125)


To Increase or Diminish Intervals

=172.= If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the
normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or
decrease the internal: =1. As skirmishers, (so many) paces, 2. MARCH.=

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already
deployed, the men move by the flank toward or away from the guide.
(126)


The Assembly

=173.= Being deployed: =1. Assemble. 2. MARCH.=

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time,
form, and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed. (127)


Kneeling and Lying Down

=174.= If standing: =KNEEL.=

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the left
rear of the left heel; kneel on right knee, sitting as nearly as
possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh; piece
remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping it above lower
band. (128)

[Illustration]

=175.= If standing or kneeling: =LIE DOWN.=

[Illustration]

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel:

[Illustration]

carry back the left foot and lie flat on the belly, inclining body
about 35° to the right

[Illustration]

piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground and pointed to the
front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the balance, right hand
grasping the small of the stock opposite the neck. This is the
position of order arms, lying down. (129)

=176.= If kneeling or lying down: =RISE.=

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the
left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the front,
on the ground marked by the knees. (130)

=177.= If lying down: =KNEEL.=

Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel. (131)

=178.= In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down are
ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position may be taken in lieu
of the position kneeling. (132)


Loadings and Firings

=179.= The commands for loading and firing are the same whether
standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed at
a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does not
load, aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only. (133)

=180.= Pieces having been ordered loaded are kept loaded without
command until the command =unload=, or =inspection arms=, fresh clips
being inserted when the magazine is exhausted. (To execute with Krag
rifle see par. 700.) (134)

=181.= The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This may
be done before or after announcing the sight setting. Both are
indicated before giving the command for firing, but may be omitted
when the target appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in such case
battle sight is used if no sight setting is announced. (135)

=182.= The target or aiming point having been designated and the sight
setting announced, such designation or announcement need not be
repeated until a change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point or
target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until a change
is ordered. (136)

=183.= If the men are not already in the position of load, that
position is taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if the
announcement is omitted, the position is taken at the first command
for firing. (137)

=184.= When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate
firing is discretionary with each man. (138)


To Load

=185.= Being in line or skirmish line at halt:

=1. With dummy (blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD.=

[Illustration]

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right
and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such
position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the
body; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the left hand at
the balance, the left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the
height of the breast, and turns the cut-off up.

[Illustration]

With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back,

[Illustration]

takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in the clip slots, places the
thumb on the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending
around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate; forces
the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with the thumb;
without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning down the
handle; turns the safety lock to the "=safe=,"

[Illustration]

and carries the hand to the small of the stock.

[Illustration]

Each rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position
opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man, muzzle of
the piece extending beyond the front rank and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of =load=.

[Illustration]

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh;

[Illustration]

if sitting the elbows are supported by the knees.

[Illustration]

If lying down, the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the
balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the
ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down)
are designated as that of =load=. (For Krag rifle as prescribed in
701.) (139)

=186.= For instruction in loading: =1. Simulate, 2. LOAD.=

Executed as above described except that the cut-off remains "off" and
the handling of cartridges is simulated.

The recruits are first taught to =simulate= loading and firing; after
a few lessons dummy cartridges may be used. Later, blank cartridges
may be used. (140)

The rifle may be used as a single loader by turning the magazine
"off." The magazine may be filled in whole or in part while "off" or
"on" by pressing cartridges singly down and back until they are in the
proper place. The use of the rifle as a single loader is, however, to
be regarded as exceptional. (Explained for Krag rifle in par. 702.)
(141)


To Unload

=187. UNLOAD.=

Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move bolt
alternately back and forward until all the cartridges are ejected.
After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by first
thrusting the bolt slightly forward to free it from the stud holding
it in place when the chamber is open, pressing the follower down and
back to engage it under the bolt and then thrusting the bolt home; the
trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and
returned to the belt and the piece is brought to the order. (Explained
in par. 703 for Krag rifle.) (142)


To Set the Sight

=188. RANGE, ELEVEN HUNDRED (EIGHT-FIFTY, etc.)=, or =BATTLE SIGHT=.

The sight is set at the elevation indicated. The instructor explains
and verifies sight settings. (143)


To Fire by Volley

=189. 1. Ready, 2. AIM, 3. Squad, 4. FIRE.=

[Illustration]

At the command =ready= turn the safety lock to the "ready";

[Illustration]

at the command =aim= raise the piece with both hands and support the
butt firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, right thumb
clasping the stock, barrel horizontal, left elbow well under the
piece, right elbow as high as the shoulder; incline the head slightly
forward and a little to the right, cheek against the stock,

[Illustration]

left eye closed, right eye looking through the notch of the rear sight
so as to perceive the object aimed at, second joint of the forefinger
resting lightly against the front of the trigger and taking up the
slack; top of front sight is carefully raised into, and held in, the
line of sight.

[Illustration]

Each rear-rank man aims through the interval to the right of his file
leader and leans slightly forward to advance the muzzle of his piece
beyond the front rank.

[Illustration]

In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point of
elbow in front of kneecap.

[Illustration]

In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees.

[Illustration]

In aiming, lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on both
elbows and press the butt firmly against the right shoulder.

At the command =fire= press the finger against the trigger; fire
without deranging the aim and without lowering or turning the piece;
lower the piece in the position of =load= and load. (144)

To continue the firing: =1. AIM, 2. Squad, 3. FIRE.=

Each command is executed as previously explained. =Load= (from
magazine) is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with
the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "ready." (145)


To Fire at Will

=190. FIRE AT WILL.=

Each man, independently of the others, comes to the =ready=, aims
carefully and deliberately at the aiming point or target, =fires=,
=loads=, and continues the firing until ordered to =suspend= or =cease
firing=. (146)

=191.= To increase (decrease) the rate of fire in progress the
instructor shouts: =FASTER (SLOWER).=

Men are trained to fire at the rate of about three shots per minute at
effective ranges and five or six at close ranges, devoting the minimum
of time to loading and the maximum to deliberate aiming. To illustrate
the necessity for deliberation, and to habituate men to combat
conditions, small and comparatively indistinct targets are designated.
(147)


To Fire by Clip

=192. CLIP FIRE.=

Executed in the same manner as =fire at will=, except that each man,
after having exhausted the cartridges then in the piece, =suspends
firing=. (For Krag rifle see par. 704.) (148)


To Suspend Firing

=193.= The instructor blows a =long blast= of the whistle and repeats
same, if necessary, or commands: =SUSPEND FIRING.=

Firing stops; pieces are held, loaded and locked, in a position of
readiness for instant resumption of firing, rear sights unchanged. The
men continue to observe the target or aiming point, or the place at
which the target disappeared, or at which it is expected to reappear.

This whistle signal may be used as a preliminary to =cease firing=.
(149)


To Cease Firing

=194. CEASE FIRING.=

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load; those not loaded, are loaded; sights are laid, pieces are locked
and brought to the order.

=Cease firing= is used for long pauses, to prepare for changes of
position, or to steady the men. (For Krag rifle see par. 705.) (150)

Commands for suspending or ceasing fire may be given at any time after
the preparatory command for firing whether the firing has actually
commenced or not. (151)


The Use of Cover

=195. Individual instruction; things to be impressed upon the
recruit.= The recruit should be given careful instruction in the
individual use of cover. (152)

It should be impressed upon him that, in taking advantage of natural
cover, he must be able to fire easily and effectively upon the enemy;
if advancing on an enemy, he must do so steadily and as rapidly as
possible; he must conceal himself as much as possible while firing and
while advancing. While setting his sight he should be under cover or
lying prone.

=196. Practice in simulated firing from behind hillocks, trees, etc.;
firing around right side of concealment.= To teach him to fire easily
and effectively, at the same time concealing himself from the view of
the enemy, he is practiced in simulated firing in the prone, sitting,
kneeling, and crouching positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps
of earth or rocks, from depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways, or
windows. He is taught to fire around the right side of his concealment
whenever possible, or, when this is not possible, to rise enough to
fire over the top of his concealment.

When these details are understood, he is required to select cover with
reference to an assumed enemy and to place himself behind it in proper
position for firing. (153)

=197. Evil of remaining too long in one place; advancing from cover to
cover by running, crawling, etc.= The evil of remaining too long in
one place, however good the concealment, should be explained. He
should be taught to advance from cover to cover, selecting cover in
advance before leaving his concealment.

It should be impressed upon him that a man running rapidly toward an
enemy furnishes a poor target. He should be trained in springing from
a prone position behind concealment, running at top speed to cover and
throwing himself behind it. He should also be practiced in advancing
from cover to cover by crawling, or by lying on the left side, rifle
grasped in the right hand, and pushing himself forward with the right
leg. (154)

=198. Action when fired on while acting independently.= He should be
taught that, when fired on while acting independently, he should drop
to the ground, seek cover, and then endeavor to locate his enemy.
(155)

=199. Proper advance and effectiveness of fire of greater importance
than cover.= The instruction of the recruit in the use of cover is
continued in the combat exercises of the company, but he must then be
taught that the proper advance of the platoon or company and the
effectiveness of its fire is of greater importance than the question
of cover for individuals. He should also be taught that he may not
move about or shift his position in the firing line except the better
to see the target. (156)


Observation

=200. Importance of observation; training of recruit.= The ability to
use his eyes accurately is of great importance to the soldier. The
recruit should be trained in observing his surroundings from positions
and when on the march.

He should be practiced in pointing out and naming military features of
the ground; in distinguishing between living beings; in counting
distant groups of objects or beings; in recognizing colors and forms.
(157)

=201. Training in mechanism of firing line and estimating distance.=
In the training of men in the mechanism of the firing line, they
should be practiced in repeating to one another target and aiming
point designations and in quickly locating and pointing out a
designated target. They should be taught to distinguish, from a prone
position, distant objects, particularly troops, both with the naked
eye and with field glasses. Similarly, they should be trained in
estimating distances. (158)


SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY

=202. Captain responsible for instruction of officers and
noncommissioned officers.= The captain is responsible for the
theoretical and practical instruction of his officers and
noncommissioned officers, not only in the duties of their respective
grades, but in those of the next higher grades. (159)

=203. Formation of company in double rank, according to height;
division into squads.= The company in line is formed in double rank
with the men arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from
right to left, the tallest on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command: =COUNT
OFF=. The squads, successively, from the right, count off as in the
School of the Squad, as explained in par. 153, corporals placing
themselves as Nos. 4 of the front rank. If the left squad contains
less than six men, it is either increased to that number by transfers
from other squads or is broken up and its members assigned to other
squads and posted in the line of file closers. These squad
organizations are maintained, by transfers if necessary, until the
company becomes so reduced in numbers as to necessitate a new division
into squads. No squad will contain less than six men. (160)

=204. Division of company into platoons.= The company is further
divided into two, three or four platoons, each consisting of not less
than two, nor more than four squads. In garrison or ceremonies the
strength of platoons may exceed four squads. (161)

=205. Designation of squads and platoons.= At the formation of the
company the platoons or squads are numbered consecutively from right
to left and these designations do not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the
designations, =right, center, left=, when in line, and =leading,
center, rear=, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads.
These designations apply to the actual right, left, center, head, or
rear, in whatever direction the company may be facing. The =center
squad= is the middle or right middle squad of the company.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.
(162)

=206. Assignment of platoons; assignment of guides.= Platoons are
assigned to the lieutenants and noncommissioned officers, in order of
rank, as follows: 1, right; 2, left; 3, center (right center); 4, left
center.

[Illustration: Plate II]

The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as guides, one
to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are assigned to
platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is deployed, its
guide, or guides, accompany the platoon leader.

During battle, these assignments are not changed; vacancies are filled
by noncommissioned officers of the platoon, or by the nearest
available officers or noncommissioned officers arriving with
reënforcing troops. (163)

=207. Post of first sergeant, quartermaster sergeant and musicians.=
The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When not commanding a
platoon, he is posted as a file closer opposite the third file from
the outer flank of the first platoon; and when the company is deployed
he accompanies the captain.

The quartermaster sergeant, when present, is assigned according to his
rank as a sergeant.

Enlisted men below the grade of sergeant, armed with the rifle are in
ranks unless serving as guides; when not so armed they are posted in
the line of file closers.

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the column. When
the company is deployed, they accompany the captain, and perform the
duties laid down in par. 272. (164)

=208. Certain movements executed by company and by platoon as
prescribed in Schools of the Soldier and the Squad.= The company
executes the =halt=, =rests=, =facings=, =steps=, and =marchings=,
=manual of arms=, =loadings=, and =firings=, takes =intervals= and
=distances= and =assembles=, =increases= and =diminishes intervals=,
resumes =attention=, =obliques=, resumes the direct march, preserves
alignments, =kneels=, =lies down=, =rises=, =stacks=, and =takes
arms=, as explained in the Schools of the Soldier and the Squad,
substituting in the commands =company= for =squad=.

The same rule applies to platoons, detachments, details, etc.,
substituting their designation for =squad= in the commands. In the
same manner these execute the movements prescribed for the company,
whenever possible, substituting their designation for =company= in the
commands. (165)

=209. Depleted company led as platoon.= A company so depleted as to
make division into platoons impracticable is led by the captain as a
single platoon, but retains the designation of company. The
lieutenants and first sergeant assist in fire control; the other
sergeants place themselves in the firing line as skirmishers. (166)


CLOSE ORDER


Rules

=210. Platoon guides.= The guides of the right and left, or leading
and rear, platoons, are the right and left, or leading and rear,
guides, respectively, of the company when it is in line or in column
of squads. Other guides are in the line of =file closers=.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the head of
the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the guiding flank if
in line. When a platoon has two guides their original assignment to
flanks of the platoon does not change. (167)

=211. Guides of a column of squads; changing guides and file closers
to opposite flank.= The guides of a column of squads place themselves
on the flank opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file
closers to the other flank, the captain commands: =1. File closers on
left (right) flank; 2. MARCH.= The file closers dart through the
column; the captain and guides change.

In the column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the
side of the guide. (168)

=212. File closers do not execute loadings or firings; execution of
manual of arms and other movements.= Men in the line of file closers
do not execute the loadings or firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the manual
of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when they remain at
the order. During ceremonies they execute all movements. (169)

=213. Action of guides in taking intervals and distances.= In taking
intervals and distances, unless otherwise directed, the right and left
guides, at the first command, place themselves in the line of file
closers, and, with them, take a distance of 4 paces from the rear
rank. In taking intervals, at the command =march=, the file closers
face to the flank and each steps off with the file nearest him. In
assembling the guides and file closers resume their position in line.
(170)

=214. Repetition of commands by platoon leaders in platoon drill.= In
movements executed simultaneously by platoons (=as platoons right or
platoons, column right=), platoon leaders repeat the preparatory
command (=platoon right=, etc.), applicable to their respective
platoons. The command of execution is given by the captain only. (171)


To Form the Company

=215.= At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes
position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company is to be,
faces it, draws saber, and commands: =FALL IN.=

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front,
where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the
center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first
sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the
right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their
posts.

The first sergeant commands: =REPORT.= Remaining in position at the
order, the squad leaders, in succession from right, salute and report:
=All present=; or, =Private(s) ---- absent.= The first sergeant does
not return the salutes of the squad leaders; he then commands: =1.
Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order, 4. ARMS=, faces about, salutes the
captain, reports: =Sir, all present or accounted for=, or the names of
the unauthorized absentees, and, without command, takes his post.

If the company can not be formed by squads, the first sergeant
commands: =1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Right shoulder, 4. ARMS=, and
calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called, answers here and
executes order arms. The sergeant then effects the division into
squads and reports the company as prescribed above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of, and
facing, the company in time to receive the report of the first
sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has reported
and draw saber with the captain. The company, if not under arms, is
formed in like manner omitting reference to arms. (172)

=216.= For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company,
when small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close
order movements only are executed. The single rank executes all
movements as explained for the front rank of a company. (173)


To Dismiss the Company

=217.= Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first
sergeant: =Dismiss the company.= The officers fall out; the first
sergeant places himself faced to the front, 3 paces to the front and 2
paces from the nearest flank of the company, salutes, faces toward
opposite flank of the company and commands: =1. Inspection, 2. ARMS,
3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.= (174)


Alignments

=218.= The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School of the
Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank file. The
rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and eyes to the front
and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation of the
line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the dress is
made, verifies the alignment, and commands: =FRONT.=

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify
alignments. (175)


Movements on the Fixed Pivot

=219.= Being in line, to turn the company: =1. Company right (left),
2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT;= or, =3. Forward, 4. MARCH.=

At the second command the right-flank man[1] in the front rank faces
to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank men
oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark
time; in the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in
column by the second and first, moves straight to the front until in
rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching and
mark time; the remaining men of the rear rank move straight to the
front 4 paces, oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the
third man, cover their file leaders, and mark time, the right guide
steps back, takes post on the flank, and marks time.

[Illustration]

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear of the
new line.

The command =halt= may be given at any time after the movement begins;
only those halt who are in the new position. Each of the others halts
upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the right, and executes
=front= without command. (176)

=220.= Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: =1.
Platoons right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT=; or, =3.
Forward, 4. MARCH.=

[Illustration: FROM LINE TO COLUMN OF PLATOONS.]

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank
toward which the movement is to be executed are covering. This is
effected by previously announcing the guide to that flank. (177)

=221.= Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse; or,
being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or the reverse:
=1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH=; or, =1. Squads right (left), 2.
MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT=.

[Illustration: FROM LINE TO COLUMN OF SQUADS.]

[Illustration: FROM LINE OF PLATOONS TO COLUMN OF PLATOONS.]

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of the
file closers, they dart through the column and take posts in rear of
the company at the second command. If the column of squads be formed
from line, the file closers take posts on the pivot flank, abreast of
and 4 inches from the nearest rank. (178)


Movements on the Moving Pivot

=222.= Being in line, to change direction: =1. Right (Left) turn, 2.
MARCH, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that the men
do not glance toward the marching flank and that all take the full
step at the fourth command. The right guide is the pivot of the front
rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on the same ground as his file
leader. (179)

=223.= Being in column of platoons, to change direction: =1. Column
right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

At the first command the leader of the leading platoon commands:
=Right turn.= At the command =march= the leading platoon turns to the
right on moving pivot; its leader commands: =1. Forward, 2. MARCH=, on
completion of the turn. Rear =platoons= march squarely up to the
turning point of the leading platoons =and turn= at command of their
leaders. (180)

=224.= Being in column of squads, to change direction: =1. Column
right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns to the
right on moving pivot as in the School of the Squad; the other ranks,
without command turn successively on the same ground and in a similar
manner. (181)

=225.= Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the
reverse: =1. Platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS TO LINE OF PLATOONS.]

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. (182)

=226.= Being in line, to form column of squads and change direction:
=1. Squads right (left), column right (left), 2. MARCH=; or, =1. Right
(Left) by squads, 2. MARCH.=

In the first case the right squad initiates the =column right= as soon
as it has completed the =squad right=.

[Illustration: SQUADS RIGHT COLUMN RIGHT.]

In the second case, at the command =march=, the right squad marches
=forward=; the remainder of the company executes =squads right=,
=column left=, and follows the right squad. The right guide, when he
has posted himself in front of the squad, takes four short steps, then
resumes the full step; the right quad conforms. (183)

[Illustration: RIGHT BY SQUADS.]

=227.= Being in line, to form line of platoons: =1. Squads right
(left), platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH=; or, =1. Platoons,
right (left) by squads, 2. MARCH=.

[Illustration: FROM LINE TO LINE OF PLATOONS.]

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the preceding
paragraph. (184)


Facing or Marching to the Rear

=228.= Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or
squads, to face or march to the rear: =1. Squads right (left) about,
2. MARCH=; or, =1. Squad right (left) about, 2. MARCH; 3. Company, 4.
HALT.=

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be in column of squads, the file closers
turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line, each
darts through the nearest interval between squads. (185).

=229.= To march to the rear for a few paces: =1. About, 2. FACE, 3.
Forward, 4. MARCH.=

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now the
front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their relative
positions. No other movement is executed until the line is faced to
the original front. (186)


On Right (Left) Into Line

=230.= Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right or
left: =1. On right (left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5.
FRONT.=

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF PLATOONS TO LINE ON RIGHT.]

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands: =Right
turn.= The leaders of the other units command: =Forward=, if at a
halt. At the second command the leading unit turns to the right on
moving pivot. The command halt is given when the leading unit has
advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it halts; its
leader then commands: =Right dress.=

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS TO LINE ON RIGHT.]

The units in rear continue to march straight to the front; each, when
opposite the right of its place in line, executes right turn at the
command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of
its leader, who then commands: =Right dress.= All dress on the first
unit in line.

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches in double time
until halted. (187)


Front Into Line

=231.= Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to the
front: =1. Right (Left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4.
HALT, 5. FRONT.=

At the first command the leaders of the units in rear of the leading
one command: =Right oblique.= If at a halt, the leader of the leading
unit commands: =Forward.= At the second command the leading unit moves
straight forward; the rear units oblique as indicated. The command
=halt= is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired
distance; it halts; its leader then commands: =Left dress.= Each of
the rear units, when opposite its place in line, resumes the original
direction at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at
the command of its leader, who then commands: =Left dress.= All dress
on the first unit in line. (188)

=232.= Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or being
line of platoons, to form the company in line: =1. Platoons, right
(left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.=

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS TO LINE TO THE FRONT.]

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF PLATOONS TO LINE TO THE FRONT.]

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. In forming the
company in line, the dress is on the left squad of the left platoon.
If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders verify the alignment
before taking their posts; the captain commands =front= when the
alignments have been verified.

When =front into line= is executed in double time the commands for
halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the side of
the first unit in line. (189)


At Ease and Route Step

=233.= The column of squads is the habitual column of route, but
=route step= and =at ease= are applicable to any marching formation.
(190)

To march at route step: =1. Route step, 2. MARCH.=

Sabers are carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry their
pieces at will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not required to
preserve silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks cover and preserve
their distance. If halted from route step, the men stand =at rest=.
(191)

To march at ease: =1. At ease, 2. MARCH.=

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is
preserved; when halted, the men remain =at ease=. (192)

Marching at route step or at ease: =1. Company, 2. ATTENTION.=

At the command =attention= the pieces are brought to the right
shoulder and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed. (193)


To Diminish The Front of A Column of Squads

=234.= Being in column of squads: =1. Right (left) by twos, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

At the command =march= all files except the two right files of the
leading squad execute =in place halt=; the two left files of the
leading squad oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the
right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads
follow successively in like manner. (194)

=235.= Being in column of squads or twos: =1. Right (Left) by file, 2.
MARCH.=

[Illustration]

At the command =march=, all files execute =in place halt= except the
right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or files of the
leading two or squad oblique successively to the right when disengaged
and each follows the file on its right at the shortest practicable
distance. The remaining twos or squads follow successively in like
manner. (195)

Being in column of files or twos, to form column of squads; or, being
in column of files, to form column of twos: =1. Squads (Twos), right
(left) front into line, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march=, the leading file or files halt. The remainder
of the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts on line with the
leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up and
successively form in rear of the first in like manner.

[Illustration]

This diagram illustrates a squad executing =LEFT= front into line.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered =right= or
=left=, so as to restore the files to their normal relative positions
in the two or squad. (196)

The movements prescribed in the three preceding paragraphs are
difficult of execution at attention and have no value as disciplinary
exercises. (197)


EXTENDED ORDER


Rules for Deployment

=236. Designation of base squads.= The command =guide right= (=left=
or =center=) indicates the base squad for the deployment; if in line
it designates the actual =right= (=left= or =center=) squad; if in
column the command =guide right (left)= designates the =leading=
squad, and the command =guide center= designates the =center= squad,
as laid down in par. 205. After the deployment is completed, the guide
is =center= without command, unless otherwise ordered. (199)

=237. Action of squad leaders at preparatory command for forming
skirmish line.= At the preparatory command for forming skirmish line,
from either column of squads or line, each squad leader (except the
leader of the base squad, when his squad does not advance) cautions
his squad, =follow me= or =by the right (left) flank=, as the case may
be; at the command march, he steps in front of his squad and leads it
to its place in line, as explained in par. 169. (200)

=238. Point on which base squad marches.= Having given the command for
forming skirmish line, the captain, if necessary, indicates to the
corporal of the base squad the point on which the squad is to march;
the corporal habitually looks to the captain for such directions.
(201)

=239. Deployment of the squads.= The base squad (par. 199) is deployed
as soon as it has sufficient interval. The other squads are deployed
as they arrive on the general line; each corporal halts in his place
in line and commands or signals, as =skirmishers= (executed as
prescribed in par. 170); the squad deploys and halts abreast of him.

If tactical considerations demand it, the squad is deployed before
arriving on the line. (202)

=240. Alignment of deployed lines; deployed line faces to front on
halting.= Deployed lines preserve a general alignment toward the
guide, as prescribed in par. 65. Within their respective fronts,
individuals or units march so as best to secure cover or to facilitate
the advance, but the general and orderly progress of the whole is
paramount.

On halting, a deployed line faces to the front (direction of the
enemy) in all cases and takes advantage of cover, the men lying down
if necessary. (203)

=241. Certain movements in extended order executed by same commands as
in close order.= The company in skirmish line =advances, halts=, moves
=by the flank=, or =to the rear, obliques=, resumes =the direct
march=, passes from =quick to double time= and the reverse by the same
commands and in a similar manner as in close order; if at a halt, the
movement by =the flank= or =to the rear= is executed by the same
commands as when marching. =Company right (left, half right, half
left)= is executed as explained for the front rank (in par. 165)
skirmish intervals being maintained. (See par. 171.) (204)

=242. Deployment of platoons and detachments.= A platoon or other part
of the company is deployed and marched in the same manner as the
company, substituting in the commands, =platoon= (=detachments=,
etc.), for =company=. (205)


Deployments (See pars. 170-172.)

=243.= Being in line, to form skirmish line to the front: =1. As
skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

If marching, the corporal of the base squad moves straight to the
front; when that squad has advanced the desired distance, the captain
commands: =1. Company, 2. HALT.= If the guide be =right (left)=, the
other corporals move to the =left (right)= front, and, in succession
from the base, place their squads on the line; if the guide be center,
the other corporals move to the right or left front, according as they
are on the right or left of the center squad, and in succession from
the center squad place their squads on the line.

If at a halt, the base squad is deployed without advancing; the other
squads may be conducted to their proper places by the flank; interior
squads may be moved when squads more distant from the base have gained
comfortable marching distance. (206)

=244.= Being in column of squads, to form skirmish line to the front:
=1. As skirmishers, guide right (left or center), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration: GUIDE RIGHT.]

[Illustration: GUIDE CENTER (MARCHING).]

[Illustration: GUIDE CENTER (AT A HALT).]

If marching, the corporal of the base squad deploys it and moves
straight to the front; if at a halt, he deploys his squad without
advancing. If the guide be =right (left)=, the other corporals move to
the =left (right) front=, and, in succession from the base, place
their squads on the line; if the guide be =center=, the corporals in
front of the center squad move to the right (if at a halt, to the
right rear), the corporals in rear of the center squad move to the
left front, and each, in succession from the base, places his squad on
the line.

The column of twos or files is deployed by the same commands and in
like manner. (207)

=245. Deployment in an oblique direction.= The company in line or in
column of squads may be deployed in an oblique direction by the same
commands. The captain points out the desire direction; the corporal of
the base squad moves in the direction indicated; the other corporals
conform. (208)

=246. Deployment to flank or rear.= To form skirmish line to the flank
or rear the line or the column of squads is turned by squads to the
flank or rear and then deployed as described. (209)

=247. Increasing or decreasing intervals.= The intervals between men
are increased or decreased as described in the School of the Squad, as
explained in par. 172, adding to the preparatory command, =guide right
(left or center)= if necessary, as explained in par. 236. (210)


The Assembly

=248.= The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, the
element on which the company is to assemble and commands: =1.
Assemble, 2. MARCH.=

If in skirmish line the men move promptly toward the designated point
and the company is reformed in line. If assembled by platoons, these
are conducted to the designated point by platoon leaders, and the
company is reformed in line.

Platoons may be assembled by the command: =1. Platoons, assemble, 2.
MARCH.=

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

One or more platoons may be assembled by the command: =1. Such platoon
(s), assemble, 2. MARCH.=

Executed by the designated platoon or platoons as described for the
company. (211)


The Advance

=249. Methods of advancing.= The advance of a company into an
engagement (whether for attack or defense) is conducted in close
order, preferably column of squads, until the probability of
encountering hostile fire makes it advisable to deploy. After
deployment, and before opening fire, the advance of the company may be
continued in skirmish line or other suitable formation, depending upon
circumstances. The advance may often be facilitated, or better
advantage taken of cover, or losses reduced by the employment of the
=platoon= or =squad columns=, as laid down in pars. 250-251, or by the
use of a =succession of thin lines=, as explained in par. 255. The
selection of the method to be used is made by the captain or major,
the choice depending upon conditions arising during the progress of
the advance. If the deployment is found to be premature, it will
generally be best to assemble the company and proceed in close order.

Patrols are used to provide the necessary security against surprise.
(212)

=250.= Being in skirmish line: =1. Platoon columns, 2 MARCH.=

[Illustration]

The platoon leaders move forward through the center of their
respective platoons; men to the right of the platoon leader march to
the left and follow him in file; those to the left march in like
manner to the right; each platoon leader thus conducts the march of
his platoon in double column of files; platoon guides follow in rear
of their respective platoons to insure prompt and orderly execution of
the advance. (213)

=251.= Being in skirmish line: =1. Squad columns, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

Each squad leader moves to the front; the members of each squad
oblique toward and follow their squad leader in single file at easy
marching distances. (214)

=252.= Platoon columns are profitably used where the ground is so
difficult or cover so limited as to make it desirable to take
advantage of the few favorable routes; no two platoons should march
within the area of burst of a single shrapnel[2]. =Squad columns= are
of value principally in facilitating the advance over rough or
brush-grown ground; they afford no material advantage in securing
cover. (215)

=253.= To deploy platoon or squad columns: =1. As skirmishers, 2.
MARCH.=

Skirmishers move to the right or left front and successively place
themselves in their original positions on the line. (216)

[Illustration]

=254.= Being in platoon or squad columns: =1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration: ASSEMBLY MADE ON RIGHT PLATOON.]

[Illustration: ASSEMBLY MADE ON RIGHT SQUAD.]

The platoon or squad leaders signal =assemble=. The men of each
platoon or squad, as the case may be, advance and, moving to the right
and left, take their proper places in line, each unit assembling on
the leading element of the column and re-forming in line. The platoon
or squad leaders conduct their units toward the element or point
indicated by the captain, and to their places in line; the company is
reformed in line. (217)

=255.= Being in skirmish line, to advance by a succession of =thin
lines=: =1. (Such numbers), forward, 2. MARCH.=

The captain points out in advance the selected position in front of
the line occupied. The designated number of each squad moves to the
front; the line thus formed preserves the original intervals as nearly
as practicable; when this line has advanced a suitable distance
(generally from 100 to 250 yards, depending upon the terrain and the
character of the hostile fire), a second is sent forward by similar
commands, and so on at irregular distances until the whole line has
advanced. Upon arriving at the indicated position, the first line is
halted. Successive lines, upon arriving, halt on line with the first
and the men take their proper places in the skirmish line.

Ordinarily each line is made up of one man per squad and the men of a
squad are sent forward in order from right to left as deployed. The
first line is led by the platoon leader of the right platoon, the
second by the guide of the right platoon, and so on in order from
right to left.

The advance is conducted in quick time unless conditions demand a
faster gait.

The company having arrived at the indicated position, a further
advance by the same means may be advisable. (218)

=256. Use and purpose of advance in succession of thin lines.= The
advance in a succession of thin lines is used to cross a wide stretch
swept, or likely to be swept, by artillery fire or heavy, long-range
rifle fire which cannot profitably be returned. Its purpose is the
building up of a strong skirmish line preparatory to engaging in a
fire fight. This method of advancing results in serious (though
temporary) loss of control over the company. Its advantage lies in the
fact that it offers a less definite target, hence is less likely to
draw fire. (219)

=257. Improvised formations.= The above are suggestions. Other and
better formations may be devised to fit particular cases. The best
formation is the one which advances the line farthest with the least
loss of men, time, and control. (220)


The Fire Attack

=258. Advance of firing line; advance by rushes.= The principles
governing the advance of the firing line in attack are considered in
the School of the Battalion. (See par. 342-356.)

When it becomes impracticable for the company to advance as whole by
ordinary means, it advances by rushes. (221)

=259. Advancing by rushes.= Being in skirmish line: =1. By platoon
(two platoons, squad, four men, etc.), from the right (left), 2.
RUSH.=

The platoon leader on the indicated flank carefully arranges the
details for a prompt and vigorous execution of the rush and puts it
into effect as soon as practicable. If necessary, he designates the
leader for the indicated fraction. When about to rush, he causes the
men of the fraction to cease firing and to hold themselves flat, but
in readiness to spring forward instantly. The leader of the rush (at
the signal of the platoon leader, if the latter be not the leader of
the rush) commands: Follow me, and running at top speed, leads the
fraction to the new line, where he halts it and causes it to open
fire. The leader of the rush selects the new line if it has not been
previously designated.

The first fraction having established itself on the new line, the next
like fraction is sent forward by its platoon leader, without further
command of the captain, and so on successively, until the entire
company is on the line established by the first rush.

If more than one platoon is to join in one rush, the junior platoon
leader conforms to the action of the senior.

A part of the line having advanced, the captain may increase or
decrease the size of the fractions to complete the movement. (222)

=260. Rush of company as whole led by captain.= When the company forms
a part of the firing line, the rush of the company as a whole is
conducted by the captain, as described for a platoon in the preceding
paragraph. The captain leads the rush; platoon leaders lead their
respective platoons; platoon guides follow the line to insure prompt
and orderly execution of the advance. (223)

=261. Advance by crawling or otherwise.= When the foregoing method of
rushing, by running, becomes impracticable, any method of advance that
=brings the attack closer to the enemy=, such as crawling, should be
employed.

For regulations governing the charge, see paragraphs 355 and 356.
(224)

    (All rushes should be made with life and ginger, and all the men
    should start together. All rushes should be made under covering
    fire, and when a unit rushes forward the adjoining unit or units
    make up for the loss of fire thus caused by increasing the rate of
    their fire.

    A unit commander about to rush forward, will not do so until he
    sees that the adjoining unit or units have started to give him the
    protection of their covering fire and, if necessary, he will call
    to them to do so. Each unit must be careful not to advance until
    the last unit that rushed forward has had time to take up an
    effective fire. When sights have to be adjusted at the conclusion
    of a rush, the men should do so in the prone position even though
    it be necessary for the men to kneel for firing. The same as the
    men who rush should start simultaneously from the prone position,
    so should they stop simultaneously, all men dropping down to the
    ground together, wherever they may be, at the command "Down,"
    given by the unit commander when the leading men have reached the
    new position. The slower members who drop down in rear will crawl
    up to the line after the halt. So that the slower members may not
    be crowded out of the line, and also to prevent bunching, the
    faster men should leave room for them on the line.--Author.)


The Company in Support

(Being part of a battalion)

=262. Formations adopted by support.= To enable it to follow or reach
the firing line, the support adopts suitable formations, following the
principles explained in paragraphs 249-255.

The support should be kept assembled as long as practicable. If after
deploying a favorable opportunity arises to hold it for some time in
close formation, it should be reassembled. It is redeployed when
necessary. (225)

=263. Support controlled by major: size of reënforcement; captain on
look out for major's signals.= The movements of the support as a whole
and the dispatch of reënforcements from it to the firing line are
controlled by the major.

A reënforcement of less than one platoon has little influence and will
be avoided whenever practicable. (See par. 353.)

The captain of a company in support is constantly on the alert for the
major's signals or commands. (226)

=264. Reënforcement to join firing line deployed as skirmishers and
occupy existing intervals.= A reënforcement sent to the firing line
joins it deployed as skirmishers. The leader of the reënforcement
places it in an interval in the line, if one exists, and commands it
thereafter as a unit. If no such suitable interval exists, the
reënforcement is advanced with increased intervals between
skirmishers; each man occupies the nearest interval in the firing
line, and each then obeys the orders of the nearest squad leader and
platoon leader. (227)

=265. Promptness in reënforcing firing line.= A reënforcement joins
the firing line as quickly as possible without exhausting the men.
(228)

=266. Original platoon divisions to be maintained; duties of officers
and sergeants upon joining firing line.= The original platoon division
of the companies in the firing line should be maintained and should
not be broken up by the mingling of reënforcements.

Upon joining the firing line, officers and sergeants accompanying a
reënforcement take over the duties of others of like grade who have
been disabled, or distribute themselves so as best to exercise their
normal functions. Conditions will vary and no rules can be prescribed.
It is essential that all assist in mastering the increasing
difficulties of control. (229)


The Company Acting Alone

=267. Employed according to principles of battalion acting alone.= In
general, the company, when acting alone, is employed according to the
principles applicable to the battalion acting alone as laid down in
pars. 327-363; the captain employs platoons as the major employs
companies, making due allowance for the difference in strength.

The support may be smaller in proportion or may be dispensed with.
(230)

=268. Protection against surprise.= The company must be well protected
against surprise. Combat patrols on the flanks are especially
important as explained in par. 410. Each leader of a flank platoon
details a man to watch for the signals of the patrol or patrols on his
flank. (231)


FIRE

=269. Issuing of ammunition and loading of pieces before deployment;
firings in close order.= Ordinarily pieces are loaded and extra
ammunition is issued before the company deploys for combat.

In close order the company executes the firings, as prescribed in
pars. 179-194, at the command of the captain, who posts himself in
rear of the center of the company.

Usually the firings in close order consist of saluting volleys only.
(See par. 189 for volley firing.) (232)

=270. Firing controlled by platoon leaders.= When the company is
deployed, the men execute the firings at the command of their platoon
leaders; the latter give such commands as are necessary to carry out
the captain's directions, and, from time to time, add such further
commands as are necessary to continue, correct, and control, the fire
ordered. (233)

=271. Use of signals during firing.= The voice is generally inadequate
for giving commands during fire and must be replaced by signals of
such character that proper fire direction and control is assured. (See
par. 92 for signals; pars. 285-286 for fire direction and pars.
287-290 for fire control.) To attract attention, signals must usually
be preceded by the whistle signal (short blast). A fraction of the
firing line about to rush should, if practicable, avoid using the long
blast signal as an aid to cease firing. (See par. 91.) Officers and
men behind the firing line can not ordinarily move freely along the
line, but must depend on mutual watchfulness and the proper use of the
prescribed signals. All should post themselves so as to see their
immediate superiors and subordinates. (234)

=272. Duties of musicians.= The musicians assist the captain by
observing the enemy, the target, and the fire-effect, by transmitting
commands or signals, and by watching for signals. (For posts of
musicians see par. 207.) (235)

=273. Blank Cartridges.= Firing with blank cartridges at an outlined
or represented enemy (par. 7) at distances less than 100 yards is
prohibited. (236)

=274. Effect of fire and influence of ground.= The effect of fire and
the influence of the ground in relation thereto, and the individual
and collective instruction in marksmanship, are treated in the
Small-Arms Firing Manual. (237)


Ranges

=275. Classification.= For convenience of reference, ranges are
classified as follows:

    0 to 600 yards, close range.
    600 to 1,200 yards, effective range.
    1,200 to 2,000 yards, long range.
    2,000 yards and over, distant range. (238)

=276. Determination of distance to target.= The distance to the target
must be determined as accurately as possible and the sights set
accordingly. Aside from training and morale, this is the most
important single factor in securing effective fire at the longer
ranges. (239)

=277. Method of determining the range; estimators.=

Except in a deliberately prepared defensive position, the most
accurate and only practicable method of determining the range will
generally be to take the mean of several estimates.

Five or six officers or men, selected from the most accurate
estimators in the company, are designated as _range estimators_ and
are specially trained in estimating distances.

Whenever necessary and practicable, the captain assembles the range
estimators, points out the target to them, and adopts the mean of
their estimates. The range estimators then take their customary posts.
(240)


Classes of Firing

=278. Volley firing=, as explained in par. 189, has limited
application. In defense it may be used in the early stages of the
action if the enemy presents a large compact target. It may be used by
troops executing =fire of position=, as set forth in par. 438. When
the ground near the target is such that the strike of bullets can be
seen from the firing line, =ranging volleys= may be used to correct
the sight setting.

In combat, volley firing is executed habitually by platoon. (241)

=279. Fire at will=, as explained in par. 190, is the class of fire
normally employed in attack or defense. (242)

=280. Clip fire= (see par. 192.) has limited application. It is
principally used: 1. In the early stages of combat, to steady the men
by habituating them to brief pauses in firing. 2. To produce a short
burst of fire. (243)


The Target

=281. Assignment of target by major; change of target to be avoided;
hostile firing line usual target.= Ordinarily the major will assign to
the company an objective in attack or sector in defense; the company's
target will lie within the limits so assigned. In the choice of
target, tactical considerations are paramount; the nearest hostile
troops within the objective or sector will thus be the usual target.
This will ordinarily be the hostile firing line; troops in rear are
ordinarily proper targets for artillery, machine guns, or, at times,
infantry employing fire of position, as set forth in par. 438.

Change of target should not be made without excellent reasons
therefor, such as the sudden appearance of hostile troops under
conditions which make them more to be feared than the troops
comprising the former target. (244)

=282. Distribution of fire; allotment of target to platoon leaders.=
The distribution of fire over the entire target is of special
importance.

The captain allots a part of the target to each platoon, or each
platoon leader takes as his target that part which corresponds to his
position in the company. Men are so instructed that each fires on
that part of the target which is directly opposite him. (245)

=283. All Parts of target equally important.= All parts of the target
are equally important. Care must be exercised that the men do not
slight its less visible parts. A section of the target not covered by
fire represents a number of the enemy permitted to fire coolly and
effectively. (246)

=284. Use of aiming points in case of invisible targets.=

If the target can not be seen with the naked eye, platoon leaders
select an object in front of or behind it, designate this as the
_aiming target_, and direct a sight setting which will carry the cone
of fire into the target. (247)


Fire Direction[3]

=285. Impracticability in combat of commanding company directly.= When
the company is large enough to be divided into platoons, it is
impracticable for the captain to command it directly in combat. His
efficiency in managing the firing line is measured by his ability to
enforce his will through the platoon leaders. Having indicated clearly
what he desires them to do, he avoids interfering except to correct
serious errors or omissions. (248)

=286. Captain directs the fire.= The captain =directs= the fire of the
company or of designated platoons. He designates the target, and, when
practicable, allots a part of the target to each platoon, as
prescribed in par. 340. Before beginning the fire action he determines
the range, as explained in par. 277, announces the sight setting, as
prescribed in par. 188, and indicates the class of fire to be employed
(See par. 278) and the time to open fire. Thereafter, he observes the
fire effect (See pars. 428-429), corrects material errors in sight
setting, prevents exhaustion of the ammunition supply, as explained in
par. 432-433, and causes the distribution of such extra ammunition as
may be received from the rear. (249)


Fire Control

=287. Platoon the fire unit.= In combat, the platoon is the fire unit.
From 20 to 35 rifles are as many as one leader can control
effectively. (250)

=288. Special duties of platoon leaders.= Each platoon leader puts
into execution the commands or directions of the captain, having first
taken such precautions to insure correct sight setting and clear
description of the target or aiming target as the situation permits or
requires; thereafter, he gives such additional commands or directions
as are necessary to exact compliance with the captain's will. He
corrects the sight setting when necessary. He designates an aiming
target when the target can not be seen with the naked eye. (251)

=289. General duties of platoon leaders; duties of platoon guides and
squad leaders.= In general, =platoon leaders= observe the target and
the effect of their fire and are on the alert for the captain's
commands or signals; they observe and regulate the rate of fire, as
laid down in par. 191. The =platoon guides= watch the firing line and
check every breach of fire discipline. (See pars. 291-294.) =Squad
leaders= transmit commands and signals when necessary, observe the
conduct of their squads and abate excitement, assist in enforcing fire
discipline and participate in the firing. (252)

=290. Importance of fire control.= The best troops are those that
submit longest to fire control. Loss of control is an evil which robs
success of its greatest results. To avoid or delay such loss should be
the constant aim of all.

Fire control implies the ability to stop firing, change the sight
setting and target, and resume a well directed fire. (253)


Fire Discipline

=291. What fire discipline implies.= "Fire discipline implies, besides
a habit of obedience, a control of the rifle by the soldier, the
result of training, which will enable him in action to make hits
instead of misses. It embraces taking advantage of the ground; care in
setting the sight and delivery of fire; constant attention to the
orders of the leaders, and careful observation of the enemy; an
increase of fire when the target is favorable, and a cessation of fire
when the enemy disappears; economy of ammunition." (See pars.
432-433.) (Small-Arms Firing Manual.)

In combat, shots which graze the enemy's trench or position and thus
reduce the effectiveness of his fire have the approximate value of
hits; such shots only, or actual hits, contribute toward fire
superiority.

Fire discipline implies that, in a firing line without leaders, each
man retains his presence of mind and directs effective fire upon the
proper target. (254)

=292. Rate of fire.= To create a correct appreciation of the
requirements of fire discipline, men are taught that the rate of fire,
as prescribed in par. 191, should be as rapid as is consistent with
accurate aiming; that the rate will depend upon the visibility,
proximity, and size of the target; and that the proper rate will
ordinarily suggest itself to each trained man, usually rendering
cautions or commands unnecessary.

In attack the highest rate of fire is employed at the halt preceding
the assault, and in pursuing fire. (See pars. 490-494.) (255)

=293. Position fire in advance by rushes.= In an advance by rushes, as
explained in par. 259, leaders of troops in firing positions are
responsible for the delivery of heavy fire to cover the advance of
each rushing fraction. Troops are trained to change slightly the
direction of fire so as not to endanger the flanks of advanced
portions of the firing line. (256)

=294. Action in defense, when target disappears.= In defense, when the
target disappears behind cover, platoon leaders suspend fire, as
prescribed in par. 193, prepare their platoons to fire upon the point
where it is expected to reappear, and greet its reappearance instantly
with vigorous fire. (257)


SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION

=295. Battalion a tactical unit; duties and responsibilities of
major.= The battalion being purely a tactical unit, the major's duties
are primarily those of an instructor in drill and tactics and of a
tactical commander. He is responsible for the theoretical and
practical training of the battalion. He supervises the training of
the companies of the battalion with a view to insuring the
thoroughness and uniformity of their instruction.

In the instruction of the battalion as a whole, his efforts will be
directed chiefly to the development of tactical efficiency, devoting
only such time to the mechanism of drill and to the ceremonies as may
be necessary in order to insure precision, smartness, and proper
control. (258)

=296. Movements explained for battalion of four companies.= The
movements explained herein are on the basis of a battalion of four
companies; they may be executed by a battalion of two or more
companies, not exceeding six. (259)

=297. Arrangement of companies in formations.= The companies are
generally arranged from right to left according to the rank of the
captains present at the formation. The arrangement of the companies
may be varied by the major or higher commander.

After the battalion is formed, no cognizance is taken of the relative
order of the companies. (260)

=298. Designation of companies.= In whatever direction the battalion
faces, the companies are designated numerically from right to left in
line, and from head to rear in column, =first company=, =second
company=, etc.

The terms =right= and =left= apply to actual right and left as the
line faces; if the about by squads be executed when in line, the right
company becomes the left company and the right center becomes the left
center company.

The designation center company indicates the right center or the
actual center company according as the number of companies is even or
odd. (261)

=299. Post of special units.= The band and other special units, when
attached to the battalion, take the same post with respect to it as if
it were the nearest battalion. (262)


CLOSE ORDER


Rules

=300. Repetition of commands by captains.= Captains repeat such
preparatory commands as are to be immediately executed by their
companies, as =forward=, =squads right=, etc.; the men execute the
commands =march=, =halt=, etc., if applying to their companies, when
given by the major. In movements executed in route step or at ease the
captains repeat the command of execution, if necessary. Captains do
not repeat the major's commands in executing the manual of arms, nor
those commands which are not essential to the execution of a movement
by their companies, as =column of squads=, =first company=, =squads
right=, etc.

In giving commands or cautions captains may prefix the proper letter
designations of their companies, as =A Company, HALT=; =B Company,
squads right=, etc. (263)

=301. Captains repeating command for guide.= At the command =guide
center (right or left)=, captains command: =Guide right or left=,
according to the positions of their companies. =Guide center=
designates the left guide of the center company, as explained in 3d
Sec. par. 298. (264)

[Illustration: Plate III]

=302. Position of captains in dressing companies; action of guides in
dressing.= When the companies are to be dressed, captains place
themselves on that flank toward which the dress is to be made, as
follows:

The battalion in line: Besides the guide (or the flank file of the
front rank, if the guide is not in line) and facing to the front.

The battalion in column of companies: Two paces from the guide, in
prolongation of and facing down the line.

Each captain, after dressing his company, commands: =FRONT=, and takes
his post.

The battalion being in line and unless otherwise prescribed, at the
captain's command =dress= or at the command =halt=, when it is
prescribed that the company shall dress, the guide on the flank away
from the point of rest with his piece at right shoulder, dresses
promptly on the captain and the companies beyond. During the dress he
moves, if necessary, to the right and left only; the captain dresses
the company on the line thus established. The guide takes the position
of order arms at the command =front=. (265)

=303. Certain movements executed as in Schools of the Soldier, Squad
and Company.= =The battalion executes the halt= (See par. 116),
=rests= (See pars. 100-101), =facings= (See par. 104), =steps= and
=marchings= (See pars. 107-109), =manual of arms= (See pars. 120-147),
resumes =attention= (See par. 102), =kneels= (See pars. 174-177),
=lies down= (See par. 175), =rises= (See par. 176), =stacks= and
=takes arms= (See pars. 160-161), as explained in the Schools of the
Soldier and Squad, substituting in the commands =battalion= for
=squad=.

The battalion executes =squads right (left)= (See par. 221), =squads
right (left) about= (See par. 228), =route step= and =at ease= (See
par. 233), and =obliques= and resumes the =direct march= (See pars.
162-163), as explained in the School of the Company. (266)

=304. Certain movements executed as in School of the Company.= The
battalion in column of platoons, squads, twos, or files changes
direction. (See pars. 223-224); in column of squads, forms column of
twos or files and re-forms columns of twos or squads, as explained in
the School of the Company. (See pars. 234-235.) (267)

=305. Simultaneous execution by companies or platoons of movements in
School of the Company.= When the formation admits of the simultaneous
execution by companies or platoons of movements in the School of the
Company the major may cause such movement to be executed by prefixing,
when necessary, =companies (platoons)= to the commands prescribed
therein: As =1. Companies, right front into line, 2. MARCH.= To
complete such simultaneous movements, the commands =halt= or =march=,
if prescribed, are given by the major. The command =front=, when
prescribed, is given by the captains. (See par. 302.) (268)

=306. Execution of loadings and firings by battalion.= The battalion
as a unit executes the loadings and firings only in firing saluting
volleys. The commands are as for the company, substituting =battalion=
for =company=. At the first command for loading, captains take post in
rear of the center of their respective companies. At the conclusion of
the firing, the captains resume their posts in line.

On other occasions, when firing in close order is necessary, it is
executed by company or other subdivision, under instructions from the
major, as prescribed in pars. 179-194. (269)


To Form the Battalion

=307. For purposes other than ceremonies:= The battalion is formed in
column of squads. The companies having been formed, the adjutant posts
himself so as to be facing the column, when formed, and 6 paces in
front of the place to be occupied by the leading guide of the
battalion; he draws saber; =adjutant's call= is sounded or the
adjutant signals =assemble=.

The companies are formed, at attention, in column of squads in their
proper order. Each captain, after halting his company, salutes the
adjutant; the adjutant returns the salute and, when the last captain
has saluted, faces the major and reports: =Sir, the battalion is
formed.= He then joins the major. (270)

=308. For ceremonies or when directed:= The battalion is formed in
line.

The companies having been formed, the adjutant posts himself so as to
be 6 paces to the right of the right company when line is formed, and
faces in the direction in which the line is to extend. He draws saber;
=adjutant's call= is sounded; the band plays if present.

The right company is conducted by its captain so as to arrive from the
rear, parallel to the line; its right and left guides precede it on
the line by about 20 paces, taking post facing to the right at order
arms, so that their elbows will be against the breasts of the right
and left files of their company when it is dressed. The guides of the
other companies successively prolong the line to the left in like
manner and the companies approach their respective places in line as
explained for the right company. The adjutant, from his post, causes
the guides to cover.

When about 1 pace in rear of the line, each company is halted and
dressed to the right against the arms of the guides. (See par. 302.)

The band, arriving from the rear, takes its place in line when the
right company is halted; it ceases playing when the left company has
halted.

When the guides of the left company have been posted, the adjutant,
moving by the shortest route, takes post facing the battalion midway
between the post of the major and the center of the battalion.

The major, staff, noncommissioned staff, and orderlies take their
posts, as prescribed in pars. 73; 76-78.

When all parts of the line have been dressed, and officers and others
have reached their posts, the adjutant commands: =1. Guides, 2. POSTS,
3. Present, 4. ARMS.= At the second command guides take their places
in the line. (Plate II, page 69.) The adjutant then turns about as
explained in par. 74, and reports to the major: =Sir, the battalion is
formed=, as prescribed in par. 75; the major directs the adjutant:
=Take your post, Sir=; draws saber and brings the battalion to the
=order=. The adjutant takes his post, passing to the right of the
major. (271)


To Dismiss the Battalion

=309. Dismiss your companies.=

Staff and noncommissioned staff officers fall out; each captain
marches his company off and dismisses it, as laid down in par. 217.
(272)


To Rectify the Alignment

=310.= Being in line at a halt, to align the battalion: =1. Center
(right or left), 2. DRESS.=

The captains dress their companies successively toward the center
(right or left) guide of the battalion, each as soon as the captain
next toward the indicated guide commands: =FRONT.= The captains of the
center companies (if the dress is =center=) dress them without waiting
for each other. (273)

=311.= To give the battalion a new alignment: =1. Guides center (right
or left) company on the line, 2. Guides on the line, 3. Center (right
or left), 4. DRESS, 5. Guides, 6. POSTS.=

At the first command, the designated guides place themselves on the
line, as prescribed in par. 308, facing the center (right or left).
The major establishes them in the direction he wishes to give the
battalion.

At the second command, the guides of the other companies take posts,
facing the center (right or left), so as to prolong the line.

At the command =dress=, each captain dresses his company to the flank
toward which the guides of his company face, taking the positions
prescribed in par. 302.

At the command =posts=, given when all companies have completed the
dress, the guides return to their posts. (Plate II, page 69.) (274)


To Rectify the Column

=312.= Being in column of companies, or in close column, at a halt, if
the guides do not cover or have not their proper distances, and it is
desired to correct them, the major commands: =1. Right (left), 2.
DRESS.=

Captains of companies in rear of the first place their right guides so
as to cover at the proper distance; each captain aligns his company to
the right and commands: =FRONT.= (See par. 302.) (275)


On Right (Left) Into Line

=313.= Being in column of squads or companies: =1. On right (left)
into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Battalion, 4. HALT.=

Being in column of squads: At the first command, the captain of the
leading company commands; =Squads right.= If at a halt each captain in
rear commands: =Forward.= At the second command, the leading company
marches in line to the right; the companies in rear continue to march
to the front and form successively on the left, each, when opposite
its place, being marched in line to the right.

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS TO LINE ON RIGHT.]

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF COMPANIES TO LINE ON RIGHT.]

The fourth command is given when the first company has advanced the
desired distance in the new direction; it halts and is dressed to the
right by its captain (par. 265); the others complete the movement,
each being halted 1 pace in rear of the line established by the first
company, and then dressed to the right.

Being in column of companies: At the first command, the captain of the
first company commands: =Right turn.= If at a halt, each captain in
rear commands: =Forward.= Each of the captains in rear of the leading
company gives the command: =1. Right turn=, in time to add, =2.
MARCH=, when his company arrives opposite the right of its place in
line.

The fourth command is given and the movement completed as explained
above.

Whether executed from column of squads or column of companies, each
captain places himself so as to march beside the right guide after his
company forms line or changes direction to the right.

If executed in double time, the leading company marches in double time
until halted. (276)


Front into Line

=314.= Being in column of squads or companies: =1. Right (left) front
into line, 2. MARCH.=

Being in column of squads: At the first command, the captain of the
leading company commands: =Column right=; the captain of the companies
in rear: =column half right.= At the second command the leading
company executes =column right=, and, as the last squad completes the
change of direction, is formed in line to the left, as prescribed in
par. 221, halted and dressed to the left. (See par. 302.) Each of the
companies in rear is conducted by the most convenient route to the
rear of the right of the preceding company, thence to the right,
parallel to and 1 pace in rear of the new line; when opposite its
place, it is formed in line to the left, halted, and dressed to the
left.

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS TO LINE TO THE FRONT.]

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF COMPANIES TO LINE TO THE FRONT.]

Being in column of companies: If marching, the captain of the leading
company gives the necessary commands to halt his company at the second
command; if at a halt the leading company stands fast. At the first
command, the captain of each company in rear commands: =Squads right=,
or =Right by squads=, and after the second command conducts his
company by the most convenient route to its place in line, as
described above.

Whether executed from column of squads or column of companies, each
captain halts when opposite, or at the point, where the left of his
company is to rest. (277)


To Form Column of Companies Successively to the Right or Left

=315.= Being in column of squads: =1. Column of companies, first
company, squads right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

The leading company executes =squads right= and moves forward. The
other companies move forward in column of squads and successively
march in line the right on the same ground as the leading company and
in such manner that the guide covers the guide of the preceding
company. (278)


To Form Column of Squads Successively to the Right or Left

=316.= Being in column of companies (Plate III, page 90): =1. Column
of squads, first company, squads right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

The leading company executes =squads right= and moves forward. The
other companies move forward in column of companies and successively
march in column of squads to the right on the same ground as the
leading company. (279)


To Change Direction

=317.= Being in column of companies or close column. (Plate III, page
90); =1. Column right (left), 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration]

The captain of the first company commands: =Right turn.=

The leading company turns to the right on moving pivot, the captain
adding: =1. Forward, 2. MARCH=, upon its completion.

The other companies march squarely up to the turning point; each
changes direction by the same commands and means as the first and in
such manner that the guide covers the guide of the preceding company.
(280)

=318.= Being in line of companies or close line. (Plate III, page 90):
=1. Battalion right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Battalion, 4. HALT.=

[Illustration]

The right company changes direction to the right, as prescribed in
par. 224; the other companies are conducted by the shortest line to
their places abreast of the first.

The fourth command is given when the right company has advanced the
desired distance in the new direction; that company halts; the others
halt successively upon arriving on the line. (281)

=319.= Being in column of squads, the battalion changes direction by
the same commands and in the manner prescribed for the company, as
explained in par. 224. (282)


Mass Formations

[Illustration: FROM LINE.]

=319a.= Being in column of squads, to form a line of columns of
companies or company subdivisions, facing in any desired direction, at
any desired interval, on the right or left of the leading element of
the battalion: =1. Line of companies (half companies, platoons), at
(so many) paces, guide right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Battalion, 4. HALT.=

[Illustration: FROM LINE OF COMPANIES.]

The leading company (or subdivision) marches in the direction
previously indicated by the major until the command halt is given and
then halts. Each succeeding company (or subdivision) marches by the
most direct route to its place at the prescribed intervals on the left
(right) of the next preceding company (or subdivision), halting when
it is abreast of the leading element of the battalion.

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS.]

If the battalion be in any formation other than column of squads, the
major indicates the desired direction to the leading element. The
entire command forms column of squads and executes a movement in
conformity with the principles indicated above. (282-1/2)

[Illustration: FROM COLUMN OF COMPANIES.]

=320.= Being in line, line of companies, or column of companies.
(Plate III, page 90): =1. Close on first (fourth) company, 2. MARCH.=

If at a halt, the indicated company stands fast; if marching, it is
halted; each of the other companies is conducted toward it and is
halted in proper order in close column.

If the battalion is in line, companies form successively in rear of
the indicated company; if in column of squads, companies in rear of
the leading company form on the left of it.

In close column formed line on the first company, the left guides
cover; formed on the fourth company, right guides cover. If formed on
the leading company, the guide remains as before the formation. In
close line, the guides are halted abreast of the guide of the leading
company.

The battalion in column closes on the leading company only. (283)

    (In closing from line of companies and in extending from close
    line, the companies other than the base one, may be moved either
    by the commands, (a) =1. Squads, right (left), 2. MARCH=; (b) =1.
    Right (left) oblique, 2. MARCH=; (c) =1. Forward, 2. MARCH=; (d)
    =1. Squads left (right) 2. MARCH=; (e) =1. Company, 2. HALT=; or,
    (a) =1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH=; (b) =1. Company, 2.
    HALT=; (c) =1. Left (right), 2. FACE=; or if at a halt by the
    commands, (a) =1. Right (left), 2. FACE=; (b) =1. At Trail, 2.
    Forward, 3. MARCH=; (c) =1. Company, 2. HALT=; (d) =1. Left
    (right), 2. FACE.= In some commands it is customary to use one
    method while in other commands another is used. For the sake of
    uniformity all companies of a given command should use the same
    method.--Author.)


To Extend the Mass

=321.= Being in close column or in close line; =1. Extend on first
(fourth) company, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration: FROM CLOSE COLUMN.]

Being in close line: if at a halt, the indicated company stands fast;
if marching, it halts; each of the other companies is conducted away
from the indicated company and is halted in its proper order in line
of companies.

Being in close column, the extension is made on the fourth company
only. If marching, the leading company continues to march; companies
in rear are halted and successively resume the march in time to follow
at full distance. If at halt, the leading company marches; companies
in rear successively march in time to follow at full distance.

Close column is not extended in double time. (See author's note, par.
320.) (284)

=322.= Being in close column: =1. Right (left) front into line, 2.
MARCH.= Executed as from column of companies, as explained in par.
314. (285)

=323.= Being in close column: =1. Column of squads, first (fourth)
company, squads right (left), 2. MARCH.=

The designated company marches in column of squads to the right. Each
of the other companies executes the same movement in time to follow
the preceding company in column. (286)

=324.= Being in close line: =1. Column of squads, first (fourth)
company, forward, 2. MARCH.=

[Illustration: FROM CLOSE LINE.]

The designated company moves forward. The other companies (halting if
in march) successively take up the march and follow in column. (287)


Route Step and at Ease

=325.= The battalion marches in =route step= and =at ease= as
prescribed in the School of the Company. (See par. 233.) When marching
in column of companies or platoons, the guides maintain the trace and
distance.

In route marches the major marches at the head of the column; when
necessary, the file closers may be directed to march at the head and
rear of their companies. (288)


Assembly

=326.= The battalion being wholly or partially deployed, or the
companies being separated: =1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.=

The major places himself opposite to or designates the element or
point on which the battalion is to assemble. Companies are assembled,
as explained in par. 248, and marched to the indicated point. As the
companies arrive the major or adjutant indicates the formation to be
taken. (289)


COMBAT PRINCIPLES


Orders

=327.= The following references to orders are applicable to attack or
defense: (290)

=328. Use of prescribed commands; "tactical orders," "orders" and
"commands."= In extended order, the company is the largest unit to
execute movements by prescribed commands or means. The major,
assembling his captains if practicable, directs the disposition of the
battalion by means of =tactical orders=. He controls its subsequent
movements by such =orders= or =commands= as are suitable to the
occasion. (291)

=329. Major's order making disposition of battalion for combat; base
company in attack.= In every disposition of the battalion for combat
the major's order should give subordinates sufficient information of
the enemy, of the position of supporting and neighboring troops, and
of the object sought to enable them to conform intelligently to the
general plan.

The order should then designate the companies which are to constitute
the =firing line= and those which are to constitute the =support=. In
attack, it should designate the direction or the objective, the order
and front of the companies on the firing line, and should designate
the right or left company as base company. In defense, it should
describe the front of each company and, if necessary, the sector to be
observed by each, as prescribed in 281-284. (292)

=330. Reconnaissance and protection of flanks.= When the battalion is
operating alone, the major provides for the reconnaissance and
protection of his flanks; if part of a larger force, the major makes
similar provisions, when necessary, without orders from higher
authority, unless such authority has specifically directed other
suitable reconnaissance and protection. (293)

=331. Issue of extra ammunition when battalion is deployed.= When the
battalion is deployed upon the initiative of the major, he will
indicate whether extra ammunition shall be issued; if deployed in
pursuance of orders of higher authority, the major will cause the
issue of extra ammunition, unless such authority has given directions
to the contrary. (For ammunition supply see pars. 569-575.) (294)


Deployment

(See pars. 456-462; 463-466.)

=332.= The following principles of deployment are applicable to attack
or defense. (295)

=333. Avoiding premature deployment.= A premature deployment involves
a long, disorganizing and fatiguing advance of the skirmish line, and
should be avoided. A greater evil is to be caught by heavy fire when
in dense column or other close order formation; hence advantage should
be taken of cover in order to retain the battalion in close order
formation until exposure to heavy hostile fire may reasonably be
anticipated. (296)

=334. Depth of deployment and density of firing line; companies and
detachments conducted to their places by their commanders.= The major
regulates the depth of the deployment and the extent and density of
the firing line, subject to such restrictions as a senior may have
imposed.

Companies or designated subdivisions and detachments are conducted by
their commanders in such manner as best to accomplish the mission
assigned to them under the major's orders. Companies designated for
the firing line march independently to the place of deployment, form
skirmish line, and take up the advance. They conform, in general, to
the base company, as prescribed in Par. 329. (297)

=335. Division of battalion into firing line and support.= The
commander of a battalion, whether it is operating alone or as part of
a larger force, should hold a part of his command out of the =firing
line=. By the judicious use of this force, the major can exert an
influence not otherwise possible over his firing line and can control,
within reasonable limits, an action once begun. So, if his battalion
be assigned to the =firing line=, the major will cause one, two, or
three companies to be deployed on the firing line, retaining the
remaining companies or company as a support for that firing line. The
division of the battalion into firing line and support will depend
upon the front to be covered and the nature and anticipated severity
of the action. (298)

=336. Size of support.= If the battalion be part of a larger command,
the number of companies in the firing line will generally be
determinable from the regimental commander's order; the remainder
constitutes the support, as prescribed in par. 335. If the battalion
is acting alone, the support must be strong enough to maintain the
original fire power of the firing line, to protect the flanks, and to
perform the functions of a reserve, whatever be the issue of the
action, as explained in par. 445. (299)

=337. Position of support.= If the battalion is operating alone, the
support may, according to circumstances, be held in one or two bodies
and placed behind the center, or one or both flanks of the firing
line, or echeloned beyond a flank. If the battalion is part of a
larger force, the support is generally held in one body. (300)

=338. Distance between firing line and support.= The distance between
the firing line and the supporting group or groups will vary between
wide limits; it should be as short as the necessity for protection
from heavy losses will permit. When cover is available, the support
should be as close as 50 to 100 yards; when such cover is not
available, it should not be closer than 300 yards. It may be as far as
500 yards in rear if good cover is there obtainable and is not
obtainable at a lesser distance. (301)

=339. Placing entire battalion or regiment in firing line at
beginning.= In exceptional cases, as in a meeting engagement, it may
be necessary to place an entire battalion or regiment in the firing
line at the initial deployment, the support being furnished by other
troops. Such deployment causes the early mingling of the larger units,
thus rendering leadership and control extremely difficult. The
necessity for such deployment will increase with the inefficiency of
the commander and of the service of information. (302)


Fire

=340. Major apportions target.= Fire direction and fire control are
functions of company and platoon commanders, as laid down in pars.
285-290. The major makes the primary apportionment of the target--in
defense, by assigning sectors of fire, in attack, by assigning the
objective. In the latter case each company in the firing line takes as
its target that part of the general objective which lies in its front.
(303)

=341. Major indicates where or when fire fight begins.= The major
should indicate the point or time at which the fire fight is to open.
He may do this in his order for deployment or he may follow the firing
line close enough to do so at the proper time. If it be impracticable
for him to do either, the senior officer with the firing line, in each
battalion, selects the time for opening fire. (304)


Attack

(See pars. 456-502.)

=342. Battalion the attack unit.= The battalion is the =attack unit=,
whether operating alone or as part of a larger unit. (305)

=343. Advance of battalion acting as one of several in firing line.=
If his battalion be one of several in the firing line, the major, in
executing his part of the attack, pushes his battalion forward as
vigorously as possible within the front, or section, assigned to it.
The great degree of independence allowed to him as to details demands,
in turn, the exercise of good judgment on his part. Better leadership,
better troops, and more favorable terrain enable one battalion to
advance more rapidly in attack than another less fortunate, and such a
battalion will insure the further advance of the others. The leading
battalion should not, however, become isolated; isolation may lead to
its destruction. (306)

=344. Close in on enemy as much as possible before opening fire.= The
deployment having been made, the firing line advances without firing.
The predominant idea must be to close with the enemy as soon as
possible without ruinous losses. The limited supply of ammunition and
the uncertainty of resupply, the necessity for securing fire
superiority in order to advance within the shorter ranges, and the
impossibility of accomplishing this at ineffective ranges, make it
imperative that fire be not opened as long as the advance can be
continued without demoralizing losses. The attack which halts to open
fire at extreme range (over 1,200 yards) is not likely ever to reach
its destination. Every effort should be made, by using cover or
inconspicuous formations, or by advancing the firing line as a whole,
to arrive within 800 yards of the enemy before opening fire. (For
expenditure of ammunition see pars. 432-433; for advancing the attack
see par. 467.) (307)

=345. Fire to be directed against the hostile infantry.= Except when
the enemy's artillery is able to effect an unusual concentration of
fire, its fire upon deployed infantry causes losses which are
unimportant when compared with those inflicted by his infantry; hence
the attacking infantry should proceed to a position as described
above, and from which an effective fire can be directed against the
hostile infantry with a view to obtaining fire superiority. The
effectiveness of the enemy's fire must be reduced so as to permit
further advance. The more effective the fire to which the enemy is
subjected the less effective will be his fire. (308)

=346. The further advance of the firing line; size of rushing units.=
Occasionally the fire of adjacent battalions, or of infantry employing
fire of position, as explained in par. 438, or of supporting
artillery, as explained in pars. 434-438, will permit the further
advance of the entire firing line from this point, but it will
generally be necessary to advance by rushes, as laid down in par. 259,
of fractions of the line.

The fraction making the rush should be as large as the hostile fire
and the necessity for maintaining fire superiority will permit.
Depending upon circumstances, the strength of the fraction may vary
from a company to a few men.

The advance is made as rapidly as possible without losing fire
superiority. The smaller the fraction which rushes, the greater the
number of rifles which continue to fire upon the enemy. On the other
hand, the smaller the fraction which rushes the slower will be the
progress of the attack. (309)

=347. Size of rushing units.= Enough rifles must continue in action to
insure the success of each rush. Frequently the successive advances of
the firing line must be effected by rushes of fractions of decreased
size; that is, advances by rushes may first be made by company, later
by half company or platoon, and finally by squads or files; but no
=subsequent opportunity= to =increase= the rate of advance, such as
better cover or a decrease of the hostile fire, should be overlooked.
(310)

=348. The rush begun by a flank unit.= Whenever possible, the rush is
begun by a flank fraction of the firing line. In the absence of
express directions from the major, each captain of a flank company
determines when an advance by rushes (par. 222) shall be attempted. A
flank company which inaugurates an advance by rushes becomes the base
company, if not already the base. An advance by rushes having been
inaugurated on one flank, the remainder of the firing line conforms;
fractions rush successively from that flank and halt on the line
established by the initial rush.

The fractions need not be uniform in size; each captain indicates how
his company shall rush, having due regard to the ground and the state
of the fire fight. (311)

=349. Fractions to advance under covering fire.= A fraction about to
rush is sent forward when the remainder of the line is firing
vigorously; otherwise the chief advantage of this method of advancing
is lost.

The length of the rush will vary from 30 to 80 yards, depending upon
the existence of cover, positions for firing, and the hostile fire.
(312)

=350. Subsequent advances.= When the entire firing line of the
battalion has advanced to the new line, fresh opportunities to advance
are sought as before. (313)

=351. Prearranged methods of advancing by rushes prohibited.= Two
identical situations will never confront the battalion; hence at drill
it is prohibited to arrange the details of an advance before the
preceding one has been concluded, or to employ a fixed or prearranged
method of advancing by rushes. (314)

=352. Post of the major.= The major posts himself so as best to direct
the reënforcing of the firing line from the support. When all or
nearly all of the support has been absorbed by the firing line, he
joins, and takes full charge of, the latter. (315)

=353. Size of reënforcements.= The reënforcing of the firing line by
driblets of a squad or a few men has no appreciable effect. The firing
line requires either reënforcement or a strong one. Generally one or
two platoons will be sent forward under cover of a heavy fire of the
firing line. (316)

=354. Two methods of reënforcing the firing line.= To facilitate
control and to provide intervals in which reënforcements may be
placed, the companies in the firing line should be kept closed in on
their centers as they become depleted by casualties during the
advance.

When this is impracticable reënforcements must mingle with and thicken
the firing line. In battle the latter method will be the rule rather
than the exception, and to familiarize the men with such conditions
the combat exercises of the battalion should include both methods of
reënforcing. Occasionally, to provide the necessary intervals for
reënforcing by either of these methods, the firing line should be
thinned by causing men to drop out and simulate losses during the
various advances. Under ordinary conditions the depletion of the
firing line for this purpose will be from one-fifth to one-half of its
strength. (317)

=355. Fixing bayonets.= The major or senior officer in the firing line
determines when bayonets shall be fixed and gives the proper command
or signal. It is repeated by all parts of the firing line. Each man
who was in the front rank prior to deployment, as soon as he
recognizes the command or signal, suspends firing, quickly fixes his
bayonet, and immediately resumes firing; after which the other men
suspend firing, fix bayonets, and immediately resume firing. The
support also fixes bayonets. The concerted fixing of the bayonet by
the firing line at drill does not simulate battle conditions and
should not be required. It is essential that there be no marked pause
in the firing. Bayonets will be fixed generally before or during the
last, or second last, advance preceding the charge. (318)

=356. The charge.= Subject to orders from higher authority, the major
determines the point from which the charge is to be made. (See Pars.
478-489 regarding the charge.) The firing line having arrived at that
point and being in readiness, the major causes the =charge= to be
sounded. The signal is repeated by the musicians of all parts of the
line. The company officers lead the charge. The skirmishers spring
forward shouting, run with bayonets at charge, and close with the
enemy.

The further conduct of the charging troops will depend upon
circumstances; they may halt and engage in bayonet combat or in
pursuing fire, as explained in par. 486; they may advance a short
distance to obtain a field of fire or to drive the enemy from the
vicinity; they may assemble or reorganize, etc. If the enemy vacates
his position every effort should be made to open fire at once on the
retreating mass, reorganization of the attacking troops being of
secondary importance to the infliction of further losses upon the
enemy and to the increase of his confusion, as set forth in pars.
490-494. In combat exercises the major will assume a situation and
terminate the assault accordingly. (319)


Defense

=357. Tactical unit best suited to defensive action.= In defense, as
in attack, the battalion is the tactical unit best suited to
independent assignment. Defensive positions are usually divided into
sections and a battalion assigned to each. (320)

=358. Trenches.= The major locates such fire, communicating, and cover
trenches and obstacles as are to be constructed. He assigns companies
to construct them and details the troops to occupy them. (See "Field
Fortifications," Chapter XVI, Part III.) (321)

=359. Reënforcement of firing line.= The major reënforces the firing
line in accordance with the principles applicable to and explained in
connection with, the attack, in pars. 352-354, maintaining no more
rifles in the firing line than are necessary to prevent the enemy's
advance. (322)

=360. Opening fire.= The supply of ammunition being usually ample,
fire is opened as soon as it is possible to break up the enemy's
formation, stop his advance or inflict material loss, but this rule
must be modified to suit the ammunition supply. (323)

=361. Fixing bayonets.= The major causes the firing line and support
to fix bayonets when an assault by the enemy is imminent. Captains
direct this to be done if they are not in communication with the major
and the measure is deemed advisable.

Fire alone will not stop a determined, skillfully conducted attack.
The defender must have equal tenacity; if he can stay in his trench or
position and cross bayonets, he will at least have neutralized the
hostile first line, and the combat will be decided by reserves. (324)

=362. Support to cover withdrawal.= If ordered or compelled to
withdraw under hostile infantry fire or in the presence of hostile
infantry, the support will be posted so as to cover the retirement of
the firing line (325)

=363. Support in case of battalion acting alone.= When the battalion
is operating alone, the support must be strong and must be fed
sparingly into the firing line, especially if a counter-attack is
planned. Opportunities for counter-attack should be sought at all
times, as explained in pars. 525-530. (326)


COMBAT


INTRODUCTION

=364. Scope of subject of combat tactics in this book.= Part II of
these regulations treats only of the basic principles of combat
tactics as applied to infantry and to the special units, such as
machine guns and mounted scouts, which form a part of infantry
regiments and battalions.

The combat tactics of the arms combined are considered in Field
Service Regulations. (350)

=365. Demands of modern combat upon infantry; complicated maneuvers
impracticable; success dependent upon leadership, etc.= Modern combat
demands the highest order of training, discipline, leadership, and
morale on the part of the infantry. Complicated maneuvers are
impracticable; efficient leadership and a determination to win by
simple and direct methods must be depended upon for success. (351)

=366. Duties and quality of infantry.= The duties of infantry are many
and difficult. All infantry must be fit to cope with all conditions
that may arise. Modern war requires but one kind of infantry--good
infantry. (352)

=367. Offensive necessary for decisive results; use of ground, fire
efficiency, etc.; local success.= The infantry must take the offensive
to gain decisive results. Both sides are therefore likely to attempt
it, though not necessary at the same time or in the same part of a
long battle line.

In the local combats which make up the general battle the better
endurance, use of ground, fire efficiency, discipline, and training
will win. It is the duty of the infantry to win the local successes
which enable the commanding general to win the battle. (356)

=368. Requisites of infantry; trained to bear heaviest burdens; good
infantry can defeat vastly superior infantry of poor quality.= The
infantry must have the tenacity to hold every advantage gained, the
individual and collective discipline and skill needed to master the
enemy's fire, the determination to close with the enemy in attack, and
to meet him with the bayonet in defense. Infantry must be trained to
bear the heaviest burdens and losses, both of combat and march.

Good infantry can defeat an enemy greatly superior in numbers, but
lacking in training, discipline, leadership, and morale. (354)

=369. Fixed forms and instructions covering all cases impossible;
study and practice necessary; purposes of practical and theoretical
instruction.= It is impossible to establish fixed forms or to give
general instructions that will cover all cases. Officers and
noncommissioned officers must be so trained that they can apply
suitable means and methods to each case as it arises. Study and
practice are necessary to acquire proper facility in this respect.
Theoretical instruction can not replace practical instruction; the
former supplies correct ideas and gives to practical work an interest,
purpose, and definiteness not otherwise obtainable. (355)

=370. Exercises in extended order to be in nature of combat exercises;
all combat exercises to be conducted under assumed tactical
situations.= After the mechanism of extended order drill has been
learned with precision in the company, every exercise should be, as
far as practicable, in the nature of a maneuver (combat exercise)
against an =imaginary=, =outlined=, or =represented= enemy.

Company extended order drill may be conducted without reference to a
tactical situation, but a combat exercise, whatever may be the size of
the unit employed, should be conducted under an assumed tactical
situation. (356)

=371. Effective method of conducting combat exercises.= An effective
method of conducting a combat exercise is to outline the enemy with a
few men equipped with flags. The umpire or inspector states the
situation, and the commander leads his troops with due regard to the
assumptions made.

Changes in situation, the results of reconnaissance, the character of
artillery fire, etc., are made known to the commander when necessary
by the umpire or inspector, who, in order to observe and influence the
conduct of the exercise, remains in rear of the firing line. From this
position he indicates, with the aid of prearranged signals, the
character of the fire and movements of the hostile infantry. These
signals are intended for the men outlining the enemy. These men repeat
the signals; all officers and men engaged in the exercise and in sight
of the outlined enemy are thus informed of the enemy's action, and the
exercise is conducted accordingly.

Assistant umpires, about one for each company in the firing line, may
assist in indicating hostile fire and movements and in observing the
conduct of the exercise.

An outlined enemy may be made to attack or defend.

Situations should be simple and natural. During or after the exercise
the umpire or inspector should call attention to any improper
movements or incorrect methods of execution. He will prohibit all
movements of troops or individuals that would be impossible if the
enemy were real. The slow progress of events to be expected on the
battlefield can hardly be simulated, but the umpire or inspector will
prevent undue haste and will attempt to enforce a reasonably slow rate
of progress.

The same exercise should not be repeated over the same ground and
under the same situation. Such repetitions lead to the adoption of a
fixed mode of attack or defense and develop mere drill masters. Fixed
or prearranged systems are prohibited. (357)


LEADERSHIP


General Considerations

=372. What constitutes art of leadership.= The art of leadership
consists of applying sound tactical principles to concrete cases on
the battlefield.

Self-reliance, initiative, aggressiveness, and a conception of
team-work are the fundamental characteristics of successful
leadership. (358)

=373. Basis of success; adherence to original plan.= A correct grasp
of the situation and a definite plan of action form the soundest basis
for a successful combat.

A good plan once adopted and put into execution should not be
abandoned unless it becomes clear that it can not succeed.
Afterthoughts are dangerous, except as they aid in the execution of
details in the original plans. (359)

=374. Avoid combats offering no chance of valuable results.= Combats
that do not promise success or some real advantage to the general
issue should be avoided; they cause unnecessary losses, impair the
morale of one's own troops, and raise that of the enemy. (360)

=375. Avoid complicated maneuvers.= Complicated maneuvers are not
likely to succeed in war. All plans and the methods adopted for
carrying them into effect must be simple and direct. (361)

=376. Order and cohesion necessary.= Order and cohesion must be
maintained within the units if success is to be expected. (362)

=377. Officers to be true leaders.= Officers must show themselves to
be true leaders. They must act in accordance with the spirit of their
orders and must require of their troops the strictest discipline on
the field of battle. (363)

=378. Units not to be broken up.= The best results are obtained when
leaders know the capacity and traits of those whom they command; hence
in making detachments units should not be broken up, and a deployment
that would cause an intermingling of the larger units in the firing
line should be avoided. (364)

=379. Leading deployed troops difficult; necessity for training,
discipline and close order.= Leading is difficult when troops are
deployed. A high degree of training and discipline and the use of
close order formations to the fullest extent possible are therefore
required. (365)

=380. Avoidance of unnecessary hardship; limit of endurance exacted
when necessary.= In order to lighten the severe physical strain
inseparable from infantry service in campaign, constant efforts must
be made to spare the troops unnecessary hardship and fatigue; but when
necessity arises, the limit of endurance must be exacted. (366)

=381. Fighting troops not to carry back wounded.= When officers or men
belonging to fighting troops leave their proper places to carry back,
or to care for, wounded during the progress of the action, they are
guilty of skulking. This offense must be repressed with the utmost
vigor. (367)

=382. Complete equipment usually carried into action.= The complete
equipment of the soldier is carried into action unless the weather or
the physical condition of the men renders such measure a severe
hardship. In any event, =only the pack[4] will be laid aside=. The
determination of this question rests with the regimental commander.
The complete equipment affords to men lying prone considerable
protection against shrapnel. (368)

=383. Post of commander; use of reserve in case of victory; when
firing line is controlled by commander.= The post of the commander
must be such as will enable him to observe the progress of events and
to communicate his orders. Subordinate commanders, in addition, must
be in position to transmit the orders of superiors.

Before entering an action, the commander should be as far to the front
as possible in order that he personally may see the situation, order
the deployment, and begin the action strictly in accordance with his
own wishes.

During the action, he must, as a rule, leave to the local leaders the
detailed conduct of the firing line, posting himself either with his
own reserve or in such a position that he is in constant, direct, and
easy communication with it.

A commander takes full and direct charge of his firing line only when
the line has absorbed his whole command.

When their troops are victorious, all commanders should press forward
in order to clinch the advantage gained and to use their reserves to
the best advantage. (369)

=384. Latitude allowed subordinates.= The latitude allowed to officers
is in direct proportion to the size of their commands. Each should see
to the general execution of his task, leaving to the proper
subordinates the supervision of details, and interfering only when
mistakes are made that threaten to seriously prejudice the general
plan. (370)


Teamwork

=385. Latitude allowed subordinates; success depends on coördination
of subordinates.= The comparatively wide fronts of deployed units
increase the difficulties of control. Subordinates must therefore be
given great latitude in the execution of their tasks. The success of
the whole depends largely upon how well each subordinate coördinates
his work with the general plan.

A great responsibility is necessarily thrown upon subordinates, but
responsibility stimulates the right kind of an officer. (371)

=386. Initiative of subordinates; general plan to be furthered.= In a
given situation it is far better =to do any intelligent thing=
consistent with the aggressive execution of the general plan, than to
search hesitatingly for the ideal. This is the true rule of conduct
for subordinates who are required to act upon their own initiative.

A subordinate who is reasonably sure that his intended action is such
as would be ordered by the commander, were the latter present and in
possession of the facts, has enough encouragement to go ahead
confidently. He must possess the loyalty to carry out the plans of his
superior and the keenness to recognize and to seize opportunities to
further the general plan. (372)

=387. But one supreme will in a battle; subordinates to coöperate.=
Independence must not become license. Regardless of the number of
subordinates who are apparently supreme in their own restricted
spheres, there is but one battle and but one supreme will to which all
must conform.

Every subordinate must therefore work for the general result. He does
all in his power to insure coöperation between the subdivisions under
his command. He transmits important information to adjoining units or
to superiors in rear and, with the assistance of information received,
keeps himself and his subordinates duly posted as to the situation.
(373)

=388. Deviation from orders.= When circumstances render it
impracticable to consult the authority issuing an order, officers
should not hesitate to vary from such order when it is clearly based
upon an incorrect view of the situation, is impossible of execution,
or has been rendered impracticable on account of changes which have
occurred since its promulgation. In the application of this rule the
responsibility for mistakes rests upon the subordinate, but
unwillingness to assume responsibility on proper occasions is
indicative of weakness.

Superiors should be careful not to censure an apparent disobedience
where the act was done in the proper spirit and to advance the general
plan. (374)

=389. Intermingling of units; duties of officers and guides.= When the
men of two or more units intermingle in the firing line, all officers
and men submit at once to the senior. Officers and platoon guides seek
to fill vacancies caused by casualties. Each seizes any opportunity to
exercise the functions consistent with his grade, and all assist in
the maintenance of order and control.

Every lull in the action should be utilized for as complete
restoration of order in the firing line as the ground or other
conditions permit. (375)

=390. Separated officers and noncommissioned officers placing
themselves under nearest higher commander.= Any officer or
noncommissioned officer who becomes separated from his proper unit and
can not rejoin must at once place himself and his command at the
disposal of the nearest higher commander. (376)

Anyone having completed an assigned task must seek to rejoin his
proper command. Failing in this, he should join the nearest troops
engaged with the enemy.

=391. Duty of separated soldiers.= Soldiers are taught the necessity
of remaining with their companies, but those who become detached must
join the nearest company and serve with it until the battle is over or
reorganization is ordered. (377)


Orders

=392. Orders for deployment; combat orders of divisions and brigades
usually written.= Commands are deployed and enter the combat by the
orders of the commander to the subordinate commanders.

The initial combat orders of the division are almost invariably
written; those of the brigade are generally so. The written order is
preferable and is used whenever time permits.

If time permits, subsequent orders are likewise written, either as
field orders or messages. (378)

=393. Combat orders of regiments and smaller units; verbal messages.=
The initial combat orders of regiments and smaller units are given
verbally. For this purpose the subordinates for whom the orders are
intended are assembled, if practicable, at a place from which the
situation and plan can be explained.

Subsequent orders are verbal or in the form of verbal or written
messages. Verbal messages should not be used unless they are short and
unmistakable. (379)

=394. Initial combat orders; personal reconnaissance.= The initial
combat order of any commander or subordinate is based upon his
definite plan for executing the task confronting him.

Whenever possible the formation of the plan is preceded by a personal
reconnaissance of the terrain and a careful consideration of all
information of the enemy. (380)

=395. Composition of combat orders.= The combat order gives such
information of the enemy and of neighboring or supporting friendly
troops as will enable subordinates to understand the situation.

The general plan of action is stated in brief terms, but enough of the
commander's intentions is divulged to guide the subsequent actions of
the subordinates.

Clear and concise instructions are given as to the action to be taken
in the combat by each part of the command. In this way the commander
assigns tasks, fronts, objectives, sectors or areas, etc., in
accordance with his plan. If the terms employed convey definite ideas
and leave no loopholes, the conduct of subordinates will generally be
correspondingly satisfactory.

Such miscellaneous matter relating to special troops, trains,
ammunition, and future movements of the commander is added as concerns
the combat itself.

Combat orders should prescribe communication, reconnaissance, flank
protection, etc., when some special disposition is desired or when an
omission on the part of a subordinate may reasonably be feared. (381)

=396. Encroaching upon functions of subordinates prohibited; orders to
be definite.= When issuing orders, a commander should indicate clearly
=what= is to be done by each subordinate, but not =how= it is to be
done. He should not encroach upon the functions of a subordinate by
prescribing details of execution unless he has good reason to doubt
the ability or judgment of the subordinate, and cannot substitute
another.

Although general in its terms, an order must be definite and must be
the expression of a fixed decision. Ambiguity or vagueness indicates
either a vacillation or the inability to formulate orders. (382)

=397. Orders generally given subordinates through their immediate
superiors.= Usually the orders of a commander are intended for, and
are given to, the commanders of the next lower units, but in an
emergency commander should not hesitate to give orders directly to
any subordinate. In such case he should promptly inform the
intermediate commander concerned. (383)


Communication

=398. Communication, how maintained.= Communication is maintained by
means of staff officers, messengers, relay systems, connecting files,
visual signals, telegraph, or telephone. (384)

=399. Lines of communication established by signal corps.= The signal
corps troops of the division establish lines of information from
division to brigade headquarters. The further extension of lines of
information in combat by signal troops is exceptional. (385)

=400. Lines of communication established by regiment; orderlies carry
signal flags.= Each regiment, employing its own personnel, is
responsible for the maintenance of communication from the colonel back
to the brigade and forward to the battalions. For this purpose the
regiment uses the various means which may be furnished it. The staff
and orderlies, regimental and battalion, are practiced in the use of
these means and in messenger service. Orderlies carry signal flags.
(386)

=401. Communication between firing line and major or colonel; company
musicians carry signal flags.= Connection between the firing line and
the major or colonel is practically limited to the prescribed flag,
arm, and bugle signals. Other means can only be supplemental. Company
musicians carry company flags and are practiced in signaling. (387)

=402. Communication by artillery with firing line by means of staff
officers or through agents.= The artillery generally communicates with
the firing line by means of its own staff officers or through an agent
who accompanies some unit in or near the front. The infantry keeps him
informed as to the situation and affords any reasonable assistance.
When the infantry is dependent upon the artillery for fire support,
perfect coördination through this representative is of great
importance. (388)


COMBAT RECONNAISSANCE

=403. Importance of combat reconnaissance; avoidance of deployment on
wrong lines.= Combat reconnaissance is of vital importance and must
not be neglected. By proper preliminary reconnaissance, deployments on
wrong lines, or in a wrong direction, and surprises may generally be
prevented. (389)

=404. Protection of troops by proper reconnaissance.= Troops deployed
and under fire can not change front, and thus they suffer greatly when
enfiladed. Troops in close order formation may suffer heavy losses in
a short time if subjected to hostile fire. In both formations troops
must be protected by proper reconnaissance and warning. (390)

=405. Difficulty of reconnaissance depends on extent of enemy's
screen; strength of reconnoitering parties.= The difficulty of
reconnaissance increases in proportion to the measures adopted by the
enemy to screen himself.

The strength of the reconnoitering party is determined by the
character of the information desired and the nature of the hostile
screen. In exceptional cases as much as a battalion may be necessary
in order to break through the hostile screen and enable the commander
or officer in charge to reconnoiter in person.

A large reconnoitering party is conducted so as to open the way for
small patrols, to serve as a supporting force or rallying point for
them, and to receive and transmit information. Such parties maintain
signal communication with the main body if practicable. (391)

=406. Each separate column to protect itself by reconnaissance.= Each
separate column moving forward to deploy must reconnoiter to its front
and flank and keep in touch with adjoining columns. The extent of the
reconnaissance to the flank depends upon the isolation of the columns.
(392)

=407. Reconnaissance before attacking.= Before an attack a
reconnaissance must be made to determine the enemy's position, the
location of his flanks, the character of the terrain, the nature of
the hostile field works, etc., in order to prevent premature
deployment and the resulting fatigue and loss of time.

It will frequently be necessary to send forward a thin skirmish line
in order to induce the enemy to open fire and reveal his position.
(393)

=408. Extent of reconnaissance.= It will frequently be impossible to
obtain satisfactory information until after the action has begun. The
delay that may be warranted for the purpose of reconnaissance depends
upon the nature of the attack and the necessity for promptness. For
example, in a meeting engagement, and sometimes in a holding attack,
the reconnaissance may have to be hasty and superficial, whereas in an
attack against an enemy carefully prepared for defense there will
generally be both time and necessity for thorough reconnaissance.
(394)

=409. Reconnaissance in defense.= In defense, reconnaissance must be
kept up to determine the enemy's line of advance, to ascertain his
dispositions, to prevent his reconnaissance, etc.

Patrols or parties posted to prevent hostile reconnaissance should
relieve the main body of the necessity of betraying its position by
firing on small bodies of the enemy. (395)

=410. Duration of reconnaissance; protection of flanks.=
Reconnaissance continues throughout the action.

A firing or skirmish line can take care of its front, but its flanks
are especially vulnerable to modern firearms. The moral effect of
flanking fire is as great as the physical effect. Hence, combat
patrols to give warning or covering detachments to give security are
indispensable on exposed flanks. This is equally true in attack or
defense. (396)

=411. Responsibility of infantry commanders for reconnaissance;
surprise unpardonable.= The fact that cavalry patrols are known to be
posted in a certain direction does not relieve infantry commanders of
the responsibility for reconnaissance and security.

To be surprised by an enemy at short range is an unpardonable offense.
(397)

=412. Commander of flank battalion responsible for security of his
flank.= The commander of a battalion on a flank of a general line
invariably provides for the necessary reconnaissance and security on
that flank unless higher authority has specifically ordered it. In
any event, he sends out combat patrols as needed.

Where his battalion is on a flank of one section of the line and a
considerable interval lies between his battalion and the next section,
he makes similar provision. (398)

=413. Patrols established by battalion commanders.= Battalion
commanders in the first line establish patrols to observe and report
the progress or conduct of adjoining troops when these can not be
seen. (399)


FIRE SUPERIORITY


PURPOSE AND NATURE

(See par. 427)

=414. Success in battle dependent upon fire superiority.= In a
decisive battle success depends on gaining and maintaining fire
superiority. Every effort must be made to gain it early and then to
keep it.

Attacking troops must first gain fire superiority in order to reach
the hostile position. Over open ground attack is possible only when
the attacking force has a decided fire superiority. With such
superiority the attack is not only possible, but success is probable
and without ruinous losses.

Defending troops can prevent a charge only when they can master the
enemy's fire and inflict heavy losses upon him. (400)

=415. Volume and accuracy necessary to obtain fire superiority.= To
obtain fire superiority it is necessary to produce a heavy volume of
accurate fire. Every increase in the effectiveness of the fire means a
corresponding decrease in the effectiveness of the enemy's fire.

The volume and accuracy of fire will depend upon several
considerations:

=(a) The number of rifles employed.= On a given front the greatest
volume of fire is produced by a firing line having only sufficient
intervals between men to permit the free use of their rifles. The
maximum density of a firing line is therefore about one man per yard
of front.

=(b)= The =rate= of fire affects its volume; an excessive rate reduces
its accuracy.

=(c) The character of the target influences both volume and accuracy.=
Larger dimensions, greater visibility, and shorter range increase the
rate of fire; greater density increases =the effect=.

=(d) Training and discipline= have an important bearing on the rate or
volume of fire, but their greatest influence is upon accuracy.

The firing efficiency of troops is reduced by fatigue and adverse
psychological influences.

=(e) Fire direction and control improve collective accuracy.= The
importance of fire direction increases rapidly with the range. Control
exerts a powerful influence at all ranges. (401)


FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL


Opening Fire

=416. Long range fire, when effective.= Beyond effective ranges
important results can be expected only when the target is large and
distinct and much ammunition is used.

Long range fire is permissible in pursuit on account of the moral
effect of any fire under the circumstances. At other times such fire
is of doubtful value. (402)

=417. Opening fire in attack.= In attack, the desire to open fire when
losses are first felt must be repressed. Considerations of time,
target, ammunition, and morale make it imperative that the attack
withhold its fire and press forward to a first firing position close
to the enemy. The attacker's target will be smaller and fainter than
the one he presents to the enemy. (403)

=418. Opening fire in defense.= In defense, more ammunition is
available, ranges are more easily determined, and the enemy usually
presents a larger target. The defender may therefore open fire and
expect results at longer ranges than the attacker, and particularly if
the defenders intend a delaying action only.

If the enemy has a powerful artillery, it will often be best for the
defending infantry to withhold its fire until the enemy offers a
specially favorable target. Vigorous and well-directed bursts of fire
are then employed. The troops should therefore be given as much
artificial protection as time and means permit, and at an agreed
signal expose themselves as much as necessary and open fire. (404)

=419. Opening fire in unexpected, close encounters.= In unexpected,
close encounters a great advantage accrues to the side which first
opens rapid and accurate fire with battle sight. (405)


Use of Ground

=420. Requisites of ground for cover.= The position of the firers must
afford a suitable field of fire.

The ground should permit constant observation of the enemy, and yet
enable the men to secure some cover when not actually firing.

Troops whose target is for the moment hidden by unfavorable ground,
either move forward to better ground or seek to execute cross fire on
another target. (406)

=421. Skillful use of ground reduces visibility.= The likelihood of a
target being hit depends to a great extent upon its visibility. By
skillful use of ground, a firing line may reduce its visibility
without loss of fire power. Sky lines are particularly to be avoided.
(407)


Choice of Target

=422. Target to be chosen.= The target chosen should be the hostile
troops most dangerous to the firers. These will usually be the nearest
hostile infantry. When no target is specially dangerous, that one
should be chosen which promises the most hits. (408)

=423. Target not to be changed except for good reason.= Frequent
changes of target impair the fire effect. Random changes to small,
unimportant targets impair fire discipline and accomplish nothing.
Attention should be confined to the main target until substantial
reason for change is apparent. (409)

=424. Flanking fire to be delivered when opportunity offers.= An
opportunity to deliver flanking fire, especially against artillery
protected in front by shields, is an example warranting change of
target and should never be overlooked. Such fire demoralizes the
troops subjected to it, even if the losses inflicted are small. In
this manner a relatively small number of rifles can produce important
results. (410)


The Range

=425. Importance of correct sight setting.= Beyond close range, the
correct setting of the rear sight is of primary importance, provided
the troops are trained and well in hand. The necessity for correct
sight setting increases rapidly with the range. Its importance
decreases as the quality of the troops decrease, for the error in
sight setting, except possibly at very long ranges, becomes
unimportant when compared with the error in holding and aiming. (411)

=426. Determination of ranges.= In attack, distances must usually be
estimated and corrections made as errors are observed. Mechanical
range finders and ranging volleys are practicable at times.

In defense, it is generally practicable to measure more accurately the
distances to visible objects and to keep a record of them for future
use. (412)


Distribution of Fire and Target

=427. Purpose of fire superiority; distribution of fire and target.=
The purpose of fire superiority is to get hits whenever possible, but
at all events to keep down the enemy's fire and render it harmless. To
accomplish this the target must be covered with fire throughout its
whole extent. Troops who are not fired upon will fire with nearly
peacetime accuracy.

The target is roughly divided and a part is assigned to each unit. No
part of the target is neglected. In attack, by a system of overlapping
in assigning targets to platoons, the entire hostile line can be kept
under fire even during a rush. (Pars. 400-401.) (413)


Observation

=428. Observation of target.= The correctness of the sight setting and
the distribution of fire over the target can be verified only by
careful observation of the target, the adjacent ground, and the effect
upon the enemy. (414)

=429. Observation determines whether fire fight is being properly
conducted.= Observation only can determine whether the fire fight is
being properly conducted. If the enemy's fire is losing in accuracy
and effect, the observer realizes that his side is gaining
superiority. If the enemy's fire remains or becomes effective and
persistent, he realizes that corrective measures are necessary to
increase either volume or accuracy, or both. (415)


Discipline

=430. What discipline accomplishes.= Discipline makes good direction
and control possible and is the distinguishing mark of trained troops.
(416)

=431. Communication on firing line by means of signals.= The
discipline necessary in the firing line will be absent unless officers
and noncommissioned officers can make their will known to the men. In
the company, therefore, communication must be by simple signals which,
in the roar of musketry, will attract the attention and convey the
correct meaning. (417)


Expenditure of Ammunition

=432. Use of ammunition in attack.= In attack the supply is more
limited than in defense. Better judgment must be exercised in
expenditure. Ordinarily, troops in the firing line of an attack can
not expect to have that day more ammunition than they carry into the
combat, except such additions as come from the distribution of
ammunition of dead and wounded and the surplus brought by
reënforcements. (418)

=433. True economy in expenditure of ammunition.= When a certain fire
effect is required, the necessary ammunition must be expended without
hesitation. Several hours of firing may be necessary to gain fire
superiority. True economy can be practiced only by closing on the
enemy, as explained in par. 344, before first opening fire, and
thereafter suspending fire when there is nothing to shoot at. (419)


Supporting Artillery

=434. Artillery fire principal aid of infantry.= Artillery fire is the
principal aid to the infantry in gaining and keeping fire superiority,
not only by its hits, but by the moral effect it produces on the
enemy. (420)

=435. Functions of artillery fire in attack and defense.= In attack,
artillery assists the forward movement of the infantry. It keeps down
the fire of the hostile artillery and seeks to neutralize the hostile
infantry by inflicting losses upon it, destroying its morale, driving
it to cover, and preventing it from using its weapons effectively.

In defense, it ignores the hostile artillery when the enemy's attack
reaches a decisive stage and assists in checking the attack, joining
its fire power to that of the defending infantry. (421)

=436. Fire of artillery over friendly troops.= Troops should be
accustomed to being fired over by friendly artillery and impressed
with the fact that the artillery should continue firing upon the enemy
until the last possible moment. The few casualties resulting from
shrapnel bursting short are trifling compared with those that would
result from the increased effectiveness of the enemy's infantry fire
were the friendly artillery to cease firing.

Casualties inflicted by supporting artillery are not probable until
the opposing infantry lines are less than 200 yards apart. (422)

=437. When no longer safe for artillery to fire over friendly troops.=
When the distance between the hostile infantry lines becomes so short
as to render further use of friendly artillery inadvisable, the
commander of the infantry firing line, using a preconcerted
signal,[5] informs the artillery commander. The latter usually
increases the range in order to impede the strengthening of the
enemy's foremost line, as explained in pars. 345-346. (423)


Fire of Position

=438. Fire of position, when used.= Infantry is said to execute fire
of position when it is posted so as to assist an attack by firing over
the heads, or off the flank, of the attacking troops and is not itself
to engage in the advance; or when, in defense, it is similarly posted
to augment the fire of the main firing line.

Machine guns serve a like purpose, as set forth in par. 555.

In a decisive action, fire of position should be employed whenever the
terrain permits and reserve infantry is available. (424)


DEPLOYMENT

=439. Formation of troops before and during deployment.= Troops are
massed preparatory to deployment when the nature of their deployment
can not be foreseen or it is desirable to shorten the column or to
clear the road. Otherwise, in the deployment of large commands,
whether in march column, in bivouac, or massed, and whether forming,
for attack or for defense, they are ordinarily first formed into a
line of columns to facilitate the extension of the front prior to
deploying.

The rough line or lines of columns thus formed enable troops to take
advantage of the terrain in advancing and shorten the time occupied in
forming the firing line. (425)

=440. Action of brigade and regimental commanders in deployment of
division.= In deploying the division, each brigade is assigned a
definite task or objective. On receipt of his orders, the brigade
commander conducts his brigade in column or in line of regiments,
until it is advisable that it be broken into smaller columns. He then
issues his order, assigning to each regiment its task, if practicable.
In a similar manner the regimental commanders lead their regiments
forward in column, or in line of columns, until the time arrives for
issuing the regimental order. It is seldom advisable to break up the
battalion before issuing orders for its deployment. (426)

=441. Personal reconnaissance before deployment.= Each subordinate
commander, after receiving his order for the action, should precede
his command as far as possible, in order to reconnoiter the ground
personally, and should prepare to issue his orders promptly. (427)

=442. Each commander to guard his command against surprise.= Each
commander of a column directs the necessary reconnaissance to front
and flanks; by this means and by a judicious choice of ground he
guards against surprise. (428)

=443. Premature formation of firing line to be avoided.= The premature
formation of the firing line causes unnecessary fatigue and loss of
time, and may result in a faulty direction being taken. Troops once
deployed make even minor changes of direction with difficulty, and
this difficulty increases with the length of the firing line. (429)

=444. Rectification of deployment in wrong direction.= In the larger
units, when the original deployment is found to be in the wrong
direction, it will usually be necessary to deploy the reserve on the
correct front and withdraw and assemble the first line. (430)

=445. Number of troops to be deployed in beginning.= To gain decisive
results, it will generally be necessary to use all the troops at some
stage of the combat. But in the beginning, while the situation is
uncertain, care should be taken not to engage too large a proportion
of the command. On the other hand, there is no greater error than to
employ too few and to sacrifice them by driblets. (For division of the
battalion in attack see 335-339.) (431)

=446. Dense, well-directed, and controlled line of heavy fire gives
fire superiority.= When it is intended to fight to a decision, fire
superiority is essential. To gain this, two things are necessary: A
heavy fire and a fire well-directed and controlled. Both of these are
best obtained when the firing line is as dense as practicable, while
leaving the men room for the free use of their rifles.

If the men are too widely separated, direction and control are very
difficult, often impossible, and the intensity of fire is slight in
proportion to the front occupied. (432)

=447. Density of 1 man per yard; occupation of only sections of long
lines.= In an attack or stubborn defense the firing line should have a
density of one man per yard of front occupied.

Where the tactical situation demands the holding of a line too long to
be occupied throughout at this density, it is generally better to
deploy companies or platoons at one man per yard, leaving gaps in the
line between them, than to distribute the men uniformly at increased
intervals. (433)

=448. Use of thin firing line.= A relatively thin firing line may be
employed when merely covering the movements of other forces; when on
the defensive against poor troops; when the final action to be taken
has not yet been determined; and, in general, when fire superiority is
not necessary. (434)

=449. Length of firing line employed by whole force; strength of
supports and reserves; density of charging line.= The length of the
firing line that the whole force may employ depends upon the density
of the line and the strength in rear required by the situation.

Supports and reserves constitute the strength in rear.

In a decisive attack they should be at least strong enough to replace
a heavy loss in the original firing line and to increase the charging
line to a density of at least one and one-half men per yard and still
have troops in rear for protection and for the other purposes
mentioned above. (435)

=450. Strength of reserve; troops deployed varying from 1 to 10 men
per yard.= In the original deployment the strength of the reserve held
out by each commander comprises from one-sixth to two-thirds of his
unit, depending upon the nature of the service expected of the
reserve.

A small force in a covering or delaying action requires very little
strength in rear, while a large force fighting a decisive battle
requires much. Therefore, depending upon circumstances, the original
deployment, including the strength in rear, may vary from 1 to 10 men
per yard. Against an enemy poorly disciplined and trained, or lacking
in morale, a thinner deployment is permissible. (436)

=451. Density of whole deployment varies with size of command.= The
density of the whole deployment increases with the size of the
command, because the larger the command the greater the necessity for
reserves. Thus, battalion acting alone may attack two men per yard of
front, but a regiment, with three battalions, may only double the
front of the one battalion. (437)

=452. Division of battle line into battle districts and density of
deployment therein.= By the assignment of divisions or larger units to
parts of a line of battle several miles long, a series of
semi-independent battle, or local combat, districts are created.

The general deployment for a long line of battle comprising several
battle districts is not directly considered in these regulations. The
deployments treated of herein are those of the infantry within such
districts.

The density of deployment in these districts may vary greatly,
depending upon the activity expected in each. Within these battle
districts, as well as in smaller forces acting alone, parts of the
line temporarily of less importance may be held weakly, in order to
economize troops and to have more at the decisive point. (438)

=453. Extent of front occupied by a unit depends upon security of
flanks.= The front that a unit may occupy when deployed depends also
upon whether its flanks are secured. If both flanks are secured by
other troops, the unit may increase its front materially by reducing
its reserve or supports. If only one flank is so secured, the front
may still be somewhat increased, but the exposed flank must be guarded
by posting the supports or reserve toward that flank.

Natural obstacles that secure the flanks have practically the same
effect upon deployment. (439)

=454. Regiments, battalions, and companies deployed side by side.=
Except when assigned as supports or reserve, regiments in the brigade,
battalions in the regiment, and companies in the battalion are, when
practicable, deployed side by side. (440)

=455. Battalions furnish firing line and supports; larger units
furnish reserves; employment of reserve.= In the deployment,
battalions establish the firing line, each furnishing its own support.

In each unit larger than the battalion a reserve is held out, its
strength depending upon circumstances. In general, the reserve is
employed by the commander to meet or improve conditions brought about
by the action of the firing line. It must not be too weak or too split
up. It must be posted where the commander believes it will be needed
for decisive action, or where he desires to bring about such action.
When necessary, parts of it reënforce or prolong the firing line.
(441)


ATTACK

(For the battalion in Attack, see pars. 342-346)

=456. Fire superiority means success; how to obtain fire superiority.=
An attack is bound to succeed if fire superiority is gained and
properly used.

To gain this superiority generally requires that the attack employ
more rifles than the defense; this in turn means a longer line, as
both sides will probably hold a strong firing line. (442)

=457. When frontal attack may be successful.= With large forces, a
direct frontal attack gives the attacker little opportunity to bring
more rifles to bear. However, if the enemy is unduly extended, a
frontal attack may give very decisive results. (443)

=458. When turning movements are allowable.= Owing to the difficulty
of control and the danger of the parts being defeated in detail, wide
turning movements are seldom allowable except in large forces. (444)

=459. Advantages of enveloping attack.= If the attack can be so
directed that, while the front is covered, another fraction of the
command strikes a flank more or less obliquely (an enveloping attack),
the advantages gained are a longer line and more rifles in action;
also a converging fire opposed to the enemy's diverging fire. (445)

=460. Envelopment of both flanks.= An envelopment of both flanks
should never be attempted without a very decided superiority in
numbers. (446)

=461. Enveloping attacks result in local frontal attacks; advantage of
envelopment.= The enveloping attack will nearly always result locally
in a frontal attack, for it will be met by the enemy's reserve. The
advantage of envelopment lies in the longer concentric line, with its
preponderance of rifles and its converging fire. (447)

=462. Coöperation between frontal and enveloping attacks; the two
attacks to be deployed considerable distance from hostile positions.=
Coöperation between the frontal and enveloping attacks is essential to
success. Both should be pushed vigorously and simultaneously, and
ordinarily both should move simultaneously to the charge; but at the
final stage of the attack conditions may sometimes warrant one in
charging while the other supports it with fire.

The envelopment of a flank is brought about with difficulty when made
by troops already deployed in another direction or by their reserves.
The two attacks should be deployed at a suitable distance apart, with
the lines of attack converging in rear of the hostile position. The
troops that are to make the enveloping attack should deploy in the
proper direction at the start and should be given orders which enable
them to gain their point of deployment in the most direct and
practical manner.

The enveloping attack is generally made the stronger, especially in
small forces. (448)


DEPLOYMENT FOR ATTACK

=463. Distance from hostile position at which deployment is made;
foreground to be cleared of hostile detachments before deployment.=
Where open terrain exposes troops to hostile artillery fire it may be
necessary to make the deployment 2 miles or more from the hostile
position.

The foreground should be temporarily occupied by covering troops. If
the enemy occupies the foreground with detachments, the covering
troops must drive them back. (449)

=464. Moving well forward and deploying at night.= To enable large
forces to gain ground toward the enemy, it may sometimes be cheaper
and quicker in the end to move well forward and to deploy at night. In
such case the area in which the deployment is to be made should, if
practicable, be occupied by covering troops before dark.

The deployment will be made with great difficulty unless the ground
has been studied by daylight. The deployment gains little unless it
establishes the firing line well within effective range of the enemy's
main position. (See Night Operations, par. 580-590.) (450)

=465. Each unit deploys on its direction line; intervals between
battalions on firing line.= Each unit assigned a task deploys when on
its direction line, or opposite its objective, and when it has no
longer sufficient cover for advancing in close order. In the firing
line, intervals of 25 to 50 yards should be maintained as long as
possible between battalions. In the larger units it may be necessary
to indicate on the map the direction or objective, but to battalion
commanders it should be pointed out on the ground. (451)

=466. Post of reserve; reserve charged with flank protection.= The
reserve is kept near enough to the firing line to be on hand at the
decisive stage. It is posted with reference to the attack, or to that
part of the attacking line, from which the greater results are
expected; it is also charged with flank protection, but should be kept
intact.

Supports are considered in paragraphs 262 to 265, inclusive, and 335
to 339, inclusive. (452)


ADVANCING THE ATTACK

=467. Firing line to advance as far as possible before opening fire.=
The firing line must ordinarily advance a long distance before it is
justified in opening fire. It can not combat the enemy's artillery,
and it is at a disadvantage if it combats the defender's long-range
rifle fire. Hence it ignores both and, by taking full advantage of
cover and of the discipline of the troops, advances to a first firing
position at the shortest range possible, as explained in par. 344.

Formations for crossing this zone with the minimum loss are considered
in paragraphs 249 to 257, inclusive. These and other methods of
crossing such zones should be studied and practiced. (453)

=468. Invisibility best protection while advancing.= The best
protection against loss while advancing is to escape the enemy's view.
(454)

=469. Advance of battalions.= Each battalion finds its own firing
position, conforming to the general advance as long as practicable
and taking advantage of the more advanced position of an adjacent
battalion in order to gain ground.

The position from which the attack opens fire is further considered in
paragraphs 343-345, inclusive. (455)

=470. Infantry moving to the attack passing through deployed
artillery.= It will frequently become necessary for infantry moving to
the attack to pass through deployed artillery. This should be done so
as to interfere as little as possible with the latter's fire, and
never so as to cause that fire to cease entirely. As far as
practicable, advantage should be taken of intervals in the line, if
any. An understanding between artillery and infantry commanders should
be had, so as to effect the movement to the best advantage. (456)

=471. Advanced elements of firing line not to open fire on main
hostile position.= In advancing the attack, advanced elements of the
firing line or detachments in front of it should not open fire except
in defense or to clear the foreground of the enemy. Fire on the
hostile main position should not be opened until all or nearly all of
the firing line can join in the fire. (457)


THE FIRE ATTACK

(See pars. 414-438.)

=472. Fire superiority sought at first firing position, and to be
maintained until charging point is reached; size of rushing units.= At
the first firing position the attack seeks to gain fire superiority.
This may necessitate a steady, accurate fire a long time. The object
is to subdue the enemy's fire and keep it subdued so that the
attacking troops may advance from this point to a favorable place near
the enemy from which the charge may be made. Hence, in the advance by
rushes, sufficient rifles must be kept constantly in action to keep
down the enemy's fire; this determines the size of the fraction
rushing. (458)

=473. Futility of advancing without fire superiority.= To advance
without fire superiority against a determined defense would result in
such losses as to bring the attack to a standstill or to make the
apparent success barren of results. (459)

=474. Signs that fire superiority has been gained.= Diminution of the
enemy's fire and a pronounced loss in effectiveness are the surest
signs that fire superiority has been gained and that a part of the
firing line can advance. (460)

=475. Retiring under fire in daylight suicidal; intrenching.= The men
must be impressed with the fact that, having made a considerable
advance under fire and having been checked, it is suicidal to turn
back in daylight.

If they can advance no farther, they must intrench and hold on until
the fall of darkness or a favorable turn in the situation develops.

Intrenching is resorted to only when necessary. Troops who have
intrenched themselves under fire are moved forward again with
difficulty. (461)

=476. Supports and reserves occupying trenches vacated by firing line,
to improve same.= Supports and reserves occupying intrenchments
vacated by the firing line should improve them, but they must not be
held back or diverted from their true missions on this account. (462)

=477. Greater detail of conduct of fire attack.= Paragraphs 346 to
354, inclusive, deal more in detail with the conduct of the fire
attack. (463)


THE CHARGE

(See pars. 355-356)

=478. What fire superiority accomplishes; psychological moment for
charge determined by tactical instinct.= Fire superiority beats down
the enemy's fire, destroys his resistance and morale, and enables the
attacking troops to close on him, but an actual or threatened
occupation of his position is needed to drive him out and defeat him.

The psychological moment for the charge can not be determined far in
advance. The tactical instinct of the responsible officer must decide.
(464)

=479. When, and distance over which charge should be made.=

The defenders, if subjugated by the fire attack, will frequently leave
before the charge begins. On the other hand, it may be necessary to
carry the fire attack close to the position and follow it up with a
short dash and a bayonet combat. Hence the distance over which the
charge may be made will vary between wide limits. It may be from 25 to
400 yards.

The charge should be made at the earliest moment that promises
success; otherwise the full advance of victory will be lost. (465)

=480. Charge to be made with approval of commander of attacking line;
battalion commanders signal commander of line when ready to charge;
charge to be made simultaneously.= The commander of the attacking line
should indicate his approval, or give the order, before the charge is
made. Subordinate commanders, usually battalion commanders, whose
troops are ready to charge, signal that fact to the commander. It may
be necessary for them to wait until other battalions or other parts of
the line are ready or until the necessary reserves arrive.

At the signal for the charge the firing line and nearby supports and
reserves rush forward. (See pars. 355 and 356.)

The charge is made simultaneously, if possible, by all the units
participating therein, but once committed to the assault, battalions
should be pushed with the utmost vigor and no restraint placed on the
ardor of charging troops by an attempt to maintain alignment. (466)

=481. Charge not to be made without sufficient troops; reserves give
impetus; avoiding too dense a mass.= Before ordering the charge the
commander should see that enough troops are on hand to make it a
success. Local reserves joining the firing line in time to participate
in the charge give it a strong impetus. Too dense a mass should be
avoided. (467)

=482. Line to be strengthened by prolongation.= The line should be
strengthened by prolongation, if practicable, and remaining troops
kept in formation for future use; but rather than that the attack
should fail, the last formed body will be sent in, unless it is very
apparent that it can do no good. (468)

=483. Additional force for pursuit.= To arrive in the hostile position
with a very compact firing line and a few formed supports is
sufficient for a victory, but an additional force kept well in hand
for pursuit is of inestimable value. (469)

=484. Premature charge to be avoided; charging without authority from
the rear.= A premature charge by a part of the line should be avoided,
but if begun, the other parts of the line should join at once if there
is any prospect of success. Under exceptional conditions a part of the
line may be compelled to charge without authority from the rear. The
intention to do so should be signaled to the rear. (470)

=485. Confidence in ability to use bayonet.= Confidence in their
ability to use the bayonet gives the assaulting troops the promise of
success. (471)

=486. Pursuing fire; disordered units not to pursue.= If the enemy has
left the position when the charging troops reach it, the latter should
open a rapid fire upon the retreating enemy, if he is in sight. It is
not advisable for the mixed and disordered units to follow him, except
to advance to a favorable firing position or to cover the
reorganization of others. (472)

=487. Pursuing troops; reorganization of charging line; preparations
to meet counter-attack.= The nearest formed bodies accompanying or
following the charge are sent instantly in pursuit. Under cover of
these troops order is restored in the charging line. If the captured
position is a part of a general line or is an advanced post, it should
be intrenched and occupied at once.

The exhaustion of officers and men must not cause the neglect of
measures to meet a counter-attack. (473)

=488. Steps to be taken when attack receives temporary setback.= If
the attack receives a temporary setback and it is intended to
strengthen and continue it, officers will make every effort to stop
the rearward movement and will reëstablish the firing line in a
covered position as close as possible to the enemy. (474)

=489. Steps to be taken if attack is abandoned.= If the attack must be
abandoned, the rearward movement should continue with promptness until
the troops reach a feature of the terrain that facilitates the task of
checking and reorganizing them. The point selected should be so far to
the rear as to prevent interference by the enemy before the troops are
ready to resist. The withdrawal of the attacking troops should be
covered by the artillery and by reserves, if any are available.

(See Night Operations, pars. 580-590.) (475)


PURSUIT

=490. Full fruits of victory reaped by pursuit.= To reap the full
fruits of victory a vigorous pursuit must be made. The natural
inclination to be satisfied with a successful charge must be overcome.
The enemy must be allowed no more time to reorganize than is
positively unavoidable. (476)

=491. Parts played in pursuit by reserve, artillery, and charging
troops.= The part of the reserve that is still formed or is best under
control is sent forward in pursuit and vigorously attacks the enemy's
main body or covering detachments wherever found.

The artillery delivers a heavy fire upon the retreating enemy; the
disordered attacking troops secure the position, promptly reform and
become a new reserve. (477)

=492. Strengthening of position captured, if section of general line.=
If the captured position is a section of the general line, the breach
should be heavily occupied, made wider, and strongly secured by
drawing on all reserves in the vicinity. (478)

=493. Pursuit by parallel roads.= After the pursuit from the immediate
battlefield, pursuit by parallel roads is especially effective where
large commands are concerned. (479)

=494. Artillery and cavalry in pursuit.= Artillery and cavalry are
very effective in pursuit. (480)


ATTACK OF FORTIFICATIONS

=495. Modifications of attack in case of fortifications.= Few
modifications enter into the problem of attacking fortifications. Such
as are to be considered relate chiefly to the greater time and labor
of advancing, the more frequent use of darkness and the use of hand
grenades to augment the fire. (481)

=496. Approaching charging point under cover of darkness.= If the
enemy is strongly fortified and time permits, it may be advisable to
wait and approach the charging point under cover of darkness. The
necessary reconnaissance and arrangements should be made before dark.
If the charge is not to be made at once, the troops intrench the
advanced position, using sand bags if necessary. Before daylight the
foreground should be cleared of obstacles. (482)

=497. Charging without fire preparation.= If the distance is short and
other conditions are favorable, the charge may be made without fire
preparation. If made, it should be launched with spirit and suddenness
at the break of day. (See Night Operations pars. 580-590.) (483)

=498. Advancing to charging point by sapping.= In siege operations
troops are usually advanced to the charging point by sapping. This
method, however, presupposes that an early victory is not necessary,
or that it is clearly inadvisable to attempt more direct methods.
(484)


HOLDING ATTACK

=499. Requisites of the holding attack.= The holding attack must be
vigorous enough to hold the enemy in position and must present a front
strong enough to conceal the secondary nature of the attack.

The holding attack need have comparatively little strength in rear,
but conceals the fact by a firing line not distinguishable from that
of a decisive attack. (485)

=500. Post and strength of supports and reserves.= Supports and
reserves are kept at short distances. Their strength is less if the
object is merely to hold the enemy fast than if the object is, in
addition, to compel him to use up reserves. (486)

=501. Holding attacks developing into decisive attacks.= Holding
attacks which may later develop into decisive attacks should be
correspondingly strong in rear. (487)

=502. Feint attacks.= All feint attacks should employ dense firing
lines. Their weakness is in rear and is concealed. (488)


DEFENSE


POSITIONS AND INTRENCHMENTS

=503. Requirements of a good defensive position.= The first
requirement of a good position is a clear field of fire and view to
the front and exposed flanks to a distance of 600 to 800 yards or
more. The length of front should be suitable to the size of the
command and the flanks should be secure. The position should have
lateral communication and cover for supports and reserves. It should
be one which the enemy can not avoid, but must attack or give up his
mission.

A position having all these advantages will rarely, if ever, be found.
The one should be taken which conforms closest to the description.
(489)

=504. Utilization of natural cover; construction of fieldworks and
obstacles.= The natural cover of the position should be fully
utilized. In addition, it should be strengthened by fieldworks and
obstacles.

The best protection is afforded by deep, narrow, inconspicuous
trenches. If little time is available, as much as practicable must be
done. That the fieldworks may not be needed should not cause their
construction to be omitted, and the fact that they have been
constructed should not influence the action of a commander, if
conditions are found to be other than expected. (490)

=505. Construction of communicating and cover trenches, head cover,
etc.= When time and troops are available the preparations include the
necessary communicating and cover trenches, head cover, bombproofs,
etc. The fire trenches should be well supplied with ammunition.

The supports are placed close at hand in cover trenches when natural
cover is not available. (491)

=506. Dummy trenches.= Dummy trenches frequently cause the hostile
artillery to waste time and ammunition and to divert its fire. (492)

=507. Location, extent, garrison, etc., of fieldworks.= The location,
extent, profile, garrison, etc., of fieldworks are matters to be
decided by the infantry commanders. Officers must be able to choose
ground and properly intrench it. (See "Field Fortifications," Chapter
XVI, Part III.) (493)

=508. Outlining trace of trenches in combat exercises.= In combat
exercises, when it is impracticable to construct the trenches
appropriate to the exercise, their trace may be outlined by bayonets,
sticks, or other markers, and the responsible officers required to
indicate the profile selected, method and time of construction,
garrisons, etc. (494)


DEPLOYMENT FOR DEFENSE

=509. Density of whole deployment.= The density of the whole
deployment depends upon the expected severity of the action, the
character of the enemy, the condition of the flanks, the field of
fire, the terrain, and the available artificial or natural protection
for the troops. (495)

=510. Density of firing line.= If exposed, the firing line should be
as dense in defense as in attack. If the firing line is well
intrenched and has a good field of fire, it may be made thinner.

Weaker supports are permissible. For the same number of troops the
front occupied on the defensive may therefore be longer than on the
offensive, the battalions placing more companies in the firing line.
(496)

=511. Strength in rear to be increased when change from defensive to
offensive is contemplated.= If it is intended only to delay the enemy,
a fairly strong deployment is sufficient, but if decisive results are
desired, a change to the offensive must be contemplated and the
corresponding strength in rear provided. This strength is in the
reserve, which should be as large as the demands of the firing line
and supports permit. Even in a passive defense the reserve should be
as strong as in the attack; unless the flanks are protected by other
means. (497)

=512. Post of supports; cover for supports.= Supports are posted as
close to the firing line as practicable and reinforce the latter
according to the principles explained in the attack. When natural
cover is not sufficient for the purpose, communicating and cover
trenches are constructed. If time does not permit their construction,
it is better to begin the action with a very dense firing line and no
immediate supports than to have supports greatly exposed in rear.
(498)

=513. Post of reserve.= The reserve should be posted so as to be
entirely free to act as a whole, according to the developments. The
distance from firing line to reserve is generally greater than in the
attack. By reason of such a location the reserve is best able to meet
a hostile enveloping attack; it has a better position from which to
make a counter attack; it is in a better position to cover a
withdrawal and permit an orderly retreat.

The distance from firing line to reserve increases with the size of
the reserve. (499)

=514. Post of reserve when situation is no longer in doubt.= When the
situation is no longer in doubt, the reserve should be held in rear of
the flank which is most in danger or offers the best opportunity for
counter attack. Usually the same flank best suits both purposes. (500)

=515. Detaching part of reserve to protect opposite flank.= In
exceptional cases, on broad fronts, it may be necessary to detach a
part of the reserve to protect the opposite flank. This detachment
should be the smallest consistent with its purely protective mission.
(501)

=516. Assignment of front to units.= The commander assigns to
subordinates the front to be occupied by them. These, in turn,
subdivide the front among their next lower units in the firing line.
(502)

=517. Division of extended position into sections.= An extended
position is so divided into sections that each has, if practicable, a
field of fire naturally made distinct by the terrain.

Unfavorable and unimportant ground will ordinarily cause gaps to exist
in the line. (503)

=518. Size of units occupying sections; battalions to be kept intact.=
The size of the unit occupying each section depends upon the latter's
natural strength, front, and importance. If practicable, battalions
should be kept intact and assigned as units to sections or parts of
sections. (504)

=519. Adjoining sections or machine guns to cover dead space.= Where
important dead space lies in front of one section, an adjoining
section should be instructed to cover it with fire when necessary, or
machine guns should be concealed for the like purpose. (505)

=520. Advanced posts and other dispersion to be avoided.= Advanced
posts, or any other form of unnecessary dispersion, should be avoided.
(506)

=521. Position itself not fully occupied until infantry attack
begins.= Unless the difficulty of moving the troops into the position
be great, most of the troops of the firing line are held in rear of it
until the infantry attack begins. The position itself is occupied by a
small garrison only, with the necessary outguards or patrols in front.
(507)

=522. Fire alone unable to stop attack.= Fire alone can not be
depended upon to stop the attack. The troops must be determined to
resort to the bayonet, if necessary. (508)

=523. Steps to be taken if night attack is expected.= If a night
attack or close approach by the enemy is expected, troops in a
prepared position should strengthen the outguards and firing line and
construct as numerous and effective obstacles as possible. Supports
and local reserves should move close to the firing line and should,
with the firing line, keep bayonets fixed. If practicable, the front
should be illuminated, preferably from the flanks of the section.
(509)

=524. Short range fire and bayonet in night attack.= Only short range
fire is of any value in resisting night attacks. The bayonet is the
chief reliance. (See Night Operations pars. 580-590.) (510)


COUNTER ATTACK

=525. Passive defense; only offensive wins.= The passive defense
should be assumed only when circumstances force it. Only the offensive
wins. (511)

=526. Active defense seeks favorable decision; counter attack
necessary.= An active defense seeks a favorable decision. A favorable
decision can not be expected without counter attack. (512)

=527. Protection of flanks by natural obstacles necessary in passive
defense position.= A passive defense in a position whose flanks are
not protected by natural obstacles is generally out of the question.
(513)

=528. Post of troops for counter attack.= Where the defense is assumed
with a view to making a counter attack, the troops for the counter
attack should be held in reserve until the time arrives for such
attack. The defensive line should be held by as few troops as possible
in order that the force for the offensive may be as large as possible.

The force for the counter attack should be held echeloned in rear of
the flank which offers it the greatest advantage for the proposed
attack. (514)

=529. Manner of making counter attack.= The counter attack should be
made vigorously and at the proper time. It will usually be made:

By launching the reserve against the enemy's flank when his attack is
in full progress. This is the most effective form of counter attack.

Straight to the front by the firing line and supports after repulsing
the enemy's attack and demoralizing him with pursuing fire.

Or, by the troops in rear of the firing line when the enemy has
reached the defensive position and is in disorder. (515)

=530. Minor counter attacks.= Minor counter attacks are sometimes
necessary in order to drive the enemy from important positions gained
by him. (516)


DELAYING ACTION

=531. The important considerations in a delaying action.= When a
position is taken merely to delay the enemy and to withdraw before
becoming closely engaged, the important considerations are:

The enemy should be forced to deploy early. The field of fire should
therefore be good at distances from 500 to 1,200 yards or more; a good
field of fire at close range is not necessary.

The ground in rear of the position should favor the withdrawal of the
firing line by screening the troops from the enemy's view and fire as
soon as the position is vacated. (517)

=532. Thin firing line answers purpose; purposes of supports and
reserve.= A thin firing line using much ammunition will generally
answer the purpose. Supports are needed chiefly to protect the flanks.

The reserve should be posted well in rear to assist in the withdrawal
of the firing line. (518)

=533. Value of artillery.= Artillery is especially valuable to a
delaying force. (519)


MEETING ENGAGEMENTS

=534. Characteristics of meeting engagements.= Meeting engagements are
characterized by the necessity for hasty reconnaissance, or the almost
total absence of reconnaissance; by the necessity for rapid
deployment, frequently under fire; and usually by the absence of
trenches or other artificial cover. These conditions give further
advantages to the offensive. (520)

=535. General action on meeting enemy.= The whole situation will
usually indicate beforehand the proper general action to be taken on
meeting the enemy. (521)

=536. Meagerness of information; qualities of commander to be relied
upon.= Little fresh information can be expected. The boldness,
initiative, and determination of the commander must be relied upon.
(522)

=537. Meeting engagement affords ideal opportunity to certain
commanders.= A meeting engagement affords an ideal opportunity to the
commander who has intuition and quick decision and who is willing to
take long chances. His opponent is likely to be overcautious. (523)

=538. The mission determines method of attack.= The amount of
information that the commander is warranted in awaiting before taking
final action depends entirely upon his mission. One situation may
demand a blind attack; another may demand rapid, partial deployment
for attack, but careful and time-consuming reconnaissance before the
attack is launched. (524)

=539. Advantage accrues to side deploying the faster.= A great
advantage accrues to the side which can deploy the faster. The
advantage of a close-order formation, favoring rapid deployment,
becomes more pronounced with the size of the force. (525)

=540. Advantages of first troops to deploy.= The first troops to
deploy will be able to attack with longer firing lines and weaker
supports than are required in the ordinary case. But if the enemy
succeeds in deploying a strong defensive line, the attack must be
strengthened accordingly before it is wasted. (526)

=541. Things to be done by the leading troops.= If the situation
warrants the advance, the leading troops seek to deploy faster than
the enemy, to reach his flanks, check his deployment, and get
information. In any event, they seek to cover the deployment of their
own troops in rear--especially the artillery--and to seize important
ground. (527)

=542. Post of commander of long column meeting enemy; function of
advance guard; action of column.= The commander of a long column which
meets the enemy should be with the advance guard to receive
information promptly and to reconnoiter. If he decides to fight, the
advance guard must hold the enemy while the commander formulates a
plan of action, issues the necessary orders, and deploys the main
body. Meantime, the column should be closing up, either in mass or to
form line of columns, so that the deployment, when determined upon,
may be made more promptly. (528)

=543. Action of advance guard prior to receipt of orders.= The action
of the advance guard, prior to the receipt of orders, depends upon the
situation. Whether to attack determinedly or only as a feint, or to
assume the defensive, depends upon the strength of the advance guard,
the terrain, the character of the hostile force encountered, and the
mission and intentions of the commander of the whole. (529)

=544. Main body should be used as a whole and not put into action
piecemeal.= If the enemy is beforehand or more aggressive, or if the
advance guard is too weak, it may be necessary to put elements of the
main body into action as fast as they arrive, in order to check him.
This method should be avoided; it prevents the formation and execution
of a definite plan and compels piecemeal action. The best results are
obtained when the main body is used as a whole. (530)


WITHDRAWAL FROM ACTION

=545. Withdrawal generally effected at heavy cost; rear guard and
distance to be placed between enemy and defeated troops.= The
withdrawal of a defeated force can generally be effected only at a
heavy cost. When it is no longer possible to give the action a
favorable turn and the necessity for withdrawal arises, every effort
must be made to place distance and a rear guard between the enemy and
the defeated troops. (531)

=546. Use of artillery, machine guns, and cavalry.= Artillery gives
especially valuable assistance in the withdrawal. The long-range fire
of machine guns should also be employed. Cavalry assists the
withdrawal by charging the pursuing troops or by taking flank
positions and using fire action. (532)

=547. Use of reserve to check the pursuit.= If an intact reserve
remains, it should be placed in a covering position, preferably on a
flank, to check the pursuit and thus enable the defeated troops to
withdraw beyond reach of hostile fire.

The covering position of the reserve should be at some distance from
the main action, but close enough to bring the withdrawing troops
quickly under the protection of its fire. It should have a good field
of fire at effective and long ranges and should facilitate its own
safe and timely withdrawal. (533)

=548. Part of line to be withdrawn first; retreating troops to be
gotten under control as soon as possible.= If the general line is
divided, by terrain or by organization, into two or more parts, the
firing line of the part in the least danger from pursuit should be
withdrawn first. A continuous firing line, whose parts are dependent
upon one another for fire support, should be withdrawn as a whole,
retiring by echelon at the beginning of the withdrawal. Every effort
must be made to restore the organizations, regain control, and form
column of march as soon as the troops are beyond the reach of hostile
fire.

As fast as possible without delaying the march, companies, and the
larger units should be reformed, so that the command will again be
well in hand. (534)

=549. Action taken by commander; selection of rendezvous point.= The
commander of the whole, having given orders for withdrawal, should go
to the rear, select a rendezvous point, and devote himself to the
reorganization of his command.

The rendezvous point is selected with regard to the natural channels
of movement approximately straight to the rear. It should be distant
from the battlefield and should facilitate the gathering and
protection of the command. (535)


SUMMARY

=550.= 1. Avoid combats that offer no chance of victory or other
valuable results.

2. Make every effort for the success of the general plan and avoid
spectacular plays that have no bearing on the general result.

3. Have a definite plan and carry it out vigorously. Do not vacillate.

4. Do not attempt complicated maneuvers.

5. Keep the command in hand; avoid undue extension and dispersion.

6. Study the ground and direct the advance in such a way as to take
advantage of all available cover and thereby diminish losses.

7. Never deploy until the purpose and the proper direction are known.

8. Deploy enough men for the immediate task in hand; hold out the rest
and avoid undue haste in committing them to the action.

9. Flanks must be protected either by reserves, fortifications, or the
terrain.

10. In a decisive action, gain and keep fire superiority.

11. Keep up reconnaissance.

12. Use the reserve, but not until needed or a very favorable
opportunity for its use presents itself. Keep some reserve as long as
practicable.

13. Do not hesitate to sacrifice the command if the result is worth
the cost.

14. Spare the command all unnecessary hardship and exertion. (536)


MACHINE GUNS

=551. Machine guns are weapons of emergency.= Machine guns must be
considered as weapons of emergency. Their effectiveness combined with
their mobility renders them of great value at critical, though
infrequent, periods of an engagement. (537)

=552. Machine guns to be used for short periods, when opportunities
present themselves.= When operating against infantry only, they can be
used to a great extent throughout the combat as circumstances may
indicate, but they are quickly rendered powerless by efficient field
artillery and will promptly draw artillery fire whenever they open.
Hence their use in engagements between large commands must be for
short periods and at times when their great effectiveness will be most
valuable. (538)

=553. Machine guns attached to advance guard; use in meeting
engagements.= Machine guns should be attached to the advance guard. In
meeting engagements they will be of great value in assisting their own
advance, or in checking the advance of the enemy, and will have
considerable time to operate before hostile artillery fire can silence
them.

Care must be taken not to leave them too long in action. (539)

=554. Use of machine guns with rear guard.= They are valuable to a
rear guard which seeks to check a vigorous pursuit or to gain time.
(540)

=555. Machine guns in attack; fire of position.= In attack, if fire of
position is practicable, they are of great value. In this case fire
should not be opened by the machine guns until the attack is well
advanced. At a critical period in the attack, such fire, if suddenly
and unexpectedly opened, will greatly assist the advancing line. The
fire must be as heavy as possible and must be continued until masked
by friendly troops or until the hostile artillery finds the machine
guns. (541)

=556. Machine guns in defense.= In the defense, machine guns should be
used in the same general manner as described above for the attack.
Concealment and patient waiting for critical moments and exceptional
opportunities are the special characteristics of the machine-gun
service in decisive actions. (542)

=557. Machine guns as part of reserve; use in covering withdrawal.= As
part of the reserve, machine guns have special importance. If they are
with the troops told off to protect the flanks, and if they are well
placed, they will often produce decisive results against a hostile
turning movement. They are especially qualified to cover a withdrawal
or make a captured position secure. (543)

=558. Machine guns not to form part of firing line of attack.= Machine
guns should not be assigned to the firing line of an attack. They
should be so placed that fire directed upon them is not likely to fall
upon the firing line. (544)

=559. Effectiveness of machine guns against skirmish line, except when
lying down or crawling.= A skirmish line can not advance by walking or
running when hostile machine guns have the correct range and are ready
to fire. Machine-gun fire is not specially effective against troops
lying on the ground or crawling. (545)

=560. Silencing of machine guns by infantry.= When opposed by machine
guns without artillery to destroy them, infantry itself must silence
them before it can advance.

An infantry command that must depend upon itself for protection
against machine guns should concentrate a large number of rifles on
each gun in turn and until it has silenced it. (546)

_In addition to the above, which the Infantry Drill Regulations gives
on the subject of machine guns, the following, based on the use of
machine guns in the European War, is given:_

=561. Machine guns essentially automatic rifles.= They are essentially
automatic rifles, designed to fire the ordinary rifle cartridge and
capable of delivering a stream of small bullets at a rate of as high
as 600 per minute. Experience in the European war has determined that
the rate of 400 shots per minute is the desirable maximum. Their
ranges are the same as for the rifle. The fire of a machine gun has
been estimated as equal to that of 30 men.

=562. Mounts.= Machine guns are usually mounted on tripods or wheels.
The weight of certain types is such that they can readily be carried
by the soldier from one point to another.

=563. Methods of transportation.= While machine guns are usually
designed to be carried or packed, they are easily adapted to various
methods of transportation. In the European war we find them mounted on
sleds during the winter campaign; on specially designed motor cycles
with side cars and accompanied by other motor cycles carrying
ammunition; on wheels; on wagons; on armored automobiles; aeroplanes;
and finally in the powerful "tanks" of the English.

=564. Concealment.= Machine guns while usually considered as _weapons
of emergency_ have been used in attack and defense in the European war
in all stages. Their mobility and deadly effect have made them of
great value. Once their position is discovered they are quickly put
out of action by artillery. Owing to this fact the armies in Europe
have used alternative positions and have used every means to conceal
the guns. Hedges, walls, and pits are used and every effort is used to
conceal the flame of discharge. This is usually accomplished by
keeping the muzzle well in rear of its cover or loop hole. Machine
guns almost invariably betray their positions as soon as they enter
into action. The present tendency seems to be to hold them concealed
and place them into position in the trenches or emplacements at the
moment of combat.

Extraordinary means have been resorted to in hiding the guns until
they are needed. In the German line, dugouts underground were
constructed to conceal the machine guns and crews. Often they
permitted the first line of the attack to pass over them and then
appeared in rear and opened a deadly fire on the backs of the troops.

=565. Use in villages.= In villages, machine guns were used with
terrible effect, firing from cellars or windows. The only successful
method of destroying them was with hand grenades and even this was
costly.

=566. Location on the defense.= On the _defense_ machine guns should
be mounted in salients and at points where cross fire can be obtained.
This makes it more difficult for the enemy to locate the guns. Frontal
fire is not so often successful.

=567. Location in attack.= In the _attack_ it is accepted that machine
guns must cover the Infantry at short and long ranges while other
machine guns must accompany the attacking troops to hold the positions
or trenches gained.

The second or third line would seem to be the best position for
machine guns when accompanying troops.

[Illustration: Machine Gun Emplacement: Section aa]

[Illustration: Machine Gun Emplacement: Plan with Cover Removed]

=568. Economy of men.= Owing to its rapid and effective fire, and the
comparative ease with which it can be concealed, the machine gun
permits a great economy of men on a front and the concentrating of the
forces thus freed for use in other parts of the field. This was done
on a large scale on the Russian front by the Germans in 1915. They
constructed miles of wire entanglements in front of positions occupied
with an enormous number of machine guns and comparatively few men. The
main forces were thus free to be transported wherever danger
threatened. In this manner the Germans replaced men by machine guns
and wire and were able to cope successfully with the immense Russian
Armies. The above plate shows a typical machine gun emplacement,
constructed in the field. Many elaborate emplacements have been
constructed in the European war, using steel and concrete, but for a
hasty cover in the field the simple emplacement shown in the figure is
recommended.

    (NOTE.--For a more detailed study of machine guns, see Subject XI,
    Machine Guns in Action, School of Musketry, Fort Sill, Oklahoma,
    and Combined Cavalry and Infantry Drill Regulations for Automatic
    Machine Rifle, cal. 30, 1909, War Department, 1915.)


AMMUNITION SUPPLY

=569. Method of supplying ammunition to combat train.= The method of
supply of ammunition to the combat trains is explained in Field
Service Regulations. (547)

=570. Combat train and the major's responsibility for its proper use;
a rendezvous for each brigade.= The combat train is the immediate
reserve supply of the battalion, and the major is responsible for its
proper use. He will take measures to insure the maintenance of the
prescribed allowance at all times.

In the absence of instructions, he will cause the train to march
immediately in rear of his battalion, and, upon separating from it to
enter an engagement, will cause the ammunition therein to be issued.
When emptied, he will direct that the wagons proceed to the proper
rendezvous to be refilled. Ordinarily a rendezvous is appointed for
each brigade and the necessary number of wagons sent forward to it
from the ammunition column. (548)

=571. Destination of combat wagons when refilled.= When refilled, the
combat wagons will rejoin their battalions, or, if the latter be
engaged, will join or establish communication with the regimental
reserve. (549)

=572. Company commanders' responsibility for ammunition in belts;
ammunition of dead and wounded.= Company commanders are responsible
that the belts of the men in their companies are kept filled at all
times, except when the ammunition is being expended in action. In the
firing line the ammunition of the dead and wounded should be secured
whenever practicable. (550)

=573. Ammunition in bandoleers and 30 rounds in right pocket section.=
Ammunition in the bandoleers will ordinarily be expended first. Thirty
rounds in the right pocket section of the belt will be held as a
reserve, to be expended only when ordered by an officer. (551)

=574. Ammunition sent forward with reënforcements; men not to be sent
back from firing line for ammunition.= When necessary to resupply the
firing line, ammunition will be sent forward with reënforcements,
generally from the regimental reserve. (552)

Men will never be sent back from the firing line for ammunition. Men
sent forward with ammunition remain with the firing line.

=575. Replenishment of ammunition after engagement.= As soon as
possible after an engagement the belts of the men and the combat
wagons are resupplied to their normal capacities. Ammunition which can
not be reloaded on combat wagons will be piled up in a convenient
place and left under guard. (553)


MOUNTED SCOUTS

=576. Scouts to be trained in patrolling and reconnaissance; their
use.= The mounted scouts should be thoroughly trained in patrolling
and reconnaissance. They are used for communication with neighboring
troops, for patrolling off the route of march, for march outposts,
outpost patrols, combat patrols, reconnaissance ahead of columns, etc.
Their further use is, in general, confined to escort and messenger
duty. They should be freely used for all these purposes, but for these
purposes only. (554)

=577. Use of mounted scouts for reconnoitering.= When infantry is
acting alone, or when the cavalry of a mixed command has been sent to
a distance, the mounted scouts are of special importance to covering
detachments and should be used to make the reconnaissance which would
otherwise fall to cavalry. (555)

=578. Scouts to be used in reconnaissance in preference to other
troops; use for dismounted patrolling.= In reconnaissance, scouts
should be used in preference to other troops as much as possible. When
not needed for mounted duty, they should be employed for necessary
dismounted patrolling. (556)

=579. Training of battalion staff officers in patrolling.= Battalion
staff officers should be specially trained in patrolling and
reconnaissance work in order that they may be available when a mounted
officer's patrol is required. (557)


NIGHT OPERATIONS

=580. Purposes of night operations.= By employing night operations
troops make use of the cover of darkness to minimize losses from
hostile fire or to escape observation. Night operations may also be
necessary for the purpose of gaining time. Control is difficult and
confusion is frequently unavoidable.

It may be necessary to take advantage of darkness in order to assault
from a point gained during the day, or to approach a point from which
a daylight assault is to be made, or to effect both the approach and
the assault. (558)

=581. Practice in offensive and defensive operations; simple
formations.= Offensive and defensive night operations should be
practiced frequently in order that troops may learn to cover ground in
the dark and arrive at a destination quietly and in good order, and
in order to train officers in the necessary preparation and
reconnaissance.

Only simple and well-appointed formations should be employed.

Troops should be thoroughly trained in the necessary details--e. g.,
night patrolling, night marching, and communication at night. (559)

=582. Ground to be studied by day and night, cleared of hostile
detachments, etc.; preparation of orders; distinctive badges.= The
ground to be traversed should be studied by daylight and, if
practicable, at night. It should be cleared of hostile detachments
before dark, and, if practicable, should be occupied by covering
troops.

Orders must be formulated with great care and clearness. Each unit
must be given a definite objective and direction, and care must be
exercised to avoid collision between units.

Whenever contact with the enemy is anticipated, a distinctive badge
should be worn by all. (560)

=583. Secrecy of preparations; unfriendly guides; fire action to be
avoided, relying upon bayonet.= Preparations must be made with
secrecy. When the movement is started, and not until then, the
officers and men should be acquainted with the general design, the
composition of the whole force, and should be given such additional
information as will insure coöperation and eliminate mistakes.

During the movement every precaution must be taken to keep secret the
fact that troops are abroad.

Unfriendly guides must frequently be impressed. These should be
secured against escape, outcry, or deception.

Fire action should be avoided in offensive operations. In general,
pieces should not be loaded. Men must be trained to rely upon the
bayonet and to use it aggressively. (561)

=584. Night marches; advance and rear guards.= Long night marches
should be made only over well-defined routes. March discipline must be
rigidly enforced. The troops should be marched in as compact a
formation as practicable, with the usual covering detachments. Advance
and rear guard distances should be greatly reduced. They are shortest
when the mission is an offensive one. The connecting files are
numerous. (562)

=585. Night advance followed by attack by day.= A night advance made
with a view to making an attack by day usually terminates with the
hasty construction of intrenchments in the dark. Such an advance
should be timed so as to allow an hour or more of darkness for
intrenching.

An advance that is to terminate in an assault at the break of day
should be timed so that the troops will not arrive long before the
assault is to be made; otherwise, the advantage of partial surprise
will be lost, and the enemy will be allowed to reënforce the
threatened point. (563)

=586. Night attacks, when employed; they require trained troops;
compact formations; value of bayonet.= The night attack is ordinarily
confined to small forces, or to minor engagements in a general battle,
or to seizure of positions occupied by covering or advanced
detachments. Decisive results are not often obtained.

Poorly disciplined and untrained troops are unfit for night attacks or
for night operations demanding the exercise of skill and care.

Troops attacking at night can advance close to the enemy in compact
formations and without suffering loss from hostile artillery or
infantry fire. The defender is ignorant of the strength or direction
of the attack.

A force which makes a vigorous bayonet charge in the dark will often
throw a much larger force into disorder. (564)

=587. Reconnaissance; attack to be a surprise.= Reconnaissance should
be made to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy and to
study the terrain to be traversed. Officers who are to participate in
the attack should conduct this reconnaissance. Reconnaissance at night
is especially valuable. Features that are distinguishable at night
should be carefully noted, and their distances from the enemy, from
the starting point of the troops, and from other important points
should be made known.

Preparations should have in view as complete a surprise as possible.
An attack once begun must be carried to its conclusion, even if the
surprise is not as complete as was planned or anticipated. (565)

=588. Time of making attack depends upon object sought.= The time of
night at which the attack should be made depends upon the object
sought. If a decisive attack is intended, it will generally yield the
best results if made just before daylight. If the object is merely to
gain an intrenched position for further operations, an earlier hour is
necessary in order that the position gained may be intrenched under
cover of darkness. (566)

=589. Formation; use of bayonet; preparations to repel counter
attack.= The formation for attack must be simple. It should be
carefully effected and the troops verified at a safe distance from the
enemy. The attacking troops should be formed in compact lines and with
strong supports at short distances. The reserve should be far enough
in rear to avoid being drawn into the action until the commander so
desires. Bayonets are fixed, pieces are not loaded.

Darkness causes fire to be wild and ineffective. The attacking troops
should march steadily on the enemy without firing, but should be
prepared and determined to fight vigorously with the bayonet.

In advancing to the attack the aim should be to get as close as
possible to the enemy before being discovered, then trust to the
bayonet.

If the assault is successful, preparations must be made at once to
repel a counter attack. (567)

=590. Measures taken by defense to resist night attacks.= On the
defense, preparations to resist night attacks should be made by
daylight whenever such attacks are to be feared.

Obstacles placed in front of a defensive position are especially
valuable to the defense at night. Many forms of obstacles which would
give an attacker little concern in the daytime become serious
hindrances at night.

After dark the foreground should be illuminated whenever practicable
and strong patrols should be pushed to the front.

When it is learned that the enemy is approaching, the trenches are
filled and the supports moved close to the firing line.

Supports fix bayonets, but do not load. Whenever practicable and
necessary, they should be used for counter attacks, preferably against
a hostile flank.

The defender should open fire as soon as results may be expected. This
fire may avert or postpone the bayonet combat, and it warns all
supporting troops. It is not likely that fire alone can stop the
attack. The defender must be resolved to fight with the bayonet.

Ordinarily fire will not be effective at ranges exceeding 50 yards.

A white rag around the muzzle of the rifle will assist in sighting the
piece when the front sight is not visible.

See pars. 464, 496, 497, 523, 524. (568)


INFANTRY AGAINST CAVALRY

=591. Cavalry charge against infantry usually futile.= A cavalry
charge can accomplish little against infantry, even in inferior
numbers, unless the latter are surprised, become panic-stricken, run
away, or can not use their rifles. (569)

=592. Measures to check charges from front and flank.= A charge from
the front is easily checked by a well directed and sustained fire.

If the charge is directed against the flank of the firing line, the
supports, reserves, or machine guns should stop it. If this
disposition is impracticable, part of the line must meet the charge by
a timely change of front. If the flank company, or companies, in the
firing line execute =platoons right=, the successive firing lines can
ordinarily break a charge against the flank. If the cavalry line
passes through the firing line, the latter will be little damaged if
the men retain their presence of mind. They should be on the watch for
succeeding cavalry lines and leave those that have passed through to
friendly troops in rear. (570)

=593. Standing position best to meet charge.= Men standing are in the
best position to meet a charge, but other considerations may compel
them to meet it lying prone. (571)

=594. Rifle fire main dependence of infantry.= In a mêlée, the
infantryman with his bayonet has at least an even chance with the
cavalryman, but the main dependence of infantry is rifle fire. Any
formation is suitable that permits the free use of the necessary
number of rifles.

Ordinarily there will be no time to change or set sights. Fire at will
at battle sight should be used, whatever the range may be. It will
usually be unwise to open fire at long ranges. (572)

=595. Meeting of cavalry charge by infantry in column.= An infantry
column that encounters cavalry should deploy at once. If attacked from
the head or rear of the column, and if time is pressing, it may form a
succession of skirmish lines. Infantry, by deploying 50 or 100 yards
in rear of an obstacle, may check cavalry and hold it under fire
beyond effective pistol range.

In any situation, to try to escape the issue by running is the worst
and most dangerous course the infantry can adopt. (573)

=596. Infantry attacking dismounted cavalry.= In attacking dismounted
cavalry, infantry should close rapidly and endeavor to prevent
remounting. Infantry which adopts this course will not be seriously
checked by delaying cavalry.

Every effort should be made to locate and open fire on the led horses.
(574)


INFANTRY AGAINST ARTILLERY

=597. Frontal attack against artillery usually futile; use of machine
guns.= A frontal attack against artillery has little chance of
succeeding unless it can be started from cover at comparatively short
range. Beyond short range, the frontal fire of infantry has little
effect against the artillery personnel because of their protective
shields.

Machine guns, because their cone of fire is more compact, will have
greater effect, but on the other hand they will have fewer
opportunities, and they are limited to fire attack only.

As a rule, one's own artillery is the best weapon against hostile
artillery. (575)

=598. Flank attack against artillery effective.= Artillery attacked in
flank by infantry can be severely damaged. Oblique or flank fire will
begin to have decisive effect when delivered at effective range from a
point to one side of the artillery's line of fire and distant from it
by about half the range. Artillery is better protected on the side of
the caisson. (576)

=599. Action against guns out of ammunition.= Guns out of ammunition,
but otherwise secure against infantry attack, may be immobilized by
fire which will prevent their withdrawal, or by locating and driving
off their limbers. Or they may be kept out of action by fire which
will prevent the receipt of ammunition. (577)

=600. Action against artillery limbering or coming into action; wheel
horses best targets.= Artillery when limbered is helpless against
infantry fire. If caught at effective range while coming into action
or while limbering, artillery can be severely punished by infantry
fire.

In attacking artillery that is trying to escape, the wheel horses are
the best targets. (578)


ARTILLERY SUPPORTS

=601. Purpose of artillery support, usually consisting of infantry.=
The purpose of the artillery support is to guard the artillery against
surprise or attack.

Artillery on the march or in action is ordinarily so placed as to be
amply protected by the infantry. Infantry always protects artillery in
its neighborhood. (579)

=602. Detailing of supports.= The detail of a support is not necessary
except when the artillery is separated from the main body or occupies
a position in which its flanks are not protected.

The detail of a special support will be avoided whenever possible.
(580.)

=603. Formation of support on march.= The formation of an artillery
support depends upon circumstances. On the march it may often be
necessary to provide advance, flank, and rear protection. The country
must be thoroughly reconnoitered by patrols within long rifle range.
(581)

=604. Formation and location of support in action.= In action, the
formation and location of the support must be such as to gain and give
timely information of the enemy's approach and to offer actual
resistance to the enemy beyond effective rifle range of the
artillery's flanks. It should not be close enough to the artillery to
suffer from fire directed at the artillery. In most cases a position
somewhat to the flank and rear best fulfills these conditions. (582)

=605. Support charged only with protection of artillery.= The support
commander is charged only with the protection of the artillery. The
tactical employment of each arm rests with its commander. The two
should coöperate. (583)


MINOR WARFARE

=606. What minor warfare embraces; regular operations.= Minor warfare
embraces both regular and irregular operations.

Regular operations consist of minor actions involving small bodies of
trained and organized troops on both sides.

The tactics employed are in general those prescribed for the smaller
units. (596)

=607. Irregular operations.= Irregular operations consist of actions
against unorganized or partially organized forces, acting independent
or semi independent bodies. Such bodies have little or only crude
training and are under nominal and loose leadership and control. They
assemble, roam about, and disperse at will. They endeavor to win by
stealth or by force of superior numbers, employing ambuscades, sudden
dashes or rushes, and hand-to-hand fighting. (597)

Troops operating against such an enemy usually do so in small units,
such as platoons, detachments, or companies, and the tactics employed
must be adapted to meet the requirements of the situation. Frequently
the enemy's own methods may be employed to advantage.

In general, such operations should not be undertaken hastily; every
preparation should be made to strike suddenly and to inflict the
maximum punishment.

=608. March and bivouac formations to admit of rapid action in any
direction.= In general, the service of information will be
insufficient; adequate reconnaissance will rarely be practicable.
March and bivouac formations must be such as to admit of rapid
deployment and fire action in any direction. (598)

=609. Formation in open country.= In the open country, where surprise
is not probable, troops may be marched in column of squads preceded,
within sight, by a squad as an advance party. (599)

=610. Formation in close country.= In close country, where surprise is
possible, the troops must be held in a close formation. The use of
flank patrols becomes difficult. Occasionally, an advance party--never
less than a squad--may be sent out. In general, however, such a party
accomplishes little, since an enemy intent on surprise will permit it
to pass unmolested and will fall upon the main body.

Under such conditions, especially when the road or trail is narrow,
the column of twos or files is a convenient formation, the officers
placing themselves in the column so as to divide it into nearly equal
parts. If rushed from a flank, such a column will be in readiness to
face and fire toward either or both flanks, the ranks being back to
back; if rushed from the front, the head of the column may be
deployed, the rest of the column closing up to support it and to
protect its flanks and rear. In any event, the men should be taught to
take some form of a closed back to back formation. (600)

=611. Dividing column on march into two or more separate detachments.=
The column may often be broken into two or more approximately equal
detachments separated on the march by distances of 50 to 100 yards. As
a rule the detachments should not consist of less than 25 men each.
With this arrangement of the column, it will rarely be possible for an
enemy to close simultaneously with all of the detachments, one or more
being left unengaged and under control to support those engaged or to
inflict severe punishment upon the enemy when he is repulsed. (601)

=612. Selection of site for camp or bivouac; protection.= The site for
camp or bivouac should be selected with special reference to
economical and effective protection against surprise. Double sentinels
are posted on the avenues of approach, and the troops sleep in
readiness for instant action. When practicable, troops should be
instructed in advance as to what they are to do in case of attack at
night. (602)

=613. Night operations frequently advisable.= Night operations are
frequently advisable. With the small forces employed, control is not
difficult. Irregular troops rarely provide proper camp protection, and
they may frequently be surprised and severely punished by a properly
conducted night march and attack. (603)


CEREMONIES


General Rules for Ceremonies

=614. Order in which troops are arranged for ceremonies; commander
faces command; subordinates face to front.= The order in which the
troops of the various arms are arranged for ceremonies is prescribed
by Army Regulations.

When forming for ceremonies the companies of the battalion and the
battalions of the regiment are posted from right to left in line and
from head to rear in column, in the order of rank of their respective
commanders present in the formation, the senior on the right or at the
head.

The commander faces the command; subordinate commanders face to the
front. (708)

=615. Saluting by lieutenant colonel and staffs.= At the command
present arms, given by the colonel, the lieutenant colonel, and the
colonel's staff salute; the major's staff salute at the major's
command. Each staff returns to the carry or order when the command
=order arms= is given by its chief. (709)

=616. Formation of companies, battalion and regiment.= At the
=assembly= for a ceremony companies are formed on their own parades
and informally inspected, as prescribed in par. 646.

At =adjutant's call=, except for ceremonies involving a single
battalion, each battalion is formed on its own parade, reports are
received, and the battalion presented to the major, as laid down in
par. 308. At the second sounding of adjutant's call the regiment is
formed. (710)


REVIEWS


General Rules

=617. Indication of points where column changes direction; flank to
pass 12 paces from reviewing officer; post of reviewing officer and
others.= The adjutant posts men or otherwise marks the points where
the column changes direction in such manner that its flank in passing
will be about 12 paces from the reviewing officer.

The post of the reviewing officer, usually opposite the center of the
line, is indicated by a marker.

Officers of the same or higher grade, and distinguished personages
invited to accompany the reviewing officer, place themselves on his
left; their staffs and orderlies place themselves respectively on the
left of the staff and orderlies of the reviewing officer; all others
who accompany the reviewing officer place themselves on the left of
his staff, their orderlies in rear. A staff officer is designated to
escort distinguished personages and to indicate to them their proper
positions, as prescribed in par. 73. (711)

=618. Riding around the troops; saluting the color; reviewing officer
returns only salute of commanding officer of troops.= While riding
around the troops, the reviewing officer may direct his staff, flag
and orderlies to remain at the post of the reviewing officer, or that
only his personal staff and flag shall accompany him; in either case
the commanding officer alone accompanies the reviewing officer. If the
reviewing officer is accompanied by his entire staff, the staff
officers of the commander place themselves on the right of the staff
of the reviewing officer.

The reviewing officer and others at the reviewing stand salute the
color as it passes; when passing around the troops, the reviewing
officer and those accompanying him salute the color when passing in
front of it.

The reviewing officer returns the salute of the commanding officer of
the troops only. Those who accompany the reviewing officer do not
salute. (712)

=619. Saluting by staffs.= In passing in review, each staff salutes
with its commander. (713)

=620. Turning out of column by commanding officer of troops and
staff.= After saluting the reviewing officer, the commanding officer
of the troops turns out of the column, takes post on the right of the
reviewing officer, and returns saber; the members of his staff
accompanying him take post on the right of the reviewing officer's
staff and return saber. When the rear element of his command has
passed, without changing his position, the commanding officer of the
troops salutes the reviewing officer; he and the members of his staff
accompanying him then draw saber and rejoin his command. The
commanding officer of the troops and the members of his staff are the
only ones who turn out of the column. (714)

=621. Turning out of column by commanding officer of troops and
staff.= If the person reviewing the command is not mounted, the
commanding officer and his staff on turning out of the column after
passing the reviewing officer dismount preparatory to taking post. In
such case, the salute of the commanding officer, prior to rejoining
his command, is made with the hand before remounting. (715)

=622. Salute by regimental color.= When the rank of the reviewing
officer entitles him to the honor, each regimental color salutes at
the command =present arms=, given or repeated by the major of the
battalion with which it is posted; and again in passing in review.
(716)

=623. The band.= The band of an organization plays while the reviewing
officer is passing in front of and in rear of the organization.

Each band, immediately after passing the reviewing officer, turns out
of the column, takes post in front of and facing him, continues to
play until its regiment has passed, then ceases playing and follows in
rear of its regiment; the band of the following regiment commences to
play as soon as the preceding band has ceased.

While marching in review but one band in each brigade plays at a time,
and but one band at a time when within 100 paces of the reviewing
officer. (717)

=624. The national air, to the color, march, flourishes or
ruffles,--when played.= If the rank of the reviewing officer entitles
him to the honor, the band plays the prescribed =national air=, or the
field music sounds =to the color=, =march=, =flourishes= or =ruffles=
when arms are presented. When passing in review at the moment the
regimental color salutes, the musicians halted in front of the
reviewing officer, sound =to the color=, =march=, =flourishes= or
=ruffles=. (718)

=625. Modifications of the review.= The formation for review may be
modified to suit the ground, and the =present arms= and the ride
around the line by the reviewing officer may be dispensed with. (719)

=626. When post of reviewing officer is on left of column.= If the
post of the reviewing officer is on the left of the column, the troops
march in review with the guide left; the commanding officer and his
staff turn out of the column to the left, taking post as prescribed
above, but to the left of the reviewing officer; in saluting, the
captains give the command: =1. Eyes, 2. LEFT.= (720)

=627. Cadence at which troops pass in review.= Except in the review of
a single battalion, the troops pass in review in quick time only.
(721)

=628. Reviews of brigades or larger commands; action of battalions
after passing reviewing officer.= In reviews of brigades or larger
commands, each battalion, after the rear has passed the reviewing
officer 50 paces, takes the double time for 100 yards in order not to
interfere with the march of the column in rear; if necessary, it then
turns out of the column and returns to camp by the most practicable
route; the leading battalion of each regiment is followed by the other
units of the regiment. (722)

=629. Standing "at ease," "rest," etc., in review of brigade or larger
command.= In a brigade or larger review a regimental commander may
cause his regiment to stand =at ease=, =rest=, or =stack arms= and
=fall out= and =resume attention=, so as not to interfere with the
ceremony. (723)

=630. Review by inspector junior to commanding officer.= When an
organization is to be reviewed before an inspector junior in rank to
the commanding officer, the commanding officer receives the review
and is accompanied by the inspector, who takes post on his left. (724)


Battalion Review

=631. Presenting battalion to reviewing officer; passing around
battalion; battalion passing in review at quick time.= The battalion
having been formed in line, the major faces to the front; the
reviewing officer moves a few paces toward the major and halts; the
major turns about and commands: =1. Present, 2. ARMS=, and again turns
about and salutes.

The reviewing officer returns the salute; the major turns about,
brings the battalion to order arms, and again turns to the front.

The reviewing officer approaches to about 6 paces from the major, the
latter salutes, takes post on his right, and accompanies him around,
the battalion. The band plays. The reviewing officer proceeds to the
right of the band, passes in front of the captain to the left of the
line and returns to the right, passing in rear of the file closers and
the band. (See par. 625.)

On arriving again at the right of the line, the major salutes, halts,
and when the reviewing officer and staff have passed, moves directly
to his post in front of the battalion, faces it, and commands: =1.
Pass in review, 2. Squads right, 3. MARCH.=

At the first command the band changes direction if necessary, and
halts.

At the third command, given when the band has changed direction, the
battalion moves off, the band playing; without command from the major
the column changes direction at the points indicated, and column of
companies at full distance is formed successively to the left at the
second change of direction; the major takes his post 20 paces in front
of the band immediately after the second change; the band having
passed the reviewing officer, turns to the left of the column, takes
post in front of and facing the reviewing officer, and remains there
until the review terminates.

The major and staff salute, turn the head as in =eyes right=, and look
toward the reviewing officer when the major is 6 paces from him; they
return to the carry and turn the head and eyes to the front when the
major has passed 6 paces beyond him.

Without facing about, each captain or special unit commander, except
the drum major, commands: =1. Eyes=, in time to add, =2. RIGHT=, when
at 6 paces from the reviewing officer, and commands =front= when at 6
paces beyond him. At the command =eyes= the company officers armed
with the saber execute the first motion of present saber; at the
command =right= all turn head and eyes to the right, the company
officers complete =present saber=, and the noncommissioned officers
armed with the saber execute the first motion of present saber; at the
command =front= all turn head and eyes to the front, and officers and
noncommissioned officers armed with the saber resume the carry saber;
without arms in hand, the first motion of the hand salute is made at
the command =right=, and the second motion not made until the command
=front=.

Noncommissioned staff officers, noncommissioned officers in command of
subdivisions, and the drum major salute, turn the head and eyes,
return to the front, resume the carry or drop the hand, at the points
prescribed for the major. Officers and dismounted noncommissioned
officers in command of subdivisions, with arms in hand, render the
rifle or saber salute. Guides charged with the step, trace, and
direction do not execute =eyes right=.

If the reviewing officer is entitled to a salute from the color the
regimental color salutes when at 6 paces from him, and is raised when
at 6 paces beyond him.

The major, having saluted, takes post on the right of the reviewing
officer, returns saber and remains there until the rear of the
battalion has passed, then salutes and rejoins his battalion. The band
ceases to play when the column has completed its second change of
direction after passing the reviewing officer. (725)

=632. Passing in review at double time.= When the battalion arrives at
its original position in column, the major commands: =1. Double time,
2. MARCH.=

The band plays in double time.

The battalion passes in review as before, except that in double time
the command =eyes right= is omitted and there is no saluting except by
the major when he leaves the reviewing officer.

The review terminates when the rear company has passed the reviewing
officer: the band then ceases to play, and, unless otherwise directed
by the major, returns to the position it occupied before marching in
review, or is dismissed; the major rejoins the battalion and brings it
to =quick time=. The battalion then executes such movements as the
reviewing officer may have directed, or is marched to its parade
ground and dismissed.

Marching past in double time may, in the discretion of the reviewing
officer, be omitted; the review terminates when the major rejoins his
battalion. (726)

=633. Major and staff may be dismounted.= At battalion review the
major and his staff may be dismounted in the discretion of the
commanding officer. (727)


PARADES


General Rules

=634. Position assumed by reviewing officer and staff while band is
sounding off.= If dismounted, the officer reviewing the parade, and
his staff, stand at parade rest, with arms folded, while the band is
sounding off; they resume attention with the adjutant. If mounted,
they remain at attention. (732)

=635. Reports by captains and majors.= At the command =report=, given
by a battalion adjutant, the captains in succession from the right
salute and report: =A= (or =other=) =company=, =present= or =accounted
for=; or =A= (or =other=) =company, (so many) officers= or =enlisted
men absent=, and resume the order saber; at the same command given by
the regimental adjutant, the majors similarly =report= their
battalions. (733)


Battalion Parade

=636. At adjutant's call= the battalion is formed in line, as
explained in par. 308, but not presented. Lieutenants take their posts
in front of the center of their respective platoons at the captain's
command for dressing his company on the line, as explained in par.
302. The major takes post at a convenient distance in front of the
center and facing the battalion.

The adjutant from his post in front of the center of the battalion,
after commanding: =1. Guides, 2. POSTS=, adds: =1. Parade, 2. REST=;
the battalion executes parade rest. The adjutant directs the band:
=SOUND OFF.=

The band, playing in quick time, passes in front of the line of
officers to the left of the line and back to its post on the right,
when it ceases playing. At evening parade, when the band ceases
playing, =retreat= is sounded by the field music and, following the
last note and while the flag is being lowered, the band plays the
=Star Spangled Banner=.

Just before the last note of retreat, the adjutant comes to attention
and, as the last note ends commands: =1. Battalion, 2. Attention, 3.
Present, 4. Arms=, and salutes retaining that position until the last
note of the National Anthem. He then turns about and reports: =Sir,
the parade is formed.= The major directs the adjutant: =Take your
post, Sir.= The adjutant moves at a trot (if dismounted, in quick
time), passes by the major's right, and takes his post.

The major draws saber and commands: =1. Order, 2. ARMS=, and adds such
exercises in the manual of arms as he may desire. Officers,
noncommissioned officers commanding companies or armed with the saber,
and the color guard, having once executed order arms, remain in that
position during the exercises in the manual.

The major then directs the adjutant: =Receive the reports, Sir.= The
adjutant, passing by the major's right, advances at a trot (if
dismounted, in quick time) toward the center of the line, halts midway
between it and the major, and commands: =REPORT.= (See par. 635.)

The reports received, the adjutant turns about, and reports: =Sir, all
are present or accounted for=; or =Sir, (so many) officers or enlisted
men are absent=, including in the list of absentees those from the
band and field music reported to him by the drum major prior to the
parade.

The major directs: =Publish the orders, Sir.=

The adjutant turns about and commands: =Attention to orders=; he then
reads the orders, and commands: =1. Officers, 2. CENTER, 3. MARCH.=

At the command =center=, the company officers carry saber and face to
the center. At the command =march=, they close to the center and face
to the front; the adjutant turns about and takes his post.

The officers having closed and faced to the front, the senior
commands: =1. Forward, 2. MARCH.= The officers advance, the band
playing; the left officer of the center or right center company is the
guide, and marches on the major; the officers are halted at 6 paces
from the major by the senior, who commands: =1. Officers, 2. HALT.=
They halt and salute, returning to the carry saber with the major. The
major then gives such instructions as he deems necessary, and
commands: =1. Officers, 2. POSTS, 3. MARCH.=

At the command =posts=, company officers face about.

At the command =march=, they step off with guide as before, and the
senior commands: =1. Officers, 2. HALT=, so as to halt 3 paces from
the line; he then adds: =1. POSTS, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =posts=, officers face outward and, at the command
=march=, step off in succession at 4 paces distance, resume their
posts and order saber; the lieutenants march directly to their posts
in rear of their companies.

The music ceases when all officers have resumed their posts.

The major then commands: =1. Pass in review, 2. Squads right, 3.
MARCH=, and returns saber.

The battalion marches according to the principles of review; when the
last company has passed, the ceremony is concluded, as explained in
pars. 617; 631.

The band continues to play while the companies are in march upon the
parade ground. Companies are formed in column of squads, without
halting, and are marched to their respective parades by their
captains.

When the company officers have saluted the major, he may direct them
to form line with the staff, in which case they individually move to
the front, passing to the right and left of the major and staff, halt
on the line established by the staff, face about, and stand at
attention. The music ceases when the officers join the staff. The
major causes the companies to pass in review under the command of
their first sergeants by the same commands as before. The company
officers return saber with the major and remain at attention. (734)


ESCORTS


Escort of the Color

=637. By a company.= The regiment being in line or line of masses, the
colonel details a company, other than the color company, to receive
and escort the national color to its place. During the ceremony the
regimental color remains with the color guard at its post with the
regiment.

The band moves straight to its front until clear of the line of field
officers, changes direction to the right, and is halted; the
designated company forms column of platoons in rear of the band, the
color bearer or bearers between the platoons.

The escort then marches without music to the colonel's office or
quarters and is formed in line facing the entrance, the band on the
right, the color bearer in the line of file closers.

The color bearer, preceded by the first lieutenant and followed by a
sergeant of the escort, then goes to obtain the color.

When the color bearer comes out, followed by the lieutenant and
sergeant, he halts before the entrance, facing the escort; the
lieutenant places himself on the right, the sergeant on the left of
the color bearer; the escort presents arms, and the field music sounds
=to the color=; the first lieutenant and sergeant salute.

Arms are brought to the order; the lieutenant and sergeant return to
their posts; the company is formed in column of platoons, the band
taking post in front of the column; the color bearer places himself
between the platoons; the escort marches in quick time, with guide
left, back to the regiment, the band playing; the march is so
conducted that when the escort arrives at 50 paces in front of the
right of the regiment, the direction of the march shall be parallel to
its front; when the color arrives opposite its place in line, the
escort is formed in line to the left; the color bearer, passing
between the platoons, advances and halts 12 paces in front of the
colonel.

The color bearer having halted, the colonel, who has taken post 30
paces in front of the center of the regiment, faces about, commands:
=1. Present, 2. ARMS=, resumes his front, and salutes; the field music
sounds to the color; and the regimental color bearer executes the
color salute at the command =present arms=.

The colonel then faces about, brings the regiment to the order, at
which the color bearer resumes the carry and takes his post with the
color company.

The escort presents arms and comes to the order with the regiment, at
the command of the colonel, after which the captain forms it again in
column of platoons, and, preceded by the band, marches it to its
place, passing around the left flank of the regiment.

The band plays until the escort passes the left of the line, when it
ceases playing and returns to its post on the right, passing in rear
of the regiment.

The regiment may be brought to a rest when the escort passes the left
of the line. (736)

=638. By a battalion.= Escort of the color is executed by a battalion
according to the same principles. (737)


Escorts of Honor

=639.= Escorts of honor are detailed for the purpose of receiving and
escorting personages of high rank, civil or military. The troops for
this purpose are selected for their soldierly appearance and superior
discipline.

The escort forms in line, opposite the place where the personage
presents himself, the band on the flank of the escort toward which it
will march. On the appearance of the personage, he is received with
the honors due to his rank. The escort is formed into column of
companies, platoons or squads, and takes up the march, the personage
and his staff or retinue taking positions in rear of the column; when
he leaves the escort, line is formed and the same honors are paid as
before.

When the position of the escort is at a considerable distance from the
point where the personage is to be received, as for instance, where a
courtyard or wharf intervenes, a double line of sentinels is posted
from that point to the escort, facing inward; the sentinels
successively salute as he passes and are then relieved and join the
escort.

An officer is appointed to attend him and bear such communication as
he may have to make to the commander of the escort. (738)


Funeral Escort

=640. Composition and strength, formation, presenting arms, marching,
etc.= The composition and strength of the escort are prescribed in
Army Regulations.

The escort is formed opposite the quarters of the deceased; the band
on that flank of the escort toward which it is to march.

Upon the appearance of the coffin, the commander commands: =1.
Present, 2. ARMS=, and the band plays an appropriate air; arms are
then brought to the order.

The escort is next formed into column of companies, platoons, or
squads. If the escort be small, it may be marched in line. The
procession is formed in the following order: =1. Music, 2. Escort, 3.
Clergy, 4. Coffin and pallbearers, 5. Mourners, 6. Members of the
former command of the deceased, 7. Other officers and enlisted men, 8.
Distinguished persons, 9. Delegations, 10. Societies, 11. Civilians.=
Officers and enlisted men (Nos. 6 and 7), with side arms, are in the
order of rank, seniors in front.

The procession being formed, the commander of the escort puts it in
march.

The escort marches slowly to solemn music; the column having arrived
opposite the grave, line is formed facing it.

The coffin is then carried along the front of the escort to the grave;
arms are presented, the music plays an appropriate air; the coffin
having been placed over the grave, the music ceases and arms are
brought to the order.

The commander next commands: =1. Parade, 2. REST.= The escort executes
=parade rest=, officers and men inclining the head.

When the funeral services are completed and the coffin lowered into
the grave, the commander causes the escort to resume attention and
fire three rounds of blank cartridges, the muzzles of the pieces being
elevated. When the escort is greater than a battalion, one battalion
is designated to fire the volley.

A musician then sounds =taps=.

The escort is then formed into column, marched in quick time to the
point where it was assembled, and dismissed.

The band does not play until it has left the inclosure.

When the distance to the place of interment is considerable, the
escort, after having left the camp or garrison, may march =at ease= in
quick time until it approaches the burial ground, when it is brought
to attention. The music does not play while marching =at ease=.

In marching at attention, the field music may alternate with the band
in playing. (739)

=641. Funeral of general officer; playing national air, sounding
ruffles, etc., as honor.= When arms are presented at the funeral of a
person entitled to any of the following honors, the band plays the
prescribed =national air=, or the field music sounds to the =color=,
=march=, =flourishes=, or =ruffles=, according to the rank of the
deceased, after which the band plays an appropriate air. The commander
of the escort, in forming column, gives the appropriate commands for
the different arms. (740)

=642. Funeral of mounted officer or soldier.= At the funeral of a
mounted officer or enlisted man, his horse, in mourning caparison,
follows the hearse. (741)

=643. When hearse, cavalry, and artillery are unable to enter
cemetery.= Should the entrance of the cemetery prevent the hearse
accompanying the escort till the latter halts at the grave, the column
is halted at the entrance long enough to take the coffin from the
hearse, when the column is again put in march. The Cavalry and
Artillery, when unable to enter the inclosure, turn out of the column,
face the column, and salute the remains as they pass. (742)

=644. Escorting remains from quarters to church before funeral
services.= When necessary to escort the remains from the quarters of
the deceased to the church before the funeral service, arms are
presented upon receiving the remains at the quarters and also as they
are borne into the church. (743)

=645. Instructions to clergyman and pallbearers.= The commander of the
escort, previous to the funeral, gives the clergyman and pallbearers
all needful directions. (744)


Company Inspection

=646.= Being in line at a halt: =1. Open ranks, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march= the front rank executes =right dress=; the rear
rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and execute
right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective flanks and
take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of
their respective platoons. The captain aligns the front rank, rear
rank, and file closers, takes post 3 paces in front of the right
guide, facing to the left, and commands: =1. FRONT, 2. PREPARE FOR
INSPECTION.=

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain returns
saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order saber, and
stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection they carry saber,
face about, and order saber. The captain may direct the lieutenants to
accompany or assist him, in which case they return saber and, at the
close of the inspection, resume their posts in front of the company,
draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the right of
the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him, executes
=inspection arms=.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just
above the rear sight, the man dropping his hands. The captain inspects
the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same position as in
receiving it, hands it back to the man, who takes it with the left
hand at the balance and executes =order arms=.

As the captain returns the piece, the next man executes =inspection
arms=, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes
=order arms= as soon as the captain passes to the next man.

[Illustration: Plate VI]

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to right
in the rear, of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain, the first sergeant executes
=inspection saber=. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute
=inspection pistol= by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding
it diagonally across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front of the
neck, muzzle pointing up and to the left. The pistol is returned to
the holster as soon as the captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection, the captain takes post facing to
the left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieutenants
and commands: =1. Close ranks, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march= the lieutenants resume their posts in line; the
rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file leader; the
file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank. (745)

=647. Inspection of quarters or camp.= If the company is dismissed,
rifles are put away. In quarters, headdress and accouterments are
removed, and the men stand near their respective bunks; in camp, they
stand covered, but without accouterments, in front of their tents.

If the personal field equipment has not been inspected in ranks and
its inspection in quarters or camp is ordered, each man will arrange
the prescribed articles on his bunk, if in quarters or permanent camp,
or in front of his half of the tent, if in shelter tent camp, in the
same relative order as directed in paragraph 648.

The captain, accompanied by the lieutenants, then inspects the
quarters or camp. The first sergeant precedes the captain and calls
the men to attention on entering each squad room or on approaching the
tents; the men stand at attention, but do not salute. (746)

=648. When inspection includes examination of equipment.= If the
inspection is to include an examination of the equipment while in
ranks, the captain, after closing ranks, causes the company to stack
arms, to march backward until 4 paces in rear of the stacks and to
take intervals. He then commands:

=1. UNSLING EQUIPMENT, 2. OPEN PACKS.=

At the first command each man unslings his equipment and places it on
the ground at his feet, haversack to the front, end of the pack 1 foot
in front of toes.

At the second command, pack carriers are unstrapped, packs removed and
unrolled, the longer edge of the pack along the lower edge of the
cartridge belt. Each man exposes shelter-tent pins; removes meat can,
knife, fork, and spoon from the meat-can pouch, and places them on the
right of the haversack, knife, fork, and spoon in the open meat can;
removes the canteen and cup from the cover and places them on the left
side of the haversack; unstraps and spreads out haversack so as to
expose its contents; folds up the carrier to uncover the cartridge
pockets; opens same; unrolls toilet articles and places them on the
outer flap of the haversack; places underwear carried in pack on the
left half of the open pack, with round fold parallel with front edge
of pack; opens first-aid pouch and exposes contents to view. Special
articles carried by individual men, such as flag kit, field glasses,
compass, steel tape, notebook, etc., will be arranged on the right
half of the open pack. Each man then resumes the attention. Plate VI
(Page 151) shows the relative position of all articles except
underwear and special articles.

The captain then passes along the ranks and file closers, as before,
inspects the equipment, returns to the right, and commands: =CLOSE
PACKS.=

Each man rolls up his toilet articles and underwear, straps up his
haversack and its contents, replaces the meat can, knife, fork, and
spoon, and the canteen and cup; closes cartridge pockets and first-aid
pouch; restores special articles to their proper receptacles; rolls up
and replaces pack in carrier, and, leaving the equipment in its
position on the ground, resumes the attention.

All equipments being packed, the captain commands: =SLING EQUIPMENT.=

The equipments are slung and belts fastened.

The captain then causes the company to assemble and take arms. The
inspection is completed as already explained. (747)

=649. When the inspector is other than the captain.= Should the
inspector be other than the captain, the latter, after commanding
=front=, adds =REST=, and faces to the front. When the inspector
approaches, the captain faces to the left, brings the company to
attention, faces to the front, and salutes. The salute acknowledged,
the captain carries saber, faces to the left, commands: =PREPARE FOR
INSPECTION=, and again faces to the front.

The inspection proceeds as before; the captain returns saber and
accompanies the inspector as soon as the latter passes him. (748)


Battalion Inspection

=650. Inspection may precede or follow review; the inspection up to
time the companies are inspected.= If there be both inspection and
review, the inspection may either precede or follow the review.

The battalion being in column of companies at full distance, all
officers dismounted, the major commands: =1. Prepare for inspection,
2. MARCH.=

At the first command each captain commands: =Open ranks.=

At the command =march= the ranks are opened in each company, as in the
inspection of the company, as prescribed in par. 646.

The field musicians join their companies.

The drum major conducts the band to a position 30 paces in rear of the
column, if not already there, and opens ranks.

The major takes post facing to the front and 20 paces in front of the
center of the leading company. The staff takes post as if mounted. The
color takes post 5 paces in rear of the staff.

Field and staff officers senior in rank to the inspector do not take
post in front of the column, but accompany him.

The inspector inspects the major, and, accompanied by the latter,
inspects the staff officers.

The major then commands: =REST=, returns saber, and, with his staff,
accompanies the inspector.

If the major is the inspector he commands: =REST=, returns saber, and
inspects his staff, which then accompanies him.

The inspector, commencing at the head of the column, then makes a
minute inspection of the color guard, the noncommissioned staff, and
the arms, accouterments, dress and ammunition of each soldier of the
several companies in succession, and inspects the band.

The adjutant gives the necessary commands for the inspection of the
color guard, noncommissioned staff, and band.

The color guard and noncommissioned staff may be dismissed as soon as
inspected. (749)

=651. Inspection of the companies.= As the inspector approaches each
company, its captain commands: =1. Company, 2. ATTENTION, 3. PREPARE
FOR INSPECTION=, and faces to the front; as soon as inspected he
returns saber and accompanies the inspector. The inspection proceeds
as in company inspection, as explained in pars. 646-649. At its
completion the captain closes ranks and commands: =REST.= Unless
otherwise directed by the inspector, the major directs that the
company be marched to its parade and dismissed. (750)

=652. When inspection lasts long time.= If the inspection will
probably last a long time the rear companies may be permitted to stack
arms and fall out; before the inspector approaches, they fall in and
take arms. (751)

=653. The band.= The band plays during the inspection of the
companies.

When the inspector approaches the band the adjutant commands: =PREPARE
FOR INSPECTION.=

As the inspector approaches him each man raises his instrument in
front of the body, reverses it so as to show both sides, and then
returns it.

Company musicians execute inspection similarly. (752)

=654. Inspection of quarters or camp.= At the inspection of quarters
or camp the inspector is accompanied by the captain, followed by the
other officers or by such of them as he may designate. The inspection
is conducted as described in the company inspection, as laid down in
pars. 646-649.


MUSTER


Regimental, Battalion, or Company Muster

=655. Inspection and review; muster rolls; lists of absentees.= Muster
is preceded by an inspection, and, when practicable, by a review.

The adjutant is provided with the muster roll of the field, staff, and
band, the surgeon with the hospital roll; each captain with the roll
of his company. A list of absentees, alphabetically arranged, showing
cause and place of absence, accompanies each roll. (755)

=656. Calling the names; verifying presence of absentees.= Being in
column of companies at open ranks, each captain, as the mustering
officer approaches, brings his company to right shoulder arms, and
commands: =ATTENTION TO MUSTER.=

The mustering officer or captain then calls the names on the roll;
each man, as his name is called, answers =Here= and brings his piece
to order arms.

After muster, the mustering officer, accompanied by the company
commanders and such other officers as he may designate, verifies the
presence of the men reported in hospital, on guard, etc. (756)

=657. Muster of company on company parade.= A company may be mustered
in the same manner on its own parade ground, the muster to follow the
company inspection. (757)


THE COLOR

=658. Meaning of "Color;" Army Regulations.= The word "color" implies
the national color; it includes the regimental color when both are
present.

The rules prescribing the colors to be carried by regiments and
battalions on all occasions are contained in Army Regulations. (766)

=659. Where the colors are kept; "cased" defined.= In garrison the
colors, when not in use, are kept in the office or quarters of the
colonel, and are escorted thereto and therefrom by the color guard. In
camp the colors, when not in use, are in front of the colonel's tent.
From reveille to retreat, when the weather permits, they are displayed
uncased; from retreat to reveille and during inclement weather they
are cased.

Colors are said to be cased when furled and protected by the oil cloth
covering. (767)

=660. Regimental and national colors--salutes by.= The regimental
color salutes in the ceremony of escort of the color, and when
saluting an officer entitled to the honor, but in no other case.

If marching, the salute is executed when at 6 paces from the officer
entitled to the salute; the carry is resumed when 6 paces beyond him.

The national color renders no salute. (768)


The Color Guard

=661. Composition of color guard; carrying of regimental and national
colors.= The color guard consists of two color sergeants, who are the
color bearers, and two experienced privates selected by the colonel.
The senior color sergeant carries the national color; the junior color
sergeant carries the regimental color. The regimental color, when
carried, is always on the left of the national color, in whatever
direction they may face. (769)

=662. Formation and marching of color guard.= The color guard is
formed and marched in one rank, the color bearers in the center. It is
marched in the same manner and by the same commands as a squad,
substituting, when necessary, guard for squad. (770)

=663. Color company defined; color guard remains with it.= The color
company is the center or right center company of the center or right
center battalion. The color guard remains with that company unless
otherwise directed. (771)

=664. Post of color guard in various formations.= In line, the color
guard is in the interval between the inner guides of the right and
left center companies.

In line of columns or in close line, the color guard is midway between
the right and left center companies and on line with the captains.

In column of companies or platoons, the color guard is midway between
the color company and the company in rear of the color company and
equidistant from the flanks of the column.

In close column, the color guard is on the flank of the color company.

In column of squads, the color guard is in the column between the
color company and the company originally on its left.

When the regiment is formed in line of masses for ceremonies, the
color guard forms on the left of the leading company of the center
(right center) battalion. It rejoins the color company when the
regiment changes from line of masses. (772)

=665. In battle color guard joins reserve.= The color guard, when with
a battalion that takes the battle formation, joins the regimental
reserve, whose commander directs the color guard to join a certain
company of the reserve. (773)

=666. Loadings, firings, manual of arms, and movements by color
guard.= The color guard executes neither loadings nor firings; in
rendering honors, it executes all movements in the manual; in drill,
all movements unless specially excused. (774)


To Receive the Color

=667. Receiving the color by color guard.= The color guard, by command
of the senior color sergeant, presents arms on receiving and parting
with the color. After parting with the color, the color guard is
brought to order arms by command of the senior member, who is placed
as the right man of the guard. (775)

=668. Receiving the color by color company.= At drills and ceremonies,
excepting escort of the color, the color, if present, is received by
the color company after its formation.

The formation of the color company completed, the captain faces to the
front; the color guard, conducted by the senior sergeant, approaches
from the front and halts at a distance of 10 paces from the captain,
who then faces about, brings the company to the =present=, faces to
the front, salutes, again faces about and brings the company to the
=order=. The color guard comes to the =present= and =order= at the
command of the captain, and is then marched by the color sergeant
directly to its post on the left of the color company. (776)

=669. Escorting color to office or quarters of colonel.= When the
battalion is dismissed the color guard escorts the color to the office
or quarters of the colonel. (777)


Manual of the Color

=670.= At the =carry=, the heel of the pike rests in the socket of the
sling; the right hand grasps the pike at the height of the shoulder.

At the =order=, the heel of the pike rests on the ground near the
right toe, the right hand holding the pike in a vertical position.

At =parade rest=, the heel of the pike is on the ground, as at the
=order=; the pike is held with both hands in front of the center of
the body, left hand uppermost.

The =order= is resumed at the command =attention=.

The left hand assists the right when necessary.

The =carry= is the habitual position when the troops are at a
shoulder, port, or trail.

The =order= and =parade rest= are executed with the troops.

=The color salute:= Being at a carry, slip the right hand up the pike
to the height of the eye, then lower the pike by straightening the arm
to the front. (778)


Manual of the Saber

=671. Drawing saber; position of carry saber dismounted; unhooking
scabbard before mounting; on foot carrying scabbard hooked up.=

=1. Draw, 2. SABER.=

At the command =draw=, unhook the saber with the thumb and first two
fingers of the left hand, thumb on the end of the hook, fingers
lifting the upper ring; grasp the scabbard with the left hand at the
upper band, bring the hilt a little forward, seize the grip with the
right hand, and draw the blade 6 inches out of the scabbard, pressing
the scabbard against the thigh with the left hand.

At the command =saber=, draw the saber quickly, raising the arm to its
full extent, to the right front, at an angle of about 45° with the
horizontal, the saber, edge down, in a straight line with the arm;
make a slight pause and bring the back of the blade against the
shoulder, edge to the front, arm nearly extended, hand by the side,
elbow back, third and fourth fingers back of the grip; at the same
time hook up the scabbard with the thumb and first two fingers of the
left hand, thumb through the upper ring, fingers supporting it; drop
the left hand by the side.

=This is the position of carry saber dismounted.=

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber unhook the
scabbard before mounting; when mounted, in the first motion of =draw
saber= they reach with the right hand over the bridle hand and without
the aid of the bridle hand draw the saber as before; the right hand at
the carry rests on the right thigh.

On foot the scabbard is carried hooked up. (782)

=672. Holding of saber in publishing orders, etc.; use of saber knot.=
When publishing orders, calling the roll, etc., the saber is held
suspended from the right wrist by the saber knot; when the saber knot
is used it is placed on the wrist before drawing saber and taken off
after returning saber. (783)

=673. Presenting saber from carry or order; execution of the salute in
rendering honors.=

Being at the order or carry: =1. Present, 2. SABER= (or =ARMS=).

At the command =present=, raise and carry the saber to the front, base
of the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front of the neck,
edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front than the hilt,
thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers grasping the grip.

At the command =saber=, or =arms=, lower the saber, point in
prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to the left,
hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended. If mounted, the
hand is held behind the thigh, point a little to the right and front
of the stirrup.

In rendering honors with troops, officers execute the first motion of
the salute at the command =present=, the second motion at the command
=arms=; enlisted men with the saber execute the first motion at the
command arms and omit the second motion. (784)

=674. Coming to order from carry; executing order or carry from
present, depending upon command; coming to order saber when arms are
brought to order.=

Being at a carry: =1. Order, 2. SABER= (or =ARMS=).

Drop the point of the saber directly to the front, point on or near
the ground, edge down, thumb on back of grip.

Being at the =present saber=, should the next command be =order arms=,
officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber =order
saber=; if the command be other than =order arms=, they execute =carry
saber=.

When arms are brought to the order, the officers or enlisted men with
saber drawn =order saber=. (785)

=675. Position of saber in giving commands, etc.; bringing saber to
carry from order.= The saber is held at the carry while giving
commands, marching at attention, or changing position in quick time.

When at the order, sabers are brought to the carry when arms are
brought to any position except the =present= or =parade rest=. (786)

=676. Parade rest from order.= Being at the order: =1. Parade, 2.
REST.=

Take the position of parade rest except that the left hand is
uppermost and rests on the right hand, point of saber on or near the
ground in front of the center of the body, edge to the right.

At the command =attention=, resume the order saber and the position of
the soldier. (787)

=677. Position of saber at double time.= In marching in double time
the saber is carried diagonally across the breast, edge to the front;
the left hand steadies the scabbard. (788)

=678. On duty under arms sabers to be drawn and returned without
command; commands given with saber drawn.= Officers and
noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, on all duties under
arms draw and return saber without waiting for command. All commands
to soldiers under arms are given with the saber drawn. (789)

=679. Returning saber from carry.= Being at a carry: =1. Return, 2.
SABER.=

At the command =return=, carry the right hand opposite to and 6 inches
from the left shoulder, saber vertical, edge to the left; at the same
time unhook and lower the scabbard with the left hand and grasp it at
the upper band.

At the command =saber= drop the point to the rear and pass the blade
across and along the left arm; turn the head slightly to the left,
fixing the eyes on the opening of the scabbard, raise the right hand,
insert and return the blade; free the wrist from the saber knot (if
inserted in it), turn the head to the front, drop the right hand by
the side; hook up the scabbard with the left hand, drop the left hand
by the side.

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, when
mounted, return saber without using the left hand; the scabbard is
hooked up on dismounting. (790)

=680. Enlisted men with saber drawn at inspection.= At inspection
enlisted men with the saber drawn execute the first motion of =present
saber= and turn the wrist to show both sides of the blade, resuming
the carry when the inspector has passed. (791)

[Illustration]


Shelter Tents

=681.= Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
=FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.=

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form a
file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the
company; blank files are filled by the file closers, or by men taken
from the front rank; the remaining guide, or guides, and file closers
form on a convenient flank.

Before forming column or platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the
company may be redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the
size of each. (792)

=682.= The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad (See par. 156.), and commands:
=PITCH TENTS.=

At the command =pitch tents=, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt
of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front,
barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each front-rank man
then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of
the right heel.

Equipments are unslung, packs opened, shelter half and pins removed;
each man then spreads his shelter half, small triangle to the rear,
flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, the rear-rank man's half
on the right. The halves are then buttoned together; the guy loops at
both ends of the lower half are passed through the buttonholes
provided in the lower and upper halves; the whipped end of the guy
rope is then passed through both guy loops and secured, this at both
ends of the tent. Each front-rank man inserts the muzzle of his rifle
under the front end of the ridge and holds the rifle upright, sling to
the front, heel of butt on the ground, beside the bayonet. His
rear-rank man pins down the front corners of the tent on the line of
bayonets, stretching the tent taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye
of the front guy rope and drives the pin at such a distance in front
of the rifle as to held the rope taut; both men go to the rear of the
tent, each pins down a corner, stretching the sides and rear of the
tent before securing; the rear-rank man then inserts an intrenching
tool, or a bayonet in its scabbard, under the rear end of the ridge
inside the tent, the front-rank man pegging down the end of the rear
guy ropes; the rest of the pins are then driven by both men, the
rear-rank man working on the right.

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown back on
the tent.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges his equipment and the
contents of his pack in the tent and stands at attention in front of
his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

To have a uniform slope when the tents are pitched, the guy ropes
should all be of the same length.

In shelter-tent camps, in localities where suitable material is
procurable, tent poles may be improvised and used in lieu of the rifle
and bayonet or intrenching tool as supports for the shelter tent.
(793)

=683.= When the pack is not carried, the company is formed for shelter
tents, as prescribed in par. 681, intervals are taken, arms are laid
aside or on the ground, the men are dismissed and proceed to the
wagon, secure their packs, return to their places, and pitch tents as
heretofore described, in par. 682. (794)

=684.= Double shelter tents may be pitched by first pitching one tent
as heretofore described, then pitching a second tent against the
opening of the first, using one rifle to support both tents, and
passing the front guy ropes over and down the sides of the opposite
tents. The front corner of one tent is not pegged down, but is thrown
back to permit an opening into the tent. (795)


Single Sleeping Bag

=685.= Spread the poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; fold the blanket once across its short
dimension and lay it on the poncho, folded side along the right side
of the poncho; tie the blanket together along the left side by means
of the tapes provided; fold the left half of the poncho over the
blanket and button it together along the side and bottom. (For the
position, number, and length of tapes with which blankets should be
provided, see Par. II, G. O. 11; W. D. '12--Author.) (796)


Double Sleeping Bag

=686.= Spread one poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; spread the blankets on top of the poncho;
tie the edges of the blankets together with the tapes provided; spread
a second poncho on top of the blankets, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the right; button the two ponchos together along both
sides and across the end. (797)


To Strike Shelter Tents

=687.= The men standing in front of their tents: =STRIKE TENTS.=

Equipments and rifles are removed from the tent; the tents are
lowered, packs made up, and equipments slung, and the men stand at
attention in the places originally occupied after taking intervals.
(798)


To Pitch All Types of Tents, Except Shelter and Conical Wall

=688.= To pitch all types of Army tents, except shelter and conical
wall tents: Mark line of tents by driving a wall pin on the spot to be
occupied by the right (or left) corner of each tent. For pyramidal
tents the interval between adjacent pins should be about 30 feet,
which will give a passage of two feet between tents. Spread tripod on
the ground where the center of tent is to be, if tripod is used.
Spread the tent on the ground to be occupied, door to the front, and
place the right (or left) front wall loop over the pin. The door (or
doors, if more than one) being fastened and held together at the
bottom, the left (or right) corner wall loop is carried to the left
(or right) as far as it will go and a wall pin driven through it, the
pin being placed in line with the right (or left) corner pins already
driven. At the same time the rear corner wall loops are pulled to the
rear and outward so that the rear wall of the tent is stretched to
complete the rectangle. Wall pins are then driven through these loops.
Each corner pin should be directly in rear of the corresponding front
corner pin, making a rectangle. Unless the canvas be wet, a small
amount of slack should be allowed before the corner pins are driven.
According to the size of the tent one or two men, crawling under the
tent if necessary, fit each pole or ridge or upright into the ring or
ridge pole holes, and such accessories as hood, fly, and brace ropes
are adjusted. If a tripod be used an additional man will go under the
tent to adjust it. The tent steadied by the remaining men, one at each
corner guy rope, will then be raised. If the tent is a ward or storage
type, corner poles will now be placed at the four corners. The four
corner guy ropes are then placed over the lower notches of the large
pins driven in prolongation of the diagonals at such distance as to
hold the walls and ends of the tent vertical and smooth when the guy
ropes are drawn taut. A wall pin is then driven through each remaining
wall loop and a large pin for each guy rope is driven in line with the
corner guy pins already driven. The guy ropes of the tent are placed
over the lower notches, while the guy ropes of the fly are placed over
the upper notches, and are then drawn taut. Brace ropes when used, are
then secured to stakes or pins suitably placed. (709)


Conical Wall Tent

=689.= Drive the door pin and center pin 8 feet 3 inches apart. Using
the hood lines, with center pin as center, describe two concentric
circles with radii 8 feet 3 inches and 11 feet 3 inches. In the outer
circle drive two door guy pins 3 feet apart. At intervals of about 3
feet drive the other guy pins.

In other respects conical tents are erected practically as in the case
of pyramidal tents, as explained in par. 688. (801)


To Strike Common, Wall, Pyramidal, and Conical Wall Tents

=690. STRIKE TENTS.=

The men first remove all pins except those of the four corner guy
ropes, or the four quadrant guy ropes in the case of the conical wall
tent. The pins are neatly piled or placed in their receptacle.

One man holds each guy, and when the ground is clear the tent is
lowered, folded, or rolled and tied, the poles or tripod and pole
fastened together, and the remaining pins collected. (802)


To Fold Tents

=691. For folding common, wall, hospital, and storage tents:= Spread
the tent flat on the ground, folded at the ridge so that bottoms of
side walls are even, ends of tents forming triangles to the right and
left; fold the triangular ends of the tent in toward the middle,
making it rectangular in shape; fold the top over about 9 inches; fold
the tent in two by carrying the top fold over clear to the foot; fold
again in two from the top to the foot; throw all guys on tent except
the second from each end; fold the ends in so as to cover about
two-thirds of the second cloths; fold the left end over to meet the
turned-in edge of the right end, then fold the right end over the top,
completing the bundle; tie with two exposed guys.

=For folding pyramidal tents:= The tent is thrown toward the rear and
the back wall and roof canvas pulled out smooth. This may be most
easily accomplished by leaving the rear corner wall pins in the ground
with the wall loops attached, one man at each rear-corner guy, and one
holding the square iron in a perpendicular position and pulling the
canvas to its limit away from the former front of the tent. This
leaves the three remaining sides of the tent on top of the rear side,
with the door side in the middle.

Now carry the right-front corner over and lay it on the left-rear
corner. Pull all canvas smooth, throw guys toward square iron, and
pull bottom edges even. Then take the right-front corner and return to
the right, covering the right-rear corner. This folds the right side
of the tent on itself, with the crease in the middle and under the
front side of the tent.

Next carry the left-front corner to the right and back as described
above; this, when completed, will leave the front and rear sides of
the tent lying smooth and flat and the two side walls folded inward,
each on itself.

Place the hood in the square iron which has been folded downward
toward the bottom of tent, and continue to fold around the square iron
as a core, pressing all folds down flat and smooth, and parallel with
the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly made and the canvas
kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover the lower edge of the
canvas. Lay all exposed guys along the folded canvas except the two on
the center-width, which should be pulled out and away from bottom edge
to their extreme length for tying. Now, beginning at one end, fold
toward the center on the first seam (that joining the first and second
widths) and fold again toward the center so that the already folded
canvas will come to within about three inches of the middle width.
Then fold over to the opposite edge of middle width of canvas. Then
begin folding from opposite end, folding the first width in half, then
making a second fold to come within about 4 or 5 inches of that
already folded, turn this fold entirely over that already folded. Take
the exposed guys and draw them taut across each other, turn bundle
over on the under guy, cross guys on top of bundle drawing tight. Turn
bundle over on the crossed guys and tie lengthwise.

When properly tied and pressed together this will make a package 11 by
23 by 34 inches, requiring about 8,855 cubic inches to store or pack.

Stencil the organization designation on the lower half of the middle
width of canvas in the back wall. (803)


Warning Calls

=692. First call, guard mounting, full dress, overcoats, drill,
stable, water,= and =boots and saddles= precede the =assembly= by such
interval as may be prescribed by the commanding officer.

=Mess, church, and fatigue=, classed as service calls, may also be
used as warning calls.

=First call= is the first signal for formation for roll call and for
all ceremonies except guard mounting.

=Guard mounting= is the first signal for guard mounting.

The field music assembles at =first call= and =guard mounting=.

In a mixed command, =boots and saddles= is the signal to mounted
troops that their formation is to be mounted; for mounted guard
mounting or mounted drill, it immediately follows the signal =guard
mounting= or drill.

When full dress or overcoats are to be worn, the =full dress= or
=overcoat= call immediately follows =first call=, =guard mounting=, or
=boots and saddles=. (804)


Formation Calls

=693. Assembly:= The signal for companies or details to fall in.

=Adjutant's call:= The signal for companies to form battalion; also
for the guard details to form for guard mounting on the camp or
garrison parade ground; it follows the =assembly= at such interval as
may be prescribed by the commanding officer.

It is also used as a signal for the battalions to form regiment,
following the first =adjutant's call= at such interval as the
commanding officer may prescribe.

=To the color:= Is sounded when the color salutes. (805)


Alarm Calls

=694. Fire call:= The signal for the men to fall in, without arms, to
extinguish fire.

=To arms:= The signal for the men to fall in, under arms, on their
company's parade grounds as quickly as possible.

=To horse:= The signal for mounted men to proceed under arms to their
horses, saddle, mount and assemble at a designated place as quickly as
possible. In extended order this signal is used to remount troops.
(806)


Service Calls

=695. Tattoo, taps, mess, sick, church, recall, issue, officers',
captains', first sergeants', fatigue, school=, and =the general=.

=The general= is the signal for striking tents and loading wagons
preparatory to marching.

=Reveille= precedes the =assembly= for roll call; =retreat= follows
the =assembly=, the interval between being only that required for
formation and roll call, except when there is parade.

=Taps= is the signal for extinguishing lights; it is usually preceded
by =call to quarters= by such interval as prescribed by Army
Regulations.

=Assembly, reveille, retreat, adjutant's call, to the color, the
flourishes, ruffles=, and the =marches= are sounded by all the field
music united; the other calls, as a rule, are sounded by the musician
of the guard or orderly musician; he may also sound the =assembly=
when the musicians are not united.

The morning gun is fired at the first note of =reveille=, or, if
marches be played before =reveille=, it is fired at the commencement
of the first march.

The evening gun is fired at the last note of =retreat=. (807)


APPENDIX A

                                                       War Department,
                                         Office of the Chief of Staff,
                                         Washington, December 2, 1911.

The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been prepared for the use
of troops armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1903. For
the guidance of organizations armed with the United States magazine
rifle, model 1898, the following alternative paragraphs are published
and will be considered as substitute paragraphs for the corresponding
paragraphs in the text: 75 (in part), 96, 98, 99, 134, 139, 141, 142,
148 and 150.

  By order of the Secretary of War:
                                                         LEONARD WOOD,
                                        Major General, Chief of Staff.

=Note.= The paragraph numbers 75, 96, 98, etc., given above, follow
the paragraphs below.

=696.= * * * Third.

The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using the magazine. (75)

       *       *       *       *       *

=697.= Being at order arms: =1. Unfix, BAYONET.=

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Take the position of
parade rest, grasp the handle on the bayonet firmly with the right
hand, press the spring with the forefinger of the left hand, raise the
bayonet until the handle is about 6 inches above the muzzle of the
piece, drop the point to the left, back of hand toward the body, and
glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing
between the left arm and body; regrasp the piece with the right hand
and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the
most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the
original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but
not in cadence. (96)

=698.= Being at order arms: =1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.=

At the second command, take the position of port arms. (=TWO.=) With
the right hand open the magazine gate, turn the bolt handle up, draw
the bolt back and glance at the magazine and chamber. Having found
them empty, or having emptied them, raise the head and eyes to the
front. (98)

=699.= Being at inspection arms: =1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 2.
ARMS.=

At the preparatory command, push the bolt forward, turn the handle
down, close the magazine gate, pull the trigger, and resume port arms.
At the command =arms=, complete the movement ordered. (99)

=700.= Pieces being loaded and in the position of load, to execute
other movements with the pieces loaded: =1. Lock, 2. PIECES.=

At the command =pieces= turn the safety lock fully to the right.

The safety lock is said to be at the "ready" when turned to the left,
and at the "safe" when turned to the right.

The cut-off is said to be "on" when turned up and "off" when turned
down. (134)

=701.= Being in line or skirmish line at halt: =1. With dummy (blank
or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD.=

At the command =load= each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half
right and carries the right foot to the right, about one foot, to such
position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the
body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at
the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height
of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back,
takes a cartridge between the thumb and first two fingers and places
it in the receiver; places palm of the hand against the back of the
bolt handle; thrusts the bolt home with a quick motion, turning down
the handle, and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each
rear-rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position
opposite the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle of
the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting, the
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand
steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt
resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down)
are designated as that of =load=. (139)

=702. FILL MAGAZINE.=

Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate of the
magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from the box or
belt, and place them, with the bullets to the front, in the magazine,
turning the barrel slightly to the left to facilitate the insertion of
the cartridges; close the gate and carry the right hand to the small
of the stock.

To load from the magazine the command =from magazine= will be given
preceding that of =load=; the =cut-off= will be turned up on coming to
the position of =load=.

To resume loading from the belt the command from belt will be given
preceding the command =load=; the =cut-off= will be turned down on
coming to the position of =load=.

The commands =from magazine= and =from belt=, indicating the change in
the manner of loading, will not be repeated in subsequent commands.

The words =from belt= apply to cartridge box as well as belt.

In loading from the magazine care should be taken to push the bolt
fully forward and turn the handle down before drawing the bolt back,
as otherwise the extractor will not catch the cartridge in the
chamber, and jamming will occur with the cartridge following.

To fire from the magazine, the command =magazine fire= may be given at
any time. The cut-off is turned up and an increased rate of fire is
executed. After the magazine is exhausted the cut-off is turned down
and the firing continued, loading from the belt.

=Magazine fire= is employed only when, in the opinion of the platoon
leader or company commander, the maximum rate of fire becomes
necessary. (141)

=703. UNLOAD.=

All take the position of load, turn the =cut-off= up, if not already
there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and
close the chamber until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last
cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed and the trigger pulled. The
cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the box or
belt, and the piece brought to the order. (142)

=704. CLIP FIRE.=

Turn the cut-off up; =fire at will= (reloading from the magazine)
until the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the cut-off
down; fill magazine; reload and take the position of =suspend firing=.
(148)

=705. CEASE FIRING.=

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge
is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights
are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.

=Cease firing= is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of
position or to steady the men. (150)


APPENDIX B

                                                       War Department,
                                         Office of the Chief of Staff,
                                         Washington, December 2, 1911.

Paragraphs 747, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, and 798, Infantry Drill
Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops equipped with the Infantry
Equipment, model 1910. For troops equipped under General Orders, No.
23, War Department, 1906, and orders amendatory thereof, the
alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

  By order of the Secretary of War:
                                                         LEONARD WOOD,
                                        Major General, Chief of Staff.

Note. The paragraph numbers 747, 792, etc., given above, follow the
paragraphs below.

=706.= If the inspection is to include an examination of the blanket
rolls, the captain, before dismissing the company and after
inspecting the file closers, directs the lieutenants to remain in
place, closes ranks, stacks arms, dresses the company back to four
paces from the stacks, takes intervals, and commands: =1. Unsling, 2.
PACKS, 3. Open, 4. PACKS.=

At the second command, each man unslings his roll and places it on the
ground at his feet, rounded end to the front, square end of shelter
half to the right.

At the fourth command, the rolls are untied, laid perpendicular to the
front with the triangular end of the shelter half to the front,
opened, and unrolled to the left; each man prepares the contents of
his roll for inspection and resumes the attention.

The captain then returns saber, passes along the ranks and file
closers as before, inspects the rolls, returns to the right, draws
saber and commands: =1. Close, 2. PACKS.=

At the second command each man, with his shelter half smoothly spread
on the ground with buttons up and triangular end to the front, folds
his blanket once across its length and places it upon the shelter
half, fold toward the bottom edge one-half inch from the square end,
the same amount of canvas uncovered at the top and bottom. He then
places the parts of the pole on the side of the blanket next the
square end of shelter half, near and parallel to the fold, end of pole
about 6 inches from the edge of the blanket; nests the pins similarly
near the opposite edge of the blanket and distributes the other
articles carried in the roll; folds the triangular end and then the
exposed portion of the bottom of the shelter half over the blanket.

The two men in each file roll and fasten first the roll of the front
and then of the rear rank man. The file closers work similarly two and
two, or with the front rank man of a blank file. Each pair stands on
the folded side, rolls the blanket roll closely and buckles the
straps, passing the end of the strap through both keeper and buckle,
back over the buckle and under the keeper. With the roll so lying on
the ground that the edge of the shelter half can just be seen when
looking vertically downward, one end is bent upward and over to meet
the other, a clove hitch is taken with the guy rope first around the
end to which it is attached and then around the other end, adjusting
the length of rope between hitches to suit the wearer.

As soon as a file completes its two rolls each man places his roll in
the position it was in after being unslung and stands at attention.

All the rolls being completed, the captain commands: =1. Sling, 2.
PACKS.=

At the second command the rolls are slung, the end containing the pole
to the rear.

The company is assembled, takes arms, and the captain completes the
inspection as before. (747)

=707.= Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
=FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.=

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form a
file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the
company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men taken
from the front rank; the remaining guide or guides, and file closers
form on a convenient flank.

Before forming column of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the
company may be redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the
size of each. (792)

=708.= The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad, and commands: =PITCH TENTS.=

At the command =pitch tents=, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt
of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front,
barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each front-rank man
then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of
the right heel. All unsling and open the blanket rolls and take out
the shelter half, poles, and pins. Each then spreads his shelter half,
triangle to the rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy,
rear-rank man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned
together. Each front-rank man joins his pole, inserts the top in the
eyes of the halves, and holds the pole upright beside the bayonet
placed in the ground; his rear-rank man, using the pins in front, pins
down the front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching
the canvas taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the rope and
drives the pin at such distance in front of the pole as to hold the
rope taut. Both then go to the rear of the tent; the rear-rank man
adjusts the pole and the front-rank man drives the pins. The rest of
the pins are then driven by both men, the rear-rank man working on the
right.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges the contents of the
blanket roll in the tent and stands at attention in front of his own
half on line with the front guy rope pin.

The guy ropes, to have a uniform slope when the shelter tents are
pitched, should all be of the same length. (793)

=709.= When the blanket roll is not carried, intervals are taken as
described above; the position of the front pole is marked with a
bayonet and equipments are laid aside. The men then proceed to the
wagon, secure their rolls, return to their places, and pitch tents as
heretofore described. (794)

=710.= To pitch double shelter tent, the captain gives the same
commands as before, except =Take half interval= is given instead of
=Take interval=. In taking interval, each man follows the preceding
man at 2 paces. The captain then commands: =PITCH DOUBLE TENTS.=

The first sergeant places himself on the right of the right guide and
with him pitches a single shelter tent.

Only the odd numbers of the front rank mark the line with the bayonet.

The tent is formed by buttoning together the square ends of two single
tents. Two complete tents, except one pole, are used. Two guy ropes
are used at each end, the guy pins being placed in front of the corner
pins.

The tents are pitched by numbers 1 and 2, front and rear rank; and by
numbers 3 and 4, front and rear rank; the men falling in on the left
are numbered, counting off if necessary.

All the men spread their shelter halves on the ground the tent is to
occupy. Those of the front rank are placed with the triangular ends to
the front. All four halves are then buttoned together, first the
ridges and then the square ends. The front corners of the tent are
pinned by the front-rank men, the odd number holding the poles, the
even number driving the pins. The rear-rank men similarly pin the rear
corners.

While the odd numbers steady the poles, each even number of the front
rank takes his pole and enters the tent, where, assisted by the even
number of the rear rank, he adjusts the pole to the center eyes of the
shelter halves in the following order: (1) The lower half of the front
tent; (2) the lower half of the rear tent; (3) the upper half of the
front tent; (4) the upper half of the rear tent. The guy ropes are
then adjusted.

The tents having been pitched, the triangular ends are turned back,
contents of the rolls arranged, and the men stand at =attention=, each
opposite his own shelter half and facing out from the tent. (795)


FOOTNOTES:

[1] No. 1 of the first squad.

[2] Ordinarily about 20 yards wide.

[3] By Fire Direction is meant prescribing and generally directing the
firing.--Author.

[4] The "pack" includes blanket, poncho, and shelter tent.

[5] With a 4-foot white and red regimental signal flag.



CHAPTER II

MANUAL OF THE BAYONET

    (The numbers following the paragraphs are those of the Manual of
    the Bayonet, U. S. Army.)


=711.= The infantry soldier relies mainly on fire action to disable
the enemy, but he should know that personal combat is often necessary
to obtain success. Therefore, he must be instructed in the use of the
rifle and bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters. (1)

=712.= The object of this instruction is to teach the soldier how to
make effective use of the rifle and bayonet in personal combat; to
make him quick and proficient in handling his rifle; to give him an
accurate eye and a steady hand; and to give him confidence in the
bayonet in offense and defense. When skill in these exercises has been
acquired, the rifle will still remain a most formidable weapon at
close quarters should the bayonet be lost or disabled. (2)

=713.= Efficiency of organizations in bayonet fighting will be judged
by the skill shown by individuals in personal combat. For this purpose
pairs or groups of opponents, selected at random from among recruits
and trained soldiers, should engage in assaults, using the fencing
equipment provided for the purpose. (3)

=714.= Officers and specially selected and thoroughly instructed
noncommissioned officers will act as instructors. (4)

=715.= Instruction in bayonet combat should begin as soon as the
soldier is familiar with the handling of his rifle and will progress,
as far as practicable, in the order followed in the text. (5)

=716.= Instruction is ordinarily given on even ground, but practice
should also be had on uneven ground, especially in the attack and
defense of intrenchments. (6)

=717.= These exercises will not be used as a calisthenic drill. (7)

=718.= The principles of the commands are the same as those given in
paragraphs 58, 64, and 87. Intervals and distances will be taken as in
paragraphs 156 and 158, except that, in formations for bayonet
exercises, the men should be at least four paces apart in every
direction. (8)

=719.= Before requiring soldiers to take a position or execute a
movement for the first time, the instructor executes the same for the
purpose of illustration, after which he requires the soldiers to
execute the movement individually. Movements prescribed in this manual
will not be executed in cadence as the attempt to do so results in
incomplete execution and lack of vigor. Each movement will be executed
correctly as quickly as possible by every man. As soon as the
movements are executed accurately, the commands are given rapidly, as
expertness with the bayonet depends chiefly upon quickness of motion.
(9)

=720.= The exercises will be interrupted at first by short and
frequent rests. The rests will be less frequent as proficiency is
attained. Fatigue and exhaustion will be specially guarded against as
they prevent proper interest being taken in the exercises and delay
the progress of the instruction. Rests will be given from the position
of order arms in the manner prescribed in Infantry Drill Regulations.
(10)


THE BAYONET


NOMENCLATURE AND DESCRIPTION

=721.= The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting of
three principal parts, viz, the blade, guard, and grip. (11)

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

=722.= The blade has the following parts: Edge, false edge, back,
grooves, point, and tang. The length of the blade from guard to point
is 16 inches, the edge 14.5 inches, and the false edge 5.6 inches.
Length of the rifle, bayonet fixed, is 59.4 inches. The weight of the
bayonet is 1 pound; weight of rifle without bayonet is 8.69 pounds.
The center of gravity of the rifle, with bayonet fixed, is just in
front of the rear sight. (12)


I. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE RIFLE

=723.= The instructor explains the importance of good footwork and
impresses on the men the fact that quickness of foot and suppleness of
body are as important for attack and defense as is the ability to
parry and deliver a strong point or cut. (13)

=724.= All foot movements should be made from the position of _guard_.
As far as practicable, they will be made on the balls of the feet to
insure quickness and agility. No hard and fast rule can be laid down
as to the length of the various foot movements; this depends entirely
on the situations occurring in combat. (14)

=725.= The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

=1. Bayonet exercise, 2. GUARD.=

At the command =guard=, half face to the right, carry back and place
the right foot about once and a half its length to the rear and about
3 inches to the right, the feet forming with each other an angle of
about 60°, weight of the body balanced equally on the balls of the
feet, knees slightly bent, palms of hands on hips, fingers to the
front, thumbs to the rear, head erect, head and eyes straight to the
front. (15)

=726.= To resume the attention, =1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.= The men take
the position of the soldier and fix their attention. (16)

=727. ADVANCE.= Advance the left foot quickly about once its length
follow immediately with the right foot the same distance. (17)

=728. RETIRE.= Move the right foot quickly to the rear about once its
length, follow immediately with the left foot the same distance. (18)

=729. 1. Front, 2. PASS.= Place the right foot quickly about once its
length in front of the left, advance the left foot to its proper
position in front of the right. (19)

=730. 1. Rear, 2. PASS.= Place the left foot quickly about once its
length in rear of the right, retire the right foot to its proper
position in rear of the left.

The passes are used to get quickly within striking distance or to
withdraw quickly therefrom. (20)

=731. 1. Right, 2. STEP.= Step to the right with the right foot about
once its length and place the left foot in its proper relative
position. (21)

=732. 1. Left, 2. STEP.= Step to the left with the left foot about
once its length and place the right foot in its proper relative
position.

These steps are used to circle around an enemy, to secure a more
favorable line of attack, or to avoid the opponent's attack. Better
ground or more favorable light may be gained in this way. In bayonet
fencing and in actual combat the foot first moved in stepping to the
right or left is the one which at the moment bears the least weight.
(22)


II. INSTRUCTION WITH THE RIFLE

=733.= The commands for and the execution of the foot movements are
the same as already given for movements without the rifle. (23)

=734.= The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

=1. Bayonet exercise, 2. GUARD.=

At the second command take the position of guard (see par. 15); at the
same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp the rifle with
the left hand just below the lower band, fingers between the stock and
gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the left, the right hand grasping
the small of the stock about 6 inches in front of the right hip,
elbows free from the body, bayonet point at the height of the chin.
(24) (See Fig. 2)

=735. 1. Order, 2. ARMS.=

Bring the right foot up to the left and the rifle to the position of
order arms, at the same time resuming the position of attention. (25)

=736.= During the preliminary instruction, attacks and defenses will
be executed from guard until proficiency is attained, after which they
may be executed from any position in which the rifle is held. (26)


ATTACKS

=737. 1. THRUST.=

Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left arm,
turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the bayonet
at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right forearm. At the
same time straighten the right leg vigorously and throw the weight of
the body forward and on the left leg, the ball of the right foot
always on the ground. Guard is resumed immediately without command.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right arm,
the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at which the
attack should be directed are, in order of their importance, stomach,
chest, head, neck, and limbs. (27)

=738. 1. LUNGE.=

Executed in the same manner as the thrust, except that the left foot
is carried forward about twice its length. The left heel must always
be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed immediately without
command. Guard may also be resumed by advancing the right foot if, for
any reason, it is desired to hold the ground gained in lunging. In the
latter case, the preparatory command =forward= will be given. Each
method should be practiced. (28)

=739. 1. Butt, 2. STRIKE.=

Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt of rifle
against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left hand at about
the height of the left shoulder, allowing the bayonet to pass to the
rear on the left side of the head. Guard is resumed without command.

The points of attack in their order of importance are, head, neck,
stomach, and crotch. (29)

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

=740. 1. Cut, 2. DOWN.=

Execute a quick downward stroke, edge of bayonet directed at point of
attack. Guard is resumed without command. (30)

=741. 1. Cut, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).=

With a quick extension of the arms execute a cut to the right (left),
directing the edge toward the point attacked. Guard is resumed without
command.

The cuts are especially useful against the head, neck, and hands of an
enemy. In executing left cut it should be remembered that the false,
or back edge, is only 5.6 inches long. The cuts can be executed in
continuation of strokes, thrusts, lunges, and parries. (31)

=742.= To direct an attack to the right, left, or rear the soldier
will change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient
manner, for example: =1. To the right rear, 2. Cut, 3. DOWN;= =1. To
the right, 2. LUNGE;= =1. To the left, 2. THRUST=, etc.

Whenever possible the impetus gained by the turning movement of the
body should be thrown into the attack. In general this will be best
accomplished by turning on the ball of the right foot.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position of
guard is resumed at the completion of the movement. (32)

=743.= Good judgment of distance is essential. Accuracy in thrusting
and lunging is best attained by practicing these attacks against rings
or other convenient openings, about 3 inches in diameter, suitably
suspended at desired heights. (33)

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

=744.= The thrust and lunges at rings should first be practiced by
endeavoring to hit the opening looked at. This should be followed by
directing the attack against one opening while looking at another.
(34)

=745.= The soldier should also experience the effect of actual
resistance offered to the bayonet and the butt of the rifle in
attacks. This will be taught by practicing attacks against a dummy.
(35)

=746.= Dummies should be constructed in such a manner as to permit the
execution of attacks without injury to the point or edge of the
bayonet or to the barrel or stock of the rifle. A suitable dummy can
be made from pieces of rope about 5 feet in length plaited closely
together into a cable between 6 and 12 inches in diameter. Old rope is
preferable. Bags weighted and stuffed with hay, straw, shavings, etc.,
are also suitable. (36)

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]


DEFENSES

=747.= In the preliminary drills in the defenses the position of guard
is resumed, by command, after each parry. When the men have become
proficient, the instructor will cause them to resume the position of
guard instantly without command after the execution of each parry.
(37)

=748. 1. Parry, 2. RIGHT.=

Keeping the right hand in the guard position, move the rifle sharply
to the right with the left arm, so that the bayonet point is about 6
inches to the right. (38)

=749. 1. Parry, 2. LEFT.=

Move the rifle sharply to the left front with both hands so as to
cover the point attacked. (39)

=750. 1. Parry, 2. HIGH.=

Raise the rifle with both hands high enough to clear the line of
vision, barrel downward, point of the bayonet to the left front.

When necessary to raise the rifle well above the head, it may be
supported between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. This
position will be necessary against attacks from higher elevations,
such, as men mounted or on top of parapets. (40)

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

=751. 1. Low parry, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).=

Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height of the
knee, moving the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the right (left)
to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point threatened.

=752.= These parries are rarely used, as an attack below the waist
leaves the head and body exposed. (41)

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

=753.= Parries must not be too wide or sweeping, but sharp, short
motions, finished with a jerk or quick catch. The hands should, as far
as possible, be kept in the line of attack. Parries against =butt
strike= are made by quickly moving the guard so as to cover the point
attacked. (42)

=754.= To provide against attack from the right, left, or rear the
soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most
convenient manner, for example, =1. To the left rear, 2. Parry, 3.
HIGH;= =1. To the right, 2. Parry, 3. RIGHT=, etc.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position of
guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

In changing front for the purpose of attack or defense, if there is
danger of wounding a comrade, the rifle should first be brought to a
vertical position. (43)


III. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE BAYONET

=755. 1. Club rifle, 2 SWING.=

Being at order arms at the preparatory command quickly raise and turn
the rifle, regrasping it with both hands between the rear sight and
muzzle, barrel down, thumbs around the stock and toward the butt; at
the sane time raise the rifle above shoulder farthest from the
opponent, butt elevated and to the rear, elbows slightly bent and
knees straight. Each individual takes such position of the feet,
shoulders, and hands as best accords with his natural dexterity.
=SWING.= Tighten the grasp of the hands and swing the rifle to the
front and downward, directing it at the head of the opponent and
immediately return to the position of =club rifle= by completing the
swing of the rifle downward and to the rear. Repeat by the command.
=SWING.=

The rifle should be swung with sufficient force to break through any
guard or parry that may be interposed.

Being at =club rifle=, order arms is resumed by command.

The use of this attack against dummies or in fencing is prohibited.
(44)

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

=756.= The position of club rifle may be taken from any position of
the rifle prescribed in the Manual of Arms. It will not be taken in
personal combat unless the emergency is such as to preclude the use of
the bayonet. (45)


IV. COMBINED MOVEMENTS

=757.= The purpose of combined movements is to develop more vigorous
attacks and more effective defenses than are obtained by the single
movements; to develop skill in passing from attack to defense and the
reverse. Every movement to the front should be accompanied by an
attack, which is increased in effectiveness by the forward movement of
the body. Every movement to the rear should ordinarily be accompanied
by a parry and should always be followed by an attack. Movements to
the right or left may be accompanied by =attacks= or =defenses=. (46)

=758.= Not more than three movements will be used in any combination.
The instructor should first indicate the number of movements that are
to be combined as =two movements= or =three movements=. The execution
is determined by one command of execution, and the position of guard
is taken upon the completion of the last movement only.

EXAMPLES

    =Front pass and LUNGE.=
    =Right step and THRUST.=
    =Left step and low parry RIGHT.=
    =Rear pass, parry left and LUNGE.=
    =Lunge and cut RIGHT.=
    =Parry right and parry HIGH.=
    =Butt strike and cut DOWN.=
    =Thrust and parry HIGH.=
    =Parry high and LUNGE.=
    =Advance, thrust and cut RIGHT.=
    =Right step, parry left and cut DOWN.=
    =To the left, butt strike and cut DOWN.=
    =To the right rear, cut down and butt STRIKE.= (47)

=759.= Attacks against dummies will be practiced. The approach will be
made against the dummies both in quick time and double time. (48)


V. PRACTICAL BAYONET COMBAT

=760.= The principles of practical bayonet combat should be taught as
far as possible during the progress of instruction in bayonet
exercises. (49)

=761.= The soldier must be continually impressed with the extreme
importance of the offensive due to its moral effect. Should an attack
fail, it should be followed immediately by another attack before the
opponent has an opportunity to assume the offensive. Keep the opponent
on the defensive. If, due to circumstances, it is necessary to take
the defensive, constantly watch for an opportunity to assume the
offensive and take immediate advantage of it. (50)

=762.= Observe the ground with a view to obtaining the best footing.
Time for this will generally be too limited to permit more than a
single hasty glance. (51)

=763.= In personal combat watch the opponent's eyes if they can be
plainly seen, and do not fix the eyes on his weapon nor upon the
point of your attack. If his eyes can not be plainly seen, as in
night attacks, watch the movements of his weapon and of his body. (52)

=764.= Keep the body well covered and deliver attacks vigorously. The
point of the bayonet should always be kept as nearly as possible in
the line of attack. The less the rifle is moved upward, downward, to
the right, or to the left, the better prepared the soldier is for
attack or defense. (53)

=765.= Constantly watch for a chance to attack the opponent's left
hand. His position of guard will not differ materially from that
described in paragraph 24. If his bayonet is without a cutting edge,
he will be at a great disadvantage. (34)

=766.= The butt is used for close and sudden attacks. It is
particularly useful in riot duty. From the position of port arms a
sentry can strike a severe blow with the butt of the rifle. (55)

=767.= Against a man on foot, armed with a sword, be careful that the
muzzle of the rifle is not grasped. All the swordsman's energies will
be directed toward getting past the bayonet. Attack him with short
stabbing thrusts, and keep him beyond striking distance of his weapon.
(56)

=768.= The adversary may attempt a greater extension in the thrust and
lunge by quitting the grasp of his piece with the left hand and
advancing the right as far as possible. When this is done, a sharp
parry may cause him to lose control of his rifle, leaving him exposed
to a counter-attack, which should follow promptly. (57)

=769.= Against odds a small number of men can fight to best advantage
by grouping themselves so as to prevent their being attacked from
behind. (58)

=770.= In fighting a mounted man armed with a saber every effort must
be made to get on his near or left side, because here his reach is
much shorter and his parries much weaker. If not possible to disable
such an enemy, attack his horse and then renew the attack on the
horseman. (59)

=771.= In receiving night attacks the assailant's movements can be
best observed from the kneeling or prone position, as his approach
generally brings him against the sky line. When he arrives within
attacking distance rise quickly and lunge well forward at the middle
of his body. (60)


VI. FENCING EXERCISES

=772.= Fencing exercises in two lines consist of combinations of
thrusts, parries, and foot movements executed at command or at will,
the opponent replying with suitable parries and returns. (61)

=773.= The instructor will inspect the entire fencing equipment before
the exercise begins and assure himself that everything is in such
condition as will prevent accidents. (62)

=774.= The men equip themselves and form in two lines at the order,
facing each other, with intervals of about 4 paces between files and a
distance of about 2 paces between lines. One line is designated as
number 1; the other, number 2. Also as attack and defense. (63)

=775.= The opponents being at the order facing each other, the
instructor commands: =SALUTE.=

Each man, with eyes on his opponent, carries the left hand smartly to
the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and
joined, forearm horizontal, forefinger touching the bayonet. (Two)
Drop the arm smartly by the side.

This salute is the fencing salute.

All fencing exercises and all fencing at will between individuals will
begin and terminate with the formal courtesy of the fencing salute.
(64)

=776.= After the fencing salute has been rendered the instructor
commands: =1. Fencing exercise, 2. GUARD.=

At the command =guard= each man comes to the position of =guard=,
heretofore defined, bayonets crossed, each man's bayonet bearing
lightly to the right against the corresponding portion of the
opponent's bayonet. The position is known as the engage or engage
right. (65)

=777.= Being at the =engage right: ENGAGE LEFT=.

The attack drops the point of his bayonet quickly until clear of his
opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward and to the
right; bayonets are crossed similarly as in the engaged position, each
man's bayonet bearing lightly to the left against the corresponding
portion of the opponent's bayonet. (66)

=778.= Being at =engage left: ENGAGE RIGHT=.

The attack quickly drops the point of his bayonet until clear of his
opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward and to the
left and =engages=. (67)

=779.= Being =engaged: ENGAGE LEFT AND RIGHT=.

The attack =engages left= and then immediately =engages right=. (68)

=780.= Being =engaged left: ENGAGE RIGHT AND LEFT=.

The attack =engages right= and then immediately =engages left=. (69)

=781. 1. Number one, ENGAGE RIGHT (LEFT); 2. Number two, COUNTER.=

Number one executes the movement ordered, as above; number two quickly
drops the point of his bayonet and circles it upward to the original
position. (70)

=782.= In all fencing while maintaining the pressure in the engage, a
certain freedom of motion of the rifle is allowable, consisting of the
play, or up-and-down motion, of one bayonet against the other. This is
necessary to prevent the opponent from divining the intended attack.
It also prevents his using the point of contact as a pivot for his
assaults. In changing from one engage to the other the movement is
controlled by the left hand, the right remaining stationary. (71)

=783.= After some exercise in =engage=, =engage left=, and =counter=,
exercises will be given in the =assaults=. (72)


ASSAULTS

=784.= The part of the body to be attacked will be designated by name
as head, neck, chest, stomach, legs. No attacks will be made below the
knees. The commands are given and the movements for each line are
first explained thoroughly by the instructor; the execution begins at
the command =assault=. Number one executes the attack, and number two
parries; conversely, at command, number two attacks and number one
parries. (73)

=785.= For convenience in instruction assaults are divided into
=simple attacks=, =counter-attacks=, =attack on the rifle=, and
=feints=. (74)


SIMPLE ATTACKS

=786.= Success in these attacks depends on quickness of movement.
There are three simple attacks--the =straight=, the =disengagement=,
and the =counter disengagement=. They are not preceded by a feint.
(75)

=787.= In the =straight= the bayonet is directed straight at an
opening from the engaged position. Contact with the opponent's rifle
may, or may not, be abandoned while making it. If the opening be high
or low, contact with the rifle will usually be abandoned on commencing
the attack. If the opening be near his guard, the light pressure used
in the engage may be continued in the attack.

Example: Being at the =engage right=, =1. Number one=, at neck (head,
chest, right leg, etc.), =thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 3.
ASSAULT.= (76)

=788.= In the =disengagement= contact with the opponent's rifle is
abandoned and the point of the bayonet is =circled under= or =over=
his bayonet or rifle and directed into the opening attacked. This
attack is delivered by one continuous spiral movement of the bayonet
from the moment contact is abandoned.

Example: Being at the =engage right=, =1. Number one=, at stomach
(left chest, left leg, etc.), =thrust, 2. Number two, parry left=
(etc.); =3. ASSAULT.= (77)

=789.= In the =counter disengagement= a swift attack is made into the
opening disclosed while the opponent is attempting to change the
engagement of his rifle. It is delivered by one continuous spiral
movement of the bayonet into the opening.

Example: Being at the =engage right=, =1. Number two, engage left; 2.
Number one=, at chest, =thrust; 3. Number two, parry left; 4.
ASSAULT.=

Number two initiates the movement, number one thrusts as soon as the
opening is made, and number two then attempts to parry. (78)

=790.= A =counter-attack= or =return= is one made instantly after or
in continuation of a parry. The parry should be as narrow as possible.
This makes it more difficult for the opponent to recover and counter
parry. The counter-attack should also be made at, or just before, the
full extension of the opponent's attack, as when it is so made, a
simple extension of the arms will generally be sufficient to reach the
opponent's body.

Example: Being at =engage=, =1. Number two=, at chest, =lunge; 2.
Number one, parry right=, and at stomach (chest, head, etc.), =thrust;
3. ASSAULT.= (79)


ATTACKS ON THE RIFLE

=791.= These movements are made for the purpose of forcing or
disclosing an opening into which an attack can be made. They are the
=press=, the =beat=, and the =twist=. (80)

=792.= In the =press= the attack quickly presses against the
opponent's bayonet or rifle with his own and continues the pressure as
the attack is delivered.

Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, press=, and at chest,
=thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 3. ASSAULT.= (81)

=793.= The attack by =disengagement= is particularly effective
following =the press=.

Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, press=, and at
stomach, =thrust; 2. Number two, low parry left; 3. ASSAULT.= (82)

=794.= The =beat= is an attack in which a sharp blow struck against
the opponent's rifle for the purpose of forcing him to expose an
opening into which an attack immediately follows. It is used when
there is but slight opposition or no contact of rifles.

Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, beat= and at stomach
(chest, etc.), =thrust; 2. Number two, parry left; 3. ASSAULT.= (83)

=795.= In the =twist= the rifle is crossed over the opponent's rifle
or bayonet and his bayonet forced downward with a circular motion and
a straight attack made into the opening. It requires superior strength
on the part of the attack.

Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, twist=, and at
stomach, =thrust; 2. Number two, low parry, left; 3. ASSAULT.= (84)


FEINTS

=796.= Feints are movements which threaten or simulate attacks and are
made with a view to inducing an opening or parry that exposes the
desired point of attack. They are either single or double, according
to the number of such movements made by the attack. (85)

=797.= In order that the attack may be changed quickly, as little
force as possible is put into a feint.

Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, feint= head =thrust=
at stomach, =lunge; 2. Number two, parry right and low parry right; 3.
ASSAULT.=

Number one executes the feint and then the attack. Number two executes
both parries. (86)

=798.= In double feints first one part of the body and then another is
threatened and a third attacked.

Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, feint straight thrust=
at chest; =disengagement= at chest; at stomach, =lunge; 2. Number two,
parry right, parry left,= and =low parry left; 3. ASSAULT.= (87)

=799.= An opening may be offered or procured by opposition, as in the
=press= or =beat=. (88)

=800.= In fencing exercises every feint should at first be parried.
When the defense is able to judge or divine the character of the
attack the feint is not necessarily parried, but may be nullified by a
counter feint. (89)

=801.= A =counter feint= is a feint following the opponent's feint or
following a parry of his attack and generally occurs in combined
movements. (90)


COMBINED MOVEMENTS

=802.= When the men have become thoroughly familiar with the various
foot movements, parries, guards, attacks, feints, etc., the instructor
combines several of them and gives the commands in quick succession,
increasing the rapidity and number of movements as the men become more
skillful. Opponents will be changed frequently.

1. Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, by disengagement=
at chest, =thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, right step= (left foot
first), and =lunge; 3. ASSAULT.=

2. Example: Being at =engage left=, =1. Number one, press and lunge;
2. Number two, parry right, left step,= and =thrust; 3. ASSAULT.=

3. Example: Being at the =engage=, =1. Number one, by disengagement=
at chest, =thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, front pass=, and at head
=butt strike; 3. Number one, right step; 4. ASSAULT.= (91)

=803.= Examples 1 and 2 are typical of movements known as =cross
counters=, and example No. 3 of movements known as =close counters=.
(92)

=804.= A =chancery= is an attack by means of which the opponent is
disarmed, which causes him to lose control of his rifle, or which
disables his weapon. (93)

=805.= When the different combinations are executed with sufficient
skill the instructor will devise series of movements to be memorized
and executed at the command assault. The accuracy and celerity of the
movements will be carefully watched by the instructor, with a view to
the correction of faulty execution. (94)

=806.= It is not intended to restrict the number of movements, but to
leave to the discretion of company commanders and the ingenuity of
instructors the selection of such other exercises as accord with the
object of the drill. (95)


VII. FENCING AT WILL

=807.= As satisfactory progress is made the instructor will proceed to
the exercises at will, by which is meant assaults between two men,
each endeavoring to hit the other and to avoid being hit himself.
Fencing at will should not be allowed to degenerate into random
attacks and defenses. (96)

=808.= The instructor can supervise but one pair of combatants at a
time. Frequent changes should be made so that the men may learn
different methods of attack and defense from each other. (97)

=809.= The contest should begin with simple, careful movements, with a
view to forming a correct opinion of the adversary; afterwards
everything will depend on coolness, rapid and correct execution of the
movements and quick perception of the adversary's intentions. (98)

=810.= Continual retreat from the adversary's attack and frequent
dodging to escape attacks should be avoided. The offensive should be
continually encouraged. (99)

=811.= In fencing at will, when no commands are given, opponents
facing each other at the position of order arms, salute. They then
immediately and simultaneously assume the position of guard, rifles
engaged. Neither man may take the position of guard before his
opponent has completed his salute. The choice of position is decided
before the salute. (100)

=812.= The opponents being about two paces apart and the fencing
salute having been rendered, the instructor commands, =1. At will, 2.
ASSAULT=, after which either party has the right to attack. To
interrupt the contest the instructor will command =HALT=, at which the
combatants will immediately come to the order. To terminate the
contest the instructor will command, =1. Halt, 2. SALUTE=, at which
the combatants will immediately come to the order, salute, and remove
their masks. (101)

=813.= When men have acquired confidence in fencing at will, one
opponent should be required to advance upon the other in quick time at
=charge bayonet=, from a distance not to exceed 10 yards, and deliver
an attack. As soon as a hit is made by either opponent the instructor
commands, =HALT=, and the assault terminates. Opponents alternate in
assaulting. The assailant is likewise required to advance at double
time from a distance not exceeding 20 yards and at a run from a
distance not exceeding 30 yards. (102)

=814.= The instructor will closely observe the contest and decide
doubtful points. He will at once stop the contest upon the slightest
indication of temper. After conclusion of the combat he will comment
on the action of both parties, point out errors and deficiencies and
explain how they may be avoided in the future. (103)

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

=815.= As additional instruction, the men may be permitted to wield
the rifle left handed, that is on the left side of the body, left hand
at the small of the stock. Many men will be able to use this method
to advantage. It is also of value in case the left hand is wounded.
(104)

=816.= After men have fenced in pairs, practice should be given in
fencing between groups, equally and unequally divided. When
practicable, intrenchments will be used in fencing of this character.

In group fencing it will be necessary to have a sufficient number of
umpires to decide hits. An individual receiving a hit is withdrawn at
once from the bout, which is decided in favor of the group having the
numerical superiority at the end. The fencing salute is not required
in group fencing. (105)


RULES FOR FENCING AT WILL

=817.= 1. Hits on the legs below the knees will not be counted. No hit
counts unless, in the opinion of the instructor, it has sufficient
force to disable.

2. Upon receiving a hit, call out "hit."

3. After receiving a fair hit a counter-attack is not permitted. A
position of engage is taken.

4. A second or third hit in a combined attack will be counted only
when the first hit was not called.

5. When it is necessary to stop the contest--for example, because of
breaking of weapons or displacement of means of protection--take the
position of the order.

6. When it is necessary to suspend the assault for any cause, it will
not be resumed until the adversary is ready and in condition to defend
himself.

7. Attacks directed at the crotch are prohibited in fencing.

8. Stepping out of bounds, when established, counts as a hit. (106)


SUGGESTIONS FOR FENCING AT WILL

=818.= When engaging in an assault, first study the adversary's
position and proceed by false attacks, executed with speed, to
discover, if possible, his instinctive parries. In order to draw the
adversary out and induce him to expose that part of the body at which
the attack is to be made, it is advisable to simulate an attack by a
feint and then make the real attack. (107)

=819.= Return attacks should be frequently practiced, as they are
difficult to parry, and the opponent is within easier reach and more
exposed. The return can be made a continuation of the parry, as there
is no previous warning of its delivery, although it should always be
expected. Returns are made without lunging if the adversary can be
reached by thrusts or cuts. (108)

=820.= Endeavor to overcome the tendency to make a return without
knowing where it will hit. Making returns blindly is a bad habit and
leads to instinctive returns--that is, habitual returns with certain
attacks from certain parries--a fault which the skilled opponent will
soon discover. (109)

=821.= Do not draw the rifle back preparatory to thrusting and lunging
(110)

=822.= The purpose of fencing at will is to teach the soldier as many
forms of simple, effective attacks and defenses as possible.
Complicated and intricate movements should not be attempted. (111)


HINTS FOR INSTRUCTORS

=823.= The influence of the instructor is great. He must be master of
his weapon, not only to show the various movements, but also to lead
in the exercises at will. He should stimulate the zeal of the men and
arouse pleasure in the work. Officers should qualify themselves as
instructors by fencing with each other. (112)


LESSONS OF THE EUROPEAN WAR

=824. Modification of our system of bayonet combat suggested.= The
above gives, in toto, the system of bayonet exercises and combat at
present prescribed by the War Department in the =Manual of the
Bayonet=. However, the use of the bayonet in the present European war,
which has given that weapon an importance and prominence heretofore
unheard of, suggests, as indicated below, certain modifications of our
system.

(a) _Attack not to be directed against chest._ The attack should be
directed at the adversary's neck or stomach, and not against his
chest; for, if the bayonet is driven into the chest, there will
probably be difficulty in withdrawing it, and while your bayonet is
being so held, imbedded in your adversary's chest, you are at the
mercy of any other enemy soldier free to strike you.

(b) _Mêlée on parapet._ When the first wave of an attacking line
reaches the enemy's trench, it is usually met outside the trench, the
mêlée taking place on the parapet, and fortunate is the man who is
skilled in handling his bayonet. Such a man has a much greater chance
to live through the mêlée than the one who is not skillful in using
his bayonet. In the excitement and confusion of this mêlée the
greatest possible care must be taken not to stab some of your own men
in the back.

(c) _Position of feet._ The British have been teaching their men to
keep both feet pointing toward the enemy instead of having the right
foot turned to the right, as in our system. Note the position of the
feet in Figs. 15-18.

(d) _The "Short point" (or "Short thrust") and the "Jab."_ There are
two attacks used by European troops which we might learn with profit.
They are the "Short point" (or "Short thrust") and the "Jab."


POSITION OF GUARD

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

(e) _The short point (or short thrust)._ The _short point_ (or _short
thrust_) is taken from the position of guard (Fig. 14), by slipping
the left hand up to the grip of the bayonet, grasping it and the
barrel, as shown in this figure:

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

The rifle is then drawn back to the fullest extent of the right arm,
thus:

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

and a vigorous thrust is made at the objective (Fig. 15), immediately
after which the bayonet is withdrawn vigorously, the left hand relaxed
and the position of guard (Fig. 14) is resumed by pushing the rifle
smartly forward until the left hand is in its proper place.

It should be practiced on sand bags or other targets in positions at
the height of the rifle, above it and below it.

(f) _The jab._ The jab is taken from the first position of the "Short
point" (Fig. 15), by slipping the right hand up to the left as the
rifle is drawn back to make the "Short thrust" (Fig. 17).

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

Then make a vigorous _upward_ thrust (Fig. 18) which should be aimed
at the adversary's throat.

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

This may be practiced combined with the short thrust or the ordinary
thrust. It may also be practiced with a run toward the target. It is a
useful attack at close quarters.

(g) _The butt._ The rifle butt is used with great effect at close
quarters, the blows being directed against an adversary's jaw or in
the region of the heart.

(h) _Tripping adversary._ The men are taught how to trip up an enemy
and how to use their knees in throwing their opponents off their
balance.

(i) _Withdrawing the bayonet._ After driving the bayonet into an
opponent, then the first consideration is to get it out of his body.
This may be done by slipping the left hand up to the bayonet grip and
exerting a _vigorous_ pull, which is immediately followed by a return
to the position of guard.

(j) _Points in training._ In the first stages of training, special
attention is paid to a firm grip and proper handling of arms; then the
greatest attention is given to "direction" when thrusting, lunging,
and parrying.

Until these essentials have been thoroughly mastered, quickness should
not be insisted upon.

Confidence comes after continued practice, and quickness and vigor
will come with confidence.

After the men are taught to make all the attacks as individuals they
should be given practice in them as groups.

Sandbags with discs marked on them to provide targets are used in
instructing the British armies.

These bags are suspended from trees or trestles, or are put into
trenches or pits, and are also placed on the ground.

An excellent scheme is used in teaching the men what the shock of a
charge is like. The men are divided into two or more groups and are
equipped with fencing outfits. One group is designated as the defense
and is placed in trenches. The other groups are the attackers. They
may be sent forward in waves or in one line. To make their advance
more realistic they have to get over or around obstacles. To take in
all phases the attackers are made stronger than the defense and the
defense retires--whereupon the attackers endeavor to disable them by
thrusting at the kidneys. Likewise the defense is made strong enough
to drive off the offense.

In the charge the men are taught to run at the "High Port" (the rifle
is held as in "Port arms," but is carried well above the head). The
rifle is brought down to guard just before the enemy is met.


APPENDIX D

SEPTEMBER 15, 1917

INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS, 1911.

Paragraphs 120, 143, 146, 185, 187, 189, 194, 646, Infantry Drill
Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops armed with the United States
rifle, Model 1903. For troops armed with the United States rifle,
Model 1917 (Enfield), the alternative paragraphs published herewith
will govern.

By order of the Secretary of War:

=120.= The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber
or the magazine except when especially ordered. When so loaded, or
supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with
safety lock turned to the "=Safe.=" At all other times it is carried
unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately
inspected at the commands: =1. INSPECTION, 2. ARMS, 3. ORDER (Right
shoulder port), 4. ARMS.=

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed
and placed in the belt.

Third. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard,
or for combat.

Fourth. =Fall in= is executed with the piece at the order arms. =Fall
out=, =rest=, and =at ease= are executed as without arms. On resuming
attention the position of order arms is taken.

Fifth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is
brought to the right shoulder, at the command =MARCH=, the three
motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be
executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the
words =at trail=; as =1. AT TRAIL, FORWARD, 2. MARCH.= The trail is
taken at the command =MARCH=.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or
distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece
to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Sixth. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of
the order begins when the halt is completed.

Seventh. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without
arms.

=143.= Being at order arms: =1. UNFIX, 2. BAYONET.=

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing
the spring with the forefinger of the left hand; raise the bayonet
until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; the
point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and glancing at
the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left
arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the
order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the
most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the
original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but
not in cadence.

=146.= Being at inspection arms: =1. ORDER (Right shoulder, port), 2.
ARMS.=

At the preparatory command press the follower down with the fingers of
the left hand, then push the bolt forward just enough to engage the
follower, raise the fingers of the left hand, push the bolt forward,
turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume =port arms=. At the
command =ARMS=, complete the movement ordered.


To Load

=185.= Being in line or skirmish line at halt: =1. WITH DUMMY (Blank
or ball) CARTRIDGES, 2. LOAD.=

At the command =load= each front rank man or skirmisher faces half
right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such a
position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the
body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at
the balance, left thumb extended along the stock and muzzle at the
height of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt
back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in the clip slots,
places the thumb on the powder space at the top cartridge, the fingers
extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor
plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with
the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning
down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "Safe" and carries the
hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank man moves to the right
front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of
his front rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front
rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting, the
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand
steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt
resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down)
are designated as that of =load=.

=186.= For purposes of simulating firing, =1. SIMULATE, 2. LOAD=,
raise the bolt handle as in the preceding paragraph, draw the bolt
back until the cocking piece engages, then close the bolt, and turn
the bolt handle down.

The recruits are first taught to simulate loading and firing; after a
few lessons dummy cartridges are used. Later, blank cartridges may be
used.

Omit last paragraph.

=187. Unload:= Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and
move the bolt alternately backward and forward until all the
cartridges are ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the
chamber is closed by pressing the follower down with the fingers of
the left hand, to engage it under the bolt, and then thrusting the
bolt home. The trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then picked up,
cleaned, and returned to the belt and the piece is brought to the
order.

=189.= [Last paragraph]. To continue the firing: =1. AIM, 2. SQUAD, 3.
FIRE.=

Each command is executed as previously explained. =Load= is executed
by drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with the right hand,
leaving the safety lock at the "Ready."

=194. Cease firing:= Firing stops; pieces are loaded and locked; the
sights are laid down and the piece is brought to the order. Cease
firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or
to steady the men.


Company Inspection

=646.= Being in line at halt: =1. OPEN RANKS, 2. MARCH.=

At the command =march= the front rank executes right dress; the rear
rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and execute
right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective flanks and
take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of
their respective platoons. The captain aligns the front rank, rear
rank, and file closers, takes post 3 paces in front of the right
guide, facing to the left and commands: =1. FRONT, 2. PREPARE FOR
INSPECTION.=

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain returns
saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order saber, and
stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection they carry saber,
face about, and order saber. The captain may direct the lieutenants to
accompany or assist him, in which case they return saber and, at the
close of the inspection, resume their posts in front of the company,
draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the right of
the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him executes
=inspection arms=.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just
below the lower band, the man dropping his hands; the captain inspects
the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same position as in
receiving it, hands it back to the man, who takes it with the left
hand at the balance and executes =order arms=.

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes =inspection
arms=, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes
=order arms= as soon as the captain passes to the next man.

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to right
in rear of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes =inspection
saber=. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute =inspection pistol=
by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it diagonally
across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front of the neck, muzzle
pointing up and to the left. The pistol is returned to the holster as
soon as the captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing to the
left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieutenants and
commands: =1. CLOSE RANKS, 2. MARCH.=

At the command march the lieutenants resume their posts in line; the
rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file leader; the
file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.



CHAPTER III

MANUAL OF PHYSICAL TRAINING

(EXTRACTS)


METHODS

=825.= In the employment of the various forms of physical training it
is necessary that well-defined methods should be introduced in order
that the object of this training may be attained in the most thorough
and systematic manner. Whenever it is possible this work should be
conducted out of doors. In planning these methods the following
factors must be considered:

    (_a_) The condition and physical aptitude of the men.

    (_b_) The facilities.

    (_c_) The time.

The question of the _physical aptitude_ and _general condition_, etc.,
of the men is a very important one, and it should always determine the
nature and extent of the task expected of them; never should the work
be made the determining factor. In general, it is advisable to divide
the men into three classes, viz., the recruit class, the intermediate
class, and the advanced class. The work for each class should fit the
capabilities of the members of that class and in every class it should
be arranged progressively.

_Facilities_ are necessarily to be considered in any plan of
instruction, but as most posts are now equipped with better than
average facilities the plan laid down in this Manual will answer all
purposes.

_Time_ is a decidedly important factor, and no plan can be made unless
those in charge of this work know exactly how much time they have at
their disposal. During the suspension of drills five periods a week,
each of 45 minutes duration, should be devoted to physical training;
during the drill period a 15-minute drill in setting-up exercises
should be ordered on drill days. The time of day, too, is important.
_When possible, these drills should be held in the morning about two
hours after breakfast, and at no time should they be held immediately
before or after a meal._

Insist upon accurate and precise execution of every movement. By doing
so those other essential qualities, besides strength and
endurance--activity, agility, gracefulness, and accuracy--will also be
developed.

Exercises which require activity and agility, rather than those that
require strength only, should be selected.

It should be constantly borne in mind that these exercises are the
means and not the end; and if there be a doubt in the mind of the
instructor as to the effect of an exercise, it is always well to err
upon the side of safety. _Underdoing is rectifiable; overdoing is
often not._ The object of this work is not the development of expert
gymnasts, but the development of physically sound men by means of a
system in which the chances of bodily injury are reduced to a minimum.
When individuals show a special aptitude for gymnastics they may be
encouraged, within limits, to improve this ability, but never at the
expense of their fellows.

The drill should be made as attractive as possible, and this can best
be accomplished by employing the mind as well as the body. The
movements should be as varied as possible, thus constantly offering
the men something new to make them keep their minds on their work. A
movement many times repeated presents no attraction and is executed in
a purely mechanical manner, which should always be discountenanced.

Short and frequent drills should be given in preference to long ones,
which are liable to exhaust all concerned, and exhaustion means lack
of interest and benefit. All movements should be carefully explained,
and, if necessary, illustrated by the instructor.

The lesson should begin with the less violent exercises, gradually
working up to those that are more so, then gradually working back to
the simpler ones, so that the men at the close of the drill will be in
as nearly a normal condition as possible.

When one portion of the body is being exercised, care should be taken
that the other parts remain quiet as far as the conformation of the
body will allow. The men must learn to exercise any one part of the
body independent of the other part.

Everything in connection with physical training should be such that
the men look forward to it with pleasure, not with dread, for the mind
exerts more influence over the human body than all the gymnastic
paraphernalia that was ever invented.

Exercise should be carried on as much as possible in the open air; at
all times in pure, dry air.

Never exercise the men to the point of exhaustion. If there is
evidence of panting, faintness, fatigue, or pain, the exercise should
be stopped at once, for it is nature's way of saying "too much."

By constant practice the men should learn to breathe slowly through
the nostrils during all exercises, especially running.

A fundamental condition of exercise is unimpeded respiration. Proper
breathing should always be insisted upon; "holding the breath" and
breathing only when it can no longer be held is injurious. Every
exercise should be accompanied by an unimpeded and, if possible, by an
uninterrupted act of respiration, the inspiration and respiration of
which depends to a great extent upon the nature of the exercise.
Inhalation should always accompany that part of an exercise which
tends to elevate and distend the thorax--as raising arms over head
laterally, for instance; while that part of an exercise which exerts a
pressure against the walls of the chest should be accompanied by
exhalation, as for example, lowering arms laterally from shoulders or
overhead.

If after exercising, the breathing becomes labored and distressed, it
is an unmistakable sign that the work has been excessive. Such
excessiveness is not infrequently the cause of serious injury to the
heart and lungs or to both. In cases where exercise produces
palpitation, labored respiration, etc., it is advisable to recommend
absolute rest, or to order the execution of such exercises as will
relieve the oppressed and overtaxed organ. Leg exercises slowly
executed will afford great relief. By drawing the blood from the upper
to the lower extremities they equalize the circulation, thereby
lessening the heart's action and quieting the respiration.

_Never exercise immediately after a meal_; digestion is more important
at this time than extraneous exercise.

_Never eat or drink immediately after exercise_; allow the body to
recover its normal condition first, and the most beneficial results
will follow. If necessary, pure water, not too cold, may be taken in
small quantities, but the exercise should be continued, especially if
in a state of perspiration.

Never, if at all possible, allow the underclothing to dry on the body.
Muscular action produces an unusual amount of bodily heat; this should
be lost gradually, otherwise the body will be chilled; hence, after
exercise, never remove clothing to cool off, but, on the contrary,
wear some wrap in addition. In like manner, be well wrapped on leaving
the gymnasium.

Cold baths, especially when the body is heated, as in the case after
exercising violently, should be discouraged. In individual instances
such baths may appear apparently beneficial, or at least not
injurious; in a majority of cases, however, they can not be used with
impunity. Tepid baths are recommended. When impossible to bathe, the
flannels worn while exercising should be stripped off; the body
sponged with tepid water, and then rubbed thoroughly with coarse
towels. After such a sponge the body should be clothed in clean, warm
clothing.

Flannel is the best material to wear next to the body during physical
drill, as it absorbs the perspiration, protects the body against
drafts and, in a mild manner, excites the skin. When the conditions
permit it the men may be exercised in the ordinary athletic costume,
sleeveless shirt, flappers, socks, and gymnasium shoes.


COMMANDS--SETTING-UP EXERCISES


COMMANDS

=826.= There are two kinds of commands:

The preparatory indicates the movement to be executed.

The command of execution causes the execution.

In the command: =1. Arms forward, 2. RAISE=, the words =Arms forward=
constitute the preparatory command, and =RAISE= the command of
execution. Preparatory commands are printed in =bold face=, and those
of execution in =CAPITALS=.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness
proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

The various movements comprising an exercise are executed by commands
and, unless otherwise indicated, the continuation of an exercise is
carried out by repeating the command, which usually takes the form of
numerals the numbers depending upon the number of movements, that an
exercise comprises. Thus, if an exercise consists of two movements,
the counts will be one, two; or if it consists of eight movements, the
counts will be correspondingly increased; thus every movement is
designated by a separate command.

Occasionally, especially in exercises that are to be executed slowly,
words rather than numerals are used, and these must be indicative of
the nature of the various movements.

In the continuation of an exercise the preparatory command is
explanatory, the command of execution causes the execution and the
_continuation is caused by a repetition of numerals_ denoting the
number of movements required, or of words describing the movements if
words are used. The numerals or words preceding the command =halt=
should always be given with a rising inflection on the first numeral
or word of command of the last repetition of the exercise in order to
prepare the men for the command =halt=.

For example:

=1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. Thrust arms upward, 4. EXERCISE, ONE,
TWO, ONE, TWO, ONE, HALT=; the rising inflection preparatory to the
command halt being placed on the "one" preceding the "=halt=."

Each command must indicate, by its tone, how that particular movement
is to be executed; thus, if an exercise consists of two movements, one
of which is to be energized, the command corresponding to that
movement must be emphasized.

Judgment must be used in giving commands, for rarely is the cadence of
two movements alike; and a command should not only indicate the
cadence of an exercise, but also the nature of its execution.

Thus, many of the arm exercises are short and snappy; hence the
command should be given in a smart tone of voice, and the interval
between the commands should be short.

The leg exercises can not be executed as quickly as those of the arms;
therefore, the commands should be slightly drawn out and follow one
another in slow succession.

The trunk exercises, owing to the deliberateness of execution, should
be considerably drawn out and follow one another in slow succession.

The antagonistic exercises, where one group of muscles is made to
antagonize another, tensing exercises, the commands are drawn still
more. In these exercises words are preferable to numerals. In fact it
should be the object of the instructor to convey to the men, by the
manner of his command, exactly the nature of the exercise.

All commands should be given in a clear and distinct tone of voice,
articulation should be distinct, and an effort should be made to
cultivate a voice which will inspire the men with enthusiasm and tend
to make them execute the exercises with willingness, snap, and
precision. It is not the volume, but the quality, of the voice which
is necessary to successful instruction.


THE POSITION OF ATTENTION

=827.= This is the position an unarmed dismounted soldier assumes when
in ranks. During the setting-up exercises, it is assumed whenever the
command attention is given by the instructor.

Having allowed his men to rest, the instructor commands: =1. Squad, 2.
ATTENTION.= Figs. A and B.

[Illustration: Fig. A]

[Illustration: Fig. B]

The words =class=, =section=, or =company= may be substituted for the
word "squad."

At the command =attention=, the men will quickly assume and retain the
following position:

Heels on same line and as near each other as the conformation of the
man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 degrees.

Knees straight without stiffness.

The body erect on the hips, the spine extended throughout its entire
length.

The shoulders falling naturally, are forced back until they are
square.

Chest arched and slightly raised.

The arms hang naturally; thumbs along seams of trousers; back of hands
out and elbows turned back.

Head erect, chin drawn in so that the axis of the head and neck is
vertical; eyes straight to the front and, when the nature of the
terrain permits it, fixed on an object at their own height.

Too much attention can not be given to this position, and instructors
are cautioned to insist that the men accustom themselves to it. As a
rule, it is so exaggerated that it not only becomes ridiculous, but
positively harmful. The men must be taught to assume a natural and
graceful position, one from which all rigidity is eliminated and from
which action is possible without first relaxing muscles that have been
constrained in an effort to maintain the position of attention. In
other words, coördination rather than strength should be depended
upon.

In the position described the weight rests principally upon the balls
of the feet, the heels resting lightly upon the ground.

The knees are extended easily, but never locked.

The body is now inclined forward until the front of the thighs is
directly over the point of the toes; the hips are square and the waist
is extended by the erection of the entire spine, but never to such a
degree that mobility of the waist is lost.

In extending the spine, the chest is naturally arched and the abdomen
is drawn in, but never to the extent where it interferes with
respiration.

In extending the spinal column, the shoulders must not be raised, but
held loosely in normal position and forced back until the points of
the shoulders are at right angles with an anterior-posterior plane
running through the shoulders.

The chin should be square; i. e., horizontal and forced back enough to
bring the neck in a vertical plane; the eyes fixed to the front and
the object on which they are fixed must be at their own height
whenever the nature of the terrain permits it.

When properly assumed, a vertical line drawn from the top of the head
should pass in front of the ear, just in front of the shoulder and of
the thigh, and find its base at the balls of the feet.

All muscles should be contracted only enough to maintain this
position, which at all times should be a lithesome one, that can be
maintained for a long period without fatigue--one that makes for
activity and that is based upon a correct anatomical and physiological
basis.

Instructors will correct the position of attention of every man
individually and they will ascertain, when the position has been
properly assumed, whether the men are "on their toes," i. e., carrying
the weight on the balls of the feet, whether they are able to respire
properly, and whether they find a strain across the small of the back,
which should be as flat as possible. This should be repeated until the
men are able to assume the position correctly without restraint or
rigidity.

At the command =rest= or =at ease= the men, while carrying out the
provisions of the drill regulations, should be cautioned to avoid
assuming any position that has a tendency to nullify the object of the
position of attention; standing on leg for instance; allowing the
shoulders to slope forward; drooping the head; folding arms across
chest, etc. The weight should always be distributed equally upon both
legs; the head, trunk, and shoulders remain erect and the arms held in
a position that does not restrict the chest or derange the shoulders.
The positions illustrated here have been found most efficacious. Figs.
C. and D.

[Illustration: Fig. C]

[Illustration: Fig. D]


FORMATIONS

=828.= The men form in a single or double rank, the tallest men on the
right.

The instructor commands: =1. Count off.=

At this command, all except the right file execute "=eyes right=" and,
beginning on the right, the men in each rank count 1, 2, 3, 4; each
man turns his head and eyes to the front as he counts.

The instructor then commands: =1. Take distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad,
4. HALT.=

At the command =march=, No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the
front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the
rear rank in the order named move straight to the front, each stepping
off, so as to follow the preceding man at four paces; the command halt
is given when all have their distances.

If it is desired that a less distance than four paces be taken, the
distance desired should be indicated in the preparatory command. The
men of the squad may be caused to cover No. 1 front rank by command
cover.

The instructor then commands: =1. Right (left), 2. FACE, 3. COVER.=

At these commands the men face in the direction indicated and cover in
file.

To assemble the squad the instructor commands: =1. Right (left), 2.
FACE, 3. Assemble, 4. MARCH.=

After facing and at command march, No. 1 of the front rank stands
fast, the other members of both ranks resuming their original
positions, or for convenience in the gymnasium they may be assembled
to the rear, in which case the assemblage is made on No. 4 of the rear
rank.

Unless otherwise indicated, the guide is =always right=.


SPECIAL TRAINING

=829.= In addition to the regular squad or class work instructors
should, when they notice a physical defect in any man, recommend some
exercise which will tend to correct it.

The most common physical defects and corresponding corrective
exercises are noted here.


DROOPING HEAD

=830.= Exercise the muscles of the neck by bending, turning, and
circling the head, muscles tense.


ROUND AND STOOPED SHOULDERS

=831.= Stretch arms sideward from front horizontal, turning palms
upward, muscles tense.

Swing arms forward and backward, muscles relaxed.

Circle arms forward and backward slowly, energize backward motion,
muscles tense; forward motion with muscles relaxed.

Circle shoulders backward, move them forward first, then raise them,
then move them backward as far as possible in the raised position,
muscles tense, and then lower to normal position, muscles relaxed.


WEAK BACK

=832.= Bend trunk forward as far as possible and erect it slowly.

Bend trunk forward, back arched and head thrown back.

Bend trunk sideward, without moving hips out of normal position, right
and left.

Lie on floor, face down, and raise head and shoulders.


WEAK ABDOMEN

=833.= Circle trunk right or left.

Bend trunk backward or obliquely backward.

Bend head and trunk backward without moving hips out of normal plane.

Lie on floor, face up, and raise head and shoulders slightly; or to
sitting position or raise legs slightly; or to a vertical position.


_To increase depth and width of chest_

Arm stretchings, sideward and upward, muscles tense.

Same, with deep inhalations.

Arm swings and arm circles outward, away from the body.

Raise extended arms over head laterally and cross them behind the
head.

Breathing exercises in connection with arm and shoulder exercises.


STARTING POSITIONS

=834.= In nearly all the arm exercises it is necessary to hold the
arms in some fixed position from which the exercises can be most
advantageously executed, and to which position the arms are again
returned upon completing the exercise. These positions are termed
=starting positions=; and though it may not be absolutely necessary to
assume one of them before or during the employment of any other
portion of the body, it is advisable to do so, since they give to the
exercise a finished, uniform, and graceful appearance.

In the following positions, at the command =down=, resume the
=attention=. Practice in assuming the starting position may be had by
repeating the commands of execution, such as =raise, down=.

=835.= While the exercises given below have been grouped for
convenient reference, into arm exercises, trunk exercises, leg
exercises, etc., one entire group _must not_ be given and then the
next and so on.

_Always bear in mind that the best results are obtained when those
exercises which affect the extensor muscles chiefly are followed by
those affecting the flexors; i. e., flexion should always be followed
by extension, or vice versa. It is also advisable that a movement
requiring a considerable amount of muscular exertion should be
followed by one in which this exertion is reduced to a minimum. As a
rule, especially in the setting-up exercises, one portion of the body
should not be exercised successively; thus, arm exercises should be
followed by a trunk exercise, and that in turn by a leg, shoulder, and
neck exercise._


ARM EXERCISES

=836.= Intervals having been taken and attention assumed, the
instructor commands:

=1. Arms forward, 2. RAISE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN.= Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

At the command =raise=, raise the arms to the front smartly, extended
to their full length, till the hands are in front of and at the height
of the shoulders, palms down, fingers extended and joined, thumbs
under forefingers. At =Arms, DOWN=, resume position of attention.

=1. Arms upward 2. RAISE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN.= Fig. 2.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

At the command =raise=, raise the arms from the sides, extended to
their full length, with the forward movement, until they are
vertically overhead, backs of hands turned outward, fingers as in 1.

This position may also be assumed by raising the arms laterally until
vertical. The instructor cautions which way he desires it done.

=1. Arms backward, 2. CROSS, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN.= Fig. 3.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

At the command =cross=, the arms are folded across the back; hands
grasping forearms.

=1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN.= Fig. 4.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

At the command =raise=, raise the forearms to the front until
horizontal, elbow forced back, upper arms against the chest, hands
tightly closed, knuckles down.

=1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN.= Fig. 5.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

At the command =place=, place the hands on the hips, the finger tips
in line with trouser seams; fingers extended and joined, thumbs to the
rear, elbows pressed back.


_Combination of arm exercises_

=1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. THRUST ARMS FORWARD; SWING THEM
SIDEWARD, FORWARD, AND BACK TO POSITION.=

Four counts; repeat 8 to 10 times.

The arms are thrust forward, then relaxed and swung sideward, then
forward and finally brought back to position, pressing elbows well to
the rear; execute moderately fast; exhale on the first and third and
inhale on the second and fourth counts.


SETTING-UP EXERCISES

=837.= As has been stated previously, the setting-up exercises form
the basis upon which the entire system of physical training in the
service is founded. Therefore too much importance can not be attached
to them. Through the number and variety of movements they offer it is
possible to develop the body harmoniously with little if any danger of
injurious results. They develop the muscles and impart vigor and tone
to the vital organs and assist them in their functions; they develop
endurance and are important factors in the development of smartness,
grace, and precision. They should be assiduously practiced. The fact
that they require no apparatus of any description makes it possible to
do this out of doors or even in the most restricted room, proper
sanitary conditions being the only adjunct upon which their success is
dependent. No physical training drill is complete without them. They
should always precede the more strenuous forms of training, as they
prepare the body for the greater exertion these forms demand.

At the discretion of instructors these exercises may be substituted by
others of a similar character. Instructors are cautioned, however, to
employ all the parts of the body in every lesson and to suit the
exercise as far as practicable to the natural function of the
particular part of the body which they employ.

In these lessons only the preparatory command is given here; the
command of execution, which is invariably =Exercise=, and the commands
of continuance, as well as the command to discontinue, having been
explained are omitted.

Every preparatory command should convey a definite description of the
exercise required; by doing so long explanations are avoided and the
men will not be compelled to memorize the various movements.


RECRUIT INSTRUCTION

_First Series_

Position of attention, from =at ease= and =rest=.

Starting position, Figs. 1 to 5.


TRUNK EXERCISES

=838. 1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. QUARTER BEND TRUNK FORWARD.=

Two counts; repeat 8 to 10 times, Fig. 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

The trunk is inclined forward at the waist about 45° and then extended
again; the hips are as perpendicular as possible; execute slowly;
exhale on first and inhale and raise chest on second count.

By substituting the words _half_ or _full_ for the word quarter in
the command, the half bend, Fig. 7, and full bend exercise can be
given.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

=1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. BEND TRUNK BACKWARD.=

Two counts; repeat 6 to 8 times, Fig. 8.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

The trunk is bent backward as far as possible; head and shoulders
fixed; knees extended; feet firmly on the ground; hips as nearly
perpendicular as possible; in recovering care should be taken not to
sway forward; execute slowly; inhale on first and exhale on second
count.

=1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. BEND TRUNK SIDEWARD, RIGHT OR LEFT.=

Two counts; repeat 6 to 8 times, Fig. 9.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

The trunk, stretched at the waist, is inclined sideward as far as
possible; head and shoulders fixed; knees extended and feet firmly on
the ground; execute slowly; inhale on first and exhale on second
count.

If an additional exercise is desired, by commanding: =CIRCLE TRUNK
RIGHT or LEFT= a combination of the above trunk exercises is obtained.


LEG EXERCISES

=839. 1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. QUARTER BEND KNEES.=

Two counts; repeat 8 to 10 times, Fig. 10.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

The knees are flexed until the point of the knee is directly over the
toes; whole foot remains on ground; heels closed; head and body erect;
execute moderately fast, emphasizing the extension; breathe naturally.

By substituting the words _half_ or _full_ for the word quarter in the
command the half bend and full bend, Fig. 11, exercises can be given.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

=1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. RAISE KNEE.=

Two counts; repeat 10 to 12 times. Fig. 12.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

The thigh and knee are flexed until they are at right angles, thigh
horizontal: toes depressed; the right knee is raised at =one= and the
left at =two=; trunk and head erect; execute in cadence of quick time;
breathe naturally.


SHOULDER EXERCISE

=840. 1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. MOVE SHOULDERS FORWARD, UP,
BACK, AND DOWN.=

Four counts; repeat 8 to 10 times.

The shoulders are relaxed and brought forward; in that position they
are raised: then they are forced back without lowering them; and then
they are dropped back to position; execute slowly; exhale on the
first; inhale on the second and third and exhale on the last count.


NECK EXERCISE

=841. 1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. TURN HEAD RIGHT, OR LEFT.=

Two counts; repeat 6 to 10 times, Fig. 13.

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

The head, chin square, is turned to the right, or left as far as
possible, muscles of the neck being stretched; shoulders remain
square; execute slowly: breathe naturally.

To vary this exercise the head may be _bent forward and to the rear_
by substituting the proper commands.


BREATHING EXERCISE

=842. 1. Breathing exercise, 2. INHALE, 3. EXHALE.=

At =inhale= the arms are stretched forward overhead and the lungs are
inflated; at =exhale= the arms are lowered laterally and the lungs
deflated; execute slowly; repeat four times.


TOE EXERCISE

=843. 1. Arms backward, 2. CROSS, 3. RISE ON TOES.=

Two counts; repeat 8 to 10 times, Fig. 14.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

The body is raised smartly until the toes and ankles are extended as
much as possible; heels closed; head and trunk erect; in recovering
position heels are lowered gently; breathe naturally.


COMBINATION EXERCISE

=844.= This exercise brings into play practically all of the muscles
that have been used in the preceding exercises.

=1. LEANING REST IN FOUR COUNTS.=

Repeat 6 to 8 times, Figs. 15, 16.

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

At =one= knees are bent to squatting position, hands on the ground
between knees; at =two= the legs are extended backward to the leaning
rest; at =three= the first position is resumed, and at =four= the
position of attention; hands should be directly under shoulders; back
arched; knees straight; head fixed; execute moderately fast; breathe
naturally.


WALKING AND MARCHING

=845.= The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches,
measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120
steps per minute.

Proper posture and carriage have ever been considered very important
in the training of soldiers. In marching, the head and trunk should
remain immobile, but without stiffness; as the left foot is carried
forward the right forearm is swung forward and inward obliquely across
the body until the thumb, knuckles being turned out, reaches a point
about the height of the belt plate. The upper arm does not move beyond
the perpendicular plane while the forearm is swung forward, though the
arm hangs loosely from the shoulder joint. The forearm swing ends
precisely at the moment the left heel strikes the ground; the arm is
then relaxed and allowed to swing down and backward by its own weight
until it reaches a point where the thumb is about the breadth of a
hand to the rear of the buttocks. As the right arm swings back, the
left arm is swung forward with the right leg. The forward motion of
the arm assists the body in marching by throwing the weight forward
and inward upon the opposite foot as it is planted. The head is held
erect; body well stretched from the waist; chest arched; and there
should be no rotary motion of the body about the spine.

As the leg is thrown forward the knee is smartly extended, the heel
striking the ground first.

The instructor having explained the principles and illustrated the
step and arm swing, commands: =1. Forward, 2. MARCH=--and to halt the
squad he commands: =1. Squad, 2. HALT.=

In executing the setting-up exercises on the march the cadence should
at first be given slowly and gradually increased as the men become
more expert; some exercises require a slow and others a faster pace;
it is best in these cases to allow the cadence of the exercise to
determine the cadence of the step.

The men should march in a single file at proved intervals. The command
that causes and discontinues the execution should be given as the left
foot strikes the ground.

On the march, to discontinue the exercise, command: =1. Quick time, 2.
MARCH=, instead of =HALT=, as when at rest.

All of the arm, wrist, finger, and shoulder exercises, and some of the
trunk and neck, may be executed on the march by the same commands and
means as when at rest.

The following leg and foot exercises are executed at the command
march; the execution always beginning with the left leg or foot.

     1. =1. On toes, 2. MARCH.=
     2. =1. On heels, 2. MARCH.=
     3. =1. On right heel and left toe, 2. MARCH.=
     4. =1. On left heel and right toe, 2. MARCH.=
     5. =1. On toes with knees stiff, 2. MARCH.=
     6. =1. Swing extended leg forward, ankle high, 2. MARCH.=
     7. =1. Swing extended leg forward, knee high, 2. MARCH.=
     8. =1. Swing extended leg forward, waist high, 2. MARCH.=
     9. =1. Swing extended leg forward, shoulder high, 2. MARCH.=
    10. =1. Raise heels, 2. MARCH.=
    11. =1. Raise knees, thigh horizontal, 2. MARCH.=
    12. =1. Raise knees, chest high, 2. MARCH.=
    13. =1. Circle extended leg forward, ankle high, 2. MARCH.=
    14. =1. Circle extended leg forward, knee high, 2. MARCH.=
    15. =1. Circle extended leg forward, waist high, 2. MARCH.=
    16. =1. Swing extended leg backward, 2. MARCH.=
    17. =1. Swing extended leg sideward, 2. MARCH.=
    18. =1. Raise knee and extend leg forward, 2. MARCH.=
    19. =1. Raise heels and extend leg forward, 2. MARCH.=


DOUBLE TIMING

=846.= The length of the step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence
is at the rate of 180 steps per minute. To march in double time the
instructor commands: =1. Double time, 2. MARCH.=

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the
right leg. At the command =march= raise the forearms, fingers closed;
to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run
with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging
motion to the arms inward and upward in the direction of the opposite
shoulder.

In marching in quick time, at the command =march=, given as either
foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step
off in double time.

When marching in double time and in running the men breathe as much as
possible through the nose, keeping the mouth closed.

A few minutes at the beginning of the setting-up exercises should be
devoted to double timing. From lasting only a few minutes at the start
it may be gradually increased, so that daily drills should enable the
men at the end of five or six months to double time 15 or 20 minutes
without becoming fatigued or distressed.

After the double time the men should be marched for several minutes at
quick time; after this the instructor should command:

=1. Route step, 2. MARCH.=

In marching at route step, the men are not required to preserve
silence nor keep the step; if marching at proved intervals, the latter
is preserved.

To resume the cadence step in quick time, the instructor commands: =1.
Squad, 2. ATTENTION.=

Great care must be exercised concerning the duration of the double
time and the speed and duration of the run. The demands made Upon the
men should be increased gradually.

When exercise rather than distance is desired, the running should be
done on the balls of the feet, heels raised from the ground.


DOUBLE TIMING EXERCISES

While the men are double timing the instructor may vary the position
of the arms by commanding:

    1. =1. Arms forward, 2. RAISE.=
    2. =1. Arms sideward, 2. RAISE.=
    3. =1. Arms upward, 2. RAISE.=
    4. =1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE.=
    5. =1. Hands on shoulders, 2. PLACE.=
    6. =1. Arms forward, 2. CROSS.=
    7. =1. Arms backward, 2. CROSS.=

At the command =down=, the double-time position for the arms and hands
is resumed.


RIFLE EXERCISES

=847.= The object of these exercises, which may also be performed with
wands or bar bells, is to develop the muscles of the arms, shoulders,
and back so that the men will become accustomed to the weight of the
piece and learn to wield it with that "handiness" so essential to its
successful use. When these exercises are combined with movements of
the various other parts of the body, they serve as a splendid, though
rather strenuous, method for the all-round development of the men. As
the weight of the piece is considerable, instructors are cautioned to
be reasonable in their demands. Far better results are obtained if
these exercises are performed at commands than when they are grouped
and performed for spectacular purposes.

All the exercises start from the starting position, which is the low
extended arm horizontal position in front of the body, arms straight;
the right hand grasping the small of the stock and the left hand the
barrel; the knuckles turned to the front and the distance between the
hands slightly greater than the width of the shoulders. Fig. 17.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

This position is assumed at the command: =1. Starting, 2. POSITION=;
at the command =position= the piece is brought to the port and lowered
to the front horizontal snappily.

To recover the position of order, command: =1. Order, 2. Arms=; the
piece is first brought to the port and then to the order.


RIFLE DRILL COMBINATION

The following exercises consist of four movements, the third position
always corresponding to the first position and the fourth to the
starting position. When performed as a musical drill, the instructions
laid down in that lesson are applicable here.

All exercises begin and end with the first or starting position. Fig.
17.

The form of command is, for example:

(Being at the starting position)

=1. First group, 2. FIRST, EXERCISE=;

=1. Second group, 2. THIRD, EXERCISE=;

       Etc.,             Etc.


FIRST GROUP

=848.= _First Exercise_

Counts

1-2. Raise piece to bent arm front horizontal, shoulder high, and
stride forward right, Fig. 18;

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

3-4. Face to the left on both heels and extend piece upward, Fig. 19;

[Illustration: Fig. 19]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.


=849.= _Second Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to extended high horizontal, and stride sideward
right, Fig. 20;

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

3-4. Bend right knee and lower piece to left horizontal, Fig. 21;

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.


=850.= _Third Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to high side perpendicular on the left, left hand up,
and stride backward right, Fig. 22;

[Illustration: Fig. 22]

3-4. Face about on heels and swing piece down and up to high side
perpendicular on the right, Fig. 23;

[Illustration: Fig. 23]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.


=851.= _Fourth Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to extended high horizontal, and stride obliquely
forward right, Fig. 24;

[Illustration: Fig. 24]

3-4. Face about on heels and lower piece to horizontal on shoulders;
Fig. 25;

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.


SECOND GROUP

=852.= _First Exercise_

1-2. Lower piece to front extended horizontal and bend trunk forward,
Fig. 26;

[Illustration: Fig. 26]

3-4. Lunge obliquely forward right and raise piece to right oblique,
left hand at shoulder, Fig. 27;

[Illustration: Fig. 27]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

=853.= _Second Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to high perpendicular on the left, left hand up, and
bend trunk sideward right, Fig. 28;

[Illustration: Fig. 28]

3-4. Lunge sideward right and swing piece down and up to right high
perpendicular, right hand up, Fig. 29;

[Illustration: Fig. 29]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

=854.= _Third Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to high extended arm horizontal and bend trunk
backward, Fig. 30;

[Illustration: Fig. 30]

3-4. Lunge forward right, and swing piece to side horizontal, left
hand to the rear, Fig. 31;

[Illustration: Fig. 31]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

=855.= _Fourth Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to right high perpendicular and side step position
left, Fig. 32;

[Illustration: Fig. 32]

3-4. Lunge sideward left and swing piece to left high perpendicular,
Fig. 33;

[Illustration: Fig. 33]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.


THIRD GROUP

=856.= _First Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to front bent horizontal, arms crossed, left over
right; lunge sideward right and bend trunk sideward right, Fig. 34;

[Illustration: Fig. 34]

3-4. Extend right knee and bend trunk to the left, bending left knee
and recrossing arms, left over right, Fig. 35;

[Illustration: Fig. 35]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

=857.= _Second Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to bent arm horizontal; face right and lunge forward
right and bend trunk forward, Fig. 36;

[Illustration: Fig. 36]

3-4. Raise trunk and turn to the left on both heels and extend piece
overhead, Fig. 37;

[Illustration: Fig. 37]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

=858.= _Third Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to left high horizontal; lunge forward right, Fig.
38;

[Illustration: Fig. 38]

3-4. Bend trunk forward and swing piece to extended low horizontal,
Fig. 39;

[Illustration: Fig. 39]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

=859.= _Fourth Exercise_

1-2. Raise piece to high extended horizontal and hop to side straddle
position, Fig. 40;

[Illustration: Fig. 40]

3-4. Bend trunk forward and swing piece to extended low horizontal,
left hand between legs, right hand forward, Fig. 41;

[Illustration: Fig. 41]

5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.


GYMNASTIC CONTESTS

=860.= These exercises are those in which the benefits are lost sight
of in the pleasure their attainment provides, which in the case of
these contests is the vanquishing of an opponent. The men are pitted
against each other in pairs; age, height, weight, and general physical
aptitude being the determining factors in the selection.

In the contests in which superiority is dependent upon skill and
agility no restrictions need be placed upon the efforts of the
contestants; but in those that are a test of strength and endurance it
is well to call a contest a "draw," when the men are equally matched
and the contest is likely to be drawn out to the point of exhaustion
of one or both contestants.

It is recommended that these contests be indulged in once or twice a
month and then at the conclusion of the regular drill.

Contests that require skill and agility should alternate with those
that depend upon force and endurance. In order to facilitate the
instruction a number of pairs should be engaged at the same time.

1. Cane wrestling: The cane to be about an inch in diameter and a yard
long, ends rounded. It is grasped with the right hand at the end,
knuckles down, and with the left hand, knuckles up, inside of and
close to the opponent's right hand. Endeavor is then made to wrest the
cane from the opponent. Loss of grip with either hand loses the bout.

2. Cane twisting. Same cane as in 1. Contestants grasp it as in 1,
only the knuckles of both hands are up, and the arms are extended
overhead. Object: The contestants endeavor to make the cane revolve in
their opponent's hand without allowing it to do so in their own. The
cane must be forced down.

3. Cane pulling: Contestants sit on the ground, facing each other,
legs straight and the soles of the feet in contact. The cane is
grasped as in 2 but close to the feet. Object: To pull the opponent to
his feet. The legs throughout the contest must be kept rigid.

4. "Bucked" contest: Contestants sit on the ground "bucked"; i. e.,
the cane is passed under the knees, which are drawn up, and the arms
passed under the cane with the fingers laced in front of the ankles.
Object: To get the toes under those of the opponent and roll him over.

5. Single pole pushing: Contestants grasp end of pole, 6 feet long and
2 inches thick, and brace themselves. Object: To push the opponent out
of position.

6. Double pole pushing: The poles are placed under the arms close to
the arm pits, ends projecting. Object: Same as in 5.

7. Double pole pulling: Position as in 6 but standing back to back.
Object: To pull the opponent out of position.

8. "Cock fight": Contestants hop on one leg with the arms folded
closely over the chest. Object: by butting with the fleshy part of the
shoulder without raising the arms, or by dodging to make the opponent
change his feet or touch the floor with his hand or other part of his
body.

9. One-legged tug of war: Contestants hop on one leg and grasp hands
firmly. Object: To pull the opponent forward or make him place the
raised foot on the floor.

10. The "siege": One contestant stands with one foot in a circle 14
inches in diameter, the other foot outside, and the arms folded as in
8. Two other contestants, each hopping on one leg, endeavor to
dislodge the one in the circle by butting him with the shoulder. The
besieged one is defeated in case he raises the foot in the circle, or
removes it entirely from the circle. The besiegers are defeated in
case they change feet or touch the floor as in 8. As soon as either of
the latter is defeated his place is immediately filled, so that there
are always two of them. The besieged should resort to volting,
ducking, etc., rather than to depend upon his strength.

11. One-armed tug: Contestants stand facing each other; right hands
grasped, feet apart. Object: Without moving feet, to pull the opponent
forward. Shifting the feet loses the bout.

12. "Tug royal": Three contestants stand facing inward and grasp each
other's wrists securely with their feet outside a circle about three
feet in diameter. Object: by pulling or pushing to make one of the
contestants step inside of the circle.

13. Indian wrestling: Contestants lie upon the ground face up, right
shoulders in close contact, right elbows locked; at one the right leg
is raised overhead and lowered, this is repeated at two, and at three
the leg is raised quickly and locked with the opponent's right leg.
Object: to roll him over by forcing his leg down.

14. Medicine ball race. Teams of five or six men are organized and a
track for each team is marked out. This track consists of marks on the
floor or ground at distances of 4 yards. On each of these marks stands
a man with legs apart, the team forming a column of files. At "ready,"
"get set," the contestants prepare for the race, and at "go," the
first man in the column rolls a medicine ball, which he has on the
floor in front of him, through his legs to No. 2, he in turn rolls it
to 3, etc., when it reaches the last man he picks it up and runs to
the starting place with it and, the others all having shifted back one
mark, the rolling is repeated. This continues until the first man
brings the ball back to the starting place and every man is in his
original position. The ball should be kept rolling: each man, as it
comes to him, pushing it on quickly. Any ball about 9 inches in
diameter will answer; it may be made of strong cloth and stuffed with
cotton waste.



CHAPTER IV

SIGNALING

Signals and Codes


_General Service Code. (International Morse Code.)_

=861.= Used for all visual and sound signaling, radiotelegraphy, and
on cables using siphon recorders, used in communicating with Navy.

    A · -
    B - · · ·
    C - · - ·
    D - · ·
    E ·
    F · · - ·
    G - - ·
    H · · · ·
    I · ·
    J · - - -
    K - · -
    L · - · ·
    M - -
    N - ·
    O - - -
    P · - - ·
    Q - - · -
    R · - ·
    S · · ·
    T -
    U · · -
    V · · · -
    W · - -
    X - · · -
    Y - · - -
    Z - - · ·

    NUMERALS

    1 · - - - -
    2 · · - - -
    3 · · · - -
    4 · · · · -
    5 · · · · ·
    6 - · · · ·
    7 - - · · ·
    8 - - - · ·
    9 - - - - ·
    0 - - - - -

    PUNCTUATION

    Period · ·  · ·  · ·
    Comma  · - · - · - ·
    Interrogation · · - - · ·


THE MORE IMPORTANT CONVENTIONAL FLAG SIGNALS

For communication between the firing line and the reserve or commander
in rear. In transmission, their concealment from the enemy's view
should be insured. In the absence of signal flags the headdress or
other substitute may be used.

(See par. 96 for the signals.)


Wigwag

_Signaling by flag, torch, hand lantern, or beam of searchlight
(without shutter)_[6]

=862.= 1. There is one position and there are three motions. The position is
with flag or other appliance held vertically, the signalman facing
directly toward the station with which it is desired to communicate.
The first motion (the dot) is to the right of the sender, and will
embrace an arc of 90°, starting with the vertical and returning to it,
and will be made in a plane at right angles to the line connecting
the two stations. The second motion (the dash) is a similar motion to
the left of the sender. The third motion (front) is downward directly
in front of the sender and instantly returned upward to the first
position. This is used to indicate a pause or conclusion.

2. The beam of the searchlight, though ordinarily used with the
shutter like the heliograph, may be used for long-distance signaling,
when no shutter is suitable or available, in a similar manner to the
flag or torch, the first position being a vertical one. A movement of
the beam 90° to the right of the sender indicates a dot, a similar
movement to the left indicates a dash; the beam is lowered vertically
for front.

3. To use the torch or hand lantern, a footlight must be employed as a
point of reference to the motion. The lantern is more conveniently
swung out upward to the right of the footlight for a dot, to the left
for a dash, and raised vertically for front.

4. To call a station, make the call letter until acknowledged, at
intervals giving the call or signal of the calling station. If the
call letter of a station is unknown, wave flag until acknowledged. In
using the searchlight without shutter throw the beam in a vertical
position and move it through an arc of 180° in a plane at right angles
to the line connecting the two stations until acknowledged. To
acknowledge a call, signal "Acknowledgment (or) I understand
(----front)" followed by the call letter of the acknowledging station.


_Notes on Wig-wagging_

5. In order to avoid the flag wrapping itself about the staff, stand
facing the receiving station, with feet apart. Hold the staff with the
left hand at butt and right hand 24 inches from end. In moving flag to
the right, bring it down with an outward and inward sweep, and then
return it to the vertical. When the tip is farthest down the staff
inclines to the right front and as the flag is brought upward it is
swept inward and upwards and as it approaches the vertical position it
sweeps forward slightly. In moving to the left the motion is
similar,--at the lowest point the staff inclines to the left front. A
combination of right and left is made with a figure-of-eight motion.

In making "front" the flag is lowered and moved very slightly to the
left front and then swept slightly to the right front, making a
figure-of-eight.

The body should be twisted and bent at the waist in making the light
and left motions.

Care should be exercised in keeping the flag in front of the body in
making "front," the figure-of-eight is necessarily very flat.

Do not make letters in a careless slipshod manner.


The Two-arm Semaphore Code

(See Plates I and II)

=863.= Semaphore signaling may be done with or without flags. Without
flags it is rarely dependable beyond 600 yards.

In sending stand with feet apart, squarely facing the receiver.

In making letters which require the use of both arms on the same side
of body, twist the body to that side and bend at waist, so as to
throw both arms well away from body. But be careful to keep arms in
plane of original position of body.

When a letter repeats--bring both hands (if a two-armed letter) to
chest after first, then make second.

Do not try to send rapidly so as to exhibit your ability. Remember
that the receiver's ability determines the speed to be used. Anyone
can send faster than he himself can receive. If you want to display
your skill have some one send rapidly to you.

In receiving, if you miss a letter--let it go and get the others. If
you miss a word signal--"O" (waving flags or arms) and signal the last
word you have received.

_Rapidity_ is secondary to _accuracy_.

Take the positions for the various letters _accurately_. The
horizontal position should not incline upward nor downward. In making
an "L," for example, if the left arm is midway between its proper
position and the horizontal it is difficult to tell whether it is L or
M.

In making D, J, K, P, T, and V, the arm in the vertical position
should be brought exactly in front of the body by carrying the
shoulder in almost under the chin, twisting the elbow in until it is
directly before the eyes, and the forearm held in the vertical
position with the palm to the rear. When so done there is no
possibility of this position being mistaken for any other.

"Manila Milkman" may be sent without changing the position of the
right hand. In making I, be sure to twist body well to the right in
order that the left arm may be seen in the upper slanting position to
the right. City and similar words may be so made.

D may be made with either hand.

Be sure how next letter is made before moving hands. Make no false
motions.

Acquire accuracy; then try for speed.

"CHOP-CHOP." The "chop-chop" signal is made by placing _both_ arms at
the right horizontal (that is, by bringing the _left_ arm up to the
position of the _right_ arm as in the figure for letter "B"), and then
moving each up and down, several times, in opposite direction, making
a cutting motion.

END OF WORD. After each word the "Interval" signal is made.

END OF SENTENCE. After each sentence the chop signal is made twice.

END OF MESSAGE. At the end of a message the chop signal is made three
times.

ERROR. Signal "A" several times quickly, followed by interval; then
repeat the word.

TO BREAK IN. Signal "Attention."

NUMERALS. Numbers are always preceded by the signal, "Numerals." After
"Numerals" has been signaled, everything that follows will be numbers
until "Interval" is signaled, after which what follows will be
letters.

[Illustration: The Two-arm Semaphore Code

Plate I]

[Illustration: The Two-arm Semaphore Code

Plate II]


_Signaling with heliograph, flash lantern, and searchlight (with
shutter)_[7]

=864.= 1. The first position is to turn a steady flash on the
receiving station. The signals are made by short and long flashes. Use
a short flash for dot and a long steady flash for dash. The elements
of a letter should be slightly longer than in sound signals.

2. To call a station, make the call letter until acknowledged, at
intervals the call or signal of the calling station.

3. If the call letter of a station be unknown, signal a series of dots
rapidly made until acknowledged. Each station will then turn on a
steady flash and adjust. When the adjustment is satisfactory to the
called station, it will cut off its flash, and the calling station
will proceed with its message.

4. If the receiver sees that the sender's mirror needs adjustment, he
will turn on a steady flash until answered by a steady flash. When the
adjustment is satisfactory, the receiver will cut off his flash and
the sender will resume his message.

5. To break the sending station for other purposes, turn on a steady
flash.


_Sound Signals_[7]

=865.= 1. Sound signals made by the whistle, foghorn, bugle, trumpet,
and drum may be used in a fog, mist, falling snow, or at night. They
may be used with the dot and dash code.

2. In applying the code to whistle, foghorn, bugle, or trumpet, one
short blast indicates a dot and one long blast a dash. With the drum,
one tap indicates a dot and two taps in rapid succession a dash.
Although these signals can be used with a dot and dash code, they
should be so used in connection with a preconcerted or conventional
code.

_Morse Code. (American Morse Code)_[7]

=866.= Used only by the army on telegraph lines, on short cables, and
on field lines, and on all commercial lines in the United States.

    A · -
    B - · · ·
    C · ·  ·
    D - · ·
    E ·
    F · - ·
    G - - ·
    H · · · ·
    I · ·
    J - · - ·
    K - · -
    L --
    M - -
    N - ·
    O ·  ·
    P · · · · ·
    Q · · - ·
    R ·  · ·
    S · · ·
    T -
    U · · -
    V · · · -
    W · - -
    X · - · ·
    Y · ·  · ·
    Z · · ·  ·
    & ·  · · ·

    NUMERALS

    1 · - - ·
    2 · · - · ·
    3 · · · - ·
    4 · · · · -
    5 - - -
    6 · · · · · ·
    7 - - · ·
    8 - · · · ·
    9 - · · -
    0 ---

    PUNCTUATION

    Period · · - - · ·
    Comma · - · -
    Interrogation - · · - ·


FOOTNOTES:

[6] Extracts from Signal Book, United States Army.

[7] Extracts from Signal Book, United States Army.



PART II

COMPANY COMMAND



CHAPTER I

THE GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF A COMPANY


=867. The proper performance of the duty of COMPANY COMMANDER, like
the proper performance of any other duty, requires work and attention
to business.=

The command of a company divides itself into two kinds of duty:
government and administration.

The government includes the instruction, discipline, contentment, and
harmony of the organization, involving, as it does, esprit de corps,
rewards, privileges, and punishments.

The administration includes the providing of clothing, arms,
ammunition, equipage, and subsistence; the keeping of records,
including the rendition of reports and returns; and the care and
accountability of Government and company property, and the
disbursement of the company fund.

System and care are prerequisites of good administration.

The efficient administration of a company greatly facilitates its
government.


THE CAPTAIN

=868.= With regard to his company the captain stands in the same light
as a father to a large family of children. It is his duty to provide
for their comfort, sustenance, and pleasure; enforce strict rules of
obedience, punish the refractory and reward the deserving.

He should be considerate and just to his officers and men and should
know every soldier personally and make him feel that he so knows him.

He should by word and act make every man in the company feel that the
captain is his protector.

The captain should not be indifferent to the personal welfare of his
men, and when solicited, being a man of greater experience, education,
and information, he should aid and counsel them in such a way as to
show he takes an interest in their joys and sorrows.

When any men are sick he should do everything possible for them until
they can be taken care of by the surgeon. He can add much to the
comfort and pleasure of men in the hospital by visiting them from time
to time and otherwise showing an interest in their condition.

In fact, one of the officer's most important duties is to look after
the welfare of his men--to see that they are well fed, well clothed
and properly cared for in every other way--to see that they are happy
and contented. The officer who does not look after the welfare of his
men to the best of his ability, giving the matter his earnest personal
attention, neglects one of the principal things that the Government
pays him to do.

The soldier usually has a decided feeling for his captain, even though
it be one of hatred. With regard to the higher grade of officers, he
has respect for them according to regulations; otherwise, for the most
part, he is indifferent. At the very most, he knows whether his post
or regimental commander keeps him long at drill, and particularly
whether he has any peculiar habits. The average soldier looks upon his
captain as by far the most important personage in the command.

There is no other position in the Army that will give as much
satisfaction in return for an honest, capable and conscientious
discharge of duty, as that of captain. There is a reward in having
done his full duty to his company that no disappointment of
distinction, no failure, can deprive him of; his seniors may overlook
him in giving credits, unfortunate circumstances may defeat his
fondest hopes, and the crown of laurel may never rest upon his brow,
but the reward that follows upon the faithful discharge of his duty to
his company he can not be deprived of by any disaster, neglect or
injustice.

He is a small sovereign, powerful and great, within his little domain.

=869. Devolution of Work and Responsibility.= The company commander
should not attempt to do all the work--to look after all the details
in person--he should not try to command directly every squad and every
platoon. The successful company commander is the one who distributes
work among his subordinates and organizes the help they are supposed
to give him. By War Department orders, Army Regulations and customs of
the service, the lieutenants and noncommissioned officers are charged
with certain duties and responsibilities. Let every one of them carry
the full load of their responsibility. The company commander should
not usurp the functions of his subordinates--he should not relieve
them of any of their prescribed or logical work and responsibility. On
the contrary, he should give them more, and he should see that they
"deliver the goods." Skill in distributing work among subordinates is
one of the first essentials of leadership, as is the ability to get
work out of them so that they will fill their functions to the full
within the limits of their responsibility. Not only does devolution of
work and responsibility cause subordinates to take more interest in
their work (it makes them feel less like mere figure-heads), but it
also teaches them initiative and gives them valuable experience in the
art of training and handling men. Furthermore, it enables the company
commander to devote more time to the larger and more important matters
connected with the discipline, welfare, training, instruction and
administration of the company.

The captain who allows his lieutenants to do practically nothing makes
a mistake--he is doing something that will rob his lieutenants of all
initiative, cause them to lose interest in the company, and make them
feel like nonentities--like a kind of "fifth wheel"--it will make them
feel they are not, in reality, a part of the company--it will prevent
them from getting a practical, working knowledge of the government and
administration of a company.

By allowing his lieutenants to participate to the greatest extent
possible in the government and administration of the company, and by
not hampering and pestering them with unnecessary instructions about
details, the captain will get out of his lieutenants the very best
that there is in them.

The captain should require RESULTS from his lieutenants, and the mere
fact that a lieutenant is considered inefficient and unable to do
things properly, is no reason why he should not be required to do
them. The captain is by Army Regulations responsible for the
efficiency and instruction of his lieutenants regarding all matters
pertaining to the company, and he should require them to perform all
their duties properly, resorting to such disciplinary measures as may
be considered necessary. The lieutenant who can not, or who will not,
perform his duties properly is a drag on the company, and such a man
has no business in the Army, or in the Organized Militia.


THE LIEUTENANT

=870.= To be able to perform well the duties of captain when the
responsibility falls upon him, should be the constant study and
ambition of the lieutenant.

He is the assistant of the captain and should be required by the
captain to assist in the performance of all company duties, including
the keeping of records and the preparation of the necessary reports,
returns, estimates and requisitions. The captain should give him lots
to do, and should throw him on his own responsibility just as much as
possible. He should be required to drill the company, attend the daily
inspection of the company quarters, instruct the noncommissioned
officers, brief communications, enter letters in the Correspondence
Book, make out ration returns, reports, muster and pay rolls, etc.,
until he shows perfect familiarity therewith.

Whenever told to do a thing by your captain, do it yourself or see
personally that it is done. Do not turn it over to some
noncommissioned officer and let it go at that. If your captain wants
some noncommissioned officer to do the thing, he himself will tell him
to do it--he will not ask you to do it.

It is customary in the Army to regard the company as the property of
the captain. Should the lieutenant, therefore, be in temporary command
of the company he should not make any changes, especially in the
reduction or promotion of noncommissioned officers without first
having consulted the captain's wishes in the matter.

It is somewhat difficult to explain definitely the authority a
lieutenant exercises over the men in the company when the captain is
present. In general terms, however, it may be stated the lieutenant
can not make any changes around the barracks, inflict any punishment
or put men on, or relieve them from, any duty without the consent of
the captain. It is always better if there be a definite understanding
between the captain and his lieutenants as to what he expects of them,
how he wishes to have certain things done and to what extent he will
sustain them.

If the lieutenant wants anything from the company in the way of
working parties, the services of the company artificer or company
clerk, the use of ordnance stores or quartermaster articles, he should
always speak to the captain about the matter.


THE CAPTAIN AND THE LIEUTENANTS

=871.= The company officers should set an example to their men in
dress, military bearing, system, punctuality and other soldierly
qualities. It should be remembered that the negligence of superiors is
the cue for juniors to be negligent.

If the men of a company are careless and indifferent about saluting
and if they are shabby and lax in their dress, the company commander
is to blame for it--company officers can always correct defects of
this kind, if they will only try.

The character and efficiency of officers and the manner in which they
perform their duties are reflected in the conduct and deportment of
their men.

Of course, courage is a prerequisite quality for a good officer, and
every officer should seek to impress his men that he would direct them
to do nothing involving danger that he would not himself be willing to
do under similar circumstances.

If a company officer be ignorant of his duties, his men will soon find
it out, and when they do they will have neither respect for, nor
confidence in, him.

Company officers should take an active interest in everything that
affects the amusement, recreation, happiness and welfare of their men.

An officer just joining a company should learn without delay the names
of all the men. A roll of the organization should be gotten and
studied.

While an officer can gruffly order a soldier to do a thing and have
his orders obeyed, it should be remembered that, as a rule, human
nature, especially American human nature, responds best to an appeal
to pride, fairness, justice, reason, and the other nobler instincts of
man. It is only in rare instances that the average man will give the
best there is in him under coercion or pressure of authority.

There are but few men who have not some good in them, and this good
can generally be gotten at, if one only goes about it in the right
way. Study your men and try to arouse in them pride and interest in
their work.

The soldier first learns to respect, then to honor and finally to love
the officer who is strict but just; firm but kind--and this is the
officer who will draw out of his men the very best there is in them.

=872.= Treat your men like men, and remember there is nothing that
will so completely take the spirit out of a man as to find fault with
him when he is doing his best.

Young officers sometimes run to one of two extremes in the treatment
of their men--they either, by undue familiarity, or otherwise,
cultivate popularity with the men; or they do not treat them with
sufficient consideration--the former course will forfeit their esteem;
the latter, ensure their dislike, neither of which result is
conducive to commanding their respect.

Treat your soldiers with proper consideration, dignity, and
justice--remember they are members of your profession, the difference
being one of education, rank, command, and pay--but they are men, like
yourself, and should be treated as such.

Under no circumstances should you ever swear at a soldier--not only is
this taking a mean, unfair advantage of your position, but it is also
undignified, ungentlemanly, and unmilitary. It is even more improper
for you to swear at a soldier than it is for a superior to swear at
you--in the latter case the insult can be properly resented; in the
former, it must be borne in humiliating silence.

Remember, that if by harsh or unfair treatment you destroy a man's
self-respect, you at the same time destroy his usefulness.

Familiarity is, of course, most subversive of discipline, but you can
treat your men with sympathetic consideration without being familiar
with them.

In dealing with enlisted men, do not use the same standard of
intellect and morals that apply in the case of officers. And remember,
too, that a thing that may appear small and trivial to an officer may
mean a great deal to an enlisted man--study your men, learn their
desires, their habits, their way of thinking, and then in your
dealings with them try to look at things from their standpoint also.
In other words in your treatment of your men be just as human as
possible.

The treatment of soldiers should be uniform and just, and under no
circumstances should a man be humiliated unnecessarily or abused.
Reproof and punishment must be administered with discretion and
judgment, and without passion; for the officer who loses his temper
and flies into a tantrum has failed to obtain his first triumph in
discipline. He who can not control himself can not control others.

Every officer should study himself carefully, he should analyze
himself, he should place himself under a microscopic glass, so as to
discover his weak points--and he should then try with his whole might
and soul to make these weak points strong points. If, for instance,
you realize that you are weak in applied minor tactics, or that you
have no "bump of locality," or that you have a poor memory, or that
you have a weak will, do what you can to correct these defects in your
make-up. Remember "Stonewall" Jackson's motto: "A man can do anything
he makes up his mind to do."

The Progress Company, Chicago, Ill., publishes "Mind Power," "Memory,"
"The Will," "The Art of Logical Thinking" (all by W. W. Atkinson), and
several other books of a similar nature, that are both interesting and
instructive. "The Power of the Will," by Haddock, for sale by Albert
Lewis Pelton, Meriden, Conn., is an excellent book of its kind.


THE FIRST SERGEANT

=873.= It has been said the captain is the proprietor of the company
and the first sergeant is the foreman.

Under supervision of the captain, he has immediate charge of all
routine matters pertaining to the company.

In some companies in the Regular Army, it is customary for soldiers,
except in cases of emergency, to get permission from the first
sergeant to speak to the company commander at any time. In other
organizations soldiers who wish to speak to the company commander away
from the company quarters must first obtain the first sergeant's
permission, but it is not necessary to get this permission to speak to
the company commander when he is at the barracks.

The first sergeant is sometimes authorized to place noncommissioned
officers in arrest in quarters and privates in confinement in the
guardhouse, assuming such action to be by order of the captain, to
whom he at once reports the facts. However, with regard to the
confinement of soldiers by noncommissioned officers, attention is
invited to the Army Regulations on the subject.


THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS

=(The status, duties, etc., of noncommissioned officers are covered in
greater detail in Noncommissioned Officers' Manual, by the author.
General agents: George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis.)=

=874.= The efficiency and discipline of a company depend to such an
extent on the noncommissioned officers that the greatest care and
judgment should be exercised in their selection. They should be men
possessing such soldierly qualities as a high sense of duty, cheerful
obedience to orders, force of character, honesty, sobriety and
steadiness, together with an intelligent knowledge of drills,
regulations, and orders.

They should exact prompt obedience from those to whom they give
orders, and should see that all soldiers under them perform their
military duties properly. They must not hesitate to reprove them when
necessary, but such reproof must not be any more severe than the
occasion demands.

The company officers must sustain the noncommissioned officers in the
exercise of their authority, except, of course, when such authority is
improperly or unjustly exercised. If they do wrong, they should be
punished the same as the privates, but if it be simply an error of
judgment they should merely be admonished. A noncommissioned officer
should never be admonished in the presence of privates.

Judicious praising of noncommissioned officers in the presence of
privates is not only gratifying to the noncommissioned officer, but it
also tends to enhance the respect and esteem of the privates for him.

In addition to dividing the company into squads, each squad being
under a noncommissioned officer as required by the Army Regulations,
the company should also be divided into sections, each section being
in charge of a sergeant. The squads and sections should, as far as
possible, be quartered together in barracks, and the chiefs of squads
and the chiefs of sections should be held strictly responsible for the
conduct, dress, cleanliness, and the care of arms of the members of
their respective squads and sections. Not only does this throw the
corporals and the sergeants upon their own responsibility to a certain
extent, but it also impresses upon them the importance of their
position, and gets the privates in the habit of realizing and
appreciating the authority exercised by noncommissioned officers.

When practicable, the noncommissioned officers should have separate
rooms or tents, and should mess together at tables separate from the
privates; for, everything that conduces to familiarity with inferiors
tends to lower the dignity of the noncommissioned officers' position.

Throw your noncommissioned officers upon their own
responsibility--throw them into deep water, so to speak, where they
will either have to swim or sink. You can never tell what a man can
really do until you have given him a chance to show you--until you
have put him on his mettle--until you have tried him out. And very
often men who seem to have nothing in them, men who have never before
been thrown upon their own responsibility, will surprise you.

Do all you can to make your noncommissioned officers realize and
appreciate the importance of their position. Consult them about
different matters--get their opinions about various things. When going
through the barracks at Saturday morning inspection, for instance, as
you come to the different squads, have the squad leaders step to the
front and follow you while you are inspecting their respective squads.
If you find anything wrong with a man's bunk, speak to the squad
leader about it. Also ask the squad leaders various questions about
their squads.

Not only does such treatment of noncommissioned officers make them
appreciate the importance, responsibility and dignity of their
position, but it also gives them more confidence in themselves and
raises them in the eyes of the privates.

Noncommissioned officers should always be addressed by their titles,
by both officers and soldiers.

Noncommissioned officers are forbidden by regulations to act as
barbers, or as agents for laundries, or in any other position of a
similar character.

Everything possible should be done by the company officers to instruct
the noncommissioned officers properly in their duties.[8]

So far as the company is concerned, the noncommissioned officers are
expected to assist the company commander in carrying out his own
orders and those of his superiors--they should see that all company
orders are obeyed and that the known wishes of the captain are carried
out. If, for instance, the captain should tell the first sergeant that
the men in the company may play cards among themselves, but that
noncommissioned officers are not to play with privates and that men
from other companies are not allowed to take part in, or to be present
at the games, then it is the duty of the first sergeant to see that
these instructions are carried out--it is his duty to make frequent
inspections of the tables at which the men may be playing to see that
no noncommissioned officers are playing and that no outsiders are
present. The first sergeant who confined himself to publishing the
order to the company and then doing nothing more, would be neglectful
of his proper duty.

Noncommissioned officers clothed in the proper uniform of their grade
are on duty at all times and places for the suppression of disorderly
conduct on the part of members of the company in public places. Men
creating disorder will be sent to their quarters in arrest and the
facts reported to the company commander without delay.

Noncommissioned officers can do much to prevent the commission of
offenses by members of their commands, both when on and when off duty,
and such prevention is as much their duty as reporting offenses after
they are committed; in fact, it is much better to prevent the offense
than to bring the offender to trial.

Company commanders should drill their noncommissioned officers
thoroughly in the principles of discipline.

=875. Noncommissioned Officers Authorized to Confine Enlisted Men.= A
company or detachment commander may delegate to his noncommissioned
officers the authority to confine enlisted men in the guardhouse and
to place them in arrest in quarters, provided the case is immediately
reported to the company or detachment commander, who confirms the act
of the noncommissioned officer and adopts it as his own.--W. D.
decision, December, 1905.

=876. Reduction and Resignation.= A noncommissioned officer should
never be reduced to ranks, except for grave and sufficient reasons.
Nothing demoralizes the noncommissioned officers of a company so much
and upsets discipline to such an extent as the feeling that upon the
slightest pretext or fancy one is to be sent back to the ranks, to
associate with the privates he has been required to discipline.

In some regiments noncommissioned officers are permitted to send in
formal resignations, while in other regiments they are not, but, with
the approval of the company commander, they may ask for reduction,
giving proper, satisfactory and specific reasons. Of course,
resignations submitted in a spirit of accepted insubordination or
pique should not be considered, nor should they ever be in
substitution for deserved disciplinary punishment. If a
noncommissioned officer has good reasons for requesting reduction and
the granting of the request would not result in detriment to the
company, there is no reason why his application should not be
favorably considered. However, in such a case, the noncommissioned
officer should consult his company commander before submitting his
request in writing. It is thought the preponderance of custom is
against considering formal resignations.


Contentment and Harmony

=877.= The officers of the company should do everything possible to
make the organization contented and harmonious. Contentment and
harmony are not only conducive to good discipline and efficiency, but
they also make the government of the company easy and reduce
desertions to a minimum.

The showing of favoritism on the part of the captain is always a cause
of great dissatisfaction amongst the soldiers in the company. Soldiers
do not care how strict the captain is, just so he is fair and
impartial, treating all men alike.

=878. The Mess.= The captain should give the mess his constant
personal attention, making frequent visits to the kitchen and
dining-room while the soldiers are at meals so as to see for himself
what they are getting, how it is served, etc.

It is not saying too much to state that, in time of peace, a good mess
is the real basis of the contentment of a company.

Ascertain what the soldiers like to eat and then gratify their
appetites as far as practicable.

Be careful that the cook or the mess sergeant doesn't fall into a rut
and satiate the soldiers day after day with the same dishes.

Give the ration your personal attention--know yourself what the
company is entitled to, how much it is actually getting, what the
savings amount to, etc.

=879. Library and Amusement Room.= A library and an amusement room,
supplied with good books, magazines, papers, a billiard or pool table,
and a phonograph, are a source of much pleasure and contentment.

=880. Athletic Apparatus.= A judicious investment of the company fund
in baseballs, bats, dumb bells, Indian clubs, boxing gloves and other
athletic goods, and the encouragement of baseball, basketball, quoits,
etc., are in the interest of harmony and happiness.


Rewards and Privileges

=881.= 1. Deny all passes and requests for privileges of men whose
conduct is not good, and on the other hand grant to men whose conduct
is good, as many indulgences as is consistent with discipline.

2. Judicious praise in the presence of the first sergeant, a few
noncommissioned officers, or the entire company, depending upon
circumstances, very often accomplishes a great deal. After the
according of such praise, let your action toward the man show that his
good conduct is appreciated and that it has raised him in your
estimation, and make him feel you are keeping your eye on him to see
whether he will continue in his well doing.

3. Publication of commendatory orders, desirable special duty details,
etc.

4. Promotion, and extra duty details which carry extra pay.

5. Meritorious conduct of importance should be noted in the soldier's
military record and also on his discharge.

6. At the weekly company inspection, each chief of squad picks out the
neatest and cleanest man in his squad--the captain then inspects the
men so selected, the neatest and cleanest one being excused from one
or two tours of kitchen police, or some other disagreeable duty; or
given a two days' pass.

    NOTE: Some officers do not think that good conduct should be
    especially rewarded, but that if all soldiers be held strictly
    accountable for their actions by a system of strict discipline,
    good conduct attains its own reward in the immunities it enjoys.

=882. Company punishment.= It is neither necessary nor desirable to
bring every dereliction of duty before a court-martial for trial. In
fact, the invariable preferring of charges for minor[9] offenses will,
as a rule, injure rather than help the discipline of a command. The
104th Article of War states, "The commanding officer of any
detachment, company, or higher command may, for minor offenses not
denied by the accused, impose disciplinary punishments upon persons of
his command without the intervention of a court-martial, unless the
accused demands trial by court-martial." The disciplinary punishments
authorized may include admonition, reprimand, withholding of
privileges, extra fatigue, and restriction to certain specified
limits, but shall not include forfeiture of pay or confinement under
guard. (Par. 333, Manual for Courts-Martial.)


Some Efficacious Forms of Company Punishment

=883.= 1. Extra fatigue under the Company Supply Sergeant or the
noncommissioned officer in charge of quarters, cleaning up around and
in the company quarters, scrubbing pots, scouring tin pans, polishing
stoves, cutting wood, policing the rears, cutting grass, pulling
weeds, polishing the brass and nickel parts in the water closets and
bath rooms, washing and greasing leather, cleaning guns, boiling
greasy haversacks, and in camp, digging drains and working around slop
holes.

If the work be done well the offender may be let off sooner--if the
work be not done well, he may be tried for it.

2. Men may not be allowed to leave the immediate vicinity of the
barracks for periods ranging from one to ten days, during which time
they are subject to all kinds of disagreeable fatigue, and required to
report to the N. C. O. in charge of quarters at stated hours.

3. Breaking rocks for a given number of days. For every man so
punished, a private of the same company is detailed as a sentinel and
for every four men a corporal is detailed in addition--the idea being
to cause every man in each organization to take an interest in
preventing his own comrades from violating rules and regulations.

4. When two soldiers get into a row that is not of a serious nature, a
good plan is to set them at work scrubbing the barrack windows--one on
the outside and one on the inside, making them clean the same pane at
the same time. They are thus constantly looking in each other's faces
and before the second window is cleaned they will probably be laughing
at each other and part friends rather than nursing their wrath.

5. Confinement to barracks, reporting to the noncommissioned officer
in charge of quarters once every hour, from reveille to, say, 9 P. M.

    NOTE: Some company commanders follow, for moral effect, the
    practice of publishing to their companies all summary court
    convictions of soldiers belonging to the organization.


Withholding of Privileges

1. Withholding of passes and of credit at the post exchange.

2. Withholding of furloughs.

=884. Control of Drunken and Obscene Men.= In order to control drunken
and obscene men, they have been bucked and gagged until sufficiently
sober to regain self-control and quiet down. The use of a cold water
hose in such cases has been known to accomplish good results. Great
care and judgment, however, should be exercised and no more force used
than is absolutely necessary.

It may also be said that persistently filthy men have been washed and
scrubbed.

=885.= Saturday morning and other company inspections are intended to
show the condition of the organization regarding its equipment,
military appearance and general fitness for service, and the
condition of the quarters as regards cleanliness, order, etc. Usually
everyone except the guard, one cook, and others whose presence
elsewhere can not be spared, are required to attend inspections,
appearing in their best clothes, their arms and accouterments being
shipshape and spick and span in every respect.

A man appearing at inspection with arms and equipments not in proper
shape, especially if he be a recruit or if it be his first offense,
may be turned out again several hours later, fully armed and equipped,
for another inspection, instead of being tried by summary court.


Property Responsibility

=886.= Special attention should be given to the care and
accountability of all company property.

1. All property (tents, axes, spades, chairs, hatchets, etc.) should
be plainly marked with the letter of the company.

2. Keep a duplicate copy of every memorandum receipt given for
property, and when such property is turned in or another officer's
memorandum receipt is given covering the property, don't fail to get
your original memorandum from the quartermaster.

3. See that the quartermaster gives you credit for all articles turned
in, or property accounted for on statement of charges, proceedings of
a surveying officer or otherwise.

4. Have a settlement with the quartermaster at the end of every
quarter as required by Army Regulations, taking an inventory of all
property held on memorandum receipt and submitting to the
quartermaster a statement of charges and a certified list of the china
and glassware unavoidably broken during the quarter.

5. Keep an account of all articles issued to the men, turned in to the
quartermaster, condemned, expended, lost, stolen or destroyed.

6. Worn out and unserviceable, property that is beyond repair in the
company should be submitted to the action of a surveying officer, the
Survey Reports (Form No. 196, A. G. O.) being prepared in triplicate,
and submitted to the commanding officer, who will appoint a surveying
officer. No property that can be repaired in the company should ever
be submitted to the action of a surveying officer or inspector. In
this connection company commanders and supply sergeants should be
thoroughly familiar with Ordnance Department pamphlet No. 1965 and G.
O. 26, 1917, the two covering the care, repair and disposition of
unserviceable Ordnance equipment.

7. Property that is to be submitted to the action of a surveying
officer or an inspector should always first be carefully examined by
the responsible officer in person, who should be prepared to give all
necessary information in regard to it.

The property should be arranged in the order of enumeration in the
survey or the inventory report, and should be arranged in rows of
five, ten, or some other number, so that the numbers of the various
articles can be counted at a glance.

The Army Regulations require that the responsible officer shall be
present at the inspection of property by a regular inspector. He
should also be present when property is acted on by a surveying
officer.

8. All company property (Ordnance, Quartermaster, Signal and Engineer)
except the litter (Medical Department) is gotten from the unit supply
officer on memorandum receipt. The litter is gotten from the surgeon
on memorandum receipt. Settlements are required to be made quarterly
with the officers concerned, and also when relinquishing command.


Company Paperwork

=887. Scope of subject.= To cover in full the subject of company
paperwork would require more space than it is practicable to spare in
a manual of this nature, and consequently only brief reference is made
herein to the principal books, records and papers connected with the
administration of a company.

The subject of company paperwork, as well as Army administration in
general, is covered in full in _Army Paperwork_, published by Geo.
Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis. Price $2.00, postpaid.

In connection with company paperwork, it may be remarked that
now-a-days no company office is complete without a typewriter. For
all-around field and garrison work the CORONA, which is used
throughout the Army, is recommended. Not only is it less bulky and
lighter than other machines, but it is simpler of construction and
will stand harder usage. The Corona Folding Stand adds very much to
the convenience of the machine for field use.

=888. Morning Report.= Which shows, at the hour the report is
submitted, the exact condition of the company as to the number of
officers and men present for duty, sick, absent, etc. All changes
since the last report (the day before) are shown by name, under
"Remarks," on the right-hand page, and by number on the left-hand
page. In case of no change since last report, note, "No change,"
under, "Remarks," and also on the left-hand page. (See model given
below.)

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

NOTE. The numbers 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, etc., entered by hand on the left in
model, and which show the number of days from each printed number
(date) to the end of the month, are entered the beginning of each
month, and are a convenience in showing at once the number of rations
to be added or deducted in the case of men joining or leaving the
company.

=889. Daily Sick Report.= On which are entered the names of all
enlisted men requiring medical attention and such of the company
officers as may be excused from duty because of illness. The report is
signed each day by the surgeon and the company commander, and shows
whether or not the sickness was incurred in line of duty.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

=890. Duty Roster.= On which is kept a record of all details for guard
duty, kitchen police, and other details for service in garrison and in
the field, except the authorized special and extra duty details. For
instructions regarding the keeping of roster, see, "Details and
Rosters," Manual of Interior Guard Duty and the Model and instructions
on the form itself.

=891. Files of Orders.= A file will be kept of all orders issued by
the company commander. Files will also be kept of all orders and
instructions received from higher authority.

=892. Company Fund Book.= In which are entered all receipts to, and
expenditures from, the company fund, together with the monthly
proceeding of the Company Council of Administration, and a list of
property, with cost thereof, purchased from the company fund. The
model in the front of the book shows how the account is to be kept.

=893. Correspondence Book, with index.= In which is entered a brief of
each item of correspondence in respect to which a record is necessary,
and a notation of the action taken thereon.

=894. Document File=, being the original documents or communications
when these are retained, and carbon, letter press, or other copies of
letters, indorsements, or telegrams sent in regard to the same, all of
which are filed according to serial numbers.

=895. Delinquency Record=, in which are noted the disciplinary
punishments awarded by the company commander in compliance with the
provisions of Army Regulations.

=896. Property Responsibility.= Two loose-leaf books in which are
listed, in one all articles of quartermaster property, and in the
other, all articles of ordnance property, issued each soldier for his
personal use.

=897. Service Record.= (Formerly known as "Descriptive List.") One for
each member of the company, in which is kept a full description of
him, including date of enlistment, personnel description, record of
deposits, trial by court-martial, record of vaccination, clothing
account, etc.

=898. Descriptive Card of Public Animals.= To be kept in organizations
supplied with public animals.

=899. Retained Copies of Rolls, Returns, etc.= Retained copies of the
various rolls, reports, and returns (property and other) that are
required by orders and regulations.

=900. Memorandum Receipts=, showing all articles of ordnance
quartermaster, and other property that may be held on memorandum
receipt, with date of receipt, from whom received, etc. The company
commander has a quarterly settlement with the staff officers
concerned.

=901. Abstract Record of Memorandum Receipts.= For keeping a record of
property issued on memorandum receipt, in connection with the unit
accountability equipment.

=902. Record of Rifles=, showing the number of the rifle, the Arsenal
where made, date of receipt, to whom issued, and number of shots fired
each target season. (Note. Geo. Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis.,
print an excellent card for this purpose.)

=903. Summary Court Records.= Commanding officers are required to
furnish organization commanders with true copies of all summary court
records relating to men of their organizations, which papers form a
part of the records of the organization.

=904. Statement of Clothing Charged to Enlisted Men.= When clothing is
drawn individually from the quartermaster, the Individual Clothing
Slips are entered on the Statement of Clothing Charged to Enlisted
Men, which is filed with the requisition to which it pertains.

=905. Abstract of Clothing.= All individual clothing slips are entered
on this abstract as the issues are made, the total quantities and
money values being determined and the abstract completed at the end of
month or when the organization leaves the vicinity of the issuing
quartermaster for an extended period. At the close of period covered,
the organization commander compares his copy of the abstract with the
quartermaster's copy, and it is then filed with the Individual
Clothing Slips and Statement of Clothing Charged to Enlisted men.

=906. Record of Size of Clothing.= A record of the sizes of clothing
of every man in the company as ascertained by measurement.

=907. Company Target Records.= An individual record is kept for each
man of the company and for every officer firing, on which are entered
the record rifle practice and the qualification for each target
season. A similar record is kept in the case of those required to fire
with the pistol. Records are also kept of the company combat firing
and the proficiency test, and of the combat practice. The combat
practice records are kept until the close of the following target
season, when they may be destroyed.

=908. Company Return.= On the first day of each month a Company Return
for the preceding month is submitted to regimental headquarters. The
return gives by name all changes since rendition of last return in the
case of officers, and by number all changes in the case of enlisted
men, and shows the condition of the company at midnight of the last
day of the month for which rendered. All officers, present and absent,
are accounted for by name, and under "Record of Events," is given a
brief statement of the duties performed by the company during the
month, including marches made, actions in which engaged, etc. See next
page for a "Model" Company Return.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

=909. Ration return.= In addition to rations, on this form are
obtained soap, candles, matches, toilet paper, rock salt, vinegar for
animals, flour for paste in target practice, towels, and ice, the
allowances of which are prescribed in the Army Regulations.

The best way to show how a ration return is prepared is to give a
"model" and then explain how the figures thereon were obtained.

The figures in the above "model" were obtained as follows:

    (a) The enlisted strength of Co. "H," 50th Inf., present
    and absent according to the morning report of Feb. 29/16,
    was                                                             97

    (b) Deduct from the above the number of men absent
    according to the morning report of Feb. 29/16, and for
    whom rations will not, therefore, be drawn for any part
    or for the whole of the month of March, the number of men
    absent being (assumed) as follows:

      On furlough                                              3
      On detached service                                      2
      Absent sick                                              2
      Absent in confinement                                    1
      Present sick in hospital                                 4
      Attached to and rationed with the band                   2    14
                                                             ---------
        Balance                                                     83

    (c) Add the number of men attached to the company for
    rations, which (it is assumed) consists of two general
    prisoners                                                        2
                                                             ---------
        TOTAL                                                       85

    That is to say, we have 85 men for whom one ration per
    day must be drawn for the month of March, that is to
    say, 31 days.

    Hence, the total number of rations will be,
    85 × 31 = 2635 rations.

    (d) Additions and deductions must be made as follows:

    _Additions_

    For the men who were attached to the company for
    rations    and who joined during the month of February,
    from absent sick, furlough, detached service, etc., and
    which (let us assume) the "Plus" column of "Rations" on
    the company morning report for  February shows to be     150

    _Deductions_

    For the men who left the company during the month of
    February, on account of being sent to the hospital sick,
    going on furlough, etc., and which (let us assume) the
    "Minus" column of "Rations" on the company morning
    report for February shows to be                          200

    Leaving us (a "Net correction") to be _added_ of                50
                                                             ---------
    And making the total number due the company for the
    month of March                                                2585


EXTRA ISSUES

The Army Regulations fixes the maximum allowance of soap, toilet
paper, matches, etc., the commanding officer being authorized, if he
so desires, to determine the allowances, with the prescribed maximum.
The allowances are based either on so much per ration, per so many
rations, or per organization. In the case of candles and matches the
allowance is left entirely to the commanding officer.

[Illustration: Fig. 6: "Model" Ration Return]

    _Example_

    (See "model" ration return above)

    _Soap._ Allowance is 0.64 for each ration or 4 lbs. to 100
    rations. 25.85 × 4 = 103.40, i. e., the company is entitled to 103
    lbs. of soap for the month of March.

    _Toilet paper._ Allowance is 1000 sheets for every 60 rations,
    2585 ÷ 60 = 43+, that is, the company is entitled to 43 packages
    of toilet paper.

    _Matches._ Allowance of matches for lighting fires and lights, for
    which fuel and the illumination supplies are issued, is such as
    the commanding officer may order as necessary.

    _Flour._ Allowance of flour for paste used in target practice is
    50 lbs. for each troop or company for the practice season.


FOOTNOTES:

[8] Silicate Roll Blackboards, which are perfectly flexible and can be
rolled tightly, like a map, without injury, may be obtained from the
New York Silicate Book Slate Co., 20 Vesey St., New York. They are
made in various sizes, about the most convenient for use in
noncommissioned officers' schools is No. 3, three by four feet--price
$2.

[9] For example, noisy or disorderly conduct in quarters, failure to
salute officers, slovenly dressed at formations, rifle equipments not
properly cleaned at inspection or other formations, overstaying pass,
short absences without leave and absences from formations (especially
for first offense).



CHAPTER II

DISCIPLINE


=910. Definition.= Discipline is not merely preservation of order,
faithful performance of duty, and prevention of offenses--in other
words, discipline is not merely compliance with a set of rules and
regulations drawn up for the purpose of preserving order in an
organization. This is only one phase of discipline. In its deeper and
more important sense discipline may be defined as the habit of
instantaneous and instinctive obedience under any and all
circumstances--it is the habit whereby the very muscles of the soldier
instinctively obey the word of command, so that under whatever
circumstances of danger or death the soldier may hear that word of
command, even though his mind be too confused to work, his muscles
will obey. It is toward this ultimate object that all rules of
discipline tend. In war, the value of this habit of instantaneous and
instinctive obedience is invaluable, and during the time of peace
everything possible should be done to ingrain into the very blood of
the soldier this spirit, this habit, of instantaneous, instinctive
obedience to the word of command.

=911. Methods of Attaining Good Discipline.= Experience shows that
drill, routine, military courtesy, attention to details, proper
rewards for good conduct, and invariable admonition or punishment of
all derelictions of duty, are the best methods of attaining good
discipline--that they are the most effective means to that end.

=912. Importance.= History shows that the chief factor of success in
war is discipline, and that without discipline no body of troops can
hold their own against a well-directed, well-disciplined force.

=913. Sound System.= We must bear in mind that what may be considered
a sound system of discipline at one epoch or for one nation, may be
inapplicable at another epoch or for another nation. In other words,
sound discipline depends upon the existing state of civilization and
education, the political institutions of the country, the national
trait and the national military system. For example, the system of
discipline that existed in the days of Frederick the Great, and which,
in modified form, exists today in certain European armies, whereby the
soldier was so inured to a habit of subjection that he became a sort
of machine--a kind of automaton. Such a system of discipline, while
answering admirably well its purpose at that time and for those
nations, would not do at all in this day and generation, and with a
people like ours, in whom the spirit of personal freedom and
individual initiative are born. Of course, the discipline that will
insure obedience under any and all conditions--the discipline that
will insure prompt and unhesitating obedience to march, to attack, to
charge--is just as important today as it was a thousand years ago, but
we can not attain it by the machine-making methods of former times.
The system we use must be in keeping with the national
characteristics of our people and the tactical necessities of the day,
the latter requiring individual initiative. According to the old
system, the company commander imposed his will upon a body of
submissive units; under the new system the company commander, backed
by authority and greater knowledge, leads obedient, willing units,
exacting ready obedience and loyal coöperation. The company commander
used to drive; now he leads.

=914. Means of attaining and maintaining such discipline.=

1. Explain to the men the importance of discipline and its value on
the field of battle, and give the reasons that makes it necessary to
subject soldiers to restrictions that they were not subjected to in
civil life.

2. Do not impose unnecessary restrictions or hardships on your men,
nor issue orders that have no bearing on their efficiency, health,
cleanliness, orderliness, etc.

3. Demand a high standard of excellence in the performance of all
duties whatsoever, and exact the utmost display of energy.

A system of discipline based on the above principles develops habits
of self-control, self-reliance, neatness, order, and punctuality, and
creates respect for authority and confidence in superiors.

=915. Punishment.= In maintaining discipline, it must be remembered
the object of punishment should be two-fold: (a) To prevent the
commission of offenses, and (b) to reform the offender. Punishment
should, therefore, in degree and character depend upon the nature of
the offense. Punishment should not be debasing or illegal, and the
penalty should be proportionate to the nature of the offense. If too
great, it tends to arouse sympathy, and foster friends for the
offender, thus encouraging a repetition of the offense. A distinction,
therefore, should be made between the deliberate disregard of orders
and regulations, and offenses which are the result of ignorance or
thoughtlessness. In the latter case the punishment should be for the
purpose of instruction and should not go to the extent of inflicting
unnecessary humiliation and discouragement upon the offender.


General Principles

=916.= In the administration of discipline the following principles
should be observed.

1. Everyone, officers and soldiers, should be required and made to
perform their full duty. If the post commander, for instance, requires
the company commanders to do their full duty, they will require their
noncommissioned officers to do their full duty, and the
noncommissioned officers will in turn require the men to do the same.

2. Subordinates should be held strictly responsible for the proper
government and administration of their respective commands, and all
changes or corrections should be made through them.

3. Subordinates should have exclusive control of their respective
commands, and all orders, instructions and directions affecting their
commands should be given through them.

4. If, in case of emergency, it be not practicable to make certain
changes or corrections, or to give certain orders, instructions or
directions, through the subordinates, they should be notified at once
of what has been done.

5. After a subordinate has been placed in charge of a certain duty,
all instructions pertaining thereto should be given through him, and
all meddling and interfering should be avoided. Interference by
superiors relieves the subordinate of responsibility, and causes him
to lose interest, become indifferent, and do no more than he is
obliged to do.

6. The certainty of reward for, and appreciation of, meritorious
conduct, should equal the certainty of punishment for dereliction of
duty.

7. It is the duty of an officer or noncommissioned officer who gives
an order to see that it is obeyed; carrying out orders received by him
does not end with their perfunctory transmission to subordinates--this
is only a small part of his duty. He must personally see that the
orders so transmitted are made effective.

8. The treatment of soldiers should be uniform and just, and under no
circumstances should a man be humiliated unnecessarily or abused.
Reproof and punishment must be administered with discretion and
judgment, and without passion; for an officer or noncommissioned
officer who loses his temper and flies into a tantrum has failed to
obtain his first triumph in discipline. He who can not control himself
can not control others.

9. Punishment should invariably follow dereliction of duty, for the
frequency of offenses depends, as a general rule, on the degree of
certainty with which their commission is attended with punishment.
When men know that their derelictions and neglects will be observed
and reproved, they will be much more careful than they would be
otherwise--that's human nature.

A strict adherence to the above general principles will instill into
the minds of those concerned, respect for authority and a spirit of
obedience.



PART III

MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO COMPANY TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION



CHAPTER I

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF COMPANY TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION[10]


=917. Object of Training and Instruction.= The object of training and
instructing a company is to thoroughly knit together its different
parts, its various elements (individuals, squads and platoons), into a
complete, homogeneous mass, a cohesive unit, that will under any and
all conditions and circumstances respond to the will of the captain--a
cohesive unit that knows how to march, that knows how to live properly
in camp, that knows how to fight and that can be readily handled
tactically on the field of battle. In short, the object of training
and instruction is to make out of the company an efficient, wieldy
fighting weapon, to be manipulated by the captain. There is but one
way this object can be obtained, and that is by work, work, work--and
then more work--by constant care, attention and pains--by coöperation,
by team work, among the officers, the noncommissioned officers and the
privates.

=918. Method and Progression.= Arrangement is an essential of sound
teaching. Training and instruction in order to be easily understood
and readily assimilated--in order to give the greatest results in the
shortest time--must be carried on according to a methodical and
progressive plan. Each subject or subjects upon a knowledge of which
depend the proper understanding and mastering of another, should be
studied and mastered before taking up the other subject, and the
elementary and simpler aspects of a given subject must be mastered
before taking up the higher and more difficult phases of the subject,
which means that individual training and instruction must precede, and
provide a sound foundation for, collective training and
instruction--that is to say, for the higher tactical training and
instruction of the company as a unit. These basic, fundamental
principles of successful training and instruction apply to practical
as well as theoretical training. For instance, in the subject of
entrenchments we would first instruct the men individually in the use
of the tools and in the construction and use of the trenches, after
which we would pass on to the tactical use of entrenchments by the
company. Also, in training and instructing the company in fire
discipline, we would first explain to the men the power and tactical
value of the rifle, and instruct them in their duties on the firing
line as regards adjustment of sights, attention to commands, economy
of ammunition, etc.; we would explain to the platoon commanders and
guides their duties as regards control of fire, enforcement of fire
discipline, etc., after which we would practice the company as a unit
in fire action, and fire control, ending up with an exercise showing
the tactical application of the rules and principles explained. And
again, in the training and instruction of the company in the attack,
we would first train and instruct the company in all the formations
and operations that naturally precede an attack (patrolling, outposts,
advance guard, rear guard), and also in those that form an inherent
part of an attack (extended order, field firing, use of cover, etc.).

=919. Program.= The training and instruction of a company, whether
practical or theoretical, should be carried on in accordance with a
fixed, definite program, in which the subjects are arranged in a
natural, progressive order.

=920. Simultaneous Instruction and Training.= The next question that
presents itself is: Should instruction and training in each branch be
completed before proceeding to the next, or should instruction and
training be carried on simultaneously in two or more different
subjects, as one, for example, are taught mathematics, French and
history at the same time, a different hour of the day being devoted to
each subject? In other words, should we, for instance, devote one hour
of the day to attack, one hour to defense, and one hour to the service
of security, thus preventing the soldier from getting weary of doing
the same thing that whole day? Our answer is:

1st. If the instruction and training is being given on the ground
where the application of the principles of any given subject is varied
so much by the type of the ground and the nature of the situation,
each type of ground affording a different solution of the problem, it
is thought the best results can be obtained by finishing each subject
before proceeding to the next, thus not losing the "atmosphere" of one
subject by switching to the next, and also confusing the minds of the
men with different principles.

2nd. However, if the instruction and training be theoretical and the
time available each day be several hours, better results can be
obtained by studying two or more subjects simultaneously. This would
also be the case if the work be practical, but if it be such that the
type of the ground and the nature of the situation will not of
themselves afford variety in the application of the same principles.

=921. Responsibility.= The Army Regulations and War Department orders
hold the company commander responsible for the training and
instruction of the company. The subject is a most important one and
should receive serious thought and study. Before admonishing one of
your men for not knowing a subject, always ask yourself, "Have I made
an effort to teach it to him?"

=922. Interest.= Special effort should be made to make the training
and instruction of the company interesting, so that the work will not
become monotonous and irksome, and thus cause the men to lose interest
and get stale. To accomplish this, these points should be borne in
mind:

_Variety._ Inject variety into the work. Do not keep the men too long
at one thing.

_Clearness._ Every exercise, lesson or lecture should have in view a
well-defined object, the meaning and importance of which must be
explained to, and understood by, the men at the beginning of the
exercise, lesson or lecture. In other words, at the beginning, explain
the main, governing idea of the subject, and then take pains to
explain in a simple, conversational way each phase as you come to it.
Give the reasons for everything. You can not expect men to take an
interest in things the meaning of which they do not understand and the
reason for which they do not see. Make sure by asking questions of
different ones as you go along that your explanations are understood.

_Thoroughness._ Every lecture, talk, drill or exercise should be
carefully planned and arranged beforehand. Remember, that the men who
are going to listen to your talk--the men who are going to go through
the exercise--have the right to expect this of you, and you have no
right to compel them to listen to lots of disconnected, half-baked
statements, or make them go through a disjointed exercise or drill. In
the case of tactical exercises always, if practicable, visit and
examine the terrain beforehand. Of course, all this will mean
work--additional work--but remember the government pays you to work.

_Reality._ Make all practical work as real as possible--do not permit
the commission of absurdities--do not let men do things which
manifestly they would not be able to do in actual practice--and you
yourself be sure to make your exercises and tactical scheme as like
real conditions of warfare as possible.

=923. Individual Initiative.= The effective range and great power of
modern firearms cause troops in battle to be spread out over large
areas, thus decentralizing control over men and operations, and
consequently increasing the value and importance of individual
initiative. The company commander should, therefore, practice,
accustom and encourage the privates, noncommissioned officers and
lieutenants in the development and exercise of individual initiative
and responsibility. This should be borne in mind in all training and
instruction.

Officers, noncommissioned officers and privates must not "lay down"
just because they have no specific orders. Remember, the one thing
above all others that counts in war, is =action, initiative=. Indeed,
'tis better to have acted and lost than never to have acted at all.
Listen to what the Chief of Staff of the Army has to say about this in
the preface to the Field Service Regulations: "Officers and men of all
ranks and grades are given a certain independence in the execution of
the tasks to which they are assigned and are expected to show
initiative in meeting the different situations as they arise. Every
individual, from the highest commander to the lowest private, must
always remember that inaction and neglect of opportunities will
warrant more severe censure than an error in the choice of means."

=924. Determination and Individual Intelligence.= While the value of
discipline can hardly be overestimated, there are two other factors in
battle that are fully as important, if not more so, and they are,
=determination= to win, and =individual intelligence=, which, in war,
as in all other human undertakings, almost invariably spell success.
Therefore, make these two factors one of the basic principles of the
instruction and training of the company, and do all you can to instill
into your men a spirit of determination, and to develop in them
individual intelligence. Every human being has in his soul a certain
amount of determination, even though it be only enough to determine
upon the small things of life. Some people are born with more
determination than others, but it is a mistake to suppose that a man
must remain through life with the same amount of determination that he
brought into it. The attributes of the human mind, such as
determination, bravery, ambition, energy, etc., are all capable of
improvement and also of deterioration. It is essential therefore, for
us to endeavor by all means in our power to improve our strength of
character--our determination. It is, of course, useless for us to
learn the art of war if we have not sufficient determination, when we
meet the enemy, to apply the principles we have studied. There is no
reason, however, why every officer, noncommissioned officer and
private should not improve his determination of character by careful
training in peace. It can only be done by facing the difficulties,
thoroughly understanding the dangers, and asking ourselves repeatedly
whether we are prepared to face the ordeal in war. Let us not think,
in a vague sort of a way, that in war we shall be all right and do as
well as most people. We know that we are not gifted with tremendous
personal courage, and we know that, whatever happens, we shall not run
away. But that is not enough. We must train ourselves to understand
that in the hour of trial we can harden our hearts, that we can assume
the initiative, and retain it by constant advance and constant attack;
unless we can fill our hearts with the determination to win, we can
not hope to do our full duty on the field of battle and acquit
ourselves with credit.

=925. The Human Element.= No system of training and instruction that
does not take into account human nature, can be thoroughly effective.
The human element probably enters into war more than it does into any
other pursuit. The old idea of turning a human being into a machine,
by means of discipline, and making him dread his captain more than the
enemy, died long ago, especially with the American people. In modern
war success depends to a great extent upon the initiative, the
individual action of the soldier and this action is greatly influenced
by the soldier's state of mind at the moment, by the power that can be
exercised over his mind by his comrades and those leading him. The
company commander should, therefore, study the characteristics of the
human mind with the object of ascertaining how he can influence the
men under his command, so that in battle those human attributes which
are favorable to success, may be strengthened and those which are
favorable to defeat may be weakened. Of the former, courage,
determination, initiative, respect, cheerfulness, comradeship,
emulation and esprit de corps, are the principal ones; of the latter,
fear, surprise, disrespect, and dejection, are the leading ones. By
means of good, sound discipline, we can create, improve and foster the
qualities mentioned that are favorable to success, and we can
eliminate to a considerable extent, if not entirely, those that are
detrimental to success.

=926. Fear.= The emotion of fear acts more powerfully upon the
feelings of the individual soldier than any other emotion, and it is
also probably the most infectious. Fear in a mild form is present in
every human being. Nature wisely put it there, and society could not
very well get along without it. For example, we stop and look up and
down a crowded street before starting to cross, for fear of being run
over; in going out in the cold we put on our overcoats, for fear of
catching cold. In fact, we hardly do anything in life without taking
a precaution of some kind. These are all examples of reasonable fear,
which, within bounds is a perfectly legitimate attribute of a soldier
in common with other human beings. For example, we teach the men to
take advantage of cover when attacking, and we dig trenches when on
the defense, in both cases for fear of being shot by the enemy. It is
the unreasoning type of fear that plays havoc in war, and the most
deadly and common form of it is a vague, indefinite, nameless dread of
the enemy. If the average man was to analyze his feelings in war and
was to ask himself if he were actually afraid of being killed, he
would probably find that he was not. The ordinary soldier is prepared
to take his chance, with a comfortable feeling inside him, that,
although no doubt a number of people will be killed and wounded, he
will escape. If, then, a man is not unreasonably afraid of being
killed or wounded, is it not possible by proper training and
instruction to overcome this vague fear of the enemy? Experience shows
that it is. If a soldier is suffering from this vague fear of the
enemy, it will at least be a consolation to him to know that a great
many other soldiers, including those belonging to the enemy, are
suffering in a similar manner, and that they are simply experiencing
one of the ordinary characteristics of the human mind. If the soldier
in battle will only realize that the enemy is just as much afraid of
him as he is of the enemy, reason is likely to assert itself and to a
great extent overcome the unpleasant feelings inside him. General
Grant, in his Memoirs, relates a story to the effect that in one of
his early campaigns he was seized with an unreasonable fear of his
enemy, and was very much worried as to what the enemy was doing, when,
all at once, it dawned upon him that his enemy was probably worrying
equally as much about what he, Grant, was doing, and was probably as
afraid as he was, if not even more so, and the realization of this
promptly dispelled all of his, Grant's, fear. Confidence in one's
ability to fight well will also do much to neutralize fear, and if a
soldier knows that he can shoot better, march better, and attack
better, than his opponent, the confidence of success that he will, as
a result, feel will do much to dispel physical fear. By sound and
careful training and instruction make your men efficient and this
efficiency will give them confidence in themselves, confidence in
their rifles, confidence in their bayonets, confidence in their
comrades and confidence in their officers.

The physical methods of overcoming fear in battle are simply to direct
the men's minds to other thoughts by giving them something for their
bodies and limbs to do. It is a well-known saying that a man in battle
frequently regains his lost courage by repeatedly firing off his
rifle, which simply means that his thoughts are diverted by physical
movements. This is no doubt one of the reasons why the attack is so
much more successful in war than the defense, because in the attack
the men are generally moving forward and having their minds diverted
by physical motion from this vague dread of the enemy.

=927. Courage.= Courage, like all other human characteristics, is very
infectious, and a brave leader who has no fear of the enemy will
always get more out of his men than one who is not so well equipped in
that respect. However, it is a well-known fact that a man may be
brave far above his fellows in one calling or occupation, and
extremely nervous in another. For example, a man may have greatly
distinguished himself in the capture of a fort, who would not get on a
horse for fear of being kicked off. Courage of this kind is induced
chiefly by habit or experience--the man knows the dangers and how to
overcome them, he has been through similar experiences before and he
has come out of them with a whole skin. This type of courage can be
developed by careful training during peace, and it can be increased by
self-confidence--by so training the soldier that he knows and feels he
will know what to do in any emergency which may arise, and how to do
it; he will not be surprised by the unexpected event, which invariably
occurs, and he will understand others besides himself are being
troubled by unpleasant feelings, which it is his duty as a man and a
soldier to overcome.

=928. Surprise.= Surprise may be said to be the mother of a panic,
which is the worst form of fear. In such a case unreasoning fear
sometimes turns into temporary insanity. Panic is most infectious,
but, on the other hand, a panic can often be averted or stayed by the
courageous action of one or more individuals, who can thus impose
their will on the mass and bring the people to a reasonable state of
mind. =Teach every man in the company that when surprised the only
hope of success is to obey at once and implicitly the orders of his
immediate commander.=

Surprises in war are not limited to the ordinary acceptance of the
term, such as a sudden attack from an unexpected direction. The
soldier who goes into battle, for instance, and hears the whiz of a
bullet, or sees a shell burst in front of him, is surprised if he has
not been taught in peace that these things have to be faced, and that
for one bullet that hurts anyone thousands have to be fired.
Similarly, a man sees a comrade knocked over; the horrors of war are
immediately brought to him, and his courage begins to ebb--he has been
surprised, because he has not realized in peace that men are bound to
be killed in war. The whole atmosphere of the battlefield is a
surprise to the average soldier with no previous experience--the enemy
is everywhere, behind every bush, and lurking in every bit of cover,
the air is full of bullets, and any advance towards the
formidable-looking position held by the enemy is suicidal. However, if
the soldier is properly trained and instructed in peace, he will not
be greatly surprised at his novel surroundings; he will know that the
enemy is not everywhere, and that one bullet sounds much more
dangerous than it really is. A bullet sounds quite close when it is
fifty yards away, and there is a popular saying that a man's weight in
lead is fired for every man that is killed in war.

=929. Respect.= It is a mistake to imagine that all that is required
from a soldier is respect to his officers and noncommissioned
officers. Self-respect is fully as important. A soldier is a human
being; if he possesses self-respect he will respect all that is good
in his comrades, and they will respect all that is good in him. A man
who respects himself knows how to respect other people. These are the
men that form the backbone of the company, and are the best material
on which to work in order to raise the general standard of courage in
Battle. From a purely military point of view, it is absolutely
necessary for an officer, noncommissioned officer, or private to
possess some marked military qualifications in order to gain respect
from others.

This respect engenders confidence in others. Self-respect in the
individual can be encouraged, not by fulsome praise, but by a quiet
appreciation of the good military qualities displayed by him, and by
making use of those qualities whenever an opportunity occurs. For
example, if a soldier is seen to do a good piece of scouting or
patrolling, the first opportunity should be taken to give him a
similar task, if possible in a more responsible position or on a more
important occasion. Knowledge is a powerful factor in creating
respect, and is probably second only to determination of character. It
is essential, therefore, that all officers and noncommissioned
officers should have a thorough knowledge of their duties--that they
should be "on to their jobs."

=930. Cheerfulness.= Cheerfulness is a valuable military asset in war,
and like all other characteristics of the human being, is very
infectious, and in times of depression, such as during a long siege,
or after the failure of an attack, it does more than anything else to
restore the fighting power of the men.

=931. Contentment.= Contentment amongst troops in war is dependent
upon these main factors: good leading, good food, and sufficient
shelter and sleep. Of these, good leading is by far the most
important, because it has been proved time and again that badly fed
and badly quartered troops, who have suffered great hardships, will
still be content and will fight in the most gallant and vigorous
manner, provided they are well led. Although good leading emanates in
the first instance from the highest military authorities, a great deal
depends upon the company officers and noncommissioned officers. A good
leader as a rule is careful of the comforts of his men; he obtains the
best food and best shelter available, he does not wear out the men by
unnecessary movements or unnecessary work, either in the field or in
camp, and consequently when he does order them to do anything they
know at once that it is necessary and they do it cheerfully.

=932. Comradeship.= Comradeship is a very valuable military
characteristic. What a world of meaning there is in the words, "Me and
my bunkie." A soldier may have many acquaintances and a number of
friends, but he has but one "bunkie." In times of great danger two men
who are "bunkies" will not shirk so easily as two independent men. The
best in one man comes out to the surface and dominates any bad
military points in the other. They can help each other in countless
ways in war, and if one is unfortunately killed or wounded, the other
will probably do his best to get even with the enemy at the earliest
possible opportunity. This spirit may not be very Christianlike, but
it is very human and practical, and helps to win battles, and to win
battles is the only reason why soldiers go to war.


ART OF INSTRUCTION ON THE GROUND

=933. Advantages.= Whenever practicable, training and instruction
should, in whole or in part, be imparted on the ground, as this gives
the instruction a practical aspect that is most valuable, and enables
the soldier to grasp and apply principles that he would not otherwise
understand. Knowledge that a man can not apply has no value.

=934. Different Methods.= Instruction on the ground may be given
according to one of these three methods:

_1st Method._ By means of a talk or lecture prepare the minds of the
men for the reception and retention of the subject to be explained
later on the ground. In other words, first explain the principles of
the subject and then put a "clincher" on the information thus imparted
by taking the men to some suitable ground, assuming certain situations
and then by quizzing different men see how they would apply the
principles just explained in the talk or lecture. For example, after a
lecture on the selection of fire-positions take the men to some
suitable nearby place and explain to them that the company is
attacking toward that house and is being fired upon from that
direction. Then continue:

=Captain:= Remember what I told you about the selection of good
fire-positions during the advance. We want to use our rifles with
effect, so we must be able to see the position of the enemy. On the
other hand, we want to avoid being hit ourselves, if possible; so, we
would like to get as much cover as possible. Now, Smith, do you think
where we are at present standing is a good place for a fire-position?

=Smith:= No, sir.

=Captain:= Why not?

=Smith:= We can see the enemy from here, but he can see us better than
we can see him, and can hit us easier than we can hit him.

=Captain:= Jones, can you choose a better place, either to the front
or rear of where we are now standing?

=Jones:= I would choose a position along that row of bushes, about
fifty yards to the front.

=Captain:= Why?

=Jones:= Because, etc., etc.

Twenty minutes' instruction in this manner, after a lecture, will
firmly fix in the brains of the men the principles explained in the
lecture.

It is a good plan to repeat the salient points of the lecture in the
questions, as was done in the first question asked above, or to do so
in some other way.

If a man can not give an answer, or choose a suitable place, explain
the requirements again and help him to use his common sense.

_2d Method._ By practicing the men on the ground in the subject about
which the talk or lecture was delivered.

_3d Method._ This may be called the ocular demonstration method, which
consists in having a part of the company go through the exercise or
drill, while the rest of the company observes what is being done. This
method is illustrated by the following example:

=935. Attack.= The company commander has just delivered a talk to the
company on the second stage of the attack, and has marched the company
to a piece of ground suitable for practicing this particular
operation, and which the company commander has himself visited
beforehand (The ground should always be visited beforehand by the
company commander, who should be thoroughly familiar with it. If
possible, ground suitable for practicing the operation in question
should always be selected.) The operation should begin about 1200
yards from the enemy's position. After pointing out the enemy's
position to the company, the particular part of his line it is
intended to assault and the direction the company is to advance, the
company commander would then proceed something like this: "We are part
of a battalion taking part in a battle, and there are companies to our
right and left, with a support and reserve in our rear. So far we have
been advancing over ground that is exposed to hostile artillery fire
(or not exposed to hostile artillery fire, according to the actual
country). We have just come under the enemy's infantry fire also, and
consequently we must change our method of advancing. Our immediate
object is to get forward, without expending more ammunition than is
absolutely necessary, to a position close enough to the enemy to
enable us to use our rifles with such deadly effect that we will be
able to gain a superiority of fire. Now, is this place sufficiently
close for the purpose? No, it is not--it's entirely too far away. Is
that next ridge just in front of us close enough? No, it is not; it is
at least 1,000 yards from the enemy's position. As a rule, we must get
from eight to six hundred yards from the enemy's position before the
real struggle for superiority of fire begins.

"The following are the main points to which attention must be paid
during this part of the advance:

"1. We must halt in good fire position from which we can see and fire
at the enemy, and from which we can not be seen very clearly.

"2. We must advance very rapidly over any open ground that is exposed
to the enemy's artillery or rifle fire.

"3. We must find halting places, if possible under cover, or under the
best cover available, so as to avoid making our forward rushes so long
that the men will get worn out, and begin to straggle long before they
get close enough to the enemy to use their rifles with deadly effect.

"4. Whenever possible, company scouts should be sent on ahead to
select fire-positions."

Of course, the above points will have been explained already in the
lecture, but this short summary is given in order to focus the minds
of the men upon the action that must be taken by the privates, and
squad leaders and the platoon commanders.

We now take one platoon and the remainder of the company looks on. The
platoon commander is reminded that he is under artillery and infantry
fire, and is then directed to advance, in proper formation, to the
first fire-position available.

We will suppose there is a gentle slope up to the next ridge or
undulation of the ground, and that there are no obstructions to the
view except those afforded by the ground itself. The platoon now
advances, the captain remaining with the rest of the company, pointing
out mistakes as well as good points, and asking the men questions,
such as:

=Captain:= Corporal Smith, should the whole platoon have gone forward
together, or would it have been better to advance by squads?

=Corporal Smith:= I think it should have advanced by squads.

=Captain:= No, it was all right to advance as they did. At this
distance the enemy's infantry fire would not be very deadly, the
platoon is well extended as skirmishers, it would take considerably
longer to go forward to the next position by successive squads and we
want to advance at this stage as rapidly as possible; for, the longer
we took, the longer would the men be exposed to fire, and consequently
the greater would be the number of casualties.

=Captain:= Sergeant Jones, why did the platoon advance at a run when
moving down the slope, and begin to walk just before reaching the foot
of the slope?

=Sergeant Jones:= Because the slope is exposed and it was necessary to
get over it as quickly as possible. They began to walk just before
reaching the foot of the slope, because they struck dead ground and
were covered from the enemy's fire by the ridge in front.

=Captain:= Corporal Adams, shouldn't the platoon have halted when it
reached cover, so as to give the men a rest?

=Corporal Adams:= No, sir; the men had not run very far and walking
gave them sufficient rest. It would have been an unnecessary loss of
time to halt.

=Captain:= Harris, why did that man run on ahead as soon as the
platoon halted?

=Pvt. Harris:= So he could creep up the crest of the ridge and lie
down in exactly the spot that is the best fire-position--that is,
where he can just see to fire over the crest and where the enemy can
not see him.

=Captain:= Yes, that's right. All the men in the platoon might not
stop at the best fire-position and in the hurry and excitement of the
moment the platoon commander might also fail to do so, but if a man
goes forward and lies down, the whole platoon knows that they must not
go beyond him. Individual men who, owing to slight undulations of
ground, may not be able to fire when they halt in line with this man,
can creep up until they can see. Others who, for the same reason as
regards the ground, find that if they get up on a line with the man
they will be unduly exposed, will halt before that time.

=Captain:= Sergeant Roberts, is it necessary for another platoon to
provide covering fire during the advance of the platoon?

=Sergeant Roberts:= No sir. At this range the enemy's infantry fire
would not be very effective, and it is important to husband our
ammunition for the later stages of the attack.

Having asked any other questions suggested by the situation or the
ground, the captain will then take the rest of the company forward
over the ground covered by the platoon, halting at the place where the
platoon changed its pace from a rush to a walk, so that the men can
see for themselves that cover from fire has been reached. He will then
move the rest of the company forward and tell them to halt and lie
down in what each man considers to be the best fire-position, not
necessarily adopting the same position as that chosen by the leading
platoon. The platoon commanders will then go along their platoons and
point out any mistakes.

The leading platoon will now join the company and another platoon will
be deployed in the fire position, the platoon commander being directed
to advance to the next fire-position.

As we are now about 1,000 yards from the enemy's position the question
will again arise as to whether covering fire is necessary.

If the enemy's rifle fire were heavy and accurate it might be
necessary, but it should be avoided if possible, on account of the
expenditure of ammunition.

We will suppose that the ground falls gently towards the enemy and is
very exposed to view for about 300 yards, and half this distance away
there is a low bank running parallel to the front of the attack and
with a small clump of three or four trees on the bank directly in
front of the platoon. Four hundred yards away is the bottom of the
valley covered with bushes and shrubs. On the far side the ground
rises with small undulations and low foot hills to the high ground
occupied by the enemy.

There appears to be no marked fire-position which will afford any
cover except the bank 150 yards away. The second platoon advances in
the same manner as did the first and the captain with the commanders
of the remaining platoons will continue to ask questions and point out
what has been done right or wrong by the leading platoon. The first
question which will arise is whether the platoon can reach the fire
position offered by the bank in one rush, and secondly, whether the
bank is a good fire-position. A former question will again crop up as
to whether the whole platoon should go forward at once or whether the
advance should be made by squads.

A hundred and fifty yards is a long way to advance without a halt, and
if a halt is made on such exposed ground fire must be opened. Probably
three advances, each of about fifty yards, would be made, covering
fire being provided by the other platoons, which will be occupying the
fire-position which the leading platoon has just left. This covering
fire would not endanger the leading platoon as it would be delivered
from just behind the crest and the leading platoon would be over the
crest and out of sight and therefore out of fire from the platoon in
rear.

The selection of a fire-position during this advance would depend upon
very minute folds of the ground, or very low bushes, grass, etc.,
which might give a certain amount of cover from view, and therefore
make it difficult for the enemy to aim or range accurately. We will
suppose that the leading platoon has halted to fire about fifty yards
in front, the remaining platoons, in turn, should then be taken
forward, examining the ground very carefully as they go, and each
platoon commander asked to halt his platoon in what he considers to be
the best place.

The possibility of using a scout to select a fire-position would be
considered, and a fire-position selected by one platoon would be
compared with that selected by another.

The third platoon would then lead during the advance to the next
fire-position, and so on with the fourth platoon, if necessary, until
the bank was reached. The bank will afford a good deal of material for
discussion. Is it a good fire-position or is it not, should it be
occupied as such or should it be avoided altogether?

If we ask an artillery officer his opinion about the matter, he will
tell us that by means of the clump of trees the defenders' artillery
will be able to range with absolute accuracy on that bank. The
direction of the bank is parallel to their front, and therefore they
can fire at any part of it for some distance right and left of the
clump without materially altering their range, and if any infantry
occupy the bank they can bring a very deadly fire to bear against
them.

There appears to be no doubt, from an artillery point of view, that
our platoon should avoid occupying it and get out of its neighborhood
as rapidly as possible.

There is another drawback as regards the bank: it is some 850 yards
from the enemy's position and may be expected to be under an effective
rifle fire. It is no doubt a good mark for the enemy, and, now we come
to the crux of the whole matter; his artillery and infantry fire might
not do us much damage so long as we remain behind the bank, but they
might make it very unpleasant for us directly we try to leave this
cover and advance further.

Before finally deciding what to do we must consider human nature,
which is entirely in favor of halting behind the bank, and if allowed
to remain there long, will be opposed to leaving it. We cannot hope to
gain superiority of fire over the enemy at a range of 850 yards, so
that a long halt at the bank is out of the question. But it appears to
be an extraordinary thing, when we are searching everywhere for cover,
that we should be doubtful about occupying such good cover when we
find it.

If we decide not to occupy it, the logical conclusion is that, when
preparing a position for defense, we should construct a good
fire-position for the attack some 850 yards away, which is the last
thing we should think of doing.

There is no doubt about it, that with badly-trained troops such a
fire-position would be liable to become a snare, and that if they once
occupied it, there would be great difficulty in getting them forward
again, and probably the attack would be brought to a standstill at a
critical time.

The answer appears to be found in the simple solution of good
training. We must teach our men that when they get into such positions
they must use the cover afforded, but for no longer than any other
fire-position, and that they must get into the habit in peace of
looking upon such localities with suspicion, and with the knowledge
that they are not suitable for lengthy occupation in war, if the
battle is to be won.

We now come to a still more difficult question of training, namely,
how far can the company get forward from the bank without being
compelled to stop in order to gain superiority of fire over the
defense? In war we want to get as close as possible; the moral effect
on the defense is greater, our fire is more effective, and we are
likely to gain our object more rapidly. In peace there is no fire to
stop us, and we move forward to ridiculous positions which we could
not possibly reach in war without first gaining superiority of fire.
The result of this is that we try to do the same thing when first we
go to war, and we are stopped, probably much further back than we
should have been if we had studied the question in peace.

Even on the most open ground we must get to within 600 yards of the
enemy, and if the ground affords any cover in front, the exposed space
must be rushed and the more forward position gained. Having pointed
out this difficulty to the company during the previous lecture, and
reminded them of it on the ground, we can now extend the whole company
and move forward from the bank, using covering fire and letting each
platoon commander decide how far he can get to the front after a
series of rushes, the company acting as a whole.

The captain can then go down the line and discuss with each platoon
the position it has reached. Whilst he is doing this, the remaining
platoons can be trained in fire direction and control, which should be
carefully watched and criticized by the platoon commanders. One
platoon, owing to the nature of the ground in front of it, can get
forward further than other platoons, and this should be brought home
to each platoon, so as to avoid the possibility of playing the game of
follow your leader, and one platoon halting merely because another has
halted.

If there is still time available, and the ground is suitable, the
company can be moved to a flank to choose a similar fire-position
where the ground is more favorable to an advance, and where the
company could get within 300 yards of the enemy, or even less, before
it would be absolutely necessary to stop in order to gain superiority
of fire.

If there is still time available, and the ground is suitable, the
whole operation can be carried out in the opposite direction or in
some other direction, and the platoons can thus be trained to
appreciate that fire-positions which are good in one place are bad in
another.

=936. Defense.= Demonstrations in defense can be carried out in a
similar manner, the captain explaining to the company the general line
of defense to be taken up, the portion allotted to the company, and
the probable direction of the enemy's attack.

The coöperation of the artillery and infantry will have been pointed
out in the previous lecture: how some part of the enemy's advance will
be dealt with by artillery alone, some part by both artillery and
infantry, and some part by infantry alone.

This can now be pointed out to the men on the ground. Having
considered the assistance provided by the artillery, the next point to
decide upon is the exact position of the fire trench. The best way to
proceed is to allot a certain portion of the front occupied by the
company to each platoon and to let the platoon commanders take charge
of the operations. The platoon commander can direct one of his squads
to select a position for the trench, and that squad can lie down
there. The remaining squads will then select a position in turn. If
two squads select the same they can lie down together. The platoon
commander will then fall in his platoon, and make them lie down in the
most retired position chosen; he will ask the squad leader why the
squad chose that locality in preference to any other, why they did not
go ten yards further forward or ten yards further back; and he will
explain to the whole platoon the advantages and disadvantages of
selecting this locality. He will then move the whole platoon forward
to the next position chosen by another squad and deal with that
locality. Finally, he will select the position he thinks the best,
giving his reasons why he has decided upon it, and place the whole
platoon on it. When all the platoons have decided upon their line of
defense, the captain will move the whole company in turn from the
ground occupied by one platoon to that occupied by another, asking the
platoon commander in each case to explain why the position was chosen
in preference to any other.

He will give his decision as regards each platoon, and he will finally
arrange for the position to be occupied by the whole company. One
platoon, for some good reason, may have chosen a place which it would
not be safe to occupy, owing to the fire of another platoon on the
flank. Another platoon may have chosen a place which was very good as
regards the field of fire in a direction which was already adequately
defended by another platoon, but which had a bad field of fire over
ground which no other platoon could fire upon. The company commander
would adjust all these matters, and in the end one or more platoons
might not be placed in the best position as regards their own
particular front, but in the best as regards the whole company.

Having decided upon the exact site of the trenches and the general
distribution of fire, the next matter to consider is the amount of
clearing that is necessary, and the position and nature of any
obstacles which may be required. Each platoon commander having been
allotted a definite fire zone, can point out to his platoon what
clearance is necessary; he can then ask each squad, as before, to
choose the position for the obstacle. The company commander can then
take the whole company to the position occupied by each platoon and
tell the platoon commander to explain what ground they propose to
clear, where they propose to place their obstacle, the material
available for its construction, and in every case the reason why the
decision has been arrived at. If digging is permitted, the trenches
will now be constructed, and care will be taken that they are actually
finished. It is far better to work overtime than to construct trenches
which would be of little use in war and could not be properly
defended. It is the exception rather than the rule to see trenches
properly finished, fit for occupation, and capable of resisting a
heavy attack. If the trenches cannot be dug the company can be taken
to another part of the same position, where the ground in front is
totally different, and the exercise can be repeated, the platoon and
company commanders pointing out why a fire trench which was well sited
in the first case would be badly sited if a similar position was
selected in the second case.

=937. Outpost.= We can now turn to the method of training the company
in outpost duty, making use of the same system of demonstration.
Having pointed out to the company the locality where the main body is
bivouacked, the fighting position which the main body will occupy in
case a heavy attack is made against the outposts, and the general line
of the outposts, the company commander will indicate on the ground the
extent of front which is to be guarded by his company, stating whether
imaginary companies continue the position on one or both flanks. He
will point out the possible avenues of approach from the direction of
the enemy to that portion of the position to be occupied by the
company, and state from which direction the enemy is most likely to
advance and why.

The first point to decide is the number of outguards and their exact
position. In war this would always be done by the company commander,
but if it is desired to give the junior officers of the company some
instruction in this important detail, they should be sent out before
the company arrives on the ground to reconnoiter the position and make
their decisions. The exact siting of the trenches for the outguards,
the construction of obstacles, and the clearance of the foreground
having been decided upon and the positions selected for each outguard
discussed, and a definite site selected, the next question to decide
is the number and position of the sentries.

The platoon commander would then take each scheme in turn, visit with
the whole platoon each position selected for the sentry, and decide
finally what it would be best to do, giving, as usual, his reasons.

Having decided upon the positions of the sentries, and their line of
retreat, so as not to mask the fire of the outguard, the next matter
to consider would be the number of patrols that are required, and the
particular areas of ground that must be examined by them periodically.
The necessary trenches, obstacles, etc., would then be constructed.

Finally, the whole company should be assembled, marched to the
position chosen for each outguard and the reasons for selecting the
position explained by the company commander. The company should then
be told off as an outpost company, and divided into outguards,
supports, if any, and the necessary sentries over arms, patrols, etc.,
and marched to their respective posts.

If there is still time available each platoon commander can
reconnoiter the ground for suitable positions for his outguards by
night, take the outguards there, explain why the change of position is
desirable, and direct the outguard commanders with their outguards to
select positions for the sentries, following the same procedure as by
day.

Although it is quite correct to select positions for night outposts
during daylight, when possible, they should never be definitely
occupied by the company before dark, when the forward movement could
not be observed by the enemy. To practice night outposts by day is bad
instruction, outguards and sentries are placed in positions which
appear ridiculous to the ordinary mind, and the men get confused ideas
on the subject. When it is desired to practice day and night outposts
as an advanced exercise it is advisable to commence work in the
afternoon, establish the day outposts, reconnoiter for the night
outposts, make the change after dark and construct the necessary
trenches, obstacles, etc., after dark.

It is, however, extremely important that the patrols should get to
know their way about the country in front during the daylight, when
possible, so that they will have some practice in recognizing land
marks by night.

It frequently occurs, when training the company in outpost duties,
that periods elapse during which the outguards are doing nothing.
These opportunities should be taken to instruct the men in their
duties when ordered to patrol to the front, the same system of
demonstration being employed. For instance, the officer or
noncommissioned officer commanding a piquet can select three men,
point out certain ground in front which the sentries cannot see and
which must be examined by a patrol, and proceed to instruct the whole
picket in the best manner of carrying out this work. We will suppose
that the patrol is working by day and that the ground to be visited is
behind a small hill some 500 yards in front of the sentry. The
commander of the picket will then explain to the men that the first
object of the patrol is to reach the ground to be examined without
being seen by any hostile patrols which may be moving about in front.
Before proceeding further it is necessary for the patrol to decide
upon the best line of advance. The various lines of advance will be
discussed and the patrol asked to decide which they would select.
Three other men can then be asked to give their opinion, and so on
until all the men of the picket have expressed their views. The
commander of the picket will then state which he considers the best
line and give his reasons.

The next matter to decide is the method of advance to be adopted by
the patrol. Are the three men to march past the sentry in one body and
walk straight over the hill in front? If they do this there may be a
hostile patrol hiding just behind the crest, watching the movements of
our patrol, and directly the latter reach the hill they will be
covered by the rifles of the hostile patrol at a few yards' range and
will be captured or shot.

If the patrol is not to advance in one body how is it to act? There is
plenty of time available, so that there are no objections to
deliberate methods. The patrol should advance from cover to cover with
one man always going forward protected by the rifles of the remaining
two men who have halted in a good position to fire on any enemy that
can fire on the leading man. The leading man having readied the cover
in front will signal back all clear, and the two men in the rear will
join him. They will then make their next advance in a similar manner.

By looking at the hill the patrol can make a good guess at the
locality which a hostile patrol would select if it was on the hill. It
would be a place where it could get a good view towards our outpost
line, and where the patrol could not be seen itself from the outpost
line. If the hill was quite bare with nothing but grass on it and flat
round top, the best place for the enemy's patrol would be exactly on
the top just behind the crest. In such a position he could not be seen
by any sentry to the right or left of our picket. For example, if the
hostile patrol chose a place on the side of the bare slope of the hill
and looked over the crest line it would not be seen by our sentry, but
it might be seen by another one on the flank.

The object of our patrol would be to approach the hill, not direct
from the outguard, but either from the left or right of the hill and
thus come on the flank of the enemy's patrol if he was there.

The whole picket can then be taken out to the front and follow the
movements of the patrol from cover to cover until the hill is reached.

The next step will be to ascertain if there is any one on the top of
the hill. If the hill is perfectly bare with a somewhat convex slope,
it would be best for the three men to extend to about twenty yards
interval and move forward together, prepared to drop on the first sign
of the enemy, so that they can creep up and open fire on him without
exposing themselves. Three men with magazine rifles extended in this
manner, opposed to a hostile patrol collected in one party, should be
able to deal with the latter without much difficulty. Their fire would
be converging, and coming from different directions would confuse the
hostile patrol, especially if the advance was made from a flank. The
men of the patrol when creeping up the hill should avoid exposing
themselves in the direction of the ground behind the hill, if
possible, because they want to examine that ground later on, and if
seen by the enemy they might fall into an ambuscade. If it is
impossible to avoid being seen from the ground beyond, it would be
best for the patrol to retire as though they were going back to the
outposts, and then move round the flank of the hill and advance to the
ground beyond from an unexpected direction. All this would be
considered by the officer or noncommissioned officer commanding the
picket, together with many other points.

Sufficient has been said to explain how this system of demonstration
can be worked in connection with any class of operation in the field.
It is certainly slow, and takes a long time, but no one is ever idle
and every one is constantly learning something fresh, for the simple
reason that, although one may know every detail of the subject, the
ground constantly differs and requires to be dealt with in a common
sense and skillful manner. The men are interested throughout, and one
morning spent on this kind of work is worth several days of practice
in the ordinary manner.

It should be remembered that this system of demonstration is only
required to teach the men their work; when they have once learned it
and thoroughly understand the necessary details they must be practiced
in it, the company or platoon commander indicating what has been well
done, what has been badly done, and what requires improvement. (See
"Outposts," Par. 1051.)


OTHER EXAMPLES OF THE OCULAR DEMONSTRATION METHOD

=938.= The following illustrations will suggest other examples of the
employment of the ocular demonstration method of instruction:

=The advantages and disadvantages of close and extended order.= Send a
lieutenant or a noncommissioned officer with two or three squads of
the older soldiers some distance to the front of the company, and have
them advance toward the company, first in close order and then in
extended order.

By =ocular demonstration= show the men who are watching the approach
of the company how easy it would be even for the poorest shots to land
bullets in the thick of a closed body, but how much of a less distinct
target the extended order offers and how many spaces there are in the
skirmish line for the bullets to pass through; also, how much more
easily cover can be employed and the rifle used in the extended order.
Let them see also how much more difficult it is for the officers and
noncommissioned officers to maintain control over the movements of
troops in extended order, and the consequent necessity and duty of
every soldier, when in extended order, doing all he can, by attention
and exertion, to keep order and help his officers and noncommissioned
officers to gain success.

=939. The Use of Cover.= Send a lieutenant or noncommissioned officer
with a couple of squads of old soldiers a few hundred yards to the
front and have them advance on the company as if attacking, first
without taking advantage of cover and then taking advantage of all
available cover, the part of the company that is supposed to be
attacked lying down and aiming and snapping at the approaching
soldiers. Then reverse the operation--send the defenders out and have
them advance on the former attackers. Explain that the requisites of
good cover are: Ability to see the enemy; concealment of your own
body; ability to use the rifle readily. Then have a number of men take
cover and snap at an enemy in position, represented by a few old
soldiers. Point out the defects and the good points in each case.

=940. Practice in Commanding Mixed Squads.= In order to practice
noncommissioned officers in commanding mixed firing squads, and in
order to drill the privates in banding themselves together and obeying
the orders of anyone who may assume command, it is good training for
two or more companies to practice reënforcing each other by one
company assuming a given fire-position and the other sending up
reënforcements by squads, the men being instructed to take positions
anywhere on the firing line where they may find an opening. However,
explain to the men that whenever possible units should take their
positions on the firing line as a whole, but that in practice it is
very often impossible to do this, and that the drill is being given so
as to practice the noncommissioned officers in commanding mixed units
on the firing line and also to give the privates practice in banding
themselves into groups and obeying the command of any noncommissioned
officer who may be over them.

=941. Operating Against Other Troops.= There is no better way of
arousing interest, enthusiasm, and pride in training troops than by
creating a feeling of friendly rivalry and competition amongst the
men, and the best way to do this is to have one part of the company
operate against the other in all such practical work as scouting,
patrolling, attacking, etc. Whenever practicable, blank ammunition
should be used. One of the sides should wear a white handkerchief
around the hat or some other distinguishing mark. =The troops that are
sent out must be given full and explicit instructions as to just
exactly what they are to do, so that the principles it is intended to
illustrate may be properly brought out.=


FOOTNOTES:

[10] This chapter is based on "Company Training," by General Haking,
British Army, which is the best book the author has ever seen on the
subject of company training. "Field Training of a Company of
Infantry," by Major Craufurd, British Army, an excellent little book,
was also consulted.



CHAPTER II

GENERAL COMMON SENSE PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED MINOR TACTICS[11]


=942.= To begin with, you want to bear in mind that there is nothing
difficult, complicated or mysterious about applied minor tactics--it
is just simply the application of plain, every-day, common horse
sense--the whole thing consists in familiarizing yourself with certain
general principles based on common sense and then applying them with
common sense. Whatever you do, don't make the mistake of following
blindly rules that you have read in books.

=943.= One of the ablest officers in the Army has recently given this
definition of the Art of War:

    One-fifth is learned from books;
    One-fifth is common sense;
    Three-fifths is knowing men and how to lead them.

The man who would be successful in business must understand men and
apply certain general business principles with common sense; the man
who would be a successful hunter must understand game and apply
certain general hunting principles with common sense, and even the man
who would be a successful fisherman must understand fish and apply
certain general fishing principles with common sense. And so likewise
the man who would lead other men successfully in battle must
understand men and apply certain general tactical principles with
common sense.

Of course, the only reason for the existence of an army is the
possibility of war some day, and everything the soldier does--his
drills, parades, target practice, guard duty, schools of instruction,
etc.--has in view only one end: The preparation of the soldier for the
field of battle.

=944.= While the responsibilities of officers and noncommissioned
officers in time of peace are important, in time of battle they are
much more so: for then their mistakes are paid for in human blood.

What would you think of a pilot who was not capable of piloting a boat
trying to pilot a boat loaded with passengers; or, of an engineer who
was not capable of running a locomotive trying to run a passenger
train? You would, of course, think him a criminal--but do you think he
would be more criminal than the noncommissioned officer who is not
capable of leading a squad in battle but who tries to do so, thereby
sacrificing the lives of those under him?

You can, therefore, appreciate the importance, the necessity, of every
officer and noncommissioned officer doing everything that he possibly
can during times of peace to qualify himself for his duties and
responsibilities during times of war.

If we are going to have a good army we must have good regiments; to
have good regiments we must have good battalions; to have good
battalions we must have good companies--but to have good companies we
must have efficient company officers and noncommissioned officers.

As stated before, everything in the life of the soldier leads to the
field of battle. And so it is that in the subject of minor tactics all
instruction leads to the battle. First we have map problems; then
terrain exercises; next the war game; after that maneuvers, and
finally the battle.

=945. Map Problems and Terrain Exercises.= In the case of map problems
you are given tactical problems to solve on a map; in the case of
terrain exercises you are given problems to solve on the ground. (The
word "Terrain," means earth, ground.) These are the simplest forms of
tactical problems, as you have only one phase of the action, your
information is always reliable and your imaginary soldiers always do
just exactly what you want them to do.

=946. War Game.= Next comes the war game, which consists of problems
solved on maps, but you have an opponent who commands the enemy--the
phases follow one another rapidly and the conditions change--your
information is not so complete and reliable. However, your men being
slips of cardboard or beads, they will, as in the case of your
imaginary soldiers in the map problems and terrain exercises, go where
you wish them to and do what you tell them to do--they can't
misunderstand your instructions and go wrong--they don't straggle and
get careless as real soldiers sometimes do.

Map problems, terrain exercises and war games are but aids to
maneuvers--their practice makes the maneuvers better; for you thus
learn the principles of tactics and in the simplest and quickest way.

=947. Maneuvers.= In the case of the maneuver the problem is the same
as in the war game, except that you are dealing with real, live men
whom you can not control perfectly, and there is, therefore, much
greater chance for mistakes.

=948. The battle.= A battle is only a maneuver to which is added great
physical danger and excitement.


General rules and principles that must be applied in map problems,
terrain exercises, the war game and maneuvers

=949.= Everything that is done must conform in principle to what
should be done in battle--otherwise your work is wasted--your time is
thrown away.

In solving map problems and in the war game, always form in your mind
a picture of the ground where the action is supposed to be taking
place--imagine that you see the enemy, the various hills, streams,
roads, etc., that he is firing at you, etc.--and don't do anything
that you would not be able to do if you were really on the ground and
really in a fight.

Whether it be a corporal in command of a squad or a general in command
of an army, in the solution of a tactical problem, whether it be a map
problem, a terrain exercise, a war game, maneuver or battle, he will
have to go through the same operation:

    1st. Estimate the situation;
    2d. Decide what he will do;
    3d. Give the necessary orders to carry out his decision.

At first these three steps of the operation may appear difficult and
laborious, but after a little practice the mind, which always works
with rapidity in accustomed channels, performs them with astonishing
quickness.

The child beginning the study of arithmetic, for example, is very slow
in determining the sum of 7 and 8, but later the answer is announced
almost at sight. The same is true in tactical problems--the process
may be slow at first, but with a little practice it becomes quick and
easy.

=950. Estimating the Situation.= This is simply "sizing up the
situation," finding out what you're "up against," and is always the
first thing to be done. It is most important, and in doing it the
first step is to determine your MISSION--what you are to do, what you
are to accomplish--the most important consideration in any military
situation.

Consider next your own forces and that of the enemy--that is, his
probable strength and how it compares with yours.

Consider the enemy's probable MISSION[12] and what he will probably do
to accomplish it.

Consider the geography of the country so far as it affects the
problem--the valleys to cross, defiles to pass through, shortest road
to follow, etc.

Now, consider the different courses open to you with the advantages
and disadvantages of each.

You must, of course, in every case know what you're up against before
you can decide intelligently what you're going to do.

In making your plan always bear in mind not only your own MISSION, but
also the general mission of the command of which you form a part, and
this is what nine men out of ten forget to do.

=951. The Decision.= It is important that you should come to a clear
and correct decision--that you do so promptly and then execute it
vigorously.

The new Japanese Field Service Regulations tell us that there are two
things above all that should be avoided--inaction and hesitation. "To
act resolutely even in an erroneous manner is better than to remain
inactive and irresolute"--that is to say do something.

You are now ready to come to a decision, which is nothing more or less
than a clear, concise determination of what you're going to do and how
you're going to do it. Frederick the Great, expressed the same idea
in fewer words: "Don't haggle."

Having settled on a plan, push it through--don't vacillate, don't
waver. Make your plan simple. No other has much show. Complicated
plans look well on paper, but in war they seldom work out. They
require several people to do the right thing at the right time and
this under conditions of excitement, danger and confusion, and, as a
result, they generally fail.

=952. The Order.= Having completed your estimate of the situation and
formed your plan, you are now ready to give the orders necessary to
carry it out.

You must first give your subordinates sufficient information of the
situation and your plan, so that they may clearly understand their
mission.

The better everyone understands the whole situation the better he can
play his part. Unexpected things are always happening in war--a
subordinate can act intelligently only if he knows and understands
what his superior wants to do.

Always make your instructions definite and positive--vague
instructions are sometimes worse than none.

Your order, your instructions, must be clear, concise and
definite--everyone should know just exactly what he is to do.


A Few General Principles

=953.= The man who hunts deer, moose, tigers and lions, is hunting big
game, but the soldier operating in the enemy's territory is hunting
bigger game--he's hunting for human beings--but you want to remember
that the other fellow is out hunting for you, too; he's out "gunning"
for you. So, don't fail to be on the alert, on the lookout, all the
time, if you do he'll "get the drop" on you. Remember what Frederick
the Great said: "It is pardonable to be defeated, but never to be
taken by surprise."

Do not separate your force too much; if you do, you weaken
yourself--you take the chance of being "defeated in detail"--that is,
of one part being defeated after another. Remember the old saying: "In
union there is strength." Undue extension of your line (a mistake, by
the way, very often made) is only a form of separation and is equally
as bad.

While too much importance can not be attached to the proper use of
cover, you must not forget that sometimes there are other
considerations that outweigh the advantages of cover. Good sense alone
can determine. A certain direction of attack, for instance, may afford
excellent cover but it may be so situated as to mean ruin if defeated,
as where it puts an impassable obstacle directly in your rear. And
don't forget that you should always think in advance of what you would
do in case of defeat.

What is it, after all, that gives victory, whether it be armies or
only squads engaged? It's just simply inflicting on the enemy a loss
which he will not stand before he can do the same to you. Now, what is
this loss that he will not stand? What is the loss that will cause him
to break? Well, it varies; it is subject to many
conditions--different bodies of troops, like different timbers, have
different breaking points. However, whatever it may be in any
particular case it would soon come if we could shoot on the
battlefield as we do on the target range, but we can not approximate
it.

There are many causes tending to drag down our score on the
battlefield, one of the most potent being the effect of the enemy's
fire. It is cited as a physiological fact that fear and great
excitement cause the pupil of the eye to dilate and impair accuracy in
vision and hence of shooting. It is well established that the
effectiveness of the fire of one side reduced proportionately to the
effectiveness of that of the other.

Bear in mind then these two points--we must get the enemy's breaking
point before he gets ours, and the more effective we make our fire the
less effective will be his.

Expressed in another way--to win you must gain and keep a fire
superiority.

This generally means more rifles in action, yet a fire badly
controlled and directed, though great in volume, may be less effective
than a smaller volume better handled.

The firing line barring a few exceptional cases, then, should be as
heavy as practicable consistent with the men's free use of their
rifles.

This has been found to be about one man to the yard. In this way you
get volume of fire and the companies do not cover so much ground that
their commanders lose their power to direct and control.

If it becomes necessary to hold a line too long for the force
available, it is then better to keep the men close together and leave
gaps in the line. The men are so much better controlled, the fire
better directed, the volume the same, and the gaps are closed by the
cross fire of parties adjacent.


FOOTNOTES:

[11] In the preparation of the first part of this chapter, extracts of
words and of ideas, were made from a paper on Applied Minor Tactics
read before the St. Louis convention of the National Guard of the
United States in 1910, by Major J. F. Morrison, General Staff, U. S.
Army.

[12] The word "_mission_" is used a great deal in this text. By your
"_mission_" is meant your business, what you have been told to do,
what you are trying to accomplish.



CHAPTER III

GENERAL PLAN OF INSTRUCTION IN MAP PROBLEMS FOR NONCOMMISSIONED
OFFICERS AND PRIVATES--INSTRUCTION IN DELIVERING MESSAGES


=(The large wall map to be used for this instruction can be obtained
from the George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis., at a cost of
$1.50.)=

[Illustration: Elementary Map]

=954.= The noncommissioned officers and the privates of the squad,
section, platoon or company are seated in front of the instructor,
who, with pointer in hand, is standing near the map on the wall.

The instructor assumes certain situations and designates various
noncommissioned officers to take charge of squads for the purpose of
accomplishing certain missions; he places them in different
situations, and then asks them what they would do. He, or the
noncommissioned officer designated to perform certain missions,
designates certain privates to carry messages, watch for signals, take
the place of wounded noncommissioned officers, etc. For example, the
instructor says: "The battalion is marching to Watertown (see
Elementary Map in pocket at back of book) along this road (indicating
road): our company forms the advance guard; we are now at this point
(indicating point). Corporal Smith, take your squad and reconnoiter
the woods on the right to see if you can find any trace of the enemy
there, and rejoin the company as soon as you can. Corporal Jones, be
on the lookout for any signals that Corporal Smith may make."

Corporal Smith then gives the command, "=1. Forward, 2. March=," and
such other commands as may be necessary.

=Instructor:= Now, when you reach this point (indicating point), what
do you see?

(Corporal Smith holds his rifle horizontally above his head.)

=Corporal Jones:= Captain, Corporal Smith signals that he sees a small
body of the enemy.

=Corporal Smith:= =Lie down. Range, 700. 1. Ready; 2. AIM; 3. Squad;
4. FIRE. 1. Forward; Double time; 2. MARCH=, etc.

The noncommissioned officers and the privates who are thus designated
to do certain things must use their imagination as much as possible.
They must look at the map and imagine that they are right on the
ground, in the hostile territory; they must imagine that they see the
streams, hills, woods, roads, etc., represented on the map, and they
must not do anything that they could not do if in the hostile
territory, with the assumed conditions actually existing.

=955.= The general idea of this system of instruction is to make the
noncommissioned officers and the privates think, to make them use
common sense and initiative in handling men in various situations, in
getting out of difficulties. By thus putting men on their mettle in
the presence of their comrades and making them bring into play their
common sense and their powers of resourcefulness, it is comparatively
easy to hold the attention of a whole squad, section, platoon or
company, for those who are not actually taking part in the solution of
a particular problem are curious to see how those who are taking part
will answer different questions and do different things--how they will
"pan out."

=956.= Everything that is said, everything that is done, should, as
far as practicable, be said and done just as it would be said and done
in the field. The commands should be actually given, the messages
actually delivered, the reports actually made, the orders and
instructions actually given, the signals actually made, etc., just the
same as they would be if the operations were real. Of course,
sometimes it is not practicable to do this, and again at other times
it would be advisable not to do so. If, for instance, in the solution
of a problem there were a great many opportunities to give commands to
fire, to make signals, to deliver messages, etc., and if these things
were actually done every time, it would not only become tiresome but
it would also delay the real work and instruction. Common sense must
be used. Just bear this in mind: In the solution of map problems the
noncommissioned officers and the privates are to be given proper and
sufficient instruction in giving commands, making signals, sending and
delivering messages, making reports, etc., the instructor using his
common sense in deciding what is proper and sufficient instruction. In
carrying out this feature of the instruction it would be done thus,
for instance:

Instead of a platoon leader saying, "I would give the order for the
platoon (two, three or four squads) to fire on them," he would say,
for instance, "I would then give the command, '=AT LINE OF MEN. RANGE,
600. FIRE AT WILL=,' and would continue the firing as long as
necessary." Should the instructor then say, for instance, "Very well;
the enemy's fire has slackened; what will you do now?" The platoon
leader would answer, for instance, "I would signal: =1. By squads from
the right; 2. RUSH.="

Instead of saying, for instance, "I would advance my squad to the top
of this hill at double time," the squad leader should say, "I would
give the command: '=1. Forward, double time; 2. MARCH=,' and upon
reaching the top of this hill, I would command, '=1. Squad; 2. HALT=,'
cautioning the men to take advantage of cover."

Instead of saying, "I would signal back that we see the enemy in
force," the squad leader should take a rifle and make the signal, and
if a man has been designated to watch for signals, the man would say
to the captain (or other person for whom he was watching for signals):
"Captain, Corporal Smith has signaled that he sees the enemy in
force."

Instead of saying, "I would send a message back that there are about
twenty mounted men just in rear of the Jones' house; they are
dismounted and their horses are being held by horseholders," say,
"Smith, go back and tell the captain (or other person) there are
about twenty mounted men just in rear of the Jones' house. They are
dismounted and their horses are being held by horseholders." Private
Smith would then say to the captain (or other person), "Captain,
Corporal Harris sends word there are about twenty men just in the rear
of the Jones' house. They are dismounted and their horses are being
held by horse holders."

=957.= For problems exemplifying this system of instruction, see Par.
1017.

The instruction may be varied a little by testing the squad leaders in
their knowledge of map reading by asking, from time to time during the
solution of the problem, such questions as these:

=Captain:= Corporal Smith, you are standing on Lone Hill (See
Elementary Map), facing north. Tell me what you see?

=Corporal:= The hill slopes off steeply in front of me, about eighty
feet down to the bottom land. A spur of the hill runs off on my right
three-fourths of a mile to the north. Another runs off on my left the
same distance to the west. Between these two spurs, down in front of
me, is an almost level valley, extending about a mile to my right
front, where a hill cuts off my view. To my left front it is level as
far as I can see. A quarter of a mile in front of me is a big pond,
down in the valley, and I can trace the course of a stream that drains
the pond off to the northwest, by the trees along its bank. Just
beyond the stream a railroad runs northwest along a fill and crosses
the stream a mile and a half to the northwest, where I can see the
roofs of a group of houses. A wagon road runs north across the valley,
crossing the western spur of this hill 600 yards from Lone Hill. It is
bordered by trees as far as the creek. Another road parallels the
railroad, the two roads crossing near a large orchard a mile straight
to my front.

=Captain:= Can you see the Chester Pike where the railroad crosses it?

=Corporal:= No, sir.

=Captain:= Why?

=Corporal:= Because the hill "62," about 800 yards from Lone Hill, is
so high that it cuts off my view in that direction of everything
closer to the spur "62" than the point in the Salem-Boling road, where
the private lane runs off east to the Gray house.

=Captain:= Sergeant Jones, in which direction does the stream run that
you see just south of the Twin Hills?

=Sergeant:= It runs south through York, because I can see that the
northern end starts near the head of a valley and goes down into the
open plain. Also it is indicated by a very narrow line near the Twin
Hills which becomes gradually wider or heavier the further south it
goes. Furthermore, the fact that three short branch streams are shown
joining together and forming one, must naturally mean that the
direction of flow is towards the one formed by the three.

=Captain:= Sergeant Harris, does the road from the Mason farm to the
Welsh farm run up or down hill?

=Sergeant:= It does both, sir. It is almost level for the first half
mile west of the Mason farm; then, as it crosses the contour marked
20 and a second marked 40, it runs up hill, rising to forty feet
above the valley, 900 yards east of the Mason farm. Then, as it again
crosses a contour marked 40 and a second marked 20, it goes down hill
to the Welsh farm. That portion of the road between the points where
it crosses the two contours marked 40, is the highest part of the
road. It crosses this hill in a "saddle," for both north and south of
this summit on the road are contours marked 60 and even higher.

=Captain:= Corporal Wallace, you are in Salem with a patrol with
orders to go to Oxford. There is no one to tell you anything about
this section of the country and you have never been there before. You
have this map and a compass. What would you do?

=Corporal:= I would see from my map and by looking around me that
Salem is situated at the crossing of two main roads. From the map I
would see that one leads to Boling and the other was the one to take
for Oxford. Also, I would see that the one to Boling started due north
out of Salem and the other, the one I must follow, started due west
out of Salem. Taking out my compass, I would see in what direction the
north end of the needle pointed; the road running off in that
direction would be the one to Boling, so I would start off west on the
other.

=Captain:= Suppose you had no compass?

=Corporal:= I would look and see on which side of the base of the
trees the moss grew. That side would be north. Or, in this case, I
would probably not use a compass even if I had it; for, from the map,
I know that the road I wish to start off on crosses a railroad track
within sight of the crossroads and on the opposite side of the
crossroads from the church shown on the map; also, that the Boling
road is level as far as I could see on the ground, while the Chester
Pike crosses the spur of Sandy Ridge, about a half mile out of the
village.

=Captain:= Go ahead, corporal, and explain how you would follow the
proper route to Oxford.

=Corporal:= I would proceed west on the Chester Pike, knowing I would
cross a good sized stream, on a stone bridge, about a mile and a half
out of Salem; then I would pass a crossroad and find a swamp on my
right, between the road and the stream. About a mile and a half from
the crossroad I just mentioned, I would cross a railroad track and
then I would know that at the fork of the roads one-quarter of a mile
further on I must take the left fork. This road would take me straight
into Oxford, about a mile and three-quarters beyond the fork.

=Captain:= Sergeant Washington, do the contours about a half mile
north of the Maxey farm, on the Salem-Boling road, represent a hill or
a depression?

=Sergeant:= They represent a hill, because the inner contour has a
higher number 42, than the outer, marked 20. They represent sort of a
leg-of-mutton shaped hill about 42 feet higher than the surrounding
low ground.

Variety and interest may be added to the instruction by assuming that
the squad leader has been killed or wounded and then designate some
private to command the squad; or that a man has been wounded in a
certain part of the body and have a soldier actually apply his first
aid packet; or that a soldier has fainted or been bitten by a
rattlesnake and have a man actually render him first aid.

=958.= The privates may be given practical instruction in delivering
messages by giving them messages in one room and having them deliver
them to someone else in another room. It is a good plan to write out a
number of messages in advance on slips of paper or on cards, placing
them in unsealed envelopes. An officer or a noncommissioned officer in
one room reads one of the messages to a soldier, then seals it in an
envelope and gives it to the soldier to hand to the person in another
room to whom he is to deliver the message. The latter checks the
accuracy of the message by means of the written message. Of course,
this form of instruction should not be given during the solution of
map problems by the men. (For model messages, see par. 980.)

The same slips or cards may be used any number of times with different
soldiers. A soldier should never start on his way to deliver a message
unless he understands thoroughly the message he is to deliver.



CHAPTER IV

THE SERVICE OF INFORMATION

(Based on the Field Service Regulations.)


PATROLLING

=959. Patrols= are small bodies of infantry or cavalry, from two men
up to a company or troop, sent out from a command at any time to gain
information of the enemy and of the country, to drive off small
hostile bodies, to prevent them from observing the command or for
other stated objects, such as to blow up a bridge, destroy a railroad
track, communicate or keep in touch with friendly troops, etc. Patrols
are named according to their objects, reconnoitering, visiting,
connecting, exploring, flanking patrols, etc. These names are of no
importance, however, because the patrol's orders in each case
determine its duties.

=960.= The size of a patrol depends upon the mission it is to
accomplish; if it is to gain information only, it should be as small
as possible, allowing two men for each probable message to be sent
(this permits you to send messages and still have a working patrol
remaining); if it is to fight, it should be strong enough to defeat
the probable enemy against it. For instance, a patrol of two men might
be ordered to examine some high ground a few hundred yards off the
road. On the other hand, during the recent war in Manchuria a Japanese
patrol of 50 mounted men, to accomplish its mission marched 1,160
miles in the enemy's country and was out for 62 days.

=961. Patrol Leaders.= (=a=) Patrol leaders, usually noncommissioned
officers, are selected for their endurance, keen eyesight, ability to
think quickly and good military judgment. They should be able to read
a map, make a sketch and send messages that are easily understood.
Very important patrols are sometimes lead by officers. The leader
should have a map, watch, field glass, compass, message blank and
pencils.

(=b=) The ability to lead a patrol correctly without a number of
detailed orders or instructions, is one of the highest and most
valuable qualifications of a noncommissioned officer. Since a
commander ordering out a patrol can only give general instructions as
to what he desires, because he cannot possibly forsee just what
situations may arise, the patrol leader will be forced to use his own
judgment to decide on the proper course to pursue when something of
importance suddenly occurs. He is in sole command on the spot and must
make his decisions entirely on his own judgment and make them
instantly. He has to bear in mind first of all his mission--what his
commander wants him to do.

Possibly something may occur that should cause the patrol leader to
undertake an entirely new mission and he must view the new situation
from the standpoint of a higher commander.

(=c=) More battles are lost through lack of information about the
enemy than from any other cause, and it is the patrols led by
noncommissioned officers who must gather almost all of this
information. A battalion or squadron stands a very good chance for
defeating a regiment if the battalion commander knows all about the
size, position and movements of the regiment and the regimental
commander knows but a little about the battalion; and this will all
depend on how efficiently the patrols of the two forces are led by the
noncommissioned officers.

=962.= Patrols are usually sent out from the advance party of an
advance guard, the rear party of a rear guard, the outguards of an
outpost, and the flank (extreme right or left) sections, companies or
troops of a force in a fight, but they may be sent out from any part
of a command.

The commander usually states how strong a patrol shall be.

=963. Orders or Instructions=--(=a=) The orders or instructions for a
patrol must state clearly whenever possible:

1. Where the enemy is or is supposed to be.

2. Where friendly patrols or detachments are apt to be seen or
encountered and what the plans are for the body from which the patrol
is sent out.

3. What object the patrol is sent out to accomplish; what information
is desired; what features are of special importance; the general
direction to be followed and how long to stay out in case the enemy is
not met.

4. Where reports are to be sent.

(=b=) It often happens that, in the hurry and excitement of a sudden
encounter or other situation, there is no time or opportunity to give
a patrol leader anything but the briefest instructions, such as "Take
three men, corporal, and locate their (the enemy's) right flank." In
such a case the patrol leader through his knowledge of the general
principles of patrolling, combined with the exercise of his common
sense, must determine for himself just what his commander wishes him
to do.

=964. Inspection of a Patrol Before Departure.= Whenever there is time
and conditions permit, which most frequently is not the case, a patrol
leader carefully inspects his men to see that they are in good
physical condition; that they have the proper equipment, ammunition
and ration; that their canteens are full, their horses (if mounted)
are in good condition, not of a conspicuous color and not given to
neighing, and that there is nothing about the equipment to rattle or
glisten. The patrol leader should also see that the men have nothing
with them (maps, orders, letters, newspapers, etc.) that, if captured,
would give the enemy valuable information. This is a more important
inspection than that regarding the condition of the equipment.

Whenever possible the men for a patrol should be selected for their
trustworthiness, experience and knack of finding their way in a
strange country.

=965. Preparing a Patrol for the Start.= The patrol leader having
received his orders and having asked questions about anything he does
not fully understand, makes his estimate of the situation (See Par.
950.) He then selects the number of men he needs, if this has been
left to him, inspects them and carefully explains to them the orders
he has received and how he intends to carry out these orders, making
sure the men understand the mission of the patrol. He names some
prominent place along the route they are going to follow where every
one will hasten if the patrol should become scattered.

For example: An infantry company has arrived at the town of York (See
Elementary Map). Captain A, at 2 P. M., calls up Corporal B and three
men of his squad.

=Captain A:= Corporal, hostile infantry is reported to be at Oxford.
Nothing else has been heard of the enemy. The company remains here
tonight. You will take these three men and reconnoiter about two miles
north along this road (indicates the Valley Pike) for signs of a
hostile advance in this direction.

Stay out until dusk.

Corporal C has been sent out that road (points east along the county
road).

Send messages here. Do you understand?

=Corporal B:= Yes, sir; I am to--(here he practically repeats Captain
A's orders, the three men listening). Is Corporal C to cover that hill
(points toward Twin Hills)?

=Captain A:= No; you must cover that ground. Move out at once,
corporal. (Corporal B quickly glances at the men and sees that they
have their proper equipment.)

=Corporal B= (to his men): You heard the captain's orders. We will
make for that hill (points to Twin Hills). Jones, I want you to go 150
yards in advance of me; Williams, follow me at 100 yards; Smith,
you'll stay with me. Jones, you'll leave this road after crossing the
creek and march on that clump of trees. I want both you and Williams
to be on the alert and watch me every minute for signals. In case we
become scattered, make for that hill (points to Twin Hills).

=Private Jones:= Corporal, shall I keep 150 yards from you or will you
keep the correct distance?

=Corporal B:= You keep the correct distance from me. Forward, Jones.

Of course, the patrol leader makes all these preparations if he has
time; but, as we have said before, there will be a great many
occasions when he is required to start out so promptly that he will
not have any time for the inspection described and he will have to
make an estimate of the situation and give his detailed orders to the
members of his patrol as they start off.

=966. Co-ordination Before Departure.= Every member of a patrol should
notice for himself the direction taken and all landmarks that are
passed, and every man should keep his eyes and ears open all the time.
Before leaving an outpost position or other place to which it is to
return, the patrol commander should "co-ordinate" himself--he should
see where he is with respect to certain mountains, high buildings and
other prominent objects, and after the patrol has left, he should
frequently turn his head around and see what the starting point looks
like from where he is. This will help him to find his way back without
difficulty.


THE PRINCIPLES OF PATROLLING

=967.= Paragraphs 967 to 1015 describe the methods of leading a
patrol--the points a patrol leader should fully understand. In other
words, they state the principles of patrolling. When you first study
this chapter, simply read over these principles without trying to
memorize any of them. Whenever one of the principles is applied in the
solution of any of the problems on patrolling given in this book you
will generally find the number of the paragraph which states that
principle enclosed in brackets. Turn back and study the paragraph
referred to until you thoroughly understand its meaning and you feel
sure that you know how to apply that principle whenever the occasion
might arise in actual patrolling. Try to impress its common sense
meaning (never the mere words) on your mind, so that when a situation
arises requiring the sort of action indicated in the principle, YOU
WILL NOT FAIL TO RECOGNIZE IT.

[Illustration: Figure 1]

=968. Formation of Patrols.=

(=a=) Figure 1 gives some examples of various ways of forming patrols.
These are merely examples for the purpose of giving a general idea of
the arrangement of the men. In practice common sense must dictate to
the patrol leader the best formation in each case.

(=b=) In very small patrols the leader is usually in advance where he
can easily lead the patrol, though not always (See E, Figure 1.) The
distance between men depends upon the character of the country and the
situation. In L, Figure 1, it might be anywhere from 150 to 400 yards
from the leading man to the last, the distance being greater in level
or open country. Some such formation as G, Figure 1, could be used in
going through high brush, woods, or over very open country.

(=c=) The men must be so arranged that each man will be within
signaling distance of some member of the patrol and the escape of at
least one man, in case of surprise, is certain.

It must be remembered that the patrol may have to march a long
distance before it is expected that the enemy will be encountered, or
it may have a mission that requires it to hurry to some distant point
through very dangerous country. In such cases the patrol will probably
have to follow the road in order to make the necessary speed, and it
will not be possible for flankers to keep up this rate marching off
the road. The formation in such cases would be something like those
shown in F, II and O.

Marching off the road is always slow work, so when rapidity is
essential, some safe formation for road travel is necessary, as in F,
L and O.

If, from the road the country for, say one-half mile on each side, can
be seen, there is absolutely no use in sending out flankers a few
hundred yards from the road. Use common sense.

=969. Rate of March.= (=a=) Patrols should advance quickly and
quietly; be vigilant and make all practicable use of cover. If rapid
marching is necessary to accomplish the mission, then little attention
can be paid to cover.

(=b=) Returning patrols, near their own lines, march at a walk, unless
pressed by the enemy. A patrol should not, if possible, return over
its outgoing route, as the enemy may have observed it and be watching
for its return.

=970. Halts.= A patrol should be halted once every hour for about ten
minutes, to allow the men to rest and relieve themselves. Whenever a
halt is made one or two members of the patrol must advance a short
distance ahead and keep a sharp lookout to the front and flanks.

=971. Action Upon Meeting Hostile Patrol.= If a patrol should see a
hostile patrol, it is generally best to hide and let it go by, and
afterwards look out for and capture any messenger that may be sent
back from it with messages for the main body. And when sent back
yourself with a message, be careful that the enemy does not play this
trick on you--always keep your ears and eyes open.

=972. Scattered Patrols.= A scattered patrol reassembles at some point
previously selected; if checked in one direction, it takes another; if
cut off, it returns by a detour or forces its way through. As a last
resort it scatters, so that at least one man may return with
information.

Occasionally it is advisable for the leader to conceal his patrol and
continue the reconnaissance with one or two men; in case of cavalry
the leader and men thus detached should be well mounted. If no point
of assembly was previously agreed upon, it is a good general rule to
reassemble, if possible, at the last resting place.

=973. Return by Different Route.= A patrol should always make it a
rule to return by a different route, as this may avoid its being
captured by some of the enemy who saw it going out and are lying in
wait for it.

=974. Guard Against Being Cut off.= When out patrolling always guard
against being cut off. Always assume that any place that affords good
cover is held by the enemy until you know that it is not, and be
careful not to advance beyond it without first reconnoitering it; for,
if you do, you may find yourself cut off when you try to return.

=975. Night Work.= Patrols far from their commands or in contact with
the enemy, often remain out over night. In such cases they seek a
place of concealment unknown to the inhabitants, proceeding thereto
after nightfall or under cover. Opportunities for watering, feeding
and rest must not be neglected, for there is no assurance that further
opportunities will present themselves. When necessary the leader
provides for subsistence by demand or purchase.

=976. Civilians:= In questioning civilians care must be taken not to
disclose information that may be of value to the enemy. Strangers must
not be allowed to go ahead of the patrol, as they might give the enemy
notice of its approach. Patrol leaders are authorized to seize
telegrams and mail matter, and to arrest individuals, reporting the
facts as soon as possible.

=977. Patrol Fighting.= (=a=) A patrol sent out for information never
fights unless it can only get its information by fighting or is forced
to fight in order to escape. This principle is the one most frequently
violated by patrol leaders, particularly in peace maneuvers. They
forget their mission--the thing their commander sent them out to
do--and begin fighting, thus doing harm and accomplishing no important
results.

(=b=) A patrol sent out to drive off hostile detachments has to fight
to accomplish its mission. Sometimes a patrol has orders both to gain
information and to drive back hostile patrols. In this case it may be
proper to avoid a fight at one moment and to seek a fight at another.
The patrol leader must always think of his mission when deciding on
the proper course to follow, and then use common sense.

=978. Signals.= The following should be clearly understood by members
of a patrol:

=Enemy in sight in small numbers:= Hold the rifle above the head
horizontally.

=Enemy in force:= Same as preceding, raising and lowering the rifle
several times.

=Take cover:= A downward motion of the hand.

Other signals may be agreed upon before starting, but they must be
simple and familiar to the men; complicated signals must be avoided.
Signals must be used cautiously, so as not to convey information to
the enemy.

The patrol leader should see that all his men thoroughly understand
that whenever they are away from the center of the patrol they must
look to the nearest man for signals at least once every minute. It
should never be necessary for the patrol leader to call to a man in
order to get his attention. All movements of men at a distance should
be regulated by signals and the men should constantly be on the
lookout for these signals.

=979. Messages.= (=a=) The most skillful patrol leading is useless
unless the leader fully understands when to send a message and how to
write it.

(=b=) A message, whether written or verbal, should be short and clear,
resembling a telegram. If it is a long account it will take too much
time to write, be easily misunderstood, and if verbal, the messenger
will usually forget parts of it and confuse the remainder.

(=c=) Always state when and where things are seen or reported. If
haste is required, do not use up valuable moments writing down the day
of the month, etc. These data are essential as a matter of future
record for formal telegrams and should be put in patrol messages only
when time is abundant, but never slight the essential points of
information that will give valuable help to your chief. Always try to
put yourself in his place--not seeing what you see and read your
message--and then ask yourself, What will he want to know?

(=d=) The exact location of the enemy should be stated; whether
deployed, marching or in camp, his strength, arm of the service
(cavalry, infantry or artillery), and any other detail that you think
would be valuable information for your chief. In giving your location
do not refer to houses, streets, etc., that your chief in the rear has
no knowledge of. Give your direction and distance from some point he
knows of or, if you have a map like his, you can give your map
location.

(=e=) Be sure your message is accurate. This does not mean that
something told you should not be reported, but it should be reported,
not as a fact, but as it is--a statement by somebody else. It is well
to add any information about your informant, such as his apparent
honesty, the probability of his having correct information, etc.--this
may help your chief.

(=f=) A message should always end with a short statement of what you
are going to do next. For example: "Will remain in observation," "Will
continue north," "Will work around to their rear," etc. Time
permitting, the bearer of a verbal message should always be required
to repeat it before leaving.

(=g=) The following is a reproduction of a message blank used in field
service. The instructions on the envelope are also given. A patrol
leader will usually be furnished with a pad of these blanks:

[Illustration]

The heading "From" is filled in with the _name_ of the detachment
sending the information, as "Officer's Patrol, 7th Cav". Messages sent
on the same day from the same source to the same person are numbered
consecutively. The address is written briefly, thus, "Commanding
Officer, Outpost, 1st Brigade". In the signature the writer's surname
only and rank are given.

This blank is four and a half by eight inches, including the margin on
the left for binding. The back is ruled in squares and provided with
scales for use in making simple sketches explanatory of the message.
It is issued by the Signal Corps in blocks of forty with duplicating
sheets. The regulation envelope is three by five and one fourth inches
and is printed as follows:

[Illustration]


MODEL MESSAGES

=980. 1. Verbal.= "Four hostile infantrymen one mile north of our
camp, moving south. I will continue north."

=2. Verbal.= "About one hundred hostile infantrymen two miles north of
our camp at two o'clock, marching south. Will observe them."

=3. Verbal.= "Long column of troops marching west in Sandy Creek
Valley at two o'clock. Will report details later."

=4. Verbal.= "Just fired on by cavalry patrol near Baker's Pond. Will
work to their rear."

=5. Written.=

                                         Patrol from Support No 2.
                                                          Lone Hill,
                                        26 Mch. 11, 8-15 A. M., No. 1.

    C. O.,
      Support No. 2.

    See hostile troop of cavalry halted at x-roads, one mile S. of our
    outguards. Nothing else in sight. Will remain here in observation.

                                                              James,
                                                             Corporal.

=6. Written= (very hurriedly).

                                                Lone Hill, 8-30, No 2.

    C. O.,
      Support No. 2.

    Column of about 300 hostile cavalry trotting north towards hostile
    troop of cavalry now halted at x-roads one mile south of our
    outguards. Will remain here.

                                                              James,
                                                                  Cpl.

=7. Written.=

                                             Patrol from 5th Inf.,
                                          S. E. corner Boling Woods,
                                         3 Apl. 11, 2-10 P. M., No. 2.

    Adjutant,
      5th Inf., near Baker House.

    Extreme right of hostile line ends at R. R. cut N. E. of BAKER'S
    POND. Entrenchments run S. from cut along crest of ridge. Line
    appears to be strongly held. Can see no troops in rear of line.
    Will reconnoiter their rear.

                                                              Smith,
                                                             Sergeant.

=8. Written= (from cavalry patrol far to front).

                                      Patrol from Tr. B, 7th Cav.,
                                                             Boling,
                                         14 June, 12, 10 A. M., No. 3.

    To C. O.,
      Tr. B, 7th Cav.,
        S. on Chester Pike.

    No traces of enemy up to this point. Telegraph operator here
    reports wires running north from Boling were cut somewhere at 8-30
    A. M. Inhabitants appear friendly. Will proceed north.

                                                              Jones,
                                                             Sergeant.

=9. Written= (from cavalry patrol far to front).

                                       Patrol from Tr B, 7th Cav.,
                                                             Oxford,
                                       8 July, 12, 10-15 A. M., No. 2.

    To C. O.,
      1st Sq. 7th Cav.,
        On Valley Pike, S. of York.

    Bearer has canteen found in road here, marked "85 CAV.--III
    CORPS." Inhabitants say no enemy seen here. They appear hostile
    and unreliable. No telegraph operator or records remain here.
    Roads good macadam. Water and haystacks plentiful. Will move
    rapidly on towards CHESTER.

                                                              Lewis,
                                                             Sergeant.

                                        Patrol from Support No. 3,
                                   On Ry. 3/4 mi. N. of County Road,
                                         2 Aug. 12, 9-15 P. M., No. 1.

    C. O.,
      Support No. 2,
        Near Maxey House.

    R. R. crosses creek here on 80-foot steel trestle. Hostile
    detachment is posted at N. end. Strength unknown. Creek 5 ft. deep
    by 60 ft. wide, with steep banks, 5 ft. high. Flows through meadow
    land. Scattered trees along banks. R. R. approaches each end of
    trestle on 10-foot fill. R. R. switch to N. E. 700 yds. S. of
    bridge. (See sketch on back.) I will cross creek to N. of bridge.

                                                              Brown,
                                                             Corporal.

=981.= A message should be sent as soon as the enemy is first seen or
reported. Of course, if the enemy is actually known to be in the
vicinity and his patrols have been seen, etc., you must by all means
avoid wasting your men by sending them back with information about
small hostile patrols or other things you know your chief is already
aware of and did not specifically tell you to hunt for.

If you have properly determined in your own mind what your mission is
then you will have no trouble in deciding when to send messages. For
example, suppose your orders are "To reconnoiter along that ridge and
determine if the enemy is present in strength," and you sight a patrol
of eight men. You would waste no time or men sending back any message
about the patrol, for your mission is to find out if strong bodies of
the enemy are about. But suppose that while working under the above
orders you located a hostile battalion of infantry--a large body of
troops. In this case you would surely send a detailed message, as your
mission is to determine if the enemy was present in strength.

Again, suppose that while moving towards the ridge indicated by your
chief in his orders, you saw his force suddenly and heavily fired on
from a new and apparently unexpected quarter, not a great distance
from you, but not on the ridge referred to. You know or believe none
of your patrols are out in that neighborhood. In this case you should
realize instantly, without any order, that your mission had changed
and you should hasten to discover the size and position of this new
enemy and send the information back to your chief, first notifying him
of your intended change of direction.

Never forget your mission in the excitement of leading your own little
force.

=982. Absence of the Enemy.= It is frequently just as important to
send a message to your chief that the enemy is not in a certain
locality as it is to report his actual whereabouts. You must determine
from your mission when this is the case. For example, if you were
ordered "To patrol beyond that woods and see if any hostile columns
are moving in that direction," and on reaching the far side of the
woods you had a good view of the country for some distance beyond, it
would be very important to send a message back telling your chief that
you could see, say, one-half mile beyond the woods and there was no
enemy in sight. This information would be of the greatest importance
to him. He might feel free to move troops immediately from that
vicinity to some more dangerous place. You would then continue your
reconnaissance further to the front.


Suggestions for Gaining Information About the Enemy

=983. Enemy on the March.= (=a=) The patrol should observe the march
of the column from a concealed position that hostile patrols or
flankers are not apt to search (avoid conspicuous places). Always try
to discover if one hostile detachment is followed by another--if what
can be seen appears to be an advance guard of a larger body not yet in
view. The distance between the detachments, their relative size, etc.,
is always important.

(=b=) =Estimating Strength of Column.= The strength of a column may be
estimated from the length of time it takes to pass a selected point.
As infantry in column of squads occupies half a yard per man, cavalry
one yard per horse and artillery in single file twenty yards per gun
or caisson (ammunition wagon), a selected point would be passed in one
minute by 175 infantry; 110 cavalry (at a walk); 200 cavalry at a trot
and 5 guns or caissons. If marching in columns of twos, take one-half
of the above figures.

(=c=) =Dust.= The direction of march, strength and composition
(infantry, cavalry or artillery) of a column can be closely estimated
from the length and character of the cloud of dust that it makes. Dust
from infantry hangs low; from cavalry it is higher, disperses more
quickly, and, if the cavalry moves rapidly, the upper part of the
cloud is thinner; from artillery and wagons, it is of unequal height
and disconnected. The effect of the wind blowing the dust must be
considered.

(=d=) =Trail of Column.= Evenly trodden ground indicates infantry;
prints of horseshoes mean cavalry and deep and wide wheel tracks
indicate artillery. If the trail is fresh, the column passed recently;
if narrow, the troops felt secure and were marching in column of
route; if broad they expected an action and were prepared to deploy. A
retreating army makes a broad trail across fields, especially at the
start.

Always remember that the smallest or most insignificant things, such
as the number of a regiment or a discarded canteen or collar ornament,
may give the most valuable information to a higher commander. For
example, the markings on a discarded canteen or knapsack might prove
to a general commanding an army that a certain hostile division,
corps, or other force was in front of him when he thought it had not
been sent into the field. The markings on the canteen would convey
little or no meaning to the patrol leader, but if he realized his duty
he would take care to report the facts. Cavalry patrols working far
ahead of the foot troops should be most careful to observe and report
on such details.

(=e=) =Reflection of Weapons.= If brilliant, the troops are marching
toward you, otherwise they are probably marching away from you.

=Enemy in Position.= (=a=) If an outpost line, the patrol locates the
line of sentinels, their positions, the location and strength of the
outguards and, as far as possible, all troops in rear. The location of
the flanks of the line, whether in a strong or weak position, is of
the utmost importance. Places where the line may be most easily
penetrated should be searched for and the strength and routes of the
hostile patrols observed.

As outposts are usually changed at dawn this is the best time to
reconnoiter their positions.

(=b=) A hostile line of battle is usually hard to approach, but its
extent, where the flanks rest and whether or not other troops are in
rear of these flanks, should be most carefully determined.

Information as to the flanks of any force, the character of the
country on each flank, etc., is always of the greatest importance,
because the flanks are the weakest portions of a line. In attacking an
enemy an effort is almost always made to bring the heaviest fire or
blow to bear on one of his flanks. Naturally all information about
this most vulnerable part of an enemy is of great importance.

=984. Prisoners.= When a patrol is ordered to secure prisoners they
should be questioned as soon as captured, while still excited and
their replies can in a way be verified. Their answers should be
written down (unknown to them) and sent back with them as a check on
what they may say on second thought.

Prisoners should always be questioned as to the following points: What
regiment, brigade, division, etc., they belong to; how long they have
been in position, on the march, etc.; how much sickness in their
organization; whether their rations are satisfactory; who commands
their troops, etc. Always try to make the prisoners think the
questions are asked out of mere curiosity.

=985. Camp Noises.= The rumble of vehicles, cracking of whips,
neighing of horses, braying of mules and barking of dogs often
indicate the arrival or departure of troops. If the noise remains in
the same place and new fires are lighted, it is probable that
reënforcements have arrived. If the noise grows more indistinct, the
troops are probably withdrawing. If, added to this, the fires appear
to be dying out, and the enemy seems to redouble the vigilance of the
outposts, the indications of retreat are strong.

=986. Abandoned Camps.= (=a=) Indications are found in the remains of
camp fires. They will show, by their degree of freshness, whether much
or little time elapsed since the enemy left the place, and the
quantity of cinders will give an indication of the length of time he
occupied it. They will also furnish a means of estimating his force
approximately, ten men being allowed to each fire.

(b) Other valuable indications in regard to the length of time the
position was occupied and the time when it was abandoned may be found
in the evidence of care or haste in the construction of huts or
shelters, and in the freshness of straw, grain, dung or the entrails
of slaughtered animals. Abandoned clothing, equipments or harness will
give a clue to the arms and regiments composing a retreating force.
Dead horses lying about, broken weapons, discarded knapsacks,
abandoned and broken-down wagons, etc., are indications of the fatigue
and demoralization of the command. Bloody bandages lying about, and
many fresh graves, are evidences that the enemy is heavily burdened
with wounded or sick.

=987. Flames or Smoke.= If at night the flames of an enemy's camp
fires disappear and reappear, something is moving between the observer
and the fires. If smoke as well as flame is visible, the fires are
very near. If the fires are very numerous and lighted successively,
and if soon after being lighted they go out it is probable the enemy
is preparing a retreat and trying to deceive us. If the fires burn
brightly and clearly at a late hour, the enemy has probably gone, and
has left a detachment to keep the fires burning. If, at an unusual
time, much smoke is seen ascending from an enemy's camp, it is
probable that he is engaged in cooking preparatory to moving off.

If lines of smoke are seen rising at several points along a railway
line in the enemy's rear, it may be surmised that the railroad is
being destroyed by burning the crossties, and that a retreat is
planned.

=988. Limits of vision.= (a) On a clear day a man with good vision can
see:

    At a distance of 9 to 12 miles, church spires and towers;
    At a distance of 5 to 7 miles, windmills;
    At a distance of 2-1/2 miles, chimneys of light color;
    At a distance of 2,000 yards, trunks of large trees;
    At a distance of 1,000 yards, single posts;
    At 500 yards the panes of glass may be distinguished in a window.

(b) Troops are visible at 2,000 yards, at which distance a mounted man
looks like a mere speck; at 1,200 yards infantry can be distinguished
from cavalry; at 1,000 yards a line of men looks like a broad belt; at
600 yards the files of a squad can be counted, and at 400 yards the
movements of the arms and legs can be plainly seen.

(c) The larger, brighter or better lighted an object is, the nearer it
seems. An object seems nearer when it has a dark background than when
it has a light one, and closer to the observer when the air is clear
than when it is raining, snowing, foggy or the atmosphere is filled
with smoke. An object looks farther off when the observer is facing
the sun than when he has his back to it. A smooth expanse of snow,
grain fields or water makes distances seem shorter than they really
are.


Suggestions for the Reconnaissance of Various Positions and Localities

=989.= Cross roads should be reconnoitered in each direction for a
distance depending on how rapidly the patrol must continue on, how far
from the main road the first turn or high point is, etc. The main body
of the patrol usually remains halted near the crossroads, while
flankers do the reconnoitering.

=990. Heights.= In reconnoitering a height, if the patrol is large
enough to admit of detaching them, one or two men climb the slope on
either flank, keeping in sight of the patrol, if possible. In any
case, one man moves cautiously up the hill, followed by the others in
the file at such distance that each keeps his predecessor in view.

=991. Defiles.= On approaching a defile, if time permits, the heights
on either side are reconnoitered by flankers before the patrol enters.
If the heights are inaccessible or time is urgent, the patrol passes
through, in single file at double time. The same method is adopted in
reconnoitering a railroad cut or sunken road.

=992. Bridges and Fords.= At a bridge or ford, the front of the patrol
is contracted so as to bring all the men to the passage. The leading
patrolers cross first and reconnoiter the far side to prevent the
possibility of the enemy surprising the main body of the patrol as it
is crossing the bridge. The patrol then crosses rapidly, and takes up
a proper formation. A bridge is first examined to see that it is safe
and has not been tampered with by the enemy.

=993. Woods.= The patrol enters a wood in skirmishing order, the
intervals being as great as may be consistent with mutual observation
and support on the part of the members of the patrol. On arriving at
the farther edge of the wood, the patrol remains concealed and
carefully looks about before passing out to open ground. When there is
such a growth of underbrush as to make this method impracticable, and
it is necessary to enter a wood by a road, the road is reconnoitered
as in case of defile, though not usually at double time.

=994. Enclosures.= In reconnoitering an enclosure, such as a garden,
park or cemetery, the leading patrolers first examine the exterior, to
make sure that the enemy is not concealed behind one of the faces of
the enclosure. They then proceed to examine the interior. Great care
is taken in reconnoitering and entering an enclosure to avoid being
caught in a confined or restricted space by the enemy.

=995. Positions.= In approaching a position, but one man advances (one
is less liable to be detected than two or more), and he crawls
cautiously toward the crest of the hill or edge of the wood or opening
of the defile, while the others remain concealed in the rear until he
signals them to advance.

=996. Houses.= When a house is approached by a patrol, it is first
reconnoitered from a distance, and if nothing suspicious is seen, it
is then approached by one or two men, the rest of the party remaining
concealed in observation. If the patrol is large enough to admit of
it, four men approach the house, so as to examine the front and back
entrances at the same time. Only one man enters the door, the others
remaining outside to give the alarm, should a party of the enemy be
concealed in the house. The patrol does not remain in the vicinity of
the house any longer than necessary, as information relative to its
numbers and movements might be given to the enemy, if a hostile party
should subsequently visit the place. Farmhouses are searched for
newspapers and the inhabitants questioned. If necessary to go up to a
building, wood or hill, where an enemy is likely to be concealed, run
for the last couple of hundred yards, having your rifle ready for
instant use, and make for some point that will afford you cover when
you get close up. In the case of a building, for instance, you would
make for one of the corners. Such a maneuver would probably be
disconcerting to anyone who might be lying in wait for you, and would
be quite likely to cause them to show themselves sooner than they
intended, and thus give you a chance to turn around and get away. If
they fired on you while you were approaching at a run, they would not
be very likely to hit you.

=997. Villages.= (=a=) In approaching a small village one or two men
are sent in to reconnoiter and one around each flank, but the main
body does not enter until the scouts have reported. In small patrols
of three to six men so much dispersion is not safe and only one
section of the village can be reconnoitered at a time.

(=b=) If the presence of the enemy is not apparent, the patrol enters
the village. A suitable formation would be in single file at proper
distance, each man being on the opposite side of the street from his
predecessor, thus presenting a more difficult target for hostile fire
and enabling the men to watch all windows.

(=c=) If the patrol is strong enough, it seizes the postoffice,
telegraph office and railroad stations, and secures all important
papers, such as files of telegrams sent and received, instructions to
postmasters, orders of town mayor, etc., that may be there. If the
patrol is part of the advance guard, it seizes the mayor and
postmaster of the place and turns them over to the commander of the
vanguard with the papers seized.

(=d=) While searching a village sentinels are placed at points of
departure to prevent any of the inhabitants from leaving. Tall
buildings and steeples are ascended and an extensive view of the
surrounding country obtained.

(=e=) At night a village is more cautiously approached by a small
party than by day. The patrol glides through back alleys, across
gardens, etc., rather than along the main street. If there are no
signs of the enemy, it makes inquiry. If no light is seen, and it
seems imprudent to rouse any of the people, the patrol watches and
captures one of the inhabitants, and gets from him such information as
he may possess.

(=f=) The best time for the patrol to approach a village is at early
dawn, when it is light enough to see, but before the inhabitants are
up. It is dangerous in the extreme for a small patrol to enter a
village unless it is certain that it is not occupied by the enemy, for
the men could be shot down by fire from the windows, cellarways, etc.,
or entrapped and captured. As a rule large towns and cities are not
entered by small patrols, but are watched from the outside, as a small
force can not effectively reconnoiter and protect itself in such a
place.


Facts Which Should Be Obtained by Patrols Regarding Certain Objects

=998. Roads.= Their direction, their nature (macadamized, corduroy
plank, dirt, etc.), their condition of repair, their grade, the nature
of crossroads, and the points where they leave the main roads; their
borders (woods, hedges, fences or ditches), the places at which they
pass through defiles, cross heights or rivers, and where they
intersect railroads, their breadth (whether suitable for column of
fours or platoons, etc.).

=999. Railroads.= Their direction, gauge, the number of tracks,
stations and junctions, their grade, the length and height of the
cuts, embankments and tunnels.

=1000. Bridges.= Their position, their width and length, their
construction (trestle, girder, etc.), material (wood, brick, stone or
iron), the roads and approaches on each bank.

=1001. Rivers and Other Streams.= Their direction, width and depth,
the rapidity of the current, liability to sudden rises and the highest
and lowest points reached by the water, as indicated by drift wood,
etc., fords, the nature of the banks, kinds, position and number of
islands at suitable points of passage, heights in the vicinity and
their command over the banks.

=1002. Woods.= Their situation, extent and shape; whether clear or
containing underbrush; the number and extent of "clearings" (open
spaces); whether cut up by ravines or containing marshes, etc.; nature
of roads passing through them.

=1003. Canals.= Their direction, width and depth; condition of
tow-paths; locks and means of protecting or destroying them.

=1004. Telegraphs.= Whether they follow railroads or common roads;
stations, number of wires.

=1005. Villages.= Their situation (on a height, in a valley or on a
plain); nature of the surrounding country; construction of the houses,
nature (straight or crooked) and width of streets; means of defense.

=1006. Defiles.= Their direction; whether straight or crooked; whether
heights on either side are accessible or inaccessible; nature of
ground at each extremity; width (frontage of column that can pass
through).

=1007. Ponds and Marshes.= Means of crossing; defensive use that might
be made of them as obstacles against enemy; whether the marshy grounds
are practicable for any or all arms.

=1008. Springs and Rivulets.= Nature of approaches; whether water is
drinkable and abundant.

=1009. Valleys.= Extent and nature; towns, villages, hamlets, streams,
roads and paths therein; obstacles offered by or in the valley, to the
movement of troops.

=1010. Heights.= Whether slopes are easy or steep; whether good
defensive positions are offered; whether plateau is wide or narrow;
whether passages are easy or difficult; whether the ground is broken
or smooth, wooded or clear.


Suggestions for Patrols Employed in Executing Demolition

(Destruction or blocking of bridges, railroads, etc.)

=1011. Patrols never execute any demolition unless specifically
ordered to do so.= Demolition may be of two different characters:
Temporary demolition, such as cutting telegraph wires in but a few
places or merely burning the flooring of bridges, removing a few rails
from a track, etc., and permanent demolition, such as cutting down an
entire telegraph line, completely destroying bridges, blowing in
tunnels, etc. Only temporary demolition will be dealt with in this
book.

=1012. Telegraph Line.= To temporarily disable telegraph lines,
connect up different wires close to the glass insulators, wrap a wire
around all the wires and bury its ends in the ground (this grounds or
short circuits the wire), or cut all the wires in one or two places.

=1013. Railroads.= To temporarily disable railroads remove the fish
plates (the plates that join the rails together at the ends) at each
end of a short section of track, preferably upon an embankment, then
have as many men as available raise the track on one side until the
ties stand on end and turn the section of track so that it will fall
down the embankment; or, cut out rails by a charge of dynamite or gun
cotton placed against the web and covered up with mud or damp clay.
Eight to twelve ounces of explosive is sufficient. Or blow in the
sides of deep cuts or blow down embankments. Bridges, culverts,
tunnels, etc., are never destroyed except on a written order of the
commander-in-chief.

=1014. Wagon Road.= (=a=) Bridges can be rendered temporarily useless
by removing the flooring, or, in the case of steel bridges, by burning
the flooring (if obtainable, pour tar or kerosene on flooring),
particularly if there is not time to remove it.

Short culverts may sometimes be blown in.

A hastily constructed barricade across a bridge or in a cut of trees,
wagons, etc, may be sufficient in some cases where only the temporary
check of hostile cavalry or artillery is desired.

(=b=) The road bed may be blocked by digging trenches not less than
thirty feet wide and six feet deep, but as this would take a great
deal of time patrols would rarely be charged with such work.

=1015. Report on Return of Patrol.= On returning the patrol leaders
should make a short verbal or written report, almost always the
former, briefly recounting the movements of the patrol, the
information obtained of the enemy, a description of the country passed
over and of friendly troops encountered. Of course, this is not
practicable when the situation is changing rapidly and a returning
patrol is immediately engaged in some new and pressing duty.


Model Reports of Patrol Leaders

=1016. 1. Verbal.=

=Patrol Leader= (Corporal B): Sir, Corporal B reports back with his
patrol.

=Captain A:= I received two messages from you, corporal. What else did
you discover?

=Corporal B:= That was a regiment of infantry, sir, with one battalion
thrown out as advance guard. The main body of two battalions went into
bivouac at the crossroads and the advance guard formed an outpost line
along the big creek two miles south of here.

=Captain A:= Give me an account of your movements.

=Corporal B:= We followed this main road south to the creek, where we
avoided a mounted patrol moving north on the road at 1-45 P. M., and
then reconnoitered the valley from a ridge west of the road. We
followed the ridge south for half a mile to a point where we could see
a road crossing the valley and the main road at right angles, three
miles south of here. There we halted, and at 2:20 what seemed to be
the point and advance party (about forty men) of an infantry advance
guard appeared, marching north up this road, the head at the
crossroad. I then sent you message No. 1 by Private Brown.

In fifteen minutes three companies had appeared 600 yards in rear of
the advance party, and I could see a heavy, low column of dust about
one-half mile further to the rear. Message No. 2 was then sent in by
Privates Baker and Johnson, and to avoid several hostile patrols, I
drew off further to the northwest.

The advance guard then halted and established an outpost line along
the south of the creek, two miles from here. The cloud of dust proved
to be two more battalions and a wagon train. These two battalions went
into bivouac on opposite sides of this road at the crossroads and sent
out strong patrols east and west on the crossroad. Five wagons went
forward to the outpost battalion and the reserve built cook fires.

As Private Rush, here, was the only man I had left, we started back,
sketching the valley, ridge and positions of the main body and
outpost. Here is the sketch, sir. The fields are all cut crops or
meadow.

We sighted two foot patrols from the outpost, moving north about a
mile from here, one following the road and one further east.

I did not see any of our patrols.

That is all, sir.

=2. Written.=

            =Report of Sergeant Wm. James' Patrol of Five Men=

                                                    Support No. 1,
                                    Outpost of 6th Inf., Near Dixon,
                                           22 Aug. 12, 2-30 to 5 P. M.

    The patrol followed the timber along the creek for one mile S.
    from our outguards and leaving the creek bottom moved 1/2 mile S.
    E. to the wooded hill (about 800 ft. high), visible from our
    lines.

    From this hill top the valley to the east (about one mile wide)
    could be fairly well observed. No signs of the enemy were seen and
    a message, No. 1, was sent back by Private Russel.

    A wagon road runs N. and S. through the valley, bordered by four
    or five farms with numerous orchards and cleared fields. Both
    slopes of the valley are heavily wooded.

    The patrol then moved S. W., until it struck the macadam pike
    which runs N. and S., through our lines. Proceeding S. 400 yds. on
    this pike to a low hill a farmer, on foot, was met. Said he lived
    one mile further S.; was looking for some loose horses; that four
    hostile cavalrymen, from the east, stopped at his farm at noon,
    drank some milk, took oats for their horses, inquired the way to
    Dixon and rode off in that direction within fifteen minutes. He
    said they were the first hostiles he had seen; that they told
    nothing about themselves, and they and their horses looked in good
    condition. Farmer appeared friendly and honest.

    The patrol then returned to our lines following the pike about two
    miles. Road is in good condition, low hedges and barbed wire
    fences, stone culverts and no bridges in the two miles. Bordering
    country is open and gently rolling farming country and all crops
    are in. A sketch is attached to this report. None of our patrols
    was seen.

        Respectfully submitted,
                                                          Wm. James,
                                            Sergeant, Co. A, 6th Infy.


Problem in Patrol Leading and Patrolling

=1017.= In studying or solving tactical problems on a map you must
remember that unless you carefully work out your own solution to the
problem before looking at the given solution, you will practically
make no progress.

It is best, if your time permits, to write out your solutions, and
when you read over the given solutions, compare the solution of each
point with what you thought of that same point when you were solving
the problem, and consider why you did just what you did. Without this
comparison much of the lasting benefit of the work is lost.

In some of these problems both the problem and solutions are presented
in dialogue form so as to give company officers examples of the best
method of conducting the indoor instruction of their men in minor
tactics. It also gives an example of how to conduct a tactical walk
out in the country, simply looking at the ground itself, instead of a
map hanging on the wall. The enlarged Elementary Map referred to in
Par. 954, is supposed to be used in this instruction as well as in the
war games.


Problem No. 1. (Infantry)

=1018.= The Elementary Map (scale 12 inches to the mile) being hung on
the wall, about two sergeants and two squads of the company are seated
in a semicircle facing it, and the captain is standing beside the map
with a pointer (a barrack cleaning rod makes an excellent pointer).

=Captain:= We will suppose that our company has just reached the
village of York. The enemy is reported to be in the vicinity of Boling
and Oxford (he points out on the map all places as they are
mentioned). We are in the enemy's country.

Corporal James, I call you up at 3 P. M. and give you these orders:
"Nothing has been seen of the enemy yet. Our nearest troops are three
miles south of here. Take four men from your squad and reconnoiter
along this road (County Road) into the valley on the other side of
that ridge over there (points to the ridge just beyond the cemetery),
and see if you can discover anything about the enemy. Report back here
by 5 o'clock. I am sending a patrol out the Valley Pike." Now,
Corporal, state just what you would do.

=Corporal James:= I would go to my squad, fall in Privates Amos,
Barlow, Sharp and Brown; see that they had full canteens; that their
arms were all right; that they were not lame or sick and I would have
them leave their blanket rolls, haversacks and entrenching tools with
the company. (Par. 964.)

I would then give these orders (Par. 963); "We are ordered out on
patrol duty. Nothing has been seen of the enemy yet. Our nearest
troops are three miles south of here. We are ordered to reconnoiter
along this road into the valley on the other side of that ridge, and
see if we can discover anything about the enemy. Another patrol is
going up the Valley Pike. Reports are to be sent here. In case we are
scattered we will meet at the woods on the hill over there (indicates
the clump of trees just west of Mills' farm).

"I will go ahead. Amos, follow about fifty yards behind me. Barlow,
you and Sharp keep about 100 yards behind Amos, and Brown will follow
you at half that distance. All keep on the opposite side of the road
from the man ahead of you." (Par. 968.)

=Captain:= All right, Corporal, now describe what route you will
follow.

=Corporal James:= The patrol will keep to the County Road until the
crest of the ridge near the stone wall is reached, when what I see in
the valley beyond will decide my route for me.

=Captain:= How about the woods west of the stone walls?

=Corporal James:= If I did not see anyone from our patrol on the
Valley Pike reconnoitering there, I would give Barlow these orders
just after we have examined the cemetery, when the patrol would have
temporarily closed up somewhat: "Barlow, take Sharp and examine that
little woods over there. Join us at the top of this hill." I would
then wave to Brown to close up and would proceed to the hill top.

=Captain:= Barlow what do you do?

=Private Barlow:= I would say, "Sharp, out straight across for that
woods. I will follow you." I would follow about 100 yards behind him.
When he reached the edge of the woods I would signal him to halt by
holding up my left hand. After I had closed up to about fifty yards I
would say to him, "Go into the woods and keep me in sight." I would
walk along the edge of the woods where I could see Sharp and the
corporal's patrol on the road at the same time.

=Captain:= That is all right, Barlow. Corporal, you should have
instructed Amos or Brown to keep close watch on Barlow for signals.

=Corporal James:= I intended to watch him myself.

=Captain:= No, you would have enough to do keeping on the alert for
what was ahead of you. Now describe how you lead the patrol to the top
of the hill, by the stone wall.

=Corporal James:= When I reached the crest I would hold up my hand for
the patrol to halt and would cautiously advance and look ahead into
the valley. If I saw nothing suspicious I would wave to the men to
close up and say, "Amos, go to that high ground about 250 yards over
there (indicates the end of the nose made by the 60-foot contour just
north of the east end of the stone wall), and look around the
country." I would keep Brown behind the crest, watching Barlow's
movements.

=Captain:= Now, Corporal, Amos reaches the point you indicated and
Barlow and Sharp join you. What do you do?

=Corporal James:= Can I see the Steel Bridge over Sandy Creek?

=Captain:= No, it is three-fourths of a mile away and the trees along
the road by Smith's hide it. You can see the cut in the road east of
the bridge and the Smith house, but the crossroads are hidden by the
trees bordering the roads. You see nothing suspicious. It is a clear,
sunny afternoon. The roads are dusty and the trees in full foliage.
The valley is principally made up of fields of cut hay, corn stubble
and meadow land.

=Corporal James:= Does Private Amos give me any information?

=Captain:= No, he makes you no signals. You see him sitting behind a
bush looking northwest, down the valley.

=Corporal James:= I would say, "Barlow, head straight across to where
that line of trees meets the road (indicates the point where the lane
from Mills' farm joins the Chester Pike). Sharp, keep about fifty
yards to my right rear." I would follow Barlow at 150 yards and when I
had reached the bottom land I would wave to Amos to follow us.

=Captain:= How about Brown?

=Corporal James:= I had already given him his orders to follow as rear
guard and he should do so without my telling him.

=Captain:= Amos, what do you do when you see the corporal wave to you?

=Private Amos:= I would go down the hill and join him.

=Captain:= No, you could do better than that. You are too far from the
corporal for him to signal you to do much of anything except stay
there or join him. You should join him, but you should not go straight
down to him. You should head so as to strike the Mills' Lane about 100
yards east of the house and then go down the lane, first looking along
the stone wall. In this way you save time in reconnoitering the ground
near the Mills' farm and protect the patrol against being surprised by
an enemy hidden by the line of trees, or the wall along the lane. You
are not disobeying your orders but just using common sense in
following them out and thinking about what the corporal is trying to
do.

Now, Corporal, why didn't you go to the Smith house and find out if
the people there had seen anything of the enemy?

=Corporal James:= You said we were in the enemy's country, sir, so I
thought it best to avoid the inhabitants until I found I could not get
information in any other way. I intended first to see if I could
locate any enemy around here, and if not, to stop at houses on my
return. In this way I would be gone before the people could send any
information to the enemy about my patrol.

=Captain:= Barlow reaches the Chester Pike where the Mills' lane
leaves it. You are about 150 yards in his rear. Sharp is 50 yards off
to your right rear, Amos 100 yards to your left rear and Brown 50
yards behind you. Just as Barlow starts to climb over the barbed wire
fence into the Chester Pike you see him drop down on the ground. He
signals, "Enemy in sight." Tell me quickly what would you do?

=Corporal James:= I would wave my hand for all to lie down, and I
would hasten forward, stooping over as I ran, until I was about twenty
yards from him, when I would crawl forward to the fence, close by him.
Just before I reached him I would ask him what he saw.

=Captain:= He replies, "There are some hostile foot soldiers coming up
this road."

=Corporal James:= I would crawl forward and look.

=Captain:= You see three or four men, about 500 yards north of you,
coming up the Chester Pike. They are scattered out.

=Corporal James:= I would say, "Crawl into the lane, keep behind the
stone wall, watch those fellows, and work your way to that farm"
(indicates the Mills' farm). I would start towards the Mills' farm
myself, under cover of the trees along the lane and would wave to the
other men to move rapidly west, towards the hills.

=Captain:= Why didn't you try to hide near where you were and allow
the hostile men to pass?

=Corporal James:= There does not seem to be any place to hide near
there that a patrol would not probably examine.

=Captain:= What is your plan now?

=Corporal James:= I want to get my patrol up to that small woods near
the Mills' farm, but I hardly expect to be able to get them up to that
point without their being seen. In any event, I want them well back
from the road where they can lie down and not be seen by the enemy
when he passes.

=Captain:= You succeed in collecting your patrol in the woods without
their being seen, and you see four foot soldiers in the road at the
entrance to the land. One man starts up the lane, the others remaining
on the road.

=Corporal James:= I say, "Brown, go through these woods and hurry
straight across to York. You should be able to see the village from
the other side of the woods. Report to the captain that a hostile
patrol of four foot men is working south up the valley, two miles
northeast of York. We will go further north. Repeat what I have told
you." (Par. 979.)

=Captain:= Why didn't you send this message before?

=Corporal James:= Because we were moving in the same direction that
the messenger would have had to go, and, by waiting a very few
minutes, I was able to tell whether it was a mere patrol or the point
of an advance guard.

=Captain:= Do you think it correct to send a messenger back with news
about a small patrol?

=Corporal James:= Ordinarily it would be wrong, but as nothing has
been seen of the enemy until now, this first news is important because
it proves to the Captain that the enemy really is in this
neighborhood, which it seems to me is a very important thing for him
to know and what my mission required me to do. (Par. 981.)

=Captain:= What are you going to do now, Corporal?

=Corporal James:= We have traveled about two miles and stopped
frequently, so it must be about 4 o'clock. It is one and one-third
miles back to York, where I should arrive about 5 o'clock. It would
take me twenty-five minutes to go from here to York, so I have about
thirty-five minutes left before 5 o'clock. This will permit me to go
forward another mile and still be able to reach York on time. It is
two-thirds of a mile to the Mason farm, and if the hostile patrol
appears to be going on, I will start for that point. Did anyone at the
Mills' farm see us?

=Captain:= No, but tell me first why you do not go along this high
ground that overlooks the valley?

=Corporal James:= Because our patrol that started out the Valley Pike
is probably near Twin Hills and I want to cover other country. The
orchard at Mason's would obstruct my view from the hills.

=Captain:= The hostile patrol goes on south. Describe briefly your
next movements.

=Corporal James:= I lead my patrol over to Mason's and, concealing two
of the men so that both roads and the house can be watched, I take one
man and reconnoiter around the farm yard and go up to the house to
question the inhabitants. (Par. 996.)

=Captain:= You find one woman there who says some other soldiers, on
foot, passed there a few minutes ago, marching south. She gives you no
other information about the enemy or country.

=Corporal James:= I would send Amos over to see how deep and wide
Sandy Creek is (Par. 1001.) When he returned I would take the patrol
over to Twin Hills, follow the ridge south to the stone wall on the
County Road, watching the valley for signs of the hostile patrol, and
follow the road back to York; then make my report to the Captain,
telling him where I had gone, all I had seen, including a description
of the country. If I had not been hurried, I would have made a sketch
of the valley. I can make a rough one after I get in. (Par. 1015.)

=Captain:= Suppose on your way back you saw hostile troops appearing
on the County Road, marching west over Sandy Ridge. Would you stay out
longer or would you consider that you should reach Oxford by 5
o'clock?

=Corporal James:= I would send a message back at once, and remain out
long enough to find out the strength and probable intention of the new
enemy.

=Captain (to one platoon of his troop of cavalry):= We will suppose
that this troop has just (9 A. M.) arrived in Boling (Elementary Map)
on a clear, dry, summer day. The enemy is supposed to be near Salem
and we have seen several of his patrols this morning on our march
south to Boling. Sergeant Allen, I call you up and give you these
instructions: "Take Corporal Burt's squad (eight men) and reconnoiter
south by this road (indicates the Boling-Morey house road) to Salem. I
will take the troop straight south to Salem and you will join it
there about 10:15. It is four and one-half miles to Salem. Start at
once." (You have no map.)

=Sergeant Allen:= I would like to know just what the Captain wishes my
patrol to do. (Par. 965.)

=Captain:= We will suppose that this is one of the many occasions in
actual campaign where things must be done quickly. Where there is no
time for detailed orders. You know that the troop has been marching
south towards Salem where the enemy is supposed to be. You also know
we have seen several of his patrols. I have told you what the troop is
going to do, and from all this you should be able to decide what your
mission is in this case. We will, therefore, consider that there is no
time to give you more detailed orders, and you have to decide for
yourself. Of course, if you had failed to hear just what I said, then,
in spite of the necessity for haste, I would repeat my instructions to
you. (Par. 963.)

=Sergeant Allen:= I would ride over to Corporal Burt's squad and lead
it out of the column to the road leading to the Morey house, and say,
"The troop is going on straight south to Salem, four and one-half
miles away. This squad will reconnoiter south to Salem by this road,
joining the troop there about 10:15. In case we become separated, make
for Salem. Corporal, take Brown and form the point. I will follow with
the squad about 300 yards in rear. Regulate your gait on me after you
get your distance. Move out now at a trot." (Par. 963.)

After Corporal Burt had gotten 150 yards out I would say, "Carter,
move out as connecting file." I would then say, "Downs, you will
follow about 150 yards behind us as rear guard." When Carter had gone
150 yards down the road I would order, "=1. Forward; 2. Trot; 3.
March=," and ride off at the head of the four remaining men (in column
of twos.) (Par. 968.)

=Captain:= Sergeant, tell me briefly what is your estimate of the
situation--that is, what sort of a proposition you have before you and
how you have decided to handle it.

=Sergeant Allen:= As the enemy is supposed to be near Salem and we
have already seen his patrols, I expect to encounter more patrols and
may meet a strong body of the enemy, on my way to Salem. As I have no
map, I cannot tell anything about the road, except that it is about
four and one-half miles by the direct road the troop will follow,
therefore my route will be somewhat longer. I have been given an hour
and fifteen minutes in which to make the trip, so, if I move at a trot
along the safer portions of the road. I will have time to proceed very
slowly and cautiously along the dangerous portions. My patrol will be
stretched out about 500 yards on the road, which should make it
difficult for the enemy to surprise us and yet should permit my
controlling the movements of the men. (Par. 968.)

I consider that my mission is to start out on this road and find my
way around to Salem in about an hour and, particularly, to get word
across to the Captain on the other road of anything of importance
about the enemy that I may learn.

=Captain:= Very well. When you reach the cut in the road across the
south nose of Hill 38, your point has almost reached the Morey house.
Do you make any change in your patrol?

=Sergeant Allen:= I order, "=1. Walk, 2. MARCH=," and watch to see if
the connecting file observes the change in gait and comes to a walk.

=Captain:= Suppose he does not come to a walk?

=Sergeant Allen:= I would say, "Smith, gallop ahead and tell Carter to
walk and to keep more on the alert."

=Captain:= Corporal Burt, you reach the road fork at Morey's. What do
you do?

=Corporal Burt:= I say, "Brown, wait here until Carter is close enough
to see which way you go and then trot up to me." I would walk on down
the road.

=Captain:= Wouldn't you make any inspection of the Morey house?

=Corporal Burt:= Not unless I saw something suspicious from the road.
I would expect the main body of the patrol to do that.

=Captain:= Don't you make any change on account of the woods you are
passing?

=Corporal Burt:= No, sir. It has very heavy underbrush and we would
lose valuable time trying to search through it. A large force of the
enemy would hardly hide in such a place.

=Captain:= Sergeant Allen, you reach the road fork. What do you do?

=Sergeant Allen:= I would have two men go into the Morey house to
question anyone they found there. I would order one of the other two
men to trot up (north) that road 200 yards and wait until I signaled
to him to return. With the other man I would await the result of the
inspection of the Morey house. Corporal Burt should have gone ahead
without orders to the cut in the road across Long Ridge, leaving Brown
half way between us. (Pars. 987 to 996.)

=Captain:= You find no one at the Morey house.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would signal the man to the north to come in. I
would then order two men to "find a gate in the fence and trot up on
that hill (indicating Long Ridge), and look around the country and
join me down this road." (Par. 968.) I would then start south at a
walk, halting at the cut to await the result of the inspection on the
country from the hill.

=Captain:= Foster, you and Lacey are the two men sent up on Long
Ridge. When you reach the hilltop you see four hostile cavalrymen
trotting north on the Valley Pike, across the railroad track.

=Private Foster:= I signal like this (enemy in sight), and wait to see
if they go on north. (Par. 978.) Do I see anything else behind or
ahead of them?

=Captain:= You see no other signs of the enemy on any road. Everything
looks quiet. The hostile cavalrymen pass the Baker house and continue
north.

=Private Foster:= I would then take Lacey, trot down the ridge to
Sergeant Allen, keeping below the crest and report, "Sergeant, We saw
four hostile mounted men trotting north on the road about
three-quarters of a mile over there (pointing), and they kept on
north, across that road (pointing to the Brown-Baker-Oxford road).
There was nothing else in sight." I would then tell him what the
country to the south looked like, if he wanted to know.

=Captain:= Sergeant Allen, what do you do now?

=Sergeant Allen:= I would continue toward the Brown house at a trot. I
would send no message to you as you already know there are hostile
patrols about and therefore this information would be of little or no
importance to you. (Par. 981.)

=Captain:= You arrive at Brown's house.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would send two men in to question the people and I
would continue on at a walk. I would not send any one up the road
towards Oxford as Foster has already seen that road.

=Captain:= You should have sent a man several hundred yards out the
Farm Lane. (Par. 989.) If he moved at a trot it would only have taken
a very short time. Continue to describe your movements.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would halt at the railroad track until I saw my
two men coming on from the Brown house. I would then direct the other
two men who were with me to go through the first opening in the fence
to the west and ride south along that ridge (62--Lone Hill--Twin
Hills' ridge) until I signaled them to rejoin. I would tell them to
look out for our troop over to the east. If there were a great many
fences I would not send them out until we were opposite the southern
edge of that woods ahead of us. There I would send them to the high
ground to look over the country, and return at once.

=Captain:= There are a great many fences west of the road and
practically none east of the road to Sandy Creek. Just as you arrive
opposite the southern edge of those woods and are giving orders for
the two men to ride up the hill, you hear firing in the direction of
Bald Knob. In the road at the foot of the south slope of Bald Knob,
where the trail to the quarry starts off, you can see quite a clump of
horses. You see nothing to the west of your position or towards
Mason's. What do you do?

=Sergeant Allen:= I signal "RALLY" to Carter and Downs. If there is a
gate nearby I lead my men through it. If not, I have them cut or break
an opening in the fence and ride towards the railroad fill at a fast
trot, having one man gallop ahead as point.

When we reach the fill, the point having first looked beyond it, I
order, "=DISMOUNT=. Lacey, hold the horses. =1. As skirmishers along
that fill, 2. MARCH.=" When Corporal Burt, Brown, Carter and Downs
come up Lacey takes their horses and they join the line of
skirmishers. Captain, what do I see from the fill?

=Captain:= There appear to be about twenty or thirty horses in the
group. The firing seems to come from the cut in the road just north of
the horses and from the clump of trees by the Quarry. You can also
hear firing from a point further north on the road, apparently your
troop replying to the fire from Bald Knob. You see nothing in the road
south of the horses as far as Hill 42, which obstructs your view. What
action do you take?

=Sergeant Allen:= I order, "=AT THE FEET OF THOSE HORSES. RANGE, 850.
CLIP FIRE.="

=Captain:= What is your object in doing as you have done?

=Sergeant Allen:= I know the captain intended to go to Salem with the
troop. From the fact that he is replying to the hostile fire I judge
he still wishes to push south. I was ordered to reconnoiter along this
road, but now a situation has arisen where the troop is being
prevented or delayed in doing what was desired and I am in what
appears to be a very favorable position from which to give assistance
to the troop and enable them to push ahead. I am practically in rear
of the enemy and within effective range of their lead horses. I
therefore think my mission has at least temporarily changed and I
should try and cause the twenty or thirty hostile troopers to draw off
(Par. 1011). Besides, I think it is my business to find out what the
strength of this enemy is and whether or not he has reinforcements
coming up from Salem, and send this information to the captain. From
my position I can still watch the Chester Pike.

=Captain:= After you have emptied your clips you see the enemy running
down out of the cut and from among the trees mount their horses and
gallop south. What do you do?

=Sergeant Allen:= I would send Foster across the creek above the
trestle (south of trestle), to ride across to that road (pointing
towards the cut on Bald Hill) and tell the captain, who is near there,
that about thirty men were on the hill and they have galloped south,
and that I am continuing towards Salem. I would have Foster repeat the
message that I gave him. I would then trot back to the Chester Pike
and south to Mason's, taking up our old formation.

=Captain:= You see nothing unusual at Mason's and continue south until
you reach the cross roads by the Smith farm. Corporal Burt and Private
Brown are near the stone bridge south of Smith's; Private Carter is
half way between you and Corporal Burt; and Private Downs is 100 yards
north of Smith's. You have three men with you. What do you do?

=Sergeant Allen:= What time is it now?

=Captain:= It is now 9:45 A. M.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would say, "Lacey, take Jackson and gallop as far
as that cut in the road (points east) and see if you can locate the
enemy or our troop in the valley beyond. I will wave my hat over my
head when I want you to return." I would then say to Private Moore,
"Gallop down to Corporal Burt and tell him to fall back in this
direction 100 yards, and then you return here bringing the other two
men with you." I would then await the result of Private Lacey's
reconnaissance, sending Carter to the turn in the road 200 yards west
of the cross roads.

=Captain:= Lacey, what do you do?

=Private Lacey:= I order Jackson, "Follow 75 yards behind me and watch
for signals from Sergeant Allen," and I then gallop across the steel
bridge and half way up the hill. I then move cautiously up to the cut
and, if the fences permit, I ride up on the side of the cut,
dismounting just before reaching the crest of the ridge, and walk
forward until I can see into the valley beyond.

=Captain:= You see no signs of the enemy in the valley, but you see
your own troop on the road by the Gibbs farm with a squad in advance
in the road on Hill 42.

=Private Lacey:= I look towards Sergeant Allen to see if he is
signaling. I make no signals.

=Captain:= What do you do, Sergeant?

=Sergeant Allen:= I wave my hat for Private Lacey to return. I wave to
Private Downs to join me and when Private Lacey arrives I signal
"ASSEMBLE" to Corporal Burt and then say, "Lacey, join Corporal Burt
and tell him to follow me as rear guard. Martin, join Carter and tell
him to trot west. We will follow. You stay with him." After he got
started I would order, "Follow me. =1. Trot; 2. MARCH.="

=Captain:= When Private Carter reaches the crest of the ridge about
one-half mile west of Smith's he signals, "Enemy in sight in large
numbers," and he remains in the road with Martin fifty yards in rear.
(Par. 978.)

=Sergeant Allen:= I order, "=1. Walk; 2. MARCH.= =1. Squad; 2. HALT=,"
and gallop up to Private Carter, dismount just before reaching the
crest, give my horse up to Private Martin, and run forward.

=Captain:= Carter points out what appears to be a troop of cavalry
standing in the road leading north out of York, just on the edge of
the town. You see about four mounted men 200 yards out of York on your
road, halted, and about the same number on the Valley Pike near where
it crosses the first stream north of York. What do you do?

=Sergeant Allen:= I wait about three minutes to see if they are going
to move.

=Captain:= They remain halted, the men at York appear to be
dismounted.

=Sergeant Allen:= I write the following message:

                                        Hill 1/2 mile N. E. of York,
                                                              10 A. M.

    Captain X:

    A hostile troop of cavalry is standing in road at YORK (west of
    SALEM) with squads halted on N. and N. E. roads from YORK. Nothing
    else seen. Will remain in observation for the present.

                                                              Allen,
                                             Sgt. (Pars. 979 and 981.)

I would give the message to Martin, who had previously brought my
horse up close in rear of the crest, and would say to him, "Take this
message to the captain, straight across to the road the troop is on,
and turn south towards Salem if you do not see them at first. Take
Lacey with you. Tell him what you have seen. He knows where the troop
is." I would have Carter hold my horse, and watch the remainder of the
patrol for signals, while I observed the enemy.

=Captain:= At the end of five minutes the hostile troop trots north on
the Valley Pike, the patrol on your road rides across to the Valley
Pike and follows the troop.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would wait until the troops had crossed the creek
north of York and would then face my patrol east and trot to the cross
roads at Smith's, turn south and continue to Salem, sending one man to
ride up on Sandy Ridge, keeping the patrol in sight.

=Captain:= We have carried out the problem far enough. It furnishes a
good example of the varying situations a patrol leader has to meet.
Good judgment or common sense must be used in deciding on the proper
course to follow. You must always think of what your chief is trying
to do and then act in the way you think will best help him to
accomplish his object. If you have carefully decided just what mission
you have been given to accomplish, you cannot easily go wrong. In
handling a mounted patrol you must remember that if the men become
widely separated in strange country, or even in country they are
fairly familiar with, they are most apt to lose all contact with each
other or become lost themselves.


Problem No. 2. (Infantry)

=1019. Captain (to one platoon of his company):= We will suppose it is
about half an hour before dawn. One platoon of the company is deployed
as skirmishers, facing north, in the cut where the County Road crosses
Sandy Ridge. It is the extreme right of a line of battle extending
west along the line of the County Road. The fight was not commenced.
This platoon is resting in a wheat field between the railroad and the
foot of the slope of Sandy Ridge, 200 yards south of the County Road.
Sergeant Allen, I call you up and give you these instructions: "The
enemy's line is off in that direction (pointing northwest). Take six
men and work north along the railroad until it is light enough to see;
then locate the hostile line and keep me informed of their movements.
I will be in this vicinity. You have a compass. Start at once."
Describe briefly the formation of your patrol while it is moving in
the dark.

=Sergeant Allen:= One man will lead. A second man will follow about
fifteen yards in rear of him. I will follow the second man at the same
distance with three more men, and the last man will be about twenty
yards in rear of me. All will have bayonets fixed, loaded and pieces
locked. One short, low whistle will mean, =Halt=, two short whistles
will mean, =Forward=, and the word "Sandy" will be the countersign by
which we can identify each other.

=Captain:= Very well. We will suppose that you reach the steel trestle
over Sandy Creek just at dawn and have met no opposition and heard
nothing of the enemy. On either side of Sandy Creek are fields of
standing corn about six feet tall. In the present dim light you can
only see a few hundred yards off.

=Sergeant Allen:= The patrol being halted I would walk forward to the
leading man (Brown) and say, "Brown, take Carter and form the point
for the patrol, continuing along this railroad. We will follow about
150 yards in rear." I would then rejoin the main body of the patrol
and order the man in rear to follow about 75 yards in rear of us. When
the point had gained its distance I would move forward with the main
body, ordering one man to move along the creek bank (west bank),
keeping abreast of us until I signaled to him to come in.

=Captain:= Just as you reach the northern end of the railroad fill
your point halts and you detect some movement in the road to the west
of you. It is rapidly growing lighter.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would move the main body by the left flank into
the corn, signaling to the man following the creek to rejoin, and for
the rear guard to move off the track also. I would expect Brown to do
the same, even before he saw what we had done. I would then close up
on the point until I could see it and, halting all the patrol, I would
order Foster to take Lacey and work over towards the road to see what
is there and to report back to me immediately.

=Captain:= In a few minutes Foster returns and reports, "The enemy is
moving south in the road and in the field beyond, in line of squads or
sections. A hostile patrol is moving southeast across the field behind
us. We were not seen."

(Note: This situation could well have been led up to by requiring
Private Foster to explain how he conducted his reconnaissance and
having him formulate his report on the situation as given.)

=Sergeant Allen:= I would then work my patrol closer to the road,
keeping Foster out on that flank, and prepare to follow south in rear
of the hostile movement.

=Captain:= The information you have gained is so important that you
should have sent a man back to me with a verbal message, particularly
as you are in a very dangerous position, and may not be able to send a
message later. While you have not definitely located the left of the
enemy's line, you have apparently discovered what appears to be a
movement of troops forward to form the left of the attacking line.
Your action in turning south to follow the troops just reported, is
proper, as you now know you are partly in rear of the hostile movement
and must go south to locate the hostile flank that your mission
requires you to report on.

You men must picture in your minds the appearance of the country the
sergeant is operating through. His patrol is now in a field of high
standing corn. Unless you are looking down between the regular rows of
corn you can only see a few yards ahead of you. The road has a wire
fence and is bordered by a fairly heavy growth of high weeds and
bushes. The ground is dry and dusty. Sergeant, how do you conduct your
movement south?

=Sergeant Allen:= As my patrol is now in a very dangerous neighborhood
and very liable to be caught between two hostile lines, with a deep
creek between our present position and our platoon, I think it best to
move cautiously southeast until I reach the creek bank (I cannot see
it from where I now am), and then follow the creek south. I think I am
very apt to find the enemy's left resting on this creek. Besides, if I
do not soon locate the enemy, I can hold the main body of my patrol
close to the creek and send scouts in towards the road to search for
the enemy. It will also be much easier to send information back to the
platoon from the creek bank, as a messenger can ford it and head
southeast until he strikes the railroad and then follow that straight
back to our starting point. It would thus be very difficult for him to
get lost.

=Captain:= You move southeast and strike the creek bank just south of
the railroad trestle. You now hear artillery fire off to the west and
a rifle fire to the southwest which gradually increases in volume. You
see a high cloud of dust hanging over the road on the hill west of
Mason's and south of this road on the north slope of the northern-most
knoll of the Twin Hills, you can occasionally see the flash of a gun,
artillery being discharged. There seems to be no rifle firing directly
in your front.

=Sergeant Allen:= I hurriedly write the following message:

                                 At Ry. trestle 1 mi. N. of Platoon,
                                                            5:15 A. M.

    Captain X:

    Can see arty. firing from position on N. slope of knoll on high
    ridge to W. of me, and 1/4 mi. S. of E. and W. road. Hostile line
    is S. of me. Have not located it. Will move S.

                                                              Allen,
                                                      Sgt. (Par. 474.)

I hand this to Private Smith and say to him. "Carry this quickly to
the captain. Follow the railroad back until you cross a wagon road.
Our platoon should be to the west of the track just beyond the road."
I also read the message to Smith and point out the hostile artillery.
I have considered that I sent a message before telling about the
hostile advance.

I then continue south, moving slowly and with great caution. I
instruct the remaining four men that in case we are surprised to try
to cross the creek and follow the railroad back to the platoon.

=Captain:= Your information about the hostile artillery position was
important and should have been sent in, provided you think your
description of the hostile position was sufficiently clear to be
understood by an observer within your own lines.

There is some question as to the advisability of your remaining on the
west bank of the creek. Still you would not be able to tell from where
you were what direction the creek took, so you probably would remain
on the west bank for the present.

You continue south for about 150 yards and your leading man halts,
comes back to you, and reports that the corn ahead is broken and
trampled, showing it has been passed over by foot troops. About the
same time you hear rifle fire to your immediate front. It sounds very
close.

=Sergeant Allen:= I say, "Cross this creek at once," and when we reach
the other bank and the patrol forms again, we move slowly south, all
the men keeping away from the creek bank, except myself, and I march
opposite the two men constituting the main body.

=Captain:= About this time you detect a movement in the corn across
the creek in rear of the place you have just left. You think it is a
body of troops moving south. The firing in front seems to be delivered
from a point about two or three hundred yards south of you and you can
hear heavy firing from off in the direction of your company, a few
bullets passing overhead. There are scattered trees along the creek
and some bushes close to the edge.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would conceal myself close to the bank, the patrol
being back, out of sight from the opposite bank, and await
developments.

=Captain:= Sergeant, your patrol is in a dangerous position. The enemy
will very likely have a patrol or detachment in rear and beyond his
flank. This patrol would probably cross the railroad trestle and take
you in rear. You should have given the last men in your patrol
particular instructions to watch the railroad to the north. It would
have been better if you had sent one man over to the railroad, which
is only a short distance away, and had him look up and down the track
and also make a hurried survey of the country from an elevated
position on the fill.

I also think it would be better not to await developments where you
now are, but to push south and make sure of the position of the left
of the enemy's firing line, later you can devote more time to the
movements in rear of the first line. You are taking too many chances
in remaining where you are. I do not mean that you should leave merely
because you might have some of your men killed or captured, but
because if this did occur you would probably not be able to accomplish
your mission. Later you may have to run a big chance of sacrificing
several of your men, in order to get the desired information, which
would be entirely justifiable. Tell me how your men are arranged and
what your next movement would be.

=Sergeant Allen:= I have four men left, I am close to the stream's
bank, under cover; two men are about 25 yards further away from the
stream; Private Brown is up stream as far off as he can get and still
see the other two men, and Private Foster is down stream the same
distance. Both Brown and Foster are well back from the stream. The two
men in the middle, the main body of the patrol, make their movements
conform to mine, and Brown and Foster regulate their movements on the
main body. I will move south until I can locate the enemy's advance
line.

=Captain:= When you are opposite the Mason house, Brown comes back to
you, having signaled halt, and reports he can see the enemy's firing
line about 100 yards ahead on the other side of the stream, and that a
small detachment is crossing the stream just beyond where he was. What
do you do?

=Sergeant Allen:= I creep forward with Brown to verify his report. The
remainder of the patrol remains in place.

=Captain:= You find everything as Brown reported. You see that the
firing line extends along the southern edge of the cornfield, facing
an uncultivated field covered with grass and frequent patches of weeds
two or three feet high. You cannot determine how strong the line is,
but a heavy fire is being delivered. You cannot see the detachment
that crossed the creek south of you because of the standing corn.

=Sergeant Allen:= I crawl back to the main body, leaving Brown, and
write the following message:

                                              5/6 mi. N. of Platoon,
                                                            5:32 A. M.

    Captain X:

    Enemy's left rests on creek 3/4 mile to your front, along S. edge
    of cornfield. Creek is 5 ft. deep by 60 ft. wide. Hostile patrols
    have crossed the creek. Will watch their rear.

                                                              Allen,
                                                                  Sgt.

I give this to Private James and say, "Go over to the railroad
(pointing), then turn to your right and follow the track until you
cross a wagon road. Our platoon is just beyond that, on this side of
the track. Give this message to the captain. Hurry."

=Captain:= You should have either read the message to James or had him
read it. You should also have cautioned him to watch out for that
hostile detachment. It might be better to send another man off with a
duplicate of the message, as there is quite a chance that James may
not get through and the message is all-important. James, you get back
to the wagon road here (pointing) and find yourself in the right of
your battle line, but cannot locate me or the company right away.

=Private James:= I would show the note to the first officer I saw in
any event, and in this case, I would turn it over to the officer who
appeared to be in command of the battalion or regiment on the right of
the line, telling him what company the patrol belonged to, when we
went out, etc.

=Captain:= What do you do, sergeant?

=Sergeant Allen:= I start to move north a short distance in order to
find out what reënforcements are in rear of the hostile line.

=Captain:= After you have moved about 75 yards you are suddenly fired
into from across the creek, and at the same time from the direction of
the railroad trestle. Your men break and run east through the corn and
you follow, but lose sight of them. When you cross the railroad fill
you are fired on from the direction of the bridge. You finally stop
behind the railroad fill on the quarry switch, where two of your men
join you.

=Sergeant Allen:= I would start south to rejoin the company and
report.

=Captain:= That would be a mistake. It would require a long time for a
second patrol to make its way out over unknown ground, filled with
hostile patrols, to a point where they could observe anything in rear
of the hostile flank. You are now fairly familiar with the ground, you
also know about where the hostile patrols are and you have two men
remaining. After a brief rest in some concealed place nearby, you
should start out again to make an effort to determine the strength of
the troops in rear of the hostile flank near you, or at least remain
out where you could keep a sharp lookout for any attempted turning
movement by the enemy. Should anything important be observed you can
send back a message and two of you remain to observe the next
developments before returning. The information you might send back and
the additional information you might carry back, would possibly enable
your own force to avoid a serious reverse or obtain a decided victory.

Your work would be very hazardous, but it is necessary, and while
possibly resulting in loss of one or two of your men, it might prevent
the loss of hundreds in your main force.



CHAPTER V

THE SERVICE OF SECURITY

(Based on the Field Service Regulations.)


General Principles

=1020. The Service of Security= embraces all those measures taken by a
military force to protect itself against surprise, annoyance or
observation by the enemy. On the march, that portion of a command
thrown out to provide this security is called an advance, flank or
rear guard, depending on whether it is in front, to the flank or in
rear of the main command; in camp or bivouac, it is called the
outpost.

The principal duties of these bodies being much the same, their
general formations are also very similar. There is (1) the cavalry
covering the front; next (2) a group (4 men to a platoon) or line of
groups in observation; then (3) the support, or line of supports,
whose duty is to furnish the men for the observation groups and check
an enemy's attempt to advance until reinforcements can arrive; still
farther in rear is (4) the reserve.

In small commands of an infantry regiment or less there usually will
not be any cavalry to cover the front, and the reserve is generally
omitted. Even the support may be omitted and the observation group or
line of groups be charged with checking the enemy, in addition to its
regular duties of observation. But whatever the technical designation
of these subdivisions, the rearmost one is always in fact a reserve.
For example, if the command is so small that the subdivision formally
designated as the reserve is omitted, the rear element (squad or
platoon or company, etc.) is used as a reserve. As this text deals
principally with small commands and only those larger than a regiment
usually have the subdivision termed the reserve, this distinction
between the element in the Field Service Regulations called the
reserve and the actual reserve, must be thoroughly understood.

The arrangements or formations of all detachments thrown out from the
main force to provide security against the enemy, are very flexible,
varying with every military situation and every different kind of
country. The commander of such a detachment must, therefore, avoid
blindly arranging his men according to some fixed plan and at certain
fixed distances. Acquire a general understanding of the principles of
the service of security and then with these principles as a foundation
use common sense in disposing troops for this duty.


ADVANCE GUARD

=1021. Definition and Duties.= An advance guard is a detachment of a
marching column thrown out in advance to protect the main column from
being surprised and to prevent its march from being delayed or
interrupted. (The latter duty is generally forgotten and many
irritating, short halts result, which wear out or greatly fatigue the
main body, the strength of which the advance guard is supposed to
conserve.)

In detail the duties of the advance guard are:

1. To guard against surprise and furnish information by reconnoitering
to the front and flanks.

2. To push back small parties of the enemy and prevent their
observing, firing upon or delaying the main body.

3. To check the enemy's advance in force long enough to permit the
main body to prepare for action.

4. When the enemy is met on the defenses, seize a good position and
locate his lines, care being taken not to bring on a general
engagement unless the advance guard commander is authorized to do so.

5. To remove obstacles, repair the road, and favor in every way
possible the steady march of the column.

=1022. Strength:= The strength of the advance guard varies from
one-ninth to one-third of the total command. The larger the force the
larger in proportion is the advance guard, for a larger command takes
relatively longer to prepare for action than a small one. For example,
a company of 100 men would ordinarily have an advance guard of from
one to two squads, as the company could deploy as skirmishers in a few
seconds. On the other hand, a division of 20,000 men would ordinarily
have an advance guard of about 4,500 men, all told, as it would
require several hours for a division to deploy and the advance guard
must be strong enough to make a stubborn fight.

=1023. Composition.= The advance guard is principally composed of
infantry, preceded if possible, by cavalry well to the front. When
there is only infantry, much more patrolling is required of the front
troops than when cavalry (called "Advance cavalry") is out in advance.
This book does not deal with large advance guards containing artillery
and engineers. Machine guns, however, will be frequently used in small
advance guards to hold bridges, defiles, etc.

=1024. Distance From Main Body.= The distance at which the advance
guard precedes the main body or the main body follows the advance
guard depends on the military situation and the ground. It should
always be great enough to allow the main body time to deploy before it
can be seriously engaged. For instance the advance guard of a company,
say 1 squad, should be 350 to 500 yards in advance of the company. The
distance from the leading man back to the principal group of the squad
should generally be at least 150 yards. This, added to the distance
back to the main body or company, makes a distance of from 500 to 650
yards from the leading man to the head of the main body.

Examples:

    Command.                   Advance Guard.    Distance (yds.).

    Patrol of 1 squad          2 men             100 to 300
    Section of 3 squads        4 men             200 to 400
    Inf. platoon of 50 men     1 squad           300 to 450
    Cav. platoon of 20 men     4 men             300 to 450
    Inf. company of 108 men    1 to 2 squads     350 to 500
    Cav. troop of 86 men       1/2 platoon       450 to 600
    Inf. battalion             1/2 to 1 company  500 to 700
    Cav. squadron              1/2 to 1 troop    600 to 800

These are not furnished as fixed numbers and distances, but are merely
to give the student an approximate, concrete idea.

=1025. Connecting Files.= It should be remembered that between the
advance guard and the main body, and between the several groups into
which the advance guard is subdivided, connecting files are placed so
as to furnish a means of communicating, generally by signals, between
the elements (groups) of the column. There should be a connecting file
for at least ever, 300 yards. For example, suppose the advance guard
of a platoon is 300 yards in front of the main body. In ordinary
rolling country, not heavily wooded, a connecting file would be placed
half way between the two elements--150 yards from each one.

It is generally wiser to use two men together instead of one, because
this leaves one man free to watch for signals from the front while the
other watches the main body. However, in very small commands like a
company, this is not practicable, as the extra man could not be
spared.


FORMATION OF ADVANCE GUARDS.

=1026. Subdivisions.= The advance guard of a large force like a
brigade or division is subdivided into a number of groups or elements,
gradually increasing in size from front to rear. The reason for this
is that, as has already been explained, a larger group or force
requires longer to deploy or prepare to fight than a smaller one,
therefore the small subdivisions are placed in front where they can
quickly deploy and hold the enemy temporarily in check while the
larger elements in rear are deploying. The number of these
subdivisions decreases as the strength of the advance guard decreases,
until we find the advance guard of a company consists of one or two
squads, which naturally cannot be subdivided into more than two
groups; and the advance guard of a squad composed of two men, which
admits of no subdivision.

                                                          =Distance to next
                                                          element in rear.=

  =Advance Cavalry=                                         1 to 5 miles
            {=Advance party=       {=Point=                 150 to 300 yds.
  =Support= {(=furnishes patrols=) {=Advance party proper=  300 to 600 yds.
            {=Support proper=                               400 to 800 yds.
  =Reserve= (usually omitted in small commands)             500 yds. to
                                                              1 mile

The distances vary principally with the size of the command--slightly
with the character of the country.

The advance cavalry is that part of the advance guard going in front
of all the foot troops. It is generally one to five miles in advance
of the infantry of the advance guard, reconnoitering at least far
enough to the front and flanks to guard the column against surprise by
artillery fire--4,500 yards.

=1027. Support.= (=a=) The support constitutes the principal element
or group of all advance guards. It follows the advance cavalry, when
there is any, and leads the advance guard when there is no cavalry.
The support of a large command is subdivided within itself in much the
same manner as the advance guard as a whole is subdivided. It varies
in strength from one-fourth to one-half of the advance guard.

=1028. (b) Advance Party.= As the support moves out it sends forward
an advance party several hundred yards, the distance varying with the
nature of the country and size of the command. For example, the
advance party of a support of one company of 108 men, would ordinarily
be composed of one section of three squads, and would march about 300
yards in advance of the company in open country, and about 200 yards
in wooded country.

The advance party sends out the patrols to the front and flanks to
guard the main body of the support from surprise by effective rifle
fire. Patrols are only sent out to the flanks to examine points that
cannot be observed from the road. As a rule they will have to rejoin
some portion of the column in rear of the advance party. As the
advance party becomes depleted in strength in this manner, fresh men
are sent forward from the main body of the support to replace those
who have fallen behind while patrolling. When there is advance
cavalry, much less patrolling is required of the infantry.

(=c=) The point is a patrol sent forward by the advance party 150 to
300 yards. When the advance party is large enough the point should
ordinarily consist of a complete squad, commanded by an officer or
experienced noncommissioned officer. It is merely a patrol in front of
the column and takes the formation described for patrols.

(=d=) The commander of the support ordinarily marches with the advance
party. He should have a map and control of the guide, if any is
present. He sees that the proper road is followed; that guides are
left in towns and at crossroads; that bridges, roads, etc., are
repaired promptly so as not to delay the march of the column and that
information of the enemy is promptly sent back to the advance guard
commander; he verifies the correctness of this information, if
possible.

=1029.= (=a=) A thorough understanding of the arrangement of the
support and the duties of the leaders of its subdivisions--point,
flank patrols, advance party and main body (of the support)--is of the
greatest importance to a noncommissioned officer. For example, the
ignorance of one noncommissioned officer leading the advance party of
a column of troops six miles long can cause the entire column to be
delayed. If he halts because a few shots are fired at his men, and
conducts a careful reconnaissance before attacking (instead of pushing
right in on the enemy, forcing him to fall back quickly, if a weak
detachment; or, to disclose his strength, if strong), the entire
column, six miles long, is halted, the march interrupted, valuable
time lost, and what is more important, the men irritated and tired
out.

(=b=) The leader of the point must understand that as the principal
duty of an advance guard is to secure the safe and uninterrupted march
of the main body, he is the first man to discharge this duty. If, for
example, his squad receives a volley of shots from some point to the
front, he cannot take the time and precautions the commander of a
large body would take to reconnoiter the enemy's position, determine
something about his strength, etc., before risking an attack. If he
did he would not be securing the uninterrupted march of the main body.
He has to deploy instantly and press the enemy hard until the hostile
opposition disappears or the advance party comes up and its commander
takes charge. The point will lose men in this way, but it is
necessary, for otherwise one small combat patrol could delay the march
time after time.

(=c=) The same problem must be met in much the same manner by the
leader of the advance party. In this case there is more time to think,
as the point, being in advance, will have begun the fight before the
advance party arrives; but the leader of the advance party must use
his men freely and quickly to force the enemy to "show his hand," thus
preventing small harassing or combat detachments from delaying the
march.

(=d=) As the subdivisions of the advance guard become larger their
leaders act with increasing caution, for as soon as it develops that
the enemy in front is really present in some strength, then a halt
becomes obligatory and a careful reconnaissance necessary.

(=e=) The leader of every subdivision must always start a
reconnaissance the instant the enemy develops. He may, as in the case
of the point, only send one man around to discover the enemy's
strength; or, if the leader of the main body of the support, he may
send an entire squad. In almost every case the instant he has given
his orders for deploying and firing at or rushing the enemy, he sends
out his man or men to work around to a position permitting a view of
the hostile force. Every noncommissioned officer should impress this
on his memory so that he will not forget it in the excitement of a
sudden engagement.

(=f=) No attempt should be made to subdivide the advance guard of a
small force into all the elements previously described. For example,
the advance guard of a squad is simply a point of one or two men; the
advance guard of a company is usually no more than a squad acting as a
point, the squad actually having several men from 100 to 150 yards in
advance, who really constitute a point for the squad; the advance
guard of a battalion would usually consist of a company or less
distributed as an advance party proper and a point. The advance guard
of a regiment would have no reserve--if, for example, a battalion were
used as the advance guard of a regiment, there would be only a
support, which would be distributed about as follows: A support proper
of about three companies and an advance party (point included) of
about one company.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

=1030. Reserve.= An advance guard large enough to have a reserve would
be distributed as follows:

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

The distance Z would be greater than Y and Y would be greater than X.
For example, a regiment acting as the advance guard of a brigade
would, under ordinary conditions, be distributed about as follows:

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

As only large commands have a reserve, which would always be commanded
by an officer, noncommissioned officers need not give this much
consideration, but it must be understood that while this fourth
subdivision of the advance guard is the only one officially termed
reserve, the last subdivision of any advance guard actually is a
reserve, no matter what its official designation.

The advance guard of a cavalry command adopts formations similar to
those described above, except that the distances are increased because
of the rapidity with which the command can close up or deploy. An
advance party with a few patrols is usually enough for a squadron, and
precedes it from 600 to 1,000 yards.

=1031. Reconnaissance.= In reconnaissance the patrols are, as a rule,
small (from two to six men).

The flanking patrols, whether of the advance cavalry or of the advance
party, are sent out to examine the country wherever the enemy might be
concealed. If the nature of the ground permits, these patrols march
across country or along roads and trails parallel to the march of the
column. For cavalry patrols this is often possible; but with infantry
patrols and even with those that are mounted, reconnaissance is best
done by sending the patrols to high places along the line of march to
overlook the country and examine the danger points. These patrols
signal the results of their observations and, unless they have other
instructions, join the columns by the nearest routes, other patrols
being sent out as the march proceeds and as the nature of the country
requires.

Deserters, suspicious characters and bearers of flags of truce (the
latter blindfolded), are taken to the advance guard commander.

=1032. Advance Guard Order.= On receipt of the order for a march
designating the troops for the advance guard, the commander of the
latter makes his estimate of the situation; that is, he looks at the
map or makes inquiries to determine what sort of a country he must
march through and the nature of the roads; he considers what the
chances are of encountering the enemy, etc., and then how he should
best arrange his advance guard to meet these conditions, and what time
the different elements of his advance guard must start in order to
take their proper place in the column. He then issues his order at the
proper time--the evening before if possible and he deems it best, or
the morning of the march.

The order for a large advance guard would ordinarily be written; for a
small command it would almost invariably be verbal, except that the
commander or leader of each element should always make written notes
of the principal points, such as the road to be followed, time to
start, distances, etc.


ADVANCE GUARD PROBLEMS

Problem No. 1. (Infantry)

=1033. Captain (to one platoon of his company):= We will assume that
our battalion camped last night at Oxford (Elementary Map) in the
enemy's country. It is now sunrise, 5:30 A. M.; camp has been broken
and we are ready to march. The officers have returned from reporting
to the major for orders and I fall in the company and give the
following orders:

"A regiment of the enemy's cavalry is thought to be marching towards
Salem from the south. Our battalion will march at once towards Salem
to guard the railroad trestle over Sandy Creek, following this road
(pointing southeast along the road out of Oxford) and the Chester Pike
Which is one and three-quarters miles from here.

"This company will form the advance guard.

"Sergeant Adams, you will take Corporal Baker's squad and form the
point, followed by the remainder of the company at about 400 yards.
Patrols and connecting files will be furnished by the company.

"The company wagon will join the wagons of the battalion.

"I will be with the company.

"Move out at once."

The weather is fine and the roads are good and free from dust. It is
August and nearly all the crops are harvested. Bushes and weeds form a
considerable growth along the fences bordering the road.

Sergeant, give your orders.

=Sergeant Adams:= 1st squad, =1. Right, 2. FACE, 1. Forward, 2.
MARCH.= Corporal Baker, take Carter (Baker's rear rank man) and go
ahead of the squad about 200 yards. Move out rapidly until you get
your distance and then keep us in sight.

I would then have the two leading men of the rest of the squad follow
on opposite sides of the road, as close to the fence as possible for
good walking. This would put the squad in two columns of files of
three men each, leaving the main roadway clear and making the squad as
inconspicuous as possible, without interfering with ease of marching
or separating the men. [Par. 1028 (c).] What sort of crops are in the
fields on either side of the road?

=Captain:= The field on the right (south) is meadow land; that on the
left, as far as the railroad, is cut hay; beyond the railroad there is
more meadow land.

=Sergeant Adams:= I would have told Corporal Baker to wait at the
cross roads by the Baker house for orders and--

=Captain:= If you were actually on the ground you probably could not
see the cross roads from Oxford. In solving map problems like these do
not take advantage of seeing on the map all the country that you are
supposed to go over, and then give orders about doing things at places
concerning which you would not probably have any knowledge if actually
on the ground without the map.

Besides, in this particular case, it was a mistake to have your point
wait at the cross roads. If there was any danger of their taking the
wrong road it would be a different matter, but here your mission
requires you to push ahead. (Par. 1029.) The major is trying to get
south of the trestle towards Salem before the cavalry can arrive and
destroy it.

=Sergeant Adams:= I would march steadily along the road, ordering the
last man to keep a lookout to the rear for signals from the connecting
file (Par. 511a), and I would direct one of the leading men to watch
for signals from Corporal Baker.

=Captain:= You should have given the direction about watching for
signals earlier, as this is very important. You also should have
ordered two men to follow along the timber by the creek to your south
until you signaled for them to come in. The trees along the creek
would obstruct your view over the country beyond the creek.

=Sergeant Adams:= But I thought, Captain, that the patrolling was to
be done by the company.

=Captain:= Yes, the patrolling is to be done by the company, but the
creek is only a quarter of a mile, about 400 yards, from the road you
are following and the men sent there are merely flankers, not a
patrol. You have eight men under your command and you are responsible
for the ground within several hundred yards on either side of your
route of march. Long Ridge is almost too far for you to send your men,
because they would fall far behind in climbing and descending its
slopes, but it would not be a great mistake if you sent two men there.
As Long Ridge affords an extended view of the valley through which the
Chester Pike runs, a patrol should go up on it and remain there until
the battalion passes, and this would be more than the leading squad
could be expected to attend to. The creek is almost too far from the
road in places, but as it is open meadow land you can keep the men
within easy touch of you and recall them by signal at any moment you
desire. In this work you can see how much depends on good judgment and
a proper understanding of one's mission.

Corporal Baker, explain how you would move out with Carter.

=Corporal Baker:= We would alternate the walk and double time until we
had gotten about 200 yards ahead of the squad. I would then say,
"Carter, walk along this side of the road (indicates side), keeping on
the lookout for signals from the squad. I will go about fifty yards
ahead of you." I would keep to the opposite side of the road from
Carter, trying to march steadily at the regular marching gait, and
keeping a keen watch on everything in front and to the flanks.

=Captain:= Very good. When you arrive at the cross roads you see a man
standing in the yard of the Baker house.

=Corporal Baker:= I would not stop, but would continue on by the cross
roads, as I have no time to question the man and the Sergeant will
want to do that. I would call to him and ask him if he had seen any of
the enemy about and how far it was to the Chester Pike. If anything
looked suspicious around the house or barnyard, I would investigate.

=Captain:= Sergeant, you arrive at the cross roads, and see the
Corporal and Carter going on ahead of you.

=Sergeant Adams:= I would have already signaled to the two men
following the creek to come in and would send a man to meet them with
the following order: "Tell Davis to move along the railroad fill with
Evans, keeping abreast of us. Then you return to me." I would then
say, "Fiske, look in that house and around the barn and orchard and
then rejoin me down this road (pointing east)." I would have the
civilian join me and walk down the road with me while I questioned
him.

=Captain:= Do you think you have made careful arrangements for
searching the house, etc., by leaving only one man to do the work?

=Sergeant Adams:= I have not sufficient men nor time enough to do much
more. I simply want to make sure things are reasonably safe and I
thought that a couple of men from the main body of the advance guard
would do any careful searching, questioning, etc., that might be
deemed necessary. I must not delay the march.

=Captain:= That is right. You learn nothing from the civilian and he
does not arouse any suspicion on your part. You continue along the
road. The fields to the north of the road are in wheat stubble; the
ground to the south, between your road and the railroad, is rough,
rocky grass land with frequent clumps of bushes. Davis and Evans, your
right flankers on the railroad fill, are just approaching the cut;
Fiske has rejoined; Corporal Baker and his men are about 200 yards
from the road forks at Brown's, and you and your four men are 200
yards in their rear, at the turn of the road. At this moment a half
dozen shots are fired down the road in your direction from behind the
wall along the edge of the orchard on the Brown farm. This firing
continues and your two leading men are lying down at the roadside
returning the fire. Tell me quickly just what you are going to do?

=Sergeant Adams:= I order my four men to deploy as skirmishers in that
field (pointing to the rough ground south of the road); I go under the
fence with the men and lead them forward at a fast run, unless the
fire is very heavy.

=Captain= (interrupting the Sergeant): Davis, you had just reached the
cut on the railroad when this happened. What do you do?

=Private Davis:= I take Evans forward with me at a run through the
cut. What do I see along the Chester Pike or Sandy Creek?

=Captain:= You see no sign of the enemy any place, except the firing
over the wall.

=Private Davis:= I run down the south side of the fill and along
towards the road with Evans to open fire on the enemy from their
flank, and also to see what is in the orchard. I will probably cross
the road so that I can see behind the stone wall.

=Captain:= That's fine and shows how you should go ahead at such a
time without any orders. There is usually no time or opportunity at
such a moment for sending instructions and you must use common sense
and do something. Generally it would have been better to have tried to
signal or send word back that there was nothing in sight along the
road or in the valley, but in this particular case you could probably
do more good by going quickly around in rear as you did, to discover
what was there and assist in quickly dislodging whatever it was. If
there had been no nose of the ridge to hide you as you came up and a
convenient railroad fill to hurry along behind as you made for the
road, your solution might have been quite different.

Sergeant, continue with your movements.

=Sergeant Adams:= I would attempt to rush the wall. If the fire were
too heavy, I would open fire (at will) with all my men, and, if I
seemed to get a little heavier fire than the enemy's, I would start
half of my men forward on a rush while the others fired. I would try
to rush in on the enemy with as little delay as possible, until it
developed that he had more than a small detachment there. I assumed it
was a delaying patrol in front of me, and as my mission requires me to
secure the uninterrupted march of the main body, I must not permit any
small detachment to delay me. If, however, it proves to be a larger
force, for instance, the head of an advance guard, I will lose some
men by plunging in, but as I understand it, that is the duty of the
point. Then again, if it be the head of a hostile advance guard, I
will want to rush them out of their favorable position under cover of
the stone wall, buildings and orchard, before any more of their force
can come up. This would give the favorable position to our force; by
acting too cautiously we would lose the valuable moments in which the
enemy's reënforcements (next elements of the advance guard) were
coming up, with this desirable position being weakly held by a small
part of the enemy.

=Captain:= That is all correct. What messages would you have sent?

=Sergeant Adams:= Up to the present time I would not have sent any. I
could not have sent any. I could not afford to take the time to send a
man back, nor could I spare the man. Besides, all I could say was that
we were fired on, and you should be able to see and hear that from
where the company is.

=Captain:= About the time you reached the position of Corporal Baker
the firing ceases, and when you reach the wall you see five mounted
men galloping northeast up Farm Lane. The Brown farm appears to be
deserted.

=Sergeant Adams:= I would turn to one of the men and say, "Run back to
the Captain and tell him we were fired on from this orchard by a
mounted patrol of five men who are galloping off up a lane to the
northeast. I am going south." When he had repeated the message I would
start south down the Chester Pike, directing Corporal Baker to follow
this road south and to tell Davis to follow the high ridge west of the
road, going through the clump of woods just ahead. I would send one
man as a left flanker to follow the west bank of Sandy Creek. This
would leave me with two men, one watching for signals from the front
and along Sandy Creek, the other from Davis and from the rear. I would
expect to see a patrol from the company moving across towards Boling
Woods. Had I not been mixed up in a fight as I approached the Brown
farm I would have sent two men as left flankers across country to the
cut on the Chester Pike on the western edge of the Boling Woods.

=Captain:= Very good. That is sufficient for this problem. All of you
should have caught the idea of the principal duties of the point and
flankers of an advance guard. You must watch the country to prevent
being surprised and you must at the same time manage to push ahead
with the least possible delay. The point cannot be very cautious so
far as concerns its own safety, for this would mean frequent halts
which would delay the troops in rear, but it must be cautious about
reconnoitering all parts of the ground near the road which might
conceal large bodies of the enemy.

The leader of the point must be careful in using his men or he will
get them so scattered that they will become entirely separated and he
will lose all control of them. As soon as the necessity for flankers
on one side of the line of march no longer exists, signal for them to
rejoin and do not send them out again so long as you can see from the
road all the country you should cover.


Problem No. 2. (Infantry)

=1034. Captain (to one platoon of his company):= Let us assume that
this platoon is the advance party of an advance guard, marching
through Salem along the Chester Pike [Par. 1028 (b)]. One squad is 350
yards in front, acting as the point. The enemy is thought to be very
near, but only two mounted patrols have been seen during the day. The
command is marching for Chester. The day is hot, the roads are good
but dusty, and the crops are about to be harvested.

Sergeant Adams, explain how you would conduct the march of the advance
party, beginning with your arrival at the cross roads in Salem.

=Sergeant Adams:= The platoon would be marching in column of squads
and I would be at the head. Two pairs of connecting files would keep
me in touch with the point. (Par. 1025.) I would now give this order:
"Corporal Smith, take two men from your squad and patrol north along
this road (pointing up the Tracy-Maxey road) for a mile and then
rejoin the column on this road (Chester Pike), to the west of you." I
would then say to Private Barker, "Take Carter and cut across to that
railroad fill and go along the top of that (Sandy) ridge, rejoining
the column beyond the ridge. Corporal Smith with a patrol is going up
this road. Keep a lookout for him." When we reached the point where
the road crosses the south nose of Sandy Ridge and I saw the valley in
front of me with the long high ridge west of Sandy Creek, running
parallel to the Chester Pike and about 800 yards west of it, I would
give this order: "Corporal Davis, take the three remaining men in
Corporal Smith's squad, cross the creek there (pointing in the
direction of the Barton farm) go by that orchard, and move north along
that high ridge, keeping the column in sight. Make an effort to keep
abreast of the advance guard, which will continue along this road."

I gave Corporal Davis the remaining men out of Corporal Smith's squad
because I did not want to break up another squad and as this is, in my
opinion, a very important patrol, I wanted a noncommissioned officer
in charge of it. Unless something else occurs this will be all the
patrols I intend sending out until we pass the steel railroad trestle
over Sandy Creek.

=Captain:= Your point about not breaking up a squad when you could
avoid it by using the men remaining in an already broken squad, is a
very important one. Take this particular case. You first sent out two
pairs of connecting files between the advance party and your
point--four men. This leaves a corporal and three men in that squad.
If we assume that no patrols were out when we passed through Salem,
this corporal and two of his men could have been sent up the
Tracy-Maxey road, leaving one man to be temporarily attached to some
squad. From the last mentioned squad you would pick your two men for
the Sandy Ridge patrol and also the corporal and three men for the
Barton farm, etc., patrol. This would leave three men in this squad
and you would have under your immediate command two complete squads
and three men. As the patrols return, organize new squads immediately
and constantly endeavor to have every man attached to a squad. This is
one of your most important duties, as it prevents disorder when some
serious situation suddenly arises. Also it is one of the duties of the
detachment commander that is generally overlooked until too late.

The direction you sent your three patrols was good and their orders
clear, covering the essential points, but as you have in a very short
space of time, detached nine men, almost a third of your advance
party, don't you think you should have economized more on men?

=Sergeant Adams:= The Sandy Ridge patrol is as small as you can make
it--two men. I thought the other two patrols were going to be detached
so far from the column that they should be large enough to send a
message or two and still remain out. I suppose it would be better to
send but two men with Corporal Davis, but I think Corporal Smith
should have two with him.

=Captain:= Yes, I agree with you, for you are entering a valley which
is, in effect, a defile, and the Tracy-Maxey road is a very dangerous
avenue of approach to your main body. But you must always bear in mind
that it is a mistake to use one more man than is needed to accomplish
the object in view. The more you send away from your advance party,
the more scattered and weaker your command becomes, and this is
dispersion, which constitutes one of the gravest, and at the same
time, most frequent tactical errors.

To continue the problem, we will suppose you have reached the stone
bridge over Sandy Creek; the point is at the cross roads by the Smith
house; you can see the two men moving along Sandy Ridge; and Corporal
Davis' patrol is just entering the orchard by the Barton farm. Firing
suddenly commences well to the front and you hear your point reply to
it.

=Sergeant Adams:= I halt to await information from the point.

=Captain:= That is absolutely wrong. You command the advance party of
an advance guard; your mission requires you to secure the
uninterrupted march of the main body; and at the first contact you
halt, thus interrupting the march (Par. 1021). The sooner you reach
the point, the better are your chances for driving off the enemy if he
is not too strong, or the quicker you find out his strength and give
your commander in the rear the much desired information.

=Sergeant Adams:= Then I push ahead with the advance party, sending
back the following message--

=Captain= (interrupting): It is not time to send a message. You know
too little and in a few minutes you will be up with the point where
you can hear what has happened and see the situation for yourself.
Then you can send back a valuable message. When but a few moments
delay will probably permit you to secure much more detailed
information, it is generally best to wait for that short time and thus
avoid using two messengers. When you reach the cross roads you find
six men of the point deployed behind the fence, under cover of the
trees along the County Road, just west of the Chester Pike, firing at
the stone wall along the Mills' farm lane. The enemy appears to be
deployed behind this stone wall, from the Chester Pike west for a
distance of fifty yards, and his fire is much heavier than that of
your point. You think he has at least twenty rifles there. You cannot
see down the Chester Pike beyond the enemy's position. Your patrol on
Sandy Ridge is midway between the 68 and 66 knolls, moving north. The
ground in your front, west of the road, is a potato field; that east
of the road as far as the swamp, is rough grass land.

=Sergeant Adams:= I give order, "Corporal Gibbs, deploy your squad to
the right of the Pike and push forward between the Pike and the swamp.
Corporal Hall (commands the point), continue a heavy fire. Here are
six more men for your squad." I give him the four connecting files and
two of the three men in the advance party whose squad is on patrol
duty. "Corporal Jackson, get your squad under cover here. Lacey, run
back to the major and tell him the point has been stopped by what
appears to be twenty of the enemy deployed behind a stone wall across
the valley 500 yards in our front. I am attacking with advance party."

=Captain:= Corporal Davis (commands patrol near Barton farm), you can
hear the firing and see that the advance is stopped. What do you do?

=Corporal Davis:= I would head straight across for the clump of woods
on the ridge just above the Mills' farm, moving as rapidly as
possible.

=Captain:= That is all right. Sergeant, Corporal Hall's squad keeps up
a heavy fire; Corporal Gibb's squad deploys to the right of the pike,
rushes forward about 75 yards, but is forced to lie down by the
enemy's fire, and opens fire. Corporal Gibbs, what would your command
for firing be?

=Corporal Gibbs:= =AT THE BOTTOM OF THAT WALL. BATTLE SIGHT. CLIP
FIRE.=

=Captain:= Why at the bottom of the wall?

=Corporal Gibbs:= The men are winded and excited and will probably
fire high, so I gave them the bottom of the wall as an objective.

=Captain:= The enemy's fire seems as heavy as yours. Sergeant, what do
you do?

=Sergeant Adams:= I give this order. "Corporal Jackson, deploy your
squad as skirmishers on the left of Corporal Hall's squad and open
fire." What effect does this additional fire have on the enemy?

=Captain:= His bullets seem to go higher and wider. You appear to be
getting fire superiority over him.

=Sergeant Adams:= If I do not see any signs of the enemy being
reënforced, dust in the road behind his position, etc., I take
immediate command of the squads of Corporals Hall and Jackson, and
lead them forward on a rush across the potato field.

=Captain:= Corporal Gibbs, what do you do when you see the other two
squads rush?

=Corporal Gibbs:= I order, =FIRE AT WILL=, and urge the men to shoot
rapidly in order to cover the advance.

=Captain:= Sergeant Adams' squads are forced to halt after advancing
about 150 yards.

=Corporal Gibbs:= I keep up a hot fire until they can resume their
firing, when I lead my squad forward in a rush.

=Captain:= What do you do, Sergeant?

=Sergeant Adams:= I would have the Corporals keep up a heavy fire. By
this time I should think the support would be up to the cross roads.

=Captain:= It is, but have you given up your attack?

=Sergeant Adams:= If it looks as if I could drive the enemy out on my
next rush, I do so, but otherwise I remain where I am, as I have no
reserve under my control and the action has gotten too serious for me
to risk anything more when my chief is practically on the ground to
make the next decision. He should have heard something about what is
on the Pike behind the enemy, from the patrol on Sandy Ridge.

=Captain:= Your solution seems correct to me. Why did you send
Corporal Gibbs' squad up between the pike and the swamp?

=Sergeant Adams:= It looked as if he would strike the enemy from a
better quarter; there appeared to be better cover that way, afforded
by the turn in the road, which must have some weeds, etc., along it,
and the swamp would prevent him from getting too far separated from
the remainder of the advance party.

=Captain:= The Sergeant's orders for the attack were very good. He
gave his squad leaders some authority and attached his extra men to a
squad. He did not attempt to assume direct control of individual men,
but managed the three squads and made the squad leaders manage the
individual men. This is the secret of successful troop leading. His
orders were short, plain and given in proper sequence.


Problem No. 3 (Infantry)

(See Fort Leavenworth map in pocket at back of book.)

[Illustration: MAP of FORT LEAVENWORTH, KAS. and VICINITY]

=1035.= Situation.

A Blue battalion, in hostile country, is in camp for the night, August
5-6, at Sprong (ja'). At 9:00 P. M., August 5th, Lieutenant A,
Adjutant gives a copy of the following order to Sergeant B:

                                      1st Battalion, 1st Infantry,
                                                     Sprong, Kansas,
                                                          5 Aug., '09.

    Field Orders No. 5.

    1. The enemy's infantry is six miles east of FORT LEAVENWORTH. His
    cavalry patrols were seen at F (qg') today.

    Our regiment will reach FRENCHMAN'S (oc') at noon tomorrow.

    2. The battalion will march tomorrow to seize the ROCK ISLAND
    BRIDGE (q) at FORT LEAVENWORTH.

    3. (a) The advance guard, consisting of 1st platoon Co. A and
    mounted orderlies B, C, and D, under Sergeant B, will precede the
    main body at 400 yards.

    (b) The head of the main body will march at 6:30 A. M., from 19
    via the 17 (jc')--15 (jg') 1--5 (lm')--FORT LEAVENWORTH (om')
    road.

    4. The baggage will follow close behind the main body under escort
    of Corporal D and one squad, Co. B.

    5. Send reports to head of main body.

                                                                  C,
                                                         Major, Comdg.

    Copies to the company commanders, to Sergeant B and Corporal D.

=A. Required, 1.= Give Sergeant B's estimate of the situation. (The
estimate of the military situation includes the following points:

    1. His orders or mission and how much discretion he is allowed.
    2. The ground as it influences his duty.
    3. The position, strength and probable intentions of the enemy.
    4. Sergeant B's decision.)

=Answer.= 1. The size of the advance guard, its route and the distance
it is to move in front of the main body are prescribed by Major C.
Sergeant B is free to divide up the advance as he sees fit, to use the
various parts so as to best keep open the way of the main body,
maintain the distance of 400 yards in front of it, and protect it from
surprise by the enemy.

2. The ground may be such as to make easy or to hinder reconnaissance,
such as hills or woods; to impede or hasten the march, such as roads,
streams, defiles; to offer good or poor defensive positions; to offer
good or poor opportunities for an attack. Sergeant B sees from his map
that the ground is rolling and open as far as Kern (ji') with good
positions for reconnaissance and for defense or attack. There is a
bridge over Salt Creek (ig') which has steep banks and will be a
considerable obstacle if the bridge has been destroyed. From this
creek to Kern the advance would be under effective fire from Hancock
Hill (ki'), so that these heights must be seized before the main body
reaches 15 (jg').

Beyond Kern the heavy woods make reconnaissance difficult and must be
treated somewhat like a defile by the point. (Par. 991.)

3. There is little to fear from the main body of the enemy which is
1-1/2 miles farther from the Rock Island bridge than we are, but we
know the enemy has cavalry. The size of the cavalry force is not
known, and may be sufficient to cause us considerable delay,
especially in the woods. The enemy's evident intention is to keep us
from seizing the bridge.

4. Having considered all these points, Sergeant B comes to the
following decision: ... (Before reading the decision as contained in
the following paragraph, make one of your own.)

=Answer:= To have only an advance party with which to throw forward a
point of 5 men 200 yards to the front and send out flankers, as needed
(Par. 983); to send the three mounted orderlies well to the front of
the point to gain early information of the enemy, especially on
Hancock Hill (ji') and the ridge to the north of 11 (jj').

=Required, 2.= Sergeant B's order. (Par. 963.)

=Answer.= Given verbally to the platoon and mounted orderlies, at 9:30
P. M.

"The enemy's cavalry patrols were seen at F (qh') today; no hostile
infantry is on this side of the Missouri river. The battalion will
move tomorrow to Fort Leavenworth, leaving 19 (ja') at 6:30 A. M.

"This platoon and orderlies B, C, and D will form the advance guard,
and will start from the hedge 400 yards east of 19 at 6:30 A. M. via
the 17 (jc')--15 (jg')--5 (lm') road.

"The point, Corporal Smith and 4 men of his squad, will precede the
remainder of the advance guard at 200 yards.

"I will be with the advance party. Privates X and Y will act as
connecting files with the main body."

The flankers will be sent out from time to time by Sergeant B as
necessary.

=Required, 3.= The flankers sent out by Sergeant B between 19 (ja')
and 15 (jg').

=Answer.= A patrol of 3 men is sent to Hill 900 southeast of 19 (ja'),
thence by Moss (kc') and Taylor (lc') houses to Hill 840 east of
Taylor, thence to join at 15 (jg').

Two men are sent from the advance party as it passes Hill 875.5 (ie')
to the top of this hill to reconnoiter to the front and northeast.
These men return to the road and join after the advance party has
reached Salt Creek. Two men are sent ahead of the advance party at a
double time take position on "Hill 875 northeast of J. E. Daniels"
place (jf') and reconnoiter to the northeast and east.

=Reasons.= The patrol sent out on the south moves out far enough to
get a good view from the hills which an enemy could observe or fire
into the column. There is no necessity of sending out flankers north
of the road at first, because from the road itself a good view is
obtained. Hills 875.5 and 875 give splendid points for observing all
the ground to the north and east. (Don't send flankers out unless they
are necessary.)

=Required, 4.= When the advance party reaches J. E. Daniels' house
(je') a civilian leaves the house and starts toward 15. What action
does Sergeant B take?

=Required, 5.= When the advance party reaches Salt Creek bridge (jg')
the point signals "enemy in sight," and Private H reports that he saw
about 6 or 8 mounted men ride up to the edge of the woods at Kern,
halt a moment, and disappear. What action does Sergeant B take?

=Answer.= He at once sends a message back by Private H stating the
facts. He then orders the advance party to move forward, hastens up to
the point and directs it to continue the march, seeking cover of
fences and ravines and hill top.

=Required, 6.= When the point reaches Schroeder (jh') it receives fire
from the orchard at Kern. What action is taken?

=Answer.= The men in the point are moved rapidly down the hill and
gain shelter in the ravines leading toward Kern. Two squads are
rapidly placed in line along the ridge west of Schroeder and under
cover of their fire the remainder of the advance party run down the
hill at 10 yards distance to join the point. A squad of this force is
then hurried forward to the Kern house. Here the squad is stopped by
fire and Sergeant B deploys two more squads which advance by rushes
and drive out the enemy, found to be 10 cavalrymen. The squads left at
Schroeder now join at double time and the advance party moves forward,
without having delayed the march of the main body.


Problem No. 4 (Infantry)

=1036. Situation:=

A Blue force of one regiment of infantry has outposts facing south on
the line Pope Hill (sm')--National cemetery (pk')--E (qh'). A Red
force is reported to have reached Soldiers' Home (3 miles south of
Leavenworth) from the south at 7:00 o'clock this morning. Corporal A
is directed by Sergeant B, in command of the left support at Rabbit
Point (tn'), to take out a patrol toward the waterworks and south
along the Esplanade (xo') to the Terminal bridge.

=Required, 1.= Give Sergeant B's orders to Corporal A.

=Answer.= "The enemy, strength unknown, was at Soldiers' Home at 7:00
o'clock this morning. Another patrol will advance along Grant avenue
(tm').

"Our outposts will remain here for the day.

"Select from the first section a patrol and reconnoiter this road
(Farragut avenue) as far as the waterworks (vn'), thence by Esplanade
to the Terminal bridge, and report on the ground in our front. When
you reach the Terminal bridge return if no enemy is seen.

"Send reports here."

=Required, 2.= How many men does Corporal A select, and why? (Par.
456.)

=Answer.= Five men are taken because the patrol is to reconnoiter, not
to fight, and on account of the distance to go and lack of information
of the enemy, 2 or 3 messages may have to be sent.

=Required, 3.= What equipment should Corporal A have? (Par. 457.)

=Required, 4.= State the points to be noted by Corporal A in selecting
his patrol and what inspection does he make? (Par. 964.)

=Answer.= He selects Privates C, D, E, F and G, on account of their
bravery, attention to duty and discretion. He directs them to carry
one meal in their haversacks, full canteen and fifty rounds of
ammunition. He then inspects them as to their physical condition, sees
that they have proper equipment and that nothing to rattle or glisten
is carried.

=Required, 5.= What does Corporal A next do? (Par. 965.)

=Answer.= He gives them their instructions as follows: "The enemy,
strength unknown, was at Soldiers' Home (about three miles south of
Leavenworth) at 7 o'clock this morning. There will be a friendly
patrol along that road (pointing to Grant avenue). We are to
reconnoiter along this road and down toward that bridge (pointing). Be
very careful not to be seen, take advantage of all cover, and keep in
touch with C and myself on this road at the point of the patrol. In
case we get separated meet at the waterworks (vn')."

He then explains the signals to be used, and moves the patrol in,
close order out along the road until it passes the sentinel at the
bridge XV (un'), to whom he gives the direction to be taken by the
patrol.

=Required, 6.= Upon leaving XV, what formation would the patrol take,
and reasons for same. (Par. 968.)

=Answer.= Corporal A and Private C form the point on the road leading
southwest of the waterworks; Private D moves on the left overlooking
the railroad; Private E moves promptly up Corral creek (um') to the
top of Grant Hill (um') to observe the country toward the southwest;
Private F moves about 50 yards in rear of the point, followed at 50
yards by Private G.

Corporal A forms his patrol as stated because of the necessity of
getting a view from the hill on each side. Only one man is sent out on
each side because they can be plainly seen by the patrol on the road,
and no connecting file is necessary. The distances taken along the
road assure at least one man's escape, and Corporal A is in front to
get a good view and to signal the flankers.


Problem No. 5 (Infantry)

=1037. Situation:=

The head of the patrol is now at the bridge, XVI (un') northwest of
the waterworks.

Private E has reached the top of Grant Hill and signals the enemy in
sight; the patrol halts and Corporal A moves out to meet Private E who
is coming down toward the patrol. He says he saw three mounted men
ride up to Grant and Metropolitan avenues (wm') from the south and
after looking north a moment move west.

=Required, 1.= Corporal A's action. (Pars. 979 and 981.)

=Answer.= Corporal A at once writes the following message and sends it
back by Private E:

                                       "No. 1 Patrol, Company B,
                                                  Farragut Avenue,
                                            Northwest of Waterworks,
                                               10 May, '09, 8:30 A. M.

    To Commander Blue Left Support,
      Rabbit Point.

    Three mounted Reds, seen by Private E, just now reconnoitered at
    Grant and Metropolitan avenues; they are moving west on
    Metropolitan avenue; the patrol will continue toward the Terminal
    bridge.

                                                                 A,
                                                            Corporal."

=Reasons.= The message is sent because this is the first time the
enemy has been seen, and they have not been reported north of
Soldiers' Home before. The message should state who saw the enemy, and
the man seeing them should always carry the message telling of the
facts. The patrol would not allow this small hostile patrol to stop
its advance, but would proceed on its route cautiously to avoid being
seen, and to see if the Red cavalrymen are followed by others of the
enemy.

=Required, 2.= Give the method of reconnoitering the buildings at the
waterworks and coal mine. (Par. 996.)

=Answer.= Private D carefully examines the east side of the enclosures
and buildings, while Private C examines the west side. The remainder
of the patrol halts concealed in the cut west of the north enclosure,
until C and D signal no enemy in sight, whereupon the patrol moves
forward along the road (XV--3rd St.), C and D advancing rapidly
between the buildings to the town where they join the patrol.

=Required, 3.= Give the route followed by E from Grant Hill to edge of
Leavenworth.

=Answer.= He moves down the east slope of Grant Hill to the ravine
just east of the old R. R. bed (um'), being careful to keep concealed
from the direction of Leavenworth. He moves up the ravine, keeping a
sharp lookout to the front, and moving rapidly until abreast, if he
has fallen behind. He takes the branch ravine lying just west of
Circus Hill (vm'), and moves up to its end. Here he halts and makes
careful inspection of Metropolitan avenue and the street south into
the city. Being sure the coast is clear, he darts across the narrow
ridge south of Circus Hill to the ravine to the east and then joins
the patrol. He reports to Corporal A any indication of the enemy he
may have seen.


Problem No. 6 (Infantry)

=1038. Situation:=

A Blue force holds Fort Leavenworth (om') in hostile country. Outposts
occupy the line Salt Creek Hill (gh')--13 (ij')--Sheridan's Drive,
(mi') against the Reds advancing from the northwest.

At 4:30 P. M., June 25th, Sergeant A is given the following orders by
Captain B, commanding the support:

"The enemy will probably reach Kickapoo late today. Our outposts
extend as far north as Salt Creek Hill. There were six of our men
prisoners at 45 (de') this afternoon at 1 o'clock, being held by 15
home guards at Kickapoo. Take ---- men from the company and move to
Kickapoo, recapture the prisoners and gain all the information you can
of the enemy north of there."

=Required, 1.= How many men does Captain B name, and why? (Par. 960.)

=Answer.= Thirty men are assigned.

=Reason.= This is twice as many as the enemy holding the prisoners,
and to secure secrecy no larger force than is absolutely necessary
should be taken. This force will allow men to surround the enemy while
the remainder rush them.

=Required, 2.= Give the order of Sergeant A to his patrol. (See 6th
requirement. Problem 4.)

=Required, 3.= What route will the patrol take?

=Answer, 11= (jj')--13 (ij')--Salt Creek Hill (gh')--and along the
edge of the woods east of the M. P. R. R. (fg') as far as the bridge
opposite Kickapoo Hill--thence up Kickapoo Hill toward 45 (de').

=Reasons.= Since the patrol's orders do not require any reconnaissance
before reaching Kickapoo the shortest and most practical route is
chosen. The route as far as Salt Creek Hill lies behind our outpost
line and is thus protected. The main roads are avoided because they
will be carefully watched by the enemy. The edge of the woods east of
the M. P. Ry. (beginning about ff') gives good cover and by moving to
the bridge the patrol can probably sneak close in on the enemy and
capture them by surprise.


Problem No. 7 (Infantry)

=1039. Situation:=

The patrol reaches the top of Kickapoo Hill (cd'). Sergeant A and
Private C move cautiously to the top and see the six prisoners in the
cemetery (cd') just west of Kickapoo Hill, and a Red sentinel at each
corner. Just west of the cemetery are about 10 more Reds. No others
are visible.

=Required, 1.= What decision does Sergeant A make and what does he do?

=Answer.= He decides to capture the enemy by surprise. He leaves
Private C to watch and, moving cautiously back to his patrol, makes
the following dispositions: Corporal D with 10 men to move up to
Private C and cover the enemy, remaining concealed. He takes the
remainder of the patrol with fixed bayonets around the northeast slope
of Kickapoo Hill in the woods and moves up the ravine toward 29. When
his detachment arrives within about 100 yards of the enemy, they
charge bayonet and rush them. Corporal D's party at the same time rush
in from the opposite side. (Note: The enemy are demoralized by the
surprise and are captured without a shot being fired.)

=Required, 2.= What action does Sergeant A now take?

=Answer.= He causes the enemy to be kept apart while he and his
noncommissioned officers question them separately. He then questions
the Blue prisoners, and furnishing them the guns taken from the Reds,
sends them and the captured Reds back to our line under Corporal D,
with a written message giving the information secured from his
questions. (Par. 984.)

=Required, 3.= What does he then do?

=Answer.= Places his main body in concealment at the Cemetery (cd')
and sends a patrol under Corporal H via 35-41-43 and one under
Corporal F via 29-27-23 west to learn further of the enemy in
execution of the second part of his orders.

The patrol under Corporal H sends back the following message:

                              "No.1 Patrol, Company A, 1st Infantry,
                                              21 June, '09; 5:30 P. M.

    Commander Expeditionary Patrol at 45:

    A column of infantry is moving east about 1 mile west of
    Schweizer (aa'); about 800 yards in front of this body is another
    small body with 8 to 10 men 300 yards still farther east. It took
    the main body 2 min., 45 sec. to pass a point on the road. I
    remain in observation.

                                                                 H,
                                                            Corporal."

=Required, 3.= The size of the command reported by Corporal H and its
formation. (Par. 983.)

=Answer.= One battalion infantry (512 men), preceded by 1 section at
advance guard. The advance guard having only advance party and point,
2-3/4 minutes × 175 = 481 men in the main body, leaving about 32 men
for the advance men for the advance guard.


Problem No. 8 (Infantry)

=1040. General Situation:=

A Blue force of one regiment of infantry has outposts facing south on
the line Pope Hill (sm'), National Cemetery (qk')--E (qi'). A Red
force moving north reached Soldiers' Home at 7 o'clock this morning.

=Special Situation:=

Corporal B is chosen by Sergeant A, commander of the right support at
the National Cemetery, to take a patrol south as far as 20th street
(yf') and Metropolitan avenue (wh'), to report on the ground along the
route, and to reconnoiter the enemy. A friendly patrol moves along
Sheridan's Drive (i)--Atchison Hill (rg')--Southwest Hill (ue'), and
one on Prison Lane (rk').

=Required, 1.= Sergeant A's orders, verbatim (that is, word for word).

=2.= Give the various details attended to by Corporal B before he
moves out with his patrol.

=3.= What is the formation of the patrol when its point is at E (qh')?

=4.= When the patrol reaches 14 (ug'), how are the intersecting roads
reconnoitered?

=5.= Four mounted men are seen riding west at a walk at 64 (wb'). What
action does Corporal A take?

=6.= Describe the ground passed over by the patrol.


Problem No. 9 (Infantry)

=1041. Situation:=

The enemy is moving east toward Frenchman (oc') and is expected to
reach there early tomorrow. A company at 72 (uj') forms the left
support of an outpost in hostile country, on the line 70
(vj')--National Cemetery (qj'). At 4 P. M. Sergeant A is ordered to
take a patrol of 12 men and go to Frenchman and destroy the bridge
there, and remain in observation in that vicinity all night.

=Required, 1.= His orders to the patrol.

=2.= The route the patrol will follow, and its formation crossing the
Atchison Hill--Government Hill ridge.

=3.= Give the conduct of the patrol from Atchison Hill
(rg')--Government Hill (tf') to its position at the bridge at
Frenchman.

=General Situation:=

A Blue squadron is camped for the night at Waterworks (vn'), Fort
Leavenworth, and has outposts on the line XIV (un')--Grant Hill
(um')--Prison Hill (wk'). A Red force is reported to be advancing from
the north on Kickapoo (cb').


Problem No. 10 (Cavalry)

=1042. Special Situation:=

Lieutenant A, commanding the left support on Prison Hill, at 5 P. M.,
directs Sergeant Jones to take a patrol of 5 men from his platoon and
move via Atchison Cross (ug') to the vicinity of Kickapoo and secure
information of any enemy that may be in that locality. Another patrol
is to go via Fort Leavenworth (ol').

=Required, 1.= The order given by Lieutenant A, verbatim. (Pars. 963
and 965.)

=Answer.= "Sergeant Jones, the enemy is north of Kickapoo, moving on
that place. This squadron will remain here tonight; Sergeant B will
take a patrol through Fort Leavenworth.

"Select a patrol of 5 men from your platoon and move out via
Frenchman's (oc') toward Kickapoo.

"Secure any information you can of the enemy in that locality.

"Report on the condition of the bridges between here and 47 (fd').

"You may have to stay out over night.

"Send messages here."

Sergeant Jones selects five good men, directs them to take one cooked
ration each and canteen full of water. He inspects the men and horses
carefully; sees that no horse of conspicuous color or that neighs is
taken. Explains the orders to his men, etc., as was done in the
infantry patrol.

=Required, 2.= What route does the patrol take, and why?

=Answer.= Metropolitan avenue (w)--70 (vj')--72 (vj')--14
(ug')--Frenchman (oc')--17 (jc')--47 (ec').

=Reasons.= The enemy is distant and Kickapoo, the objective of the
patrol, is seen from the map, which Sergeant Jones has, to be over an
hour's ride at a walk and trot. It is not at all probable that the
enemy will be met until the patrol reaches the vicinity of Kickapoo
and Sergeant Jones decides to take the shortest and best road though
it is a main highway, instead of Sheridan's Drive (j) of the F
(qg')--15 (jg') lane.

It is always well for a patrol to avoid main highways when the enemy
is near, especially in hostile country, but here the time saved more
than justifies the use of the direct route.


Problem No. 11 (Cavalry)

=1043.= Same situation as Problem 1.

=Required, 1.= The formation and conduct of the patrol as far as
Frenchman's.

=Answer.= Sergeant Jones determines to move at a walk and trot (5
miles per hour) in order to reach the vicinity of Kickapoo and take up
a position of observation before night. Sergeant Jones and Private B
are in the lead, 2 men about 100 yards to the rear, the remaining 2
men about 75 yards in the rear of these. They move out at a trot along
the road until Atchison Cross is reached. The two cross roads are
reconnoitered without halting the patrol, inasmuch as from the cross
roads a good view is had north and south.

From Atchison Cross to 16 (sf') the patrol moves at a walk, being up a
slope from 4 to 6 degrees. Usually such a place would be rushed
through, but the distance of the enemy makes this unnecessary. No
scouting is done off the road through the woods, because of the
distance of the enemy. On reaching the top of the hill the patrol is
halted while Sergeant Jones moves up to the high ground south of the
road at the crest, and in concealment searches with his glasses the
road as far as Frenchman's, especially the village beyond G (qf').
Seeing no signs of the enemy he moves the patrol down the hill at a
walk until the cut is passed and there takes a fast trot, so as to
avoid being long in a position where they could be seen from the
direction of Kickapoo. The same formation and gait are maintained as
far as Gauss' (pd'), where a walk is taken to rest the horses and to
gain opportunity to see if any enemy are holding the bridge at
Frenchman's.

=Situation:=

Just as the patrol comes to a walk Sergeant Jones sees what appears to
be a dismounted patrol moving south over the ridge about 650 yards
north of Frenchman's. He can see three men.

=Required, 2.= Action taken by Sergeant Jones.

=Answer.= The patrol is moved into the orchard just off the road,
while Sergeant Jones moves quickly to the top of the hill and,
concealed by the trees, examines the road north to see if the 3 men
are followed by others forming a part of a larger patrol or column.
He finds the three men are not followed.

=Required, 3.= What does he do next?

=Answer.= He determines to capture the patrol by surprise. He has the
horses led over south of the orchard hill so as not to be visible to
the enemy. He then distributes his men along the north edge of the
orchard, himself nearest the bridge, 2 men 75 yards back along the
road toward G (qf'), then 2 men 75 yards farther along toward G. As
the third man comes opposite him, Sergeant Jones cries "Halt," which
is the signal for the other parties to similarly hold up their men.

=Reasons.= Sergeant Jones might either capture the hostile patrol or
let it pass, and then proceed on his road. Since they are the first
enemy seen and there is such a good chance to capture them, and as
they may furnish definite information of the enemy's main force, he
decides as stated. There is an objection in capturing them that he
will have to send one or two men to take them to camp. The patrol is
placed as described above so as to have the two men opposite each of
the enemy, except for Sergeant Jones, who is alone. By thus covering
each man of the hostile patrol by two of our men, they will at once
see the folly of an effort to escape and no shot need be fired. One
man is holding the horses.


Problem No. 12 (Cavalry)

=1044.= Same situation as Problem 10.

=Required:=

1. What action does Sergeant Jones take before leaving the vicinity of
Frenchman's?

2. Give the formation and conduct of the patrol after leaving here.

3. Give the report submitted by Sergeant Jones under his instructions
in regard to bridges. (Par. 1000.)

At 6:30 P. M. (it is dark at 7:30) the patrol reaches 17 (jc').

4. Give the route followed from here and the disposition of the patrol
made for the night.


Problem No. 13 (Cavalry)

=1045. Situation:=

The Missouri river is the boundary between hostile countries.

A Blue separate brigade (3 regiments infantry, 1 squadron cavalry, 1
battery field artillery) is moving from Winchester (19 miles west of
Leavenworth) to seize the Rock Island bridge (q) across the Missouri
river at Fort Leavenworth. The cavalry squadron is camped at Lowemont,
8 miles west of Leavenworth, for night June 4-5. At 3 P. M. Sergeant
Jones is directed to take a patrol of six men and move via the Rock
Island bridge into Missouri and gain information of the enemy reported
to be now just east of the river.

=Required, 1.= Give the formation of the patrol when it first comes on
the map.

=Required, 2.= Give the conduct of the patrol from Mottin's (oa') to G
(qf').

At Frenchman's, Sergeant Jones met a farmer coming from Fort
Leavenworth, who said about 200 hostile cavalry were seen just east of
the Missouri about 2 P. M., moving towards the Terminal Bridge (z).

=Required, 3.= Action of Sergeant Jones. (Does he hold the man? Does
he send a message? Does he change his plans or direction of march?)

The patrol reaches the top of the hill, Sheridan's Drive--Government
Hill (tf').

=Required, 4.= What action does Sergeant Jones take before proceeding
east?


FLANK GUARDS

=1046.= The flanks of a column are ordinarily protected by the advance
guard, which sends out patrols to carefully examine the country on
both sides of the line of march. In some cases, however, the direction
of march of the column is such that there is a great danger of the
enemy's striking it in flank and some special provision is necessary
to furnish additional security on the threatened flank. This is done
by having a detachment, called a flank guard, march off the exposed
flank. The flank guard usually follows a road, parallel to the one on
which the column is marching and at least 1,000 yards (effective rifle
range) beyond it. If hostile artillery is feared this distance is much
greater.

The flank guard regulates its march so as to continue abreast of the
advance guard of the main column. It takes a formation similar to an
advance guard, does most of its patrolling to the front and on the
exposed flank, and keeps in constant touch with the main column by
means of mounted or dismounted messengers.

In case the enemy is encountered the flank guard drives him off if
practicable or takes up a defensive position, protecting the march of
the main column, and preventing the enemy from disturbing the latter's
march.


REAR GUARD

=1047. Definition and Duties.= A rear guard is a detachment of a
marching column following in rear to protect the main column from
being surprised and to prevent the march from being delayed or
interrupted.

When the main column is marching toward the enemy the rear guard is
very small and its duties relatively unimportant. It is principally
occupied in gathering up stragglers.

When the main column is marching away from the enemy (retreating) the
rear guard is all important. It covers the retreat of the main body,
preventing the enemy from harassing or delaying its march.

=1048. Strength.= The strength of a rear guard is slightly greater
than that of an advance guard, as it cannot expect, like the latter,
to be reinforced in case it is attacked, as the main column is
marching away from it and avoiding a fight.

=1049. Form of Order.= The rear guard commander, on the receipt of the
retreat order, issues a rear guard order, according to the form given
in the Field Service Regulations.

The distance of a rear guard from the main body and its formation are
similar to those of an advance guard. The elements corresponding to
the advance cavalry, the point, and the advance party of an advance
guard are termed the rear cavalry, rear point and rear party,
respectively. The support and reserve retain the same designations.

A rear guard formed during an engagement to cover the withdrawal or
retreat of the main body, may first be compelled to take up a
defensive position behind which the main body forms up and moves off.
It may be forced to withdraw from this position by successive skirmish
lines, gradually forming up in column on the road as it clears itself
from fighting contact with the enemy.

The rate of march of the rear guard depends upon that of the main
body. The main body may be much disorganized and fatigued,
necessitating long halts and a slow marching rate.

=1050. Action of the Rear Guard.= The withdrawal of defeated troops is
delayed, if possible, until night. If it becomes necessary to begin a
retreat while an engagement is in progress, the rear guard is
organized and takes up a defensive position generally behind the
fighting line; the latter then falls back and assembles under cover of
the rear guard.

The rear cavalry gives away before the enemy's pursuit only when
absolutely necessary, maintains communication with and sends
information to the rear guard commander, and pays special attention to
the weak points in the retreat, namely, the flanks. It makes use of
every kind of action of which it is capable, according to the
situation, and unless greatly outnumbered by hostile cavalry, it
causes considerable delay to the enemy.

When the enemy is conducting an energetic pursuit the rear guard
effects its withdrawal by taking up a succession of defensive
positions (that is, where the nature of the ground enables the rear
guard to defend itself well) and compelling the enemy to attack or
turn them. (It should be understood that these successive defensive
positions must, in the case of a large force, be from two to four
miles apart and in the case of a small force at least one-half mile
apart--not a few hundred yards as is frequently attempted in peace
maneuvers.)

When the enemy's dispositions for attack are nearly completed, the
rear guard begins to fall back, the cavalry on the flanks being
usually the last to leave. The commander designates a part of the rear
guard to cover the withdrawal of the remainder; the latter then falls
back to a new position in rear, and in turn covers the withdrawal of
the troops in front. These operations compel the enemy continually to
deploy or make turning movements, and constantly retard his advance.

The pursuit may be further delayed by obstacles placed in the enemy's
path; bridges are burned or blown up; boats removed or destroyed;
fords and roads obstructed; tracks torn up; telegraph lines cut, and
houses, villages, woods and fields fired. Demolitions and obstructions
are prepared by engineers, assisted, if necessary, by other troops
detailed from the reserve, and are completed by the mounted engineers
of the rear party at the last moment.

The instructions of the supreme commander govern in the demolition of
important structures.


OUTPOSTS

(See "Outpost," Par. 887)

=1051. Definition and Duties.= Outposts are detachments thrown out to
the front and flanks of a force that is in camp or bivouac, to protect
the main body from being surprised and to insure its undisturbed rest.
In fact, an outpost is merely a stationary advance guard. Its duties,
in general, are to _observe_ and _resist_--to observe the enemy, and
to resist him in case of attack. Specifically its duties are:

(=a=) To observe toward the front and flanks by means of stationary
sentinels and patrols, in order to locate the enemy's whereabouts and
learn promptly of his movements, thus making it impossible for him to
surprise us.

(=b=) To prevent the main body from being observed or disturbed.

(=c=) In case of attack, to check the enemy long enough to enable the
main body to prepare for action and make the necessary dispositions.

=1052. Size.= The size of the outpost will depend upon many
circumstances, such as the size of the whole command, the nearness of
the enemy, the nature of the ground, etc. A suitable strength for an
outpost may vary from a very small fraction to one-third of the whole
force. However, in practice it seldom exceeds one-sixth of the whole
force--as a rule, if it be greater, the efficiency of the troops will
be impaired. For a single company in bivouac a few sentinels and
patrols will suffice; for a large command, a more elaborate outpost
system must be provided. The most economical form of outpost is
furnished by keeping close contact with the enemy by means of outpost
patrols, in conjunction with resisting detachments on the avenues of
approach.

Troops at a halt are supposed to be resting, night or day, and the
fewer on outpost the more troops will there be resting, and thus
husbanding their strength for approaching marches and encounters with
the enemy. Outpost duty is about the most exhausting and fatiguing
work a soldier performs. It is, therefore, evident that not a man or
horse more than is absolutely necessary should be employed, and that
the commander should use careful judgment in determining the strength
of the outpost, and the chiefs of the various outpost subdivisions
should be equally careful in disposing their men so as to permit the
greatest possible number to rest and sleep undisturbed, _but at the
same time always considering the safety of the main body as the chief
duty_.

=1053. Composition.= The composition of the outpost will, as a rule,
depend upon the size and composition of the command, but a mixed
outpost is composed principally of infantry, which is charged with the
duty of local observation, especially at night, and with resisting the
enemy, in case of attack, long enough for the main body to prepare for
action.

The cavalry is charged with the duty of reconnaissance, and is very
useful in open country during the day.

Artillery is useful to outposts when its fire can sweep defiles or
large open spaces and when it commands positions that might be
occupied by hostile artillery.

Machine guns are useful to command approaches and check sudden
advances of the enemy.

Engineers are attached to an outpost to assist in constructing
entrenchments, clearing the field of fire, opening communication
laterally and to the rear. The outpost should be composed of complete
organizations. For example, if the outpost is to consist of one
company, do not have some of the platoons from one company and the
others from another, and if it is to consist of one battalion, do not
have some of the companies from one battalion and others from another,
etc.


FORMATION OF OUTPOSTS

=1054. Subdivisions.= As in the case of an advance guard, the outpost
of a large force is divided into elements or parts, that gradually
increase in size from front to rear. These, in order from the main
body, are the reserve, the line of supports, the line of outguards,
and the advance cavalry, and their formation, as shown by the drawing
on the preceding page, may be likened to an open hand, with the
fingers apart and extended, the wrist representing the main body, the
knuckles the line of supports, the first joints the line of outguards,
the second joints the line of sentinels and the finger tips the
advance cavalry.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

In case of attack each part is charged with holding the enemy in check
until the larger element, next in rear, has time to deploy and prepare
for action.

=1055. Distances Between the Subdivisions.= The distances separating
the main body, the line of supports, the line of outguards, the line
of sentries and the advance cavalry, will depend upon circumstances.
There can be no uniformity in the distance between supports and
reserves, nor between outguards and supports, even in the same
outpost. The avenues of approach and the important features of the
ground will largely control the exact positions of the different parts
of the outposts. The basic principle upon which the distances are
based, is: _The distance between any two parts of the outpost must be
great enough to give the one in rear time to deploy and prepare for
action in case of attack, and the distance of the whole outpost from
the main body must, in the case of small commands, be sufficiently
great to hold the enemy beyond effective rifle range until the main
body can deploy, and, in case of large commands, it must be
sufficiently great to hold the enemy beyond effective artillery range
until the main body can deploy._

It is, therefore, evident that the distances will be materially
affected not only by the size of the main body, but also by the nature
of the cover afforded by the ground.

The following is given merely as a very general guide, subject to many
changes:

                                                    Distance to next
                                                    element in rear.

  Advance cavalry                                   2 to 6 miles
  Supports   {Sentinels (furnished by outguard)     20 to 40 yds.
  (Generally {Outguards (furnished by support)      200 to 500 yds.
  two or     {Support proper furnishes majority     400 to 800 yds.
  more)         of patrols.
  Reserve (usually omitted in small commands)       1/2 to 2 miles

=1056. Advance Cavalry.= The advance cavalry is that part of the
outpost sent out in front of all foot troops. It generally operates
two to six miles beyond the outpost infantry, reconnoitering far to
the front and flanks in order to guard the camp against surprise by
artillery fire and to give early information of the enemy's movements.

After dusk the bulk of the cavalry usually withdraws to a camp in rear
of the outpost reserve, where it can rest securely after the day's
hard work and the horses can be fresh for the next day. Several
mounted patrols are usually left for the night at junctions or forks
on the principal roads to the front, from one to four miles beyond the
infantry line of observation.

=1057. Supports.= The _supports_ constitute a line of _supporting_ and
_resisting_ detachments, varying in size from a half a company to a
battalion. In outposts consisting of a battalion or more the supports
usually comprise about one-half of the infantry. Supports are numbered
numerically consecutively from right to left and are placed at the
more important points on the outpost line, on or near the line on
which resistance is to be made in case of attack.

As a rule, roads exercise the greatest influence on the location of
supports, and a support will generally be placed on or near a road.

Each support has assigned to it a definite, clearly-defined section of
front that it is to cover, and the support should be located as
centrally as possible thereto.

=1058. Outguards.= The outguards constitute the line of small
detachments farthest to the front and nearest to the enemy, and their
duty is to maintain uninterrupted observation of the ground in front
and on the flanks; to report promptly hostile movements and other
information relating to the enemy; to prevent unauthorized persons
from crossing the line of observation; to drive off small parties of
the enemy, and to make temporary resistance to larger bodies. For
convenience outguards are classified as pickets, sentry squads, and
cossack posts. They are numbered consecutively from right to left in
each support.

=1059.= _A picket_ is a group consisting of two or more squads,
ordinarily not exceeding half a company, posted in the line of
outguards to cover a given sector. It furnishes patrols and one or
more sentinels, double sentinels, sentry, squads, or cossack posts for
observation.

Pickets are placed at the more important points in the line of
outguards, such as road forks. The strength of each depends upon the
number of small groups required to observe properly its sector.

=1060.= _A sentry squad_ is a squad posted in observation at an
indicated point. It posts a double sentinel in observation, the
remaining men resting near by and furnishing the reliefs of sentinels.
In some cases it may be required to furnish a patrol.

=1061.= _A cossack post_ consists of four men. It is an observation
group similar to a sentry squad; but employs a single sentinel.

At night, it will sometimes be advisable to place some of the
outguards or their sentinels in a position different from that which
they occupy in the daytime. In such case the ground should be
carefully studied before dark and the change made at dusk. However, a
change in the position of the outguard will be exceptional.

=1062.= _Sentinels_ are generally used singly in daytime, but at night
double sentinels will be required in most cases. Sentinels furnished
by cossack posts or sentry squads are kept near their group. Those
furnished by pickets may be as far as 100 yards away.

Every sentinel should be able to communicate readily with the body to
which he belongs.

Sentinel posts are numbered consecutively from right to left in each
outguard. Sentry squads and cossack posts furnished by pickets are
counted as sentinel posts.

If practicable, troops on outpost duty are concealed and all movements
made so as to avoid observation by the enemy; sentinels are posted so
as to have a clear view to the front and, if practicable (though it is
rarely possible), so as to be able, by day, to see the sentinels of
the adjoining outguards. Double sentinels are posted near enough to
each other to be able to communicate easily in ordinary voice.

Sentinels are generally on duty two hours out of six. For every
sentinel and for every patrol there should be at least three reliefs;
therefore, one-third the strength of the outguards gives the greatest
number of men that should be on duty as sentinels and patrols at one
time.

Skillful selection of the posts of sentinels increases their field of
observation. High points, under cover, are advantageous by night as
well as by day; they increase the range of vision and afford greater
facilities for seeing lights and hearing noises. Observers with good
field glasses may be placed on high buildings, on church steeples or
in high trees.

Glittering objects on uniform or equipment should be concealed. It is
seldom necessary to fix bayonets, except at night, in dense fog, or in
very close country.

Reliefs, visiting patrols, and inspecting officers, approach sentinels
from the rear, remaining under cover if possible.

=1063. Reserve.= The reserve forms a general support for the line of
resistance. It is, therefore, centrally located near the junction of
roads coming from the direction of the enemy, and in concealment if
practicable.

Of the troops detailed for outpost duty, about one-half of the
infantry, generally all of the artillery, and the cavalry not
otherwise employed, are assigned to the reserve. If the outpost
consists of less than two companies the reserve may be omitted
altogether.

The arms are stacked and the equipments (except cartridge belts) may
be removed. Roads communicating with the supports are opened.

When necessary, the outpost order states what is to be done in case of
attack, designates places of assembly and provides for interior
guards. Interior guards are posted in the camp of the reserve or main
body to maintain order, and furnish additional security. Additional
instructions may be given for messing, feeding, watering, etc. In the
vicinity of the enemy or at night a portion of the infantry may be
required to remain under arms, the cavalry to hold their horses
(cinches loosened), and the artillery to remain in harness, or take up
a combat position.

In case of alarm, the reserve prepares for action without delay, and
word is sent to the main body. In combat, the reserve reinforces the
line of resistance, and if unable to check the enemy until the arrival
of the main body, delays him as much as possible.

The distance of the reserve from the line of resistance varies, but is
generally about half a mile; in outposts of four companies or less
this distance may be as small as 400 yards.

=1064. Patrols.= Instead of using outguards along the entire front of
observation, part of this front may be covered by patrols only. These
should be used to cover such sections of the front as can be crossed
by the enemy only with difficulty and over which he is not likely to
attempt a crossing after dark.

In daylight much of the local patrolling may be dispensed with if the
country can be seen from the posts of the sentinels. However, patrols
should frequently be pushed well to the front unless the ground in
that direction is exceptionally open.

Patrols must be used to keep up connection between the parts of the
outpost except when, during daylight, certain fractions or groups are
mutually visible. After dark this connection must be maintained
throughout the outpost except where the larger subdivisions are
provided with wire communication.

The following patrols are usually sent out from the main bodies of the
supports:

(=a=) Patrols of from three men to a squad are sent along the roads
and trails in the direction of the enemy, for a distance of from one
to five miles, depending on how close the enemy is supposed to be,
whether or not there is any advance cavalry out, and how long the
outpost has been in position. The extreme right and left supports send
patrols well out on the roads to the flanks. These patrols generally
operate continuously as soon as one returns from the front, or
possibly even before it returns, another goes out in the same general
direction to cover the same country. Frequently a patrol is sent out
along a road to the front for two or three miles with orders to remain
out until some stated time--for example, 4 P. M., dusk or dawn. It
sends in important information, and remains out near the extremity of
its route, keeping a close watch on the surrounding country.

An effort should always be made to secure and maintain contact with
the enemy, if within a reasonable distance, in order that his
movements or lack of movement may be constantly watched and reported
on. The usual tendency is towards a failure to send these patrols far
enough to the front and for the patrol leader to overestimate the
distance he has traveled. A mile through strange country with the
ever-present possibility of encountering the enemy seems three miles
to the novice.

At night the patrols generally confine their movements to the roads,
usually remaining quietly on the alert near the most advanced point of
their route to the front.

The majority of such patrols are sent out to secure information of the
enemy--reconnoitering patrols--and they avoid fighting and hostile
patrols, endeavoring to get in touch with the enemy's main force.
Other patrols are sometimes sent out to prevent hostile detachments
from approaching the outposts; they endeavor to locate the hostile
patrols, drive them back, preventing them from gaining any vantage
point from which they can observe the outpost line. These are called
combat patrols and have an entirely different mission from
reconnoitering patrols.

(=b=) Patrols of from two men to a squad, usually two men, are sent
from the support around the line of its outguards, connecting with the
outguards of the adjacent supports, if practicable. These are
"visiting patrols," and they serve to keep the outguards of a support
in touch with it and with each other; to keep the commander of a
support in touch with his outguards and the adjacent supports; and to
reconnoiter the ground between the outguards. Since a hostile force of
any size is practically forced to keep to the roads, there are rarely
ever any supports and very few outguards posted off the roads, the
intervals being covered by patrols, as just described.

When going out a patrol will always inform the nearest sentinel of the
direction it will take and its probable route and hour of return.

=1065. Detail for Patrols.= Since for every patrol of four men, twelve
are required (3 reliefs of 4 men each), the importance of sending out
just enough men and not one more than is actually needed, can readily
be understood. As fast as one visiting patrol completes its round,
another should usually be sent out, possibly going the rounds by a
slightly different route or in the reverse direction. The same
generally applies to the reconnoitering and combat patrols, though
frequently they are sent out for the entire day, afternoon or night,
and no 2d and 3d relief is required. Three reliefs are required for
the sentinel or sentinels at the post of the supports, so care should
be taken to establish but one post, if it can do all that is required.
It should not be considered that every man in the support should be on
duty or on a relief for an outguard, a patrol or sentinel post. There
should be as many men as possible in the main body of a support (this
term is used to distinguish this body from the support proper, which
includes the outguards and their sentinels) who only have no duty
other than being instantly available in case of attack.

=1066. Flags of Truce.= Upon the approach of a flag of truce, the
sentry will at once notify the commander of the outguard, who will in
turn send word to the commander of the outpost and ask for
instructions. One or more men will advance to the front and halt the
party at such distance as to prevent any of them from overlooking the
outposts. As soon as halted, the party will be ordered to face in the
opposite direction. If permission is given to pass the party through
the outpost line, they will be blindfolded and led under escort to the
commander of the outpost. No conversation, except by permission of the
outpost commander, is to be allowed on any subject, under any pretext,
with the persons bearing the flag of truce.

=1067. Entrenchments and Obstacles.= The positions held by the
subdivisions of an outpost should generally be strengthened by the
construction of entrenchments and obstacles, but conditions may render
this unnecessary.

=1068. Concealment.= Troops on outpost must keep concealed as much as
is consistent with the proper performance of their duties; especially
should they avoid the sky line.

=1069. Detached Posts.= In addition to ordinary outguards, the outpost
commander may detail from the reserve one or more detached posts to
cover roads or areas not in general line assigned to the supports.

In like manner the commander of the whole force may order detached
posts to be sent from the main body to cover important roads or
localities not included in the outpost line.

Detached posts may be sent out to hold points which are of importance
to the outpost cavalry, such as a ford or a junction of roads; or to
occupy positions especially favorable for observation, but too far to
the front to be included in the line of observation; or to protect
flanks of the outpost position. Such posts are generally established
by the outpost commander, but a support commander might find it
necessary to establish a post practically detached from the rest of
his command. They usually vary in strength from a squad to a platoon.
The number and strength of detached posts are reduced to the absolute
needs of the situation.

=1070. Examining Posts.= An examining post is a small detachment,
under the command of an officer or a noncommissioned officer,
stationed at some convenient point to examine strangers and to receive
bearers Of flags of truce brought in by the outguards or patrols.

Though the employment of examining posts is not general in field
operations, there are many occasions when their use is important; for
example: When the outguards do not speak the language of the country
or of the enemy; when preparations are being made for a movement and
strict scrutiny at the outguards is ordered: at sieges, whether in
attack or defense. When such posts, are used, strangers approaching
the line of observation are passed along the line to an examining
post.

No one except the commander is allowed to speak to persons brought to
an examining post. Prisoners and deserters are at once sent under
guard to the rear.

=1071. Cavalry Outpost.= Independent cavalry covering a command or on
special missions, and occasionally the advance cavalry of a mixed
command, bivouac when night overtakes them, and in such cases furnish
their own outposts. The outposts are established, in the main, in
accordance with the foregoing principles, care being taken to confine
outpost work to the lowest limits consistent with safety. No
precaution, however, should be omitted, as the cavalry is generally in
close proximity to the enemy, and often in territory where the
inhabitants are hostile.

The line of resistance is occupied by the supports, the latter sending
out the necessary outguards and patrols. Each outguard furnishes its
own vedettes (mounted sentinels), or sentinels. Due to the mobility of
cavalry, the distances are generally greater than in an outpost for a
mixed command. An outguard of four troopers is convenient for the day
time, but should be doubled at night, and at important points made
even stronger. The sentinels are generally dismounted, their horses
being left with those of the outguards.

Mounted cavalry at night can offer little resistance; the supports and
outguards are therefore generally dismounted, the horses being under
cover in rear, and the positions are strengthened by intrenchments and
obstacles. By holding villages, bridges, defiles, etc., with
dismounted rifle fire, cavalry can greatly delay a superior force.

There should always be easy communication along the line of resistance
to enable the cavalry to concentrate at a threatened point.

A support of one squadron covers with its outposts a section rarely
longer than two miles.

As such a line is of necessity weak, the principal reliance is placed
on distant patrolling. If threatened by infantry, timely information
enables the threatened point to be reinforced, or the cavalry to
withdraw to a place of safety. If there is danger from hostile
cavalry, the roads in front are blocked at suitable points, such as
bridges, fords, defiles, etc., by a succession of obstacles and are
defended by a few dismounted men. When compelled to fall back these
men mount and ride rapidly to the next obstacle in rear and there take
up a new position. As the march of cavalry at night is, as a rule,
confined to roads, such tactics seriously delay its advance.

In accordance with the situation and the orders they have received,
the support commanders arrange for feeding, watering, cooking, resting
and patrolling. During the night the horses of the outguards remain
saddled and bridled. During the day time cinches may be loosened,
one-third of the horses at a time. Feeding and watering are done by
reliefs. Horses being fed are removed a short distance from the
others.

Independent cavalry generally remains in outpost position for the
night only, its advance being resumed on the following day; if stopped
by the enemy, it is drawn off to the flanks upon the approach of its
own infantry.


ESTABLISHING THE OUTPOST

=1072.= The outpost is posted as quickly as possible, so that the
troops can the sooner obtain rest. Until the leading outpost troops
are able to assume their duties, temporary protection, known as the
_march outpost_, is furnished by the nearest available troops.

Upon receipt of the _halt order_ from the commander of the main
column, the outpost commander issues the _outpost order_ with the
least practicable delay.

The _halt order_, besides giving the necessary information and
assigning camp sites to the parts of the command, details the troops
to constitute the outpost, assigns a commander therefor, designates
the general line to be occupied, and, when practicable, points out the
position to be held in case of attack.

The _outpost order_ gives such available information of the situation
as is necessary to the complete and proper guidance of subordinates;
designates the troops to constitute the supports; assigns their
location and the sector each is to cover; provides for the necessary
detached posts; indicates any special reconnaissance that is to be
made; orders the location and disposition of the reserve; disposes of
the train if the same is ordered to join the outpost; and informs
subordinates where information will be sent. In large commands it may
often be necessary to give the order from the map, but usually the
outpost commander will have to make some preliminary reconnaissance,
unless he has an accurate and detailed map.

Generally it is preferable for the outpost commander to give verbal
orders to his support commanders from some locality which overlooks
the terrain. The time and locality should be so selected that the
support commanders may join their commands and conduct them to their
positions without causing unnecessary delay to their troops. The
reserve commander should, if possible, receive his orders at the same
time as the support commanders. Subordinates to whom he gives orders
separately should be informed of the location of other parts of the
outpost.

=1073.= After issuing the initial orders, the outpost commander
inspects the outpost, orders the necessary changes or additions, and
sends his superior a report of his dispositions.

_The reserve_ is marched to its post by its commander, who then sends
out such detachments as have been ordered and places the rest in camp
or bivouac, over which at least one sentinel should be posted.
Connection must be maintained with the main body, the supports, and
nearby detached posts.

The supports march to their posts, using the necessary covering
detachments when in advance of the march outpost. A support
commander's order should fully explain the situation to subordinates,
or to the entire command, if it be small. It should detail the troops
for the different outguards and, when necessary, define the sector
each is to cover. It should provide the necessary sentinels at the
post of the support, the patrols to be sent therefrom, and should
arrange for the necessary intrenching.

In posting his command the support commander must seek to cover his
sector (the front that he is to look after) in such manner that the
enemy can not reach, in dangerous numbers and unobserved, the position
of the support or pass by it within the sector intrusted to the
support. On the other hand, he must economize men on observation and
patrol duty, for these duties are unusually fatiguing. He must
practice the greatest economy of men consistent with the requirements
of practical security.

As soon as the posting of the support is completed, its commander
carefully inspects the dispositions and corrects defects, if any, and
reports the disposition of his support, including the patrolling
ordered, to the outpost commander. This report is preferably made by
means of a sketch.

By day the outpost will stack arms and the articles of equipment,
except the cartridge belt and canteen, will be placed by the arms. At
night the men will invariably sleep with their arms and equipment near
them.

In addition to the sentinel posted over the support, a part of the
support, say one-third or one-fourth, should always be awake at night.

Each outguard is marched by its commander to its assigned station, and
especially in the case of a picket, is covered by the necessary
patrolling to prevent surprise.

Having reached the position, the commander explains the situation to
his men and establishes reliefs for each sentinel, and, if possible,
for each patrol to be furnished. Besides these sentinels and patrols,
a picket must have a sentinel at its post.

The commander then posts the sentinels and points out to them the
principal features, such as towns, roads, and streams, and gives their
names. He gives the direction and location of the enemy, if known, and
of adjoining parts of the outpost.

He gives to patrols the same information and the necessary orders as
to their routes and the frequency with which the same shall be
covered. Each patrol should go over its route once before dark.

Each picket should maintain connection by patrols with the outguards
on its right and left.

=1074. Intercommunication.= It is most important that communication
should be maintained at all times between all parts of the outpost,
and between the outpost and the main body. This may be done by
patrols, messengers, wire or signal.

The commander of the outpost is responsible that proper communication
be maintained with the main body, and the support commanders keep up
communication with the outguards, with the adjoining supports and with
the reserve. The commander of a detached post will maintain
communication with the nearest outguard.

=1075. Changes for the Night.= In civilized warfare, it is seldom
necessary to draw the outpost closer to the main body at night in
order to diminish the front; nor is it necessary to strengthen the
line of observation, as the enemy's advance in force must be confined
to the roads. The latter are therefore strongly occupied, the
intervening ground being diligently patrolled.

In very open country or in war with savage or semi-civilized people
familiar with the terrain, special precautions are necessary.

=1076. Relieving the Outpost.= Ordinarily outposts are not kept on
duty longer than twenty-four hours. In temporary camps or bivouac they
are generally relieved every morning. After a day's advance the
outpost for the night is usually relieved, the following morning when
the support of the new advance guard passes the line of resistance. In
retreat the outpost for the night usually forms the rear guard for the
following day, and is relieved when it passes the line of observation
of the new outpost.

Outguards that have become familiar with the country during the day
time should remain on duty that night. Sentinels are relieved once in
two hours, or oftener, depending on the weather. The work of patrols
is regulated by the support commander.

Commanders of the various fractions of an outpost turn over their
instructions and special orders, written and verbal, to their
successors, together with the latest information of the enemy, and a
description of the important features of the country. When practicable
the first patrols sent out by the new outposts are accompanied by
members of the old outpost who are familiar with the terrain. When
relieved the old outguards return to their supports, the supports to
the reserve and the latter to the main body; or, if more convenient,
the supports and reserves return to the main body independently, each
by the shortest route.

When relieved by an advance guard, the outpost troops ordinarily join
their units as the column passes.

Evening and shortly before dawn are hours of special danger. The enemy
may attack late in the day in order to establish himself on captured
ground by intrenching during the night; or he may send forward troops
under cover of darkness in order to make a strong attack at early
dawn. Special precaution is therefore taken at those hours by holding
the outpost in readiness, and by sending patrols in advance of the
line of observation. If a new outpost is to be established in the
morning it should arrive at the outpost position at daybreak, thus
doubling the outpost strength at that hour.


OUTPOST PROBLEMS


Problem No. 1 (Infantry)

=1077. Lieutenant (to two squads of his company):= Two battalions of
our regiment have camped by Baker's Pond (Elementary Map) for the
night. It is now 3 P. M. on a rainy day in August. The enemy is
thought to be about five miles to the south of us. Our platoon is the
left support of the outpost and is stationed at the road fork on the
Chester Pike, by the Mason house. The Twin Hills-Lone Hill ridge is
taken care of by other troops. Corporal Baker, where do you think I
should place outguards?

=Corporal Baker:= One at the junction of the Mills farm lane and the
Chester Pike, and one at the steel railroad trestle over Sandy Creek.

=Lieutenant:= Those positions are both too far from the support,
almost a half mile, but they cover the two main avenues of approach
and there is no good place for a position nearer the support. A
position farther north of the Mill's farm lane would have its view
obstructed by the wall and trees along the lane and the wall would be
a bad thing to leave unoccupied such a short distance to your front.
So in this case, in spite of the excessive distances from the support,
I think the two positions are well chosen. Each should be an outguard
of a squad, for in the day time, in addition to furnishing a sentinel
to observe to the front, they should have some power of resistance,
particularly at the trestle. At night they should each have one double
sentinel post. This requires three reliefs of two men each, which,
with the corporal, only leaves one extra man, who can be used as a
messenger.

Corporal Baker, I order you to take your squad and post it as Outguard
No. 1, at the junction of this (Chester) pike and that farm lane
(Mills farm) in front. Corporal Davis' squad will be Outguard No. 2,
at the railroad trestle over there (pointing). Friendly troops will be
on the ridge to the east of your position. Your meals will be cooked
here and sent to you.

Explain how you post your squad.

=Corporal Baker:= I order Smith to double time 150 yards to the front
and act as point for the squad. I then march the squad down to its
position, keeping Smith about 200 yards in front until I have arranged
everything. I then post Brown under cover of the trees along the lane
where he can look down the road as far as possible and I tell him,
"Brown, you are to take post here, keeping a sharp lookout to the
front and flanks. The enemy is thought to be about five miles south
(pointing) of us. This is the Chester Pike. That creek over there is
Sandy Creek. Salem is about a mile and three-quarters down this pike
in that (S. E.) direction. York is a mile and a half in that (S. W.)
direction. Our troops are on that ridge (Twin Hills) and a squad is at
the trestle over there. It is Outguard No. 2. You are in Outguard No.
1. You know where we left our platoon. It is our support. Signal Smith
to come in." I then have the squad pitch their shelter tents along the
northern side of the wall, where they will be hidden to view from the
front by the trees along the lane and the wall. I want the men to get
shelter from the rain as soon as possible. I then instruct the men of
the squad, in the same manner that I did Brown; I notice the time,
and detail Davis as second relief and Carter as third relief for
Brown's post.

I then direct two men to take all the canteens and go over to that
farm (Mills) and fill them, first questioning the people about the
enemy and about the country around here. I also direct these two men
to get some straw or hay for bedding in the shelter tents, and
instruct them to return with as little delay as possible.

I wait until they return and order two other men to go down to the
cross roads, question the people there, look the ground over and
return here. I caution them not to give any information about our
force or the outguard. I would see that the sentinel's position was
the best available and that the men had as comfortable quarters as
possible, without being unduly exposed to view and without interfering
with their movements in case of attack. They would keep their rifles
at their sides at all times and not remove their equipments. After
dark I put two men on post at the same time. To do this I arrange
three reliefs of two men each. They are posted in pairs for two hours
at a time.

If no patrol from the support appeared within a half hour after I
first took position I would send a messenger back to you to see if
everything was all right and tell you what I had done.

=Lieutenant:= I think the two men sent to the crossroads should have
been started out before sending anyone to the Mills house as this was
a more important point. The Field Service Regulations state that
outguards do not patrol to the front, but what you did was entirely
correct. You were securing yourself in your position and should be
familiar with your immediate surroundings. You should have told the
crossroads patrol to determine how much of an obstacle Sandy Creek
was. I suppose you assumed the swamp was impassable.

The sentinel in this case is, I suppose, across the lane from the
outguard about ten or fifteen yards in advance. After dark the double
sentinel post should be posted on the pike about thirty yards in
advance of the outguard.

Very frequently it would not be wise to put up your shelter tents on
outguard. But here, considering the rain and the protection the trees
and wall furnish, it was wise to do so.

The noncommissioned officer in charge of an outguard should be very
precise in giving his orders and in making his arrangements, details,
etc. The discipline must be strict; that is, the men must be kept
under absolute control, so that in case of sudden attack there will be
no chance of confusion and the outguard commander will have his men
absolutely in hand and not permit any independent action on their
part. This is often not the case, owing to the familiar relations that
usually exist in our army between a corporal and the members of his
squad.

We will not have time to go into the arrangements for Outguard No. 2
other than to say that the conditions there are somewhat different
from those Corporal Baker has had to deal with. The outguard should be
posted on the west bank of Sandy Creek and the sentinel at the
southeastern end of the trestle. A skirmish trench should be dug down
the western slope of the fill west of the creek, and extended across
the track by throwing up a parapet about two and one-half feet high,
slightly bent back towards the northeast so as to furnish cover from
fire from the east bank of the creek, north of the trestle. The
shelter tents could be pitched as "lean tos" against the western slope
of the fill, and hidden by bushes and branches of trees.

(Note: The details of commanding this outguard, its action in case of
attack, what should be done with a passing countryman, etc., can be
profitably worked out in great detail.)


Problem No. 2

=1078. Lieutenant (to six squads):= We will take the same situation as
we had in Problem 1, with squad outguards as before.

Sergeant Adams, you have command of the platoon and have sent out the
two outguards. Explain your arrangements for the support.

=Sergeant Adams:= I have the men fall out by squads and rest on the
side of the road while I look the ground over. I then tell Sergeant
Barnes, "You will have immediate charge of the guard, cooking,
visiting patrols, etc., here at the support. Detail three men from
Corporal Evan's squad as first, second and third relief for the
sentinel over the support Post your sentinel at the road fork and give
him the necessary instructions as to the outguards, the adjacent
support which is on this road (pointing west) on top of that ridge,
etc. I will give you further instructions later." I then fall in the
remainder of the support (one sergeant, one cook, four corporals and
twenty-seven privates, three squads being intact and one man on duty
as sentinel) and have shelter tents pitched under cover of the orchard
and Mason house. While this is being completed I select a line for a
trench, about thirty-five yards long, behind the fence on the east and
west road and extending east of the Chester Pike about fifteen yards,
slightly bent back towards the northeast. No trench in the road. I
then say to Sergeant Foss, "Take Graves' squad and construct a shelter
trench along this line (indicating) having the parapet concealed. Cut
the fences so as to furnish easy access."

I then say to Corporal Evans, "Take three men from your squad and, as
a reconnoitering patrol, cross the trestle there (pointing), and
follow that road (pointing to the Boling-Salem road) into Salem,
reconnoitering that village. Then take up a position on that ridge
(pointing to Sandy Ridge) and remain out until dusk. Send me a message
from Sandy Ridge with a sketch and description of the country."

I assume that Corporal Evans is familiar with the information about
the enemy, the location of our outguards, etc.

Selecting five men from Corporal Geary's squad and the remaining man
of Corporal Evans' squad (three having been detailed for sentinel
duty, and three sent out on patrol duty with Corporal Evans), I turn
them over to Sergeant Barnes, saying, "Here are six men to furnish
three reliefs for a visiting patrol of two men. Have this patrol visit
Outguard No. 2 and cross the trestle, going south down the east bank
of the creek; thence recross the creek at the road bridge, visiting
Outguard No. 1; thence across to the adjacent outguard of the support
on our left, which is somewhere on that ridge (pointing to the Twin
Hills-Lone Hill Ridge); and thence to the starting point. Have them
locate that support on their first trip. You can reverse the route
and make such minor changes from time to time as you think best.
Report to me after they have completed the first round. Make
arrangements for sending supper to the outguards. Take two men from
Corporal Jackson's squad to carry it out. Be careful that the cook
fire is not visible. I am going out to visit Outguard No. 1 and then
No. 2. You will have charge until I return."

The men have stacked arms in front of the tents and have removed all
equipment but their belts.

I would now visit the outguards, taking a man with me, and see if they
are properly located. I would instruct the outguard commanders as to
what to do in case of attack, in case strangers approach, point out
their line of retreat in case of necessity, etc. I would make a sketch
of the position and send it, with a description of my dispositions, to
the commander of the outpost.

=Lieutenant:= Your arrangements and dispositions appear satisfactory.
You should have been more prompt in sending Corporal Evans out with
his patrol. Why didn't you send a patrol towards York, or south along
the Chester Pike?

=Sergeant Adams:= I considered that the support on my right would
cover that ridge (Twin Hills-Lone Hill), and that the route I laid out
for Corporal Evans would cover the Chester Pike and the country east
of Sandy Creek at the same time, thus avoiding the necessity for two
patrols.

=Lieutenant:= That seems reasonable, but you should have given some
specific orders about reporting on the width, depth, etc., of Sandy
Creek, which might prove a very valuable or dangerous obstacle. You
can readily see how quickly a command becomes broken up and depleted
in strength, and how important it is to make only such detachments as
are necessary. It looks as if your outguards might have been made
smaller considering the size of your platoon (6 squads), but I think
the squad outpost is so much better than one not composed of a
complete unit, that it is correct in this case. With Corporal Evans'
patrol of three men, the visiting patrol requiring six men, the
sentinel post requiring three men, Sergeant Barnes, and the two
outguards, you have thirty men actually on duty or detailed for duty,
out of fifty-one. Of course, the men constituting the outguards, the
man detailed for the visiting patrol and support sentinel, have
approximately two hours on duty and four hours off duty, so they get
some rest. Furthermore, you should have a three-man patrol watching
the crossroads at Salem during the night, Corporal Evans' patrol
having returned. This patrol should be relieved once during the night,
at a previously stated hour, which means six more men who do not get a
complete night's rest.

=Sergeant Adams:= Isn't Salem rather far to the front to send a patrol
at night?

=Lieutenant:= Yes, it is, but unless you touch the crossroads there
you would have to have two patrols out, one near Maxey's farm and one
on the Chester Pike. As it is you are leaving the road from York to
the crossroads in front of Outguard No. 1 uncovered, but you should
find that this is covered by a patrol from the adjacent support. The
cross roads in front of Outguard No. 1 is the natural place for a
stationary, night patrol, but it is so close to the outguard that the
benefit derived from a patrol there would be too small to justify the
effort.

(Note: Further details of the duties of this support can be gone into.
The messages should be written, and patrols carried through their tour
of duty with the resulting situations to be dealt with; the sentinels
tested as to their knowledge of their duties, etc. Also note carefully
the manner in which the support commander uses his noncommissioned
officers for carrying out his intentions, and thus avoids the most
objectionable and inefficient practice of dealing directly with the
privates.)


Problem No. 3 (Infantry)

=1079.= (See Fort Leavenworth map in pocket at back of book.)

=Situation:=

A Blue force, Companies A and B, 1st Infantry, under Captain A, in
hostile country, is covering the Rock Island Bridge and camped for the
night, April 20-21, on the south slope of Devin ridge (rm'). The enemy
is moving northward from Kansas City (30 miles south of Leavenworth).
At 3:30 P. M. Captain A receives a message from Colonel X at Beverly
(2 miles east of Rock Island Bridge, (qo')), stating that two or three
companies of hostile infantry are reported five miles south of
Leavenworth at 2:30 P. M. No enemy is west of Leavenworth. Captain A
decides to place one platoon on outpost.

=Required, 1.= Captain A's order.

=Answer.= Verbally: "Two or three Red companies were five miles south
of Leavenworth at 2:30 P. M. today. No enemy is west of Leavenworth.
We will camp here. 1st Platoon, 'A' company, under Sergeant A, will
form the outpost, relieving the advance guard (2d Platoon Co. A). The
line, Pope Hill (sm')--Rabbit Point (tn') will be held. Detached posts
will be placed on Hill 880, west of Merritt Hill (rl'), and on
Engineer Hill (ql'). In case of attack the outpost line will be held.

"The baggage will be at the main camp.

"Messages will reach me on Devin Ridge (rm')."

Issued verbally to officers and Sergeant A.

=Required, 2.= Give verbatim (word for word) the order issued by
Sergeant A.

=Answer.= "Two companies of the enemy were five miles south of
Leavenworth at 2:30 P. M. today. Our camp is to be here. This platoon
will be the outpost on the line, Rabbit Point (im')--Pope Hill (sm').

"The right support, 1st section, less 1 squad, under Sergeant B, will
take position north of Pope Hill and cover the following front: the
ravine (XIX--Merritt Hill) west of Grant avenue to the ravine about
midway between Grant Avenue and Rabbit Point (tn').

"The left support, 2d section, less 1 squad under Sergeant H, will
take position on north slope of Rabbit Point and will cover the
following front: The ravine midway between Grant Avenue and Rabbit
Point to Missouri River.

"Corporal D, you will take the eight men of your squad and form a
detached post on Engineer Hill (qk').

"Corporal E, take your squad and form a detached post on Hill 880 west
of Merritt Hill (rl').

"If attacked hold your front. Each support and detached post will
entrench.

"Send messages to me at right support."

The outpost moves out, each support and detached post separately,
without throwing out covering patrols, because the advance guard is
now holding the front. There is no reserve.

=Required, 3.= What does Sergeant A do now?

=Required, 4.= What does Sergeant B do as soon as he reaches Pope
Hill?

(Note: During the remainder of the afternoon one man up in a tree on
Grant Avenue will be the only observing post necessary for this
support. At night an outguard would be placed on Grant Avenue with
continuous patrols along the front, because the open ground furnishes
easy approach to the enemy. A post of four men might also be placed on
the bridge over Corral Creek (um').)

=Required, 5.= The location of supports and the main body of detached
post on Engineer Hill.

=Required, 6.= What patrolling would be done from the left support?



CHAPTER VI

THE COMPANY ON OUTPOST

(Establishing the Outpost)


=1080.= We will now apply some of the general principles of outposts
(see Par. 1051) to a company taking up its position on the line of
outposts.

Let us suppose that our battalion has been detailed for outpost duty.

In order to understand more fully the duties and functions of the
company commander, we will first consider what the major does. To
begin with, he and the battalion will have been detailed for outpost
duty before the march was completed, and he will have been told,
amongst other things, what is known of the enemy and also what is
known of other bodies of our own troops, where the main body will
halt, the general position to be occupied by the outpost, and what the
commander intends doing in case of attack.

The major verbally designates, say, two companies, as the reserve, and
the other two companies, including our own, as the support. He places
the senior officer of the reserve companies in command of the reserve
and tells him where he is to go, and he indicates the general line the
outpost is to occupy and assigns the amount of front each of the other
companies is to cover. The limits of the sector so assigned should be
marked by some distinctive features, such as trees, buildings, woods,
streams, etc., as it is important that each company should know the
exact limits of its frontage. He tells the company commanders what he
knows of the enemy and of our own troops so far as they affect the
outposts, he indicates the line of resistance and how much resistance
is to be afforded in case of attack, states whether intrenchments and
obstacles are to be constructed, gives instructions about lighting
fires and cooking, and states where he can be found.

Upon receiving his orders from the major, the company commander, _with
a proper covering detachment_, moves to the locality allotted him and
as he arrives upon the ground he is to occupy, he sends out, as
temporary security, patrols or skirmishers, or both, a short distance
in front of the general position the outguards will occupy, holding
the rest of the company back under cover. If practicable, the company
commander should precede the company and make a rapid examination of
the ground. He then sends out _observation groups_, varying in size
from four men to a platoon, generally a squad, to watch the country in
the direction of the enemy. These groups constitute the _outguards_,
and are just sufficient in number to cover the front of the supports,
and to connect where necessary with the outguards of adjoining
supports.

The company commander next selects a defensive position on the general
line of resistance, from which not only can he command the approaches,
but where he can also give assistance to the adjoining supports; he
then gives instructions in regard to the intrenchments and obstacles,
after which he makes a more careful reconnaissance of the section
assigned him; corrects the position, of the outguards, if necessary;
gives them instructions as to their duties in case of attack or when
strangers approach their posts; tells them the number (if any) of
their post, the number of the outguard and support and the numbers of
the adjoining outguards and supports; points out lines of retreat in
case they are compelled to fall back to the support, cautioning the
men not to mask the fire of the support; he tells them the names of
all villages, rivers, etc., in view, and the places to which the wagon
roads and the railroads lead; selects, if necessary, places for
additional posts to be occupied at night and during fog; sees that
suitable connections are made between him and the adjoining outguards,
and between his support and the adjoining supports; and questions
subordinate commanders to test their grasp of the situation and
knowledge of their duties, and on returning to the support he sends a
report with a _sketch_ to the outpost commander, showing the
dispositions made.

After the line of observation has been established, the support stacks
arms and the men are permitted to remove their equipments, except
cartridge belts. One or more sentinels are posted over these supports,
and they guard the property and watch for signals from the outguards.
Fires are concealed as much as possible and the messing is done by
reliefs. Mounted messengers ordinarily do not unsaddle; they rest,
water and feed as directed.

After the major has received reports from both company commanders, he
will himself visit the outguards and supports and make such changes as
he may deem necessary, immediately after which he will submit to the
commander of the troops a written report, accompanied by a combined
sketch showing the positions of the different parts of the outpost.
The major might begin his inspection of the line of outguards before
receiving the reports of the company commanders.

In training and instructing the company in outpost work, it is always
best to send out a few patrols and scouts an hour or two in advance,
with definite instructions as to what they are to do, and have them
operate against the company as hostile scouts and patrols. If the rest
of the company know that patrols and scouts are operating in their
front, and will try to work their way through the outpost line, they
will naturally take a keener interest in their work. Exercises of this
kind create a feeling of rivalry between the scouts and patrols, who,
on the one hand, are trying to work their way through the line of
outposts, and the outguards and patrols, who, on the other hand, are
trying to prevent them from so doing. It makes the work much more
_human_.



CHAPTER VII

THE COMPANY IN SCOUTING[13] AND PATROLLING


=1081.= The general principles of patrolling are explained in Par.
959; so we need not repeat them here.

Many of the principles of scouting are, in reality, nothing but the
fundamentals of patrolling, and the main function of scouting,
_reconnoitering_, is also the function of a certain class of patrols.
So, we see that scouting and patrolling are inseparably connected, and
the importance of training the members of the company in the
principles of scouting is, therefore, evident.

=1082. Requisites of a good Scout.= A man, to make a good scout,
should possess the following qualifications:--

    Have good eyesight and hearing;
    Be active, intelligent and resourceful;
    Be confident and plucky;
    Be healthy and strong;
    Be able to swim, signal, read a map, make a rough sketch, and,
      of course, read and write.

=1083. Eyesight and Hearing.= To be able to use the eye and the ear
quickly and accurately is one of the first principles of successful
scouting. Quickness and accuracy of sight and hearing are to a great
extent a matter of training and practice. The savage, for instance,
almost invariably has quick eyesight and good hearing, simply from
continual practice.

Get into the habit of seeing, _observing_, things--your eyesight must
never be resting, but must be continually glancing around, in every
direction, and _seeing_ different objects. As you walk along through
the country get into the habit of noticing hoof-prints, wheel-ruts,
etc., and observing the trees, houses, streams, animals, men, etc.,
that you pass.

Practice looking at distant objects and discovering objects in the
distance. On seeing distant signs, do not jump at a conclusion as to
what they are, but watch and study them carefully first.

Get into the habit of listening for sounds and of distinguishing by
what different sounds are made.

=1084. Finding your Way in a strange Country.= The principal means of
finding one's way in a strange country are by map reading, asking the
way, the points of the compass and landmarks.

_Map Reading._ This, of course, presupposes the possession of a map.
The subject of map reading is explained in Pars. 1859 to 1877.

_Asking the Way._ In civilized countries one has no trouble in finding
his way by asking, provided, of course, he speaks the language. If in
a foreign country, learn as soon as you can the equivalent of such
expressions as "What is the way to ----?" "Where is ----?" "What is
the name of this place?," and a few other phrases of a similar nature.
Remember, however, that the natives may sometimes deceive you in their
answers.

_Points of the Compass._ A compass is, of course, the best, quickest
and simplest way of determining the directions, except in localities
where there is much iron, in which case it becomes very unreliable.

For determining the points of the compass by means of the North Star
and the face of a watch, see Par. 1096.

The points of the compass can also be ascertained by facing the sun in
the morning and spreading out your arms straight from the body. Before
you is east; behind you, west; to your right, south; to your left,
north.

[Illustration]

The points of the compass can be determined by noting the limbs and
bark of trees. The bark on the north side of trees is thicker and
rougher than that on the south side, and moss is most generally found
near the roots on the north side. The limbs and branches are generally
longer on the south side of the trees, while the branches on the north
are usually knotty, twisted and drooped. The tops of pine trees dip or
trend to the north.

=1085. Lost.= In connection with finding your way through strange
country, it may be said, should you find you have lost your way, do
not lose your head. Keep cool--try not to let your brains get into
your feet. By this we mean don't run around and make things worse, and
play yourself out. First of all, sit down and think; cool off. Then
climb a tree, or hill, and endeavor to locate some familiar object you
passed, so as to retrace your steps. If it gets dark and you are not
in hostile territory, build a good big fire. The chances are you have
been missed by your comrades and if they see the fire, they will
conclude you are there and will send out for you. Also, if not in
hostile territory, distress signals may be given by firing your rifle,
but don't waste all your ammunition.

If you find a stream, follow it; it will generally lead
somewhere--where civilization exists.

The tendency of people who are lost is to travel in a circle
uselessly.

Remember this important rule: _Always notice the direction of the
compass when you start out, and what changes of direction you make
afterwards._

=1086. Landmarks.= Landmarks or prominent features of any kind are a
great assistance in finding one's way in a strange country. In
starting out, always notice the hills, conspicuous trees, high
buildings, towers, rivers, etc. For example, if starting out on a
reconnaissance you see directly to the north of you a mountain, it
will act as a guide without your having to refer to your compass or
the sun. If you should start from near a church, the steeple will
serve as a guide or landmark when you start to make your way back.

When you pass a conspicuous object, like a broken gate, a strangely
shaped rock, etc., try to remember it, so that should you desire to
return that way, you can do so by following the chain of landmarks. On
passing such landmarks always see what they look like from the other
side; for, that will be the side from which you will first see them
upon the return, trip.

_The secret of never getting lost is to note carefully the original
direction in which you start, and after that to note carefully all
landmarks._ Get in the habit of doing this in time of peace--it will
then become second nature for you to do it in time of war.

It may sometimes be necessary, especially in difficult country, such
as when traveling through a forest, and over broken mountains and
ravines, for you to make your own landmarks for finding your way back
by "blazing" (cutting pieces of bark from the trees), breaking small
branches off bushes, piling up stones, making a line across a
crossroad or path you did not follow, etc.

=1087. Concealment and Dodging.= Both in scouting and patrolling it
must be remembered not only that it is important you should get
information, but it is also fully as important that the enemy should
not know you have the information--hence, the necessity of hiding
yourself. And remember, too, if you keep yourself hidden, not only
will you probably be able to see twice as much of what the enemy is
doing, but it may also save you from being captured, wounded or
killed.

Should you find the enemy has seen you, it is often advisable to
pretend that you have not seen him, or that you have other men with
you by signaling to imaginary comrades.

As far as possible, keep under cover by traveling along hedges, banks,
low ground, etc. If moving over open country, make your way as quickly
as possible from one clump of trees or bushes to another; or, from
rocks, hollows or such other cover as may exist, to other cover. As
soon as you reach new cover, look around and examine your surroundings
carefully.

Do not have about you anything that glistens, and at night be careful
not to wear anything that jingles or rattles. And remember that at
night a lighted match can be seen as far as 900 yards and a lighted
cigarette nearly 300 yards. In looking through a bush or over the top
of a hill, break off a leafy branch and hold it in front of your face.

In selecting a tree, tower or top of a house or other lookout place
from which to observe the enemy from concealment, always plan
beforehand how you would make your escape, if discovered and pursued.
A place with more than one avenue of escape should be selected, so
that if cut off in one direction you can escape from the other. For
example, should the enemy reach the foot of a tower in which you are,
you would be completely cut off, while if he reached a house on whose
roof you happened to be, you would have several avenues of escape.

Although trees make excellent lookout places, they must, for the same
reasons as towers, be used with caution. In this connection it may be
remarked unless one sees foot marks leading to a tree, men are apt not
to look up in trees for the enemy--hence, be careful not to leave foot
marks. When in a tree, either stand close against the trunk, or lie
along a large branch, so that your body will look like a part of the
trunk or branch.

In using a hill as a lookout place, do not make the common mistake of
showing yourself on the skyline. Reach the top of the hill slowly and
gradually by crouching down and crawling, and raise your head above
the crest by inches. In leaving, lower your head gradually and crawl
away by degrees, as any quick or sudden movement on the skyline is
likely to attract attention. And, remember, just because you don't
happen to see the enemy that is no sign that he is not about. At
maneuvers and in exercises soldiers continually make the mistake of
exposing themselves on the skyline.

At night confine yourself as much as possible to low ground, ditches,
etc. This will keep you down in the dark and will enable you, in turn,
to see outlined against the higher ground any enemy that may approach
you.

At night especially, but also during the day, the enemy will expect
you along roads and paths, as it is easier to travel along roads and
paths than across country and they also serve as good guides in
finding your way. As a rule, it is best to use the road until it
brings you near the enemy and then leave it and travel across country.
You will thus be able better to avoid the outposts and patrols that
will surely be watching the roads.

Practice in time of peace the art of concealing yourself and observing
passers-by. Conceal yourself near some frequented road and imagine the
people traveling over it are enemies whose numbers you wish to count
and whose conversation you wish to overhear. Select a spot where they
are not likely to look for you, and which has one or more avenues of
escape; choose a position with a background that matches your clothes
in color; keep quiet, skin your eyes; stretch your ears.

A mounted scout should always have wire cutters when operating in a
country where there are wire fences.

=1088. Tracking.= By "tracking" we mean following up footmarks. The
same as the huntsman tracks his game so should we learn how to track
the enemy. One of the first things to learn in tracking is the pace at
which the man or horse was traveling when the track was made.

A horse walking makes pairs of footmarks, each hind foot being close
to the impression of the forefoot. At a trot the tracks are similar,
but the pairs of footmarks are farther apart and deeper, the toe
especially being more deeply indented than at the walk. At a canter
there are two single footmarks and then a pair. At a gallop the
footmarks are single and deeply indented. As a rule, the hind feet are
longer and narrower than the forefeet.

In case of a man walking, the whole flat of the foot comes equally on
the ground, the footmarks usually about 30 inches apart. If running,
the toes are more deeply indented in the ground, and the footmarks are
considerably farther apart than when walking. Note the difference
between footmarks made by soldier's shoes and civilian's shoes, and
those made by men and those made by women and children.

Study the difference between the tracks by a gun, a carriage, an
escort wagon, an automobile, a bicycle, etc., and the direction in
which they were going.

In addition to being able to determine the pace of tracks, it is most
important that you should be able to tell how old they are. However,
ability to do this with any degree of accuracy, requires a vast amount
of practice. A great deal depends on the kind and the state of the
ground and the weather. For example, if on a dry, windy day you follow
a certain track over varying ground, you will find that on light sandy
soil, for instance, it will look old in a very short time, because any
damp earth that may have been kicked up from under the surface will
dry very quickly to the same color as the rest of the surface, and the
edge of the footmark will soon be rounded off by the breeze blowing
over the dry dust. The same track in damp ground will look much
fresher, and in damp clay, in the shade of trees, a track which may be
a day old will look quite fresh.

The following are clues to the age of tracks: Spots of rain having
fallen on them since they were made, if, of course, you know when the
rain fell; the crossing of other tracks over the original ones; the
freshness or coldness of the droppings of horses and other animals
(due allowance being made for the effect of the sun, rain, etc.), and,
in the case of grass that has been trodden down, the extent to which
it has since dried or withered.

Having learned to distinguish the pace and age of tracks, the next
think to do is to learn how to follow them over all kinds of ground.
This is a most difficult accomplishment and one that requires a vast
amount of practice to attain even fair proficiency.

In tracking where it is difficult to see the track, such as on hard
ground, or in the grass, note the direction of the last foot-print
that you can see, then look on ahead of you a few yards, say, 20 or
30, in the same direction, and, in grass, you will probably see the
blades bent or trodden, and, on ground, you will probably see stones
displaced or scratched--or some other small sign which otherwise would
not be noticed. These indistinct signs, seen one behind the other,
give a track that can be followed with comparative ease.

If you should lose the track, try to find it again by placing your
handkerchief, hat, or other object on the last footmark you noticed,
and then work around it in a wide circle, with a radius of, say, 30,
50, or 100 yards, choosing the most favorable ground, soft ground, if
possible. If with a patrol, only one or two men should try to find the
onward track; for, if everyone starts in to find it, the chances are
the track will be obliterated with their footmarks. In trying to find
the continuation of a track this way, always place yourself in the
enemy's position, look around the country, imagine what you would have
done, and then move out in that direction and look for his tracks in
soft ground.


PRACTICE

In order to learn the appearance of tracks, get a suitable piece of
soft ground, and across this have a man walk and then run, and have a
horse walk, trot, canter and gallop. The next day make similar tracks
alongside the first ones and then notice the difference between the
two. Also, make tracks on ordinary ground, grass, sand, etc., and
practice following them up. Finally, practice tracking men sent out
for the purpose. The work will probably be very difficult, even
disheartening at first, but you will gradually improve, if you
persevere.

Above all things, get into the habit of seeing any tracks that may be
on the ground. When out walking, when going through exercises at
maneuvers, and at other times, always notice what tracks are on the
ground before you, and study them.

The following exercises in scouting and patrolling afford excellent
practice and training:

=1089. The Mouse and Cat Contest.= 1. A section of country three or
four miles square, with well-defined limits, is selected. The
boundaries are made known to all contestants and anyone going outside
of them will be disqualified.

2. Two patrols of eight men each are sent out as "mice." They occupy
any positions they may wish within the boundaries named, and conceal
themselves to watch for hostile patrols.

3. Half an hour later two other squads, wearing white bands around
their hats, or having other distinguishing marks, are sent out as
"cats" to locate, if possible, and report upon the position of the
"mice."

4. An hour is fixed when the exercise shall end, and if within the
given time the "cats" have not discovered the "mice," the "mice" win.

5. The "cats" will write reports of any "mice" patrols they may see.


_Rules_

1. An umpire (officer or noncommissioned officer) goes with each
patrol and his decisions as to capture and other matters are the
orders of the company commander. The umpires must take every possible
precaution to conceal themselves so as not to reveal the position of
the patrols with which they are.

Each umpire will carry a watch, all watches being set with that of the
company commander before the exercise commences.

2. Any "cat" patrol coming within 50 yards of a "mouse" patrol,
without seeing the "mice," is considered captured.

3. When the time is up, the umpires will bring in the patrols and
report to the company commander.

=1090. Flag-Stealing Contest.= 1. A section of country of suitable
size, with well-defined limits, is selected, the boundaries being made
known to the contestants.

2. The contestants are divided into two forces of about 20 men each,
and each side will establish three Cossack posts along a general line
designated by the company commander, the two positions being selected
facing each other and being a suitable distance apart. The men not
forming part of the Cossack posts will be used as reconnoitering
patrols.

3. About three quarters of a mile in rear of the center of each line
of outposts four flags will be planted, in line, about 30 yards apart.

4. The scouts and patrols of each force will try to locate the
outposts of the other force, and then to work their way around or
between them, steal the flags and bring them back to their own side.
They will endeavor to prevent the enemy from doing the same.

5. One scout or patrol will not carry away more than one flag at a
time, and will have to return to their side safely with the flag
before they can come back and capture another.

6. Scouts may work singly or in pairs. Any scout or patrol coming
within 80 yards of a stronger hostile party, or Cossack post, will be
considered as captured, if seen by the enemy, and if carrying a
captured flag at the time, the flag will not count as having been
captured. Of course, if a scout or patrol can pass within 80 yards of
the enemy without being discovered, it may do so.

7. An umpire (officer or noncommissioned officer) will be with each
Cossack post, each patrol, and at the position of the flags.

8. The hour when the exercise ends will be designated in advance and
at that hour the umpires will bring in the Cossack posts and patrols.
The same requirements regarding watches obtains as in the Mouse and
Cat Contest.

9. At the conclusion of the contest the commander of each side will
hand in to the company commander all sketches and reports made by his
men.

10. Points will be awarded as follows:

    Each flag captured, 5.

    For each sketch and hostile report of the position of a Cossack
    post, 3.

    For each report of movements of a hostile patrol, 2.

    The side getting the greatest number of points will win.

11. Umpires may penalize the contestants for a violation of the rules.

The same contest may be carried out at night, substituting lighted
Japanese lanterns for the flags.


FOOTNOTES:

[13] The best book on scouting that the author has ever seen, is
Baden-Powell's "Aids to Scouting," which was consulted in the
preparation of this chapter.



CHAPTER VIII

NIGHT OPERATIONS


=1091. Importance.= Because of the long range and great accuracy of
modern fire arms, there has been in recent years a marked increase in
the practice of night operations, such operations being of common
occurrence not only for massing troops under cover of darkness in
favorable positions for further action, but also for actually
assaulting positions.

Read carefully pars. 464, 496, 498, 523, 524, 580-590.


TRAINING OF THE COMPANY

=1092.= Night movements are amongst the most difficult operations of
war, and, therefore require the most careful, painstaking and thorough
training and instruction of troops in all matters pertaining thereto.
The history of night fighting shows that in most cases defeat is due
to disorganization through panic. It is said that in daylight the
moral is to the physical as three is to one. That being the case, it
is hard to say what the ratio is at night, when a general atmosphere
of mystery, uncertainty and fear of surprise envelops the operations,
and, of necessity affects the nerves of the men. The vital importance,
therefore, of accustoming troops as much as we can in peace to the
conditions that will obtain in night fighting, cannot be
overestimated. The following outline shows the subjects in which
individual and collective instruction and training should be given:


INDIVIDUAL TRAINING

=1093. General.= The first thing to be done is to accustom the soldier
to darkness and to teach him to overcome the nervousness which is
natural to the average man in darkness.

The best way to do this is to begin by training him in the use of his
powers of vision and hearing under conditions of darkness, which are
strange to him. The company should be divided into squads for this
instruction.

=1094. Vision.= Take several men to ground with which they are
familiar. Have them notice the different appearance which objects
present at night; when viewed in different degrees of light and shade;
the comparative visibility of men under different conditions of dress,
background, etc.; the ease with which bright objects are seen; the
difference between the visibility of men standing on a skyline and
those standing on a slope. Post the men in pairs at intervals along a
line which the instructors will endeavor to cross without being seen.
The instructors should cross from both sides, so as to compel
observation in both directions. Have a man (later, several) walk away
from the rest of the men and when he is about to disappear from view,
halt him, and estimate the distance. Send a man (later, several)
outside the field of vision, to advance on the rest of the men. Halt
him when he enters the field of vision and estimate the distance. Send
a number of men outside the limit of vision and then let them advance
on the rest of the men, using cover and seeing how near they can
approach unobserved.

=1095. Hearing.= Place a number of men a few yards apart and make them
guess what a noise is caused by, and its approximate position. The
rattle of a meat can, the movement of a patrol, the working of the
bolt of a rifle, the throwing down of accouterments, low talking,
etc., may be utilized. Take special pains to impress upon the men the
penetrating power of the human voice, and the necessity of preserving
absolute silence in night operations. Have blank cartridges fired and
teach the men to judge their direction and approximate distance away.

=1096. Finding Bearings.= Show the men how to determine the points of
the compass from the North Star. The Big Dipper constellation looks
like this:

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

The North Star is on the prolongation of a line joining the two
"pointing" stars, and at above five times the distance between the two
stars. At another time have those same men individually locate the
North Star. Using this star as a guide, practice the men moving in
different directions, by such commands as, "Smith, move southeast."
"Jones, move northwest," etc.

To test a man's ability to keep a given direction when moving in the
darkness, choose a spot from which no prominent landmarks are visible,
advance toward it accompanied by a man, from a distance not less than
200 paces. While advancing the soldier must take his bearings. On
arriving at the spot chosen the instructor will turn the soldier
around rapidly two or three times and then have him continue to
advance in the same direction as before. No prominent landmarks should
be visible from the starting point.

=1097. Moving in the Dark.= Form four or five men in line with about
one pace interval, the instructor being on one of the flanks. Place
some clearly visible mark, such as a lantern, for the instructor to
march on. Impress upon the men the importance of lifting their feet up
high and bringing them to the ground quietly and firmly, and of
keeping in touch with the guide and conforming to his movements
without sound or signal. The pace should be slow and frequent halts
should be made to test the promptness of the men in halting and
advancing together. As the line advances, each man will in turn take
his place on the flank and act as guide. The light on which the men
are marching should be hidden from view at intervals, in order to test
the ability of the men to maintain the original direction. Later on,
the number of men in a line may be increased considerably. The rougher
the ground, the darker the night and the longer the line, the slower
must the pace be and the more frequent the halts. After passing an
obstacle men instinctively line up parallel to it, and consequently if
the obstacle does not lie at right angles to the line of advance, the
direction will be lost; so, be sure to guard against this.

=1098. Night Fencing.= Practice the men in charging in the dark
against a white cloth or the dummy figure of a man. In the beginning
have the figure in a fixed place, but later have the soldier charge
seeking the figure, and not knowing just exactly where it is
beforehand.

=1099. Night Entrenching.= It is frequently necessary in time of war
to dig trenches at night in front of the enemy, and while this work is
easy in the moonlight, it is very difficult in the dark. Bear in mind
the following points:

1. The tendency is to make the trench too narrow; hence, guard against
this.

2. Be careful not to throw the earth too far or too near.

3. Do not strike your neighbor's tools in working.

4. Do not use the pick unless necessary, because it makes considerable
noise.

5. Do not scrape the tools together in order to get off the dirt; use
a chip of wood or the toe of the shoe.

6. Make as little noise as possible in digging and handling your
tools.

7. If discovered by the enemy's searchlights, do not become excited or
confused; simply lie down.

8. If attacked by the enemy, do not get rattled and throw your tools
away--put them in some fixed place where they can be found again.

=1100. Equipment.= At first the men should be taken out without arms,
but later on they should be trained to work in full equipment. Teach
every man what parts of his equipment are likely to make a noise under
special circumstances, such as lying down, rising, crossing obstacles,
etc., and instruct him how to guard against it. Bayonets should always
be fixed, but in order to avoid accidents the scabbard should be left
on them.

From the beginning of the training continually impress upon the men
that it is absolutely criminal to fire without orders during a night
operation and that the bayonet is the only weapon he can use with
advantage to himself and safety to his comrades.

=1101. Night Firing.= As a rule men fire too high in the dark. They
must, therefore, be cautioned not to raise the rifle above the
horizontal, or incline the upper part of the body to the rear. When
the firing is stopped be sure to turn on the safety-lock. Experience
during the Russo-Japanese War taught the Japanese the kneeling
position is the most suitable for horizontal firing. The following
method, to be conducted in daytime, may be employed in training the
soldier to hold his rifle parallel to the ground while firing in the
dark:--Have each soldier, kneeling, close his eyes and bring his rifle
to the position of aim, barrel parallel to the ground. With the rifle
in this position, let him open his eyes and examine it. Then have this
done by squad, by command. When they become proficient in this
movement, have them close their eyes and while the eyes are closed,
put up a target and have them practice horizontal firing, opening
their eyes each time after pulling the trigger and then examining the
position of the piece.


COLLECTIVE TRAINING

At first practice squads, then the platoons and later the company in
simple movements, such as squads right and left, right and left
oblique, etc., gradually leading up to more complicated ones in close
and extended order, such as right and left front into line, advancing
in platoon and squad columns, charging the enemy, etc. As far as
possible the movements should be executed by simple prearranged
signals from the unit commanders. The signals, which must not be
visible to the enemy, may be made with a white handkerchief or a white
flag, if the night be not too dark; with an electric flashlight, a
dark lantern or luminous disk. The light of the flashlight or lantern
must be screened, so it cannot be seen by the enemy. The following
signals are suggested:

To advance: Raise vertically the lantern or other object with which
the signal is made.

To halt: Lower and raise the object several times.

To lie down: Bring the object down near the ground.

To form squad columns: Move the object several times to the right and
left.

To form platoon columns: Describe several circles.

As skirmishers: Move the object front to rear several times.

=1102. Night Marches.= In acting as an advance guard to a column, the
company would send out a point a few yards ahead, which would be
followed by the rest of the company. Three or four scouts should be
sent out a hundred yards or so ahead of the point. They should advance
at a quick pace, keeping in the shadow on the side of the road, being
constantly on the alert, using their ears even more than their eyes.
They will halt to listen at crossroads and suspicious places, and move
on again when they hear the company approaching. Should the enemy be
discovered, one of the scouts will return to warn the advance
guard--the others will conceal themselves and watch. Under no
circumstances must the scouts ever fire, unless it be for the purpose
of warning the company and there is no other way of doing so. The
diagram on the opposite page is suggested as a good formation for a
company acting as advance guard at night. A company marching alone
would move in the same formation as when acting as advance guard,
except that it would protect its rear with a few scouts. Of course,
the nature of the country and proximity and activity of the enemy,
will determine the best formation to be used, but whatever the
formation may be, always remember to cover well your front, rear and
flanks, with scouts, whose distance away will vary with the light and
nature of the country. _Don't forget that protection in rear is very
important._

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

The men must be warned against firing, smoking, talking, striking
matches, making noise, etc. They should also be informed of the object
in view, direction of the enemy, etc.

In night marches the rests should not exceed five minutes; otherwise,
many men will fall asleep.


OUTPOSTS

Careful training in outpost duty at night is very harassing, but, in
view of its importance, should not be neglected. This instruction
should be given with the greatest thoroughness, strictness and
attention to detail.

=1103. Sentries Challenging.= In challenging sentries must be careful
to avoid any noise that would disclose their position. In fact,
challenging by voice should be reduced to a minimum by arranging a
system of signals by which the officers of the day, patrols, etc., can
be recognized. The following signals, any one of which may be decided
upon, which would be made first by the sentry and then answered by the
approaching party, are suggested: Clap the hands together twice;
strike the ground twice with the butt of the rifle; strike the butt of
the rifle twice with the hand; whistle softly twice. The replying
signal would be the same as the sentry's signal, except that in case
of the use of the butt of the rifle, an officer would reply by
striking twice on his revolver holster. After repeating the signal
once, if it is not answered, the sentry will challenge with the voice,
but no louder than is necessary. In case of a patrol only one man will
advance to be recognized after the signal has been answered. The
sentry must always allow persons to approach fairly near before
challenging.

=1104. Sentries Firing.= Anyone who has been through a campaign knows
how nervous green sentries are, and how quick they are about firing.
During the beginning of the Philippine Campaign the author heard of
several cases where sentries fired on fire-flies several hundred
yards away. Never fire unless it be absolutely necessary to give an
alarm, or unless you can clearly distinguish the enemy and are fairly
certain of hitting him. In the French Army in Algeria, there is a rule
that any sentry who fires at night must produce a corpse, or be able
to show by blood marks that he hit the person fired at. If he can do
neither, he is punished for giving a false alarm.

=1105. Marking of Route from Outguards to Supports.= The route from
the support to the outguards, and from pickets to their sentries,
should, if necessary, be clearly marked with scraps of paper, green
sticks with the bark peeled off, or in any other suitable way.

=1106. Readiness for Action.= The supports should always be ready for
action. The men must sleep with their rifles beside them and in such
places that they will be able to fall in promptly in case of attack.
Some men have a way of sleeping with their blankets over their heads.
This should not be allowed--the ears must always be uncovered. The
commander, or the second in command, with several men, should remain
awake. When the commander lies down he should do so near the sentry,
which is always posted over the support.


GENERAL

=1107. Connections.= It is of the greatest importance that proper
connection be maintained between the different parts of a command
engaged in night operations. It is astonishing with what facility
units go astray and how difficult it is for them to find their way
back where they belong.

=1108. Preparation.= It matters not what the nature of the night
operation may be, the most careful preparation is necessary. Success
often depends upon the care and thoroughness with which the plans are
made.

All possible eventualities should be thought of and provided for as
far as praticable. The first thing to do is to get as much information
as possible about the ground to be covered and the position of the
enemy, and care must be taken to see that the information is accurate.
Reconnaissance must be made by night as well as by day; for, ground
looks very different at night from what it does during the day.



CHAPTER IX

FIELD ENGINEERING


=1109.= The following, from the =Engineer Field Manual=, together with
the elements of field engineering covered in Chapter XI, on
=Obstacles=, will give the company officer a good, working knowledge
of those parts of field engineering for which he is most likely to
have need.


Bridges

=1111. Dimensions and guard rail.= A roadway 9 ft. wide in the clear
should be provided to pass infantry in fours, cavalry two abreast, and
military wagons in one direction; a width of 6 ft. will suffice for
infantry in column of twos, cavalry in single file, and field guns
passed over by hand.

The _clear width_ of roadway of an ordinary highway bridge should not
be less than 12 ft. for single track, or 20 ft. for double track.

The _clear head room_ in ordinary military bridges should not be less
than 9 ft. for wagons and cavalry; for highway bridges not less than
14 ft.

Ramps at the ends of a bridge, if intended for artillery, should not
be steeper than 1 on 7. For animals, slopes steeper than 1 on 10 are
inconvenient.

If the bridges are high, hand rails should be provided. A single rope
may suffice, or it may have brush placed upon it to form a screen.

A guard rail should be provided along each side of the roadway, near
the ends of the flooring planks. In hasty bridges it may be secured by
a lashing or lashings through the planking to the stringer underneath.
Otherwise it may be fastened with spikes or bolts.

=1112. Spar bridges.=--This name is applied to bridges built of round
timbers lashed together. Intermediate points of support are provided
by inclined frames acting as struts to transmit weight from the middle
of the bridge to the banks. The single-lock and double-lock bridges
with two and three spans of 15 ft., respectively, are the ones of most
utility.

The first step in constructing a spar bridge is to measure the gap to
be bridged and select the position of the footings on either bank.
Determine the distance from each footing to the middle point of the
roadway if a single-lock, or the two corresponding points of a
double-lock bridge. Next determine and mark on each spar except the
diagonals the places where other spars cross it. The marking may be
done with chalk, or with an ax. If possible a convenient notation
should be adopted. As, for example, in marking with chalk, a ring
around the spar where the edge of the crossing spar will come, and a
diagonal cross on the part which will be hidden by the crossing spar.

A simple way to determine the length of spars is the following: Take
two small lines somewhat longer than the width of the gap, double each
and lash the bights together. Stretch them tightly across the gap so
that the lashing comes at the middle as at _A_, Fig. 8. Release one
end of each and stretch it to the footing on the same side as
indicated by the dotted lines. Mark each line at the footing _C_ or
_C'_, and at the position chosen for the abutment sill, _B_ or _B'_.
Cut the lashing and take each piece of rope to its own side. The
distances _AB_ and _AB'_ are the lengths between the transoms, and
with 2 ft. added give the length of road bearers required. The
distances _AC_ and _AC'_ are the lengths of struts from butt to top of
transom, and with 3 ft added, give the total length of spars required.

For a double lock bridge, a piece of rope of a length equal to the
length of the middle bay replaces the lashing. If the banks are not
parallel, a measurement should be taken on each side of the bridge.

If desired, a section of the gap may be laid down on the ground in
full size and the lengths of spars determined by laying them in place.
This method, though given as standard by all authorities, requires
more time and more handling of material than the other and gives no
better results.

The construction of a frame is shown in Fig. 1, and the system of
marking in Fig. 2. The arrangement of frames to form a single lock
bridge is shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and a double lock bridge in Fig 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

=1113. Construction of single-lock bridges=, Figs. 3, 4, and
5.--Suitable for spans of 30 ft. or less. The two frames lock together
at the center of the span; their slope must not be more than 4 on 7.
The bridge can be erected by two or three noncommissioned officers
and 20 men, one-half on each side of the gap. Heavy spars require more
men.

The footings at _A_ and _B_ must be firm, horizontal if possible, and
at right angles to the axis of the bridge. In a masonry pier they may
be cut out. In firm soil a simple trench will suffice. In yielding
soil a plank or sill must be laid in the trench. The frames are made
of such length as to give a slight camber to the bridge, which may be
increased to allow for probable settlement of the footings. The inside
dimension of one frame is made slightly greater than the outside
dimension of the other, so that one frame may fall inside of the other
when hauled into position. For a 9 ft. roadway the standards of the
narrow (inside) frame should be 9 ft. 6 ins. apart at the transom and
10 ft. 6 ins. at the ledger, in the clear, and the other (outside)
frame 1 ft. 6 ins. wider throughout.

A frame is constructed on each bank. The standards are laid on the
ground in prolongation of the bridge, butts toward the bank. The
ledgers are lashed on _above_ and the transoms _beneath_ the standards
at the positions marked. The diagonal braces are lashed to the
standards, two butts and one tip above the latter, and to each other.
Before the braces are lashed the frame must be square by checking the
measurements of the diagonals.

If necessary, pickets for the foot and guy ropes are driven, the
former about 2 paces from the bank and 4 paces on each side of the
axis of the bridge; the latter about 20 paces from the bank and 10
paces on each side of the axis. The foot ropes, _CC_, Fig. 5, are
secured by timber hitches to the butts of the standards and the back
and fore guys, _DD_ and _EE_, to the tips the fore guys are passed
across to the opposite bank. The guys of the _narrow_ frame should be
_inside_ the guys and standards of the wide frame.

The frames are put into position one after the other, or
simultaneously if there are enough men. A man is told off to each foot
rope and one to each back guy to slack off as required, two turns
being taken with each of these ropes around their respective pickets.
The other men raise the frame and launch it forward, assisted by the
men at the fore guys, until the frame is balanced on the edge of the
bank. The frame is then tilted until the butts rest on the footing, by
slacking off the foot ropes and hauling on the fore guys, Fig. 5.
After the head of the frame has been hauled over beyond the
perpendicular, it is lowered nearly into its final position by
slacking off the back guys. When the two frames are in this position
opposite each other, the narrow frame is further lowered until its
standards rest upon the transom of the other. The wider (outer) frame
is then lowered until the two lock into each other, the standards of
each resting upon the transom of the other.

The center or fork transom, Figs. 3 and 4, is then passed from shore
and placed in the fork between the two frames. This forms the central
support to receive a floor system of two bays, built as already
described.

The estimated time for construction of such a bridge is about one hour
if the material is available and in position on both sides of the
stream. The construction of the roadway requires about twenty minutes;
forming footings in masonry about one hour.

=1114. Construction of double-lock bridge=, Fig. 6.--Suitable for
spans not exceeding 45 ft., and consisting of two inclined frames
which lock into a connecting horizontal frame of two or more distance
pieces, with cross transoms, dividing the gap to be bridged into three
equal bays of about 15 ft. The force required is two or three
noncommissioned officers and 25 to 50 men; the time for construction,
except roadway, about two and one-half hours; extra time to be allowed
for difficult footings.

The width of gap is measured, the position of footings determined, and
the length of standards from butt to transom determined and marked as
before.

The inclined frames in this case are built of equal widths, launched
as before, and held by guys just above their final position. Two
stringers are launched out from each bank to the main transom. The
distance pieces, Fig. 6, are put into position inside the standards,
using tackle if necessary, and the road transoms are placed and lashed
to the distance pieces at the places marked. Both frames are now
lowered until they jam.

=1115. Roadway of spar bridge.=--For infantry in fours crowded the
transoms should have a diam. of not less than 9 ins. for a span of 15
ft. Five stringers 2 ft. 3 ins. c. to c., and 6 ins. diam. at the tip
will suffice. If the sticks vary in size, the larger ones should be
notched down on the transom so as to bring the tops in the same plane.
The stringers should be long enough to overlap the transoms, and
should be lashed together at each tip. The floor is held down by side
rails over the outside stringers and lashed to them. If lumber can not
be obtained, a floor may be made, of small spars, the interstices
filled with brush, and the whole covered with loam or clay; Figs. 7
and 9.


Corduroy Roads

=1116. Corduroying= is done by laying logs crosswise of the road and
touching each other. The result will be better if the logs are nearly
of the same size. The butts and tips should alternate. If the logs are
large the spaces may be filled with smaller poles. The bottom tier of
logs should be evenly bedded and should have a firm bearing at the
ends and not ride on the middle. The filling poles, if used, should be
cut and trimmed to lie close, packing them about the ends if
necessary. If the soil is only moderately soft the logs need be no
longer than the width of the road. In soft marsh it may be necessary
to make them longer.

The logs may be utilized as the wearing surface. In fact this is
usually the case. They make a rough surface, uncomfortable for
passengers and hard on wagons and loads, but the resistance to
traction is much less than would be expected, and the roughness and
slightly yielding surface make excellent footing for animals. Surface
corduroy is perishable and can last but a short time. In marshes,
where the logs can be placed below the ground-water level, they are
preserved from decay, and if any suitable material can be found, to
put a thin embankment over them, a good permanent road may be made.

Any tough, fibrous material may be used to temporarily harden the
surface of a road. Hay or straw, tall weeds, corn and cane stalks
have been used to good advantage. Such materials should be laid with
the fibers crosswise of the road, and covered with a thin layer of
earth, thrown on from the sides; except in sand, when it is better to
dig a shallow trench across the road, fill it with the material and
then dig another trench just in front of and in contact with the first
and throw the sand from it back onto the material in the first trench,
etc.


Brush work

=1117. A fascine= is a cylindrical bundle of brush, closely bound. The
usual length is 18 ft. and the diam. 9 ins. when compressed. Lengths
of 9 and 6 ft., which are sometimes used, are most conveniently
obtained by sawing a standard fascine into 2 or 3 pieces. The weight
of a fascine of partially seasoned material will average 140 lbs.

Fascines are made in a =cradle= which consists of five trestles. A
=trestle= is made of two sticks about 6-1/2 ft. long and 3 ins. in
diam, driven into the ground and lashed at the intersection as shown
in Fig. 10. In making a cradle, plant the end trestles 16 ft. apart
and parallel. Stretch a line from one to the other over the
intersection, place the others 4 ft. apart and lash them so that each
intersection comes fairly to the line.

=To build a fascine=, straight pieces of brush, 1 or 2 ins. at the
butt, are laid on, the butts projecting at the end 1 ft. beyond the
trestle. Leaves should be stripped and unruly branches cut off, or
partially cut through, so that they will lie close. The larger
straighter brush should be laid on the outside, butts alternating in
direction, and smaller stuff in the center. The general object is to
so dispose the brush as to make the fascine of uniform size, strength,
and stiffness from end to end.

When the cradle is nearly filled, the fascine is compressed or
=choked= by the =fascine choker=, Fig. 11, which consists of 2 bars 4
ft. long, joined at 18 ins. from the ends by a chain 4 ft. long. The
chain is marked at 14 ins. each way from the middle by inserting a
ring or special link. To use, two men standing on opposite sides pass
the chain under the brush, place the short ends of the handles on top
and pass the bars, short end first, across to each other. They then
bear down on the long ends until the marks on the chain come together.
Chokers may be improvised from sticks and rope or wire.

=Binding= will be done with a double turn of wire or tarred rope. It
should be done in 12 places, 18 ins. apart, the end binders 3 ins.
outside the end trestles. To bind a fascine will require 66 ft. of
wire.

Improvised binders may be made from rods of live brush, hickory or
hazel is the best. Place the butt under the foot and twist the rod to
partially separate the fibers and make it flexible. A rod so prepared
is called a =withe=. To use a withe, make a half turn and twist at the
smaller end, Fig. 12; pass the withe around the brush and the large
end through the eye. Draw taut and double the large end back, taking 2
half-hitches over its own standing part, Fig. 13.

When the fascine is choked and bound, saw the ends off square, 9 ins.
outside the end binders. After a cradle is made, 4 men can make 1
fascine per hour, with wire binding. Withes require 1 man more.

=A fascine revetment= is made by placing the fascines as shown in Fig.
14. The use of headers and anchors is absolutely necessary in loose
soils only, but they greatly strengthen the revetment in any case. A
fascine revetment =must always be crowned= with sods or bags.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

=1118.= In all brush weaving the following terms have been adopted and
are convenient to use:

=Randing.=--Weaving a single rod in and out between pickets.

=Slewing.=--Weaving two or more rods together in the same way.

=Pairing.=--Carrying two rods together, crossing each other in and out
at each picket.

=Wattling.=--A general term applied to the woven part of brush
construction.

=1119. A hurdle= is a basket work made of brushwood. If made in
pieces, the usual size is 2 ft. 9 ins. by 6 ft., though the width may
be varied so that it will cover the desired height of slope.

A hurdle is made by describing on the ground an arc of a circle of 8
ft. radius and on the arc driving 10 pickets, 8 ins. apart, covering 6
ft. out to out, Fig. 15. Brush is then woven in and out and well
compacted. The concave side of a hurdle should be placed next the
earth. It wraps less than if made flat.

=In weaving the hurdle=, begin randing at the middle space at the
bottom. Reaching the end, twist the rod as described for a withe, but
at one point only, bend it around the end picket and work back. Start
a second rod before the first one is quite out, slewing the two for a
short distance. Hammer the wattling down snug on the pickets with a
block of wood and continue until the top is reached. It improves the
hurdle to finish the edges with two selected rods paired, Fig. 16. A
pairing may be introduced in the middle, if desired, to give the
hurdle extra endurance if it is to be used as a pavement or floor. If
the hurdle is not to be used at once, or if it is to be transported,
it must be sewed. The sewing is done with wire, twine, or withes at
each end and in the middle, with stitches about 6 ins. long, as shown
in Fig. 16. About 40 ft. of wire is required to sew one hurdle. No. 14
is about the right size, and a coil of 100 lbs. will sew 40 hurdles.
Three men should make a hurdle in 2 hours, 2 wattling and the third
preparing the rods.

=1120. Continuous hurdle.=--If conditions permit the revetment to be
built in place, the hurdle is made continuous for considerable
lengths. The pickets may be larger; they are driven farther apart, 12
or 18 ins., and the brush may be heavier. The construction is more
rapid. The pickets are driven with a little more slant than is
intended and must be anchored to the parapet. A line of poles with
wire attached at intervals of 2 or 3 pickets will answer. The wires
should be made fast to the pickets after the wattling is done. They
will interfere with the wearing if fastened sooner. Two men should
make 4 yds. of continuous hurdle of ordinary height in one hour.

=1121. Brush revetment.=--Pickets may be set as above described and
the brush laid inside of them without weaving, being held in place by
bringing the earth up with it. In this case the anchors must be
fastened before the brush laying begins. The wires are not much in the
way in this operation.

=1122. Gabion making.--A gabion= is a cylindrical basket with open
ends, made of brush woven on pickets or stakes as described for
hurdles. The usual size is 2 ft. outside diam. and 2 ft. 9 ins. height
of wattling. On account of the sharp curvature somewhat better brush
is required for gabions than will do for hurdles.

=The gabion form=, Fig. 17, is of wood, 21 ins. diam., with
equidistant notches around the circumference, equal in number to the
number of pickets to be used, usually 8 to 14, less if the brush is
large and stiff, more if it is small and pliable. The notches should
be of such depth that the pickets will project to 1 in. outside the
circle. The pickets should be 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 ins. diam., 3 ft. 6 ins.
long and sharpened, half at the small and half at the large end.

=To make a gabion=, the form is placed on the ground, level or nearly
so, and the pickets are driven vertically in the notches, large and
small ends down, alternately. The form is then raised a foot and held
by placing a lashing around outside the pickets, tightened with a rack
stick, Fig. 18. The wattling is randed or slewed from the form up. The
form is then dropped down, the gabion inverted and the wattling
completed. If the brush is small, uniform, and pliable, pairing will
make a better wattling than randing. If not for immediate use, the
gabion must be sewed as described for hurdles, the same quantity of
wire being required.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

[Illustration: Fig. 19]

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

The gabion, when wattled and sewed, is completed by cutting off the
tops of the pickets 1 in. from the web, the bottom 3 ins., the latter
sharpened after cutting, and driving a carrying picket through the
middle of its length and a little on side of the axis. See that the
middle of this picket is smooth. Three men should make a gabion in an
hour.

Gabions may be made without the forms, but the work is slower and not
so good. The circle is struck on the ground and the pickets driven at
the proper points. The weaving is done from the ground up and the
entire time of one man is required to keep the pickets in proper
position.

=If brush is scarce=, gabions may be made with 6 ins. of wattling at
each end, the middle left open. In filling, the open part may be lined
with straw, grass, brush cuttings, or grain sacks, to keep the earth
from running out.

=1123. Gabion revetment.=--The use of gabions in revetments is
illustrated in Fig. 20. If more than two tiers are used, the
separating fascines should be anchored back. Gabion revetments should
be crowned with sods or bags.

The advantages of the gabion revetment are very great. It can be put
in place without extra labor and faster and with less exposure than
any other. It is self-supporting and gives cover from view and partial
cover from fire quicker than any other form.

Several forms of gabions of other material than brush have been used.
Sheet iron and iron and paper hoops are some of them. The iron
splinters badly, is heavy, and has not given satisfaction. If any
special materials are supplied the method of using them will, in view
of the foregoing explanation, be obvious.

=1124. Timber or pole revetment.=--Poles too large for use in any
other way may be cut to length and stood on end to form a revetment.
The lower ends should be in a small trench and have a waling piece in
front of them. There must also be a waling piece or cap at or near the
top, anchored back. Fig. 21 shows this form.

=1125. Miscellaneous revetments.=--Any receptacles for earth which
will make a stable, compact pile, as =boxes=, =baskets=, =oil or other
cans=, may be used for a revetment. =Barrels= may be used for gabions.
=Canvas= stretched behind pickets is well thought of in a foreign
service. If the soil will make =adobe=, or sun-dried bricks, an
excellent revetment may be made of them, but it will not stand wet
weather.


Knots

=1126.= =Square= or =reef knot=, Fig. 22, commonly used for joining
two ropes of the same size. The standing and running parts of each
rope must pass through the loop of the other in the same direction, i.
e., from above down ward or vice versa; otherwise a _granny_, is made,
which is a useless knot that will not hold. The reef knot can be upset
by taking one end of the rope and its standing part and pulling them
in opposite directions. With dry rope a reef knot is as strong as the
rope; with wet rope it slips before the rope breaks, while a double
sheet bend is found to hold.

[Illustration: Fig. 22

_Square or Reef_]

=1127. Two half hitches=, Fig. 23, especially useful for belaying, or
making fast the end of a rope round its own standing part. The end may
be lashed down or seized to the standing part with a piece of spun
yarn; this adds to its security and prevents slipping.

This knot should never be used for hoisting a spar.

[Illustration: Fig. 23

_Two half hitches_]

=1128. Clove hitch=, Fig. 24, generally used for fastening a rope at
right angles to a spar or at the commencement of a lashing. If the end
of the spar is free, the hitch is made by first forming two loops, as
in Fig. 26, placing the right-hand loop over the other one and
slipping the double loop (Fig. 27) over the end of the spar. If this
can not be done, pass the end of the rope round the spar, bring it up
to the right of the standing part, cross over the latter, make
another turn round the spar, and bring up the end between the spar,
the last turn, and the standing part, Fig. 25. When used for securing
guys to sheer legs, etc., the knot should be made with a long end,
which is formed into two half hitches round the standing part and
secured to it with spun yarn.

[Illustration: Fig. 24

_Clove hitch_]

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

[Illustration: Fig. 26]

[Illustration: Fig. 27]

=1129. Timber hitch=, Fig. 28, used for hauling and lifting spars. It
can easily be loosed when the strain is taken off, but will not slip
under a pull. When used for hauling spars, a half hitch is added near
the end of the spar, Fig. 29.

[Illustration: Fig. 28

_Timber hitch_]

[Illustration: Fig. 29

_Timber hitch and half hitch_]

=1130. Bowline=, Fig. 30, forms a loop that will not slip. Make loop
with the standing part of the rope underneath, pass the end from below
through the loop, over the part round the standing part of the rope,
and then down through the loop _c_. The length of bight depends upon
the purpose for which the knot is required.

[Illustration: Fig. 30

_Bowline_]

=1131. Bowline on a bight=, Fig. 31. The first part is made like the
above, with the double part of a rope; then the bight _a_ is pulled
through sufficiently to allow it to be bent past _d_ and come up in
the position shown. It makes a more comfortable sling for a man than a
single bight.

[Illustration: Fig. 31

_Bowline on a Bight_]

=1132. Sheep shank=, Fig. 32, used for shortening a rope or to pass by
a weak spot; a half hitch is taken with the standing parts around the
bights.

[Illustration: Fig. 32

_Sheep shank_]

=1133. Short splice.= To make a _short splice_, Figs. 33, 34, 35,
unlay the strands of each rope for a convenient length. Bring the rope
ends together so that each strand of one rope lies between the two
consecutive strands of the other rope. Draw the strands of the first
rope along the second and grasp with one hand. Then work a free strand
of the second rope over the nearest strand of the first rope and under
the second strand, working in a direction opposite to the twist of the
rope. The same operation applied to all the strands will give the
result shown by Fig. 34. The splicing may be continued in the same
manner to any extent (Fig. 35) and the free ends of the strands may be
cut off when desired. The splice may be neatly tapered by cutting out
a few fibers from each strand each time it is passed through the rope.
Rolling under a board or the foot will make the splice compact.

[Illustration: Fig. 33

_Short splice_]

[Illustration: Fig. 34]

[Illustration: Fig. 35]

=1134. Long splice= (Figs. 36, 37).--Unlay the strands of each rope
for a convenient length and bring together as for a short splice.
Unlay to any desired length a strand, _d_, of one rope, laying in its
place the nearest strand, _a_, of the other rope. Repeat the operation
in the opposite direction with two other strands, _c_ and _f_. Fig. 37
shows strands _c_ and _f_ secured by tying together. Strands b and e
are shown secured by unlaying half of each for a suitable length and
laying half of the other in place of the unlayed portions, the loose
ends being passed through the rope. This splice is used when the rope
is to run through a block. The diameter of the rope is not enlarged at
the splice. The ends of the strands should not be trimmed off close
until the splice has been thoroughly stretched by work.

[Illustration: Fig. 36

_Long splice_]

[Illustration: Fig. 37]

=1135. Eye splice= (Figs. 38, 39, 40, 41).--Unlay a convenient length
of rope. Pass one loose strand, _a_, under one strand of the rope, as
shown in fig. 38, forming an eye of the proper size. Pass a second
loose strand, _b_, under the strand of the rope next to the strand
which secures _a_, Fig. 39. Pass the third strand, _c_, under the
strand next to that which secures _b_, fig. 40. Draw all taut and
continue and complete as for a short splice.

[Illustration: Fig. 38

_Eye splice_]

[Illustration: Fig. 39]

[Illustration: Fig. 40]

[Illustration: Fig. 41]


Lashings

=1136. To lash a transom to an upright spar=, Fig. 42, transom in
front of upright.--A clove hitch is made round the upright a few
inches below the transom. The lashing is brought under the transom, up
in front of it, horizontally behind the upright, down in front of the
transom, and back behind the upright at the level of the bottom of the
transom and above the clove hitch. The following turns are kept
outside the previous ones on one spar and inside on the other, not
riding over the turns already made. Four turns or more are required. A
couple of frapping turns are then taken between the spars, around the
lashing, and the lashing is finished off either round one of the spars
or any part of the lashing through which the rope can be passed. The
final clove hitch should never be made around the spar on the side
toward which the stress is to come, as it may jam and be difficult to
remove. The lashing must be well beaten with handspike or pick handle
to tighten it up. This is called a square shears are laid alongside of
each other with their butts on the ground, lashing.

[Illustration: Fig. 42]

=1137. Lashing for a pair of shears=, Fig. 43.--The two spars for the
points below where the lashing is to be resting on a skid. A clove
hitch is made round one spar and the lashing taken loosely eight or
nine times about the two spars above it without riding. A couple of
frapping turns are then taken between the spars and the lashing is
finished off with a clove hitch above the turns on one of the spars.
The butts of the spars are then opened out and a sling passed over the
fork, to which the block is hooked or lashed, and fore and back guys
are made fast with clove hitches to the bottom and top spars,
respectively, just above the each spar the distance from the butt to
the center of the lashing. Lay two of the spars parallel to each other
with an interval a little greater fork, Fig. 44.

[Illustration: Fig. 43]

[Illustration: Fig. 44]

=1138. To lash three spars together as for a gin or tripod.=--Mark on
than the diameter. Rest their tips on a skid and lay the third spar
between them with its butt in the opposite direction so that the marks
on the three spars will be in line. Make a clove hitch on one of the
outer spars below the lashing and take eight or nine loose turns
around the three, as shown in Fig. 45. Take a couple of frapping turns
between each pair of spars in succession and finish with a clove hitch
on the central spar above the lashing. Pass a sling over the lashing
and the tripod is ready for raising.

[Illustration: Fig. 45]

=1139. Holdfasts.=--To prepare a fastening in the ground for the
attachment of guys or purchases, stout pickets are driven into the
ground one behind the other, in the line of pull. The head of each
picket except the last is secured by a lashing to the foot of the
picket next behind, Fig. 46. The lashings are tightened by rack
sticks, the points of which are driven into the ground to hold them in
position. The distance between the stakes should be several times the
height of the stake above the ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 46]

Another form requiring more labor but having much greater strength is
called a "_deadman_," and consists of a log laid in a transverse
trench with an inclined trench intersecting it at its middle point.
The cable is passed down the inclined trench, takes several round
turns on the log, and is fastened to it by half hitches and marlin
stopping, Figs. 47, 48, 49. If the cable is to lead horizontally or
inclined downward, it should pass over a log at the outlet of the
inclined trench, Fig. 48. If the cable is to lead upward, this log is
not necessary, but the anchor log must be buried deeper.

[Illustration: Fig. 47]

[Illustration: Fig. 48]

[Illustration: Fig. 49]



CHAPTER X

FIELD FORTIFICATIONS


=1140. Object.= The object of field fortifications is two-fold.

1. To increase the fighting power of troops by enabling the soldier to
use his weapons with the greatest possible effect.

2. To protect the soldier against the enemy's fire.

=1141. How these objects are accomplished.=

These objects are accomplished:

1. By means of shelters--trenches, redoubts, splinterproofs, etc.,
which protect the soldier from the enemy's fire.

2. By means of obstacles--wire entanglements, abatis, pits, etc.,
which delay the advance of the enemy.

=1142. Classification.= Field fortifications are usually divided into
three classes, =hasty intrenchments=, =deliberate intrenchments= and
=siege works=.

=Nomenclature of the Trench.= The following illustration shows the
names of the various parts of the trench.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

=1143. Hasty intrenchments= include trenches dug by troops upon the
battlefield to increase their fighting power. They are usually
constructed in the presence of the enemy and in haste and embrace
three forms viz:--the =lying trench=, the =kneeling trench=, and the
=standing trench=.

=1144. Lying trench.= (Fig. 2.) This trench gives cover to a man lying
down. When intrenching under fire the rifle trench can be constructed
by a man lying down. He can mask himself from view in about 10 to 12
minutes and can complete the trench in 40 to 45 minutes. A good method
is to dig a trench 18 inches wide back to his knees, roll into it and
dig 12 inches wide alongside of it and down to the feet, then roll
into the second cut and extend the first one back. Conditions may
require men to work in pairs, one firing while the other uses his
intrenching tool. Duties are exchanged from time to time until the
trench is completed.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 2a

_Intrenching under fire_]

The height of the parapet should not exceed 1 foot. This trench
affords limited protection against rifle fire and less against
shrapnel.

=1145. Kneeling trench.= (Fig. 3.) Time permitting the lying trench
may be enlarged and deepened until the kneeling trench has been
constructed. The width of the bottom should be 2-1/2 feet--preferably
3 feet--and the relief (distance from bottom of trench to top of
parapet) is 3 feet--the proper height for firing over in a kneeling
position.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

=1146. Standing trench= (Fig. 4) has a bottom width of 3 to 3-1/2 feet
and a relief of 4-1/2 feet which is the proper firing height for men
of average stature. As this trench does not give complete cover to men
standing in it a passage way should be constructed in rear of it not
less than 6 feet below the interior crest. This forms the complete
trench (Fig. 5). Figures 6-7-8 show simple standing trenches used in
the European War.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

[Illustration: Fig. 6

Simple Standing Trench, Parapet Suppressed]

[Illustration: Fig. 7

Simple Standing Trench, Rocky Ground]

[Illustration: Fig. 8

Narrow Firing Trench with Parados]

=1147. Deliberate intrenchments= comprise trenches and works
constructed by troops not in line of battle and are usually intended
to enable a small force to resist a much larger one. It frequently
happens that hasty intrenchments are developed into deliberate
intrenchments and from this stage pass into the domain of siege works.

=1148. Fire trenches=,--the trenches which shelter the firing
line,--are of different types. No fixed type can be prescribed. The
type must be selected with due regard to the terrain, enemy, time,
tools, soil, etc., but all should conform to the requirements of a
good field of fire, and protection for the troops behind a vertical
wall, preferably with some head or over head cover.

The simplest form of fire trench is deep and narrow and has a flat
concealed parapet (Fig. 9). When time will permit the simple trench
should be planned with a view to developing it into a more complete
form (Figs. 10 and 11). In all trenches as soon as practicable a
passage way--2 feet wide at the bottom--should be provided, in rear of
the firing step, for the men carrying supplies, ammunition, etc., and
for the removal of the wounded.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

When the excavated earth is easily removed a fire trench without
parapet may be the one best suited to the soil and other conditions
affecting the conditions of profile (Fig. 12). The enemy's infantry as
well as artillery will generally have great difficulty in seeing this
trench. Fig. 13 shows a squad trench. Fig. 14 shows a fire trench
provided with protection against shrapnel. This trench is used in the
European War.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

[Illustration: Fig. 14

Protection against Shrapnel]

In the European War the aim in constructing fire trenches seems to be
to minimize and localize artillery effect as far as possible. The main
excavation along the front is a continuous, very deep, communication,
not in itself prepared for active defense. The actual firing is done
from banquettes or firing steps just to the front of the passage or
from trenches dug as far as 5 or 10 feet in front of the main
excavation and reached by short passages. Figs 15 and 16 show the type
of this construction. Fig. 17 shows a fire trench with parades and
shelter.

[Illustration: Fig. 15

Two Methods for Communication Trenches in rear of Firing Trenches]

[Illustration: Fig. 16

Communication Trenches in rear of Firing Trenches

Recessed and Traversed Firing Trench]

[Illustration: Fig. 17

Trench Shelter]

=1149. Traverses.= Fire trenches are divided into sections or bays by
means of traverses which intercept side or enfilade fire and limit the
effect of shells, bombs or grenades, which burst inside of the trench.
The traverses should be wide enough to screen the full width of the
trench with a little to spare. The thickness of the traverse varies
from 3 to 6 feet or more. Six feet is the dimension generally found in
the traverses in the trenches on the European battle fronts.

=1150. Trench recesses; sortie steps.= It will be noted that in some
of the diagrams of the trenches now being used in the European War the
berm has been eliminated entirely. The object being to bring the firer
closer to the vertical wall thus giving him better protection from
shrapnel fire. There have also been added to the trench, recesses for
hand grenades. These recesses are similar to recesses dug in the front
wall of the trench for ammunition. One form of recess is shown in
(Fig. 18). In order to provide facilities for rapidly mounting from
the trench to charge, sortie steps and stakes have been provided in
some trenches as shown in (Fig. 16).

[Illustration: Fig. 18

_Store Recesses for Water, Hand-Grenades, Reserve Ammunition, Machine
Guns, Range Finders, Blankets, etc._ (From _Field
Entrenchments_--Solano.)]

=1151. Parados.= Instead of shrapnel, explosive shell is most
frequently used in the European War. This necessitates the addition of
a parados to the fire trench to protect against the back blast of high
explosives. This is shown in (Figs. 8 and 17).

An interesting development in cover for the firing line is shown in
dugouts constructed in the fire trenches in the European war. These
dugouts are deep underground and shelter from 3 to 8 men each (Fig.
19). These dugouts will be discussed more in length under cover
trenches.

[Illustration: Fig. 19]

=1152. Head cover= is the term applied to any horizontal cover which
may be provided above the plane of fire. It is obtained by notching or
loop-holing the top of the parapet so that the bottoms of the notches
or loopholes are in the desired plane of fire. The extra height of
parapet may be 12 to 18 inches and the loopholes may be 3 to 3-1/2
feet center to center.

Head cover is of limited utility. It increases the visibility of the
parapet and restricts the field of fire. At close range the loopholes
serve as aiming points to steady the enemy's fire and may do more harm
than good at longer ranges. This is especially the case if the enemy
can see any light through the loophole. He waits for the light to be
obscured, when he fires, knowing there is a man's head behind the
loophole. A background must be provided or a removable screen arranged
so that there will be no difference in the appearance of the loophole
whether a man is looking through it or not. Head cover is advantageous
only when the conditions of the foreground are such that the enemy can
not get close up.

=1153. Notches and loopholes=, Figs. 20-22, are alike in all respects,
except that the latter have a roof or top and the former have not. The
bottom, also called =floor= or =sole=, is a part of the original
superior slope. The sides, sometimes called =cheeks=, are vertical or
nearly so. The plan depends upon local conditions. There is always a
narrow part, called the =throat=, which is just large enough to take
the rifle and permit sighting. From the throat the sides diverge at an
angle, called the =splay=, which depends upon the field of fire
necessary.

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

[Illustration: Fig. 22]

The position of the throat may vary. If on the outside, it is less
conspicuous but more easily obstructed by injury to the parapet and
more difficult to use, since in changing aim laterally the man must
move around a pivot in the plane of the throat. If the material of
which the loophole is constructed presents hard surfaces, the throat
should be outside, notwithstanding the disadvantages of that position,
or else the sides must be stepped as in Fig. 22. In some cases it may
be best to adopt a compromise position and put the throat in the
middle, Fig. 22. Figs. 23 to 26 show details and dimensions of a
loophole of sand bags.

[Illustration: Fig. 23]

[Illustration: Fig. 24]

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

[Illustration: Fig. 26]

A serviceable form of loophole consists of a pyramidal box of plank
with a steel plate spiked across the small end and pierced for fire.
Fig. 27 shows a section of such a construction. It is commonly known
as the =hopper loophole=. The plate should be 3/8 in. thick, if of
special steel; or 1/2 in., if ordinary metal. Fig. 28 shows the
opening used by the Japanese in Manchuria and Fig. 29 that used by the
Russians.

[Illustration: Fig. 27]

[Illustration: Fig. 28]

[Illustration: Fig. 29]

The construction of a notch requires only the introduction of some
available rigid material to form the sides; by adding a cover the
notch becomes a loophole. Where the fire involves a wide lateral and
small vertical angle, loopholes may take the form of a long slit. Such
a form will result from laying logs or fascines lengthwise on the
parapet, supported at intervals by sods or other material, Fig. 31, or
small poles covered with earth may be used, Fig. 30.

[Illustration: Fig. 30]

[Illustration: Fig. 31]

=1154. Overhead cover.= This usually consists of a raised platform of
some kind covered with earth. It is frequently combined with
horizontal cover in a single structure, which protects the top and
exposed side. The supporting platform will almost always be of wood
and may vary from brushwood or light poles to heavy timbers and plank.
It is better, especially with brush or poles, to place a layer of
sods, grass down, or straw, or grain sacks over the platform before
putting on the earth, to prevent the latter from sifting through.

[Illustration: Fig. 32]

[Illustration: Fig. 33]

[Illustration: Fig. 34]

[Illustration: Fig. 35]

=The thickness of overhead cover= depends upon the class of fire
against which protection is desired, and is sometimes limited by the
vertical space available, since it must afford headroom beneath, and
generally should not project above the nearest natural or artificial
horizontal cover. For splinter proofs a layer of earth 6 to 8 ins.
thick on a support of brush or poles strong enough to hold it up will
suffice if the structure is horizontal. If the front is higher than
the rear, less thickness is necessary; if the rear is higher than the
front, more is required. For bombproofs a minimum thickness of 6 ins.
of timber and 3 ft. of earth is necessary against field and siege
guns, or 12 ins. timber and 6 ft. of earth against the howitzers and
mortars of a heavy siege train, not exceeding 6 inches in caliber.

In determining the area of overhead cover to be provided, allow 6 sq.
ft. per man for occupancy while on duty only, or 12 sq. ft. per man
for continuous occupancy not of long duration. For long occupation 18
to 20 sq. ft. per man should be provided.

It is not practicable to give complete cover to rifle positions that
will successfully withstand the heavy artillery of today. The use of
overhead cover is usually limited to that sufficient for protection
against rifle fire, machine gun fire, and shrapnel.

=1155. Cover trenches= are constructed to provide safe cover for the
supports or reinforcements of the fire trenches or to provide cooking
and resting facilities for the garrison of the neighboring fire
trenches. The important point in cover trenches is safety. They vary
in design from the simple rectangular trenches to elaborately
constructed trenches having overhead cover, kitchens, shelters,
latrines, dressing stations, etc. Cover trenches must not be mistaken
for a secondary position, they are cover for the firing line, supports
and reserves until they are required in the fire trenches. The cover
trench requires a depth of at least 6 feet to protect men standing.
Greater depths may be used when necessary. Fig. 36 is a section of an
open cover trench and Fig. 37 of a closed one. This section may be
used for a communicating trench. Fig. 38 shows a cover trench close to
a fire trench. The character of overhead cover for trenches is shown
in the diagrams under overhead cover. The distance of the cover
trenches varies with the situation. The experience of the European war
places the cover trenches from 15 to 50 yards in rear of the fire
trenches. These trenches furnish shelter for at least 2/3 of the
firing line and supports.

[Illustration: Fig. 36]

[Illustration: Fig. 37]

[Illustration: Fig. 38]

The reserves are furnished yet more elaborate shelter, with plenty of
room for the men to lie down and rest and when practicable, bathing
facilities are provided.

=1156. Dugouts.= An elaborate system of dugouts has developed along
the lines occupied by the troops in the European war. These dugouts
are located from 14 to 40 feet below the ground and are reached by
stairs in timbered passage ways. At the foot of the stairs a tunnel or
corridor runs forward and on either side or at the end, rooms have
been dug out varying in size. Most of these rooms have been timbered
and lined. Many are electrically lighted. In some of these underground
shelters, accommodations for several hundred men have been prepared
with all of the necessary facilities for making them comfortable. It
must be understood that such elaborate preparations can only be made
when troops face each other in trenches where operations have
developed into practically a siege.

=1157. Communicating trenches.= These trenches as the name implies are
for the purpose of providing safe communication between the cover and
fire trenches. They may be also constructed just in rear of a series
of fire trenches to provide a means of communication from one to the
other. Communicating trenches also extend to the rear of the cover
trenches and provide safe passage to fresh troops or supplies. These
trenches are usually laid out in zig zag or curved lines (Fig. 39), to
prevent enfilade fire from sweeping them. As a general rule excavated
earth is placed on both sides of the trench to afford protection, the
depth is usually from 6 to 7 feet. (Fig. 15) shows a typical
communicating trench.

[Illustration: Fig. 39

_Typical Passage Trench from Supports to Firing Line._

(From _Field Entrenchments_--Solano)]

=1158. Lookouts.= To enable the garrison of a trench to get the
greatest amount of comfort and rest, a _lookout_ should be constructed
and a sentinel stationed therein.

The simplest form would consist of two sandbags placed on the parapet
and splayed so as to give the required view, and carefully concealed.

Better forms may be constructed, with one side resting on the berm by
using short uprights with overhead cover, a slit on all sides being
provided for observation.

At night, lookouts are usually posted at listening points located in
or beyond the line of obstacles. These will be discussed under
obstacles.

=1159. Supporting Points.= In some cases small supporting points may
have to be established close behind the general line of trenches for
the purpose of breaking up a successful attack on the trenches and to
aid in delivering a counter attack. These points are strongly
entrenched and have all around wire entanglements and are garrisoned
by from 20 to 40 picked men or by larger forces if the situation
demand it. In some cases machine guns are added to the force in the
supporting point.

=1160. Example of trench system.= Having discussed trenches and
obstacles somewhat in detail, let us take a combination of the whole
showing a complete system such as is used today. (Fig. 40) is a good
example.

[Illustration: Fig. 40

FIRST LINE FIRING TRENCH]

Beginning at the front we have the line of wire entanglements or
obstacles with their listening posts X, for guarding them. Connecting
the listening posts to the fire trenches are the communicating
trenches. The fire trenches are shown by the heavy black line running
about 60 feet in rear of the obstacles. Note the many traverses shown
by the indentations in the line. Points marked M with arrows
projecting to the flanks are machine guns, so located as to sweep the
front of the position with a cross fire. Points marked S are
underground shelters for from 3 to 6 men. Points marked S' are
shelters for 30 men. In rear of the firing trenches at a distance
varying from 100 to 200 feet is the line of cover trenches. This line
is connected with the fire trenches by the zig zagged line of
communicating trenches. Note that the latrines (L) and first aid
stations (F) are just off from the communicating trenches, while the
larger shelter for men (S') are near the cover trenches. As the note
on the diagram shows, the trench requires 250 men to occupy it with
double that number in support. The trench has 108 loopholes with
spaces between provided with a higher banquette so that the whole
parapet may be manned for firing.

On the battlefields of Europe today there are generally three lines of
fire trenches. This permits the defender to fall back to a 2nd or 3rd
prepared position in case he is driven out of his first trench. On a
hill we find a fire trench near the foot of the slope, one just
forward of the military crest, and the third on the reverse slope of
the hill.

In many instances the first line trenches consist of as many as four
or five lines of trenches running in a general lateral direction and
connected by deep narrow communicating trenches. The depth between the
first and last of these trenches is, in some instances, not over a
hundred yards. Sign boards are necessary at short intervals to prevent
the soldiers from getting lost. The effect of having so many
alternative firing trenches is to make it extremely difficult for an
enemy to advance from, or even to hold one of them, even when he gains
a footing, as he would be swept by fire from the supporting trenches
in rear and also by flanking fire from the adjacent trenches.

=1161. Location.= There are two things to be considered in locating
trenches: (1) The tactical situation, and (2) the nature of the
ground. The first consideration requires that the trenches be so
located as to give the best field of fire. Locating near the base of
hills possesses the advantage of horizontal fire, but, as a rule, it
is difficult to support trenches so located and to retreat therefrom
in case of necessity. While location near the crest of hills--on the
"military crest"--does not possess the advantage of horizontal fire,
it is easier to support trenches so located and to retreat therefrom.
Depending upon circumstances, there are times when it will be better
to intrench near the base of hills and there are other times when it
will be better to intrench on the "military crest," which is always in
front of the natural crest. The construction of trenches along the
"military crest" does not give any "dead space"--that is, any space to
the front that can not be reached by the fire of the men in the
trenches.

Whether we should construct our trenches on high or low ground is a
matter that should always be carefully considered under the particular
conditions that happen to exist at that particular time, and the
matter may be summarized as follows:

The advantages of the high ground are:--

1. We can generally see better what is going on to our front and
flanks; and the men have a feeling of security that they do not enjoy
on low ground.

2. We can usually reënforce the firing line better and the dead and
wounded can be removed more easily.

3. The line of retreat is better.

The disadvantages are:--

1. The plunging fire of a high position is not as effective as a
sweeping fire of a low one.

2. It is not as easy to conceal our position.

The advantages of low ground, are:--

1. The low, sweeping fire that we get, especially when the ground in
front is fairly flat and the view over the greater part of it is
uninterrupted, is the most effective kind of fire.

2. As a rule it is easier to conceal trenches on low ground,
especially from artillery fire.

3. If our trenches are on low ground, our artillery will be able to
find good positions on the hill behind us without interfering with the
infantry defense.

The disadvantages are:--

1. As a rule it will be more difficult to reënforce the firing line
and to remove the dead and wounded from the trenches.

2. On a low position there will usually be an increase of dead space
in our front.

3. The average soldier acting on the defensive dreads that the enemy
may turn his flank, and this feeling is much more pronounced on low
ground than on high ground. Should the enemy succeed in getting a
footing on our flank with our trenches on top of the hill, it would be
bad enough, but it would certainly be far worse if he got a footing on
top of the hill, on the flank and rear, with our company on low ground
in front. We, therefore, see there are things to be said for and
against both high and low ground, and the most that can be said
without examining a particular piece of ground is: Our natural
inclination is to select high ground, but, as a rule, this choice will
reduce our fire effect, and if there is a covered approach to our fire
trenches and very little dead ground in front of it, with an extensive
field of fire, there is no doubt the lower ground is better. However,
if these conditions do not exist to a considerable degree, the moral
advantage of the higher ground must be given great weight, especially
in a close country.

The experience of the European war emphasizes the fact that the
location of rifle trenches is today, just as much as ever, a matter of
compromise to be determined by sound judgment on the part of the
responsible officers. The siting of trenches so that they are not
under artillery observation is a matter of great importance, but, it
has yet to be proven that this requirement is more important than an
extensive field of fire. There are many instances where to escape
observation and fire from the artillery, trenches were located on the
reverse slopes, giving only a limited field of fire. This restricted
field of fire permitted the enemy to approach within a few hundred
yards of the trench and robbed them of the concealment they had hoped
to gain. The choice between a site in front, and one in rear of a
crest, is influenced by local conditions which govern the
effectiveness of our own and the enemy's fire. In general, the best
location for effective fire trenches, lies between the military crest
of rising ground and the lowest line from which the foreground is
visible. If the position on the military crest is conspicuous, it is
inadvisable.

With regard to the nature of the ground, trenches should, if
practicable, be so located as to avoid stony ground, because of the
difficult work entailed and of the danger of flying fragments, should
the parapet be struck by an artillery projectile.

To locate the trace of the trenches, lie on the ground at intervals
and select the best field of fire consistent with the requirements of
the situation.

Trenches should be laid out in company lengths, if possible, and
adjoining trenches should afford each other mutual support. The flanks
and important gaps in the line should be protected by fire trenches
echeloned in rear.

=1162. Concealment of trenches.= Owing to the facilities for
observation that the aeroplanes and other air craft afford, and to the
accuracy and effect of modern artillery fire, every possible means
should be taken to conceal trenches, gun implacements, and other
works. The aim should be to alter the natural surface of the ground as
little as possible and to present a target of the smallest possible
dimensions. Covering the parapet with brush or grass will afford
temporary concealment. If the new earth can be sodded it aids greatly
in concealing the trench. In some cases troops have gone to the extent
of painting canvas to resemble the ground and have placed it over
trenches, guns, etc. Straw and grass placed in the bottom of trenches
make them less conspicuous to air scouts. When trenches are dug on a
fairly steep slope care must be used to conceal the back of the
trench, which, being higher than the parapet, will stand out as a scar
on the hillside. Grass or brush may be used to conceal the back of the
trench.

=1163. Dummy trenches.= May be constructed which attract the enemy's
attention and draw his fire, or at least a part of it. The extent to
which this method may be used may include the construction of dummy
obstacles and guns, and even hats may be placed on the parapets.

=1164. Length of trench.= The usual minimum allowance of trench space
is one yard per man, although in some tests, two feet was found
sufficient for men to fire satisfactorily. Ordinarily one squad will
occupy the space between two traverses which experience has shown
should be about 15 feet apart.

=1165. Preparation of the foreground.= One of the first principles in
improving the foreground is that an enemy attacking the trenches shall
be continually exposed to fire especially in the last 400 or 500
yards. This requires a clearing of the foreground and a filling in of
depressions or leveling of cover. Dead space may be swept by fire of
trenches specially located for that purpose. Those features of the
ground which obstruct the field of fire, restrict the view, or favor
or the enemy's approach, should be removed as far as possible. On the
other hand, features which favor the concealment of the trenches or
increase the difficulty of the attack would better be left standing,
especially when it is possible to fire through or over them.

=1166. Revetments.= By a revetment we mean a facing placed against the
front or back wall of a trench to keep the earth in place.

When trenches are to be occupied for any length of time, they must be
revetted. There are many forms of revetments. Sod revetments, stakes
with brush behind them, stakes with planks, boards, or poles behind
them and a common form seen in the trenches in Europe chicken wire
with brush or canvas behind it.

=1167. Drainage.= All trenches should be dug so as to drain in case of
rain. In favorable locations the trench may be constructed to drain
automatically, by constructing it with an incline to one end. Under
ordinary circumstances dry standing has to be provided in trenches by
raising the foot level by the use of brush, boards, poles, etc.
Bailing will have to be resorted to in most cases to drain the trench.

=1168. Water Supply.= At least 1/2 a gallon of water per man per day
should be supplied. The supply is almost invariably liable to be
contaminated, therefore, it should be sterilized by boiling or by
treating. These are usually located just off from the communicating
trenches. Some form of receptacle should be used and all deposits
covered with chemicals.

=1169. Latrines.= Numerous latrines must be constructed in the
trenches' earth. These receptacles are removed from time to time and
emptied in pits dug for that purpose. Urinal cans must also be
provided and cared for in a similar manner.

=1170. Illumination of the Foreground.= Battlefield illumination is a
necessity where night attacks may be expected, and also as a
protection to the line of obstacles. Portable searchlights have become
an accepted part of every army. In addition to these, trenches must be
supplied with reflector lights, star bombs, rockets and flares,
arranged so that they can be put into action instantaneously when the
enemy approaches.

The foreground should be entirely illuminated, leaving the defenders
in the shadow. If the light is too close to the defenders parapet,
they are illuminated and become a good target. Some flares will burn
for 20 minutes and may be thrown to the front as grenades, fired as
rockets, shot from small mortars, or placed well to the front to be
set off by trip wires close to the ground. The best light devised is
one that can be fired well to the front from a small mortar and then
hung suspended from an open parachute above the enemy. Bonfires can be
laid ready for lighting when no other means is at hand. Whatever form
of illumination is adopted, it should withstand bad weather conditions
and prolonged bombardment.

=1171. Telephones.= When armies have been forced to trench warfare and
time has permitted an elaborate system of trenches to be constructed,
telephone communication is established as soon as possible. The
central station, with the switch-board is located in a shelter in rear
of the cover trenches and lines are run to all trenches, lookout
stations and listening points.

=1172. Siege works.= Comprise devices used by besiegers and besieged
in attack and defense of strong fortifications and especially those
devices enable troops to advance under continuous cover.



CHAPTER XI

OBSTACLES


=1173. Object.= The main objects in placing obstacles in front of the
trenches are, to protect them from surprise, and to stop the enemy's
advance or to delay him while under the defender's fire.

=1174. Necessity for obstacles.= It is evident that the present
tendency is to reduce the number of men assigned to constant occupancy
of the first line trenches. This is due to the effectiveness of rifle
fire at close range, the destructive effect of shell and shrapnel, the
infrequency of daylight attack on intrenched positions, and the severe
strain on the men. The aim seems to be the placing here and there of a
lookout or trench guards, who, when necessity demands can call help
from the near by splinterproofs, dugouts, etc., before the enemy can
make his way through the obstacles. It has been found from experience
in the European war that as long as shells are directed at the
trenches no danger of attack is feared but, when the shells are
concentrated against the obstacles the trenches are manned and
preparations are made to resist an assault.

=1175. Location.= Obstacles must be so located that they will be
exposed to the defenders' fire, and should be sheltered as far as
possible from the enemy's artillery fire. They should be difficult to
remove or destroy, should afford no cover for the enemy, and should
not obstruct counter attacks. No obstacle should be more than 100
yards from the defender's trench. Care must be taken not to place them
so close to the trench that hand grenades can be thrown into the
trench from beyond the obstacle. Obstacles may be placed in one, two
or three lines. As far as possible they should be concealed so that
they will not betray the location of the trench.

=1176. Kinds of Obstacles.= The following are the most common kinds of
obstacles:--

=Abatis= consisting of trees lying parallel to each other with the
branches pointing in the general direction of approach and interlaced.
All leaves and small twigs should be removed and the stiff ends of
branches pointed.

Abatis on open ground is most conveniently made of branches about 15
feet long. The branches are staked or tied down and the butts anchored
by covering them with earth. Barbed wire may be interlaced among the
branches. Successive rows are placed, the branches of one extending
over the trunks of the one in front, so as to make the abatis 5 feet
high and as wide as desired. It is better to place the abatis in a
natural depression or a ditch, for concealment and protection from
fire. If exposed to artillery, an abatis must be protected either as
above or else by raising a glacis in front of it. Fig. 1 shows a
typical form of abatis with a glacis in front. An abatis formed by
felling trees toward the enemy, leaving the butt hanging to the stump,
the branches prepared as before, is called =a slashing=, Fig. 2. It
gives cover, and should be well flanked.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

=1177. A palisade= is a man-tight fence of posts. Round poles 4 to 6
inches in diameter at the large end are best. If the sticks run 5 to 8
inches, they may be split. If defended from the rear, palisades give
some shelter from fire and the openings should be made as large as
possible without letting men through. If defended from the flank, they
may be closer, say 3 to 4 inches apart. The top should be pointed. A
strand or two of barbed wire run along the top and stapled to each
post is a valuable addition.

Palisading is best made up in panels of 6 or 8 feet length, connected
by a waling piece, preferably of plank, otherwise of split stuff. If
the tops are free, two wales should be used, both underground. If the
tops are connected by wires, one will do.

Palisades should be planted to incline slightly to the front. As
little earth should be disturbed in digging as possible, and one side
of the trench should be kept in the desired plane of the palisade. If
stones can be had to fit between the posts and the top of the trench,
they will increase the stiffness of the structure and save time in
ramming, or a small log may be laid in the trench along the outside of
the posts. Figs. 3 and 4 show the construction and placing of
palisades.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

=1178. A fraise= is a palisade horizontal, or nearly so, projecting
from the scarp or counterscarp. A modern and better form consists of
supports at 3 or 4 feet interval, connected by barbed wire, forming a
horizontal wire fence. Fig. 5.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

=1179. Cheveaux de frise= are obstacles of the form shown in Fig. 6.
They are usually made in sections of manageable length chained
together at the ends. They are most useful in closing roads or other
narrow passages, as they can be quickly opened for friendly troops.
The lances may be of iron instead of wood and rectangular instead of
round; the axial beam may be solid or composite. Figs. 8 and 9 show
methods of constructing cheveaux de frise with dimension stuff.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

=1180. A formidable obstacle against cavalry= consists of railroad
ties planted at intervals of 10 feet with the tops 4-1/2 feet above
the ground, and connected by a line of rails spiked securely to each,
Fig. 7. The rail ends should be connected by fish plates and bolted,
with the ends of the bolts riveted down on the ends.

Figs. 10 and 11 show forms of heavy obstacles employed in Manchuria by
the Russians and Japanese, respectively. The former is composed of
timber trestles, made in rear and carried out at night. The latter
appears to have been planted in place.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

=1181. A wire entanglement= is composed of stakes driven in the ground
and connected by wire, barbed is the best, passing horizontally or
diagonally, or both. The stakes are roughly in rectangular or quincunx
order, but slight irregularities, both of position and height should
be introduced.

In the =high entanglement= the stakes average 4 feet from the ground,
and the wiring is horizontal and diagonal, Fig. 12.

[Illustration: Fig. 12

_High wire entanglement showing method of linking posts head to foot
and foot to head. Wire, plain or barbed, then festooned with barbed
wire. Bind wires where they cross. Use broken bottles, crows feet,
planks with spikes or fishhooks in conjunction with this
entanglement._ (From _Knowledge of War_--Lake.)]

=The low wire entanglement= has stakes averaging 18 inches above the
ground and the wire is horizontal only. This form is especially
effective if concealed in high grass. In both kinds the wires should
be wound around the stakes and stapled and passed loosely from one
stake to the next. When two or more wires cross they should be tied
together. Barbed wire is more difficult to string but better when
done. The most practicable form results from the use of barbed wire
for the horizontal strands and smooth wire for the rest.

This is the most generally, useful of all obstacles because of the
rapidity of construction, the difficulty of removal, the comparatively
slight injury from artillery fire, and its independence of local
material supplies.

=1182. Time and materials.= One man can make 10 sq. yds. of low and 3
sq. yds. of high entanglement per hour. The low form requires 10 feet
of wire per sq. yd. and the high 30 feet. No. 14 is a suitable size.
The smooth wire runs 58.9 ft. to the lb. A 100-lb. coil will make 600
sq. yds. of low or 200 sq. yds. of high entanglement. If barbed wire
is used, the weight will be about 2-1/2 times as much.

=1183. Wire fence.= An ordinary barbed-wire fence is a considerable
obstacle if well swept by fire. It becomes more formidable if a ditch
is dug on one or both sides to obstruct the passage of wheels after
the fence has been cut. The fence is much more difficult to get
through if provided with an apron on one or both sides, inclined at an
angle of about 45°, as indicated in Figs. 13 and 14. This form was
much used in South Africa for connecting lines between blockhouses.
When used in this way the lines of fence may be 300 to 600 yds. long,
in plan like a worm fence, with the blockhouse at the reëntrant
angles. Fixed rests for rifles, giving them the proper aim to enfilade
the fence, were prepared at the blockhouses for use at night.

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

Such a fence may be arranged in many ways to give an automatic alarm
either mechanically or electrically. The mechanical forms mostly
depend on one or more single wires which are smooth, and are tightly
stretched through staples on the posts which hold them loosely,
permitting them to slip when cut and drop a counterweight at the
blockhouse, which in falling explodes a cap or pulls the trigger of a
rifle.

=1184. Military pits= or =trous de loup= are excavations in the shape
of an inverted cone or pyramid, with a pointed stake in the bottom.
They should not be so deep as to afford cover to the skirmisher. Two
and one-half feet or less is a suitable depth. Fig. 15 shows a plan
and section of such pits.

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

They are usually dug in 3 or 5 rows and the earth thrown to the front
to form a glacis. The rear row is dug first and then the next in
front, and so on, so that no earth is cast over the finished pits.

An excellent arrangement is to dig the pits in a checkerboard plan,
leaving alternate squares and placing a stake in each of them to form
a wire entanglement, Fig. 16. One man can make 5 pits on a 2-hour
relief.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

=1185. Miscellaneous barricades.= Anything rigid in form and movable
may be used to give cover from view and fire and to obstruct the
advance of an assailant. Boxes, bales and sacks of goods, furniture,
books, etc., have been so used. The principles above stated for other
obstacles should be followed, so far as the character of the materials
will permit. The rest ingenuity must supply. Such devices are usually
called barricades and are useful in blocking the streets of towns and
cities.

=1186. Inundations.= Backing up the water of a stream so that it
overflows a considerable area forms a good obstacle even though of
fordable depth. If shallow, the difficulty of fording may be increased
by irregular holes or ditches dug before the water comes up or by
driving stakes or making entanglements. Fords have frequently been
obstructed by ordinary harrows laid on the bottom with the teeth up.

The unusual natural conditions necessary to a successful inundation
and the extent and character of the work required to construct the
dams make this defense of exceptional use. It may be attempted with
advantage when the drainage of a considerable flat area passes through
a restricted opening, as a natural gorge, a culvert, or a bridge.

Open cribs filled with stones, or tighter ones with gravel or earth
may form the basis of the obstruction to the flow of water. The usual
method of tightening cracks or spaces between cribs is by throwing in
earth or alternate layers of straw, hay, grass, earth, or sacks of
clay. Unless the flow is enough to allow considerable leakage, the
operation will not be practicable with field resources.

When the local conditions permit water to be run into the ditch of a
parapet it should always be done.

=1187. Obstacles in front of outguards= should be low so they cannot
be seen at night. A very simple and effective obstacle can be made by
fastening a single strand of wire to the top of stout stakes about a
foot high, and then placing another wire a little higher and parallel
to, and about one yard in rear of, the first. The wires must be drawn
tight, and securely fastened, and the stakes fairly close together, so
that if the wire is cut between any two stakes the remainder will not
be cut loose. Any one approaching the enemy will trip over the first
wire, and before he can recover himself he will be brought down by the
second. In the absence of wire, small sapplings may be used instead.
Of course, they are not as good as wire, but it does not take much to
trip up a man in the dark.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]


Lessons from the European War

What follows is based on reports from the battle fronts in Europe.

=1188. Wire entanglements.= The war in Europe has proven that the wire
entanglements are the most important and effective obstacle yet
devised. Owing to the intensity of the opposing fire and in many
cases to the short distance between the opposing trenches, it has
become necessary to construct all forms of obstacles in portable
sections which are carried or rolled quickly into place, either by
soldiers rushing out in day light and quickly staking the obstacles
down or by placing the obstacles quietly at night.

For placing wire entanglements at night, an iron post has been devised
about 1/4 of an inch in diameter, with eyelets for attaching the wire.
The lower 18 inches is made as an auger, so that the posts can be
quietly screwed into the ground at night and the wire attached.
Another method of placing wire entanglements is to make them in
sections and roll them up. These sections are usually about 20 feet
long, the wire firmly fastened to the sharpened stakes. At a favorable
moment the soldiers rush out, unrolling the sections as they go and
with mauls quickly drive the stakes. Loose ends of wire enable the
sections to be bound together as placed.

Another form of wire entanglement is shown in (Fig. 18). Triangular
pyramids 3 feet 6 inches high are made of poles or timber. The
pyramids are usually arranged in pairs with the wire on three faces so
that, no matter if the obstacle is rolled over, a wire fence is
presented. These obstacles are carried out and placed so as to break
joints and are staked down as soon as possible.

[Illustration: Fig. 18

Substitute for Posts.]

The wire used for entanglements is found more convenient to handle
when wound on a stake a yard in length, in a sort of figure eight
winding. Special barbed wire of heavier material and barbs placed
close together has been found much more effective than the commercial
barbed wire.

In some localities electrified wire has been used. In such cases the
obstacle is charged in sections, so that, if one section is grounded
it will not affect the others.

=1189. Wire cheveaux de frise.= Two forms of this obstacle have
appeared. Both are portable. They consist of two or more wooden
crosses fastened at their centers to a long pole and connected with
each other by barbed wire. This obstacle retains its effectiveness
when rolled over. (Figs. 19 and 20) give an idea of their
construction. The form shown in (Fig. 19) is often made small enough
for individuals to carry. These are prepared in the trenches and used
for throwing into one's own entanglements to make them more complex or
may be carried when making an assault and thrown into the enemy's
trenches to prevent movements from one part of the trench to another.
The long stick projects out of the end to be used as a handle.

[Illustration: Fig. 19

Wire Cheveaux de Frise]

[Illustration: Fig. 20

Wire Cheveaux de Frise]

=1190. Guarding obstacles.= It has been found necessary to keep a
constant watch over obstacles after they have been placed.

=1191. Listening posts.= One of the best methods is to post one or
more men in listening posts in or beyond the line of obstacles. These
listening posts are rifle pits with over head cover, fully protected
from fire from the rear as well as front, and loop holes for
observation and fire. They are connected with the fire trenches by
means of a covered communication or even tunnels in some cases and are
provided with some form of prompt communication with the firing
trenches by telephone, bell or other means. The communicating trench
or tunnel is provided with a strong door which may be closed to
prevent an enemy from securing access to the fire trench, in case the
lookout is surprised. Pits with trap doors are also used to prevent an
enemy from creeping up the tunnel to the fire trench.

These lookouts can give early warning of the approach of an enemy,
either for the purpose of assault or cutting through the obstacles. In
many instances they have detected mining operations of the enemy by
hearing the blows of picks under ground.

=1192. Automatic alarms.= Many automatic alarms have been used to give
warning of attack on the obstacles. These vary from the simple setting
of a pistol or rifle, which is fired when the enemy attempts to cut
through the entanglement, to intricate electrical alarms.

=1193. Searchlights.= Searchlights have been provided so that, the
instant an alarm is given the obstacles are flooded by a brilliant
light and the enemy exposed to fire.



CHAPTER XII

TRENCH AND MINE WARFARE[14]


=1194. Asphyxiating gases.= The asphyxiating gases employed may be
divided into three general classes, viz:

_Suffocating gases_, the most common of which are carbonic and
nitrogen.

_Poisonous gases_, under which head come carbon monoxide and cyanogen.

_Gases which affect the throat and bronchial tubes_, such as chlorine
and bromine. The latter class is most commonly employed.

The methods usually employed for liberating these gases are to have a
plant some distance in rear of the trenches where the gas is stored
under pressure and carried to the trenches through pipes, where it can
be liberated towards the enemy's trenches when there is a favorable
wind to carry it along; or, the gas may be carried in cylinders or
other containers and liberated at the desired points. Hand grenades or
bombs are also employed which, upon bursting, liberate the gas or in
some cases scatter acids or caustic soda. Some of these bombs contain
a chemical which when liberated affects the eyes, causing impaired
vision. The Germans employ several kinds of shell containing gases of
different densities, one of heavy gas fired as a curtain to the rear
to permit reinforcement of the trenches and another of lighter gas to
demolish the trenches and destroy the firing line. As a general rule
these gases are employed when the fire trenches of the opposing forces
are close together though the shell containers may be used at long
ranges. All of these gases being heavier than air lie close to the
ground and flow over and down into the trenches.

=1195. Protection against gases.= The best protection against these
gases, is a mask of some kind. The commonest form employed is a
flexible mask that conforms to the head, is fitted with glass for
seeing through, and has an arrangement of tubes and valves which
require the wearer to inhale through his nose and exhale through his
mouth.

These masks have an absorbent composed of hyposulphite of sodium or of
72 per cent of the nitrous thiosulphate and 28 per cent of bicarbonate
of soda. This absorbent placed so that air must be breathed through
it, neutralizes the acids in the gases. Soldiers are provided with
these masks, sometimes with two of them, and are required to have them
renewed every three months.

Trench sprays may be used to spray neutralizing liquid in the trenches
to kill the gases.

The _favorable conditions_ for the employment of gases are wind
blowing toward the enemy's trenches and warm weather. _Unfavorable
conditions_ are rain, cold, and adverse winds.

In some localities weather vanes placed in the direction of the
enemy's trenches and arranged so that they may be watched at night
give an indication of favorable winds and enable the defender to
prepare for a gas attack.

Before the masks were provided bonfires were prepared of oil soaked
materials which; when ignited, produced an intense heat and the
resulting column of air diverted the gas clouds.

=1196. Liquid fire.= By use of hand or motor driven pumps, and a light
grade of petroleum, columns of liquid fire may be squirted into the
opposing trenches. If the oil should fail to remain lighted it may be
fired by bursting hand grenades or throwing fire balls into the
trenches. This means of attack is employed when opposing trenches are
close together.

As a defense measure ditches may be dug in front of the trenches and
filled with a porous material which is then soaked with oil. Heavy
oils, being hard to ignite, are not dangerous to the defense, and will
remain with little loss for a long time. To make sure of prompt
ignition gas lines are laid in the ditches. When turned on the gas
readily ignites and the resulting fire produces great heat. Wire or
barbed wire looped in the ditches and staked down makes this a
formidable obstacle.

=1197. Grenades and bombs= are containers, designed to be thrown by
hand, by a sling, fired as a rocket or from specially constructed
mortars, or dropped from aerial craft. They burst by time or
percussion fuses and may be improvised in a variety of forms and are
most useful in close attack or defense. Their effect is local but they
are very demoralizing to men's nerves.

=1198. Hand grenades= are designed to be thrown by the hand and vary
greatly in construction. In general, however, they consist of a
container filled with bullets or pieces of iron or other metal in the
center of which is a charge of high explosive which scatters the
bullets or fragments with deadly effect. The three methods of
discharging a hand grenade are:

_By time fuse_ which is lighted by hand. About 5 to 9 seconds is the
time from ignition until the grenade bursts. This does not give the
defender time to pick up the bomb and throw it out of the trench.

_By friction primer and fuse._ In this form of hand grenade a strap on
the wrist with a short line attached with a hook on the end of it
serves, when the hook is engaged in the ring of the grenade, to jerk
the primer when the grenade is thrown. This automatically ignites the
fuse which bursts the grenade in from 4 to 5 seconds.

_By percussion._ In this form of grenade the charge is fired when the
grenade strikes the ground or object at which it is thrown. In this
form of grenade a safety pin holds the plunger from the cap. When the
grenade is to be thrown the safety pin is withdrawn.

As a general rule fuse burns at the rate of 1 inch in 1 and 1/4
seconds; however each lot of fuse should be tested.

Figs. 1 and 2 show two forms of improvised grenades. Common cans, such
as preserved fruits and vegetables are shipped in commercially, make
good containers. The usual weight of a hand grenade is about 1-1/2
pounds.

[Illustration: Fig. 1

Hair Brush Bomb]

[Illustration: Fig. 2

Hand Grenade]

=1199. Other methods of throwing grenades.= Many grenades have been
designed to be fired from the ordinary rifle. This grenade has a rod
which is inserted in the barrel of the rifle. A special charge of
powder is used in the cartridge from which the bullet has been
withdrawn.

Common slings, catapults, and other devises have been frequently used.

=1200. Aerial mines.= (Fig. 3.) This form of grenade is very heavy,
often weighing 200 pounds and is fired from a trench mortar.

[Illustration: Fig. 3

_Aerial Mine_]

=1201. Winged torpedo.= (Fig. 4.) This projectile is fitted with three
winged vanes which steady its flight and greatly increase the
accuracy. A rod fitted into its base enables it to be fired from a
comparatively small trench, mortar. The torpedo weighs about 40 pounds
and the mortar 200 pounds. The mortar, being light, can be carried
from one part of the trench to another by two men.

[Illustration: Fig. 4

_Winged Torpedo_]

The aerial mine and winged torpedo may be used effectively to beat
down the enemy's defenses, destroying his sand bags and trenches, and
cutting away wire entanglements and other obstacles. The winged
torpedo having a greater range (500 yards) and being more accurate, is
the more effective.

=1202. Bombs from air-craft= are some form of high explosive bomb
which burst on striking. Another type of bomb used by aeroplanes
consists of a container filled with steel darts. The bursting charge
is fired by a fuse. The operator usually cuts the fuse so that the
bomb will burst at a considerable altitude. The steel darts are
scattered in all directions and have sufficient velocity to pass
through a man or horse.

=1203. Protection against hand grenades.= (Fig. 5.) For protection
against hand grenades and bombs a screen of wire netting may be
erected in front of the trenches and arranged at such a slope that
most of the grenades passing over the screen will clear the trench
while those striking the netting will roll away from the trench. This
protection is very satisfactory for communications, machine gun
emplacements, etc., but, is of doubtful value in fire trenches as it
does not permit an easy offensive by the defenders.

[Illustration: Fig. 5

_Bomb Screen_]

=1204. Tanks.= The so-called "tanks," first used by the British armies
in the battle of the Somme in September, 1916, are in reality armored
caterpillar tractors carrying machine guns and capable of traversing
rough ground, smashing down trees and entanglements, and passing
across the ground between the opposing trenches over the shell holes
made by the opposing artillery.

The machinery, guns and crew are contained in an armored body and the
two tractor belts extend to full length on either side, being so
arranged that the tank can climb a steep slope. From the meager data
obtainable it would appear that the tanks carry from 4 to 6 machine
guns in armored projections built out from the sides. These are
provided with revolving shields permitting two guns to fire in any
direction at one time.

The principle of the tractor is similar to that of those manufactured
in the United States and used commercially in reclamation work. The
addition of the armored body and guns makes the "military tank."

These "tanks" have proven of great value in village fighting, by
smashing down barricades and driving machine guns from their positions
in cellars and houses. They have also been used with some success in
destroying obstacles.

The power of these new engines may be judged from their ability to
smash down trees six inches in diameter and by means of cables to
uproot trees as large as 15 inches in diameter.

These "tanks" are proof against rifle and machine gun fire, but are
unable to withstand even light artillery.

=1205. Helmets.= Steel helmets made their appearance in the European
war in 1915, as a protection to the soldier's head against rifle,
machine gun and shrapnel fire. So successful were they that they are
being furnished to all troops on the battlefield. Already several
millions have been supplied. Where heretofore head wounds accounted
for over 20 per cent of the casualties in trench warfare, the
percentage has been reduced by the wearing of helmets to about one
half per cent. While the helmet does not afford complete protection
against rifle and shrapnel fire, it has been found that hits result
only in severe concussion, where before fatal wound resulted. These
helmets are painted khaki color.

=1206. Masks.= Steel masks for sentinels and snipers have been adopted
by the Germans. This mask covers the head and face with curved
surfaces which deflect bullets. Small eye holes permit a clear view of
the target and a small section is omitted in the lower right side to
permit bringing the rifle against the cheek in firing.

=1207. Periscopes.= Periscopes have been universally adopted in trench
warfare for observing the enemy while keeping completely under cover.
It is a simple arrangement of two mirrors in a vertical tube. The
upper reflects the image of the object to the lower mirror which in
turn reflects it to the eye of the observer. By raising the top of the
periscope above the parapet the soldier can watch the foreground while
at the same time remaining completely concealed himself.

A more elaborate periscope for the control of artillery fire has a
collapsible tube which may be extended and elevated to a height of 75
feet.

=1208. Sniperscope.= This is a combination of the periscope and rifle
by means of which a soldier can aim and fire his piece at an object
without exposing himself above the parapet.

=1209. Aids to firing.= Rifles laid in notched boards placed in the
parapet may be sighted and prepared for night firing, or a wire
stretched just outside of the loophole on which the barrel of the
rifle can rest when in the proper firing position to cover certain
points, enables the soldier to fire effectively at night when it is
too dark to aim.

=1210. Mining.= Military mining consists of digging communications and
chambers underground and placing therein charges of explosives and
firing such charges. Mining is slow and restricted in its application
and therefore this method of attack is used against very strong points
of the enemy's line,--a salient, a building, or other point,--held in
great force. The aim in mine warfare is to make a sudden breach in the
enemy's trench, destroy the flanking supports which could be used to
stop this breach and then to take the trench by assault and organize
it for defense before the enemy's forces, disorganized from the
explosion, can recover.

Sometimes mines are placed in front of the trenches and exploded
electrically when the enemy reaches them in attempting an assault.

=1211. Countermining.= The enemy, when mining operations are
suspected, runs out tunnels to meet the opposing mine. Sometimes
listening galleries are driven underground and men posted to detect
the sound of mining operations. Once the direction of the opposing
tunnel is discovered a charge of explosive is laid across its approach
and fired at a moment when it will cause the most damage.


FOOTNOTES:

[14] To those desiring to go into the subject of trench warfare in
detail, the author would recommend "Trench Warfare," by himself.
George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis.; $1.25.



CHAPTER XIII

MARCHES

(Based on Infantry Drill Regulations and Field Service Regulations)


=1212. Marching principal occupation of troops in campaign.= Marching
constitutes the principal occupation of troops in campaign and is one
of the causes of heaviest loss. This loss, however, may be materially
reduced by proper training and by carrying out strictly the rules
regulating the conduct of marches, especially the rules of march
discipline.

=1213. Physical training; hardening new troops.= By systematic and
progressive physical exercises and actual marching, Infantry can be
accustomed to the fatigue of bearing arms and equipment.

With new or untrained troops, the process of hardening the men to this
work must be gradual. It should begin with ten-minute periods of
vigorous setting-up exercises three times a day to loosen and develop
the muscles. One march should be made each day with full equipment,
beginning with a distance of 2 or 3 miles and increasing the distance
daily as the troops become hardened, until a full day's march under
full equipment may be made without exhaustion.

=1214. Long march not to be made with untrained troops.= A long march
should not be made with untrained troops. If a long distance must be
covered in a few days, the first march should be short, the length
being increased each succeeding day.

=1215. A successful march.= A successful march, whether in peace or
war, is one that places the troops at their destination at the proper
time and _in the best possible physical condition_. Therefore, every
possible effort, by exercising care and judgment, and by enforcing
march discipline, must be made by all officers and noncommissioned
officers to have the troops reach their destination in good physical
condition,--"ready for business."


Preparation

=1216. The commander.= The commander must give such instructions as
will insure that the necessary preparations are made,--that the men
and animals are in fit condition and that the men are properly
equipped; that provision has been made for rations and ammunition;
that the wagons are properly loaded; that the necessary arrangements
have been made for caring for the sick, etc.

=1217. Organization commanders.= Every organization commander is
responsible that such of the above requirements as apply to his
organization are complied with.

=1218. Filling canteens.= It is an invariable rule that all canteens
must be filled before the march begins.


Starting

=1219. Time to start.= When practicable, marches begin in the morning,
ample time being allowed for the men to breakfast, animals to feed,
and the wagons or animals to be packed.

The time for reveille, if different from the usual hour, should be
announced the evening before.

The exact hour for the start depends, of course, upon circumstances.
However, as a rule, foot troops do not start before broad daylight;
mounted troops, when practicable, about an hour after broad daylight.

In order to avoid intense heat, especially in the tropics, and also,
in the case of long marches, to avoid reaching destination after dark,
an earlier start than usual must be made.

Both men and animals rest well in the early morning hours, and should
not, therefore, have this rest interrupted unless there is some real
necessity for it.

Starting at night or at an hour that will cause a part of the march to
be made at night, should, if possible, be avoided, because of the
difficulties and disadvantages of night marching.


Conduct of the march

=1220. The rate of march.= The rate of march varies with the length of
march, kind of troops, equipment carried, size of command, condition
of troops, state of the weather, condition of roads, and other
circumstances. However, whatever the rate may be it should be
_uniform_, that is most important, as there is nothing that will
irritate and tire a command more than a varying, un-uniform rate of
march.

The rate of march is regulated by the commander of the leading company
or some one designated by him, who should give the matter special
attention, _the rate being checked from time to time by a watch_.

On a march of several days' duration the position of companies is
ordinarily changed daily, so that each in turn leads.

With trained troops, in commands of a regiment or less, marching over
average roads, the rate should be from 2-3/4 to 3 miles per hour. With
larger commands carrying full equipment, the rate will be from 2 to
2-1/2 miles per hour.

Assuming that the length of step of the average man is 30 inches, the
following rate-of-march table is deduced:

    +------------------------+-------+
    |                        | Miles |
    |    Steps per minute    |  per  |
    |                        | hour  |
    +------------------------+-------+
    |  35 (1/5)              | 1     |
    |  70                    | 2     |
    |  88 (in practice, 90)  | 2-1/2 |
    |  97 (in practice, 100) | 2-3/4 |
    | 106 (in practice, 110) | 3     |
    +------------------------+-------+

[Note. By remembering that 35 (1/5) steps per minute gives 1 mile per
hour, the number of steps per minute necessary to give a rate of 2,
2-1/2, 2-3/4 and 3 miles per hour, is quickly and easily obtained by
multiplying 35 (1/5) by these numbers.]

In hot, sultry weather, with the men carrying the full pack, the rate
of march would naturally be considerably less than on a cool day, with
the command not carrying the pack. It is most important that these and
other considerations affecting the rate of march be constantly borne
in mind by the officer in command of the column, who should indicate
to the commander of the leading company the number of steps to be
taken per minute. In indicating the number of steps to be taken per
minute, it should be considered whether the men at the head of the
leading company are the average, above the average, or below the
average in height. A short man, for example, would probably have to
take 100 steps a minute to keep up with a tall man walking at the rate
of 90 steps per minute.

=1221. Marching capacity.= The average marching capacity of Infantry
is about 15 miles a day, but in extensive operations, involving large
bodies of troops, the average is about 12 miles a day. Small commands
of seasoned Infantry marching on good roads in cool weather can
average about 20 miles a day.

=1222. Halts.= A halt of 15 minutes should be made after the first
half or three quarters of an hour of marching to enable the men to
attend to the calls of nature and adjust their clothing. Judgment must
be exercised in selecting the place for this halt; it should not be
made in a village or other place where its object would be defeated.

After the first halt a halt of 10 minutes is made in each hour, that
is, the troops march 50 minutes and then halt 10. Of course, the
number and length of halts should be varied according to the weather,
condition of the roads and the equipment carried by the men. In the
tropics the best results are often obtained by marching 45 minutes and
halting 15.

When the day's march will run well into the afternoon, a halt of about
one hour should be made at noon and the men allowed to eat.

Places for long halts should be selected with care; woods, water and
shade are desirable features. Arms are stacked and equipments removed.

Halts should not be made in or near towns or villages unless to
procure water or supplies, and when so made, the men remain in column,
details being sent for whatever is necessary.

In hot weather, especially in the tropics, it may be advisable in the
case of long marches to halt for three or four hours during the
hottest part of the day and finish the march in the late afternoon or
early evening. As a general proposition, however, it is inadvisable to
arrive at a strange place after nightfall or even late in the
afternoon.

=1223. Crossing bridges and fords.= When a cause of delay,--for
example, a damaged bridge,--is encountered, the troops in rear are
notified of the minimum length of the delay; they then conduct
themselves as at regular halts.

In ascending or descending slopes, crossing streams or other
obstacles, or passing through defiles requiring a reduction of front,
every precaution is taken to prevent interruption of the march of the
troops in rear. If the distances are not sufficient to prevent check,
units are allowed to overlap; if necessary, streams are crossed at two
or more places at the same time; in passing through short defiles the
pace is accelerated and the exit cleared at once.

If a company unit is delayed while crossing an obstacle, the head
slackens the pace or halts until all of that unit has passed; it then
resumes its place in the column, increasing the pace, if necessary.

Before attempting to cross with bodies of troops, careful examination
is made of fords, boggy places, bridges of doubtful character, ice,
etc., as the case may be.

Troops must never cross a bridge in cadence,--that is, the men must
not be in step.

In fording a deep stream with a swift current, the men cross on as
broad a front as possible, marching abreast and holding hands. They
should not look at the water, but at the opposite shore. If the ford
is wide enough, mounted troops may cross at the same time on the
upstream side, thus breaking the force of the current.

Fords that are at all difficult delay long columns unless the troops
cross at several places at once.

=1224. Straggling and elongation of column.= The marching efficiency
of an organization is judged by the amount of straggling and
elongation of the column and the condition of the men at the end of
the march.

An officer of each company marches in its rear to prevent undue
elongation and straggling. If there be only one officer with a
company, the first sergeant performs this duty.

No man should leave the ranks without permission. If necessary for a
man to fall out on account of sickness, he should be given a permit to
do so by the company commander or the officer at the rear of the
company. This permit is presented to the surgeon, who will admit him
to the ambulance, have him wait for the trains, or follow and rejoin
his company at the first halt.

It is the duty of all officers and noncommissioned officers to prevent
straggling and elongation of the column.


MISCELLANEOUS

=1225. Forced marches.= A forced march may be said to be a march of
more than average length.

Forced marches seriously impair the fighting power of even the best
troops, and should be undertaken only in cases of necessity.

Such marches are generally made by increasing the number of marching
hours. For large columns of Infantry marching long distances, increase
of pace is seldom of value.

=1226. Night marches.= While night marches are some times made in very
hot weather to avoid the heat of the day, they are generally made for
the purpose of surprising the enemy, escaping observation by
aeroplane, or for securing a favorable position from which to attack
the enemy at dawn.

Moonlight and good roads are favorable for night marches.

Precaution must be taken that the proper road is followed and that
contact between units is maintained, men being stationed, if
necessary, to mark changes of direction. If necessary, guides are
secured and charged with the duty of following the right road. When,
due to unfavorable conditions, units cannot be kept well closed, men
will be placed at forks and crossings of roads, especially on very
dark nights.

When in hostile territory, silence is maintained; articles of
equipment are secured to prevent rattling, and smoking and talking are
not permitted. Also, under certain conditions villages and farmhouses
are avoided on account of warning given by dogs.

Night marches impair the efficiency of a command and are never
undertaken without good reason.

=1227. Compliments.= As a rule, troops on the march pay no
compliments; individuals salute when they address, or are addressed
by, a superior officer.

=1228. Protection on the march.= Protection on the march is furnished
by covering detachments known as advance guards, rear guards and flank
guards.

=1229. Fitting of shoes and care of feet.= In view of the fact that
the greater part of the Infantry soldier's occupation in the field
consists of marching, too much stress cannot be laid upon the
importance of his paying special attention to the fitting of his shoes
and the care of his feet.

An Infantryman with sore feet is like a lame duck trying to keep up
with the rest of the flock.

Keep your feet clean. Dirty feet invite blisters. An excellent
preventative against sore feet is to wash them every night in hot
(preferably salt) water and then dry them thoroughly. If this is not
practicable, then mop them every evening with a wet towel and
invigorate the skin with a good rubbing.

Keep the nails cut close.

Rubbing the feet with hard soap, grease, or oil of any kind, and
putting ordinary talcum powder in the shoes before starting on a
march, are very good to prevent sore feet.

Blisters should be pricked and the water let out, but the skin must
never be removed. Adhesive plaster on top of the blister will prevent
the skin from being pulled off.

In case of sore or blistered feet, considerable relief can be obtained
by rubbing them with tallow from a lighted candle and a little whiskey
or alcohol in some other form, and putting the socks on at once.

A little alum in warm water is excellent for tender feet.

The old soldier has learned from long experience in marching, to turn
his socks inside out before putting them on thus putting the smooth
side next to his skin and possible seams or lumps next to the shoe.
The thickness of the sock protects the skin and helps prevent
blisters.

_Under no circumstances should a soldier ever start on a march with a
pair of new shoes._

Each soldier should have on hand at all times two pair of serviceable
shoes well broken in.

Remember that it is much better to prevent sore feet by taking the
precautions outlined above, than it is to have to treat your feet
after they have become sore.



CHAPTER XIV

CAMPS


=1230. Principles governing selection of camp sites.= The following
basic principles govern in the selection of camp sites:

(a) The water supply should be sufficient, pure, and accessible.

(b) The ground should accommodate the command with as little crowding
as possible, be easily drained, and have no stagnant water within 300
yards.

(c) There should be good roads to the camp and good interior
communication.

(d) Camp sites should be so selected that troops of one unit need not
pass through the camp grounds of another to reach their own camp.

(e) Wood, grass, forage, and supplies must be at hand or obtainable.

(f) In campaign, tactical considerations come first in the selection
of camp sites, capability of defense being especially considered, and,
as a result, troops may have to camp many nights on objectionable
ground.

(g) However, sanitary considerations must always be given all the
weight possible consistent with the tactical requirements. Through no
fault of their own, troops occupying an unsanitary site may suffer
greater losses than in the battles of a long campaign.

=1231. Desirable camp sites.= The following conditions are desirable
for camp sites:

(a) Porous soil, covered with stout turf and underlaid by a sandy or
gravelly subsoil.

(b) High banks of rivers, provided no marshes are near.

(c) In cold weather, a southern exposure, with woods to the north to
break the cold winds.

(d) In warm weather, an exposure toward the prevailing winds, with
site moderately shaded by trees.

=1232. Undesirable camp sites.= The following conditions are
undesirable for camp sites:

(a) Clay soil, or where the ground water approaches the surface, such
sites being damp and unhealthful.

(b) Alluvial, marshy ground, and ground near the base of hills, or
near thick woods or dense vegetation are also damp.

(c) Ravines and depressions are likely to be unduly warm and to have
insufficient or undesirable currents.

(d) Proximity to marshes or stagnant water is usually damp, and has
mosquitoes, which transmit malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever.

(e) Old camp sites are dangerous, as they are often permeated by
elements of disease which persist for considerable periods.

(f) Dry beds of streams are subject to sudden freshets.

(g) In the tropics troops should not camp nearer than 500 yards to
native huts or villages because of danger from malari