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Title: Taxidermy
Author: Pray, Leon Luther, 1882-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Taxidermy" ***

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TAXIDERMY

BY

LEON L. PRAY


_Illustrated_

[Illustration: OUTING HANDBOOKS]

Number 47

[Illustration]


NEW YORK
OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY
MCMXVI

       *       *       *       *       *

COPYRIGHT, 1913, BY
OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY

All rights reserved

       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS


CHAPTER                                                             PAGE

  I. TOOLS AND MATERIALS                                               9

 II. PREPARING AND MOUNTING A BIRD                                    19

III. SKINNING, PREPARING, AND MOUNTING A SMALL MAMMAL                 45

 IV. PREPARING AND MOUNTING GAME FISHES AND SMALL REPTILES            65

  V. PREPARING AND MOUNTING A VIRGINIA DEER HEAD                      87

 VI. PREPARING AND MOUNTING A COYOTE                                 107



TOOLS AND MATERIALS



TAXIDERMY



CHAPTER I

TOOLS AND MATERIALS


The art of taxidermy, with its many methods of application, has
furnished subject-matter for numerous books, most of these treating the
subject in exhaustive style, being written primarily for students who
desire to take up the work as a profession. It is the present author's
purpose to set forth herein a series of practical methods suited to the
needs of the sportsman-amateur who desires personally to preserve
trophies and specimens taken on days spent afield with gun or rod.

The lover of field and gun may spend many fascinating hours at his
bench, preparing, setting up, and finishing specimens of his own taking.
Besides, the pursuit of this art will afford an amount of remuneration
to the amateur who takes it up in a commercial way, doing work for
others who have neither the time nor inclination for preparing their
own specimens.

The chief requisites for the beginner in taxidermy are joy in working
out detail and a moderate amount of patience.

As suitable tools are the primary consideration in contemplating any
work in taxidermy, a simple list follows. In this list no heavier work
than the mounting of a Virginia deer head is dealt with. This outfit
will be found practical for general light use:

A pocket-knife, one or two small scalpels, a kitchen paring-knife, an
oil stone and can of oil, a hand drill, a fine fur-comb, one bone
scraper, one small skin-scraper, one pair tinners' shears, one pair five
and one-half inch diagonal wire cutters, one pair (same length) Bernard
combination wire cutter and pliers, one pair small scissors, two or
three assorted flat files, one hollow handle tool holder with tools and
little saw, one good hand-saw, one hack-saw, one upholsterer's
regulator, one pair fine tweezers (such as jewelers use), one claw
hammer, an assortment of round and furriers' needles, one or two darning
needles, a sack needle, and an assortment of artists' small bristle and
sable brushes (both round and flat).

Make your own stuffing rods, out of any size iron wire, by hammering
flat one end of a suitable length, filing teeth into the flat face thus
made, and then bending a loop handle on the other end. This type of rod
is easily curved or straightened to suit every need.

Those not wishing to buy at once the complete outfit named above will
find that they can do good small work to start on with the aid of a
pocket-knife, a pair of scissors, a pair of Bernard combination wire
cutter and pliers, needles and thread, cord, a pair of tweezers, a
hammer and saw, and small drill set.

Suitable materials follow the tools in order.

Arsenic is needed for the preservation of all specimens against moths.
This is most effective when used in solution, which is made as follows:
First dampen the arsenic powder with alcohol to saturate it quickly,
when water is added. Place the arsenic in a large metal pail and to
one-half pound of the powder add two gallons of water. Boil hard and
steady over a good fire until the arsenic is completely dissolved. Place
the solution thus made in an earthenware jar with closed cover, plainly
marked "Poison," and keep out of reach of children. Allow solution to
cool before applying to skins. Do not use the pail that the solution was
made in for anything else.

When using arsenic-water grease your hands with a little tallow, rubbing
well under and around finger-nails and wiping the hands partially dry so
that none of the grease will soil fur or feathers. This precaution will
keep the arsenic from entering your skin.

Wash the hands with soap powder and a nail brush after work.

Apply arsenic-water with a brush, or a cotton-and-wire swab, to all
inner surfaces of specimen skins.

Carbolic acid (best to procure U. S. P. pure crystals if possible) is
needed for use in dilute form for relaxing dried skins. This prevents
decay and does not injure the specimen skin. A few drops of the
dissolved crystal to a quart of water is sufficient. Keep carefully
labeled and in a safe place.

Following is a list of the materials needed for general light work:

A quantity of fine excelsior, fine tow and cotton batting, a quantity of
various sizes of galvanized soft steel wire, an assortment of colored,
enameled artificial eyes (procure a taxidermist's supply-house catalog
and from this order your special tools and sizes and colors of eyes
needed), a jar of liquid cement, dry glue (for melting up for
papier-mache), dry paper pulp, plaster of paris, Venetian turpentine,
boiled linseed oil, boracic acid, some refined beeswax, a little
balsam-fir, white varnish, turpentine, alcohol, benzine and a student's
palette of tube oil colors (such as vermilion, rose madder, burnt
sienna, yellow ochre, cadmium yellow middle, zinc white, cobalt blue,
French ultramarine Blue, and Viridian).

Plastic compositions of papier-mache are essential, especially in mammal
and game-head work, for properly finishing the details of ears, face,
and feet of specimens after the body has been filled. These are applied
partly as a last detail before mounting and partly after the figure is
set up.

Compo. No. I is practical for all-around use. Take one-third hot melted
glue and two-thirds flour paste (thick and thoroughly cooked). To this
add a little boracic acid, a little arsenic powder, a very little of
Venetian turpentine, a quantity of gray building-paper pulp (soak paper
and squeeze and beat up even and then squeeze water out). To furnish a
body to this mass, stir in dry white lead until middling thick. Beat the
whole well together.

When carried so far this compo. is a powerful adhesive medium and may be
employed to stick tanned deer scalps to mannikins, and ear skin of same
to the lead cartilages.

Compo. No. II is No. I with fine plaster of paris added until of the
consistency of modeling clay or a trifle stiffer. This makes it ready
for filling ear butts, eye sockets, noses, and feet for modeling into
permanent shape. Sets by drying.

Compo. No. III is for monkey faces, vulture heads, lizards, turtles,
etc. This composition dries very slowly and must be touched up now and
then while drying, to preserve the details without warping. When dry it
is like stone and holds the skin firmly. Take gray paper-pulp, hot
melted glue (quantity according to amount of compo. needed), a little
boracic acid (to prevent decay of glue), boiled linseed oil (fifty per
cent. less than glue), a little arsenic powder (to prevent dermestes
from eating into work), and to this mass add whiting until desired
stiffness for modeling under skin is obtained. Beat and rub to an even
smoothness and stop adding whiting at point where compo. is thick but
still very sticky. Rub some of the compo. into inner surface of skin to
be finished with it or skin will not take hold of mannikin or compo. to
stay.

After modeling is finished under the skin apply linseed oil on outside
and repeat this application several times during the period of drying.
Watch and remodel details if any distortion attends the drying process.

Fine fleshy wrinkles and skin details can be worked out with this compo.
It will hold a thin raw skin where it is put, but is not practical under
fur or feathers.

Compo. No. IV may be used with wire netting or rough board as a base for
making earth bases, imitation rock stands, etc. Take one-third hot
melted glue, two-thirds flour paste, a quantity of paper pulp, a small
amount of boiled linseed oil, a very little of Venetian turpentine,
boracic acid, and arsenic. Thicken to modeling consistency with plaster
of paris, coloring by adding some dry raw umber or lamp black and burnt
umber.

Surface the bases made of this compo. by pressing sand, gravel, or
forest mold into the face and when dry shake off the loose material.
Touch up with tube colors, as desired, and when this is dry apply a very
thin varnish and turpentine finish to bring out a natural damp look.

A foreword as to care of mountable specimens in the field may save a
great amount of cleaning of mussed skins in the shop.

All shot or bullet holes should be immediately plugged with cotton when
specimens are taken. Take a little cotton along in your hunting coat for
this purpose.

In birds plug also the mouth, nostrils, and vent to prevent escape of
juices into plumage. A small sharpened twig will serve to place the
plugs. Slip the bird head first into a paper cone for carrying.

Mussed or blood-stained specimens should not necessarily be discarded.
Look them over first. Many such specimens may be cleaned very easily and
come out in the finish as nearly perfect as others that appeared much
better at the start.

[Illustration]



PREPARING AND MOUNTING A BIRD



CHAPTER II

PREPARING AND MOUNTING A BIRD


With tools and materials assembled and table in readiness, we come to
the real work and, in the order of things, will address the preparing
and mounting of a fresh bird specimen. To many people of long experience
in the art of taxidermy this task never ceases to be a delightful
operation, one of the pleasantest of many interesting bits of work that
may result from a day spent afield.

Figuratively, the specimen lies before us, upon the bench. Make it any
native bird your fancy desires. The following notes will be found to
cover the ground:

A pencil and a sheet of wrapping paper will first be brought into
service. With these make outlines of the specimen, top and side views,
laying the bird upon the paper and drawing the pencil around it while
looking straight down upon it.

After the skinning, outline the body, top, and side views, upon same
sheet, with position of shoulder joint, hip joint, knee, and tail
marked in black spots.

This system of wrapping paper sketches will be found of great value in
all work, from mounting a bird to setting up a deer head.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

To begin skinning, lay the bird upon a newspaper, head to left of you,
on the bench. Have cornmeal handy. Part the belly and breast feathers up
middle. With a scalpel make an incision (see Fig. 1) from within one
inch of front end of breast bone back to a quarter-inch forward of the
vent in large birds, and to the vent in small ones. Use care not to cut
through abdominal wall, which is usually very thin and may easily be
confused as a part of the skin, being closely bound to it. The two are
easily separated, however.

The primary incision made, lift an edge of the skin with finger and
thumb nail and carefully tear skin free from body, using scalpel when
necessary to help.

When thigh of a leg is exposed, take hold of leg outside of skin and
push knee forward so it is uncovered inside of skin. Sever knee joint
with scalpel or scissors, using care not to cut through skin on outside
of joint. Repeat on other leg. Apply cornmeal or fine sawdust if blood
or juice starts.

Next set bird on end, tail up. Bend tail over backward and cut through
vent lining, tail muscles, and vertebrae forward of the large quills.
Use care not to cut skin around tail, as at knee.

With bird still held on end, start peeling skin down over back and
sides. Use scalpel if skin adheres tightly.

When pelvis is uncovered, if a small bird, take rump between two
forefingers and thumb of left hand; if a large bird, hang up on a wire
hook and cord, and skin down to shoulders.

Press wings forward strongly to loosen joint muscles. Cut through one
shoulder joint and then other, going carefully as at knee and tail, so
as not to cut skin on opposite side.

Plug with cotton or dry with meal wherever necessary to stop flowing
blood.

Next peel the neck skin down over head to bill, pulling out ear linings
when met with and using care to work close to skull when cutting eyelids
free.

When this is done, cut off base of skull. With this the skin is free
from the body and inside out.

If the specimen is of a species with neck skin too small to peel over
the head, turn head and neck back right side out when neck is only
partly skinned down. Make an incision from middle of back of head down
nearly half length of neck, alongside where nape is bare of feathers.
Through this incision turn and clean the head.

With the skin removed, turn attention to details of cleaning away leg,
wing, and tail muscles, removing eyes, brain, and jaw muscles from skull
and scraping out whatever fat is in the skin.

To clean leg bones, skin out the thick, meaty shins, using thumb nail
and scalpel to aid where necessary, down to heel joint or upper end of
tarsus. Just above this joint sever the tendons, front and back, and
peel leg muscles off.

In owls skin on down the tarsus to as near foot, or toes, as possible
and clean out tarsus muscles.

In large birds, next split ball of foot, insert point of a steel spindle
under base of tarsus tendons beside hind toe and draw these cords out.
This will sometimes require a strong pull.

Always do this after the leg above has been cleaned. In small birds it
is not necessary to split ball of foot nor to remove these tendons.

Next remove the wing muscles. Peel skin down to elbow. Cut tendons free
just above elbow and strip muscles off. To clean forearm in a small
bird, use the thumb nail to shove skin forward toward wrist, on front of
wing, without breaking union of large, secondary flight feathers with
wing bone.

With scalpel cut and lift out elbow ends of forearm muscles, strip them
out down to as near wrist as possible and cut off.

In a large bird, split skin of forearm and hand along under side after
carefully separating feathers over bare strips of skin. Peel skin back
both ways and remove flesh neatly. Scrape out whatever flesh is in
evidence on hand bones in same way. In a bird with no fat adhering to
the skin, the skull and tail only remain to be cleaned in order to
complete the skinning operation.

To clean skull, remove eyes with a scalpel, scrape brains out through
cut-off skull base, and trim away jaw muscles and a portion of roof of
mouth.

To clean tail, peel it out carefully and scrape and cut away fat and
meat adhering to bone and base of quills.

If you have a specimen with fat adhering to the skin in more or less
loose patches, as in hawks and owls, simply scrape or peel the fat off
with a knife and thumb and finger.

If a fat duck skin is to be prepared the inside layer of skin over the
fat tracts must be sheared off carefully with scissors and the fat then
removed with a skin scraper or dull knife blade, care being exercised
not to tear the outer skin or to pull through feathers with the grease.

To clean and degrease a bird skin which requires such treatment to
prepare for mounting, wash it first in lukewarm ammonia water with mild
soap. Squeeze from this washing and put through a bath of half-and-half
alcohol and spirits of turpentine. Squeeze from this thoroughly and run
through benzine. Compress and relax the skin repeatedly while immersed
in both these baths. When squeezed from the benzine, dry the plumage by
first burying the skin for some minutes in dry plaster of paris.

When nearly all the moisture is drawn out dust skin in the plaster until
natural fluffiness is restored. Do this last out of doors, where the
skin may be beaten well when thoroughly dry, to free it of plaster dust.
Lay skin, right side out, over the left hand and beat with the right,
giving an occasional shaking, the better to loosen plaster dust.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

An A1 duster may be made from the brush of an ox tail. Nail this on a
short piece of broomstick and square ends of hair with scissors. This
duster is used instead of beating the plumage with the hand and does the
work much quicker and better. When the dusting is done turn the skin
inside out again (see Fig. 2) and brush arsenic-water into all inner
surfaces, then turn skin right side out and brush a little of the
solution upon the feet, under side of wings, and inside the bill.

When poisoning the head, with skin inside out, one step in preparation
for mounting is to be taken. After the arsenic-water is applied to skull
and scalp, fill eye sockets with chopped tow or fine excelsior, put a
light layer of cotton smoothly around the skull, forward edge close down
to bill. Turn skin carefully back over skull and finish poisoning skin.

It is best, if possible to do without risk of decay, to fold the freshly
prepared skin in a clean paper, wrap in damp cloth, and lay over one
night in a cool place, before mounting. This allows arsenic-water to
penetrate through into base of plumage, thus becoming more effective
against moths than if skin were immediately filled with absorbent
material which would tend to draw out the freshly applied solution.

With the skin preparation completed, construction of an artificial body
is the next step. In all bird work, upholstery excelsior or "wood wool"
will be found most satisfactory for body making and neck, wing, and leg
wrapping. This may be found at almost any upholstery shop, as is also
tow, a fine grade of which is needed in making bird necks, as chopped,
soft filling, etc.

A good grade of long-fiber cotton is needed for wrapping skulls and
wing and leg bones in small birds, etc.

Various sizes of strong thread, both black and white, and some small,
strong, ball twine will be needed for wrapping and sewing.

When making the artificial body, lay the outline sketches before you and
copy Nature's lines throughout the work of assembling the specimen.

To make a firm core for the body, take a thick wisp of excelsior twice
the length of the natural body and small or large according to specimen.
Hold this tightly in the left hand, wrapping it very hard with thread or
cord. Wrap the squeezed excelsior where it protrudes from between thumb
and forefinger of left hand, drawing cord tight at each round, paying
out the wisp until all is wrapped hard (see Fig. 3).

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

Now double this "stick" of excelsior in the middle and bind it together
tightly. This forms a solid core the length of the body.

The body is finished around this base by firmly binding upon it wisps or
handfuls of loose excelsior until the shape of the natural body is
approximated. To be correct this form should appear oval from side view
and pear-shaped from end view (see Fig. 4).

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

All body wrapping must be firm so that wires set in it will not be loose
and cause the specimen to wobble.

Next cut the neck, wing, and leg wires. Cut neck wire three times
natural length, wing wires twice natural length, and leg wires three
times natural length. In the neck use a size wire that will support the
head firmly and still be easy to manipulate.

If the wings are to be closed, use light wire in them. If to be spread,
use strong wire to support with no wobbling. In the legs use as large
wire as will go easily through the tarsus and not rip the skin open, to
insure rigidity in the finished specimen. Use galvanized soft steel
wires if possible. If ordinary black iron wire is used it should be
waxed before placing. For the tail cut one wire of a length to go half
way through the body and leave enough protruding to allow of handily
setting tail into position.

Cut six or eight medium wires, twice length of thickness of body, for
wing pinning and feather wrapping, if either or both of these are found
necessary. Make cornered points on wires. Sharpen neck- and wing-wires
at both ends, leg, tail, and pinning-wires at one end.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

To set neck-wire in body, thrust it in a little above center of larger
end of body, run it diagonally through and out at middle back (see Fig.
5). Push two-thirds its length out of back, loop one-third back along
its own length and push it back through body so that both ends protrude,
shorter end beneath other in front. Bend the short end squarely and
force it into front of body to anchor neck-wire firmly in place. Consult
note sketch and wrap a soft neck of natural size upon the wire (see Fig.
6). Leave head end of neck a little bit long to set into brain cavity
for solid anchorage. For neck material use cotton in small birds, tow in
medium size, and fine excelsior in large birds. Only excelsior will need
tying down with thread or cord.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

To make cords in nape of neck, which support the mane, thread a large
sewing needle with heavy thread for small birds, a darning needle with
string for larger. Double the cord and knot its end heavily. Run the
needle through ridge of body just back of shoulders, carry cord to a
little below where skull will set to and run cord through neck from back
to front so it will protrude between jaws when they are set (see Fig.
7).

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

Let long end of cord hang free so that it may be passed through the
mouth when skull is set on neck-wire. With this done, lay aside the
body.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

The next step is wiring the wings and legs and substituting muscles of
same. To place a wing-wire draw the wing inside out. Take wing bone in
left hand. Place point of wire under small tendon that draws across back
of elbow joint, push through and up to wrist. Turn wing right side out
and by parting feathers on under side of wrist, locate two points of
bone at joint which have a cord or tendon drawn across between them.
Work the wire through under this.

The simplest way to anchor tip of wing-wire is to push it outside skin
just forward of wrist, turn a short right angle bend near its tip with
pliers and carrying it forward, push the point through a hollow pan
which will be found in the hand bones (see Fig. 8).

After a wing-wire is set, wrap cotton, tow, or excelsior about the upper
arm-bone to approximate shape and size of flesh removed. Wrap slightly
with thread or cord and tie.

In a small bird in which the forearm was skinned out from the inside,
slip in a film of cotton or tow to replace flesh of same. In a large
bird in which the wing was opened along forearm and hand, lay in a soft
filling after skin is in place on artificial body and sewn up. Sew wing
incision carefully, beginning at body and keeping feathers out of
stitch.

To place the leg-wires, start sharpened end into ball of foot, push wire
upward through back of leg to hock or heel joint. Take leg in left hand,
keeping heel straight, and push wire through at back of joint. A little
turning of the wire will aid in passing through leg easily.

Now turn leg inside out and push wire to just beyond end of shin bone
(see Fig. 9). Slip wire rapidly back and forth in leg to make it run
easily. There should be no kinks in wires.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

Hold wire down to back of bone and wrap on cotton, tow, or excelsior,
according to size of bird, to replace flesh. Tie this material loosely
with a few turns of thread or cord. See that wing and leg wrapping is
smooth and nicely tapering from elbow and heel.

It now remains to place the body, set wings and legs and tail, sew up
the breast incision, and, if a large bird, the wings.

In preparing to place the body, take a turn of end of nape cord about
tip of neck-wire and twist a wisp of cotton about them both to prevent
wire catching in neck skin when passing through. Hold up the bird-skin
by the head, shake it out loose and rattle neck-wire up through the
neck. Run wire out of mouth, remove cotton and release free end of nape
cord. Draw wire back to base of skull, leaving nape cord hanging from
mouth. Now push wire through brain cavity, between eye sockets and
forward out of roof of mouth inside until neck is seated in brain
cavity. Tip of wire may have to be curved to accomplish this, in
curve-billed birds.

When head is set take excelsior body in right hand, hold it with head
up, and with left hand pull shoulder skin into place. Now lay the bird
down, take a wing-wire and start it through the body at side of back,
one-half to one and one-half inches, according to size of bird, to rear
of actual position of shoulder joint.

Pull wire through on opposite side of breast. When head of wing-bone is
drawn down to same distance as above, from body, bend wire sharply
forward to lay upon body, thus setting shoulder joint so that it is
flexible. Now turn over end of wire left protruding from side of breast
and clinch it into body squarely. When wings are set shake skin down
over body and set legs.

Having previously marked the hip joint with a spot of ink, run a
leg-wire through at this point, quartering it out on opposite side where
thigh will set. Pull wire through to a considerable length without
drawing other end up into the foot.

Loop sharp end squarely, with long enough point to go clear through body
again, push it back through, clinching tip down on other side. Now pull
the knee to its proper distance from hip joint, thus leaving bare wire
for thigh bone. Bend thigh into place flat against side of body, with
knee at side of breast.

When legs are set shake and carefully pull skin of rump into place. Take
tail-wire and push it through center of tail, under the bone, using care
that it does not disturb tail quills. Push sharp end of wire into body
above center and forward of end of body.

Consult notes for actual set of tail. See that wire supports tail
without looseness. (For general details of wiring, see Fig. 10.) Fill
butt of tail and thighs with a little chopped tow.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

Now lay the bird upon its back. Turn the legs out at the sides a little,
leaving knees against body. Draw edges of skin together along incision
and sew up with medium stitches, neither short and labored or long and
slouchy. Begin at rump end of incision.

In a bird in which the neck was opened to accommodate skinning the head,
sew up this incision carefully, beginning at body end and sewing toward
head.

When a large bird, in which the wings were opened for cleaning, is to be
mounted with closed wings, very little sewing need be done, but if the
wings are to be raised or spread the incision should be neatly stitched
its entire length.

Also in a large bird, in which the tendons were drawn through ball of
foot, the fatty tissue of the ball should be replaced with chopped tow
and the short incision sewn up. Beeswax will keep thread from fraying.

With the sewing all done, bend the legs into semi-position, fold the
wings, if to be closed, and turn them sharply up over the back so that
their under side is outward and elbows meet over center of back. Shake
out the plumage a little by grasping the feet. Drill the perch and mount
the bird upon it. Position the legs, body, and head, and set the tail
as per Nature, to suit the position.

Adjust the plumage a little with tweezers. Compress the wings loosely to
the sides. If there is an unnatural hollowness between the shoulders,
lift the mane and at one side of it where the skin is bare, make a short
longitudinal incision. Through this place a little soft filling over and
between the shoulders to fill out hollowness. It is not necessary to sew
up this incision in a long feathered specimen.

Now settle down to the fascinating task of adjusting the feather tracts,
nicely manipulating the plumage, in places feather by feather, until
characteristic markings of the species are brought out in their normal
position as though the bird had just ruffled and then allowed the
feathers to settle back softly. Jewelers' tweezers are the finest thing
to be had for this work.

Return to the head. Pull the nape cord taut and tie it to neck-wire in
roof of mouth. Cut off the wire within the mouth so that the mandibles
close naturally. Tie the bill shut with cord or thread. It is necessary
in many specimens to thread the cord through the nostrils to accomplish
this.

To set the eyes, wipe a drop of liquid glue into the cotton of the eye
sockets and inside the lids, using a bit of wire for the purpose. Set
the eyes with regard to expression to suit the position, picking the
lids over their edges with needle and tweezers.

Pin, or tie with thread, the toes to grasp the perch.

Cut two pieces of thin cardboard for the tail. Curve them slightly.
Place one over and one under the long quills just clear of the coverts
and pin them through in two or three places to hold the quills even
until dry.

In mounting a specimen with spread wings, card the flight feathers full
length with curved strips, same as tail, then run a long sharpened wire
into the body under each wing and lay a loose bunch of cotton over it,
under the quills, to raise them and hold in proper position until dry.

To wrap the body feathers for keeping place until dry, stick two or
three long pins in back and breast, along center of both. These hold the
light wrapping of thread from slipping out of place as it goes on. Lay
the thread around the specimen lightly. If the wings do not set right
without other aid than the wire already in them, pin them with sharpened
wires, one through the double bone just forward of the wrist and one
through close forward of the elbow, running wires firmly into the body.
(For general details see Fig. 11.)

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

To soak up a dried bird skin for preparation to mount, the simplest and
quickest means is immersion in a weak solution of carbolic acid in
water, leaving for a day or two until tissues are soft.

When the skin is relaxed so that wings and legs may be manipulated
without breaking, squeeze water from it and follow same method given for
cleaning a fresh skin. With this treatment a good dry skin will come out
as soft and workable as a fresh one. Arsenic and grease burnt skins are
hard to get much out of.

To make up dry bird skins for keeping to mount at a future time, follow
regular method of thorough skinning and cleaning. Apply dry arsenic
powder to inner surfaces. Wrap skull, wing, and leg bones lightly with
cotton or tow. Turn skin right side out and push a neck and light body
filling of fiber that will allow ventilation, into place. Arrange the
plumage and hang the skin up by a thread or cord sewn through neck at
base of skull.

To make a cabinet skin for study purposes, roll a neat body and neck of
material to suit size of bird, place it inside the skin, stitch incision
together, plug eye sockets with cotton, tie the elbows together on the
body with a loop sewn through the back, tie bill shut, adjust feathers
neatly and lay the specimen in a hollowed bed made of a piece of wire
netting bent to size. See that wings cover back neatly. Lay head of
short necked bird out straight, neck somewhat shorter than natural, and
of long necked specimen along right side, looped to body with cord sewn
through neck and side. Cross the feet and tie with a tag bearing
complete data as to locality, date, sex, etc., with collector's name. To
determine sex of a bird specimen, open the abdomen under thigh. Testes
of male will be found under fore end of pelvis and are white, in young
bird, very small.

Now when the period of drying is past, return to the mounted bird for
finishing touches. With scissors cut the thread feather wrappings. Pull
out pins in back and breast and cut off wing pinning-wires flush under
the plumage. If the specimen was primarily mounted on a rough temporary
perch, remove to the finished permanent stand and color legs and fleshy,
exposed parts of face skin to natural hues with tube oil colors and a
soft brush. Thin the color for this purpose with a little turpentine and
a very little touch of varnish.

In all work in taxidermy, practice develops deftness and a personal
system of handling the details that cannot be brought about except by
sympathetic attention to the art. The work is not difficult when the
details are addressed with quiet thought and very little main strength.

[Illustration]



SKINNING, PREPARING, AND MOUNTING A SMALL MAMMAL



CHAPTER III

SKINNING, PREPARING, AND MOUNTING A SMALL MAMMAL


We will choose a gray squirrel as our subject in this chapter, as this
little rodent has a tough skin that is easily manipulated. A cottontail
rabbit might be more easy to procure, but is not so satisfactory for the
purpose of initiative steps in this work, as his skin is extremely
delicate and requires especially careful handling in preparation and
mounting.

Now, in beginning work upon the small mammal specimen, make outline
studies of it in same way the bird specimen was handled, _i. e._, both
before and after skinning. When the preliminary surface sketches are
completed, replace the wrapping paper used for the purpose, with
newspaper, cornmeal at hand, and proceed with the skinning.

Have scalpel or skinning-knife well sharpened. Lay head of specimen
toward right. Part fur over center of breast bone, insert point of knife
just under skin, forcing backward, and with as near one clean stroke as
possible open the skin neatly along center of abdomen. Do not cut the
abdominal wall. Carry belly incision to close to the vent. In male
specimen run the incision to one side of the testes.

Next insert point of knife in fore center of pad or feet and paws and
with a gentle push carry these incisions upon back of wrists and inside
of ankles to where swell of large muscles is felt. In mammals the size
of woodchuck or raccoon, split toes on under side.

If a mammal skin is to be kept for some time, dried or in brine, split
the tail full length along under side. If tail skin slips easily and the
specimen is to be mounted at once, pull the tail out, splitting only the
very tip to allow arsenic solution to be run through. In many species
the tail must be split and peeled out with a knife because of tough
binding. (For general diagram of incisions, see Fig. 12.)

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

The next step in handily skinning a mammal is to peel out the feet
through their incisions, severing toes at base and leaving them complete
in the skin. Peel the leg skins back over ankles and wrists (see Fig.
13).

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

If tail was split, peel it down next, beginning at tip. Now return to
the abdominal incision and neatly peel the skin from the body, in many
instances using only the thumb nail for loosening it.

When the thighs are encountered, bend hind legs back and sever hip
joints from pelvis (see Fig. 13), cutting carefully through the large
muscles so that the skin on opposite side of them may not be punctured.

When the hind legs are cut free, peel around back of pelvis, loosening
skin to base of tail. Set the specimen upon its head end and, with thumb
and finger nails of left hand, grasp skin about the base of tail while
with right hand strip tail out with force.

Next peel the body down to shoulders. Hang large specimen up by cord
tied about loins, the more handily to finish the skinning.

Sever the forelegs at shoulder joint (see Fig. 14), using care not to
cut through skin.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

Peel skin down over neck to ears. Cut ears free from head, working with
knife close to skull. Peel to eyes. In cutting the eyelids free, work
close to eyeballs so that lids are not injured. Peel to mouth and cut
close to jaw bones in severing lips and nose from skull (see Fig. 15).

With the skin removed from the body, next peel out the legs.

Split inside of lips free with sharp knife, very carefully, so as not to
break edge of them.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

With scissors shear out all mouth and nose meat, being careful not to
cut off the whisker pockets, which are usually very prominent when the
side nose muscles are partly sheared off.

Skin out the backs of the ears clear to edges by pressing a finger tip
inside the ear and peeling over this with finger nail or other dull
instrument. With scissors shear off meat of butt of ear and whatever
meat and fat adheres to rest of skin.

In sketches of skinned body mark points of shoulder joint and hip joint
and note width of pelvis at hip joints.

Remove the skull from the carcass and clean it by cutting and scraping
away all meat, pulling out the eyeballs, and scooping out the brain.
For the purpose of mounting, the base of the skull may be cut off to
facilitate cleaning, but for study (cabinet) skins the skull must be
kept intact and always accompany by number the skin it was removed from.

Trim all meat from the leg bones and poison these and the skull when
finishing preparation of the skin.

Add a few drops of carbolic acid, well stirred in to the arsenic water
used upon skins of small mammals for mounting. This aids in preventing
decay and slipping of the epidermis.

Apply the poison solution thoroughly with a brush, to all inner surfaces
of the skin and to the toes. If tail was split only at the tip, run a
few drops of arsenic water through it.

Turn the poisoned skin right side out, lay it flat, side pressed to
side, roll up, place in paper, and cover with a damp cloth. Lay in this
way over one night, giving the arsenic solution a chance to penetrate
through to roots of hair before mounting. If a specimen is bloody or
mussed the blood may be cleaned off before skinning by wetting the spots
with alcohol and rubbing the blood and juices out with cornmeal.

The first step in mounting is properly to wire the skull and leg bones.
(For details of this see Fig. 16.)

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

For the body-wire select a size larger than for the legs, cutting it
twice as long as head, neck, and body. For legs choose a size wire that
will firmly support the specimen in position without wobbling. If the
mammal is to sit erect, the hind leg-wires must be considerably larger
than otherwise and foreleg-wires may be much lighter. (Making the pelvis
loop may be easily followed in diagram in Fig. 17.)

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

The first body-wire loop is bent to set into the brain cavity. Then the
foreleg loop is made some little distance back of actual shoulder point
(in fox-squirrel about an inch and a half or two inches). Get distance
from skull to hip joint from body sketch and follow this sketch for
dimensions in bending wire pelvis into shape. The tail loop is last to
be made.

As Fig. 16 shows, the leg-wires are wrapped tightly upon the back of the
bones with thread or light cord, leaving shorter end of wire passing
from sole of foot. At shoulder joint turn wire back sharply and at hip
ball turn wire in at right angles. In palms and soles of feet turn wire
down at right angles.

When the bone wiring is completed take up again the body sketches. Bring
out a quantity of fine excelsior for replacing the leg muscles and skull
meat and for filling the body after assembling the wired parts within
the skin.

In wrapping on the artificial leg muscles begin at the feet. Follow the
outline sketches and with thread and small cord wrap small, properly
proportioned masses, squeezed firm in the hand or finger tips, upon the
bones, copying Nature's outline and form accurately.

Wrap the foreleg to the shoulders. Complete the hind leg to the knee and
above this point wrap on only the muscles on top of the thigh bone,
leaving back of thigh to be filled with loose material when the skin is
adjusted.

The tail may be made of cotton, wrapped tightly and smoothly upon the
wire, wisp by wisp. Begin at tip and work down, spinning the wire with
right hand to produce uniformity of shape. If mammal is larger than a
squirrel the tail may be made of tow, pulled smooth, laid lengthwise of
the wire, and wrapped smoothly down with thread. For size, length, and
shape of tail, refer to the sketches.

The head muscles may be replaced in much the same manner as leg muscles.
(See Fig. 18 for wrapping complete.) The specimen is now ready to
assemble.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

To accomplish this in systematic order, insert the head into place and
next the forelegs. Consult sketch and bend a right angle in
foreleg-wire back of shoulder at such a point that shoulder will set in
proper relation to head. One at a time, using the pliers, twist these
foreleg-wire ends, after setting them through shoulder loop, tightly
back along the body-wire. Next insert the hind legs into the skin. Slip
their wires through hip loops, carry them forward, and tightly twist
them around body-wire as in forelegs.

If the tail skin was unopened except at tip the wrapped tail should be
put in when the head is placed in the skin. If tail skin was opened full
length, the artificial tail may be placed after all the legs are
adjusted. Run tail-wire base forward through its pelvis-wire loop and
twist it around body-wire. (For general assembling of specimen see Fig.
19.)

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

Before filling the body, sew up the tail, using short stitches and a
round needle, if it is possible to push it through skin easily. Begin
sewing at tip and work toward body. Finish all sewing with a simple knot
drawn tight under tip of finger.

Next, with a stuffing rod of appropriate size, place the neck filling,
stuffing against palm of left hand hollowed outside the skin at point of
filling so that the forming may be felt accurately.

Then comes the filling for shoulder blades over forelegs and with it the
chest filling. In handling the excelsior, pull out wisps of it from the
mass and rub them between the palms so that the fiber is broken up and
softened. Fine excelsior ("wood wool") is the material par excellence
for stuffing the bodies of small mammals from size of small chipmunks
up. Mice require a softer material, and short chopped, fine tow answers
requirements in them. The leg bones of mice may be wrapped with long
fiber cotton batting or fine tow.

When the shoulders and chest have been filled firm full, but not to the
point of looking stuffed, turn to the hind legs and pelvis. Fill in the
back thigh muscles neatly; then cover top of wire pelvis, pushing
material well down to base of tail. Fill rump sufficiently to overcome
a pinched or too high set look. The position must be considered in
properly filling the back, sides, and abdomen. If a bunched up position
is to be worked out, bend the wire back bone into semipose and place the
legs in approximately their final position. After this, fill the body to
suit the position, always forming with the stuffing rod working against
the left hand. See that all filling is firm but not packed in to the
point of distorting the skin. Consult sketches and aim to preserve the
little animal's natural form. (For general filling details see Fig. 20)

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

When the filling is all placed, sew the abdominal incision neatly up,
beginning at rear end always and going forward. Wax the thread. In a
hunched together position, middling long stitches may be used. In a
straighter pose shorter stitches should be used.

Now, when the body is sewn up cover the specimen with paper and a damp
cloth to prevent drying while a small batch of compo. No. II is prepared
for finishing feet and head. Returning to the specimen with this,
slightly moisten the wrapping on the bones of the feet and apply a bit
of the compo. at front and in the sole of each foot. This cements the
toes to the foot and fills the pads.

After this is done sew each foot up neatly, beginning at toes and
working toward body. If toes were large and required splitting and
removing of toe cords, replace the cords with bits of small rope or soft
twine and sew toes up neatly with short stitches. It is best to use a
round needle and black thread, well waxed for this work.

The specimen is now ready to place upon its base, perch, or stand. With
the approximate position shaped, mark the perch for wire holes by
holding specimen over it and indicating places where wires come, by
scratch or pencil mark. When holes are drilled and the specimen wired
into place, take a strong fur needle set into a handle and by working
and compressing with the fingers and jab-lifting with the needle,
finish shaping and positioning.

Hold in hollow of flanks by sewing through here with long needle and
strong cord, heavily knotted for the first hold. Finish this sewing with
a knot drawn down into the fur under the thumb. Arrange the fur over all
stitches by picking it free with tweezers.

With the body finished, take up filling and finishing the head with the
compo. First work compo. into the ears and pinch them out thin and into
their natural shape, then cover the entire face under the skin with
compo. Fill eye sockets and set eyes as second step. Lastly fill the
nose and lips and model them firmly upon the jaws. In all mammals cover
the teeth well with the lips. Even in a muskrat the teeth do not
ordinarily show at all. Also avoid getting the lips, nose, and whisker
base too full. Set the tail into easy normal position, pin toes to grasp
the perch or set well upon the ground and inspect the body to see that
no hollow or bumps remain in the filling where there should be perfect
smoothness. Remove such of these as persist with the handle-held fur
needle and then set the specimen in a well ventilated place to dry.

The principal point in preparing thin or stretchy small mammal skins
for mounting is to leave the membrane of skin-muscles on the body skin.
This holds a flabby skin in shape and lends strength to a frail one. In
spite of this the legs of most wild rabbits must be handled very
gingerly, as they have no lining membrane like the body. For finishing
mouth, nose, and eyelids of mounted mammals, melt a little refined
beeswax in a metal vessel. While the wax is hot (don't allow it to
smoke), stir in a little tube oil color (black or brown for most
mammals; color to nature for birds with highly tinted eyelids). Mix the
wax and color thoroughly with a flat bristle brush. Afterward the brush
may be easily cleaned of the wax by breaking it up with alcohol, when it
has cooled.

Next draw some wisps of fine, long-fiber cotton through the melted wax
and lay them quickly flat upon oiled paper to cool. For lips of mammals
cut narrow strips of the wax. Heat an upholstering spindle and with it
repeatedly heated, melt the wax and cotton into crease of closed lips.
Melt thin, flat pieces of the wax into depth of nostrils and very narrow
strips in eyelids.

When all the wax is placed, model it into shape with a smooth,
wedge-ended bit of pine wood. To clean out wax that ran into the hair
by melting, apply alcohol with a bit of cloth, scratch the waxy hair
loose with finger nail and rub the crumbled wax out with the bit of
alcohol dampened cloth. This leaves lips, eyelids, and nostrils neatly
finished. Apply thin varnish to nose, edge of eyelids, and bare parts of
lips that show. For mounting a mammal with open mouth, follow same note
given in making a whole head for rug.

To make a small mammal cabinet skin, remove the skin as for mounting
except that legs are severed at elbow and knee and soles of feet are
split only to allow of poisoning.

Poison with dry arsenic. Wire tail same as in mounting. Wrap leg bones
with cotton, tow, or excelsior according to size of specimen. Turn the
skin back over a core of one of these materials, wrapped upon a splinter
or stick, to size of natural body, but somewhat flatter. Sew up
abdominal incision neatly. Catch the lips together with two or three
stitches. Lay specimen, belly down, upon a soft-wood board. Pin fore
paws alongside of the face and hind feet alongside of tail.

When this is done press specimen until it is slightly flattened and set
aside to dry. With each specimen preserve the perfect skull when
possible, date on which taken, locality, any note of interest observed
at the time (and add collector's name).

In using dry arsenic, apply with a small brush, using no grease on the
hands.



PREPARING AND MOUNTING GAME FISHES AND SMALL REPTILES



CHAPTER IV

PREPARING AND MOUNTING GAME FISHES AND SMALL REPTILES


For the purpose of mounting, fishes and reptiles must be fresh, and the
fresher the better. In beginning this chapter it may be well to state a
simple way to keep fish for a short period before skinning and mounting,
as sportsmen afield will not always be able immediately to prepare
specimens taken.

First, while the fish is perfectly fresh, remove the viscera. If the
fish is to be mounted upon a panel for wall decoration, make the
incision along middle of poorest looking side, full length from gill to
tail fin.

If the specimen is to stand upon a pedestal of polished wood, with
supporting rods from the belly, make the incision along center of belly
full length. To prevent decay, stir three or four drops of forty per
cent solution of formalin into a quart of water.

Squeeze a cloth from this, leaving it pretty moist, and wrap the fish in
it, giving the wet cloth close contact with the skin. Do not apply
formalin inside any skin to be used for mounting. Never eat the flesh of
a fish thus kept.

Before skinning the fish, make careful outlines over him, both side and
top views. When skin is removed make outlines of skinned carcass.

Handle a fish very carefully when skinning and cleaning, moving the
specimen about or bending as little as possible during the entire
operation. Lay the head to your left. Open the skin with scissors and
make one long clean cut.

Lift edges of the skin and peel from flesh with a sharp knife or
scalpel. Cut off base of fins, when encountered, with scissors or bone
snips. Trim out most of skull with knife and bone snips, removing eyes
from inside. Be sure to scrape all flesh from cheek inside of gill
cover.

Remove flesh and fat from inside of skin with scraper, working from tail
toward head. Scrape out with point of small knife blade the flesh that
runs out thin over tail-fin bones.

This completes the skinning operation. The cleaned skin may be poisoned
to advantage with either dry or solution arsenic, brushed in well.

If the specimen is opened on the side for panel mounting and we wish to
follow a very simple method in mounting, one that is quite as practical
as it is simple, we must take a different step than outline sketches
before skinning. This is to make a complete body and head cast of the
best side in plaster of paris. This does not include the fins. To make
the cast neatly, lay the fish, best side up, in a slight hollow in a box
of clean, damp sand. Pack the sand up under the fish body smoothly so
that more than half of him rises in cameo style from the smooth surface.

Make up enough plaster to do the cast at once. To mix plaster properly,
sprinkle it into the dish of water until a little will begin to stand
out dry above the surface. Then with a spoon sunk deep in it, gently
stir to evenness. It is then ready to pour. Before doing this, jar the
pan upon the table a time or two to cause any possible bubbles to rise.

Pour evenly over the fish, or better still, dip it on with the spoon.
The plaster should be thick enough to barely flow for making a proper
cast.

The pectoral fins are simply laid flat to the side in making the cast.

Allow the cast to set hard before lifting it and removing the fish.
Trim off the overlapping edge so that no undercut remains.

The cleaned and poisoned skin should lay in damp cloth over one night
and is then laid in accurate place back in the cast. Pour it nearly full
of medium thick plaster of paris, carefully mixed free of bubbles.

Settle a board, cut to approximate body outline but much smaller, into
the unset plaster and press the flap edges of the skin back together
over the board, molding edge of back and belly to round back away from
trimmed edge of mold. This must be all done with accuracy before the
plaster sets, but you will find it gives enough time. Do not work in a
strung-up, nervous way.

When the plaster is set hard, remove fish from mold, hold it upon palm
of left hand and tack edges of skin to back-board. (For general details
of this method see Fig. 21).

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

Screw the specimen to a piece of board and adjust fins, carding them
over little blocks and holding the cards with sharp toilet pins until
drying is completed.

See that the jaws set right. They should have gone into the mold in
proper relation to each other. Dig out the plaster in eye socket on show
side and set eye in a little fresh plaster.

A simple method of making a modelled mannikin for fish follows:

Have the freshly skinned body or sketches of same at hand. Cut a
soft-wood board core, making it some smaller than outline of carcass.

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

Anchor into this two rigid supporting wires or rods as shown in Fig. 22.
Upon this board core wrap strongly and smoothly with thread or small
cord a quantity of manila fiber to same shape of body but one-half to
three-quarters inch smaller than the body. Over this apply plaster of
paris and manila fiber (dipping the fiber and laying it on) to
approximate size of natural body. When this is set hard, pare it
smoothly into outlines of natural shape and gouge out slight grooves for
fin bases to set into. (See Fig. 23.).

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

Mannikins of this type should be dried out as quickly as possible and
shellaced before applying the skin. Apply the fish skin with a paste of
compo. No. I. Card the fins as in Fig. 24.

Fill the face through mouth and eyes with plaster of paris with a
little chopped manila fiber worked into it. Use a slight amount of glue
in the water to prevent rapid setting of the plaster. Hold face in place
until set, with light wrapping of soft cord, using care that it does not
crease soft parts.

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

Special fish eyes may be procured at any dealers in taxidermists'
supplies. As the last detail of mounting, set the eyes. In all kinds of
specimens use a size of eyes that pass through the lids easily without
the need of stretching to admit them. A panel-fish needs but one eye as
a rule.

When the specimen is dry apply a coat of thin shellac as a filler to
the surface to paint upon. This filler should be very thin and leave
only a suggestion of gloss.

Use oil colors and apply as little pigment as may be used for the
effect. Kerosene oil is an ideal thinning medium for tube oil colors.
Have very little paint upon the brush when applying the tints to a fish
or reptile skin.

A suggestion of natural hues and markings will be found more
satisfactory than painting them on heavily. In a day or two when the
paint is dry apply a very thin coat of alcohol-cut picture varnish.
Turps-cut varnish is liable to loosen the paint, thus necessitating
entire re-finishing. Fasten a panel fish to the setting that is to frame
him, with two screws at least, countersinking their heads in the panel
back.

The fish piece may be hung as a picture, with screw eyes and cord or it
may be hung with one or two sheet metal slots countersunk into the panel
back. This will allow the piece to be applied flat to any wall that will
hold screws.

Large fishes mounted with rods for pedestal setting should have rods
threaded at both ends for nuts. Upper ends that support core board
should be bent as shown in Fig. 25. This figure also shows complete
method of setting both rod and wire supports in body core and permanent
stand.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]


PREPARING AND MOUNTING A SMALL HARD SHELLED TURTLE

For the purpose of skinning a hard shelled turtle (soft shelled species
are best unattempted) the belly plate is sawed open as shown in Fig. 26.
A piece of hacksaw blade may be shaped and set into a firm handle with
cross pegs of metal, for this purpose, or the small saw found in a
hollow handle tool kit may serve. Four corner holes must be bored by
which to start the sawing, which, for ease in accomplishing, may be thus
done upon straight lines.

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

Through the sawed opening remove the viscera. With scissors and bone
snips, free the legs at their joints with the back shell, cut the neck
and tail vertebrae free and pull all these members inside out through
the opened shell. Skin the head to well down behind the eye sockets,
uncovering most of the jaw muscles and stopping where the skin and skull
are joined directly on the crown.

Cut the neck off. Clean out jaw meat, tongue, and brain. Turn head right
side out and with a stiff wire hook pull out the eyeballs.

Skin legs clear to toes and remove flesh cleanly from bones.

Skin tail out carefully. In many species this has to be split on under
side to remove bone. Dry the shell out with a bit of rag.

Poison well with arsenic water and let stand over one night, covered
with a damp cloth.

A simple method of mounting turtles, that will be found satisfactory for
decorative work, is clearly shown in Figs. 27 and 28.

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

A light tow neck is wrapped upon the neck-wire, which is cut about twice
the length of the head and neck-skin, and has a small loop bent into it
near its outer end, to set into the brain cavity and a loop by front and
one by back end of belly opening to hold leg-wires. The front end is
run out through the nose. Legs are wired as in a mammal with wires bound
firmly to bones with thread or cord. Bones are then covered with a light
wrapping of tow, placed lightly and smoothly. This serves only as a core
to the filling. Tail is wrapped upon wire to natural size.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

Legs are now pushed back into place, wires of them and tail are passed
through loops in body-wire and twisted around it once or twice, and then
leg-wires are led to drilled holes in edge of shell and clinched in them
as shown in Fig. 27.

Now tie or pin the mouth shut. Legs and head and neck are next filled
with sawdust, tamped in with a blunt piece of rod or wire or piece of
wood shaped for the purpose. Fill in the front legs and head first and
stuff some tow behind them to hold the sawdust in place when the
specimen is reversed to fill hind legs. After these are filled, stuff
the shell full of tow.

Position the turtle and wire upon a piece of board for a temporary base.

Finish shaping with a whittled modeling tool. Stuff the skin in front of
hind legs into proper concavity with wads of tow or cotton and leave
these until the specimen is dried.

Stuff the eye sockets with chopped tow. Wipe inside the eyelids a little
liquid glue and carefully set the eyes, using care to preserve natural
fullness of the ball under lids.

In drying, the tip of the nose will shrink away. When the specimen is
dry and the nose-wire is cut off, a wax tip may be modeled on, nostrils
being punched into it with a bit of wire.

To set the wax nose, with a sharp knife trim away the shrunken tip,
place a bit of wax upon the socket, and melt it into firm contact with a
heated wire. Shape the artificial nose with a small wooden modeling
tool. Replace faded colors of turtles with thin tints of tube colors.

An ideal method of mounting turtles is to finish head, neck, legs, and
tail in compo. No. II.

Use the leg bones and wrap them thinly with tow. Wrap a small, hard, tow
neck upon the wire and a thin tow core upon the tail-wire. Cover these
cores, to natural size of muscles, with papier mache.

Cover the skull where meat was scraped from jaws. Push the neck, tail
and legs into place and wire to shell as in Fig. 27. Stuff shell with
tow to hold papier mache filling of limbs in place until dry.

Turtles mounted in this way should be positioned upon a board, modeled
with a tool into anatomical lines of neck, legs, etc., and allowed to
remain wired upon the board until the compo. begins to harden.

When this is well under way, take the turtle from the board and finish
drying, wrong side up in a well ventilated place. Remove the tow from
inside the shell to allow of quicker evaporation. Turtles mounted with
sawdust dry very quickly and usually very slowly when finished in papier
mache.


PREPARING AND MOUNTING A SMALL LIZARD

  (Apply the wrapped body principle, given herewith, to mounting
  small snakes, using a wire through center.)

A horned toad is a good example for us to work out in this department.
Skin the specimen as you would a small mammal, except that body incision
runs from jaw to tip of tail and skull is left attached to face-skin.
Keep the skinned carcass in alcohol for reference in making the hard
wrapped excelsior body. Mount as you would a bird specimen, except that
all leg-wires are set solid same as the two legs of the bird are.

The lizard's leg bones are wired exactly as in a bird and are wrapped
with tow or cotton to replace muscles. Wire neck and tail and put the
specimen together as shown in Fig. 29.

[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

Position the specimen and wire upon a temporary base. Set eyes same as
in turtles. When dry finish in same manner as a turtle.

In large lizards a light covering of compo. No. II may be employed over
a hard wrapped core, but is not so satisfactory as dry mounting as the
skins of lizards are water-proof and consequently do not allow of
moisture evaporating. With care in application the first mentioned
method may be employed upon nearly all lizard specimens with most
satisfactory results.

Alligators may be mounted with wrapped legs and tail and stuffed body,
like the small mammal method with the exception of the head.

Be sure to remove all the jaw meat, tongue, and eye socket fat from the
skulls of lizard specimens. Replace tongue and other tissues with
colored wax and cotton when mouth is opened.


PREPARING AND MOUNTING A SMALL CRUSTACEAN

A crawfish or "land crab" will serve as a typical medium for describing
the method of preparing specimens of this nature.

When possible, take notes of the living colors.

Crustaceans may be killed most handily with chloroform. Place the
specimen in a large mouthed bottle or other vessel that may be closed
tightly. Pour a little chloroform upon a wad of cotton and drop it into
the vessel with the specimen and close up tightly.

When beginning work, lay the specimen upon its back and with a sharp
scalpel loosen the large thorax plate around its edge and remove it
carefully with head and antennae left attached intact.

Separate tail entire from body meat. Split it along fleshy under side
and remove muscles from it with the scalpel.

The legs will come apart and must be kept in natural order. If the claws
are large and meaty, cut a round hole in under side of thick part and
scrape meat out. Apply arsenic-water to all inner surfaces.

Cut wires of suitable size for all the legs. Have them enough longer
than the legs so that a sharpened end will protrude to run through and
clinch in the body core. Push wires in full length of legs. (Fig. 30.
shows the details of making the body core of fine excelsior.) Make the
core of a size to fit a little loosely into shell of body and tail.

[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

Set legs upon core as shown in Fig. 31. When the legs are properly
anchored, cover the core with enough of compo. No. I. so it will fit
snugly into thorax and tail shells. Place these upon the core now and
press them accurately into position.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

Whatever compo. squeezes out may be removed with a bit of damp cloth or
sponge. Position legs and tail approximately and wire upon the base. Set
the legs in their permanent position, spread or close the tail fan as
desired, arrange the antennae, and set the specimen in a well ventilated
spot to dry. Tint with oil colors, thinned with kerosene as they are
used, laying the tints on with soft brushes.

Sanded or graveled board bases may be made for birds, turtles, etc., by
applying a coat of heavy shellac to top and sides of pieces, cut to
required sizes and shapes, and before the shellac has a chance to dry,
throwing sand or fine gravel on forcibly or laying the boards in the
sand and piling sand over the moist tops, letting them lay a few moments
before removing and shaking off the loose sand. Allow such bases to dry
thoroughly before using.



PREPARING AND MOUNTING A VIRGINIA DEER HEAD



CHAPTER V

PREPARING AND MOUNTING A VIRGINIA DEER HEAD


Well mounted trophies of the chase are a source of delight to the
fortunate sportsman who possesses them.

Antlered game heads that are mounted true to life in form and expression
may go far to beautify many dining rooms, dens, and hallways, enhancing
the artistic tone of the rooms in which they are well placed.

As in all taxidermy work, outline sketches direct from the fresh
specimen, top and side views, both before and after skinning, are of
great value in mounting deer heads.

As in other specimens, deer scalps for mounting should be as fresh as
possible. If a scalp is to be kept for some little time before mounting
it should be well salted.

Roll the scalp up and lay over night to drain. Next day scrape off the
first salt and rub in another thorough salting. Keep the skin rolled up
to prevent drying hard until mounting or sent to the tanner.

An ideal deer scalp includes the neck skin entire to swell of shoulders
and brisket. The incisions to be made for removing a deer scalp are
shown in Fig. 32. A good sharp knife will be required for peeling the
skin from the neck.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

Cut very carefully up under rim of horn bases when removing skin from
around them, using care not to haggle edge of skin. Use same care in
skinning out the face, splitting lips and eyelids and skinning out the
ears as in small mammal specimen. Remove the ear cartilages entire,
after skinning their backs, beginning at the thick top edge and
proceeding very carefully, looking out not to tear open the edges.

Scalps may be mounted raw or tanned. The ideal way is to use a tanned,
thin pared scalp, mounting it with papier mache upon a modeled mannikin.
The raw skin method is perhaps easiest of application, but in all ways
is not as satisfactory as the tanned skin method.

For mounting a deer scalp raw, if salted, soak out the salt by squeezing
through two or three baths of cold, weak carbolic water. Dry the scalp
thoroughly in fine sawdust, rubbing it into the hair and repeatedly
shaking until all moisture is removed.

With a small, hardwood paring "beam," shown in Fig. 33, clamped to edge
of table, and a sharp paring knife, remove all flesh from inner surface
of skin and peel out nose cartilage. Leave nearly an inch of nostril
lining around the openings.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

Pare all flesh from lips, leaving a half or three-quarters inch of the
lining all around them. Split white eyelid lining free to edge and leave
a quarter inch of it all around the openings. When skinning out the
ears keep the cartilages for models.

Poison all inner surfaces of the cleaned skin with arsenic water brushed
in well. Fold face, wrong side out, back upon neck. Fold neck skin flesh
to flesh over face, roll the scalp up, hair side out, and lay aside in
cool place over one night before mounting. The mannikin should be
prepared in time so that the skin will not have to lay wet for more than
a day before mounting.

It is well to prepare mannikin before skin is poisoned so that skin may
be used for fitting unless accurate outline studies are at hand. With
these the fitting is not necessary.

For raw-mounting the head, clean skull by boiling in a deep pail until
meat comes off easily. A little washing soda in the water will help
clean the bone. With a saw, cut through under side of brain cavity,
lengthwise on each side of axis bone. Cut the loosened piece out with a
chisel and remove brain.

Set the skull upon neck-board of suitable length (refer to studies)
mounted with screws upon a cut out neck base-board of inch thick wood,
as shown in Fig. 34. Fasten skull to top of neck board with nails driven
through holes drilled through the bone. If turned head is desired, make
opening in under side of brain cavity wider and nail skull at any
desired angle upon top of neck board. Screw upon back of neck base-board
a one by three inch piece with free end dropping a few inches below
bottom of base-board so that head may be handily set in a vise. This
will allow you to get all around it and the vise will hold it at any
angle, making sewing, etc., easier.

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

Upon skull, for jaw muscles, and upon neck board wrap excelsior, packing
it hard as you go along, to required natural size. A raw skin will
settle better in drying if neck is slightly smaller than natural size.

To aid in wrapping close and firm to edge of neck base-board, drive a
row of small, broad headed nails half into the edge, two or three
inches apart all around and loop the winding-cord over these as the
wrapping proceeds. Drive these nails down when wrapping is completed.
(See Fig. 35 for finished wrapped excelsior head, ready for the skin.)

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

Drop the dry ear cartilages into warm water. In this they will quickly
regain their natural shape. Using them as models make a pair of
duplicates of them of thin sheet lead which may be procured from a
plumber or hardware dealer. Split into the base of the cartilage so it
may be spread as nearly flat as possible and lay on the lead, drawing
around its outline with a nail point. Cut out the lead ears with a pair
of metal-shears. Hammer into natural concave shape with a bit of heavy
wood rounded into a ball at one end for the purpose. (For details of ear
making see Fig. 36).

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

With the skin and mannikin in readiness make up a batch of plaster of
paris in thin glue water, only enough glue stirred in so that it can
barely be felt when the fingers are rubbed together in the water. This
should retard the plaster setting for from four to six hours and give
ample time for finishing the deer's face. This compo. will set
immediately if used in a skin that has been treated with formaldehyde,
sulphuric acid, or alum, as the glue becomes tanned and impotent by
them.

Make this compo. thick and stiff and mix into it some chopped manila
fiber. For finishing one deer face and ear-butts about a quart and a
half of the compo. should be made. This should cover the face thinly,
fill the ear-butts, set the eyes, and fill nose and mouth details out.

In beginning the setting of the scalp into place, cover the lead ears
thinly with the compo. and slip them into the ear skins. The lead will
have to be partly folded together to accomplish this and spread again
when inside. If edges of ears have been torn open in skinning, sew them
up neatly from the outside, using a small round needle and small thread
before the lead is placed.

With the cartilages set, fill the ear butts with compo., squeezing it
out upon the lead a little way that it may brace the ears when set
finally.

Set the mannikin in the vise for convenience. Cover skull with a thin
layer of compo. where bone is exposed and slip the face skin into place.
Hold the scalp up now by tying a heavy cord under the jaw and behind the
horns. Draw the neck skin into place and tie it up with a piece of cord
about the neck near base. Now, for better convenience in sewing, remove
the head from the vise, set front of neck base on the floor and lean the
antlers against a chair seat, back of neck up. Draw corners of antler
cuts together back of the horns.

Begin at one horn and sew to joint of the Y cut. Sew from the other horn
and then continue down the neck to the base, using medium stitches and
drawing tight. This method of sewing a game head is the only exception,
in taxidermy, to sewing toward the head. For a raw scalp use a sail
needle and waxed ends. For a tanned scalp, a large fur needle and strong
linen.

With the sewing completed, turn to nailing the scalp to the back-board.
Turn the free edge of skin down over back of board and nail firmly with
short broad headed nails so that when the surplus is trimmed off a
turned over edge of skin two or three inches wide will remain, held
snugly by nails set two inches apart. Count upon finishing a raw head
all up at one go when using the plaster compo. This is the only compo.
which can be recommended to hold raw, haired skins down, as the material
must set before the skin begins to dry and pull.

Before turning to finishing the face, unscrew the holding piece from
back of neck-board and nail up the part of skin's edge that it covered.
Replace the piece and set head in vise facing you. Pinch and mold the
ear skin tightly upon the compo. covered lead and model the ear-butts
into shape firmly against the head.

Run a strong-threaded fur needle, with large knot at end of thread,
through middle of upper edge of each lead ear. Draw ears up to desired
position and wrap thread around a convenient part of antlers to hold
until compo. sets. Next loop a cord under each ear at base of cartilage
and tie over antlers to hold lower end of cartilage from sagging until
set. When ears are finished, press face skin into compo. upon skull and
massage it down to hold firmly.

Fill eyelids thinly inside flap of lining, place a little compo. in
hollow of sockets, and set eyes.

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

Deer are usually quite fleshy just over the eyes. Place this filling
before eyes are set. Also press a little compo. into the hollows of the
suborbital glands and with the fingers work these fleshy eye details out
roughly and finish with a modeling tool, pressing the slits of
suborbital glands in deeply with a thick-edged instrument. See that the
face skin is worked down firmly and smoothly clear to the nose.

Fill nose and upper lip and model them into natural shape. Lastly, fill
chin and lower lip. Tuck lower lip up well under upper and model lips
and chin into proper relation to each other.

If any compo. has gotten into the hair wipe it out with a damp sponge.
Leave head in the vise until compo. is set and then hang in a well
ventilated place to dry. Do not hang near stove or radiator.

When thoroughly dried out, brush dust out of hair and finish the
eyelids, nostrils, etc., with wax and cotton, burned in, same as given
for finishing a small mammal.

If placing the head upon a shield, use at least four strong screws of a
length to go nearly through the two boards.

For mounting a deer scalp tanned, the preparation is very different.
Scalps may be had tanned at a number of reputable fur houses throughout
the country at a small cost. To get best results, send scalps and
rug-skins in to the tanner with ears skinned out and eyelids and lips
split and nose cartilage pared out. Tanned scalps, if kept from moths,
may be preserved unmounted for a long time.

When required for mounting, a tanned scalp need only be relaxed with
water brushed or sponged into the flesh side and, when soft, poisoned
with arsenic-water and folded together, flesh to flesh, over one night.

The process of mounting a tanned scalp differs from the raw in that it
is set up on a wire and plaster shell, more carefully shaped than the
excelsior form. The entire scalp is stuck down to the shell with compo.
No. I rubbed well into the skin and upon the shell. The face and ears
are set and finished with compo. No. II, which, as before stated, is No.
I thickened to the consistency of modeling clay with plaster of paris.
This method gives much finer and more permanent results.

For details of plaster and wire mannikin, see Fig. 37. This type of
shell is made as follows: Set the cleaned skull upon neck-board and
back-board same as for wrapping excelsior neck.

Half-inch mesh chicken wire will do, if no free mesh wire can be
procured, for building the frame. The wire neck is best placed in
halves. The shaping will require considerable cutting and neat
manipulation with pincers and hammer and tying with bits of wire. Use
staple tacks to fasten wire to edge of back-board. The wire shell should
be smaller than natural neck to allow for coat of plaster and fiber. For
this make up not more than half a wash basin at a time, mixing the
plaster with plain water in the ordinary way. Make the batches middling
thick, enough so that it will not drizzle from the wire.

Pick a quantity of fiber into small handfuls. To apply, dip a film of
the manila fiber into the plaster, drag it out over edge of dish to
remove surplus plaster, and apply to wire shell. Work fast enough to
keep ahead of plaster setting. Wipe each application out smooth as you
go. Apply a thin coat, very smooth, all over the skull and model on the
jaw muscles with the plaster and fiber.

When plaster is set, surface the shell and remove all inequalities by
paring with an ordinary small butcher-knife. Allow to thoroughly dry and
apply a good coat of medium thin shellac. Have this type of mannikin
completed, dried, and shellaced before moistening and preparing the
tanned skin.

To prepare mammal skins in the field, for transportation and keeping,
remove skins carefully, same as for immediate mounting. Salt thoroughly,
rubbing in well, and roll up to drain over night. Next day shake out the
first salt, which will be found saturated with juices, rub fresh salt in
all over, and roll up over another night. In this condition small skins
may be sealed in glass jars or friction top tins and kept damp thus for
some time.

To make a preserving "pickle" for keeping skins wet, boil salt in water
until heaviest brine possible to make is produced. Add a tablespoonful
of carbolic acid to the gallon while hot. Stir well. Let the solution
cool thoroughly before submerging skins in it.

Skins should always be put through the double dry salting before going
into "pickle." Keep in covered earthen jars.

For making up into rugs, send animal skins to a good tanner, first
skinning out the ears and paring out lips and nose.

To make an open-mouthed rug head, use the natural skull when possible.
Set the jaws open solidly with plaster of paris and at the same time lay
a plaster core between lower jaw for the artificial tongue. Set the
skull upon a cut-out base-board as shown in Fig. 38.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

Drive nails half in all around back and side edges of this base-board
and wrap on filling of excelsior for jaws and flare of neck. Drive the
nails down tight after wrapping is completed.

Mount the head before stretching the skin. Relax the head with water and
poison same as deer scalp.

Use plaster and glue-water compo. as in raw deer scalp. If a snarling
expression is desired, model the wrinkles on the muzzle with an edged
wooden tool. Tuck the lip lining well under the filling, so they will
hold in place when the plaster is set. Finish details of face same as in
other mounting.

Finish the tongue and gums by melting colored wax and cotton upon core
and bone with hot iron, modeling and carving to shape when cool. After
the head is mounted and set, stretch the skin. Moisten the flesh side to
soften it up well.

Nail down the rear end upon floor to its widest spread, with hind legs
pointing back on a slight slant. Draw the skin forward and spread
forelegs and front end to widest extent and nail down in accurate line
with hind part. Now work from side to side, nailing skin out to its
widest extent and in symmetrical lines. Always stretch a rug-skin hair
side down. A slight wash of arsenic-water may be applied after the skin
is stretched and while yet moist, care being used not to mess the hair
with the solution.

When dry, the skin is ready to line. Lay the felt lining upon the floor
and the skin upon it and cut around the skin, allowing three or four
inches for pinked edge.

With a pinking iron cut scalloped edge and enough of a narrow strip to
gather fully all around just inside the outer edge. Lay skin on lining
and mark its edge with tailor's chalk. Sew the gathered edge just inside
this chalk mark so that the stitch will be covered by the skin.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

Quilt skin upon the lining with a good layer of cotton wadding between.
Be sure and not draw down a bunch of hair under each loop. Tie the
knots neatly on under side.

Fig. 39 shows incisions to make in removing a pelt for a symmetrical
rug. Rug skins are best dried with no preservative whatever. In drying
skins, stretch them symmetrically and dry in the shade.

[Illustration]



PREPARING AND MOUNTING A COYOTE



CHAPTER VI

PREPARING AND MOUNTING A COYOTE


This method may be applied to specimens from the size of a red fox or a
bobcat up to a timber wolf. Remove the skin and prepare it in same way
as that of a small mammal for mounting. When the carcass is bared in
skinning, measure the girth of the neck at middle and at base; of the
chest just behind the forelegs; the abdomen at its middle; the upper-arm
at middle; the forearm just below elbow; the thigh at middle; the shank
just below swell of thigh muscles back of knee, and the tail near its
base. (See Fig. 40 for measurements.)

Lay the carcass upon a large piece of wrapping paper and take an outline
of it complete, both before and after skinning.

Use same incisions and remove skin identically as in small specimen.
Upon the outline sketch of peeled complete carcass set down the girth
measurements in their proper places as taken with the tape. As in
smaller specimens, these outline sketches will be found of great value
as an aid to preserving natural lines in mounting.

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

Wire the leg bones same as in a small mammal, using soft iron rod of
sufficient size to support the specimen firmly. In our coyote a
quarter-inch rod will be required. In a bobcat a three-sixteenths-inch
rod will be large enough to support sturdily.

Bend the leg rods to fit the joints in position desired. Cut the rods of
a length so that six or eight inches will protrude from the feet and
eight or ten inches will remain free above to anchor to the body core.
Bind the rods to the leg-bones with strong, light cord, doing the
firmest wrapping near the joints.

Working over the body outline, cut a one-inch-thick board core that will
set well within the outline. (See Fig. 41.)

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

Cut a neck-rod of same size as for legs, having it twice as long as neck
and head. Near one end of the neck-rod bend a jog to hold well when set
with plaster of paris and chopped fiber into the brain cavity of the
cleaned skull.

Wrap the leg muscles upon the bones same as in a small specimen, except
pull the excelsior rather smooth for the purpose instead of rolling it
in the palms. Make the Achilles tendon in same way and leave back of
thigh off to be stuffed.

When the plaster to hold neck-rod in head is set, anchor the skull by
the rod to the core-board in proper relation to the body. To do this,
run the rod through a hole drilled through the board, clinch rod down
forward and back with a hammer on anvil or vise, and fasten with
staples, or drill a small hole through core-board each side of rod and
tie the rod down with a strong loop of wire twisted down with the
pliers.

Wrap the skull muscles on with excelsior rolled in palms of hands. Wrap
a tail of pulled excelsior laid straight along a wire much smaller than
is used in legs.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

Drill the center-board for legs and tail as shown in Fig. 42, which
shows general assembling details. When the legs, head, and tail are
finished, push the head and body-core into place in the skin, shove in
the legs and tail, and wire the legs and tail fast in the center-board
same as head was fastened.

The remainder of the mounting is accomplished in exactly the same way as
the filling and finishing of a small mammal specimen, _i. e._, by
stuffing the neck, body, and back of thighs and finishing the face and
feet with a batch of papier-mache compo. No. 2. If the mouth is to be
open, follow directions given for finishing an entire rug-head.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

To hold in the hollow of the flanks, cut several short, strong pieces of
wire, sharpen them to cutting points, push them through the skin along
line of hollow in front of hip, drive them firmly into the core-board,
and then, with cutting pliers clinch their ends down to hold the skin in
and cut off surplus wire, picking the fur out well to cover them. (See
Fig. 43.)

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

To support the compo.-filled ears until set and dry, drive a sharpened
wire into the head, through hollow of ear. Point the wire in direction
ear is to lay or stand and between ear and wire lay a loose, flat wad of
cotton or tow. With a furrier's needle and thread take a narrow loop
through center of ear near tip and tie lightly around wire to hold
until dry. When dry remove the thread with scissors and the wires by a
slight twist with pliers.

Mammals of the sizes named may be mounted so skillfully by this method
that they cannot be told from mannikin specimens.

Specimens of this size need not be entirely mounted at one sitting.
Prepare the skin, wire and wrap the legs and head, and make the
center-board in one day, assemble the specimen and place the body
filling the next day, and make the feet, mount the specimen, and finish
the head the third day.

A little carbolic acid in the arsenic-water will help keep the skin from
slipping the hair. Also keep unfinished parts wrapped in damp cloths
wrung from carbolic acid water.

[Illustration: THE END]

       *       *       *       *       *

[Transcriber's Note: The following corrections have been made to the text.

Page  10: "uphosterer's" to "upholsterer's"--"one upholsterer's regulator".
Page  12: "speical" to "special"--"your special tools".
Page  21: "betwen" to "between"--"rump between two".
Page  32: "rightangle" to "right angle"--"short right angle bend".
Page  37: "eyesockets" to "eye sockets"--"cotton of the eye sockets".
Page  99: "transportaion" to "transportation"--"for transportation and".
Page 100: "thoroughy" to "thoroughly"--"cool thoroughly before".]


OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY--NEW YORK

[Illustration: OUTING HANDBOOKS]

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tracks; how to interpret tracks of wild game and decipher the many
tell-tale signs of the chase that would otherwise pass unnoticed; to
tell from the footprints the name, sex, speed, direction, whether and
how wounded, and many other things about wild animals and birds.

13. WING AND TRAP-SHOOTING, by Charles Askins. Contains a full
discussion of the various methods, such as snap-shooting, swing and
half-swing, discusses the flight of birds with reference to the gunner's
problem of lead and range and makes special application of the various
points to the different birds commonly shot in this country. A chapter
is included on trap shooting and the book closes with a forceful and
common-sense presentation of the etiquette of the field.

14. PROFITABLE BREEDS OF POULTRY, by Arthur S. Wheeler. Mr. Wheeler
discusses from personal experience the best-known general purpose
breeds. Advice is given from the standpoint of the man who desires
results in eggs and stock rather than in specimens for exhibition. In
addition to a careful analysis of stock--good and bad--and some
conclusions regarding housing and management, the author writes in
detail regarding Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, Orpingtons, Rhode Island
Reds, etc.

15. RIFLES AND RIFLE SHOOTING, by Charles Askins. A practical manual
describing various makes and mechanisms, in addition to discussing in
detail the range and limitations in the use of the rifle. Treats on the
every style and make of rifle as well as their use. Every type of rifle
is discussed so that the book is complete in every detail.

16. SPORTING FIREARMS, by Horace Kephart. This book is the result of
painstaking tests and experiments. Practically nothing is taken for
granted. Part I deals with the rifle, and Part II with the shotgun. The
man seeking guidance in the selection and use of small firearms, as well
as the advanced student of the subject, will receive an unusual amount
of assistance from this work.

17. THE YACHTSMAN'S HANDBOOK, by Herbert L. Stone. The author and
compiler of this work is the editor of "Yachting." He treats in simple
language of the many problems confronting the amateur sailor and motor
boatman. Handling ground tackle, handling lines, taking soundings, the
use of the lead line, care and use of sails, yachting etiquette, are all
given careful attention. Some light is thrown upon the operation of the
gasoline motor, and suggestions are made for the avoidance of engine
troubles.

18. SCOTTISH AND IRISH TERRIERS, by Williams Haynes. This is a companion
book to "The Airedale," and deals with the history and development of
both breeds. For the owner of the dog, valuable information is given as
to the use of the terriers, their treatment in health, their treatment
when sick, the principles of dog breeding, and dog shows and rules.

19. NAVIGATION FOR THE AMATEUR, by Capt. E. T. Morton. A short treatise
on the simpler methods of finding position at sea by the observation of
the sun's altitude and the use of the sextant and chronometer. It is
arranged especially for yachtsmen and amateurs who wish to know the
simpler formulæ for the necessary navigation involved in taking a boat
anywhere off shore. Illustrated.

20. OUTDOOR PHOTOGRAPHY, by Julian A. Dimock. A solution of all the
problems in camera work out-of-doors. The various subjects dealt with
are: The Camera--Lens and Plates--Light and Exposure--Development--Prints
and Printing, etc.

21. PACKING AND PORTAGING, by Dillon Wallace. Mr. Wallace has brought
together in one volume all the valuable information on the different
ways of making and carrying the different kinds of packs. The ground
covered ranges from man-packing to horse-packing, from the use of the
tump line to throwing the diamond hitch.

22. THE BULL TERRIER, by Williams Haynes. This is a companion book to
"The Airedale" and "Scottish and Irish Terriers" by the same author. Its
greatest usefulness is as a guide to the dog owner who wishes to be his
own kennel manager. A full account of the development of the breed is
given with a description of best types and standards. Recommendations
for the care of the dog in health or sickness are included.

23. THE FOX TERRIER, by Williams Haynes. As in his other books on the
terrier, Mr. Haynes takes up the origin and history of the breed, its
types and standards, and the more exclusive representatives down to the
present time. Training the Fox Terrier--His Care and Kenneling in
Sickness and Health--and the Various Uses to Which He Can Be Put--are
among the phases handled.

24. SUBURBAN GARDENS, by Grace Tabor. Illustrated with diagrams. The
author regards the house and grounds as a complete unit and shows how
the best results may be obtained by carrying the reader in detail
through the various phases of designing the garden, with the levels and
contours necessary, laying out the walks and paths, planning and placing
the arbors, summer houses, seats, etc., and selecting and placing trees,
shrubs, vines and flowers. Ideal plans for plots of various sizes are
appended, as well as suggestions for correcting mistakes that have been
made through "starting wrong."

25. FISHING WITH FLOATING FLIES, by Samuel G. Camp. This is an art that
is comparatively new in this country although English anglers have used
the dry fly for generations. Mr. Camp has given the matter special study
and is one of the few American anglers who really understands the matter
from the selection of the outfit to the landing of the fish.

26. THE GASOLINE MOTOR, by Harold Whiting Slauson. Deals with the
practical problems of motor operation. The standpoint is that of the man
who wishes to know how and why gasoline generates power and something
about the various types. Describes in detail the different parts of
motors and the faults to which they are liable. Also gives full
directions as to repair and upkeep.

27. ICE BOATING, by H. L. Stone. Illustrated with diagrams. Here have
been brought together all the available information on the organization
and history of ice-boating, the building of the various types of ice
yachts, from the small 15 footer to the 600-foot racer, together with
detailed plans and specifications. Full information is also given to
meet the needs of those who wish to be able to build and sail their own
boats but are handicapped by the lack of proper knowledge as to just the
points described in this volume.

28. MODERN GOLF, by Harold H. Hilton. Mr. Hilton is the only man who has
ever held the amateur championship of Great Britain and the United
States in the same year. This book gives the reader sound advice, not so
much on the mere swinging of the clubs as in the actual playing of the
game, with all the factors that enter into it. He discusses the use of
wooden clubs, the choice of clubs, the art of approaching, and kindred
subjects.

29. INTENSIVE FARMING, by L. C. Corbett. A discussion of the meaning,
method and value of intensive methods in agriculture. This book is
designed for the convenience of practical farmers who find themselves
under the necessity of making a living out of high-priced land.

30. PRACTICAL DOG BREEDING, by Williams Haynes. This is a companion
volume to PRACTICAL DOG KEEPING, described below. It goes at length into
the fundamental questions of breeding, such as selection of types on
both sides, the perpetuation of desirable, and the elimination of
undesirable qualities, the value of prepotency in building up a desired
breed, etc.

31. PRACTICAL DOG KEEPING, by Williams Haynes. Mr. Haynes is well known
to the readers of the OUTING HANDBOOKS as the author of books on the
terriers. His new book is somewhat more ambitious in that it carries him
into the general field of selection of breeds, the buying and selling of
dogs, the care of dogs in kennels, handling in bench shows and field
trials, and at considerable length into such subjects as food and
feeding, exercise and grooming, disease, etc.

32. THE VEGETABLE GARDEN, by R. L. Watts. This book is designed for the
small grower with a limited plot of ground. The reader is told what
types of vegetables to select, the manner of planting and cultivation,
and the returns that may be expected.

33. AMATEUR RODMAKING, by Perry D. Frazer. Illustrated. A practical
manual for all those who want to make their own rod and fittings. It
contains a review of fishing rod history, a discussion of materials, a
list of the tools needed, description of the method to be followed in
making all kinds of rods, including fly-casting, bait-fishing, salmon,
etc., with full instructions for winding, varnishing, etc.

34. PISTOL AND REVOLVER SHOOTING, by A. L. A. Himmelwright. A new and
revised edition of a work that has already achieved prominence as an
accepted authority on the use of the hand gun. Full instructions are
given in the use of both revolver and target pistol, including shooting
position, grip, position of arm, etc. The book is thoroughly illustrated
with diagrams and photographs and includes the rules of the United
States Revolver Association and a list of the records made both here and
abroad.

35. PIGEON RAISING, by Alice MacLeod. This is a book for both fancier
and market breeder. Full descriptions are given of the construction of
houses, the care of the birds, preparation for market, and shipment, of
the various breeds with their markings and characteristics.

36. FISHING TACKLE, by Perry D. Frazer. Illustrated. It tells all the
fisherman needs to know about making and overhauling his tackle during
the closed season and gives full instructions for tournament casting and
fly-casting.

37. AUTOMOBILE OPERATION, by A. L. Brennan, Jr. Illustrated. Tells the
plain truth about the little things that every motorist wants to know
about his own car. Do you want to cure ignition troubles? Overhaul and
adjust your carbureter? Keep your transmission in order? Get the maximum
wear out of your tires? Do any other of the hundred and one things that
are necessary for the greatest use and enjoyment of your car? Then you
will find this book useful.

38. THE FOX HOUND, by Roger D. Williams. Author of "Horse and Hound."
Illustrated. The author is the foremost authority on fox hunting and
foxhounds in America. For years he has kept the foxhound studbook, and
is the final source of information on all disputed points relating to
this breed. His book discusses types, methods of training, kenneling,
diseases and all the other practical points relating to the use and care
of the hound, etc.

39. SALT WATER GAME FISHING, by Charles F. Holder. Mr. Holder covers the
whole field of his subject devoting a chapter each to such fish as the
tuna, the tarpon, amberjack, the sail fish, the yellow-tail, the king
fish, the barracuda, the sea bass and the small game fishes of Florida,
Porto Rico, the Pacific Coast, Hawaii, and the Philippines. The habits
and habitats of the fish are described, together with the methods and
tackle for taking them. Illustrated.

40. WINTER CAMPING, by Warwick S. Carpenter. A book that meets the
increasing interest in outdoor life in the cold weather. Mr. Carpenter
discusses such subjects as shelter equipment, clothing, food,
snowshoeing, skiing, and winter hunting, wild life in winter woods, care
of frost bite, etc. Illustrated.

41. *WOODCRAFT FOR WOMEN, by Mrs. Kathrene Gedney Pinkerton. The author
has spent several years in the Canadian woods and is thoroughly familiar
with the subject from both the masculine and feminine point of view. She
gives sound tips on clothing, camping outfit, food supplies, and
methods, by which the woman may adjust herself to the outdoor
environment.

42. *SMALL BOAT BUILDING, by H. W. Patterson. Illustrated with diagrams
and plans. A working manual for the man who wants to be his own designer
and builder. Detail descriptions and drawings are given showing the
various stages in the building, and chapters are included on proper
materials and details.

43. READING THE WEATHER, by T. Morris Longstreth. The author gives in
detail the various recognized signs for different kinds of weather based
primarily on the material worked out by the Government Weather Bureau,
gives rules by which the character and duration of storms may be
estimated, and gives instructions for sensible use of the barometer. He
also gives useful information as to various weather averages for
different parts of the country, at different times of the year, and
furnishes sound advice for the camper, sportsman, and others who wish to
know what they may expect in the weather line.

44. BOXING, by D. C. Hutchison. Practical instruction for men who wish
to learn the first steps in the manly art. Mr. Hutchison writes from
long personal experience as an amateur boxer and as a trainer of other
amateurs. His instructions are accompanied with full diagrams showing
the approved blows and guards. He also gives full directions for
training for condition without danger of going stale from overtraining.
It is essentially a book for the amateur.

45. TENNIS TACTICS, by Raymond D. Little. Out of his store of experience
as a successful tennis player, Mr. Little has written this practical
guide for those who wish to know how real tennis is played. He tells the
reader when and how to take the net, discusses the relative merits of
the back-court and volleying game and how their proper balance may be
achieved; analyzes and appraises the twist service, shows the
fundamental necessities of successful doubles play.

46. HOW TO PLAY TENNIS, by James Burns. This book gives simple, direct
instruction from the professional standpoint on the fundamentals of the
game. It tells the reader how to hold his racket, how to swing it for
the various strokes, how to stand and how to cover the court. These
points are illustrated with photographs and diagrams. The author also
illustrates the course of the ball in the progress of play and points
out the positions of greatest safety and greatest danger.

47. TAXIDERMY, by Leon L. Pray. Illustrated with diagrams. Being a
practical taxidermist, the author at once goes into the question of
selection of tools and materials for the various stages of skinning,
stuffing and mounting. The subjects whose handling is described are, for
the most part, the every-day ones, such as ordinary birds, small
mammals, etc., although adequate instructions are included for mounting
big game specimens, as well as the preliminary care of skins in hot
climates. Full diagrams accompany the text.

48. THE CANOE--ITS SELECTION, CARE AND USE, by Robert E. Pinkerton.
Illustrated with photographs. With proper use the canoe is one of the
safest crafts that floats. Mr. Pinkerton tells how that state of safety
may be obtained. He gives full instructions for the selection of the
right canoe for each particular purpose or set of conditions. Then he
tells how it should be used in order to secure the maximum of safety,
comfort and usefulness. His own lesson was learned among the Indians of
Canada, where paddling is a high art, and the use of the canoe almost as
much a matter of course as the wearing of moccasins.

49. HORSE PACKING, by Charles J. Post. Illustrated with diagrams. This
is a complete description of the hitches, knots, and apparatus used in
making and carrying loads of various kinds on horseback. Its basis is
the methods followed in the West and in the American Army. The diagrams
are full and detailed, giving the various hitches and knots at each of
the important stages so that even the novice can follow and use them. It
is the only book ever published on this subject of which this could be
said. Full description is given of the ideal pack animal, as well as a
catalogue of the diseases and injuries to which such animals are
subject.

50. *LEARNING TO SWIM, by L. de B. Handley. Illustrated. Constructed
especially for the beginner who has no knowledge of the first steps.
Explains the formation of the strokes, how to acquire confidence in the
water and gives full details as to the various methods, including those
used by experts and racing swimmers.

51. *SMALL BOAT NAVIGATION, by Lieut. Com. F. W. Sterling, U. S. N.
Retired. Illustrated with diagrams. A complete description of the
instruments and methods necessary in navigating small boats in pilot
waters, on soundings, and off shore. Describes the taking of sights for
position, the running of courses, taking soundings, using the chart,
plotting compass courses, etc. Several chapters are given over to the
seamanship side of navigation, explaining the handling of small boats
under various conditions.

52. *TOURING AFOOT, by Dr. C. P. Fordyce. Illustrated. This book is
designed to meet the growing interest in walking trips and covers the
whole field of outfit and method for trips of varying length. Various
standard camping devices are described and outfits are prescribed for
all conditions. It is based on the assumption that the reader will want
to carry on his own back everything that he requires for the trip.

53. THE MARINE MOTOR, by Lieut. Com. F. W. Sterling, U. S. N. (Ret.).
Illustrated with diagrams. This book is the product of a wide experience
on the engineering staff of the United States Navy. It gives careful
descriptions of the various parts of the marine motor, their relation to
the whole and their method of operation; it also describes the commoner
troubles and suggests remedies. The principal types of engines are
described in detail with diagrams. The object is primarily to give the
novice a good working knowledge of his engine, its operation and care.

54. *THE BEGINNER'S BEE BOOK, by Frank C. Pellett. Illustrated. This
book is designed primarily for the small scale bee farmer. It discusses
the different varieties of bees and their adaptability to different
conditions, the construction of hives, care and feeding at various times
of the year, handling of bees, and the types of locations and feed most
suitable for bee culture.

55. *THE POINTER, by Williams Haynes. Contains chapters on the history
and development of the breed, selection of dog, breeding, kenneling, and
training. Also contains information on common sense remedies for
ordinary diseases.

56. *THE SETTER, by Williams Haynes. The author takes up the origin and
history of the breed, its development, breeding, kenneling, and
training. He also discusses the various diseases to which they are
subject and treatment therefor.

57. *PRACTICAL BAIT CASTING, by Larry St. John. Illustrated. This book
deals with tackle and methods used in catching black bass. It is based
upon a wide and varied experience in the middle West, where more bass
fishing is done than in any other part of the country.

ALL OUTDOORS. A monthly magazine of the outdoors that is made for
outdoor men and women. Short, meaty, to-the-point articles tell the
"how" of living and playing in the open--whether hunting, fishing,
canoeing, camping, ice boating, skiing, swimming, shooting at the traps,
or any other outdoor sport. The adventure stories and fiction are the
kind that anyone with red blood likes to read. In addition to the great
number of articles and stories in ALL OUTDOORS is a feature that alone
makes the magazine worth its price--pictures. The best of outdoor
pictures are used to illustrate it. And each picture has a long caption
of concise information. ALL OUTDOORS is a magazine that not only
radiates the spirit of the woods and fields, streams and rivers, but it
tells you how to enjoy all these to the fullest. 15 cents a copy. $1.00
a year.

YACHTING. An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to the interest of the
man who loves the water--sailing and motor boating. It is written and
edited by practical men who have done the things about which they write,
if it be a cruise to Labrador, sailing an ocean race or telling how to
put a gasoline engine together. Under and through all other features of
YACHTING is the call of the water--the bracing, irresistible appeal that
has drawn men off shore since the first cockle-shell was set afloat.
Once you have heard and answered it you will know why a sailor once is a
sailor always--and you will know also why YACHTING should interest you.
The most beautiful yachtsman's magazine. 15 cents a copy. $1.75 a year.

OUTING. For more than thirty years the OUTING magazine has been the
great outdoor publication of America. Its contributors are national
experts in their respective fields. Its articles are recognized as the
last word on the subject they treat. Its range is comprehensive,
covering the entire outdoor realm from gardening to aviation. In every
subject that it touches, whether it be fishing, hunting, golfing,
college sports, the country home, sailing, automobiling, dogs or horses,
its aim is accuracy plus interest. Every number combines the solid value
of sober fact with the alluring thrill of mystery and adventure that
still beckons us to the out-of-doors. $3.00 a year, 25c. a copy.





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