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Title: Wood and Forest
Author: Noyes, William, 1862-1928
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Wood and Forest" ***

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  Formerly Assistant Professor of Industrial Arts
  Teachers College, Columbia University









  _Printed in United States of America_


This book has been prepared as a companion volume to the author's
_Handwork in Wood_.[1] It is an attempt to collect and arrange in
available form useful information, now widely scattered, about our
common woods, their sources, growth, properties and uses.

As in the other volume, the credit for the successful completion of
the book is to be given to my wife, Anna Gausmann Noyes, who has made
the drawings and maps, corrected the text, read the proof, and carried
the work thru to its final completion.

Acknowledgments are hereby thankfully made for corrections and
suggestions in the text to the following persons:

Mr. A. D. Hopkins, of the United States Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Entomology, for revision of the text relating to Insect
Enemies of the Forest, in Chapter VI.

Mr. George G. Hedgcock, of the United States Bureau of Agriculture,
Bureau of Plant Industry, for revision of the text relating to the
fungal enemies of the forest, in Chapter VI.

Mr. S. T. Dana and Mr. Burnett Barrows, of the United States
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, for revision of Chapters
IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.

Professor Charles R. Richards, formerly Head of the Manual Training
Department of Teachers College, my predecessor as lecturer of the
course out of which this book has grown.

Professor M. A. Bigelow, Head of the Department of Botany of Teachers
College, for revision of Chapter I, on the Structure of Wood.

Mr. Romeyn B. Hough, of Lowville, N. Y., author of _American Woods_
and _Handbook of the Trees of the Northern States and Canada_, for
suggestions in preparing the maps in Chapter III.

The Forest Service, Washington, D. C., for photographs and maps
credited to it, and for permission to reprint the key to the
identification of woods which appears in Forest Service Bulletin No.
10, _Timber_, by Filibert Roth.

The Division of Publications, U. S. Department of Agriculture, for
permission to copy illustrations in bulletins.

The Macmillan Company, New York, for permission to reproduce Fig.
86, Portion of the Mycelium of Dry Rot, from _Timber and Some of its
Diseases_, by H. M. Ward.

Mrs. Katharine Golden Bitting, of Lafayette, Indiana, for the
photograph of the cross-section of a bud, Figure 5.

Finally and not least I hereby acknowledge my obligations to the
various writers and publishers whose books and articles I have freely
used. As far as possible, appropriate credit is given in the paged
references at the end of each chapter.

    [Footnote 1: William Noyes, _Handwork in Wood_, Peoria, Ill.
    The Manual Arts Press, 231 pp., $2.]


  CHAPTER                                                       PAGE

         General Bibliography                                     4

     I   The Structure of Wood                                    9

    II   Properties of Wood                                      41

   III   The Principal Species of American Woods                 57

    IV   The Distribution and Composition of the
         North American Forests                                 197

     V   The Forest Organism                                    211

    VI   Natural Enemies of the Forest                          229

   VII   The Exhaustion of the Forest                           251

  VIII   The Use of the Forest                                  271

         Appendix                                               289

         Index                                                  304


Apgar, A. G., _Trees of the Northern United States_. N. Y.:
    American Book Co., 224 pp. A small book dealing with the botany
    of trees, giving descriptions of their essential organs, and
    particularly valuable for the leaf key to the trees. It should
    be supplemented by Keeler or Hough's Handbook.

Baterden, J. R., _Timber_. N. Y.: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1908,
    351 pp. A description of the timbers of various countries,
    discussion of timber defects, timber tests, etc.

Bitting, K. G., _The Structure of Wood_. _Wood Craft_, 5: 76,
    106, 144, 172, June-Sept., '06. A very scholarly and valuable
    series of articles on wood structure and growth. Excellent

Britton, Nathaniel Lord, _North American Trees_. N. Y.: Henry
    Holt & Co., 1908, 894 pp. A description of all the kinds of trees
    growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of
    Mexico, and the West Indies. The standard Botany of trees.

Boulger, G. S., _Wood_. London: Edward Arnold, 369 pp. A thoro
    discussion of wood structure, with chapters on the recognition
    and classification of woods, defects, preservation, uses, tests,
    supplies, and sources of wood. Good illustrations.

Bruce, E. S., _Frost Checks and Wind Shakes_. _Forestry and
    Irrigation_, 8: 159, April, '02. An original study of the
    splitting of trees by sudden frost and thaw.

Bruncken, Ernest, _North American Forests and Forestry_. N. Y.:
    G. P. Putnam's Sons. 265 pp. A comprehensive survey of American
    Forestry conditions including the forest industries, fires,
    taxation, and management. No illustrations.

Busbridge, Harold, _The Shrinkage and Warping of Timber_.
    _Sci. Amer. Suppl._, No. 1500, Oct. 1, 1904. Good photographic

Comstock, J. H. and A. B., _A Manual for the Study of Insects_.
    Ithaca, N. Y.: Comstock Publishing Co., 701 pp.
    Valuable for reference in classifying insects injurious to wood.

Curtis, Carleton C., _Nature and Development of Plants_. N. Y.:
    Henry Holt & Co., 1907, 471 pp. Chapter III is a very clear and
    excellent discussion of the structure of the stem of plants
    (including wood).

Encyclopedia Brittannica, Eleventh Edition, Cambridge: At the
    University Press. Article: _Forests and Forestry_, Vol. 10, p.
    645. Article: _Plants_, Anatomy of, Vol. 21, p. 741. Article:
    _Timber_ Vol. 26, p. 978.

Felt, E. P., _The Gypsy and Brown Tail Moths_. N. Y. State Museum:
    Bulletin 103, Entomology, 25. Valuable for colored illustrations
    as well as for detailed descriptions.

Fernow, B. E., _Economics of Forestry_. N. Y.: T. Y. Crowell
    & Co. 1902, quarto 520 pp. A treatment of forests and forestry
    from the standpoint of economics, including a comprehensive
    exposition of the forester's art, with chapters on forest
    conditions, silviculture, forest policies, and methods of
    business conduct, with a bibliography.

Fernow, B. E., _Report upon the Forestry Investigation of the U. S.
    Department of Agriculture_, 1887-1898. Fifty-fifth Congress,
    House of Representatives, Document No. 181. Quarto, 401 pp.
    A review of forests and forestry in the U. S., of forest policies
    of European nations, particularly of Germany, of the principles
    of silviculture, of a discussion of forest influences, and a
    section on timber physics.

Harwood, W. S., _The New Earth_. N. Y.: The Macmillan Co., 1906.
    378 pp. A recital of the triumphs of modern agriculture.
    Chap. X on modern forestry, describes what has been done in
    different states in conservative lumbering.

Hough, Romeyn B., _American Woods_. Lowville, N. Y.: The
    author. An invaluable collection in eleven volumes (boxes)
    of sections of 275 species of American woods. There are three
    sections of each species, cross, radial, and tangential,
    mounted in cardboard panels. Accompanied by a list of
    descriptions and analytical keys.

Hough, Romeyn B., _Handbook of the Trees of the Northern
    States and Canada_. Lowville, N. Y.: The author. 470 pp.
    A unique, elegant, and sumptuously illustrated book, with
    photographs of tree, trunk, leaf, fruit, bud, and sometimes
    wood, a map of the habitat of each species, and a full and
    careful description of tree and wood. Intended for botanists,
    foresters and lumbermen.

Johnson, J. B., _The Materials of Construction_. N. Y.: John
    Wiley & Sons. 1898. 775 pp. Chapter XIII is identical with
    Forestry Bulletin X, Roth's _Timber_.

Keeler, Harriet, _Our Native Trees_. N. Y.: Scribner's. 1900.
    533 pp. A very attractive and popular book showing great
    familiarity with the common trees and love of them. Numerous
    photographs and drawings.

Lounsberry, Alice, _A Guide to the Trees_. N. Y.: Frederick
    A. Stokes Co. 313 pp. A popular description of some 200 common
    trees, with plentiful illustrations.

Pinchot, Gifford, _A Primer of Forestry_. Parts I and II, U.
    S. Dept. of Agric. For. Serv. Bull. No. 24. 88 pp. and 88
    pp. A concise, clear, and fully illustrated little manual of
    forestry conditions, forest enemies, forestry principles and
    practice abroad and in the U. S.

Pinchot, Gifford. _The Adirondack Spruce._ N. Y.: G. P. Putnam's
    Sons. A technical account of the author's investigations on a
    forest estate in Northern New York.

Price, O. W., _Saving the Southern Forests_. _World's Work_,
    5: 3207, March, '03. A plea for conservative lumbering;
    excellent illustrations.

Record, Samuel J., _Characterization of the Grain and Texture
    of Wood_. Woodcraft, 15: 3, June, 1911.

Roth, Filibert, _A First Book of Forestry_. Boston: Ginn & Co.
    291 pp. A book for young people, giving in an interesting form
    many valuable facts about American forests and their care and
    use. It includes a leaf key to the trees.

Sargent, Charles Sprague, _Forest Trees of North America_. U.
    S. 10th Census, Vol. 9. Quarto, 612 pp. Part I deals with
    the distribution of the forests, and gives a catalog and
    description of the forest trees of North America, exclusive of
    Mexico. Part II. Tables of properties of the woods of the U.
    S. Part III. The economic aspects of the forests of the U. S.
    considered geographically, and maps showing distributions and
    densities. Exceedingly valuable.

Sargent, Charles Sprague, _Jesup Collection, The Woods of
    the U. S._ N. Y.: D. Appleton & Co., 203 pp. A detailed
    description of the Jesup Collection of North American Woods
    in the American Museum of Natural History, N. Y. City, with
    valuable tables as to strength, elasticity, hardness, weight,
    etc. Condensed from Vol. IX of 10th U. S. Census.

Sargent, Charles Sprague, _Manual of the Trees of North
    America_. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 826 pp. A compact
    mine of information, with some errors, about the known trees
    of North America and their woods, summarized from Sargent's
    larger work, "The Silva of North America." (See below.)

Sargent, Charles Sprague, _The Silva of North America_.
    Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co. A monumental and sumptuous work
    of 14 quarto volumes, describing in great detail all the known
    trees of North America and their woods, with beautiful line
    drawings of leaves and fruits.

Shaler, Nathaniel S., _The United States of America_. Vol. 1,
    pp. 485-517. N. Y.: D. Appleton & Co. Chapter IX is a popular
    description of American forests and the Lumber Industry.

Snow, Chas. Henry, _The Principal Species of Wood_. N. Y.:
    John Wiley & Sons. 203 pp. Descriptions and data regarding
    the economically important varieties of wood, with excellent
    photographs of trees and woods.

Strasburger, Noll, Schenck, and Schimper. _A Text Book of
    Botany._ N. Y.: Macmillan & Co. 746 pp. Valuable for minute
    information about the morphology of wood.

U. S. Tenth Census, Vol. IX. See Sargent.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, _Forest Service Bulletins_.
    The character of these government pamphlets is well indicated
    by their titles. No. 10 is an exceedingly valuable summary of
    the facts about the structure and properties of wood, contains
    the best available key to identification of common American
    woods (not trees) and a concise description of each. It is
    incorporated, as Chap. XIII, in Johnson's, "_The Materials for
    Construction_." N. Y.: John Wiley & Sons. Nos. 13 and 22 are
    large monographs containing much valuable information.

    No. 10. Filibert Roth, _Timber_.

    No. 13. Charles Mohr, _The Timber Pines of the Southern United

    No. 15. Frederick V. Coville, _Forest Growth and Sheep Grazing
    in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon_.

    No. 16. Filibert Roth, _Forestry Conditions in Wisconsin_.

    No. 17. George B. Sudworth, _Check List of the Forest Trees of
    the United States_, 1898.

    No. 18. Charles A. Keffer, _Experimental Tree Planting on the

    No. 22. V. M. Spalding and F. H. Chittenden, _The White Pine_.

    No. 24. Gifford Pinchot, _A Primer of Forestry_.

    No. 26. Henry S. Graves, _Practical Forestry in the

    No. 41. Herman von Schrenck, _Seasoning of Timber_.

    No. 45. Harold B. Kempton, _The Planting of White Pine in New

    No. 52. Royal S. Kellogg, _Forest Planting in Western Kansas_.

    No. 61. _Terms Used in Forestry and Logging_.

    No. 65. George L. Clothier, _Advice for Forest Planters in
    Oklahoma and Adjacent Regions_.

    No. 74. R. S. Kellogg and H. M. Hale, _Forest Products of the
    U. S._, 1905.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, _Forest Service Circulars_.

    No. 3. George William Hill, _Publications for Sale_.

    No. 25. Gifford Pinchot, _The Lumberman and the Forester_.

    No. 26. H. M. Suter, _Forest Fires in the Adirondacks in

    No. 36. The Forest Service: _What it is, and how it deals with
    Forest Problems_. Also _Classified List of Publications and
    Guide to Their Contents_.

    No. 37. _Forest Planting in the Sand Hill Region of Nebraska_.

    No. 40. H. B. Holroyd, _The Utilization of Tupelo_.

    No. 41. S. N. Spring, _Forest Planting on Coal Lands in
    Western Pennsylvania_.

    No. 45. Frank G. Miller, _Forest Planting in Eastern

    No. 81. R. S. Kellogg, _Forest Planting in Illinois_.

    No. 97. R. S. Kellogg, _Timber Supply of the United States_.

    No. 153. A. H. Pierson, _Exports and Imports of Forest
    Products, 1907_.

U. S. Department of Agriculture Year Books for:

    1896. Filibert Roth, _The Uses of Wood_.

    1898, p. 181. Gifford Pinchot, _Notes on some Forest

    1899, p. 415. Henry S. Graves, _The Practice of Forestry by
    Private Owners_.

    1900, p. 199. Hermann von Schrenck, _Fungous Diseases of
    Forest Trees_.

    1902, p. 145. William L. Hall, _Forest Extension in the Middle

    1902, p. 265. A. D. Hopkins, _Some of the Principal Insect
    Enemies of Coniferous Forests in the United States_.

    1902, p. 309. Overton, W. Price, _Influence of Forestry on the
    Lumber Supply_.

    1903, p. 279. James W. Toumey, _The Relation of Forests to
    Stream Flow_.

    1903, p. 313. A. D. Hopkins, _Insect Injuries to Hardwood
    Forest Trees_.

    1904, p. 133. E. A. Sterling, _The Attitude of Lumbermen
    toward Forest Fires_.

    1904, p. 381. A. D. Hopkins, _Insect Injuries to Forest Products_.

    1905, p. 455. Henry Grinell, _Prolonging the Life of Telephone

    1905, p. 483. J. Grivin Peters, _Waste in Logging Southern
    Yellow Pine_.

    1905, p. 636. Quincy R. Craft, _Progress of Forestry in 1905_.

    1907, p 277. Raphael Zon and E. H. Clapp, _Cutting Timber in
    the National Forests_.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology

    No. 11. n. s. L. O. Howard, _The Gypsy Moth in America_.

    No. 28. A. D. Hopkins, _Insect Enemies of the Spruce in the

    No. 32. n. s. A. D. Hopkins, _Insect Enemies of the Pine in
    the Black Hills Forest Reserve_.

    No. 48. A. D. Hopkins, _Catalog of Exhibits of Insect Enemies
    of Forest and Forest Products at the Louisiana Purchase
    Exposition, St. Louis, Mo._, 1904.

    No. 56. A. D. Hopkins, _The Black Hills Beetle_.

    No. 58. Part 1, A. D. Hopkins, _The Locust Borer_.

    No. 58. Part II, J. L. Webb, _The Western Pine Destroying Bark

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry,

    No. 32. Herman von Schrenck, _A Disease of the White Ash
    Caused by Polyporus Fraxinophilus_, 1903.

    No. 36. Hermann von Schrenck, _The "Bluing" and "Red Rot" of
    the Western Yellow Pine_, 1903.

_Report of the Commissioner of Corporations on the Lumber
    Industry_, Part I, _Standing Timber_, February, 1911. The
    latest and most reliable investigation into the amount and
    ownership of the forests of the United States.

Ward, H. Marshall, _Timber and some of its Diseases_.
    London: Macmillan & Co., 295 pp. An English book that needs
    supplementing by information on American wood diseases, such
    as is included in the list of government publications given
    herewith. The book includes a description of the character,
    structure, properties, varieties, and classification of



When it is remembered that the suitability of wood for a particular
purpose depends most of all upon its internal structure, it is plain
that the woodworker should know the essential characteristics of that
structure. While his main interest in wood is as lumber, dead material
to be used in woodworking, he can properly understand its structure
only by knowing something of it as a live, growing organism. To
facilitate this, a knowledge of its position in the plant world is

All the useful woods are to be found in the highest sub-kingdom of
the plant world, the flowering plants or Phanerogamia of the botanist.
These flowering plants are to be classified as follows:

                         {  I. Gymnosperms.  (Naked seeds.)
                         {       1. Cycadaceae.  (Palms, ferns, etc.)
                         {       2. Gnetaceae.  (Joint firs.)
                         {       3. Conifers. Pines, firs, etc.
Phanerogamia,            { II. Angiosperms. (Fruits.)
(Flowering plants)       {       1. Monocotyledons. (One seed-leaf.)
                         {           (Palms, bamboos, grasses, etc.)
                         {       2. Dicotyledons. (Two seed-leaves.)
                         {           a.  Herbs.
                         {           b.  Broad-leaved trees.

Under the division of naked-seeded plants (gymnosperms), practically
the only valuable timber-bearing plants are the needle-leaved trees
or the conifers, including such trees as the pines, cedars, spruces,
firs, etc. Their wood grows rapidly in concentric annual rings, like
that of the broad-leaved trees; is easily worked, and is more widely
used than the wood of any other class of trees.

Of fruit-bearing trees (angiosperms), there are two classes, those
that have one seed-leaf as they germinate, and those that have two

The one seed-leaf plants (monocotyledons) include the grasses, lilies,
bananas, palms, etc. Of these there are only a few that reach
the dimensions of trees. They are strikingly distinguished by the
structure of their stems. They have no cambium layer and no distinct
bark and pith; they have unbranched stems, which as a rule do not
increase in diameter after the first stages of growth, but grow only
terminally. Instead of having concentric annual rings and thus growing
larger year by year, the woody tissue grows here and there thru the
stem, but mostly crowded together toward the outer surfaces. Even
where there is radial growth, as in yucca, the structure is not
in annual rings, but irregular. These one seed-leaf trees
(monocotyledons) are not of much economic value as lumber, being used
chiefly "in the round," and to some extent for veneers and inlays;
_e.g._, cocoanut-palm and porcupine wood are so used.

The most useful of the monocotyledons, or endogens, ("inside growers,"
as they are sometimes called,) are the bamboos, which are giant
members of the group of grasses, Fig. 1. They grow in dense forests,
some varieties often 70 feet high and 6 inches in diameter, shooting
up their entire height in a single season. Bamboo is very highly
valued in the Orient, where it is used for masts, for house rafters,
and other building purposes, for gutters and water-pipes and in
countless other ways. It is twice as strong as any of our woods.

Under the fruit-bearing trees (angiosperms), timber trees are chiefly
found among those that have two seed-leaves (the dicotyledons) and
include the great mass of broad-leaved or deciduous trees such as
chestnut, oak, ash and maple. It is to these and to the conifers that
our principal attention will be given, since they constitute the bulk
of the wood in common use.

The timber-bearing trees, then, are the:

(1) Conifers, the needle-leaved, naked-seeded trees, such as pine,
cedar, etc. Fig. 45, p. 199.

(2) Endogens, which have one seed-leaf, such as bamboos, Fig. 1.

(3) Broad-leaved trees, having two seed-leaves, such as oak, beech,
and elm. Fig. 48, p. 202.

The common classifications of trees are quite inaccurate. Many of
the so-called deciduous (Latin, _deciduus_, falling off) trees are
evergreen, such as holly, and, in the south, live oak, magnolia and
cherry. So, too, some of the alleged "evergreens," like bald cypress
and tamarack, shed their leaves annually.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. A Bamboo Grove, Kioto, Japan.]

Not all of the "conifers" bear cones. For example, the juniper bears
a berry. The ginko, Fig. 2, tho classed among the "conifers," the
"evergreens," and the "needle-leaf" trees, bears no cones, has broad
leaves and is deciduous. It has an especial interest as being the sole
survivor of many species which grew abundantly in the carboniferous

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Ginko Leaf.]

Also, the terms used by lumbermen, "hard woods" for broad-leaved trees
and "soft woods" for conifers, are still less exact, for the wood of
some broad-leaved trees, as bass and poplar, is much softer than that
of some conifers, as Georgia pine and lignum vitae.

Another classification commonly made is that of "endogens" (inside
growers) including bamboos, palms, etc., and exogens (outside growers)
which would include both conifers and broad-leaved trees.

One reason why so many classifications have come into use is that none
of them is quite accurate. A better one will be explained later. See
p. 23.

As in the study of all woods three sections are made, it is well at
the outset to understand clearly what these are.

The sections of a tree made for its study are (Fig. 3):

(1) Transverse, a plane at right angles to the organic axis.

(2) Radial, a longitudinal plane, including the organic axis.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.


  A, B, C, D, Transverse Section.
  B, D, E, F, Radial Section.
  G, H, I, J, Tangential Section.


  A, B, C, Transverse Section.
  A, B, D, E, Radial Section.
  B, C, E, F, Tangential Section.

(3) Tangential, a longitudinal plane not including the organic axis.

If a transverse section of the trunk of a conifer or of a broad-leaved
tree is made, it is to be noted that it consists of several distinct
parts. See Fig. 4. These, beginning at the outside, are:

(1) Rind or bark
  (a) Cortex
  (b) Bast

(2) Cambium

(3) Wood
  (a) Sap-wood
  (b) Heart-wood

(4) Pith.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Diagram of Cross-section of Three Year Old Stem
of Basswood.]

(1) The rind or _bark_ is made up of two layers, the outer of which,
the "cortex," is corky and usually scales or pulls off easily; while
the inner one is a fibrous coat called "bast" or "phloem." Together
they form a cone, widest, thickest, and roughest at the base and
becoming narrower toward the top of the tree. The cortex or outer bark
serves to protect the stem of the tree from extremes of heat and cold,
from atmospheric changes, and from the browsing of animals. It is made
up of a tough water-proof layer of cork which has taken the place of
the tender skin or "epidermis" of the twig. Because it is water-proof
the outside tissue is cut off from the water supply of the tree, and
so dries up and peels off, a mass of dead matter. The cork and the
dead stuff together are called the bark. As we shall see later, the
cork grows from the inside, being formed in the inner layers of the
cortex, the outer layers of dry bark being thus successively cut off.

The characteristics of the tree bark are due to the positions and
kinds of tissue of these new layers of cork. Each tree has its own
kind of bark, and the bark of some is so characteristic as to make the
tree easily recognizable.

Bark may be classified according to formation and method of
separation, as scale bark, which detaches from the tree in plates,
as in the willows; membraneous bark, which comes off in ribbons and
films, as in the birches; fibrous bark, which is in the form of stiff
threads, as in the grape vine; and fissured bark, which breaks up
in longitudinal fissures, showing ridges, grooves and broad, angular
patches, as in oak, chestnut and locust. The last is the commonest
form of bark.

The bark of certain kinds of trees, as cherry and birch, has peculiar
markings which consist of oblong raised spots or marks, especially
on the young branches. These are called lenticels (Latin _lenticula_,
freckle), and have two purposes: they admit air to the internal
tissues, as it were for breathing, and they also emit water vapor.
These lenticels are to be found on all trees, even where the bark is
very thick, as old oaks and chestnuts, but in these the lenticels are
in the bottoms of the deep cracks. There is a great difference in
the inflammability of bark, some, like that of the big trees of
California, Fig. 54, p. 209, which is often two feet thick, being
practically incombustible, and hence serving to protect the tree;
while some bark, as canoe birch, is laden with an oil which burns
furiously. It therefore makes admirable kindling for camp fires, even
in wet weather.

Inside the cork is the "phloem" or "bast," which, by the way, gives
its name to the bass tree, the inner bark of which is very tough and
fibrous and therefore used for mat and rope making. In a living tree,
the bast fibers serve to conduct the nourishment which has been made
in the leaves down thru the stem to the growing parts.

(2) The _cambium_. Inside of the rind and between it and the wood,
there is, on living trees, a slimy coat called cambium (Med. Latin,
exchange). This is the living, growing part of the stem, familiar to
all who have peeled it as the sticky, slimy coat between the bark
and the wood of a twig. This is what constitutes the fragrant,
mucilaginous inner part of the bark of slippery elm. Cambium is a
tissue of young and growing cells, in which the new cells are formed,
the inner ones forming the wood and the outer ones the bark.

In order to understand the cambium and its function, consider its
appearance in a bud, Fig. 5. A cross-section of the bud of a growing
stem examined under the microscope, looks like a delicate mesh of thin
membrane, filled in with a viscid semi-fluid substance which is called
"protoplasm" (Greek, _protos_, first; _plasma_, form). These meshes
were first called "cells" by Robert Hooke, in 1667, because of their
resemblance to the chambers of a honeycomb. The walls of these
"cells" are their most prominent feature and, when first studied,
were supposed to be the essential part; but later the slimy, colorless
substance which filled the cells was found to be the essential part.
This slimy substance, called protoplasm, constitutes the primal stuff
of all living things. The cell walls themselves are formed from it.
These young cells, at the apex of a stem, are all alike, very small,
filled with protoplasm, and as yet, unaltered. They form embryonic
tissue, _i.e._ one which will change. One change to which an cell
filled with protoplasm is liable is division into two, a new partition
wall forming within it. This is the way plant cells increase.

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Young Stem, Magnified 18-1/2 Diameters, Showing
Primary and Secondary Bundles. _By Courtesy of Mrs. Katharine Golden

E, epidermis, the single outside layer of cells.

C, cortex, the region outside of the bundles.

HB, hard bast, the black, irregular ring protecting the soft bast.

SB, soft bast, the light, crescent-shaped parts.

Ca, cambium, the line between the soft bast and the wood.

W, wood, segments showing pores.

MR, medullary rays, lines between the bundles connecting the pith and
the cortex.

MS, medullary sheath, the dark, irregular ring just inside the

P, pith, the central mass of cells.]

In young plant cells, the whole cavity of the chamber is filled with
protoplasm, but as the cells grow older and larger, the protoplasm
develops into different parts, one part forming the cell wall and in
many cases leaving cavities within the cell, which become filled with
sap. The substance of the cell wall is called cellulose (cotton and
flax fibers consist of almost pure cellulose). At first it has no
definite structure, but as growth goes on, it may become thickened
in layers, or gummy, or hardened into lignin (wood), according to the
function to be performed. Where there are a group of similar cells
performing the same functions, the group is called a tissue or, if
large enough, a tissue system.

When cells are changed into new forms, or "differentiated," as it is
called, they become permanent tissues. These permanent tissues of the
tree trunk constitute the various parts which we have noticed, viz.,
the rind, the pith and the wood.

The essentially living part of the tree, it should be remembered, is
the protoplasm: where there is protoplasm, there is life and growth.
In the stems of the conifers and broad-leaved trees--sometimes
together called exogens--this protoplasm is to be found in the buds
and in the cambium sheath, and these are the growing parts of the
tree. If we followed up the sheath of cambium which envelopes a stem,
into a terminal bud, we should find that it passed without break into
the protoplasm of the bud.

In the cross-section of a young shoot, we might see around the central
pith or medulla, a ring of wedge-shaped patches. These are really
bundles of cells running longitudinally from the rudiments of leaves
thru the stem to the roots. They are made of protoplasm and are called
the "procambium strands," Fig. 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Three Stages in the Development of an Exogenous
Stem. P, pith; PB, primary bast; SB, secondary bast; C, cambium;
PR, pith ray; PW, primary wood; SW, secondary wood; PS, procambium
strands. _After Boulger._]

In the monocotyledons (endogens) these procambium strands change
completely into wood and bast, and so losing all their protoplasmic
cambium, become incapable of further growth. This is why palms can
grow only lengthwise, or else by forming new fibers more densely in
the central mass. But in the conifers and broad-leaved trees, the
inner part of each strand becomes wood and the outer part bast (bark).
Between these bundles, connecting the pith in the center with the
cortex on the outside of the ring of bundles, are parts of the
original pith tissue of the stem. They are the primary pith or
medullary rays (Latin, _medulla_, pith). The number of medullary rays
depends upon the number of the bundles; and their form, on the width
of the bundles, so that they are often large and conspicuous, as in
oak, or small and indeed invisible, as in some of the conifers. But
they are present in all exogenous woods, and can readily be seen with
the microscope. Stretching across these pith rays from the cambium
layer in one procambium strand to that in the others, the cambium
formation extends, making a complete cylindrical sheath from the bud
downward over the whole stem. This is the cambium sheath and is the
living, growing part of the stem from which is formed the wood on the
inside and the rind (bark) on the outside.

In the first year the wood and the bast are formed directly by the
growth and change of the inner and outer cells respectively of the
procambium strand, and all such material is called "primary;" but
in subsequent years all wood, pith rays, and bast, originate in the
cambium, and these growths are called "secondary."

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Sap-wood and Heart-wood, Lignum Vitae.]

(3) The _wood_ of most exogens is made up of two parts, a lighter
part called the sap-wood or splint-wood or alburnum, and a darker part
called the heart-wood or duramen, Fig. 7. Sap-wood is really immature
heartwood. The difference in color between them is very marked in some
woods, as in lignum vitae and black walnut, and very slight in
others, as spruce and bass. Indeed, some species never form a distinct
heart-wood, birch (_Betula alba_) being an example.

In a living tree, sap-wood and heart-wood perform primarily quite
different functions. The sap-wood carries the water from the roots to
the leaves, stores away starch at least in winter, and in other ways
assists the life of the tree. The proportional amount of sapwood
varies greatly, often, as in long-leaf pine, constituting 40 per cent.
of the stem.

As the sap-wood grows older, its cells become choked so that the sap
can no longer flow thru them. It loses its protoplasm and starch and
becomes heartwood, in which all cells are dead and serve only the
mechanical function of holding up the great weight of the tree and
in resisting wind pressures. This is the reason why a tree may become
decayed and hollow and yet be alive and bear fruit. In a tree that is
actually dead the sap-wood rots first.

Chemical substances infiltrate into the cell walls of heart-wood and
hence it has a darker color than the sap-wood. Persimmon turns black,
walnut purplish brown, sumac yellow, oak light brown, tulip and poplar
yellowish, redwood and cedar brownish red. Many woods, as mahogany and
oak, darken under exposure, which shows that the substances producing
the color are oxidizable and unstable. Wood dyes are obtained by
boiling and distilling such woods as sumach, logwood, red sanders,
and fustic. Many woods also acquire distinct odors, as camphor,
sandalwood, cedar, cypress, pine and mahogany, indicating the presence
of oil.

As a rule heart-wood is more valuable for timber, being harder,
heavier, and drier than sap-wood. In woods like hickory and ash,
however, which are used for purposes that require pliability, as in
baskets, or elasticity as in handles of rakes and hoes, sap-wood is
more valuable than heart-wood.

In a transverse section of a conifer, for example Douglas spruce, Fig.
8, the wood is seen to lie in concentric rings, the outer part of the
ring being darker in color than the inner part. In reality each
of these rings is a section of an irregular hollow cone, each cone
enveloping its inner neighbor. Each cone ordinarily constitutes a
year's growth, and therefore there is a greater number of them at
the base of a tree than higher up. These cones vary greatly in
_thickness_, or, looking at a cross-section, the rings vary in
_width_; in general, those at the center being thicker than those
toward the bark. Variations from year to year may also be noticed,
showing that the tree was well nourished one year and poorly nourished
another year. Rings, however, do not always indicate a year's growth.
"False rings" are sometimes formed by a cessation in the growth due
to drouth, fire or other accident, followed by renewed growth the same

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Section of Douglas Fir, Showing Annual Rings
and Knots at Center of Trunk. _American Museum of Natural History, N.

In a radial section of a log, Fig. 8, these "rings" appear as a series
of parallel lines and if one could examine a long enough log these
lines would converge, as would the cut edges in a nest of cones, if
they were cut up thru the center, as in Fig. 9.

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Diagram of Radial Section of Log (exaggerated)
Showing Annual Cones of Growth.]

In a tangential section, the lines appear as broad bands, and since
almost no tree grows perfectly straight, these lines are wavy, and
give the characteristic pleasing "grain" of wood. Fig. 27, p. 35. The
annual rings can sometimes be discerned in the bark as well as in the
wood, as in corks, which are made of the outer bark of the cork oak, a
product of southern Europe and northern Africa. Fig. 10.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Annual Rings in Bark (cork).]

The growth of the wood of exogenous trees takes place thru the
ability, already noted, of protoplasmic cells to divide. The cambium
cells, which have very thin walls, are rectangular in shape, broader
tangentially than radially, and tapering above and below to a chisel
edge, Fig. 11. After they have grown somewhat radially, partition
walls form across them in the longitudinal, tangential direction,
so that in place of one initial cell, there are two daughter cells
radially disposed. Each of these small cells grows and re-divides, as
in Fig. 12. Finally the innermost cell ceases to divide, and uses its
protoplasm to become thick and hard wood. In like manner the outermost
cambium cell becomes bast, while the cells between them continue to
grow and divide, and so the process goes on. In nearly all stems,
there is much more abundant formation of wood than of bast cells. In
other words, more cambium cells turn to wood than to bast.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Diagram Showing Grain of Spruce Highly
Magnified. PR, pith rays; BP, bordered pits; Sp W, spring wood; SW,
summer wood; CC, overlapping of chisel shaped ends.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12. Diagram Showing the Mode of Division of the
Cambium Cells. The cambium cell is shaded to distinguish it from the
cells derived from it. Note in the last division at the right that
the inner daughter cell becomes the cambium cell while the outer cell
develops into a bast cell. _From Curtis: Nature and Development of

In the spring when there is comparatively little light and heat, when
the roots and leaves are inactive and feeble, and when the bark, split
by winter, does not bind very tightly, the inner cambium cells produce
radially wide wood cells with relatively thin walls. These constitute
the spring wood. But in summer the jacket of bark binds tightly, there
is plenty of heat and light, and the leaves and roots are very active,
so that the cambium cells produce thicker walled cells, called summer
wood. During the winter the trees rest, and no development takes
place until spring, when the large thin-walled cells are formed again,
making a sharp contrast with those formed at the end of the previous

It is only at the tips of the branches that the cambium cells grow
much in length; so that if a nail were driven into a tree twenty years
old at, say, four feet from the ground, it would still be four feet
from the ground one hundred years later.

Looking once more at the cross-section, say, of spruce, the inner
portion of each ring is lighter in color and softer in texture than
the outer portion. On a radial or tangential section, one's finger
nail can easily indent the inner portion of the ring, tho the outer
dark part of the ring may be very hard. The inner, light, soft portion
of the ring is the part that grows in the spring and early summer,
and is called the "spring wood" while the part that grows later in the
season is called "summer wood." As the summer wood is hard and heavy,
it largely determines the strength and weight of the wood, so that as
a rule, the greater the proportion of the summer growth, the better
the wood. This can be controlled to some extent by proper forestry
methods, as is done in European larch forests, by "underplanting" them
with beech.

In a normal tree, the summer growth forms a greater proportion of the
wood formed during the period of thriftiest growth, so that in neither
youth nor old age, is there so great a proportion of summer wood as in
middle age.

It will help to make clear the general structure of wood if one
imagines the trunk of a tree to consist of a bundle of rubber tubes
crushed together, so that they assume angular shapes and have no
spaces between them. If the tubes are laid in concentric layers, first
a layer which has thin walls, then successive layers having thicker
and thicker walls, then suddenly a layer of thin-walled tubes and
increasing again to thick-walled ones and so on, such an arrangement
would represent the successive annual "rings" of conifers.

_The medullary rays._ While most of the elements in wood run
longitudinally in the log, it is also to be noted that running at
right angles to these and radially to the log, are other groups of
cells called pith rays or medullary rays (Latin, _medulla_, which
means pith). These are the large "silver flakes" to be seen in
quartered oak, which give it its beautiful and distinctive grain, Fig.
32, p. 38. They appear as long, grayish lines on a cross-section, as
broad, shining bands on the radial section, and as short, thick lines
tapering at each end on the tangential section. In other words, they
are like flat, rectangular plates standing on edge and radiating
lengthwise from the center of the tree. They vary greatly in size in
different woods. In sycamore they are very prominent, Fig. 13. In oak
they are often several hundred cells wide (_i.e._, up and down in the
tree). This may amount to an inch or two. They are often twenty cells
thick, tapering to one cell at the edge. In oak very many are also
small, even microscopic. But in the conifers and also in some of the
broad-leaved trees, altho they can be discerned with the naked eye on
a split radial surface, still they are all very small. In pine there
are some 15,000 of them to a square inch of a tangential section. They
are to be found in all exogens. In a cross-section, say of oak, Fig.
14, it can readily be seen that some pith rays begin at the center
of the tree and some farther out. Those that start from the pith are
formed the first year and are called primary pith rays, while those
that begin in a subsequent year, starting at the cambium of that year,
are called secondary rays.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. Tangential Section of Sycamore, Magnified 37
Diameters. Note the large size of the pith rays, A, A (end view).]

The function of the pith rays is twofold. (1) They transfer formative
material from one part of a stem to another, communicating with both
wood and bark by means of the simple and bordered pits in them, and
(2) they bind the trunk together from pith to bark. On the other hand
their presence makes it easier for the wood to split radially.

The substance of which they are composed is "parenchyma" (Greek,
_beside_, to _pour_), which also constitutes the pith, the rays
forming a sort of connecting link between the first and last growth of
the tree, as the cambium cells form new wood each year.

[Illustration: Fig. 14 Cross-section of White Oak. The Radiating White
Lines are the Pith Rays.]

If a cambium cell is opposite to a pith ray, it divides crosswise
(transversely) into eight or ten cells one above another, which
stretch out radially, retaining their protoplasm, and so continue the
pith ray. As the tree grows larger, new, or secondary medullary rays
start from the cambium then active, so that every year new rays are
formed both thinner and shorter than the primary rays, Fig. 14.

Now suppose that laid among the ordinary thin-walled tubes were quite
large tubes, so that one could tell the "ring" not only by the thin
walls but by the presence of large tubes. That would represent the
ring-porous woods, and the large tubes would be called vessels, or
_tracheæ_. Suppose again that these large tubes were scattered
in disorder thru the layers. This arrangement would represent the
diffuse-porous woods.

By holding up to the light, thin cross-sections of spruce or pine,
Fig. 15, oak or ash, Fig. 16, and bass or maple, Fig. 17, these three
quite distinct arrangements in the structure may be distinguished.
This fact has led to the classification of woods according to the
presence and distribution of "pores," or as they are technically
called, "vessels" or "tracheae." By this classification we have:

(1) _Non-porous_ woods, which comprise the conifers, as pine and

(2) _Ring-porous_ woods, in which the pores appear (in a
cross-section) in concentric rings, as in chestnut, ash and elm.

(3) _Diffuse-porous_ woods, in which (in a cross-section) the rings
are scattered irregularly thru the wood, as in bass, maple and yellow

In order to fully understand the structure of wood, it is necessary to
examine it still more closely thru the microscope, and since the three
classes of wood, non-porous, ring-porous and diffuse-porous, differ
considerably in their minute structure, it is well to consider them
separately, taking the simplest first.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Cross-section of Non-porous Wood, White Pine,
Full Size (top toward pith).]

_Non-porous woods._ In examining thru the microscope a transverse
section of white pine, Fig. 18:

(1) The most noticeable characteristic is the regularity of
arrangement of the cells. They are roughly rectangular and arranged in
ranks and files.

(2) Another noticeable feature is that they are arranged in belts, the
thickness of their walls gradually increasing as the size of the cells
diminishes. Then the large thin-walled cells suddenly begin again,
and so on. The width of one of these belts is the amount of a single
year's growth, the thin-walled cells being those that formed in
spring, and the thick-walled ones those that formed in summer, the
darker color of the summer wood as well as its greater strength being
caused by there being more material in the same volume.

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Cross-section of Ring-porous Wood, White Ash,
Full Size (top toward pith).]

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Cross-section of Diffuse-porous Wood, Hard
Maple, full size (top toward pith).]

(3) Running radially (up and down in the picture) directly thru the
annual belts or rings are to be seen what looks like fibers. These are
the pith or medullary rays. They serve to transfer formative material
from one part of the stem to another and to bind the tree together
from pith to bark.

(4) Scattered here and there among the regular cells, are to be seen
irregular gray or yellow dots which disturb the regularity of the
arrangement. These are _resin ducts_. (See cross-section of white
pine, Fig. 18.) They are not cells, but openings between cells, in
which the resin, an excretion of the tree, accumulates, oozing out
when the tree is injured. At least one function of resin is to protect
the tree from attacks of fungi.

Looking now at the radial section, Fig. 18:

(5) The first thing to notice is the straightness of the long cells
and their overlapping where they meet endwise, like the ends of two
chisels laid together, Fig. 11.

(6) On the walls of the cells can be seen round spots called "pits."
These are due to the fact that as the cell grows, the cell walls
thicken, except in these small spots, where the walls remain thin and
delicate. The pit in a cell wall always coincides with the pit in
an adjoining cell, there being only a thin membrane between, so that
there is practically free communication of fluids between the two
cells. In a cross-section the pit appears as a canal, the length of
which depends upon the thickness of the walls. In some cells, the
thickening around the pits becomes elevated, forming a border,
perforated in the center. Such pits are called bordered pits. These
pits, both simple and bordered, are waterways between the different
cells. They are helps in carrying the sap up the tree.

(7) The pith rays are also to be seen running across and interwoven
in the other cells. It is to be noticed that they consist of several
cells, one above another.

In the tangential section, Fig. 18:

(8) The straightness and overlapping of the cells is to be seen again,

(9) The numerous ends of the pith rays appear.

In a word, the structure of coniferous wood is very regular and
simple, consisting mainly of cells of one sort, the pith rays being
comparatively unnoticeable. This uniformity is what makes the wood of
conifers technically valuable.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

The cells of conifers are called tracheids, meaning "like _tracheæ_."
They are cells in which the end walls persist, that is, are not
absorbed and broken down when they meet end to end. In other words,
conifers do not have continuous pores or vessels or "_tracheæ_," and
hence are called "non-porous" woods.

But in other woods, the ends of some cells which meet endwise
are absorbed, thus forming a continuous series of elements which
constitute an open tube. Such tubes are known as pores, or vessels,
or "tracheæ," and sometimes extend thru the whole stem. Besides this
marked difference between the porous and non-porous woods, the porous
woods are also distinguished by the fact that instead of being made
up, like the conifers of cells of practically only one kind, namely
tracheids, they are composed of several varieties of cells. Besides
the tracheae and tracheids already noted are such cells as "wood
fiber," "fibrous cells," and "parenchyma." Fig. 19. Wood fiber proper
has much thickened lignified walls and no pits, and its main function
is mechanical support. Fibrous cells are like the wood fibers except
that they retain their protoplasm. Parenchyma is composed of vertical
groups of short cells, the end ones of each group tapering to a point,
and each group originates from the transverse division of one
cambium cell. They are commonly grouped around the vessels (tracheæ).
Parenchyma constitutes the pith rays and other similar fibers, retains
its protoplasm, and becomes filled with starch in autumn.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Isolated Fibers and Cells. _a_, four cells of
wood parenchyma; _b_, two cells from a pith ray; _c_, a single cell
or joint of a vessel, the openings, x, x, leading into its upper and
lower neighbors; _d_, tracheid; _e_, wood fiber proper. _After Roth._]

The most common type of structure among the broad-leaved trees
contains tracheæ, trachæids, woody fiber, fibrous cells and
parenchyma. Examples are poplars, birch, walnut, linden and locust. In
some, as ash, the tracheids are wanting; apple and maple have no woody
fiber, and oak and plum no fibrous cells.

This recital is enough to show that the wood of the broad-leaved trees
is much more complex in structure than that of the conifers. It is by
means of the number and distribution of these elements that particular
woods are identified microscopically. See p. 289.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

_Ring-porous woods._ Looking thru the microscope at a cross-section of
ash, a ring-porous wood, Fig. 20:

(1) The large round or oval pores or vessels grouped mostly in the
spring wood first attract attention. Smaller ones, but still quite
distinct, are to be seen scattered all thru the wood. It is by the
number and distribution of these pores that the different oak woods
are distinguished, those in white oak being smaller and more numerous,
while in red oak they are fewer and larger. It is evident that the
greater their share in the volume, the lighter in weight and the
weaker will be the wood. In a magnified cross-section of some woods,
as black locust, white elm and chestnut, see Chap. III, beautiful
patterns are to be seen composed of these pores. It is because of the
size of these pores and their great number that chestnut is so weak.

(2) The summer wood is also distinguishable by the fact that, as with
the conifers, its cells are smaller and its cell walls thicker than
those of the spring wood. The summer wood appears only as a narrow,
dark line along the largest pores in each ring.

(3) The lines of the pith rays are very plain in some woods, as in
oak. No. 47, Chap. III.

(4) The irregular arrangement and

(5) Complex structure are evident, and these are due to the fact that
the wood substance consists of a number of different elements and not
one (tracheids) as in the conifers.

Looking at the radial section, Fig. 20:

(6) If the piece is oak, the great size of the medullary rays is most
noticeable. Fig. 32, p. 38. They are often an inch or more wide; that
is, high, as they grow in the tree. In ash they are plain, seen thru
the microscope, but are not prominent.

(7) The interweaving of the different fibers and the variety of their
forms show the structure as being very complex.

In the tangential section, Fig. 20:

(8) The pattern of the grain is seen to be marked not so much by
the denseness of the summer wood as by the presence of the vessels

(9) The ends of the pith rays are also clear.

In _diffuse porous woods_, the main features to be noticed are: In the
transverse section, Fig. 21:

(1) The irregularity with which the pores are scattered,

(2) The fine line of dense cells which mark the end of the year's

(3) The radiating pith rays,

(4) The irregular arrangement and,

(5) The complex structure.

In the radial section, Fig. 21:

(6) The pith rays are evident. In sycamore, No. 53, Chap. III, they
are quite large.

(7) The interweaving of the fibers is to be noted and also their

In the tangential section, Fig. 21:

(8) The grain is to be traced only dimly, but the fibers are seen to
run in waves around the pith rays.

(9) The pith rays, the ends of which are plainly visible.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]


The term "grain" is used in a variety of meanings which is likely to
cause confusion. This confusion may be avoided, at least in part,
by distinguishing between grain and texture, using the word grain to
refer to the arrangement or direction of the wood elements, and the
word texture to refer to their size or quality, so far as these affect
the structural character of the wood. Hence such qualifying adjectives
as coarse and fine, even and uneven, straight and cross, including
spiral, twisted, wavy, curly, mottled, bird's-eye, gnarly, etc., may
all be applied to grain to give it definite meaning, while to texture
the proper modifying adjectives are coarse and fine, even and uneven.

Usually the word grain means the pattern or "figure" formed by the
distinction between the spring wood and the summer wood. If the annual
rings are wide, the wood is, in common usage, called "coarse grained,"
if narrow, "fine grained," so that of two trees of the same species,
one may be coarse grained and the other fine grained, depending solely
on the accident of fast or slow growth.

The terms coarse grain and fine grain are also frequently used to
distinguish such ring-porous woods as have large prominent pores, like
chestnut and ash, from those having small or no pores, as cherry and
lignum vitae. A better expression in this case would be coarse and
fine textured. When such coarse textured woods are stained, the large
pores in the spring wood absorb more stain than the smaller elements
in the summer wood, and hence the former part appears darker. In the
"fine grained" (or better, fine textured,) woods the pores are absent
or are small and scattered, and the wood is hard, so that they are
capable of taking a high polish. This indicates the meaning of the
words coarse and fine in the mind of the cabinet-maker, the reference
being primarily to texture.

If the elements of which a wood are composed are of approximately
uniform size, it would be said to have a uniform texture, as in
white pine, while uniform grain would mean, that the elements, tho
of varying sizes, were evenly distributed, as in the diffuse-porous

The term "grain" also refers to the regularity of the wood structure.
An ideal tree would be composed of a succession of regular cones, but
few trees are truly circular in cross-section and even in those that
are circular, the pith is rarely in the center, showing that one side
of the tree, usually the south side, is better nourished than the
other, Fig. 14, p. 23.

The normal direction of the fibers of wood is parallel to the axis of
the stem in which they grow. Such wood is called "straight-grained,"
Fig. 22, but there are many deviations from this rule. Whenever the
grain of the wood in a board is, in whole or in part, oblique to the
sides of the board, it is called "cross-grained." An illustration of
this is a bend in the fibers, due to a bend in the whole tree or to
the presence of a neighboring knot. This bend makes the board more
difficult to plane. In many cases, probably in more cases than not,
the wood fibers twist around the tree. (See some of the logs in Fig.
107, p. 254.) This produces "spiral" or "twisted" grain.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Straight Grained Long-leaf Pine (full size).]

Often, as in mahogany and sweet gum, the fibers of several layers
twist first in one direction and then those of the next few layers
twist the other way, Fig. 24. Such wood is peculiarly cross-grained,
and is of course hard to plane smooth. But when a piece is smoothly
finished the changing reflection of light from the surface gives a
beautiful appearance, which can be enhanced by staining and polishing.
It constitutes the characteristic "grain" of striped mahogany, Fig.
23. It is rarely found in the inner part of the tree.

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Mahogany, Showing Alternately Twisted Grain
(full size).]

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Spiral Grain in Cypress.
_After Roth._]

Sometimes the grain of wood is "cross," because it is "wavy" either in
a radial or a tangential section, as in maple, Fig. 25, and Fig. 26.

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Planed Surface of Wavy-Grained Maple (full

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Split Surface of Wavy-Grained Maple (full

"Curly grain" refers to the figure of circlets and islets and
contours, often of great beauty, caused by cutting a flat surface in
crooked-grained wood. See Fig. 27, curly long-leaf pine, and Fig.
28, yellow poplar. When such crookedness is fine and the fibers are
contorted and, as it were, crowded out of place, as is common in and
near the roots of trees, the effect is called "burl," Fig. 29. The
term burl is also used to designate knots and knobs on tree trunks,
Fig. 31. Burl is used chiefly in veneers.

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Curly Grained Long-leaf Pine (full size).]

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Curly Yellow Poplar (full size).]

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Redwood Burl (full size).]

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Bird's-eye Maple (full size.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Burl on White Oak.]

Irregularity of grain is often caused by the presence of adventitious
and dormant buds, which may be plainly seen as little knobs on
the surface of some trees under the bark. In most trees, these
irregularities are soon buried and smoothed over by the successive
annual layers of wood, but in some woods there is a tendency to
preserve the irregularities. On slash (tangent) boards of such wood,
a great number of little circlets appear, giving a beautiful grain,
as in "Bird's-eye maple," Fig. 30. These markings are found to
predominate in the inner part of the tree. This is not at all a
distinct variety of maple, as is sometimes supposed, but the common
variety, in which the phenomenon frequently appears. Logs of great
value, having bird's-eyes, have often unsuspectingly been chopped up
for fire wood.

The term "grain" may also mean the "figure" formed by the presence of
pith rays, as in oak, Fig. 32, or beech, or the word "grain" may refer
simply to the uneven deposit of coloring matter as is common in sweet
gum, Fig. 33, black ash, or Circassian walnut.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Figure Formed by Pith Rays in Oak (full

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Sweet Gum, Showing Uneven Deposit of Coloring
Matter (full size.)]

The presence of a limb constitutes a knot and makes great irregularity
in the grain of wood, Fig. 34. In the first place, the fibers on the
upper and lower sides of the limb behave differently, those on the
lower side running uninterruptedly from the stem into the limb,
while on the upper side the fibers bend aside making an imperfect
connection. Consequently to split a knot it is always necessary to
start the split from the lower side. On the other hand it is easier to
split around a knot than thru it. The texture as well as the grain of
wood is modified by the presence of a branch. The wood in and around a
knot is much harder than the main body of the trunk on account of the
crowding together of the elements. Knots are the remnants of branches
left in the trunk. These once had all the parts of the trunk itself,
namely bark, cambium, wood, and pith. Normally, branches grow from the
pith, tho some trees, as Jack pine and redwood, among the conifers,
and most of the broad-leaf trees have the power of putting out at any
time adventitious buds which may develop into branches. When a branch
dies, the annual layer of wood no longer grows upon it, but the
successive layers of wood on the trunk itself close tighter and
tighter around it, until it is broken off. Then, unless it has begun
to decay, it is successively overgrown by annual layers, so that
no sign of it appears until the trunk is cut open. A large trunk
perfectly clean of branches on the outside may have many knots around
its center, remnants of branches which grew there in its youth, as in
Fig. 34, and Fig. 8, p. 18. The general effect of the presence of a
knot is, that the fibers that grow around and over it are bent, and
this, of course, produces crooked grain.

Following are the designations given to different knots by lumbermen:
A _sound_ knot is one which is solid across its face and is as hard as
the wood surrounding it and fixed in position. A _pin_ knot is sound,
but not over 1/4" in diameter. A _standard_ knot is sound, but not
over 1-1/2" in diameter. A _large_ knot is sound, and over 1-1/2"
in diameter. A _spike_ knot is one sawn in a lengthwise position. A
_dead_, or, _loose_ knot is one not firmly held in place by growth or

(4) _Pith._ At the center or axis of the tree is the pith or
_medulla_, Fig. 34. In every bud, that is, at the apex of every stem
and branch, the pith is the growing part; but as the stem lengthens
and becomes overgrown by successive layers of wood the pith loses its
vital function. It does not grow with the plant except at the buds.
It varies in thickness, being very small,--hardly more than 1/16", in
cedar and larch,--and so small in oak as to be hardly discernible;
and what there is of it turns hard and dark. In herbs and shoots it is
relatively large, Fig. 5, p. 15, in a three-year old shoot of elder,
for example, being as wide as the wood. In elder, moreover, it dies
early and pulverizes, leaving the stem hollow. Its function is one of
only temporary value to the plant.

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Section Thru the Trunk of a Seven Year Old
Tree, Showing Relation of Branches to Main Stem. A, B, two branches
which were killed after a few years' growth by shading, and which have
been overgrown by the annual rings of wood; C, a limb which lived four
years, then died and broke off near the stem, leaving the part to the
left of XY a "sound" knot, and the part to the right a "dead" knot,
which unless rotting sets in, would in time be entirely covered by the
growing trunk; D, a branch that has remained alive and has increased
in size like the main stem; P, P, pith of both stem and limb.]



Roth, _Forest Bull._ No. 10, pp. 11-23.
Boulger, pp. 1-39.
Sickles, pp. 11-20.
Pinchot, _Forest Bull._ No. 24, I, pp. 11-24.
Keeler, pp. 514-517.
Curtis, pp. 62-85.
Woodcraft, 15: 3, p. 90.
Bitting, _Wood Craft_, 5: 76, 106, 144, 172, (June-Sept. 1906).
Ward, pp. 1-38.
_Encyc. Brit._, 11th Ed., "Plants," p. 741.
Strasburger, pp. 120-144 and Part II, Sec. II.
Snow, pp. 7-9, 183.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]



There are many properties of wood,--some predominant in one species,
some in another,--that make it suitable for a great variety of uses.
Sometimes it is a combination of properties that gives value to a
wood. Among these properties are hygroscopicity, shrinkage, weight,
strength, cleavability, elasticity, hardness, and toughness.


It is evident that water plays a large part in the economy of the
tree. It occurs in wood in three different ways: In the sap which
fills or partly fills the cavities of the wood cells, in the cell
walls which it saturates, and in the live protoplasm, of which it
constitutes 90 per cent. The younger the wood, the more water it
contains, hence the sap-wood contains much more than the heart-wood,
at times even twice as much.

In fresh sap-wood, 60 per cent. of the water is in the cell
cavities, 35 per cent. in the cell walls, and only 5 per cent. in the
protoplasm. There is so much water in green wood that a sappy pole
will soon sink when set afloat. The reason why there is much less
water in heart-wood is because its cells are dead and inactive, and
hence without sap and without protoplasm. There is only what saturates
the cell walls. Even so, there is considerable water in heart-wood.[2]

The lighter kinds have the most water in the sap-wood, thus sycamore
has more than hickory.

Curiously enough, a tree contains about as much water in winter as
in summer. The water is held there, it is supposed, by capillary
attraction, since the cells are inactive, so that at all times the
water in wood keeps the cell walls distended.


When a tree is cut down, its water at once begins to evaporate. This
process is called "seasoning."[A] In drying, the free water within the
cells keeps the cell walls saturated; but when all the free water has
been removed, the cell walls begin to yield up their moisture. Water
will not flow out of wood unless it is forced out by heat, as when
green wood is put on a fire. Ordinarily it evaporates slowly.

    [Footnote A: See _Handwork in Wood_, Chapter III.]

The water evaporates faster from some kinds of wood than from other
kinds, _e.g._, from white pine than from oak, from small pieces than
from large, and from end grain than from a longitudinal section; and
it also evaporates faster in high than in low temperatures.

Evaporation affects wood in three respects, weight, strength, and
size. The weight is reduced, the strength is increased, and shrinkage
takes place. The reduction in weight and increase in strength,
important as they are, are of less importance than the shrinkage,
which often involves warping and other distortions. The water in wood
affects its size by keeping the cell walls distended.

If all the cells of a piece of wood were the same size, and had
walls the same thickness, and all ran in the same direction, then the
shrinkage would be uniform. But, as we have seen, the structure of
wood is not homogeneous. Some cellular elements are large, some small,
some have thick walls, some thin walls, some run longitudinally and
some (the pith rays) run radially. The effects will be various in
differently shaped pieces of wood but they can easily be accounted for
if one bears in mind these three facts: (1) that the shrinkage is in
the cell wall, and therefore (2) that the thick-walled cells shrink
more than thin-walled cells and (3) that the cells do not shrink much,
if any, lengthwise.

(1) The shrinkage of wood takes place in the walls of the cells that
compose it, that is, the cell walls become thinner, as indicated by
the dotted lines in Fig. 35, which is a cross-section of a single
cell. The diameter of the whole cell becomes less, and the opening, or
lumen, of the cell becomes larger.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. How Cell Walls Shrink.]

(2) Thick-walled cells shrink more than thin-walled cells, that is,
summer cells more than spring cells. This is due to the fact that they
contain more shrinkable substance. The thicker the wall, the more the

Consider the effects of these changes; ordinarily a log when drying
begins to "check" at the end. This is to be explained thus:
Inasmuch as evaporation takes place faster from a cross than from a
longitudinal section, because at the cross-section all the cells are
cut open, it is to be expected that the end of a piece of timber, Fig.
36, A, will shrink first. This would tend to make the end fibers bend
toward the center of the piece as in B, Fig. 36. But the fibers are
stiff and resist this bending with the result that the end splits or
"checks" as in C, Fig. 36. But later, as the rest of the timber dries
out and shrinks, it becomes of equal thickness again and the "checks"
tend to close.

[Illustration: Fig. 36. The Shrinkage and Checking at the End of a

(3) For some reason, which has not been discovered, the cells or
fibers of wood do not shrink in length to any appreciable extent. This
is as true of the cells of pith rays, which run radially in the log,
as of the ordinary cells, which run longitudinally in it.

In addition to "checking" at the end, logs ordinarily show the effect
of shrinkage by splitting open radially, as in Fig. 37. This is to
be explained by two factors, (1) the disposition of the pith (or
medullary) rays, and (2) the arrangement of the wood in annual rings.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. The Shrinkage and Splitting of a Log.]

(1) The cells of the pith rays, as we have seen in Chapter I, run at
right angles to the direction of the mass of wood fibers, and since
they shrink according to the same laws that other cells do, viz., by
the cell wall becoming thinner but not shorter, the strain of their
shrinkage is contrary to that of the main cells. The pith rays, which
consist of a number of cells one above the other, tend to shrink
parallel to the length of the wood, and whatever little longitudinal
shrinkage there is in a board is probably due mostly to the
shrinkage of the pith rays. But because the cells of pith rays do not
appreciably shrink in their length, this fact tends to prevent the
main body of wood from shrinking radially, and the result is that wood
shrinks less radially than tangentially. Tangentially is the only way
left for it to shrink. The pith rays may be compared to the ribs of
a folding fan, which keep the radius of unaltered length while
permitting comparative freedom for circumferential contraction.

(2) It is evident that since summer wood shrinks more than spring
wood, this fact will interfere with the even shrinkage of the log.
Consider first the tangential shrinkage. If a section of a single
annual ring of green wood of the shape A B C D, in Fig. 38, is dried
and the mass shrinks according to the thickness of the cell walls,
it will assume the shape A' B' C' D'. When a number of rings together
shrink, the tangential shrinkage of the summer wood tends to contract
the adjoining rings of spring wood more than they would naturally
shrink of themselves. Since there is more of the summer-wood
substance, the spring-wood must yield, and the log shrinks
circumferentially. The radial shrinkage of the summer-wood, however,
is constantly interrupted by the alternate rows of spring-wood, so
that there would not be so much radial as circumferential shrinkage.
As a matter of fact, the tangential or circumferential shrinkage is
twice as great as the radial shrinkage.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Diagram to Show the Greater Shrinkage of
Summer Cells, A, B, than of Spring Cells, C, D.]

Putting these two factors together, namely, the lengthwise resistance
of the pith rays to the radial shrinkage of the mass of other fibers,
and second, the continuous bands of summer wood, comparatively free to
shrink circumferentially, and the inevitable happens; the log splits.
If the bark is left on and evaporation hindered, the splits will not
open so wide.

There is still another effect of shrinkage. If, immediately after
felling, a log is sawn in two lengthwise, the radial splitting may be
largely avoided, but the flat sides will tend to become convex, as in
Fig. 39. This is explained by the fact that circumferential shrinkage
is greater than radial shrinkage.

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Shrinkage of a Halved Log.]

If a log is "quartered,"[A] the quarters split still less, as the
inevitable shrinkage takes place more easily. The quarters then
tend to assume the shape shown in Fig. 40, C. If a log is sawed into
timber, it checks from the center of the faces toward the pith, Fig.
40, D. Sometimes the whole amount of shrinkage may be collected in one
large split. When a log is slash-sawed, Fig. 40, I, each board tends
to warp so that the concave side is away from the center of the tree.
If one plank includes the pith, Fig. 40, E and H, that board will
become thinner at its edges than at its center, _i.e._, convex on
both faces. Other forms assumed by wood in shrinking are shown in Fig.
40. In the cases A-F the explanation is the same; the circumferential
shrinkage is more than the radial. In J and K the shapes are accounted
for by the fact that wood shrinks very little longitudinally.

    [Footnote A: See _Handwork in Wood_, p. 42.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Shapes Assumed by Wood in Shrinking.]

Warping is uneven shrinkage, one side of the board contracting
more than the other. Whenever a slash board warps under ordinary
conditions, the convex side is the one which was toward the center of
the tree. However, a board may be made to warp artificially the other
way by applying heat to the side of the board toward the center of the
tree, and by keeping the other side moist. The board will warp only
sidewise; lengthwise it remains straight unless the treatment is very
severe. This shows again that water distends the cells laterally but
not longitudinally.

The thinning of the cell walls due to evaporation, is thus seen
to have three results, all included in the term "working," viz.:
_shrinkage_, a diminution in size, _splitting_, due to the inability
of parts to cohere under the strains to which they are subjected, and
_warping_, or uneven shrinkage.

In order to neutralize warping as much as possible in broad board
structures, it is common to joint the board with the annual rings
of each alternate board curving in opposite directions, as shown in
_Handwork in Wood_, Fig. 280, _a_, p. 188.

Under warping is included bowing. Bowing, that is, bending in the form
of a bow, is, so to speak, longitudinal warping. It is largely due to
crookedness or irregularity of grain, and is likely to occur in boards
with large pith rays, as oak and sycamore. But even a straight-grained
piece of wood, left standing on end or subjected to heat on one side
and dampness on the other, will bow, as, for instance a board lying on
the damp ground and in the sun.

[Illustration: Fig. 41. _a_, Star Shakes; _b_, Heart Shakes; _c_, Cup
Shakes or Ring Shakes; _d_, Honeycombing.]

Splitting takes various names, according to its form in the tree.
"Check" is a term used for all sorts of cracks, and more particularly
for a longitudinal crack in timber. "Shakes" are splits of various
forms as: _star shakes_, Fig. 41, _a_, splits which radiate from the
pith along the pith rays and widen outward; _heart shakes_, Fig. 41,
_b_, splits crossing the central rings and widening toward the center;
and _cup_ or _ring shakes_, Fig. 41, _c_, splits between the annual
rings. _Honeycombing_, Fig. 41, _d_, is splitting along the pith rays
and is due largely to case hardening.

These are not all due to shrinkage in drying, but may occur in the
growing tree from various harmful causes. See p. 232.

Wood that has once been dried may again be swelled to nearly if not
fully its original size, by being soaked in water or subjected to wet
steam. This fact is taken advantage of in wetting wooden wedges
to split some kinds of soft stone. The processes of shrinking and
swelling can be repeated indefinitely, and no temperature short of
burning, completely prevents wood from shrinking and swelling.

Rapid drying of wood tends to "case harden" it, _i.e._, to dry and
shrink the outer part before the inside has had a chance to do the
same. This results in checking separately both the outside and the
inside, hence special precautions need to be taken in the seasoning of
wood to prevent this. When wood is once thoroly bent out of shape in
shrinking, it is very difficult to straighten it again.

Woods vary considerably in the amounts of their shrinkage. The
conifers with their regular structure shrink less and shrink more
evenly than the broad-leaved woods.[3] Wood, even after it has been
well seasoned, is subject to frequent changes in volume due to the
varying amount of moisture in the atmosphere. This involves constant
care in handling it and wisdom in its use. These matters are
considered in _Handwork in Wood_, Chapter III, on the Seasoning of


Wood substance itself is heavier than water, as can readily be proved
by immersing a very thin cross-section of pine in water. Since the
cells are cut across, the water readily enters the cavities, and
the wood being heavier than the water, sinks. In fact, it is the air
enclosed in the cell cavities that ordinarily keeps wood afloat, just
as it does a corked empty bottle, altho glass is heavier than water.
A longitudinal shaving of pine will float longer than a cross shaving
for the simple reason that it takes longer for the water to penetrate
the cells, and a good sized white pine log would be years in getting
water-soaked enough to sink. As long as a majority of the cells are
filled with air it would float.

In any given piece of wood, then, the weight is determined by
two factors, the amount of wood substance and the amount of water
contained therein. The amount of wood substance is constant, but the
amount of water contained is variable, and hence the weight varies
accordingly. Moreover, considering the wood substance alone, the
weight of wood substance of different kinds of wood is about the same;
namely, 1.6 times as heavy as water, whether it is oak or pine, ebony
or poplar. The reason why a given bulk of some woods is lighter than
an equal bulk of others, is because there are more thin-walled and
air-filled cells in the light woods. Many hard woods, as lignum vitae,
are so heavy that they will not float at all. This is because the wall
of the wood cells is very thick, and the lumina are small.

In order, then, to find out the comparative weights of different
woods, that is, to see how much wood substance there is in a given
volume of any wood, it is necessary to test absolutely dry specimens.

The weight of wood is indicated either as the weight per cubic foot or
as specific gravity.

It is an interesting fact that different parts of the same tree have
different weights, the wood at the base of the tree weighing more than
that higher up, and the wood midway between the pith and bark weighing
more than either the center or the outside.[4]

The weight of wood has a very important bearing upon its use. A
mallet-head, for example, needs weight in a small volume, but it
must also be tough to resist shocks, and elastic so as to impart its
momentum gradually and not all at once, as an iron head does.

Weight is important, too, in objects of wood that are movable. The
lighter the wood the better, if it is strong enough. That is why
spruce is valuable for ladders; it is both light and strong. Chestnut
would be a valuable wood for furniture if it were not weak, especially
in the spring wood.

The weight of wood is one measure of its strength. Heavy wood is
stronger than light wood of the same kind, for the simple reason that
weight and strength are dependent upon the number and compactness of
the fibers.[5]


Strength is a factor of prime importance in wood. By strength is meant
the ability to resist stresses, either of tension (pulling), or
of compression (pushing), or both together, cross stresses. When a
horizontal timber is subjected to a downward cross stress, the lower
half is under tension, the upper half is under compression and the
line between is called the neutral axis, Fig. 42.

[Illustration: Fig. 42. A Timber Under Cross Stress, Showing Neutral
Axis, and the Lines of Tension and Compression. A knot occurring in
such a timber should be in the upper half, as at A.]

Wood is much stronger than is commonly supposed. A hickory bar will
stand more strain under tension than a wrought iron bar of the same
length and weight, and a block of long-leaf pine a greater compression
endwise than a block of wrought iron of the same height and weight. It
approaches the strength of cast iron under the same conditions.

Strength depends on two factors: the strength of the individual
fibers, and the adhesive power of the fibers to each other. So, when
a piece of wood is pulled apart, some of the fibers break and some are
pulled out from among their neighbors. Under compression, however,
the fibers seem to act quite independently of each other, each bending
over like the strands of a rope when the ends are pushed together. As
a consequence, we find that wood is far stronger under tension than
under compression, varying from two to four times.

Woods do not vary nearly so much under compression as under tension,
the straight-grained conifers, like larch and longleaf pine, being
nearly as strong under compression as the hard woods, like hickory and
elm, which have entangled fibers, whereas the hard woods are nearly
twice as strong as the conifers under tension.

Moisture has more effect on the strength of wood than any other
extrinsic condition. In sound wood under ordinary conditions, it
outweighs all other causes which affect strength. When thoroly
seasoned, wood is two or three times stronger, both under compression
and in bending, than when green or water soaked.[6]

The tension or pulling strength of wood is much affected by the
direction of the grain, a cross-grained piece being only 1/10th to
1/20th as strong as a straight-grained piece. But under compression
there is not much difference; so that if a timber is to be subjected
to cross strain, that is the lower half under tension and the upper
half under compression, a knot or other cross-grained portion should
be in the upper half.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Shearing Strength is Measured by the Adhesion
of the Portion A, B, C, D or to the Wood on both sides of it.]

Strength also includes the ability to resist shear. This is called
"_shearing strength_." It is a measure of the adhesion of one part of
the wood to an adjoining part. Shearing is what takes place when the
portion of wood beyond a mortise near the end of a timber, A B C D,
Fig. 43, is forced out by the tenon. In this case it would be shearing
along the grain, sometimes called detrusion. The resistance of the
portion A B C D, _i.e._, its power of adhesion to the wood adjacent
to it on both sides, is its shearing strength. If the mortised piece
were forced downward until it broke off the tenon at the shoulder,
that would be shearing across the grain. The shearing resistance
either with or across the grain is small compared with tension and
compression. Green wood shears much more easily than dry, because
moisture softens the wood and this reduces the adhesion of the fibers
to each other.[7]


Closely connected with shearing strength is cohesion, a property
usually considered under the name of its opposite, cleavability,
_i.e._, the ease of splitting.

When an ax is stuck into the end of a piece of wood, the wood splits
in advance of the ax edge. See _Handwork in Wood_, Fig. 59, p. 52. The
wood is not cut but pulled across the grain just as truly as if one
edge were held and a weight were attached to the other edge and it
were torn apart by tension. The length of the cleft ahead of the blade
is determined by the elasticity of the wood. The longer the cleft, the
easier to split. Elasticity helps splitting, and shearing strength and
hardness hinder it.

A normal piece of wood splits easily along two surfaces, (1) along any
radial plane, principally because of the presence of the pith rays,
and, in regular grained wood like pine, because the cells are radially
regular; and (2) along the annual rings, because the spring-wood
separates easily from the next ring of summer-wood. Of the two, radial
cleavage is 50 to 100 per cent. easier. Straight-grained wood is
much easier to split than cross-grained wood in which the fibers are
interlaced, and soft wood, provided it is elastic, splits easier than
hard. Woods with sharp contrast between spring and summer wood, like
yellow pine and chestnut, split very easily tangentially.

All these facts are important in relation to the use of nails. For
instance, the reason why yellow pine is hard to nail and bass easy is
because of their difference in cleavability.


Elasticity is the ability of a substance when forced out of
shape,--bent, twisted, compressed or stretched, to regain its former
shape. When the elasticity of wood is spoken of, its ability to spring
back from bending is usually meant. The opposite of elasticity is
brittleness. Hickory is elastic, white pine is brittle.

Stiffness is the ability to resist bending, and hence is the opposite
of pliability or flexibility. A wood may be both stiff and elastic; it
may be even stiff and pliable, as ash, which may be made into splints
for baskets and may also be used for oars. Willow sprouts are flexible
when green, but quite brittle when dry.

Elasticity is of great importance in some uses of wood, as in long
tool handles used in agricultural implements, such as rakes, hoes,
scythes, and in axes, in archery bows, in golf sticks, etc., in all of
which, hickory, our most elastic wood, is used.[8]


Hardness is the ability of wood to resist indentations, and depends
primarily upon the thickness of the cell walls and the smallness
of the cell cavities, or, in general, upon the density of the wood
structure. Summer wood, as we have seen, is much harder than spring
wood, hence it is important in using such wood as yellow pine on
floors to use comb-grain boards, so as to present the softer spring
wood in as narrow surfaces as possible. See _Handwork in Wood_, p. 41,
and Fig. 55. In slash-grain boards, broad surfaces of both spring
and summer wood appear. Maple which is uniformly hard makes the best
floors, even better than oak, parts of which are comparatively soft.

The hardness of wood is of much consequence in gluing pieces together.
Soft woods, like pine, can be glued easily, because the fibers can
be forced close together. As a matter of fact, the joint when dry is
stronger than the rest of the board. In gluing hard woods, however, it
is necessary to scratch the surfaces to be glued in order to insure a
strong joint. It is for the same reason that a joint made with liquid
glue is safe on soft wood when it would be weak on hard wood.[9]


Toughness may be defined as the ability to resist sudden shocks and
blows. This requires a combination of various qualities, strength,
hardness, elasticity and pliability. The tough woods, _par
excellence_, are hickory, rock elm and ash. They can be pounded,
pulled, compressed and sheared. It is because of this quality that
hickory is used for wheel spokes and for handles, elm for hubs, etc.

In the selection of wood for particular purposes, it is sometimes one,
sometimes another, and more often still, a combination of qualities
that makes it fit for use.[10]

It will be remembered that it was knowledge of the special values
of different woods that made "the one horse shay," "The Deacon's

  "So the Deacon inquired of the village folk
  Where he could find the strongest oak,
  That couldn't be split nor bent nor broke,--
  That was for spokes and floor and sills;
  He sent for lancewood to make the thills;
  The cross bars were ash, from the straightest trees,
  The panels of whitewood, that cuts like cheese,
  But lasts like iron for things like these.
  The hubs of logs from the "Settler's Ellum,"--
  Last of its timber,--they couldn't sell 'em.
  Never an ax had seen their chips,
  And the wedges flew from between their lips,
  Their blunt ends frizzled like celery tips;
  Step and prop-iron, bolt and screw,
  Spring, tire, axle and linch pin too,
  Steel of the finest, bright and blue;
  Thorough brace, bison skin, thick and wide;
  Boot, top dasher from tough old hide,
  Found in the pit when the tanner died.
  That was the way to "put her through."
  'There!' said the Deacon, 'naow she'll dew!'"

    [Footnote 1: Hygroscopicity, "the property possessed by
    vegetable tissues of absorbing or discharging moisture and
    expanding or shrinking accordingly."--_Century Dictionary._]

    [Footnote 2: This is shown by the following table, from
    Forestry Bulletin No. 10, p. 31, _Timber_, by Filibert Roth:


                                                Sap-wood or  Heart-wood
                                                outer part.  or interior.

    1. Pines, cedars, spruces, and firs             45-65        16-25
    2. Cypress, extremely variable                  50-65        18-60
    3. Poplar, cottonwood, basswood                 60-65        40-60
    4. Oak, beech, ash, elm, maple, birch, hickory,
         chestnut, walnut, and sycamore             40-50        30-40

    [Footnote 3: The following table from Roth, p. 37, gives the
    approximate shrinkage of a board, or set of boards, 100 inches
    wide, drying in the open air:

    1. All light conifers (soft pine, spruce, cedar, cypress)  3

    2. Heavy conifers (hard pine, tamarack, yew, honey locust,
    box elder, wood of old oaks)                               4

    3. Ash, elm, walnut, poplar, maple, beech, sycamore,
    cherry, black locust                                       5

    4. Basswood, birch, chestnut, horse chestnut, blue beech,
    young locust                                               6

    5. Hickory, young oak, especially red oak           Up to 10

    The figures are the average of radial and tangential

    [Footnote 4: How much different woods vary may be seen by the
    following table, taken from Filibert Roth, _Timber_, Forest
    Service Bulletin No. 10, p. 28:


                                    |       Approximate.
                                    |           |    Weight of
                                    |           +---------+-----------
                                    | Specific  | 1 cubic | 1,000 feet
                                    |  weight.  |  foot.  | of lumber.
                                    |           |  Pounds |  Pounds
(a) Very heavy woods:               |           |         |
     Hickory, oak, persimmon,       |           |         |
       osage, orange, black         |           |         |
       locust, hackberry, blue      |           |         |
       beech, best of elm, and ash  | 0.70-0.80 |  42-48  |  3,700
(b) Heavy woods:                    |           |         |
     Ash, elm, cherry, birch,       |           |         |
       maple, beech, walnut, sour   |           |         |
       gum, coffee tree, honey      |           |         |
       locust, best of southern     |           |         |
       pine, and tamarack           |  .60-.70  |  36-42  |  3,200
(c) Woods of medium weight:         |           |         |
     Southern pine, pitch pine,     |           |         |
       tamarack, Douglas spruce,    |           |         |
       western hemlock, sweet gum,  |           |         |
       soft maple, sycamore, light  |           |         |
       sassafras, mulberry,         |           |         |
       grades of birch and cherry   |  .50-.60  |  30-36  |  2,700
(d) Light woods:                    |           |         |
     Norway and bull pine, red      |           |         |
       cedar, cypress, hemlock,     |           |         |
       the heavier spruce and fir,  |           |         |
       redwood, basswood, chestnut, |           |         |
       butternut, tulip, catalpa,   |           |         |
       buckeye, heavier grades of   |           |         |
       poplar                       |  .40-.50  |  24-30  |  2,200
(e) Very light woods:               |           |         |
     White pine, spruce, fir, white |           |         |
       cedar, poplar                |  .30-.40  |  18-24  |  1,800


    [Footnote 5: For table of weights of different woods see
    Sargent, _Jesup Collection,_ pp. 153-157.]

    [Footnote 6: See Forestry Bulletin No. 70, pp. 11, 12, and
    Forestry Circular No. 108.]

    [Footnote 7: For table of strengths of different woods, see
    Sargent, _Jesup Collection_, pp. 166 ff.]

    [Footnote 8: For table of elasticity of different woods, see
    Sargent, _Jesup Collection_, pp. 163 ff.]

    [Footnote 9: For table of hardnesses of different woods, see
    Sargent, _Jesup Collection_, pp. 173 ff.]

    [Footnote 10: For detailed characteristics of different woods
    see Chapter III.]



Moisture and Shrinkage.

  Roth, _For. Bull._, No. 10, pp. 25-37.
  Busbridge, _Sci. Am. Sup._ No. 1500. Oct. 1, '04.

Weight, Strength, Cleavability, Elasticity and Toughness.

  Roth, _For. Bull._, 10, p. 37-50.
  Boulger, pp. 89-108, 129-140.
  Roth, _First Book_, pp. 229-233.
  Sargent, _Jesup Collection_, pp. 153-176.

Forest Circulars Nos. 108 and 139.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]




The photographs of tangential and radial sections are life size.
The microphotographs are of cross-sections and are enlarged 37-1/2

Following the precedent of U. S. Forest Bulletin No. 17, Sudworth's
_Check List of the Forest Trees of the United States_, the complicated
rules for the capitalization of the names of species are abandoned and
they are uniformly not capitalized.

On pages 192-195 will be found lists of the woods described, arranged
in the order of their comparative weight, strength, elasticity, and
hardness. These lists are based upon the figures in Sargent's _The
Jesup Collection_.

In the appendix, p. 289, will be found a key for distinguishing the
various kinds of wood.

Information as to current wholesale prices in the principal markets of
the country can be had from the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, The Forest
Service, Washington, D. C., _Record of Wholesale Prices of Lumber,
List A._ These lists are published periodically. No attempt is made in
this book to give prices because: (1) only lists of wholesale prices
are available; (2) the cuts and grades differ considerably, especially
in soft woods (conifers); (3) prices are constantly varying; (4) the
prices differ much in different localities.



    Named for Lord Weymouth, who cultivated it in England.

_Pinus strobus_ Linnaeus.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _strobus_ refers to the
    cone, or strobile, from a Greek word, _strobus_, meaning

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); now best in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-120', even 200'; diameter,
2'-4'; branches in whorls, cleans poorly; bark, dark gray, divided by
deep longitudinal fissures into broad ridges; leaves in clusters of 5,
3"-5" long; cone drooping, 4"-10" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, heart-wood, very light brown, almost cream
color, sap-wood, nearly white; non-porous; rings, fine but distinct;
grain, straight; pith rays, very faint; resin ducts, small,

[Illustration: Leaf.]

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, very light (59th in this list); 27 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.3854; strength, medium (55th in this list);
elasticity, medium (47th in this list); soft (57th in this list);
shrinkage 3 per cent.; warps very little; durability, moderate; works
easily in every way; splits easily but nails well.

COMMON USES: Doors, window sashes and other carpentry, pattern-making,
cabinet-work, matches.

REMARKS: This best of American woods is now rapidly becoming scarce
and higher in price. Its uses are due to its uniform grain, on account
of which it is easily worked and stands well. Known in the English
market as yellow pine.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Pinus monticola_ Douglas.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _monticola_ means

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows at great elevations, 7,000'-10,000'. Best in
northern Idaho.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-160'; diameter, 4' to even
8'; branches, slender, spreading; bark, gray and brown, divided into
squarish plates by deep longitudinal and cross fissures; leaves, 5 in
sheath; cones, 12"×18" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown or red, sap-wood nearly white;
non-porous; rings, summer wood, thin and not conspicuous; grain,
straight; rays, numerous, obscure; resin ducts, numerous and
conspicuous tho not large.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, very light (58th in this list); 24 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.3908; strength, medium (56th in this list);
elastic (35th in this list); soft (63d in this list); shrinkage, 3 per
cent.; warps little; moderately durable; easy to work; splits readily
but nails well.

COMMON USES: Lumber for construction and interior finish.

REMARKS: Closely resembles _Pinus Strobus_ in appearance and quality
of wood.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Sugar refers to sweetish exudation.

_Pinus lambertiana_ Douglas.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _lambertiana_, from the
    botanist, A. B. Lambert, whose chief work was on Pines.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows on high elevations (5,000'), best in
northern California.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-300'; diameter, 15"-20";
branches, in remote regular whorls; bark, rich purple or brown, thick,
deep irregular fissures making long, flaky ridges; leaves, stout,
rigid, in bundles of five; cones, 10"-18" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pinkish brown, sap-wood, cream white;
non-porous; rings, distinct; grain, straight; rays, numerous, obscure;
resin ducts, numerous, large and conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, very light (61st in this list); 22 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.3684; strength, weak (59th in this list);
elasticity, medium (56th in this list); soft (53d in this list);
shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps little; durable; easily worked; splits
little, nails well.

COMMON USES: Carpentry, interior finish, doors, blinds, shingles,
barrels, etc.

REMARKS: Exudes a sweet substance from heart-wood. A magnificent and
important lumber tree on Pacific coast.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Red refers to color of bark.

_Pinus resinosa_ Solander.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _resinosa_ refers to very
    resinous wood.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows best in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-90'; diameter, 2'-3'; tall,
straight; branches in whorls, low; bark, thin, scaly, purplish and
reddish-brown; longitudinal furrows, broad flat ridges; leaves, in
twos in long sheaths; cones, 2".

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color of wood, pale red, sap-wood, wide, whitish;
non-porous; rings summer wood broad, dark; grain, straight; rays,
numerous, pronounced, thin; very resinous, but ducts small and few.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light, (43d in this list); 31 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr. 0.4854; strong (39th in this list); elastic (16th in
this list); soft (48th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps
moderately; not durable; easy to work; splits readily, nails well.

COMMON USES: Piles, electric wire poles, masts, flooring.

REMARKS: Often sold with and as white pine. Resembles Scotch pine
(_Pinus sylvestris_). Bark used to some extent for tanning. Grows in
open groves.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Bull refers to great size of trunk.

_Pinus ponderosa_ Lawson.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _ponderosa_ refers to great
    size of trunk.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Rocky Mountains.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100' to 300'; diameter, 6' to
even 12'; branches, low, short trunk; bark, thick, dark brown, deep,
meandering furrows, large, irregular plates, scaly; leaves, in twos or
threes, 5" to 11" long; cones 3" to 6" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light red, sap-wood, thick, nearly white,
and very distinct; non-porous; rings, conspicuous; grain, straight;
rays, numerous, obscure; very resinous but ducts small.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (44th in this list); 25-30 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4715; strength, medium (45th in this list);
elasticity, medium (41st in this list); hardness, medium (42nd in this
list); shrinkage, 4 per cent.; warps ...........; not durable; hard to
work, brittle; splits easily in nailing.

COMMON USES: Lumber, railway ties, mine timbers.

REMARKS: Forms extensive open forests.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Pinus palustris_ Miller.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _palustris_ means swampy,
    inappropriate here.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Louisiana and East Texas.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-100'; diameter, 2'-3';
trunk, straight, clean, branches high; bark, light brown, large, thin,
irregular papery scales; leaves 8"-12" long, 3 in a sheath; cones
6"-10" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Heart-wood, spring wood light yellow, summer
wood, red brown; sap wood, lighter; non-porous; rings, very plain and
strongly marked; grain, straight; rays, numerous, conspicuous; very
resinous, but resin ducts few and not large.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (18th in this list); 38 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr. 0.6999; very strong (7th in this list); very elastic (4th
in this list); hardness, medium (33d in this list); shrinkage, 4 per
cent.; warps very little; quite durable; works hard, tough; splits
badly in nailing.

COMMON USES: Joists, beams, bridge and building trusses, interior
finish, ship building, and general construction work.

REMARKS: Almost exclusively the source of turpentine, tar, pitch and
resin in the United States. Known in the English market as pitch pine.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Pinus echinata_ Miller.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _echinata_ refers to spiny

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Mississippi basin.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Straight, tall trunk, sometimes 100'
high; branches high; diameter 2'-4'; bark, pale grayish red-brown,
fissures, running helter-skelter, making large irregular plates,
covered with small scales; leaves in twos, 3" long; cones small.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, heartwood, summer wood, red, spring-wood,
yellow; sap-wood, lighter; non-porous; annual rings very plain, sharp
contrast between spring and summer wood; grain, straight, coarse;
rays, numerous, conspicuous; very resinous, ducts large and many.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (32nd in this list); 32 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.6104; very strong (18th in this list); very
elastic (8th in this list); soft (38th in this list); shrinkage, 4
per cent.; warps little; durable; troublesome to work; likely to split
along annual rings in nailing.

COMMON USES: Heavy construction, railroad ties, house trim, ship
building, cars, docks, bridges.

REMARKS: Wood hardly distinguishable from long-leaf pine. Often forms
pure forests. The most desirable yellow pine, much less resinous and
more easily worked than others.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    _Loblolly_ may refer to the inferiority of the wood; old field
    refers to habit of spontaneous growth on old fields.

_Pinus taeda_ Linnaeus.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _taeda_, the classical
    Latin name for pitch-pine, which was used for torches.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows best in eastern Virginia, and eastern North

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-150'; diameter, often 4'-5';
branches high; bark, purplish brown, shallow, meandering fissures,
broad, flat, scaly ridges; leaves, 3 in sheath, 4"-7" long; cones
3"-5" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, heart-wood orange, sap-wood lighter;
non-porous; rings very plain, sharp contrast between spring wood and
summer wood; grain, straight, coarse; rays conspicuous; very resinous,
but ducts few and small.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (39th in this list); 33 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.5441; strong (26th in this list); elastic (17th
in this list); medium hard (43d in this list); shrinkage, 4 per cent.;
warps little; not durable; difficult to work, brittle; splits along
rings in nailing.

COMMON USES: Heavy construction, beams, ship building, docks, bridges,
flooring, house trim.

REMARKS: Resembles Long-leaf Pine, and often sold as such. Rarely
makes pure forests.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Pinus caribaea_ Morelet. _Pinus heterophylla_ (Ell.) Sudworth.

    _Pinus_, the classical Latin name; _caribaea_ refers to the
    Caribbean Islands; _heterophylla_ refers to two kinds of

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows best in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, sometimes 110', straight, tall,
branching high; diameter 1'-3'; bark, dark red and brown, shallow
irregular fissures; leaves, 2 or 3 in a sheath, 8"-12" long; cones,
4"-5" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dark orange, sapwood lighter; non-porous;
annual rings, plain, sharp contrast between spring wood and summer
wood; grain, straight; rays numerous, rather prominent; very resinous,
but ducts few.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (7th in this list); 39 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr. 0.7504; very strong (6th in this list); very elastic (3d in this
list); hard (24th in this list); shrinkage, 4 per cent.; warps little;
quite durable; troublesome to work; splits along annual rings in

COMMON USES: Heavy construction, ship building, railroad ties, docks,
bridges, house trim.

REMARKS: Similar to and often sold as Long-leaf Pine.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Larix laricina_ (Du Roi) Koch. _Larix americana_ Michaux.

    _Larix_, the classical Latin name.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); prefers swamps, "Tamarack swamps."

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-60' and even 90', diameter
1'-3'; intolerant; tall, slender trunk; bark, cinnamon brown, no
ridges, breaking into flakes; leaves, deciduous, pea-green, in tufts;
cone, 1/2"-3/4", bright brown.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sapwood hardly
distinguishable; non-porous; rings, summer wood, thin but distinct,
dark colored; grain, straight, coarse; rays, numerous, hardly
distinguishable; very resinous, but ducts few and small.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (29th in this list); 39 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.6236; strong (24th in this list); elastic (11th in
this list); medium hard (40th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.;
warps .........; very durable; easy to work; splits easily.

COMMON USES: Ship building, electric wire poles, and railroad ties;
used for boat ribs because of its naturally crooked knees; slenderness
prevents common use as lumber.

REMARKS: Tree desolate looking in winter.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Larix occidentalis_ Nuttall.

    _Larix_, the classical Latin name; _occidentalis_ means

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in northern Montana and Idaho, on high

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 90'-130', even 250'; diameter
6'-8'; tall, slender, naked trunk, with branches high; bark, cinnamon
red or purplish, often 12" thick, breaking into irregular plates,
often 2' long; leaves, in tufts; deciduous; cones small.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light red, thin, whitish, sap-wood;
non-porous; grain, straight, fine; rays numerous, thin; very resinous,
but ducts small and obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, heavy (11th in this list); 46 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr. 0.7407; very strong (3d in this list); very elastic (1st
in this list); medium hard (35th in this list); shrinkage, 4 per
cent.; warps ..........; very durable; rather hard to work, takes fine
polish; splits with difficulty.

COMMON USES: Posts, railroad ties, fencing, cabinet material and fuel.

REMARKS: A valuable tree in the Northwest.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Picea canadensis_ (Miller) B. S. P. _Picea alba_ Link.

    _Picea_, the classical Latin name; white and _alba_ refers to
    the pale color of the leaves, especially when young, and to
    the whitish bark.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map).

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-100' and even 150'; diameter,
1'-2' and even 4'; long, thick branches; bark, light grayish brown,
separating into thin plate-like scales, rather smooth appearance,
resin from cuts forms white gum; leaves, set thickly on all sides
of branch, finer than red spruce, odor disagreeable; cones, 2" long,
cylindrical, slender, fall during second summer.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light yellow, sap-wood, hardly
distinguishable; non-porous; rings, wide, summer wood thin, not
conspicuous; grain, straight; rays, numerous, prominent; resin ducts,
few and minute.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (51st in this list); 25 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.4051; medium strong (42d in this list); elastic
(29th in this list); soft (58th in this list); shrinks 3 per cent.;
warps ........; fairly durable; easy to work, satiny surface; splits

COMMON USES: Lumber and paper pulp; (not distinguished from Red and
Black Spruce in market).

REMARKS: Wood very resonant, hence used for sounding boards. The most
important lumber tree of the sub-arctic forest of British Columbia.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Picea rubens_ Sargent.

    _Picea_, the classical Latin name for the pitch pine; _rubens_
    refers to reddish bark, and perhaps to the reddish streaks in
    the wood.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); stunted in north.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-80', even 100'; diameter,
2'-3', grows slowly; trunk, straight, columnar, branches in whorls,
cleans well in forest; bark, reddish brown with thin irregular
scales; leaves, needle-shaped, four-sided, pointing everywhere; cones,
1-1/4"-2" long, pendent, fall during the first winter.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dull white with occasional reddish streaks;
sap-wood not distinct; non-porous; rings, summer rings thin, but
clearly defined; grain, straight; rays, faintly discernible; resin
ducts, few and small.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (47th in this list); 28 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.4584; medium strong (41st in this list); elastic (21st
in this list); soft (54th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps
little; not durable; easy to plane, tolerably easy to saw, hard to
chisel neatly; splits easily in nailing.

COMMON USES: Sounding boards, construction, paper pulp, ladders.

REMARKS: The exudations from this species are used as chewing gum.
Bark of twigs is used in the domestic manufacture of beer. The use of
the wood for sounding boards is due to its resonance, and for ladders
to its strength and lightness.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]

    [Footnote A: Not distinguished in the Jesup collection from
    _Picea nigra_.]



_Picea mariana_ (Miller) B. S. P. _Picea nigra_ Link.

    _Picea_, the classical Latin name for the pitch pine;
    _mariana_ named for Queen Mary; black and _nigra_ refer to
    dark foliage.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Canada.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-80' and even 100'; diameter,
6"-1' even 2'; branches, whorled, pendulous with upward curve; bark,
gray, loosely attached flakes; leaves, pale blue-green, spirally set,
pointing in all directions; cones, small, ovate-oblong, persistent for
many years.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pale, reddish, sap-wood, thin, white,
not very distinct; non-porous; rings, summer wood, small thin cells;
grain, straight; rays, few, conspicuous; resin ducts, few and minute.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (47th in this list); 33 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.4584; medium strong (41st in this list); elastic (21st
in this list); soft (54th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps
little; not durable; easy to work; splits easily in nailing.

COMMON USES: Sounding boards, lumber in Manitoba.

REMARKS: Not distinguished from Red Spruce commercially.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]

    [Footnote A: Not distinguished in Jesup Collection from _Picea



_Picea engelmanni_ (Parry) Engelmann.

    Named for George Engelmann, an American botanist.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows at very high elevations, forming forest at
8,000'-10,000'; best in British Columbia.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 75'-100', even 150'; diameter,
2'-3', even 5'; branches whorled, spreading; bark, deeply furrowed,
red-brown to purplish brown, thin, large, loose scales; leaves,
blue-green, point in all directions; cones, 2" long, oblong,

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pale yellow or reddish, sap-wood hardly
distinguishable; non-porous; rings, very fine, summer wood, narrow,
not conspicuous; grain, straight, close; rays, numerous, conspicuous;
resin ducts, small and few.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, very light (57th in this list); 22 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.3449; weak (61st in this list); elasticity
medium (55th in this list); soft (56th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per
cent.; warps .........; durable; easy to work; splits easily.


REMARKS: A valuable lumber tree in the Rocky Mountains and the
Cascades. Bark used for tanning.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters].

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Picea sitchensis_ (Bongard) Carrière.

    _Picea_, the classical Latin name for the pitch pine.
    Tideland refers to its habit of growth along the sea coast;
    _sitchensis_, named for Sitka.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on Pacific slope of British Columbia and
northwestern United States.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-150' and even 200' high;
diameter 3'-4' and even 15'; trunk base enlarged; bark, thick,
red-brown, scaly; leaves, standing out in all directions; cones,
2-1/2"-4" long, pendent, cylindrical, oval.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood whitish; non-porous;
rings, wide, summer wood, thin but very distinct, spring wood, not
plain; grain, straight, coarse; rays, numerous, rather prominent;
resin ducts, few and small.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (52d in this list); 27 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr. 0.4287; medium strong (53d in this list); elastic (31st
in this list); soft (59th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.;
warps ...........; durable; easy to work; splits easily.

COMMON USES: Interior finish, boat building and cooperage.

REMARKS: Largest of the spruces. Common in the coast belt forest.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Tsuga canadensis_ (Linnaeus) Carrière.

    _Tsuga_, the Japanese name latinized; _canadensis_ named for

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in North Carolina and Tennessee.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-70', sometimes 100';
diameter, 2'-3'; branches, persistent, making trunk not very clean;
bark, red-gray, narrow, rounded ridges, deeply and irregularly
fissured; leaves, spirally arranged, but appear two-ranked; cones,
3/4" long, graceful.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish brown, sap-wood just
distinguishable; non-porous; rings, rather broad, conspicuous; grain,
crooked; rays, numerous, thin; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (53d in this list); 26 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr. 0.4239; medium strong (44th in this list); elasticity,
medium (40th in this list); soft (51st in this list); shrinkage, 3
per cent.; warps and checks badly; not durable; difficult to work,
splintery, brittle; splits easily, holds nails well.

COMMON USES: Coarse, cheap lumber, as joists, rafters, plank walks and

REMARKS: The poorest lumber. Bark chief source of tanning material.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Tsuga heterophylla_ (Rafinesque) Sargent.

    _Tsuga_, the Japanese name latinized; _heterophylla_ refers to
    two kinds of leaves.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on coast of Washington and Oregon.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 150'-200'; diameter, 6'-10';
branches, pendent, slender; bark, reddish gray, deep, longitudinal
fissures between, broad, oblique, flat ridges; leaves, dark green,
two-ranked; cones, small, like Eastern Hemlock.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pale brown, sap-wood thin, whitish;
non-porous; rings, narrow, summer wood thin but distinct; grain,
straight, close; rays, numerous, prominent; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight, strong, elastic, hard;[A]
shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps ..........; durable, more so than other
American hemlocks; easier to work than eastern variety; splits badly.

COMMON USES: Lumber for construction.

REMARKS: Coming to be recognized as a valuable lumber tree.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]

    [Footnote A: Not in Jesup Collection.]



_Pseudotsuga mucronata_ (Rafinesque) Sudworth.

_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_ (Lambert) Britton.

    _Pseudotsuga_ means false hemlock; _mucronata_ refers to
    abrupt short point of leaf; _taxifolia_ means yew leaf.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Puget Sound region.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 175'-300'; diameter, 3'-5',
sometimes 10'; branches high, leaving clean trunk; bark, rough, gray,
great broad-rounded ridges, often appears braided; leaves, radiating
from stem; cones, 2"-4" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light red to yellow, sap-wood white;
non-porous; rings, dark colored, conspicuous, very pronounced summer
wood; grain, straight, coarse; rays, numerous, obscure; resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (41st in this list); 32 lbs. per
cu. ft, sp. gr. 0.5157; strong (21st in this list); very elastic (10th
in this list); medium hard (45th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.
or 4 per cent.;, warps ...............; durable; difficult to work,
flinty, splits readily.

COMMON USES: Heavy construction, masts, flag poles, piles, railway

REMARKS: One of the greatest and the most valuable of the western
timber trees. Forms extensive forests.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Abies grandis_ Lindley.

    _Abies_, the classical Latin name.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Puget Sound region.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, in interior 100'; diameter, 2';
on coast, 250'-300' high; diameter, 2'-5'; long pendulous branches;
bark, quite gray or gray brown, shallow fissures, flat ridges; leaves,
shiny green above, silvery below, 1-1/2"-2" long, roughly two-ranked;
cones, cylindrical, 2"-4" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood lighter; non-porous;
rings, summer cells broader than in other American species, dark
colored, conspicuous; grain straight, coarse; rays, numerous, obscure;

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very light (62d in this list); 22 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.3545; weak (62d in this list); elastic (34th in this
list); soft (65th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps little;
not durable; works easily; splits readily.

COMMON USES: Lumber and packing cases.

REMARKS: No resin ducts. Not a very valuable wood.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Sequoia washingtoniana_ (Winslow) Sudworth. _Sequoia gigantea_,

    _Sequoia_ latinized from Sequoiah, a Cherokee Indian;
    _washingtoniana_, in honor of George Washington.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); in ten groves in southern California, at high

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 275', sometimes 320'; diameter,
20', sometimes 35'; trunk, swollen and often buttressed at base,
ridged, often clear for 150'; thick horizontal branches; bark, 1'-2'
thick, in great ridges, separates into loose, fibrous, cinnamon red
scales, almost non-combustible; leaves, very small, growing close to
stem; cones, 2"-3" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, red, turning dark on exposure, sap-wood
thin, whitish; non-porous; rings, very plain; grain straight, coarse;
rays, numerous, thin; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light (65th in this list); 18 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.2882; weak (63d in this list); brittle (62d in this
list); very soft (61st in this list); shrinks little; warps little;
remarkably durable; easy to work, splits readily, takes nails well.

COMMON USES: Construction, lumber, coffins, shingles.

REMARKS: Dimensions and age are unequalled; Big Tree and Redwood
survivors of a prehistoric genus, once widely distributed. Some
specimens 3600 years old.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Sequoia sempervirens_ (Lambert) Endlicher.

    _Sequoia_, latinized from Sequoiah, a Cherokee Indian;
    _sempervirens_ means ever living.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in southern Oregon and northern California,
near coast.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 200'-340'; diameter, 10'-15',
rarely 25'; clean trunk, much buttressed and swollen at base, somewhat
fluted, branches very high; bark, very thick, 6"-12", rounded ridges,
dark scales falling reveal inner red bark; leaves, small, two-ranked;
cones, small, 1" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, red, turning to brown on seasoning,
sap-wood whitish; non-porous; rings, distinct; grain, straight; rays,
numerous, very obscure; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (55th in this list); 26 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4208; weak (58th in this list); brittle (60th in
this list); soft (55th in this list); shrinks little; warps little;
very durable; easily worked; splits readily; takes nails well.

COMMON USES: Shingles, construction, timber, fence posts, coffins,
railway ties, water pipes, curly specimens used in cabinet work.

REMARKS: Low branches rare. Burns with difficulty. Chief construction
wood of Pacific Coast. Use determined largely by durability.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Bald refers to leaflessness of tree in winter.

_Taxodium distichum_ (Linnaeus) L. C. Richard.

    _Taxodium_ means yew-like; _distichum_ refers to the
    two-ranked leaves.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in South Atlantic and Gulf States.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 75', occasionally 150'; diameter,
4'-5'; roots project upward into peculiar knees; trunk strongly
buttressed at base, straight, majestic and tapering; bark, light red,
shallow fissures, flat plates, peeling into fibrous strips; leaves,
long, thin, two-ranked, deciduous; cones, nearly globular, 1" in

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, heart-wood, reddish brown, sap-wood,
nearly white; non-porous; rings, fine and well marked; grain,
nearly straight, burl is beautifully figured; rays, very obscure;

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (48th in this list); 29 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4543; medium strong (48th in this list); elastic
(28th in this list); soft (52d in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.;
warps but little, likely to check; very durable; easy to work, in
splitting, crumbles or breaks; nails well.

COMMON USES: Shingles, posts, interior finish, cooperage, railroad
ties, boats, and various construction work, especially conservatories.

REMARKS: Forms forests in swamps; subject to a fungous disease, making
wood "peggy" or "pecky"; use largely determined by its durability. In
New Orleans 90,000 fresh water cisterns are said to be made of it.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Thuja plicata_ D. Don. _Thuya gigantea_ Nuttall.

    _Thuya_ or _Thuja_, the classical Greek name; _plicata_ refers
    to the folded leaves; _gigantea_ refers to the gigantic size
    of the tree.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Puget Sound region.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-200'; diameter, 2'-10', even
15'; trunk has immense buttresses, often 16' in diameter, then tapers;
branches, horizontal, short, making a dense conical tree; bark, bright
cinnamon red, shallow fissures, broad ridges, peeling into long,
narrow, stringy scales; leaves, very small, overlapping in 4 ranks,
on older twigs, sharper and more remote; cones, _1/2"_ long, small,

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dull brown or red, thin sap-wood nearly
white; non-porous; rings, summer bands thin, dark colored, distinct;
grain, straight, rather coarse; rays, numerous, obscure; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very light in weight (60th in this list); medium
strong (40th in this list); elastic (26th in this list); soft (60th
in this list); shrinkage, 3 per cent.; warps and checks little; very
durable; easy to work; splits easily.

COMMON USES: Interior finish, cabinet making, cooperage, shingles,
electric wire poles.

REMARKS: Wood used by Indians for war canoes, totems and planks for
lodges; inner bark used for ropes and textiles.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Chamaecyparis thyoides_ (Linnaeus) B. S. P.

    _Chamaecyparis_ means low cypress; _thyoides_ means like
    _thuya_ (_Aborvitae_).

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Virginia and North Carolina.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-80'; diameter, 2'-4';
branches, low, often forming impenetrable thickets; bark, light
reddish brown, many fine longitudinal fissures, often spirally twisted
around stem; leaves, scale-like, four-ranked; cones, globular, 1/4"

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pink to brown, sap-wood lighter;
non-porous; rings, sharp and distinct; grain, straight; rays,
numerous, obscure; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very light in weight (64th in this list); 23 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.3322); weak (64th in this list); brittle (63d
in this list; soft (62d in this list); shrinkage 3 per cent.; warps
little; extremely durable; easily worked; splits easily; nails well.

COMMON USES: Boats, shingles, posts, railway ties, cooperage.

REMARKS: Grows chiefly in swamps, often in dense pure forests. Uses
determined largely by its durability.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Chamaecyparis lawsoniana_ (A. Murray) Parlatore.

    _Chamaecyparis_ means low cypress.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

[Illustration: Leaf.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on coast of Oregon.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-200'; diameter, 4'-8', even
12'; base of trunk abruptly enlarged; bark, very thick, even 10" at
base of trunk, inner and outer layers distinct, very deep fissures,
rounded ridges; leaves, very small, 1/16" long, four-ranked,
overlapped, flat sprays; cones, small, 1/4", globular.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pinkish brown, sap-wood hardly
distinguishable; non-porous; rings, summer wood thin, not conspicuous;
grain, straight, close; rays, numerous, very obscure; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (46th in this list); 28 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4621; strong (25th in this list); elastic (12th
in this list); soft (50th in this list); shrinkage 3 or 4 per cent.;
warps little; durable; easily worked; splits easily.

COMMON USES: Matches (almost exclusively on the Pacific Coast),
interior finish, ship and boat building.

REMARKS: Resin, a powerful diuretic and insecticide.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Juniperus virginiana_ Linnaeus.

    _Juniperus_, the classical Latin name; _virginiana_, in honor
    of the State of Virginia.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Gulf States in swamps, especially on the
west coast of Florida.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 40'-50', even 80'; diameter,
1'-2'; trunk, ridged, sometimes expanded; branches, low; bark, light
brown, loose, ragged, separating into long, narrow, persistent,
stringy scales; leaves, opposite, of two kinds, awl-shaped, and
scale-shaped; fruit, dark blue berry.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dull red, sap-wood white; non-porous;
rings, easily distinguished; grain, straight; rays, numerous, very
obscure; non-resinous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very light in weight (42d in this list); 30 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4826; medium strong (43d in this list); brittle
(61st in this list); medium hard (34th in this list); shrinkage, 3 per
cent.; warps little; very durable; easy to work; splits readily, takes
nails well.

COMMON USES: Pencils, chests, cigar boxes, pails, interior finish.

REMARKS: Fragrant. Pencils are made almost exclusively of this wood,
because it is light, strong, stiff, straight and fine-grained and
easily whittled; supply being rapidly depleted.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Salix nigra_ Marshall.

    _Salix_, from two Celtic words meaning near-water; _nigra_
    refers to the dark bark.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); grows largest in southern Illinois, Indiana and
Texas, on moist banks.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 30'-40', sometimes 120';
diameter, 1'-2', rarely 3'-4'; stout, upright, spreading branches,
from common base; bark, rough and dark brown or black, often tinged
with yellow or brown; leaves, lanceolate, often scythe-shaped, serrate
edges; fruit, a capsule containing small, hairy seeds.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light reddish brown, sap-wood, thin,
whitish; diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, close and weak; rays,

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (51st in this list); 27.77 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4456; weak (65th in this list); very brittle
(64th in this list); soft (46th in this list); shrinks considerably;
warps and checks badly; soft, weak, indents without breaking; splits

COMMON USES: Lap-boards, baskets, water wheels, fuel and charcoal for

REMARKS: Its characteristic of indenting without breaking has given it
use as lining for carts and as cricket bats. Of the many willows, the
most tree like in proportion in eastern North America. Bark contains
salycylic acid.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Butternut, because the nuts are rich in oil.

_Juglans cinerea_ Linnaeus.

    _Juglans_ means Jove's nut; _cinerea_ refers to ash-colored

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT:: (See map); best in Ohio basin.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 75'-100'; diameter, 2'-4';
branches low, broad spreading deep roots; bark, grayish brown,
deep fissures broad ridges; leaves 15"-30" long, compound 11 to 17
leaflets, hairy and rough; fruit, oblong, pointed, edible, oily nut.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, darkening with exposure,
sap-wood whitish; diffuse, porous; rings, not prominent; grain, fairly
straight, coarse, takes high polish; rays, distinct, thin, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (56th in this list); 25 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4086; weak (57th in this list); elasticity, medium
(52d in this list); soft (47th in this list); shrinkage ....... per
cent.; warps little; durable; easy to work; splits easily.

COMMON USES: Cabinet work, inside trim.

REMARKS: Green husks of fruit give yellow dye. Sugar made from sap.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Juglans nigra_ Linnaeus.

    _Juglans_ means Jove's nut; _nigra_ refers to the dark wood.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in western North Carolina and Tennessee.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 90'-120', even 150'; diameter, 3'
to even 8'; clean of branches for 50' to 60'; bark, brownish, almost
black, deep fissures, and broad, rounded ridges; leaves, 1'-2' long,
compound pinnate, 15 to 23 leaflets, fall early; fruit, nut, with
adherent husk, and edible kernel.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, chocolate brown, sap-wood much lighter;
diffuse-porous; rings, marked by slightly larger pores; grain,
straight; rays, numerous, thin, not conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (31st in this list); 38 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.6115; strong (32d in this list); elastic (23d in
this list); hard (21st in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps
little; very durable; easy to work; splits with some difficulty, takes
and holds nails well.

COMMON USES: Gun stocks (since 17th century), veneers, cabinet making.

REMARKS: Formerly much used for furniture, now scarce. Plentiful
in California. Most valuable wood of North American forests. Wood
superior to European variety.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Mockernut refers to disappointing character of nuts.

_Hicoria alba_ (Linnaeus) Britton. _Carya tomentosa_ Nuttall.

    _Hicoria_, shortened and latinized from _Pawcohicora_, the
    Indian name for the liquor obtained from the kernels; _alba_
    refers to the white wood, _carya_, the Greek name for walnut;
    _tomentosa_ refers to hairy under surface of leaf.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley, Missouri and Arkansas.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 75', rarely 100'; diameter,
2'-3'; rises high in forest; bark, dark gray, shallow, irregular
interrupted fissures, rough but not shaggy in old trees; leaves,
8"-12" long, compound, 7-9 leaflets, fragrant when crushed; fruit,
spherical nut, thick shell, edible kernel.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dark brown, sap-wood nearly white;
ring-porous; rings, marked by few large regularly distributed open
ducts; grain, usually straight, close; rays, numerous, thin, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very heavy (3d in this list); 53 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.8218; very strong (11th in this list); very elastic (14th
in this list); very hard (3d in this list); shrinkage, 10 per cent.;
warps ..........; not durable; very hard to work; splits with great
difficulty, almost impossible to nail.

COMMON USES: Wheels, runners, tool and axe handles, agricultural

REMARKS: Confounded commercially with shellbark hickory.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Hicoria ovata_ (Millar) Britton. _Carya alba_ Nuttall.

    _Hickory_ is shortened and latinized from _Pawcohicora_, the
    Indian name for the liquor obtained from the kernels; _ovata_
    refers to oval nut; _carya_, the Greek name for walnut.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-90' and even 120'; diameter,
2'-3', even 4'; straight, columnar trunk; bark, dark gray, separates
into long, hard, plate-like strips, which cling to tree by middle, on
young trees very smooth and close; leaves, 8"-20" long, compound 5
or (7) leaflets; nuts, globular, husk, four-valved, split easily,
thin-shelled, edible.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish brown, sap-wood whitish;
ring-porous; rings, clearly marked; grain, straight; rays, numerous,

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very Heavy (1st in this list); 51 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.8372; very strong (5th in this list); very elastic
(7th in this list); very hard (5th in this list); shrinkage, 10 per
cent.; warps badly; not very durable under exposure; hard to work,
very tough; hard to split, very difficult to nail.

COMMON USES: Agricultural implements, handles, wheel spokes.

REMARKS: American hickory is famous both for buggies and ax handles,
because it is flexible and very tough in resistance to blows.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



Nuts eaten by swine.

_Hicoria glabra_ (Miller) Britton. _Carya porcina._

    _Hicoria_ is shortened and latinized from _Pawcohicora_, the
    Indian name for the liquor obtained from the kernel; _glabra_
    refers to smooth bark; _Carya_ the Greek name for walnut;
    _porcina_ means pertaining to hogs.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-100'; diameter 2'-4'; trunk
often forked; bark, light gray, shallow fissures, rather smooth,
rarely exfoliates; leaves, 8"-12" long, compound 7 leaflets, sharply
serrate; fruit, a thick-shelled nut, bitter kernel.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light or dark brown, the thick sap-wood
lighter, often nearly white; ring-porous; rings marked by many large
open ducts; grain, straight; rays, small and insignificant.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very heavy (4th in this list); 56 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.8217; very strong (15th in this list); elastic (27th
in this list); very hard (2d in this list); shrinkage, 10 per cent.;
warps ..........; hard to work; splits with difficulty, hard to drive
nails into.

COMMON USES: Agricultural implements, wheels, runners, tool handles.

REMARKS: Wood not distinguished from shellbark hickory in commerce.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



Blue refers to color of bark; the trunk resembles beech; horn refers
to horny texture of wood.

_Carpinus caroliniana_ Walter.

    _Carpinus_, classical Latin name; _caroliniana_, named from
    the state.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on western slopes of Southern Allegheny
Mountains and in southern Arkansas and Texas.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, a small tree, 30'-50' high;
diameter, 6"-2'; short, fluted, sinewy trunk; bark, smooth, bluish
gray; leaves, falcate, doubly serrate; fruit, small oval nut, enclosed
in leaf-like bract.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood thick, whitish;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, close; rays, numerous, broad.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (13th in this list); 45 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr. 0.7286; very strong (9th in this list); very stiff (15th in
this list); hard (14th in this list); shrinkage, 6 per cent.; warps
and checks badly; not durable; hard to work; splits with great

COMMON USES: Levers, tool handles.

REMARKS: No other wood so good for levers, because of stiffness.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    All names refer to bark.

_Betula papyrifera_ Marshall.

    _Betula_, the classical Latin name; _papyrifera_ refers to
    paper bearing bark.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best west of Rocky Mountains.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-80'; diameter, 2'-3'; stem
rarely quite straight; bark, smooth, white, exterior marked with
lenticels, peeling freely horizontally into thin papery layers,
showing brown or orange beneath, contains oil which burns hotly,
formerly used by Indians for canoes, very remarkable (see Keeler,
page 304); leaves, heart-shaped, irregularly serrate; fruit, pendulous

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, brown or reddish, sap-wood white;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, fairly straight; rays,
numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (33d in this list); 37 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr. 0.5955; very strong (14th in this list); very elastic
(2d in this list); medium hard (39th in this list); shrinkage, 6
per cent.; warps, .........; not durable, except bark; easy to work;
splits with difficulty, nails well, tough.

COMMON USES: Spools, shoe lasts and pegs, turnery, bark for canoes.

REMARKS: Forms forests. Sap yields syrup. Bark yields starch. Valuable
to woodsmen in many ways.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Red refers to color of bark; river, prefers river bottoms.

_Betula nigra_ Linnaeus.

    _Betula_, the classical Latin name.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Florida, Louisiana and Texas.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 30'-80', and even higher;
diameter, 1', even 5'; trunk, often divided low; bark, dark brown,
marked by horizontal lenticels, peels into paper plates, curling back;
leaves, doubly serrate, often almost lobed; fruit, pubescent, erect,

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, thick sap-wood, whitish;
diffuse-porous; rings, not plain; grain, close, rather crooked; rays,
numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (36th in this list); 35 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.5762; strong (22d in this list); very elastic
(19th in this list); medium hard (37th in this list); shrinkage, 6 per
cent.; warps, .......; not durable when exposed; hard to work, tough;
splits with difficulty, nails well.

COMMON USES: Shoe lasts, yokes, furniture.

REMARKS: Prefers moist land.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Cherry, because bark resembles that of cherry tree; sweet,
    refers to the taste of the spicy bark.

_Betula lenta_ Linnaeus.

    _Betula_, the classical Latin name; _lenta_, meaning
    tenacious, sticky, may refer to the gum which exudes from the

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Tennessee Mountains.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-80'; diameter, 2'-5'; trunk,
rarely straight; bark, dark reddish brown, on old trunks deeply
furrowed and broken into thick, irregular plates, marked with
horizontal lenticels; resembles cherry; spicy, aromatic; leaves,
ovate, oblong, 2"-6" long, irregularly serrate; fruit, erect

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dark, reddish brown; diffuse-porous; rings,
obscure; grain, close, satiny, polishes well, often stained to imitate
mahogany; rays, numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (6th in this list); 47 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr., 0.7617; very strong (4th in this list); very elastic (6th in
this list); hard (11th in this list); shrinkage, 6 per cent.; warps,
little; not durable if exposed; rather hard to work; splits hard,

COMMON USES: Dowel pins, wooden ware, boats and ships.

REMARKS: The birches are not usually distinguished from one another in
the market.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



Yellow and gray, both refer to the color of the bark.

_Betula lutea_ F. A. Michaux.

    _Betula_, the classical Latin name; _lutea_ refers to the
    yellow color of the bark.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in northern New York and New England.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-100'; diameter, 3'-4';
branches, low; bark, silvery, yellow, gray, peeling horizontally into
thin, papery, persistent layers, but on very old trunks, there are
rough, irregular, plate-like scales; leaves, ovate, sharply, doubly
serrate; fruit, erect, 1" strobiles.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light reddish brown, sap-wood white;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, close, fairly straight; rays,
numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (21st in this list); 40 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.6553; very strong (2nd in this list); very elastic (2d in
this list); medium hard (22d in this list); shrinkage, 6 per cent.;
warps .........; not durable; rather hard to work, polishes well;
splits with difficulty, holds nails well.

COMMON USES: Furniture, spools, button molds, shoe lasts, shoe pegs,
pill boxes, yokes.

REMARKS: The birches are not usually distinguished from one another in
the market.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Fagus grandifolia_ Ehrhart. _Fagus americana_ Sweet. _Fagus
ferruginea_ Aiton. _Fagus atropunicea_ (Marshall) Sudworth.

    _Fagus_ (Greek _phago_ means to eat), refers to edible nut;
    _ferruginea_, refers to the iron rust color of the leaves in
    the fall; _atropunicea_, meaning dark red or purple, may refer
    to the color of the leaves of the copper beech.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in southern Alleghany Mountains and lower
Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-80' and even 120'; diameter,
3'-4'; in forest, trunk tall, slender, sinewy; bark, smooth, ashy
gray; leaves, feather-veined, wedge-shaped, serrate; leaf buds, long,
pointed; fruit, 2 small triangular nuts, enclosed in burr, seeds about
once in 3 years.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish, variable, sap-wood white;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, straight; rays, broad, very

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (20th in this list); 42 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.6883; very strong (10th in this list); elastic (13th in
this list); hard (22d in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps and
checks during seasoning; not durable; hard to work, takes fine polish;
splits with difficulty, hard to nail.

COMMON USES: Plane stocks, shoe lasts, tool handles, chairs.

REMARKS: Often forms pure forests. Uses due to its hardness.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters].

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Castanea dentata_ (Marshall) Borkhausen.

    _Castanea_, the classical Greek and Latin name; _dentata_,
    refers to toothed leaf.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in western North Carolina, and eastern

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 75'-100'; diameter, 3'-4', and
even 12'; branches, low; bark, thick, shallow, irregular, fissures,
broad, grayish brown ridges; leaves, lanceolate, coarsely serrate,
midribs and veins prominent; fruit, nuts, thin-shelled, sweet,
enclosed in prickly burrs.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish brown, sap-wood lighter;
ring-porous; rings, plain, pores large; grain, straight; rays,
numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, light (50th in this list); 28 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.4504; medium strong (46th in this list); elasticity,
medium (46th in this list); medium hard (44th in this list);
shrinkage, 6 per cent.; warps badly; very durable, especially in
contact with soil, fairly easy to plane, chisel and saw; splits

COMMON USES: Railway ties, fence posts, interior finish.

REMARKS: Grows rapidly, and lives to great age. Wood contains much
tannic acid. Uses depend largely upon its durability. Lately whole
regions depleted by fungous pest.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Quercus rubra_ Linnaeus.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; _rubra_, refers to red
    color of wood.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Massachusetts and north of the Ohio river.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-100', even 150'; diameter,
3'-6'; a tall, handsome tree, branches rather low; bark, brownish
gray, broad, thin, rounded ridges, rather smooth; leaves, 7 to
9 triangular pointed lobes, with rounded sinuses; acorns,
characteristically large, in flat shallow cups.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish brown, sap-wood darker;
ring-porous; rings, marked by several rows of very large open ducts;
grain, crooked, coarse; rays, few, but broad, conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (23d in this list); 45 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr., 0.6540; strong (21st in this list); elastic (18th in this list);
hard (26th in this list); shrinkage 6 to 10 per cent.; warps and
checks badly; moderately durable; easier to work than white oak;
splits readily, nails badly.

COMMON USES: Cooperage, interior finish, furniture.

REMARKS: Grows rapidly. An inferior substitute for white oak. Bark
used in tanning.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Black refers to color of outer bark; yellow bark, refers to
    the inner bark, which is orange yellow.

_Quercus velutina_ Lamarck. _Quercus tinctoria_ Michaux.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; _velutina_, refers to the
    velvety surface of the young leaf; _tinctoria_, refers to dye
    obtained from inner bark.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-80', even 150'; diameter
3'-4'; branches, low; bark, dark gray to black, deep fissures, broad,
rounded, firm ridges, inner bark, yellow, yielding dye; leaves, large,
lustrous, leathery, of varied forms; acorns, small; kernel, yellow,

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish brown, sap-wood lighter;
ring-porous; rings, marked by several rows of very large open ducts;
grain, crooked; rays, thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (17th in this list); 45 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.7045; very strong (17th in this list); elastic (25th in
this list); hard (18th in this list); shrinkage, 4 per cent. or more;
warps and checks in drying; durable; rather hard to work; splits
readily, nails badly.

COMMON USES: Furniture, interior trim, cooperage, construction.

REMARKS: Foliage handsome in fall; persists thru winter.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Cow refers to the fact that its acorns are eaten by cattle.

_Quercus michauxii_ Nuttall.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; _michauxii_, named for
    the botanist Michaux.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Arkansas and Louisiana, especially in
river bottoms.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-100'; diameter 3', even 7';
trunk, often clean and straight for 40' or 50'; bark, conspicuous,
light gray, rough with loose ashy gray, scaly ridges; leaves, obovate,
regularly scalloped; acorns, edible for cattle.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood light buff;
ring-porous; rings, marked by few rather large, open ducts; grain,
likely to be crooked; rays, broad, conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very heavy (5th in this list); 46 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.8039; very strong (12th in this list); elastic (33d in
this list); hard (10th in this list); shrinkage, 4 per cent. or more;
warps unless carefully seasoned; durable; hard and tough to work;
splits easily, bad to nail.

COMMON USES: Construction, agricultural implements, wheel stock,

REMARKS: The best white oak of the south. Not distinguished from white
oak in the market.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Quercus macrocarpa_ Michaux.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; _macrocarpa_, refers to
    the large acorn.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in southern Indiana, Illinois and Kansas.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-130', even 170'; diameter,
5'-7'; branches, high; corky wings on young branches; bark, gray
brown, deeply furrowed; deep opposite sinuses on large leaves; acorns,
half enclosed in mossy-fringed cup.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, rich brown, sap-wood, thin, lighter;
ring-porous; rings, marked by 1 to 3 rows of small open ducts; grain,
crooked; rays, broad, and conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (9th in this list); 46 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr., 0.7453; very strong (16th in this list); elastic (37th in this
list); hard (9th in this list); shrinkage, 4 per cent. or more;
warps, ..........; hard, and tough to work; splits easily, resists

COMMON USES: Ship building, cabinet work, railway ties, cooperage.

REMARKS: Good for prairie planting. One of the most valuable woods of
North America. Not distinguished from White Oak in commerce.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]


WHITE OAK (Western).

_Quercus garryana_ Douglas.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; _garryana_, named for

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in western Washington and Oregon.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-70', even 100'; diameter,
2'-3'; branches, spreading; bark, light brown, shallow fissures, broad
ridges; leaves, coarsely pinnatified, lobed; fruit, large acorns.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood whitish; ring-porous;
rings, marked by 1 to 3 rows of open ducts; grain, close, crooked;
rays, varying greatly in width, often conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (10th in this list); 46 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.7449; strong (28th in this list); elasticity medium (54th
in this list); hard (8th in this list); shrinkage, 5 or 6 per cent.;
warps, unless carefully seasoned; durable; hard to work, very tough;
splits badly in nailing.

COMMON USES: Ship building, vehicles, furniture, interior finish.

REMARKS: Best of Pacific oaks. Shrubby at high elevations.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Quercus stellata_ Wangenheim. _Quercus minor_ (Marsh) Sargent.
_Quercus obtusiloba_ Michaux.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; _stellata_, refers to the
    stellate hairs on upper side of leaf; _minor_, refers to size
    of tree, which is often shrubby; _obtusiloba_, refers to the
    blunt lobes of leaves.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Mississippi basin.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-75', even 100'; but often a
shrub; diameter, 2'-3'; branches, spreading into dense round-topped
head; bark, red or brown, deep, vertical, almost continuous, fissures
and broad ridges, looks corrugated; leaves, in large tufts at ends of
branchlets; acorns, small, sessile.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, brown, thick, sap-wood, lighter;
ring-porous; rings, 1 to 3 rows of not large open ducts; grain,
crooked; rays, numerous, conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Very heavy (2d in this list); 50 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.8367; strong (29th in this list); medium elastic (50th in
this list); very hard (4th in this list); shrinkage, 4 per cent. or
more; warps and checks badly in seasoning; durable; hard to work;
splits readily, bad to nail.

COMMON USES: Cooperage, railway ties, fencing, construction.

REMARKS: Wood often undistinguished from white oak.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Quercus alba_ Linnaeus.

    _Quercus_, the classical Latin name; white and _alba_, refer
    to white bark.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on western slopes of Southern Alleghany
Mountains, and in lower Ohio river valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-100'; diameter, 3'-5'; trunk,
in forest, tall, in open, short; bark, easily distinguished, light
gray with shallow fissures, scaly; leaves, rounded lobes, and sinuses;
acorns, 3/4" to 1" long, ripen first year.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood paler; ring-porous;
rings, plainly defined by pores; grain crooked; rays, broad, very
conspicuous and irregular.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (8th in this list); 50 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr., 0.7470; strong (23d in this list); elastic (32d in this list);
hard (13th in this list); shrinkage, from 4 to 10 per cent.; warps and
checks considerably, unless carefully seasoned; very durable, hard to
work; splits somewhat hard, very difficult to nail.

COMMON USES: Interior finish, furniture, construction, ship building,
farm implements, cabinet making.

REMARKS: The most important of American oaks.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Cork refers to corky ridges on branches.

_Ulmus thomasi_ Sargent. _Ulmus racemosa_ Thomas.

    _Ulmus_, the classical Latin name; _racemosa_, refers to
    racemes of flowers.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Ontario and southern Michigan.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-100'; diameter, 2'-3', trunk
often clear for 60'; bark, gray tinged with red, corky, irregular
projections, give shaggy appearance; leaves, obovate, doubly serrate,
3"-4" long; fruit, pubescent, samaras.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown or red; sap-wood yellowish;
ring-porous; rings, marked with one or two rows of small open ducts;
grain, interlaced; rays, numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (15th in this list); 45 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.7263; very strong (13th in this list); elastic (22d in
this list); hard (15th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps, ........; very durable; hard to work; splits and nails with

COMMON USES: Hubs, agricultural implements, sills, bridge timbers.

REMARKS: The best of the elm woods.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Water, because it flourishes on river banks.

_Ulmus americana_ Linnaeus.

    _Ulmus_, the classical Latin name.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best northward on river bottoms.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 90', even 120'; diameter, 3'-8';
trunk, usually divides at 30'-40' from ground into upright branches,
making triangular outline; bark, ashy gray, deep longitudinal
fissures, broad ridges; leaves, 4"-6" long, oblique obovate, doubly
serrate, smooth one way; fruit, small, roundish, flat, smooth,

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood yellowish;
ring-porous; rings, marked by several rows of large open ducts; grain,
interlaced; rays, numerous, thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (24th in this list); 34 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr., 0.6506; strong (33d in this list); elasticity, medium (59th in
this list); medium hard (28th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps .........; not durable; hard to work, tough, will not polish;
splits with difficulty.

COMMON USES: Cooperage, wheel stock, flooring.

REMARKS: Favorite ornamental tree, but shade light, and leaves fall

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Cucumber, refers to the shape of the fruit.

_Magnolia acuminata_ Linnaeus.

    _Magnolia_, named for Pierre Magnol, a French botanist;
    _acuminata_, refers to pointed fruit.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best at the base of mountains in North Carolina
and South Carolina and Tennessee.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-90'; diameter, 3'-4'; in
forest, clear trunk for 2/3 of height (40' or 50'); bark, dark brown,
thick, furrowed; leaves, large, smooth; flowers, large greenish
yellow; fruit, dark red "cones" formed of two seeded follicles.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, yellow brown, thick sapwood, lighter;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, very straight, close, satiny;
rays, numerous thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light (45th in this list); .... lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.4690; medium strong (49th in this list); elastic (38th in
this list); medium hard (41st in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps .........; very durable; easy to work; splits easily, takes
nails well.

COMMON USES: Pump logs, cheap furniture, shelving.

REMARKS: Wood similar to yellow poplar, and often sold with it.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Poplar, inappropriate, inasmuch as the tree does not belong to
    poplar family. White, refers inappropriately to the color of
    the wood, which is greenish yellow.

_Liriodendron tulipifera_ Linnaeus.

    _Liriodendron_, means lily-tree; _tulipifera_ means

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley and southern Appalachian

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-90'; even 200'; diameter,
6'-8', even 12'; tall, magnificent trunk, unsurpassed in grandeur by
any eastern American tree; bark, brown, aromatic, evenly furrowed
so as to make clean, neat-looking trunk; leaves, 4 lobed, apex,
peculiarly truncated, clean cut; flowers, tulip-like; fruit, cone,
consisting of many scales.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light greenish or yellow brown, sap-wood,
creamy white; diffuse-porous; rings, close but distinct; grain,
straight; rays, numerous and plain.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light (54th in this list); 26 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.4230; medium strong (51st in this list); elastic (39th in
this list); soft (49th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps
little; durable; easy to work; brittle and does not split readily,
nails very well.

COMMON USES: Construction work, furniture, interiors, boats, carriage
bodies, wooden pumps.

REMARKS: Being substituted largely for white pine.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]


    SWEET GUM. Gum, refers to exudations.

_Liquidambar styraciflua_ Linnaeus.

    _Liquidambar_, means liquid gum; _styraciflua_, means fluid
    resin (storax).

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in the lower Mississippi valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-140'; diameter, 3'-5'; trunk,
tall, straight; bark, light brown tinged with red, deeply fissured;
branchlets often having corky wings; leaves, star-shaped, five
pointed; conspicuously purple and crimson in autumn; fruit,
multi-capsular, spherical, persistent heads.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light red brown, sap-wood almost white;
diffuse-porous; rings, fine and difficult to distinguish; grain,
straight, close, polishes well; rays, numerous, very obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (34th in this list); 37 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.5909; medium strong (52d in this list); elasticity
medium (44th in this list); medium hard (36th in this list);
shrinkage, 6 per cent.; warps and twists badly in seasoning; not
durable when exposed; easy to work; crumbles in splitting; nails

COMMON USES: Building construction, cabinet-work, veneering, street
pavement, barrel staves and heads.

REMARKS: Largely used in veneers, because when solid it warps and
twists badly. Exudations used in medicine to some extent.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Sycamore, from two Greek words meaning fig and mulberry;
    buttonwood and button-ball, refer to fruit balls.

_Platanus occidentalis_ Linnaeus.

    _Platanus_, refers to the broad leaves; _occidentalis_,
    western, to distinguish it from European species.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in valley of lower Ohio and Mississippi.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-100', and even 170';
diameter, 6'-12'; trunk, commonly divides into 2 or 3 large branches,
limbs spreading, often dividing angularly; bark, flakes off in great
irregular masses, leaving mottled surface, greenish gray and brown,
this peculiarity due to its rigid texture; leaves, palmately 3 to
5 lobed, 4"-9" long, petiole enlarged, enclosing buds; fruit, large
rough balls, persistent through winter.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, reddish brown, sap-wood lighter;
diffuse-porous; rings, marked by broad bands of small ducts; grain,
cross, close; rays, numerous, large, conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (38th in this list); 35 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.5678; medium strong (54th in this list);
elasticity, medium (43d in this list); medium hard (30th in this list);
shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps little; very durable, once used for
mummy coffins; hard to work; splits very hard.

COMMON USES: Tobacco boxes, yokes, furniture, butcher blocks.

REMARKS: Trunks often very large and hollow.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Padus serotina_ (Ehrhart) Agardh. _Prunus serotina_ Ehrhart.

    _Padus_, the old Greek name; _prunus_, the classical Latin
    name; _serotina_, because it blossoms late (June).

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on southern Allegheny mountains.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 40'-50', even 100'; diameter,
2'-4'; straight, columnar trunk, often free from branches for 70';
bark, blackish and rough, fissured in all directions, broken into
small, irregular, scaly plates, with raised edges; leaves, oblong to
lanceolate, deep, shiny green; fruit, black drupe, 1/2".

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown or red, sap-wood yellow;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, straight, close, fine, takes
fine polish; rays, numerous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (35th in this list); 36 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.5822; strong (35th in this list); elasticity
medium (45th in this list); hard (16th in this list); shrinkage, 5
per cent.; warps, little; durability .........; easily worked; splits
easily, must be nailed with care.

COMMON USES: Cabinet-work, costly interior trim.

REMARKS: Grows rapidly.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Yellow, from color of sap-wood.

_Robinia pseudacacia_ Linnaeus.

    _Robinia_, in honor of Jean Robin, of France; _pseudacacia_,
    means false acacia.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best on western Allegheny mountains in West

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-80'; diameter, 3'-4'; bark,
strikingly deeply furrowed, dark brown; prickles on small branches,
grows fast, forms thickets, on account of underground shoots; leaves,
8"-14" long, pinnately compound; 7 to 9 leaflets, close at night and
in rainy weather; fruit, pod 3"-4" long.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, brown, sap-wood thin, yellowish;
ring-porous; rings, clearly marked by 2 or 3 rows of large open ducts;
grain, crooked, compact.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (12th in this list); 45 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.7333; very strong (1st in this list); elastic (9th in this
list); very hard (6th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps
badly, very durable; hard to work, tough; splits in nailing.

COMMON USES: Shipbuilding, construction, "tree-nails" or pins, wagon

REMARKS: Widely planted and cultivated east and west. Likely to be
infested with borers.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Swietenia mahagoni_ Jacquin.

    _Swietenia_, in honor of Dr. Gerard Van Swieten of Austria;
    _mahagoni_, a South American word.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); only on Florida Keys in the United States.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 40'-50'; diameter, 2' or more,
foreign trees larger; immense buttresses at base of trunk; bark,
thick, dark red-brown, having surface of broad, thick scales;
leaves, 4"-6" long, compound, 4 pairs of leaflets; fruit, 4"-5" long,
containing seeds.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, red-brown, sap-wood, thin, yellow;
diffuse-porous; rings, inconspicuous; grain, crooked; rays, fine and
scattered, but plain.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (14th in this list); 45 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.7282; very strong (20th in this list); elastic (24th in
this list); very hard (1st in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps very little; very durable; genuine mahogany, hard to work;
especially if grain is cross; somewhat brittle, and comparatively easy
to split, nails with difficulty; polishes and takes glue well.

COMMON USES: Chiefly for cabinet-making, furniture, interior finishes
and veneers.

REMARKS: Mahogany, now in great demand in the American market for
fine furniture and interior trim comes from the West Indies, Central
America and West Africa. The so-called Spanish mahogany, the most
highly prized variety, came originally from the south of Hayti. The
Honduras Mahogany was often called baywood. Botanically the varieties
are not carefully distinguished; in the lumber yard the lumber is
known by its sources. The Cuba wood can be partly distinguished by the
white chalk-like specks in the pores and is cold to the touch, while
the Honduras wood can be recognized by the black specks or lines in
the grain. Both the Honduras and West India woods have a softer feel
than the African wood, when rubbed with the thumb. The Cuba and St.
Domingo wood are preferred to the Honduras, and still more to the
African, but even experts have difficulty in distinguishing the

Spanish cedar, or furniture cedar (_Cedrela odorata_) belongs to
the same family as mahogany and is often sold for it. It is softer,
lighter, and easier to work.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Acer macrophyllum_ Pursh.

    _Acer_, the classical Latin name; _macrophyllum_, refers to
    the large leaves.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in southern Oregon.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-100'; diameter, 3'-5'; stout,
often pendulous branches, making a handsome tree; bark, reddish brown,
deeply furrowed, square scales; leaves, very large, 8"-12" and long
petioles, deep, narrow sinuses; fruit, hairy samaras.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, rich brown and red, sap-wood thick,
nearly white; diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, close, fibres
interlaced, sometimes figured, polishes well; rays, numerous and thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (26th in this list); 30 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr. 0.4909; medium strong (47th in this list); elasticity
medium (57th in this list); medium hard (31st in this list);
shrinkage, 4 per cent.; warps ..........; not durable; rather hard to
work; splits with difficulty.

COMMON USES: Tool and ax handles, furniture, interior finish.

REMARKS: A valuable wood on the Pacific coast.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Silver, refers to white color of underside of leaf.

_Acer saccharinum_ Linnaeus. _Acer dasycarpum_ Ehrhart.

    _Acer_, the classical Latin name; _saccharinum_, refers to
    sweetish juice; _dasycarpum_, refers to the wooliness of the
    fruit when young.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-90', even 120'; diameter,
3'-5'; form suggests elm; bark, reddish brown, furrowed, surface
separating into large, loose scales; leaves, palmately 5 lobed, with
narrow, acute sinuses, silvery white beneath, turn only yellow in
autumn; fruit, divergent, winged samaras.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, brown and reddish, sap-wood, cream;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, twisted, wavy, fine, polishes
well; rays, thin, numerous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (40th in this list); 32 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.5269; very strong (19th in this list); very
elastic (20th in this list); hard (25th in this list); shrinkage, 5
per cent.; warps, ............; not durable under exposure; easily
worked; splits in nailing.

COMMON USES: Flooring, furniture, turnery, wooden ware.

REMARKS: Grows rapidly. Curly varieties found. Sap produces some

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Acer rubrum_ Linnaeus.

    _Acer_, the classical Latin name; _rubrum_, refers to red
    flowers and autumn leaves.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-120'; diameter, 2'-4';
branches, low; bark, dark gray, shaggy, divided by long ridges;
leaves, palmately 5 lobed, acute sinuses; fruit, double samaras,
forming characteristic maple key.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light reddish brown, sap-wood, lighter;
diffuse-porous; rings, obscure; grain, crooked; rays, numerous,

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (30th in this list); 38 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.6178; strong (36th in this list); elastic (36th
in this list); hard (27th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps .......; not durable; fairly hard to work; splits with
difficulty, splits badly in nailing.

COMMON USES: Flooring, turning, wooden ware.

REMARKS: Grows rapidly. Has red flowers, red keys, red leaf stems, and
leaves scarlet or crimson in autumn.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Acer saccharum_ Marshall.

    _Acer_, the classical Latin name; _saccharum_, refers to sweet

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in regions of Great Lakes.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 100'-120'; diameter, 1-1/2'-3',
even 4'; often trees in forest are without branches for 60'-70' from
ground, in the open, large impressive tree; bark, gray brown, thick,
deep, longitudinal fissures, hard and rough; leaves, opposite, 3 to 5
lobed, scarlet and yellow in autumn; fruit, double, slightly divergent

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown tinged with red; diffuse-porous
rings, close but distinct; grain, crooked, fine, close, polishes well;
rays, fine but conspicuous.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (19th in this list); 43 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.6912; very strong (8th in this list); very elastic (5th
in this list); very hard (7th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps badly; not durable when exposed; hard to work; splits badly in

COMMON USES: School and other furniture, car construction, carving,
wooden type, tool handles, shoe lasts, piano actions, ships' keels.

REMARKS: Tree very tolerant. The uses of this wood are chiefly due
to its hardness. Bird's-Eye Maple and Curly Maple are accidental
varieties. Pure maple sugar is made chiefly from this species. Its
ashes yield large quantities of potash.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Bass, refers to bast or inner bark.

_Tilia americana_ Linnaeus.

    _Tilia_, the classical Latin name.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in bottom lands of lower Ohio River.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-70', even 130'; diameter,
2'-4'; trunk, erect, pillar-like, branches spreading, making round
heads; bark, light brown, furrowed, scaly surface, inner bark fibrous
and tough, used for matting; leaves, oblique, heart-shaped, side
nearest branch larger; fruit clustered on long pendulous stem,
attached to vein of narrow bract.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, very light brown, approaching cream color,
sap-wood, hardly distinguishable; diffuse-porous; rings, fine and
close but clear; grain, straight; rays, numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Light in weight (49th in this list); 28 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.4525; weak (60th in this list); elasticity, medium
(49th in this list); soft (64th in this list); shrinkage, 6 per
cent.; warps comparatively little; quite durable; very easily worked;
somewhat tough to split, nails well.

COMMON USES: Woodenware, carriage bodies, etc., picture molding, paper
pulp, etc.

REMARKS: May be propagated by grafting as well as by seed. Is subject
to attack by many insects. Wood used for carriage bodies because
flexible and easily nailed.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Tupelo, the Indian name.

_Nyssa sylvatica_ Marshal.

    _Nyssa_, from Nysa, the realm of moist vegetation and the home
    of _Dio-nysus_ (Bacchus) (the tree grows in low wet lands);
    _sylvatica_, refers to its habit of forest growth.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in Southern Appalachian mountains.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 40'-50', even 100'; diameter,
1'6"-3'6", even 5'; variable in form; bark, brown, deeply fissured
and scaly; leaves, in sprays, short, petioled, brilliant scarlet in
autumn; fruit, bluish black, sour, fleshy drupe.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, pale yellow, sap-wood, white, hardly
distinguishable; diffuse-porous; rings, not plain; grain fine, twisted
and interwoven; rays, numerous, thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Medium heavy (25th in this list); 39 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.6356; strong (34th in this list); elasticity, medium
(51st in this list); hard (20th in this list); shrinkage, 5 or 6 per
cent.; warps and checks badly; not durable if exposed; hard to work;
splits hard, tough.

COMMON USES: Wagon hubs, handles, yokes, wooden shoe soles, docks and
wharves, rollers in glass factories.

REMARKS: The best grades closely resemble yellow poplar.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Hoop, refers to its use for barrel hoops.

_Fraxinus nigra_ Marshall. _Fraxinus sambucifolia._

    _Fraxinus_, from a Greek word (_phraxis_) meaning split,
    refers to the cleavability of the wood; _sambucifolia_, refers
    to the fact that the leaves are in odor like those of Elder

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in moist places.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 80'-90'; diameter, 1'-1-1/2';
slenderest of the forest trees, upright branches; bark, gray tinged
with red, irregular plates, with thin scales; leaves, 10"-16" long,
compound, 7 to 11 leaflets, in autumn rusty brown; fruit, single
samaras in panicles.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, dark brown, sap-wood light; ring-porous;
rings, well defined; grain, straight, burls often form highly prized
veneers; rays, numerous and thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Medium heavy (27th in this list); 39 lbs. per cu.
ft.; sp. gr., 0.6318; strong (38th in this list); elasticity, medium
(12th in this list); hard (23d in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps, but not very much; not durable when exposed; hard to work;
separates easily in layers, hence used for splints.

COMMON USES: Interior finish, cabinet work, fencing, barrel hoops.

REMARKS: The flexibility of the wood largely determines its uses.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



_Fraxinus oregona_ Nuttall.

    _Fraxinus_, from a Greek word (_phraxis_) meaning split,
    refers to the cleavability of the wood; _oregona_, named for
    the State of Oregon.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in southern Oregon.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 50'-80'; diameter, 1'-1-1/2',
even 4'; branches, stout, erect; bark, grayish brown, deep interrupted
fissures, broad, flat ridges, exfoliates; leaves, 5"-14" long;
pinnately compound, 5 to 7 leaflets; fruit, single samaras in

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, brown, sap-wood thick, lighter;
ring-porous; rings, plainly marked by large, open, scattered pores;
grain, coarse, straight; rays, numerous, thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (37th in this list); 35 lbs.
per cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.5731; medium strong (50th in this list);
elasticity, medium (48th in this list); medium hard (29th in this
list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps,............; not durable; hard
to work, tough; splits with difficulty.

COMMON USES: Furniture, vehicles, cooperage.

REMARKS: A valuable timber tree of the Pacific coast.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Blue, refers to blue dye obtained from inner bark.

_Fraxinus quadrangulata_ Michaux.

    _Fraxinus_, from a Greek word (_phraxis_) meaning split,
    refers to the cleavability of the wood; _quadrangulata_,
    refers to four-angled branchlets.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in lower Wabash valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 60'-70', even 120'; diameter,
1'-2'; tall, slender, four-angled, branchlets; bark, light gray,
irregularly divided into large plate-like scales, inside bark, bluish,
yielding dye; leaves, 8"-12" long, compound pinnate, 5 to 9 leaflets;
fruit, winged samaras in panicles.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light yellow, streaked with brown, sap-wood
lighter; ring-porous; rings, clearly marked by 1 to 3 rows of large,
open ducts; grain, straight; rays, numerous, obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (16th in this list); 44 lbs. per cu. ft.;
sp. gr., 0.7184; strong (37th in this list); elasticity, medium (58th
in this list); hard (12th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.;
warps, ............; most durable of the ashes; hard to work; splits
readily, bad for nailing.

COMMON USES: Carriage building, tool handles.

REMARKS: Blue ash pitchfork handles are famous.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    Red, from color of inner bark.

_Fraxinus pennsylvanica_ Marshall. _Fraxinus pubescens_ Lambert.

    _Fraxinus_, from a Greek word (_phraxis_) meaning split,
    refers to the cleavability of the wood; _pennsylvanica_, in
    honor of the State of Pennsylvania; _pubescens_, refers to
    down on new leaves and twigs.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best east of Alleghany mountains.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 40'-60'; diameter, 12"-18";
small, slim, upright branches; bark, brown or ashy, great, shallow,
longitudinal furrows; leaves, 10"-12" long, pinnately compound, 7 to 9
leaflets, covered with down; fruit, single samara.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light brown, sap-wood lighter and
yellowish; ring porous; rings, marked by pores; grain, straight,
coarse; rays, numerous, thin.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Weight, medium (28th in this list); 39 lbs. per
cu. ft.; sp. gr., 0.6251; strong (30th in this list); elasticity,
medium (53d in this list); hard (17th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per
cent.; warps little; not durable; hard to work; splits in nailing.

COMMON USES: Agricultural implements, oars, handles, boats.

REMARKS: Often sold with and as the superior white ash.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]



    White, refers to whitish color of wood.

_Fraxinus americana_ Linnaeus.

    _Fraxinus_, from a Greek word (_phraxis_) meaning split,
    refers to the cleavability of the wood.

[Illustration: Habitat.]

HABITAT: (See map); best in the bottom lands of lower Ohio valley.

[Illustration: Leaf.]

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TREE: Height, 70'-80', even 120'; diameter,
3'-6'; branches rather high, tree singularly graceful; bark, gray,
narrow furrows, clean, neat trunk; leaves, 8"-15" long, compound,
tufted, smooth, turns in autumn to beautiful purples, browns and
yellows; fruit, panicles of samaras, persistent till midwinter.

APPEARANCE OF WOOD: Color, light reddish brown, sap-wood whitish;
ring-porous, rings clearly marked by pores; straight-grained; pith
rays obscure.

PHYSICAL QUALITIES: Heavy (22d in this list); 39 lbs. per cu. ft.; sp.
gr., 0.6543; strong (31st in this list); elastic (30th in this list);
hard (17th in this list); shrinkage, 5 per cent.; warps little; not
durable in contact with soil; hard and tough; splits readily, nails

COMMON USES: Inside finish, farm implements, barrels, baskets, oars,

REMARKS: Forms no forests, occurs scattered. Its uses for handles and
oars determined by combination of strength, lightness and elasticity.

[Illustration: Radial Section, life size.]

[Illustration: Cross-section, magnified 37-1/2 diameters.]

[Illustration: Tangential Section, life size.]


   1. Shellbark hickory.
   2. Post oak.
   3. Mockernut.
   4. Pignut.
   5. Basket oak.
   6. Cherry birch.
   7. Slash pine.
   8. White oak.
   9. Bur oak.
  10. Western white oak.
  11. Western larch.
  12. Black locust.
  13. Blue beech.
  14. Mahogany.
  15. Cork elm.
  16. Blue ash.
  17. Black oak.
  18. Longleaf pine.
  19. Hard maple.
  20. Beech.
  21. Yellow birch.
  22. White ash.
  23. Red oak.
  24. White elm.
  25. Sour gum.
  26. Oregon maple.
  27. Black ash.
  28. Red ash.
  29. Tamarack.
  30. Red maple.
  31. Black walnut.
  32. Shortleaf pine.
  33. Canoe birch.
  34. Sweet gum.
  35. Wild black cherry.
  36. Red birch.
  37. Oregon ash.
  38. Sycamore.
  39. Loblolly pine.
  40. Soft maple.
  41. Douglas spruce.
  42. Red cedar.
  43. Norway pine.
  44. Western yellow pine.
  45. Cucumber tree.
  46. Lawson cypress.
  47. Black spruce and Red spruce.
  48. Bald cypress.
  49. Basswood.
  50. Chestnut.
  51. Black willow.
  52. Tideland spruce.
  53. Hemlock.
  54. Yellow poplar.
  55. Redwood.
  56. Butternut.
  57. White spruce.
  58. Western white pine.
  59. White pine.
  60. Western red cedar.
  61. Sugar pine.
  62. Grand fir.
  63. Engelmann's spruce.
  64. White cedar.
  65. Big tree.


   1. Black locust.
   2. Yellow birch.
   3. Western larch.
   4. Cherry birch.
   5. Shellbark hickory.
   6. Slash pine.
   7. Longleaf pine.
   8. Hard maple.
   9. Blue beech.
  10. Beech.
  11. Mockernut.
  12. Basket Oak.
  13. Cork elm.
  14. Canoe birch.
  15. Pignut hickory.
  16. Bur oak.
  17. Black oak.
  18. Shortleaf pine.
  19. Soft maple.
  20. Mahogany.
  21. Red oak.
  22. Red birch.
  23. White oak.
  24. Tamarack.
  25. Lawson cypress.
  26. Loblolly pine.
  27. Douglas spruce.
  28. Western white oak.
  29. Post oak.
  30. Red ash.
  31. White ash.
  32. Black walnut.
  33. White elm.
  34. Sour gum.
  35. Wild black cherry.
  36. Red maple.
  37. Blue ash.
  38. Black ash.
  39. Norway pine.
  40. Western red cedar.
  41. Black spruce and Red spruce.
  42. White spruce.
  43. Red cedar.
  44. Hemlock.
  45. Western yellow pine.
  46. Chestnut.
  47. Oregon maple.
  48. Bald cypress.
  49. Cucumber tree.
  50. Oregon ash.
  51. Yellow poplar.
  52. Sweet gum.
  53. Tideland spruce.
  54. Sycamore.
  55. White pine.
  56. Western white pine.
  57. Butternut.
  58. Redwood.
  59. Sugar pine.
  60. Basswood.
  61. Engelmann's spruce.
  62. Grand fir.
  63. Big tree.
  64. White cedar.
  65. Black willow.


   1. Western larch.
   2. Canoe birch and Yellow birch.
   3. Slash pine.
   4. Longleaf pine.
   5. Hard maple.
   6. Cherry birch.
   7. Shortleaf pine.
   8. Shellbark hickory.
   9. Black locust.
  10. Douglas spruce.
  11. Tamarack.
  12. Lawson cypress.
  13. Beech.
  14. Mockernut.
  15. Blue beech.
  16. Norway pine.
  17. Loblolly pine.
  18. Red oak.
  19. Red birch.
  20. Soft maple.
  21. Red spruce and Black spruce.
  22. Cork elm.
  23. Black walnut.
  24. Mahogany.
  25. Black oak.
  26. Western red cedar.
  27. Pignut hickory.
  28. Bald cypress.
  29. White spruce.
  30. White ash.
  31. Tideland spruce.
  32. White oak.
  33. Basket oak.
  34. Grand fir.
  35. Western white pine.
  36. Red maple.
  37. Bur oak.
  38. Cucumber tree.
  39. Yellow poplar.
  40. Hemlock.
  41. Western yellow pine.
  42. Black ash.
  43. Sycamore.
  44. Sweet gum.
  45. Wild black cherry.
  46. Chestnut.
  47. White pine.
  48. Oregon ash.
  49. Bass.
  50. Post oak.
  51. Sour gum.
  52. Butternut.
  53. Red ash.
  54. Western white oak.
  55. Engelmann's spruce.
  56. Sugar pine.
  57. Oregon maple.
  58. Blue ash.
  59. White elm.
  60. Redwood.
  61. Red cedar.
  62. Big tree.
  63. White cedar.
  64. Black willow.


   1. Mahogany.
   2. Pignut.
   3. Mockernut.
   4. Post oak.
   5. Shellbark hickory.
   6. Black locust.
   7. Hard maple.
   8. Western white oak.
   9. Bur oak.
  10. Basket oak.
  11. Cherry birch.
  12. Blue ash.
  13. White oak.
  14. Blue beech.
  15. Cork elm.
  16. Wild black cherry.
  17. Red ash.
  18. Black oak.
  19. White ash.
  20. Sour gum.
  21. Black walnut.
  22. Beech.
  23. Black ash.
  24. Slash pine.
  25. Soft maple.
  26. Red oak.
  27. Red maple.
  28. White elm.
  29. Oregon ash.
  30. Sycamore.
  31. Oregon maple.
  32. Yellow birch.
  33. Long leaf pine.
  34. Red cedar.
  35. Western larch.
  36. Sweet gum.
  37. Red birch.
  38. Short leaf pine.
  39. Canoe birch.
  40. Tamarack.
  41. Cucumber tree.
  42. Western yellow pine.
  43. Loblolly pine.
  44. Chestnut.
  45. Douglas spruce.
  46. Black willow.
  47. Butternut.
  48. Norway pine.
  49. Yellow poplar.
  50. Lawson cypress.
  51. Hemlock.
  52. Bald cypress.
  53. Sugar pine.
  54. Red spruce and Black spruce.
  55. Redwood.
  56. Engelmann's spruce.
  57. White pine.
  58. White spruce.
  59. Tideland spruce.
  60. Western white cedar.
  61. Big tree.
  62. White cedar.
  63. Western white pine.
  64. Basswood.
  65. Grand fir.



Sargent, _Jesup Collection_.
Sargent, _Manual_.
Roth, _Timber_.
Hough, _Handbook_.
Mohr. _For. Bull._, No. 22.
Fernow, _Forestry Investigations_.
Lumber Trade Journals.
Sargent, _Silva_.
Sargent, _Forest Trees_, 10th Census, Vol. IX.
Hough, _American Woods_.
Spaulding. _For. Bull._, No. 13.
Sudworth. _For. Bull._, No. 17.
Forest Service _Records of Wholesale Prices of Lumber_, List. A.

For particular trees consult For. Serv., Bulletins and Circulars. See
For. Service _Classified List of Publications_.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]



The forests of the United States, Map, Fig. 44, may be conveniently
divided into two great regions, the Eastern or Atlantic Forest,
and the Western or Pacific Forest. These are separated by the great
treeless plains which are west of the Mississippi River, and east of
the Rocky Mountains, and which extend from North Dakota to western

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Forest Regions of the United States. _U. S.
Forest Service._]

The Eastern Forest once consisted of an almost unbroken mass, lying in
three quite distinct regions, (1) the northern belt of conifers, (2)
the southern belt of conifers, and (3) the great deciduous (hardwood)
forest lying between these two.

(1) The northern belt of conifers or "North Woods" extended
thru northern New England and New York and ran south along the
Appalachians. It reappeared again in northern Michigan, Wisconsin and
Minnesota. White pine, Fig. 45, was the characteristic tree in the
eastern part of this belt, tho spruce was common, Fig. 56, p. 213,
and white and Norway pine and hemlock distinguished it in the western
part. Altho the more valuable timber, especially the pine, has been
cut out, it still remains a largely unbroken forest mainly of spruce,
second growth pine, hemlock and some hardwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Interior of Dense White Pine Forest, Cass
Lake, Minn. _U. S. Forest Service._]

(2) The southern pine forest formerly extended from the Potomac River
in a belt from one to two hundred miles wide along the Atlantic coast,
across the Florida peninsula, and along the gulf of Mexico, skipping
the Mississippi River and reappearing in a great forest in Louisiana
and Eastern Texas. It was composed of almost pure stands of pine, the
long-leaf, Fig. 46, the short-leaf, and the loblolly, with cypress
in the swamps and bottom lands. In southern Florida the forest is
tropical, Fig. 47, like that of the West Indies, and in southern Texas
it partakes of the character of the Mexican forest.

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Long-leaf Pine Forest. Oscilla, Georgia. _U.
S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 47. Semi-tropical Forest, Florida. Live Oak,
Surrounded by Cabbage Palmetto, and Hung With Spanish Moss. _U. S.
Forest Service._]

(3) Between these north and south coniferous belts, lay the great
broad-leaf or hardwood forest, Fig. 48, which constituted the greater
part of the Eastern Forest and characterized it. It was divided into
two parts by an irregular northeast and southwest line, running from
southern New England to Missouri. The southeast portion consisted
of hardwoods intermixed with conifers. The higher ridges of the
Appalachian Range, really a leg of the northern forest, were occupied
by conifers, mainly spruce, white pine, and hemlock. The northwest
portion of the region, particularly Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, was
without the conifers. It was essentially a mixed forest, largely oak,
with a variable mixture of maples, beech, chestnut, yellow poplar,
hickory, sycamore, elm, and ash, with birch appearing toward the north
and pine toward the south.

[Illustration: Fig. 48. Broad-leaf Forest, Protected from Cattle and
Fire. Hancock Co., Indiana. _U. S. Forest Service._]

Taking the Eastern Forest as a whole, its most distinguishing feature
was the prevalence of broad-leaved trees, so that it might properly be
called a deciduous forest. The greatest diversity of trees was to be
found in Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina, and this region is
still the source of the best hardwood lumber.

This great eastern forest, which once extended uninterruptedly from
the Atlantic to the Mississippi and beyond, has now been largely
lumbered off, particularly thru the middle or hardwood portion, making
way for farms and towns. The north and south coniferous belts are
still mainly unbroken, and are sparsely settled, but the big timber
is cut out, giving place to poorer trees. This is particularly true of
the white pine, "the king of American trees," only a little of which,
in valuable sizes, is left in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In
the same way in the south, the long-leaf pine, once the characteristic
tree, is fast being lumbered out.

[Illustration: Fig. 49. Irrigated Ranch on Treeless Alkali Plain. Rio
Blanco Co., Colorada. _U. S. Forest Service._]

The Western or Pacific forest extends two great legs, one down the
Rocky Mountain Range, and the other along the Pacific coast. Between
them lies the great treeless alkali plain centering around Nevada,
Fig. 49. In these two regions coniferous trees have almost a monopoly.
Broad-leaved trees are to be found there, along the river beds and in
ravines, but they are of comparatively little importance. The forest
is essentially an evergreen forest. Another marked feature of this
western forest, except in the Puget Sound region, is that the trees,
in many cases, stand far apart, their crowns not even touching, so
that the sun beats down and dries up the forest floor, Fig. 50.
There is no dense "forest cover" or canopy as in the Eastern Forest.
Moreover these western forests are largely broken up, covering but a
part of the mountains, many of which are snow-clad, and interrupted
by bare plains. Along the creeks there grow a variety of hardwoods. It
was never a continuous forest as was the Eastern Forest. The openness
of this forest on the Rockies and on the eastern slopes of the Sierra
Nevadas is in marked contrast to the western slopes of the Sierras,
where there are to be seen the densest and most remarkable woods of
the world, Fig. 51. This is due to the peculiar distribution of the
rainfall of the region. The precipitation of the moisture upon the
northwest coast where the trees are dripping with fog a large part of
the time, is unequaled by that of any other locality on the continent.
But the interior of this region, which is shut off by the high
Sierra Nevadas from the western winds, has a very light and irregular
rainfall. Where the rainfall is heavy, the forests are dense; and
where the rainfall is light, the trees are sparse.

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Open Western Forest, Bull Pine. Flagstaff,
Arizona. _U. S. Forest Service._]

Along the Rockies the characteristic trees are Engelmann's spruce,
bull pine, Douglas fir, and lodgepole pine. As one goes west, the
variety of trees increases and becomes, so far as conifers are
concerned, far greater than in the east. Of 109 conifers in the United
States, 80 belong to the western forests and 28 to the eastern. The
Pacific forest is rich in the possession of half a dozen leading
species--Douglas fir, western hemlock, sugar pine, bull pine, cedar
and redwood.

[Illustration: Fig. 51. Dense Forest of Puget Sound Region, Red Fir
and Red Cedar. Pierce Co., Washington. _U. S. Forest Service._]

But the far western conifers are remarkable, not only for their
variety, but still more for the density of their growth, already
mentioned, and for their great size, Fig. 52. The pines, spruces and
hemlocks of the Puget Sound region make eastern trees look small, and
both the red fir and the redwood often grow to be over 250 feet high,
and yield 100,000 feet, B.M., to the acre as against 10,000 feet,
B.M., of good spruce in Maine. The redwood, Fig. 53, occupies a belt
some twenty miles wide along the coast from southern Oregon to a point
not far north of San Francisco and grows even taller than the famous
big trees. The big trees are the largest known trees in diameter,
occasionally reaching in that measurement 35 feet.

[Illustration: Fig. 52. Virgin Forest of Red Fir, Red Cedar, Western
Hemlock, and Oregon Maple. Ashford, Washington. _U. S. Forest

[Illustration: Fig. 53. Redwood Forest. Santa Cruz Co., Calif. _U. S.
Forest Service._]

The big tree, Fig. 54, occurs exclusively in groves, which, however,
are not pure, but are scattered among a much larger number of trees of
other kinds.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Big Tree Forest. Sierra National Forest,
California. _U. S. Forest Service._]

The great and unsurpassed Puget Sound forest is destined to be before
long the center of the lumber trade of this country.

These two great forests of the east and the west both run northward
into British America, and are there united in a broad belt of
subarctic forest which extends across the continent. At the far north
it is characterized by the white spruce and aspen. The forest is open,
stunted, and of no economic value.

Taking all the genera and species together, there is a far greater
variety in the eastern than in the western forests. A considerable
number of genera, perhaps a third of the total, grow within both
regions, but the species having continental range are few. They
are the following: Larch (_Larix laricina_), white spruce (_Picea
canadensis_), dwarf juniper (_Juniperus communis_), black willow
(_Salix nigra_), almond leaf willow (_Salix amygdaloides_), long leaf
willow (_Salix fluviatilis_), aspen (_Populus tremuloides_), balm of
Gilead (_Populus balsamifera_), and hackberry (_Celtis occidentalis_).


                                        Area        Area
                                  Thousand acres  Per cent.
    Northern forest                   158,938        8.4
    Hardwood forest                   328,183       17.3
    Southern forest                   249,669       13.1
    Rocky Mountains forest            155,014        8.1
    Pacific forest                    121,356        6.4
    Treeless area                     887,787       46.7
                                    ---------      -----
    Total land area                 1,900,947      100.0



Sargent, _Forest Trees_, Intro., pp. 3-10.
Bruncken, pp. 5-16.
Roth, _First Book_, pp. 209-212.
Shaler, I, pp. 489-498.
Fernow, _For. Inves._, pp. 45-51.
Fernow, _Economics_, pp. 331-368.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]



The forest is much more than an assemblage of different trees, it is
an organism; that is, the trees that compose it have a vital relation
to each other. It may almost be said to have a life of its own, since
it has a soil and a climate, largely of its own making.

Without these conditions, and without the help and hindrance which
forest trees give to each other, these trees would not have their
present characteristics, either in shape, habits of growth or nature
of wood grain. Indeed, some of them could not live at all.

Since by far the greater number of timber trees grow in the forest, in
order to understand the facts about trees and woods, it is necessary
to know something about the conditions of forest life.

A tree is made up of three distinct parts: (1) the roots which anchor
it in the ground, and draw its nourishment from the moist soil; (2)
the trunk, or bole, or stem, which carries the weight of the branches
and leaves, and conveys the nourishment to and from the leaves; (3)
the crown, composed of the leaves, the branches on which they hang,
and the buds at the ends of the branches. As trees stand together in
the forest, their united crowns make a sort of canopy or cover, Fig.
55, which, more than anything, determines the factors affecting
forest life, viz., the soil, the temperature, the moisture, and most
important of all, the light.

[Illustration: Fig. 55. The Forest Cover. Spruce Forest, Bavaria,
Germany. _U. S. Forest Service._]

On the other hand, every species of tree has its own requirements
in respect to these very factors of temperature,--moisture, soil and
light. These are called its _silvical characteristics_.


Some trees, as black walnut, flourish on good soil, supplanting others
because they are better able to make use of the richness of the soil;
while some trees occupy poor soil because they alone are able to live
there at all. Spruce, Fig. 56, will grow in the north woods on such
poor soil that it has no competitors, and birches, too, will grow
anywhere in the north woods. In general, it is true that mixed
forests, Fig. 57, _i.e._, those having a variety of species, grow on
good loamy soil. The great central, deciduous Atlantic Forest grew on
such soil until it was removed to make room for farms. On the other
hand, pure stands--_i.e._, forests made up of single varieties--of
pine occupy poor sandy soil. Within a distance of a few yards in the
midst of a pure stand of pine in the south, a change in the soil will
produce a dense mixed growth of broad-leaves and conifers.

[Illustration: Fig. 56. Virgin Stand of Red Spruce. White Mountains,
New Hampshire. _U. S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 57. Typical Mixed Forest,--Red Spruce, Hemlock,
White Ash, Yellow Birch, Balsam Fir, and Red Maple. Raquette Lake, New
York. _U. S. Forest Service._]

The soil in the forest is largely determined by the forest itself. In
addition to the earth, it is composed of the fallen and decayed leaves
and twigs and tree trunks, altogether called the _forest floor_. It is
spongy and hence has the ability to retain moisture, a fact of great
importance to the forest.


Some trees, as black ash and cypress, Fig. 58, and cotton gum, Fig.
59, grow naturally only in moist places; some, as the piñon and
mesquite, a kind of locust, grow only in dry places; while others,
as the juniper and Douglas fir, adapt themselves to either. Both
excessively wet and dry soils tend to diminish the number of kinds
of trees. In many instances the demand for water controls the
distribution altogether. In the Puget Sound region, where there is a
heavy rain-fall, the densest forests in the world are found, whereas
on the eastern slopes of the same mountains, altho the soil is not
essentially different, there are very few trees, because of the
constant drouth.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Cypress and Cypress "Knees." Jasper Co.,
Texas. _U. S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 59. Cotton Gums, Showing Buttresses. St. Francis
River, Arkansas. _U. S. Forest Service._]


The fact that some trees, as paper birch and white spruce, grow only
in cold regions, and some, as rubber trees and cypress, only in the
tropics, is commonplace; but a fact not so well known is that it is
not the average temperature, but the extremes which largely determine
the habitat of trees of different kinds. Trees which would not live
at all where there is frost, might flourish well in a region where
the average temperature was considerably lower. On the other hand,
provided the growing season is long enough for the species, there is
no place on earth too cold for trees to live. Fig. 60.

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Northern Forest,--Young Spruce Growing Under
Yellow Birch. Santa Clara, New York. _U. S. Forest Service._]

In general, cold affects the forest just as poor soil and drought do,
simplifying its composition and stunting its growth. In Canada there
are only a few kinds of trees, of which the hardwoods are stunted;
south of the Great Lakes, there is a great variety of large trees;
farther south in the southern Appalachian region, there is a still
greater variety, and the trees are just as large; and still farther
south in tropical Florida, there is the greatest variety of all. The
slopes of a high mountain furnish an illustration of the effect of
temperature. In ascending it, one may pass from a tropical forest at
the base, thru a belt of evergreen, broad-leaved trees, then thru a
belt of deciduous broad-leaved trees, then thru a belt of conifers and
up to the timber line where tree life ceases. Figs. 61, and 62.

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Mixed Hardwoods on Lower Levels. Spruce
and Balsam Dominate on Higher Elevations. Mt. McIntyre, Adirondack
Mountains, New York. _U. S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Scrub Growth on Mountain Top. Mt. Webster, New
Hampshire. _U. S. Forest Service._]


More than by any other factor, the growth of trees in a forest is
determined by the effect of light. All trees need light sooner or
later, but some trees have much more ability than others to grow
in the shade when young. Such trees, of which maple and spruce are
examples, are called _tolerant_, while others, for instance, larch,
which will endure only a comparatively thin cover or none at all, are
called _intolerant_. The leaves of tolerant trees endure shade well,
so that their inner and lower leaves flourish under the shadow of
their upper and outer leaves, with the result that the whole tree,
as beech and maple, makes a dense shadow; whereas the leaves of
intolerant trees are either sparse, as in the larch, or are so hung
that the light sifts thru them, as in poplar and oak. The spruces and
balsam fir have the remarkable power of growing slowly under heavy
shade for many years, and then of growing vigorously when the light is
let in by the fall of their overshadowing neighbors. This can plainly
be seen in the cross-section of balsam fir, Fig. 63, where the narrow
annual rings of the early growth, are followed by the wider ones of
later growth. A common sight in the dense woods is the maple sending
up a long, spindly stem thru the trees about it and having at its top
a little tuft of leaves, Fig. 64. By so doing it survives. The fact
that a tree can grow without shade often determines its possession
of a burnt-over tract. The order in the North Woods after a fire
is commonly, first, a growth of fire weed, then raspberries or
blackberries, then aspen, a very intolerant tree whose light shade
in turn permits under it the growth of the spruce, to which it is a
"nurse," Fig. 65. In general it may be said that all seedling conifers
require some shade the first two years, while hardwoods in temperate
climates, as a rule, do not.

[Illustration: Fig. 63. Cross section of Balsam Fir, Showing Fast
Growth After Years of Suppression. Notice the width of the annual
rings in later age compared with early. _U. S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Tolerant Maple. The trees are too slender to
stand alone. _U. S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 65. Intolerant Aspen, a "nurse" of Tolerant
Spruce._ U. S. Forest Service._]

This matter of tolerance has also much to do with the branching of
trees. The leaves on the lower branches of an intolerant tree will not
thrive, with the result that those branches die and later drop off.
This is called "cleaning," or natural pruning. Intolerant trees, like
aspen and tulip, Fig. 66, clean themselves well and hence grow with
long, straight boles, while tolerant trees, like spruce and fir,
retain their branches longer.

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Intolerant Tulip. Notice the long, straight
boles. _U. S. Forest Service._]

The distribution of a species may also be determined by geographical
barriers, like mountain ranges and oceans. This is why the western
forests differ radically from the eastern forests and why the forest
of Australasia is sharply distinct from any other forest in the world.

Any one or several of these factors, soil, moisture, heat, and light,
may be the determining factor in the make-up of a forest, or it may
be that a particular tree may survive, because of a faster rate of
growth, thus enabling it to overtop its fellows and cut off their
light. The struggle for survival is constant, and that tree survives
which can take the best advantage of the existent conditions.

Besides these topographical and climatic factors which help determine
the distribution of trees, a very important factor is the historical
one. For example, the only reason by which the location of the few
isolated groves of big trees in California can be accounted for is the
rise and fall of glacial sheets, which left them, as it were, islands
stranded in a sea of ice. As the glaciers retreated, the region
gradually became re-forested, those trees coming up first which were
best able to take advantage of the conditions, whether due to the
character of their seeds, their tolerance, their endurance of moisture
or whatever. This process is still going on and hardwoods are probably
gaining ground.

Besides these external factors which determine the composition and
organic life of the forest, the trees themselves furnish an important
factor in their methods of reproduction. These, in general, are two,
(1) by sprouts, and (2) by seeds.

(1) Most conifers have no power of sprouting. The chief exceptions
are pitch pine and, to a remarkable degree, the redwood, Fig. 67. This
power, however, is common in broad-leaved trees, as may be seen after
a fire has swept thru second growth, hardwood timber. Altho all the
young trees are killed down to the ground, the young sprouts spring
up from the still living roots. This may happen repeatedly. Coppice
woods, as of chestnut and oak, which sprout with great freedom, are
the result of this ability. The wood is poor so that it is chiefly
used for fuel.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. Sprouting Redwood Stumps. Glen Blair, Calif.
_U. S. Forest Service._]

(2) Most trees, however, are reproduced by seeds. Trees yield these
in great abundance, to provide for waste,--nature's method. Many seeds
never ripen, many perish, many are eaten by animals, many fall on
barren ground or rocks, and many sprout, only to die. The weight of
seeds has much to do with their distribution. Heavy seeds like acorns,
chestnuts, hickory and other nuts, grow where they fall, unless
carried down hill by gravity or by water, or scattered by birds and

Trees with winged seeds, however, Fig. 68, as bass, maple and pine,
or with light seeds, as poplar, often have their seeds carried by the
wind to great distances.

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Winged Seeds. 1, Basswood; 2, Box-elder; 3,
Elm; 4, Fir; 5, 6, 7, 8, Pines. _U. S. Forest Service._]

Again some trees, as spruce, are very fertile, while others, like
beech, have only occasional seed-bearing seasons, once in three or
four years. Willow seeds lose their power of germination in a few
days, and hence, unless they soon reach ground where there is plenty
of moisture, they die. This is why they grow mostly along water
courses. On the other hand, black locust pods and the cones of some
pines keep their seeds perfect for many years, often until a
fire bursts them open, and so they live at the expense of their

It is such facts as these that help to account for some of the acts of
forest composition,--why in one place at one time there is a growth of
aspens, at another time pines, at still another oaks; and why beeches
spring up one year and not another. That red cedars grow in avenues
along fences, is explained by the fact that the seeds are dropped
there by birds, Fig. 69.

[Illustration: Fig. 69. Red Cedar Avenue. Seeds dropped by birds which
perched on the fences. Indiana. _U. S. Forest Service._]

The fact that conifers, as the longleaf pine, Fig. 46, p. 200, and
spruce, Fig. 55, p. 212, are more apt to grow in pure stands than
broad-leaved trees, is largely accounted for by their winged seeds;
whereas the broad-leaved trees grow mostly in mixed stands because
their heavy seeds are not plentifully and widely scattered. This is
a rule not without exceptions, for beech sometimes covers a whole
mountain side, as Slide Mountain in the Catskills, and aspens come in
over a wide area after a fire; but later other trees creep in until at
length it becomes a mixed forest.

The essential facts of the relation of trees to each other in the
forest has been clearly stated by Gifford Pinchot thus:[1]

    The history of the life of a forest is a story of the help and
    harm which trees receive from one another. On one side every
    tree is engaged in a relentless struggle against its neighbors
    for light, water and food, the three things trees need most.
    On the other side each tree is constantly working with all its
    neighbors, even those which stand at some distance, to bring
    about the best condition of the soil and air for the growth
    and fighting power of every other tree.

The trees in a forest help each other by enriching the soil in which
they stand with their fallen leaves and twigs, which are not quickly
blown or washed away as are those under a tree in the open. This
collection of "duff" or "the forest floor" retains the moisture about
their roots, and this moist mass tends to keep the temperature of the
forest warmer in winter and cooler in summer. The forest cover, Fig.
55, p. 212, consisting largely of foliage, has the same effect, and in
addition protects the bark, the roots, and the seedlings of the trees
from the direct and continuous hot rays of the sun. Without the shade
of the leaves, many trees, as white pine, would quickly die, as
may readily be seen by transplanting them to the open. The mass of
standing trees tempers the force of the wind, which might overthrow
some of them, and hinders the drying up of the duff.

[Illustration: Fig. 70. Shallow Roots of Hemlock. Bronx Park, New
York, N. Y.]

But trees hinder as well as help each other. There is a constant
struggle between them for nourishment and light. To get food and
water, some trees, as spruces and hemlocks, Fig. 70, spread their
roots out flat; others, as oak and pine, send down a deep tap root.
Those succeed in any environment that find the nourishment they need.
Still more evident is the struggle for light and air. However well a
tree is nourished thru its roots, unless its leaves have an abundance
of light and air it will not thrive and make wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Long-bodied White Oak of the Forest. _U. S.
Forest Service._]

Even the trees most tolerant of shade in youth, like spruce, must have
light later or perish, and hence in a forest there is the constant
upward reach. This produces the characteristic "long-bodied" trunk of
the forest tree, Fig. 71, in contrast to the "short-bodied" tree of
the open, where the branches reach out in all directions, Fig. 72.
In this constant struggle for existence is involved the persistent
attempt of scattered seeds to sprout whenever there is an opening. The
result is that a typical forest is one in which all sizes and ages
of trees grow together. Scattered among these are bushes and scrubby
trees, called "forest weeds," such as mountain maple and dogwood, Fig.
80, p. 234, which do not produce timber.

[Illustration: Fig. 72. Short-bodied White Oak of the Open. Fort Lee,
N. J.]

By foresters the trees themselves are classified according to their
size into:

Seedlings, less than 3' high,
  Small, 3'-10' high.
  Large, 4" in diameter, at breast height (4' 6").
  Small, 4"-8" in diameter, at breast height.
  Large, 8"-12" in diameter, at breast height.
  Standards, 1'-2' in diameter, at breast height.
  Veterans, over 2' in diameter, at breast height.

Every age has its own dangers. Many seeds never germinate, many
seedlings perish because they do not reach soil, or are killed by
too much or too little moisture, or by heat or cold, or shade. At the
sapling age, the side branches begin to interfere with those of other
saplings. Buds are bruised and lower branches broken by thrashing in
the wind, and their leaves have less light. Only the upper branches
have room and light, and they flourish at the expense of lower ones,
which gradually die and are thus pruned off. Some trees naturally
grow faster than others, and they attain additional light and room
to spread laterally, thus overtopping others which are suppressed and
finally killed, beaten in the race for life.

If the growth should remain about even so that the trees grew densely
packed together, the whole group would be likely to be of a poorer
quality, but ordinarily the few outgrow the many and they are called
dominant trees. Even then, they still have to struggle against their
neighbors, and at this, the large sapling stage, many perish, and of
those that survive there are great differences in size. Trees make
their most rapid growth in height, and lay on the widest yearly
"rings," at the large sapling and small pole age, Fig. 114, p. 263. It
is at this stage, too, if the growth is at all dense, that the young
trees (poles) clean themselves most thoroly of their branches. The
growth in diameter continues to the end of the tree's life, long after
the height growth has ceased.

When trees become "standards," and reach the limit of height growth,
thru their inability to raise water to their tops, their branches
must perforce grow sidewise, or not at all. The struggle for life thus
takes a new form.

How trees are able to raise water as high as they do is still
unexplained, but we know that the chief reason why some trees grow
taller than others, is due to their ability to raise water. The most
remarkable in this respect are the California redwoods, the big trees,
and certain eucalypts in Australia. This inability of trees to grow
above a certain height results in a flattening of the crown, Fig. 73,
and at this stage, the trees struggle against each other by crowding
at the side.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Flattened Crown of Red Pine. _U.S. Forest

Inasmuch as trees grow more sensitive to shade with advancing age, the
taller trees have the advantage. Each survivor is one of a thousand,
and has outlived the others because it is best fitted for the place.

This fact has its effect upon the next generation, because it is these
dominant surviving trees which bear seed most abundantly. After the
tree has finished growing in height and diameter most vigorously--the
pole stage--and proved to be fitted for the place, its energy is
largely spent in raising seed. As this process goes on generation
after generation, only the best coming to maturity in each, the poorer
sorts are sifted out, and each region and continent has those species
best fitted to meet the conditions of life there.

This is the reason why exotics are very likely to be sensitive and
perhaps succumb to influences to which native trees are immune.

Standards and veterans are the survivors of all the lower stages,
each of which has had its especial dangers. If left alone, the tree
gradually dies and at last falls and decays, adding somewhat to the
fertility of the forest soil. From the point of view of human use, it
would far better have been cut when ripe and turned into lumber. It
is a mistake to suppose that the natural virgin forest is the best
possible forest, and that it should therefore be left alone. In the
National Forests the ripe lumber is sold and a considerable revenue
is thus available. But nature's way with the dead tree is to use it
to produce more life. How she does so will be explained in the next
chapter, on the enemies of the forest.

    [Footnote 1: Gifford Pinchot, _Primer of Forestry_, p. 44.]



Pinchot, _For. Bull._ No. 24, I, pp. 25-66.
Bruncken, pp. 13-31.
_For. Circ._ No. 36, p. 8.
Fernow, _Economics_, pp. 140-164.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4]



The natural enemies of the forest--as distinct from its human
enemies--fall into three groups: (1) Meteorological, (2) Vegetable,
(3) Animal.


[Illustration: Fig. 74. Effect of Wind, July, 1902, Cass County,
Minnesota. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Wind._ "Windfalls" are not an uncommon sight in any forest.
Frequently only small areas are blown down, one large tree upsetting a
few others, or again a vast region is destroyed by great storms, Fig.
74. An area of many square miles in Florida covered with long-leaf
pine was thus destroyed several years ago. The "slash" thus formed,
when well dried, is particularly liable to catch fire and burn
furiously. Windfalls are especially common among shallow-rooted trees,
as hemlock, basswood and spruce, on sandy soil and on shallow soil
underlaid with solid stone, especially where open spaces give the wind
free sweep. It follows that an unbroken forest is a great protection
to itself. The only precautions against wind therefore, that can be
taken by the forester, are to keep the forest unbroken by selecting
only the larger trees for felling or to cut down a given tract by
beginning at the side opposite the direction of prevailing storms and
working toward them.

In sandy regions, the wind does immense harm by blowing the sand to
and fro in constantly shifting dunes, Figs. 75 and 76. These dunes
occupy long stretches of the Atlantic coast and the shore of Lake
Michigan. Such dunes have been estimated to cover 20,000 square miles
of Europe. Along the Bay of Biscay in France, the sand dunes formerly
drifted in ridges along the shore, damming up the streams and
converting what was once a forest into a pestilential marsh. This
region has been reclaimed at great expense by building fences along
the shore to break the wind and thus keep the moving sand within
limits. In this way a million acres of productive forest have been

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Sand-dunes, Cape May, New Jersey. _U.S. Forest

[Illustration: Fig. 76. Sand-dune. Oregon. _U.S. Forest Service._]

On the other hand winds are beneficial to the forest in scattering
seeds, weeding out weak trees, and developing strength in tree trunks.

_Drouth_ both injures the foliage of trees and causes defects in the
grain of wood, the latter appearing as "false rings." These arise
from the effort of the tree to resume growth when the water supply is
restored. See p. 19.

_Water._ Certain trees have become accustomed to living in much water,
as cedar and cypress have in swamps, and certain trees have become
accustomed to periodical floods, but other trees are killed by much
water. So when lumbermen make a pond which overflows forest land, the
trees soon die, Fig. 77.

[Illustration: Fig. 77. Effect of Flooding. First Connecticut Lake,
New Hampshire. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Lightning_ frequently blasts single trees, and in dry seasons may set
fire to forests. This is a much more important factor in the west than
in the east,--in the Rockies, for instance, where there are electrical
storms without rain.

_Fires_ will be considered later under man's relation to the forest.

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Slim Trees Bent Over by Snow; Stouter Trees
Unharmed. Zurich, Switzerland. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Snow and ice_ often bring serious harm to saplings by permanently
bending them over, Fig. 78, or by breaking off tops and branches.

_Frost_ kills young plants; and sudden changes in temperature
seriously affect grown timber, producing "frost checks" and "wind
shakes." When there is a sudden fall in temperature, the outside
layers of the tree, which are full of sap, contract more rapidly than
the inner portions, with the result that the tree splits with a sudden
pistol-like report, the check running radially up and down the tree.
This is called a "frost check" or "star shake," Fig. 41._a_, p. 47,
and such wounds rarely heal, Fig. 79.

On the other hand when the temperature rapidly rises, the outside
layers of the tree expand so much more rapidly than the inside, that
they separate with a dull muffled chug, the check extending in a
circular direction following the annual rings. Such checks are often
called "wind shakes" and "cup shakes," Fig. 41._c_, p. 47. These
injuries are found in regions where sudden changes of temperature
occur, rather than in the tropics or in very cold climates.

[Illustration: Fig. 79. Contraction Frost Check. _U. S. Forest


Under this head may be classed, in addition to fungi, a number of
unrelated plants, including such as: moosewood and dogwood, Fig. 80,
which crowd out young trees; vines, like bitter-sweet, which wind
about trees and often choke them by pressure, cutting thru the bark
and cambium; saprophytes, which smother the foliage of trees, of
which Spanish moss, Fig. 47, p. 201, is an example; and finally such
parasites as the mistletoes, which weaken and deform the trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 80. A "Forest Weed," Flowering Dogwood. North
Carolina. _U.S. Forest Service._]

The most important of the vegetable enemies of trees are fungi. It
should be remembered, however, that, without the decay produced by
them, the fallen trees would soon cover the ground, and prevent any
new growth, thus destroying the natural forest.

Every tree, as has been noted (p. 17), is composed of two parts, one
part, including leaves, young branches, roots and sap-wood, living,
and the other part, namely, the heart-wood, practically dead.

Fungi that attack the live parts of a tree are called parasites,
while those that live on dead trunks and branches are designated as
saprophytes. The line, however, between these two classes of fungi is
not well defined, since some parasites live on both living and dead
wood. The parasites are of first importance, for, since they kill many
trees, they control to a large extent the supply of living timber.

Nearly all parasitic fungi have two portions, an external fruiting
portion which bears the spores--which correspond to the seeds of
flowering plants--and an internal portion consisting of a tangle of
threads or filaments, which ramify the tissues of the tree and whose
function is to absorb nutriment for the fungus. Fungi are classified
botanically according to the spore-bearing bodies, their form, color,

The parasitic fungi which are especially destructive to wood are
those that have naked spores growing on exposed fruiting surfaces (the
_Hymenomycetes_). In toadstools (the _agarics_) these exposed surfaces
are thin, flat plates called gills. In the polypores, which include
the shelf fungi, the spore surfaces are tubes whose openings
constitute the pores. In the dry-rot, or tear fungus (_Merulius
lacrymans_), the spore surfaces are shallow cavities.

Some varieties, called _true_ parasites, develop in uninjured trees,
while others, called _wound_ parasites, can penetrate the tissues of
trees, only where a cut or injury makes a suitable lodgment for the
spores. Some fungi attack only a single species of trees, others whole
genera; some attack only conifers, others deciduous trees, while a few
attack trees of nearly all kinds alike.

Fungal spores when brought in contact with a wound on a tree or other
suitable place, and provided with suitable conditions of growth,
germinate, penetrate the tissues and grow very rapidly. These spores
send out long threads or filaments which run thru the cells lengthwise
and also pierce them in all directions, soon forming a network in the
wood called the mycelium.

Rotting, in a large number of cases, is due to the ravages of fungi.
This sometimes shows in the color, as the "red rot" of pine or the
"bluing" of ash. Sometimes as in "pecky" or "peggy" cypress, the
decayed tracts are tubular. More commonly the decayed parts are of
irregular shape.

The decay of wood is due to the ravages of low forms of plant life,
both bacteria and fungi.

A few of the more destructive forms may be noted.

    _Trametes pini_ (Brot.) Fr. Foremost among the timber
    destroying fungi is the large brown "punk" or "conch" found in
    its typical development on the long-leaf and short-leaf pines,
    _Pinus palustris_ and _Pinus echinata_, Fig. 81. The
    fruiting bodies form large masses which grow out from a knot,
    oftentimes as large as a child's head. They are cinnamon brown
    on the lower surface, and much fissured and broken, on the
    black charcoal-like upper surface. This fungus probably causes
    four-fifths of the destruction brought about by the timber
    destroying fungi. It occurs on most of the conifers in the
    United States which have any value as lumber trees, and brings
    about a characteristic white spotting of the wood, Fig. 82,
    which varies with the kind of tree attacked. (Von Schrenk,
    _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1900, p. 206.)

[Illustration: Fig. 81. A "Conch," the fruiting body of _Trametes
pini_, on Sugar Pine. [_Agric. Year Book, 1900_, Pl. XXII, Fig. 2.]]

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Effect of Fungus. (_Trametes pini._) _U. S.
Dept. Agric._]

[Illustration: Fig. 83. "Shelf" Fungus on Pine. _a._ Sound wood; _b._
Resinous "light" wood; _c._ Partly decayed wood or punk; _d._ Layer of
living spore tubes; _e._ Old filled-up spore tubes; _f._ Fluted upper
surface of the fruiting body of the fungus, which gets its food thru
a great number of fine threads (the mycelium), its vegetative tissue
penetrating the wood and causing its decay. [_After Hartig._]]

Of the shelf fungi, which project like brackets from the stems of
trees, and have their pores on their under surfaces, one of the
commonest in many localities is the yellow cheese-like _Polyporus
sulphureus_, Fig. 83. This is found on oak, poplar, willow, larch, and
other standing timber.

    Its spawnlike threads spread from any exposed portion of
    cambium into the pith-rays and between the annual rings,
    forming thick layers of yellowish-white felt, and penetrating
    the vessels of the wood, which thereupon becomes a deep brown
    color and decays.

Of the umbrella-shaped gill-bearing fungi, a yellow toadstool, called
the honey mushroom (_Agaricus melleus_), is a good example, Fig. 84.

[Illustration: Fig. 84. Honey Mushroom. _Agaricus melleus._ 1. Cluster
of small sporophores. 2. Larger sporophore with root-like organ of
attachment. _Forestry Bulletin 22._ Plate XII, Figs. 1 and 2.]

    This fungus, of common occurrence in the United States as well
    as in Europe, is exceedingly destructive to coniferous trees,
    the white pine in particular suffering greatly from its
    attacks. It also fastens upon various deciduous species as a
    parasite, attacking living trees of all ages, but living as
    well upon dead roots and stumps and on wood that has been cut
    and worked up, occurring frequently on bridges, railroad
    ties, and the like, and causing prompt decay wherever it has
    effected an entrance. The most conspicuous part of the fungus
    is found frequently in the summer and fall on the diseased
    parts of the tree or timber infested by it. It is one of the
    common toadstools, this particular species being recognized by
    its yellowish color, gills extending downward upon the stem,
    which is encircled a little lower down by a ring, and by its
    habit of growing in tufts or little clumps of several or many
    individuals together. It is also particularly distinguished by
    the formation of slender, dark-colored strings, consisting of
    compact mycelium, from which the fruiting parts just described
    arise. These hard root-like strings (called rhizomorphs)
    extend along just beneath the surface of the ground, often
    a distance of several feet, and penetrate the roots of sound
    trees. By carefully removing the bark from a root thus invaded
    the fungus is seen in the form of a dense, nearly white,
    mass of mycelium, which, as the parts around decay, gradually
    produces again the rhizomorphs already described. These
    rhizomorphs are a characteristic part of the fungus. Occurring
    both in the decayed wood from which they spread to the
    adjacent parts, and extending in the soil from root to root,
    they constitute a most effective agency in the extension of
    the disease. * * *

    External symptoms, to be observed especially in young
    specimens recently attacked, consist in a change of the leaves
    to a pale sickly color and often the production of short
    stunted shoots. A still more marked symptom is the formation
    of great quantities of resin, which flow downward thru the
    injured parts and out into the ground. (_Forestry Bulletin_
    No. 22, p. 51.)

Of the irregular shaped fungi, one of the most destructive is a
true parasite, _i.e._, one that finds lodgment without help, called
_Polyporus annosus_ and also _Trametes radiciperda_, Fig. 85. It is
peculiar in developing its fructifications on the exterior of
roots, beneath the soil. Its pores appear on the upper side of the
fructifications. It attacks only conifers.

    Its spores, which can be readily conveyed in the fur of mice
    or other burrowing animals, germinate in the moisture around
    the roots: the fine threads of "spawn" penetrate the cortex,
    and spread thru and destroy the cambium, extending in thin,
    flat, fan-like, white, silky bands, and, here and there,
    bursting thru the cortex in white, oval cushions, on which the
    subterranean fructifications are produced. Each of these is
    a yellowish-white, felt-like mass, with its outer surface
    covered with crowded minute tubes or "pores" in which the
    spores are produced. The wood attacked by this fungus first
    becomes rosy or purple, then turns yellowish, and then
    exhibits minute black dots, which surround themselves with
    extending soft white patches. (Boulger, p. 73.)

[Illustration: Fig. 85. 1. Stump of Norway Spruce, with a sporophore
of _polyporus annosus_ several years old; the inner portions of the
stump wholly decayed.

2. Roots of a diseased spruce tree, with numerous small sporophores
of _polyporus annosus_ attached. _Forestry Bulletin 22_, Plate XIII,
Figs. 1 and 2.]

Of the fungi which attack converted timber, the most important is "dry
rot" or "tear fungus" (_Merulius lachrymans_), Fig. 86. It flourishes
on damp wood in still air, especially around stables and ill
ventilated cellars. It gets its name lachrymans (weeping) from its
habit of dripping moisture.

    The fungus destroys the substance of the timber, lessening its
    weight and causing it to warp and crack; until at length it
    crumbles up when dry into a fine brown powder, or, readily
    absorbing any moisture in its neighborhood, becomes a soft,
    cheese-like mass. * * * Imperfectly seasoned timber is most
    susceptible to dry rot: the fungus can be spread either by its
    spawn or by spores, and these latter can be carried even by
    the clothes or saws of workmen, and are, of course, only too
    likely to reach sound wood if diseased timber is left about
    near it; but on the other hand dry timber kept dry is proof
    against dry rot, and exposure to really dry air is fatal to
    the fungus. (Boulger, p. 75.)

[Illustration: Fig. 86. Portion of the mycelium of dry rot or tear
fungus, _Merulius lachrymans_. This cakelike mass spreads over the
surface of the timber. In a moist environment pellucid drops or
"tears" distil from its lower surface: Hence its name. [Ward:
_Timber_; Fig. 21.]]

About all that can be done to protect the forest against fungi is to
keep it clean, that is, to clear out fallen timber and slash, and in
some cases to dig trenches around affected trees to prevent spreading
or to cut them out and destroy them. Such methods have heretofore been
too expensive to employ in any ordinary American forest, but the time
is at hand when such action will prove profitable in many localities.

For the preservation of cut timber from decay, several methods are
used. Fungi need heat, air, moisture and food. If any one of these is
lacking the fungus cannot grow. Air and heat are hard to exclude from
wood, but moisture and food can be kept from fungi. The removal of
moisture is called seasoning, and the poisoning of the food of fungi
is a process of impregnating wood with certain chemicals. Both these
processes are described in _Handwork in Wood_, Chapter III.


The larger animals working damage to our forests are chiefly rodents
and grazing animals. Beavers gnaw the bark, while mice and squirrels
rob the forest of seed and consequently of new trees. The acorns of
white oak are particularly liable to be devoured because of their
sweetness, while those of red and black oak, which afford timber of
comparatively little value, are allowed to sprout, and thus come to
possess the land. Hogs annually consume enormous quantities of "mast,"
_i.e._, acorns or other nuts, by pasturing in oak and other forests.
They, together with goats and sheep, Figs. 87 and 88, deer and cattle,
work harm by trampling and browsing. Browsing destroys the tender
shoots, especially of deciduous trees, but trampling entirely kills
out the seedlings. The cutting up of the soil by the sharp cleft hoofs
injures the forest floor, by pulverizing it and allowing it to be
readily washed away by storms until deforestation may result, as was
the case in France after the Revolution. It has cost the French people
from thirty to forty million dollars to repair the damage begun by the
sheep. In this country, this matter has become a very serious one
on the Pacific Coast, where there are enormous flocks of sheep, and
therefore the government is trying to regulate the grazing on public
lands there, especially on steep slopes, where erosion takes place

    [Footnote 1: The evils of grazing are increased by the fact
    that fires are sometimes started intentionally in order to
    increase the area of grazing land.]

[Illustration: Fig. 87. Goats Eating Foliage, New Mexico. _U.S. Forest

[Illustration: Fig. 88. Sheep Grazing in Forest, Idaho. _U.S. Forest

The most destructive animal enemies of the forest are the insects.
The average annual loss of trees in the United States from this cause
alone has been estimated to be one hundred million dollars.

Insects have two objects in their attack on trees, one is to obtain
food, as when they are in the larval stage, and the other is to
provide for offspring, as do certain beetles.

The number of insect enemies of the forest is enormous. At the St.
Louis Exposition, there were on exhibit nearly three hundred such
insects. These belong to some twenty orders, of which the beetles
(_Coleoptera_), which have horny wings and biting mouth parts, and
the moths and butterflies (_Lepidoptera_), with membraneous wings and
sucking mouth parts, are the most destructive. Insects attack every
part of the tree, the seed, the shoot, the flower, the root, the leaf,
the bark and the wood, both standing and cut.

Of the fruit and seed pests, the most destructive are weevils, worms
and gall insects.

Of the twig and shoot pests, beetles, weevils and caterpillars are the

Among insects that attack roots, the periodical cicada (17 year old
locust) may be noted.

The leaf pests are far more serious. They include the true and false
caterpillars, moths, gall insects and plant lice.

Of the bark pests, the bark beetles are the most destructive. These
are also called Engraver Beetles from the smoothly cut figures which
are their burrows under the bark, Figs. 89, 90, 91.

[Illustration: Fig. 89. Work of the Spruce Destroying Beetle: _a._
Primary gallery; _b._ Borings packed in side; _c._ Entrance and
central burrow thru the packed borings; _d._ Larval mines. Note how
the eggs are grouped on the sides. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1902, Fig. 24,
p. 268.]]

[Illustration: Fig. 90. Complete brood Galleries of the Hickory Bark
Beetle in Surface of Wood. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1903, Fig. 28, p.

[Illustration: Fig. 91. Brood Galleries of the Oak Bark Beetle,
showing Character of Primary Gallery at _b_; Larval or Brood Mines at
_a._ [_Agric. Year Book_, 1903, Fig. 30, page 318.]]

    Many pairs of beetles make a simultaneous attack on the lower
    half of the main trunk of medium-sized to large trees. They
    bore thru the outer bark to the inner living portion, and thru
    the inner layers of the latter; they excavate long, irregular,
    longitudinal galleries, and along the sides of these at
    irregular intervals, numerous eggs are closely placed. The
    eggs soon hatch and the larvae at once commence to feed on the
    inner bark, and as they increase in size, extend and enlarge
    their food burrows in a general transverse but irregular
    course, away from the mother galleries (see illustration).
    When these young and larval forms are full grown, each
    excavates a cavity or cell at the end of its burrow and next
    to the outer corky bark. (Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1902.)

Some of the species attack living trees, causing their rapid death,
and are among the most destructive enemies of American forests.

All of the above indirectly affect both the quantity and quality
of the wood supply. They can be studied more in detail in the
publications of the U.S. Bureau of Entomology.

Of the insects directly attacking wood, the most important are the
ambrosia or timber beetles, the borers, the ants, and the carpenter
bees. The most remarkable feature of the beetle is the manner of its
boring into the harder parts of the wood. Its jaws are particularly
constructed for this work, being heavy and strong. The boring is
done something after the manner of countersinking, and the jaws are
believed to be self-sharpening, by reason of the peculiar right to
left and left to right motion.

    _Ambrosia_ or _timber beetles_, Fig. 92. This class of insects
    attacks living, dead, and felled trees, sawlogs, green lumber,
    and stave-bolts, often causing serious injury and loss from
    the pin-hole and stained-wood defects caused by their brood
    galleries. The galleries are excavated by the parent beetles
    in the sound sap-wood sometimes extending into the heart-wood,
    and the young stages feed on a fungus growth which grows on
    the walls of galleries. (Hopkins, Entom. Bulletin No. 48, p.
    10.) The growth of this ambrosia-like fungus is induced or
    controlled by the parent beetles and the young are dependent
    on it for food. (Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1904.)

[Illustration: Fig. 92. Work of Ambrosia Beetle, _Xyloborus celsus_,
in Hickory Wood: _a_, Larva; _b_, Pupa; _c_, Adult beetle; _d_,
Character of work in lumber cut from injured log; _e_, Bark; _f_, Sap
wood; _g_, Heartwood. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1904, Fig. 44, p. 384.]]

[Illustration: Fig. 93. Work of Ambrosia Beetles in Oak: _a_,
_Monarthum mali_, and work; _b_, _Platypus compositus_, and work; _c_,
Bark; _d_, Sap-wood; _e_, Heart-wood; _f_, Character of work in lumber
from injured log. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1904, Fig. 45, p. 384.]]

    There are two general types or classes of these galleries, one
    in which the broods develop together in the main burrows, the
    other, in which the individuals develop in short separate side
    chambers extending at right angles from the primary gallery,
    Fig. 93. The galleries of the latter type are usually
    accompanied by a distinct staining of the wood, while those of
    the former are not. (Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1904, p. 383.)

    _Bark_ and _wood borers_, Fig. 94. This class of enemies
    differs from the preceding in the fact that the parent beetles
    do not burrow into the wood or bark, but deposit their eggs
    on the surface. The elongate, whitish, round-headed
    (_Cerambycid_), flat-headed (_Buprestid_), or short, stout
    (_Curculionid_) grubs hatching from these eggs cause injury
    by burrowing beneath the bark, or deep into the sap-wood and
    heart-wood of living, injured and dead trees, sawlogs, etc.
    Some of the species infest living trees, Fig. 95, causing
    serious injury or death. Others attack only dead or dying bark
    and wood, but this injury often results in great loss from the
    so-called wormhole defects. (A. D. Hopkins, _Entom. Bull._, No.
    48, p. 10.)

[Illustration: Fig. 94. Work of Round-Headed and Flat-Headed Borers
in Pine: _a_, Work of round-headed borers, "sawyer," _Monohamnus_
sp.; _b_, _Ergates spiculatus_; _c_, Work of flat-headed borer,
_Buprestis_, larva and adult. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1904, Fig. 46, p.

[Illustration: Fig. 95. Hemlock Killed by Buprestid Worms. Hoquiam,
Washington. _U.S. Forest Service._]

    The pine sawyers are among the most troublesome pests in the
    mill yard, and their large, white larvae often do much damage
    to logs by eating great holes thru their solid interior. While
    burrowing in the wood the larvae make a peculiar grating sound
    that may be heard on quiet nights at a considerable distance.
    This is a familiar sound in the lumber camps of the North,
    and has probably given rise to the name of the pine sawyers by
    which these insects are known. (_Forestry Bulletin_, No. 22,
    p. 58.)

    _Powder-post beetles_, Fig. 96. This is a class of insects
    representing two or three families of beetles, the larvae of
    which infest and convert into fine powder many different kinds
    of dry and seasoned wood products, such as hickory and ash
    handles, wagon spokes, lumber, etc., when wholly or in part
    from the sap-wood of trees. Oak and hemlock tan-bark is
    sometimes injured to a great extent, and the structural
    timbers of old houses, barns, etc., are often seriously
    injured, while hop poles and like products are attacked by one
    set of these insects, the adults of which burrow into the wood
    for the purpose of depositing their eggs. (Hopkins, _Forestry
    Bulletin_ No. 48, p. 11.)

[Illustration: Fig. 96. Work of Powder Post Beetle, _Sinoxylon
basilare_, in hickory pole: _a_, Character of work by larvae; _b_,
Exit holes made by emerging broods. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1904, Fig.

    _Timber worms_, Fig. 97. This class of true wood-boring
    "worms," or grubs, are the larvae of beetles. They enter the
    wood from eggs deposited in wounds in living trees, from
    which they burrow deep into the heart-wood. Generation after
    generation may develop in the wood of a tree without affecting
    its life but the wood is rendered worthless for most purposes
    by the so-called wormhole and pinhole defects resulting from
    their burrows. The same species also breed in the wood of
    dying and dead standing trees, and in the stumps and logs of
    felled ones, often for many years after the trees are felled.
    One species sometimes attacks freshly sawed oak lumber, new
    stave bolts, etc. They are among the most destructive enemies
    of hardwood forest trees, especially in reducing the value of
    the wood of the best part of the trunks. (Hopkins, _Forestry
    Bulletin_ No. 48, p. 10.)

[Illustration: Fig. 97. Work of Timber Worms in Oak: _a_, Work of oak
timber worm, _Eupsalis minuta_; _b._ Barked surface; _c._ Bark;
_d._ Sap-wood timber worm, _Hylocaetus lugubris_, and its work; _e._
Sap-wood. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1904, Fig. 47, p. 386.]]

    The _carpenter worms_, Fig. 98. These are large pinkish
    caterpillars which are the larvae of stout-bodied moths. They
    enter the bark and wood of living oak, locust, poplar and
    other trees, from eggs deposited by the moths in the crevices
    of uninjured bark, or in the edges of wounds. They burrow deep
    into the solid wood, where they live for two or three years
    before transforming to the adult. The wood is seriously
    injured by the very large wormhole defects, and while the
    life of the tree is but slightly, if at all, affected by the
    earlier attacks, the continued operations of this class of
    borers year after year, finally results in the decay of
    the heart-wood, or a hollow trunk and a dead top. (Hopkins,
    _Forestry Bulletin_, No. 48, p. 11.)

[Illustration: Fig. 98. Worm Holes in Red Oak, Work of the Oak
Carpenter Worm. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1903, Fig. 37, p. 324.]]

    _Columbian Timber-beetle_ One of the commonest wormhole defects
    in white oak, rock oak, beech, and tulip ("whitewood" or
    "yellow poplar") is one known to the lumber trade as grease
    spots, patch-worm, or black holes, Fig. 99, steam boats, Fig.
    100, etc., caused by the Columbian timber beetle (_Corthylus
    columbianus Hopk_.) The characteristic feature of this
    wormhole defect, which will enable it to be readily recognized
    in oak and beech, is transverse series of two or more black
    holes about the size of the lead in an ordinary lead pencil,
    with a streak of stained wood extending with the grain two
    or three or more inches each side, as in Fig. 99. In
    quarter-sawed oak or split or sawed staves, a short
    longitudinal section of one of these black holes is seen
    attended by the stained streak on one side of a thick or curly
    growth or grain, Fig. 100. It is this form which is called
    "steamboats." In whitewood (yellow poplar) the black holes
    are attended by very long black, greenish, or bluish streaks,
    sometimes five or six feet long. When this is common in the
    lumber it is called "calico poplar." Fig. 101 represents the
    characteristic appearance of this defect greatly reduced.
    (Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1903, p. 327.)

[Illustration: Fig. 99. Work of the Columbian Timber Beetle: Black
holes and "grease spots" in white oak. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1903, Fig.
38, p. 325.]]

[Illustration: Fig. 100. Work of the Columbian Timber Beetle:
"Steamboats" in quartered or Split white oak. [_Agric. Year Book_,
1903, Fig. 39, p. 326.]]

[Illustration: Fig. 101. Work of the Columbian Timber Beetle in Tulip
Wood, "Calico Poplar," [_Agric. Year Book_ 1903, Fig. 40, p. 326.]]

    _Carpenter bees._ The work of this class of woodboring bees
    is shown in Fig. 102. The injury consists of large augerlike
    tunnels in exposed, solid dry wood of buildings and other
    structures. It is most common in soft woods, such as pine,
    poplar, redwood and the like. (Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._,
    1904, p. 390.)

[Illustration: Fig. 102. Work of the Carpenter Bee, _Xylocopa
orpifex_, in Redwood Lumber: _a_, entrance; _b_, galleries; _c_,
cells; _d_, larva; _e_, adult. [_Agric. Year Book_, 1904, Fig. 53, p.

    _Horn tails._ This is a class of borers which are the larvae
    of the so-called wood wasps. They may enter the exposed dead
    wood of wounds of living trees, but more commonly attack the
    wood of dead standing conifers and hard woods, in the sap-wood
    of which they excavate irregular burrows, which are packed
    with their borings. When the adults emerge they leave the
    surface perforated with numerous round holes. Water and fungi
    entering these holes cause a very rapid decay of the wood.
    (Hopkins, _Entom. Bull._ No. 48, p. 11.)

The tunnels of these various wood pests are most frequently to be seen
in chestnut, ash, hickory, oak, tulip, and cypress.

One would think that with such an array of enemies, the forest would
hardly survive, but on the other hand there are many enemies of these
pests. The most destructive are the predaceous and parasitic insects.
Many insects are simply predaceous, pouncing upon and destroying such
other insects as they can overcome. Still others are parasites, some
external, but most of them living within the bodies of their victims
where they pass their entire larval life. The eggs are laid on or
in the body of the victim, so that as soon as one hatches, it has
suitable food. The ichneumon fly, Fig. 103, is such a parasite;
it destroys millions of insect pests. It has a long and peculiar
ovipositor with which it drills a hole into the tree and deposits the
egg in a burrow of the Pigeon Horntail, a wood wasp that burrows into
deciduous trees. The larva soon finds its victim, the grub of the
Pigeon Horntail, and lives on it to its destruction.

[Illustration: Fig. 103. Ichneumon Fly whose Larva Feeds on the Larva
of the Pigeon Horn-tail.]

It would seem that it is a hopeless task to control the insect enemies
of forest trees and forest products or to prevent losses from their
ravages, but the writer is informed by Dr. A. D. Hopkins, the expert
in the Bureau of Entomology in charge of forest insect investigations,
that the results of their investigations show conclusively that there
are many practical and inexpensive methods of control now available
thru the suggestions and recommendations in recent Department
publications on forest insects, as well as thru direct correspondence
with the Department. These methods are based on the principle of
prevention and not on that of extermination. It has been shown that
thru proper adjustment of the details in management of forests and of
the business of manufacturing, storing, transporting, and utilizing
the products a large percentage of the losses can be prevented at
small additional expense, and that even when considerable cost is
involved the amount saved will often represent a handsome profit.



(1) Meterological.

      Pinchot, _Primer_ I, pp. 75-76.
      Roth, _First Book_, _pp._ 198-202.
      Bruncken, pp. 27-29.

      Roth, _First Book_, p. 27.

    Snow, ice and frost.
      Pinchot, _Primer_, I, p. 76.
      Bruce, _For. and Irr._, 8: 159, Ap. '02.

(2) Vegetable.

      Roth, _First Book_, p. 4.
      Boulger, pp. 70-75.
      Spaulding, _For. Bull._, No. 22.
      Ward, Chaps. V, VI, VII.
      Sickles, pp. 41-45.
      von Schrenck, _For. Bull._, No. 41, Pl. III.
      Sherfesee. _For. Circ._ No. 139.
      von Schrenck, _Bur. Plant Ind. Bull._ No. 36.
      von Schrenck, _Bur. Plant Ind. Bull._ No. 32.
      von Schrenck, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1900, p. 199.

(3) Animal.

      Pinchot, _Primer I_, pp. 69-73, II, p. 73.
      Pinchot, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1898, p. 187
      Coville, _For. Bull._ No. 15, pp. 28-31.
      Roth, _First Bk._, p. 130, 178.

      Comstock, passim.
      Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1902, pp. 265-282.
      Roth, _First Book_, pp. 115-130.
      Howard, _Entom. Bull._, No. 11, n. s.
      Hopkins, Spaulding, _Entom. Bull._, No. 28.
      Hopkins, _Entom. Bull._, No. 48.
      Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1903, pp. 313-329.
      Hopkins, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1904, pp. 382-389, Figs. 43-56.
      Pinchot, _Primer_, I, p. 73.
      Felt, N. Y. _State Museum Bull._, 103, Ent. 25.
      Hopkins, _Entom. Bull._ No. 32.
      Hopkins, _Entom. Bull._ No. 56.
      Hopkins, _Entom. Bull._ No. 58.
      Spaulding and Chittenden, _For. Bull._ No. 22, pp. 55-61.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]



The exhaustion of the forest in the United States is due to two main
causes: (1) Fire, and (2) Destructive Lumbering.


It is not commonly realized that forest fires are almost entirely the
result of human agency. When cruisers first began to locate claims in
this country, practically no regions had been devastated by fire. Now
such regions are to be seen everywhere. Altho lightning occasionally
sets fire to forests, especially in the Rocky Mountains, the losses
from this cause are trifling compared with the total loss.

[Illustration: Fig. 104. Slash, Left in the Woods, and Ready to Catch
Fire. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Opportunities for fire._ There are a number of facts that make the
forest peculiarly liable to fire. Especially in the fall there are
great quantities of inflammable material, such as dry leaves, twigs,
and duff lying loose ready for ignition. The bark of some trees,
as "paper birch," and the leaves of others, as conifers, are very
inflammable. It follows that fires are more common in coniferous than
in deciduous forests. After lumbering or windfalls, the accumulated
"slash" burns easily and furiously, Fig. 104. Moreover a region once
burned over, is particularly liable to burn again, on account of the
accumulation of dry trunks and branches. See Fig. 107.

Long dry seasons and high wind furnish particularly favorable
conditions for fire. On the other hand, the wind by changing in
direction may extinguish the fire by turning it back upon its track.
Indeed the destructive power of fires depends largely upon the wind.

[Illustration: Fig. 105. Forest Fire. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Causes of fire._ Forest fires are due to all sorts of causes,
accidental and intentional. Dropped matches, smouldering tobacco,
neglected camp fires and brush fires, locomotive sparks, may all be
accidental causes that under favorable conditions entail tremendous
loss. There is good reason to believe that many forest fires are set
intentionally. The fact that grass and berry bushes will soon spring
up after a fire, leads sheep men, cattle and pig owners, and berry
pickers to set fires. Vast areas are annually burned over in the
United States for these reasons. Most fires run only along the surface
of the ground, doing little harm to the big timber, and if left alone
will even go out of themselves; but if the duff is dry, the fire may
smoulder in it a long time, ready to break out into flame when it
reaches good fuel or when it is fanned by the wind, Fig. 105. Even
these ground fires do incalculable damage to seeds and seedlings, and
the safest plan is to put out every fire no matter how small.

[Illustration: Fig. 106. Burned Forest of Engelmann Spruce.
Foreground, Lodgepole Pine Coming in. _U. S. Forest Service._]

Altho it is true that the loss of a forest is not irremediable because
vegetation usually begins again at once, Fig. 106, yet the actual
damage is almost incalculable. The tract may lie year after year,
covered with only worthless weeds and bushes, and if hilly, the region
at once begins to be eroded by the rains.

After the fire, may come high winds that blow down the trunks of the
trees, preparing material for another fire, Fig. 107.

[Illustration: Fig. 107. Effect of Fire and Wind. Colorado. _U. S.
Forest Service._]

The statistics of the actual annual money loss of the timber burned
in the United States are not gathered. In 1880 Professor Sargent
collected much information, and in the census of that year (10th
Census, Vol. IX) reported 10,000,000 acres burned that year at a value
of $25,000,000.

In 1891, the Division of Forestry collected authentic records of
12,000,000 acres burned over in a single year, at an estimated value
of $50,000,000.

In the Adironacks in the spring of 1903, an unprecedentedly dry
season, fire after fire caused a direct loss of about $3,500,000.

In 1902, a fire on the dividing line between Washington and Oregon
destroyed property amounting to $12,000,000. Within comparatively
recent years, the Pacific Coast states have lost over $100,000,000
worth of timber by fire alone.

During September, 1908, forest fires raged in Minnesota, Michigan,
Wisconsin, Maine, New York and Pennsylvania. The estimates of loss
for northern Michigan alone amounted to $40,000,000. For two weeks
the loss was set at $1,000,000 a day. The two towns of Hibbing and
Chisholm were practically wiped out of existence, and 296 lives were

Certain forest fires have been so gigantic and terrible as to become

    One of these is the Miramichi fire of 1825. It began its
    greatest destruction about one o'clock in the afternoon of
    October 7th of that year, at a place about sixty miles
    above the town of Newcastle, on the Miramichi River, in New
    Brunswick. Before ten o'clock at night it was twenty miles
    below New Castle. In nine hours it had destroyed a belt of
    forest eighty miles long and twenty-five miles wide. Over more
    than two and a half million acres almost every living thing
    was killed. Even the fish were afterwards found dead in heaps
    on the river banks. Many buildings and towns were destroyed,
    one hundred and sixty persons perished, and nearly a thousand
    head of stock. The loss from the Miramichi fire is estimated
    at $300,000, not including the value of the timber. (Pinchot,
    Part 1. p. 79-80.)

    Of such calamities, one of the worst that is on record is that
    known as the Peshtigo fire, which, in 1871, during the same
    month, October, when Chicago was laid in ashes, devastated the
    country about the shores of Green Bay in Wisconsin. More than
    $3,000,000 worth of property was burnt, at least two thousand
    families of settlers were made homeless, villages were
    destroyed and over a thousand lives lost. (Bruncken, p. 110.)

    The most destructive fire of more recent years was that which
    started near Hinckley, Minn., September 1, 1894. While the
    area burned over was less than in some other great fires, the
    loss of life and property was very heavy. Hinckley and six
    other towns were destroyed, about 500 lives were lost, more
    than 2,000 persons were left destitute, and the estimated loss
    in property of various kinds was $25,000,000. Except for the
    heroic conduct of locomotive engineers and other railroad men,
    the loss of life would have been far greater.

    This fire was all the more deplorable, because it was wholly
    unnecessary. For many days before the high wind came and drove
    it into uncontrollable fury, it was burning slowly close to
    the town of Hinckley and could have been put out. (Pinchot,
    Part I, 82-83.)

One of the most remarkable features of these "crown fires," is the
rapidity with which they travel. The Miramichi fire traveled nine
miles an hour.

To get an idea of the fury of a forest fire, read this description
from Bruncken. After describing the steady, slow progress of a duff
fire, he proceeds:

    But there comes an evening when nobody thinks of going to bed.
    All day the smoke has become denser and denser, until it is no
    longer a haze, but a thick yellowish mass of vapor, carrying
    large particles of sooty cinders, filling one's eyes and
    nostrils with biting dust, making breathing oppressive. There
    is no escape from it. Closing windows and doors does not bar
    it out of the houses; it seems as if it could penetrate solid
    walls. Everything it touches feels rough, as if covered with
    fine ashes. The heat is horrible altho no ray of sunshine
    penetrates the heavy pall of smoke.

    In the distance a rumbling, rushing sound is heard. It is the
    fire roaring in the tree tops on the hill sides, several miles
    from town. This is no longer a number of small fires, slowly
    smouldering away to eat up a fallen log; nor little dancing
    flames running along the dry litter on the ground, trying to
    creep up the bark of a tree, where the lichens are thick and
    dry, but presently falling back exhausted. The wind has risen,
    fanning the flames on all sides, till they leap higher and
    higher, reaching the lower branches of the standing timber,
    enveloping the mighty boles of cork pine in a sheet of flame,
    seizing the tall poles of young trees and converting them
    into blazing beacons that herald the approach of destruction.
    Fiercer and fiercer blows the wind, generated by the fire
    itself as it sends currents of heated air rushing upward into
    infinity. Louder and louder the cracking of the branches as
    the flames seize one after the other, leaping from crown to
    crown, rising high above the tree tops in whirling wreaths
    of fire, and belching forth clouds of smoke hundreds of feet
    still higher. As the heated air rises more and more, rushing
    along with a sound like that of a thousand foaming mountain
    torrents, burning brands are carried along, whirling on across
    the firmament like evil spirits of destruction, bearing the
    fire miles away from its origin, then falling among the dry
    brush heaps of windfall or slashing, and starting another fire
    to burn as fiercely as the first. * * *

    There is something horrible in the slow, steady approach of
    a top fire. It comes on with the pitiless determination of
    unavoidable destiny, not faster than a man can walk. But there
    is no stopping it. You cannot fight a fire that seizes tree
    top after tree top, far above your reach, and showers down
    upon the pigmy mortals that attempt to oppose it an avalanch
    of burning branches, driving them away to escape the torture
    and death that threatens them. (Bruncken, _American Forests
    and Forestry_, 106-109.)

[Illustration: Fig. 108. Fighting Forest Fire. _U. S. Forest

Real forest fires are not usually put out; men only try to limit them.
A common method of limitation is to cut trenches thru the duff so that
the fire cannot pass across, Fig. 108. In serious cases back fires are
built on the side of the paths or roads or trenches toward the fire,
in the expectation that the two fires will meet. In such cases great
care has to be taken that the back fire itself does not escape. Small
fires, however, can sometimes be beaten out or smothered with dirt and
sand, since water is usually unavailable.

[Illustration: Fig. 109. Fire Lane. Worcester Co., Mass. _U. S. Forest

But "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." One of the best
of these preventions is a system of fire lanes. Even narrow paths of
dirt will stop an ordinary fire. Roads, of course, are still better.
Systems of fire lanes, Fig. 109, are made great use of in Europe
and British India. Belts of hardwood trees are also cultivated along
railways, and to break up large bodies of conifers.

If in lumbering, the slash were destroyed or even cut up so as to lie
near the ground and rot quickly, many fires would be prevented.

Some states, as New York, have a fairly well organized system of fire
wardens, who have the authority to draft as much male help as
they need at $2.00 a day to fight forest fires. Unfortunately
"ne'er-do-wells" sometimes set fire to the woods, in order to "make
work" for themselves. Much preventive work is also done by educating
the public in schools and by the posting of the fire notices,[1] Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 110. Look out for Fire. Rules and Laws.]


How the reckless and destructive methods of lumbering common in
America came into vogue, is worth noting.[2]

The great historical fact of the first half century of our country
was the conquest of the wilderness. That wilderness was largely an
unbroken forest. To the early settler, this forest was the greatest
of barriers to agriculture. The crash of a felled tree was to him a
symbol of advancing civilization. The woods were something to be got
rid of to make room for farms, Fig. 111. In Virginia, for example,
where the soil was soon exhausted by tobacco culture and modern
fertilizers were unknown, there was a continual advance into the woods
to plant on new and richer land. The forest was also full of enemies
to the settler, both animals and Indians, and was a dreaded field for
fire. So there grew up a feeling of hate and fear for the forest.

[Illustration: Fig. 111. Forest Giving Place to Farm Land. North
Carolina. _U. S. Forest Service._]

More than that the forest seemed exhaustless. The clearings were at
first only specks in the woods, and even when they were pushed farther
and farther back from the seacoast, there was plenty of timber beyond.

    The idea that the area of this forest could ever be diminished
    by human hands to any appreciable extent so that people would
    become afraid of not having woodland enough to supply them
    with the needed lumber, would have seemed an utter absurdity
    to the backwoodsman. * * * Thus the legend arose of the
    inexhaustible supply of lumber in American forests, a legend
    which only within the last twenty years has given place to
    juster notions. (Bruncken, p. 57.)

This tradition of abundant supply and the feeling of hostility to the
forest lasted long after the reasons for them had disappeared. When
we remember that every farm in the eastern United States, is made from
reclaimed forest land and that for decades lumber was always within
reach up the rivers, down which it was floated, it is not strange that
reckless and extravagant methods of cutting and using it prevailed.

Following the settler came the lumberman, who continued the same
method of laying waste the forest land. The lumber market grew slowly
at first, but later developed by leaps and bounds, until now the
output is enormous.

Lumbering in America has come to be synonymous with the clearing off
of all the marketable timber, regardless of the future. It treats the
forest as tho it were a mine, not a crop, Fig. 112. Since 1880 the
total cut has been over 700,000,000 feet, enough to make a one inch
floor over Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and
Delaware, or one-half of the State of New York, an area of 25,000
square miles.

[Illustration: Fig. 112. Redwood Forest Turned Into Pasture.
California. _U. S. Forest Service._]

Other countries, too, have devastated their forests. Portugal has
a forest area of only 5 per cent. of the total land area, Spain and
Greece, each 13 per cent., Italy 14 per cent. and Turkey 20 per cent.
Whether the destruction of the American forests shall go as far
as this is now a live question which has only just begun to be

Another reason for the reckless American attitude toward the forest is
the frequency and severity of forest fires. This has led to the fear
on the part of lumbermen of losing what stumpage they had, and so they
have cleared their holdings quickly and sold the timber. Their motto
was "cut or lose."

A third incentive to devastative methods was the levy of what were
considered unjust taxes.

    Hundreds of thousands of acres in the white pine region,
    notably in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, have been cut
    over, abandoned, sold for taxes, and finally reduced by fire
    to a useless wilderness because of the shortsighted policy of
    heavy taxation. To lay heavy taxes on timber land is to set
    a premium on forest destruction, a premium that is doing
    more than any other single factor to hinder the spread of
    conservative lumbering among the owners of large bodies
    of timber land. * * * Heavy taxes are responsible for the
    barrenness of thousands of square miles which should never
    have ceased to be productive, and which must now lie fallow
    for many decades before they can be counted again among the
    wealth-making assets of the nation. (Pinchot, _Agric. Yr.
    Bk._, 1898, pp. 184-185.)

    On the treatment of the questions of fire and taxes depends
    the future of American forest industries. (Bruncken, p. 226.)

Undoubtedly much waste has been caused by sheer ignorance of forest
conditions and methods, which, if followed, would secure successive
crops instead of one, but it is safe to say that the desire for
immediate profits has been the dominant cause of reckless lumbering.
So short-sighted has the policy of private owners proved itself, that
it is a question whether any large extent of forest land can safely
be left in private hands. No individual lives long enough to reap more
than one forest crop. Only corporations and States can be expected
to have an interest long enough continued to justify the methods of
conservative lumbering.

As a matter of fact, nearly one-half of the privately owned timber
of the United States is held by 195 great holders, the principal ones
being the Southern Pacific Company, the Weyerhauser Timber Company,
and the Northern Pacific Railway Company, which together own nearly 11
per cent. of the privately owned forests of the country. These large
holders are cutting little of their timber, their object, however,
being not so much to conserve the forests as to reserve to themselves
the incalculable private profits which are expected to come with the
future enormous increase in the value of timber.

Over against this policy, stands that of the United States Forest
Service of increasing the area of the National Forests in order to
conserve them for the public welfare. The pity is that the government
ever let the forests pass out of its hands. Only forty years ago
seventy-five per cent. of the timber now standing was publicly owned.
Now about eighty per cent. of it is privately owned. In the meanwhile
its value has increased anywhere from ten to fifty fold, according to
locality.[3] Some large corporations, however, like the Pennsylvania
Railroad, the Kirby Lumber Company, of Texas, and the International
Paper Company, have entered upon a policy of conservative lumbering.

Of the actual practices which distinguish destructive lumbering, a few
may be cited. Stumps are cut too high and tops too low. Good lumber is
wasted on lumber roads and bridges, Fig. 113. Saplings are torn down
in dragging out logs. Slash is left in condition to foster fires and
left with no shade protection. Seedlings are smothered with slash.
Seed trees are all cut out leaving no chance for reproduction. Only
poorer sorts of trees are left standing, thus insuring deterioration.
Paper pulp cutting goes even farther than lumbering, and ordinarily
leaves nothing behind but a howling wilderness.

[Illustration: Fig. 113. Red Spruce Used in Building Skidway, and Left
in the Woods. Hamilton Co., New York.]

The production of turpentine from the long-leaf pine, Fig. 114, at
the annual rate of 40,000 barrels has meant the devastation of 70,000
acres of virgin forest.

[Illustration: Fig. 114. Turpentine Boxing, Cup System. Georgia. _U.
S. Forest Service._]

In view of this wholesale destruction it becomes of interest to know
how much still remains of the timber supply of the United States.
The latest and most authoritative estimate of standing timber
in continental United States, excluding Alaska, gives a total of
2,800,000,000 M feet B.M.,[4] of which 2,200,000,000 M feet are
privately owned, about 539,000,000 M feet are in the National Forests
(Fig. 119, p. 271,) and 90,000,000 M feet are on the unreserved public
lands, National parks, State lands and Indian reservations.

Earlier estimates were hardly more than guesses. For example the
census of 1880 estimated the stumpage of the U. S. at 856,290,100 M
feet, while the census of 1900 gives a total of 1,390,000,000 M feet.
The discrepancy appears still greater when it is remembered that in
the meantime 700,000,000 M feet were cut. Of this amount 500,000,000 M
feet were of conifers or 80,000,000 M feet more than were included in
the estimate of 1880. The simple fact is of course that the earlier
estimates were gross underestimates, due to the fact that they were
based on entirely inadequate data, and therefore can not be used to
obscure the now unquestionable fact that the timber supply of this
country is surely and rapidly melting away.

The Forest Service estimates that the present annual cut of saw timber
is about 50,000,000 M feet. At this rate the present stand would last
about 55 years and the privately owned timber only 44 years. This
estimate does not allow for growth and decay.

While the population of the United States increased 52 per cent. from
1880 to 1900, during the same period the lumber-cut increased 94 per
cent. In other words the yearly increase in use is 20 to 25 per
cent. per capita, that is, fast as the population grows, the lumber
consumption increases nearly twice as fast. This increase in the
lumber-cut far overbalances the growth of trees.

It is also to be remembered that this increase in the use of lumber is
in spite of the enormous increase of substitutes for lumber, such as
brick, cement and steel for building, and steel for bridges, vehicles,
fences, machinery, tools, and implements of all kinds.

How lavishly we use lumber may further be appreciated from the fact
that we consume 260 cubic feet[5] per capita, while the average for
13 European countries is but 49 cubic feet per capita. In other words
every person in the U. S. is using five times as much wood as he would
use if he lived in Europe. It is estimated that on an average each
person in this country uses annually the product of 25 acres of
forest. _The country as a whole, cuts every year, between three and
four times more wood than all the forests grow in the meantime._
By contrast, the principal countries of Europe, cut just the annual
growth, while Russia, Sweden and Japan, cut less than the growth. In
other words, the 2,800,000,000,000 feet B.M. of the stumpage of the
United States is a capital which is constantly drawn upon, whereas,
the 944,700,000,000 board feet of the forest of the German Empire is
a capital which is untouched but produces annually 300 board feet per

[Illustration: Fig. 115. (Lumber Production by Regions, 1907).

Southern States include: Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas and

Pacific States include: Washington, Oregon and California.

North Atlantic States include: New England, New York, Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland.

Lake States include: Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.

Central States include: Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee,
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri.

Rocky Mountain States include: Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah,
Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico.]

One striking evidence of the decrease of the timber supply is the
shifting of its sources. Once the northeastern States produced over
half of the lumber product. They reached their relative maximum in
1870 when they produced 36 per cent. At that time the Lake States
produced about 24 per cent. By 1890 the Lake States came to their
maximum of 36 per cent. Today the southern States are near their
maximum with 41 per cent., but the center will soon shift to the
Pacific States. Their product rose from less than 10 per cent. of the
whole in 1900 to 17 per cent. in 1908, Figs. 115 and 116. When
that virgin forest has been cut off, there will be no new region
to exploit; whereas, heretofore, when a region was exhausted, the
lumbermen have always had a new one to which to move. At the
annual meeting of the Northern Pine Manufacturers' Association in
Minneapolis, Minn., January 22, 1907, Secretary J. E. Rhodes made this
striking statement:

    Since 1895, 248 firms, representing an annual aggregate
    output of pine lumber of 4-1/4 billion feet, have retired from
    business, due to the exhaustion of their timber supply. Plants
    representing approximately 500 million feet capacity, which
    sawed in 1906, will not be operated in 1907.

    The shifting of the chief sources of supply has, of course,
    been accompanied by a change in the kinds of lumber produced.
    There was a time when white pine alone constituted one-half
    of the total quantity. In 1900 this species furnished but 21.5
    per cent., in 1904 only 15 per cent., of the lumber cut.[6] We
    do not use less pine because we have found something better,
    but because we have to put up with something worse.

[Illustration: Fig. 116. (Lumber Production by States).]

The present annual cut of southern yellow pine is about 13-1/4 million
M feet, or a little less than one-third of the total cut of all the
species. At the present rate of consumption, it is evident that within
ten or fifteen years, there will be a most serious shortage of it.
Meanwhile the cut of Douglas fir on the Pacific coast has increased
from 5 per cent. of the total lumber cut in 1900 to 12 per cent. in
1905. This increase is in spite of the fact, already noted (p. 262)
that the great timber owning companies of the northwest are holding
their stumpage for an expected great increase in value.

Another evidence of shortage is the almost total disappearance of
certain valuable species. Hickory, which once made American buggies
famous, is getting very scarce, and black walnut once commonly used
for furniture, is available now for only fine cabinet work, veneers,
gun stocks, etc. Hardwoods that are fit for the saw are rapidly
decreasing. The hardwood cut of 1900 of 8,634,000 M feet diminished in
1904 to 6,781,000 M feet.

[Illustration: Fig. 117. (Lumber Production by Species).]

A still further evidence of the decreasing supply, is the rising scale
of prices. White pine, which sold for $45.00 per M during 1887-1892,
sold for $100.00 f.o.b. N. Y., Jan. 1, 1911. Yellow poplar went up in
the same period, 1887-1911, from $29.00 to $63.00. Yellow pine rose
from $18.00 in 1896 to $47.00 in 1911, and hemlock, the meanest of all
woods, from $11.50 in 1889 to $21.00 in 1911, Fig. 118.

[Illustration: Fig. 118. Wholesale lumber prices, 1887-1911.

The qualities of lumber shown in the above chart are as follows:

White Ash, 1st and 2d, 1" and 1-1/2" x 8" and up by 12'-16'.

Basswood, 1st and 2d, 1" x 8" and up by x 00".

White Oak, quarter-sawed, 1st and 2d, all figured, 1" x 6" and up x

Yellow poplar, 1st and 2d, 1" x 7"-17" x 12'-16'.

Hemlock, boards

Spruce, No. 1 and clear, 1" and 1-1/4" x 4" x 13'.

White pine, rough uppers, 1" x 8" and up x 00'.

Yellow pine, edge grain flooring. The curve is approximately correct,
for the standard of quality has been changed several times.]

It is to be remembered, moreover, that as the timber in any region
becomes scarcer, the minimum cutting limit is constantly lowered, and
the standard of quality constantly depreciated. Poorer species
and qualities and smaller sizes, which were once rejected, are now
accepted in the market. For example, 6 inches is now a common cutting
diameter for pine and spruce, whereas 12 inches was the minimum limit,
and on the Pacific coast there is still nothing cut below 18 inches.
This cutting of smaller sizes is largely due to the capacious maw of
the pulp mill, which swallows even the poorest stuff. Altho the amount
of wood used for paper pulp is small in comparison with the total
lumber production, being about 5.4 per cent., yet this cutting
of young growth keeps the forest land devastated. In 1906 nearly
9,000,000 tons of wood were used for paper pulp in the United States.

    No one who is at all familiar with the situation doubts for an
    instant that we are rapidly using up our _forest capital_. In
    fact it is unquestionably safe to say that our present annual
    consumption of wood in all forms is _from three to four times
    as great as the annual increment of our forests_. Even
    by accepting the highest estimate of the amount of timber
    standing we postpone for only a few years the time when there
    must be a great curtailment in the use of wood, if the present
    methods of forest exploitation are continued. Every indication
    points to the fact that under present conditions the maximum
    annual yield of forest products for the country as a whole has
    been reached, and that in a comparatively short time, there
    will be a marked decrease in the total output, as there is now
    in several items. (Kellogg, _Forestry Circular_, No. 97, p.

On the other hand, it is to be remembered that there are influences
which tend to save and extend the forest area. These will be
considered in the next chapter, on the Use of the Forest.

    [Footnote 1:



    Fires for clearing land near a forest must not be started
    until the trees are in full leaf. Before lighting such fires
    three days' notice, at least, must be given to the Firewarden
    and occupants of adjoining lands. After such fires are
    lighted, competent persons must remain to guard them until the
    fire is completely extinguished, and the persons starting such
    fires will be held responsible for all damages notwithstanding
    notice had been given to the Firewarden.

    Fires will be permitted for the purposes of cooking, warmth
    and insect smudges, but before such fires are kindled,
    sufficient space around the spot where the fire is to be
    lighted must be cleared from all combustible material; and
    before the place is abandoned, fires so lighted must be
    thoroly quenched.

    All fires other than those hereinbefore mentioned are
    absolutely prohibited.

    Hunters and smokers are cautioned against allowing fires to
    originate from the use of firearms, cigars and pipes.

    Especial care should be taken that lighted matches are
    extinguished before throwing them down.

    All persons are warned that they will be held responsible for
    any damage or injury to the forest which may result from their
    carelessness or neglect.

    Girdling and peeling bark from standing trees on state land is
    prohibited. Fallen timber only may be used for firewood.

    All citizens are requested to report immediately any cases
    which may come to their knowledge of injury to woodlands
    arising from a violation of these rules.

    Then follow quotations from the laws of the state of New York.

    [Footnote 2: For the common methods of logging see _Handwork
    in Wood_, Chapter I.]

    [Footnote 3: See Summary of Report of the Commissioner of
    Corporations on the Lumber Industry. February 13, 1911.
    Washington, D. C.]

    [Footnote 4: A board foot is one foot square and one inch

    [Footnote 5: 167 cubic feet equal about 1000 board feet.]

    [Footnote 6: _Forestry Circular_, No. 97.]



(1) Fires.

      Bruncken, pp. 183-207.
      Pinchot, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, p. 189.
      Suter, _For. Circ._ No. 36.
      U. S. Tenth Census, Vol. IX, p. 491 ff.
      Pinchot, _Primer_, pp. 77-88.
      Roth, _First Book_, pp. 104-112.
      Sterling, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1904, p. 133.

(2) Destructive Lumbering.

    The Settler's Tradition.
      Bruncken, pp. 40-59, 94.
      Roth, _First Book_, pp. 41-45.
      Pinchot, _Primer_, II, p. 82.

      _For. and Irr._, April, '06.
      Pinchot, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1898, p. 184.

    Reckless Practices.
      Pinchot, _Primer_ II, 42-47.
      Pinchot, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1898, p. 184.
      Pinchot, _For. Circ._, No. 25, p. 11.
      Price, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1902, p. 310.
      Fox, _For. Bull._, No. 34, p. 40.
      Peters, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1905, pp. 483-494.
      Graves, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1899, p. 415.
      Suter, _For. Bull._, 26, pp. 58, 69, 76.
      Mohr, _For. Bull._ No. 13, p. 61.
      Bruncken, pp. 90-98.

    The Timber Supply.
      Kellogg, _For. Circ._, No. 97 ...
      Zon, _For. Bull._, No. 83.
      Fernow, _Economics_, pp. 35-45.
      Report of the Commissioner of Corporations on the Lumber Industry.
        Part I, Feb. 13, 1911.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]



Man's relation to the forest has not been entirely destructive and
injurious. He has exerted and is more and more exerting influences
which while still enabling him to use the forest, also preserve
and improve it. These activities may all be included under the term

The objects of modern forestry then are threefold: 1. The
_utilization_ of the forest and its products, the main object; 2. The
_preservation_ of the forest, _i.e._, its continued reproduction; 3.
The _improvement_ of the forest.


The uses of the forest are threefold: (1) Protective, (2) Productive,
and (3) Esthetic.

(1) _Protective._ The forest may be used as a protection against
floods, wind, shifting sand, heat, drought, etc. The National Forests
of the United States, Fig. 119, with the state forests, which include
one-fifth of the total forest area, are largely treated as "protection
forests" to maintain the head waters of streams, Fig. 120, used for
irrigation, for power or for commerce. The attempt now being made to
reserve large areas in the White Mountains and southern Appalachians
is chiefly for this purpose of protection.

[Illustration: Fig. 119. National Forests in the United States.]

A comparison of Figs. 120 and 121 shows clearly the difference between
a region protected by forest and one unprotected.[1]

[Illustration: Fig. 120. A Protection Forest, Maintaining the
Headwaters of Streams. North Carolina. _U. S. Forest Service._]

[Illustration: Fig. 121. Hillside Erosion. North Carolina. _U. S.
Forest Service_]

(2) _Productive._ All practical foresters have as their first aim
the _yield_ of the forest. This distinguishes forestry from landscape
architecture, the object of which may equally be the preservation and
improvement of a given tract. The crop to be produced is as truly the
prime concern of the forester as the raising of agricultural crops is
the prime concern of the farmer. It is for this reason that forestry
is said to be the same thing as conservative lumbering, Fig. 122.
The prejudice of lumbermen against forestry has arisen from a
misunderstanding of its aim. Its aim is not to prevent the cutting
down of trees, but to direct their cutting in such ways that in the
future there will still be trees to cut. "Thru use to a greater use,"
is the motto of the Forest Service. The difference between destructive
lumbering and conservative lumbering is that the former cuts one crop
regardless of the future; while the latter plans to cut crop after
crop indefinitely. In other words, in conservative lumbering, the
trees to be cut are not selected solely with reference to their
immediate market value. Not one crop, but many, is the forester's

[Illustration: Fig. 122. Conservative Lumbering. Black Hills National
Forest, South Dakota. Note the brush, cord-wood, and logs piled
separately,--a fine clean-up. Nothing cut below 12" diameter. _U. S.
Forest Service._]

So long as the supply seemed exhaustless, forests might be and were
treated as mines are, _i.e._, exploited for the sake of immediate
profit; but now that lumbermen begin to realize that the end of the
supply is in sight, more conservative methods are being adopted. We
cannot afford to kill the goose that lays the golden eggs. In order
then to obtain as rich harvests as possible, the modern forester makes
use of various methods, some negative, some positive.

Waste is avoided in all possible ways, stumps are cut low and tops
high on the trunk, first class trees are not used for skids, bridges,
roads, etc., care is taken in "falling" trees and in dragging out
logs, that they will not injure other trees. Just as economical
disposal of the log has already been carried to a high degree of
perfection in the saw-mill, (see _Handwork in Wood_, Chapter II,) so
one object of forestry is to carry this economy back into the woods.

One of the underlying ideas in conservative lumbering is that the
"yield," _i.e._, the amount of wood taken out of a healthy forest
in a given time, shall be equal to the amount grown during the same
period. If less is taken out than grows, some trees will overmature
and decay; if more is taken out than grows, the forest will ultimately
be exhausted.

This principle may be carried out in a number of ways; but in any case
it is necessary to know how fast the forest is reproducing itself, and
this is one of the functions of the forester. The United States
Forest Service makes a definite offer of cooperation with farmers and
lumbermen and owners of forests to provide them with skilled foresters
for direction in this matter.

In the United States, the most practicable way of determining the
yield is by area, _i.e._, a certain fraction of a forest is to be
cut over once in a given length of time, a year or longer. The time
between two successive cuttings on the same area must be long enough
to allow the young trees left standing to ripen.

In a word, conservative lumbering involves (1) the treatment of the
forest as a source of crops, (2) systematic gathering, and (3) young
growth so left as to replace the outgo.

The important place that forests fill in the national economy may
be realized partly by the citation of a few facts as to the forest
products. The lumber industry is the fourth in value of products
among the great manufacturing industries of the United States,
being exceeded only by the iron and steel, the textile, and the meat
industries. It turns out a finished product worth $567,000,000.00. And
yet lumber constitutes only about one-half of the value of the total
output of forest products. Its annual value is three-fourths of a
billion dollars, ($666,641,367 in 1907,) while the annual value of
wood fuel, is $350,000,000. More than two-thirds of the people burn
wood for fuel. The next largest single item in the list is shingles
and laths, $32,000,000. (See _Forestry Bulletin_ No. 74, p. 7.)

    Outside of food products, no material is so universally
    used and so indispensable in human economy as wood. (Fernow,
    _Econ._, p. 21.)

The importance of forest products may also be learned from a mere list
of the varied uses to which they are put. Such a list would include:
fuel, wood and charcoal; houses (over half the population of the
United States live in wooden houses); the wooden parts of masonry and
steel buildings; scaffolding; barns, sheds and outhouses; ships, with
all their parts, and the masts and trim of steel ships, boats
and canoes; oars and paddles; railway ties (annual expenditure
$50,000,000), railway cars, a million in number; trestles and bridges
(more than 2,000 miles in length); posts and fencing; cooperage
stock (low estimate, $25,000,000 annually); packing crates, including
coffins; baskets; electric wire poles (annual cost about $10,000,000);
piles and submerged structures, like canal locks and water-wheels;
windmills; mining timbers (yearly cost, $7,500,000), indispensable
in all mining operations (for every 100 tons of coal mined, 2 tons of
mining timber are needed); street paving; veneers ($5,000,000.00 worth
made annually); vehicles, including carriages, wagons, automobiles
and sleighs; furniture; machines and their parts; patterns for metal
molding; tools and tool handles; musical instruments; cigar boxes;
matches; toothpicks; pencils; (315 million a year in the U. S.,
requiring over 7 million cubic feet of wood); engraving blocks;
shoe lasts, shoe trees and parts of shoes; hat blocks; agricultural
implements; hop and bean poles; playthings and toys, for both children
and adults; Christmas trees and decorations; pipes; walking sticks;
umbrella handles; crutches and artificial limbs; household utensils;

Products other than wood: Turpentine and resin (worth $20,000,000 a
year); tar; oils; tan-bark, 1-1/2 million cords (worth $13,000,000
a year); wood alcohol; wood pulp (worth $15,000,000 a year); nuts;
cellulose for collars, combs and car wheels; balsam, medicines;
lampblack; dyes; paper fiber (xylolin) for textiles; shellac and
varnish ($8,500,000 worth imported in 1907); vinegar and acetic acid;
confections (including maple sugar and syrup at $2,500,000 a year).

(3) The _Esthetic_ and sentimental uses of the forest, tho not to
be estimated in dollars and cents, are nevertheless of incalculable
benefit to the community. They would include the use of the forest
as pleasure grounds, for hunting, fishing, camping, photography, and
general sightseeing. Notable instances of the growing appreciation of
these uses of the forest are the reservation of the Yellowstone and
Yosemite Parks as pleasure grounds.


The second object of forestry is the preservation of the forest, or
continued reproduction.

In addition to obtaining crops of trees, the forester plans to keep
the forest in such condition that it will constantly reproduce itself
and never become exhausted.

This does not mean that no forests are to be cut down, or that a given
area, once a forest, is to be always a forest. Just as the individual
farmer needs some land for fields, some for pasture, and some for
woodlots, so the nation needs some for cities, some for farms, some
for pleasure grounds, and some for forests. But it does mean that
fruitful forests shall not be turned into wildernesses as thousands of
square miles now are, by the methods of destructive lumbering.

In general, better land is necessary for agriculture than for
forestry, and it is therefore only the part of wisdom to use the
better land for fields and reserve the poorer land for forests. There
are in the United States enormous regions that are fit for nothing but
forests, but many of these, as in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan,
have simply been denuded of their trees and no provision has been made
for their reproduction. This then is the second aim of forestry,--to
treat the forest so that it will continue to reproduce itself.

In order to obtain this result, certain forest conditions have to be
preserved. What these conditions are, we have already noticed (see
Chap. V, The Forest Organism). They are partly topographical and
climatic and partly historical. They include such factors as, soil,
moisture, temperature, and light, the forest cover, the forest floor,
the density and mixture of growth, all conditions of forest growth.
It is only as the forester preserves these conditions, or to put it
otherwise, it is only as he obeys the laws of the forest organism that
he can preserve the forest. For a long period of our national history,
we Americans were compelled to conform our life and institutions to
the presence of the primeval forest, but by long observation of what
happens naturally in the forest, there have been developed in Europe
and in America certain ways of handling it so as to make it our
servant and not our master.

These ways are called silvicultural systems. They are all based on the
nature of the forest itself, and they succeed only because they are
modifications of what takes place naturally in the woods.

As we have seen above (p. 220) trees reproduce themselves either by
sprouts or by seeds. This fact gives rise to two general methods of
reproduction, called the coppice systems and the seed systems.

[Illustration: Fig. 123. Chestnut Coppice. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Coppice_, Fig. 123. In the simpler form of this system, the forest
is divided into a certain number of parts, say thirty, and one part is
cut down each year. New sprouts at once start up, which will mature
a year later than those in the part cut the previous year. Where the
trees of each part are thirty years old at cutting, thirty years is
called the "rotation period." The coppice is said to be managed on
a thirty-year rotation. The system is widely used in eastern United
States, for fuel, posts, charcoal, railway ties, and other small
stuff, as well as for tan-bark. This system is modified by maintaining
an overwood composed of seedling trees or selected sprouts above a
stand of sprouts. This is called the Reserve Sprout method and is used
with admirable results by the French.

_Seed Forests._ In contrast with coppice forests, those raised from
seeds produce the best class of timber, such as is used for saw logs.

[Illustration: Fig. 124. Seeding from the Side. White Pine. New
Hampshire. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Seeding from the side_, Fig. 124. Many forests naturally spread at
their borders from the scattering of their seeds. "Old field pine" is
so called from its tendency to spread in this way on old fields. This
natural "Seeding from the Side" has given rise to the "Group System,"
in which an area of ripe trees is cut off and the trees alongside are
depended upon to reproduce new ones on the cut-over area. The openings
are gradually enlarged until all the old timber is cut out, and the
young growth has taken its place. In its best form there is a definite
"rotation period," say eighty years. This system is simple, safe, and
very useful, especially for small openings in woodlots. A modification
of this is the "Strip System," in which long narrow openings, say
seventy-five yards wide, are cut out and gradually widened. The strips
are cut in the proper direction so that the prevailing winds will
cross them, both for the sake of avoiding windfalls and to help
scatter the seed. Where the soil is very dry, the strips may run east
and west to protect the seedlings from the sun.

[Illustration: Fig. 125. Virgin Forest, Trees of All Ages. Jackson
Co., North Carolina. _U.S. Forest Service._]

_Selection Forests._ The typical virgin forest, Fig. 125, is one in
which trees of all ages are closely intermingled, and it may be either
"mixed" or "pure." If a farmer had a woodlot of this character and
every year went over it with the ax, cutting out such trees as he
needed for his purpose, and also trees whose removal would improve the
woods, but taking care not to cut out each year more than the amount
of the average growth, he would be using the "Selection System." This
system is the best way of keeping a forest dense and of preserving
one which is difficult to start afresh, as on a mountain slope; it is
practicable where the woods are small or under a high state of care,
as in Europe, where this system has been in use for seven centuries.
But the cost of road maintenance and of logging is high and it is
therefore impracticable in most lumber regions in the United States,
except for woods of especial value, like black walnut.

_Localized Selection._ If instead of the whole forest being treated in
this way every year, it were divided up into perhaps twenty parts, and
from each part there were taken out each year as much lumber as would
equal the annual growth of the whole forest, such a system would be
called "Localized Selection." The cost of logging would be greatly
reduced and if care were taken to leave standing some seed trees and
to cut no trees below a determined size, as twelve inches, the forest
would maintain itself in good condition. This system has been applied
with great success in certain private forests in the Adirondacks.

_Regular Seed Forest or High Forest._ In the system already mentioned
above of seeding from the side, the trees near the cut areas are
depended upon to seed these areas. Moreover, no especial pains are
taken to preserve the forest floor and the forest cover. But all trees
do not bear seeds annually, nor do their seedlings thrive under such
conditions. In other words, in some forests especial pains must
be taken to secure reproduction, and the forest conditions must
be maintained with special reference to the growing crop. For this
purpose, the cuttings take place thru a series of years, sometimes
lasting even twenty years. These reproduction cuttings have reference,
now to a stimulus to the seed trees, now to the preparation of the
seed bed, now to the encouragement of the seedlings. Then later,
the old crop is gradually cut away. Later still, in twenty or thirty
years, the new forest is thinned, and when it reaches maturity,
perhaps in one hundred or two hundred years, the process is repeated.
This is called the "Regular Seed Forest." It produces very valuable
timber, and has been used for a long time in Switzerland, especially
for beech and balsam.

The system is complicated and therefore unsafe in ignorant hands, and
the logging is expensive.

_Two-storied Seed Forest._ A modification of the system of Regular
Seed Forest is the planting of another and a tolerant species of tree
under older intolerant trees to make a cover for the soil, to prevent
the growth of grass and weeds, and to improve the quality of the upper

An illustration of a natural two-storied seed forest is shown in Fig.

[Illustration: No. 126. Two-storied Seed Forest. Fir under Beech,
Germany. _U. S. Forest Service._]

_Planting._ The planting of forest trees is a comparatively
unimportant part of modern forestry. It is a mistaken idea, not
uncommon, that the usual way of reproducing forests is to plant trees.
It is true that in the pineries of North Germany and in the spruce
forests of Saxony, it is common to cut clean and then replant, but it
is absurd to conclude, as some have done, that forestry consists of
planting a tree every time one is cut. Even if planting were the best
method, many more than one tree would have to be planted for each one
cut, in order to maintain the forest. So far as America is concerned,
not for a long time will planting be much used for reproduction.

    The greater portion of American woodlands is in the
    condition of culled forests, that is, forests from which
    the merchantable trees have been cut, leaving the younger
    individuals, as well as all trees belonging to unmarketable
    species. Even on the areas where the lumbermen have made a
    clean cut of the original timber, new trees will come up of
    themselves from seeds blown from the surrounding forests or
    falling from occasional individuals left standing. (Bruncken,
    p. 133.)

The usefulness of planting in America is mainly for reclaiming
treeless regions, as in the west, and where timber is high priced.
The area of planted timber in the Middle West aggregates many hundred
thousand acres, once waste land, now converted into useful woods.[3]

Planting has been made possible in the far west by extensive
irrigation systems, and farther east by the lessening of prairie
fires, which once set the limit to tree growth in the prairie states.
In many parts of Illinois, southern Wisconsin and other prairie
States, there is much more forest land than there was twenty-five
years ago.

What planting can do, may be seen on some worn out pastures in New
England, Fig. 127. With the western movement of agriculture,
the abandoned farms of New England are to some extent becoming
re-forested, both naturally and by planting, as with white pine, which
grows even on sandy soil. Between 1820 and 1880, there was a period of
enthusiastic white-pine planting in New England, and tho the interest
died on account of the cheap transportation of western lumber, those
early plantations prove that white pine can be planted at a profit
even on sand barrens. Once worn out and useless pastures are now worth
$150 an acre and produce yearly a net income of $3 or more an acre.

[Illustration: Fig. 127. Planted White Pine, Fifty Years Old,
Bridgewater, Mass. _U. S. Forest Service._]


Besides utilization and preservation, the third main object of
forestry is the improvement of the forest. It is not an uncommon
mistake to suppose that the virgin forest is the best forest for human
purposes. It is a comparatively new idea, especially in America, that
a forest can be improved; that is, that better trees can be raised
than those which grow naturally. Lumbermen commonly say, "You never
can raise a second growth of white pine as good as the first growth."
As if this "first growth" were not itself the successsor of thousands
of other generations! There is even a legend that white pine will not
grow in its old habitat. Says Bruncken,

    Many people probably imagine that a primeval wood, "by
    nature's own hand planted," cannot be surpassed in the number
    and size of its trees, and consequently in the amount of wood
    to be derived from it. But the very opposite is true. No wild
    forest can ever equal a cultivated one in productiveness. To
    hope that it will, is very much as if a farmer were to expect
    a full harvest from the grain that may spring up spontaneously
    in his fields without his sowing. A tract of wild forest in
    the first place does not contain so many trees as might grow
    thereon, but only so many as may have survived the struggle
    for life with their own and other species of plants occupying
    the locality. Many of the trees so surviving never attain
    their best development, being suppressed, overshadowed, and
    hindered by stronger neighbors. Finally much of the space that
    might be occupied by valuable timber may be given up to trees
    having little or no market value. The rule is universal that
    the amount and value of material that can be taken from an
    area of wild forest remains far behind what the same land
    may bear if properly treated by the forester. It is certain,
    therefore, that in the future, when most American forests
    shall be in a high state of cultivation, the annual output of
    forests will, from a much restricted area, exceed everything
    known at the present day. (Bruncken, _North American Forests
    and Forestry_, pp. 134-135.)

    It is probable that the virgin forest produces but a tithe of
    the useful material which it is capable of producing. (Fernow,
    p. 98.)

    Mr. Burbank has demonstrated that trees can be bred for any
    particular quality,--for largeness, strength, shape, amount of
    pitch, tannin, sugar and the like, and for rapidity of
    growth; in fact that any desirable attribute of a tree may
    be developed simply by breeding and selecting. He has created
    walnut trees, by crossing common varieties, that have grown
    six times as much in thirteen years as their ancestors did in
    twenty-eight years, preserving at the same time, the strength,
    hardness and texture of their forebears. The grain of the wood
    has been made more beautiful at the same time. The trees are
    fine for fuel and splendidly adapted to furniture manufacture.
    (Harwood, _The New Earth_, p. 179.)

Nature provides in the forest merely those varieties that will
survive. Man, by interfering in Nature's processes but obeying her
laws, raises what he wants. Nature says: those trees that survive
are fit and does not care whether the trees be straight or crooked,
branched or clear. Man says: those trees shall survive which are fit
for human uses. Man raises better grains and fruits and vegetables
than Nature, unaided, can, and, in Europe, better trees for lumber. In
America there has been such an abundance of trees good enough for our
purposes that we have simply gone out and gathered them, just as a
savage goes out to gather berries and nuts. Some day our descendants
will smile at our treatment of forests much as we smile at
root-digging savages, unless, indeed, we so far destroy the forests
that they will be more angered than amused. In Europe and Japan, the
original supply of trees having been exhausted, forests have been
cultivated for centuries with the purpose of raising crops larger in
quantity and better in quality.

There are various methods used in forest improvement. Improvement
cuttings, as the name implies, are cuttings made to improve the
quality of the forest, whether by thinning out poor species of trees,
unsound trees, trees crowding more valuable ones, or trees called
"wolves"; that is, trees unduly overshadowing others. Improvement
cuttings are often necessary as a preliminary step before any
silvicultural system can be applied. Indeed, many of the silvicultural
systems involve steady improvement of the forest.

The pruning of branches is a method of improvement, carrying on the
natural method by which trees in a forest clean themselves of their

Seeds of valuable species are often sowed, when the conditions are
proper, in order to introduce a valuable species, just as brooks
and ponds are stocked with fine fish. In general it may be said that
improvement methods are only in their infancy, especially in America.

    [Footnote 1: A concise and interesting statement of the
    relation of the forest to rain and floods is to be found in
    Pinchot: _Primer of Forestry_, Bulletin No. 24, Part II, Chap.

    [Footnote 2: For an interesting account of an application of
    this method, see Ward, p. 35.]

    [Footnote 3: To encourage such forest extension, the Forest
    Service is doing much by the publication of bulletins
    recommending methods and trees suited to special regions, as,
    e.g., on Forest Planting in Illinois, in the Sand Hill Region
    of Nebraska, on Coal Lands in Western Pennsylvania, in Western
    Kansas, in Oklahoma and adjacent regions, etc.]



  I Utilization.

      Pinchot, _Primer_, II, pp. 14-18, 38-48.
      Bruncken, pp. 121-131, _For. Bull._ No. 61.

  (1) Protective.

        Pinchot, _Primer_, II, pp. 66-73.
        Craft, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1905, pp.  636-641, (Map. p. 639.)
        Toumey, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1903, p. 279.
        Bruncken, pp. 166-173.
        _For. and Irrig._, passim.
        Shaler, I, pp. 485-489.

  (2) Productive.

        Kellogg, _For. Bull._, No. 74,
        Fernow, _For. Invest._, p. 9.
        Roth, _First Book_, p. 133.
        Zon & Clark, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1907, p. 277.
        Boulger, pp. 60-76.
        Roth, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1896, p. 391.
        Fernow, _Economics_, pp. 23-33.

  (3) Esthetic.

        Roth, _First Book_, p. 180.

 II Preservation.

      Pinchot, _Primer_, II, pp. 18-36.
      Bruncken, pp. 95, 190.
      Graves, _For. Bull._, No. 26, pp. 67-70.
      Roth, _First Book_, pp. 41-76, 193-194.
      Roth, _For. Bull._, No. 16, pp. 8, 9.
      Fernow, _Economics_, 165-196.


        Roth, _First Book_, pp. 76-94, 195-198.
        Hall, _Agric. Yr. Bk._, 1902, pp. 145-156.
        _For. Circs._, Nos. 37, 41, 45, 81.
        Bruncken, pp. 92, 133.
        _Forestry Bulletins_ Nos. 18, 45, 52, 65.

III Improvement.

        Bruncken, pp. 134-135, 152-160.
        Graves, _For. Bull._, No. 26, p. 39.
        Pinchot, _Adirondack Spruce_, p. 4.
        Harwood, pp. 143-181.

    [Footnote A: For general bibliography, see p. 4.]




The carpenter or other artisan who handles different woods, becomes
familiar with those he employs frequently, and learns to distinguish
them thru this familiarity, without usually being able to state the
points of distinction. If a wood comes before him with which he is not
familiar, he has, of course, no means of determining what it is, and
it is possible to select pieces even of those with which he is well
acquainted, different in appearance from the general run, that will
make him doubtful as to their identification. Furthermore, he may
distinguish between hard and soft pines, between oak and ash, or
between maple and birch, which are characteristically different; but
when it comes to distinguishing between the several species of pine or
oak or ash or birch, the absence of readily recognizable characters is
such that but few practitioners can be relied upon to do it. Hence, in
the market we find many species mixed and sold indiscriminately.

To identify the different woods it is necessary to have a knowledge of
the definite, invariable differences in their structure, besides
that of the often variable differences in their appearance. These
structural differences may either be readily visible to the naked eye
or with a magnifier, or they may require a microscopical examination.
In some cases such an examination can not be dispensed with, if we
would make absolutely sure. There are instances, as in the pines,
where even our knowledge of the minute anatomical structure is not yet
sufficient to make a sure identification.

In the following key an attempt has been made--the first, so far as
we know, in English literature--to give a synoptical view of the
distinctive features of the commoner woods of the United States, which
are found in the markets or are used in the arts. It will be observed
that the distinction has been carried in most instances no further
than to genera or classes of woods, since the distinction of species
can hardly be accomplished without elaborate microscopic study, and
also that, as far as possible, reliance has been placed only on such
characteristics as can be distinguished with the naked eye or a simple
magnifying glass, in order to make the key useful to the largest
number. Recourse has also been taken for the same reason to the less
reliable and more variable general external appearance, color, taste,
smell, weight, etc.

The user of the key must, however, realize that external appearance,
such, for example, as color, is not only very variable but also very
difficult to describe, individual observers differing especially in
seeing and describing shades of color. The same is true of statements
of size, when relative, and not accurately measured, while weight and
hardness can perhaps be more readily approximated. Whether any feature
is distinctly or only indistinctly seen will also depend somewhat
on individual eyesight, opinion, or practice. In some cases the
resemblance of different species is so close that only one other
expedient will make distinction possible, namely, a knowledge of the
region from which the wood has come. We know, for instance, that no
longleaf pine grows in Arkansas and that no white pine can come from
Alabama, and we can separate the white cedar, giant arbor vitæ of the
West and the arbor vitæ of the Northeast, only by the difference of
the locality from which the specimen comes. With all these limitations
properly appreciated, the key will be found helpful toward greater
familiarity with the woods which are more commonly met with.

The features which have been utilized in the key and with which--their
names as well as their appearance--therefore, the reader must
familiarize himself before attempting to use the key, are mostly
described as they appear in cross-section. They are:

(1) Sap-wood and heart-wood (see p. 17), the former being the wood
from the outer and the latter from the inner part of the tree. In some
cases they differ only in shade, and in others in kind of color, the
heart-wood exhibiting either a darker shade or a pronounced color.
Since one can not always have the two together, or be certain whether
he has sap-wood or heart-wood, reliance upon this feature is, to
be sure, unsatisfactory, yet sometimes it is the only general
characteristic that can be relied upon. If further assurance is
desired, microscopic structure must be examined; in such cases
reference has been made to the presence or absence of tracheids in
pith rays and the structure of their walls, especially projections and

(2) Annual rings, their formation having been described on page 19.
(See also Figs. 128-130.) They are more or less distinctly marked,
and by such marking a classification of three great groups of wood is

(3) Spring wood and summer wood, the former being the interior (first
formed wood of the year), the latter the exterior (last formed) part
of the ring. The proportion of each and the manner in which the one
merges into the other are sometimes used, but more frequently the
manner in which the pores appear distributed in either.

(4) Pores, which are vessels cut thru, appearing as holes in
cross-section, in longitudinal section as channels, scratches, or
identifications. (See p. 23 and Figs. 129 and 130.) They appear
only in the broad-leaved, so called, hard woods; their relative size
(large, medium, small, minute, and indistinct when they cease to be
visible individually by the naked eye) and manner of distribution in
the ring being of much importance, and especially in the summer
wood, where they appear singly, in groups, or short broken lines, in
continuous concentric, often wavy lines, or in radial branching lines.

(5) Resin ducts (see p. 26 and Fig. 128) which appear very much like
pores in cross-section, namely, as holes or lighter or darker colored
dots, but much more scattered. They occur only in coniferous woods,
and their presence or absence, size, number, and distribution are an
important distinction in these woods.

(6) Pith rays (see p. 21 and Figs. 129 and 130), which in
cross-section appear as radial lines, and in radial section as
interrupted bands of varying breadth, impart a peculiar luster to that
section in some woods. They are most readily visible with the naked
eye or with a magnifier in the broad-leaved woods. In coniferous
woods they are usually so fine and closely packed that to the casual
observer they do not appear. Their breadth and their greater or less
distinctness are used as distinguishing marks, being styled fine,
broad, distinct, very distinct, conspicuous, and indistinct when no
longer visible by the naked (strong) eye.

(7) Concentric lines, appearing in the summer wood of certain species
more or less distinct, resembling distantly the lines of pores but
much finer and not consisting of pores. (See Fig. 129.)

Of microscopic features, the following only have been referred to:

(8) Tracheids, a description of which is to be found on page 28.

(9) Pits, simple and bordered, especially the number of simple pits
in the cells of the pith rays, which lead into each of the adjoining

For standards of weight, consult table on pages 50 and 192; for
standards of hardness, table on page 195.

Unless otherwise stated the color refers always to the fresh
cross-section of a piece of dry wood; sometimes distinct kinds of
color, sometimes only shades, and often only general color effects

    [Footnote A: From Forestry Bulletin No. 10, _U. S. Department
    of Agriculture_.]


Nobody need expect to be able to use successfully any key for the
distinction of woods or of any other class of natural objects without
some practice. This is especially true with regard to woods, which
are apt to vary much, and when the key is based on such meager general
data as the present. The best course to adopt is to supply one's self
with a small sample collection of woods, accurately named. Small,
polished tablets are of little use for this purpose. The pieces
should be large enough, if possible, to include pith and bark, and of
sufficient width to permit ready inspection of the cross-section.
By examining these with the aid of the key, beginning with the
better-known woods, one will soon learn to see the features described
and to form an idea of the relative standards which the maker of the
key had in mind. To aid in this, the accompanying illustrations will
be of advantage. When the reader becomes familiar with the key, the
work of identifying any given piece will be comparatively easy. The
material to be examined must, of course, be suitably prepared. It
should be moistened; all cuts should be made with a very sharp knife
or razor and be clean and smooth, for a bruised surface reveals but
little structure. The most useful cut may be made along one of the
edges. Instructive, thin, small sections may be made with a sharp
penknife or razor, and when placed on a piece of thin glass, moistened
and covered with another piece of glass, they may be examined by
holding them toward the light.

Finding, on examination with the magnifier, that it contains pores, we
know it is not coniferous or non-porous. Finding no pores collected
in the spring-wood portion of the annual ring, but all scattered
(diffused) thru the ring, we turn at once to the class of
"Diffuse-porous woods." We now note the size and manner in which
the pores are distributed thru the ring. Finding them very small and
neither conspicuously grouped, nor larger nor more abundant in the
spring-wood, we turn to the third group of this class. We now note
the pith rays, and finding them neither broad nor conspicuous, but
difficult to distinguish, even with the magnifier, we at once exclude
the wood from the first two sections of this group and place it in the
third, which is represented by only one kind, cottonwood. Finding the
wood very soft, white, and on the longitudinal section with a silky
luster, we are further assured that our determination is correct.
We may now turn to the list of woods and obtain further information
regarding the occurrence, qualities, and uses of the wood.

Sometimes our progress is not so easy; we may waver in what group or
section to place the wood before us. In such cases we may try each
of the doubtful roads until we reach a point where we find ourselves
entirely wrong and then return and take up another line; or we may
anticipate some of the later mentioned features and finding them apply
to our specimen, gain additional assurance of the direction we ought
to travel. Color will often help us to arrive at a speedy decision.
In many cases, especially with conifers, which are rather difficult to
distinguish, a knowledge of the locality from which the specimen comes
is at once decisive. Thus, northern white cedar, and bald cypress, and
the cedar of the Pacific will be identified, even without the somewhat
indefinite criteria given in the key.


I. NON-POROUS WOODS--Pores not visible or conspicuous on
cross-section, even with magnifier. Annual rings distinct by denser
(dark colored) bands of summer wood (Fig. 128).

[Illustration: Fig. 128. "Non-porous" Woods. _A_, fir; _B_, "hard"
pine; _C_, soft pine; _ar_, annual ring; _o.e._, outer edge of ring;
_i.e._, inner edge of ring; _s.w._, summer wood; _sp.w._, spring wood;
_rd._, resin ducts.]

II. RING-POROUS WOODS--Pores numerous, usually visible on
cross-section without magnifier. Annual rings distinct by a zone of
large pores collected in the spring wood, alternating with the denser
summer wood (Fig. 129).

[Illustration: Fig. 129. "Ring-porous" Woods White Oak and Hickory.
_a. r._, annual ring; _su. w._, summer wood; _sp. w._, spring wood;
_v_, vessels or pores; _c. l._, "concentric" lines; _rt_, darker
tracts of hard fibers forming the firm part of oak wood; _pr_, pith

III. DIFFUSE-POROUS WOODS--Pores numerous, usually not plainly visible
on cross-section without magnifier. Annual rings distinct by a fine
line of denser summer wood cells, often quite indistinct; pores
scattered thru annual ring, no zone of collected pores in spring wood
(Fig. 130).

[Illustration: Fig. 130. "Diffuse-porous" Woods. _ar_, annual ring;
_pr_, pith rays which are "broad" at _a_, "fine" at _b_, "indistinct"
at _d_.]

NOTE.--The above described three groups are exogenous, i.e., they
grow by adding annually wood on their circumference. A fourth group
is formed by the endogenous woods, like yuccas and palms, which do not
grow by such additions.


(Includes all coniferous woods.)

A. Resin ducts wanting.[1]

   1. No distinct heart-wood.

     _a._ Color effect yellowish white; summer wood darker yellowish
          (under microscope pith ray without tracheids)..........FIRS.

     _b._ Color effect reddish (roseate) (under microscope pith
          ray with tracheids) ................................HEMLOCK.

   2. Heart-wood present, color decidedly different in kind from

     _a._ Heart-wood light orange red; sap-wood, pale lemon; wood,
          heavy and hard .........................................YEW.

     _b._ Heartwood purplish to brownish red; sap-wood yellowish
          white; wood soft to medium hard, light, usually with
          aromatic odor, ...................................RED CEDAR.

     _c._ Heart-wood maroon to terra cotta or deep brownish red;
          sap-wood light orange to dark amber, very soft and light,
          no odor; pith rays  very distinct, specially pronounced
          on radial section ..................................REDWOOD.

   3. Heart-wood present, color only different in shade from sap-wood,
      dingy-yellowish brown.

     _a._ Odorless and tasteless ........................BALD CYPRESS.

     _b._ Wood with mild resinous odor, but tasteless ....WHITE CEDAR.

     _c._ Wood with strong resinous odor and peppery taste when
           freshly cut, ................................INCENSE CEDAR.

B. Resin ducts present.
   1. No distinct heartwood; color white, resin ducts very small,
      not numerous ............................................SPRUCE.

   2. Distinct heart-wood present.

     _a._ Resin ducts numerous, evenly scattered thru the ring.

         _a.'_ Transition from spring wood to summer wood gradual;
               annual ring distinguished by a fine line of dense
               summer-wood cells; color, white to yellowish red;
               wood soft and light .......................SOFT PINES.[2]

         _b.'_ Transition from spring wood to summer wood more or
               less abrupt; broad bands of dark-colored summer
               wood; color from light to deep orange; wood medium
               hard and heavy ............................HARD PINES.[2]

     _b._ Resin ducts not numerous nor evenly distributed.

         _a'._ Color of heart-wood orange-reddish, sap-wood yellowish
               (same as hard pine); resin ducts frequently combined in
               groups of 8 to 30, forming lines on the cross-section
               (tracheids with spirals), ..............DOUGLAS SPRUCE.

         _b'._ Color of heart-wood light russet brown; of sap-wood
               yellowish brown; resin ducts very few, irregularly
               scattered (tracheids without spirals) ........TAMARACK.

    [Footnote 1: Soft and hard pines are arbitrary distinctions
    and the two not distinguishable at the limit.]

    [Footnote 2: To discover the resin ducts a very smooth surface
    is necessary, since resin ducts are frequently seen only with
    difficulty, appearing on the cross-section as fine whiter
    or darker spots normally scattered singly, rarely in groups,
    usually in the summer wood of the annual ring. They are
    often much more easily seen on radial, and still more so on
    tangential sections, appearing there as fine lines or dots of
    open structure of different color or as indentations or pin
    scratches in a longitudinal direction.]



Spruce is hardly distinguishable from fir, except by the existence of
the resin ducts, and microscopically by the presence of tracheids
in the medullary rays. Spruce may also be confounded with soft pine,
except for the heart-wood color of the latter and the larger, more
frequent, and more readily visible resin ducts.

In the lumber yard, hemlock is usually recognized by color and the
silvery character of its surface. Western hemlocks partake of this
last character to a less degree.

Microscopically the white pine can be distinguished by having usually
only one large pit, while spruce shows three to five very small
pits in the parenchyma cells of the pith ray communicating with the

The distinction of the pines is possible only by microscopic
examination. The following distinctive features may assist in
recognizing, when in the log or lumber pile, those usually found in
the market:

The light, straw color, combined with great lightness and softness,
distinguishes the white pines (white pine and sugar pine) from the
hard pines (all others in the market), which may also be recognized
by the gradual change of spring wood into summer wood. This change
in hard pines is abrupt, making the summer wood appear as a sharply
defined and more or less broad band.

The Norway pine, which may be confounded with the shortleaf pine, can
be distinguished by being much lighter and softer. It may also,
but more rarely, be confounded with heavier white pine, but for the
sharper definition of the annual ring, weight, and hardness.

The longleaf pine is strikingly heavy, hard, and resinous, and usually
very regular and narrow ringed, showing little sap-wood, and differing
in this respect from the shortleaf pine and loblolly pine, which
usually have wider rings and more sap-wood, the latter excelling in
that respect.

The following convenient and useful classification of pines into four
groups, proposed by Dr. H. Mayr, is based on the appearance of the
pith ray as seen in a radial section of the spring wood of any ring:

Section I. Walls of the tracheids of the pith ray with dentate

   _a._ One to two large, simple pits to each tracheid on the radial
        walls of the cells of the pith ray.--Group 1. Represented in
        this country only by _P. resinosa_.

   _b._ Three to six simple pits to each tracheid, on the walls of
        the cells of the pith ray.--Group 2. _P. taeda_, _palustris_,
        etc., including most of our "hard" and "yellow" pines.

Section II. Walls of tracheids of pith ray smooth, without dentate

   _a._ One or two large pits to each tracheid on the radial walls of
        each cell of the pith ray.--Group 3. _P. strobus, lambertiana_,
        and other true white pines.

   _b._ Three to six small pits on the radial walls of each cell of
        the pith ray. Group 4. _P. parryana_, and other nut pines,
        including also _P. balfouriana_.



(Some of Group D and cedar elm imperfectly ring-porous.)

A. Pores in the summer wood minute, scattered singly or in groups, or in
   short broken lines, the course of which is never radial.

   1. Pith rays minute, scarcely distinct.

      _a._ Wood heavy and hard; pores in the summer wood not in clusters.

         _a.'_ Color of radial section not yellow.................ASH.

         _b.'_ Color of radial section light yellow; by which,
               together with its hardness and weight, this
               species is easily recognized, ............OSAGE ORANGE.

      _b._ Wood light and soft; pores in the summer wood in clusters
           of 10 to 30 .......................................CATALPA.

   2. Pith rays very fine, yet distinct; pores in summer wood
      usually single or in short lines; color of heart-wood
      reddish brown; of sap-wood yellowish white; peculiar odor
      on fresh section .....................................SASSAFRAS.

   3. Pith rays fine, but distinct.

       _a._ Very heavy and hard; heart-wood yellowish brown.
                                                         BLACK LOCUST.

       _b._ Heavy; medium hard to hard.

          _a.'_ Pores in summer wood very minute, usually in small
                clusters of 3 to 8; heart-wood light orange brown.
                                                         RED MULBERRY.

          _b.'_ Pores in summer wood small to minute, usually
                isolated; heart-wood cherry red ..........COFFEE TREE.

   4. Pith rays fine but very conspicuous, even without magnifier.
      Color of heart-wood red; of sap-wood pale lemon ...HONEY LOCUST.

B. Pores of summer wood minute or small, in concentric wavy and
   sometimes branching lines, appearing as finely-feathered hatchings
   on tangential section.

   1. Pith rays fine, but very distinct; color greenish white.
      Heart-wood absent or imperfectly developed ...........HACKBERRY.

   2. Pith rays indistinct; color of heart-wood reddish brown;
      sap-wood grayish to reddish white .........................ELMS.

C. Pores of summer wood arranged in radial branching lines (when very
   crowded radial arrangement somewhat obscured).

   1. Pith rays very minute, hardly visible .................CHESTNUT.

   2. Pith rays very broad and conspicuous .......................OAK.

D. Pores of summer wood mostly but little smaller than those of the
   spring wood, isolated and scattered; very heavy and hard woods.
   The pores of the spring wood sometimes form but an imperfect zone.
   (Some diffuse-porous woods of groups A and B may seem to belong

   1. Fine concentric lines (not of pores) as distinct, or nearly so,
      as the very fine pith rays; outer summer wood with a tinge of
      red; heart-wood light reddish brown ....................HICKORY.

   2. Fine concentric lines, much finer than the pith rays; no
      reddish tinge in summer wood; sap-wood white; heart-wood
      blackish .............................................PERSIMMON.



Sassafras and mulberry may be confounded but for the greater weight
and hardness and the absence of odor in the mulberry; the radial
section of mulberry also shows the pith rays conspicuously.

Honey locust, coffee tree, and black locust are also very similar in
appearance. The honey locust stands out by the conspicuousness of the
pith rays, especially on radial sections, on account of their height,
while the black locust is distinguished by the extremely great weight
and hardness, together with its darker brown color.

[Illustration: Fig. 131. Wood of Coffee Tree.]

The ashes, elms, hickories, and oaks may, on casual observation,
appear to resemble one another on account of the pronounced zone of
porous spring wood. (Figs. 129, 132, 135.) The sharply defined large
pith rays of the oak exclude these at once; the wavy lines of pores in
the summer wood, appearing as conspicuous finely-feathered hatchings
on tangential section, distinguish the elms; while the ashes differ
from the hickory by the very conspicuously defined zone of spring wood
pores, which in hickory appear more or less interrupted. The reddish
hue of the hickory and the more or less brown hue of the ash may also
aid in ready recognition. The smooth, radial surface of split hickory
will readily separate it from the rest.

[Illustration: Fig. 132. _A_, black ash; _B_, white ash; _C_, green

The different species of ash may be identified as follows (Fig. 132):

  1. Pores in the summer wood more or less united into lines.

    _a._ The lines short and broken, occurring mostly near the limit
         of the ring .......................................WHITE ASH.

    _b._ The lines quite long and conspicuous in most parts of the
         summer wood .......................................GREEN ASH.

  2. Pores in the summer wood not united into lines, or rarely so.

    _a._ Heart-wood reddish brown and very firm ..............RED ASH.

    _b._ Heart-wood grayish brown, and much more porous ....BLACK ASH.

In the oaks, two groups can be readily distinguished by the manner in
which the pores are distributed in the summer wood. (Fig. 133.) In
the white oaks the pores are very fine and numerous and crowded in
the outer part of the summer wood, while in the black or red oaks the
pores are larger, few in number, and mostly isolated. The live oaks,
as far as structure is concerned, belong to the black oaks, but are
much less porous, and are exceedingly heavy and hard.

[Illustration: Fig. 133. Wood of Red Oak. (For white oak see fig. 129,
p. 291.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 134. Wood of Chestnut.]

[Illustration: Fig. 135. Wood of Hickory.]



(A few indistinctly ring-porous woods of Group II, D, and cedar elm
may seem to belong here.)

A. Pores varying in size from large to minute; largest in spring wood,
   thereby giving sometimes the appearance of a ring-porous arrangement.

   1. Heavy and hard; color of heart-wood (especially on longitudinal
      section) chocolate brown ..........................BLACK WALNUT.

   2. Light and soft; color of heart-wood light reddish brown

B. Pores all minute and indistinct; most numerous in spring wood,
   giving rise to a lighter colored zone or line (especially on
   longitudinal section), thereby appearing sometimes ring-porous;
   wood hard, heart-wood vinous reddish; pith rays very fine, but very
   distinct. (See also the sometimes indistinct ring-porous cedar elm,
   and occasionally winged elm, which are readily distinguished by the
   concentric wavy lines of pores in the summer wood) .........CHERRY.

C. Pores minute or indistinct, neither conspicuously larger nor more
   numerous in the spring wood and evenly distributed.

   1. Broad pith rays present.

     _a._ All or most pith rays broad, numerous, and crowded,
         especially on tangential sections, medium heavy and hard,
         difficult to split. ................................SYCAMORE.

     _b._ Only part of the pith rays broad.

        _a.'_ Broad pith rays well defined, quite numerous;
              wood reddish white to reddish ....................BEECH.

        _b.'_ Broad pith rays not sharply defined, made up of many
              small rays, not numerous. Stem furrowed, and therefore
              the periphery of section, and with it the annual rings
              sinuous, bending in and out, and the large pith rays
              generally limited to the furrows or concave portions.
              Wood white, not reddish .....................BLUE BEECH.

   2. No broad pith rays present.

      _a._ Pith rays small to very small, but quite distinct.

         _a.'_ Wood hard.

            _a."_ Color reddish white, with dark reddish tinge in
                   outer summer wood ...........................MAPLE.

            _b."_ Color white, without reddish tinge ...........HOLLY.

        _b.'_ Wood soft to very soft.

          _a."_ Pores crowded, occupying nearly all the space between
                pith rays.

            _a.'"_ Color yellowish white, often with a greenish tinge
                   in heart-wood ........................TULIP POPLAR.
                                                        CUCUMBER TREE.

            _b.'"_ Color of sap-wood grayish, of heart-wood light to
                   dark reddish brown ......................SWEET GUM.

          _b."_ Pores not crowded, occupying not over one-third the
                space between pith rays; heart-wood brownish white
                to very light brown .........................BASSWOOD.

      _b._ Pith rays scarcely distinct, yet if viewed with ordinary
           magnifier, plainly visible.

         _a.'_ Pores indistinct to the naked eye.

            _a."_ Color uniform pale yellow; pith rays not
                  conspicuous even on the radial section .....BUCKEYE.

            _b."_ Sap-wood yellowish gray, heart-wood grayish brown;
                  pith rays conspicuous on the radial section.
                                                             SOUR GUM.

         _b.'_ Pores scarcely distinct, but mostly visible as grayish
               specks on the cross-section; sap-wood whitish,
               heart-wood reddish ..............................BIRCH.

D. Pith rays not visible or else indistinct, even if viewed with

   1. Wood very soft, white, or in shades of brown, usually with a
    silky luster .................................COTTONWOOD (POPLAR).



Cherry and birch are sometimes confounded, the high pith rays on the
cherry on radial sections readily distinguishes it; distinct pores
on birch and spring wood zone in cherry as well as the darker
vinous-brown color of the latter will prove helpful.

Two groups of birches can be readily distinguished, tho specific
distinction is not always possible.

  1. Pith rays fairly distinct, the pores rather few and not more
     abundant in the spring wood: wood heavy, usually darker,
                                        CHERRY BIRCH and YELLOW BIRCH.

  2. Pith rays barely distinct, pores more numerous and commonly
     forming a more porous spring wood zone; wood of medium weight,
                                                 CANOE OR PAPER BIRCH.

[Illustration: Fig. 136. Wood of Beech, Sycamore and Birch.]

The species of maple may be distinguished as follows:

   1. Most of the pith rays broader than the pores and very
      conspicuous ........................................SUGAR MAPLE.

   2. Pith rays not or rarely broader than the pores, fine but

     _a._ Wood heavy and hard, usually of darker reddish color and
           commonly spotted on cross-section ...............RED MAPLE.

     _b._ Wood of medium weight and hardness, usually light colored.
                                                         SILVER MAPLE.

[Illustration: Fig. 137. Wood of Maple.]

Red maple is not always safely distinguished from soft maple. In box
elder the pores are finer and more numerous than in soft maple. The
various species of elm may be distinguished as follows:

   1. Pores of spring wood form a broad band of several rows; easy
      splitting, dark brown heart ............................RED ELM.

   2. Pores of spring wood usually in a single row, or nearly so.

     _a._ Pores of spring wood large, conspicuously so
                                                            WHITE ELM.

     _b._ Pores of spring wood small to minute.

        _a.'_ Lines of pores in summer wood fine, not as wide as the
              intermediate spaces, giving rise to very compact grain
                                                             ROCK ELM.

        _b.'_ Lines of pores broad, commonly as wide as the
              intermediate spaces .........................WINGED ELM.

     _c._ Pores in spring wood indistinct, and therefore hardly a
          ring-porous wood .................................CEDAR ELM.


Fig. 138. Wood of Elm.
_a_ red elm; _b_, white elm; _c_, winged elm.]

[Illustration: Fig. 139. Walnut. _p.r._, pith rays; _c.l._, concentric
lines; _v_, vessels or pores; _su. w._, summer wood; _sp. w._, spring

[Illustration: Fig. 140. Wood of Cherry.]


_Abies grandis_, 96.

_Acer dasycarpum_, 172.

_Acer macrophyllum_, 170.

_Acer rubrum_, 174.

_Acer saccharinum_, 172.

_Acer saccharum_, 176.

_Agaricus melleus_, 236.

_Agarics_, 234, 236.

Alburnum, 17.

Ambrosia beetles, 242.

Angiosperms, 9.

Animal enemies, 239.

Arborvitae, Giant, 104.

Ash, 182-191, 296.

Ash, Black, 182, 298.

Ash, Blue, 186.

Ash, Hoop, 182.

Ash, Oregon, 184.

Ash, Red, 188, 298.

Ash, White, 25, 190, 298.

Bamboo, 10, 11.

Bark, 10, 13, 14.

Bark borers, 243.

Basswood, 14, 178, 301.

Bast, 13, 15, 16, 20.

Beech, 134, 300.

Beech, Blue, 124, 300.

Beech, Water, 124.

Beech, Water, 162.

Bees, carpenter, 246.

Beetles, 241-246.

_Betula lenta_, 130.

_Betula lutea_, 132.

_Betula nigra_, 128.

_Betula papyrifera_, 126.

Big Tree, 98, 208, 209, 220.

Birch, Black, 130.

Birch, Canoe, 126.

Birch, Cherry, 130.

Birch, Gray, 132.

Birch, Mahogany, 130.

Birch, Paper, 126.

Birch, Red, 128.

Birch, River, 128.

Birch, Sweet, 130.

Birch, White, 126.

Birch, Yellow, 132.

Bird's eye maple, 36.

Bluing, 234.

Bole, 211, 218.

Borers, 243-246.

Bowing, 47.

Branches, 37, 218, 226, 286.

Brittleness, 53.

Broad-leaved trees.
  See Trees, Broad-leaved.

Browsing, 240.

Buckeye, 301.

Bud, 14, 16, 36.

Buds, Adventitious, 36, 37.

Bullnut, 118.

_Buprestid_, 243.

Burl, 35.

Butternut, 144, 300.

Button Ball, 162.

Buttonwood, 162.

Calico poplar, 246.

Cambium, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 22, 237.

Canopy, 204, 211, 212.

Carpenter worms, 245.

Carpenter bees, 246.

_Carpinus caroliniana_, 124.

Catalpa, 296.

_Castanea dentata_, 136.

Case-hardening, 48.

_Carya tomentosa_, 118.

_Carya porcina_, 122.

_Carya alba_, 120.

Cedar, Canoe, 104.

Cedar Incense, 295.

Cedar, Oregon, 108.

Cedar, Port Orford, 108.

Cedar, Red, 110, 223, 295.

Cedar, Western Red, 104, 206, 207.

Cedar, White, 106, 295.

Cedar, White, 108.

Cells, Wood, 15, 19, 20, 21, 24, 26, 41, 42.

Cells, Fibrous, 28.

Cellulose, 15.

_Cerambycid_, 243.

_Chamaecyparis lawsoniana_, 108.

_Chamaecyparis thyordes_, 106.

Checks, 43, 47, 232.

Cherry, Wild Black, 164, 300.

Chestnut, 136, 298.

Cleaning, 218, 286.

Cleavability of wood, 41, 53.

Coffee Tree, 297.

Color of wood, 18.

Cold, 214, 216.

_Coleoptera_, 241.

Colors of woods, 17, 18, 290.

Columbian timber beetle, 245.

Comb-grain, 54.

Composition of forest, 197-210, 223.

Compression, 51, 52.

Conch, 235.

Cones, Annual, 19.

Conifers, 9, 10, 12, 24-26, 29, 30, 48, 58-111, 205, 220, 237, 251.

Conservation of forests, 262.

Coppice, 220, 278, 279.

Cork, 13, 19.

Cortex, 13, 15.

_Corthylus columbianus_, 245.

Cottonwood, 301.

Cover, 211.

Crop, The Forest, 274.

Crown, 211, 227.

Cucumber Tree, 156, 301.

_Curculionid_, 243.

Cypress, Bald, 102, 215, 295.

Cypress, Lawson, 108.

Decay, 235.

Deciduous trees, 10.

Dicotoledons, 9, 10.

Differentiation of cells, 16.

Diffuse-porous. See wood, diffuse-porous.

Distribution of species, 218.

Distribution of forests, 197-210.

Drouth, 213, 231.

Dry-rot, 234, 238.

Duff, 224, 251.

Duramen, 17.

Elasticity of wood, 41, 53.

Elm, 152-155, 298.

Elm, American, 154.

Elm, Cedar, 303.

Elm, Cliff, 152.

Elm, Cork, 152.

Elm, Hickory, 152.

Elm, Red, 302.

Elm, Rock, 152, 303.

Elm, Slippery, 14.

Elm, Water, 154.

Elm, White, 152.

Elm, White, 154, 302.

Elm, Winged, 303.

Endogens, 10, 17.
  See Monocotoledons.

Enemies of the Forest, 229-249.

Engraver beetles, 241.

Entomology, Bureau of, 247.

Epidermis, 13, 15.

Erosion, 273.

Evaporation, 42, 47.

Evergreens, 10.

Exotics, 227.

Exogens, 12, 16.

_Fagus americana_, 134.

_Fagus atropunicea_, 134.

_Fagus ferruginea_, 134.

_Fagus grandifolia_, 134.

Figure, 37.

Fir, 96, 294.

Fir, Douglas, 94.

Fir, Grand, 96.

Fir, Lowland, 96.

Fir, Red, 94, 206, 207.

Fir, Silver, 96.

Fir, White, 96.

Fire, 232, 251-258.

Fire lanes, 257.

Fire losses, 253.

Fire notice, 258.

Fire trenches, 256.

Fire Wardens, 257.

Fires, Causes of, 252.

Fires, Control of, 256-258.

Fires, Crown, 255.

Fires, Description of, 254-256.

Fires, Fear of, 261.

Fires, Opportunities for, 251.

Fires, Statistics of, 253.

Fires, Surface, 252.

Floor, Forest, 213, 224.

Forest, Abundance of, 260.

Forest, Appalachian, 204.

Forest, Atlantic, 197.

Forest, Broadleaf, 202.

Forest, Eastern, 197-204.

Forest, Enemies of, 229-249.

Forest, Exhaustion of, 241-270.

Forest, Esthetic use of, 277.

Forest, Fear of, 260.

Forest, Hardwood, 197.

Forest, High, 281.

Forest, Hostility toward, 260.

Forest, Mixed, 204, 213, 214.

Forest, Northern, 197, 216.

Forest, Pacific, 197, 204-208.

Forest, Productive, 274-277.

Forest, Protective, 271-274.

Forest, Puget Sound, 206.

Forest, Regular Seed, 281.

Forest, Rocky Mountain, 197, 204, 205.

Forest, Seed, 297-282.

Forest, Selection, 280-281.

Forest, Southern, 197.

Forest, Subarctic, 209.

Forest, Two-storied Seed, 282.

Forest, Use of, 271-287.

Forest, Utilization of, 271-277.

Forest, Virgin, 280.

Forest, Western, 197.

Forestry, 271-287.

Forests, Composition of North American, 197.

Forests, National, 228.

Forests and agriculture, 258, 277.

Forest conditions, 211-228, 278.

Forest conservation, 262.

Forest cover, 204, 211, 212, 224.

Forest crop, 274, 276.

Forest devastation, 261.

Forest fires, 251-258, 261.

Forest floor, 213, 224.

Forest improvement, 284-286.

Forest map, 198.

Forest organism, The, Chapter V., pp. 211-228.

Forest ownership, 262.

Forest planting, 282-284.

Forest preservation, 277-284.

Forest products, 276.

Forest Service, U. S., 262, 264, 275.

_Fraxinus americana_, 190.

_Fraxinus nigra_, 182.

_Fraxinus oregona_, 184.

_Fraxinus pennsylvanica_, 188.

_Fraxinus quadrangulata_, 186.

Frost, 232.

Frost-check, 232.

Fungi, 20, 233-239.

Ginko, 12.

Gluing, 54.

Goats, 240.

Grain of wood, 19, 30, 31, 32-37, 53.

Grain, Bird's eye.

Grain, coarse, 32.

Grain, cross, 33, 53.

Grain, curly, 35.

Grain, fine, 32.

Grain, spiral, 33.

Grain, straight, 33, 53.

Grain, twisted, 33.

Grain, wavy, 34.

Grazing, 239.

Group system, 279.

Grubs, 243, 244.

Gum, Black, 180.

Gum, Sour, 180, 301.

Gum, Sweet, 160, 301.

Gymnosperms, 9.

Hackberry, 297.

Hackmatack, 76.

Hardness of wood, 41, 54.

Hardwoods, 12.

Heart-wood, 13, 17, 18, 19, 290.

Hemlock, 90, 295.

Hemlock, Black, 92.

Hemlock, Western, 92, 206.

_Hicoria alba_, 118.

_Hicoria glabra_, 122.

_Hicoria ovata_, 120.

Hickory, 118-123, 298.

Hickory, Big-bud, 118.

Hickory, Black, 118.

Hickory, Shagbark, 120.

Hickory, Shellbark, 120.

Hickory, White-heart, 118.

High Forest, 281.

Holly, 301.

Honeycombing, 48.

Hornbeam, 124.

Horn-tails, 246.

Hygroscopicity of wood, 41.

_Hymenomycetes_, 234.

Ice, 232.

Ichneumon fly, 247.

Identification of woods, 289-303.

Improvement of forests, 284-286.

Inflammability of bark, 14, 251.

Insects, 240-248.

Insects, parasitic, 247.

Insects, predaceous, 247.

Intolerance, 216, 219, 221.

Iron-wood, 124.

_Juglans cinerea_, 114.

_Juglans nigra_, 116.

_Juniperus virginiana_, 110.

Key for the distinction of woods, 292-303.

King-nut, 118.

Knot, 35, 37, 38.

Larch, 76.

Larch, Western, 78.

_Larix americana_, 76.

_Larix laricina_, 76.

_Larix occidentales_, 78.

Leaves, 14, 216.

Lenticels, 14.

_Lepidoptera_, 241.

Light, 216-218.

Lightning, 231, 251.

Lignin, 16.

Linden, 178.

_Liquidambar styraciflua_, 160.

_Liriodendron tulipifera_, 158.

Localized Selection system, 281.

Locust, 166.

Locust, Black, 166, 296.

Locust, Honey, 166, 297.

Locust, Yellow, 166.

Long-bodied trunk, 225.

Lumber consumption, 264.

Lumber, 9, 10.

Lumber prices, 267, 268.

Lumber production, 265-267.

Lumber, substitutes for, 264.

Lumbering, conservative, 274, 276.

Lumbering, destructive, 251, 258-263.

Lumberman, 260.

_Magnolia acuminata_, 156.

Magnolia, Mountain, 156.

Mahogany, 168.

Maple, 170-177, 301.

Maple, Hard, 25, 176.

Maple, Large Leaved, 170.

Maple, Oregon, 170, 207.

Maple, Red, 174, 302.

Maple, Rock, 25, 176.

Maple, Silver, 172, 302.

Maple, Soft, 172.

Maple, Sugar, 176.

Maple, White, 170.

Maple, White, 172.

Medullary rays. See Rays.

Medullary Sheath. See Sheath.

_Merulius lachrymans_, 234, 238.

Meteorological enemies, 229-233.

Mice, 237.

Microscope, 14, 24-31, 290.

Mine, Forest treated as, 261, 274.

Mockernut, 118.

Moisture, 213.

Moisture in wood, 41, 52.

Monocotoledons, 9, 10, 17.
  See also Endogens.

Mountain, 216.

Mulberry, Red, 297.

Mushroom, 236.

Mutual aid, 224.

Nailing, 53.

Needle-leaf trees, 12.

Non-porous. See Wood, non-porous.

North Woods, 197, 218.

Nurse, 218, 219.

_Nyssa sylvatica_, 180.

Oak, 138-151, 298.

Oak, Basket, 142.

Oak, Black, 140.

Oak, Bur, 144.

Oak, Cow, 142.

Oak, Live, 201.

Oak, Mossy-cup, 144.

Oak, Over-cup, 144.

Oak, Post, 148.

Oak, Red, 138.

Oak, Stave, 150.

Oak, White, 150.

Oak, White (Western), 146.

Oak, Yellow bark, 140.

Odors of wood, 18.

Osage Orange, 296.

Organism, Forest, 211.

_Padus serotina_, 164.

Palm, 9, 17.

Paper pulp, 263.

Parasites, 233.

Parenchyma, 23, 28.

Pecky cypress, 234.

Peggy cypress, 234.

Pepperidge, 180.

Persimmon, 298.

Phanerogamia, 9.

Phloem, 13.

_Picea alba_, 80.

_Picea canadensis_, 80.

_Picea engelmanni_, 86.

_Picea mariana_, 84.

_Picea nigra_, 84.

_Picea rubens_, 82.

_Picea sitchensis_, 88.

Pigeon Horn-tail, 247.

Pignut, 122.

Pines, 58-75, 295.

Pine, Bull, 66, 205, 282.

Pine, Cuban, 74.

Pine, Georgia, 68.

Pine, Loblolly, 72.

Pine, Long-leaf, 68, 200.

Pine, Norway, 64.

Pine, Old Field, 72.

Pine, Oregon, 94.

Pine, Red, 64.

Pine, Short-leaf, 70.

Pine, Slash, 74.

Pine, Sugar, 62.

Pine, Western White, 60.

Pine, Western Yellow, 66.

Pine, Weymouth, 58.

Pine, White, 24, 58, 199.

Pine, Yellow, 70.

Pine sawyers, 244.

_Pinus caribaea_, 74.

_Pinus echinata_, 70.

_Pinus heterophylla_, 74.

_Pinus lambertiana_, 62.

_Pinus monticola_, 60.

_Pinus palustris_, 68.

_Pinus ponderosa_, 66.

_Pinus resinosa_, 64.

_Pinus strobus_, 58.

_Pinus taeda_, 72.

Pith, 10, 13, 15, 16, 23, 32, 39.

Pith ray. See Ray, medullary.

Pits, 26, 292.

Planting, 282-284.

_Platanus occidentalis_, 162.

Poles, 225.

Polypores, 234

_Polyporus annosus_, 237.

_Polyporus sulphureus_, 236.

Poplar, yellow, 158, 221, 245, 246, 301.

Pores, 23, 28, 29, 291.

Powder-post beetles, 244.

Preservation of forests, 277-284.

Prices of lumber, 267, 268.

Primary growth, 17, 22.

Procambium strands, 16.

Protection against fungi, 239.

Protection against insects, 247.

Properties of wood, Chap II., p. 41.

Protoplasm, 14, 16, 23, 41.

Pruning of branches, 286.

_Prunus serotina_, 164.

_Pseudotsuga mucronata_, 94.

_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_, 94.

Quartering a log, 45.

Quartered oak, 22.

_Quercus alba_, 150.

_Quercus garryana_, 146.

_Quercus macrocarpa_, 144.

_Quercus michauxii_, 142.

_Quercus minor_, 148.

_Quercus obtusiloba_, 148.

_Quercus rubra_, 138.

_Quercus stellata_, 148.

_Quercus tinctoria_, 140.

_Quercus velutina_, 140.

Rainfall, effect on forest, 205, 213.

Rays, medullary, 15, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 26, 30, 31, 37, 44, 53, 291.

Red rot, 234.

Redwood, 100, 207, 208, 222, 295.

Regularity of cells, 24.

Reproduction, 220.

Reserve sprout method, 279.

Resin ducts, 26, 291.

Rhizomorphs, 236.

Rind, 13.

Ring-porous. See Wood, ring-porous.

Rings, Annual, 9, 18, 19, 21, 23, 44, 226, 290.

Rings, False, 19, 231.

_Robinia pseudacacia_, 166.

Rodents, 239.

Roots, 211, 224.

Rotation period, 279.

Rotting, 234.

_Salix nigra_, 112.

Sand dunes, 230, 231.

Saplings, 225, 226.

Saprophytes, 233.

Sap-wood, 13, 17, 18, 41, 42, 290.

Sassafras, 296.

Sawyers, Pine, 244.

Secondary growth, 17.

Section, cross, 21, 22, 29.
  See also Section, transverse.

Section, radial, 19, 22, 26, 30, 31.

Section, tangential, 19, 22, 26, 30, 31.

Section, transverse, 19, 24, 29, 30.

Seasoning, 42.

Sections, transverse, radial and tangential, 12.

Seed forests, 279-282.

Seeding from the side, 279.

Seedlings, 225, 226.

Seeds, 220-223, 226.

Sequoia, 98.

Sequoia, 100.

Sequoia, Giant, 98.

_Sequoia gigantea_, 98.

_Sequoia sempervirens_, 100.

_Sequoia washingtoniana_, 98.

Settler, 258.

Shake, 47, 232, 233.

Shearing strength, 52.

Sheep, 240.

Shelf fungus, 234, 236.

Short-bodied trunk, 225, 226.

Shrinkage of wood, 41, 42-47.

Silver flakes, 22.
  See Rays, Medullary.

Silvical characteristics, 211.

Silvicultural systems, 278-284.

Slash, 229, 251, 257.

Slash-grain, 54.

Snow, 232.

Slash-sawing, 45, 47.

Softwoods, 12.

Soil, 211, 213.

Specific gravity. See Weight.

Splint-wood, 17.

Splitting. See Cleavability.

Spores, 234.

Spring-wood, 20, 21, 24, 30, 32, 44, 53, 54, 291.

Sprouts, 220, 222.

Spruce, 80-89, 295.

Spruce, Black, 84.

Spruce, Douglas, 94, 296.

Spruce, Engelmann's, 86.

Spruce, Red, 82, 213.

Spruce, Sitka, 88.

Spruce, Tideland, 88.

Spruce, Western White, 86.

Spruce, White, 80.

Stand, mixed, 213, 223.

Stand, pure, 213, 223.

Standards, 225, 226.

Steamboats, 246.

Stem, diagram of cross section, Fig. 4, p. 13, fig. 5, p. 15, 211.

Strength of wood, 41, 51-53.

Strip system, 279.

Structure of wood, 9-40, 29, 30, 32.

Struggle for existence, 224, 226, 227.

Summer-wood, 20, 21, 24, 30, 32, 44, 53, 54, 291.

_Swietenia mahagoni_, 168.

Sycamore, 22, 162, 300.

Tamarack, 76, 296.

Tamarack, Western, 78.

Taxes on forests, 261.

_Taxodium distichum_, 102.

Tear fungus, 234, 238.

Temperature, 214.

Tension, 51, 52.

Texture of wood, 32.

_Thuja gigantea_, 104.

_Thuja plicata_, 104.

_Tilia americana_, 178.

Timber beetles, 242, 245.

Timber supply of U. S., 264-269.

Timber trees, 10.

Timber worms, 244.

Tissue, 16.

Toadstools, 234.

Tolerance, 216, 219.

Toughness of wood, 41, 54.

Tracheae, 23, 28.

Tracheid, 28, 30, 290, 292.

_Trametes pini_, 235.

_Trametes radiciperda_, 237.

Tree, parts of, 211.

Treeless area, 197, 203.

Trees, Broad-leaved, 9, 10, 28, 29.

Trees, deciduous, 10.

Trunk, 13, 211.
  Long-bodied, 225.
  Short-bodied, 225.

_Tsuga canadensis_, 90.

_Tsuga heterophylla_, 92.

Tulip Tree, 158.
  See Poplar Yellow

Tupelo, 180.

Turpentine, 263.

Two-storied Seed Forest, 282.

_Ulmus americana_, 154.

_Ulmus racemosa_, 152.

_Ulmus thomasi_, 152.

Utilization of forests, 271-277.

Vegetable enemies, 233-239.

Veneer, 10, 35.

Vessels, 23, 28, 29.

Veterans, 225.

Walnut, Black, 116, 300.

Walnut, White, 114.

Warping, 45-47.

Waste, Avoidance of, 274.

Waste in lumbering, 263.

Water, 41, 42, 226, 231.

Weeds, Forest, 225.

Weight of wood, 41, 49-51.

Whitewood, 158.

Wilderness, Conquest of, 258.

Willow, Black, 112.

Wind, 229, 252, 253.

Windfalls, 229.

Wood, Diffuse-porous, 23, 30, 300-303.

Wood, Non-porous, 24-26, 58-111, 294-296.

Wood, Primary, 17.

Wood, Properties of, Chap. II., 41-56.

Wood, Ring-porous, 23, 29, 296-299.

Wood, Spring, 20, 21, 24, 30, 32, 44, 53, 54, 291.

Wood, Structure of, 9-40.

Wood, secondary, 17.

Wood, summer, 20, 21, 24, 30, 32, 44, 53, 54, 291.

Wood borers, 243.

Wood cells. See Cells.

Wood. See Sap-wood, Heart wood.

Wood dyes, 18.

Wood fiber, 28.

Woods, Color of, 17, 18, 290.

Woods, The distinguishing of, 289-303.

Working, 47.

Worm-holes, 243.

Worms, carpenter, 245.

Worms, Timber, 244.

Wound parasites, 234.

Yew, 295.

Yield, 275.

Yucca, 10.

Books on the Manual Arts


    A book full of charm and distinction and the first to give
    due consideration to the esthetic side of wood-working. It
    is intended to give to beginners practice in designing simple
    projects in wood and an opportunity to acquire skill in
    handling tools. The book illustrates a series of projects and
    gives suggestions for other similar projects together with
    information regarding tools and processes for making. A
    pleasing volume abundantly and beautifully illustrated.

HANDWORK IN WOOD. By William Noyes.

    A handbook for teachers and a textbook for normal school and
    college students. A comprehensive and scholarly treatise,
    covering logging, saw-milling, seasoning and measuring, hand
    tools, wood fastenings, equipment and care of the shop,
    the common joints, types of wood structures, principles of
    joinery, and wood finishing. 304 illustrations--excellent pen
    drawings and many photographs.

WOOD AND FOREST. By William Noyes.

    A companion volume to "Handwork in Wood," by the same author.
    Especially adapted as a reference book for teachers of
    woodworking. Not too difficult for use as a textbook
    for normal school and college students. Treats of wood,
    distribution of American forests, life of the forest, enemies
    of the forest, destruction, conservation and uses of the
    forest, with a key to the common woods by Filibert Roth.
    Describes 67 principal species of wood with maps of
    the habitat, leaf drawings, life size photographs and
    microphotographs of sections. Contains a general bibliography
    of books and articles on wood and forest. Profusely
    illustrated with photographs from the United States forest
    service and with pen and ink drawings by Anna Gausmann Noyes
    and photographs by the author. 309 pages.


    A remarkably simple treatment of elementary woodworking for
    students in the seventh and eighth grades. It deals with
    tools, processes and materials and includes only such subject
    matter as should be taught to grammar grade students. It meets
    the requirements of students working in large classes and
    devoting the minimum of time to manual training. A practical
    and unusually attractive textbook and one that can be used
    with any course of models and in any order.

BEGINNING WOODWORK, At Home and in School.
By Clinton S. VanDeusen.

    A full and clear description in detail of the fundamental
    processes of elementary benchwork in wood. This description
    is given thru directions for making a few simple, useful
    articles, suitable either for school or home problems. The
    book contains more than one hundred original sketches and ten
    working drawings.


    A book of working drawings of 100 practical problems relating
    to agriculture and farm life. Especially valuable to the
    student or teacher of agriculture or manual arts in rural
    schools and in high schools in agricultural communities,
    and to the boy on the farm. There are 60 full-page plates of
    working drawings, each accompanied by a page or more of text
    treating of "Purpose," "Material," "Bill of Stock," "Tools,"
    "Directions," and "Assembly." A wonderfully practical book.


    This book, revised and enlarged, consists of 43 plates of
    working drawings suitable for use in grammar and high
    schools, and 36 pages of text, including chapters on design,
    construction and finishes, and notes on the problems.

By Fred D. Crawshaw.

    A manual on furniture design. A book that will stimulate and
    encourage designing and initiation on the part of the student.
    It contains a collection of plates showing perspective
    drawings of typical designs, representing particular types of
    furniture. Each perspective is accompanied by suggestions for
    rearrangement and the modeling of parts. The text discusses
    and illustrates principles of design as applied to furniture.
    A practical and helpful book that should be in the hands of
    every teacher of cabinet making and designing.


    A convenient collection of good problems consisting of forty
    plates of working drawings, of problems in benchwork that have
    been successfully worked out by boys in grades seven to nine

SHOP PROBLEMS. (On Tracing Paper). By Albert F. Siepert.

    A collection of working drawings of a large variety of
    projects printed on tracing paper and ready for blue printing.
    The projects have all been worked out in manual arts classes
    and have proved their value from the standpoint of design,
    construction, use, human interest, etc. They are of convenient
    size, 6x9-inch, and are enclosed in a portfolio. To the
    teacher, in search of additional projects to supplement and
    enrich his course these tracings are worth far more than the
    price asked. Published in series. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and

By George G. Greene.

    A small-size textbook and notebook combined. It furnishes a
    few general and extremely important directions about tools and
    processes; and provides space for additional notes and working
    drawings of exercises and articles which the pupil is to
    construct. It is essentially a collection of helps, ideas,
    hints, suggestions, questions, facts, illustrations, etc.,
    which have been prepared by a practical teacher to meet a real
    need in his own shop. The notebook is full of suggestions;
    shows a keen insight into subject matter and teaching methods
    and is an effective teaching tool.


    In the first place this is a book of problems--25 plates
    covering spindle, face-plate, and chuck turning. In the second
    place it is a textbook on the science and art of wood-turning
    illustrated by fifty pen sketches. It gives the mathematical
    basis for the cuts used in turning. In the third place it is
    a helpful discussion of the principles of design as applied
    to objects turned in wood. It is a clear, practical and
    suggestive book on wood-turning.

WOOD PATTERN-MAKING. By Horace T. Purfield.

    This book was written expressly for use as a textbook for
    high school, trade school, technical school, and engineering
    college students. It is a revised, enlarged, and newly
    illustrated edition.

DRAWING. By Ira S. Griffith.

    This book is designed to meet the every-day need of the
    teacher of woodworking and mechanical drawing for reliable
    information concerning organization of courses, subject
    matter and methods of teaching. It covers classification and
    arrangement of tool operations for grades, 7, 8, 9, and 10,
    shop organization, allotment of time design, shop excursions,
    stock bills, cost of material, records, shop conduct, the
    lesson, maintenance, equipment, and lesson outlines for
    grammar and high schools. It is based on sound pedagogy, thoro
    technical knowledge and successful teaching experience. It is


    A textbook written especially for the use of grammar and
    high school students. A clear and comprehensive treatment of
    woodworking tools, materials, and processes, to supplement,
    but not to take the place of the instruction given by the
    teacher. The book does not contain a course of models; it may
    be used with any course. It is illustrated with photographs
    and numerous pen drawings.

DRAWING. By Ira S. Griffith.

    A work book for the use of students in grammar grade classes.
    It consists of working drawings and working directions. The
    projects are such as have proven of exceptional service where
    woodworking and mechanical drawing are taught in a thoro,
    systematic manner in the seventh and eighth grades. The aim
    has been to provide successful rather than unique problems.
    The 50 projects in the book were selected and organized with
    the constant aim of securing the highest educational results.
    The book is especially suited for use in connection with
    "Essentials of Woodworking," by the same author.

FURNITURE MAKING. (Advanced Projects in Woodwork.)
By Ira S. Griffith.

    This book is similar to "Projects for Beginning Woodwork and
    Mechanical Drawing," but is suited to high school needs. It
    consists of fifty plates of problems and accompanying notes.
    It is essentially a collection of problems in furniture making
    selected or designed with reference to school use. On the
    plate with each working drawing is a good perspective sketch
    of the completed object. In draftsmanship and refinement of
    design these problems are of superior quality. It is in every
    respect an excellent collection.


    This book consists of 80 plates and a few explanatory notes.
    Its purpose is to furnish teachers of classes beginning
    mechanical drawing with a large number of simple, practical
    problems. These have been selected with reference to the
    formation of good habits in technique, the interest of the
    pupils, and the subjects generally included in a grammar and
    first-year high school course. Each problem given is unsolved
    and therefore in proper form to hand to the pupil for

By Edward Berg and Emil F. Kronquist.

    A direct and concise text adapted for high school students
    beginning mechanical drawing. It covers two year's work
    and contains 128 full-page plates--excellent examples of
    draftsmanship. Text accompanies each plate, giving necessary
    facts and helpful hints wherever needed. The underlying
    principles of drafting are thoroly covered and the practical
    applications, which are abundant, have been most skilfully
    chosen and admirably presented. The plates tell what to do,
    almost at a glance, yet prevent mere copy work. Each problem
    tests the ability of the student to think and execute
    graphically and unconsciously develops an excellent technique.


    (Revised edition). A textbook for advanced high school
    students which presents drafting room practice in practical
    textbook form. It is so written that it may be used with
    any course of exercises or problems and supplements the
    instruction of the teacher in such a way as to reduce lecture
    work to a minimum. It is a direct and simple treatment of
    mechanical drafting, giving due consideration to the needs of
    the student, the beginning draftsman and the requirements of
    the best teaching methods. It is complete, yet condensed and
    is well adapted for handbook use by the student and draftsman.
    It is well illustrated and is bound in flexible binding,
    pocket size. A thoroughly practical, modern textbook.

By Charles A. Bennett.

    A remarkably simple and carefully graded treatment of the
    fundamentals of mechanical drawing for the use of students in
    the 7th and 8th grades. It combines an abundance of text and
    simple problems, accompanied by notes and directions. Its use
    insures the early formation of correct habits of technique and
    makes possible the development of a standard in grammar grade
    mechanical drawing parallel with woodworking. Abundantly and
    well illustrated.

By Charles H. Bailey.

    A textbook suitable wherever this subject is taught to
    beginners, in Junior High Schools, High and Continuation
    Schools. It successfully combines instructions which are
    minute and complete, with problems, gradually leading the
    student to learn with little or no other help, the essentials
    and technique of the work. The matter is condensed but leaves
    no important points not covered.

By George W. Seaman.

    A textbook and practical handbook, describing and illustrating
    every successive step in drawing of floor plans, elevations
    and various details for successful dwellings. Numerous plates
    illustrate details of doors, windows, mouldings, cornices,
    porches, etc. Architectural orders shown in practical working
    forms. "Single line sketches" illustrate method of practical
    designer in planning a house.


    A collection of 15 plates showing the various details included
    in the plans for frame houses. Names and typical sizes
    are given and much information helpful to the student or
    draftsman. One plate shows eleven "Plan Studies," another
    "How Elevations are Worked Up from Plans and Sections." A
    wonderfully convenient help in architectural drawing.


    A book of simple problems covering the essentials of
    mechanical perspective. It is planned for pupils of high
    school age who have already received some elementary training
    in mechanical drawing. It is simple, direct and practical.


    The most complete and comprehensive textbook on secondary
    school woodworking ever published. Treats of Common
    Woods, Tools and Processes, Woodworking Machines, Joinery,
    Wood-Turning, Inlaying and Wood Carving, Wood Finishing,
    Furniture Construction, Pattern-Making. Although written for
    the student, every teacher of high school or normal school
    woodwork will find this text a valuable and necessary volume
    for reference use. It contains 370 pages and 580 special

CARPENTRY. By Ira S. Griffith.

    A well illustrated textbook for use in vocational schools,
    trade schools, technical schools, and by apprentices to the
    trade, presenting the principles of house construction in
    a clear and fundamental way. It treats of the "everyday"
    practical problems of the carpenter and house builder from
    the "laying of foundations" to the completion of the "interior
    finish." It meets every requirement as a textbook and is also
    well adapted for reference use. It is well illustrated by
    photographs taken "on the job."

BOY ACTIVITY PROJECTS. By Samuel A. Blackburn.

    A book of full-page plates and accompanying text giving
    complete directions for making 86 projects of interest to the
    energetic American boy. The projects are for the school, the
    home, the playground, the camp, the out-of-doors, and include
    a complete wireless telegraph apparatus. The plates give every
    required dimension, and show each project complete and in
    detail. The text is in reality working directions telling just
    "how to make," including bills of material, lists of tools
    required, etc. A thoroly practical and suggestive book
    for school use and rich in inspiration for the boy in his own
    home shop.

SEAT WEAVING. By L. Day Perry.

    A handbook for teacher or student. Tells how to cane chairs,
    how to use cane webbing, how to do rush seating, how to
    do reed and splint weaving, how to make seats of reeds and
    splints, how to prepare raw materials, how to stain, finish
    and refinish, etc. Also treats of the use of cane and other
    seating materials as a decorative element in furniture
    construction. Well illustrated, practical and authoritative.


    The only text and reference book on upholstery written for
    school use. Contains detailed, practical instructions
    telling how to upholster a variety of articles, also how
    to re-upholster old furniture and how to do spring-edge
    upholstery work. Describes necessary tools and materials.
    Abundantly and beautifully illustrated.


    A remarkable textbook for students of printing. It contains a
    course of exercises ready to place in the hands of pupils,
    and explains and illustrates the most approved methods used
    in correct composition. A valuable feature of the book lies in
    the fact that in the early stages of the course the pupil sets
    up in type a description of what he is doing with his hands.
    It contains 63 exercises, treating of composition from
    "Correct Spacing" to the "Making up of a Book," and the
    "Composition of Tables."

ART METALWORK. By Arthur F. Payne.

    A textbook written by an expert craftsman and experienced
    teacher. It treats of the various materials and their
    production, ores, alloys, commercial forms, etc.; of tools and
    equipments suitable for the work, the inexpensive equipment
    of the practical craftsman; and of the correlation of art
    metalwork with design and other school subjects. It describes
    in detail all the processes involved in making articles
    ranging from a watch fob to a silver loving-cup. It gives new
    methods of construction, new finishes, new problems. It is
    abundantly and beautifully illustrated, showing work done by
    students under ordinary school conditions in a manual training
    shop. The standard book on the subject.

By Ira S. Griffith.

    A text for normal schools or colleges and a reference for
    manual and vocational teachers. Presents the philosophy
    of teaching manual and vocational education in terms of
    psychology, social science, and economics. It gives the
    conclusions of Thorndike, Judd, Bagley, Dewey and others,
    and illustrates them so they serve the teacher as a basis for
    evaluating the manual and industrial arts. A book of value
    to the beginning teacher, the experienced supervisor or the
    educational expert; an exceptional source of information on
    the theory and practice of its subject.

THE MANUAL ARTS. By Charles A. Bennett.

    A treatise on the selection and organization of subject matter
    in the manual arts and on the methods of teaching. It states
    what manual arts should be taught in the schools, their place
    as concerns general and vocational education, principles
    underlying the making of courses of instruction and methods
    of teaching, and shows the place of the factory system in
    industrial schools, etc. Heretofore no book has dealt with
    the pedagogy of the manual arts in so definite and clear cut
    a manner. The author has brought together, with ripened
    judgment, the result of years of experience.

    It is especially adapted for normal class and reading circle
    use and should be read and studied by every teacher or
    prospective teacher of the manual arts.

EDUCATIONAL TOYS. By Louis C. Petersen.

    A comprehensive book on toy-making for the school or home.
    Shows 57 toys including animals, wheeled toys, stationary
    toys, moving toys, puzzles, etc., made chiefly from thin wood,
    with the coping saw and easily constructed in the ordinary
    school room or in the home. Tells how to make each toy, how
    to finish and color, about the few simple tools and materials
    required. Well illustrated with photographs and full-size
    pattern drawings.

TOY PATTERNS. By Michael C. Dank.

    A portfolio of toy patterns. Among them are Animals, Animal
    Rocking Toys, Wheeled Platform Toys, String Toys, Lever Toys,
    Freak Toys and Novelties. Each toy is shown complete and each
    part is also shown full-size. They are designed to be made
    with the coping saw out of thin wood. Twelve sheets, size
    10-1/2" x 14", enclosed in a portfolio with an attractive
    color design.


    A book of rare interest to boys. It is written in the boy
    spirit and combines the charm of nature with the allurements
    of continuation work in wood. It illustrates hundreds of bird
    houses and shows working drawings of various designs, also
    feeders, shelters, sparrow traps, and other bird accessories.
    The common house nesting birds are pictured and described with
    information regarding houses, foods, etc., suitable for each.
    A pleasing and practical book for wide-awake boys.

By Harris W. Moore.

    A popular boys' book that is truly educational. It is a
    collection of forty-two projects overflowing with "boy"
    interest and new in the manual training shop. Full-page
    working drawings show each project in detail and the text
    gives instructions for making, together with information on
    tools and tool processes.


    An authoritative and comprehensive treatment of kitecraft. The
    book deals with the construction and flying of all kinds of
    kites, and the making and using of kite accessories. Also
    aeroplanes, gliders, propellers, motors, etc. Four chapters
    are devoted to presenting a detailed description of kite
    flying tournaments. Abundantly illustrated and attractively

By Charles M. Miller.

    This contains seven full-page plates of drawings of kites,
    and fifteen figures--over forty kites shown. Details of
    construction given; a kite tournament is described. Full of
    interesting suggestions.

COPING SAW WORK. By Ben W. Johnson.

    Contains working drawings and suggestions for teaching a
    course of work in thin wood that is full of fun for the
    children, and affords ample means for training in form study,
    construction, invention and careful work. Has been called
    "applied mechanics for the fourth grade."


    A collection of sixteen problems in woodworking made to meet
    the needs of busy teachers of manual training. Each problem
    has been put to the test and has proven satisfactory to the
    teacher who designed it and to the pupil who made it.


    A magazine of "quality." The professional journal of the
    teachers of manual, vocational and industrial education. It
    publishes practical articles on the ways and means of "doing
    things." It discusses vital problems in teaching the manual
    arts and presents the best current thought on the development
    of manual training and vocational education. To the
    inexperienced teacher, it is valuable in solving numerous
    problems, and to the experienced teacher, it is a means of
    keeping abreast of the times. It is ably edited, attractively
    printed, and well illustrated with photographs and drawings
    made especially for its pages. Published monthly. $1.50 a
    year; Canada, $1.80; Foreign, $2.00.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Published by_

Manual Arts Press :: Peoria, Illinois

We can supply you with any book on the Manual Arts

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note:

Transcriber's Note: 'M', in the context of lumber measurement, means
'1000 feet'. From 'Handwork in Wood', Chapter III, page 48. Also
(ibid): "There are several methods of measuring lumber. The general
rule is to multiply the length in feet by the width and thickness in
inches and divide by 12, thus: 1" × 6" × 15' ÷ 12 = 7½ feet."

In the interests of clarity, some Illustrations have been moved closer
to their descriptive text.

Hyphenation and spelling are not uniform throughout this book, e.g.,
'sapwood' and 'sap-wood' both occur; '_Columbian Timber-beetle_' and
'Columbian timber beetle' occur in the same paragraph.

Chapter II has three types of footnotes, with different notations.
References to the author's previous book, being short, are placed at
the end of the paragraph; numbered technical or tabular footnotes, or
footnotes referencing other publications are collected at the end of
the Chapter, before the Chapter Bibliography; and Chapter Bibliography
footnotes are placed at the end of the Chapter Bibliography. In later
Chapters, numbered footnotes are placed either at the end of the
Chapter (before the Bibliography) or at the end of a relevant section
of a Chapter.

Chapter III lists 67 trees; The (following) Lists from the Jesup
Collection list 66 trees, including the 'tied place' trees. The tree
missing from the Jesup Collection is No. 18: Western Hemlock, or Black

Damaged or missing punctuation has been repaired.

Page 18: 'sumac' and 'sumach'. Both spellings correct. Also 'sumak',
shoomak. From Arabic 'summ[=a]q'.

Page 19: 'charactistic' corrected to 'characteristic' ... "and give
the characteristic pleasing "grain" of wood."

Page 23: inconsistent spelling--_tracheæ_, tracheae. The two
spellings occur in the book; also trachæids, tracheids. All have been
retained. The author's bibliography is extensive.

Page 124 etc.: The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany
and Allegany, ~Wikipedia).

Page 143: 'distinguised' corrected to 'distinguished' ... "Not
distinguished from white oak in the market."

Page 180: diameter, '1"-6", even 5';' corrected to 'diameter,
1'6"-3'6", even 5';' (Wikipedia)

Page 182: 'scambucifolia' corrected to 'sambucifolia' ... "_Fraxinus
nigra_ Marshall. _Fraxinus sambucifolia._"

Page 186: 'cleavabilty' corrected to 'cleavability' ... "refers to the
cleavability of the wood;"

Page 268: Fig. 118 text: Basswood, 1st and 2d, 1" x 8" and up by x 00".
and: White pine, rough uppers, 1" x 8" and up x 00'.
This is as printed; the transcriber has no idea what was meant by '00"'
and '00'', or what it should have been.

Page 292: 'miscroscopic' corrected to 'microscopic' ... "Of microscopic
features, the following only have been referred to:"

Page 304: 'Agaricus mellens' corrected to 'Agaricus melleus'.

The (archaic) U.S. American spellings, 'drouth' (='drought'), 'thoroly',
'tho', 'altho', 'tire' (='tyre'), etc., are correct.

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