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´╗┐Title: Determining the Age of Cattle by the Teeth
Author: Pope, George W. (George Whitfield), 1867-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Determining the Age of Cattle by the Teeth" ***

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                            BY THE TEETH

                           GEORGE W. POPE

                         Quarantine Division


                       FARMERS' BULLETIN 1066

           Contribution from the Bureau of Animal Industry
                        JOHN R. MOHLER, Chief

 Washington, D. C.                                      August, 1919

 Show this bulletin to a neighbor. Additional copies may be obtained
 free from the Division of Publications, United States Department of

                        WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919



Vesicular Stomatitis of Horses and Cattle. (Department Bulletin 662.)

Hemorrhagic Septicemia. (Department Bulletin 674.)

Breeds of Beef Cattle. (Farmers' Bulletin 612.)

The Feeding of Dairy Cows. (Farmers' Bulletin 743.)

Feeding and Management of Dairy Calves and Young Dairy Stock. (Farmers'
Bulletin 777.)

Contagious Abortion of Cattle. (Farmers' Bulletin 790.)

Breeds of Dairy Cattle. (Farmers' Bulletin 893.)

Dehorning and Castrating Cattle. (Farmers' Bulletin 949.)

Cattle Scab. (Farmers' Bulletin 1017.)


The age of cattle can be approximated closely by the appearance,
development, and subsequent wear of their second incisor teeth. Cattle
have eight incisor teeth, all in the lower jaw. In the calf at birth two
or more of the temporary or first incisor teeth are present. With the
first month the entire eight incisors have appeared.

[Illustration: FIG 1.--Internal face of incisors of the calf.]

As the animal approaches 2 years of age the center pair of temporary
incisor teeth or pinchers are replaced by the permanent pinchers which
at 2 years attain full development.

[Illustration: FIG 2.--Internal face of incisors at 2 years.]

At from 2-1/2 to 3 years the permanent first intermediates are cut and
are usually fully developed at 3 years.

[Illustration: FIG 3.--Internal face of incisors at 3 years.]

At 3-1/2 years the second intermediates or laterals are cut. They are on
a level with the first intermediates and begin to wear at 4 years.

[Illustration: FIG 4.--Internal face of incisors at 4 years.]

At 4-1/2 to 5 years the corner teeth are replaced, the animal at 5 years
having the full complement of incisors with the corners fully developed.

[Illustration: FIG 5.--Internal face of incisors at 5 years.]

At 5 to 6 years there is a leveling of the permanent pinchers, the
pinchers usually being leveled at six and both pairs of intermediates
partially leveled and the corner incisors showing wear.

From seven to eight the pinchers are noticeably worn; from eight to nine
the middle pairs, and by ten years the corner teeth.

After 6 years the arch gradually loses its rounded contour and becomes
nearly straight by the twelfth year. In the meantime the teeth have
gradually become triangular in shape, distinctly separated, and show the
progressive wearing to stubs.

[Illustration: FIG 6.--Internal face of incisors at 12 years.]

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