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Title: Remodeled Farmhouses
Author: Northend, Mary H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Book Cover]



REMODELED
FARMHOUSES



[Illustration: THE CURTIS HOUSE FROM THE ROADSIDE]



REMODELED
FARMHOUSES


BY
MARY H. NORTHEND

AUTHOR OF "COLONIAL HOMES AND THEIR FURNISHINGS,"
"HISTORIC HOMES OF NEW ENGLAND," ETC.


_WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS_


[Illustration]


BOSTON
LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY
1915



_Copyright, 1915,_
BY LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY.



I DEDICATE THIS BOOK
TO MY FRIENDS IN MY NATIVE CITY
TO WHOM I AM INDEBTED
FOR MANY KINDNESSES



PREFACE


There is a certain fascination connected with the remodeling of a
farmhouse. Its low, raftered interior, its weather-beaten exterior,
never fail to appeal. Types vary with the period in which they were
built, but all are of interest.

In this collection, which has been pictured with great care, pains have
been taken to show as many different types as possible, so that the
student will be able to find numerous interesting details that can be
incorporated into his contemplated remodeling. In the study of this work
I have grown to feel a deep reverence for the old homes of our
forefathers, and have come to realize as never before the care and
painstaking thoroughness of the old master builders.

I wish to thank the owners of these homes who have so kindly thrown open
their doors to my inspection, and who have told me the interesting
stories connected with the houses.

Acknowledgment should be made to _American Homes and Gardens_ for
permission to use various articles of mine which they have previously
published.

In the contents of this book I trust there may be much of value to those
who are contemplating the remodeling of a farmhouse and that the work
will bring to them the same enjoyment that the study of the subject has
brought to me.

  MARY H. NORTHEND.
  AUGUST, 1915.



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                                           PAGE
         PREFACE                                                     vii
      I. IRISTHORPE                                                    1
     II. LIMOVADY                                                     15
    III. THE KITTREDGE HOUSE                                          28
     IV. THE CURTIS HOUSE                                             38
      V. GREEN MEADOWS                                                49
     VI. NAWN FARM                                                    61
    VII. BOULDER FARM                                                 71
   VIII. THREE ACRES                                                  84
     IX. THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE                                    100
      X. THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE                                   110
     XI. THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE                          124
    XII. THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE                           136
   XIII. LITTLE ORCHARD                                              146
    XIV. WILLOWDALE                                                  155
     XV. THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE                                166
    XVI. THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE                                       177
   XVII. THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE                               187
  XVIII. THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE                                    198
    XIX. THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE                                    208
     XX. THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE                              220
    XXI. HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE                                     231
   XXII. THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE                               243
         INDEX                                                       255



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


  THE CURTIS HOUSE FROM THE ROADSIDE                      _Frontispiece_

                                                             FACING PAGE
  IRISTHORPE, FRONT VIEW                                               4
    The Entrance Porch                                                 5
    From the Garden                                                    8
    The Entrance Porch, Another View                                   9
    The Dining Room, and the Living Room                              12
    The Morning Room, and the Out-door Living Room                    13

  LIMOVADY, REAR VIEW FROM THE GARDEN                                 18
    Side View                                                         19
    Two Views of the Living Room                                      22
    The Dining Room, and the Lounge                                   23
    Two of the Chambers                                               26

  AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE                                               27
    Side View                                                         30
    The Attic Chamber, and the Living Room                            31
    The Kitchen                                                       36

  THE CURTIS HOUSE, THE ENTRANCE PORCH                                37
    Before Remodeling, and Remodeled                                  42
    The Hall and Unique Stairway                                      43
    Side View, and the Dining Room                                    48

  GREEN MEADOWS, FRONT VIEW                                           49
    An Old-fashioned Chamber, and the Living Room                     56
    Two Views of the Den                                              57

  NAWN FARM, FRONT VIEW                                               64
    Rear View, and the Living Room                                    65
    Two Views of the Dining Room                                      68
    The China Closet in the Dining Room                               69

  BOULDER FARM, FRONT VIEW                                            74
    The Front Doorway                                                 75
    The Hall                                                          78
    The Den, and the Parlor                                           79
    Two Views of the Dining Room                                      84

  THREE ACRES, FROM THE MAIN ROAD                                     85
    Front View                                                        90
    Side View                                                         91
    A Corner of the Living Room                                       94
    The Living Room, and the Dining Room                              95

  THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE ON CAPE COD                               100
    Front View                                                       101
    Two Views of the Living Room                                     106
    The Attic Chambers                                               107

  THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE                                          112
    The Hallway                                                      113
    The Sun-Parlor or Out-door Nursery, and the Library              118
    Two of the Chambers                                              119
    The Nursery, and the Service Wing                                124

  THE CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE, FRONT VIEW SHOWING THE OLD WELL       125
    Before Remodeling                                                130
    Across the Lawn                                                  131
    The Hall and Stairway, and the Living Room                       134

  THE STUDIO OPPOSITE THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE                  135

  THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING                    138
    As Remodeled                                                     139
    Two Views of the Living Room                                     142
    The Dining Room, and the Music Room in the Studio Building       143

  LITTLE ORCHARD, THE HOUSE FROM THE DRIVEWAY                        148
    The Angle of the Ell                                             149
    The Stairway                                                     152
    The Entrance Porch, and the Dining Room                          153

  WILLOWDALE, BEFORE REMODELING, AND THE FRONT VIEW                  158
    The House from the Garden                                        159
    A Rear View, and the Living Room                                 162
    Two of the Chambers                                              163

  THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING, AND THE FRONT OF
      THE HOUSE                                                      166
    The House from the Terrace                                       167
    The Pergola-Porch                                                172
    The Hall, and the Alcove in the Living Room                      173
    The Den, and the Dining Room                                     176

  THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE                                              177
    The Stairway                                                     186

  QUILLCOTE, MRS. KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN'S SUMMER HOME                  187
    The Hall                                                         192
    Two Views of the Living Room                                     193
    The Den, and the Dining Room                                     196
    Two of the Chambers                                              197

  THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE, FRONT VIEW                               202
    Before Remodeling, and as Remodeled                              203
    The Pergola-Porch                                                206
    A First-floor Vista, and the Living Room                         207

  LONE TREE FARM                                                     212
    As Finally Remodeled, and the Sun-Parlor                         213
    The Living Room, and a Corner in the Dining Room                 218
    The Sewing Room, and the Den                                     219

  THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING                   224
    As Remodeled                                                     225
    The Living Room                                                  228
    Two Views of the Dining Room                                     229

  THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE                                          236
    The Living Room, and the Dining Room                             237
    Two Noteworthy Chambers                                          242

  THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE                                      243
    End View                                                         248
    The Hall                                                         249
    The Sun-Parlor, and the Living Room                              252
    The Den, and the Kitchen                                         253



CHAPTER I

IRISTHORPE


As you drove slowly along the country road, did you ever stop to
consider the many possibilities for development that lie hidden in the
old Colonial farmhouses found here and there? Some are situated quite a
distance from the main road, while others are placed practically on its
boundary line. Many of the types are disguised by the unattractive
additions that have been built to accommodate the growing needs of their
occupants. Others, with sagging roofs and weather-beaten exteriors,
stand mute witnesses of the days when our country was making history for
itself. Some of these unattractive old dwellings in their early days
sheltered the most ardent patriots of our land, men whose gallant deeds
have made them famous, and who now lie forgotten.

Fortunately for us, these old houses were not all built in the same
century, but present a variety of types which makes them all the more
interesting both to architect and house owner. The age of the house is
clearly defined in its design. Many of the earliest examples were framed
in white pine, a wood whose lasting qualities have been plainly shown
through their power to withstand the ravages of time. Others were
constructed of stone or brick and are equally interesting in character.
From an architectural standpoint, most of these houses, no matter how
dilapidated their condition, show good lines. To be sure, these are
often hidden under poor surroundings, for as the families grew larger
and additions became necessary, the new parts were often badly placed.
This makes it hard for an inexperienced eye to detect where the old
house leaves off and the additions begin. It must be remembered that the
early tillers of the soil took little interest in their homes save as
shelters for themselves and families, and chose for their buildings
material that lay nearest at hand. All their ready money was expended in
the building of large and spacious barns to house their cattle.

There is a wealth of possibilities in the reconstruction of old
farmhouses that are easily recognized by the experienced eye of the
architect. The study of lines which determine the size and design of
the old building is most interesting and teaches a lesson in old-time
architecture which is extremely fascinating. The adaptation of the house
to new and different purposes, the creation of a picturesque result
wholly unlike and yet following the lines of the original building,
calls into play not only skilful designing but careful planning.

Many of these old houses contain fine woodwork which is often hidden
under layer upon layer of hideous wall-paper bought with an eye to price
rather than good taste. The fireplaces are sometimes bricked up and
plastered over to permit the use of a modern "air-tight"; the wainscot
and molding are buried under coats of unattractive paint and give little
impression of their value until the original walls and woodwork lie
bare. Some houses, more especially those situated near the coast and
erected during the period of commercial prosperity, were built by ship
carpenters and wood-carvers during dull seasons. In these, one comes
occasionally upon a wonderful old fireplace or perchance a porch that
shows artistic carving. Many of these old dwellings naturally show
original treatment, and it is to these that the architects of to-day
turn for details to be introduced into the modified Colonial house. They
were built by men who were forced to use their brains, since they were
unable to turn to books for ideas.

As originally built, many of them stood with their backs to the road,
their long, sloping roofs sweeping to the ground, their front doors
opening on to extensive farm lands. Before the door usually stood the
father and mother elm, their graceful branches seeming to hover
protectingly over the dwellings. Many of the trees were there when the
houses were built, while others have replaced their worthy sires and
contribute a bit of landscape picturing that adds much to the
attractiveness of the home.

In these old houses, more especially those that are past complete
restoration, the architect of to-day frequently finds choice old
woodwork. Sometimes it is a rare bit of pumpkin pine such as is seldom
seen; again it is a fine old wainscot, or a wonderful staircase that has
been saved from the ravages of time. Often some of these details are
introduced into another remodeled farmhouse to replace parts too far
gone to be used. The growing vogue of the country home has led to the
restoration of many of these old-time farmhouses and has saved many a
valuable structure from falling into decay. Fortunately the appreciation
of their possibilities came before it was too late to save them from
destruction, although many that could have done service were allowed to
go to ruin. There are, however, many fine examples still standing, and
some of these have been altered to suit modern uses. Little wonder the
old farmhouse has come into its own, its attractiveness after remodeling
making it available for summer or all-the-year-round uses. To-day there
is scarcely a farm or country resort that does not show one or more of
these old-time buildings in their new dress. Some have interesting
history connected with them and are associated with legends that have
been handed down from generation to generation. Often the house has been
photographed to show both its former appearance and the results of the
restoration. Some owners, however, have given little thought to the
original structure, and it is left to the imagination to picture the
house as it used to be.

[Illustration: IRISTHORPE--FRONT VIEW]

It was six years ago, while hunting for a place to locate a summer home,
that Doctor and Mrs. Homer Gage of Worcester, Massachusetts, discovered
at Shrewsbury a simple little farmhouse, showing no claim to
architectural beauty. It was such an unattractive, plain, little
building, that only the experienced eye could discover its fine lines.
This house stood close by the dusty highway; the fence which formed the
boundary line had fallen into decay, while the farm lands, run down
through hard usage, showed no trace even of an old-fashioned garden,
such as many of the housewives of the earlier day so loved to tend. The
house was built before the Revolutionary War, being erected in 1760, and
was considered in those days to be a good example of what a farmhouse
stood for. Surely it was an excellent type, considering the usual lines
in the New England farmhouses of that day,--this small, unpretentious
dwelling, whose entrance door out of plumb and windows irregularly
placed made a curious combination that was in reality fascinating and
appealing.

It was two stories in height, with an attic under the eaves,--a hot
little place during the summer months and cold in winter, but good for
storage of furniture and unnecessary household belongings. The roof had
a pitch at the back and sloped to meet the kitchen, which was only one
story in height. Two sturdy, six-foot chimneys had been built on one
side of the house, as stoves were unknown in those days. The frame was
of white pine, well seasoned, and the timber hand-hewn, with the mark of
the adze plainly showing in the beams, for it was built when honest
labor prevailed and was as stanch as in the days when the bush stuck in
the chimney or ridge-pole showed that the carpenters' work was done. The
farm buildings were connected with the main house and comprised a barn,
hen-house, corn-crib, and byre, all huddled together in the most compact
kind of way. It had not been occupied since Doctor Brown, the original
owner, paid his last visit and left the house to its fate. The interior
was not as dilapidated as in most old houses, being in tolerably good
repair. And so, with little alteration, it was used as a dwelling house,
while the new home which was being built near the center of the estate
was erected.

After the cellar was built and the foundation partly laid, the work on
the new house was stopped. There was something about the old clapboarded
farmhouse that appealed so strongly to the new occupants that they fell
under its charm and decided not to supplant it by a modern home. But
the house stood too near the road; there was no privacy and no freedom
from dust. It was of such solid construction, however, that its moving
could be easily accomplished. So, slowly but surely, it slid down the
hill and finally rested on the foundations which had been designed for
the summer house.

[Illustration: The Entrance Porch]

Under the direction of Mr. George Hunt Ingraham, the remodeling was
begun. The old lines of the roof were left unaltered, and although more
room was needed, dormers were left out in its reconstruction. Nothing,
the new owners felt, could so destroy the lines of the house as to break
them with intrusions such as this. The long, unbroken skyline is one of
its greatest charms, and even the long slope at one side, reaching down
and over the one-story kitchen ell, has been carefully retained and adds
not a little to the harmonious effect of the whole structure. At the
front was added a small porch showing Colonial treatment, in the center
of which hang graceful vases filled with iris. The same latticed effect
was carried out across the front of the house in the space between the
windows of the first and second stories. On either side of the main
dwelling, outdoor living-rooms were secured by the introduction of
screened piazzas, the roofs of which were painted with water-proof
paint. One of these living-rooms opens on to a water-garden with its
arches of roses at one side of the house. It is fitted up with willow
furniture, in the coverings of which is introduced the prevailing
flower, the iris, which is also shown in the table cover and the shape
of the vase filled with the same flowers. The opposite porch is also
fitted up as a living-room and overlooks the home garden. The exterior
of the house is painted white with conventional green blinds, the
chimneys following the same treatment, while the windows remain
unchanged. The massive stone fireplaces were not taken out, although the
old kitchen chimney had to be altered slightly in order to meet present
needs. The house to-day overlooks extensive grounds and is embowered in
a wealth of rambler roses and iris. It resembles the old house in its
lines but shows in its remodeled form a most wonderful effect and
reveals what beautiful results can be obtained by correct restoration.

[Illustration: From the Garden]

The house is named "Iristhorpe," the name being chosen by the mistress
of the house, who since her childhood has taken great interest in the
iris because of a fairy tale told her by her grandmother, in which the
flower was supposed to be the home of the fairies.

[Illustration: The Entrance Porch. Another View]

With modern methods of living, it would have been an impossibility to
retain the old house in its entirety. More room was needed, and a
service department was an absolute necessity, but in its enlargement
such careful attention was paid to carrying out the lines of the
original type that to-day it is almost an impossibility to find where
the old house leaves off, and the new one commences. In the old
structure, as it stood facing the main road, there were three rooms in a
row on the first floor, with the kitchen ell attached at the rear, and
the upper part of the house cut up into small rooms. In remodeling,
these rooms were changed over into morning-room, living-room, and
library, and occupy the entire front of the house, just as they did in
the original building. They are connected with doors so carefully placed
in line that they give one the impression of greater space than is
really found at Iristhorpe. At the rear, the old kitchen was converted
into a most attractive hallway and stairway, with closets and lavatory
located at the farther side.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

The dining-room, which is at the rear of the living-room, has been added
and conforms in every respect to the original design of the old house.
Back of this are the service rooms, which are admirably planned and
equipped with butler's pantry, servants' dining-room, kitchen pantry,
rear hall, and stairway, together with a kitchen. In the remodeling, the
second story was divided into four servants' bedrooms, a bathroom, and a
large sewing-room at the rear. An interesting feature is that this
department has no connection on the second floor with any other room in
the house.

The porch door opens directly into the living-room, which has never been
changed from its original place in the old house. Its central feature is
the old fireplace, which has been opened at the opposite side into the
new dining-room. This was originally the old kitchen chimney and
contained the brick oven. It has been bricked in for modern use, and
here, as throughout the house, the iris motive prevails. It is shown in
the graceful andirons, in the coverings of the Sheraton wing chair, in
the sofa pillows, and even in the lamp-shade. This room contains fine
woodwork, which is, in fact, a noticeable feature of every part of the
house, and the Colonial idea has been carefully carried out in all the
furniture used.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

The library opens out from the living-room at the right, and from that
one passes to the outdoor living-room. On the opposite side of the
living-room is the den or morning-room, with glass doors which open on
to the porch. Here again the iris is always the motive of decoration. In
this room particularly the old paneling has been retained, as have the
old strap hinges and latches, which, when missing, have been replaced by
others of like design. This room was originally the doctor's office, and
in the cupboard was found, at the purchase of the house, some of his old
stock.

One of the most interesting rooms is the dining-room, which contains an
old brick oven and paneling so exactly corresponding to the character of
the original that at first glance it is impossible to differentiate
between them, either in age or workmanship. The window sashes, with
their small well-shaped panes, give to the room an appropriate scale,
and the old iron and brass hinges and latches lend an effective tone.
The iris, charming in nature and no less decorative in its
conventionalized form, appears here and there in the carved woodwork and
always gives a delicate twist to the Colonial design it embellishes. The
beamed ceiling carries out the old-time idea, while wonderful
Japanese panels have been inserted in the finish over the fireplace, and
huge iron andirons show an exact reproduction of the fleur-de-lis. This
flower is found also in the cushions of the Chippendale chairs, the
decoration of the table, the china, and in a beautiful Japanese screen
of most graceful design that hides the service entrance into this room.

[Illustration: The Morning Room]

The white woodwork is a noticeable feature of the interior, where
harmony has been so carefully maintained that on entering one feels as
if he were in a really old house, rather than one restored. It should be
noted that in the architectural treatment, especial consideration has
been given to lighting and air; the windows have been distributed so
that the light is concentrated, giving the rooms an effect of
cheerfulness that could not be obtained otherwise. Even the hanging of
the curtains, which are of the Colonial type, adds to the charm of the
house.

[Illustration: The Out-door Living Room]

The bedrooms, on the second floor, of which there are four, show the
same low stud that is characteristic of the lower floor. They are small
but most conveniently fitted up, even to the conversion of a small
closet, which the architect had considered impractical for use, into an
extra bathroom. Every bit of available space has been made usable.

An unusual feature is the guest house, which has been created in the
second story of the large stable which stands at one side of the estate.
This is especially useful for week-end parties. The loft has been
converted into a suite of bedrooms, pool-rooms, and a screened veranda
that can be used for sleeping accommodations.

Iristhorpe might be called a conventional farmhouse, one of the type met
with on almost every country road. It has no exterior adornment of any
kind, but is a fine example of how a picturesque building can be evolved
from an unattractive one, and is probably one of the best examples of
remodeling that can be found. The house is typical of the best American
architecture, and credit should be given the pioneer who first laid the
foundation of the old farmhouse. As Iristhorpe now stands, its graceful
lines cannot be improved upon, and clever as the alterations undoubtedly
are, the great fascination that grips us as we view the house arises
from the fact that it is a part of the early architecture, when hewn
beams were first primed together, and when dwellings were erected that
would endure for centuries.



CHAPTER II

LIMOVADY


First the electric car and now the automobile have solved the problem of
accessibility which until recently confronted those who would have
returned to the old homestead even sooner, had it been nearer the town.
But to-day the house must be far away indeed if it cannot be easily
reached from the more active centers, and probably this fact more than
any other has opened up for the enjoyment of the younger generations the
natural charm of the countryside endeared to our forefathers. In the
roomy, old-fashioned farmhouses of New England, surrounded by stately
trees and overlooking acres upon acres of rolling pasture and meadow
land, unlimited opportunities are offered for the development of the
country home.

In remodeling these houses of the early builders, any radical departure
from the original scheme is seldom necessary. Rather should the lines
and motives be sacredly preserved to accentuate their old-time charm,
and modern improvements introduced unobtrusively and with such care that
the final result is indeed a restoration and not an alteration. The
mellowing passage of time has dealt gently with many of our old homes,
and history and romance have woven about them an added fascination for
every generation to enjoy. When the work of restoration is commenced,
the problem of retaining this charm is often a difficult one. In some
instances it would seem as if nothing short of pure inspiration had
guided the hands of the remodelers of many of the quaint and irregular
old houses that stand by the side of the road.

The old house is nearly always in harmony with its surroundings; if it
did not seem a part of the landscape when it was built, it has at least
had time to grow into it through the years, and the problem of all
remodeling is to preserve in the completed structure the atmosphere that
will make it appear to have always belonged where it stands. While the
first thought of our forefathers was to provide an adequate home, they
undoubtedly possessed a peculiar instinct in the choice of a picturesque
location. By selecting the site best adapted to their needs, the house
seemed literally to grow out of the land, and herein lies the secret of
more than half the allurement of the old-fashioned structures. The
intimacy between house and grounds seems as strong as were the family
ties of those hardy pioneers who laid the foundations of American
civilization.

More practical considerations in regard to the environment than
picturesqueness confront the house owner, however, and one of the most
important is that of water supply and drainage. These must necessarily
be kept far apart. A gentle incline is the best location for a dwelling,
so that the one may come to the house from higher ground above, and the
other be carried off below. A hollow is bad, because the water will not
readily flow away from it; it is always damp and hot, as it is shut in
from the breezes. On too steep a hillside, heavy rains will work havoc
with lawns, walks, and flower beds.

The slope of the land should be considered in reference to the
prevailing winds. The house should be placed so that the cool breezes of
summer blow upon the living-room side and not upon the kitchen, or all
the heat and odors from cooking will fill the rooms, and they will
always be hot and stuffy. The attractiveness of the immediate outlook
should be noted, and it is well to ascertain if there are any
objectionable features which cannot be removed or which are likely to
arise within immediate prospect. The character and proximity of the
neighbors will play a large part in the enjoyment of a summer home. If
the house is not set well back on the property, it should at least be
screened with full-grown trees and shrubbery to obtain the seclusion
desired. Old trees add greatly not only to the attractiveness of a place
but to its actual value and comfort, for it takes a long time to grow
new trees that will provide adequate shade from the heat of summer suns.

There is an illustration of a thus happily situated farmhouse at
Georgetown, about thirty miles from Boston, known as the Jewett house,
which was built in 1711. It is typical of an old Dutch lean-to and has a
great central chimney twelve feet square, with four flues. Snuggled down
in the midst of rolling grass land, it made an attractive picture in its
surroundings of old elms. It stood far back from the road and was
approached by a long lane that wound among splendid trees to the front
of the house. Like many dwellings of this period, its back was toward
the main road, and the front door opened upon a wide expanse of shady
meadows which in the summer were bright with many-colored wild
flowers. Between the house and the road there was a wide stretch of
green grass which has been transformed into an old-fashioned flower
garden, planted about a small, cement-lined pool and water garden.

[Illustration: Rear View from the Garden]

This house was discovered several years ago by a young Southerner who
had come north from her sunny home in Kentucky to find a summer abode
for her brother and herself. The house as it stood was in a very
dilapidated condition, and only an artist would have realized its
possibilities. But about it was a warmth of atmosphere that appealed to
the enthusiastic Southerner. Not the least of its attractions were the
elms that cast their protecting shadows not only over the long avenue
which led to the house but over the dwelling itself; many of them were
patriarchs of the primeval forests when their younger companions were
yet in seed; others were set out later, to add their charm to the
forsaken home.

[Illustration: LIMOVADY--SIDE VIEW]

It was purchased in 1906, and the work of restoration was immediately
commenced. The outside was weather-beaten and guiltless of paint. The
roof sagged, and the great stone chimney needed repair. It was propped
up and made thoroughly safe, and the old roof was entirely-rebuilt, but
the original lines were closely followed. Viewing the house as it stands
to-day, one realizes what attractive apartments can be evolved from ugly
interiors, and what interesting results ingenuity and good judgment can
bring about.

The interior showed coat after coat of vivid tint and layer after layer
of atrociously colored wall-paper. The rooms, originally large and
square, had been divided and partitioned off to meet the needs of
growing families; many of them were small and hopelessly unattractive.
But there were latent possibilities.

When the house was first purchased, the owner went over the inside
herself to discover the original lines. As in many houses of the kind,
it was easy to restore the size of the room by following beams and
knocking out partitions. It must be remembered that the usual plan in
houses of that period was to construct a large, square room in the
center with small rooms opening off from it which were used as chambers.

The work of decorating, and, as far as possible, the remodeling itself,
was done by Mrs. William Otis Kimball and her brother. Along the front
of the house a screened, outdoor living-room has been added. The
original building consisted of four rooms on the first floor. The front
door opened into a small hall, to the right of which was the great
living-room, and to the left the dining-room. Back of the former was a
guest room, and back of the latter the old kitchen.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Living Room]

In the living-room, the flooring, which was composed of boards often two
feet wide, was in such good condition that it was left intact, treated
to a black walnut stain, and shellacked. The height of the ceiling was
but seven feet; so the heavy beams of swamp oak were boxed in and
painted white, and the space between whitewashed. The walls, which were
covered with ten tiers of paper, each one uglier than the last, were
cleared to the boarding. The last one was found to be a wonderfully fine
landscape paper, which showed that an early owner of the house must have
been a person of means, who probably had it brought over in one of the
merchant-ships during the time of commercial prosperity, when
Newburyport had a lively trade with foreign lands. The walls were
treated with a water paint colored a creamy pumpkin tint that makes the
room seem always well lighted. It is a most inexpensive finish, such as
is used by scene painters in a theater, and can be put on with an
ordinary-whitewash brush. The wainscot was stained dark brown to
harmonize with the floors. Around the top of the room the owner painted
a frieze of conventionalized pomegranates, which follow the color scheme
of the woodwork and wall. The old fireplace, which had been closed up,
was opened, and the over-mantel enriched with a splendidly decorative
painting by the artist herself, representing a Normandy boar hunt about
1330.

After it was remodeled, the room measured twenty-four by twenty-six
feet, the original size when the house was first built. It is now used
as a living-room and library. Inexpensive shelves, made of boards
stained to match the wainscot, are fastened along the walls. In places
there is a single shelf; sometimes two are placed about twelve inches
apart, and they are used for books, pictures, and ornaments. The windows
are curtained with an appropriate simplicity that is unusually
attractive. Unbleached cotton is used for the over-curtains and
decorated with a border of richly colored cretonne, corresponding in
color and conventionality of design to the painted frieze on the
walls.

The hallway is five feet in width and has been kept in the original
boards. They are stained in tones of soft brown which harmonize
splendidly with the varying color schemes of the rooms that open on
either side. Opposite the entrance door is a narrow, winding staircase
whose white steps and balustrade contrast sharply with the dark woodwork
and hand-rail. Half way up is the old nightcap closet from which, in the
early days, our forefathers took their nightly toddy. Underneath the
stairs is a secret closet so carefully hidden in the panels that only
those familiar with it can find it. This was known in Colonial days as
the "priest hole," and it was here, so the legend runs, that French
refugees were secreted during the French and Indian wars.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

The dining-room opens off the hallway at the left. It is a long, narrow
room with a fireplace at one side of the end nearest the hall. The
woodwork has been finished in a dark stain, and the old corner cupboard
has been kept intact. The fireplace wall is paneled in swamp pine, and
over the mantel there is a secret panel cupboard. The lower part of the
walls is covered with dark green burlap, and above is a decorative paper
in boldly striking colors. There is a long, refectory dining-table in
this room, made of stout oak boards, and the other furniture has a
monastic simplicity which is entirely in keeping with the character of
the room.

The small room at the rear of the living-room is used as a guest chamber
and is known as the missionary room. Here the walls are tinted a soft
moss green, and ornamented at the top by a black and white frieze that
pictures the different stages of a missionary's life. He is shown from
the time of his arrival on the lonely island to his chase and capture by
a band of cannibals, and finally being roasted amidst scenes of hilarity
as they turn his fat form on the spit.

The studio was originally the kitchen and opens out of this room. The
woodwork is of the same dark brown tint used through all the lower
story, and the walls are hung with natural colored burlap. The principal
features of the room are its fireplace and quaint Dutch oven which were
built into the center of the twelve-foot chimney when the house was
erected. From the pothook on the crane hangs an old Colonial kettle. Of
almost equal interest are the small-paned windows which are closed by
sliding inside panels.

The present kitchen has been added at the rear. It has white walls
decorated with a frieze in which lobsters disport themselves in
different attitudes.

A small closet at one side of the passage that leads into the kitchen
has been utilized for a bathroom. It is finished in white with a dado of
tiles painted with turtles.

[Illustration: The Lounge]

When the house was first purchased, there was an old barn on the
property a short distance away. This was moved up and connected with the
house. It opens from the dining-room and has been converted into a
lounge room, with servants' quarters at the rear. This room is one of
the most interesting in the house. It is finished in stained pine, and
the old rafters and woodwork have been left as they originally were. The
spaces between the heavy beams of the ceiling are white, the beams being
black with a narrow band of peacock blue above.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two of the Chambers]

The originality used in finishing the house is evidenced nowhere better
than in the chambers, on the second floor. Each one has been decorated
with a different flower, and they are known as the holly-hock, the sweet
pea, the wistaria, and the morning-glory room. A frieze of the
particular flower has been painted around, and the canopies and bed
coverings show the same design and colors in cretonne.

A small room in the barn wing, which was not large enough to be
converted into a chamber as it stood, has been utilized for this purpose
by opening up a large, connecting closet into an alcove to hold the bed.
It is so arranged that at night the bed can be pulled out into the
center of the room, and in the daytime hidden behind curtains drawn
across the alcove.

There are quaint old four-posters in all of the bedrooms, and
old-fashioned and simple furniture is used throughout the house. Some of
it is home-made, and in many of the rooms are bookcases constructed from
packing-boxes, and hung across with curtains of the cretonne used
elsewhere in the room.

In altering many old houses for modern occupancy, there has been a
greater expenditure than would have been required to build an entirely
new structure. But in this instance the charm of the old home has been
retained with a considerably smaller outlay than would have been
necessary to erect another of equal size and facilities.

There is an undeniable satisfaction in realizing that all has been
gotten out of a venture of this kind that was possible, and that no
offense has been committed against the spirit of the old house. Every
one who has attempted remodeling obtains different results from those
first planned, for as the work proceeds, new possibilities and new
limitations constantly appear, till the completed building has an
individuality unrealized in the beginning.

In Limovady, as this little country place is named, we find a good
example of what can be done to make an old house not only a livable but
a delightful home, and it is a success such as this that inspires other
home seekers to remodel, according to their own ideas. For no two people
will be likely to conceive the reconstruction of a home in just the same
way, and it is this stamp of individuality that lends to the remodeled
house a large part of its charm.



CHAPTER III

THE KITTREDGE HOUSE


Have you ever noticed the fishermen's little cottages that stand along
the seacoast wherever modern summer resorts have not displaced them?
From a modern architectural point of view, they would at first seem
quite insignificant, and yet, hidden away beneath the rough exteriors,
there are often interesting lines and good proportions. The humble
fishermen who dwelt there cared little for external appearance, but they
built their cottages strong and solid and, though unpretentious, they
were comfortable.

These little old houses, seemingly commonplace though they may be, hold
much more interest for the prospective house owner and the architect
than do the more elaborate ones of later periods. For wherever men have
utilized what skill and intelligence they have to satisfy definite needs
in the simplest, most straightforward way, they have achieved something
of lasting worth.

The ages of these old seacoast houses vary just as do those farther
inland. Some were built long before the Revolution and others at a much
more recent date. Some have fallen into hopeless decay, while others are
still stanch and habitable. The possible purchaser should make a careful
examination both inside and out before he decides to remodel. Sometimes,
from a superficial survey, an old house may appear sturdy enough to
warrant renovation, but a closer investigation will prove that this
would be an expensive business. For the old timbers often hold together
firmly because they have all settled together as a unit; if any one is
disturbed, the rest may be greatly weakened or even threaten to fall
apart, like the proverbial house of cards.

The first indication of dangerous weakness is a sagging roof. If the
lines are even a little concave, it is a bad sign, for the roof would
not have settled had the walls held absolutely true. Because of pressure
against them, they have been forced apart and perhaps are on the point
of tumbling down altogether. If the roof passes its test well, then
examine the line of the walls and be sure they are absolutely vertical
and have neither spread nor fallen inward.

Next study the condition of the timbers. The sill is the most important
one. If it is badly-decayed, all the other members resting upon it will
have been thereby weakened and the whole structure impaired. The upright
timbers and the studs will all have settled, and to straighten them will
mean practically the rebuilding of the house. The floors and the roof
which rest upon them will be endangered. Sometimes the ends of the
uprights have rotted, and the slightest new work about them will result
in their crumbling and undermining the beams and rafters they support.
It is often necessary to use a sharp iron or a long knife and pry
underneath the coverings on both the exterior and the interior to
determine their condition. A little attention given to these points will
determine whether it is worth while to attempt remodeling, or whether
the expense involved would be out of all proportion to the result.

Scarcely less vital is the condition of the cellar. Is there dampness,
caused by lack of ventilation, by bad walls, or by some inherent
moisture? Some of these old houses have a well in the cellar; this
should be drained off and filled up. But if there is an actual spring of
water, as not infrequently occurs, either move the house or abandon
it. Bad walls can be cemented and waterproofed. If the trouble comes
from lack of light and air, it may be possible to cut larger window
openings. Most old houses were set too low, however, and it is
frequently an advantage to raise them. This requires sound underpinning,
or the expense will be great.

While considering the subject of dampness, it is well to examine the
roof and see how much it leaks under the moss-grown shingles. If it is
an old house that is in tolerably good repair at the present time, it
may be that under some previous owner the roof fell into decay, and
rains soaked through. Look for signs of this, for it will mean weakness
in timbers and plaster that must be guarded against. Examine the boards
of the roof to see if they are strong enough to permit the laying of new
shingles.

The chimney is another important matter to investigate. In old houses
which have not been used for some time, the bricks often deteriorate and
become so soft that they crumble at the touch. This would necessitate
the not inconsiderable expense of rebuilding the whole chimney, unless
it is so large that a second smaller one may be inserted within the old.
With the huge fireplaces of other days, whose yawning mouths were often
capable of holding a ten-foot log, a metal flue is frequently used in
the remodeling. It is surrounded on the outside, between itself and the
old chimney, with concrete, which renders it entirely safe from danger
of fire.

A glance should be given also, in this inspection, at the condition of
the floors. If they are not level, it indicates defects in the timbers
underneath. The boards themselves are often so rough and laid with such
large cracks that it will be necessary to lay new floors. Notice, too,
the condition of doors and windows; whether they are straight and true
enough to be used again, or if others will have to replace them. Tap the
plaster here and there to see where it is loose and to what extent it
must be renewed.

These are the tests that indicate whether the old house is worth buying
and what will be the essential expense to make it habitable. Sometimes
one or another defect is so severe as to make the venture foolish; again
it can be remedied by resort to strenuous methods. Not infrequently the
drawbacks of a bad cellar and a poor location are at once overcome by
removing the house altogether to a new site. This is practicable when
the building is sound in structure and an inexpensive operation if it is
small.

[Illustration: AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE]

That was the proceeding which Miss Mabel L. Kittredge undertook with an
old fisherman's cottage that had stood for many years on the shores of
Cape Cod. It was a simple little building, dilapidated and
weather-beaten, and quite unsuggestive of a summer home. But its very
quaintness and diminutive size attracted her attention, and she
determined to investigate it. The owner was willing to part with it,
just as it stood, for eighty-five dollars, not including the land.

The location was not desirable, and it was decided to "fleck" the house,
as is the colloquial term on the Cape for preparing a building to be
moved. It was taken apart and floated across the water to its new
foundations in South Yarmouth. Here it was "unflecked" and set up facing
the harbor and the cool breezes from the ocean.

[Illustration: AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE--SIDE VIEW]

The original building, erected in the early part of the nineteenth
century, was a small, shingled structure, thirty by twenty feet, with a
straight gable roof rising from the low stud of the first story. Its
proportions were not at all unpleasing, and the placing of the several
small-paned windows was particularly agreeable. There was a kitchen shed
attached to the rear.

When it was set in position in the new location, additional windows were
cut, a small porch built at the front entrance, and a second shed
attached at right angles to the kitchen wing. In the second story, a
broad flat-roofed dormer with three windows increased the interior
space, without seriously altering the straight lines of the roof. The
effort to retain the original simplicity of line is also evident in the
porch roof, which follows closely the wide angle of the gable ends of
the house.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

The original interior was cut up into a number of small rooms, the
partitions of which were removed, with the exception of those dividing
off a bedroom at the rear. This left one good-sized apartment, which was
fitted up for living and dining-room combined and made a most delightful
place. The stairs were built at the left, along the rear wall. A group
of three windows was cut here to give extra light and air, and the
manner in which they have been handled is interesting. On account of the
position of a heavy supporting beam, it was impossible to make these new
windows the height of the original ones. The effect of this was
ameliorated by placing a shelf directly above the group of three and
extending it across the wall to meet the old window. A number of
interesting pieces of china placed on the shelf give it a character and
weight which thus carries the eye along from one opening to the other
without any consciousness of the break in height. This is but one of
those ingenious methods by which remodeling is made successful.

The large, old-fashioned fireplace is the center of interest in this
room. At the right of it is a china closet with mullioned glass door,
and on the left two narrower closets are found in the paneling. A new
hardwood floor had to be laid, as the original one was in bad condition.
The wainscot and woodwork throughout the house was unusually good for
such a small and unpretentious structure. After the former layers of
paint had been removed and the wood thoroughly cleaned, it was finished
in white. The walls, scraped down to the original plaster, were painted
in a soft green flat-coat that was delightfully fresh and cool.

Back of this large room was a small hallway leading into the ell at the
back. At the left, space was taken for a bathroom.

[Illustration: AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE--THE KITCHEN]

The kitchen was kept practically the same as in the old house. The rough
stud and rafters were stained a dark brown, and the boards of the roof
whitewashed. The walls were plastered to the height of the stud. A
modern stove was attached to the old chimney flue on the outside of the
building. The exposed uprights provided an opportunity for convenient
shelves to be built for the various kitchen appliances.

[Illustration: The Attic Chamber]

Up-stairs the entire floor was thrown into one room, instead of making
several small, stuffy, sleeping apartments. The dormer which was cut in
the front added not only to the light, air, and space of the room, but
gave an opportunity for a most attractive window-seat to be built
beneath the broad windows. The old, wide boards of the floor were in
good condition and kept intact. The walls were plastered to the ridge,
exposing the heavy tie-beams. Along the walls under the eaves, sets of
drawers were built into the woodwork, thus obviating the necessity of
having chiffoniers or chests of drawers to consume already limited
space. The rough bricks of the chimney, which breaks slantingly through
the floor near the center of the room, are not concealed. Instead, they
form a rather decorative feature in the little apartment, and about
the four sides of the flue shelves are built which serve as a
dressing-table and a desk.

The furnishings of the whole house are delightfully simple and
suggestive of the quaint Colonial period when it was built. Tables and
chairs, pictures, mirrors, and china are interesting heirlooms that have
been handed down in the family of the owner and preserve the spirit of
the little cottage as admirably as do the various alterations which have
made it so modern and habitable.



CHAPTER IV

THE CURTIS HOUSE


The great charm of Colonial farmhouses lies in the simplicity of their
appearance. Many dilapidated, weather-beaten old buildings, long
neglected by an indifferent community, are really little masterpieces of
harmonious line and good proportion.

The style of the roof tells much about the age of the building to the
initiated, and its line is easily the most important factor in the
appearance of the house. The pitched roof is one of the oldest types and
was used long before our country was discovered. This roof slopes away
from the ridge-pole on both sides, thus forming a triangular area, the
angle at each end of which is called a gable. In the early days, the
pitch was built very steep to accommodate the thatching with which the
roof was covered. As shingles came into use, the slope gradually
flattened, and the age can be roughly judged by its angle.

The gambrel roof appeared before the eighteenth century and was
commonly used in New England farmhouses. Each side of this is made up of
two distinct pitches, which have no rule to govern their relationship. A
somewhat later development was the hipped roof, in which the gabled ends
were flattened, making four flat sides sloping from the ridge-pole. This
was used when no attic chamber was needed. In the more pretentious
Georgian houses, the top was flattened, and a wooden balustrade put
around it. These roofs are generally shingled and practically never
painted; the soft gray color they attain in weathering is sometimes
imitated in stain on new shingles.

The addition of a wing or ell brought up a new problem in roofing, and
it is this point that demands most serious attention from the remodeler.
The old builders have not always been successful in preserving the unity
of the roof line that is so essential to pleasing design. Whenever it is
possible, the new roof should be made a part of the old, and the lines
of one should run into those of the other. The pitch of the two should
be practically the same. The same type of roof must be used over all
parts of the building, although it is occasionally permissible to have a
pitched roof on an ell when the main roof is a gambrel.

Where a veranda is added, its roof line must be carefully studied and
made to seem an original part of the building, not something stuck on as
an afterthought. This problem of keeping the lines of the different
roofs in harmony is a vital one, and nowhere is there greater demand for
ingenuity and thoughtful treatment.

The question of dormers is also important. When it is desired to have a
second-story porch or sleeping-room, the dormer often supplies the
solution of this difficult problem. The earliest ones were merely a
flattening of the pitch of the roof, and this is the type that should be
used when it is necessary to add a dormer to the older farmhouses. As
the Georgian details were developed, the gable-roofed dormer was used
with the cornice moldings of porches and door frames. These dormers were
high, with a single window often having a semicircular head. They were
usually combined in groups of three and connected with each other by a
balustrade.

The exterior walls of the first houses were made of heavy boards laid
vertically on the framework, without studding. Before long, the wood was
laid horizontally, each board overlapping the one below it. This
clapboarding and siding was used without interruption through all the
various changes in other details. Much later, the shingle was adopted
for the sides of the house as well as for the roof. A larger shingle,
however, was used on the walls, with a wide exposure of surface. These
were made of pine or cypress.

Although the walls of most old houses follow a straight line from one
story to the next, there was a type, copied by the colonists from the
buildings of the mother country and used somewhat freely before the
Georgian era, in which the second story extended beyond the first. This
overhang was generally used only on the front and back and not on all
four sides, as in the European counterparts. The girders and cross beams
were framed into the second-story posts, which frequently ended in an
ornamental knob or drop, as it was called. The gables, too, occasionally
had a slight overhang. In altering a pre-Georgian house, it is therefore
permissible to make use of this overhang feature, and it may solve some
otherwise knotty problems of required extra space.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

A house which shows unusually clever handling of these points is
situated in the little village of Charles River, not so many miles
outside of Boston. Within the last few years, this locality has been
opened up, and many modern homes have been built and farmhouses
remodeled. They are situated along charming woodland roads and seem to
nestle in their picturesque surroundings. This particular one stands on
the road from Boston to Dover, invitingly shaded by graceful elms that
have watched unnumbered generations pass. It suggests to passers-by a
typical, seventeenth century farmhouse, ingeniously remodeled, through
the plans of the late Philip B. Howard and F. M. Wakefield, architects
of Boston, into a twentieth-century summer home. This old farmhouse was
built in 1647 and was of the rectangular type, built about a central
chimney, with four rooms and a hall on the lower floor. When Mr.
Frederick H. Curtis selected it for his home, it had already been
materially altered from the original simple structure by various
succeeding tenants. And many of these had not added to its charms. The
exterior was most uninviting in a vicious shade of red paint with white
trim. In front was a small lattice porch entirely out of keeping with
the architecture of the house. But in spite of all these unattractive
features, there was an insistent appeal about the old place that made it
seem worth venturing to restore.

The first problem which presented itself was that of interior space. The
difficulty lay in enlarging this space in such a way as to provide the
needed room and at the same time maintain the harmony of the exterior
lines. The original four rooms had been added to from time to time by
former owners by means of the customary ells at the rear. The house was
two and a half stories high, with a straight, pitched roof starting from
the top of the second story. In the rear there was a two-story ell and a
one-story addition behind that, with an outside chimney. Each of these
was increased by one room, so that space for a laundry was added in the
lower floor and for servants' quarters in the second. The chimney was
kept on the outside above the laundry roof and built up to the required
height. This second-story extension overhangs the old kitchen wall by
about eighteen inches on one side and on the other runs into an entirely
new wing, whose roof line joins without a break to that of the old ell.
The roof of the main building has been extended in the rear, following
its straight line to the top of the first story, as was frequently done
in old houses. This brought the lines of the main building and the rear
ells into greater harmony and provided space for an outdoor living-room
on the first floor. A flat-roofed dormer was thrown out above this on
the second floor and turned into a sleeping-porch. The lines of the
several roofs have thus been kept remarkably simple, considering the
great amount of space which has been added.

[Illustration: Remodeled]

[Illustration: Side View]

On the opposite side of the house a new wing has been added to the
second floor, parallel to the main building and at right angles to the
ells in the rear. The front part of it has a pitched roof following the
angle of that on the main building, and the rear has a flat roof on a
very low stud. This provides three additional rooms on the second floor.
It has been built over an outdoor breakfast or morning-room on the first
floor, and the kitchen has been widened under it.

[Illustration: The Entrance Porch]

At the front of the house, the flat-roofed entrance porch was removed,
and one more in keeping with the Colonial period built in its place.
This has a gabled roof, supported in front on two simple columns. The
back part of it is closed and forms a small vestibule, with old-time
oval windows extending on each side beyond the gabled roof-line. There
are two benches in front, also beyond this line and protected by
vine-grown lattices and small, extending eaves. The floor is paved with
brick.

These comprise the major changes to the exterior; but new shingles were
put on the old roof; the dilapidated slat-shutters were replaced by
blinds of solid wood, with a diamond cut in the upper panel after the
old-time fashion; and the ugly red paint was changed to a soft Colonial
buff.

[Illustration: The Hall and Unique Stairway]

The narrow entrance hall, opening directly on the stairs, has not been
altered. In the stairs, however, an exceedingly interesting treatment
has been introduced, made necessary by the plan of the rooms above. On
the first landing a doorway was cut in the chimney wall, and stairs
built up the center of the chimney between the two flues. These give
access to a small hall in the rear, connecting the several bedrooms. The
door that leads to these stairs, at the foot, is a "secret" one; that
is, it is covered with the wall-paper which surrounds it and fits
tightly into the wall without framing woodwork.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

At the right of the hallway the parlor and dining-room were thrown into
one long living-room, and a pleasant triple window was cut in the rear
wall looking out upon the veranda. The fine old woodwork about the
fireplace was restored to its original beauty with many coats of white
paint. The hand-hewn beams in the ceiling were uncovered from the
casing which had hidden them, and the wood rubbed and oiled. The floor
was found to be in good condition and, after the placing of additional
boards where the partition was removed, was merely scraped, filled,
stained, and polished. A semicircular corner cupboard in a reproduction
of an old style, its shelves filled with interesting specimens of
seventeenth-century pewter, gives character to the room. The walls were
finished in a soft shade of burlap, and the old mahogany furniture,
chintz covers, rag rugs, and simple scrim curtains preserve the
delightful atmosphere.

On the opposite side of the hall is the library or den. This is
unchanged, except for the white paint and the quaint Colonial
wall-paper. Willow furniture is used.

Back of this, and extending across to the living-room, is the
dining-room. The beams show the position of the original walls and
indicate the way in which the room was enlarged. This leaves the
fireplace at the side of a sort of alcove and so, to balance it and give
importance to that end of the room, a china closet was built across the
corner. An unpaneled wainscot, with simple baseboard and molding at the
top, runs around the room, the new part matching the old. The woodwork
is all white, including the encased beams, which here were not in a
condition to be exposed. The upper walls are covered with a blue and
silver grass-cloth that strikes an effective color note behind the
mahogany furniture. In this room is a good example of the use of modern
reproductions of Sheraton chairs with a genuine old sideboard.

Glass doors lead from either end of the dining-room on to the two
verandas. Both of these verandas are really rooms without walls, as they
have been incorporated so completely within the lines and framework of
the house. The one on the side of the house in front of the kitchen is
used as a breakfast-room, and many of the other meals are served out
here in the open air. That in the rear of the living-room is a
delightful spot on summer afternoons and evenings. Both of these porches
are thoroughly screened and fitted with framework in which glass sashes
are placed during the winter.

On the second floor there are four bedrooms and a bath in the main part
of the building, with a sleeping balcony leading from one of them. This
is protected with screens and awnings and furnished with hammocks and
reclining chairs. In the wings there are three servants' rooms and a
bath. All of the rooms have been fitted up in a quaintly simple style
that is thoroughly in keeping with the period of the house, the low
ceilings, and fine woodwork. In some of the rooms there are valuable old
pieces of furniture, a four-poster of the Sheraton type, and a highboy
with details of the Queen Anne period. In another room modern white
enamel furniture has been used, but it is so simple and straightforward
in design that it harmonizes entirely with the atmosphere of the room
engendered by the old fireplace and chimney cupboard, the thumb latches
on the doors, rag rugs, and an old-time wall-paper figured with stripes
of morning-glories and daintily poised humming-birds. In this second
floor, the old iron hardware has been largely used in strap and H and L
hinges, latches, knobs, and shutter fastenings.

Throughout the lower story, modern brass knobs and key plates
reproducing an old Colonial pattern have been used, securing greater
convenience and safety.

Hot-air heating has been installed and electric lighting. The outlets,
however, are all in the walls or baseboard sockets, so that there is no
conspicuous inconsistency in the atmosphere, and lamps and candles are
also used throughout the house.



CHAPTER V

GREEN MEADOWS


The architect of to-day has an advantage over the master builder of long
ago in that he is able to grasp all ideas that were introduced into the
old house and can restore it without losing the spirit of the original
in either the exterior or interior. The wings and ells which were added
by succeeding tenants often bear little relation to the main building
and must either be torn down or harmonized in some way to preserve the
unity of the completed design. The general plan of the house and the
arrangement of the rooms should be carefully observed before the house
owner and architect undertake the task of remodeling. Too many houses
are disappointing because a study has not been made of the different
types and periods of old houses, and the result is a mixture, neither
one thing nor the other.

Old Colonial houses were always built on the rectangular plan, as this
provided the greatest amount of enclosed space with the least
expenditure of labor and material. They were also constructed about an
axis, and it is essential for the remodeler to determine what that axis
is before making any alterations.

In the earliest days, the chimney was the center of the building and
dominated the plan. The various rooms opened around it, so that as many
of them as possible could have a fireplace from the one chimney. It was
consequently a huge affair and occupied about three fourths as much
space as one of the rooms. In the first plans, there were usually but
two rooms, a kitchen on one side and a parlor on the other. Later, a
room was built in the back for the kitchen, and a third opening made in
the chimney. The narrow stairs were built in at the front to fit into
the chimney space and generally ascended with two landings and turns at
right angles.

As a late development, about the time of the Revolution, four equally
large rooms were needed, and this one chimney was divided into two and
placed on either side of the center of the house, so that in each of the
main rooms there was a fireplace opening front or back from one of the
two chimneys. This arrangement altered the position of the stairs, and
stairs and hall became the central axis of the house. The proportion of
the space allotted to them, however, remained about the same as when the
chimney had occupied the center. This accounts for the wide Colonial
halls, which are such a charming feature of old houses. The stairs were
built along one side, the length of the hall, often a perfectly straight
flight without turn or landing, and the hall was frequently cut clear
through to a door in the back, which formed a rear exit to the garden.
The Georgian houses at the end of the eighteenth century were commonly
built on this plan.

There was one other distinct type, in which the fireplaces in the four
corner rooms were in the outer walls, and four separate chimneys were
built. The central hall and staircase retained their same dominant
proportions, but a second cross hall was sometimes built, dividing the
house from end to end.

To all of these types, additions were frequently made, as the family
increased, or new owners took possession. The extra space was not
acquired by enlarging the main building but by adding an ell in the back
at right angles to the original structure, or a wing at the side,
parallel with it. These additions were attached to the house by their
smallest dimension, as that obstructed the least amount of light. They
were smaller than the main part; many were but one story in height, and
those that were two had a lower stud, so that the original building
would remain the important feature in the whole.

After examining the old house from this point of view, consider the new
uses to which it will be put and determine what changes will have to be
made. Sketch the entire plan out before commencing an alteration, and
then endeavor to see if the proposed remodeling is practical from a
structural point of view, and if it harmonizes with the original spirit
of the old building. Mark out in each room the position of windows and
decide where new ones may have to be cut in the rearranged interiors.
Study the fireplaces and find out whether the proposed removal of a
partition wall will throw them out of balance in the rooms, and what you
can do to counteract it. Pay particular attention to closet room, for in
the old days it was given too little consideration for modern
requirements.

Draw rough plans and put your ideas regarding every possibility down on
paper; it is surprising how many new suggestions will occur as each
scheme is worked out, and there is a fascination in seeing how much can
be fitted into a given space. After the work is begun, unforeseen
conditions will crop up and necessitate changes in the project, as well
as disclose new opportunities, but a greater part of the planning can be
done beforehand.

A roomy, old, New England farmhouse near Hamilton was recognized by Mr.
George Burroughs as a fertile subject for development into a beautiful
country home. It was situated in the heart of rolling country and
surrounded by wide stretches of grass land, from which the estate was
named "Green Meadows."

[Illustration: GREEN MEADOWS--FRONT VIEW]

The original house, separated from the highway by an old wall of field
stone and an elm-shaded dooryard, was built in 1786, and it is curious
to note that no deed was ever recorded. It was the usual type of
farmhouse, constructed about a central chimney, two and a half stories
in height, with an unbroken roof line. Subsequent owners had added wings
at each side instead of the more customary ell at the rear. One of these
wings is of brick, which indicates that it was probably not built before
the middle of the last century, but although the two building materials
seem incongruous in the one house, vines have so overgrown this wing
that the red glimpsed through them and contrasting with the white walls
of the house is very attractive.

The only important alterations in the exterior appearance of the house
were in the addition of the long veranda across the rear and the
alteration of the frame wing at the right. The old structure was found
to be in too dilapidated a condition to restore, but it was reproduced
in all its exterior details and joined to the end of a new wing attached
to the house and a trifle broader than the old. Two hip-roofed dormers
add to the space in the second floor and permit the construction of
attractive servants' quarters.

The frame of the entrance door in the center of the front façade is a
particularly happy example of the simple Georgian style used in the
better class of farmhouses of that day. Its flat pilasters and
well-proportioned cornice illustrate the restraint and refinement in the
work of even the average builders.

The door itself opens into a small hallway, restored with fresh white
paint to all its original beauty.

On this left side of the house the partition between the old
dining-room and parlor has been removed to make one large living-room.
After the cornices and the wainscoting were restored, the woodwork,
including the encased beams in the ceiling, was painted white. The
condition of the old floor made it necessary to lay a new one of hard
wood. This room admirably reflects the old Colonial spirit in its
fireplace and cupboards. The paneling above the mantel shelf presents an
interesting variation in the framing of fireplaces. The original
wainscot with its molded cap divides the wall surface in an agreeable
proportion, and the rather heavy cornice moldings at the ceiling line
relieve the emphasis of the great beams. The old hardware is used on
doors and windows, the thumb latches are finished in the natural black,
and the H and L hinges painted white to correspond with the woodwork.
The upper part of the walls is covered with a rose-colored paper
reproducing a conventional Georgian medallion design in silvery gray.
This rose color has been carried out in all the furnishings of this
room; the upholstery of chairs and sofas is in a deeper shade; the
over-curtains are somewhat paler, and in the Oriental rugs, rose blends
with soft browns and blues. Old-fashioned Venetian blinds or
slat-curtains shade the windows in the living-room and throughout the
house.

On the opposite side of the entrance hall is the reception-room. The
same treatment has been accorded here as in the living-room, and the
furnishings are especially harmonious and well arranged. The long, low
lines of an Adam sofa, a slender-legged desk, and chairs and table, each
one a noteworthy masterpiece of cabinet making, are admirably chosen to
add apparent height to the low stud, but the monotony of too much light
and low furniture is broken by a tall grandfather clock placed in the
corner. The pictures on the walls, old prints simply framed in mahogany,
are hung with a similar thought to increase the apparent height of the
room, and their arrangement is well worth studying. The fireplace, on
the opposite side of the chimney from that in the living-room, is
equally interesting. The wall above the white wainscot is papered in a
golden yellow of conventional flowers, and the upholstery and draperies
are of a golden striped and figured Adam damask that brings out the rich
color of the satinwood and mahogany furniture.

In the rear, on the same side of the house, is the dining-room. The old
woodwork here was insignificant, and it has been replaced with modern
paneled wainscot covering two thirds of the wall surface. One could wish
that the proportions of the original woodwork had been a little more
closely followed, and the atmosphere of the other rooms carried more
definitely into this. The old fireplace has been retained across the
corner of the room with its flue in the central chimney, but its frame
is a modern conception. The chimney cupboard in the side has been turned
into a china closet with a new door of mullioned glass displaying
interesting old pewter and plates. The upper third of the wall above the
wainscot is covered with a reproduction of an old-time scenic paper in
greens and grays, and the window hangings are of corresponding colors in
damask. The seats of the Hepplewhite chairs carry the same tones in
tapestry. The apparent size of the dining-room has been cleverly
increased by carrying the decorative motives into the passageway which
connects it with the service quarters in the right wing. The same
paneling of the wainscot and the same paper above, seen through the
double doorway, give the impression that this is all part of the one
room, and the placing of a buffet in front of the opening enhances the
effect.

On the other side of the dining-room a small hall, paneled with white
enameled woodwork to the ceiling, leads into the living-room.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

French doors of glass open from here on to the wide veranda which has
been added across the back of the house, overlooking the green meadows
and shady vales that stretch away on all sides.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Den]

From this veranda or from the living-room, one can enter the brick wing
at the left of the house. This originally contained the kitchen with
bedrooms above, but in altering it, the entire wing was thrown into one
room opened to the roof. With the great old beams and rafters showing,
and all the woodwork stained dark, this apartment lends itself admirably
to the character of a den or smoking-room. At the end, the old kitchen
chimney has been utilized for a fireplace, and old paneling inserted
above the high mantel. Seats have been built under the windows flanking
the chimney and, with their soft cushions and pillows, add materially to
the comfort of the room. The windows in this wing are unusually
large,--an indication of the later date of its construction,--and in
order to carry the same proportions in their divisions as in the older
part of the house, twenty-four panes of glass were used in each. A rich
green and brown landscape paper covers the upper two thirds of the walls
above the wainscot molding. The upholstery and cushions on davenport,
armchairs, and window-seats of brown leather stamp this apartment
indelibly as a man's room, and the decorations of old flint-locks in one
corner add to the effect.

The service quarters of the house in the wings at the right have been
made especially complete. In the middle section are butler's pantry,
kitchen, laundry, and refrigerator, with two bedrooms on the second
floor; and in the narrower part is a servants' hall and three bedrooms
which are open to the roof.

[Illustration: The Old-fashioned Chamber]

On the upper floor of the main part of the house the four bedrooms have
been kept much as in the past. Those in the rear have been made to open
out, through double doors, on to the second story of the veranda, which
can be used as a sleeping-porch. The old white woodwork and the original
fireplaces add their ineffable charm. The floors were in poor condition
and are covered with matting as a background for the rag rugs. Some very
interesting old pieces of furniture add to the atmosphere of these
chambers.

The registers of the hot-air heating system which has been installed
are unusually well selected for an old Colonial house. Instead of the
customary meaningless scroll and meander pattern in the grills, a simple
square lattice has been used, which preserves the spirit of other days
admirably.



CHAPTER VI

NAWN FARM


City people are prone to think that the country is agreeable only during
the summer months, and that winters spent there are unpleasant and
dreary. This notion is fast being dispelled, as country houses are kept
open longer and longer each year, and the pleasures of country week-ends
during the entire winter are definitely proven. There is in reality no
more delightful place to spend the long winter months than in the heart
of a beautiful country. A never-ending round of interests astonishes one
who has never tried it before. Each month brings a fresh phase, and it
is hard to determine whether the country is at its best during the
summer or winter season.

There is a fascination indescribable in watching the fall of snow, the
settling of flakes on the bare limbs, the transition from brown to
diamond-covered branches that glisten with every motion and are often
decorated with long icicles reflecting all the prismatic colors. If you
have never seen this side of country life, you will find it a wonderful
world, where it is intensely interesting to study the seasons in turn,
note the coming and going of birds, look for the early and late flowers,
watch the melting of snows and the swelling of buds in the warm spring
suns.

More active pleasures, too, await the adventurer in the winter country.
There are so many sports to be enjoyed that one does not wonder the
youth delights to come here for skating, snow-shoeing, or toboganning.
What is more delightful than a sleighing party, whose destination is a
remodeled farmhouse not too many miles from the city? Start the cheery
fire in the huge fireplace, pile on the six-foot logs, draw your chairs
nearer while you forget the outside world, and feel a glow of delight
that you, too, have joined the throng who know the thrill of country
life.

The first thing to do when contemplating an all-the-year-round country
home is to look for a house in the right location. In selecting it the
problem of heating must be thought of in a different way than as that
for merely summer use. Then fireplaces will amply suffice for the few
cool days and chilly evenings, and no better method could be desired.
But for the real cold of winter, whether for continued use or the
occasional week-end, more complete heating will need to be provided.

The cheapest and simplest way is undoubtedly by stoves which can be
attached to the fireplace flues. But this necessitates closing up the
fireplace and depriving family and guests of all the joys of the blazing
logs which never seem more cheerful and hospitable than in the bitterest
weather. If the house is to be used mainly for week-end parties, stoves
have another serious drawback. They must be kept oiled when not in use,
to prevent their rusting, and it takes nearly two days after the fire is
lighted to burn the oil off. Then, when closing up the house again, the
stove must be re-oiled, and this necessitates putting the fire out and
waiting in the cold house until the metal is sufficiently cool to apply
the treatment.

The most adequate method is by hot water or steam, and for a large
country house these are really the only practical ways. The expense
involved will depend upon the structure of the house. In a brick or
stone building, it will cost a good deal to have the pipes built into
the wall. Sometimes conditions will allow them to be carried up in a
closet or partition. In a frame house that has been built with deep
window jambs, as was so often done in the olden times, the pipes can be
hidden within this furred framework. The great objection to steam or
hot-water systems in old houses, however, is the presence of the
radiator, which never can be made to harmonize thoroughly with the
spirit of the old building. When it is used, some attempt must be made
to disguise it. If it can be made long and low and placed in front of a
window, it can be treated as a window-seat with a metal grill in front.
For houses of the later Georgian period, grills can be found whose
designs are not at all out of keeping with the other classical details.
Sometimes a radiator can be placed entirely within the furred partition,
and the heat admitted into the room through paneled doors which are
thrown open when it is in use.

For small houses, the hot-air system is perhaps the most desirable. The
registers are inconspicuous and bring no jarring note into the old-time
atmosphere. The pipes require considerable overhead room in the cellar,
which sometimes becomes a hard problem in the low foundations of old
houses. The fact that it is difficult to drive the hot air against
the wind raises a second objection, but if the furnace is placed in the
corner of the house from which the cold winds blow, or even a second
furnace is installed, the trouble will be largely overcome. And there is
the great advantage, especially for a week-end house, that it can be
started up or left at a moment's notice without trouble from water in
the pipes or danger of freezing as in the hot-water systems.

Whatever the method decided upon, it is an interesting work from start
to finish. One feels a thrill of adventure in evoking from the home of
past generations one for twentieth-century living with all the comforts
and appliances necessary. But to transform an old building that has
never even been intended for living purposes into a residence that is
not only comfortable and suited to the owner's needs but an
architectural success as well, is a still more fascinating problem. How
Messrs. Killam and Hopkins have accomplished this with an old barn at
Dover and kept the distinctive simplicity and atmosphere of the original
building is worthy of emulation.

[Illustration: NAWN FARM--FRONT VIEW]

When Mrs. Genevieve Fuller bought the Nawn Farm some three years ago, it
was her intention to alter the farmhouse then on the property. Its
location, however, was not entirely favorable; the house was on sloping
ground in somewhat of a hollow and too near the public road. Besides
this, the rooms were small and very much out of repair. On the crest of
the hill was the barn, occupying a commanding position and framed in
splendid old trees. The structure was found to be so stanch that it was
decided to tear down the old house and convert the barn into the
residence.

[Illustration: Rear View]

The foundations were left unchanged, and an ell on the north side was
added for the service portion of the building. The supports and interior
divisions are all virtually unaltered. The living and dining rooms
occupy the positions of the former mows, and the hall connecting them is
the old passage for the wagons. Most of the original studding has been
used as it stood, and the beams incased or hidden in the finish of the
walls. The roof was flattened on the top, and the gables cut off, but
the slope was unaltered. Wider eaves were added at a slightly different
pitch, softening the lines of the roof.

Doors and windows were, of course, cut anew to conform with the
different usage of the building. Their position was necessarily
determined somewhat by the existing supports, but they have been very
happily placed, whether in groups or singly. Those of the sleeping rooms
on the second floor are especially well handled; they are wide and
raised well up under the overhanging roof, so that they carry out the
broad low lines of the architecture. The openings of the
sleeping-porches have been treated exactly as windows, their size
corresponding with the apparent dimensions of the windows, and their
locations determined by the same factors. They become at once an
integral part of the structure instead of the unsightly excrescence
which the presence of a sleeping-porch so often proves.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

On the first floor, the living-room occupies the entire eastern end,
having exposures on three sides. This has been attractively finished in
gum wood stained a dark brown, and the warm tones of natural colored
grass-cloth tone the walls. An interesting treatment has been accorded
the fireplace by flanking it on either side with a nook, the outer walls
of which cleverly conceal parts of the old structure. In each of the
recesses is a small window above the paneling and window-seat. The
furnishings of the room are appropriately simple and invitingly
comfortable, suggesting old-fashioned things adapted for modern uses.
Especial interest is attached to the fireplace fittings; they are of
hand-forged iron, wrought by the village blacksmith after designs of the
owner. The andirons were made from the tires of old cart wheels,
flattened and bent into shape and curled over at the top. The wood-box
is of flat strips of iron interlaced.

From one wing of the hall ascend stairs which are the faithful
reproduction of an old Colonial design. The other part of the hall,
across the southern front, is so broad and cheerful with two big windows
and two glass doors opening on to the sunny loggia that it has been
furnished with a davenport, tables, and chairs almost as a second
living-room. The woodwork is North Carolina pine stained brown, and the
walls are gray.

The billiard-room back of this hall, with its attractive alcove and
fireplace, is finished in fumed oak, and the walls are also gray.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Dining Room]

Perhaps the distinction of being the most attractive room in the house
can be accorded the dining-room with its Colonial white woodwork. The
fireplace and the china closet, balanced on the other side by the door
into the pantry, are of excellent proportions and charming detail. The
mullioned panes of the china closet and the treatment of the moldings
about the frame are especially interesting. On the opposite side of the
room a group of three windows provides opportunity for an unusually
delightful feature in the long window-box, built by the village
carpenter. Its simple, sturdy lines are worthy of notice. The walls are
papered in a deep cream, and the greatest simplicity maintained in the
furniture and draperies.

[Illustration: The China Closet in the Dining Room]

The service portion is well arranged both for convenience of labor and
comfort of the domestics. The basement laundry leads directly into a
large drying yard which was the original enclosure for the cows and is
surrounded by the same wall of field stone.

Up-stairs the rooms might be said to be divided into three suites, which
can be practically shut off from each other: each has its own bath and
sleeping-porch. In the group over the living-room there has been an
ingenious solution of the structural conditions. The division of the
rooms made possible by the old supports permitted a dressing-room to be
placed conveniently between the two chambers, but the fireplace added in
the living-room was directly below, so that the chimney would naturally
cut off the outside wall. It would have been possible to construct a
large fireplace in the dressing-room and allow the light to come through
the chambers, but the architects evolved another scheme. The chimney was
carried up on one side, providing a fireplace for one of the chambers,
and a second chimney was built in the opposite corner of the
dressing-room. In the space between, a window was cut, and the two flues
joined directly over the window. From the outside of the building this
gives a most unusual effect as there is a chimney directly over a
window, having no apparent support, or even purpose. The lines of the
pyramidal base conform to the slope of the roof.



CHAPTER VII

BOULDER FARM


The remodeling of an old farmhouse is apparently a simple matter; it
would at first seem necessary only to preserve the main lines and
characteristics of the original in the alterations that are required to
meet the conditions of modern life. But when one realizes that the less
conspicuous details are also important, in order to maintain the
essential harmony of the whole, it becomes a more intricate proposition.
One cannot merely study the details already on the building and
slavishly copy them for the new parts, because frequently it will be
found that doors or windows or shutters have been added by more recent
owners and are not really in keeping with the old structure at all. In
order to reclaim the house, then, so that it shall have a consistent
unity throughout, one must have some understanding of the evolution of
these details.

There is no more significant element in these old Colonial houses than
the front door. It was placed in the center of the front wall and
formed the unit of the exterior design. The very early doors were of
heavy oak boards placed vertically and fastened together with horizontal
strips. These batten doors, as they were called, were made very sturdy
and strong, in order to resist attacks from Indians or other marauders.
Often they were marked with an awl into diamond and lozenge patterns and
sometimes studded with hand-wrought nails. Not for a good many years did
the panel door come into use. At first it was a flat panel, flush with
the sides of the door and separated from the sides and top only by a
small bead molding. This was soon developed into the flat sunken panel,
meeting the surrounding wood with several moldings; and then the panels
were beveled and raised in the center, and the moldings gradually became
more elaborate and delicate in outline. The early doors were solid for
purposes of protection, but as the country became more settled, thick
bull's-eye glass was inserted into the top horizontal panel to let light
into the hall. As the interior plan was changed in its evolution, the
hall became larger, and these bull's-eyes did not provide sufficient
light, so the transom was introduced over the door. For some time a
simple top light was used, divided by lead and then wooden muntins. Then
side lights were introduced, and the treatment became more elaborate in
the beautiful styles of the later Georgian period.

The frame about the door was at first of flat, undecorated boards, the
upper one resting on the two at the sides. Then these were molded and
mitered at the corners, and later a cap of heavier moldings was put
across the top. This hood became more and more prominent and required
the use of definite support. Console brackets were sometimes used but
more frequently flat pilasters set against the wall. These gradually
became more important, developing into the three-quarter round and
finally the isolated column. The pediment and cornice were then extended
into the open porch that is one of the splendid features of the Georgian
style. Here in cornice and capital was a field for the development of
all the most delicate and beautiful motives of classic carving.

As this door and porch was the center of the design of the exterior, the
windows were grouped symmetrically about it, the same on each side.
There were few of them at first, and they were of rather small size.
Casement windows were the earliest kind used, and the small, diamond
panes were sunk in lead, as were those made in the mother country. It is
probable that most of these windows were brought over from England and
not constructed here. After 1700, the sliding sash was introduced,
dividing the windows horizontally, and these had wooden muntins. It must
have been considered a more elegant type of window, for it was used in
the front of the house for a long time, while the leaded casement was
still put in rear windows for many years. The early wooden muntins were
quite heavy but later became nearly as delicate as the leaden ones. They
divided the sash horizontally and vertically into squares.

The window casings, like the door frames, were at first entirely plain
and then had a heavier band across the top which developed into a molded
cap or cornice, as at the entrance. When sliding sashes were introduced,
the walls of the houses were not thick enough to contain them, so the
frames and the sashes were built on to the outside, frequently
projecting quite a distance. The necessity for constructing them in this
way led to the deep jambs and sills which are such a charming
characteristic of the Colonial style.

Shutters were used on the outside of the house as a means of protection
from the Indians, when the country was being settled, and these were
made of heavy, battened wood three or four inches thick, like the doors.
Subsequently a small diamond was cut in the top to admit some light when
the shutter was closed. Then a shutter with a solid upper and lower
panel was used, and finally these panels were replaced with slats.

There was one other part of the exterior which developed interesting
characteristics to be observed in the remodeling: that is, the cornice
of the roof. This was merely the overhang in the early buildings and
sometimes consisted of the framing beam actually exposed. In the
Georgian houses, this was boxed and later elaborated with splendid
carvings that deserve perpetuation in more lasting material than wood.
There was no gutter for rain-water, and the drip from the eaves was
caught on flagstones on the ground at the corners of the house. This
detail, although not needed with modern gutters and rain pipes, gives a
charming old-time touch when retained in the remodeled home.

It is by attention to such seemingly insignificant points that the
atmosphere of the original buildings has been consistently retained in
so many cases. An excellent instance of how this has been done may be
seen in a late Georgian type of farmhouse that stands somewhat back from
the old Londonderry turnpike on an estate at Hopkinton, New Hampshire.
Although it is not very old, having been built in 1820, it is typical of
the better class of simple home in the early days of the Republic.

[Illustration: BOULDER FARM--FRONT VIEW]

The history of the building of this old house is rather interesting. In
the days when lotteries were still in flourishing condition, and some of
the best men in the community were interesting themselves in the various
schemes, a member of one of the churches induced Deacon Philip Brown's
hired man to purchase a ticket for a paltry sum. Repenting his
investment, he afterwards sold it to his employer, who was a clever
silversmith and clock-maker, much respected and well known in the
community through his yearly rounds about Hopkinton to repair the clocks
of the farmers. The ticket proved to be the winning one, that drew a
great prize. With part of this money, Deacon Brown purchased the old
"Boulder Farm," as it was called from a great rock that still stands in
an open field just south of the house. Here he erected the Georgian
farmhouse that is standing to-day. The rest of the money, so the legend
runs, he buried somewhere in the field, but he probably removed it
later, as it has never been found.

He placed the house on rising land, a short distance from the broad
highway, built in the same year and for a long time the straight
thoroughfare from Londonderry to Concord and Boston. Deacon Brown lived
on the estate until 1846, with the exception of the year 1830, when it
was occupied by Governor Matthew Harvey of New Hampshire. The property,
placed on the market, then fell into the hands of a man named Kelly,
brother-in-law to Grace Fletcher, the first wife of Daniel Webster.
During his life, the great American statesman often visited there. What
happened during the period between this occupancy and the time of its
purchase by Mr. Harry Dudley of Concord, New Hampshire, is not recorded,
but we can be confident that the house had careful treatment from its
state of preservation.

It was while Mr. Dudley was looking around for a home with ample
grounds, and near enough to his business to allow him to go back and
forth every day, that he discovered this historic place. Its
attractiveness and the healthfulness of the surroundings appealed to
him. Very little was needed to bring the house back to good condition
and make it habitable. The land was attractive and could be improved. In
front of the house was a wide stretch of meadow that was easily terraced
to meet the boundary line. To the many old trees shading the house and
lawn were added young trees to replace some of the ancient ones that
were dying.

[Illustration: The Front Doorway]

Although the house was a model type of the architecture of its day, and
there had been abundant room for the old-time residents, modern ways of
living demanded additional space. A long ell, built at the rear for the
service department, and a wide veranda in dignified Colonial style along
one side were the two main exterior alterations. The appearance of the
windows was changed by putting in larger panes in order to admit more
light, but they were still in keeping with the old-time atmosphere. The
reshingling and repainting of the house and the addition of the
trellises at one side completed the exterior improvements. The splendid
front entrance porch with its graceful fanlight, Doric columns, and
straight cornice, and the equally interesting though less imposing side
porch were left practically unchanged. The old blinds were restored, to
give the stately, old-time atmosphere to the mansion.

The new veranda is wide and extends along the whole side of the house.
Its flat roof rests on coupled Doric columns that carry out the
classical Georgian detail of the entrance porch; the second story is
finished with a simple balustrade, in keeping with the fine simplicity
of the main lines. During the summer months this broad piazza is a
delightful out-of-door living-room, from which there is a splendid view
over the green country; and one can, in imagination, picture the old
stage-coaches of former days lumbering by on the highroad. The upper
part of the veranda opening from the chambers on that side of the house
is used as a sleeping-porch.

The path that leads to the main entrance passes through a wicket gate
and ascends the terrace over stone steps to the granite block before the
door. The pleasant formality of this porch is accentuated by two
close-clipped bay trees, one on either side of the step.

[Illustration: The Hall]

This door opens directly into the hall and faces the long, straight
flight of stairs which reaches the second floor without a turn. The
woodwork of these stairs is particularly nice in proportion and line;
and the carving under the ends of the steps, in a simple but beautiful
scroll design, is most interesting. The hand-rail is mahogany, and the
molding which follows it on the wall side above the wainscoting is also
mahogany.

[Illustration: The Parlor]

In the parlor at the left no innovation has been introduced, and it
remains almost as when the house was built. There we find the old white
wainscoting unpaneled, with a fine carved molding defining the top. The
windows, recessed in the Colonial style, retain their original inside
shutters that are still used. It is unusual to find these to-day, for in
remodeling houses the shutters are almost always removed in favor of
more modern conveniences. Shutters were formerly used as we now employ
curtains, to be closed at night-fall or to shut out light and cold. The
fireplace in this room is a fine example of Colonial work. It shows a
central medallion of a plentifully filled fruit basket and wheat sheaves
over the fluted side columns; the edge of the mantel shelf has an
unusual ball and string ornamentation finely carved. The wall-paper
dates back to the time of the fireplace. It shows a Grecian pastoral
design in shades of brown, yellow, and old rose and was hand-printed
from blocks made in England. Through all these years it has retained its
brightness, escaping the hands of time, and lends a charming and quaint
atmosphere to this room. All of the movable furnishings are equally well
in keeping; the slat-back chairs and tables conform to the spirit of the
period, as does the fine old Empire mirror, resting on its rosettes.

On the opposite side of the hall from the parlor is the living-room.
This is similar in character, with a fireplace only slightly less
interesting. It has the same old white wainscoting, but the upper walls
have been covered with a modern foliage paper which, strangely enough,
blends harmoniously with the setting of the room. It is furnished with
eighteenth-century pieces corresponding to those in the other parts of
the house.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Dining Room]

At the end of the hall is the dining-room, reached through an open arch.
The old wall and door here were cut away in the remodeling to produce an
impression of spaciousness and give a vista from the entrance clear
through the house and into the garden at the rear. The arch was added to
finish the opening, but it conforms carefully to the details found in
the architecture of that day. This room was originally divided, and one
part used as a kitchen, but the partition was removed and the two thrown
into one, making a long dining-room which occupies the greater part of
the rear of the house. At the end, the old single window was enlarged,
and two smaller ones cut through on either side to make a delightful
sunny group which adds materially to the charm of the room. In the
fireplace, which was the original old kitchen one, used for cooking and
baking, the brick oven was removed to admit the introduction of a door
opening into the living-room. Otherwise it was left unchanged, and the
white painted woodwork about it, although simple and unpretentious, is
beautifully proportioned. The old flint-lock and warming-pan which hang
there pleasantly emphasize the Colonial idea. The wall-paper is a
reproduction of a Colonial block pattern in soft shades of gray and
green. The floors in this room, as all over the house, are covered with
matting laid over the original boards, which were found to be in too bad
a condition to restore; entirely new ones would have been necessitated
had bare, polished floors been demanded.

[Illustration: The Den]

At the end of the dining-room, opposite the triple window, a door leads
into a small room which is used as a den. This retains the old fireplace
opening from the same chimney and directly back of that in the parlor.
The walls have been papered in a plain green and are sparingly decorated
with sporting prints and trophies suggestive of the hunt and the
master's particular domain. Doors lead from this room not only into the
dining-room, but to the parlor and the veranda at the side.

The ell of the house, opening from the dining-room, is devoted to
butler's pantry, kitchen, servants' dining-room, and servants' chambers
on the second floor.

The upper story of the main part of the house has been kept almost as
when it was built, and the large square chambers are well-lighted and
airy. The open fireplaces and the Colonial furniture, four-posters and
highboys and chests, give to the rooms a delightfully old-fashioned
atmosphere.

The whole house is a fine example of late Georgian architecture,
preserved in all its interesting detail.



CHAPTER VIII

THREE ACRES


Few people realize how much thought should be put into the remodeling of
a farmhouse, and many fail to keep the simple country atmosphere; they
endeavor to establish in suburban surroundings a home that is better
suited to city life. A house reclaimed in this way is necessarily a
misfit and must always seem inharmonious in its setting. It never
carries out the idea for which we are striving: that a house should be
typical of the life of the people who live in it. It should express
individuality, be a house to live in, to grow in, to become identified
with your life; this is a most important fact that cannot be too
carefully observed, and it becomes all the more essential if the home is
to be an all-the-year-round one and not merely a summer residence where
but a few months are passed.

To-day it is a far more difficult matter to select an old farmhouse of
sufficient distinction to remodel than it was even ten years ago. The
most desirable ones have already been bought, since the pleasures of
living in the country have been realized by so many former dwellers in
the city. There are many personal matters to be thought of in the
selection of a house for remodeling; one must consider his individual
needs in its relation to his daily pursuits. The business man must
select a house near enough to the city to allow traveling back and forth
every day; but the man whose occupation does not require city life
during the time he wishes to be in the country can establish himself
wherever he chooses. There is no doubt that the latter is able to find a
far better farmhouse, for he can go farther away, where the best types
have not been reclaimed, owing to their distances from the large cities.

It is to be taken for granted that a person has a definite purpose when
he leaves the city for a country existence, and it is necessary that he
educate himself to the point where he makes his ideas practical. This
cannot be done without study beforehand. In making a house suit
individual requirements, one must follow along its own lines. Do not
attempt to transplant into it features from some other house you admire.
An Elizabethan gable or a craftsman living-room may have been very
interesting in the friends' houses in which you saw them, but they would
be quite out of place thrust into a Colonial farmhouse. If you have a
real need for the features that you find in some other house, you should
adapt them to the spirit of the building you are remodeling.

If it cannot be made to harmonize with the other motives, it is possible
that you are attempting to make a home out of a building that is not
suited to your style of life. But it is because these Colonial
farmhouses meet the requirements of the average American families so
adequately that they are so interesting to remodel. Each house owner
must decide for himself what is the main element in his existence and
reclaim the house accordingly. In one family, the interests will be
entirely domestic; another household will live in the open, occupied
with sports; another devotes much time to music; and there are still
others who are absorbed in some special craft or work that will require
definite accommodations. In many cases the house can readily be adapted
to these particular requirements without any essential change in its
atmosphere. The success that is achieved by working with these old-time
elements is due to their sincerity and honesty in solving the problems
of their own day and age; they are the results of actual and real
experience, and we know no better ways to meet the same conditions. So
that when we have the same problems confronting us, we cannot do better
than accept the successful results of others' experiments.

This does not mean a slavish copying of the old in restoration; to
simply imitate old elements would be neither interesting nor
commendable, except for the purposes of a museum. Each style is based
upon some fundamental principle, and it should be our aim to work with
the underlying idea of creating that which will best meet our special
needs, not merely to reproduce the old in imitation of itself.

Nature lends itself to the remodeling and suggests many ideas that help
to identify the house with the personality of its owner. Everything
attempted in the way of improvements can be broad and expansive and not
congested, as would be necessary in the city. You should in every
particular make the house grow to fit the surroundings and do it in such
a way that it will seem to have been so always. Often the house has to
be moved on its foundations to meet this need, but that is not a
difficult matter to accomplish, if the timbers are stanch and the
underpinning steady.

If the owner's ideas are carried out, the house in its finished
condition will be but an expression of his taste and understanding. In
it we will be able to read his likes and dislikes. Unity should be the
keynote of it all and should permeate not only the house itself in all
its details, but its gardens, lawns, stables, and every aspect of the
estate.

[Illustration: THREE ACRES, FROM THE MAIN ROAD]

There is a house that has been given rare individuality in this way at
Duxbury, Massachusetts. As one drives along the picturesque country
road, he comes to a winding lane that leads by graceful turns to a
little brown farmhouse situated on the crest of a hill about three
hundred yards from the main road. If the farmhouse alone is attractive,
how much more so is it made by the entrance, for on either side are
graceful elms that form an archway, disclosing the house beyond like a
picture set in a rustic frame. On either side of the roadway one finds
meadow lands and flower and vegetable gardens, everywhere dotted with
graceful trees and the picturesque sumach. Vines clamber over the stone
walls, partly hiding their roughness and giving their homelike
atmosphere to the grounds. There are just three acres in this little
property, bounded on two sides by delightful woodlands and on the others
by rolling farmland and pastures; but there is room in even these small
confines for a garden to supply the table all the year round and a bit
of orchard where the gnarled old apple-trees are still fruitful.

Originally the old farmhouse was in a most unprepossessing condition. It
had been inhabited for many years by farmer folk who took little pains
with its appearance either without or within. When Mrs. Josephine
Hartwell Shaw, of Boston, was searching for a country seat where she
could pursue her occupation away from the bustle of city life and
unmolested by chance guests, she was attracted first of all to the quiet
little town by the name of Duxbury. As she looked about for a suitable
house, she was charmed with the location of this weather-beaten old
building, and closer examination proved it well worth reclaiming, both
from an artist's point of view and from that of her own individual
requirements.

[Illustration: THREE ACRES--FRONT VIEW]

Like many of the farmhouses in eastern Massachusetts, it had that
peculiar beauty which consisted largely in its simple and
straightforward solution of the problems at hand. It was not the
creation of a master architect but of ordinary builders and craftsmen
following the traditions of their fathers, varied by the restrictions of
local material and newer requirements. It is this rugged and sturdy
simplicity that gives to it an enduring charm; it was the very lack of a
set style that gave to the remodeling of it an unfailing zest, increased
by the very difficulty of the experiment that might result in a woeful
failure or a great success. In dealing with houses such as this, it is
impossible for the architect to rely on any formula or book of rules to
direct him in a correct restoration. It requires a much deeper study and
an understanding of the problems that confronted the builder in erecting
the structure and the conditions under which he worked. It is then that
the spirit of the old house will be manifest, and its adaptation to
modern requirements will be but the thought of former years revised to
meet present needs.

[Illustration: THREE ACRES--SIDE VIEW]

There are few buildings that can claim a more sympathetic handling in
their restoration than this early, pre-Georgian farmhouse, which is
called Three Acres. The excellent line of the wide, gabled roof,
broken by a succession of outbuildings, forms an unusually attractive
picture, with the weather-stained shingles softened against a background
of oak and pine trees. The house now faces away from the main road and
fronts upon a wooded slope that falls sharply down to the shores of a
picturesque little pond. This is partly hidden by dense woods that form
a background and a windbreak for the house. Formerly the public road
went along here within a few yards of the front of the house, but it has
been abandoned for the broader highway in the rear, and only the vaguest
traces of it remain to-day.

The building was a two-story, shingled structure with an uncompromising
squareness about it. The wide, gable roof sloped down to the stud of the
first floor, giving but little room in the chambers above. It was of the
central chimney type. In the rear, a small, gable-roofed ell had been
added, and later still a flat-roofed shed at right angles to the ell, or
parallel to the main house, was built. In still a third addition, a well
was incorporated in the rear, under a continuation of the roof of the
shed, and another small outhouse in an extension to the side. This
seeming conglomeration of roofs in reality made a rather interesting
and graceful play of line that lifted the little house from
commonplaceness.

It was found to be in such good condition on the exterior that little
repairing was needed, but several alterations were made, adding both to
the character of the building and the comfort of the occupants. The
original front door opened very abruptly upon the stairs, leaving only
enough hall space to open the door. This was remedied by the addition of
a small, flat-roofed bay at the front, increasing the space in the hall
by just that much. The old door with its bull's-eyes was used in the new
position. The step before it was protected under the same roof,
supported on two, small, square posts and a trellis at the sides, giving
somewhat the effect of an old-time Colonial porch and serving not only
the material purpose of adding room to the interior but of relieving the
abrupt and uninteresting severity of the front lines. In the second
story, unusually successful dormers were cut in both the back and front
pitch of the roof. The plan of these dormers deserves especial study, as
each group is in reality composed of three separate dormers, enlarging
three rooms in the interior, but confined under the one flat roof. Note,
too, how each end of the dormer extends beyond the middle portion, and
how the shape of the windows accents the design.

A new entrance was cut at the side toward the lane, and a screened
veranda added, with a flat roof corresponding to that at the front.
Several new windows were made necessary by the rearrangements in the
interior, but they were placed with careful regard to the exterior
proportion and balance. The glass used in the old windows when the house
was bought was all the full size of the sashes, doubtless having been
put there by some recent owner and seeming quite out of harmony with the
details of the house; consequently they were replaced with small panes,
twenty-four to a window, and the new windows were all of the casement
type.

The interior of the house with its ugly paint and paper, presented a
rather hopeless appearance, that only a vivid imagination and an
unwavering enthusiasm could have transformed into the attractive home
that it is to-day. Beginning at the front, the cramped little hall was
enlarged as has already been explained. This made a trifle more stair
room, and the first seven steps reaching to the little landing were
rebuilt with lower risers and broader treads that made ascent to the
second floor a less arduous matter.

On the left of the hall was the living-room, on the right a bedroom, and
in the rear of the house the room originally designed for the kitchen;
in each of these was a fireplace opening out of the one central chimney.

The first step in the restoration consisted of tearing off the many
layers of hideous wall-paper, removing the plaster where it was
crumbling, and scraping the woodwork free from its dingy paint. In these
operations a number of unexpected discoveries were made concerning the
fine old paneling and great, hand-hewn beams that had been entirely
covered up.

[Illustration: A Corner of the Living Room]

The only change made in the plan of this floor was in the corner beyond
the living-room and at the end of the kitchen. This was originally
divided into a tiny chamber opening from the living-room, and a pantry
off the kitchen. These were thrown into one, and the openings to
living-room and kitchen enlarged. The former bedroom window was changed
to a door leading on to the screened veranda, and an attractive group of
three casement windows replaced the one in the rear wall, overlooking
the charming vista of winding lane and old apple-trees and meadows
beyond. This little apartment has been treated as a sort of anteroom
or really a wing of the living-room, and wall finish, paint, and
furnishings all harmonize.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

In the living-room the fireplace holds the center of attention. It is
faced with queer old Spanish tiles inserted at intervals in plain
cement, the rich colorings of which give a quaintly exotic air to the
fine white woodwork. The moldings about the frame and over the mantel
are unusually fine for this type of house; the support of the heavy
mantel shelf and the carved dentils in the ceiling cornice are
especially interesting. At the right of the fireplace is a cupboard with
an upper and lower door, in the old-time fashion; the upper one has
small, square, mullioned panes of glass which disclose some attractive
pieces of old china and silver.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

In the kitchen, which was turned into the dining-room, the old fireplace
had been bricked up to receive a stovepipe, and the woodwork had been
plastered over and papered. The fireplace was opened up to its original
size, large enough to accommodate a six-foot log, and in refacing it,
the old, blackened, fire-burned bricks were used with delightful effect.
The paneling about it is very simple, but the proportions are
interesting, and the quaint, double-panel cupboards on each side lend
the whole an insistent charm. The two, great, hand-hewn beams in the
ceiling have been left exposed, and the fact that they have settled a
little on their supports, sagging toward one end, only adds to the
effect, just as the unevenness of a hand-drawn line is more beautiful
than the accuracy of one ruled.

These three rooms opening so closely into each other have been treated
so that there is a harmonious and striking vista from every point. The
walls are covered with a soft, creamy gray, and the hangings of Russian
crash are of the same tone. The color is supplied in fireplaces, rugs,
books, pictures, and such ornaments. In the dining-room, there has been
a slight accent of blue and rose in rug and table runner and
candle-shades. In the living-room the deep green of the upholstery
carries the strongest note. The characteristically old-time furniture,
with a pleasant mingling of Dutch and English and American motifs of the
eighteenth century, has been arranged with studied care to preserve the
possibilities of the open vistas from room to room.

The entrance hall completes a delightful picture from the living-room;
the soft gray colors of a lovely Japanese paper blend strikingly with
tiny curtains of a wonderfully fresh old blue at the casement windows.
The rag carpet carries this same blue up the white stairs to the second
floor.

The rooms on the right of the lower hallway have been kept nearly in
their original state with the addition of fresh paint and attractive
papers. They form a small suite of a study and bedroom, seeming quite
apart from the rest of the house.

On the second floor, a refreshing simplicity has been observed in the
bedrooms. The dormers that have been cut in the roof add not only to
their comfort but provide charming little bays and alcoves, giving
unexpected opportunities for interesting furnishings. Quaint, old-time
papers and hangings and coverlets on the four-poster beds, matched in
rugs and cushions and candle-shades, contrast gaily with the spotless
white paint. Considerable ingenuity has been necessary in planning this
floor, as the original rooms were so tiny and space so very limited
under the long slopes of the roof. The dormers gave the much needed
increase in the size of the chambers, and part of the rear one was
converted into the bathroom.

In the ell and shed at the rear of the house, perhaps the most
interesting feature of all is situated. A step lower than the
dining-room and reached through swinging French doors of glass, is the
little kitchen which has been fitted up in a most compact way. An
additional window has been cut at the side to provide both light and
air, and an outside door gives access to the small court on the far side
of the house between the main building and the rear shed. This has been
turned into a miniature old-fashioned garden, where it is pleasant to
sit among the flowers.

Back of the kitchen is the laundry and an old well, which has been
drained and is now used as a cooling cellar, and the wire basket
containing meats and milk and butter is drawn up and down on the old
crank. Beyond this, the old wood and coal shed has been transformed into
the studio. Here Mrs. Shaw designs all her beautiful jewelry work at the
long work-table across the rear under the four long windows. Opening
from it is a tiny little apartment used as an office, and here at a
quaint desk, the designs for the metal work are sketched out, and the
correspondence connected with the business end transacted.

In the adaptation of the outbuildings to the special and unusual
requirements of the owner, an excellent example is given to others who
have individual hobbies such as this to accommodate. But throughout the
building the needs and the personality of the owner have been as
carefully if not as ostensibly expressed. There has been no thought of
comfort or of service sacrificed in the effort to revive the
atmosphere of the past, but rather has that very simplicity and
straight-forwardness been utilized to banish all that might complicate
entire convenience. The personality of the owner has been interwoven
into every detail, and shows nowhere more strongly than in the
preservation of all the delightful vagaries and unevenness of hand work
played upon and mellowed by time.



CHAPTER IX

THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE


The prospective house owner generally has little or no idea of how to go
about designing his own home. If he chances to see some other house that
strikes his fancy, he realizes that it approaches, at least in part,
what he has in mind. How to accomplish his desire, however, he has no
definite knowledge. He hesitates to call in an architect who is a
stranger to him and knows nothing of his needs and habits and
preferences; he fears that an attempt to combine his own ideas with
those of the architect will result unsatisfactorily to both of them. To
such a man as this, the remodeled farmhouse comes as a boon. From the
old house he is able to determine what type his home will be; no matter
how battered and worn it is to start with, he can get some impression of
the possible room space and arrangement by studying other old interiors
and their relation to each other. That is one of the reasons why the
movement sweeping through the country to-day has become so extensive.
It gives a substantial foundation upon which to develop an artistic home
under one's own supervision.

When a man purchases a weather-beaten farmhouse, it is evident that he
is up against a real problem in remodeling, and the task demands plenty
of time and a wide-awake, ingenious brain. If he consults his friends
and neighbors across the way, doubtless their opinions differ so
materially from his own that the result is worse than if he had solved
the questions in his own way. We all have ideals, but it is not always
easy to express them; they need to be developed in order to be made
practical and require thought and diligent research if they are to be
concretely embodied in the altered home. Paper and pencil are good
friends at this stage of the game, and even a rough sketch drawn
carelessly on the back of an old envelope, as an idea occurs, gives
subject matter for larger schemes and more realistic results.

Few people who are planning to spend the summer months in a new house
realize how much their comfort depends upon light and space. It would be
foolish for you to buy an old farmhouse and make the rooms small and
cramped in size. You would lose a great part of the advantage of coming
to the country to live, the pleasure of being as nearly out of doors as
possible. Most of the old houses were cut up into small rooms, for,
owing to the limited heating facilities in olden days, large rooms would
have been freezing in winter; accordingly one or two bedrooms were
invariably crowded into the first floor to receive the warmth from the
kitchen. But it is almost always possible to tear out the partitions
between some of the rooms and make them into one large apartment which
can be used for living purposes. This can usually be done without
weakening the structure; the floor above will be found to rest upon a
great beam, or a new girder can be put across.

If the stud is low, do not change it, or you will spoil the whole
atmosphere of the place. A low stud and large rooms are good
developments, so try to achieve them when you are making over the house.
Have plenty of windows; in the old days, many windows meant a cold house
in the winter, but if the farmhouse is to be used only as a summer home,
the cooler the better. If for a winter residence also, modern systems of
heating will counteract the difficulty. Windows of the long French type
are especially desirable; they are more adapted to the requirements of
country life, as they admit abundant light and air and are entirely in
keeping with the style of the farmhouse.

The house should represent a unit; the porch should be planned so that
it leads into the living-room, and by throwing open the windows, will
seem to become part of a large airy room. The dining-room should either
be part of the living-room or open conveniently near. The service
quarters must immediately adjoin the dining-room. If there is other
space on the floor which cannot be used to increase the comfort of the
two main rooms, well and good; it may then be devoted to whatever
purpose you desire. But when the removal of partitions will make a place
more pleasant to live in, it is always wise to make such a change.

We know that there are few of these old houses that have not been cut up
and divided; but the conditions which made that necessary in the earlier
days have been changed, and for a simple country house one large living
and dining-room is far better than divisions which shut out light and
air. Many people look at these propositions from a limited view-point
and do not stop to consider the complete idea. We all learn from houses
that we visit what is right and what is wrong to do. If we look deeper
into the subject and go farther afield, we find it pays to carefully
develop the plan before commencing to rebuild. The requirements of
elaborate modes of life, liveried servants and much entertaining,
demand, of course, many apartments; reception-room and drawing-room,
library and den seem essential in the house plan, but for those who come
to the country to simplify existence, these are not needed. In
remodeling your house, let three things be uppermost in your mind:
convenience, comfort, and light; if you follow these, you will not go
far astray.

Even a very small house need not be devoid of these qualities. It may be
very tiny and yet most attractive and complete in every detail. With
careful thought and a broad conception of the whole, it is quite
possible to make a place where it is a pleasure to visit and where even
the casual guest realizes the application of small and interesting
details in making a harmonious whole.

Do not let your mind wander from the fact that the interior is of as
much importance, and even more, than the exterior, for it is there that
we live much of the time during the season, and it should therefore be
harmonious and in good taste. The development of one room for common
family use, and the elimination of the shut-up parlor for company, have
brought about an atmosphere of simplicity that goes to make a perfect
and livable house.

[Illustration: THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE ON CAPE COD]

This one-room idea has been charmingly carried out in a small house that
has been remodeled for a summer home by Mr. Robert Spencer of New York
and South Yarmouth. It is most attractively situated, standing far back
from the road, with a background of pine trees that give a picturesque
touch to the little cottage. Originally it stood on the opposite side of
the bay, on the shores of Cape Cod at South Dennis, Massachusetts. Its
possibilities seemed to the present owner worth developing, and he had
it "flecked" and brought over the water to its present site. This was
not a hard task to accomplish, as the timbers were stanch and in a good
state of preservation.

[Illustration: THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE--FRONT VIEW]

It was a typical fisherman's cottage, with a wide gable roof sloping
down to the first story and four small rooms about a central chimney. To
meet the needs of the new owner, it required considerable enlargement. A
two-story building was added at the rear and side, meeting the main
house only along the corner. Little attempt was made to have the two
harmonize, for not only are the roof lines of widely different types,
but the frame of one is of white clapboarding and of the other weathered
shingle. At the angle where they join, the roof of the old building has
been raised to accommodate the higher stud in the new, thus making a
break in it near the ridge.

Two dormers have been cut in the main roof to give extra room in the
second floor; these are flat-roofed and well spaced, with two windows
occupying the entire front of each. A porch has been added across the
whole front of the house and half of it is roofed over. This breaks with
the slope of the main roof, but follows that of the dormers. A detail
which adds much to the appearance of the exterior is the simple,
square-posted fence that surrounds the porch and encloses a quaint
little garden in the square formed by the angle of the two buildings.
This same detail has been adopted at the side of the porch roof in an
effective way. This fence, and the clapboards and trim of the house, are
white, and the shutters and shingles are green.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Living Room]

The front door opens immediately into the living and dining-room
which occupies the whole right side of the house and opens at the rear
on to a grassy terrace. A triple window has been cut along the side to
allow ample light and air. Small panes are used in these windows, and
the French doors have glass of corresponding size. The feature of this
room is the fine old fireplace at the center of the inside wall. It is
very simple, with slight attempt at ornamentation, but the proportions
are good, and the lines rather unusual. Over the fireplace is an old
cupboard that used to be called a "nightcap closet" from the hospitable
bottle which was kept there to be passed around among the men just
before retiring. At the left is a cupboard with upper and lower doors;
in the panels of the former, panes of glass have been inserted. This end
of the room has been treated as the living-room and the opposite end as
the dining-room. The woodwork is all white, and the roughly finished
plaster is tinted a deep cream.

Straight stairs lead to the second story along the wall at the dining
end of the room. Here, about the walls, a wide molding has been carried
over doors and windows, which serves as a plate-rail for numerous
interesting old family plates and jugs. Beneath it, in several places,
shelves have been bracketed to the wall to hold other pieces of china.
The glass door at the end opens on to the terrace, and the paneled door
beside it communicates with the kitchen and servants' quarters in the
addition.

The furnishings in this room admirably accord with the building in both
age and simplicity. The older furniture has been supplemented with
modern pieces of straightest and most unpretentious line and character.
Clocks, mirrors, pictures, andirons, and fire-set are family heirlooms.
The coverings on the floor are large and plain rag carpets; at the
windows are simple muslin curtains, with overhangings of Colonial chintz
in soft colors harmonizing with the cheerful and sunny atmosphere of the
room.

At the left of this room, occupying the other side of the house, are two
bedrooms. One of them is the children's own room and has been furnished
very attractively; fresh white tables and chairs harmonize with the
older mahogany pieces and lend an air of distinctive charm to the
apartment.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: The Attic Chambers]

The space up-stairs is divided into large and small rooms under the
eaves. The slope of the roof allows room for many built-in drawers and
closets, and every inch has been utilized. The white paint and the
simple white furniture arranged with a care and precision that is worthy
of emulation contribute to make the effect of these rooms light and airy
and inviting. The Japanese crêpe or gay cretonne curtains at the windows
add just the necessary touch of color.

The lighting fixtures in the house demand especial notice, as it is so
difficult a matter to attain a distinction in them when a house has not
been wired but must depend upon older methods of illumination than
electricity or gas. A number of simple candle brackets attaching to the
wall have been purchased, and these are placed symmetrically in pairs,
balancing each other on either side of a fireplace or mirror or window.
The candlesticks for shelf or table have been arranged with equal
precision, and some are given all the more importance by attractive
hand-made shades. An occasional simple, square, candle lantern hangs
from the ceiling to contribute to the effect. The table and reading
lamps have been chosen with equal success.



CHAPTER X

THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE


In planning the remodeling of a farmhouse, has it ever occurred to you
how much of the appearance of the exterior depends upon the architecture
of verandas and porches? Not only must we give much thought to the
alteration of the lines of the house which may be required by the
interior plan, but we must be equally careful when it comes to the
addition of entirely exterior features.

Modern country life demands plenty of veranda room and, whenever
possible, sleeping-porches. One does not go to the country to sit
indoors, even if the windows are all thrown open. There is nothing that
will so materially improve the health as outdoor life; tired and jaded
nerves are soon restored by use of a sleeping-porch, where the fresh air
can soothe and induce restful slumber. In the early days, the porch or
veranda did not exist; it may be supposed that our pioneer ancestors
were too busy to enjoy any leisurely hours out of doors; at least, they
made no provision in connection with their houses for such relaxation.

As the details of the exterior became more elaborate, the entrance porch
was developed with free-standing columns. In time, this assumed greater
importance, especially in the south, where columns the height of the
whole building supported a roof across its entire front. In the north,
the veranda was less frequently used, but there is occasional authority
for both the front and the less pretentious back piazza. It is one of
the additions which are imperative in remodeling the house, however, and
it becomes something of a problem because there is no more definite
authority for it.

If there is to be simply an entrance porch, offering a bit of shelter at
the front door for stranger or friend, it may have much precedent in the
porches of Georgian houses. In planning this, take into consideration
that it should be an index of what one will find in the interior; it
should be the keynote, as it were, of the entire house. Here we may have
the same details and the same proportions as in the cornice of the roof,
or the fireplace within. We find many porches that are sadly out of
keeping with the rest of the house and seem very carelessly designed. It
is far better to have none at all than one which is insignificant and
out of scale; yet it must not be more elaborate than the house itself
and tend to dwarf the main structure. Few people realize how important
this feature is and how necessary that it should be a satisfactory
adjunct to the architecture of the whole. It is almost the first thing
we notice as we approach the house. Whether it is well placed and
rightly proportioned, whether it has a proper overhang, good roof lines,
and adequately supported cornice, affects to a very great extent the
style and character of the house.

There were a great many different types of porch in the Georgian houses:
the simple hood with a high-backed settle on either side that was
commonly used at a side entrance; the gable-roofed and flat-roofed,
square porch and circular, open and partly enclosed, with round and oval
windows at the sides, were all developed to high perfection. The simple,
Doric column, plain or fluted, with corresponding pilasters or
three-fourths round against the house, was used on many of the porches;
but the Ionic and Corinthian capitals are more elaborate than is
appropriate for the simplicity of a farmhouse. From the infinite number
of models which can be found, it should be a comparatively easy matter
to construct an entrance porch, utilizing the details found in the
house.

A veranda demands somewhat different manner of procedure. First it is
necessary to decide where it shall be put. Where will it receive the
best air and the least sun? It must, presumably, open from or adjacent
to the living-room and yet be so placed that its roof will not cut off
too much light. If the house is uncomfortably near the highway or
neighbors, the matter of privacy cannot be neglected, and a thought may
well be given to the outlook from the piazza. Let it enjoy any advantage
of a fine view or a picturesque garden that may be compatible with its
other requirements. Thus it may be at the front, at either or both
sides, or in the rear. At the side of the ordinary, gable-roofed house,
the roof of the veranda should as a rule be flat. If it is possible to
continue the roof line of the house to include that of the porch, by all
means let it be done; the unbroken sweep will usually be found
excellent. At some angles it may seem too long and severe; then it is
often possible to put a slight "kick" in it, especially if there is
anything of the Dutch type about the building.

The floor of the porch in farmhouses should be low; it may be on a level
with that of the house, or a step below it. It is well to let the
underpinning be a continuation of that of the house, and it may then be
covered with brick or tile, or the conventional boards. The columns or
posts which support the roof are a stumbling block for many remodelers.
These should closely copy the entrance porch, if there is one; even if
it be no more than a flat semblance of a pilaster about the frame of the
door, it will supply the correct motive. Lacking this, there will
undoubtedly be some detail in the interior which can be magnified to the
right proportion for the exterior,--the upright of a mantel or the frame
of a door. For a house which can boast no such source of suggestion, a
straight, square post with a simple molding would be the solution. The
cornice should follow the detail of the entrance door or the house
cornice; and it is effective and increases the apparent unity to repeat
the decoration of the one on the other.

The rails and balusters of old houses were extremely simple and should
be kept so in the remodeling. In the very early examples, the balusters
were square and spaced far apart; later both square and turned balusters
were used, and they were spaced twice their width. The design for these
can often be taken from the stairs in the interior of the house. It is
the modern tendency to use no railing about verandas, particularly when
they are low or when they are screened in. Some of the flat-roofed type
had a railing around the roof, and an open-air porch was thus made for
the second story.

Sometimes this porch can be utilized as a sleeping-porch on the second
floor. This feature, while of course entirely foreign to the farmhouse,
has become as much a necessity in many families as the open-air
living-room, and it is therefore logical to introduce it where possible
to do so without destroying the lines of the building. It is better,
however, to do without it than to add it in such a way that it will seem
an afterthought and not really incorporated in the structure. Often it
can be placed in a wide dormer cut in the slope of the roof; sometimes
the roof line can be extended over the roof of the sleeping-porch, or
again it may be merely a room with the walls largely cut away. Each
remodeler will have his own problem in connection with this, and by
ingenuity and careful study must work it out to his own satisfaction.
Remember always that the integral simplicity of the building must not be
disturbed, and that whether it be sleeping-porch, veranda, or entrance
portico, it must seem always a part of the original building, as if it
were the conception of the master craftsman who erected the first
timbers.

[Illustration: THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE]

Most gratifying results along this line are shown in an old farmhouse at
Medfield, Massachusetts, which was built in 1755. Like many other old
houses, this had fallen into decay and stood neglected and unoccupied by
the side of the road while the extensive grounds lay unkempt and
desolate. But Mr. Davenport Brown recognized in it a house that could be
made to serve most acceptably as the foundation of his summer home.

It is of the Georgian type, built with the hall and straight flight of
stairs as the axis. There are two main chimneys opening into four
fireplaces on the first floor. A service wing has been added at the
left, parallel with the main building, and half its width. Back of that,
an ell of equal size extends at right angles. Both of these are two
storied, but the upper stud is somewhat lower than in the main building,
thus allowing it to retain its predominance in the design.

The main part is given further importance by the dignified entrance
porch. Two three-fourths round and two free-standing, fluted, Doric
columns are used, supporting a cornice and a gabled roof, the details of
which repeat those in the cornice of the house. A rather unusual type of
scalloped dentation lends additional interest. The frame about the door
is arched over, and there are side lights and an overhead fanlight in a
simple style that carries out the Colonial tradition.

[Illustration: The Hallway]

The hall leads past the stairs and through an open doorway to the rear
of the house, where there is another entrance, repeating the design of
the front one. This is some distance from the rear wall of the house,
and consequently there is a small, arched-over portico formed within the
lines of the building. The walls of this are paneled, and on each side
is a built-in seat. The floor is tiled, and the woodwork painted white.

At each end of the main part of the building is a flat-roofed veranda
carrying out the details of the entrance porch in column and cornice.
The same dentil ornamentation that appears on the cornice of the house
is used here in smaller size, as on the entrance porch. Around the edges
of the flat roofs, boxes filled with blooming plants and vines form an
original and most attractive method of softening the sharp lines and
finish of the house. The veranda on the right side overlooking the wide
lawns and gardens is used largely as the outdoor living-room and is
screened in. The spacing of the bars and framework of the screening is
well proportioned and adds not a little to the decoration. The floor of
the veranda is edged with brick and paved in the center with square
tiles which slope toward a drain at one side. This wing of the
living-room has been comfortably furnished with canvas hammocks and
Chinese grass chairs and stools, and even a sand-box for the children
finds room here.

In the central hall, the details carry out the character of the old
period carefully. There is a white unpaneled wainscot carved around the
walls and up the stairs, with a similar treatment in the second-floor
hall. The stairs are wide, with white risers and mahogany treads, and
the hand-rail is mahogany supported on white, turned balusters and a
mahogany newel post. The upper walls are papered in a gray landscape
paper, and the furnishings consist of a pair of Sheraton card tables.

[Illustration: The Sun-Parlor or Out-door Nursery]

[Illustration: The Library]

At the right of the hall, the two rooms have been combined into a
living-room by cutting double arches on either side of the fireplaces
which open from the back and front of the chimney. The furnishings are
especially interesting here, as there are a number of rare and beautiful
pieces. The mantel mirror over the front fireplace is a fine example of
American workmanship. The mahogany frame divides its length into three
sections, and it is ornamented with carved and gilded husk festoons; the
scroll top is surmounted with a gilt spread eagle. In front of the fire
there is a beautiful little Sheraton fire-screen. Chairs and tables are
equally interesting; there is an old "comb-back" chair and an
upholstered "Martha Washington" chair, as well as more modern easy
chairs and davenports. The upholstery and curtains are of
small-patterned, Colonial fabrics that carry out the spirit of the room.
In the back part of this room, a large double window has been cut,
looking out over the gardens and the grounds. Underneath it is a most
attractive window-seat suggestive of an old-time settle, and on each
side low book-shelves extend around the whole end of the room.

The dining-room is situated at the left of the hallway. The fireplace
and paneling hold the attention in this room. The woodwork is very
simple but well proportioned, and on either side of the mantel are
narrow, built-in, china closets with small, leaded, diamond panes in
both upper and lower parts of the door and even in a transom over it.
The walls above the unpaneled wainscot are painted white and divided
into simple, large panels with narrow moldings. The furniture in this
room is suggestive of the early part of the nineteenth century, with the
exception of the Queen Anne type of chair. Over the heavy and massive
sideboard is a long gilt mirror of the Empire "banister" type; between
the two side windows is a gilt, convex girandole with three branching
candlesticks on each side. On the mantel is a fine example of a Willard
shelf clock, and on each side of it are tall mahogany candlesticks with
the old-fashioned wind glasses. The over-curtains at the windows are a
soft rose damask; they hang from gilded cornices and are caught back on
gilded rosettes,--the style of draping which is carried out in all the
main rooms of the house.

[Illustration: The Service Wing]

The service wing opens from the left of the dining-room, and the den,
which is back of it, with a fireplace on the opposite side of the same
chimney, is reached from the rear of the hall.

[Illustration: The Nursery]

At the head of the stairs at the right, one enters the bright and sunny
nursery. Here the fireplace is very simple and has no over-mantel. The
woodwork is white, and a broad molding divides the upper part of the
wall. Below is a quaint paper picturing Mother Goose scenes which the
children never tire of studying. The furniture is mainly white, and the
little chairs and tables in child's size are decorated in peasant
fashion with painted flowers and lines of color.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two of the Chambers]

There are two other bedrooms in the main part of the house and each has
an open fireplace. The furnishings are simple and old-fashioned in
character, retaining the Colonial atmosphere admirably. In one room
there is a Field bedstead of English make, dating about 1780, showing
reeded posts and a curved canopy top. The chairs and the little night
stand at the side of the bed are in close harmony with the period of its
design. In the other chamber are twin beds which are modern
reproductions of four-posters, but other furnishings retain the
distinctive atmosphere of age. Over one bureau there is a fine mirror
with the Georgian eagle ornamentation; in keeping with it are the old
fireside wing chair and a side chair of Sheraton type.

The most interesting bedroom, perhaps, is in the wing of the house,
where Hannah Adams, the first American authoress, was born. This is
reached by a cross hall which leads from the main one, and gives access
to baths and rear stairs and another tiny bedroom. Although the old
fireplace has been remodeled, the aspect of the room is much the same as
when the house was built. The woodwork here is all dark, and the
hand-hewn rafters and cross beams are exposed in the ceiling. An unusual
wall-paper in black and gay colors forms an interesting background for
the four-poster and other old furnishings. An old batten door with a
quaint little window in the center strip leads from this room to the
chambers in the service ell.

Much of the house has been restored under the direction of the
architect, Mr. John Pickering Putnam of Boston, and to him the credit
for its successful remodeling must be largely given. The planning and
laying out of the grounds about the house, however, are the work of the
owner, who has spared no pains to make a harmonious setting for his
home.

Between the house and the road is a row of great overshadowing elms that
make a delightful setting for the red and white of the house. The drive
sweeps around these trees to the stable on the left and is separated
from the house and the lawns by white palings in a simple Colonial
pattern, having fine, carved posts surmounted by balls. The fence stops
at either side of the front to allow wide space for a heavy embankment
of conifers. Somewhat back of this fence, along the whole length of the
lawn, is a second lower one, with posts of the same height. This marks
the boundary of the wide lawn and forms a charming background for an
old-fashioned hardy border that extends all the way to a swimming-pool
and pergolas at the far end. Immediately behind the house is the flower
garden, from which all the blossoms used to decorate the house are cut;
this is screened by a white trellis and pergola, carrying out some of
the details of the entrance porches and verandas.



CHAPTER XI

THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE


A very interesting feature in an old farmhouse is the fireplace, which
varies in size with the age of the house; the oldest ones are large,
with cavernous mouths, since they were the only means of heating the
house. These are capable of holding a ten-foot log, for it must be
remembered that at that period of our country's history the woods grew
at the very door.

A few of these old fireplaces are found to-day, principally in the old
kitchens or living-rooms, although occasionally we see an old house
which has them in almost every room. There is a great variety in their
design as well as size, some being very simple and framed in wood, while
others show tiling; occasionally we find elaborate carving, but this is
in the better class building rather than in the simple little farmhouse.
These details denote the different periods and also the wealth of the
former owner.

With the introduction of stoves, many fireplaces were bricked in to
accommodate an air-tight stove which gave more heat and saved fuel. One
unaccustomed to the features of an old farmhouse would infer a lack of
fireplaces. The removal of brick and mortar, however, reveals the large,
cavernous hearth which was often three feet deep and sometimes showed a
second bricking in, to make it smaller. Often in the narrowing of the
fireplace, tiles are used, generally Dutch, which are blue and white in
coloring. Occasionally in opening up these fireplaces, one comes across
rare old andirons that were considered of too little value to be
removed; old cranes and kettles are also found, of the type common in
the days of our early ancestors.

It must be remembered that the chimneys of these old houses were often
six feet square and had many fireplaces opening from them. It was the
central feature of the house, around which the rooms were built. The
earliest chimneys were daubed in clay, and in the masonry oak timbers
were often used. In remodeling a house many people tear down these old
chimneys for the space which may be converted into closet use and
alcoves, making a smaller chimney do service.

In the olden times, when the first chimneys were erected, they were so
carefully built that they were less liable to smoke than the smaller
ones, so that it is better to let the old one remain if possible. Brick
was generally used in the construction, although sometimes we find
stone. It was not the finished brick of to-day but rough and unfaced.
This was not true, however, of those which formed a part of cargoes from
abroad, more especially those brought from Holland. The use of stone was
not popular, as it was apt to chip when brought in contact with the
heat; this is also true of the hearthstones, where the flagging became
rough and most unsatisfactory.

The fireback was a feature of some of the old fireplaces. The earliest
of these made in our country were cast in Saugus, Massachusetts, and
some were most elaborate in design. Often coats-of-arms and initials
were worked out in their construction. In addition to the brick and
stone, soapstone facings were sometimes shown, but seldom do we come
across good carving.

The crane was a feature of the fireplace, and on it were hung the
pothooks from which depended the iron and brass pots in which food was
cooked. In one side of the bricks, just at the left of the fireplace,
was often a large brick oven with an iron door, and here on baking days
roaring wood fires were kindled to heat the bricks before the weekly
baking was placed within. Examination of these old ovens will be very
apt to reveal the age of the house.

In the remodeling it is well to leave the fireplaces much as they stand,
with the exception of bricking them in, for the old ones allowed too
much air to come down the chimney, and at the present high price of
wood, we are not able to indulge in the ten-foot logs that were in
evidence in our grandmothers' time.

A house with many fireplaces that stands back from the winding country
road on the border line between Medfield and Walpole in Massachusetts
was chosen for a summer home by Charles E. Inches. It is shaded now as
it was long ago by large, old elms whose widespreading branches seem to
add a note of hospitality to this most attractive estate. Possibly there
are better examples of the restored farmhouse than this one found at
Medfield, but it is very picturesque, not only in type but in
surroundings. It stands near a turn of the road, where it was erected,
in 1652, situated in a sheltered glen and protected from cold winds.

[Illustration: Front View showing the Old Well]

At that time it was a small and unpretentious building about twenty feet
long and showing in the interior fine examples of hand-hewn timbers.
Even in its dilapidated state it was most attractive, with its many
fireplaces and old woodwork. This particular house has two values, the
one relating to its historical record and the other to its old-time
construction. Through two centuries this little farmhouse had been the
home of the Adams family, a branch that was near in kin to the
presidential line of Adams who lived at Quincy, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

At the time of its building, a stream wound in and out through the
meadow land that was a part of the property. It was such a large stream
that it afforded sufficient power to run an old mill that originally
stood on the estate and which for many years ground the neighbors'
grain. On a ridge opposite the house, worn stone steps lead up through
pastures to a sturdy oak which stands nearly opposite the front of the
house and is known in history as the "whipping tree." Here, in Colonial
days, wrong-doers were tied to be whipped. Just before we reach the
stone wall, which was laid probably by the slaves held by the landowner
of that period, we find an old mounting-block. On the side of one of
the stones are the figures 1652; and it was from this block that many a
Colonial dame mounted to her pillion to ride in slow and dignified style
behind her worthy squire. Even in those days the grounds were very
extensive and reached for many acres. These to-day have been reclaimed
and laid down to grass land and garden.

[Illustration: Across the Lawn]

Half way between the house and the tennis court which defines the estate
is a wonderful old garden which has been designed not so much for show
purposes as to supply flowers all through the season. This is not the
only garden on the place, for back of it is the vegetable garden and the
old-fashioned one. The dividing line between the two is a row of stately
trees which hide the former from view at the front of the house. Rows of
apple-trees, many of which were on the estate when it was first
purchased, remnants of the original orchard, surround in part the tennis
court, behind which is a swimming pool which is in frequent use. This is
about twenty-five feet long and twelve wide, cemented to a depth of
seven feet; with its background of tall poplars it is very artistic and
lends itself to all sorts of water contests.

During the latter part of the nineteenth century, new life came to the
old house. It had stood for years, weather-beaten and old, guarding the
family name. While the outside was very attractive and in tolerably good
repair, it was the interior that appealed especially. There was
beautiful old wainscoting and paneling of wide boards, some of which was
split from logs at least thirty inches in width. Great reverence was
paid by the owner to the original structure, particularly to the old
kitchen with its large, brick fireplace and chimney which was restored
to its early beauty.

Sagging plaster was removed, and underneath were found well-preserved,
hand-hewn beams and rafters. These were carefully cleaned and considered
of such great beauty that they were left exposed as far as possible,
more especially those which showed the sign of the adze. The walls,
which had been previously neglected, were stripped of wall-papers which
were in some places ten thicknesses deep. In removing one of these, a
wonderfully fine landscape paper was discovered, and although every
attempt was made to save it, it was too far defaced. Under the paper was
a wide paneling of white pine, so good that it needed only a slight
restoration. In the opening of the fireplace the crane, pothook, and
hangers were found to be intact, while many pieces of ancestral pewter
and copper were polished and placed in proper position on the wide,
receding chimney. This was to give it the look of the olden days, when
pewter was used for the table. There was no bricking in of this old
fireplace, for it was considered such a wonderful example that it was
left in its original state. The old flint-lock that did service in the
early war was hung over the fireplace, while from the chimney hook the
old-time kettles were swung much as they did in the days when they were
used for cooking purposes. The old brick oven used by the Adams family
was not removed, and at one side of the fireplace a long braid of corn
was hung in conformity with the custom of that period. The hand-hewn
rafters and beams have been left intact in this room, as has the old
woodwork, so that the kitchen, now used as a den, is an exact
reproduction of the original room. It is the most interesting apartment
in the house, being situated at the right of the entrance and furnished
with old family heirlooms, including five rare slat-back chairs, a
rush-bottomed rocking-chair, and a settle of the same period. Even the
wide boards that were used in the original flooring have been retained,
and the old brick hearth, showing wide bricks such as are never found in
modern residences. To meet present requirements, the cellar was
cemented, and a furnace added, in order that the occupants need not
depend entirely on the fireplaces for heat.

[Illustration: The Hall and Stairway]

In the hallway, the stairway, following the lines of many Colonial
houses, rises at one side. Here the wall-paper is wonderfully preserved,
being in the old colors of yellow and white and of a very old design. It
was made in England over a century ago and gives an appropriate
atmosphere to the entrance of the attractive old home.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

The living-room, which is spacious and comfortable, is at the right just
before you enter the den. The woodwork has been painted white, following
the Colonial idea, while old-fashioned, diamond-paned windows have been
substituted for the original ones. Here, as throughout all the house,
one comes unexpectedly upon groups of shelves filled with books. There
are built-in cupboards that provide places for the wonderful collection
of books, many of which are rare editions, owned by the present
occupants. Like every room in the house, this shows several tables of
unusually fine design, a handsome side-wing chair, and a few other
choice pieces. The great open fireplace with its Colonial accessories
lends much to the hominess of this room.

At the left of the hallway is the large and spacious dining-room, which
is in reality three rooms opened into one, the partitions showing in the
beamed ceilings. The walls are finished in green textile and are left
unornamented with the exception of one or two choice pictures. There was
a method in the construction of this room which was planned for unbroken
spaces to bring out to advantage the lines of the beautiful old
sideboard. Then, too, the space shows off the lines of the rush-bottomed
chairs that are used for dining-chairs. The mantel, framed in white
wood, is hung with rare porringers, ranging from large to baby size.
There is a restful atmosphere about this room, that, combined with its
perfect setting, is most refreshing. At the farther end of the room,
French doors open upon the sun parlor which is used during the summer
months for a breakfast-room. This overlooks the garden.

The bedrooms up-stairs are large and airy, each one of them being
carefully furnished with Colonial pieces which include four-posters,
high and lowboys as well as quaint, old-time chests of drawers that can
do service as bureaus, or as storage space for extra blankets, hangings,
or rugs.

The floors throughout the entire house are of hard wood, many of them
being the original ones that were laid when the house was built. Rare
old Chippendale, Sheraton, and Hepplewhite chairs are used in the
furnishings, while hand-woven rugs cover the floors. The windows are
screened by chintz hangings of bright colors and gay designs, and the
whole house presents a sunny, restful atmosphere.

At the rear of the house an ell has been added where the new kitchen
with all modern conveniences, pantries, servants' dining and sitting
rooms are found. Thus while the exterior features of the old house have
been carefully preserved, the addition of the ell gives comfort and
convenience to the new building.

Shrubbery has been planted around the house, and a veranda thrown out;
window-boxes filled with brilliantly blossoming plants add a bit of
color to the remodeled farmhouse which is painted red with white trim.
Velvety lawns have replaced the old-time farming lands, and the planting
of trees has done much to add to the picturesqueness of this estate.
The grounds themselves are extensive, covering forty-five acres, and the
natural beauties are unusually varied. Broad stretches of fields and
hills intersected with trees make a most appropriate setting for the old
Adams homestead.



CHAPTER XII

THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE


It was a staircase that was responsible for the remodeling of one house
which had no other unusual feature. It was designed by a village
carpenter whose object was four walls and a shelter rather than
architectural beauty. The structure was so simple and unobtrusive that
it did not arouse any enthusiasm in the heart of the architect who
examined it, for it presented no chance to show his ability in its
remodeling. It was the kind of a farmhouse that one would find in almost
any suburban town, built without any pretensions, its only good feature
being the staircase which saved it from passing into oblivion and caused
it to be remodeled into a charming, all-the-year-round home.

It had been unoccupied for a long period and with exterior
weather-beaten and interior uninhabitable, it presented a forlorn
appearance, repelling to most would-be purchasers. It stood by the side
of a traveled road and in its best days was occupied by a farmer and
his family who cared more for the barn adjoining the house than they did
for the farmhouse itself.

The estate was a large one that had been neglected and allowed to run
down until weeds and rank grass were so intermingled that it seemed a
discouraging task to bring it back into a good state of cultivation.
Adjoining the house, and connected with it by a shed, was a large barn
with sagging roof and so dilapidated that it seemed past restoring.
Across the front, defining the estate, was once a neat paling fence that
had been torn down until only a small portion remained.

Many acres of the estate were meadow-land which swept to the horizon of
trees, yet the once fine apple orchard, though sadly in need of pruning,
showed promise, and there were possibilities in the whole estate that
needed only attention and development to make them profitable. There had
been no one to care for the old house, and it stood discouraged by the
roadside awaiting a sympathetic owner.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

It was in this condition when first seen by Mr. Charles Martin Loeffler,
whose experienced eye discerned its possibilities. It is the wise man
who fits his house to his grounds and who in the general scheme
considers its surroundings. The grass land, the garden, the orchards,
the fencing of the estate, each one of which demands separate treatment,
should be so arranged that they will be profitable in the end. The new
owner realized this and also that he could not be too careful in
combining house and garden so that they would make a harmonious whole.

The location was ideal, quiet and retired and exactly what had been most
desired, so the remodeling was placed in the hands of a careful
architect, who, after thoroughly considering the situation, decided it
could not be done. It was then that Mr. Loeffler took the matter into
his own hands, drawing exact plans of what was necessary to achieve the
desired result, and it was under his personal direction that the workmen
began to remodel the unattractive little cottage. It was borne in mind
that even the addition of a porch or veranda must be carefully
considered to avoid confusion of architecture so that the house itself,
when finished, should follow a single idea and not a composite mass of
details that were entirely out of place and in bad taste. It was
realized that no house, no matter how situated, should have discordant
surroundings. Out-buildings should not be allowed to mar the symmetry
of the house and should be removed so that they would not be an eyesore
but in keeping with the general plan.

The house itself, however, demanded attention first; it was very small,
with a pitched roof in the upper story and a long ell connecting it with
the farm buildings. The exterior was left practically as when first
purchased, with the exception of a small and well-planned porch at the
front, a long ell for servants' quarters, and a wide veranda at the rear
that extended the entire length of the house. In the porch settles were
added on either side which help to give the house an air of dignity and
invite the guest to rest and enjoy the beautiful scenery.

[Illustration: As Remodeled]

The screened-in veranda at the back is used as an out-of-doors
living-room. It is wide, carpeted with rugs, and furnished with simple
but substantial pieces. It is a most comfortable place, where charming
views and wonderful vistas can be enjoyed, for beyond lie the old
orchard with the meadows between and a background of finger-pointed
pines that seemingly melt into the blue of the sky. Trellises were built
on the garden side of the house to carry vines, but this was after the
house had been given a coat of white paint and the blinds painted green.
Over the veranda a balcony was built which can be used for outdoor
sleeping purposes if desired. The picket fence was restored and painted
white to match the coloring of the house, and a stone wall was built at
the farther end to enclose the garden; on the outside wild shrubs were
planted to give a note of color to the gray stone. The old trees,
pruned, took on a new life and are now in a most nourishing condition;
across the entire front, as a partial screening, silver-leafed poplars
were planted. The farm lands were reclaimed, new trees planted in the
old apple orchard, and at the side of the house an attractive garden was
laid out with a background of apple-trees. It was a small garden, only
about an eighth of an acre in size, and filled with old-fashioned
flowers to make it harmonize with the period in which the house was
built. A single path divides it in two, and its color schemes have been
given careful study.

At one side of the garden a rustic pergola has been built with a central
path of grass, and over this a grapevine has been trained which makes it
a restful, shady place in summer, while in early fall the vines are
loaded with great clusters of purple grapes. Everywhere surrounding the
garden are stretches of green lawns that prove a fitting setting to the
bright blossoms in the trim and well-kept beds. The fields beyond have
been brought back to a good state of cultivation and present a beautiful
green tract beyond which stretch rich meadows with waving grass where
flit the bobolink and the red-winged blackbird. In the trees around the
house orioles and robins nest, while everywhere the old apple-trees
grow, many of them gnarled and twisted with age. In the early fall,
loaded with fruit, they form an attractive color note of red and yellow
in the landscape. Great care has been taken to remove the branches of
the old trees in order to afford attractive vistas. This gives a
landscape picture carefully planned and creates a delightful feeling of
restfulness and a sense of relief from the bustle of city life.

Over the porch has been built a lattice to be covered eventually with
rambler roses, and in order to obtain more light, clusters of windows
have been let in on either side of the front door.

The interior as well as the exterior has been carefully planned with a
regard to light and views. One enters the house through the little
porch and finds himself in a spacious hallway which extends to the
living-room. The staircase is at the right of the' entrance. It is not a
primitive affair of the ladder type which is the earliest on record;
neither is it steep with flat treads, high risers and molded box
stringers, but the kind that shows simple posts and rail with plain
balusters. It is of the box stringer type and has no carving in either
post or balusters; it is perfectly straight and leads by easy treads to
the second-story floor.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

The dining-room is at the left of the hallway and is a room built for
comfort and for everyday life, showing plenty of windows. A feature is
the great, open fireplace and the bricked chimney-breast, with small
closets at one side. The woodwork in this room is the same that was in
the house when it was discovered by Mr. Loeffler and, cleaned and
treated to a coat of paint, is most attractive. The wide board floor has
been retained and stained dark to bring out the color schemes of the
rugs.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Living Room]

This room leads directly into the living-room which extends entirely
across the house and is also entered from the hallway. Its windows face
the green fields studded with trees and also overlook the
old-fashioned garden which is near enough to the house so that every
summer breeze wafts the perfume of its flowers to the occupants. A
central feature is a bricked-in fireplace that has been built into the
room. Instead of plastering, the old oaken cross-beams have been left in
their original state, and the room is finished with a wainscot painted
white, above which is a wall covering of Japanese grass-cloth. Bookcases
form an important furnishing of this room which also contains many
pieces of antique furniture. It is a cheerful, homelike apartment, into
which the sun shines practically all day long. Through large French
windows one steps from the living-room on to the veranda. The second
story is devoted to chambers and bath.

Its location has a distinctive charm, as it is not too near the city or
too far away from neighbors. It is well adapted for outdoor living, with
its wide, inviting veranda and the side garden where bloom the stately
phlox, the gaudy poppies, and the bright-hued marigold.

[Illustration: THE STUDIO OPPOSITE THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE]

[Illustration: The Music Room in the Studio Building]

As time went on, the house grew too small for the owner's needs, and so
another house just across the way that had passed its prime and stood
desolate and deserted was also purchased and remodeled into a studio,
one room expressly designed for Mr. Loeffler's work,--large and
commodious with high, vaulted ceiling. Here, too, a veranda was built
across one end that can be used if need be for an outdoor living-room.
It is shaded by many trees, more especially some fine old elms whose
graceful branches shadow the house, while a stretch of lawn extends to
the street. Across the front a paling fence corresponding in style to
that across the street was built, entrance being through a swinging gate
that leads directly to the outside porch. This house shows less
remodeling than the first one; it is principally in the interior that
changes have been made. The whole front of the house is made into a
music-room of unusual type, being hung with pictures of the old masters.
Here the second-story flooring has been removed, and the ceiling vaulted
and sheathed, in order to secure acoustic properties.

A large chimney has been introduced into the inner wall, with brick
mantel and chimney breast, and big enough to hold a six-foot log. The
floors are of polished hardwood, and the ornamentation shows Chinese
ships hung upon the walls,--an interesting feature for interior
decoration. The room is entered through French windows that lead on to
the outside porch.

In addition to the music-room, this house is also used for the caretaker
and week-end guests. The long ell at one side is used for the former,
while at the back of the music-room several rooms are fitted up for the
use of guests, thus solving a problem that is to-day vexing the minds of
many a house owner, more especially in suburban towns.

There is about the whole place a restfulness that has been achieved by
careful planning and attention to details. There is no part of the
estate where one may wander without coming upon picturesque bits of
landscape, that while apparently in their natural state, yet are
restored and preserved with a true appreciation of nature. This estate
is a lesson in reclaiming and remodeling that cannot fail to be
instructive to all home builders. It goes to show that forethought and
ingenuity can create a comfortable and inviting home in the midst of
desolation, and transform an old dilapidated cottage into a charming and
picturesque abode.



CHAPTER XIII

LITTLE ORCHARD


The old farmhouse can well be copied as a type for the modern summer
home, for its lines are excellent, and its design is often so striking
that it lends itself to easy reproduction. To the house owner of to-day
it may seem a little strange that, with the trend of modern
improvements, the old houses should be used for this purpose, and the
architecture of the master builders of long ago shown preference over
that of modern architects who have given their life to this subject.

The builders and designers of old houses had to depend on their own
ideas or possibly on a few designs that were sent over in the cumbersome
ships that plied between England and the new country,--the work of Sir
Christopher Wren, one of the most celebrated architects of his day.

There are no more satisfactory details of house construction than we
find in these old houses, where fireplaces, doors, porches, and carving
show individuality. These ideas, modified and improved upon, are found
in many a twentieth-century home, lending a dignity and charm that would
otherwise be lacking.

If you are remodeling an old house and wish to change a fireplace that
is unsatisfactory or a stairway that is not artistic in design, do not
introduce modern ideas, but rather seek for an old house that is being
torn down and from it take bits that will satisfactorily fit into the
work of remodeling. It is not a hard matter to find details of this
kind, for many an old farmhouse has been neglected so long that it is
past redemption, and it is the blending of the old with the old that
does much to keep distinctive the period that you are seeking to
preserve.

Sometimes the house has been badly mutilated, often to such an extent
that its best features are disguised, and it is a serious problem to
eliminate the wrong ideas and duplicate the original. The old craftsmen
before Colonial times were apt to build houses along certain lines which
often failed to bring proper results; details varied and sometimes were
incongruous with the type of the house. The first houses were generally
one-roomed; later, other rooms like units were gathered around it, and
the result in some cases was the appearance of a lean-to. Later on came
the ell, and, to save steps, chambers were designed on the lower floor,
leading off the main rooms of the houses. Naturally in houses of this
kind the largest room was the kitchen, for this was the
family-living-room, more especially during the cold weather.

We will find as we examine an old farmhouse that the dominant portion of
the building was the first floor, and that the chambers were adapted to
the lower-story plan. These were not always satisfactory, as little or
no care was given to the arrangement of the rooms, and in many houses
closets were little considered. The partitions between these rooms were
not double, like those found to-day, but were made of matched board and
accommodated themselves to the framework. Later on plastering came into
vogue and this made the rooms warmer and much more habitable.

The windows were generally spaced carefully and were in harmony with the
front door, making an attractive exterior. The walls were of wood, often
with a layer of brick to keep out the cold and also to form a better
protection. The roofs, more especially in the early houses, were very
steep, since they were planned for thatching; later on, when shingles
came into use, they grew lower and wider. It was not until 1700 that the
gambrel roof came into style. In considering the evolution of the house
we must look backward, and thus we come to realize the progression of
architecture. We then discover that every old house shows interesting
features, and it is the house with a history that makes its greatest
appeal to the antiquarian; while the revival of Colonial architecture
brings a renewed interest in the history of that period.

There is no more attractive remodeled farmhouse than that of Mr. Roland
C. Lincoln, which is a charming, rambling, summer home situated on the
Gloucester road half way between Manchester-by-the-Sea and Magnolia. It
is a low, yellow cottage, picturesquely placed against a background of
trees and nestled on the side of a hill seemingly as if it had been
there for centuries. At the front is the ocean, while surrounding it is
well-placed shrubbery and artistically trained vines.

[Illustration: The House from the Driveway]

The grounds are just at the left of the main road and separated from it
by a low stone wall; the entrance is by a driveway at one side that
winds to an entrance porch. All around the house are carefully trimmed
lawns and gardens gay with flowers, while the soft expanse of green
sward extends to the shadowing trees and the background of forest and
rock. The house was built two hundred and fifteen years ago. At that
time it stood on the road and was overshadowed by the very oldest house
there was in the town, which stood on the crest of an adjoining hill. It
then contained four rooms only, each one of which was thirteen and a
half feet square. Surrounding the old farmhouse was an orchard of
apple-trees that even in the early days gave to it its present name of
Little Orchard.

[Illustration: The Angle of the Ell]

The possibilities of the little cottage, as it stood forlorn by the side
of the road, attracted the attention of the present owner, who purchased
it, moved it back from the road to its present location, and remodeled
it, adding a wing at the left. The old front door was improved by the
addition of a semicircular porch which is an exact reproduction of the
porch on the White house at Salem, Massachusetts. The side porch was
unique and most picturesque in its design. Ivy has been trained to cover
the veranda and outline many of the windows.

At the rear, facing the garden with its frontage of gnarled apple-trees,
we find the veranda or out-of-doors living-room. This is used during the
summer months and commands one of the most picturesque views on the
estate, overlooking lawns and forest.

[Illustration: The Entrance Porch]

[Illustration: The Stairway]

Entrance to the old house is through the porch, and one finds himself in
a most charming hallway, at one side of which is an alcoved recess. This
is hung in blue and white Morris paper. Near the front door at the right
is the staircase which leads with low treads and broad landing to the
second-story floor; it has a hand-carved balustrade with a mahogany
rail, while its newel post shows fine carving. Half way up between two
huge beams have been placed some wonderful old pieces of china of the
Colonial period, and under them is the quaint inscription, a welcome to
the home, "In God's hands stands this house, may good luck come to it
and bad luck go out of it." The staircase is reproduced from a
particularly fine model found in a house in Boston that was originally
the home of one of America's greatest statesmen, Edward Everett. It fits
into its new surroundings as if it had always been there and is exactly
the type one would expect to find in such a house as this. There is a
fine old cabinet near the staircase that is considered one of the best
pieces in the country. Inside is an entire tea-set of Lowestoft
originally brought to Manchester by one of the old sea captains as a
commercial venture and placed on sale. It was purchased by the present
owner and holds a prominent place in her collection.

At the foot of the stairs, inside the front door, the name of the house
has been done in burnt wood. Mrs. Lincoln arranged to have this executed
while she was traveling abroad and when talking with the workman she
told him the story of her remodeled farmhouse and why it was named
Little Orchard. He was very much interested in her description, and when
the inscription was finished, it bore not only the name, but decorations
in each corner of tiny little apples.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

At the end of the entrance hall is the dining-room which is long and
well lighted by many windows on two sides. This was a part of the
original house, enlarged and added to. Here we find the low stud and the
beamed ceiling so prevalent in houses of that day. It is hung with a
most interesting Morris paper done in pink and blue, and at one end is a
recessed sideboard. The upper part of this is used as a china
cupboard, while on either side bookcases have been inserted. The
furnishing of this room is all of the Colonial period; the chairs are
Sheraton, as is also the sideboard. The fireplace is unusually good,
being handsomely carved with a basket of fruit as the central
decoration.

Opening from the dining-room is the living-room, a large, square room
with beamed ceiling, a feature being a built-in bookcase at the farther
end. On the walls are many original paintings including one by the late
William H. Hunt, "Tired of Work." An interesting inglenook is a
space-saving device that has been introduced. Underneath the
window-seat, studded in brass nails, is the name of the house again,
Little Orchard.

The reception-room is back of the living-room and shows the staircase of
old Colonial design at the farther end. The fireplace was taken from a
house which once sheltered General Lafayette. When the house was torn
down, the beauty of the carving and the graceful design attracted the
attention of the present owner, who purchased it for his remodeled
house. When it was brought home, it was found to be almost
impracticable, through being so badly worm-eaten; under the hands of
skilful workmen, however, it has been thoroughly renovated and is now a
prominent feature of the room. The apartment is well lighted by many
windows, each one of which is of a different design. These have been
perfectly planned, and there is no discordant note.

The second story has been so arranged that all the rooms open into each
other and also into the hallway. They are of low stud and contain dormer
windows. The Colonial atmosphere has been carefully observed, so that
new pieces which have been introduced fit in harmoniously with the old
ones. Each room has a large, open fireplace with a crane, suggestive of
good cheer.

The success of this house has been attained through the careful thought
of the owners, and it is an example of a charmingly remodeled farmhouse
of a type such as one seldom finds.



CHAPTER XIV

WILLOWDALE


Should you chance to run across an old farmhouse that shows good
interior woodwork, do not carelessly pass it by, for such houses are not
easy to discover. You must realize that when restored it will be much
more attractive than one with a plain mopboard and narrow cornice.

Woodwork was not of the Colonial type in the earliest houses; it was
used merely as a wall covering and was called wainscot, the same as it
is to-day. This was because the paneling was originally made from
wainscot oak which was well grained and without knots. Differing from
that in nineteenth-century houses, it was put on the walls vertically,
the boards being rough and wide. It must be remembered that in those
days trees had not been felled to any extent, and the giants of the
forest provided the best of lumber for this purpose. These boards were
either lapped or put together with tongue-strips. Later on, we find
interiors where they were laid horizontally, like those of a century or
more ago, and instead of being plain boards, were well finished.

Wainscot is an inheritance from our early ancestors, for in the manor
houses in the mother country there is wonderful woodwork, used not only
for wainscot, but for other parts of the interior finish. White pine,
which at that time grew abundantly in our native woods, was employed for
interior as well as exterior purposes, this being more especially true
in the northern and eastern parts of the country, where it was more
plentiful. It has generally been conceded that this wood was the best on
account of its wearing properties, and as it did not show figure in
either the grain or markings. It was often called "cheese-like" and for
this reason was preferred by wood-carvers and cabinetmakers for their
art.

The wainscot was used until about the time of the Revolution and not
until a later period were the walls plastered. It has never lost its
popularity and is found in many twentieth-century houses. It is
generally shown in paneled effects which came into vogue much later than
the plain board period. This woodwork was generally in the lower story,
where more time and thought were given to interior finish; very rarely
is it found in the chambers and then only in the better class of houses.
Wainscot is not the only interior woodwork used; we often find whole
walls finished in paneled wood, and fireplaces with a simple frame in
paneled effects. Many of these old fireplaces showed a wooden shelf
only, while later on, in the early part of the nineteenth century, fine
carvings were included. Occasionally we run across a mantel of this kind
in an old farmhouse, but it is very rare.

It would be out of place for the house owner to introduce a mantel of
this kind, no matter how attractive, in some types of old farmhouses. It
would not be in keeping with the style and, while handsome and graceful
in design, would be incongruous even in remodeled surroundings.

Door-frames as well as the wainscot betoken the age of the house, for in
the earlier ones doors are perfectly plain in finish, elaboration in
design of paneling and wood-carving coming into play at a little later
period. Cornices widened and also became more elaborate as house
building progressed, and a century after the first wainscot was used, we
find them sometimes several inches in width and showing different
motives, such as the egg and dart. These also are rarely found in an
old farmhouse, for it must be remembered that our early ancestors had
little time to think out elaboration in the interior finish of their
homes which were built solely as shelters.

In the reproductions of to-day the wide boards are not easy to find,
unless they are taken from some old house. One of the most valuable
boards is the pumpkin pine which is now rarely found, having disappeared
from the New England forest long ago. Fortunate is the house owner who
discovers this wood in his old farmhouse, for it is found only in the
very oldest buildings. The softness of the wood and the great width of
the boards distinguish it from the white pine.

In 1695, on the shores of Cape Cod, not far from Cataumet, a small
farmhouse was built, with four rooms down-stairs and two rooms and an
unfinished attic above. It was the home of one of the early settlers and
stood facing the highway, a simple, unpretentious dwelling of no
particular design and incongruous architecture. Although it had been
substantially built, it had been abandoned for many years and was in a
most dilapidated condition. Originally the water came nearly to its
door, but the shore line gradually had receded, so when first
discovered, the little building stood with its back to the road, and
its face to the bare meadows.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

Like other houses of this early period, it was guiltless of paint, and
its weather-beaten sides showed the wear and exposure of many years'
conflict with the elements. To transform this house into a summer home
equipped with accommodations adequate for a modern family, was a
difficult problem. The proportions of the exterior were good but so
simple that in order to extend the original quaint outline of the house
without marring it, the additions had to be made with unusual care.

[Illustration: The Front View]

The first step was to carefully study the period for correct remodeling
and to lay out the five acres of grounds to balance the house and
preserve symmetry of detail. A driveway starts at the entrance, where on
a high pole swings a shield-like sign with a red background and showing
the name of the house, Willowdale, in white. The estate is defined by a
fence, and the house in its remodeled state is attractively located on
rising land, many feet back from the main highway.

[Illustration: The House from the Garden]

A hundred years after the house was built, a new highway was opened at
the rear; thus the front or south side was wholly screened from
observation, and it was here that the new owner decided to lay out his
garden. It is enclosed by a high fence painted white, with latticed
panels stained green; at the end a summer-house was erected, whose axis
is the central path of flat stepping-stones that leads to the quaint
porch entrance. Its three outer sides extend beyond the fence and
command a broad view of the picturesque shore territory. The garden
proper is of the old-fashioned type, in conformity with the old-time
atmosphere of the estate, and the same sorts of flowers thrive in the
trim beds that bloomed no doubt in the first owner's garden. Trailing
vines conceal the fence outlining this plot from view. The only
distinctive modern touch and yet one quite in harmony with the
quaintness of the grounds is a large crystal gazing-bowl. This reflects
in its luminous surface the nodding heads of the flowers, the floating
clouds, the children dashing past, or the still loveliness of the summer
sunset which preludes the night.

[Illustration: A Rear View]

The original house had been substantially built, and while appearing
dilapidated, few of the shingles needed replacing even after two hundred
years' wear. In the interior comparatively few repairs were necessary,
paint and paper being the principal requisites. Additions had to be
made to secure the needed room, and the first problem was to arrange
these to conform with the original quaint outline. The old part was of
the old farmhouse type, low of build. To the right a wing was built to
contain three bedrooms and a bathroom, and to balance this a broad,
covered veranda was added at the left; behind this, at the rear,
quarters for the kitchen, servants' hall, and chambers were thrown out.
There was need of more light for the second-floor rooms in the old
building, so dormers were inserted in the deep pitched roof at the
front.

The exterior was then painted dark red with a white trim, following the
style of the first painted houses. Whether the red was used for
economy's sake or not is a question, but it probably was, and proved
most appropriate. Yellow was the next coloring used, which is shown by
the fact that it is sometimes found with red underneath; the white paint
came into vogue still later.

Over the front door a small porch was built which was in strict keeping
with the period. Trellises were erected at one side of the house for
rambler roses and vines that would break the plain, solid effect of the
shingled surface. An old-fashioned well was boxed in, at the rear of
the kitchen entrance, and furnishes drinking-water for the family. The
old chimney was retained, so that the fireplaces could be used.

When the house was first built, there were two rooms at the front and at
the rear a kitchen, kitchen-bedroom, and a dairy. The three small rooms
were thrown into one large room which is now used as a dining-room. When
the plaster was scraped off from the ceiling, it was found that there
were hand-hewn beams underneath in such a good state of preservation
that they were left uncovered, giving to the new apartment a distinctive
touch. It was then discovered that the house had been built around a
tree, for a substantial oak, with its roots deep in the ground and its
large trunk still shouldering the roof beam, was disclosed. Underneath
the old paper was found fine wood paneling which was scraped and painted
white; next the fireplace was opened, and proved to be eight feet wide
with a swinging crane at the back. This was restored to its original
size, and a square, brick hearth was laid. The old floors were replaced
by new ones, and the entire room was given the tone of the period. Rag
rugs are laid on the floor, and all the furniture represents
seventeenth-century pieces. At one end of the room is the dining-table,
and at the farther side, large French windows hung with chintz open on
to a vine-clad veranda.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

The parlor, which opened from the dining-room, was covered with many
layers of dirty wall-paper. When these were removed, it was discovered
that there was a very fine wainscoting. In one corner was a
three-cornered cupboard with a paneled door underneath. The fireplace
was opened up, and when the room was painted it developed into one of
the most charming rooms in the house. The paneling was painted just off
the white, and the walls were hung with soft, gray paper with tiny pink
flowers, making the color scheme of the room gray and pink. This was
carried out in all the furnishings,--the chintz used for cushions and
the hangings harmonizing with these tones. Instead of having all the
furniture of the Colonial period, comfortable willow chairs were
introduced, in order to give the light, airy touch that makes a summer
home distinctive. This is a large, livable room, well-lighted by many
windows and looking out upon the lawn and the garden.

The hallway is of the plain, simple type which was so common in the
oldest houses. The walls are covered with a reproduction of an old-time
landscape paper, and the passage forms the division line between the old
sitting-room and the dining-room. This dining-room is now used as a
chamber; it is large and sunny with a wide-open fireplace. It is
furnished with an Empire bed and shows everything that would have been
found in the early days in a chamber of this kind, even to the spirit
lamp that stands on the high mantel, the warming-pan beside the generous
fireplace, the oval mirror, and the wooden cradle with its hand-woven
blanket, where now sleeps a twentieth-century baby.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two of the Chambers]

On the second story the rooms have been remodeled and show the same good
taste which prevails all through the house. The unfinished attic has
been plastered, papered, and converted into two bedrooms which are
equipped with the old-time furnishings and are used primarily as guest
rooms. The gable windows make them light and airy and at the same time
afford a charming glimpse of the garden, heavy with the fragrance of the
sweet-smelling blossoms, much as it was two centuries ago.

Willowdale is one of the most comfortable and well appointed of the many
remodeled houses that are found in New England. It is the possession of
such a quantity of fine old woodwork that has given the house its
distinctive atmosphere, though this has been preserved and heightened by
the good taste of the present residents, who have succeeded in making it
a most livable dwelling. Every room is well lighted and well ventilated,
yet the house maintains in its renovated state all the quaintness and
charm of a seventeenth-century home. It is a fine example of how an old
house can be remodeled with little trouble and expense, and how the old
and new can be combined harmoniously.



CHAPTER XV

THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE


In remodeling a farmhouse, one should plan to build wide verandas,
overlooking pleasing views. These can be glass-enclosed, so that during
inclement weather one need not stay indoors. Out-door life is a part of
the essentials in planning a summer home, and it means so much to the
house owner that every possible means should be devised to secure it.
With this object in view, why not lay out around the house attractive
flower beds? Just a plain lawn does not mean much, but planted with
trees, effective shrubbery, and well-planned gardens, it furnishes an
inducement to sit on the porch and watch the ever changing views.

In attempting this work, plan for vistas, well-selected spaces through
which one can get glimpses of the world beyond. Have an objective point
in view, so that the beauty of the setting sun and the clouds clothed in
rainbow hues make it more attractive. Panorama effects are always
interesting and are obtained through judicious planting, for one must
remember that a plain level lawn in itself has few features that
attract. Let the units be carefully spaced, and if there are walks or
drives near the house, lay them out where they will not detract from the
picturesque effect that you desire. An exception can be made with the
English or flag treads, which make a charming adjunct to the grounds
when grass grown.

In the early days, the first settlers had their flower beds close to the
house, probably because they did not then interfere with garden space.
The effect was pleasing, for it added to the simple attraction of the
early building. It is a good plan, after remodeling a house, to carry
out this scheme of our forebears and have a narrow bed following the
line of the house. Trees also are always effective; they break the roof
line and shut off objectionable views. If you have no trees, by all
means plant some. Screens can be devised by planting shrubbery, which
makes unnecessary a latticed enclosure and is all the more interesting
if the shrubs bear flowers, adding a bright spot to the color scheme.
They are very practical as well, since they serve many purposes besides
shutting off objectionable portions of the grounds. If rightly planted,
they serve as windbreaks and can be arranged to frame a vista. While
evergreen is often used for this scheme, yet shrubs such as the lilac,
forsythia, bridal wreath, flowering almond, and many others are
suitable. Plant these so that there will be a continuation in bloom, and
also with reference to a definite color scheme.

A remodeled farmhouse set back from the road without any surrounding
decoration of garden or hedge cannot be picturesque, for merely a
stretch of green lawn leaves it bare and uninviting, no matter how much
you cover the house with vines. The composition of house and garden
should be carefully planned, all the more if the estate is extensive,
with plenty of land that can be used for this purpose. It is not much
trouble to plant shrubs, and they need little cultivation. In the woods
near at hand you can usually find plenty that will serve the purpose, if
economy has to be considered.

In planting the garden there are many things to be regarded; one of the
most important is the sequence of bloom. This should be arranged with a
view to color effects, for nowhere will one's taste be more conspicuous
than in the garden plot which surrounds the house. There is no doubt
that the harmony of color is a vital question, and complementary ones
should be grouped together. Yellow should never be left out of the
garden unless one wishes a very quiet effect; red is a favorite color
and contrasts well with white. It must be remembered that quiet colors
can be used in greater profusion than glaring ones; and if the exterior
of the house is white, it permits one a much wider latitude in the
choice of colors and in the arrangement of pleasing effects.

The combination of house and garden that is found on the George E.
Barnard estate of Ipswich, Massachusetts, is ideal and the result of
many years of careful thought. The house was originally a small and
unattractive farmhouse which contained only four rooms; it was
dilapidated and forlorn in appearance and situated in the midst of
uncultivated grounds. It was the location which attracted the present
owner, for he saw here great possibilities for development; so he
purchased the estate with a view of surrounding the house with gardens.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

The house has been added to, a little at a time, by throwing out here a
room and there a veranda, instead of completing the whole work at once.
Vine-covered verandas now surround three sides of the house; the
shrubbery has been well planted.

From the time the garden was first started, it was the desire of the
owner to paint in flowers what other people have painted on canvas.
Steep hills that obstructed the view at the side of the house have been
converted into gentle slopes; bare spots have been thickly planted, and
colors have been combined so that there is no inharmonious note in the
finished garden. Careful planning eliminated straight lines, but not
even the slightest curve in a flower bed was made until after due
consideration. The flowers were planted to fulfill, as near as possible,
the scheme of a landscape picture, and each plant not in perfect harmony
was removed. The effect as one sits on the veranda is like looking at an
immense canvas, where the pictures change with every move, for the
estate is a masterpiece of color and bloom, depicting a different phase
of landscape on every side.

In remodeling the house, so many changes have been made that it is
almost impossible to tell the manner in which the improvements were
effected. There is not a room in the house but has been thoroughly
changed, nor one that has not been enlarged. The service quarters are
all new; they have been placed in the rear, where they do not intrude on
the scheme that has been carried out in remodeling--that of making an
attractive house in keeping with the setting of the grounds. The main
house is at the front and has been kept in practically the same general
style as when purchased. The entire rear portion of the house has been
added a little at a time, until now it is most complete in each and
every detail.

[Illustration: The Front of the House]

[Illustration: The House from the Terrace]

Dormer windows have been let into the roof in order to give better
lighting, and the wide verandas have been railed in, to provide an
up-stairs living-room, from which one gets the best views of the garden.
The lower veranda is furnished with well-chosen willow furniture, each
piece being carefully selected so that there are no two alike. It has
been given a setting of ornamental bay-trees in green tubs and huge
pottery vases filled with masses of bloom. The most attractive part of
the veranda is at one side of the house, where it is paved with brick
and lined on the one side with evergreen trees and on the other with
scarlet geraniums.

[Illustration: The Pergola-Porch]

[Illustration: The Hall]

The hall or morning-room was a part of the original house. It is
entered directly from the veranda and has been so treated as to present
a different series of pictures from the time one enters the door until
one leaves, each room which opens out of it being carefully designed for
harmonious effects.

[Illustration: The Alcove in the Living Room]

At the left of the room is the staircase which leads to the second-story
floor. The low mahogany risers and treads contrast with the white
balusters which are topped with a highly polished mahogany rail. Doors
have been removed so that the adjoining rooms are glimpsed as one enters
from the veranda. This room is hung with a Colonial paper showing
delicately tinted red flowers against a gray background, and its beauty
is heightened by the leaded glass windows of the china closet at the
right and the simple fireplace with its brass accessories. Every bit of
furniture here is old Colonial and is upholstered in green to match the
color of the hangings. A long French window opens on to the veranda and
gives glimpses of the beautiful gardens. The upper portions of the old
cupboards that were in the house have been glassed in. The floors have
had to be re-laid.

[Illustration: The Den]

Particularly noticeable is the den which is at the left of the hallway.
Here the color scheme is green, the walls being covered with textile;
the wainscot is painted white, and the hangings at the window brighten
the plain effect of the wall treatment. There is no crowding of
furniture, but a dignified atmosphere pervades the entire room. It is an
apartment such as one loves to find--quiet and restful. These two rooms
occupy the entire front of the house.

Opening from the hall is a long reception-room which was originally a
part of the old house and which shows two rooms thrown into one, with an
addition at the end nearest the avenue. This is done in old blue velour
and is furnished in mahogany. The plain tint of the wall gives an
admirable background to the fine old pictures which hang here and there.
Every piece of furniture in this room is Colonial. Ionic columns outline
the wide double windows. Light and air have been carefully considered in
the remodeling of the entire house and have particularly been sought in
designing this room, as is shown by the many windows on either side. At
the farther end, to one side, a French window leads to a glassed-in
veranda which is used for a breakfast-room.

This room is a feature of the house, for it has been set in the middle
of the terraced grounds that lie at the side of the house, so that one
can get the full benefit of the picture garden with the slope of the
hill beyond rising to meet the blue of the horizon.

In the reception-room, as in every room in the house, wooden doors have
been removed and replaced by glass ones which act as windows to reveal
the room beyond. It is a most unusual treatment,--this picture idea
carried out inside as well as outside of the house,--for there is no
spot in the whole interior where you do not get a vista of some kind.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

Beyond the reception-room is the dining-room. This, too, is a long,
narrow room and has been added, since the house was purchased, but so
fitted in that it is seemingly a part of the old house. This room is
divided into a dining and a breakfast-room and is used during inclement
weather. Heavy draperies make it possible to shut the rooms off from
each other if desired. The entire end of the breakfast-room has been
given up to groups of long French windows which are repeated on either
side, making a wide bay window. Here again has the picture effect been
carried out, for the windows act as a frame to the mass of harmonious
blossoms beyond, with their setting of green. The dining-room proper
has a paneled Colonial landscape paper; the furniture is of the Empire
period, while at the farther end of the room have been let in on either
side of the long windows an attractive china closet. Here, as in every
room in the house, we find wainscot and the same use of white paint.

At the rear of this dining-room are the service quarters which consist
of a large, sanitary, and well-equipped kitchen, butlers' pantries,
servants' dining-room and sitting-room. The chambers in the second story
are entirely separate from the rest of the house.

The second floor shows at the right of the staircase a most delightful
morning-room which is large and square with an open fireplace. This is a
particularly attractive room, for it commands magnificent views. The
rest of the house is given over to chambers which are laid out in suites
and furnished with old-time furniture.

There is an atmosphere about this remodeled farmhouse that is refreshing
and most unusual. It has taken years to satisfactorily develop the
owner's idea of combining house and garden in one harmonious color
scheme. In the exterior this is changed each year, the favorite
combination being lavender and white. This is attained by the use of
heliotrope and sweet alyssum which outline the terraced wall and which
show a carpet of green for central effect.

The veranda is a harmony of green and white which is carried out in the
awnings, the foliage, the willow furniture, and the white of the
exterior and the balustrade. In the interior there is not a jumble of
different colorings, and the rooms have been so arranged that they
present a series of pictures brought about by the use of plain colors
that perfectly blend. This has not been the work of a day or a year, but
of ten years of careful study and is one of the most instructive lessons
for those who are planning to remodel an old farmhouse and to introduce
into its interior finish harmonious, restful, color schemes.



CHAPTER XVI

THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE


Many of the old houses still contain some fine specimens of old hardware
that were used when they were built, more especially the H and L hinges
and the old latches which have not been removed. The knockers have often
disappeared, being more conspicuous and therefore eagerly sought, not
only by collectors but by builders of new houses into which Colonial
ideas have been introduced.

If you are looking for this particular feature in the farmhouse, you
will probably find it widely varied, as the different owners of the
house each had his own special ideas and changed the hardware to suit
his tastes. Many did not realize the importance of these fixtures in
retaining the sixteenth and seventeenth-century interiors.

It is absolutely necessary that the hardware should correspond in
material to period. Too little thought has been given to this subject
and has led to an incongruous use of hardware, leaving an impression of
lack of information concerning the correct architectural details of the
house. There is a decided difference between the hardware that was used
in the latter part of the sixteenth century and the early seventeenth
and that we employ to-day. The twentieth-century "builders' hardware"
covers a great variety of objects included in every part of the house.
In Colonial times the term was applied to few, such as latches, locks,
knockers, and hinges, some of which were very ornamental in design, for
they ranged from small pieces to large ones.

The evolution of this special feature of the house is of interest to
the house builder; it originated in the Dark Ages, at which period we
find used Romanesque, Renaissance, and Gothic types in so many
different forms that it is little wonder the architect turns to them
for copy. The best examples are seen in the late sixteenth and early
seventeenth-century houses, when the decoration of the entrance door was
a very serious subject and received great attention, especially during
the Colonial period. Then the knockers were of the most importance and
were either of cast-iron or brass. The former were often very beautiful
in design and were used on the earlier houses, for brass did not come
into favor until later. Unfortunately the waning vogue of this piece of
hardware led to many rare pieces being destroyed or thrown into the
melting pot. It is fortunate that some house owners realized their worth
and that collectors felt they would become a fad later on and so stored
them away, which accounts for many old knockers found on the market
to-day.

The latch, lock, knob, and hinge are also interesting. The former is
made from either iron or brass but rarely of any other metal. Before the
appearance of the latch, the door-ring was used, but this it would be
most difficult to locate. The thumb-latch is occasionally fanciful in
design but is generally very plain and is rarely seen even in old-time
houses, having been replaced by the door-knob. The most common feature,
and one which we are quite apt to discover, is the long strap-hinge
which was designed for a special purpose, for we must remember that in
the early days wooden pins were used to fasten the door; and while they
kept it compact, yet it demanded the strap-hinge also for protection.
This hinge will be found in many different patterns and makes, sometimes
running almost the entire width of the door, and often constructed in
three sections,--the upper, lower, and central, although frequently
only two were used. The ornamental ones are rarely if ever seen in
farmhouses, being confined to the wealthier class. The plain iron ones
were more often found, and these are of two types,--the one known as the
H hinge and the other as the H and L.

Closet doors often are equipped with the H hinge which takes its name
from its formation. Because of the fact that the home builders of to-day
are turning their attention more and more to the use of decorative
hardware, one should be very careful to retain this feature as an
effective detail in the interior finish of a remodeled farmhouse.

In the town of Reading, Massachusetts, is a most attractive remodeled
farmhouse that has been carefully worked out by W. P. Adden with such a
regard for the preservation of old-time atmosphere that it can be
considered as a fine type to copy. Not only has the exterior been
carefully planned, but the owner has gone farther and made a special
study of the hardware, so that the house to-day contains many wonderful
examples that are correct in their treatment and add much to the
atmosphere of the home.

[Illustration: THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE]

This old farmhouse was originally a gambrel-roofed cottage built about
1760 and was probably a four-roomed house, as is indicated by the
partitions filled with brick that were found in the center of the
present house, and also by an old brick oven and fireplace which were
buried up and covered over by the portion of an old brick chimney
evidently added later. The additions to this dwelling, even when
purchased by the present owner, had been carefully planned, so that
there were no awkward joinings or incongruous jogs discernible in the
outline. There is no doubt that here, as in other old farmhouses, the
early builders had displayed an inherent sense of proper proportion, and
the additions which were made from time to time might be said to be
after-expressions of first thoughts.

When this house was first purchased, it was in an excellent state of
preservation, with the exception of the ell which was past repairing. It
faced directly south and had evidently been set by a compass regardless
of street boundary, though the location was only a short distance from
the main road. The design of the house contained all the characteristics
of early construction,--the small-paned windows, closely cropped eaves,
and long, unrelieved, roof line. At the time of the purchase of the
estate, which had originally included hundreds of acres, it was
surrounded by a low wall of field stone which had evidently been taken
from the grounds to make tillage possible. The house stood on a slope
and was surrounded by grass land; the same idea is carried out to-day,
in that little attempt has been made at garden culture, the owner
preferring to keep the estate as near as possible to the farm lands of
centuries ago.

After the remodeling was commenced, many interesting facts of
construction were brought to light. The north side of the house, which
was originally the rear, was changed by the present owner into the main
front, with entrance and staircase hall. The hall was necessarily small,
and in order to make it practical, five feet of the large central
chimney had to be removed, including three fireplaces and two brick
ovens. It was then found that this portion had evidently been added to
the house after the original chimney had been built, as an old fireplace
and brick oven were found on the line of a partition on the south side
of the hall. It was also discovered that in all probability the original
house had a lean-to at the north which was used for a kitchen, and that
this fireplace and brick oven were a part of the old room. The original
chimney was found by actual measurement to be sixteen feet by seven and
a half feet, and the stone foundation was the largest ever seen, being
ample enough to accommodate the wide hearths as well as the chimney. In
fact, to-day it takes all the central portion of the basement, leaving
two small spaces on either side. In the remodeling, it was found that
the original work was laid up with clay, meadow clay being taken as a
binder.

The exterior required little alteration, save on the north side, where
it was necessary to remove a portion of the wall in order to run the
hall out under the roof of the house so that it might be two stories in
height. The front of the house, which faced directly south, was left
unaltered, with the exception that on the opposite side from the ell a
glass-enclosed piazza was built of like width, length, and height. This
afforded a ballast, as it were, to the main building and made a
comfortable playroom for the children.

A new porch, arched with Colonial pillars, was built at the front of the
house in keeping with the type. In the ell a second one of less formal
proportions was designed which was reached by a flagging of rough
stones. A third porch of entirely different character was a finish to
the rear of the house and shows lattice work, being quite ornamental in
design.

The angle formed by the main building and the new ell gave space for a
flower plot, and here is located a small rose garden. This is outlined
by broad paths of stone; surrounding the whole are wide borders of
old-fashioned flowers which lend a touch of color that is very
attractive.

[Illustration: The Stairway]

Entering through the front porch, one comes to a new hall, and with the
exception of this, there has been little change in interior. This hall
is most interesting; here are found the H and L hinges, a yellow and
white Colonial wall-paper, and a staircase that divides at the landing
and by easy treads leads on either side to chambers above. An old
grandfather's clock is an appropriate furnishing for this part of the
house. All through the lower story the old woodwork has been carefully
preserved, and where it was destroyed it has been replaced.

The living-room is practically as it was when purchased. Here we find
the H hinges and the old-time latches, while through the center of the
room runs a beam which had to be cased in and which has been painted
white to match the trim. At one side a built-in bookcase has followed
the architectural lines so perfectly that it seems as if it had been
there ever since the house was built. The simple Colonial fireplace
shows more ornamentation than is generally found in old farmhouses,
which indicates that it was of a better type dwelling. With its new wall
hangings and white trim, this room is most attractive. It connects with
the sun-parlor at one end and is well-lighted and most homelike in
atmosphere.

The dining-room, facing east, has had a new group of windows added and
contains the largest fireplace in the house. The china closet above the
fireplace was discovered when the plaster was removed for the purpose of
building in a similar one. This room is fitted with H and L hinges and
the old-time iron latch. It was originally a portion of the old kitchen,
the remainder of it being taken for a lavatory and passageway.

All through the house we find that careful attention has been paid not
only to hardware but to furnishings. No new-fashioned pieces have been
used in any room in the house, and this careful attention to details has
been carried out even in the lighting fixtures, which are all of the
Colonial type.

The second-story floor has undergone changes to meet the requirements of
the present owner. One half of this story is devoted to the nursery; it
is equipped with a large fireplace, deep closets, bath, and nurse's
room, while the remainder provides a large bedroom, bath, and
dressing-room. It has been so arranged that each part is distinct by
itself, and convenience has been looked after in every particular.

The original attic was entirely unfinished, and when new stairs were
erected in the second-story hall, there was great difficulty in finding
room enough to enter the attic by the side of the large chimney.

In the remodeling of this house, comfort, a careful following of
Colonial details, and an especial attention to the hardware are the
salient features.



CHAPTER XVII

THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE


There is one thing that should be carefully considered in buying an old
farmhouse,--that is, character. In order to obtain this, distinct points
should be sought after and brought out. These can be accentuated not
only in the house but also in its surroundings,--the garden, the trees,
and the shrubbery; even the defining wall or fence does its part in
making a good or bad impression on the casual passer-by.

One must remember, in dealing with subjects of this sort, that the term
"farmhouses" is a varying one. These range from small, insignificant
little dwellings to the more elaborate houses that were built primarily
for comfort as well as shelter. There are many large, substantial
dwellings, not of the earlier type, for they were erected much later,
but which illustrate the progression of the farmhouse design. One looks
in houses such as these for larger rooms, higher stud, and more
up-to-date ideas.

The fireplaces are smaller and more ornate, for it must be remembered
that as time passed on, money circulated more freely through the
colonies, allowing for more extensive work and better finished details.
While it is not necessary to copy the Colonial wall hangings, yet in the
older houses it is much more satisfactory; still one can depart from
this custom in a more elaborate house and use his own taste in selecting
an attractive modern paper. Many people consider that houses restored,
no matter of what period, should invariably have carefully consistent
interior finish, without realization that it is sometimes better to look
for character than type.

The old-time wall-papers, more especially the picturesque ones, were
generally used in more expensive houses, although we find them here and
there in the more simple ones. Often this feature of the interior
decoration is not well carried out, the wall hangings being chosen for
cheapness rather than merit.

To-day there is on the market such a great variety of papers that it is
a very easy matter to get one suitable for any certain room and
suggesting good taste. Many of them are reproductions of old motives,
while others are plain and simple in character, giving to the room a
quiet effect and providing a good background for pictures and hangings.
There is nothing more restful in character than the soft grays; they are
effective as a setting for stronger colors that can be used in the
curtains, for this part of a room finish is as important as the wall
hangings themselves. There is an indescribable charm to a room that has
been carefully planned and shows good taste and restful surroundings.

In many houses, some decorative scheme has been introduced which
necessitates a particular kind of wall hanging, and even though it may
be most unusual in type, it illustrates a motive that has been in the
mind of the owner. Houses would lack character if the same line of
interior decoration were carried out in all of them. With a high
wainscot and cornice painted ivory white, comparatively little paper is
needed, which reduces the cost and permits a better paper than if the
room had a simple mopboard and a tiny molding.

Papers that are garish and discordant in themselves, if skilfully
handled, can produce harmonious effects, for it is often the unusual
wall hangings that attract most. In curtaining these rooms let the same
main tone be reproduced; this need not apply to every detail but to the
general tone. Many people are timid in the use of odd wall-papers or
curtains; they are afraid that they may look bizarre, but they should
remember that color is in reality a very powerful agent in making an
artistic home.

It is sometimes effective to treat a house as a whole, and then again it
is better that each room should have its own individuality. Very few
houses but have at least one corner that offers interesting
opportunities, and it is the artistic treatment of this that helps out
the harmony of the room.

There is a charming atmosphere surrounding "Quillcote," the home of Kate
Douglas Wiggin, at Hollis, Maine, where Mrs. Riggs spends three months
of the year. It may be that the quietness of the place lends to it
additional charm, and then again it may possibly be the result of its
environment.

[Illustration: Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin's Summer House]

The house itself is typical of the better class of New England
farmhouses, and since it has come into Mrs. Riggs' possession, many
alterations have been made, until to-day it is one of the most
attractive farmhouses to be found anywhere. Two stories and a half in
height, with a slant to the roof, it stands back from the road on a
slight elevation, with a surrounding of lawns and overshadowed by
century-old elms. To-day its weather-beaten sides have been renovated by
a coat of white paint, while the blinds have been painted green. A touch
of picturesqueness has been secured through the introduction of a
window-box over the porch, bright all through the season with blossoming
flowers. There is no attempt at floriculture, the owner preferring to
maintain the rural simplicity of a farmhouse devoid of flowers and only
relieved by the shrubbery planted around the building.

When the house was first purchased, it was not in a dilapidated
condition, having been lived in by townspeople and kept in good repair.
The work of remodeling has been done by the people of the village, and
it has been superintended by the owner of the house, in order that her
own ideas, not only in remodeling, but in decorating, should be exactly
carried out. The old shed is now used as the service department, a wide
veranda having been built at one side for a servants' outdoor
sitting-room. At the rear of the house is the old barn, which to-day is
used for a study and for entertainment purposes.

[Illustration: The Hall]

Entrance to the house is through a Colonial door with a fanlight on
either side. The owner has preferred to keep this in its original state,
rather than add a porch of the Colonial type. The only porch that has
been added to the house is a latticed, circular one at the side door.
The entrance hall is long and narrow, the staircase also being narrow
and built at one side in order to save space. The Colonial idea has been
carried out here in the wainscot, and the ornamentation of hand-carving
on the stairs shows it was done by a stair-builder and not by an
ordinary mechanic. The lighting is from a lantern which carries out the
general effect. The wall-hanging is in Colonial colors,--yellow and
white,--while the rugs are the old, woven rag carpets which are repeated
for stair covering. The balusters are very simple in design, while the
balustrade has been painted white, thus showing it is not of mahogany.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

At the right is the dining-room, a bright, sunny room that has been
uniquely planned to occupy the front of the house instead of the rear,
as is more usual. It is a large, square room, in which little or no
alteration has been made and which has been treated so as to make an
effective setting to the rare old Colonial furniture. The size of the
dining-room has been considered in reference to the furniture, this
being one reason why Mrs. Riggs has chosen this large, square room--in
order to correctly place her old mahogany pieces. The decorations are
very simple and follow out the idea of Colonial days, there being no
pieces that are not in actual use. The walls are hung in shades of
yellow and brown, and she has been most successful in carrying out her
color scheme.

[Illustration: The Den]

The home study, or den, leads from the dining-room and has been
carefully planned with an idea of restfulness. A chamber at one end has
been converted into an alcove, and additional light is obtained by
cutting a group of casement windows over the writing-table. The room is
very simply furnished and shows marked originality. The walls are
papered with woodland scenes, for it was a fad of the occupant to bring
into the house by wall hangings suggestions of the outside world. While
it is unique, it has a distinctly restful influence and is in tone with
the fireplace, which has been decorated with unusual features and which
bears the name "Quillcote." The draperies in this room are original in
treatment, being decorated to order by a noted artist who has
introduced his signature in some part of the work. They are ornamented
with original designs suggestive of farm life, with such subjects as
wheat, apples, or corn and are covered with delicate traceries of rushes
or climbing vines. The fireplace has for andirons black owls, and on
either side stand altar candles. In the furnishing of the room
everything has been chosen with an eye to restful effects; the owner has
done away with the pure Colonial idea, using the mission type and
considering comfort more than conventionality.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Living Room]

Opposite the dining-room at the front of the house is the living-room,
where further originality is found in furnishings and in scenes from
nature introduced in the unique wall hangings. This room is in blue and
white, the wall-paper being delft blue with a rush design over which
hover gulls. Singularly enough, the idea is very pleasing. The hangings
are of white muslin with blue over-curtains, while the furniture is a
mixture of Colonial and modern pieces. An inglenook has been obtained
through the introduction of a built-in window-seat which is covered with
blue to match the tone of the paper. The furniture is all painted white,
and the white fur rugs laid upon the blue floor covering give a
charming effect. The decoration and furnishing of this room is quiet and
restful, for those two ideas form the basis of the owner's scheme which
she had in mind long before she took this house and while she lived in
the old family mansion that stands just across the way. It is a
comfortable, livable room and not used for state occasions alone, but
for everyday needs.

Just beyond is the sitting-room in which an entirely different idea is
presented. Here the china fad is evidenced in the ornamentation of
priceless old plates that have been collected by the owner's sister,
Miss Nora Smith, and arranged according to her taste. This room is a
typical Colonial room, and the furniture shown is all of that period,
even to a spinning-wheel which gives an old-time effect. From this room
one passes through a door on to the rear porch, from which fine views
are obtained of the little, old-fashioned garden, the pine grove
opposite the house, and the winding road.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two of the Chambers]

The second story shows large, square chambers which have been carefully
planned, each following out a distinct color scheme. In one of these
rooms there is a combination of lavender, white, and green, shown in
wall hangings, curtains, and furnishings. The canopied Field bed, with
its lavender and white spread, has been painted white. Over it has been
draped a white muslin canopy. The walls are in light green and show no
pictures save that of a Madonna and Child, suggestive of the author's
love of children. On the mantel are several very rare pieces of
Staffordshire, many of which can not be duplicated. The furniture has
been painted white, with the exception of two chairs which have been
treated to a coat of green.

Another room, showing wainscot and a quiet yellow and white Colonial
paper, has a Field bed with white spread and white muslin canopy. Here
the Colonial idea in furnishing has been strictly carried out.

An original and yet artistic room has its walls entirely covered with a
dainty cretonne, the bed-covering and hangings being of the same
material.

The most interesting idea in remodeling is presented by the old barn,
which has been converted into a large music-room or hall, with a rustic
platform at one end. Here a new floor has been laid, many windows
inserted, and a few old-time settles placed, constructed of weathered
wood toned by time to an almost silvery hue. Nothing else has been
changed; the ancient rafters and walls remain as they were a century
ago. The hall is lighted by many lanterns hanging from ceiling and
harness pegs, also by curious Japanese lanterns painted especially for
Mrs. Wiggin and bearing the name of the artist. The lanterns, hung from
overhead, greatly relieve the somber effect of the heavy beams. At the
rear of the hall a broad door space makes a frame for a pretty
picture,--a field of buttercups and daisies, a distant house, and two
arching elms. A large closet, once the harness-room, is fitted up with
shelves and contains all the necessary china for a "spread" such as is
given to the village folk several times a year, when dances are held in
the old barn.



CHAPTER XVIII

THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE


Floors are an important detail in the remodeled house. Sometimes the
original building has many that are in fairly good condition so that
they can be saved. There is a great advantage in keeping these old
floors if possible, for they were made with plain edge, of strong timber
and laid close together. The earliest floors were not double in
treatment, therefore the edges had to be either lapped or rabbited.

These wide boards that were used in the early construction stand the
test of furnaces and modern heating a great deal better than do modern
ones of the same width. The latter are much more apt to shrink and open
joints. It will be found that the better floors are in the second story
in almost every house.

It is probable, however, that if you are remodeling your house, you will
have to lay at least one or more floors, and in such cases, matched
hemlock is the most advisable for the under floor; but the boards
should be laid diagonally and close together. The usual method is to lay
them matching the upper floor. It is a great mistake, even if advised to
do so by an architect, to lay only one floor, for with shrinkage come
cracks through which cold air and dust can rise; even a carpet does not
remedy the trouble.

Hardwood boards make the most popular floors and come in varying
thicknesses, the oak being generally three eighths of an inch thick and
the North Carolina pine averaging seven eighths of an inch. Both are
employed for new floors and for re-covering old, soft-wood ones. The
narrow width of oak is more satisfactory, as the narrower the stock the
smaller the space between the strips and the less danger of unsightly
appearance. They may be a little more expensive than the wider ones, but
they make a much better showing. Then, too, the shading and figure blend
more harmoniously than when the broader strips are employed.

Narrow widths also obviate any danger of the flooring strips cupping, as
they are laid and stay absolutely flat. One should be careful not to lay
oak flooring while the walls and plaster are damp; in fact, if you have
to do much remodeling, the floor should be the last thing attended to,
as it is a better plan to get everything else done and thoroughly
dried--even to painting, wall hangings, and decorating.

Hard pine is best for the kitchen, as it does not splinter, is more
reasonable in price, and has fine wearing qualities. It must be taken
into consideration that oak flooring is cheaper in the end than carpet.
A yard of carpet is twenty-seven inches wide by three feet in length and
contains six and three quarters square feet. Clear quartered-oak
flooring can be bought, laid, and polished for one dollar per carpet
yard, and when you consider the lasting qualities of the wood and the
beauty of a polished floor, you will make no mistake to put in one of
the better quality, more sanitary, and the best background for rugs,
instead of laying a floor of cheap wood.

Carpets, with the exception of straw matting, are inadvisable for a home
like this. They are unsanitary, hold the dust, and are not nearly as
attractive as rugs. These may vary in price with the purse of the owner,
and can range from Oriental rugs, costing hundreds of dollars, to the
simple rag rug which is always appropriate and in good taste.

The absolute carrying out of the Colonial idea is not necessary, for it
would not be appropriate to have old-fashioned rag mats in every room of
the house. They can be used, however, in the dining-room or in the
chambers, and to-day the woven rag carpets and mats are so attractive in
their weave and so lasting that they are satisfactory adjuncts to the
house furnishings. In the parlor and living-room, while they can be used
if desired, there are so many attractive low-priced rugs, both Oriental
and domestic, that it is an easy matter to get something both suitable
and in good taste.

[Illustration: THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE--FRONT VIEW]

This attention to floors and their covering is nowhere better shown than
in the Franklin Brett House at North Duxbury, Massachusetts. This house,
which is over two hundred and fifty years old, was put up at auction
several years ago, at just the time when the present owner was looking
for an old farmhouse to remodel. It was a double house that had been
occupied by two families. The frame, excepting certain parts of the
first floor joints and also portions of the sills, was in very good
condition, but the first-floor boarding was badly worn and was not fit
to be retained for use. It was replaced by a new one of narrow boards.

The second story, however, was in much better condition, and the floors,
with the exception of the one in the bathroom, could all be used. The
house was particularly ugly, displaying a combination of bright yellow
paint and dark red trim, and the exterior was wholly devoid of any
artistic design.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

At the front of the house there was a wide porch;--just a simple
flooring and two doors that stood side by side. The old place was so
forlorn that it was bid in during the excitement of the auction partly
out of sympathy. It showed so little possibilities that at first the
owner was doubtful whether it had been a good purchase, for the building
did not in any way fit his ideal of what was desired in order to make a
suitable summer home.

[Illustration: As Remodeled]

After careful examination, however, various possibilities were
discovered indicating that there was a very good chance to make it
attractive. Originally the house was built for one family only; in
architecture it was square-framed, containing two stories and an attic,
with ells at the rear and one side and a deep, sloping roof broken by
two chimneys. In the old house there were nine rooms on the first floor
and five rooms and a hallway on the second. Some of these on the first
floor have been combined by removing partitions to make a living-room
and dining-room, together with a hallway.

[Illustration: The Pergola-Porch]

In the living-room were found some hand-hewn, second-floor joists, and
it was decided to leave these exposed and plaster in between them,
instead of bringing the ceiling down to its original level. In
practically every room the plaster was in good condition and needed only
to be treated in places. The chimneys were touched up wherever needed,
but on the whole very few repairs were necessary. In the lower story
to-day there are four rooms and a good-sized hall, while the second
story is divided into six rooms and a bathroom. Five additional windows
were added down-stairs and two in the second story, in order to secure
proper light. Very little new material was put into the house, the work
consisting chiefly of tearing out old material and patching woodwork and
plaster. At the rear of the house, on a line with the larger ell,--the
smaller kitchen ell having been torn down,--a rustic pergola was
constructed and a covered veranda, over which grape-vines were trained
for shade. The roof was partially reshingled, and the house was painted
light gray with white trim, with green for the blinds. At the front a
Colonial porch was added with latticed sides and a settle, which is in
direct keeping with the architecture of the house. In its remodeled
condition, with its setting of closely cropped lawn, it bears little
resemblance to the ugly farmhouse of a few years ago.

There was no plumbing in the old house, so a single bathroom was put in,
a hot-water boiler was added in the kitchen, and a hot-air engine and
pump were installed in the cellar which furnish water under pressure
from a thousand-gallon supply tank. Later on, a hot-water heater was
installed, so that with the modern improvements the house was made very
comfortable for habitation all the year round if desired.

[Illustration: A First-floor Vista]

The original parlor on the left has been utilized for a morning-room;
the bedroom, dining-room, and pantry have been combined into a
living-room. The partitions between the old hallways have been removed,
converting them into one good-sized hall. The remaining portion of the
old dining-room has been made into a large pantry. The kitchen in the
main ell has been left practically unchanged as to size and shape,
although the shed opening from it, as well as the kitchen itself, have
been entirely renovated and equipped with up-to-date improvements.
Paint and paper and rugs have effected an interior transformation that
is most attractive. There are no doors in the house, wide openings
making it appear as though it were one large room.

The hallway is entered from the Colonial porch and is unique because of
its spaciousness. The stairs are at the further end, opposite the door.
The Colonial atmosphere has been maintained in the wall hangings, the
braided rag mats, and the old furniture.

At the left of the hall is the morning-room with its wide, open
fireplace, its Colonial paper, and Oriental rugs which are in color
tones to correspond with the paper.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

Opening from this room is the living-room, where the same kind of rugs
are laid on the hardwood floor. In this room, after the house was
purchased, a fireplace was discovered hidden away behind the partition.
It was opened up and restored to its original size. At one side a closet
was glassed in, while in either corner cosy, built-in settles give an
inglenook effect that is very interesting. The furnishings are wholly
Colonial and in keeping with the general character of the apartment.
Here the low stud, the beamed ceiling, the depth and lightness of the
room, are most attractive. From the long French window one steps out on
grass land which commands a most attractive vista of shrubbery and
trees.

In the planting around the house, great care has been taken to secure
shade and picturesqueness, so that in its new life the remodeled
farmhouse is surrounded by charming effects.

On the opposite side of the hallway one enters the long dining-room. It
is finished in red and white, with one-toned hangings; at the farther
end is a quaint corner cupboard; a handsome fireplace has been
introduced at one side. Many of the pieces in this room are very rare,
especially the Hepplewhite sideboard, the chair-table that was once
owned by Governor Bradford, and the rush-bottomed chairs. Long glass
windows open on the side veranda and combine with attractively grouped
windows to make this room light and cheerful.

Opening out of this is the pantry, conveniently equipped with cupboards
and shelves, and beyond is the kitchen and shed which have been made
entirely modern in their appointments.

The chambers up-stairs are large, square, and fitted up with furniture
of the period. In taking a "secret" cupboard out of a closet, there
was discovered some paneling that had been plastered and papered over.
On removing the plaster, it was found that the whole side of the room
was paneled. By the restoration of this old-time finish, the chamber
became even more indicative of the period in which it was built. Here
the wall hangings are all Colonial in design.

Few houses, even among the many that are being restored, have retained
the old-time atmosphere throughout as completely as has this farmhouse.
Each room has been made comfortable and given an air of space, and
consistency has been shown in the furnishing, thus securing a result
that is perfectly harmonious and in the best of taste. By comparing the
appearance of the old house at the time of its purchase with the results
that have been obtained, one realizes how much thought and care have
been put into its every part. The lines remain the same but have been
extended by the introduction of the pergola at one side and a porch
which are very attractive features in themselves. The combination of old
and new, correctly treated, has done much to make a harmonious whole.



CHAPTER XIX

THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE


Fortunate is he who, on opening up the old fireplace in the house he
intends to remodel, finds hidden away behind plaster and paper a pair of
old andirons and possibly a shovel and tongs, indispensable furnishings
for the fireplace. No old farmhouse but what has in almost every room
some kind of an open hearth, and these are useless for the burning of
wood without fire-dogs or andirons, as they are commonly known.

To the inexperienced house owner who is looking for economy in his house
furnishing, reproductions are tempting, and most attractive sets of
fire-dogs are to be found in almost every store. In choosing a set,
however, one must exercise judgment. Many of the reproductions are low
in cost but are really merely lengths of brass piping, showing brass
balls that are lacquered and strung together on invisible wire frames.
They are in reality the cheapest kind of spun-brass andirons. If one
with a knowledge of the weight of brass handles them, he will realize
their flimsiness, but thousands of people do not recognize the
difference. Poor fireplace accessories such as these detract greatly
from the charm that surrounds a good hearth and mantel.

It is no longer easy to pick up original, cut-brass andirons at the
antique and junk shops,--that is, at a reasonable price. It is in the
country places, old farmhouses, and from people who have not yet learned
to gage their worth, that one can get a good bargain, bringing often
only three or four dollars a pair, and being of the best material. In
reproduction there are on the market to-day plenty of good, cast-brass
andirons, but they are expensive and cannot be purchased at less than
seven dollars, ranging from that to a hundred dollars a pair, while the
spun-brass kind may be purchased for two dollars and a half a pair.

Andirons come in a great many heights, and in the olden times two sets
were used, the one holding the forestick, and the other the backlog. In
addition to that, in the earliest American houses, creepers were used;
they were, in reality, of iron, small enough to be placed between the
andirons, and they helped out in holding the sticks. The first material
used for andirons was iron, and we find to-day occasional specimens of
this kind, many of them not particularly graceful, while others are very
ornamental in design. There are the Hessian andirons which are found
either in plain iron or decorated with bright paint; these came into use
about 1776 and were used to caricature the British soldiers who were
very unpopular in our country.

The most interesting of these old andirons show unusual shapes, a great
many of them having artistic ornamentation; occasionally we find them
with brass tops. It was fitting to use this metal, on account of the
fire frame, which was of cast-iron as well, and while many of these were
of foreign manufacture, yet not a few were fashioned by the village
blacksmith. In the choice of andirons, the size of the fireplace should
be considered; the small ones should not have the steeple tops but
small, ball pattern or some other design that is low enough not to crowd
the fireplace and thus give the impression of bad taste. The large
fireplaces need the high andirons, of which there are so many different
kinds. The modern adaptation of the Colonial has brought these
furnishings into vogue, so that to-day it would be almost impossible to
tell the old from the new.

Shovel and tongs were much used during the early period, but a poker
never accompanied the set. These appeared after the introduction of coal
and are found among the reproductions on the market to-day. Another bit
of the furnishings is the fender, of which there are many designs, some
being of simple wire painted black with brass top and balls, while
others are entirely of brass. The warming-pan is an appropriate
accessory for this part of the room; it should be hung on a peg at one
side of the hearth. In addition to that, we find the bellows, some of
which are most decorative in their design. The proper selection of this
furniture gives an air of refinement to the room.

There is a most attractive farmhouse situated in Dover, Massachusetts.
It is owned by Mr. George D. Hall, and shows a series of remodelings,
rather than a complete work, for each year an addition has been made
which has bettered the initial scheme. The original farmhouse, for
instance, which was built in 1729, was a small, unpretentious building
that was very dilapidated in condition, but whose situation appealed to
its present owner. It was his desire to obtain an old house that could
be used if need be for an all-the-year-round home; plenty of land,
picturesque views, good landscape effects, and ample elbow room were
what he especially desired.

[Illustration: LONE TREE FARM]

The house stands back from a winding country road in one of the most
picturesque situations it would be possible to find. An old stone wall,
built over a century ago by the original owner, still forms a boundary
line to protect the grounds. Few estates show so many beautiful trees;
they add greatly to the pictorial effect of the place. Graceful elms
with swaying branches are on every side, while on the opposite side of
the road pine trees are in evidence, and on either side of the stone
wall wild shrubs have been planted. There has been no attempt at formal
arrangement of the grounds, not even with the garden which is at the
side of the house. There has been built simply a picturesque lattice
that separates house from barn and over which have been trained
attractive vines.

[Illustration: As Finally Remodeled]

In 1907 a wing was thrown out to the south, with an enclosed, tiled
porch and a sitting-room above. A small eyebrow window was placed in the
roof to light the stairway, while the original porch on the west and
south was carefully retained. Two years later this porch was removed,
and a smaller entrance one was substituted. This showed a brick walk
extending from carriage block to covered loggia at the south. Again in
1914 the eyebrow window was removed, and dormers inserted in the roof.
An open, tiled platform was built outside the enclosed loggia, and a
sleeping-porch was added to the east sitting-room. A garden and pond
were laid out to the south of the loggia, with a vista framed by two
huge elms that were some thirty feet south of the house. These
improvements have converted the old farmhouse into one of the most
interesting and beautiful houses that can be found.

Within the last few years the planting and garden effects have been more
carefully considered; the grounds have been enlarged, and at the left of
the house an old-fashioned garden has been laid out with a gazing-globe
for the central feature. The name "Lone Tree Farm" was given at the time
of purchase from the fact that a single tree guarded the house at the
front. This tree still stands but has been enhanced by the careful
planting of shrubbery on either side the driveway, which has now grown
until it has become a partial screen for the lower floor of the
farmhouse. Other trees have been added, and in order to obtain the
seclusion desired, extensive grounds have been purchased on the opposite
side of the road, so that no neighbors may come near enough to detract
from the quiet.

In remodeling this house, an ell has been added at the rear for the
service department, and a sun-parlor has been thrown out at one side.
This makes a most attractive living-room in winter and, with windows
removed, a cool sleeping-porch in the summer. The Colonial porch which
has been added at the front is much more attractive than the former long
veranda which is replaced by the sun-parlor. In painting the house,
white has been used with green blinds, so that it is in reality a
symphony of green and white, and as it stands in the center of the lot,
surrounded on three sides by pasture land, gardens, and meadows, and on
the front by hundreds of acres of woodland, it is one of the most
interesting studies in house remodeling to be found.

The small hallway is simply an entrance with narrow, winding staircase
that leads by easy treads to the second-story floor. In 1914, in ripping
out these front stairs to secure the space above them for a small room,
it was discovered that the old smoke-house, where in olden days hams
were cured, and the back of the bake oven behind it had not been torn
out. The former consisted of two Gothic arches, the taller of which was
twenty feet in height; the shape was dependent on the two fireplaces in
adjoining rooms. The smoke-house is about five feet deep and when
discovered was enclosed with an inch of greasy soot. An oak cross-beam
with hand-wrought nails indicated where the hogs were hung. It had been
left in its natural state after being cleaned out, and as it looked
crude to one entering the front door, it was shut off with an old,
paneled door, so that the hall, with stairs removed, is now shaped like
six sides of a hexagon, the front door remaining where it originally was
placed.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

The living-room, which is at the right of the hallway, has been made
from two rooms. In this the old woodwork has been carefully retained,
and the walls have been hung with a soft green that is a fine background
for the many pictures and which brings out the beauty of the white
woodwork. The furniture here does not follow the Colonial lines, for
comfort has been the first consideration. It is shown in the large,
roomy davenport piled with sofa pillows and the comfortable armchair at
one side of the open fireplace. Here the owner has supplied the correct
fireplace accessories, the andirons being low with brass ball tops, and
the shovel and tongs having the same finish. The mantel, while not
elaborate, shows hand-carving and paneling. Bookcases are a feature of
this room and are found everywhere.

[Illustration: The Sun Parlor]

Opening from the living-room is the glass-enclosed sun-parlor which has
been tiled, and in which is a modern fireplace of bricks laid in white
mortar. Over it is a bas-relief. The andirons are high, of modern type,
showing fleur-de-lis design, and are in keeping with the fireplace.
Willow furniture is used in order to give the sun-parlor a light touch
which could not have been done if the Colonial idea had been carried
out. It is an ideal summer living-room, being sunny most of the day.
Then, too, its location is well chosen, as it overlooks the
old-fashioned garden and commands vistas cut in trees and shrubbery.

[Illustration: The Den]

The den, used extensively by the owner, is a typical man's room.
Built-in bookcases and window-seats give it a most livable look, while
pictures of the hunt line the wall, and a hunting scene is used as a
frieze. It is placed in a sunny part of the house so as to catch as much
light as possible.

[Illustration: A Corner in the Dining Room]

The dining-room was made from a part of the old kitchen and strangely
enough shows fine paneling of white pine, which has been carefully
preserved and makes a background for the mantel ornaments. The mantel
shelf is narrow and extends around the whole fireplace; the old chimney
has been partly built in for modern use, while the andirons are very
unique reproductions. The old crane has been retained, as have the
pothooks and iron kettle, while the old brick oven, now never used, is a
memento of the days when our grandmothers cooked with great logs of
wood, heating the oven once a week in order to do the family baking. The
furniture is of the Colonial type, while the rugs are modern but blend
with the scheme color of the room. It is large, well-lighted by many
windows, and divided by an alcove only from the living-room which
adjoins it.

Every room in this house has been carefully considered with regard to
view, and one can stand at any window and look out upon a different
phase of country life, for trees and shrubbery are so arranged that the
grounds lend themselves admirably to pictorial effects upon which no
neighboring house intrudes.

[Illustration: The Sewing Room]

Up-stairs in the ell of the house, over the sun-parlor, is a large
sitting-room. It has been so designed that it faces three different
directions and is lighted by a group of long windows at one side. In
this room the sunlight lays practically all day, making it a bright,
livable room, where Colonial features have not been considered. To be
sure there are several pieces, such as the old-time work-table, but
modern ideas mainly have been introduced. On either side of the cluster
of windows are built-in bookcases which have been painted white to match
the trim and are filled with well-read books. Between these bookcases is
a long window-seat, beneath which drawers have been built which are very
convenient for holding unfinished work. The hangings are of muslin with
blue over-drapery, harmonizing with the color scheme of the room. A
large, open fireplace on the opposite side provides for a cheery wood
fire, more especially on stormy days, for this house is one that is
lived in all the year round, so that heating and lighting had to be
taken into consideration.

In addition to this room there are three chambers, two bathrooms, and a
closet on the floor. Each one of these chambers has been given a
different treatment. One of the most interesting shows fine woodwork
in the paneled doors and also in the small closet that is over the
fireplace, a favorite place for a closet to be introduced in the early
days. The fireplace is not a large one, and the andirons are small-sized
steeple tops. The bed is an old slat bed, while every piece of furniture
is in keeping with the period.

Take it all in all, one rarely finds a farmhouse that shows more
attractive features than this one, where comfort, light, and view have
all been carefully considered. It is perfectly available for an
all-the-year-round home, as it is not too far from the station to allow
its occupants to go back and forth to business every day.



CHAPTER XX

THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE


When you plan to remodel your house, there is nothing that should
receive much more careful attention than the closets. It is doubtful,
that is, if the house is of the earliest period, if you will find many.
Our emigrant ancestors did not have as many clothes or table
appointments as we require to-day. The few of the former they possessed
were hung on pegs or disposed of in chests; the dishes were placed on
racks, thus eliminating the necessity for closet room in houses where
every available bit of space was utilized for living purposes.

In all probability you will find corner cupboards which will be more or
less elaborate in design. The best examples show a shell treatment. The
earliest corner cupboards were clumsy affairs, being movable; later on
they were built into the house and employed to hold family china and
glassware. There was a great variety in these closets, some being fitted
up with shelves only, while others were divided in two, the underneath
part being used for books and odds and ends.

Fortunate is the house owner who finds in his old house one or more of
these old corner cupboards. To be sure they can be reproduced; but how
much better are the originals. Dig out the old plaster, rip open the
sides of the partitions, if you think there is any chance of odd closets
being hidden away between, and remember that in many old houses there
are secret closets, and it will pay you to tap the wall space to
discover their whereabouts. Sometimes they are hidden under the
flooring, and again the space between the windows is used for this
purpose. It is always well to open them, for who knows what valuable
heirlooms may be hidden inside.

There are plenty of spaces where new closets can be introduced as, for
instance, the end of the dining-room, where a glassed-in china closet
with an arched top and half-domed interior makes an excellent place to
display the old china and glass. Panels in the wainscot can be utilized,
more especially when they are under the first step of the staircase.
These are most convenient for filing newspapers or any magazines that
are kept for reference.

If the hallway is paneled, it is a very easy matter to put an invisible
door into one of the panels. This can be used for the coat closet, with
a low shelf underneath to hold hats; and on the floor partitions can be
made to hold rubbers. On each side of the chimney a great deal of waste
space can be converted into bookcases, with little, leaded, glass doors.
Above the mantel, set in the chimney-breast, will be found spaces which
even in the early days were devoted to closets. They are cut in a panel
and were used to protect china or old pewter from the dust. Sometimes
three of these closets have been found built into the fireplaces, all of
which were used to hold the household china.

In the upper part of the house, under the attic stairs, can generally be
found places that can be made into linen closets, but it must be
remembered that if no ventilation is allowed, cloth will become
yellowed, so by all means have brass ventilators in the doors. Whatever
the purpose of the closet, its location should be carefully
considered,--the shape, the place, and the cost,--so that as many as
possible can be introduced.

There is no doubt that the majority of old-time farmhouses readily adapt
themselves to modern requirements and show possibilities that allow of
most attractive development. The result of working out certain
possibilities is shown in the Walter Scott Hopkins house at Reading,
Massachusetts. It is a long, rambling house that seemed when first
purchased wholly lacking in artistic qualities, and it was not until
after careful deliberation that the owner realized that the old
farmhouse, beneath its coating of accumulated dust, possessed a wealth
of fine features that were well worth developing.

[Illustration: Before Remodeling]

The house had been used for two families, and each section was separate
and distinct, although under the same roof. It was built in the latter
part of the eighteenth century and contains fine woodwork,--better than
that found in most houses of that day. All the distinctive features of
the Colonial architecture were evident in this old farmhouse, where
unbroken roof-line, close-cropped eaves, and small-paned windows were
placed with mathematical precision, and the severely simple exterior was
in strict conformity with the period.

In remodeling the house, the original outlines were carefully preserved,
and the additions were made to conform. The small, ugly entrances which
had marred the exterior of the house were torn down and replaced by
windows, so that only a single entrance was left. A very attractive
porch with sloping roof-line was supported by solid but unornamented
columns. In the roof dormer windows were cut, both at the front and
rear. This was to make the attic practical for living purposes by
affording sufficient light and air. At one side of the house, in place
of the woodshed, an out-of-door living-room was added, broad and low of
build, with a sloping roof that harmonized in outline with the main
roof. At the rear a small addition of the deep, bay-window type was
added; this was to secure extra space for the newly arranged dining-room
and the remodeled kitchen. Two small porches were built in addition to
the new trellised entrance, giving a simple dignity to the old house,
which has been painted white with green blinds.

[Illustration: As Remodeled]

The grounds, rough and unkempt, with a stone wall defining a part of
them, were beautified to afford a fitting environment for the new home,
and to-day smooth sweeps of lawn and judicious groupings of shrubbery
add in no small degree to the exterior attractiveness of the old
homestead. A path of rough, irregular flagstones leads to the main
entrance, and a similar path winds from the street to a gateway in the
outlying wall and opens into a charming garden plot that has been laid
out just beyond the outdoor living-room. Planting has been judiciously
carried out, and the estate has been brought to a fine state of
cultivation, with the result that it has become an attractive setting
for the remodeled house, which stands on the slope of a hill.

The interior required a great deal of altering, including much tearing
down of partitions to suit present-day needs and to make broad, spacious
rooms out of the tiny spaces which sufficed a century or more ago. There
was installation of plumbing, lighting and heating devices, in order to
meet the demands of modern life, and the New England attic was made over
into servants' quarters that were sufficiently ample for a large country
house.

A leaded glass door that shows fanlight above opens into a broad,
low-ceilinged hall. At one side is a large fireplace, and a heavy beam
crosses the ceiling. To the right is the new dining-room, to the left
the living-room, and from the end of the hall opens the den, a
passageway connecting this with the servants' department. In all the
rooms every detail of the old-fashioned construction has been retained.
The fine woodwork shows the original paneling; the great fireplaces with
their chimney closets have been preserved intact, and even the old,
hand-made hardware has been retained for present-day use. Cupboards were
discovered, when the coating of plaster and paper were removed, and are
serving the same purpose in the twentieth-century home that they did
years ago in the Colonial one; and the new cupboards that have been
added seem to fit in as if they had always been there. The house in its
entirety shows many points that are of unusual interest. The arrangement
of the windows is particularly good, as are the chimneys, while the
sweeping roof-line at the rear carries out the old contour and yet has
been slightly changed to afford light and air to chambers inside. The
semblance of the original farmhouse has been left unaltered, while the
really radical changes have been tempered with a regard for the
preservation of the old-time atmosphere.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

The living-room shows a typical old farmhouse room. The woodwork here is
particularly good; there is a wainscot three feet high that comes above
the lower sill of the window frame, and which is paneled in doors and
over the mantel. The fireplace has remained unchanged, being a Colonial
one of huge size. The early period is evidenced in the absence of a
mantel, which brings out the lines of the wonderful old woodwork to the
greatest advantage. The andirons, instead of following the sixteenth or
seventeenth-century type, represent griffins. A nightcap closet,
introduced in the middle panel over the fireplace, shows the original H
hinges of iron. When the house was first purchased, these were hidden
away, and only when the original woodwork was reached were they
discovered, restored, treated to a coat of white paint, and adapted to
present use. This is a feature that is rarely found in the remodeled
farmhouse of to-day. The walls are hung with a one-toned paper of soft
coloring, while plain muslin curtains shade the windows. The old floor
was re-laid with narrow boards over which are laid Daghestan rugs;
Mission furniture is used. The lighting fixtures are of the Colonial
type and placed at the sides only. The room contains many well-placed
windows which give to it light and air.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Views of the Dining Room]

The dining-room is at the rear of the living-room and opens into it,
being connected with a wide opening so that, if need be, the rooms can
be used as one, giving plenty of space for large dinner parties. Here
the woodwork has been restored to its original charming simplicity and
painted white to match that of the living-room. The walls have been
covered with a dark-toned paper, and at one end, opposite the
living-room, an alcoved recess has been added in order that its group of
windows may give better lighting to the dining-room which is exposed to
the outside on two sides only. The floors of this room, too, have been
re-laid and handsomely polished, and are an effective foil to the
domestic rug which is used. Here, also, the furniture follows the
Mission style, in order to be in keeping with that of the living-room.
The lighting fixtures are of the same type found in the adjoining room
and are also side lights, considered more effective because softer than
a ceiling light.

In order to let the light in from the hallway, windows were inserted
which follow the early window casing in their plain style and contain
small panes, there being no elaboration. They are placed on either side
of the entrance door, which is glassed in the upper portion. Here, as
all through the house, the early style of small-paned windows has
been retained. There are many reasons why these are advantageous: not
only do they follow the period in which the house was built, carrying
out details correctly, but when broken they are more easily replaced,
though much harder to keep clean. These windows are usually placed near
the ceiling, being designed for light and ornamentation, rather than as
outlooks. The ornamental design which has been carried out in the
arrangement of windows and door is unusual even in Colonial houses,
where the low stud and the beamed ceiling helped much towards
effectiveness.

This room was originally the kitchen and bedroom combined. The old
fireplace has been preserved, as has the brick oven, and over it is a
series of small closets such as are rarely found. There is a central
closet and a smaller one on either side. Here the H hinges have been
retained and also the old-time latches.

On the opposite side of the hall is the parlor, which corresponds in
size to the living-room and shows equally fine woodwork. This was
originally the parlor in the farther side of the double house and has
been left practically its original shape and size, for in this part of
the house very little remodeling has been done. The old fireplace has
been retained at the farther end of the room.

At the rear of this, what was once the sitting-room has been converted
into an office. Beyond this room, the original kitchen on that side of
the house and the shed have been thrown into a most attractive summer
room.

In the story above there were formerly two large bedrooms on either
side. These remain practically as they were and are furnished with
Colonial pieces. The old attic, which originally was used for clutter,
is now remodeled into servants' quarters and by the addition of the
dormer windows has been made into comfortable rooms which can be kept
cool during the warm weather by the cross draughts.

The architects were very wise in remodeling this house so as to show its
extremely simple lines, for they give it individuality and character and
accentuate certain features that were necessary to create of it a home
for one family. There is no doubt that the alterations have been planned
and executed with rare taste and discrimination.



CHAPTER XXI

Henry W. Wright's House


People who possess old pieces of furniture often have very erroneous
ideas as to their real age and call everything "Colonial" for want of a
better name. They assume, that is, if they have not made a careful study
of the subject, that anything belonging to their great grandmother must
be at least two hundred years old. But, for instance, sideboards were
not made two hundred years ago, and Chippendale never designed one; the
nearest he came to it was a serving-table. People get an impression that
he included this piece of furniture in his productions, but they are
wrong in their assumption.

The revival of interest in "antiques" has caused many an heirloom that
has been relegated to attic or storehouse to be brought out, renovated,
and given a prominent place. Can we assign to each ancient article an
approximate date or maker, it becomes much more valuable than the
daintiest piece of up-to-date furniture. Worm-holes are a sign of age
and a proof of guarantee, that is, if the pieces are family possessions.
There is so much cunning workmanship in remodeled furniture that this
does not apply to every bit, though apparently original. It must be
remembered that very few furnishings were brought over by the colonists,
and the early houses were very scantily supplied.

The oldest furniture was made of oak; it was very heavy and showed more
or less elaboration in carving. Chests made at this early period are
often found in families where they have been carefully treasured since
they were brought over the sea packed with clothing.

The three leading cabinetmakers were Chippendale, Hepplewhite, and
Sheraton. Chippendale was the earliest but was not appreciated until
after his death. His masterpieces, which combined the Chinese, French,
and Dutch models with ideas originated in his own brain, were so
perfectly constructed that we find them in a fine state of preservation
even to-day.

Lighter and more dainty in character were the designs of Hepplewhite,
who cultivated a freedom of line such as was adopted by his predecessor,
but who banished the Chippendale heaviness. The Prince of Wales feather
was a favorite design of his. Carved drapery, the belle-flower, and
wheat were often used by him. A distinguishing mark was usually given to
the backs of his chairs, which are either oval, heart, or shield-shaped.
They were finished in japanned work and often inlaid in light and dark
wood. The legs were generally much more slender than the Chippendale and
often ended in what is known as a spade-foot.

Sheraton, who succeeded him, took advantage of the ideas of his
forerunners and revealed a still more delicate touch, although he
retained many of Hepplewhite's ideas which he strengthened and improved.
The shield is rarely if ever found in a chair of his make, which can be
distinguished by its rectangular back and its slender uprights, ranging
in number from four to seven. The legs show a great many different
styles, the best being straight, while carved, fluted, and twisted ones
are also found. The general trend of fancy in those days was towards
light, elegant designs and showy decorations. Sheraton indulged his
fancy for brilliant coloring in the most gorgeously painted decorations,
combining them with inlay and carving. Next he introduced white and
gold, following the French style, and still later the brass inlay so
fashionable in Napoleon's day. Caned work was used for seats and was
varied by coverings of needlework, morocco, striped and variegated
horsehair, damasks, and fine printed silks. The curved piece which
Sheraton introduced about 1800 remained the favorite chair pattern for a
century, although it lost the brass mounts which he at first used. There
is not much danger of confounding the three great masters, for each
produced an entirely different style of furniture.

After the French Revolution, the furniture became markedly different in
style; Greek models were once more popular, and the tripod became a
favorite support. Coarse woods and mahogany were freely used and were
carved and profusely gilded.

The Empire furniture which is so popular to-day was heavy and stiff in
its early period, particularly so when of English make, but under
American manipulation the beauty of the wood showed to the best
advantage. Yet there is a certain appeal in its solidity and
massiveness. When the darkened mahogany came into fashion an opportunity
arose for the revival of brass and wood that lent charm to the court of
the Empress Josephine. Few good examples of the Empire style are found
in remodeled farmhouses.

Old furniture is most interesting, and if you intend to furnish your
remodeled farmhouse with it, do not fail to make a careful study of the
subject before attempting it. It covers a wide field of makers, styles,
and decorations, but the modern home affords ample scope for the
employment of these old pieces, many of which have been brought down
from the attic.

When Salem was in her highest and proudest days of mercantile
prosperity, when her wharves were bustling scenes of unlading and
shipping, when her harbor was a gathering place of quaintly rigged
vessels, and great East-Indiamen labored under clouds of canvas, then
from the holds of these cumbersome ships were discharged cargoes of rich
furniture, teakwood, and sandalwood brought from every land. The wealth
of these incoming treasures has made the quiet city prominent even until
to-day. Here may be found many old heirlooms, and in the homes of the
descendants of old shipmasters we frequently find rare pieces. These
show to advantage in various remodeled farmhouses that have been
adopted as all-the-year-round homes by the last generation.

[Illustration: THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE]

Many fine old pieces are found in the home of Mr. Henry W. Wright at
Danvers, Massachusetts. Some of them are of exceptional value and rare
examples such as are seldom seen even in the homes of collectors. The
farmhouse itself stands close to the road, a simple, plain,
unostentatious building, yet showing good lines and careful treatment.
The soft gray of the exterior and the white trim blend harmoniously with
the green of the grass and the bright-colored flowers of the little
garden. At the front of the house at each side stand tall elms that cast
a grateful shade over the old farmhouse.

The entrance porch has been made square, its lattice, designed for the
support of vines, taking away the plain look of the exterior. The
windows are well spaced, and the small panes have been retained. At the
side of the house a porch has been thrown out which can be glassed in as
a living-room or sun-parlor during the winter and used as an out-of-door
veranda during the summer months. It is so situated that it commands a
picturesque view of the rolling country which is on every side.

The big chimney, that was formerly the central feature of the house, has
given way to two smaller ones, one on either end. The sloping roof has
been treated to new shingles, while the exterior has been left
practically as it was when built. The addition of green blinds has done
much to soften what would otherwise be a rather bare exterior. The house
is of the type that shows four rooms in each story.

The hallway has a castellated paper in gray and white and a winding
staircase with box stairs and simple balusters and posts painted white
and a mahogany rail. It is a simple little hall, small, compact, and
truly Colonial in its type, with its Dutch armchair showing pierced
slats of Chippendale influence. This chair was probably made about the
time the house was built which was in the early part of the eighteenth
century, the date not being definitely known.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

At the left of the hallway is the living-room, which is of the simple
farmhouse type, lacking a wainscot but containing a simple mopboard and
paneled door. The wide boards in the flooring have been retained here as
well as in the dining-room,--plain-edged boards that, while laid close
together, still show a crack between. This living-room was in the early
days used as living-room and bedroom; the space at the farther end,
which was used as a closet into which the bed folded during the daytime,
is now utilized as a bookcase and makes an interesting feature. The
slat-back chair beside the bookcase is the most valuable type of its
period, being made about 1750. It shows a turned knob. In chairs of this
kind, which were more commonly used during the first part of the
eighteenth century, the number of slats varied, the most common having
three, while the rarest have five.

The gate-legged table is a good example, while the Chippendale chair is
unusual, showing very graceful effect, with wonderfully delicate
carving, and being of the best design. An equally rare example of a
Hepplewhite chair, which is beautifully carved, is contained in the same
room. In addition to these are banister and Sheraton chairs, as well as
a fine example of girandole, uncommon from the fact that there is a pair
exactly alike, and they are seen one on either side of the room.

[Illustration: The Dining Room]

Opposite the living-room is the dining-room, and here the same correct
furnishing has been used. The plain wainscot is of the early type, the
lighting has Colonial fixtures, while the chairs are painted Sheraton,
being most unusual in that there is a whole set of the same pattern
which are all originals. A wonderfully fine example of a mahogany
dining-table has been utilized as a serving-table, and the silver is all
of the Colonial pattern. Here one finds the low stud, but none of the
exposed beams often found in old houses.

At the rear of the dining-room is the kitchen which is equipped with
modern appliances. Leading from the dining-room at the left is a small
room which has been fitted up as a music-room and den combined. It is a
most livable room, there being no stiffness or formality in the
arrangement of the furniture, and each piece of furniture proves a
fitting foil for its mate. The wall hangings are not of the Colonial
type; they are plain gray and bring out to advantage the setting of
furniture, pictures, and ornaments in the room.

In the upper hall is found a fine old carved chest of the Jacobean
period. This is considered one of the best examples of chests in
existence, being wonderfully carved, of solid oak, and probably used
originally as a dower chest. Leading off from the hallway are four
large, square chambers, each one correctly furnished with Colonial
pieces, many of which are family heirlooms. Here, where modern lighting
has been introduced, the Colonial type of fixtures has been carefully
maintained. In all the house there is no central light, all the lights
being at the side. In the upper story as well as the lower, the wide
flooring has been retained, as it was found in such excellent condition
it could easily be used.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Two Noteworthy Chambers]

The steeple-topped andirons in the simple fireplace, the painted mirror,
and the old brass candlesticks of one chamber are most appropriately
chosen. The Field bed has a canopy of white with ball fringe which is an
exact replica of the old-time draping. Rag mats have been used for the
floor; they are not the common braided ones but woven rugs which are
more suitable. Alcoved recesses are shown on either side of the
fireplace; in one of them a six-legged, high chest of drawers with china
steps, designed about 1720, shows drop handles, and is ornamented with
rare old family china. On the opposite side is a wing or Martha
Washington chair of the Sheraton type. The bureau, 1815, is a fine
example of the period, while the swell-front, Hepplewhite bureau with
the oval, pressed-brass handles and the painted mirror above are in
conformity with the general scheme. A banister-backed chair with a rush
bottom stands at one side of the bed.

Very unusual is the Colonial wall-paper which is found in a second
chamber, while eighteenth-century andirons are used in the fireplace
which is still of the original size and which shows a plain Colonial
mantel. In this chamber, as in the other, there is a very plain wainscot
of boards placed horizontally. An Empire bed which has wonderfully
beautiful carving is shown in this room, and also a very unusual chair
known as a comb-back rocker and dating about 1750. The rugs here are of
the Arts and Crafts style, while the bureau and writing-table have
cabriole legs and secret drawers, the central one with rising sun or fan
carving.

Every piece in this house is genuine, for they all are heirlooms or
pieces that have been carefully chosen, since the owner is an expert in
determining period and correct types. It is a well-known fact that
to-day one has to be a careful student of furniture not to be deceived.
The popularity of the Colonial period, more especially since the vogue
of the modified Colonial house, has led many a fakir to reproduce the
lines of the genuine antique. Skilful workmen are employed to
manufacture these pieces, and they are able, by imitating worm-holes,
dentation, and other distinguishing marks, to put on the market pieces
whose genuineness even the antique dealer is puzzled to decide.

All through the country the value of antiques is becoming better and
better known, so that it is far more difficult to obtain bargains than
it was even five years ago. To-day, so great has grown the demand,
people who before were unaware of the worth of their heirlooms have been
led to overestimate their value and they now ask fabulous sums for
pieces hitherto neglected and ignored.



CHAPTER XXII

THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE


When your house is remodeled, be careful what kind of paint you use for
both outside and inside finish. A variation from the right tone will mar
the whole effect. So much depends on this that one should not copy from
houses of to-day but turn back to the style of a century ago, so that in
this particular, at least, the house shall correspond with the old
Colonial idea.

Few, if any, care to use a weathered exterior, that is, unless the
scientifically treated shingles that will soon turn a silver gray are
employed. There are two reasons why your house should be painted: one is
that it preserves the wood and if rightly treated is fireproof; the
second is that it gives the finish a far better appearance than it would
have without paint. Every house needs paint of some kind to improve its
appearance, whether it be oil paint or stain.

There are many different brands found to-day, and they are of every
conceivable color, so that you have a wide range of choice. It is
always safe to use one made by a reliable concern or one hand-mixed, if
both white lead and linseed oil are absolutely pure. There is nothing
more variable in quality than paint, and even experts are puzzled at
times and it is necessary to have a chemical analysis in order to
determine between good and bad.

For exterior use the proper kind should be a mixture of pure white lead
and linseed oil or pure zinc white and linseed oil. Manufacturers, more
especially those of white lead paints, will insist that theirs is the
only kind to use, and the zinc paint producers will do likewise, but a
reliable dealer or architect will inform you correctly. One of the first
colors to be used on any house is white,--in all probability there is
nothing as durable as this. The reason for it is that the ingredients
used have greater wearing qualities than any of the other pigments.
There is a complaint that it is apt to yellow with age and become
discolored, but in reality it remains unchanged longer than almost any
other color. Green blinds secure the best effect, or trellises that
relieve the monotony of the white. This the old farmers realized, and it
is one of the reasons why it was so much used. If your house is
shingled, there are a great many shades of gray that need a white trim,
and there is no color that harmonizes with every other as well as this.

There are a great many reliable stains for shingles; do not let the
painter mix the stain himself, because that carefully prepared by a
manufacturer is generally superior both in color and durability. In
mixing these stains, both Creosote and oil are used, there being on the
market to-day excellent brands of both kinds.

The repainting of the country house is a necessary evil that recurs
periodically. We tire of one color as we weary of an old dress, and this
leads to a different tone of coloring each time. For instance, the white
house is changed possibly to a Colonial yellow or a gray, and with its
new coat it seems to take on a new lease of life. The fall of the year
is the best time for the painting, as the dry October weather is
especially suited for good results. During the summer months there are
insects flying about and too much dust. By October the outside has had
time to cool after the heat and is in good condition for treatment.

The time to paint is before the house gets shabby, when the paint is
powdery or porous. It can be tested with either a knife or the finger,
and if the old paint chips off, soaks up water, or can be rubbed off
like a powder with the finger, it no longer protects the wood and needs
another coat. With this covering of paint, wood will last practically
forever, and as lumber is expensive, it is greater economy to keep your
house properly painted.

The cost of painting is a serious problem to many house owners and is
never alluded to by an agent when selling a house; to the novice it does
not occur, so eager is he to secure for himself a new home. At the end
of the second year, its freshness is dimmed through exposure to wind and
storm, and at the end of the third season, it is shabby and needs a new
covering. In attempting to figure the cost, it is necessary to ascertain
the square feet on the outside. Any painter has a rule for this, making
allowances for errors. Windows and doors are considered as plain
surfaces that are to be treated to paint even though only the sills and
sides are in need of it.

Good exterior paint costs from three to five dollars a gallon, and a
painter can put on one hundred square yards in a day for the first coat
and seventy-five for the second. This gives the house owner a little
idea of what it will cost, although it is best to make a regular bargain
with the architect to cover this expense.

For interior finish, white is always preferable. It seems to be the
proper treatment for any Colonial home. To be sure, if you are planning
for a den, a dark color can be used and also a stain for the kitchen
part of the house.

In searching for a farmhouse to be converted into a country home, Mr.
Howland S. Chandler of Boston chanced upon an old house at Needham,
Massachusetts, that seemed to meet his requirements. It was a
square-framed house, two stories and a half in height, with a kitchen
ell at the rear. It was not handsome but quite ordinary in appearance
and without any unusual exterior features. It was not even a
seventeenth-century house but was built in 1801, and it was in such good
condition and the frame was so sound that it hardly deserved the term
"old."

[Illustration: THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE]

The farmhouse fronted the southwest, so that its main rooms were dark,
with little sunlight, while the rear was flooded with light and very
cheerful. There were delightful views from this part of the house which
overlooked a merry, gurgling brook, the mill-pond, and the distant
hills. But this idea had not entered the minds of the former owners, who
had given little consideration to the subject and with no forethought
had inserted only two small windows, one in the kitchen and the other in
a bedroom. Evidently their idea was to sacrifice view to arrangement,
for to their minds, houses should be built parallel to the street and
with the "best room" at the front.

[Illustration: THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE--END VIEW]

The grounds showed little care, but in remodeling a brick-paved terrace
was arranged at the left just outside the original parlor. An
old-fashioned garden was planted near the kitchen end, and a trellis
enclosed the clothes-yard. The grounds in front of the house have been
laid out in well-trimmed lawns, while a brick walk now leads from the
sidewalk to the house. A feature of the house is a large, overhanging
elm which affords shade and picturesqueness; fresh shrubbery has been
attractively planted, and vines trained to clamber over latticed work
and the trellised porch which is at the front of the house. Dormer
windows have been added to the roof, and the simple little farmhouse has
been converted into a most attractive all-the-year-round home.

In the process of remodeling, the original house was left unchanged,
and additions were depended upon for development. A good-sized porch
with brick floor and high-backed settles at the side replaced the
unattractive, old-time entrance, while the dormers relieved the long,
monotonous roof-line and afforded light to the apartment constructed
from the formerly unfinished attic space. Just outside the original
parlor, beside the shed space, an addition has been built that runs
midway of the shed to the line of the chimney in the parlor, and without
a large covered veranda is added. To the kitchen ell an addition of
about four feet was made to provide space for a vestibule within the new
back door and also to secure extra space at one side of the room so that
a window might be inserted.

Due attention was paid to the rear, in the matter of windows, and here
were laid out the rooms which would be most frequently used. In
consequence of the rearrangement, the interior is practically wholly
changed. The shed was remodeled into a charming sewing-room that opens
at one side on to a veranda, and the new addition was combined with the
little bedroom and a small portion from the parlor to secure space for a
library. This made possible a doorway to the dining-room and
sewing-room, and a broad open space to the living-room.

[Illustration: The Sun-Parlor]

The old-time parlor showed two deep closets beside the fireplace. One of
these was torn out, a window was inserted in the outer wall, and a seat
was built beneath it. The other was made into an opening into the
library. This arrangement secured additional light and at the same time
permitted a glimpse of the picturesque rear view.

In the dining-room several alterations were made, resulting in a
complete change in shape and size. Oblique walls replace the two rear
corners, one containing the doorway leading to the library, and the
other affording entrance and furnishing some space for the china closet
which was inserted between the dining-room and the kitchen. The single
window on the southeast was replaced by a semi-octagonal bow recess.
This was fitted with small lights of glass and affords space for the
grouping of many plants and incidentally adds a touch of distinct
picturesqueness.

The kitchen received its share of consideration during the process of
remodeling, resulting in the substitution of a pleasant, convenient
apartment in place of the conspicuous, ill-lighted, original one. There
was added at the right of the vestibule a built-in refrigerator, and
about the side walls of the room newly built-in cupboards were grouped.

Two important changes in the body of the house consisted in the
enlargement of the cellar, made necessary by the greater space required
for the modern heating apparatus, and in the substitution of the
original, small-paned type of window for the two panes which had been
inserted to take the place of the old ones.

[Illustration: The Hall]

The entrance hall at the front of the house is a small apartment hung
with landscape paper of the Colonial period; a staircase with one
landing and a half turn in its flight, showing white balusters and
mahogany top, leads to the second story. In the lighting, the Colonial
idea is attained by the use of a lantern, while under the stairs is a
closet opened by a brass door-pull.

[Illustration: The Living Room]

At the left is the living-room, with dull red hangings and a white
wainscot that provides a fitting background for the wonderful old
mahogany found in this room. There are some rare Dutch chairs sometimes
known as Queen Anne from the opening that is found on either side of the
central slat, designed about 1710, and the earliest of that design.
There is a refreshing simplicity and a dignified air to this room,
brought about in part by the simple Colonial fireplace with its
steeple-topped andirons, and the well-spaced windows that let plenty of
sunlight into the apartment.

On the opposite side of the room is the dining-room which is finished
with tapestry hanging in dark green, brown, and yellow, with a design of
pine cones and needles that contrasts prettily with the white wainscot.
A slight reduction in the height of the window casing affords an
opportunity to carry the wall-paper and moldings across the windows and
doors, thus avoiding the cramped effect of too high window arrangement.
The original floor has been replaced by a new one, and a cheerful
atmosphere has been given to the room by opening a semicircular bay up
for a small conservatory which can be closed or opened at pleasure by
the use of glass doors.

[Illustration: The Den]

The library has been finished in dark brown with low bookcases extending
around part of the room, corresponding in color with the woodwork. The
hangings are tan color, and the furniture is partly Colonial and partly
modern, to meet the demands of a den. This is one of the pleasantest
rooms in the house, having a delightful outlook; combined with the
sewing-room and living-room opening from it, it makes a charming and
conveniently arranged interior.

[Illustration: The Kitchen]

The kitchen at the rear of the house has been altered with the idea of
saving steps. This is shown in the numberless closets at the right, for
flour barrel and other supplies. At the left is the kitchen cupboard,
while the china is in the built-in closet above and the groceries in the
drawers below. The sink has a shelf underneath to hold the dishpan and
drainer. The whole color tone, including the beamed ceiling, is a dark
stain with lighter wall finish.

This house is an interesting example of successful and artistic
remodeling, the interior and exterior being in harmony and giving the
result of a comfortable and attractive home which was secured at much
less cost than if an entirely new house had been built.

       *       *       *       *       *

The houses described in this book cover but the merest fraction of the
homes and summer places evolved from old-fashioned farmhouses. They are
scattered broadcast through New England, sometimes isolated on roads
which still retain their country atmosphere, sometimes surrounded by
the town which has outgrown its early limits, and sometimes the center
of a large estate. Each has its individual charm, its special beauties,
but wherever found these remodeled farmhouses testify to the stanchness
of early American workmanship and to the appreciation of modern
Americans for their forefathers' handiwork. Certainly many a one of the
latter "builded better than he knew."



INDEX


  Adams family, 128.
    Hannah, 122.

  Adden, W. P., 180.

  Adden house, W. P., 180-186.
    age, 181.
    chimney, 182-183.
    hardware, 184, 185.
    location, 180.
    porches, 183-184.
    remodeling, 182-186.
    type, 181.

  Andirons, 11, 12, 68, 125, 194, 208-210, 216, 217, 219, 227, 240, 241,
      252.
    Hessian, 210.

  Arches, 81, 119.

  Attics, 6, 164, 186, 224, 225, 230.


  Balusters, 114-115.

  Barns, 2, 25, 65-70, 137, 191, 196-197.

  Barnard house, George E., 169-176.
    breakfast-room, 173.
    color scheme, 175.
    den, 172.
    dining-room, 174.
    location, 169.
    picture effect, 170, 174.
    remodeling, 170-174.

  Bathrooms, 14, 25, 35, 47, 97, 202, 204, 218.

  Beams, 7, 20, 29, 34, 36, 46, 47, 55, 58, 66, 75, 94, 102, 122, 130,
      131, 151, 185, 197, 203, 215.

  Bedrooms, 13, 24, 25, 26, 36, 47, 59, 83, 108, 121, 122, 133, 148,
      164, 175, 195, 206, 218, 230, 239.

  Billiard-room, 68.

  Blinds, 79, 237.
    inside, 80.
    paneled, 75.
    slat, 45, 75.
    solid, 45, 75.
    Venetian, 56.

  Boston, Massachusetts, 18, 42, 77, 122, 151.

  Boulder Farm, 76-83.
    arch, 81.
    history, 76-77.
    improvements, 78-79.
    location, 76, 78.
    parlor, 80.

  Bradford, Governor, 206.

  Breakfast-rooms, 44, 47, 133, 173-174.

  Brett house, Franklin, 201-207.
    age, 201.
    dining-room, 206.
    floors, 202.
    heating, 204.
    living-room, 205.
    location, 201.
    paneling, 207.
    repairs, 203.
    type, 202.

  Bricks, 126, 132.

  Brown, Doctor, 7.

  Brown, Davenport, 116.

  Brown house, Davenport, 116-123.
    age, 116.
    bedroom, 122.
    dining-room, 120.
    furnishings, 119, 120, 121, 122.
    grounds, 122-123.
    living-room, 119.
    location, 116.
    nursery, 121.
    porches, 116, 117, 118.
    remodeling, 116-122.
    type, 116.

  Brown, Deacon Philip, 76, 77.

  Burroughs, George, 53.


  Cape Cod, 33, 105.

  Cataumet, Massachusetts, 158.

  Ceilings, beamed, 12, 21, 25, 45, 55, 96, 152, 153, 162, 205-206, 225,
      253.
    vaulted, 144.

  Cellars, 7, 30, 98, 251.

  Chambers, see BEDROOMS.

  Chandler house, Howard S., 247-253.
    age, 247.
    dining-room, 250, 252.
    grounds, 248.
    kitchen, 253.
    library, 252.
    living-room, 251.
    location, 247.
    remodeling, 247-253.
    type, 247.
    views, 247, 249, 250.

  Charles River, Massachusetts, 41.

  Chimneys, 7, 9, 18, 19, 31, 43, 50, 53, 69-70, 105, 116, 125, 144,
      182-183, 203, 217, 237, 249.

  Clapboards, 7, 40-41, 106.

  Closets, 10, 23, 52, 55, 95, 96, 109, 132, 142, 148, 205, 218,
      220-222, 226, 229, 250, 251, 253.
    chimney, 57, 218, 222, 226.
    china, 35, 46, 57, 68, 120, 153, 172, 185, 197, 220, 221, 250.
    corner, 23, 46, 163, 206, 220-221.
    linen, 222.
    nightcap, 23, 107.
    secret, 23, 207, 221.
    wainscot, 221, 222.

  Concord, New Hampshire, 77.

  Cottages, fishermen's, 28.
    "flecked," 33, 105.

  Cupboards, see CLOSETS.

  Curtis, Frederick H., 42.

  Curtis house, Frederick H., 42-48.
    age, 42.
    furnishings, 48.
    hardware, 48.
    heating, 48.
    lighting, 48.
    lines of, 43-44.
    location, 41-42.
    new wing, 44.
    remodeling, 43-48.
    stairway, 45.
    veranda, 47.


  Danvers, Massachusetts, 236.

  Dens, 12, 46, 58, 83, 104, 121, 131, 173, 193, 216.

  Dining-rooms, 10, 11, 23, 34, 46, 56-57, 68, 81-82, 95, 96, 103, 107,
      120, 133, 142, 152, 162, 174, 185, 206, 217, 227, 238, 250, 252.

  Doors, 6, 10, 32, 45, 71-73, 180.
    batten, 72, 122.
    French, 98, 107, 133.
    front, 18, 54, 71, 92, 106, 150, 161, 178, 192, 202.
    glass, 12, 34, 47, 58, 68, 225, 252.
    panel, 72.
    secret, 45.

  Door-frames, 54, 73, 117, 157.

  Door lights, bull's-eye, 72, 92.
    fanlight, 117, 192, 225.
    side, 73, 117.
    top, 73.
    transom, 72.

  Dover, Massachusetts, 42, 65, 211.

  Drainage, 17.

  Drawing-room, 104.

  Dudley, Harry, 77.

  Duxbury, Massachusetts, 88, 89.


  Ells, 8, 9, 43, 44, 51, 53, 66, 78, 83, 91, 98, 116, 134, 139, 145,
      148, 150, 161, 181, 212, 217, 249.
    brick, 58.

  Everett, Edward, 151.


  Farmhouses, architectural treatment, 71, 100, 138, 146.
    axis, 50-51, 116.
    Colonial, 49, 223.
    construction, 49-51, 116, 147, 148.
    cottages, 28, 29.
    examination, 29-33.
    frame, 7, 106.
    Georgian, 51, 75, 76, 83, 116.
    heating, 48, 59, 62-65, 102, 204.
    individuality, 84-88, 146, 187.
    lighting, 48, 102, 103, 109, 192, 196, 251.
    lines, 2, 3, 8, 15, 28, 29, 38, 147.
    location, 8, 16, 17, 18, 33, 41-42, 53, 62, 65, 66, 76, 78, 88-89,
      105, 116, 127, 136, 138, 143, 149, 158, 169, 180, 190, 201, 212,
      223, 236, 247.
    painting, 242-247.
    remodeling, 8, 9-14, 19-26, 34-36, 43-48, 52, 54-60, 66-70, 78-83,
      90-99, 101-104, 105-108, 111-123, 130-134, 139-145, 147, 150-154,
      159-164, 170-174, 182-186, 201-207, 214-219, 223-230, 236-240,
      247-253.

  Fireback, 126.

  Fireplace fittings, 68, 82, 125, 126, 131, 208, 209, 210-211, 216,
      217.

  Fireplaces, 3, 11, 13, 22, 24, 31, 35, 46, 50, 55, 56, 58, 62, 67, 68,
      80, 82, 95, 107, 120, 121, 122, 124-127, 130, 142, 143, 144, 153,
      157, 162, 175, 185, 188, 193, 205, 218, 227, 230, 240, 250, 252.

  Fences, 106, 123, 137, 140, 144, 159, 160.

  Flagstones, 75, 167, 224.

  Fletcher, Grace, 77.

  Floors, 21, 30, 32, 35, 46, 55, 82, 114, 132, 134, 142, 144, 198-200,
      228, 237, 240, 252.
    brick, 44, 118.
    tiled, 117, 212, 216.

  Flower-boxes, 118, 134, 191.

  French and Indian War, 23.

  Frieze, 22, 24, 25, 216.

  Fuller, Mrs. Genevieve, 65.

  Furnaces, 65.

  Furniture, 22, 56, 59, 80, 81, 83, 108, 118, 119, 120, 121, 132, 133,
      139, 152, 163, 184, 194, 196, 205, 206, 215, 219, 231-235, 237,
      238, 239, 240, 241, 251, 252.
    Adams, 56.
    Chippendale, 13, 134, 232, 238.
    Empire, 80, 120, 164, 175, 234, 235, 241.
    Field, 121, 196, 240.
    Hepplewhite, 57, 134, 206, 232, 238, 240.
    home-made, 26.
    Jacobean, 239.
    Mission, 227, 228.
    old-fashioned, 26, 37, 46, 59, 68, 96, 108, 121, 131, 143, 153, 172,
      173, 193, 195, 230, 235, 239.
    Queen Anne, 120, 251.
    Sheraton, 11, 47, 48, 119, 122, 134, 153, 233, 238, 239, 240.
    white enamel, 48.
    willow, 9, 46, 163, 171, 176.


  Gables, 38, 40, 41, 66.

  Gage, Doctor Homer, 5.

  Gardens, 106, 123, 129, 166-168, 170.
    old-fashioned, 6, 19, 98, 140, 143, 160, 184, 195, 213, 248.
    water, 9, 19, 213.

  Georgetown, Massachusetts, 18.

  Girandoles, 120, 238.

  Gloucester, Massachusetts, 149.

  Green Meadows, 53-60.
    age, 53.
    alterations, 54-60.
    dining-room, 57.
    door, 54.
    heating, 59.
    living-room, 55.
    location, 53.
    reception-room, 56.
    type, 53.
    wing, 58.

  Grills, 60, 64.

  Grounds, 9, 18, 89, 118, 122, 123, 129, 134, 135, 137, 138, 140, 141,
      150, 159, 167-168, 182, 206, 213, 214, 224, 248.


  Hall, George D., 211.
    house, see LONE TREE FARM.

  Hallways, 10, 23, 45, 50, 51, 54, 92, 96, 97, 118, 151, 163, 171, 184,
      192, 204, 205, 215, 237, 251.

  Hangings, 13, 22, 55, 56, 96, 97, 108, 109, 119, 120, 134, 163, 172,
      173, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 205, 207, 218, 227, 239, 251, 252.

  Hardware, 12, 48, 55, 177-180.

  Harvey, Governor Matthew, 77.

  Heating, by fireplaces, 62.
    hot-air, 48, 59, 64.
    hot-water, 63, 64, 204.
    steam, 63, 64.
    stoves, 63.

  Hinges, H, 180, 184, 227.
    H and L, 55, 177, 179, 180, 184, 185.
    strap, 12.

  Hollis, Maine, 190.

  Hopkins house, Walter Scott, 223-230.
    age, 223.
    attic, 230.
    closets, 226, 227, 229.
    dining-room, 227, 228.
    grounds, 224, 225.
    hardware, 227, 229.
    lighting, 227.
    living-rooms, 224, 226, 227.
    location, 223
    parlor, 229.
    remodeling, 223-230.
    type, 223.

  Hopkinton, New Hampshire, 76.

  Howard, Philip B., 42.

  Hunt, William H., 153.


  Ingraham, George Hunt, 8.

  Inches, Doctor Charles E., 127.

  Inches house, Charles E., 127-135.
    age, 127.
    den, 131.
    dining-room, 133.
    furnishings, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135.
    gardens, 129.
    grounds, 129, 134, 135.
    living-room, 132.
    location, 127.
    remodeling, 130-134.
    swimming-pool, 129.
    value, 128.
    whipping-tree, 128.

  Ipswich, Massachusetts, 169.

  Iristhorpe, 6-14.
    age, 6.
    architectural treatment, 13.
    guest house, 14.
    iris motive, 9.
    lines, 8, 14.
    location, 6.
    remodeling, 8-13.



  Jewett house, see LIMOVODY.

  Josephine, Empress, 235.

  Kelly, William, 77.

  Killam and Hopkins (Architects), 64.

  Kimball, Mrs. William Otis, 20.

  Kitchens, 10, 36, 44, 50, 95, 98, 108, 130, 148, 204, 239, 250, 253.

  Kittredge, Mabel L., 33.

  Kittredge house, 33-37.
    chimney, 36, 37.
    furnishings, 37.
    lines, 34.
    location, 33.
    remodeling, 34-36.
    size, 33.

  Knockers, 178.


  Lafayette, General, 153.

  Latches, 12, 48, 55, 177, 179, 184, 185.

  Lavatories, 10, 185.

  Lean-to, Dutch, 18.

  Libraries, 10, 12, 22, 46, 104, 252.

  Lighting, 103.
    candles, 48, 109.
    electric, 48.
    lamps, 48, 109.
    lanterns, 192, 196, 251.

  Limovady, 18-27.
    age, 18.
    bedrooms, 25, 26.
    lines, 20.
    location, 18.
    lounge room, 25.
    Missionary room, 24.
    "priest hole," 23.
    remodeling, 19-26.
    studio, 24.

  Lincoln, Roland C., 149.
    Mrs. Roland C., 152.

  Little Orchard, 149-154.
    age, 150.
    china, 152.
    fireplace, 153.
    furnishings, 152, 153.
    location, 149.
    name, 152.
    remodeling, 150-154.
    staircase, 151.

  Living-rooms, 10, 11, 21, 22, 34, 45, 55, 58, 67, 81, 94, 95, 103,
      107, 119, 132, 153, 184, 194, 203, 204, 205, 214, 215, 226, 237,
      251.
    outdoor, 8, 9, 12, 21, 44, 68, 79, 118, 139, 142, 144, 151, 171,
      224.

  Loeffler, Charles Martin, 137, 138, 142, 144.

  Loeffler house, 136-146.
    atmosphere, 141, 145.
    grounds, 140, 141.
    location, 136, 138, 143.
    music room, 144.
    remodeling, 139-144.

  Loggia, 213.

  Londonderry, New Hampshire, 76, 77.

  Lone Tree Farm, 211-219.
    age, 211.
    dining-room, 217.
    furnishings, 215-219.
    grounds, 214.
    living-room, 215.
    location, 212.
    sitting-room, 218.
    smoke-house, 214, 215.
    remodeling, 214-219.
    vistas, 216, 217.
    wing, 212.


  Magnolia, Massachusetts, 149.

  Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts, 149.

  Mantels, 157, 216, 217, 241.

  Medfield, Massachusetts, 116, 127.

  Morning-rooms, 10, 12, 44, 175, 204, 205.

  Music-rooms, 144, 196, 239.


  Nawn Farm, 65-70.
    alterations, 66-70.
    chimney, 70.
    dining-room, 68.
    living-room, 67.
    location, 65, 66.
    windows, 66, 70.

  Needham, Massachusetts, 247.

  Newburyport, Massachusetts, 21.

  New York City, 105.

  North Duxbury, Massachusetts, 201.

  Nurseries, 121, 186.


  Office, 230.

  Out-buildings, 7, 91, 99, 138.

  Ovens, brick, 11, 12, 82, 127, 131, 181, 217, 229.
    Dutch, 24.

  Overmantel, 22.


  Paint, 9, 21, 42, 45, 134, 140, 161, 191, 202, 203, 214, 224, 243-247.

  Paneling, 12, 23, 55, 58, 94, 95, 120, 130, 154, 162, 207, 217, 219,
      221, 222, 226.
    Japanese, 13.

  Parlors, 50, 80, 105, 163, 229, 250.
    sun, 216, 236.

  Partitions, 148.
    removal of, 20, 34, 46, 52, 54, 82, 102, 103, 203, 204.

  Pergolas, 123, 140, 203, 207.

  Pewter, 46, 57, 131.

  Piazza, see PORCHES.

  Plate-rail, 107.

  Porch columns, 44, 73, 78, 79, 92, 111, 112, 114, 117, 224.

  Porches, 3, 34, 40, 42, 47, 79, 93, 103, 106, 111-116, 117, 138, 139,
      150, 161, 170, 183, 184, 192, 202, 212, 213, 224, 236, 249.
    Colonial, 8, 44, 92, 204, 214.
    Georgian, 73, 78, 111, 112.
    sleeping, 40, 44, 47, 59, 67, 79, 110, 115, 117, 140, 213, 214.
    types of, 112.

  Porch railings, 114.

  Portico, 117.

  Putnam, John Pickering, 122.


  Quillcote, 190-197.
    barn, 196, 197.
    china, 195, 196.
    furnishings, 193, 194, 196.
    location, 190.
    type, 190.
    wall-papers, 193, 194.

  Quincy, Massachusetts, 128.


  Radiators, 64.

  Reading, Massachusetts, 180, 223.

  Reception-rooms, 56, 104, 153, 173, 174.

  Registers, 59.

  Revolution, American, 6, 29, 50, 156.
    French, 234.

  Roofs, 19, 29, 31, 34, 38-40, 43, 44, 66, 91, 113, 148, 190, 224, 226.
    flat, 44.
    gambrel, 38, 149, 181.
    hipped, 39.
    overhang, 41, 75.
    pitched (gable), 6, 38, 44, 91, 105, 139, 202, 237.

  Rugs, Arts and Crafts, 24.
    fur, 194.
    modern, 217.
    Oriental, 55, 200, 201, 205, 227.
    rag, 46, 48, 59, 108, 134, 162, 192, 200, 201, 205, 240.


  Salem, Massachusetts, 150, 235.

  Saugus, Massachusetts, 126.

  Screen, Japanese, 13.

  Servants' rooms, 11, 43, 47, 83, 108, 134, 225.

  Service departments, 10, 11, 43, 59, 69, 78, 103, 116, 121, 171, 175,
      191, 206.

  Serving-room, 249.

  Shaw, Mrs. Josephine Hartwell, 89, 98.

  Shingles, 41, 91, 106, 149, 243, 245.

  Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 6, 134, 149.

  Shrubbery, 167, 168, 213, 224, 248.

  Shutters, see BLINDS.

  Sill, 30.

  Sitting-room, 218.

  Sleeping-porches, see PORCHES.

  Smith, Nora, 195.

  South Dennis, Massachusetts, 105.

  South Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 33, 105.

  Spencer, Robert, 105.

  Spencer house, 105-109.
    fence, 106.
    furniture, 108, 109.
    lighting, 109.
    location, 105.
    new wing, 105, 106.
    windows, 106.

  Staircases, 4, 10, 23, 45, 50, 51, 68, 80, 93, 107, 118, 132, 136,
      142, 151, 153, 184, 192, 214, 251.

  Stoves, 63.

  Stud, 30, 66, 106, 117.
    low, 13, 44, 52, 56, 102, 152, 154, 205, 239.


  Three Acres, 88-99.
    living-room, 95.
    location, 88, 89.
    restoration, 90-99.
    studio, 98.
    type, 91.
    vistas, 96.
    windows, 92, 97.

  Tiles, 125.

  "Tired of Work" (picture), 153.

  Trees, 4, 15, 18, 19, 42, 78, 88, 91, 105, 123, 127, 128, 129, 134,
      140, 141, 144, 150, 167, 212, 213, 236, 248.


  Verandas, see PORCHES.


  Wainscot, 22, 35, 46, 55, 57, 80, 81, 118, 120, 130, 143, 155-157,
      163, 173, 192, 221, 226, 238, 241, 251, 252.

  Wakefield, F. M., 42.

  Walls, 29, 41, 46, 47, 67, 69, 83, 96, 130, 133, 148, 155-157, 173,
      215.
    burlap, 23, 45.
    exterior, 40, 41.
    grass-cloth, 47, 67, 143.
    painted, 21, 24, 25, 35, 68.
    papered, 23, 45, 48, 55, 56,
  57, 59, 69, 81, 83, 119,
  122, 163, 227, 228.
    plastered, 36, 107, 156.
    sheathed, 144, 155.
    stone, 128, 140, 149, 182, 212, 224.
    tapestry, 252.

  Wall-papers, 3, 20, 23, 48, 80, 97, 132, 188-190.
    castellated, 237.
    Colonial, 46, 82, 172, 184, 188, 196, 241.
    foliage, 81.
    Georgian, 55.
    Japanese, 97.
    landscape, 21, 57, 59, 119, 164, 175, 193, 194, 251.
    Morris, 151, 152.

  Wall-papers, Mother Goose, 121.

  Walpole, Massachusetts, 127.

  Water supply, 17, 204.

  Webster, Daniel, 77.

  White house (Salem), 150.

  Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 190, 197.

  Willowdale, 158-165.
    additions, 161.
    age, 158.
    dining-room, 162.
    garden, 160.
    lines, 159.
    location, 158.
    parlor, 163.
    tree, 162.
    woodwork, 165.

  Window casings, 74.
    muntins, 73, 74.

  Windows, 6, 9, 34, 35, 52, 58, 66, 73, 78, 102, 119, 141, 148, 154,
      218, 226.
    bay, 92, 224, 250, 252.
    casement, 74, 93, 94, 97, 193.
    dormer, 8, 34, 36, 40, 54, 92, 97, 106, 115, 154, 161, 171, 213,
      224, 248.
    eyebrow, 212.
    French, 102, 143, 145, 163, 172, 174, 206.
    gable, 104.
    oval, 44, 112.
    small-paned, 24, 34, 74, 132, 228, 236, 251.
    triple, 45, 69, 82, 107.

  Window-seats, 36, 58, 67, 119, 153, 194, 216, 218, 250.

  Wings, see ELLS.

  Wood, cypress, 41.
    gum, 67.
    hemlock, 98.
    oak, 155, 199, 200.
      fumed, 68.
      swamp, 21, 125.
    pine, hard, 200.
      North Carolina, 68, 199.
      pumpkin, 4, 158.
      swamp, 23.
      white, 2, 7, 41, 156.

  Woodwork, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 13,
  22, 23, 24, 25, 35, 45, 46,
  48, 55, 56, 58, 59, 68, 80,
  82, 95, 107, 120, 121, 122,
  131, 142, 155-158, 165, 184,
  192, 215, 219, 226, 227, 228.

  Worcester, Massachusetts, 5.

  Wren, Sir Christopher, 146.

  Wright, Henry W., 236.

  Wright house, 236-241.
    furniture, 237-241.
    lighting, 238, 240.
    location, 236.
    remodeling, 236-240.
    type, 236, 237.





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