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Title: Raemaekers' Cartoon History of the War, Volume 1 - The First Twelve Months of War
Author: Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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 RAEMAEKERS'
 CARTOON
 HISTORY OF THE WAR

[Illustration: Louis Raemaekers]



 RAEMAEKERS'
 CARTOON
 HISTORY OF THE WAR

 COMPILED BY
 J. MURRAY ALLISON
 Editor of _Raemaekers' Cartoons_, _Kultur in Cartoons_,
 _The Century Edition de Luxe Raemaekers' Cartoons_, _etc._

 VOLUME ONE
 THE FIRST TWELVE MONTHS OF WAR

 NEW YORK
 THE CENTURY CO.
 1918



 Copyright, 1918, by
 THE CENTURY CO.



FOREWORD


In all the welter of the tragic upheaval which is shattering
institutions once thought immutable, condemning millions to physical
death and awakening other millions to spiritual life, making staggering
discoveries of unexpected human strength or weakness, thrusting men into
fame one day or to oblivion the next, there has been nothing more
dramatic than the sudden manifestation of the genius of the Dutchman,
Louis Raemaekers, who, as Europe recoiled from the first shock of German
barbarity, threw down his brush for his pencil and by the intensity of
his spirit aroused the compassion and fired the anger of the world with
his cartoons of the Belgian violation.

He, more than any other individual, has made intensely clear to
the people the single issue upon which the war is joined. More than
cartoonist, he is teacher and preacher, with the vision, faith, and
intensity of a St. Francis, a Luther, or a Joan of Arc.

On August 1, 1914, we find him a quiet, gentle man, the son of a country
editor, happy in his family, devout, contemplative, loving beauty and
peace, contentedly painting the good and lovely things he saw among the
tulip-fields and waterways, the cattle and the wind-mills of his own
native Holland before the gray-clad millions of the Kaiser burst into
the low countries with fire and sword.

Then comes the miracle of his transformation; the idyllic is thrust
aside by the hideous reality; beauty is drowned in a bestial orgy of
force; and in place of the passive painter arises the fiery preacher;
the brush is discarded for the pencil, and the pencil in his hands
becomes an avenging sword, because by it millions of people have been
aroused to a clear-cut realization of the fact that the issue of this
war is no less than Slavery and Autocracy versus Freedom and Democracy.

The very first of his war cartoons indicated the prophetic vision of
the man, and gave the first evidence of his inspiration and genius. It
is called "Christendom after Twenty Centuries" and shows a bowed and
weeping figure crouching under the sword and lash. It was drawn on that
fateful day August 1st, 1914. The intensity of emotion shown in this
drawing revealed his power for the first time. To Raemaekers himself it
came as a vision and a summons. The landscape painter disappeared, and
in his place arose a champion of civilization, throbbing with sublime
rage and pity, clothed with authority, and invested with a weapon more
powerful than the ruthlessness it indicts.

When the stories of the Belgian horror began to circulate in Holland,
Raemaekers, like the rest of the humane world, refused to credit them.
His own mother was German; he had spent many happy years in Germany; he
knew the German peasant as a kindly and happy, if rather stupid fellow;
it was incredible that such men could have done the awful things
alleged. But the tales persisted, and although the evidence of the
wracked and broken refugees who poured into his country by tens of
thousands seemed irrefutable, he could not believe it, and readily
seized upon the common supposition that the terrible stories were the
product of the imagination of an overwrought and panic-stricken people.
At length he could remain in doubt no longer, and quietly slipped over
the frontier to verify for himself the truth or falsehood of the
accusations that had already made Germany guilty of the foulest crimes
ever perpetrated in the name of war since the dawn of civilization.

What he actually saw with his own eyes he does not tell. But a hundred
of his early cartoons bear witness to the burning impression made upon
his soul. Raemaekers, like others who have seen them, cannot speak of
these unnamable horrors, but can only express his consuming pity or
his white-hot rage in the medium that lies nearest his hand. On one
occasion only has he publicly referred to his experiences in Belgium. It
was at a dinner given him by the artists and literary men of London at
the Savage Club, where, pointing to the portraits and trophies of Peary,
Scott, Nansen, Shackleton, and other explorers which hang on the walls,
he said: "I, too, have been an explorer, Gentlemen. I have explored a
hell, and it was terror unspeakable."

It did not take long for the High Command in Berlin to learn through its
agents in Holland of the impression that was being created in the public
mind by Raemaekers' cartoons. The publication of his first series of
cartoons in the _Amsterdam Telegraaf_, reflecting the unspeakable horror
of the atrocities in Belgium and denouncing with burning scorn the
Kaiser and his infamous captains, gave such offense to the "All-Highest"
in Potsdam that the German Government offered twelve thousand guilders
for his body dead or alive! Further magnificent testimony to the hurt he
inflicted on our common adversaries lies in the fact that the German
Government, not content with offering a reward for his body, induced
the Dutch Government to prosecute him for endangering the neutrality
of Holland! He was actually tried on this charge, but although he had
not spared the burghers and junkers of his own country for what he
considered their criminal laxity in the matter of preparedness and their
greed in aiding Germany by the smuggling of foodstuffs, etc., across the
frontier, the jury acquitted him and the court tacitly confirmed his
right to express his opinions.

It was after this that the _Cologne Gazette_ in an editorial addressed
to the Dutch people, obviously seeking to intimidate what its government
could not suppress, said: "After the war Germany will settle accounts
with Holland, and for each calumny, for each cartoon of Raemaekers, she
will demand payment with the interest that is her due." German wrath
followed him further. His life was constantly endangered at the hands of
German agents infesting Holland, and he had to be always on his guard,
especially during his periodical excursions into Belgian territory
occupied by the enemy. Even before he crossed to England, his wife
received anonymous letters warning her that any ship he might sail on
would surely be torpedoed.

As late as November, 1916, an exhibition of his cartoons in Madrid was
forbidden by the Spanish Government upon the insistence of the German
embassy in that capital.

It is significant to note that these attempted persecutions had an
effect directly opposite to that intended. They not only failed to stop
the publication of his cartoons but were largely instrumental in drawing
the attention of the Allies and neutrals to the great champion that had
arisen.

For eighteen months his cartoons had been appearing in the Amsterdam
_Telegraaf_ without exciting a more than mild interest outside Holland.

American and British war-correspondents returning to London from
Amsterdam talked enthusiastically of the "Great Raemaekers" and a few
stray cartoons appeared in the press of London and Paris. But he was
practically unknown outside of Holland until Christmas week in December,
1915, a year and a half after his first war-cartoon had appeared.

A two-line advertisement announced his arrival in the British
metropolis. "Exhibition of war-cartoons by Raemaekers, Fine Arts
Galleries, Bond Street, admission one shilling," was all it said. While
Londoners are generally interested in new artists, Raemaekers appeared
at an inopportune time. For one thing, the public had been rather
surfeited with war-literature and war-pictures and the work of an
unknown foreign artist was scarcely likely to attract them, and for
another, it was within a few days of Christmas, everybody was leaving
London, and those who remained in town were bent on giving the troops
and the war-sufferers as merry a time as possible.

It was quite by chance that the art critic of the _London Times_ visited
the Bond Street Galleries a day or so before Christmas, and Raemaekers'
world-wide fame as it exists to-day may be said to date from the day
that the _Times_ in a two-column notice said, among other things, "this
neutral is the only genius produced by the war."

The campaign of publicity launched by the _Times_ was taken up by the
British and French press. The public flocked to view, and were stunned
as they had never been before by the damning record. The cumulative
effect of such pictures as "The Shields of Rosselaere," showing men,
women, and children forced to march in front of the German armies, "Men
to the right, women to the left," in which women and children are being
beaten with the butts of rifles; "The Exodus from Antwerp," "The Mothers
of Belgium," "The Widows of Belgium," and others which revealed
unimaginable depths of human agony, impressed the London crowd as by
a solemn ritual. They saw with a vividness hitherto unapproached the
hideousness of the war, the unequivocal brutality of the German method,
and the naked, insatiable greed in the German purpose. Not now could the
timidest soul believe that Germany was fighting a war of defense. Here
was the fact inescapable that civilization itself was threatened; here
was the whole carnival of lust and conquest as mercilessly depicted on
the faces of its agents as they themselves had trampled onward to their
shocking goal.

The exhibition was crowded daily for twenty weeks. From nine in the
morning till six at night the galleries were packed with people of every
grade of society. It is not too much to say that no oration, no
literature, no art had brought the real meaning of the war home so
convincingly to Londoners as these cartoons. Parents who had already
given their sons, wives who had given husbands, were strengthened in
their resignation and comforted in their sorrow; those who yet had the
sacrifice to make were fortified in their resolve. As I have said, the
cumulative effect of these hundred and fifty cartoons on the emotions
of a people just awakening to and suffering from the desperate realities
of the war was almost overwhelming, and many a man and woman quivered
and cried under this pitiless revelation of the stupendous suffering
that had been and was yet to be.

The exhibition was carried from London to the principal English and
Scottish cities, and thence to Paris. Everywhere the story was the same.
Crowds flocked to see and heed the artist's fiery records; statesmen,
soldiers, artists did him honor. In London he was received by the Prime
Minister and the artistic and learned societies; in Paris he was made
a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and given a reception at the
Sorbonne--the highest purely intellectual honor that can be bestowed
upon any man. France, equally with England, acclaimed him as the new
champion of humanity. In the provincial cities of England, as in London,
crowds thronged the galleries daily for weeks at a time. In Liverpool
alone five thousand persons visited the exhibition in one afternoon;
Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Glasgow, Edinburgh told the same story of
the people being aroused and inspirited as though a new evangel had come
to tell them that their cause was sacred and their sacrifice not vain.

In a few months his genius was universally recognized and his position
as the supreme cartoonist of the war firmly established. And now that he
had the appreciation and the scope that were his due, he threw himself
into his work with even greater ardor. He made recruiting posters for
the army and navy; he depicted the shortage of shells and called on men
and women to man the munition factories; he contributed posters to
stimulate thrift and industry and contributions to the Government funds;
he worked for both the British and the French Red Cross, and for private
and public charities innumerable; his pen never flagged. While the
wrongs of Belgium had been the first incentive to his genius, he now
dealt with the war in all its later phases, and found subjects wherever
the blight of Kaiserism traveled--in France, Russia, Serbia, Rumania,
Italy, and the Far East; and in the Zeppelin raids, the Armenian
massacres, the Belgian and French deportations, the Red Cross outrages,
and the submarine infamies.

As a mere material record of industry, Raemaekers' is probably unique in
the world's history. Since the beginning of the war he has drawn nearly
1000 cartoons. There is not a single phase of the war,--military, naval,
or political,--that has not formed a basis for his artistic comment.
Some three hundred of the cartoons have been reproduced in facsimile
form, and in that state have been exhibited in hundreds of cities
throughout the world.

In book form his work exists already in a dozen editions, from the
sumptuous edition-de-luxe at one hundred dollars to the popular
(British) edition at four cents.

Post-card editions of the cartoons run into many millions; his cartoons
have been filmed, exist as lantern-slides, and leading actors and
actresses have reproduced them in the form of tableaux. But it is in the
world's press that the greatest distribution has taken place. He is
cartoonist to half a hundred newspapers, and literally thousands of
different publications have reproduced his pictures at one time or
another. He has been translated into a score of languages, the writer
having seen one edition in Basque and another in Arabic. In the United
States alone his cartoons in one year have reached a newspaper
circulation of over 300,000,000, and exhibitions have been held in
over one hundred of the leading cities.

And all this gigantic distribution has grown during the two years that
have passed since his cartoons were first exhibited in London. It is a
record that has never yet been equalled. What is the secret of this
man's appeal to men and women in all stations of life, to people of
every creed and nationality? In Europe nearly all, and in America a
great many, of the leading writers and thinkers have acclaimed the
genius of Raemaekers, but none have been able to tell us why it is that
his pictures appeal with equal intensity to the Briton, the Latin, the
Slav, and the American. A writer in the _Boston Transcript_ perhaps
comes nearest to the truth. He says: "The mantle of Dante has fallen
upon Raemaekers; he leads the conscience of the world to-day through an
inferno of wrong."

This world-wide recognition is conclusive testimony to the universality
of his genius. Raemaekers appeals to all mankind. The value of his
contribution to the cause of civilization in this war lies in the fact
that he has seen and depicted with the directness and clarity of genius
the truth that the issue is joined between the forces of evil and good.
For him there are no other considerations, no qualifications, no
compromises. He has but one enemy, and that is the destroyer of peace
and civilization; he has but one hero, and that is the defender of them.
He sees in war itself no pomp and glitter, but only the burning village,
the devastated home, the agonized women and children, and the brave and
faithful dead. He depicts militarism as hideous, brutal, coarse, and
cunning. His one thought seems to be that those things which all kindly
and gentle men and women hold dear and sacred are being trampled upon
and threatened by a monstrous wrong; and that the ideals of justice,
order, and human liberty which have been established in the conscience
of humanity after centuries of painful struggle are in danger of
annihilation. In thus narrowing the issue, in thus resolving all
doubt, he has, in the words of Theodore Roosevelt, "rendered the most
powerful of the honorable contributions by neutrals to the cause of
civilization." Raemaekers' name and work will live long after many of
the men and their achievements in this war have faded from the general
mind. Future generations will look at his cartoons and will find in them
at once the cause and the justification of the rising of the world's
free peoples to give their lives for freedom and the safety of
democracy.

       *       *       *       *       *

The historical value of the cartoons have frequently been insisted upon
by critics and reviewers and I have been urged to publish them in the
form of a cartoon History of the War. The present attempt is the outcome
of these suggestions.

It has not been possible to adhere to any very definite method of
arrangement. Many of the cartoons were drawn long after the events with
which they deal took place, as, for instance, the Wittenberg pictures.
The typhus outbreak amongst the prisoners at Wittenberg happened in
December, 1914, but the facts were not made public until May, 1916. On
the other hand, the cartoon depicting Count von Bernstorff's dismissal
from Washington was published two years before he was handed his
passports. It was a cartoon based upon the activities of Dumba. A great
number of cartoons, particularly those published during the early months
of the war, have no direct historical significance. The Belgian cartoons
constitute a general indictment of the German method of warfare, while
the Nurse Cavell drawings (Vol. II.) represent a specific comment upon
an actual example of that method. The letterpress has been compiled
mainly from official _communiques_ and reports, and from the speeches
and public statements of the leading men of the belligerents and some of
the neutrals. I have also quoted freely from newspapers, magazines, and
books, and whenever possible I have made acknowledgment of these
sources. My object has been not to explain the cartoons, but to show
their great value as historical documents and to make sure, so far as is
possible, that the basis of truth upon which they rest shall not be
forgotten.

                                         J. MURRAY ALLISON.

NEW YORK, Christmas Day, 1917.



NOTE ON THE BELGIAN CARTOONS


The cartoons which appear on the following pages up to and including
page 86 call for special reference.

They represent Raemaekers' impression of the behaviour of the German
troops in Belgium during the first weeks of the invasion. The great
majority of them were drawn long before any Official Reports were
published, and not, as would seem natural, as illustrations of the
Reports which were eventually published by the Belgian, French, and
British Governments. The cartoon on page 86 was drawn after the
publication of the British Government's Official Report. It is important
to realise this. It is also necessary to remember that the German
atrocities began actually at the moment that the German troops crossed
the frontier on the evening of August 3rd and continued in unabated
violence until the defeat at the Marne.

After the retreat of the Germans from Paris the German General Staff
appear to have altered its cold-blooded policy in Belgium and France.
From that moment, when the carefully prepared blow at the heart of
France had failed and when the possibility of defeat began to dawn upon
the Potsdam mind, organised robbery, murder, arson and rape were
discontinued or at least toned down as a feature of German warfare.
Whilst that method--the Official Reports of the Allied Governments'
Commissions of Enquiry prove conclusively it was a method--continued,
Raemaekers concentrated his pencil upon it and neglected the strictly
military and political happenings. That is why I have grouped the
Belgian cartoons at the beginning of this volume. They do really
represent the first phase of the war. With regard to the extracts that I
have selected to face the Belgian cartoons I would ask the reader to
remember that they have been taken largely from Official Reports issued
after the drawings were published. Raemaekers' pictorial indictment came
first. He was justified later by the sworn evidence of eye-witnesses.

I think perhaps that it is necessary to make these observations in case
the letterpress facing the Belgian cartoons should not in many cases be
considered quite apt.

                                         J. M. A.


       *       *       *       *       *



_CHRISTENDOM AFTER TWENTY CENTURIES_


Raemaekers' first war cartoon, originally published on the first of
August, 1914.

[Illustration: DE MENSCHHEID NA 20 EEUWEN CHRISTENDOM]



_THE HARVEST IS RIPE_


On the evening of August 3 the German troops cross the frontier. The
storm burst so suddenly that neither party had time to adjust its mind
to the situation. The Germans seem to have expected an easy passage. The
Belgian population, never dreaming of an attack, were startled and
stupefied.

From the very beginning of the operations the civilian population of
the villages lying upon the line of the German advance were made to
experience the extreme horrors of war. "On the 4th of August," says one
witness, "at Herve I saw at about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, near the
station, five Uhlans; these were the first German troops I had seen.
They were followed by a German officer and some soldiers in a motor car.
The men in the car called out to a couple of young fellows who were
standing about thirty yards away. The young men, being afraid, ran off
and then the Germans fired and killed one of them named D." The murder
of this innocent fugitive civilian was a prelude to the burning and
pillage of Herve and of other villages in the neighborhood, to the
indiscriminate shooting of civilians of both sexes, and to the organized
military execution of batches of selected males.

     _British Government Committee's Report._

[Illustration]



_I CRUSH WHATEVER RESISTS ME_


The wrong--I speak openly--that we are committing we will endeavor to
make good as soon as our military goal has been reached. Anybody who is
threatened as we are threatened, and is fighting for his highest
possessions, can have only one thought--how is he to hack his way
through.

          VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG.
    _Reichstag, August 4, 1915._

With a clear conscience Germany goes to the battlefield.

     THE KAISER, _August, 1914_.

[Illustration]



"_THIS IS HOW I DEAL WITH SMALL FRY_"


We are now in a state of necessity, and necessity knows no law. Our
troops have occupied Luxemburg and perhaps are already on Belgian soil.
_Gentlemen, that is contrary to the dictates of international law._ It
is true that the French Government has declared at Brussels that France
is willing to respect the neutrality of Belgium, so long as her opponent
respects it. We knew, however, that France stood ready for invasion.
France could wait, but we could not wait. A French movement upon our
flank upon the lower Rhine might have been disastrous. So we were
compelled to override the just protest of the Luxemburg and Belgian
Governments.

                   VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG,
    _Reichstag, Berlin, 4th August, '14._

[Illustration]



_GOTT MITT UNS_


Remember that the German people are the chosen of God. On me, the German
Emperor, the spirit of God has descended. I am His sword, His weapon and
His vicegerent. Woe to the disobedient and death to cowards and
unbelievers.

    _From_ THE KAISER'S _speech to his
     soldiers on the way to the front._

[Illustration]



_SATAN'S PARTNER_

_Bernhardi: "War is as divine as eating and drinking"_

_Satan: "Here is a partner for me"_


The inevitableness, the idealism, the blessing of war as an
indispensable and stimulating law of development must be repeatedly
emphasized.

... War is the greatest factor in the furtherance of culture and power.
Efforts to secure peace are extraordinarily detrimental as soon as they
influence politics.

... Efforts directed toward the abolition of war are not only foolish,
but absolutely immoral, and must be stigmatized as unworthy of the human
race.

... In fact, the State is a law unto itself. Weak nations have not the
same right to live as powerful and vigorous nations.

    _"Germany and the Next War. 1911."_
                  GEN. VON BERNHARDI.

[Illustration]



_MON FILS. BELGIUM, 1914_

"_Ah! was your boy among the twelve this morning? Then you'll find him
among this lot_"


When the German cavalry occupied the village of Linsmeau not a man of
the civilian population took part in the fighting. Nevertheless the
village was invaded at dusk on August 10 and all the male inhabitants
were compelled to come forward and hand over whatever arms they
possessed. No recently discharged firearms were found. The invaders
divided these peasants in three groups, those in one were bound, and 11
of them placed in a ditch, where they were afterwards found dead.

     BELGIAN GOV. COMMISSION'S REPORT.

[Illustration]



_THE SHIELDS OF RÖSSELAERE_


In a café, lower down, near the canal, I saw a number of German
soldiers, and was successful in having a chat with the inn-keeper, at
the farthest corner of the bar. I asked, of course, what they meant by
burning the village, and he told me that the Germans had made a number
of successful attacks on Fort Pontisse, until at last they had reduced
it to silence. They were now so near that they could open the final
assault. They were afraid, however, of some ambush, or underground mine,
and the Friday before they had collected the population, whom they
forced to march in front of them. When they had got quite near they
dared not enter it yet, and drove the priest and twelve of the principal
villagers before them.

     "_The German Fury in Belgium_,"
                     By L. MOKVELD.

[Illustration]



"_THEY SHOT HER AS A FRANC-TIREUR_"


We ourselves regret deeply that during these fights the town of Loewen
has been destroyed to a great extent. Needless to say that these
consequences are not intentional on our part, but cannot be avoided in
this infamous franc-tireur war being led against us.

Whoever knows the good-natured character of our troops cannot seriously
pretend that they are inclined to needless or frivolous destruction.

     GERMAN GENERAL STAFF.
    _Berlin, August, 1914._

[Illustration]



_AERSCHOT AND AFTERWARDS_


The German troops penetrated into Aerschot, a town of 8,000 inhabitants,
on Wednesday, Aug. 19, in the morning. No Belgian forces remained
behind. No sooner did the Germans enter the town than they shot five or
six inhabitants whom they caused to leave their houses. In the evening,
pretending that a superior German officer had been killed on the Grand
Place by the son of the Burgomaster, or, according to another version of
the story, that a conspiracy had been hatched against the superior
commandant by the Burgomaster and his family, the Germans took every
man who was inside of Aerschot; they led them, fifty at a time, some
distance from the town, grouped them in lines of four men, and, making
them run ahead of them, shot them and killed them afterward with their
bayonets. More than forty men were found thus massacred.

     BELGIAN GOV. COMMISSION'S REPORT.

[Illustration]



_BERNHARDISM_:

"_It's all right. If I hadn't done it someone else might_"


As regards private property, respect among German troops simply does not
exist. By the universal testimony of every British officer and soldier I
have interrogated the progress of the German troops is like a plague of
locusts over the land. What they can not carry off they destroy.
Furniture is thrown into the street, pictures are riddled with bullets
and pierced by sword cuts, municipal registers burnt, the contents of
shops scattered on the floor, drawers rifled, live stock slaughtered and
carcasses left to rot in the fields. Cases of petty larceny by German
soldiers appear to be innumerable; they take whatever seizes their
fancy, and leave the towns they evacuate laden like pedlars. Empty
ammunition wagons were drawn up in front of private houses and filled
with their contents for despatch to Germany.

I have had the reports of local commissions of police placed before me,
and they show that in smaller villages like those of Caestre and Merris,
with a population of about 1,500 souls or less, pillaging to the extent
of £4,000 and £6,000 was committed by the German troops.

         PROFESSOR J. H. MORGAN _in "German
     Atrocities," an Official Investigation._

[Illustration]



_FROM LIEGE TO AIX-LA-CHAPELLE_

[Illustration]



_SPOILS FOR THE VICTORS_


They sang, shouted and waved their arms. Most of them carried bottles
full of liquor, which they put into their mouths frequently, smashed
them on the ground, or handed them to their comrades, when unable to
drink any more themselves. Each of a troop of cavalry had a bottle of
pickles, and enjoyed them immensely.

Other soldiers kept on running into the burning houses, carrying out
vases, pictures, plate, or small pieces of furniture. They smashed
everything on the cobbles and then returned to wreck more things that
would have been destroyed by the fire all the same. It was a revelry of
drunken vandalism. They seemed mad, and even risking being burned alive
at this work of destruction. Most of the officers were also tipsy; not
one of them was saluted by the soldiers.

     "_The German Fury in Belgium_,"
                     By L. MOKVELD.

[Illustration]



_SEDUCTION_

"_Ain't I a lovable fellow?_"


There is very strong reason to suspect that young girls were carried off
to the trenches by licentious German soldiery, and there abused by
hordes of savage and licentious men. People in hiding in the cellars of
houses have heard the voices of women in the hands of German soldiers
crying all night long until death or stupor ended their agonies. One of
our officers, a subaltern in the sappers, heard a woman's shrieks in the
night coming from the German trenches near Richebourg l'Avoue; when we
advanced in the morning and drove the Germans out, a girl was found
lying naked on the ground "pegged out" in the form of a crucifix. I need
not go on with this chapter of horrors. To the end of time it will be
remembered, and from one generation to another, in the plains of
Flanders, in the Valleys of the Vosges, and on the rolling fields of the
Marne, the oral tradition of men will perpetuate this story of infamy
and wrong.

         PROFESSOR J. H. MORGAN _in "German
     Atrocities," an Official Investigation_.

[Illustration]



_THE HOSTAGES_

"_Father, what have we done?_"


The municipal Government of Liège remind their fellow citizens, and all
staying within the city, that international law most strictly forbids
civilians to commit hostilities against the German soldiers occupying
the country.

Every attack on German troops by others than the military in uniform not
only exposes those who may be guilty to be shot summarily, but will also
bring terrible consequences on the leading citizens of Liège now
detained in the citadel as hostages by the commander of the German
troops.

We beseech all residents of the municipality to guard the highest
interests of all the inhabitants and of those who are hostages of the
German Army, and not to commit any assault on the soldiers of this army.

We remind the citizens that by order of General commanding the German
troops, those who have arms in their possession must deliver them
immediately to the authorities at the Provincial Palace under the
penalty of being shot.

     _The Acting Burgomaster_,
                   V. HENAULT.
           _Liège, August 8th._

[Illustration]



_HUSBANDS AND FATHERS_


Thousands of Belgian citizens have in like manner been deported to
the prisons of Germany to Munsterlagen, to Celle, to Magdeburg. At
Munsterlagen alone, 3,100 civil prisoners were numbered. History will
tell of the physical and moral torments of their long martyrdom.

Hundreds of innocent men were shot. I possess no complete necrology; but
I know there were ninety-one shot at Aerschot and that there, under pain
of death, their fellow-citizens were compelled to dig their graves. In
the Louvain group of communes 176 persons, men and women, old men and
sucklings, rich and poor, in health and sickness, were shot or burned.

     CARDINAL MERCIER, _Archbishop
              of Malines, Belgium._

[Illustration]



_IT'S FATTENING WORK_


In Hofstade a number of houses had been set on fire and many corpses
were seen, some in houses, some in back yards, and some in the streets.

Several examples are given below.

Two witnesses speak to having seen the body of a young man pierced by
bayonet thrusts with the wrists cut also.

On a side road the corpse of a civilian was seen on his doorstep with a
bayonet wound in his stomach, and by his side the dead body of a boy of
5 or 6 with his hands nearly severed.

The corpses of a woman and boy were seen at the blacksmith's. They had
been killed with the bayonet.

In a café a young man, also killed with the bayonet, was holding his
hands together as if in the attitude of supplication.

Two young women were lying in the back yard of the house. One had her
breasts cut off, the other had been stabbed.

A young man had been hacked with the bayonet until his entrails
protruded. He also had his hands joined in the attitude of prayer.

In the garden of a house in the main street bodies of two women were
observed, and in another house the body of a boy of 16 with two bayonet
wounds in the chest.

     _British Government Committee's Report._

[Illustration]



_KULTUR HAS PASSED HERE_


It is nothing but fanaticism to expect very much from humanity when it
has forgotten how to wage war. For the present we know of no other means
whereby the rough energy of the camp, the deep impersonal hatred, the
cold-bloodedness of murder with a good conscience, the general ardour of
the system in the destruction of the enemy ... can be as forcibly and
certainly communicated to enervated nations as is done by every great
war. _Kultur can by no means dispense with passions, vices and
malignities._

     FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE.

[Illustration]



_PEACE REIGNS AT DINANT_


In short, the town of Dinant is destroyed. Of 1,400 houses only 200
remained standing. The factories where the laboring population got their
bread and butter were wrecked systematically. Many inhabitants were sent
to Germany, where they are still kept as prisoners. The majority of the
others are scattered all over Belgium. Those who stayed in the towns
were starved.

The Belgian Committee has a list of victims. It contains 700 names, and
is not complete. Among those killed are seventy-three women, thirty-nine
children between six months and fifteen years old.

Dinant has 7,600 inhabitants, of whom ten per cent. were put to death;
not a family exists which has not to mourn the death of some victims;
many families have been exterminated completely.

     "_The German Fury in Belgium_,"
                     By L. MOKVELD.

[Illustration]



_LES BEAUTÉS DE LA GUERRE_

_Folk who do not understand them_


It is only in war that we find the action of true heroism, the
realization of which on earth is the care of militarism. That is why war
appears to us, who are filled with militarism, as in itself a holy
thing, as the holiest thing on earth.

     PROF. WERNER SOMBART.


During the three months of invasion, more than 21,000 houses had been
burnt down in five alone of the nine provinces of Belgium, and a far
greater number pillaged--more than 16,000, for instance, in the single
Province of Brabant. Of the civilian population, between 5,000 and 6,000
men, women, and children had been massacred, some singly and some in
batches, some by clean killing and some after lingering tortures,
some in frenzy and some in cold blood, but all with the object of
terrorization and with that result. Fleeing before the terror, many
hundreds of thousands of Belgians, especially of the middle and upper
classes, had taken refuge in Holland and the British Isles.

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_DINANT: "I SEE FATHER"_


An hour later the women and children were separated and the prisoners
were brought back to Dinant, passing the prison on their way. Just
outside the prison the witness saw three lines of bodies which he
recognized as being those of neighbors. They were nearly all dead, but
he noticed movement in some of them. There were about 120 bodies. The
prisoners were then taken up to the top of the hill outside Dinant and
compelled to stay there till eight o'clock in the morning. On the
following day they were put into cattle trucks and taken thence to
Coblenz. For three months they remained prisoners in Germany.

Unarmed civilians were killed in masses at other places near the prison.
About ninety bodies were seen lying on the top of one another in a grass
square opposite the convent.

     BRITISH GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE'S REPORT.

[Illustration]



_MATER DOLOROSA_


The inhabitants fled through the village (near Blamont). It was
horrible. The walls of houses are bespattered with blood and the faces
of the dead are hideous to look upon. They were buried at once, some
sixty of them. Among them many old women, old men, and one woman
pregnant--the whole a dreadful sight. Three children huddled
together--all dead. Altar and arches of the church shattered. Telephone
communication with the enemy was found there. This morning, Sept. 2, all
the survivors were driven out; I saw four little boys carrying on two
poles a cradle with a child some five or six months old. The whole makes
a fearful sight. Blow upon blow! Thunderbolt on thunderbolt! Everything
given over to plunder. I saw a mother with her two little ones--one of
them had a great wound in the head and an eye put out.

                        _From the Diary of_
                   GEFREITER PAUL SPELLMAN,
     _Capt. First Brigade of Infantry Guard_
                       (_Prussian Guards_).

[Illustration]



_IS IT YOU, MOTHER?_


A corporal named Houston narrated that while he lay wounded on the
ground, after the battle of Soissons, he saw a young English soldier
lying near him, delirious. A German soldier gave the poor lad water from
his flask. The young Englishman, his mind wandering, said, "Is it you,
mother?" The German comprehended, and to maintain the illusion, caressed
his face with a mother's soft touch. The poor boy died shortly
afterwards and the German soldier, on getting to his feet, was seen
to be crying.

[Illustration]



_MEN TO THE RIGHT, WOMEN TO THE LEFT_


On Sunday, August 23rd, at half past six in the morning, the
soldiers of the 108th regiment of the line drove worshippers of the
Premonstratensian Church, separated the men from the women, and shot
about fifty of the former through the head. Between seven and nine
o'clock there was house to house looting and burning by soldiers who
chased the inhabitants into the street. Those who tried to escape were
shot off-hand.

At about nine o'clock the soldiers drove all who had been found in the
houses in front of them by means of blows from their rifle-butts. They
crowded them together in Place d'Armes, where they kept them until six
o'clock in the evening. Their guards amused themselves by telling the
men repeatedly that they would soon be shot.

At six o'clock a captain separated the men from the women and children.
The women were placed behind a line of infantry. The men had to stand
alongside a wall; those in the first row were told to sit on their
haunches, the others to remain standing behind them. A platoon took a
stand right opposite the group. The women prayed in vain for the mercy
of their husbands, their sons, and their brothers; the officer gave the
order to fire. He had not made the slightest investigation, pronounced
no sentence of any sort.

     _Belgian Gov. Committee's Report._

[Illustration]



_A PITIFUL EXODUS_


In many groups were to be seen old, old people, grandfathers and
grandmothers of a family, and these in their shaking frailty and terror,
which they could not withstand, were the more pitiable objects in the
great gathering of stricken townsfolk. This pathetic clinging together
of the family was one of the most affecting sights I witnessed, and I
have not the slightest doubt that in the mad rush for refuge beyond the
borders of their native land many family groups of this sort completely
perished.

All day and throughout the night these pitiful scenes continued, and
when I went down to the quayside early Thursday, when the dawn was
throwing a wan light over this part of the world, I found again a great
host of citizens awaiting their chance of flight.

     _London Daily Chronicle on
           The Fall of Antwerp.
              October 11, 1914._

[Illustration]



_SYMPATHY_

"_If I find you again looking so sad, I'll send you to Germany after
your father_"

[Illustration]



_WE WAGE WAR ON DIVINE PRINCIPLES_


The names of the priests and monks of the diocese of Malines, who, to my
knowledge, were put to death by the German troops, are as follows:
Dupierreux, of the Company of Jesus; Brother Sebastien Allard, of the
Society of St. Joseph; Brother Candide, of the Society of the Brothers
of Our Lady of Pity; Father Vincent, Conventual Carette, a professor;
Lombaerts, Goris de Clerck; Dergent, Wouters, Van Bladel, _curés_.

At Christmas time I was not perfectly certain what had been the fate of
the _Curé_ of Hérent. Since then his dead body has been discovered at
Louvain and identified.

        _From a letter from_ CARDINAL MERCIER,
     _to The Kreischef of District of Malines._
                              _December, 1914._


The Cathedral of Rheims has many companions in distress. The German
army, when it invaded the north of France, destroyed, totally or
partially, by bombardment or incendiarism, churches and chapels at
Albert, Serres, Vieille-Capelle, Etavigny, Soissons, Hébuterne,
Ribécourt, Suippes, Montceau, Barcy, Revigny, Souain, Maurupt,
Berry-au-Bac, Mandray, Heiltz-le-Maurupt, Sermaize-les-Bains, Doncières,
etc.

     _From "Is War Civilization?"_
     _By_ PROF. CHRISTOPHE NYROP,
       _University of Copenhagen._

[Illustration]



_PROSPERITY REIGNS IN FLANDERS_

_Four hundred and eighty millions of francs have been imposed as a war
tax but soup is given gratis_


PROCLAMATION

A War Contribution, amounting to 480,000,000 francs, to be paid in
monthly installments over the course of a year, is imposed on the
population of Belgium.

The payment of these sums devolves upon the Nine Provinces, which are
held collectively responsible for the discharge of it.

The two first installments are to be paid up, at latest, on January 15,
1915, and the following installments on the 10th, at latest, of each
following month, to the Field Army Treasury of the Imperial
Governor-Generalship at Brussels.

In case the Provinces have to resort to the issue of bonds in order to
obtain the funds necessary, the form and terms of these bonds will be
settled by the Imperial Commissary-General for the Banks in Belgium.

                BARON VON BISSING,
     _Governor-General in Belgium._
     _Brussels, December 10, 1914._

[Illustration]



_A FACT_

_This brutalism by Major Tille of the German Army on a small boy of
Maastricht was vouched for by an eye-witness._

[Illustration]



_TO YOUR HEALTH, CIVILIZATION!_


CONCLUSIONS

It is proved--

(i.) That there were in many parts of Belgium deliberate and
systematically organized massacres of the civil population, accompanied
by many isolated murders and other outrages.

(ii.) That in the conduct of the war generally innocent civilians, both
men and women, were murdered in large numbers, women violated, and
children murdered.

(iii.) That looting, house burning, and the wanton destruction of
property were ordered and countenanced by the officers of the German
Army, that elaborate provision had been made for systematic incendiarism
at the very outbreak of the war, and that the burnings and destruction
were frequent where no military necessity could be alleged, being indeed
part of a system of general terrorization.

(iv.) That the rules and usages of war were frequently broken,
particularly by the using of civilians, including women and children, as
a shield for advancing forces exposed to fire, to a less degree by
killing the wounded and prisoners, and in the frequent abuse of the Red
Cross and the white flag.

     _British Government Committee's Report._

[Illustration]



_A CONFLICT OF TESTIMONY_

"_Sire, it's quite easy; for every witness who swears we've murdered
innocent people we will produce two who will swear they did not see it_"


All that I care to say about the Belgian charges is that I have
officially informed the State Department in Washington that there is not
one word of truth in the statements made to the President yesterday by
the Belgian Commission.

            COUNT VON BERNSTORFF,
              _German Ambassador,
     at Washington, September 17._

[Illustration]



_THE MOTHERS OF BELGIUM_


Christian mothers, be proud of your sons. Of all griefs, of all our
human sorrows, yours is perhaps the most worthy of veneration. I think I
behold you in your affliction. Suffer us to offer you not only our
condolence, but our congratulation. Not all our heroes obtain temporal
honors, but for all we expect the immortal crown of the elect. For this
is the virtue of a single act of perfect charity--it cancels a whole
lifetime of sins. It transforms a sinful man into a saint.

            CARDINAL MERCIER,
     _Archbishop of Malines_.

[Illustration]



_KREUZLAND, KREUZLAND ÜBER ALLES_


_"Where are our fathers?" Belgium, 1914_

[Illustration]



_THE WIDOWS OF BELGIUM_

[Illustration]



_FAMINE IN BELGIUM_


In Belgium I saw this:

Homeless men, women, and children by thousands and hundreds of
thousands. Many of them had been prosperous, a few had been wealthy,
practically all had been comfortable. Now, with scarcely an exception,
they stood all upon one common plane of misery. They had lost their
homes, their farms, their workshops, their livings, and their means of
making livings.

I saw them tramping aimlessly along windswept, rain-washed roads,
fleeing from burning and devastated villages. I saw them sleeping in
open fields upon the miry earth, with no cover and no shelter. I saw
them herded together in the towns and cities to which many of them
ultimately fled, existing God alone knows how. I saw them--ragged,
furtive scarecrows--prowling in the shattered ruins of their homes,
seeking salvage where there was no salvage to be found. I saw them
living like the beasts of the field, upon such things as the beasts of
the field would reject.

         IRVIN S. COBB.
       _New York Times._
     _December 2, 1914._

[Illustration]



_BLUEBEARD'S CHAMBER_


Our function is ended when we have stated what the evidence establishes,
but we may be permitted to express our belief that these disclosures
will not have been made in vain if they touch and rouse the conscience
of mankind, and we venture to hope that as soon as the present war is
over the nations of the world in council will consider what means can be
provided and sanctions devised to prevent the recurrence of such horrors
as our generation is now witnessing.

          BRYCE,
          F. POLLOCK,
          EDWARD CLARKE,
          KENELM E. DIGBY,
          ALFRED HOPKINSON,
          H. A. L. FISHER,
          HAROLD COX,
     _Concluding words of the Report of the Committee
     appointed by the British Government
     to investigate alleged German atrocities
     in Belgium._

[Illustration]



_THE PRISONERS_


In the first days of the war it was undoubtedly and unfortunately true
that prisoners of war taken by the Germans, both at the time of their
capture and in transit to the prison camps, were often badly treated by
the soldiers, guards or the civil population.

The instances were too numerous, the evidence too overwhelming, to be
denied.... From him (U.S. Consul at Kiel) I learned that some
unfortunate prisoners passing through the town (in a part of Germany
inhabited by Scandinavians) had made signs that they were suffering
from hunger and thirst, that some of the kind-hearted people among the
Scandinavian population had given them something to eat and drink and
for this they were condemned to fines, to prison and to have their names
held up to the contempt of Germans for all time.

I do not know of any one thing that can give a better idea of the
official hate for the nations with which Germany was at war than this.

                     JAMES W. GERARD
     _in "My Four Years in Germany."_

[Illustration]



_THE EX-CONVICT:_

"_I was a 'lifer'; but they found I had so many abilities for teaching
civilisation amongst our neighbours, that I am now a soldier_"


Crimes against women and young girls have been of appalling frequency.
We have proved a great number of them, but they only represent an
infinitesimal proportion of those which we could have taken up. Owing to
a sense of decency, which is deserving of every respect, the victims of
these hateful acts usually refuse to disclose them. Doubtless fewer
would have been committed if the leaders of an army whose discipline
is most rigorous had taken any trouble to prevent them; yet, strictly
speaking, they can only be considered as the individual and spontaneous
acts of uncaged beasts.

     _French Government's Official Report,
                         September, 1914._

[Illustration]



_WAR LOAN MUSIC_

"_Was blazen die Trompeten Moneten heraus?_"


Early in September, 1914, the Government made the first War Loan issue.
It took the form of £50,000,000 of 5 per cent. Treasury Bonds with a
five years' currency, and a 5 per cent. Loan of undefined amount,
irredeemable until 1924. The price of both the Treasury Bills and the
Loan was 97-1/2. During the ten days in which the lists remained open, a
tremendous propaganda was carried on in the Press--this quotation is
typical:

"The victories which our glorious Army has already won in the west and
east justify the hopes that now, as in 1870, the expenses and burdens of
the war will fall ultimately upon those who have disturbed the peace of
the German Empire. But first we must help ourselves. Great interests are
at stake.

"German capitalists, show that you are inspired by the same spirit as
our heroes, who shed their hearts' blood in the fight. Germans who have
saved money, show that you have saved, not only for yourselves, but also
for the Fatherland. German corporations, companies, savings banks, and
all institutions which have blossomed and grown up under the powerful
protection of the Empire, repay the Empire with your gratitude in this
hour of fate. German banks and bankers, show what your brilliant
organization and your influence on your customers are able to produce."

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_LIBERTÉ! LIBERTÉ CHÈRIE!_


Soldiers,--Upon the memorable fields of Montmirail, of Vauchamps, of
Champaubert, which a century ago witnessed the victories of our
ancestors over Blücher's Prussians, your vigorous offensive has
triumphed over the resistance of the Germans. Held on his flanks, his
centre broken, the enemy is now retreating towards east and north by
forced marches. The most renowned army corps of Old Prussia, the
contingents of Westphalia, of Hanover, of Brandenburg, have retired
in haste before you.

This first success is no more than a prelude. The enemy is shaken, but
not yet decisively beaten.

You have still to undergo severe hardships, to make long marches, to
fight hard battles.

May the image of your country, soiled by barbarians, always remain
before your eyes. Never was it more necessary to sacrifice all for her.

Saluting the heroes who have fallen in the fighting of the last few
days, my thoughts turn towards you--the victors in the next battle.

Forward, soldiers, for France.

                   FRANCHET D'ESPEREY,
     _General Commanding the Vth Army._
       _Montmirail, September 9, 1914._

[Illustration]



_THE JUNKER_

"_What I have most admired in you, Bethmann, is that you have made
Socialists our best supporters_"


England is playing a perfectly shameful rôle in this war. Even though
France were allied to Russia by an unfortunate treaty, England was not
so allied! But England, who has ever been jealous of the industrial
development of our country, used the violation of our treaty of
neutrality with Belgium, which was incurred only in dire need and which
was yielded openly and honestly in the Reichstag by the Chancellor, as a
pretext to declare war against us.

             PHILIPP SCHEIDEMANN,
     _Socialist ex-Vice-President
                of the Reichstag._

[Illustration]



_THE HIGHER POLITICS_

_The Kaiser: "We will propose peace terms; if they accept them, we are
the gainers; if they refuse them, the responsibility will rest with
them_"


Germany has suggested informally that the United States should undertake
to elicit from Great Britain, France, and Russia a statement of the
terms under which the Allies would make peace.

The suggestion was made by the Imperial Chancellor, von
Bethmann-Hollweg, to Ambassador Gerard at Berlin as a result of an
inquiry sent by the American Government to learn whether Emperor William
was desirous of discussing peace, as recently had been reported.

               _The Associated Press._
     _Washington, September 17, 1914._

[Illustration]



_LUTHER-LIEBKNECHT IN THE REICHSTAG_

"_It is a War of Rapine! On that I take my stand. I cannot do
otherwise_"


I understand that several members of the Socialist Party have written
all sorts of things to the press with regard to the deliberations of the
Socialist Party in the Reichstag on August 3 and 4.

According to these reports there were no serious differences of opinion
in our party in regard to the political situation, and our own position
and decision to assent to war credits are alleged to have been arrived
at unanimously.

In order to prevent the dissemination of an inadmissible legend I feel
it to be my duty to put on record the fact that the issues involved gave
rise to diametrically opposite views within our parliamentary party, and
these opposing views found expression with a violence hitherto unknown
in our deliberations.

It is also entirely untrue to say that assent to the war credits was
given unanimously.

          DR. CARL LIEBKNECHT,
     _Member of the Reichstag._
          _September 18, 1914._

[Illustration]



_THE LAND MINE_

[Illustration]



_THE VERY STONES CRY OUT,_

"_Thou art the man_"


The German Government states officially in contradiction of the report
made by the Havas Agency that German artillery purposely destroyed
important buildings at Rheims, that, on the contrary, orders were given
to spare the Cathedral by all means.

             COUNT VON BERNSTORFF.
     _Washington, September, 1914._


On Sept. 19 the cathedral was fairly riddled by bombs during the entire
day, and at about 3:45 the scaffolding surrounding the north tower
caught fire. This fire lasted about one hour, and during that time two
further bombs struck the roof, setting it also on fire.

The monument, about which no troops were massed, towers above the rest
of the town; to avoid it, in view of the uselessness of destroying it
and because it was serving as a hospital, would have been an easy
matter.

It would seem that the only explanation which can be offered was blind
rage upon the part of the besieging army.

                           MR. WHITNEY WARREN'S
     _Official Report to the French Government._
                              _September, 1914._

[Illustration]



_THE BRAGGART_

"_It was I who opened fire on Rheims Cathedral_"


My dear Sir, how is it possible to fight these people? They seem to have
no mercy, no decency. It really seems impossible to know how to meet
them.

     GENERAL CASTELNAU TO
     MR. WHITNEY WARREN.


The bells sound no more in the cathedral with two towers. Finished is
the benediction!... With lead, O Rheims, we have shut your house of
idolatry!

                           M. RUDOLF HERZOG
     _in Berlin Lokal-Anzeiger. Jan., 1915._

[Illustration]



_RHEIMS--WAR AND CHRIST_


The commonest, ugliest stone put to mark the burial-place of a German
grenadier is a more glorious and venerable monument than all the
cathedrals of Europe put together.

              GEN. VON DISFURTH
     _In Hamburger Nachrichten._


Reduce to ashes the basilica of Rheims where Klodovig was anointed,
where that Empire of Franks was born--the false brothers of the noble
Teutons; burn that cathedral!

     _Written in the year 1814 by_
              JEAN-JOSEPH GOERRES
     _in the "Rheinische Merkin."_

[Illustration]



LIQUID FIRE


In October, 1914, the headquarters of the second German army at St.
Quentin had issued an Order regulating the use of fire-squirts ejecting
inflammable liquid. A special Corps of Pioneers, attachable to any unit
which might need them, had been organized to handle this novel weapon.
The Order explained that the instrument could squirt a flame which would
cause mortal injury and which, owing to the heat generated, would drive
the enemy to a considerable distance. It was recommended particularly
for street fighting.

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_WE ARE ON OUR WAY TO CALAIS!_


In those days the German headquarters gave continuously the order, "To
Calais, to Calais," and the staff considered no difficulties, calculated
no sacrifices, in order to achieve success.

What these frenzied orders have cost in human lives history will tell
later on.

     "_The German Fury in Belgium_,"
                     By L. MOKVELD.


Then the "seventy fives" were brought up at a gallop and poured a hail
of shell at the demoralized German infantry wading frantically through
the water towards the canal. Rifles and machine guns joined the work of
destruction, and the placid lake between the railway and canal was soon
dotted with drowning Germans fallen from the demoralized crowds
struggling to reach a haven of safety over the bridges of St. Georges,
Schoorbakke, and Tervaete.

The crisis of the battle of the Yser was over; the Germans had made
their great effort and had failed.

          _The Times History of the War._
     _Battle of the Yser. October, 1914._

[Illustration]



_WRITE IT DOWN, SCHOOLMASTER_

_William: "Write it down, Schoolmaster. Monday shall be Copper Day;
Tuesday, Potato Day; Wednesday, Leather Day; Thursday, Gold Day; Friday,
Rubber Day; Saturday, no Dinner Day, and Sunday, Hate Day!"_


    Take you the folk of the Earth in pay,
    With bars of gold your ramparts lay,
    Bedeck the ocean with bow on bow,
    Ye reckon well, but not well enough now,
    French and Russian, they matter not,
    A blow for a blow, a shot for a shot,
    We fight the battle with bronze and steel,
    And the time that is coming Peace will seal,
    You we will hate with a lasting hate,
    We will never forego our hate,
    Hate by water and hate by land,
    Hate of the head and hate of the hand,
    Hate of the hammer and hate of the crown,
    Hate of seventy millions choking down,
    We love as one, we hate as one,
    We have one foe and one alone,
                          ENGLAND!

      _Hymn of Hate, by_ ERNST LISSAUER.
     _Translation by_ BARBARA HENDERSON.
            _New York Times, Oct., 1914._

[Illustration]



_BARBED WIRE_

[Illustration]



_THE SEA MINE_


Take the very first incident of the war, the mine laying by the _Königin
Luise_. Here was a vessel, which was obviously made ready with freshly
charged mines some time before there was any question of a general
European war, which was sent forth in time of peace, and which, on
receipt of a wireless message, began to spawn its hellish cargo across
the North Sea at points fifty miles from land in the track of all
neutral merchant shipping. There was the keynote of German tactics
struck at the first possible instant. So promiscuous was the effect that
it was a mere chance which prevented the vessel which bore the German
Ambassador from being destroyed by a German mine. From first to last
some hundreds of people have lost their lives on this tract of sea, some
of them harmless British trawlers, but the greater number sailors of
Danish and Dutch vessels pursuing their commerce as they had every right
to do. It was the first move in a consistent policy of murder.

     SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE
      _In "The German War."_

[Illustration]



_HIS MASTER'S VOICE_


The _Vlaamsche Stem_ (_Flemish Voice_), a Flemish newspaper, was bought
by the Germans, whereupon the whole of the staff resigned, as it no
longer represented its title.

[Illustration]



_THE PROMISE_


We shall never sheathe the sword which we have not lightly drawn until
Belgium recovers in full measure all and more than she has sacrificed,
until France is adequately secured against the menace of aggression,
until the rights of the smaller nationalities of Europe are placed upon
an unassailable foundation, and until the military domination of Prussia
is wholly and finally destroyed.

                  H. H. ASQUITH,
     _Prime Minister of England._
                _November, 1914._

[Illustration]



_THE RAID_

"_Do you remember Black Mary of Hamburg?_"

"_Aye, well._"

"_She got six years for killing a child, whilst we get the Iron Cross
for killing twenty at Hartlepool._"


This morning a German cruiser force made a demonstration upon Yorkshire
coast, in the course of which they shelled Hartlepool, Whitby, and
Scarborough.

A number of their fastest ships were employed for this purpose, and they
remained about an hour on the coast. They were engaged by patrol vessels
on the spot.

During the bombardment, especially in West Hartlepool, the people
crowded in the streets, and approximately twenty-two were killed and
fifty wounded.

     _British Admiralty report._
               _December, 1914._

[Illustration]



_THE TYPHUS INFERNO AT WITTENBERG_


They were received in apathetic silence (Dec., 1914). The rooms were
unlighted, the men were aimlessly marching up and down, some were lying
on the floor, probably sickening for typhus. When they got into the open
air again Major Fry broke down. The horror of it all was for the moment
more than he could bear.

Major Priestly saw delirious men waving arms brown to the elbow with
fæcal matter. The patients were alive with vermin; in the half light he
attempted to brush what he took to be an accumulation of dust from the
folds of a patient's clothes, and he discovered it to be a moving mass
of lice. In one room in Compound No. 8 the patients lay so close to one
another on the floor that he had to stand straddle-legged across them to
examine them.

What the prisoners found hardest to bear in this matter were the jeers
with which the coffins were frequently greeted by the inhabitants of
Wittenberg who stood outside and were permitted to insult their dead.

     _Report of the British Committee._

[Illustration]



_REMEMBER WITTENBERG_


These medical officers protested with the camp commander against the
herding together of the French and British prisoners with the Russians,
who, as I have said, were suffering from typhus fever. But the camp
commander said, "You will have to know your Allies"; and kept all of his
prisoners together, and thus as surely condemned to death a number of
French and British prisoners of war as though he had stood them against
the wall and ordered them shot by a firing squad. Conditions in the camp
during the period of this epidemic were frightful. The camp was
practically deserted by the Germans.

At the time I visited the camp the typhus epidemic, of course, had been
stamped out. The Germans employed a large number of police dogs in this
camp and these dogs not only were used in watching the outside of the
camp in order to prevent the escape of prisoners but also were used
within the camp. Many complaints were made to me by prisoners concerning
these dogs, stating that men had been bitten by them. It seemed
undoubtedly true that the prisoners there had been knocked about and
beaten in a terrible manner by their guards.

                     JAMES W. GERARD
     _in "My Four Years in Germany."_

[Illustration]



_THE WONDERS OF CULTURE_


On January 29, 1915, the first Zeppelin raid upon Paris took place.
Twenty-four people were killed outright by the exploding bombs and over
30 were injured. With one exception all the dead and injured were
civilians and the majority were women and children.

[Illustration]



_TIRPITZ' LAST HOPE--PIRACY_


The waters around Great Britain and Ireland, including the whole English
Channel, are declared a war zone on and after February 18, 1915.

Every enemy merchant ship found in this war zone will be destroyed, even
if it is impossible to avert dangers which threaten the crew and
passengers.

Also neutral ships in the war zone are in danger, as in consequence of
the misuse of neutral flags ordered by the British Government on January
31, and in view of the hazards of naval warfare, it cannot always be
avoided that attacks meant for enemy ships endanger neutral ships.

Shipping northward, around the Shetland Islands, in the eastern basin of
the North Sea, and a strip of at least thirty nautical miles in breadth
along the Dutch coast, is endangered in the same way.

     _German Navy Official Communication. Berlin, February 4, 1915._

[Illustration]



_ALCOHOLISM--BRITONS NEVER WILL BE SLAVES_


The vast majority belong to a class we can depend upon. The others are a
minority.

But, you must remember, a small minority of workmen can throw a whole
works out of gear. What is the reason? Sometimes it is one thing,
sometimes it is another, but let us be perfectly candid. It is mostly
the lure of the drink. They refuse to work full time, and when they
return their strength and efficiency are impaired by the way in which
they have spent their leisure. Drink is doing us more damage in the war
than all the German submarines put together.

     D. LLOYD GEORGE AT BANGOR.
            _February 28, 1915._

[Illustration]



_The Crown Prince: "Isn't it an enjoyable war?"_

_William: "Perhaps, but hardly as much so as I anticipated"_


To sum up, the German General Staff has placed upon its record since the
beginning of the campaign--apart from the failure of its great plan,
which aimed at the crushing of France in a few weeks--seven defeats of
high significance, namely, the defeat of the sudden attack on Nancy, the
defeat of the rapid march on Paris, the defeat of the envelopement of
our left in August, the defeat of the same envelopement in November, the
defeat of the attempt to break through our centre in September, the
defeat of the coast attack on Dunkirk and Calais, and the defeat of the
attack on Ypres.

     _French Official report, February, 1915._

[Illustration]



_A LETTER FROM THE GERMAN TRENCHES_

"_We have gained a good bit: our cemeteries now extend as far as the
sea_"


The wastage of German effectives is easy to establish. We have for the
purpose two sources--the official lists of losses published by the
German General Staff and the notebooks, letters, and archives of
soldiers and officers killed and taken prisoners. These different
documents show that by the middle of January the German losses on the
two fronts were 1,800,000 men.

These figures are certainly less than the reality, because, for one
thing, the sick are not comprised, and, for another, the losses in the
last battle in Poland are not included. Let us accept them, however; let
us accept also that out of these 1,800,000 men 500,000--this is the
normal proportion--have been able to rejoin after being cured. Thus the
final loss for five months of the campaign has been 1,300,000 men, or
260,000 men per month.

     _French Government Official Report._
                           _March, 1915._

[Illustration]



_NEUVE CHAPELLE_

_Order of the Crown Prince of Bavaria: "You must give those English
heavy blows."_

_Tommy to prisoners after Neuve Chapelle: "Weren't they heavy?"_


Soldiers of the Sixth Army! We have now the good luck to have also the
Englishmen opposite us on our front, troops of that race whose envy was
at work for years to surround us with a ring of foes and to throttle us.
That race especially we have to thank for this war. Therefore, when now
the order is given to attack this foe, practice retribution for their
hostile treachery and for the many heavy sacrifices! Show them that the
Germans are not so easily to be wiped out of history. Show them that,
with German blows of a special kind. Here is the opponent who most
blocks a restoration of the peace. Up and at him!

     CROWN PRINCE RUPPRECHT.


After several days of severe fighting the British captured Neuve
Chapelle, on the 11th March, 1915. The German loss was estimated at
18,000.

[Illustration]



_THE MUNITION SHORTAGE_

_Fired at but unable to reply_


We have unfortunately found that the output is not only not equal to our
necessities, but does not fulfil our expectations.... I can only say
that the supply of war material at the present moment and for the next
two or three months is causing me very serious anxiety, and I wish all
those engaged in the manufacture and supply of these stores to realize
that it is absolutely essential not only that the arrears in the
deliveries of our munitions of war should be wiped off, but that the
output of every round of ammunition is of the utmost importance and has
a large influence on our operations in the field.

                        LORD KITCHENER.
     _House of Commons, March 15, 1915._

[Illustration]



_SUBMARINE BAGS_


On March 18 a month had passed since the beginning of our sharp
procedure against our worst foe. We can in every way be satisfied with
the results achieved in the meantime! In spite of all steps taken before
and thereafter, the English have everywhere had important losses to show
at sea--some 200 ships lost since the beginning of the war, according to
the latest statements of the Allies.

In the innocent exalted island kingdom many a fellow is already
striking; why should not even the recruit strike, who is also beginning
to get a glimmer of the truth that there are no props in the ocean
waves?

The more opponents come before the bows of our ships and are sunk, the
better! Down with them to the bottom of the sea; that alone will help!
Let us hope that we shall soon receive more such cheerful news.

       VICE-ADMIRAL KIRCHOFF.
     _Hamburger Framdenblatt._
             _March 19, 1915._

[Illustration]



"_I had such a delightful dream that the whole thing was not true_"


The strategic retreat of the French Army, the facility with which the
German armies were able to advance from August 25 to September 5, gave
our adversaries a feeling of absolute and final superiority, which
manifested itself at that time by all the statements gleaned and all the
documents seized.

At the moment of the battle of the Marne the first impression was one
of failure of comprehension and of stupor. A great number of German
soldiers, notably those who fell into our hands during the first days of
that battle, believed fully, as at the end of August, that the retreat
they were ordered to make was only a means of luring us into a trap.
German military opinion was suddenly converted when the soldiers saw
that this retreat continued, and that it was being carried out in
disorder, under conditions which left no doubt as to its cause and its
extent.

     _French Government Official Report._
                           _March, 1915._

[Illustration]



_FOX TIRPITZ PREACHING TO THE GEESE_

"_You see, my little Dutch Geese, I am fighting for the freedom of the
Seas_"


On March 25, 1915, the Dutch vessel _Medea_, on the way from Valencia to
London, was sunk by a German submarine, U 28, near Beachy Head, after
the crew had had time to save themselves in the boats. The submarine
towed the two boats for a quarter of an hour and then left the occupants
to their fate.

The German Government considered that the Declaration of London gave it
the right to sink neutral prizes laden with contraband. The Dutch
Government held firmly to its standpoint that the destruction of a
neutral prize was in all circumstances an illegal act and that the
prescription of the Declaration of London allowing, by way of exception,
destruction of neutral prizes, could not be regarded as established
international law.

Its offer to submit the case to international arbitration was rejected
by the German Government.

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



"_IRON CROSSES_"

"_You laugh, Muller! but there are still people who like them, and
besides it gives me exercise_"


From the very beginning there was a wholesale distribution of Iron
Crosses. Before the war the possession of an Iron Cross was a rare
distinction and a cherished memory of the war of 1870. Iron Crosses soon
became as plentiful as blackberries. According to official statistics
there had up to the end of March, 1915, been distributed five Grand
Crosses, 6,488 Iron Crosses of the First Class, and 338,261 Iron Crosses
of the Second Class. During the whole of the war of 1870 only 1,304 Iron
Crosses of the First Class and 45,791 Iron Crosses of the Second Class
had been distributed.

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_BETHMANN-HOLLWEG AND TRUTH_

"_Truth is on the path and nothing will stay her_"


A German has written this book. No Frenchman, no Russian, no Englishman.

A German who is unbribed and unbribable, not bought and not for sale.

A German who loves his Fatherland as much as any man; but just because
he loves it, he has written this book.

_Opening lines of "J'accuse"--a German to Germans--published in
Switzerland, April, 1915._


The book sets out to prove that the war had long been planned and
prepared by Germany and Austria, not only from the military but from the
political point of view.

That it had long been determined to represent this aggressive war to the
German people as a war of liberation, since it was known that only thus
could the needful enthusiasm be aroused.

That the object of this war is the establishment of German hegemony on
the Continent, and in due course the conquest of England's position as a
world power on the principle "_Ote-toi de là que je m'y mette_."

[Illustration]



_THE FALABA_

"_We have better luck with passenger boats than with war ships, for they
cannot shoot_"


On March 28, 1915, the British steamer _Falaba_ was torpedoed by a
German submarine. The torpedoes were fired while the crew and passengers
were entering the small boats. More than 100 persons, including Mr.
Thrasher, an American citizen, perished with the ship.

While some of the boats were still on their davits the submarine fired a
torpedo at short range. This action made it absolutely certain that
there must be great loss of life and it must have been committed
knowingly with the intention of producing that result.

     BRITISH OFFICIAL PRESS BUREAU.
     _April 8, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE GAS FIEND_


At some time between 4 and 5 P.M. (22d April) the Germans started
operations by releasing gases with the result that a cloud of poisonous
vapor rolled swiftly before the wind from their trenches toward those of
the French west of Langemarck, held by a portion of the French Colonial
Division. Allowing sufficient time for the fumes to take full effect on
the troops facing them, the Germans charged forward over the practically
unresisting enemy in their immediate front, and, penetrating through the
gap thus created, pressed on silently and swiftly to the south and west.

     BRITISH OFFICIAL EYEWITNESS.
                 _April 27, 1915._


"We shall not allow these wonderful weapons, which German intelligence
invented, to grow rusty."

     _The Cologne Gazette._


Germany was a signatory to the declaration at the Hague Conference of
1899, and an article in that Declaration ran as follows: "The
contracting Powers agree to abstain from the use of projectiles the sole
object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases."

[Illustration]



_SLOW ASPHYXIATION_


These men were lying struggling for breath and blue in the face. On
examining the blood with the spectroscope and by other means, I
ascertained that the blueness was not due to the presence of any
abnormal pigment. There was nothing to account for the blueness
(cyanosis) and struggle for air but the one fact that they were
suffering from acute bronchitis, such as is caused by inhalation of an
irritant gas. Their statements were that when in the trenches they had
been overwhelmed by an irritant gas produced in front of the German
trenches and carried toward them by a gentle breeze.

     _Official Investigation by_
      DR. J. S. HALDANE, F.R.S.

[Illustration]



"_Hullo! Potsdam? Did you thank your dear old God for this new
success?_"


The Royal Highlanders of Montreal, 13th Battalion, and the 48th
Highlanders, 15th Battalion, were more especially affected by the
discharge. The Royal Highlanders, though considerably shaken, remained
immovable on their ground. The 48th Highlanders, who no doubt received a
more poisonous discharge, were for the moment dismayed, and, indeed,
their trench, according to the testimony of very hardened soldiers,
became intolerable.

The Battalion retired from the trench, but for a very short distance and
for a very short time. In a few moments they were again their own men.
They advanced on and reoccupied the trenches which they had momentarily
abandoned....

The sorely tried Battalion (the 13th) held on for a time in dug-outs,
and, under cover of darkness, retired again to a new line being formed
by reinforcements. The rearguard was under Lieut. Greenshields. But
Major McCuaig remained to see that the wounded were removed. It was
then, after having escaped a thousand deaths through the long battle of
the night, that he was shot down and made a prisoner.

               SIR MAX AITKEN,
     _in "Canada in Flanders."_

[Illustration]



"_THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI_"

[Illustration]



_ALL IS QUIET IN BELGIUM_


I asked General von Bissing if there was much need for this military
tribunal (The Feld Gericht). I shall not forget his reply.

"We have a few serious cases," he said. "Occasionally there is a little
sedition but for the most part it is only needle pricks. They are quiet
now. They know why," and, slowly shaking his head, von Bissing, who is
known as the sternest disciplinarian in the entire German Army, smiled.

     _From an interview given by the_
     GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF BELGIUM _to_
                   EDWARD LYALL FOX,
       _New York Times, April, 1915._

[Illustration]



_Germany: "Gott strafe England! or I will do it myself"_


NOTICE!

Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that
a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain
and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the
British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the
Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or
of any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that
travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her
allies do so at their own risk.

                             IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY.
                  _Washington, D. C., April 22, 1915._
     _Advertisement published in New York newspapers._

[Illustration]



"_Well, have you nearly done?_"


The Cunard liner _Lusitania_ was yesterday torpedoed by a German
submarine and sank. The _Lusitania_ was naturally armed with guns.
Moreover, as is well know here, she had large quantities of war material
in her cargo.

     BERLIN OFFICIAL REPORT, _May 8, 1915._


This report is not correct. The _Lusitania_ was inspected before
sailing, as is customary. No guns were found, mounted or unmounted, and
the vessel sailed without any armament.

     COLLECTOR PORT OF NEW YORK, _May 9, 1915._


The sinking of the British passenger steamer _Falaba_ by a German
submarine on March 28, through which Leon C. Thrasher, an American
citizen, was drowned; the attack on April 28 on the American vessel
_Cushing_ by a German aeroplane; the torpedoing on May 1 of the American
vessel _Gulflight_ by a German submarine as a result of which two or
more American citizens met their death; and, finally, the torpedoing and
sinking of the steamship _Lusitania_, constitute a series of events
which the Government of the United States has observed with growing
concern, distress, and amazement.

     FROM UNITED STATES NOTE TO GERMANY,
                          _May 13, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE LUSITANIA--HEROD'S NIGHTMARE_

"_Are they crying 'Mother'--or 'Murder'?_"


This represents not merely piracy, but piracy on a vaster scale of
murder than old-time pirates ever practiced. This is the warfare which
destroyed Louvain and Dinant and hundreds of men, women, and children in
Belgium. It is a warfare against innocent men, women, and children
traveling on the ocean, and our own fellow-countrymen and countrywomen,
who are among the sufferers.

It seems inconceivable that we can refrain from taking action in this
matter, for we owe it not only to humanity, but to our own national
self-respect.

     COL. THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
                _May 7, 1915._

[Illustration]



_VICTIMS OF GERMAN KULTUR_


Whatever be the other facts regarding the _Lusitania_, the principal
fact is that a great steamer, primarily and chiefly a conveyance for
passengers, and carrying more than a thousand souls having no part or
lot in the conduct of the war, was torpedoed and sunk without so much as
a challenge or a warning, that men, women and children were sent to
their death in circumstances unparalleled in modern warfare.

     UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT'S
     NOTE TO GERMANY.

[Illustration]



_THE VERDICT_

"_It is the Hour, come_"


We find that this appalling crime was contrary to International law and
the conventions of all civilized nations, and we therefore charge the
officers of the said submarine, and the Emperor of the Government of
Germany, under whose orders they acted, with the crime of wilful and
wholesale murder before the tribunal of the civilized world. We desire
to express our sincere condolence with the relatives of deceased; the
Cunard Company; and the United States of America, so many of whose
citizens perished in this murderous attack on an unarmed liner.

     _The unanimous verdict of the Irish jury at
         the inquest of the "Lusitania" victims._

[Illustration]



"_THIS IS TOO BORING, DO SUGGEST SOMETHING NEW_"


_Some German achievements in the first months of the Great War_:

The violation of Belgium and Luxemburg.

Massacre of civilian populations in Belgium and France.

Bombardment by warships of open towns.

Murder of civilians by air raids.

Murder of civilians on the high seas.

The introduction of liquid fire and poison gas.

Enslavement of conquered civilian communities.

[Illustration]



"_HAVE ANOTHER PIECE?_"


Without a drop of blood flowing, and without the life of a single
Italian being endangered, Italy could have secured the long list of
concessions which I recently read to the House--territory in Tyrol and
on the Isonzo as far as the Italian speech is heard, satisfactions of
the national aspirations in Trieste, a free hand in Albania, and the
valuable port of Valona.

         VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG.
     _Reichstag, May 28, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE WOLF-TRAP_

_Italy: "You would make me believe that I shall have my cub given back
to me, but I know I shall have to fight for it"_


The discussion continued for months from the first days of December to
March, and it was not until the end of March that Barion Burian offered
a zone of territory comprised within a line extending from the existing
boundary to a point just north of the City of Trent.

In exchange for this proposed cession the Austro-Hungarian Government
demanded a number of pledges, including among them an assurance of
entire liberty of action in the Balkans. _Note should be made of the
fact that the cession of the territory around Trent was not intended to
be immediately effective as we demanded, but was to be made only upon
the termination of the European War._

                           SIGNOR SONNINO.
     _Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs._
                            _May 25, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE BROKEN ALLIANCE AND ITALY_

"_Twenty years and more you've forced me to wear this chain_"


For the guardianship, therefore, of these treaties the government of
the kingdom of Italy found itself constrained to notify the Imperial
Austrian Government on the fourth of this month, May, 1915, that it must
withdraw all of its proposals of agreement, denounce the treaty of the
alliance, and declare its own liberty of action. Nor, on the other hand,
was it more possible to leave Italy in isolation without security and
without prestige, just at the moment in which the history of the world
was taking on a decisive phase.

Everything else we must forget from this moment, and remember only this:
to be _Italians_, to love all Italy with the same faith and fervor. The
forces of all must be cemented into one single heart; only one single
will must guide all toward the wished for end; and force, and art, and
will must find their expression one, alive, and heroic in the army and
navy of Italy and in the august leader who conducts them toward the
destiny of the new history.

                          ANTONIO SALANDRA.
     _President of the Ministerial Council._
                       _Rome. May 20, 1915._

[Illustration]



_GOTT STRAFE ITALIEN_


Neither Serbia nor Russia, despite a long and costly war, is hated.
Italy, however, or rather those Italian would be politicians and
business men who offer violence to the majority of peaceful Italian
people, are so unutterably hated with the most profound honesty that
this war can produce.

     _The Frankfurter Zeitung, May 25, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE LATIN SISTERS_

_Italy: "Indeed she is my sister"_


Giuseppe Garibaldi with a corps of Italian soldiers went to the defense
of the French Republic in the war of 1870 against the Prussians,
performing heroic deeds at Dijon worthy of an epopee.

Ricciotti Garibaldi, living son of the Hero, with a corps of Italian
volunteers went to the defense of Greece against Turkey in 1897,
performing heroic deeds worthy of an epopee at Domokos.

Peppino Garibaldi, living son of Ricciotti, with a corps of Italian
volunteers went to the defense of the French Republic in the present war
against Germany, performing heroic deeds worthy of an epopee in the
Argonne.

     _From "Why Italy entered the Great War."_
                             LUIGI CARNOVALE.

[Illustration]



_THE ZEPPELIN TRIUMPH_

"_But Mother had done nothing wrong, had she, Daddy?_"


The first Zeppelin attack on London was made on the evening of the last
day of May, 1915. Zeppelins passed over Colchester at 10 o'clock, and at
twenty-three minutes past ten the people in one of the poorest and most
crowded quarters of East End were startled to find bomb after bomb,
mainly of incendiary type, dropping among them. A large number of
civilians including many women and children were killed.


    By shell from sea, by bomb from air,
    Our greeting shall be sped,
    Making each English homestead
    A mansion of the dead.
    And even Grey will tremble
    As falls each iron word;
    "God punish England, brother?
    Yea! Punish her, O Lord!"


     _A Hymn of Hate by_ HERR HOCHSTETTER.
                            _Translated by_
              CAPT. G. VALENTINE WILLIAMS.
                       _London Daily Mail._

[Illustration]



_MY SON, GO AND FIGHT FOR YOUR MOTHERLAND_

IS YOUR CONSCIENCE CLEAR?


Ask your conscience why you are staying comfortably at home instead of
doing _your_ share for your King and Country.

1. Are you too old?

     The only man who is too old is the man who is over 38.

2. Are you physically fit?

     The only man who can say honestly that he is not physically fit is
     the man who has been told so by a Medical Officer.

3. Do you suggest you cannot leave your business?

     In this great crisis the only man who cannot leave his business is
     the man who is himself actually doing work for the Government.

If your conscience is not clear on these three points your duty is
plain.

     ENLIST TO-DAY

     GOD SAVE THE KING

     _Newspaper advertisement in
       British Press, May, 1915._

[Illustration]



_THE SACRIFICE--FOR HUMANITY'S SAKE_


The women of Great Britain will never forget what Belgium has done for
all that women hold most dear.

In the days to come mothers will tell their children how a small but
great-souled nation fought to the death against overwhelming odds and
sacrificed all things to save the world from an intolerable tyranny.

The story of the Belgian people's defense of freedom will inspire
countless generations yet unborn.

           EMMELINE PANKHURST,
     _in "King Albert's Book."_

[Illustration]



_ON TICKET-OF-LEAVE_

"_Next time I'll wear a German Helmet and plead 'Military Necessity'_"


The German went into this war with a mind which had been carefully
trained out of the idea of every moral sense or obligation, private,
public, or international. He does not recognize the existence of any
law, least of all those he has subscribed to himself, in making war
against women and children.

All mankind bears witness to-day that there is no crime, no cruelty, no
abomination that the mind of man can conceive which the German has not
perpetrated, is not perpetrating, and will not perpetrate if he is
allowed to go on.

These horrors and perversions were not invented by him on the spur of
the moment. They were arranged beforehand. Their outlines are laid down
in the German war book. They are part of the system in which Germany has
been scientifically trained. It is the essence of that system to make
such a hell of countries where their armies set foot that any terms she
may offer will seem like heaven to the people whose bodies she has
defiled and whose minds she has broken of set purpose and intention.

                        RUDYARD KIPLING,
     _at Southport, England, June, 1915._

[Illustration]



_ANOTHER GERMAN "VICTORY"_


In June the Germans once more turned to the East and the North-East
Coast. On June 4, 1915, there was a raid, doing some slight damage; and
two days later there was another, by far the most serious of any that
had yet happened. The raiders succeeded in reaching a town on the East
Coast during the night and bombed it at their leisure. One large drapery
house was struck and was completely wrecked, the entire building--a
somewhat old one--collapsing. Some working-class streets were very badly
damaged, a number of houses destroyed, and many people injured. It was
one of the peculiarities of this raid that, unlike most of the others,
all the people injured were struck while indoors. The total casualties
here were twenty-four killed, about sixty seriously injured, and a
larger number slightly injured.

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



"_He was a brave 'Zepp,' he had already killed over one hundred women
and children_"


The outrage (see preceding page) was quickly avenged by a young British
naval airman, Flight Sub-Lieut. R. A. J. Warneford, in one of the most
brilliant aerial exploits of the war.

On the morning of June 7 at 3 A. M. he encountered a Zeppelin returning
from the coast of Flanders to Ghent, and chased it, mounting above it
and sailing over it at a height of 6,000 feet. Zeppelin and aeroplane
exchanged shots, and when the Zeppelin was between one and two hundred
feet immediately below him he dropped six bombs on it. One bomb hit the
Zeppelin fairly, causing a terrific explosion, and setting the airship
on fire from end to end. Warneford's aeroplane was caught by the force
of the explosion and turned upside down, but he succeeded in righting it
before it touched the ground. He was forced to alight within the German
lines. Nevertheless he restarted his engine, though not without great
difficulty, and in due course returned to his station without damage.
Only the framework of the Zeppelin was left, the crew being all burned
or mangled, and the body of the machine being completely destroyed.

     _Times History of the War._

[Illustration]



_THE GREAT SURPRISE_

_Moses II. leads his chosen people through the channel to the promised
(Eng.) land_


From a military or political or economic point of view one should look
at the matter (the capture of Calais) with the eyes of Great Britain and
define the Calais idea as a possibility for a seafaring continental
power to conduct a war against Great Britain from the continental coast
channel and with all military resources while holding open communication
between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.

     COUNT VON REVENTLOW.
             _June, 1915._

[Illustration]



_BOTHA TO BRITAIN_

"_I have carried out everything in accordance with our compact at
Vereeniging_"


On July 9, 1915, a despatch from General Botha was published stating
that he had brought his campaign in South-West Africa to a triumphant
close, and had received the unconditional surrender of Governor Sietz
and the German forces of 3,500 men. The campaign, commencing in
February, had lasted five months. The patriotic devotion of General
Botha and the loyalty of the great majority of the Dutch people to the
cause of the British Empire were a magnificent vindication of the
Liberal Cabinet's policy of reconciliation after the close of the South
African war.

[Illustration]



_THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH IN ARMS_


The self-governing Colonies in the British Empire have at their disposal
a 'militia,' which is sometimes only a process of formation. They can be
completely ignored so far as concerns any European theatre of war.

     VON BERNHARDI, _1911_.


Our thoughts naturally turn to the splendid efforts of the Oversea
Dominions and India, who, from the earliest days of the war, have ranged
themselves side by side with the Mother Country. The prepared armed
forces of India were the first to take the field, closely followed by
the gallant Canadians--who are now fighting alongside their British and
French comrades in Flanders. In the Dardanelles the Australians and New
Zealanders--combined with the same elements, have already accomplished a
feat of arms of almost unexampled brilliancy. In each of these great
Dominions new and large contingents are being prepared, while South
Africa, not content with the successful conclusion of the arduous
campaign in South-West Africa, is now offering large forces to engage
the enemy in the main theatre of war.

     LORD KITCHENER, _Guildhall speech, July 9, 1915._


There are now in training or in the field 350,000 troops of the overseas
dominions alone, while this country, on estimate, has at least 2,775,000
men in the field or in training.

     SIR GILBERT PARKER, _July, 1915._

[Illustration]



_JOHN BULL: "COME ON, MICHAEL, I'M AWAKE NOW"_


Rightly or wrongly, we have in the past devoted our energies and our
intelligence, not to preparations for war, but to that social progress
which makes for the happiness and contentment of the mass of our people.
And this, no doubt, is the reason why other nations imagine that we, as
a nation of shopkeepers, are too indolent and apathetic to fight for and
maintain these priceless liberties won by the men who laid the
foundation of our vast empire.

But they are entirely mistaken in forming any such estimate of the
temperament or determination of our people. Great Britain hates war, and
no nation enters more reluctantly upon its horrible and devastating
operations; but at the same time no nation, when it is driven to war by
the machinations of its foes who desire to filch from it or from its
co-champions of liberty any portion of their inherited freedom, is more
resolved to see the matter through, at whatever cost, to a successful
issue.

     SIR EDWARD CARSON, _British Attorney-General._
         _Statement on first twelve months of war._

[Illustration]



_L'AVENIR_


The only peace which the republic can accept is that which guarantees
the security of Europe and which will permit us to breathe and to live
and to work to reconstruct our dismembered country and repair our ruins,
a peace which will effectively protect us against any offensive return
of the Germanic ambitions.

The present generations are accountable for France to posterity. They
will not permit the profanation of the trust which their ancestors
confided to their charge. France is determined to conquer; she will
conquer.

       _President of the French Republic.
     From speech on the conclusion of the
                       first year of war._

[Illustration]



_ORANJE BOVEN_

      _German Oculist, trying on spectacles:_
     "_What do you read now?_"
      _Dutchman: "Deutschland über Alles."_
      _German Oculist: "That is right: that pair exactly suits you."_

     _"Oranje Boven" is the Dutch cry which answers to the German
     "Deutschland über Alles."_


The cartoons reproduced upon the opposite and following pages are
selected examples of the series drawn for and published in "The
Amsterdam Telegraaf," at the time when Holland was invaded by an army of
spies and secret agents who carried on a vast system of pro-German
propaganda. These cartoons represent Raemaekers' reply.

It was during the publication of these pictures that a price was set
upon his head by the German Government, and he was charged by the Dutch
Government, at the instance of the representatives of the Central Powers
with "endangering the neutrality of Holland," a form of persecution
which had an effect quite opposite to that intended, as it resulted only
in drawing the attention of the Allies and other Neutrals to the power
and significance of Raemaekers' cartoons, which was followed by a much
wider distribution of his work.

[Illustration]



_THE ENVOY TO HER MAJESTY_

"_Madam, your soldiers will get splendid Prussian uniforms and Your
Majesty will have a place of honour in the retinue of the Kaiser_"

[Illustration]



_BETTER A LIVING DOG THAN A DEAD LION_

_The Driver: "You are a worthy Dutchman. He who lies in that grave was a
foolish idealist"_

[Illustration]



_THE DUTCH JUNKERS_

"_At least we shall get posts as gamekeepers when Germany takes us after
the war_"

[Illustration]



_THE EAGLE IN THE HEN RUN_

_German Eagle: "Come along, Dutch chicken, we will easily arrange an
agreement."_

_The Dutch chicken: "Yes, in your stomach."_

[Illustration]



_OUR CANDID FRIEND_

"_I shall have to swallow you up if only to prevent those English taking
your Colonies_"

[Illustration]



_THE FREE SEA_

_Germany's idea of what it would make of it for Holland_

[Illustration]





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