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Title: The American Nations, Vol. I.
Author: Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840
Language: English
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                          The American Nations;

                     Outlines of A National History;

                                  Of The

                        Ancient and Modern Nations


                         North and South America

                        By Prof. C. S. Rafinesque.

                                Volume I.


                      Published by C. S. Rafinesque,

                       No. 110 North Tenth Street.



Chapter I.
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.


Published quarterly at Five Dollars in advance for Six Numbers or Volumes,
similar to this, of nearly 300 pages—each separate Number sold for one
Dollar, or more when they will contain maps and illustrations.

A list of Agents will be given hereafter. At present the principal
Booksellers may act as such.

The Names of the Subscribers will be printed in a subsequent Number.

It is contemplated to conclude these annals and their illustrations in 12
Numbers or Volumes. Therefore the whole cost to subscribers will only be
$10, for which a complete American Historical Library will be obtained.

By remitting $5 to the author, six Volumes are secured whatever be their
future price, and will be sent by mail: a similar sum will be due when the
7th number is issued. Those who may prefer to pay $10 at once, will be
deemed Patrons of the work.

Whoever subscribes and pays for 5 sets, is entitled to a 6th gratis.
Agents will be allowed 20 per cent commission.

The price of this Number by itself is One Dollar, or Five Dollars for Six

It contains an introduction, general view, account of materials and
cataclysms, the Linapi and Haytian annals, with the Haytian Language,
notes, tables, &c.


To The

Society Of Geography

Of Paris.


To you I dedicate this work, result of long and weary researches. This
homage is due to the public approbation you gave to my first analogous
labor, my Memoirs or Series of Researches on the Origin of Mankind: which
I endeavored to trace philologically to the centre of Asia. I had
announced long ago this history of the Americans, the inhabitants of a
whole hemisphere. I had quoted it in my other works. I now offer the
outlines of it under your auspices.

You have furnished the example of cultivating along with Geography, all
the auxiliary and connected sciences, which may enlighten it: particularly
the ancient and modern Ethnography, with Philology one of its bases. You
will see that I have followed this practice in availing myself of all the
sciences to enlighten the history of mankind, the Ethnography and annals
of nations: above all Philology with Chronology and Geography.

The origins and annals of the black nations, and of the American nations,
were two subjects quite obscure and neglected, or the least known, of the
history of mankind. Nobody has undertaken, as yet, the history of the
Negro nations: a labor so difficult and luckless as to be despised.

My memoirs on this despised race, may perhaps furnish the bases of such
history. All the histories of America are mere fragments or dreams. I have
perceived the possibility and necessity to write a general and faithful
history of this hemisphere. I now offer the results of this weary labor.

You will perceive in it many things which have already been said; since it
is impossible to write history without repetitions; but my plan, the whole
point of view, and the results which I draw, are my own. You will also
find many things which were never told or were very improperly presented.
I shall destroy many errors, hypotheses and conjectures: since in them
alone often consist our works upon America.

But I shall not say every thing; where so much is to be related, all
cannot be told: and I shall be compelled to neglect several minute
details. I wish to trace faithful outlines, rather than write a bulky
work, like our pretending _universal histories_, which however, dwell only
upon one-third of the globe or even less.

I dislike long quotations, and shall seldom employ them: I quote only when
authorities are required to render an opinion more forcible. Every where
else I merely give the abridgement of my great historical materials in
manuscript, which are arranged by extracts of authorities, and where they
may be sought for in case of need.

Accept, Gentlemen, the respectful homage of

The Author.

_October 22d, 1833_.


In venturing to open a new path in historical researches on the earth and
mankind, it is incumbent on the bold pioneer to state his views, or at
least to furnish adequate reasons for deviating so far from the usual

While every science and branch of knowledge is improving, and has, with
rapid strides, made continual advances for fifty years past or more, is
the noble muse of history to be kept stationary forever, by compilers and
classical plodders? and for America by the foes of the ancient and modern
nations of a whole hemisphere? No ... it is time to improve history as
every thing else; to seek the truth and tell it.

As the human mind is yet more swayed by authorities, than genius or
wisdom; high authorities will be given instead of long explanations. Ever
since the time of Juvenal, it has been an ungrateful task to write
historical truth: men often prefer to be amused, deceived, or helped in
strife; than to be instructed, or receive sketches of former times. Yet
there is always a secret delight in viewing faithful pictures of ages
past, of our ancestors on earth, and our predecessors on the soil of our
homes, or where we spend the scenes of our own lives.

The worthies who have been taken for models or guides in this arduous
undertaking, are Solomon, Moses, Job, St. Paul, St. Augustine, Plato,
Niebuhr, Humboldt, Malcolm, Gebelin, D’Olivet, Bryant, Adelung, Drummond,
Pritchard, Champollion, Klaproth, Jones, Wilford, Akbar, Price, Bailly,
Russell, Beattie, Herder, Carli, Barton &c. They shall speak for
themselves, in quotations of their own words, instead of elaborate

From God comes wisdom, knowledge and understanding—SOLOMON Prov. 2. v. 6.
Those who will seek early wisdom will find her—SOL. Pr. 8. v. 17. Hear
instruction and be wise, and refuse it not—SOL. Pr. 8. v. 33.

ZE this is. SFR book. THU symbol. LDTH progeny. ADM mankind. BIUM in
manifestation. BRA in realization. ALEIM angels. ADM mankind. BDMUTH in
identic passage. ALEIM angels. OSHE worked. ATHU such symbol.—MOSES.
_Genesis ch, 5. v. 1._ Genuine mosaic words, and genuine translation word
for word.

When I laid the foundations of the earth ... the morning stars sung
together, and the sons of God shouted for joy.—SPEECH OF GOD HIMSELF IN
JOB ch. 38., _Vulgar translation: the original is still more striking_.

The Hebrew philosophy divided the world in two hemispheres, the upper was
SHMIM or _Shamaim_, the Heavens—the lower was SHEOL; but SHEOL-TAHTITH or
inferior, was the place of bad souls and Rephaim. (The true SHEOL was
America, or the southern hemisphere). The Jesuit Sanetius thought that Job
had spoken of America.—PETERS, _Dissertation on Job_.

It is very possible for modern learning to understand better the books of
Moses, Orpheus, and those of all ancient nations, than the Egyptian, Greek
and Roman commentators: because the intellectual knowledge of languages is
improving; and those ancient writers have, by their genius, approximated
to us, while removed from the blindness of their ages.—GEBELIN, _Primitive

The letter kills, but the spirit gives life.—ST. PAUL _Corinth._ II. ch.
3. v. 6. We use great plainness of speech, and not as MOSES who put a veil
before his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to
the end of that which is abolished.—_Cor. II. 3. v. 12, 13._—and even unto
this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart, nevertheless
when it shall please the Lord, this veil shall be taken away.—_Cor. II. 3.
v. 15, 16._

To have a right apprehension of words or names, is a good step to the
knowledge of things.—PLATO _in Cratylo_.

The confusion of words is the cause of all disputes and sects.—D’ISRAELI.

The obscure ages demand bold hypotheses or total neglect, contradictions
are inseparable from days of tradition.—There exist no instance of a
people really savage having spontaneously advanced to civilization. Savage
men are degenerated or imperfect creatures.... Words and even few are the
rules of analogies in nations.—NIEBUHR, _Roman History, Vol. I._

It is manifest that there are noble resources (for history) still
remaining, if we will but apply ourselves to diligent enquiry. There are
in every climate some scattered fragments of original history, some traces
of a primitive and universal language. _Even America would contribute to
this purpose, the more rude the monuments, the more ancient they may
possibly prove, and afford greater light on enquiry._ BRYANT, MYTHOLOGY;
conclusion of the work.

To accumulate materials without generalizing any idea is a method as
sterile in history as in natural philosophy.—The geology of America does
not differ essentially from that of the old world, the strata and the
emersion from the waters are not newer: species long extinct have also
preceded those now peopling the earth, the waters and the air.—The problem
of the first population of America is no more the province of history,
than the questions on the origin of plants and animals. When we shall
better know the brown men of Africa, with those of the north and east of
Asia, the American nations will be less insulated—They have extended from
lat. 68 N. to 55 S. or 123 degrees of latitude, in plains and mountains,
assuming various complexions and stature. If Africa has 140 languages,
America has still more; resembling in this, the Caucasus, Italy before the
Romans; but they are susceptible of classification into families. The
multiplicity of languages is a very ancient phenomenon, perhaps those
which we call American, belong no more to America, than the Magyar and
Choud or Finn to Europe.—HUMBOLDT, _American Researches, Introduction_.

If we desire to be fully informed of a nation’s history, we must not
reject the fables under which the few traces that remain of its origin are
concealed. These, however extravagant, always merit attention they have an
influence on the character of the people to whom they relate.—_First words
of_ MALCOLM, _History of Persia_.

The Chinese often call the king, the kingdom and the nation by the same
name, nay, even also the capital city.—REGIS, _History of Corea, in
Duhalde China_.

The cradle or first seat of mankind was in Asia, between lat. 30 and 50;
which is also the native place of all the domestic animals, fruits and
grains.—_Adelung, Bailly, Higgins, &c._

The Genesis was a compilation of Moses from older annals, some perhaps by
Noah himself.—_Revd. Mr. Davies, Herder._

The patriarchs of Moses and Pitris of Hindus were nations,
personifications of early tribes.—_Drummond, D’Olivet, Wilford._

The early gods and kings of Greece and Italy, were probably tribes, the
chiefs and followers being called by the same name. This is true also of
the various Hercules or wandering Heroes.—_Dodwell, Jamieson._

Trying them by the languages, the Americans will appear to be children of
the earliest human families.—BARTON, _Physical Journal_.

A flood of historical light has lately flown from India and Asia; but we
lack still the real annals of Thibet: Polynesia and America may yet supply
many facts and fill some blanks.—The original seat of civilization was
between the Ganges and the Nile, the Caspian and the ocean.—The first
tribes after the flood were fishermen and Frugivores, next hunters who did
spread north east as far as America, and shepherds south west, as far as
Cape of Good hope.—PRITCHARD, _Physical History of Man_.

The genealogy of the kings of England is derived direct from Noah in 25
generations only, to Cerdic first king of Wessex in 495; and through SCEAF
born in the ark! giving more than 125 years for each generation, which is
impossible, and proves these names, successive tribes or dynasties till
Woden.—INGRAM, _Saxon Chronicle_.

The Ethiopians, Nubians and Egyptians are a peculiar race, perhaps in
Africa before the flood.—CHAMPOLLION, _Systeme Hieroglyphique_.

The languages are better guides than physical characters for researches on
mankind, and roots more important than grammars.—KLAPROTH.

Language belongs to man from origin, he never was a dumb animal, else he
would always have remained so. All languages have something in common, and
something peculiar.—BEATTIE, _Theory of Language_.

A thousand nations with a thousand idioms, are spread over a thousand
places on earth. Thrown against each other like the waves of the sea, they
blend and tend to unity. Several rival languages are formed, polished by
contract, which overspread the earth; and break to pieces as well as
nations and empires. Others arise from their ruins, and strive again for
ascendency, until at last a people and language, son and daughter of all
the previous nations and idioms, heirs of their dominion and wealth; shall
perhaps invade the whole earth, and produce again the unity of speech and
rule.—D’OLIVET, _End of Hebrew Grammar_.

It is said, _In the beginning God made Heaven and Earth_, that is to say,
the seeds of heaven and earth, since their matter was yet in confusion in
a potential way.—ST. AUGUSTINE _on Genesis_.

In the whole _Mosaic text_ there is no Eden, no tree, no apple, no rib, no
woman, no snake, no ark ... but other words thus improperly translated to
veil the sense.... Adam is not a man, but mankind, _Aish_ intellectual
men, _Ashe_ mate or potent will, HUE our Eve is living existence!... The
names of patriarchs are all expressive of operations of mankind.... Yet
Moses’ Unity of God, and Belief in Immortality is evident throughout;
although so obscured by the translation as to have been doubted.... Moses
with his veils is made absurd; raising the veils he appears wise, deep,
consistent, even more enlightened than our age on many points.—D’OLIVET,
_Notes on Genesis_.

Whenever the numerical letters of Moses are taken in their material sense,
inextricable difficulties have arisen; and which is the true version out
of the 3 is doubtful: the deep mosaic meaning and import shall never be
known, until the ancient lost science of numbers is restored, which was
once known from China to Egypt and Europe.—D’OLIVET, _last note_.

Eblis or Satan was disgraced from Heaven, where Rezoan was his successor,
and exiled to Seyestan, with the Snake and Peacock tribes his followers,
Adam was exiled to Ceylon, Eve to Arabia &c.—PRICE, _Translation of
Abijauffer’s History of Arabia_.

Menu was Adam, but there are seven Menus, the seventh was Noah.—SIR W.
JONES, _Laws of Menu_. WILFORD.

The Babylonian empire begun 530 years after the flood, 2790 years after
Adam.—RUSSELL, _Connection of Sacred History_.

Primitive history is under a veil, involved in fables; but all ancient
fables have a historical base.—BAILLY, _on Atlantis_.

Before Adam God created the _Dives_ (angels) who had 72 kings or
_Sol-i-man_ for 7000 years, and after them the _Peris_ govern for 2000
years.—HERBELOT, _Oriental Library_.

Noah dwelt near Cabul and Cashmir, his Ararat was in the Imalaya
mountains.—SHUCKFORD, WELLS, _Sacred Geography &c._

As early as 4600 years before Christ, there was a communication between
the Americans and the east by astronomical coincidences.—CARLI, _American

Two great wars or _Mahabharat_ followed by dispersions of mankind,
happened in India in 3236 and 2501 (before our era); and the Indian solar
empire of _Berhut_ at Inderput now Delhi, ascends 16 generations beyond
the first, at least to 3750 years B. C.—_Institutes of the Emperor_ AKBAR,
_translated by_ GLADWIN.

Such are my guides. Are not those quotations sufficient?

For my rules of criticism, I have taken for guide, _Isaac Taylor’s_
excellent history of the transmission of ancient books, London, 1827. They
may be analysed as follows, from his own summary.

1. If the records of antiquity could be deprived of their authority, we
should also be deprived of intelligence, liberty and religion!

2. Dates are of little importance; being anciently expressed by letters,
they are liable to errors. The Greeks and all eastern christians reckon
5508 years from Adam to Christ.

3. Geography and natural facts are open to criticism.

4. Wonders, monsters, miracles, are not always fabulous, but doubtful.
Natural phenomena if unconnected with omens, may be right.

5. Speeches and secret motives do not belong to history, they are
ornaments of rhetoric or mere surmises.

6. Facts are only to be attended to, they become more certain, if
corroborated by monuments, inscriptions, coins &c.

7. The silence of a historian does not invalidate the assertions of

8. Contradictions, exaggerations, prejudices, party spirit, national
dislike, must be allowed for. The arrogance of the Greeks and Chinese, who
call barbarians, nations as good as they, is shameful, and must be
noticed, as well as errors arising from hiding defeats &c.

The independent sources of history besides writers are, 1. remains of
literature. 2. Chronological documents and astronomical calculations, 3.
Natural features of nature and mankind, with permanent physical facts, 4.
Permanent institutions, manners, monuments, languages &c. Lastly, remote
facts may be certain; although a long while elapsed: whatever be the
consequence; and even if the first evidence may have been erroneously
transmitted, or not perspicuous. But accumulated evidence ought never to
be doubted.


    GENERAL INTRODUCTION.—_Natural Regions of America._—_Ancient and
    Modern Nations._—_Historical Periods._

Since our Globe is better known, it is no longer divided into 4
Continents; but must be divided into 3 great parts of the world or
_Tholomeres_, each containing 3 lesser divisions or _Geotomes_, viz:

I. PROTHOLIA or THOLARKON, the ancient world, containing, 1. Asia, 2.
Africa, 3. Europe, which are continents.

II. NEOTHOLIA or HESPERIA, the new world, containing, 1. _Atalia_ or North
America, 2. _Columbia_ or South America, which are two continents ... and
3. the _Antilles_ or West Indies, the Archipelagos to the East and North,
Carib and Lucayes islands.

III. OCEANIA or THOLONESIA, the Oceanic or Insular world, containing, 1.
_Australia_, which is a continent, 2. _Meganesia_ or the great Islands
from Japan till Ceylan and Madagascar, 3. _Polynesia_, the small Eastern
Islands. These two last form immense groups of archipelagos, or clustered

Therefore the terrestrial world includes 6 continents, and 3 groups of
archipelagos, forming 9 geotomes.

It is of NEOTHOLIA that I write the history, of this third of the world,
named likewise America, or the two Americas; a double continent, crowned
in the East and towards the two poles by archipelagos.

Such an extensive part of the world, reaching nearly to both poles, offers
to our notice and researches a crowd of objects, nations and events. If
our universal histories which are confined to a small part only of the old
world, form already bulky collections; it would be equally so with
America, if we had complete annals of it. But, notwithstanding the scanty
materials which have reached us on its ancient history; the modern annals
and the old traditions of the nations dwelling there, afford many facts:
and many auxiliary means contribute to enlarge the previous history, in
unfolding the origins and revolutions of the nations and empires of both
Americas. Thus, we shall often have to make a choice or abridge these
materials, particularly in these outlines of a general history.

Formerly, historians wrote chiefly chronicles of the empires, kingdoms and
republics; which were often mere biographies of monarchs and chiefs,
conquerors and tyrants. We begin now to think more of mankind and the
nations. I shall follow this principle, and trace at last a national
history of America; this subject is so new, that we have not even yet a
good history of mankind in Europe, much less in Asia and Africa.

Having dwelt in this continent since 1802, having settled in it since
1815, and having travelled in it every year to study the monuments and
productions thereof: it was since 1818 that I began to conceive the
possibility of raising the veil that was thrown over the annals of this
third of the world. I have visited the public libraries of Washington,
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New-York, Boston, Albany, Lexington, &c. to
consult all the historical works on America, and every other part of the
world. I have read nearly all the travels in America and other distant
countries. In the Ebeling library deposited in that of Cambridge
University near Boston, I have found many ancient works on America, often
unique in the United States, and very rare even in Europe. There is but a
small number of rare works, which I have not yet been able to see; I shall
give a list of them, in order that it may be ascertained whether they
contain facts that have escaped me. My researches upon the languages and
monuments of America, will compensate this unavoidable neglect, since they
exceed whatever had been undertaken of the kind. I have thus endeavored to
collect and compare all the facts relating to my subject.

I have not imitated, therefore, the lazy writers, who have pretended to
give us histories of America, and have commonly produced mere sketches of
it, full of neglects and defects. Such were Robertson, Holmes, Touron,
Herrera, &c., with a crowd of imitators and compilers, which confine
themselves to some years, or a single region, or the mere first Spanish
invasions. They have, however, acquired some reputation either by style or
manner; but they have degraded history, by giving sketches instead of it.
We must except Herrera, who does not shine by the style; but is at least a
faithful annalist of the Spanish deeds and colonies during 62 years, from
1492 till 1552. But Robertson, although praised for his style, is only his
unfaithful and imperfect imitator, and the obvious slanderer of the
American nations.

A complete criticism of the writers on America, would be desirable; but
cannot enter into the plan of these historical outlines; although it may
find a place in ulterior illustrations. It will be sufficient now to
indicate that the best works, or those which furnish the greatest number
of historical materials, are the old writers and travellers, since the
modern historians and travellers (except Humboldt and a few more) appear
to forget whatever has already been written on America.

The historian of such an extensive continent, should not be a mere
annalist; but he ought to know well all the comparative sciences, sisters
of history, such as chronology, geography, biography, archeology,
ethnography, philology, &c. He ought also to be a philosopher and a
philanthropist, to know the natural sciences which become connected with
history by civilization, agriculture, and geology; he ought, above all, to
be impartial and a good critic, in order to discard national prejudices,
and avoid the blunders of credulity or imposture. What historian has ever
united such acquirements? I have tried to acquire them: Have I succeeded?
I offer my writings as the answer.

My method has been to make copious extracts of all the authors that I
read. These materials already form a collection of over one hundred books
of 6000 pages on the history of the earth and mankind: whereof I avail
myself for all my historical works. I have formed besides another
collection of iconographic illustrations, maps, plans, monuments, views,
portraits, alphabets, symbols, implements, costumes, &c.; which may serve
for proofs and atlas of these works, published or manuscript. This
tellurian iconography, chiefly American, consists already in ten great
books or portfolios; having little hope to be enabled to publish them, I
wish they might be deposited in a great public library, where they might
be consulted.

Instead of beginning this history of the Americans by generalities, I
should wish to conclude the work by such results; but it may frequently be
needful to deviate from this plan, and present results as they happen to
arise from the facts and events.

The different parts of the Western Hemisphere are often distantly remote,
and insulated, or little connected in their historical relations. Austral
America and Boreal America have for instance hardly any historical
connection: they are as widely separated as China and Europe; but all the
central parts of America are intimately connected, above all the mountain
regions from Mexico to Chili, which offer the same relation of
civilization, languages and annalogies, as the Hindu-European regions and

The Neotholian Hemisphere contains many distinct regions; but the natural
or physical regions are not always identic with the historical regions.
The isthmus of Panama or valley of Choco does not divide the nation as it
does the two continents of America: and many groups of nations are
intermingled throughout. The group of ancient ARUAC nations extended from
near Florida through the Antilles, Guyana, Brazil to Tucuman and
Magellania. The elder group of TALA or atlantic nations could be traced
from the Ohio to Mexico, Guatimala and South America in the west.

Notwithstanding this fact, it is useful to keep in mind the great natural
regions of America, so as to trace through them the vicissitudes of
mankind in ancient and modern times. Thus we find six such regions in
North America, and six in South America, with 3 in the Antilles.

1. Boreal region, or region of the lakes, stretching across North America,
from the streight of Behring and peninsula Alaska in the west, to
Labrador, Canada and Nova Scotia in the east. It is distinguished by a
rocky soil, many large lakes and millions of small ones, surrounded near
the pole and on either side by groups of islands. Its southern limits are
undefined, but Lake Erie forms one of them.

2. The Californian or Oregon region, stretching from north to south along
the Pacific Ocean from Fuca Strait to Mexico and Guatimala. It is a region
of plains and hills.

3. The Mexican region or central mountains and table lands from the
sources of the Missouri to Lake Nicaragua, distinguished by volcanoes, a
dry lofty soil, &c.

4. The Missouri region, extending in vast grassy plains from latitude 50
to the Gulf of Mexico.

5. The Alleghany region, stretching in woody hills and mountains from
Maine to Alabama and Illinois. The Ozark mountains and the whole of New
England appear detached portions of it.

6. The Literal Atlantic region, stretching from Long Island to Florida,
Mexico, Yucatan and Honduras, forming a long but narrow region of level
plains, sands and marshes, skirted by sandy shores and islands.

The Antilles or West Indies, are all islands; divided into 3 very natural

1. The large and hilly Islands of Jamaica, Cuba, Hayti, Boriquen.

2. The Lucayes or Bahama Islands north of them, low and chiefly of coral

3. The Carib Islands east and south, commonly volcanic.

The regions of South America are 1. That of the Andes or high volcanic
mountains extending from Santa Marta to the Island of Chiloé, stretching
branches east as far as Cumana, and east of Peru. The hills of Panama from
Nicaragua to Choco, are a detached part of it, probably once an island of
the size of Cuba. Also the Magellanic or Austral region, including the
hills and islands south of Chili, all detached from the Andes, with the
archipelagos of Chiloé, Chonos, Fuego, Austral, Falkland, &c. often

2. The Atacama region, or lowlands along the Pacific Ocean from the
valleys of Darien and Choco to Chili, distinguished by sterility.

3. The Pampas or region of unwooded plains east of the Andes from the
strait of Magellan to Paraguay and Chaco.

4. The region of Brazil, distinguished by fertile hills, mountains and
valleys, forming a vast group of high lands connected to the Andes by an

5. The region of Guyana or Parima, of shady hills perfectly insulated
(once a large island) by the plains of the Maranon and Oronoc.

6. The vast equinoctical plains of Oronoc and Maranon, surrounding the
mountains of Parima: where deserts, swamps and forests are mixed.

These 15 regions are quite natural, distinguished by peculiar physical,
and geological features; but they do not coincide with the ethnological
regions, where the American tribes have spread and intermixed. It would be
difficult to state here even the most striking of these last. It will be
the aim of this work to seek for them, and ascertain their limits; which
have often varied anciently: while in modern times the European colonies
and states have invaded them in all directions.

Meantime the population of both Americas, must be distinguished in ancient
and modern.

In proceeding from the known to the unknown: we ascertain that a multitude
of nations have come to America since 1492, as colonists or visitors. The
principal were

1. _Spanish_: who have colonized or conquered from New Mexico to Chili,
and from Florida to Buenos Ayres. But they came not alone, and have
brought along with them as auxiliaries. 1. Italians, 2. Flemish, 3.
Biscayans, 4. Canarians, &c., while as slaves 5. Moors of Mauritania, and
6. Many African-negro nations.

2. _Portugueze_: who have colonized the whole of Brazil, and brought there
besides many Negro nations, some Moors, Gypsies, Chinese, &c.

3. _English_: Who have colonized the whole eastern side of North America,
Jamaica and other islands of Antilles, with parts of Yucatan, Honduras,
Guyana, &c. But they have brought with them, the Welsh, Scotch, Irish,
Germans, Jews and many African nations.

4. _French_: They colonized Canada, Lousiana, Hayti, several Carib
islands, Cayenne in Guyana, &c., and although conquered in North America
and Hayti, their language remains. They brought along the Provençals,
Bretons, Basks, speaking distinct languages, with several African nations.

5. _Scandinavians_: Who partly settled in North America since the 10th
century, did laterly colonize again Groenland, with Delaware and some
Carib Islands. They include the Norwegians, Danes and Swedes.

6. _Dutch-Hollanders_: Sent colonies to New-York, Surinam, Curazao, &c.
brought Gypsies, Germans and Africans.

7. _Russians_: Have invaded and partly settled the north west shores and
islands of North America; bringing there Cozacs, Calmucs, and several
other Tartarian subjects.

8. Besides these, several other nations have laterly visited America, or
settled therein, blending with the above. All the nations of Europe, even
Hungarians, Polanders, Greeks and Turks, have been brought there. Pirates
of all nations, even Algerines, have wandered to America. Almost all the
nations of Africa have been led there in slavery. Asia has sent Jews,
Hindus, Gypsies or Zinganis, Chinese and Tartars: while Oceania has sent
Malays, Madagascars, Hawayans, &c.

This well known fact of the various and anomalous modern population of
both Americas within 3 or 4 centuries, will greatly help us to form a more
correct estimate of the ancient population and colonization of such vast
countries during many thousand years previous to 1492.

It is not yet suitable to give here a complete list of all the ancient
nations, who have, or may have colonized the Western hemisphere: this can
only be done afterwards as a result of the instituted enquiries on the
subject. Meantime I state as highly probable, even by mere analogy, that
all the nearest nations of the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans, in the Eastern
hemisphere, have either visited or colonized the Americas; particularly
from the east, the bold navigators, Atlantes, Pelagians, Phenicians,
Lybyans, Etruscans, &c., and from the west the ancient tribes of Tartars
and Chinese, the Polynesians, &c. We shall throughout these historical
outlines find ample proofs of this fact, exploding the erroneous belief
that a single nation could have populated the whole of the Western
Hemisphere. It shall appear also that these early settlers must have
brought along many foreign tribes, as auxiliaries, vassals or slaves.

In my Atlantic Journal of 1832 will be found a kind of classification of
the ancient nations of both Americas, divided into 25 groups, 14 in North,
11 in South America. But this first attempt, cannot be perfect: it
requires a close study of all the American languages, before we can
ascertain correctly all their mutual affinities, and reduce each to the
real parent group. Meantime this attempt, and the further correction of it
in this work, will become very useful historical bases. I give therefore
the list of the 25 groups, with a well known nation and language as the
type, to which others may be gradually reduced.

In North America 1. _Uski_ or _Innuit_, type the Esquimaux.

2. _Ongwi_, type the Hurons and Iroquois.

3. _Linni_, type the Lanapi or Delawares.

4. _Wacash_, type the Chopunish, and Nutkas.

5. _Skerreh_, type the Panis.

6. _Nachez_, type the Cados and Chetimachas.

7. _Capaha_, types the Washas or Ozages, and Dacotas or Sioux.

8. _Chactah_, types the Chactahs and Chicasas.

9. _Otali_, Tzulukis or Cherokis.

10. _Atalan_, type the Tarascas.

11. _Otomi_, type the Otomis.

12. _Anahuac_, type the Aztecas.

13. _Maya_, types the Mayas and Huaztecas.

14. _Chontal_, type the Tzendals and Chols.

In South America 15. _Aruac_, types the Haytians, Aruacs, Taos, &c.

16. _Calina_, types the Caribs and Tamanacs.

17. _Puris_, type the Maypuris.

18. _Yarura_, types the Guaraos and Betoys.

19. _Cuna_, type the Dariens.

20. _Mayna_, type the Panos.

21. _Maca_, type the Muyzcas.

22. _Guarani_, type the Tupis and Omaguas.

23. _Mara_, type the Quichuas and Aymaras.

24. _Lulé_, types the Vilelas and Mbayas.

25. _Chili_, type the Chilians.

Notwithstanding the condensed form of these outlines, the ample materials
to be brought together, will extend them perhaps beyond the desirable
limits. In order to lessen this difficulty and yet omit nothing that is
new or important, the work will be divided into three series.

1st. The annals of South America, where many generalities will be
introduced, that need not be repeated in the 2d series, on the annals of
North America.

3d. Illustrations of these outlines, where will be thrown and collected
all the collateral proofs, documents, vocabularies of languages,
manuscript facts and events, essential quotations, and results of all the

The Peruvian and Austral regions of South America will first be
introduced, because of paramount importance. By the Peruvian region is
meant the whole western part of South America from the equator to the
southern tropic, and by Austral America, the whole of it from that tropic
to the Magellanic Islands. The gulf of Rio Plata and the river Paraguay,
appear to divide these regions from Brazil, both physically and
historically. Austral America includes the countries and nations of Chili,
Tucuman, Chaco, Buenos Ayres, Patagonia and Magellania; but it shall often
be needful to mention their neighbors, with whom they are more or less
related, and even distant nations that are not always strangers to them.

The ancient nations of Austral America are the least known on many
accounts, and those on whom most fables and systems have been based. It is
there that dwell the _Patagons_, who have been believed a peculiar species
of giants; and those tribes of Chaco, &c., which Azara has deemed peculiar
men, with languages without affinities with any other: which will easily
be proved to be quite false.

If America has had an aboriginal population, or _Autoctons_, men born from
the soil: it is there they should be found, driven to the south and those
remote climes by the ancient colonies of other nations; and they should
offer features, complexions, languages and manners totally different from
any other. If all the Americans derive from ancient colonies, it is still
there that ought to be found the primitive tribes, driven on by the
subsequent colonies and tribes. Therefore these Austral tribes are
exceedingly interesting to study as the most ancient relics of American

But the origin of the American nations and tribes are only to be
considered as a branch of their history. The accounts of their dispersion
and successive settlements, the history of the events which they have
remembered and transmitted to us by traditions or annals, those of the
empires which have been founded there in ancient and modern times, the
study of their civilization and ethnography ... offer surely much more
interest, and a wide field of historical facts or enquiries.

It appears that as soon as we speak of the ancient Americans, we ought to
cut the gordian knot, and say whence they came. I do not wish to explain
beforehand, all my views on this subject. I wish to reserve them for the
results of the enquiries to be pursued in this work. Yet to satisfy the
general curiosity expressed on the subject, I may venture to say that I
have not yet found in either Americas, any people or tribe totally
different from any other, or without philological affinities: nor with
features, complexions, and other physical characters quite peculiar. But
instead, all the ancient American tribes have numerous affinities between
each other, and with races of mankind in the Eastern hemisphere: both
physical and moral, as well as philological.

If the American nations sprung from ancient colonies; it is among the
primitive population of the earth, that their parents must be sought and
found: since America appears to have been partly peopled even before the
flood. Therefore the systems which would derive them all from the
Phenicians, Jews, Chinese, Tartars of later ages, or any single people
whatever, must be absurd and improbable: since traces of many ancient
nations are found in this western hemisphere.

It has always appeared probable to me that most of the ancient colonies to
America, must have come there by the nearest and most direct way; the same
nearly followed again by Columbus in 1492: either from north Africa or
south Europe. This becomes still more probable if there were formerly a
land or large islands in the Atlantic Ocean; of which we have ample
proofs. Nearly all the nations from Florida and Mexico to Chili, appear to
have reached America from the east, through the tropical islands or
Antilles; but the ancestors of these emigrating tribes, dwelt once in
Asia, which appears the cradle of mankind.

However, many nations of Brazil and Guyana are more recent and of African
origin; while nearly all those of North America appear to have reached
America by the opposite direction of Eastern Asia, through Alaska or the
Streight of Behring, once an Isthmus. Therefore the Colonial tribes came
here from the East, and the North West. It is more doubtful that any came
from the West or Polynesia.

What is now needful, is to trace these colonies, their travels, epochas,
and ascertain the nations which they have produced in both Americas. This
I will endeavour to do, without being prevented by the difficulties of the
task. I shall always seek to ascertain the true names of each nation or
tribe: which have often been disguised under a crowd of nicknames and
erroneous orthographies. These names when thus restored will often furnish
an original key, to supply the scarcely known languages, or lost

The Brigands who brought desolation over both Americas during two
centuries, and the careless travellers who visited them in search of
wealth, took little notice of the languages and traditions of their
victims or foes. Thus we have to regret the loss of many valuable
materials, merely indicated. However, a few enlightened visitors, and the
missionaries have preserved some of them. The first attempt of the kind
was the outlines of historical songs and traditions of Hayti, collected as
early as 1498 by friar Roman, at the request of Columbus; printed by his
son, and by Barcias. Yet this valuable document has escaped the notice of
nearly all the writers on America! evident proof of utter carelessness or

Piedrahita has given some of the historical traditions of the Muyzcas;
Juarros the annals of the Toltecas of Guatimala; Ayeta and Herrera those
of the Mayas of Yucatan. Yet they have been neglected by our historians.
They have merely dwelt, and even sparingly, on the annals of Mexico and
Peru. We have besides fragments on the early history of the Ongwis,
Linapis, Apalachis, Caribs, Dariens, and a few more; but we have to regret
the loss of the written annals of many civilized nations, the Tarascas,
Huaztecas, Zapotecas, Nicaraguas, Chontals, Chilians, Panos, &c. Some of
which may perhaps be yet partly recovered, as those of the Ongwis and
Linapis have lately been.

It is only since last age that the study of comparative philology has
begun to be appreciated: and quite recently that languages have been made
subservient to historical researches. Pigafetta had, however, set the
examples as early as 1520 to collect American vocabularies, of which he
gave two, the Brazilian and Patagon: which are quite important, since by
them we trace both tribes seen by him to the ARUAC race. For lack of
frequent ancient vocabularies, we must often grope in the dark; but I do
not despair to be able to restore many lost languages, by fragments
escaped from the common ruin. I have already succeeded with the _Taino_ of
Hayti, the _Cahiri_ of Trinidad, _Talega_ and _Apalachi_ of North America,
the _Chontal_ of central America, the _Colla_ of Peru, and the _Séké_ of
old Chili; whereby I shall draw some happy conclusions.

Asia has been the country of fables, Africa of monsters, and America of
systems, for those who prefer opinions to reality. The systems and
hypotheses of philosophy or ignorance upon America, exceed all the Asiatic
fables. A crowd of prejudices, false opinions and fantastic theories, have
been asserted on this hemisphere, often mistaking a small part of it for
the whole. Some have declared all the Americans a red, beardless, naked
and barbarous race, or a peculiar species of men. Others that they came
out of the ground or from the clouds, or over a bridge, instead of boats
or on the ice. Others that they are all Jews, or Malays, or Tartars.
Lastly, even that Eden was here and Noah built the ark in America! All
these systems and fifty more brought forth by ignorance or pride, are
based upon the most absurd proofs, or a few insulated facts: while there
are historical facts easy to prove that are neglected or forgotten.

Thus it is a positive fact that many ancient nations of the east, such as
the Lybians, Moors, Etruscans, Phenicians, Hindus, &c. had heard of
America, or knew nearly as much of it, as we did of Australia and
Polynesia 100 years ago. It is as certain that America contained
anciently, as even now, a crowd of distinct nations and tribes; some of
which were quite civilized, perhaps as much as the Spaniards led by
Columbus; the others more barbarous, but not entirely savage. There were
but few, if any, real savages in America, dwelling in woods without social
ties; most of them were wandering tribes of fishermen or hunters.

There were formerly in America as now, tribes of all complexions, as
elsewhere: yellowish, olive, coppery, tawny, redened, brown, incarnate or
white, and even blackened or negro-like. Tall and dwarfish men from 8 to 4
feet in size, called giants and pygmies—men with various frames, skulls,
and features, of all the sorts found in the eastern hemisphere.

The Americans had long before Columbus, large cities; built of stones,
bricks or wood, with walls, ditches, temples, palaces. Some of which were
of immense size and population. One of them _Otolum_ near Palenque was 28
miles long, equal to Thebes, Babylon and Kinoj in size and monuments.
Nearly all the ancient sciences and useful primitive arts were known in
America, as well as commerce and navigation, symbolic and alphabetic
writing, nearly all the Asiatic religions, &c. The most civilized nations
had even colleges and universities, canals and paved roads, splendid
temples and monuments, &c.

It would be tedious to designate all what has not been told, or been very
unworthily noticed, upon America. The whole of these outlines shall be
comments upon the forgotten facts relating to this third of the world.
Such as are found recorded by chance in one or few authors, scattered in
1000 volumes, unsought and unnoticed by nearly all the other writers.

Respecting the chronology of the American annals, it is rather obscure and
doubtful; but perhaps not more so than that of all ancient nations except
the Chinese. It frequently ascends as far as the floods and even the
creation. The most ancient dates are found among the Tols or Toltecas and
Atlantes, Mexicans or Aztecas, the Muyzcas, Ongwis, Linapis, &c. But it is
difficult to make those dates agree among themselves, or with our oriental
dates. However the American annals may be divided into great periods,
which can be admitted as certain, and resting points of history at
peculiar epochas.

Here is their tabular view.

I. Ancient history, ending with Columbus in 1492.

1. _Antidiluvian period_, beginning at the creation, about 6690 years
before Columbus according to the Tols, and ending with the last cataclysm
of Peleg, about 3788 years before Columbus.

2. _Doubtful period_, from that epocha till the reform of Tol astronomy,
1612 years before Columbus. This includes several subordinate periods and

About 3100 years before Columbus, settlement of the Linapis in Shinaki or
Firland or Oregon in N. W. America.

About 2500 years before Columbus, wars of the Towancas and Ongwis, the
hero Yatatan, &c. in North America.

3. _Certain period_, from 1612 till Columbus’ arrival in 1492. Many lesser
periods and epochas.

442, after Christ—End of the Tollan kingdom.

492,—Beginning of Atotarho dynasty of Ongwis.

558,—Empire of Tol-tecas begins in Anahuac, and lasts till 942.

840,—Beginning of the wars of Zipanas and Caris in South Peru.

947,—Foundation of the kingdom of Mayapan by Cuculcan in Yucatan.

985,—Discovery of America by the Norwegians.

1000,—Conquest of Quito by the Skiris.

1105,—Beginning of the Incas empire.

1322,—Foundation of Tenuchtitlan or Mexico.

II. Modern history, from 1492 till our days.

1. _Colonial Period_, from 1492 till 1776.

2. _Independent Period_, beginning in 1776. The foundation of the empire
of Brazil in 1822 may begin a subordinate period.

Each age may bear the name of a wise legislator or eminent personage: the
ages of modern history are those of 1. Columbus, 2. Las-Casas, 3. William
Penn, 4. Washington, 5. Bolivar.


    Sciences.—Languages, Civilization, &c._

Far from following the example of many American historians, who often take
a single guide for their crude compilations, or avoid the trouble to
consult all the historical sources, I have taken care in my researches to
employ all the possible means to reach the truth, and collect all the
facts that are scattered among a crowd of writers. I have carefully
analysed, compared and judged the materials, details and events thus
procured: nay, all the auxiliary sciences have afforded additional
fragments or proofs.

These materials may be divided into 10 series or kinds

1. Works, printed or manuscript.
2. Documents and monuments.
3. Maps, plans, views, &c.
4. Natural sciences.
5. Ethnography.
6. Traditions and annals.
7. Chronology and astronomy.
8. Languages and philology.
9. Religion, mythologies, &c.
10. Civilization, laws and manners.

The writers upon America are very numerous; but mostly defective or local.
A number, however, have attempted to consider the whole continent: the
principal among those containing facts upon all parts of America are

Herrera, History and Geography of Spanish America carried till the year

Delaet, Historical Geography of America, till 1630.

Garcias, Origins of the Americans.—Spanish work.

Carli, American Letters.—Italian work.

Ogilby, History and Geography of America, till 1670.

Raynal, European Settlements in America, till 1774.

Alcedo, Geographical Dictionary of Spanish America in 1786.—Spanish work.

Maltebrun, Improved Geography, 1820.

Touron, History of America, chiefly ecclesiastical, and incomplete, 14
volumes 1768-70, in French.

Robertson, false History of America or Spanish Conquests of Mexico or

The collections of travels by Hackluyt, Purchas, Harris, Ramusio, Barcias,
Prevost, &c.

The American researches of Ulloa, Humboldt, M’Culloh, &c.

I have consulted and analyzed all these general works, and many others of
less account; but I have not yet read Hervas nor Compagnone, knowing them
merely through quotations

The first _Bibliotheca Americana_ or catalogue of writers on America, was
given by Kennet in 1701 and 1713. Another appeared in England in 1719; a
third in France in 1820. They contain the names, authors, editions, dates,
&c. of over 300 works relating to America. Robertson has given a list of
nearly as many, which he pretends to have consulted, although he neglected
what they tell us. Humboldt has also a catalogue of 250 authors, consulted
by him. In 1831, Aspinwall published his American Library containing 771
works; and Warden, in Paris, his own, containing 977 American works with
133 atlasses and maps.

All this does not complete the account of books on America; since I have
seen many omitted in all these catalogues; although I never could meet
some mentioned there. I will carefully notice them, that it may be known
where I found my materials, and what may yet have escaped my researches. I
have already consulted upwards of 600 writers on both Americas, and there
are at least 1000 already printed, I mean special or local works connected
with history. If we were to add to these the botanists, naturalists,
paltry compilers, and pamphlets, we might make a catalogue of 3000 works
on America, her inhabitants and productions.

I will refer gradually to them, and have collected them all in my
manuscript illustrations; _materials_, _printed works_. Therefore we do
not lack printed materials: but the choice of the best is difficult: since
many works merely consist in fables, blunders, errors, hypotheses and
their constant repetitions: which ought to be rejected in order to gather
facts and the truth. But we must not reject as pyrrhoniams all that may
clash with our ideas and systems: it is chiefly needful so recall and
restore the events and facts mentioned by the earliest travellers and

These numerous local writers ought to be divided into three classes. 1.
historians and annalists, 2. travellers and geographers, 3. antiquarians
and philologists. I shall now merely mention the most useful (which I have
all consulted) upon the Peruvian and Austral regions of South America.

1st. The principal historians are, 1. Molina, History of Chili, 2. Funes,
Civil History of Buenos Ayres, Paraguay and Tucuman, 3. Lavega, History of
Peru, 4. Debrizoffer, history of Abipones, 5. Charlevoix of Paraguay, 6.
Techo, on Ditto, 7, 8. Lozano and Jolis on Chaco, 9. Muratori, and 10.
Renger, Paraguay.

2d. The principal writers who have furnished historical facts, with
geographical and ethnographical materials, are _old travellers_, 1.
Pigafetta and Magellan, 2. Cabot, 3. Shmidel, 4. Drake, 5. Cavendish, 6.
Acarete, 7. Knivet, 8. Frezier, 9. Sepp, 10. Brewer, 11. Nyel, 12.

_The modern travellers are_, 1. Azara, 2. D’Ulloa, 3. Humboldt, 4. Cook,
5. Byron, 6. Laperouse, 7. Stevenson, 8. Myers, 9. Heyn, 10. Beaumont, 11.
Gillespie, 12. Vidal, 13. Wedel, 14. King, 15. Morrell, 16. Andrew, 17.
Temple, 18. Mawe, 19. Proctor, 20. Graham, 21. Head, 22. Pernetty.

The principal original geographers and ethnographers are, 1. Fernandez on
Chiquitos 1726, 2. Bueno, Ditto 1800, 3. Falkner, on Patagonia 1774, 4.
Molina on Chili and Cuyo, 5. Lozano on Chaco 1733, 6. Skinner, Memoirs on
Peru, 7. Gili, South America 1782.

3d. Lastly the auxiliary writers on philology, antiquities and other
historical branches are, 1. Adelung, Vater, Maltebrun, Balbi, &c., on all
American languages, 2. American researches of Humboldt, Macculoh 1829.
Those of Depaw and Ranking are shameful, perverting every thing to support
false systems.

_Manuscripts._ There are yet many such extant on America, in the libraries
of both hemispheres. Clavigero gave a long list of Mexican Manuscripts.
Funes quotes several on Austral America. There are several extant in
Central America and South America, in Peru and Brazil. Many have been lost
through wilful neglect, or destroyed at the Spanish Conquest, the
expulsion of Jesuits, &c. Those in the ancient languages, Mexican,
Tarasca, Tzendal, &c., are now very rare, and much esteemed. Those burnt
by Zumaraga, the Mexican Omar, have been often regretted. Lord Kingborough
has lately published some at a great cost.

The manuscripts which I could consult on South America are but few. Those
on North America are more numerous and very important; particularly the
traditions of the Linapis, Shawanis, &c., they are chiefly on wood, bark,
skins or Mosaic strings. But I have received several manuscript
vocabularies of the languages of Guyana, Brazil, Texas, Mexico, &c. and I
have consulted several manuscripts in the libraries of Philadelphia.

There are, besides, in the public or private libraries of all the great
cities of both Americas, several interesting historical works, which have
never been published.

There are several in Philadelphia, particularly the historical collections
of Simetierre. Often the best or most important works cannot be printed:
while a crowd of paltry compilations are ushered to deceive the public.
This may be deemed a remainder of the prevailing ignorance and error.
Instead of appreciating the learned and useful works, the prevailing taste
is for historical romances and systematic fables. It is needful to seek
these previous labors, which run the risk of being totally lost, if we
will not have again to blush hereafter for these historical losses.

I give the list of such among my own manuscripts, as have been employed to
write this history. They are yet in my possession, but I wish to see them
deposited in a great public library; where they might be consulted.

1. Materials for the history, ethnography, &c. of the Americans, their
annals, chronology, &c. 40 books, begun in 1820, continued ever since, and
not yet closed.

2. Vocabularies of the ancient and modern languages of both Americas,
symbols, glyphs, &c., 4 books, begun 1824.

3. Comparative geography and ethnography of ancient and modern America, 5
books, with maps, &c., begun 1824.

4. Ancient monuments of North and South America, compared with the
primitive monuments of the eastern hemisphere, 3 books and 200 plans, &c.,

5. TELLUS, or the primitive History of the Earth and Mankind in Protholia,
Oceania and Neotholia, with the ancient and modern general ethnography, 30
books, begun in 1821.

6. Synglosson, or compared examination of all languages and nations, 6
books, begun 1825.

7. Iconographical Illustrations of all my historical works and travels,
containing over 1000 maps, plans, views, costumes, portraits, alphabets,
symbols, implements, &c., in 10 cartoons, begun 1816.

8. Travels in North America, in 1802, 3, 4, and from 1815 to 1835. In many
manuscript books and journals.

I have often been apprehensive of the fate of Boturini, for these
interesting manuscript and long researches. This has happened already for
one of my manuscripts. As early as 1825 I sent to the Academy of Science
in Boston, a manuscript of 240 pages, being an _account of the materials
yet existing for the history of the nations and tribes of America before
Columbus_. This was for an offered prize of $100: which was never awarded,
although my memoir was declared the best sent. And instead of depositing
this manuscript in the library of the American Antiquarian Society as
requested, it has been _lost_ or _stolen_. If never recovered, and that
the public may judge of the merits of it, at such an early period of my
historical studies: I will state the principal results of my enquiries
therein; which tenor, together with their length, were the ostensible
reasons for not awarding a prize probably never meant to be awarded.

I therein proved in 1825, 1st. that there are yet materials enough,
notwithstanding the loss of many, for an ancient history of America.

2. That a complete American history ought to employ and combine all the
materials afforded by geology, geography, physics, chronology, physiology,
ethnology, archeology, philology, on America, with all the traditions of
the Americans.

3. Geology and physical geography indicates the cradles and ancient
settlements of mankind, the revolutions of nature, the places unfit for
population, the means of access, probable route of colonies, &c.

4. America has an ancient geography previous to 1492, which ought to be

5. The coincidence of names of nations and tribes, afford a comparitive
concordance, indicating ancient connections or identity.

6. The ancient American population, must have been derived from the
nearest shores of Africa, Europe and Asia. The points where all the
indications and traditions tend, are the Antilles, next Paria and Guyana
in South America; Anian or Tollan and Alaska in the N. W with Sucanunga or
Groenland to the N. E.

7. The philological solution of historical affinities must be sought in
the roots of the languages, their conformity or analogies, the number of
similar sounds, roots and words; which are susceptible of a mathematical
calculation, and referable to the theory of probabilities.

8. Many primitive nations in all parts of the earth, may thus be proved to
have been akin or related.

9. Noah’s flood was nearly general; but perhaps not universal. His ark or
THBE was perhaps Thibet: and his 3 sons 3 nations saved there.

10. It has been proved that all the antidiluvian patriarchs were Nations,
their long ages being the duration of dynasties or states. This opinion
may also be entertained of many other ancient patriarchs or heads of
tribes, every where, by the usual figure of personification.

11. Peleg’s flood was volcanic, not so general as Noah’s. There may have
been many successive cataclysms blended in this, as this has been often
mistaken in date for Noah’s.

12. The cradle of the Tulans or Mexican nations, must have been the Tulan
of Asia, since Turan and Tartary. There are many places called Tula, all
over the earth, indicating settlements of Atlantes.

13. The ancient chronology of America may be restored. Several dates
given, a system proposed.

14. All the races and complexions of mankind are found in America.

15. America was known to the ancient nations, particularly the Atlantes,
Pelagians, Phenicians, &c.

16. Some highlands of America were not covered at Noah’s flood, and might
become the azylums of men, animals, and vegetation. However, but few
nations can be traced to these azylums in America.

17. The ancient monuments of both Americas, are similar to the primitive
monuments of Asia, Africa and Europe.

18. The ancient inscriptions of America can be explained. A key may be
found for all: some are evidently pelagic.

19. The religions of the Americans, were similar to the primitive
religions of the eastern hemisphere.

20. The manners and customs, of the Americans, are very various, and form
no peculiar test.

21. Many American nations were highly civilized, besides the Mexicans and
Peruvians: skilful in agriculture, and the arts, having cattle, colleges,

My reward for having ascertained and proved those facts, was to be denied
the prize, and to have my manuscript mislaid or lost or stolen! My
historical researches ever since have continued to confirm nearly all
these facts.(1)

2. _Documents and monuments._ The historical titles and proofs,
inscriptions, medals, coins, charters, &c., which are so common elsewhere,
are but few as yet, in America, belonging to early times: most belong to
modern history.

There are some ancient inscriptions scattered in South America; but not
yet published. Molina speaks of one on a pyramid of Cuyo, which late
travellers have not found. Those of Otolum near Palenqué in Central
America begin to excite great attention; and I have sought a key for

Ancient metallic coins and medals, really Americans, are exceedingly
scarce: yet there are some in Central America. Several medals, perhaps
foreign and indicating a communication, have been found, but again lost or
neglected; few have been figured or explained.

Implements, tools, sculptures, objects of arts, pottery, weapons, &c. of
the ancient Americans are found in all the museums; but excite little
attention, by not being concentrated, accumulated nor classified. Many
fine specimens of arts have been melted, or broken and lost. The
astronomical stones of the Mexicans and Muyzcas have been preserved; but
those of Peru and Central America are lost; as well as that beautiful one
of the Talegas of North America, a dodecagone, with 144 hieroglyphic
signs, found in the Ohio, and once kept in a museum of Philadelphia.

The ancient monuments of both Americas, are very numerous, indicating a
dense population in places since become wild and desolate, as in North
America, Guyana, Brazil, &c. They are most numerous in the central parts
of both Americas, and lessen towards both ends. Yet they are met from lat.
45 N. to 45 S. They are very variable in different parts; by no means
identic, indicating different builders or many degrees of civilization,
from the rudest arts to the most refined: employing many materials, earth,
clay, gravel, stone, wood, unbaked bricks; being either irregular
cyclopian structures, or regular buildings of rough or cut stones, _pizé_
or beaten clay, &c.

We do not know as yet one half of those in existence, and many have never
been described nor figured. Yet they afford every where, one of the most
evident and certain base of historical researches, confirming traditions,
or revealing the seats of former empires, their civilization, &c. They
consist chiefly in mounds, altars, tumuli or tombs, ruined cities,
villages and forts, temples and dwellings; but we find besides in various
places, traces of ancient palaces, bridges, roads, causeways, canals,
mines, dromes, baths, pyramids, towers, pillars, rocking stones, walls,
wells, pits &c. They generally resemble the primitive monuments of the
same kind, met with in the eastern hemisphere, from England and Ireland to
Mauritania and Africa, extending east to Lybia, Syria, Russia, Persia,
Tartary, &c. They have less resemblance with the monuments of Egypt,
Greece, Rome, India and China; yet some kinds somewhat assimilate. In
fact, there are, throughout both Americas, three very distinct classes of
monuments, indicating distinct arts and architecture.

The first or rudest, assimilate nearly to those yet used by the rudest
tribes in the north or in Brazil, Antilles, &c., indicating a similar
barbarous state.

The second or primitive, is known by using wood and earth instead of
stones for buildings.

The third or most refined, employed stones, often well cut as in Mexico,
Central America, Peru, &c., and indicates arts nearly equal to those of
Egypt and India.

Besides such great monumental remains; there are lesser antiquities;
fragments of sculpture, statues, idols, painting, Mosaic, &c., either in
metals, stones, pottery, beads, &c., found every where mixed with the

But the most singular and dubious relics of antiquity, are subteraneous or
in excavations: these are in caves, mines, pits, &c.: while under ground
are found trees, stumps, charcoal, ashes, shells, pavements, walls,
houses, &c. that must have been buried by alluvions, diluvions or new
formed soil. It has been surmised or ascertained that some may be
antidiluvian: although those in deep alluvial soils, near streams, and
connected with graves, may have been buried by men, or fluvial
inundations. Mummies, skeletons and bones, with human apparel and
implements have been found in caves, evidently buried there by human
means, and not by floods. Human remains are but seldom if ever connected
with the organic remains of the soil and caves, even of the latest
geological date.

3. _Geography, Maps, &c._ The knowledge of the regions and localities
inhabited by mankind, or where colonies are sent, empires founded, is
needful to history, in order to understand and treat the events and
migrations. The physical configuration of the land, the climates, plains,
mountains and streams, have a great influence on civilization and
communications. Physical geography is constant and invariable: while civil
or ethnographical geography is constantly fluctuating in limits and names.

If we had complete series of maps by chronological order upon America; we
should find therein the materials for a comparative historical geography,
and successive ethnography, showing the gradual revolutions of mankind.
The old maps of America, those of Laet, the old geographers &c. are very
valuable for this object. Many travellers in America, have given original
maps, which furnish similar materials. I have chiefly used for Peru and
Austral America, the maps of Laet, Acarete, D’Anville, Molina, Falkner,
Cochrane, Wedel, the Jesuits, &c. Among the modern general maps, relating
to South America, the Spanish maps of 1810 and 1822, the English of 1815,
the French of 1830, the latest American of Tanner, &c. By those materials
I have been able to trace and fix four periods of American geography, 2
ancient and 2 modern.

I. Primitive geography of America.

II. Ancient ditto, or between 1400 and 1500.

III. Modern colonial geography.

IV. Modern independent geography.

I have formed Mpt. maps of the two first periods, which shall be published
gradually, or in my Illustrations of the Ancient Geography of America. We
have thousands of maps on the early geography of the Eastern Hemisphere,
and no one as yet on the Western Hemisphere! to show the respective limits
and positions of Ancient Empires, Nations, Cities, &c., except Clavigero’s
map of Anahuac at the Spanish conquest, those of Hayti, Laet, &.c.

We have the plans of Ancient Mexico and Cuzco; but lack those of
Tiahuanaco, Otolum, and many more important for ancient history. Several
plans of ancient sites of civilization have been given, along with those
of monuments. I have many in Mpt. yet unpublished. The greatest part of
modern cities, are built on ancient sites, from Mexico to Chili. In North
America, the same happens with Cincinnati, Louisville, Pittsburg, St.
Louis, Philadelphia, Savannah, &c. The views of ruined cities, and those
of actual cities, are partly historical, connected with the knowledge of
gradual American civilization.

Many ancient names of islands, lakes, streams and mountains, are preserved
in actual names. Such are Cuba, Hayti—Ontario, Erie, Titicaca—Ohio,
Alatamaha, Maranon, Parana, Rivers.—Alleghanies, Andes, Parima, Mountains,
&c. When the names have been changed, it is the duty of the historical
geographer to compare the old and new names.

The Mexicans and other civilized ancient nations, could draw and paint
maps. Even our North American tribes can draw rude maps on skins or bark.
Some of these are preserved in museums; but none have ever been published:
although some are pretty correct and deserving it.

4. _Natural Sciences._ They are now becoming sisters of history. Geology
is connected with geography. Botany and Zoology, acquaint us with trees,
plants and animals, which were used in the arts and agriculture at
different periods. The Asiatic origin of maize, called _maza_ by Hesiod
and known to the Pelagians (Hughes Greece,) has been unperceived by
Humboldt and many others, although it throws some light on the early
migrations and communications of tribes. Maize was cultivated in Assyria,
West Tartary, North Africa and Java, before 1492, as asserted by Marco
Polo, Crawford, Raffles. Gebelin, &c.(3)

America had anciently several cereal plants, besides maize, two kinds of
indigenous wheat and barley in Chili. The Quinoa and Zizania, the rice of
South and North America. Many roots, beans, seeds, fruits and flowers,
were cultivated from Canada to Chili. Native dies were abundant, the
indigo and annato were natives. Red and yellow cochineal were nursed and
collected. Many peculiar kinds of cotton, silks, hemp, flax, agave, palm,
&c., were cultivated or collected to use for cloths, threads, ropes, &c.

Paleontology, a new science, seeks for the remains of animals dwelling on
earth, before mankind. America has already afforded the huge mastodons,
elephants, megatherium, megalonyx, as primitive land animals, and many
large reptiles, crocodiles of streams and lakes.

American Zoology is very peculiar: a few arctic quadrupeds, birds and
insects excepted; all the animals of this hemisphere are peculiar to it.
Reptiles almost entirely such, even in the North. All the American monkeys
form distinct species. The tropical animals of the two hemispheres are
distinct, even often in genera. Out of 33 quadrupeds formerly domesticated
in America, the dog only may be deemed a stranger: and it had even many
American varieties.

The domestic quadrupeds of ancient America were 33, while only 25 in Asia,
Africa and Europe. Among them were 4 species of Vicunia, 4 of Agutis, 2
deer, 2 hogs, 10 monkeys, &c. See my dissertation on the domestic animals
of both hemispheres, 1832. Americans had also tamed 22 birds or fowls, as
many as Asia, &c., and even some reptiles, fishes, insects, &c., had
become domestic: altogether 112 in America and only 80 in Europe, Asia,
&c., before 1492.

American botany offers many peculiar regions; in the North only, akin to
Asiatic or European botany; but becoming quite distinct in the tropics,
still more so in Austral America. Since 1492 the European colonists have
brought many plants, that are become spontaneous from Canada to Chili:
these must be carefully separated from the ancient indigenous plants.

The American Floras are nearly as many as the 15 natural regions already
indicated, each having a focal seat or cradle in some range of mountains.
They become richer or more abundant in species within the tropics,
decreasing to the North and South. Trees and palm abound there, and
disappear near the poles, the palms are unknown beyond the 36 degrees
North and South. The equator has 500 species of trees; in latitude 40 N.
and S. only 100 kinds are found, or even less. Social plants and grasses
abound in plains, and in the North dwindle to mosses and lichens.

Trees were early tools of civilization, affording timber, fuel, dies,
houses, boats, weapons, &c. Fruit trees afforded food in abundance: even
the tribes of North America near latitude 40 d. had 40 kinds of native
wild fruits, and had begun to plant orchards of plumtrees, peachtrees,
crab-trees, nut-trees. They knew how to make oils of nuts, to dry the
fruits, make sugars out of maples and other trees.

Fish has always afforded an ample supply of food to early nations, whence
the preference to dwell near streams, Lakes and shores. Notwithstanding
the swimming rambles of fishes, it is only the pelagic or oceanic tribes
of them that are common to both hemispheres. Most of the resident shore
fishes of America are peculiar species. Still more so with lacustral and
fluviatile fishes. These are divided into peculiar regions. Our northern
lakes form one; and almost every large stream has a peculiar generation of
finny tribes: such are the Mississippi, Maranon, Parana, the Atlantic
streams and rivers, those of Brazil, &c.

Minerals abound in both Americas. It was gold and silver that drew hither
the greedy Spanish freebooters. The civilized nations knew mining,
smelting, casting and forging. They used gold, silver, copper, brass,
lead, &c.; collected and prized gems, emeralds, agats, volcanic glass, &c.
Even the less civilized tribes of North America used copper and lead,
clays for pipes, pottery, &c. Iron was scarce because so hard to melt, and
highly prized; but iron-rings have been found as jewels around the wrists
of skeletons.

Metallic coins were little known except in Central America; but bits of
silver, gold, tin, iron, were used as such. The other mediums of exchange
were skins, mats, nuts, cacao, shells, beads, mosaic works, &c. Commerce
was well known to many nations; traders went 500 miles to exchange
commodities in Florida, Mexico, Yucatan, Peru, &c. Navigators went by sea
for the same purpose all over the Antilles, coast of Peru, and in the
great streams. It is thus that were found many strange and foreign
objects, jewels, medals, metals, &c., all over America, and in early

5. _Ethnography._ This new science which undertakes to describe nations,
reckons already many peculiar branches. Anthropography or the knowledge of
physical mankind. Philology or the comparative study of human speech and
languages. Besides the nameless branch attending to the moral ideas, arts,
institutions, manners, civilization, governments and religions of mankind;
which might be called moral ethnography.

All these studies become the philosophy of history, and shall duly command
my attention. Some writers neglect them altogether; others, like
Robertson, do not know how to collect and accumulate facts instead of
systems: Rollin has shown in his Ancient History, how useful moral
ethnography may be as an auxiliary: although he omitted philology and
physical facts.

I have studied the men of all the parts of the world, in order to know and
compare them, better than had been done. All the errors on the histories
of nations, proceed commonly from the slender or partial views acquired or
admitted by the writers. There is much to glean on the ethnography of
modern nations, and therefrom we may ascend to ancient ethnography. It
would be needful to study well the physical and moral features of all; the
shapes of bodies, skulls, faces and limbs; the complexions of the skin,
hairs and eyes; with the casual or permanent varieties.

But, above all, we must better study all the spoken languages and
dialects. It is strange that we hardly know anything, and sometimes
nothing at all, on the languages of many existing tribes, with whom we
have intercourse in both Americas. It would be desirable to procure at
least a vocabulary of 100 essential words, in each. Such words, including
the cardinal numbers, will soon become the key of ethnographical
philology. While the additional study of phonology or sounds of languages,
their idioms and grammars, their roots, and verbs, the alphabets, glyphs
and symbols used to communicate ideas, will combine to furnish the
complete knowledge of philology as a separate science. Although I have not
always carried so far my researches; I did so for a few, applying chiefly
myself to the essential features of languages; and the unexpected results
will be surprising.

American anthropography will teach that there were men of all sizes,
features and complexions, in this hemisphere before 1492: notwithstanding
the false assertions of many writers, who take one nation for the whole
American group. The Uskihs, the Puruays, the Parias, the Chons, &c. were
as white as the Spaniards, 50 such tribes were found in South America;
while many tribes of Choco, the Manabis, the Yaruras, &c., were as black
as negroes. All the other shades of brown, tawny and coppery, were
scattered every where. There was not a single red man in America, unless
painted such. Some tribes had scanty beards as the Tartars, Chinese,
Berbers, &c., others bushy beards. The Tinguis or Patagons were 7 or 8
feet high, and the Guaymas only 4 or 5 feet.

6. _Traditions and Annals._ Many American nations preserve a memory of
historical events by unwritten traditions, repeated from fathers to sons;
or communicated orally by the priests, chiefs or elderly men. Many are
preserved yet to this day, by frequent repetitions, being embodied in
songs, hymns, maxims, tales, drawings, or even symbolic figures and signs.
Many of those traditions are precious for history, notwithstanding the
fables, allegories, metaphors, personifications, &c., which partly conceal
them or render the meaning obscure. We must learn to decipher them as we
do old inscriptions and medals.

Although many such are now nearly lost for us, by the extinction of the
living books, who kept the remembrance: there are many already collected,
and of which we ought to make a good use. But there are as many more,
which have never been collected nor printed. I have collected many such in
North America in manuscript. It often happens that the American tribes
will not communicate them to their foes or oppressors; but their friends
and allies may hope to receive the deposit of them. Every enlightened
traveller ought to seek for them wherever he goes. Yet after being
acquired, they are sometimes lost again, by neglect. I have known some
learned and unlearned men despise them equally as _Indian Stories_,
because they despise the ancient American race. There are, however, as yet
many historical songs, poems and tales to collect among all the American
tribes, which falling in good hands cannot fail to attract notice and be
employed usefully. Every one who neglects or destroys them acts as a
vandal. Malcolm has said at the outset of his history of Persia, that we
ought never to neglect the original notions of a people on its origin, or
early history, since therein is found the germ and spring of their
subsequent conduct, actions and opinions.

My illustrations shall contain many unpublished or forgotten traditions,
whereof I shall avail myself in all my historical annals and researches. I
consider those of the Uskihs, Dinnis, Ongwis, Linapis, Shawanis, Cados,
Natchez, Ozages, Atakapas, Apalachians, &c., as highly important for the
annals of North America. The same may be said of the Mexicans, Zapotecas,
Mayas, Toltecas, Chols, &c., for Central America. Of the Haytians, Cubans
and Caribs for the Antilles. And in South America those of the Muyzcas,
Cumanans, Tamanacs, Popayans, Peruvians, Chilians, Brazilians, Abipons,

7. _Chronology and Astronomy._ These two sciences always go together, and
form a double key of history. The American chronology is by no means fixed
before 1492, and requires a skillful hand to preserve and compare all the
heterogenous dates heretofore collected. I shall attempt to elucidate it
gradually; but may often be compelled, as in geology, to relate only
successive events without dates, and merely referred to a series of
gradual facts. In Austral America, we are told that none had notions of
astronomy and dates, except the Chilians; yet their chronology begins only
in 1450. I doubt this: I rather believe that their oral traditions have
been neglected, as well as those of their neighbours.

In Peru, there are many positive dates, yet I was the first to reduce them
to chronological order. In Brazil and Guyana, but few dates are found. The
Muyzcas had very early dates, yet few have been preserved; much obscured
by personifications of dynasties, and Pietrahita begins their real annals
only in 1490, or 45 years before the Spanish invasion. In the Antilles the
dates are quite loose, and difficult to reduce even to a serial order.

But in Central and Mexican America, we find many early dates with a
regular chronology. Yet some are extravagant or contradictory. I shall
endeavour to elucidate them, so as to reduce the whole to order. They must
form the base of a regular American chronology, that ascends by dates to
the flood and creation. In Yucatan the first regular date only reach to
940 after Christ.

In North America, where the smallest number of dates existed; we have
unexpectedly and quite lately, found that many ancient dates could be
procured. Cusick has published those of the Ongwi traditions, and I have
ascertained those of the Linapis. Both of which reach to the flood and
creation, and afford series of available dates as early as 1600 years
before our era; thus nearly as ample as those of the TOL-tecas, and as
plain in some instances.

Astronomy was cultivated by all the civilized nations of ancient America.
They had cycles of 144, 104, 60, 52, 20, 15 and 13 solar years. Humboldt
has well written on that subject; but much remains to be gleaned. The
northern tribes reckon by generations as the Greeks, the Polynesians, &c.,
and by winters instead of years, moons instead of solar months. They had
also a cycle of 60 years. In Central America, &c. the months were of 20
days, including 4 weeks of 5 days. But the Peruvians had months of 27
days, or 3 weeks of 9 days as the Etruscans. The Muyzcas small weeks of 3
days, &c. No where in ancient America, was found the sabatical week of
days, based on the 7 planets and the 4 quarters of a lunation. This is
remarkable, as evincing a remote antiquity, and separation before this
week was adopted in Egypt, India, Syria, Celtica, &c.

Until 120 years before Christ the TOL-tecas reckoned only 365 days in the
solar year, as the primitive nations of Asia: then they added the hours to
the year. This forms their astronomical era. The Muyzcas had a very
complicated astronomy, and three kinds of years. The usual was of 20
moons, and the ecclesiastical of 37 moons. The horal division unknown in
many parts of America, was of 4 hours in the day for the Muyzcas and
Mexicans, elsewhere of 5, 10 and 20. The 24 hours and the Zodiac of 12
signs with 360 degrees were not known. The Mexican Zodiac had 13 signs and
104 degrees.

Arithmetic is intimately connected with astronomy. A complete decimal
numeration was known to all the civilized American nations, and even to
the northern tribes. The most rude tribes reckoned by 5 or the manual
mode; there are traces also of a binary numeration, the most simple of
all: while others had complex calculations by 13 and by 20 or scores. We
find no trace of any by 7, and but slight indications of a ternary
numeration by 3 and 9. All these American modes of reckoning may thus be
reduced to the _binary_, by two or pairs; and the quinary or manual by the
five fingers, of which the decimal is the double, and by 20 the quadruple.

8. _Languages._ They are becoming one of the most important aids in
history. When the annals are ample and clear, the examination of the
languages is merely a supplement to historical knowledge; but when they
are obscure, mutilated or totally lost; languages then supply more or less
to their defects or loss. Their comparative study furnish us new lights to
ascertain the origines, parentage, dispersions, colonies, alliances, wars,
&c., of the nations thus deprived of written annals or even traditions.
They serve also to rectify the imperfect annals or the fabulous
traditions. This study may lead besides to trace the manners, religions,
intercourse, arts and sciences of nearly all nations; since the proper
languages of each people offers a picture of the civilization, acquired or
borrowed knowledge, modes of life, &c. of each.

It is above all in both Americas that this study is indispensable in
historical researches: I will therefore apply to languages in all cases,
and make constant use of them; and they will unfold new facts quite
unknown, although very important, Historical lights shall thereby be
thrown on many obscure subjects, whence astonishing and unexpected results
may spring, in which I shall depend as much as upon mutilated and
neglectful traditions.

By taking into view all the American languages or as many as are already
known, we shall easily dispel the errors and absurd systems of
philosophers and philologists, who taking only a few as samples of the
whole, have either deemed _all the Americans_, as many Jews, or Tartars,
or Atlantes, or sprung from the ground, and so on. Now the fact is that
these writers have never taken the trouble to compare the numerous
American languages and dialects, reduce them to groups, and seek their
affinities elsewhere.

Adelung and Vater had once stated without proof, that nearly 1200
languages existed in America. Balbi has reduced them to 423, of which 212
in South America; but they can be much further reduced, most of them being
mere dialects. The whole may be comprised in 25 groups of languages, or
even less; which were certainly identic in 25 languages 2 or 3000 years
ago: and all of which have astonishing affinities with the groups of the
eastern hemisphere, so as to indicate a parentage 4 or 5000 years ago.

Vater and Maltebrun have given a few hundred examples of such analogies:
and the systematic writers have supposed that they had exhausted the
comparisons. Yet a single language, the Chilian, has by itself more
affinities with the languages of Europe, than all those mentioned by Vater
and others, put together! The foreign or transatlantic affinities of
American languages, vary from 10 to 70 per cent, according to the nations.
If we suppose that there are 400 languages in America, and as many in the
eastern hemisphere, and each to have about 2000 roots or essential words
only; while the mean affinities are only 25 per cent: we shall find as
many as 200,000 affinities! out of America, in every American language;
and in all the 400, as many as 80 millions! instead of the paltry
reckoning of 1000 or so. All this is susceptible of mathematical proofs,
and shall be unfolded gradually in these pages.

The theory about the common exclusive grammatical structure of all the
American languages, is equally erroneous and based upon partial facts.
Instead of all the American languages being polysynthetic by amalgamating
words, we find in America many mixt forms, and even the pure monosylabic:
while the amalgamation of words prevails more or less in Europe and
Africa; chiefly in the Bask, Italian dialects, Greek, Berber and other
Atlantic dialects, the Negro languages, those of Caffraria, the Sanscrit
and all the derived languages.

It had been asserted that no American language was monosylabic: yet Balbi
states that the Guarani and Maya are such; Nasera has lately proved the
same of the Othomi. Thus we have at least 3 such American groups of
languages. But there are more; nay many American languages have
monosylabic roots, even among the most amalgamated groups.

The most obvious grammatical classification of American languages, has
escaped the acuteness of philologists. I find it in the epithetic
structure, or relative position of ideas. Under this view all the
languages arrange themselves in three great classes or groups. 1. Regular,
2. Resupinate, 3. Mixt.

1. _The Regular_ is the most simple and natural form: where the roots or
nouns are prefixed, and the adjuncts or adjectives, expressing epithetes
or qualities follow or are added. This group includes in the Eastern
Continent 1. All the Semetic languages, Arabic, Hebrew, &c. 2. All the
Atlantic and Egyptian languages. 3. All the Celtic and Cantabrian
languages. 4. All the Polynesian and Malay languages. 5. The Bhotiya and
many languages of Thibet. 6. Most of the Negro languages. 7. Yakut of
Siberia, &c.

In America this group includes my groups 1. Innuit or Uski. 2. Ongwi. 3.
Capaha. 4. Chactah. 5. All the languages related thereto in North-west
America, the Kaluchi, Mandan, &c. 6. All the Guarani languages of South
America, and perhaps many others, Mayna, Mobima, &c.

2. _The Resupinate or Reflexed Group_: where the roots or nouns
substantive are reversed, following the adjective or epithetes, which are
prefixed. This second mode of uniting ideas prevails 1. In all the
languages of China and Tartary. 2. In all the Teutonic languages German,
Swede, English. 3. In most of the Thracian, Illyrian, Greek and Slavonic
languages. 4. In all the Turkish languages of Turan, Bokhara, Turkey. 5.
The Newari of Imalaya. 6. The Qua or Hottentot of South Africa.

In America, it is the most prevailing form, found in my groups 1. Linni or
Linapis. 2. Otali or Cheroki. 3. In all the Mexican and Othomi languages.
4. Chontal. 5. Skereh or Pani and Shoshoni, of North America,—and in South
America. 6. Chili. 7. Yarura. 8. Mbaya and probably many more: although
hardly indicated by the philologists.

3. _Mixt Form_, which employs or adopts more or less the two former modes;
although there is always a prevailing form, that indicates the original
mode of uniting ideas. This mixt form appears 1. In the Sanscrit and all
derived languages. 2. In the Zend and Persian languages of Iran. 3. In the
Pelagic and Italic languages, the Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, Greek.
4. The Japanese, &c.

While in America it is found 1. In the Aruac languages. 2. The Muyzca. 3.
The Peruvian languages, &c. of South America, and in North America. 4. The
Atalan. 5. Mizteca. 6. Opata, and probably some others.

This comparative classification of languages, will greatly help future
investigations. It will show the improbability of the two opposite modes
of annexing ideas having been entertained, by the same people at any time;
while the mixt form evinces amalgamations of ancient nations. We have thus
acquired another clue to trace primitive connections, another available
mean to pursue the human steps on earth.

9. _Religions and Mythologies._ The human opinions on the past and future
form every where ample themes of thoughts and actions. From revelations,
inspirations, oracles, wisdom and priestcraft comingled, have arisen all
the worships, and rites, dogmas and creeds, swaying the human mind,
through hope or fear, love or hatred. The history of religious ideas, is
in fact the history of civilization, since they have sprung together in
social men. Nearly all the religions of Asia (which from hence have spread
throughout the earth along with mankind) were found in America: except the
modern creeds. But the traces of Judaism and Budhism were very faint and
local. Mahometism was unknown, Braminism hardly known. Christianity or
some of its rites are traced to Yucatan only, and may arise from other
sources. The most prevailing worships were the primitive Sabeism, Solar
worship, Polytheism, Dualism or Manicheism, Shamanism or worship of
Spirits, Idolatry, and Fetichism or animal worship. We find throughout
America many modifications of these creeds: with several complex
mythologies, more or less analogous to eastern dogmas.

The investigation of these American religions affords not only an insight
into the ancient civilization, but many proofs of ancient communications
with Asia or Africa. Throughout North America the Dualism, mythologies and
fabulous traditions point to a connexion with Tartary. In Florida, Mexico
and Yucatan, begin to appear the Solar worship, and a cruel idolatry
foreign to it. This Solar worship appears in a purer form in North
America, as far as Peru. While in the Antilles, Guyana, Brazil and Chili,
prevailed several worships of heavenly and terrestial spirits; somewhat
akin to the primitive idolatry of Africa, Europe, Iran, India, China and

American religions admitted, like many others, of Priests, oracles,
temples, shrines, pilgrimages, holy places, sacrifices, expiations,
confessions, offerings, hymns, veneration for animals, men and stars.
Idols painted or sculptured in wood, pottery, stone, metals, &c.; bloody
rites by human sacrifices, scarifications, circumscision, &c. But none of
these practices were general, some were quite local and circumscribed.
Thus circumscision was only used by the Mayas of Yucatan, the Calchaquis
of Tucuman, &c. Traces of a triple god or Indian Trimurti have been met
from Ohio to Peru; but it was no where the prevailing religion. As the
same idea was found among the Celts and Polynesians, it may have come by
the east rather than Polynesia in the west.

10. _Civilization and Manners._ This completes the history of all nations.
When their annals are well known, it becomes a very proper appendix to
them; when they are not, it is a very needful supplement to the
traditions, &c. But we must not make any history consist merely in such an
account, as often done by negligent writers. The manners and customs of
every people, are so fluctuating, liable to be changed, or improved by
civilization, imitation, arts and sciences, &c.; that they cannot afford
any test of connections. They are often borrowed, from neighbors or
strangers, disused after awhile by whims or wars, invented to suit the
climate and productions it may afford. We have positive proofs that the
Europeans have since 1492 greatly modified the customs of all the tribes
they conquered or visited. This must have happened formerly also, by other
visits or communications. Yet, notwithstanding the uncertainty of the
origin and duration of the primitive American customs, they must be
studied, as one of the sources and objects of history.

We find, in ancient America, nearly all the forms of social civilization
and manners of the east. But the Nomadic life with camels, oxen and sheep,
was unknown, as well as those animals. The American cattle or lamas, &c.
of South America, hogs of Coriana, dogs and rabbits of Mexico, deers of
Florida, buffalos of Taos, were kept by sedentary civilized tribes. The
Nomadic wandering tribes of America were chiefly hunters and fishermen:
scattered around the agricultural nations, spreading from Canada to Chili.

All the kinds of governments were known in America: Theocracy, despotism,
monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy. But the most prevailing were theocracy
among the civilized nations, oligarchy among the barbarous nations: with
two peculiar modifications, of double kings as among Arabs, civil and
military; and chiefs of families or tribes, as among all primitive
nations. Queens were known to but few tribes, although the female line was
often hereditary. Written laws and codes were known to the Tol-tecas,
Mexicans, Mayans, Muyzcas, Panos, Peruvians, &c. Oral laws were elsewhere
preserved by priests or magistrates.

Polygamy prevailed among some tribes or castes, but was not universal. The
4 castes of Indians are distinctly found in nearly all the civilized
nations, often modified into priests, nobles, vassals and slaves. The arts
of music, medicine, smithery, painting, sculpture, architecture,
agriculture, pottery, &c., were well known to nearly all. The sciences of
geometry, geography, botany, astronomy, &c., were cultivated from Mexico
to Peru, even taught in schools and colleges; with the arts, the laws, the
rites, and history of the country.

Marsden has well distinguished several degrees of civilization in Asia. If
no American nation had reached the Greeks and Romans, or our modern
polished and improved civilization; it is not extraordinary. But the
Peruvians, Muyzcas, Tol-tecas, Mexicans, Talascas, &c., were nearly equal
to the Chinese, Egyptians and Hindus in civilization; not far removed from
the European civilization of the 15th century: nay, in some things
superior. The second degree of American civilization found in Chili,
Florida, Cumana, the Antilles, Popayan, the Linapis, Omaguas &c. was equal
to that of the Arabs, Malays, Celts, Cantabrians, Pelagians, &c. While the
third degree found in all the barbarous nations, Innuit or Esquimaux,
Shoshonis, Caribs, Brazilians, &c. was not worse than what we find among
the Fins, Laplanders, Tartars, Sames, Negroes and Hottentots.

Individual property in land was almost unknown in America; but feodal and
tribal property well understood. Common property of tribes and villages
over their territories, was the most usual tenure, modified by wars,
conquests, tributes. Individual property existed only for tenements and
personal property. Warfares, marriages and funerals were very different in
every nation. The weapons of war were clubs, arrows, darts, lances, axes,
Macana swords, Sarbacanes or blowing tubes, slings, nooses, thronged
balls, &c. as elsewhere. There was a peculiar diplomacy, with heralds,
envoys, messengers. Shields, towers, forts, walls, ditches, were used for
defence, besides _Estopils_ a peculiar quilted armor. Flags, banners, and
standards were known. The calumets, leaves or green feathers, council
fires, and white flags were emblems of peace. Alliances and confederations
existed from earliest times, also the adoption of tribes and prisoners.
Slavery was hardly known; but vassalage much extended over conquered

Dresses and ornaments were quite various. Seal skins used by the Innuit.
Deer skins and furs by the tribes of North America. In tropical America
many tribes went nearly naked, with a mere apron or pagne of cotton or
grass cloth. But the civilized nations were decently clothed with cotton
shirts and feather mantles. The _Poncho_ is a true American dress known
from Mexico to Chili, hardly known out of America except Polynesia.(4)

Women wore long pagnes or gowns. They made cloths of lama wool in Peru; of
cotton, hemp, nettles, grass, feathers &c. there and elsewhere; either
twisted, plaited or woven. The Peruvians and Chilians had a peculiar loom
and plough. Cotton looms were used in Florida, Mexico, and all over South
America, even by the Caribs to make hamacs or hanging beds. Among some
nations women had the most labor to perform; yet even the men assumed
hunting, making canoes, huts, weapons, &c. More civilized tribes worked
together in the fields: The proud and warlike employed vassals or slaves.

Painting the body or face, was usual among many nations, but not general.
It was useful against heat and flies, or was used to inspire love or
terror. Ornaments to the head, ears, nose, lips, wrists, legs, &c., were
more or less adopted by men and women. The hair was usually worn long; but
many tribes cut it in various ways, as a crown or tuft. The beard even
when scanty was deemed unbecoming by many tribes, and totally eradicated;
but some tribes wore beards. The head was often left uncovered; but hats
were worn in the N. W. and Central America, turbans in Paria and Florida,
feather crowns in the tropics, _Lautas_ or diadem-bands in Peru and the
Andes. Shoes and gloves were unknown; but sandals, leggings, leather
clods, and mocassins or slippers of various substances, commonly used;
with singular snow shoes of bark in winter by northern tribes.


    AMERICAN CATACLYSMS _or Considerations on the Periods of American
    Geogony, Ontogony, Floods, and ancient population &c. of both

History does not merely consist in accumulating facts: these constitute
the annals of empires; but the real philosophical history has a nobler
aim. It seeks results, teaches lessons of wisdom, brands with infamy the
foes of mankind, and inspires veneration for the benefactors of the human
race. It presents examples worthy to be followed, and records the crimes
to be avoided.

The several departments of history that are distinguished as biography,
civil and ecclesiastical annals, moral and physical surveys of mankind,
comparative philology, archeology, chronology, mythology, &c. All combine
to instruct and amuse, to record the past and present, and to lead to
better future actions, an improved social order. The nations often forget
the wise lessons of time and experience; but they are continually recalled
to memory and view by the historians, who seek the truth, and setting
aside the sway of human passions or national prejudices, present the
faithful mirror of history to the eyes of posterity.

Such is my aim. American history has been so much despised or perverted,
that few lessons, have been drawn from it: yet it affords ample scope for
reflection, study and admiration. Nearly one half of the habitable globe,
during all the past ages, cannot fail to offer a variety of subjects, to
draw the attention of philosophy, wisdom and philanthropy: that mutual
benevolence of mankind, which ought ever to be felt; but is so often
discarded or forgotten through the contrary tendencies of pride, lust,
cupidity, and all the baneful passions.

The connections of historical facts with all the sciences, afford another
useful theme; that may vastly increase our comparative knowledge: much of
it has arisen, besides observation, from accurate comparison, analysis and
generalization, which combine to give results, enlarging the field and
sphere of human knowledge, in all its branches.

If we go back, by the help of geology, to the most remote periods of
existence and life in this hemisphere, we find it like the remainder of
the globe, immersed under the Ocean. There, in the depths of the briny
waves, the actual rocks now supporting the dry soil, were formed and
matured: superposed and intermingled by aquatic and volcanic phenomena and
cataclysms, if not by superadded aerial depositions. Then were formed the
primitive strata of America, ere life had begun to vivify the waters; then
were cast the Porphyries, Granites, Shales, Basalts, and other primitive
or volcanic rocks, that are now chiefly found in Boreal and Western
America, the Andes, Mts. Parima, and Brazil, the Austral and Boreal
Islands, Hayti and the Antilles. This was the first period of terrestial

After this period of unknown length, began the epocha of aquatic life;
when the breath of GOD, moving on the waters, gave life and motion to
organized aquatic beings; 1. Plants and Fucites, 2. Spongites and
Alcyonites, 3. Polyps and corals, 4. Worms and radials, 5. Sluggs and
shells, 6. Mollusca and Cephalopodes, 7. Trilobites and Crustacites....
All incipient vegetating beings, or inferior unbony animals, gradually
evolved and born in the waters of the Sea.... Followed by the more perfect
vertebrated aquatic animals, 8. Fishes and Sharks, 9. Snakes and reptiles;
lastly, 10. Seals and whales. Some of which require shallow water, to
dwell and breed.... This was the second period of American Creation:
_Aquatic life_.

The third epocha is that of the destruction of aquatic life, by cataclysms
and depositions, submarine volcanic cavernous eruptions or other causes,
throwing suddenly in a soft, sandy or muddy state, the substances that
have formed the secondary mountains or strata of psamites, argillites,
calcarites, carbonites, &c., that overwhelmed the aquatic tribes in their
way; which becoming therein entombed as living medals of this globe,
declare to us these mighty successive cataclysms or floods of sand, clay,
lime and coal; now met in vast regions, the Alleghanies and Central North
America, Florida and the Bahama Islands; the hills and plains of Brazil,
Chili, East Peru, and Central Maragnon.... This was the second period of
terrestrial formation in America, the third of successive eventful

The fourth must have been the rise of the land above the waters, if not
already partly begun. The epocha of terrestrial upheaving and distortion
of strata, by an awful inward force; either volcanic, or calorific, or of
growing crystalization; forming mountains and islands, raising them above
the Ocean; to become the nucleus of future Continents. The American
hemisphere had then probably two great islands, in the North and South,
with many smaller islands between them, in the tropical sea: the Alleghany
and Atlantis forming two others in the east, and many others studding the
two polar regions. The insulated mountain tract between Lake Nicaragua and
the long valley of Choco, must then have formed another Island of the
Antilles. Guyana or Parima was also another large island: while Brazil was
a vast peninsula attached to the Andes. I have endeavored to express this
first configuration of America in my two maps of North and South America;
when the Ocean was yet about 500 feet higher than it is actually. Whether
this cataclysm was contemporaneous throughout, or by successive throes
must be ascertained by Geogony.... This was the fourth period of
terrestrial events in this hemisphere; but the first of terrestrial
separate existence.

When the dry land had appeared, the creative power of GOD exerted upon the
virgin mould of the mountains, drew forth into life, Plants and Flowers,
Trees and Palms; with the successive terrestrial animals, 1. Worms and
Slugs, 2. Insects and Spiders, 3. Snakes and Reptiles, 4. Birds and Fowls,
5. Beasts and Bats. Streams began to flow, valleys were excavated in the
soft or yielding strata by heavy tides and powerful streams: then the
fishes of the sea ascended the rivers, and filled the streams and lakes. A
few shell and other aquatic animals sent also colonies into fresh
waters.... This was the fifth period of terrestrial events; that of
terrestrial life.

Meantime the land was continuing to rise, or the ocean to sink; the dry
soil was extending: land volcanoes began to appear in the Andes and
elsewhere, overwhelming some living tribes. The carbonic volcanoes had new
paroxysms, slaty mud involved terrestrial plants and trees in successive
eruptions: the clay mud or colored sand was forming tertiary strata on the
shores, involving sea animals, shells, reptiles and fishes.... This was
the sixth period of terrestrial events, that of land volcanoes.

After all these; mankind was created by GOD, and appeared as lord of the
earth, and the complement of living creation.... This may be deemed
another Period, if we like; although it was but the complement of the
terrestrial living productions, begun in the 5th, and probably proceeding
in the 6th. Where the first man or men appeared and dwelt, is unknown or
very dubious. Asia is commonly deemed the first dwelling of mankind, and
Central Asia or Thibet the cradle of our race: although China, India,
Arabia, Syria, Ceylon, &c., claim the same honor. But few authors have
placed this cradle in America, and even then not for the _Adamites_. Yet
America had some inhabitants before the flood, if we are to believe the
concurrent traditions of many American nations; who keep the memory of it,
and point to their refuges.(5)

Of these American Anti-diluvians we know little or nothing: their traces
are few and uncertain. It would be otherwise if we could identify them
with the anti-diluvian _Atlantes_, or find their diluvial remains. The
skeletons found in Guadaloupe, and on R. Santas of Brazil, by Captain
Elliott (described by Meigs in the transactions of American philosophical
society 1827) in tuffa with shells, may have been buried there; like the
mummies of many American caves. Some of the American mounds have appeared
anti-diluvian; but the fact is not well proved. The subterranean
antiquities are also of an equivocal character. The town of log houses
lately found in Georgia, buried under golden clysmian soil, cannot be so
remote; the soil instead of diluvial, may be a deep alluvial. All the
facts on these remote times, shall be hereafter collected, presented and
examined carefully.

Thus, has been presented by geological results, a rapid sketch of the
American periods, to the birth of mankind. These 6 periods or _yums_, are
well ascertained as to succession; but their duration is unknown: and each
of them includes several subordinate periods; which it is not needful to
investigate in these outlines. The works on geology may be consulted if
required. These 6 _yums_ or great periods do not answer exactly to the 6
_yums_ or manifestations of the mosaic cosmogony, since geogony begins
only with the 3d, ending with the 5th.

Such oriental accounts are always deserving our attention, and susceptible
of the deepest philosophical commentary, as they mainly agree with all the
detected facts. But there are at least 3 accounts of the creation or
cosmogony in the _Sepher_ or Hebrew Bible. 1. That of Job. 2. Of Moses in
chapter 2d of Genesis from verse 4 to 25; in both, no _yums_, days nor
periods are mentioned. 3. The usual mosaic account of chapter 1st. ending
only at ch. 2, v. 3. Even in this usual account more than 7 periods can be
found, including heaven, earth and men.

These are the real Mosaic periods, with his own names, very different from
the subsequent Jewish names, in various dialects.

1. PERIOD OF TIME OR YUM. BRA-SHITH Real beginning or Real Supreme Being
producing ALEIM the Angels, SHMIM Heavens, and ARTZ Earth.

2. YUM. THEU-UBEU Chaos, and THEUM Abyss, with RUH Spirit of God.

3. YUM. AUR Essence of celestial light or Ether. First divine
manifestation of _Mshe_ or Moses.

4. YUM. RKIO Expanse or sky, diversion of aerial and celestial fluids. 2d.

5. YUM. Sea and dry land, upheaving of land over the waters, or subsiding
of the ocean. Vegetation. 3d.

6. YUM. Sun and Moon appearance by a change in the misty atmosphere? with
XUXBIM stars? 4th.

7. YUM. Fishes and Fowls, &c. 5th.

8. YUM. Beasts and cattle, with ADM mankind or human emanation, our Adam,
ZXR male, and NKBE female. 6th.

9. YUM. _Shbioi_ seventh manifestation, _Aleim_ became IEUE Jehovah, the
living-self-with-self, the supreme or powerful self.

10. YUM. AD emanation, our mist.

11. YUM. ADM into GN or _Gan._ our Eden.

12. YUM. OTZ Growth, of lives with good and evil.

13. YUM. NER 4 flowing emanations or streams.

14. YUM. ASHE Intellectual man-mate, called afterwards EUA living
existence, our Eve.—Self-with-life.

All these periods should require long comments, and discussions, rather
physical than historical. It is by no means certain that the sun and moon
are implied in the 6th yum. The text says a couple of MARTH Centralities
EMAUR-GDL and EMAUR-KTN Self-great-ether greatest and lesser. Some have
seen here the solar and lunar dynasties of Asia. The XUX-BIM might be the
XRUBIM of later times. The real sun and moon may belong to the _yum_ of
AUR. The stars, according to Job, were in existence before the foundation
of the earth, and our astronomy teaches this implicitly.

In this cosmogony, the heavenly creation takes 4 periods. The grass grows
by light before the sun had appeared through the misty atmosphere, and the
fishes come after the land and herbs, at the same period with fowls. Our
actual geology does not confirm this last fact; but a proper explanation
of the biblic words would confirm the truth.(6)

Many still consider AISH intellectual man as the human race, previous to
_Adam_, father of the Adamites; but the concurrent proofs are very
slender: nor is their posterity known; unless _Nahash_ or the snakes,
_Elohim_ or the sons of God, the _Rephains_ or giants, and the _Nephilim_
or apostates, be considered as such. Indications of races of men different
from the Adamites may be collected both in the Bible, and in all the
ancient annals of China, India, Iran, &c.; but no positive connected
account has ever been made out as yet.

The _Nahash_, _Hareth_ or _Satan_ of the Bible, is identic with the
_Nagas_ (snakes) of the Hindus, the _Zabul_ and _Dives_, (devils) of Iran,
evidently men, and foes of the Adamites: they are also the U-long or
antidiluvian dragons of China. In America the satanic notions will be seen
in the respective account of religions. They often assume in this
hemisphere the appearance of volcanic ideas, or of a vampire malignant
being. But the nations of the Linapi group connect the ideas of devils,
snakes and foes, all called _Ako_ or _N’akho_ very similar with _Nahash_
and _Nagas_. They assert that they were created by the Evil Spirit, were
always foes of real men; that they caused the flood, and went afterwards
to America before the Strait of Behring was formed.—_See_ Linapi

The ALEIM, _Elohim_ or _Egregori_ or angels of the Hebrew were instead
sons of God, and Moses ascribes to them the creation of the earth; while
Job ascribes it to _Eloah_, the real God. Herder has said that we shall
never understand well the mosaic history, until we ascertain who were
these _Elohim_ and _Cherubim_(7) dwelling on earth. My dissertation on
anti-diluvian history may perhaps help to clear the matter; meantime it
may be stated that they appear to be the HO-LO of anti-diluvian Chinese
history, or LO-LO of their post-diluvian annals. Perhaps also the
celestial emperors beginning the history of China: the _Alorus_ first
dynasty of Assyria before the flood: the _Ang_-ELOS and P’EL of the
Pelagians. Also the H’ELLO (old men) of the Egyptians, the PELEI (old men
or ancestors) of the ancient Illyrians, the LAHI or ancient Thibetans.

They may be the ELEI or ancient Persians, the _Peris_ or _Pelis_ of Iran,
ancient beneficent beings. The Arabs and all the Semetic nation have
preserved that name for God, in EL, _Allah_, _Baal_, or made of it their
universal article _El_, _Al_, meaning HE or _the Being_: whence also the
Pelagic and Italic articles IL, L, LI, &c., the Spanish EL. By the
frequent usual change of L into R, we have ER root found in many languages
for men: forming the _Heros_ of Greece, sons of God; the HER or lords of
the Germanic tribes, the _Seres_ of Thibet or ancient Chinese, _Ergaz_ men
of the African Atlantes. _Erk_ man in Turkish or Turan Atlantes, akin to

In America these similar indications are widely spread, and among the most
ancient nations. EL means man in Tolteca and Mexican, OL is old and
_Yollo_ a spirit or angel. EL is son and tribe in Hayti, _Elohi_ is land
and spirit in Tzuluki. _Yol_ means _man_ in the Atakapa language of the
Cado or Nachez group. _Pele_ means the same in Lulé of South America; but
_Peli_ is soul in Chilian, which approximate to _Peleg_ and _Lelex_,
ancient Pelagian tribes. The connections with TEL, TAL, TOL, pervade the
whole of ancient America, and lead to assimilate with the TOL-tecas and
TALAS, American Atlantes, the Tulans or Asiatic Atlantes, the _Auto-Toles_
or African Atlantes. These lead to the giants of both hemispheres or
ancient men of renown. But the subject must be postponed, and will be
found resumed in the history of Austral and Central America, where these
atlantes and giants are found.

Returning from this digression; we may resume the geological periods of
America previous to mankind, in the six successive epochas, already

1. Period. Primitive, aquatic and before life.

2. Period of aquatic organic life.

3. Period of aquatic cataclysms.

4. Period of the dry land or islands.

5. Period of terrestrial life.

6. Period of terrestrial volcanoes.

After which begins the human period, till the flood. The question whether
man or men appeared together, or before or after, in both hemispheres;
must be left undecided. Some writers have even placed _Eden_ the GN of
Moses in America and the Hesperidian Islands of old; but as the Imalaya
mountains, valleys and plains, are higher than the Andes, older in
geological series, and more suitable for human life, not being volcanic:
it is extremely probable that they were the cradle of mankind, rather than

Yet men reached America before the flood, and were here at this eventful
period. But we are ignorant of the precise way they came, and how they
reached this land which was then only a group of large islands, unless
North America was united to Asia by Behring Strait, as very probable. The
clearest traditions point to the east, Africa and Europe then united at
the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Island Atlantis as a stepping place. The
Mexican traditions point to Asia, by two different opposite quarters, the
east and the north west. The Uskis or Innuit nations are late comers by
the north west. The Linapi nations, although earlier, came the same way,
and over the ice of Behring Strait, after its disruption. The Hongwis came
the same way, although they boast of being Autochtones, as did the Greeks,
which we know in both instances to be false.

The Nachez nations say they came from the east. The Olmecas or earliest
people of Anahuac point that way also; although both speak of an American
flood. The Haytians and Cubans were also of eastern origin, like all the
Aruac nations; but remembered the flood and parceling of the islands. The
Carib nations appear postdiluvians and the last come in South America; yet
the Tamanacs one of the group speak of an American flood. The Guarani call
themselves eastern men, and came from Africa after the flood. It is in
South America, the Andes of Chili, Peru, &c., that a positive memory was
found of several floods and cataclysms, in or near the Andes, which gave
refuge to several tribes. Yet it is there also that the most obvious
philological affinities are found with North Africa and the shores of the
Mediteranean; while many invasions of foreign later nations are recorded,

All these antidiluvian notions, and accounts of the American flood, will
be carefully collected and given. This will form the first period of human
history in America, extending to 2262 years at least, according to the
computation of the 70; the most plausible of all. The Tol-tecas reckon
nearly the same time between their period of creation and their main
flood: or with trifling differences, less than the various terms of
Josephus and others; but various other calculations are found in Anahuac.

Such a period of 23 centuries was certainly sufficient to people America,
and fill it. The Cainites or Cabils have been deemed parents of the
Atlantes and Africans. They were skilful, powerful and wicked, inventing
agriculture and arts, building cities &c.: while the Sethites invented
astronomy, letters and dwelt in tents. If the American Atlantes were
antidiluvian, they must have sprung from the Atlantes Cainites, KIN of

In 1170 years after Adam, the _Egregori_ angels of Mt. Ima, came to Mt.
Hermon, in 20 tribes, under their king Semi-Azar, and uniting with the
Cainites, gave birth to the _Rephaim_, _Nephilim_ and _Eliud_, tribes of
Giants, tyrants and Canibals: who made war on the angels and men. They are
said in the Bible to have gone to _Sheol_ (the lower world or South
America) with their king Belial: where they were drowned by the flood.
_See Universal History._

The Giants dwelt in _Talo-tolo_, the world _Tolo_ of the Hindus, where we
find the _Tol_-tecas (Tol-people:) therefore America: called also _Atala_
and once sunk in the waves; like the Atlantis of the Greek, whose Atlantes
were also Giants or powerful men. The Egregori have been deemed the Titans
of the Greeks, and Atlas was a Titan. Although Gigantic Nations existed in
America, the Talegas, Toltecas, Caribs, Chilians, &c. being often such:
the term Giant must always be understood to refer to powerful perverse
men. The names of _Rephaim_ and _Nephilim_ appear unknown in America,
being mere Hebrew epithets for giants and apostates.

During this primitive period, geological and physical changes probably
proceeded in America. The plains gradually appeared, but full of marshes,
lakes and wide streams, muddy volcanoes, snakes, crocodiles and obnoxious
animals. Which must have assailed mankind and greatly impeded their
settlements. Although the lives of men were perhaps longer than now; yet
it is probable that the long lives of the Patriarchs of this period,
allude to as many Dynasties or gradual nations sprung from each other. In
this I agree entirely with the learned Hebrew scholar D’Olivet.(8)

Huge beasts and carnivorous animals, dwelt then on earth; in America
several species of mastodons, elephants, oxen, megatherium, megalonyx,
hyenas, bears, &c., which prowled in plains and caves. The temperature of
the earth was higher; little clothing was needed. Men were at war with
beasts, and among themselves. Violence predominated in many regions, and
Noah one of the _M’nus_ of the Hindus, a patriarch of the Adamites, a
prophet according to the Arabs, went over the earth to preach against this
corruption. Not being attended to, he foresaw that a great calamity would
befall for these iniquities, and he prepared himself a THBE or refuge in
Central Asia: where he collected his relations and friends. Some say they
were 72, our translations of Moses reduces them to 8; but his 3 sons of
Noah, are evidently as many tribes. The THBE of Noah contained therefore 4
tribes, including his own, and many individuals, besides a multitude of

I do not give now the history of this flood. Before it can be given
accurately, we must collect all the scattered traditions about it, compare
them, and omitting all fabulous and obviously impossible details, form a
narrative of the whole facts. The notions and traditions of the Americans
are very various, as they do not always point to this flood. We find them
asserting that men were saved in mountains, or caves, on rafts or boats.
Few, if any, allude to an ark, but all to a refuge as THBE. Those of
Mexico and Peru, are contradictory, alluding to several floods, and
particularly the subsequent of Peleg.

The most explicit traditions on that score are those of the Linapi
nations; although the tribes vary the tale, the holy song of the real
Linapi tribe, alludes clearly to a great flood in Asia: when their nations
at least was partly saved in _Tula_ (the turtle land) in Central Asia, by
the help of a goddess, and Noah or _Nana-bush_. The men were then called
_Linowi_ and _Linapi_: two other races of men were saved, the _Owini_
(beings) and the _Tulapewi_, turtlings or atlantes. Besides these foes the
_Maskanako_ (strong snakes), _Nakowa_ (dark snakes), and the _Amangamek_,
monsters of the sea; who caused this dire flood. These notions are
strikingly similar to the Asiatic and Hindu fables about the turtle saving
mankind at the flood. _Nana-bush_ is evidently Noah, his name means
_Noah-Noah-hare_, or the _Great Noah_ and _Hare_.

The Chinese accounts of the first flood, do not allude to any ark, but
mountains were the refuge of mankind. The Hindu account is very near the
mosaic; but has no boat, and many persons were saved. The accounts of the
Assyrians, Arabs, Tartars, Egyptians, Lybians, Greeks, Celts, Polynesians,
&c. are all different. The mosaic account was borrowed from some ancient
source now forgotten. It is said that Noah himself wrote an account of the
flood, and preserved ancient records. Divesting the mosaic account from
the supernatural and the impossible, we obtain the real tradition of a
great aquatic cataclysm. Either a sinking of some lands or an irruption of
the ocean, attended with volcanic floods of waters from the Caspian sea
(as Humboldt says,) heavy rains, and a change of climate: which overflew
the earth or most of it; except some _Thebas_, refuges in mountains,
_swimming_ over the waters, as it were: there some men and tribes, many
animals, trees and plants were preserved: to spread afterwards again over
the earth.

After this flood, America was left pretty much as it is now, except that
the shores were higher yet, many flat plains inundated and full of
marshes. The Antilles yet united in larger islands and perhaps with
Cumana. The Strait of Choco nearly filled up: and diluvial soil, gravel,
sand, boulders and organic remains scattered over the land, the hills,
plains and caves. Many fierce beasts had disappeared, vegetation had been
destroyed wherever the flood went; but the buried seeds, and those of
mountain plants gradually grew or spread again. The terrestrial animals
and birds saved in the mountains, spread themselves again over the earth.
Mankind in despair at the disaster, kept for a long while on mountains,
and did not occupy again the desolated hills and plains, until many years

The Chinese account of this flood, state positively that it was attended
with a change in the length of the year, formerly of only 360 days, a
change in the seasons, an increase of cold, rain and winds: compelling men
to dress in skins and mats. Also that the wild beasts and snakes driven to
the mountains, became very troublesome, men being compelled to defend
themselves against their attacks.

The Rev. Gleig in his late history of the Bible, where like Hales and
Russel, he has at last adopted the computation of the Septuagint and
Josephus, reckons 5411 years from Adam to our era, the oriental Christians
reckon 5508 years, the Toltecas, reckoned 5099 years. Gleig puts Noah’s
flood 2259 years after Adam. The Chinese and Hindu chronology are partly
fabulous; but may be reconciled to these periods; as well as to the second
cataclysm of the earth; that of Peleg according to the Biblists. The only
knowledge the Bible gives about it, is that the earth was split, broken or
divided, in the time of the patriarch or dynasty of Peleg; who lived or
lasted from 531 to 870 after Noah’s flood. But David has sung this
cataclysm in the 18th psalm. The Chinese account brings this second flood
to the year 2296 before Christ, or 858 years after the former. The Hindu
account concealed in many fables agrees also with this period. But it
appears to have lasted longer, and many years. It is evidently in date the
mistaken Hebrew flood, blending both into one, and annihilating the place
between them. The Chinese account distinctly speaks of both, the first was
under _Yunti_, the second under _Yao_, and 42 emperors are mentioned
between the two floods.

In America, it is often difficult to distinguish which is meant by the
various imperfect traditions: yet in Mexico and Peru, there are at least
two cataclysms mentioned by the annals or traditions. Also among some
northern tribes. The Linapi annals or songs allude to the second, which
broke by volcanoes the _Lusasaki_ (burnt land) and separated America or
_Akomenaki_ (snake island) from Asia to Behring strait.

Thus the real antidiluvian periods lasted nearly 3000 years from Adam’s
epocha, or 3212 by oriental computation. The interval between Adam and
Noah ought to be called the Adamic period, that between Noah and Peleg’s
floods the Noahic period. It was at this last convulsion that the earth
took its actual form. The Straits of Gibraltar, Calais, Messina,
Hellespont, Bosphorus, Babelmandel, Behring, Malaca, Sunda, &c., were then
formed. The Atlantis Island in the Atlantic Ocean and the Island Lanca in
the Indian Ocean were sunk. The Azores, Madeira, Canaries, &c. are
fragments of the Atlantis: Ceylon, Madagascar, &c. the fragments of

In America, the Boreal islands may have been broken, like the British
islands of Europe. Some suppose that they might once join together with
Iceland. The Antilles were split in the actual form—Behring Strait divided
America from Asia. The Polynesia lands were broken or sunk. The lowlands
of Chili, Peru, and the Atlantic shores were inundated and then partly
left dry by huge volcanic tides. This cataclysm was not a mere aquatic
flood; but a violent volcanic flood, having at least three great focusses,
1. in the North Atlantic Ocean, 2. In the Indian Ocean, 3. In Polynesia or
the Pacific Ocean. In China all the lowlands were overflowed and partly
overwhelmed. The great Islands of Java and Sumatra were formed; which
formerly were united with Asia and several islands in the vicinity, under
the remembered name of _Sunda_ land.

If mankind had not reached America before Noah, it must surely have
reached it before this second cataclysm. The Atlantes were in the
neighbourhood and bold navigators, as well as the primitive Pelagians,
Lybians, Cantabrians; bearing then various peculiar names, mostly traced
in America. Twenty American nations have distinct remembrance of this
splitting of American lands and islands; local or partial floods, less
general and disastrous than the former.

This cataclysm was not so deadly to animals and vegetables as the former;
but it must have destroyed them in several sunken islands: and have added
second clysmian strata to the soil of the plains: with many volcanic
productions, chiefly clay and sand, limy and marshy muds. The memorials,
annals and traditions of the American nations are very scanty on this
period; difficult to be distinguished from the Adamic: while the monuments
to be referred to it, are not easily traced, nor distinct in form. The
_Linapi_ tribes had not yet reached America, and dwelt in Asia; but by
their account the Snake tribes _Akowi_ went to America in that period, led
by _Nakopowa_ (the Snake priest); it is even hinted that they caused this
cataclysm or at least the separation of Asia and America, at _Lusasaki_
(burnt land), in order to escape their foes, the _Elowi-chik_ (hunters) of
the _Linnapewi_, the original manly people.


    GENERAL VIEW _of the Ancient and Modern Annals of Both
    Americas.—european Colonies, Modern Fate Of Nations, Late Physical
    Changes, &c._

After these floods begin the primitive annals of mankind in America as
elsewhere; but still scanty, obscure and involved in fables, by
personifications of tribes, metamorphoses into animals, plants, fruits or
even stones and mountains. The origin of nearly all the nations is neither
clear nor well ascertained, by their mere annals; but the collateral
proofs of the languages facilitate the enquiry. Those who have the most
positive facts of primitive times are the Ongwis, Linapis, Toltecas,
Tainos, Peruvians, &c.; but commonly destitute of dates and correct
details. We ought not to be surprised at this, since even in Asia (except
in China,) we possess nothing but fragments on those times; while the most
polished nations of oldest times, the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Arabs,
Jews, &c. have involved their early histories in fables, mythologies and
false dates.

However, whatever might be the early origin of the American nations, it
may be collected from all, that in the ancient periods; they were few in
number and in population; principally confined to some peculiar seats of
civilization: such as the regions of Apalacha, Hayti, Anahuac, Oaxaca,
Chiapa, Maya, Cundina, Oronoc, and Peru. We have positive proofs of early
empires and splendid monumental cities at Teoti-huacan, Otolum, Coban &c.
in Central America; and in South America at Chimu, Tiahuanaco &c.; while
cities and monuments of a lesser order or size, were scattered afterwards
from the Lakes of Canada and the River Ohio, to Chili and Brazil: probably
through the dispersion and colonization of these early empires or

After they had filled the most fruitful or suitable regions, carrying with
them agriculture, domestic animals, religion, laws and various graphic
systems: they were invaded by tribes less civilized; but more warlike;
principally in North America, and in Guyana, Brazil &c. Many revolutions
must have followed these contests: some of which are recorded in the
Apalachian region of the United States, in the Mexican table land, in
Hayti &c. and by the Muyzcas, Peruvians &c. further south: while in Guyana
and Brazil the annals are lacking, and the traces of these conflicts but
faint; yet certified by some traditions and the new tribes introduced.

The solar worship prevailed among the most civilized nations and empires:
that of Naguals or Zemis (spirits) among those of the second degree. The
least civilized nations had either adopted the Dualism or a mixed
religion: while the barbarous tribes knew only a kind of _Tao_ religion as
in China,(11) or a fetichism, venerating one or many objects of nature.
But these four main worships, were subject to many fluctuations, and
diversities: they had often degenerated into a Polytheism, and idolatry,
with various rites, and some cruel customs, human sacrifices &c. A kind of
priesthood was almost universal and formed a peculiar caste in many
states. The legislators and rulers had often been priests, and became
pontifs as well as kings, in Cuzco, Chimu, Tunca, Mayapan, Cholula,
Manazicas &c.

During a period of 2 or 3000 years after the floods, the earth had
undergone many changes by volcanoes, earthquakes and the subsiding of the
sea. Many valleys were drained, their lakes lessened or disappeared; the
shores of the Atlantic from New Jersey to Florida and Yucatan, and from La
Plata to Magellania, as well as those of Peru, Chili &c. were increased by
the gradual retreat of the sea. The great plains of the Mississippi,
Oronoc, Maranon and Parana were also formed or drained of their swamps and

It is at the end of this epocha, equal to the antecedent antidiluvian
period, that the real or certain history of the Americans begins with many
details and dates; both in the north and south. It was then that the
empires of the Toltecas, Utatlans, Mexicans, Apalachis, Mayapans, Incas
&c. were established on the ruins of many anterior states. We obtain by
the annals preserved or recovered of many such nations, a tolerable view
of this part of their history, and even an insight into earlier times,
when similar revolutions must have happened. If many states or nations
rose and fell in this hemisphere, unknown to the other: it was a common
fate with others in Africa, Polynesia and even in Asia. But we may hope to
rescue their names if not their deeds, from total oblivion, by seeking
their monuments, and the fragments of human tribes they left to mourn
their fate.

In this period some American nations rose to a degree of splendor and
civilization, with knowledge of arts and sciences, little inferior to
Greeks and Romans; and superior to the European nations of the middle
ages, even down to 1492: quite equal at least to that of the Egyptians and
Hindus. The American graphic systems of Apalacha, Anahuac, Maya, Otolum,
Peru; although peculiar, were quite sufficient to transmit knowledge in
books, schools and inscriptions. This high civilization was not merely
confined to Mexico and Peru, as often erroneously supposed; but was
scattered from the Apalachis and Nachez of Florida to the Chilians south
of Peru, filling the whole intermediate space.

Although war and slavery prevailed in many parts, they were modified by
the usage of adoption for individuals and whole tribes, mutual alliances,
confederacies &c.: while slavery was changed into a feodal vassalage. The
feodal system and the castes prevailed in all civilized nations of
America, as in India and Asia from earliest time.

Instead of perpetual wars the ancient annals of America, present us with
the soothing view of wise legislators, who gave civilization and happiness
to millions for ages, and conquered by deeds of peace. Such were most of
the conquests of the Bohitos, Bochicas, Incas, Quetzals, Cuculcans,
Tzomes, Maponos, Tamanends, Tarenyos &c. worthy lawgivers of the Antilles,
Muyzcas, Peru, Anahuac, Mayas, Guaranis, Manazicas, Linapis, and Ongwis. I
shall revive, with pleasure, their memory and deeds, dwelling on them with
more pleasure than on the cruel war leaders.

To them the Americans were indebted for their policy, diplomacy,
alliances, agriculture and knowledge, with the peculiar happy mode of
holding the land in common or feodal tenure, with property in tenements
and moveables. To them may be traced the introduction of useful plants,
the maize, cotton, quinoa, patatas, yams, manioc, banana, gourds, beans,
and 100 other cultivated plants and fruits. The Mexicans had even botanic
gardens and pleasure grounds before the modern Europeans. The universities
of Cuzco, Tunca, Tezcuco, Cholula, Mayapan, Utatlan &c. were founded
earlier than the European universities by such benefactors of mankind; and
112 domestic animals had been tamed in America, while only 80 in the
eastern hemisphere. Of which must be reckoned.(12)

                    In the W.         In the Eastern.
Quadrupeds          33 kinds          only 25 kns.
Birds               32                25
Reptiles            15                10
Fishes              12                10
Insects             8                 4
Shells and worms    12                6

The modern history of America since 1492 presents a multitude of events
with regular dates: but the historians of these later times instead of
dwelling upon the native nations, appear to notice them merely _en
passant_! while relating at length the discoveries, conquests and wars of
the European adventurers and colonists.

It is not thus that we are to notice them; but as equal nations. Now that
after four ages, these colonies are also become independent nations, and
begin to nurse American feelings, we ought to feel for them, and reveal
the truth. It is not number nor dominion alone that constitute a people;
but a peculiar language, and peculiar manners. The modern history of the
Araucanians, Guaranis, Caribs, and North American tribes, is the best
known by peculiar fragments; but similar fragments may be collected on
many other tribes.

Meantime Columbus came, another leader of colonists to America; since many
had come before him: and with him came the ferocious gold hunters of
Castille; who in their greedy search after golden wealth, trampled under
foot, both religion and humanity. They enslaved, tortured and destroyed
millions of human beings from Hayti to Mexico and Peru; but were checked
at last in Florida, Chili, Tologalpa, Santa Marta &c. They overthrew many
flourishing states, and erected over them a slavish colonial fabric, soon
after sunk in sloth and ignorance.(13)

The dissentions of Mexico and Peru were the cause of their ruin and
subjugation by the Spaniards; but the Floridans, Apaches Tayronas, Poyays,
Caribs, Mbayas, Chilians &c. withstood forever their utmost efforts, and
never were conquered. The happy states of Yucatan, Guatimala, Tunca,
Hayti, Cuba &c. fell by their unwarlike and peaceful friendly disposition;
being cruelly betrayed and desolated.

In the east, Brazil was occupied by the Portuguese, where a bastard tribe
of Mamalucos were born; who sought for slaves and gold, from Guayana to
Paraguay, and destroyed many tribes. After these unworthy freebooters,
came the rabble of pirates and buccaneers to revenge American wrongs, upon
the Spaniards and Portuguese by deeds of cruelty. Thus was America flooded
with blood, and groaning in tears for nearly three centuries. But even
these horrible deeds were not the only ones to deplore. Not satisfied with
the weak labor of American slaves; another continent was overrun, to
supply stronger hands, and Africa was made to contribute millions of
slaves to swell American population, or sink there to premature death
under the lashing scourge of cruel tasks.

The English, French, and Dutch wishing to partake of the American spoils,
went in search of wealth all over the shores of this continent. Not
satisfied with mere trading colonies, as in India, they sent stationary
colonies of slaves and planters, to occupy some weak points, with or
without the consent of the nations. The Dutch settled in Brazil, Surinam,
Curazao and New York. The French in Canada, Louisiana, Florida, Hayti, the
Carib Islands, Cayenne and Brazil; but have gradually lost all those
colonies, except Cayenne and a few Carib Ids.

The English nation, more daring, steady and lucky, occupied with their
auxiliaries, the Scotch and Irish, some points of the Atlantic shores,
many Carib Islands &c.: by conquest they acquired New York, Canada,
Demerary, Jamaica and some smaller islands. Since, whenever the Europeans
were at war among themselves, they carried their quarrels over the ocean,
and endeavored to destroy each other. Laterly among them arose in North
America the holy flame of freedom and independence, which has been
travelling and spreading throughout the continent, ever since.

But among these contending colonies and slaving plantations, how were the
owners of the soil, treated and dealt with? Alas! seldom with
justice—Popes and kings gave away lands and rights, which did not belong
to them; nobles and merchants, availing themselves of this doubtful right,
bought with trifling presents the good will of some tribes, or drove them
away by force. Thus were settled most of the American colonies; except a
few, attempted in a spirit of religion and peace.

The worthy Las-Casas, immortal be his name! gave the example of reducing
unsubdued tribes to peaceful allies, by words and deeds of peace and
piety, and Tezutlan thus reduced by him was called Verapaz. When the
Spanish and Portuguese freebooters were sunk in wealth and sloth; they
found it very convenient to employ the Jesuits and other monks to subdue
for them whole tribes and nations, by this easy mode. In North America,
Roger Williams and William Penn, blessed be their names! settled colonies
without strife, and by mere good will towards the owners of the soil. But
every where the foes or successors of these missionaries of peace,
deceived or betrayed the allies they had made. Unjust wars were the
natural consequence, in which the rightful party, did not often prevail,
being overpowered by strength and cunning.

Meantime the independent period opens a new era for America. In 1776 the
United States of North America confederate and become free. Seventeen
years afterwards the black slaves of Hayti unfurl the standard of broken
chains. Between 1808 and 1820 the whole of Spanish America shakes the weak
power of Spain. In 1822 the whole of Brazil becomes an American empire.
Slavery is abolished in all the Spanish states, only retained in the
colonies of Cuba and Porto Rico. In 1834 England emancipates the slaves of
all her colonies. Slavery was gradually excluded from many states of N.
America, at early periods; but others from Virginia to Louisiana are
tenacious of these unholy and dangerous bonds.

Now, the native American tribes within the claimed territories of these
new independent nations, are under a sort of pupilage, and often
oppressed: although no longer slaves from Canada to Chili. Brazil alone
admits of indescriminate slavery, and will rue the consequence at some
future period, like those colonies and states that delay wiser measures.
Meanwhile at the two ends of America, in Canada and the United States, as
in Buenos Ayres, a new kind of oppression has appeared. Land stealing and
compulsory sales! unhallowed means to increase wealth, nearly as guilty as
the precious Spanish gold hunting.

The United States which ought to set the wisest example, of justice and
clemency, towards reduced tribes, diminished by vices taught instead of
virtues, are doing the reverse. They refuse to amalgamate the native
tribes, admit them to equal rights, as in the new Spanish States; but
compel them to submit to laws not understood, in a language untaught, or
disqualify them for witnesses. They compel them to remove, emigrate,
disperse, sell their lands and homes, at one tenth of the value; and this
is called fair dealing!

Notwithstanding that the European states or colonies, occupy or claim,
nearly the whole of both Americas; yet there are many vast regions as yet
unsettled by them, and where dwell or wander several free tribes,
particularly in the Arctic wilds, in Oregon, California, Texas, the
Missouri plains, New Mexico, Sinaloa, Tologalpa, in N. America—and in S.
America in the vast plains and deserts of the Oronoko, Maranon, Brazil,
Chaco, Chili and Magellania. The most prominent of these modern tribes are
the Uskis or Esquimaux, the Dinnis, the Chopunish, Dacotas or Sioux, Panis
or Skerés, Washas or Ozages, Chactas, Tzulukis, Apaches or Cumanches,
Poyays or Musquitos &c. In South America, the Aruacs, Caribs, Omaguas,
Maynas, Aymaras, Puris, Mbayas, Araucas, Talahets or Pampas &c. All
divided into many lesser tribes and independent communities.

Instead of endeavoring to civilize them by fair means and deeds of peace,
many continue to be exasperated by unfair dealings, greedy traders,
intemperance, and above all by killing their game, and stealing their
lands. Some missions are established from Groenland to Chili; but the
intercourse of the majority is with traders, trappers, land-hunters or
squatters, and the military of the frontiers: from whom they can imbibe no
very favorable idea of their oppressors.

How is this to end? Is it really intended to grasp the whole continent,
and make these fragments of nations, aliens on their own soil? or to
annihilate them at last? Beware! men of bad faith, or greedy of landed
wealth! There is a God in heaven, and he deals justly with nations as with
men. He may find means to punish you, if you continue to violate the
sacred laws of mankind. The desperate tribes, either become stronger by
concentration, or acquired knowledge, may fall on you at last, like so
many Goths and Vandals, Huns and Tartars, to revenge their wrongs, and
desolate this land wrongly acquired. Or among you will arise Agrarian
sects, that will deprive your children of this landed property so unjustly
acquired and held.

Be wise and just in time, if cupidity does not blind you, imitate the
happy policy of Mexico, Guatimala, Peru &c. that has admitted the natives
to equality and citizenship. Do better still, allow them to form peculiar
states and territories, preserving their languages and laws, and admit
these states into your confederacies. Then you will be secure, and both
live in peace, increasing and multiplying as time rolls on. There is land
enough for all, and to spare. What need has a man of 1000 acres of land;
while 100 can support a large family! in the cold climates, and 10 acres
in the fruitful tropical climates, where thrive the banana and the sugar
cane. If hunters require a large wilderness to sustain their mode of life,
greedy worshippers of mammon wish for 10,000 acres to hold waste for
speculation! or to fill with plantations of slaves and tenants, in order
to become lords of future generations; but the real wise and active men,
the props of society, are content with moderate, secure estates, which
they may improve and beautify into smiling gardens.

The modern intercourse of the two hemispheres has been productive of much
more misery, than mutual benefit. The Americans have received the European
cattle without imparting to Europe, their equally useful Peruvian cattle;
they have received the horse, and often adopted him as a friend, to become
Tartars and Arabs by his help, so as to retaliate mischief on the cruel
Spaniards. Some European fruits and grains have been received and
cultivated: while all have been introduced into the colonies. Woolen
cloth, blankets, iron and copper kettles, tools, trinkets, guns and
gunpowder, with the liquid poisons of the still, have been spread by
trade. These last with horses and guns, have been the chief deadly weapons
of Europe against America.(14)

In return, Europe has received gold, silver and precious furs: pearls and
diamonds, cochineel, annato, indigo, die woods, vicunia wool, cacao,
vanilla, gum elastic and many other useful or medical articles. Maize,
returning east whence it came; with tobacco, a loathsome weed of heathen
growth and rites. Human knowledge has been increased, and trade greatly
enlarged; the tame cavias, with turkeys and musky-ducks have been
transmitted. Thus Europe has been the gainer, and was for a long while
jealous of these treasures.(15)

Under the pious guise of hypocrisy, the heavenly religion of Jesus, was
offered or forced upon many American nations, by the same men, who were
behaving worse than heathens, worshipping gold and mammon with the earth
itself, bathed in human blood and tears; introducing slavery and over
toils; exulting in deeds of cruelty, revenge, wanton lust, cupidity and
avarice; with all the other anti-christian vices. If Mexico had ghastly
idols and cruel rites; Hayti, Cuba, Bogota, Peru &c. had not; but
peaceful, harmless worships: to which was substituted the papal worships
of other idols, saints and monks. The pure undefiled religion of love and
peace to all mankind, was seldom introduced in America, even by the
Jesuits—except by the heavenly Las-Casas, the friendly quakers, the humane
moravians, and a few other christian missionaries. All the sects of
christianity have now spread to America, and even some arisen there; nay,
the Jews have reached this continent, with a few Mahometans, Hindus,
Chinese, Budhists &c. Thus all the religions of the earth are now found in
this hemisphere, by the tolerance and freedom of opinions lately
proclaimed in many parts.

Great has been the influence of 3 or 4 ages, on the American tribes, that
have been enslaved, or in frequent communication with the nations of
Europe—not in religion alone; but in dress, manners, knowledge,
civilization and pursuits. The alphabetical writing has been introduced
among them, the Tzulukis have invented a syllabic alphabet; some arts, and
the pastoral nomadic life have been adopted. In the boreal regions, the
English and Russians employ the hunting tribes as providers of furs. In
South America the native tribes are often skillful fishermen or traders.

Upon the whole, the late prospects of America are cheering. Many
independent nations have sprung, which deem themselves Americans, and love
their homes. A general spirit of tolerance and peace is spreading, the
true religion of the heart better understood; and a disposition is
evincing to render tardy justice to the oppressed tribes, and the poor
slaves. Those who wish oppression and intolerance to be perpetuated, are
not many in this continent, at present; they will be fewer still in half a
century or the year 1892.

Thus, mankind lives in fluctuations of mind and manners. A few ages have
been sufficient to produce these mighty changes. Meanwhile, nature
although changing slower, is still at work on the soil of this hemisphere.
Since 1492 volcanoes have appeared and disappeared, the sea shores have
receded, the lakes are falling, the streams are lessening, the mountains
are crumbling, the swamps are draining: immense forests have been cut, and
changed into ploughed fields, hills have been cut or ploughed, roads,
causeways and canals made, splendid cities have been built, with
innumerable towns and villages. The deltas of the Mississippi and
Magdalena have been cultivated, many mines dug for metals or coals. The
face of the country has been quite changed in these new seats of
civilization; in the regions of Apalacha from Canada to Louisiana, in
Guyana, Brazil; but in the western regions from Mexico to Chili,
agriculture has rather receded: they had at least as many towns and fields
in ancient times.

Earthquakes and irruptions of the sea have caused sad changes in other
parts, gulfs have been formed on the coast of Cumana, Callao twice sunken
in volcanic tides, mountains and cities overthrown from Popayan to Chili:
while the alluvial formations proceed along the streams and shores; their
floods are perennials, increasing deltas and islands: Hurricanes scatter
ruins and dismay over the Antilles, whirlwinds prostrate strips of
forests. The spouting springs and earthy volcanoes eject water, mud, clay
and marl, pitch and other substances. The water volcanoes drown valleys
and cities, have ruined Guatimala, and desolated Quito. Mexico near a lake
and often overflowed by it, is now distantly removed; the lake having been
drained by nature and art jointly combined.(16)

These rapid sketches and views offer a connected picture of men and soil,
in this hemisphere, during the ages past. The detailed local annals of the
various nations, will enlarge the subject, and present the required
outlines of the ancient and modern events of both.


After these general topics on American history, I had proposed to enter
upon the peculiar annals of nations, beginning by Peru and Austral
America; but wishing to give in this first volume something still more
novel and striking, I have concluded to begin by the original unpublished
annals of the Linapis, and the neglected traditions of the Haytians; who
assert to have come into America, by the north west, and the second
through the Atlantic Ocean. I hear besides that a French traveller
D’Orbigny, is now publishing in Paris, his travels in Austral and Peruvian
America, with 60 vocabularies of languages: where I may perhaps find
additioned materials for the history of those regions.


    _Original Annals and Historical Traditions of the_ LINAPIS, _from
    the creation to the flood, passage and settlements in America, as
    far as the Atlantic Ocean &c., till 1820 &c._

We have but few real American Annals, given in the original peculiar
style. Those of Mexico, Guatimala, Apalacha, Hayti, Peru, &c., have all
been translated by abridgements or paraphrases. Those of the _Ongwi_ by
Cusick come nearest to the aboriginal form, using the usual
personifications and animalizations of tribes, so common all over America
and Asia; but so often misunderstood: having perplexed and disgusted the
commentators or translators; who did not seize this form of style. Even in
China, the primitive inhabitants often bear the names of beasts, _Lung_
dragons, _Chi_ birds, _Yao_ wolf, _Miao_ tygers. In India we find snakes,
monkeys, lions &c. Early in Europe are dogs _Canari and Cynetes_, satyrs,
lions &c., syrens, harpies, pegasus, centaurs, faunes, cyclops &c.(17)

In the Antilles the first inhabitants were called beasts or _Caracol_,
turtles _Icota_, birds, opossums, seals, trees, stones, even gourds and
fruits.—(Roman’s Trad.) In Peru we find tygers, lions, giants, pygmies,
snakes &c. In Mexico, birds, apes, snakes, tygers, giants &c. While
throughout North America we find tribes of beavers, turtles, wolves, dogs,
deer, birds. We must learn to appreciate this primitive form of speech and
style, as allegorical names of men &c. It is very needful in order to
understand the following narratives.

Having obtained, through the late Dr. Ward of Indiana, some of the
original _Wallam-Olum_ (painted record) of the Linapi tribe of Wapahani or
White River, the translation will be given of the songs annexed to each:
which form a kind of connected annals of the nation. In the illustrations
of this history, will be figured the original glyphs or symbols, and the
original songs, with a literal translation, word for word. This will
furnish a great addition to our knowledge of American graphics and
philology; but here the annals are chiefly interesting historically. I
have translated, however, all the historical and geographical names, so as
to afford a better clue to the whole.(18)

We knew by all the writers who have had friendly intercourse with the
tribes of North America, that they did possess, and perhaps keep yet,
historical and traditional records of events, by hieroglyphs or symbols,
on wood, bark, skins, in stringed wampuns &c.; but none had been published
in the original form. This shall be the first attempt. Lederer saw 200
years ago in Carolina, wheels of 60 rays, recording events of 60 years.
Humboldt has mentioned the glyphical symbols of the Hurons on wood, seen
by the Jesuits. Heckwelder saw the _Olumapi_ or painted sticks of the
Linapis; but did not describe them; he merely translated some of their
traditional tales: which agree in the main, with these historical songs;
yet the songs appear mere abridgments of more copious annals, or the bases
of the traditions. The Ninniwas or Chipiwas, the Ottowas, the Sakis and
Shawanis &c., all Linapi tribes, have such painted tales and annals,
called _Neobagun_ (male tool) by the former. Tanner has figured some of
these pictured songs or _Neobagun_, in his interesting Narrative. Loskiel
has stated that the Linapis had complete genealogies, with symbols
expressing the deeds of each king. Beatty in 1766 saw records 370 years

Out of these materials and other kept by the Ozages, Cowetas, Tzulukis,
Panis &c., might be formed or restored a peculiar graphic system of north
America, different from the Mexican system; and probably once imported
from Asia: where it may be compared with the graphic symbols of the
Kuriles, Yakuts, Koriaks &c., indicated by Humboldt; but which are unknown
to me. Meantime I shall give materials for such researches in my
illustrations. The symbols, when met alone, were inexplicable; but by
obtaining the words or verses, (since they must commonly be sung) we may
acquire enough to lead on further enquiries. The most obvious peculiarity
of this system, is that each symbol applies to a verse or many words; as
if the ideas were amalgamated in the compound system: yet they may often
be analyzed, and the elements ascertained or conjectured, by their

These historical songs of the Linapi, are known to but few individuals,
and must be learned with much labor. Those obtained, consist of 3 ancient
songs relating their traditions previous to arrival in America, written in
24, 16 and 20 symbols, altogether 60. They are very curious, but destitute
of chronology. The second series relates to America, is comprised in 7
songs, 4 of 16 verses of 4 words, and 3 of 20 verses of 3 words. It begins
at the arrival in America, and is continued without hardly any
interruption till the arrival of the European colonists towards 1600. As
96 successive kings or chiefs are mentioned, except ten that are nameless:
it is susceptible of being reduced to a chronology of 96 generations,
forming 32 centuries, and reaching back to 1600 years before our era. But
the whole is very meagre, a simple catalogue of rulers, with a few deeds:
yet it is equal to the Mexican annals of the same kind. A last song, which
has neither symbols nor words, consisting in a mere translation, ends the
whole, and includes some few original details on the period from 1600 to

The orthography of the Linapi names is reduced to the Spanish and French
pronunciation, except SH as in English, U as in French, W as Hou.

If any one is inclined to doubt this historical account; the concurrent
testimonies of Loskiel and Heckewelder are my corroborant proofs. The
words of Loskiel are these.

“The Delawares keep genealogies, with the character of each man, if wise,
rich, renowned, or a mighty warrior. They use _hieroglyphs_ on wood, trees
and stones, to give caution, information, communicate events,
achievements, keep records. Some time the hero has at his feet, men, heads
or weapons. They have also paintings on skins of deeds, hunts, feats &c.

1. _Song._—_The Creation &c._

1. At first there was nothing but sea-water on the top of the land. _Aki._

2. There was much water, and much fog over the land, and there was also
KITANI-TOWIT, the God-creator.

3. And this God-creator was the first-being (_Saye-wis_), an eternal
being, and invisible although every where.

4. It was he who caused much water, much land, much cloud, much heaven.

5. It was he who caused the sun, the moon and the stars.

6. And all these he caused to move well.

7. By his action, it blew hard, it cleared up, and the deep water ran off.

8. It looks bright, and islands stood there.—_Menak._

9. It was then, when again the _God-Creator_ made the makers or

10. And also the first beings _Owiniwak_, and also the angels
_Angelatawiwak_, and also the souls _Chichankwak_, all them he made.(20)

11. And afterwards he made the man-being JIN-WIS, ancestor of the men.(21)

12. He gave him the first mother NETA-MIGAHO, mother of the first beings

13. And fishes he gave him, turtles he gave him, beasts he gave him, birds
he gave him.

14. But there was a bad spirit _Makimani_, who caused the bad beings
_Makowini_, black snakes _Nakowak_, and monsters or large reptiles

15. And caused also flies, and caused also gnats.

16. All the beings were then friends and stood there.

17. Thou being KIWIS, good God WUNAND (these are 2 gods) and the good
makers or spirits were such.

18. With the Jins NIJINI, the first men, and the first mother, their
wives, which were Fairies _Nantinewak_.(23)

19. The first food of the Jins and Fairies was a fat fruit _Gattamin_.

20. All were willingly-pleased, all were easy-thinking, and all were

21. But after awhile a Snake-priest, _Powako_, brings on earth secretly
the Snake worship _Initako_, of the god of the Snakes WAKON.(24)

22. And there came wickedness, crime and unhappiness.

23. And bad weather was coming, distemper was coming, with death was

24. All this happened very long ago, at the first land _Netamaki_, beyond
the great ocean _Kitahikan_.

_2d Song. The Flood &c._

1. There was long ago a powerful snake _Maskanako_, when the men had
become bad beings _Makowini_.

2. This strong snake had become the foe of the Jins, and they became
troubled, hating each other.

3. Both were fighting, both were spoiling, both were never peaceful.

4. And they were fighting, least man _Mattapewi_ with dead-keeper

5. And the strong snake readily resolved to destroy or fight the beings
and the men.

6. The dark snake he brought, the monster (_Amangam_) he brought, snake
rushing-water he brought.

7. Much water is rushing, much go to hills, much penetrate, much

8. Meantime at TULA, at that island, NAMA-BUSH (the great hare _Nana_)
became the ancestor of beings and men.

9. Being born creeping, he is ready to move and dwell at TULA.(25)

10. The beings and men (_Owini and Linowi_) all go forth from the flood
creeping in shallow water, or swimming afloat, asking which is the way to
the turtle back TULAPIN. (This verse like many others is in rhymes, and
metre of 9 words of 3 syllables.)

11. But there were many monsters (_Amangamek_) in the way, and some men
were devoured by them.

12. But the daughter of a spirit, helped them in a boat, saying come,
come, they were coming and were helped. (The name of the boat or raft is

13. Nanabush, Nanabush, became the grandfather of all, the grandfather of
the beings, the grandfather of the men, and the grandfather of the
turtles. (This is the beginning of a hymn to Nanabush, in rhymes, lasting
for 4 verses.)

14. The men were there, the turtle there, they were turtling altogether.
(_Tulapewi_ are the turtle-men.)

15. He was frightened, he the turtle, he was praying, he the turtle, let
it be to make well.

16. Water running off, it is drying, in the plains and the mountains, at
the path of the cave, elsewhere went the powerful action or motion.

_3d Song. Fate after the Flood._

1. After the flood, the manly men _Linapewi_, with the manly turtle beings
dwelt close together at the cave house, and dwelling of _Talli_.

2. It freezes was there, it snows was there, it is cold was there.

3. To possess mild coldness and much game, they go to the northerly plain,
to hunt cattle they go.

4. To be strong and to be rich the comers divided into tillers and
hunters. _Wikhi-chik_, _Elowi-chik_.

5. The most strong, the most good, the most holy, the hunters they

6. And the hunters spread themselves, becoming northerlings, easterlings,
southerlings, westerlings. _Lowaniwi_, _Wapaniwi_, _Shawaniwi_,

7. Thus the white country _Lumonaki_, north of the turtle country, became
the hunting country of the turtling true men.

8. Meantime all the snakes were afraid in their huts, and the snake priest
_Nakopowa_ said to all, let us go.

9. Easterly they go forth at Snakeland _Akhokink_, and they went away
earnestly grieving.

10. Thus escaping by going so far, and by trembling the burnt land
_Lusasaki_ is torn and is broken from the snake fortified land.

11. Being free, having no trouble, the northerlings all go out,
separating, at the land of Snow _Winiaken_.

12. The fish resort to the shores of the gaping sea, where tarried the
fathers of white eagle and white wolf. _Waplanewa_, _Waptumewi_.

13. While our fathers were always boating and navigating, they saw in the
east that the snake land was bright and wealthy. (Here begins a fine
poetical rhyming narrative).—_See Last Note._

14. The head-beaver _Wihlamok_, and the big-bird _Kicholen_, were saying
to all, let us go to the Snake Island _Akomen_.

15. By going with us, we shall annihilate all the snaking people,

16. Having all agreed, the northerlings and easterlings, went over the
water of the frozen sea to possess that land.

17. It was wonderful when they all went over the smooth deep water of the
frozen sea, at the gap of the Snake sea in the great ocean.

18. They were ten thousand in the dark, who all go forth in a single night
in the dark, to the Snake island of the eastern land _Wapanaki_ in the
Dark, by walking all the people.—OLINI.(27)

19. They were the manly north, the manly east, the manly south; with manly
eagle, manly beaver, manly wolf; with manly hunter, manly priest, manly
rich; with manly wife, manly daughter, manly dog. (12 words all
homophonous rhymes.)

20. All coming there, they tarry at Firland _Shinaking_. But the western
men doubtful of the passage, preferred to remain at the old turtle land.

Thus end these interesting and positive ancient traditions, by a fine poem
on the passage to America over the ice; the Shawanis have a similar poem:
the Illinois had also one, and almost every Linapi tribe. They are perhaps
lost; but this being at last rescued, will preserve the memory for ever.
Now begin the second series of songs, in a different style, seldom
rhyming, but made metrical by an equal number of words in each verse, 4 in
the 4 first which carry the tribe till their conquest of the _Talegas_;
but only 3 in the 3 later poems on the subsequent history. Thus these
songs diminish in details as they advance; but they are mere abridgment of
better annals now probably lost. Numbers shall be annexed to each
successive king or ruler, so as to compute the generations.

1. _Song. At Shinaki till the 10 Kings or Civil Wars._

1. Long ago, the fathers of men were then at _Shinaki_ or Firland.

2. The path leader was the white eagle (_Wapalanewa 1_), who leads them
all there.

3. The Snake island was a big land, a fine land, and was explored by them.

4. The friendly souls, the hunting souls, the moving souls, in assembly

5. All say to him, beautiful-head (_Kolawil 2_) be thou king there.

6. The snakes are coming, thou killest some, to Snake hill, let them all

7. All the snakes were quite weak, and concealing themselves at the Bear

8. After Kolawil, white owl (_Wapagokhos_ 3) was king at the Firland.

9. After him there _Ianotowi_ (4 true maker) was king, and many things he

10. After him there _Chilili_ (5 snowbird) was king, who says let us go

11. To spread the fathers of men _Wokenapi_, and to be able to possess
much more.(28)

12. South he goes the snowbird, but east he goes the beaver-he _Tamakwi_.
(Here is the separation of the Dinnis.)

13. A beautiful land was the south land, the big Firland and the shoreland

14. But the eastern land was a fish land, and a lake land, and a cattle

15. After Chilili, the great warrior (_Ayamek_ 6) was king, when all the
tribes were at war.

16. There was war with the robbing-men, snaking-men, blacking men,
strongmen. _Chikonapi_, _Akhonapi_, _Makatapi_, _Assinapi_.—Thus ends the
first song with civil strife and great wars, dividing some tribes

_2d Song. From the 10 Kings till the Missouri &c._

17. After Ayamek came ten kings, in whose time there was much warfare
south and east.(29)

18. After them _Langundowi_ (peaceful-he, 17 kg.) was king at the
beautiful land _Akolaking_, and there was peace.(30)

19. After such _Tasukamend_ (never-bad 18) was king, and he was a good or
just man.

20. After such was king _Pemaholend_ (ever beloved 19) who did much good.

21. King afterwards was _Matemik_ (town builder 20) who built many towns,
and afterwards the holy goer _Pilsohalin_ 21.

22. King afterwards was _Gunokeni_ (long while fatherly 22, who ruled
long) and afterwards the big teeth _Mangipitak_ 23.

23. King afterwards was _Olumapi_ (24 manly recorder or bundler) who
caused many writings.(31)

24. King afterwards was _Takwachi_ (25 who shivers with cold) who went
south to the corn land _Minihaking_.

25. King afterwards was _Huminiend_ (26 corn eater) who planted much corn

26. King afterwards was _Alkosahit_ (27 preserving keeper) who had a royal
soul and was very useful.

27. King afterwards was _Shiwapi_ (28 salt man) and afterwards dry-he
_Penkwonwi_ 29.

28. There was no raining, and no corn grew, east he goes far from the

29. Over hollow mountain _Oligonunk_, at last to eat he went at a fine
plain _Kalok-waming_ of the cattle land.

30. After _Penkwonwi_ came _Wekwo-chella_ (30 much weary) after such the
stiff (_Chingalsuwi_ 31.)

31. After such was _Kwitikwund_ (32 the reprover) who was disliked, and
some unwilling to obey.

32. Being angry some moved easterly, and secretly went far off.

_3d Song. From the Missouri to the Mississippi &c._

33. But the wise did tarry, and _Waka-holend_ (33 the beloved) was made

34. It was at the Yellow River _Wisawana_ where there was much corn, large
meadows, and again were built towns.(33)

35. All being friends _Tamenend_ (34 affable like a beaver) became king
and was alone the first.(34)

36. Such Tamenend was the very best, and all the men came to him.

37. After such good _Maskansisil_ (35 strong buffaloe) was king and
chieftain or leader.

38. _Machigokhos_ (36 big-owl) was king, _Wapkicholen_ (37 white crane)
was king.

39. _Wingenund_ (38 mindful) was king and pontiff, who made many

40. _Lapawin_ (whitened 39) was king, _Wallama_ (40 painted) was king.

41. _Waptiwapit_ (41 white chicken) was king, again there is war north and

42. By the wise in assembly _Tamaskan_ (strong wolf 42) was made king.

43. He was able to war on all and he killed the strong-stone

44. _Messissuwi_ (43 whole-he) was king and made war on the snake-beings

45. _Chitanwulit_ (44 strong and good) was king and made war on the
northern foes _Lowanuski_.

46. _Alokuwi_ (45 lean he) was king and made war on the father snake

47. _Opekasit_ (46 east-looking) was king, being sad at the warfare.

48. To the sunrise he said let us go, and they are many who together go

_4th Song. Conquest of the Talegas &c._

49. The fish river _Nemasipi_ separated the land, and being lazy they
tarry there.(37)

50. _Yagawanend_ (47 hut maker) was king, and the _Tallegewi_ (there
found) possessing the east.

51. _Chitanitis_ (48 strong friend) king was, and he desires the rich land
of the east.

52. To the east some did pass, but the head of the Talegas, _Talegawil_
killed some of them.

53. Then of one mind, all say, warfare, warfare.

54. The friends of the north the _Talamatan_ (who are not like the
Talligewi, the Hurons) were coming to go altogether united.

55. _Kinehepend_ (49 sharp looking) was king, and leader, over the river
against foes.

56. Much was there possessed by them, and much spoiling and killing of the

57. _Pimokhasuwi_ (50 stirring about) was king, but he found the Talegas
too strong in the war.

58. _Tenchekensit_ (51 opening path) was king, and many towns were given
up to him.

59. _Paganchihilla_ (52 great fulfiller) was king, and all the Talegas
went away to the south.

60. _Hattanwulaton_ (53 he has possession) was king, and all the people
were well pleased.

61. South of the lakes they settle the council fire, and the friends
_Talamatan_ north of the lakes.

62. But they were not always friends and were conspiring when _Gunitakan_
(54 long mild) was king.

63. _Linniwulamen_ (55 man of truth) was king, and made war on the

64. _Shakagapewi_ (56 just and upright) was king, and the Talamatan were


_1st Song. At the Talega land._

1. All were peaceful long ago there at the Talega land _Talegaking_.

2. _Tamaganend_ (57 beaver leader) was king at the White River or _Wabash

3. _Wapushuwi_ (58 white linx) was king and planted much corn.

4. _Wulichinik_ (59 well hardy) was king, and the people increased.

5. _Lekhihitin_ (60. writer writing) was king and painted many books

6. _Kolachuisen_ (61 pretty blue bird) was king, at the place of much
fruit _Makeli-ming_. (near Cincinnati?)

7. _Pematalli_ (62 constant there) was king and had many towns.

8. _Pepomahemen_ (63 paddler up) was king of many rivers and streams.

9. _Tankawon_ (64 little cloud) was king, while many went away.

10. The Nentegos and the Shawanis, went to the south lands.(39)

11. _Kichitamak_ (65 big beaver) was king at the white lick _Wapahoning_.

12. The heavenly prophet _Onowutok_ (66) went to the west.(40)

13. The west he visited, the forsaken land and the western southerlings.

14. _Pawanami_ (67 rich water turtle) was king at the Ohio River

15. _Lokwelend_ (68 walker) was king, and had much warfare.(41)

16. Again with the father snake _Towako_, again with the stony snake
_Sinako_, again with north snake _Lowako_.

17. _Mokolmokom_ (69 the grand father of the boats) was king and went
snaking in boats.

18. _Winelowich_ (70 snow hunter) was king and went to the north land of
the Esquimaux _Lowushkis_.

19. _Linkwekinuk_ (71 sharp looker) was king and went to the Alleghany
Mountains _Talegachukang_.

20. _Wapalawikwan_ (72 east settler) was king and went east of the Talega

_2d Song. At the East till first White Man comes._

21. This land of the east, was a large land _Amangaki_, and a long land

22. This land had no snakes, but was a rich land, and many good things
were found there.

23. _Gikenopalat_ (73 great warrior) was king near the north.

24. _Hanaholend_ (74 stream loving) was king at the branching stream or
Susquehanna _Saskwihanang_.(43)

25. _Gattawisi_ (75 becoming fat) was king at the sassafras land _Winaki_.

26. All the hunters reach the Salt Sea of the sun _Gishikshapipek_, which
was again a big sea.

27. _Makhiawip_ (76 red arrow) was king at the tide water.

28. _Wolomenap_ (77 hollow man) was king at the strong falls (of Trenton)

29. The _Wapanand_ (ensters) and the _Tumewand_ (wolfers or Mohigans)
north-east they go.(44)

30. _Wulitpallat_ (78 good fighter) was king and set against the north.

31. The _Maliongwi_ (lickers or Iroquois) and the _Pungelika_ (the lynx
like or Eries) were all trembling there.

32. Again _Tamenend_ (79 beaver II) was king there, and with all he made

33. And all became friendly, and all became united, with this great ruling

34. _Kichitamak_ (80 great beaver) was king and remains at the sassafras
land or Pennsylvania.

37. _Wapahakey_ (81 white body) was king and went to the Sea Shore on
Jersey _Sheyabi_.

38. _Elangomel_ (82 friendly to all) was king and much good was done.

39. _Pitenumen_ (83 mistaker) was king, and saw some one come from

40. At this time from the east sea was coming a whiter _Wapsi_.(46)

_3d Song. Till the arrival of Colonies._

41. _Makelomush_ (84 much honored) was king and made all happy.

42. _Wulakeningus_ (85 well praised) was king and became a warrior of the

43. He must make war on the Cheroki Snakes _Otaliwako_, and on the Coweta
Snakes _Akowetako_.

44. _Wapagamoshki_ (86 white otter) was king, ally of the _Lamatan_ or

45. _Wapashum_ (87 white big horn) was king and visited the west land of

46. There he found the Illinois _Hiliniki_, the Shawanis _Shawoniki_, and
the Conoys _Konowiki_.

47. _Nitispayat_ (88 friendly comer) was king, and he went to the big

48. And he visited all the beaver-children or Miamis, and all the friends
or allies.(47)

49. _Pakimitzin_ (89 cranberry eater) was king, and made alliance with the
Ottawas, _Tawa_.

50. _Lowaponskan_ (90 north walker) was king, and he visited the noisy
place or Niagara _Ganshowenik_.

51. _Tashawinso_ (91 at leisure gatherer) was king, and visited the Sea

52. Then the offspring, in three desiring, three to be, and they became
the Turtle tribe, the Wolf tribe, and the Turkey tribe. _Unamini_,
_Minsimini_, _Chikimini_.(48)

53. _Epallahchund_ (92 failer) was king, in the war with the _Mahongwi_,
wherein he fails.(49)

54. _Langomuwi_ (93 friendly he) was king and the Mahongwi were

55. _Wangomend_ (94 saluted) was king yonder between.

56. The Cherokis _Otaliwi_ and _Wasio-towi_ (those of the Otali and
Wasioto mts.) were his foes.(50)

57. _Wapachikis_ (95 white crab) was king and ally a friend of Jersey on
the shores.

58. _Nenachihat_ (96 watcher) was king and looking at the sea.

59. At this time north and south the _Wapayachik_ came, the white or
eastern moving souls.

60. They were friendly, and came in big bird-ships, who are they?(51)

Thus end these poetical annals, so curious and so plain, when properly
understood and translated. The following addition is merely a fragment on
the subsequent period, translated by John Burns. I give it as received
although I fear it is inaccurate in some respects, and a paraphrase rather
than literal account. Yet by this addition, we obtain a kind of general
history of at least one American tribe, and a complete original series of
traditions, in their peculiar pristine style. Many others will be added
hereafter, either from printed traditions, or historical songs and

_Fragment on the history of the Linapis from about 1600 till 1820._

1. Alas, alas! we know now who they are, these _Wapsinis_ (white people)
who then came out of the sea, to rob us of our country. Starving wretches!
with smiles they came; but soon became snaking foes.

2. The _Wallamolum_ was written by _Lekhibit_ (the writer) to record our
glory. Shall I write another to record our fall? No! our foes have taken
care to do it; but I speak to thee what they know not or conceal.

3. We have had many other kings since that unhappy time. They were 3 till
the friendly _Mikwon_ (Penn) came. _Mattanikum_ (not horned, not
strong),(52) when the _Winakoli_(53) came to _Winaki_. _Nahumen_ (raccoon)
when the _Sinalwi_ (Dutch) came. And _Ikwahon_ (fond of women) when the
_Yankwis_ (English) came, with Mikwon and his friends soon after.

4. They were all received and fed with corn; but no land was ever sold, we
never sell any. They were all allowed to dwell with us, to build houses
and plant corn, as our friends and allies. Because they were hungry, and
thought children of _Gishaki_ (the sun land) and not snakes nor children
of snakes.(54)

5. And they were traders, bringing fine new tools, and weapons, and cloth,
and beads, for which we exchanged skins and shells and corn. And we liked
them, with their things, because we thought they were good, and made by
the children of _Gishaki_.

6. But alas! they brought also fire guns and fire waters, which burned and
killed. Also baubles and trinkets of no use; since we had better ones.

7. And after Mikwon, came the children of _Dolojo-Sakima_ (King George)
who said, more land, more land we must have, and no limit could be put to
their steps and increase.

8. But in the north were the children of _Lowi-Sakima_, (King Louis), who
were our good friends, allies of our allies, foes of our foes: yet
_Dolojo_ always wanted to war with them.

9. We had 3 kings after _Mikwon_ came. _Skalichi_ who was another
_Tamenend_,(55) and _Sasunam Wikwikhon_ (our uncle the builder), and
_Tatami_ (the beaver taker) who was killed by a _Yankwako_ (English
snake), and we vowed revenge.

10. _Netatawis_ (first renewed being) became king of all the nations in
the west, again at _Talligewink_ (Ohio or the Talega place) on the river
Cayahaga, with our old allies the _Talamatans_: and he called on all of
the east.

11. But _Tadeskung_ was chief in the east at _Mahoning_ and bribed by the
_Yankwis_: there he was burnt in his house, and many of our people were
massacred at _Hickory_ (Lancaster) by the land robbers _Yankwis_.

12. Then we joined our friend _Lowi_ in war against the Yankwis; but they
were strong, and they took _Lowanaki_ (north land, Canada) from Lowi, and
came to us in _Talegawink_, when peace was made; and we called them big
knives _Kichikani_.

13. Then _Alimi_ (white-eyes) and _Gelelenund_ (buck killer) were chiefs,
and all the nations near us were allies under us as our grandchildren

14. When the eastern fires were set up, and began to resist Dolojo, they
said we should be another fire with them. But they killed our chiefs
_Unamiwi_ (turtling) and our brothers on the Muskingum. Then _Hopokan_
(strong pipe) of the Wolf tribe was made king, and he made war on the
_Kichikani Yankwis_, and become the ally of Dolojo who was then very

15. But the eastern fires were stronger, they did not take _Lowanaki_
(Canada) but become free from _Dolojo_. We went to _Wapahani_ (white
river) to be further from them; but they follow every where, and we made
war on them, till they sent _Makhiakho_ (black snake, General Wayne) who
made strong war.(57)

16. We made peace and settle limits. Our next king was _Hacking-Ponskan_
(hard walker) who was good and peaceful. He would not even join our
brothers Shawanis and Ottawas, nor Dolojo in the next war.

17. Yet after the last peace, the _Kichikani-Yankwis_ came in crowds all
around us, and they want also our lands of _Wapahani_. It was useless to
resist, because they are getting stronger by increasing united fires.

18. _Kithtilkund_ and _Lapanibi_ (white water) were the chiefs of our two
tribes, when we resolved to exchange our lands, and return at last beyond
the _Masispek_ (muddy water, Mississippi) near to our old country.(58)

19. We shall be near our foes the _Wakon_ (god of snakes, the Ozages) but
they are not worse than the _Yankwiakon_ (English snake), who want to
possess the whole big island.(59)

20. Shall we be free and happy there? at the new _Wapahani_ (western white
river). We want rest, and peace, and wisdom.

Such is one of the accounts of the transactions between this people and
the English, United States &c; of which Loskiel, Holm and Hekewelder have
furnished other fragments, and for which we have ample materials in the
colonial history and late records. But this offers some new views and
facts: which shall be partly compared and discussed in the notes; but more
properly examined and united in accordance with other narratives, in the
history of the North American nations and tribes. The 11 kings in about
220 years named in this fragment, indicate 107 altogether till 1820 and

That so many generations and names can be recollected, may appear doubtful
to some; but when symbolic signs and paintings, with poetical songs, are
added, the memory can well retain and perpetuate their connection. Even in
Polynesia, where we are not told of symbols, but mere historical songs,
they reach to the creation and flood; Ellis and Tierman tell us that the
kings and priests of Tahiti, Ulieta or Raiaka, Hawahi, Mowi &c. could
repeat the names of ancestors and kings for 100 generations. It would have
been well if instead of giving us mere fragments of the songs and names,
they had translated the whole, and thus furnished the connected annals of

In the Linapi annals, we find not merely their own deeds; but the mention
of many other nations, friends, allies or foes, as in Cusick’s Traditions
of the Ongwis: and this forms another clue for American history. As early
as the Asiatic period we find them united to the related people _Owini_
and _Nijini_, before the flood, and calling their foes _Powako_ (rich
snake), _Makowini_ (bad being,) _Maskanako_ (strong snake), similar to the
satanic tribes of the Hebrews &c.(60)

At the flood they are saved with the _Tulapin_ turtlemen, and begin to
call themselves _Linapewi_. Soon after they separate, go north and divide
into tribes, named after the winds, the mode of life and animals. The
hunters are _Elowi_ Elohim of the orientals, or Heros and Hercules; they
again meet snakemen, who fly to America and must have produced there many

After having filled the north, and after the breaking of the land, at
Behring strait, part of the nation resolve to follow and pursue the snakes
to the east. The passage by the _Olinis_ over the hard sea or ice, is
beautifully sung in a peculiar hymn (see last note); they settle at
Shinaki, and begin again to war on snakemen: after which the beaver men or
Tamakwi separate going east where they became the Dinni nations, yet
called beaver tribes, who ascribe their origin to a beaver and a dog, and
call their ancestor _Chapewi_, similar to _Apiwi_, the manly in Linapi.

Meantime the main tribe going south meets other nations which it is
difficult to identify, as the names are mere epithets and nicknames, yet
the _Assinipi_ or stony men, appear to be the Dacota or Sioux yet called
Assini or stony by the tribes of Linapi origin. They reappear afterwards
as _Maskan-sini_ or _Sinako_, and appear to have passed to America soon
after the Linapi. They are certainly of Asiatic origin, as the languages
prove, and very akin to the Hurons or Ongwis in America.

The _Akowini_ are met again, which appear to have become the ancestors of
the Cowetas and many Florida tribes. The _Lowanuski_ were either the Uskis
or the Skeres. The _Towakon_ were not the Ottawas; but probably the Ozages
or their ancestors the Wakons.(61)

At last they meet the civilized _Talegas_, who are not called snakes, but
rather extolled, and from whom they borrowed many things: their symbol is
very different from that of the snakes. They were probably of eastern or
atlantic origin, akin to the Tols, Talascas, and Telicos the ancient
Cherokis. The _Talamatan_ become allies, were the Hurons, the name means
both _unlike the Talegas_ and _killer of the Talas_.—See Cusick, and my
Huron Traditions for their own annals.

The separations of the Nentegos and Shawanis, Mohigans, and Wapanends or
Abenakis, are distinctly given; they filled the sea shores from Florida to
Acadia. Three tribes of snakes reappear which are similar to the former,
except the _Lowako_ probably the same as _Lowanuski_. After crossing the
Alleghanies Tamenend II. reunites all the tribes. The _Hiliniki_ and
_Conowiki_ easily identified remain west of the mountains. The Iroquois
and Eries appear under peculiar Linapi names.

The Otalis and Cowetas appear soon after as snakes or foes; whether the
Otalis or Cherokis of the mountains were real snakes of the west is
doubtful; it is more likely that they are a fragment of the Telicos, which
was their capital till lately, and later they are called _Otaliwi_ by the
Linapis. Compare the Tzuluki traditions with these.

The Tawas who call themselves fathers, as the Linapi grandfathers, of all
the akin tribes, had then towards 1400, a great power in the west: their
empire had a pontiff _Mushkiwis_ near lake Michigan, on whom Cass has
given some very important traditions.

The following chief chronological periods are deducible from these annals,
by reckoning 3 generations in a century. About 1600 years before Christ
passage of Behring strait on the ice, lead by _Wapalanewa_, settlement at

1450. _Chilili_ leads them south, and the _Tamakwi_ separate.

1040. Peace after long wars under _Langundewi_ at the land _Akolaking_.

800. Annals written by _Olumapi_.

750. _Takwachi_ leads to _Minihaking_.

650. _Penkwonwi_ leads east over mountains.

460. The first _Tamenend_ great king on the Missouri.

60. _Opekasit_ leads to the Mississippi.

About 50 years of our era, alliance with the _Talamatans_ against the

150. Conquest or expulsion of the _Talegas_.

400. _Lekhihitan_ writes the annals.

540. Separation of the Shawanis and Nentegos.

800. _Wapalawikwan_ leads over Alleghany mountains to _Amangaki_.

970. _Wolomenap_ settles the central capital at Trenton, and the Mohigans

1170. Under _Pitenumen_ arrival of _Wapsi_ the first white men or

_Additional Note._ As a specimen of the original text and poetry of these
annals, I give now the poem on the passage to America: the whole text and
all the symbols will be given hereafter.

13. Amakolen

14. Wihlamok Kicholen luchundi
    Wematan akomen luchundi.

15. Witéhen wémiluen
    Wémaken nihillen.

16. Nguttichin Lowaniwi
    Nguttichin Wapanawi
    Agamunk topanpek
    Wulliton épannek.

17. Wulélémil W’shakuppek
    Wémopannek hakhsinipek
    Kìtahìkan pokhakhopek

18. Tellenchen Kittapaki nillawi
    Wémoltin gutikuni nillawi
    Akomen wapanaki nillawi
    Ponskan-ponskan wémìwi Olini

19. Lowanapi Wapanapi Shawanapi
    Lanéwapi Tamakwapi Tuméwapi
    Elowapi Powatapi Wilawapi
    Okwisapi Danisapi Allumapi.

20. Wemipayat gunéunga Shinaking
    Wunkénapi chanélendam payaking
    Allowélendam kowiyey Tulpaking.


    THE ANTILLES, _collected in 1498 by_ ROMAN &C. _with additions by_
    DANGLERIA _and others, Notes, Remarks, and Ancient Tribes_.

Roman was a Jeromitan friar, come with Columbus, who began to convert the
Haytians in 1496, and collected their traditions, after learning their
language, out of the _Areitos_ or songs and hymns used in festivals. He
wrote them in 1498 by order of Columbus, and they are inserted at large in
his life by his son; but were almost neglected by Irving. They give us not
only an insight into the belief, religion, traditions of the Antillian
people; but also a compendium of fragments on their annals. Although very
desultory, much less connected than those of Mexico, the Linapis, Ongwis
&c., and destitute of chronology; yet they afford an essential addition to
American history, and the ancient accounts about the Atlantis and

In order to bring them into a kind of order, they shall be analyzed,
reduced to a succession of events and divided into 3 parts, 1. Cosmogony
and Theogony, 2. the flood and primitive history, 3. ancient history
previous to Columbus or 1492. A fourth part foreign to these traditions
would be their annals since that time, and till the extinction of the
nation; which shall be given hereafter, with the account of the language,
and civilization—What is peculiar to these traditions among the Americans,
are the metamorphoses of men into beasts &c., as in Ovid.

The nation who furnished these annals, was the Haytian of Hayti, a branch
of the nation dwelling also in Cuba, and filling the Lucayes and smaller
Antilles: whose collective proper name was TAINO meaning noble. But they
acknowledged as brothers, many tribes of the continent under the
collective name of GUATIAOS brothers, this was ascertained in 1520 by
Figueroa.—(See Herrera.) These _Guatiaos_ were the Aruac nations and
tribes, that were not cannibals. These tribes as enumerated by Figueroa in
1520 were in the Antilles the 1. Haytians, 2. Cubans, 3. Jamaicans, 4.
Boriquans (Porto Rico), 5. Cairis that dwelt in Trinidad, Barbuda,
Marmagitas and Gianis Islands. While those of the continent were the 1.
Aruacas of Guyana, 2. Paracurias of Cubagua, 3. Urinatos of Oronoc, 4.
Pavonas of Cariaco, 5. Cariatis, 6. Cumanas, 7. Chiribichis, 8.
Coquibocoa, 9. Unatos. These five last were intermixt with the _Canibas_
or _Caribas_, the cannibal tribes, foes of the _Guatiaos_, which are the
Galibis and Carib tribes; that had desolated and conquered most of the
eastern Antilles.

All the Tainos spoke the same language divided into several dialects; but
understood reciprocally. D’Angleria tells us in 1512 that two distinct
languages were used in Cuba, the eastern was a mere dialect of Hayti; but
in the west was a very different language not understood; this was the
_Cami_ derived from the _Olmeca_ of Oaxaca or the _Maya_ of Yucatan; they
having sent there a colony, and founded a kingdom.—(see the Maya History.)
In Hayti there was also in the center of the island a kingdom of Mayas?
the people were called _Mayo-riexes_ or _Macoryxes_, (meaning _Maya
people_). They spoke a language different from the Haytian (Dangleria)
divided into 3 dialects _Cayabo_, _Cubaba_, and _Baichagua_. This kingdom
of strangers was called _Cubaba_ or _Caibaba_, and _Ziguayos_. They are
called Caribs by some authors; but erroneously.(62)

Many other additional traditions on the Antilles are scattered in early
writers, D’Angleria, Gomara, Herrera, Munoz, Acosta, St. Mery, Oviedo,
Columbus, Brigstock, Rochefort, Edwards, Garcia, Laet, &c. which shall be
partly noticed here as a sequel to Roman, and all connected as a general
outline of a history of the Antillian nations.

Having succeeded to make out a fine vocabulary of nearly three hundred
words of the Taino dialects, collected from Roman, Columbus, Dangleria,
Munoz, Las-Casas, Herrera, Gili, Humboldt, Vater &c.—and another of about
150 words of the _Cairi_ or _Eyeri_ language of the Aruac Islanders out of
Dudley, Rochefort &c. I will be enabled to translate and elucidate nearly
all the Taino historical names and allusions, so as to clear up the annals
by original etymologies. The orthography will be Spanish, J must be
pronounced as Kh, and X as Sh.

The Haytians had besides these songs, other annals; since the priests
taught history, and the origin of things to the sons of the nobles. They
had also perhaps peculiar symbols to keep their records, since Dangleria
mentions that they had paintings of beasts, tygers, eagles &c. on cotton,
hung to walls. St. Mery says that in 1787 was found in the mountains of
Guanaminto a tomb with a stone of 6 feet covered with hieroglyphs! and in
the mountains of Limbé, engravings of human figures on a serpentine rock;
besides many sculptures in Caves. Columbus saw in 1492 in Inagua one of
Lucayes a gold medal _with letters on it_! If we had figures of these
hieroglyphs and engraved symbols, we should probably obtain another clue
to American history and graphic systems. But they are probably lost by
neglect like those of North America! The Antilles being on the way from
the east to the continent must have served as a stepping place to many
nations on their passage to the continent.(63)

1st Part.—_Theogony and Cosmogony._

1. _Fact._ The Supreme God, bears five names or titles given by Roman and
Dangleria in two dialects, and is male or female.

       By Roman        By Dangleria    Meanings
1.     Attabei         Attabeira       Unic-Being.
2.     Jemao           Mamona          Eternal.
3.     Guacas or       Guaca-rapita    Infinite.
4.     Apito or        Liella          Omnipotent.
5.     Zuimaco         Guimazoa        Invisible.

Roman calls it female, Dangleria a male God. The titles of this god are
sufficient to indicate the supreme God of nature, and they have
astonishing analogies with the primitive God of Asia and Europe, the
Basks, Pelasgians, Atlantes, Guanches &c. The most common name was the
first, in Cuba _Atabex_. This and other great Gods were not sculptured in
idols. The Chillians had similar names for the Supreme God.(64)

2. _Fact._ This God was father or mother of another great God dwelling in
the sun with a double name, variable in the dialects.

                  First Name.       Second Name.
By Roman          Iocahuna          Guamaarocon.
By Dangleria      Iocauna           Guamaonocon.
In Cuba           Yocahuna          Guamaoxocoti.
In Jamaica        Yocahuna          ——
In Boriquen       Iacana            Guamanomocon.
By Oviedo         Iovana            Guamamona.
Variations        Iocavaghama       Guamochyna.

The explication of these names is not given; but they are identic with the
gods of the Cantabrians, and Guanches of Canary islands.—The first appears
to be the JEHOVAH and YAO of the Orientals, and is evidently the HUNAKU or
Supreme God of the _Mayas_. The second name means _Lord of the World_
(_Guama-ocon_) and is a title.(65)

3. _Event._ This last God made the World, the Heavens _Turei_, and the
Earth before the terrestrial sun and moon; also the ZEMIS or angels, who
are male and female lesser gods, worshipped in idols, and intercessors
with the great gods. In the dialects _Zemes_, _Chemes_, _Chemis_.

All the ancestors are since called _Zemis_: their worship was spread
through America, under various names, and forms: as well as in the east.
They are the

_Shemayim_ (Heavenly) of the Hebrews.
_Shemsia_ of the Pehlavis of Persia.
_Samana & Hamsa_ of the Hindus.
_Shams_ of the Arabic.
_Esmun_, _Saman_ of the old Irish.
_Eshman_ (devil) of the Carthuls of Caucasus.
_Sumari_ of Thibet, _Chuman_ of Tartary.
_Camus_, a synonym of Magi of Persia.
_Shin_ of the Chinese.
_Zamzumin_ ancient giants of Arabia.
_Chamin & Zaones_ of Egypt.
_Chama_ of the Phrygians.
_Chamina_ of the Etruscans.
_Zeones & Zanim_ of the Ammonians.
_Zamones_ (blest) of the Lybians.
_Lemes_, _Zanes_ and _Annas_ of the Pelasgians.
_Chemin_, _Shemsho_, _Naemas_ and _Zamiel_ of Aram or Syria and Phenicia.
            _Chemarim_ Priests.
_Zin_, _Kami_ and _Kamona_ of Japan and Yedzo.

While in America we find the _Chemim_ of the Carib women.

_Tezmin_ of the Mayas.
_Inama_ of the Apalachis.
_Manito_ of the Linapis.

_Camayos_ of the Peruvians.—Which are all identic in meaning _Angels_,
_Spirits_ and their idols. This name changes elsewhere in sound: just like
_Enzel_ in Teutonic, which has the import of _El_, _Aones_, and _Zemes_,
is root of our _Angel_ now pronounced _Endjel_. This oriental connection
of ideas, names and worship, appears to be evident. They are not less in
_Turei_ heaven, _Uran_, _Turan_ of the primitive nation &c.

_4th Event._ Some of these ZEMIS became bad beings, and devils _Tuyra_,
who send diseases, hurricanes (_Furacan_), earthquakes and thunders to
desolate the earth and mankind.

The names of _Tuyra_ for devil and evil has analogies throughout the
earth. The most striking are

_Out of America._

_Zitura_ of Basks.
_Guirati_ of Biscayans.
_Vetura_ in Bali of Pallis.
_Tororu_ of Nukahiva island.
_Yarua_ of the Berber Atlantes.
_Yurena_ of the Guanches Atlantes.
_Daruj_, _Puyri_ of Zend.
_Turug_ of Celts.
_Tairi_ in Turkish.
_Tahyri_ of Tahiti.
_Fara_, _Wara_ of Japan.
_Tarada_ of the Papuas.
_Uritiram_ Synonym of Shiva.
_Teripis_ of Oscans.
_Tyranos_ of Greeks.

_In America._

_Yares_ of the _Tayronas_ the Cyclops or forgers of Santa Marta.
_Sura_ of Poyays.
_Tziri_ of Poconchi.
_Huraqui_, _Sura_ of Apalachi.
_Tiviri_ of the Yaquis.
_Kiuras_ of the Powhatans.
_Tarahu_, of the Tarahumaras.
_Prororu_ of Cumana, derived from _Pregonero_ another subsequent devil of

By the change of R to L, we have the _Tulas_ and Atlantes of America.—_See
Taraguva_ of 10th Event.

_5th Event._ The good Zemis were appointed to make the earth and men, and
to rule over both. _Guabanzex_, a female Zemis, made the air and water,
and became the goddess of the ocean and winds.

This will answer to the first period of the earth creation, when the water
was above the land, and the _Rkio_ of Moses was divided. The name appears
to mean _the windy_.(66)

_6th Event._ The male Zemis JAIA (_Khaya_, the earth) made the earth and
islands; he is the _Aion_ of Sanchoniation. Every land and island is
animated. The island of Hayti was a great animal like a turtle; the head
and mouth was in the east, the west end of it was a long tail, called
_Guaca-iarima_ (country of the Vent). The caves were the holes of the
body, venerated and used afterwards as temples and tombs.

This notion, and comparison of islands with turtles, recalls to mind the
primitive turtle land of the Chinese, Hindus, Linapis &c. _Jaia_ or _Kaya_
for land has affinities all over the world and is a primitive word.(67)

_7th Event._ JAIA afterwards had a son, who was called _Jaia-El_,
_Higuera_, or _Hibuera_ earth-son gourd.

This first man like Adam is son of the earth, and an EL or Angel, _Elohim_
of the orientals; it means in Haytian, son, offspring, family and tribe.
It will often recur in subsequent history, in the singular for the plural.
The plurals were _Eli_, _Ili_, _guaili_.—_Gua_ is only the article _This
or Such_.(68)

_8th Event._ The sun and moon called _Boiniael_ and _Maroio_ by Roman; but
_Binthaitel_ and _Marohu_ by Dangleria and Ovieda, come out of the cave
_Jovovava_: they are Zemis and foes of mankind. A cave with the same name
was their temple in Hayti. Dangleria calls it _Iovana-boina_ Jove Solar.

The exact time of this appearance is doubtful, and there appears to be two
blended events, one of cosmogony alluding to the sun being long obscured
by the primitive misty atmosphere, another historical alluding to the
solar and lunar dynasties of Asia or America. The meaning of _Jovo-vava_
or _Kovo-vava_ is cave of fathers, both primitive names. The solar and
lunar names have many analogies elsewhere, among which the chief are

_Names of the Sun._

_Oin_, _Oein_ of Arabs and Ethiopia.
_Oboh_, _Baion_, old Egyptian.
_Baon_, _Oan_ of Assyrians.
_Ian_ of the Etruscans.
_Belen_ of the Gauls.
_Bun_ of the Zend.
_Abolion_ of the Pelasgians.
_Abloin_ of the Thessalians.
_Ntiélé_ of the Illyrians.
_Bian_ of the Ausonians.
_Anactes_ of the Mysians.

_Names of the Moon._

_Yarho_ of the Syrians.
_Aohri_ of the Tibus.

_Warha_ of the Ethiopians.
_Carara_ of the Etruscans.
_Teoro_ of the Betoys, S. A.
_Heriho_ of Canaan.
_Humuri_ of Old Arabic.
_Matuaré_ of Carthul, Caucasus.
_Maraca_ of Guaramis, S. A.
_Marama_ of Polynesia.
_Kamar_ in Maroco.
_Kamaria_ in Pehlvi.
_Gumara_ in Nubian.

Most of these synonyms and analogies are found in the most ancient
languages: to which may be added that in the ancient Haikan language of
Armenia, the sun and moon were called _Noah!_ and _Morante_, names also of
Noah and his wife.

_9th Event._ The female Zemis, _Coatris-quia_ makes the springs and
streams to flow over the earth, and became their goddess.

This is another period of oriental cosmogony, that of the irruption of
subterranean waters and rain, which in the bible is posterior to Adam. The
name of the Zemis is of doubtful meaning, probably _Coatris-quia_,
hollow-quite. _Coa_ or _Cua_ was the name of ancient hollow temples all
over America. _Quia_ is found in _Quisqueia_ oldest name of Hayti or the
_great_ (land) _universal_.

_10th Event._ _Taragava-el_ and _Corocora_ or _Epileguanita_, two male
Zemis of the woods and hunters, made the trees and beasts. This includes
probably two events anterior to the men, unless they be men.

The meanings of these Zemis which might guide us, are quite doubtful.
_Taraguva_ resembles _Tuyra_ and also _Turei_ heaven; but _Epileguanita_
was probably the ancient god of the _Caracol_ or Beastly-men, since it was
represented by a beast or quadruped; while all the other Zemis as men and
women. _Ili-guanita_ would mean in Haytian _children of the people_.
Therefore I presume that these are personifications of the ancient
hunters, or men of the woods with the beastly and savage men of early
times. Roman calls the second _Corocore_, synonyme of _Caracara_.

Part II. _Antidiluvian History and Flood._

_11th Event._ JAIA-EL rebels against his father JAIA and wants to kill
him; a warfare, in which _Jaia-El_ is killed by his father, who puts his
bones into a gourd. _Higuera_, or _Hibuera_, and people the land of that

This refers to the fall of man and the wars of the Titans. The name for
bones is omitted, it would perhaps afford another clue. Many American
nations venerate and animate bones. Dangleria says, that _Jaia_ peopled
all the islands of the sea with these bones.

_12th Event._ JAIA being childless marries _Itiba-Jatuvava_ from whom he
has 4 twin sons called _Dimivan_, who became afterwards _Cara-cara-cols_
or the great Cara-cols, the great beastly beings; but their mother dies at
their birth.

_Itiba_ means woman ancient and alludes perhaps to _Thibet_, refuge, or
land of Noah. (_I_, is the article _the_). _Jatuvava_ perhaps
Japhet-father, but in Aruac _Kati-uiua_ means the moon heavenly. The name
of _Dimivan_ is remarkable, being identic with the _Demavends_ or
antidiluvians of Persia, called _Dawand_ in the Zendavesta, the _Demoi_ or
old people of the Pelasgians, the _Demons_ of many nations. The _Caras_
and _Cols_ are found all over America and Asia.(69)

_13th Event._ AHIACAVO (grand father) or _Baia-manicoel_ an ancestor of
the _Dimivan_, forms the nation of CON-EL, at _Basamanaco_, and invents
agriculture, with the art of making cakes and bread.

The Dimivan acknowledge him as grandfather of mankind. CON-EL is certainly
a personification, meaning the sons or Elohim of CON, who is the primitive
Lybian Hercules KON or KHON; and is found in Peruvian history as the first
legislator of Peru. The XONS or CONES were the oldest people of Spain and
Italy, same as _Xâones_ of Greece. Their god was XON or _Konah_.
_Basamanaco_ is inexplicable unless it alludes to the primitive
antidiluvian _Manaco_ or _Manco_ of Peru. _Ba_ is dwelling, _Samana_ an
island near Hayti.

_14th Event._ The four brothers _Dimivan_ meeting a mute _Conel_, making
bread, ask him for some; but he only gives them instead _Cogioba_ or
_Cohiba_ which is tobacco: this happened at the door of Basamanaco. This
fable indicates an intercourse of the Dimivans and the _Conels_ which are
probably a branch of the Atlantes or Lybians.

_15th Event._ This refusal of bread was the cause of a quarrel and war, in
which _Conel_ kills or destroys one of the brothers or tribes of _Dimivan
Caracol_, but a turtle _Hicotea_ came out of his body, or an island thus
called, as Hayti was. This _Conel_ conqueror was _Baia-mani-coel_, whose
name means _Father of food celestial_; but _Baya_ is also the ocean.

This indicates a great war, and probably alludes to that of the

_16th Event._ The _Dimivans_, probably in revenge, broke the gourd of
JAIAEL (_Khayahel_); but a flood of waters issue from it and drowns the

This deluge is called _Niquen_: there is no indication in Roman of the men
who were destroyed, nor who were saved and how; but in Cuba was found a
more ample tradition of the flood as follows.

_17th Event._ Three Behiques or priests who come to Cuba later, taught
them that the flood had been general, had broken the land; and that a good
man had been saved in a big boat with his family. That many animals were
also in the boat, a vulture and dove are mentioned.

Herrera and others relate this, but in different words, and without native
names. Some have supposed this account made out by the Spanish priests;
but it appears to refer to a tradition brought by the Olmecas or Mayas in
Cuba, being very similar to the Mexican accounts.

_18th Event._ Another subsequent flood although omitted by Roman, is
alluded to by others, Garcia says that Hayti and Cuba were then cut
asunder and separated from Yucatan. Dangleria says that the islands
Lucayas that then joined to the great islands, were divided by irruptions
of the sea. It is the second flood of Peleg, which in the Antilles broke
the islands by volcanic explosions. It is impossible to say what events of
the next period, may belong to the interval between the two floods; but
probably some of them. All these antidiluvian events appear to belong to a
different country than the Antilles, which did not even then exist, at
least in their actual state, and may properly be referred to the island
Atlantis or the eastern hemisphere. It was at this last cataclysm that the
Antilles assumed their actual shape and number.

Part III.—_Ancient History._

_19th Event._ After the floods the men dwelt in caves on the mountain
_Cauta_ in the land of _Caanau_ or _Caunana_ or _Caona_.

The mountains of _Cauta_ must have been the refuge of men at one of the
floods: they answer probably to the _Cuta_ of the Hindus, name given to
many rocky lands and capes besides mountains. The _Ceuta_ mountain of
Africa south of Gibraltar, was one of them, also called _Abyla_ from the
_Cabyles_ or Nomadic Berbers. Dangleria states a tradition that men were
created on that mountain. _Cauta_ although unexplained is identic with
_Icota_ turtle, _Ca-uta_ land raised. _Caona_ means golden.

The land _Caanau_ of Roman, _Caunana_ of Dangleria, has been mistaken for
the land of _Canaan_ by some writers: others deem it Florida. Both are
wrong. The Haytians did not come from North America; but may have sent
colonies there. They came from the east, South America and Africa, or the
Atlantis. The name means land of Noah? (_Caa-Nau_, _Cau-Nana_). _Caunia_
was the ancient name of Asia Minor and Caria, the first Carians were
Caunians, a Pelagian tribe which expelled by the Leleges, settled the
Grecian islands, and Lybia part of which was called _Caani_. The _Anakim_
of Syria giants dwelt in _Ca-anak_. The _Khaoni_ were the ancestors of
Epirians and Illyrians. _Cauni_ was a mauritanian tribe.

_20th Event._ The sun and moon are two great Zemis called _Binthaitel_
(sun divine) and his wife _Marohu_ (moon), come out of the cave
_Iovana-boina_ (Jehovah-Solar), and rule the world, establishing the solar
and lunar dynasties.

This historical event must be distinguished from the 8th. This refers to
the solar dynasties of Asia and Africa. It must be noticed that similar
places were often shown in Hayti, as the same names had been applied by
the subsequent settlers, even when the event had happened elsewhere. In
this case, these solar caves were temples in Hayti, where the figures of
the sun and moon were worshipped, and prayed to for rain; but Herrera says
they had their hands bound, which indicates a conquest. Pilgrims went to
those caves, from all parts of Hayti. It was in the land of the king
_Mauziation-El_ (Roman) or _Machiunech_ (Dangleria); but whether these
were former dynasties and kings or late rulers, is difficult to ascertain.

_21st Event._ _Maroco-El_ (lunar son) called _Machocha-El_ by Dangleria,
held the sway over men, who were still in Cauta and Caanau, and kept them
confined to the caves.

This indicates a lunar dominion over mankind somewhere, and a state of
confinement: Perhaps in South America; in Peru caves are also the first
dwellings of mankind.

_22d Event._ The men were divided into double tribes or two nations, the
principal or largest and of best men was called _Cazibagiaga_—R.
_Cazibaxagua_—D. (Royal Xagua) and the smaller _Amaianaba_—R.
_Amayauna_—D. (Mayas?), ruled by Cazics for kings.

We have here two nations well indicated. The first the _Giaga_ or
_Shaguas_, indicate the Lunar tribe, the _Chia_ of the Muyzcas, and other
South American tribes _Achaguas_ of Oronoc, the _Chaguays_ or _Changas_ of
Peru, _Agaches_ or _Agaiz_ or Paraguay; but above all the _Cacha_ or
_Xauxa_ antidiluvian people of Peru. While in the second we trace again
the Amazons or Atlantes, one of their main African tribes being the
_Amantes_ of Solin, another the _Baniabas_ of Ptolemy, both in Lybia. In
America the progeny is found in the _Mayas_ of Yucatan, the _Maynas_ of
East Peru, the _Mamayant_ of Brazil, the Mbayas of Chaco &c.

The important name of Cazic for kings begins to appear: it is evidently
oriental, and its affinities will be shown in a note.(71) It is akin also
to _Kachi_ sun, in the Eyeri dialect: the _Washil_ of the Nachez.

_23d Event._ MACHOCHA-EL was set by the sun to watch the caves, and many
inhabitants of the caves were killed by the sun, if they came out in the
day time; they could only come out at night to seek for food. (Dangleria)

This either alludes to the great heat of the sun in Africa and the
tropics, or to a dependance of the Lunar or Cave men upon the Solar men.
_Machocha_ has some affinities in the South American tribes; _Machicuys_
of Tucumen, _Machacalis_ of Brazil, _Chaehas_ of Perou, _Chanchones_ of
Quixos &c.

_24th Event._ Some men having dared to come in the day time, were changed
into stones by the sun; (_Ziba_ is stone): also _Machokael_ for allowing

This fable may allude to a war, between the _Zibas_ stony or strong men
and the solar tribes. These _Zibas_ were probably the _Zipas_ or princes
of the Muyzcas. In Perou there is also a fable of men changed to stones at
the primitive city of Tiahuanaco, which merely means a war and change of
dominion. The name of _Ziba_ for stone is primitive.—See the Note for

_25th Event._ Another set of men, going to the shores to fish, were
changed into _Joboses_ (myrobolan or plumb trees) by the sun.

This metamorphose is peculiar to these fables: although the Mexicans
called the Olmecas, fruit-people or Zapotecas. The analogies of _Jobos_ or
_Kobos_ are found in _Coyba_ of Darien, Cuba or _Coaiba_, the _Mocobis_ of
Chaco &c. Another war is probably meant by this, and the _Jobos_ are a
people. Have they any reference with the _Jubas_ of Mauritania? who formed
a divine and royal dynasty there. _Juba_ was also the Jove or God of the
Lybians. Several nations of Central and Mexican America had trees for

_26th Event._ The dynasty of _Giona_ or _Hi-Auna_ begins to rule over the
men of Caziba or royal caves in Cauta.

This family of rulers or Cazics became famous afterwards as we shall see,
as leaders of tribes to America. We can easily perceive here the ancient
Pelagian tribes of _Ionia_ and _Aones_. _Hi-Auna_ means _the-Aones_. It
was this dynasty or people that sent colonies to America: Oviedo says this
happened in the time of Hesper 12th king of Spain, about 750 years after
the flood, or 1658 years B. C. He deems the settlers Hesperians or
Cantabrians. The root is ONA solar name of Lybians.

_27th Event._ VAGONIANA a ruler of the _Hi-Auna_, went fishing from the
cave, and became a bird or nightingale; who crossed the sea, and settled
the island _Mathinino_ (Martinico) with a people of women. _Dangleria_.
His wife in the sea gives him two sons which became jewels _Ziba_ and
_Guanin_ marble and metal.

This is a positive voyage over the Atlantic. Whenever we meet tribes of
birds, in ancient history, they always mean travellers and colonies, and
often passage over the sea in sailing boats, compared to birds. The first
ships of the Scandinavians and Europeans seen in North America, were
called birds by the natives. V and B interchange in the Haytian language
as in Greek; _Va-gon-iana_, thus means _Father-Solar-Iana_. His people are
called women, because unwarlike fishermen, or the Amazon tribe. Martinico
was the first island settled by them: it bears the name of _Matinino_ in
Roman, and was thus called yet in 1492, Garcia mentions the 2 sons and

_28th Event._ GUAGU-GIONA king of Caziba, sent _Jadruvaba_ out of the
caves, to collect the holy herb _Digo_ in order to purify and wash the
body; but he was changed by the sun into a singing bird _Giahuba-Bogiael_
(the-singer bird-divine), and never returns.

We have here a second voyage by sea in a bird, and a contention with a
solar people, caused by a trading voyage to procure some American
commodity: Indigo probably which is identic with _Digo_. _Jadru-vaba_ or
the father of _Khadru_, must be a new colonist. _Khadru_ has hardly any
analogies in America; but _Giahuba_ in which he was changed has some. It
appears analagous with the _Yaoy_ and _Shebaoy_ two _Aruac_ tribes of
Guyana, and thus _Khadru_ might be the _Aruac_ themselves; same nation
with the Haytians once, as the languages prove; although extending to
Tucuman and Patagonia. The name of _Aruac_ or _Aruagas_ was inexplicable:
it may refer to this origin, or to the _Rocou_ the red paint used by them.
But _Aruac_ may also mean _Aluac_; akin to the _Labuyu_ of the Caribs
their vassals, and the _Aluez_ vassals of the Nachez nation. Could they
derive from the ALE angels of the east; here reduced to servitude by foes?

_29th Event._ GUAGU-GIONA irritated that Jadru-vaba does not return,
leaves the cave of _Caziba_ in search of him, and went with men and women
to the island Matinino, where the women were left, while the men went to
the land of _Guanin_.

This is the third passage of the Atlantic, unless that of _Vagoniana_ only
mentioned by Dangleria and Garcia be the same; but they are likely to be
successive tribes of Ionas. That all the women should be left in Martinico
is a fable, meaning that the weakest or fishing tribes settled there or in
the islands; while the warriors went to the American continent, called
_Guanin_, which has several meanings, land of Guanas or lizard men, or
land of metals. It became afterwards the name of a peculiar metal formed
by the natural or artificial amalgam of 18 parts gold, 6 silver, and 8
copper: and a tribe assumed the name. _Guana_ or _Guanos_ was the name of
a large nation of South America; perhaps come from the _Guans_ of the
Canary islands; but slightly related to the Aruacs by the languages: yet
perhaps akin: it was spread east of the Andes, between the two

_30th Event._ The children were left behind, because afraid to cross, and
were crying after their mothers; but became changed into _Tona_ or
opossums. Garcia says into _Toa_ or frogs.

There are no opossums in Hayti nor the small islands, nor in Africa. But
they are plenty in South America, where the notion must have sprung. This
fable and metamorphosis may imply a hidden meaning. The opossums are the
only animals bearing their young in a pouch, as ships bear men. Could not
this indicate other ships without sails, and thus no longer birds with

TON is a remarkable word, since it is the root of _Nei-ton_ the Lybian
neptunes or navigators. The twin TUN are the holy ancestors of the
Chilians, _Tona-ca_ (flesh our) is the ancestor or Adam of some Mexican
nations. The frogs were the emblem of the Muyzcas!

_31st Event._ GUABONITO a woman follows _Guaga-Giona_ to the bigland of
_Guanin_ by swimming. He is well pleased with it, and calls her his own
_Biberozi_ (wife-loving): but as she was diseased he puts her apart in a
_Guanara_, where she heals, and he makes her queen.

A singular romantic fable, the disease of the woman is stated to be the
syphilis! _Guabo-n’ito_ means fruit or Guava pear of man! The allegory
implies another colony following _Guaga_, not by swimming; but with
paddles or on rafts; probably a part of the lesser tribe of _Amaiuna_ or
Amazons, so often called women in antiquity; although a powerful African
people. All the women left in the islands might be of such a tribe, and
since become the Mayas of Yucatan, Hayti &c., with the Manas or Manoas,
the Amazons of South America.

_32d Event._ ANACACUGIA (flower of Cacao) brother of this wife or ally of
_Guaga_, runs away from him on the back of a manati or seal, and goes back
to the women of Matinino.

This implies a separation of tribes, one returning to the islands, where
they probably formed the Cairi nation. The seal used for boats, is a third
fable, found in Greece; boats are thus compared to birds, opossums and
seals. Many American languages animate boats and ships. This seal must
mean a _Manati_, or sea cow; real seals not being found in the Antilles.
If the name was _Manati_, it has affinities with the _Ama-yuna_ or
_Ama-Zons_ tribe. _Ma-ti-ni-no_ is in Haytian _great-mount-the-good_,
while _Mana-ti_ is _moving mountain_. Has not _Anacacu_ a reference to the
_Anakim_ of Asia, the _Cacus_ of Europe, and the _Tam-anacu_ of South

_33d Event._ HI-AUNA father of _Guago-giona_ comes with his son to the
land of Guanin, and being the grandfather of all the tribes, they receive
the names of _Hi-auna_; which is afterwards changed to children of Guanin.
_Hin Gua-ili Gua-nin_ (the-plural such-children such-Nin), and lastly the
whole united nation is called _Guanini_.

The Aones came then also to America, and there was a confederacy of the
tribes. _Gua-gu_, _Gua-go_ and _Gua-ga_, may be 3 spellings of a same
name; but they might also be three successive and distinct tribes of
_Giona_. _Gua-bonito_ in one instance is made another lord or tribe,
instead of a wife of _Guago_.

_34th Event._ ALBEBORA and his son _Al-bebora-El_, were also Guanini lords
or Cazics, who came with the _Giona_ tribe. This indicates again another
nation. The name is remarkable, because it resembles _Albion_ and _Bora_,
two primitive nations of the north, which settled England and the boreal
regions, becoming the Hyper-Boreans of later times. Perhaps these Boras
are identic with the _Aboras_ and _Aboris_ of ancient Italy, the
mountaineers since called _Abori-genes_ by the Greeks.

_35th Event._ Another Guaga-giona II. or _Guaba-giona_ is mentioned
afterwards, whose son became the _Guanini_ tribe.

_Guaba_ means both _the father_ and _the Guava pear_. The succession of
these _Gionas_ is very obscure; but many are probably omitted, and the
whole poetical records allude to the most famous of the dynasty or nation.
Guanini implies the Golden tribe.

_36th Event._ The settlement of the Guaninis in Hayti was from Matinino
and the east; being exiled from Matinino, they are led by _Camo_ who
begins the kingdom of _Cabonao_ in Hayti; they settle on the river
_Bahaboni_, where they built their houses, and afterwards the great temple
of _Camotzia_. They gave to the island the name of _Quisqueia_ or great
universe; but afterwards _Hayti_, meaning land rough or hilly.

This important event is best given with those details by Dangleria: while
Roman appears to mix it with the settlement of Guanin. Yet _Quisqueia_ was
more probably the first name given to South America, rather than to Hayti:
another name for which was _Bohio_ or habitations. _Camo_ or _Guamo_ means
lord or master, _Tzia_ is temple. The exile of the Guaninis from the
islands, must allude to another revolution and perhaps invasion. This
_Camo_, was probably the same as the _Cami_ or _Coma_ of Cuba in later
time, _Comayagua_ of Honduras; which assimilate the first civilized
Haytians with the tribes of Central America. It might have happened that
these _Camos_ were _Mayas_ and the ancestors of the _Mayo-riexes_. The
history of the Mayas of Otolum, and Central America, will be connected
with these annals hereafter; but much is left for conjecture.

_37th Event._ Other exiles of Matinino settle at the island _Cabini_ now
Turtle island; and near it on the north shore of Hayti, from whence they
spread through the island, which is called _Bouhi_ or _Bohio_, meaning
full of towns.

Dangleria mentions this likewise. House and town or habitation, are
synonymous in Haytian.

_38th Event._ They found some _Caracoles_ or _Taracolas_, crabs! or
beastly men, dwelling in the island. The _Guaninis_ wanting women, took
some Caracols beasts for wives, and made them suitable women, by washing
them, and giving them to eat the fruit _Inriri Cahuvial_. This was done by
a _Vagoniana_ II. These Caracols had then survived the flood or come
before the Guaninis, the name of the fruit that made them women, if
explained, might elucidate this event; but the signification was not
given; another version will suggest other important analogies.(75)

_39th Event._ These Caracols deprived of their women, took other female
beasts for wives (another tribe) and from this union most of the Haytians
descended, becoming _Anaborias_ or vassals of the Guaninis.

_Anaboria_ means flower or lizard of labor! these might be descended from
_Albebora_. This name for bondsmen, boors or laborers, was widely spread
in America, and has affinities all over the world, even with the Latin

_40th Event._ These first inhabitants of Hayti, fed on dates, bananas,
cocos, fruits, nuts, herbs, yams, roots, onions, mushrooms: until taught
the use of Cazabi or bread by _Boition_, with maize, cotton, mandioc &c.

Another fact of Dangleria, very natural indicating the tropical food of
old times.

_41st Event._ _Michetauri Guauana_, was the leader of the first colony to
_Coaibai_ (death house) in the land of _Soraia_ (setting sun), and became
the king of it. There the people are called _Goeiz_ (phantoms or ghosts)
and go about by night; but are not dead people whose name is _Opia_.

_Coaibai_ is either Cuba or Coyba in Darien, or both. It became the
paradise of the Haytians, placed in Cuba or further west, and a place of
delight. The names and allusions are remarkable. They assimilate to those
of the Greeks &c. about the fortunate islands of the west: those of the
Orientals and Hebrews about the island _Elisha_, and the _Sheol_ or place
of souls, the Hebrew Plutonic region. _Soraya_ for setting sun, is identic
with _Surya_ of the Hindus: whence came _Syria_ the west, and even our
word _sorrow_; while _Sol_ comes from Sheol. _Azil_ sun in Pelasgian, is
akin to _Elisha_ whence our word Azylum! _Goeiz_ is akin to ghost, _Ghaib_
in Syrian, _Coyocop_ of the Nachez, _Goz_ of the Vilelas. _Opi_ has
affinities every where. _Michetauri_ is perhaps a synonym of _Machi-tuyra_
great devil, _Guauana_ is such-Auna. Perhaps this fable alludes to an
anterior event and the passage to America of a former Hi-Auna.(77)

_42d Event._ AUMATEX a great Cazic marries the female Zemi _Guabanzex_,
goddess of waters and wind, and she has two sons _Guatauva_ and
_Pregonero_, who become male Zemis.

It is impossible to say if this event belongs to this time or to the
cosmogony. I presume it is historical, alluding to new tribes, and perhaps
foreign to Hayti. The names are difficult to explain, nor is it stated
what these sons performed; but being sons of water and wind, they must
have led colonies by sea elsewhere. They are perhaps the ancestors of the
Guataios and the Puruays?(78)

_43d Event._ COROCORO the quadruped Zemi of the Caracols? was the ancestor
of two lines of kings, _Guamorete_ and _Guatabanex_, who rule in Hayti.
His temple was in _Sacaba_, and his high-priest was called
_Cavava-Niovava_. Cave father and our father.

This alludes to different tribes than the Guaninis: _Coro_ was a tribe in
Cumana. Perhaps this is another version of the 10th Event, or a proper
indication of the subsequent institutions of the Caracol nation, when more
civilized, and become the Mayorex.

_44th Event._ Arrival in Hayti, Cuba &c. of the first _Bohito_ (old man),
a priest and legislator, called _Boition_ by Dangleria, meaning both
_Priest-solar_ and Old _Ion_: he introduces agriculture and the use of
bread, divides the nation into 3 castes, _Tainos_, or nobles, _Bohitos_ or
priests, _Anaborias_ or vassals, and these last into tillers, hunters and
fishermen. He becomes pontif, settles the religion; establishing mysteries
and oracles, the worship of Zemis, and many other institutions, holydays,
festivals, religious dances, schools &c., declaring the land common to
all, like the sun and water.

There are at least 3 Bohitos, that came to Hayti and Cuba, and civilized
the people; but it is difficult to distinguish the deeds of each. They
were probably priests leading more civilized colonies from the east or
from America. Their name which is variously spelt or varies in dialects
was also _Buhuti_, _Boitio_, _Bauti_, _Buhui_, _Boyeto_ &c., is akin to
the _Boyez_, _Poyes_, _Piazes_, _Payes_ of South America, used by the
Aruacs, Guaranis and Carib tribes, _Piaches_ of Tamanacs, _Bauti_ of
Dabaiba, _Papas_ of Central America, _Bochica_ of Muyzcas; but the names
of priests all over ancient eastern nations, have still more
analogies(79)—and therefore they came from the east. The civilization and
religion introduced or improved by them is also oriental; it was more
advanced than we are aware; since they had ample fields and orchards,
roads and canals, schools in which they taught history, religion, medicine
and useful arts. Of their astronomy nothing has been preserved, nor of
their hieroglyphs.

_45th Event._ Bohito II. or _Buhui-tihu_ (old eminent) comes and improves
still further the rites &c., becoming high-priest. He introduces
medicines, charms, the use of cotton and cloth, burning of bodies instead
of mummies as formerly, the holy herbs _Gueyo_ and _Zochen &c._

This is all what can be collected on this second law-giver, and he is even
blended with the next, except by name.

_46th Event._ Bohito III. or _Baio-habao_ (sea-lyre) comes next,
introducing music, sacred instruments called after him, and probably the
rites of the triple named god of the Hindu and Mayan trimurti: _Bugia_,
_Aiba_ and _Bradama_: who became the Zemi of war, or perhaps led to a war.

This god with three names is evidently Vishnu, Shiba and Brama of India:
found in Yucatan as _Izona_, _Echuah_ and _Bacab_. See my dissertation in
Atlantic Journal, on similar names of triple God all over America and the
east. It does not follow that this worship came direct from India; but it
might come through the Pelagians, who had it as _Bram_, _Amen_ and _Vix_,
inverted among the Ausonians, Oscans. The same about a god creator
preserver and destroyer was prevalent in Asia, Iran, Thibet, Syria, Egypt,
Greece, Etruria, and even the Canary islands. The Mayoriex came probably
with Bohito III.

_47th Event._ Happy state of this civilized people, hardly knowing war,
passing the time in festivals, dancing, singing and making love: whence
called the Fortunate islands, by the navigators that happened to go so
far. They dwelt in wooden houses and had towns of 1000 houses.—Herrera.

This period is indicated by twenty authentic sources of ancient history,
and the ancient traditions of Europe about the happy land of the west,
Elisha or Elysium, Hesperides, Cocana of the Spaniards &c.: besides the
happy state in which Hayti was found.—See the account of the ancient
notions and communications with America, and the great Atlantis: the most
explicit is found in Diodorus Siculus, as follows.

_48th Event._ The Phenicians driven by a storm, while going from Gades to
Africa, discover the large island ATLANTIS, many days in the ocean west of
Lybia. It was very fruitful, with mountains, large plains and navigable
rivers; with many woods and fruits, fine valleys, plenty of wild beasts
and fish. The air is mild and healthful; it is a residence fit for gods:
the inhabitants are a strong and healthful people; they have many towns,
with stately buildings, houses of pleasures, gardens, orchards &c.—Diod.
Book V.

The translators of Diodorus have blundered so far as to deem this island
Madeira or the Canaries; which are small islands, without streams, and the
first without inhabitants. It can only apply to Hayti, or even the
continent of South America.

_49th Event._ _A black people_ came to Hayti from the south or south-east,
who had darts of Guanin metal, and were called the Black Guaninis.

This tradition preserved by Herrera, Garcia and Charlevoix, indicates a
colony of _Negroes_ or men painting black, from South America. They might
be the black Negroes of Quarequa mentioned by Dangleria, or some other
American Negro nation, of which there are many.—See my account of ancient
Black Nations of America. Dangleria mentions two wild tribes of savages in
Hayti towards 1500, one speechless! (which means they spoke a different
language) probably a remain of the Caracols, another swift dwelling in
caves, quite apart, seen in 1514 in Zauana of Guacarima.

_50th Event._ Navigations of the Haytians and Cubans, settlements of the
Lucayas islands, Jamaica, and probably some parts of Florida: mutual trade
with Cuba and the continent.

These colonial and trading voyages must have begun long before and have
been continual. Columbus met individuals in Cuba who had visited Hayti,
Jamaica and Yamaya, the Maya land or Yucatan. _Yucayas_ or Lucayans knew
Cuba, Hayti and Florida, which was called _Cautio_ says Fulgar, quoted by
Cardenas, who deems the Antilles peopled from hence, blending it with
_Cauta_ the original seat of the Haytians. South America was once called
_Guanin_, afterwards _Caribana_ when it was overspread by the Carib
tribes. The Nachez appear to have come from Cuba. The Cumanas knew Hayti
and called it _Atsi_.

_51st Event._ The _Canibas_ (whence our Canibals) or the _Caribas_,
(whence our Caraibes), a savage people, often feeding on human flesh,
begin to spread to Guyana and South America; becoming bold navigators
also, they send war parties and colonies to the peaceful islands of the
Antilles, and even to Florida.

The Caribas evidently descended from the Galibis, and other akin nations
of South America, did not originate in North America, as supposed by
Bridgstock and a few others. Laborde who spent 20 years with them, and
knew well their language, has published some of their traditions in 1704.
_Lon-quo_ was their original god, who made _Racumon_ their chief or leader
to America, who leads there the tribes of snakes, men, Cabatos-trees and
birds. The true name of the nation was _Cali_, those of the main were
_Cali-nago_ or _Calibis_, of the islands _Cali-ponam_. Rochefort &c.—See
my Carib Traditions.

_52d Event._ The Calibis of Guyana after long wars with _Alouague_ the
kings of the _Aruacas_, send the general _Timani_ to conquer the Aruacas
Islanders, _Cahiris_, _Eyeris_ &c. who leads the tribe of _Labouyous_
(vassals) and conquer several islands, killing the men and keeping the
women.—Rochefort &c.

The period of this invasion is unknown; those who bring the Caribs from
North America, make it much later of course; but it is likely to be an old
event: although several invasions are probably meant and blended. The
_Timanis_ and _Labouyous_ must have effected this. They adopted many
customs and partly the religion of the conquered women. The following
tradition belongs probably to the conquered Eyeris.

_53d Event._ Once when living wretched and on the spontaneous fruits of
the earth, _Oubek-Eyeri_ (heaven man) a holy man drest all in white
cotton, comes from heaven (_Oubek_ above). He first appears to a desolate
old man _Boyez_, and teach him to build houses, to cultivate mandioc and
make bread of it &c.

This must have been a priest or bohito of Hayti, who tried to civilize the
Caribs: unless it refers to anterior traditions. He taught religion also,
that good men would go after death to the happy islands of the west, and
become _Chemin_ or _Icheiri_ Zemis; while bad men should become _Oumekoua_
wanderers at sea, and _Mabouyas_ devils.

_54th Event._ The Caribas in search of these fortunate islands go to Hayti
and Cuba; but are repulsed, and settle in Florida, where they extended
inland, becoming the tribes of _Cofachi_, _Matica_ and _Amana_. They dwell
there a long while often at war with the Apalachis, who conquer them and
incorporate at last.

See Brigstock for this fact, and the wars with the Apalachis; the details
belong to the history of North America and the nations of Florida.

_55th Event._ Some expelled Caribs hearing by traders of Zigateo, steal
some canos and run away to this island, one of the Lucayas; well received;
but sent to Ayay (Santa Cruz) desert island, where they settle and
increase. This happened towards 1150 of our era.

This positive fact begins the certain chronology of the Antilles; but
Brigstock is quite wrong in deeming these fugitives, the ancestors of all
the Carib and Galibis tribes as far as Brazil.

_56th Event._ Civil wars in Hayti, attempt of some kings to become
independent from the _Bohitos_ government. The Cazic _Guamaretus_ despise
his god or Zemi _Corochotum_, for which he is overcome in battle and his
palace burnt. Dangleria.

This indicates probably a revolution, and attempt to overthrow the ancient
religion, perhaps before 1150.

_57th Event._ CAZI-BAQUEL restores peace, and the worship of the great God
_Jocavaghama_, with the Zemi _Tarugavael_ found in the woods. Meantime the
god JOCAVA prophecies by an oracle that the _Maguacochios_ (great people
clothed) would come, with fire and thunder to destroy or enslave the
rebellious Haytians. This was understood to apply to the Caribs, and
Spaniards afterwards.(80)

_58th Event._ This great king BAQUEL, begins a dynasty, and has many
successors _Gamanacoel_, _Guarionel_, _Guayaronel_, _Guavanenechin_,
_Guavavo-conel_, _Caramarex_, _Guaramatex &c._, who are the chief kings of
Hayti. _Guarionex_ was his successor when the Spaniards came.

The ancestors of Guarionex had been kings or cazics from time immemorial
in the great kingdom and valley of Maguana, 180 miles long and 30 broad,
running from east to west; having from east to west the provinces
Canobocoa, Hubabo, Cayaba, Maricoa, Bainoa. The river Bahuan runs through
it, which is probably the same as Bahaboni, where settled the Guaninis.
They appear to have been at the head of the feodal system of Cazics and
Tainos established in Hayti. All the other kings bearing them allegiance:
and their dialect was the court language.

_59th Event._ The island becomes divided into 5 principal kingdoms, with
many provinces each having a Cazic. They were 1. _Caizimu_ in the east
with 11 provinces, Higuey was the first of them, 2. _Bainoa_ in the
centre, the largest of all, belonging to the _Baquel_ dynasty, with 24
provinces, Maguana being the first of them, 3. _Guacarima_, the west end,
with 12 provinces, Xaragua being the main, 4. _Hubaba_, a small kingdom
with 3 provinces in the south mountains, 5. _Cotoy_ or _Cayabo_ in the
mountains of the north, held by the _Mayoriex_ people, with 7 provinces,
and the mountains Zibao.

Dangleria gives the names of all these provinces, but he has omitted the
kingdom of _Marien_ in the north-west, he makes it only a province of
Bainoa. Laet, Charlevoix and Munoz have given maps of old Hayti, with the
situations of many, the rivers, towns, islands, mountains, lakes &c.; see
my Ancient Geography of the Antilles.

_60th Event._ Meantime Cuba was also divided into 7 kingdoms, 1. _Mayzi_
or _Maiti_ opposite Hayti, 2. _Bayamo_ west of it, 3. _Cueyba_ in the
centre, whence the name of _Cuba_, probably the head kingdom, 4.
_Camayegua_ or _Camaguey_ inhabited by a different people, famous tribe,
probably _Comayaguas_ of Honduras, or Olmecas, 5. _Xagua_ near the middle,
6. _Macaca_ in the south opposite Jamaica, 7. _Haniguanica_ at the west
end where are the high mountains _Uhima_.

_61st Event._ The island of Jamaica was divided in two kingdoms. Boriquen
also Buchena or Burichina (D) now Porto-Rico, formed one, but had 26
Cazics in as many valleys, the high mountains of Guayamo being desert. The
_Yucayas_ (white islands) now Bahama, were numberless, the largest being
Amana, Zigateo, Bahama, Bimini, Sumana, Yuma, Guanahani, Saomoto, Abaco
&c. The Cazics were much respected there, being also Bohitos or Behiques
(priests) judges and stewards. Labor was in common and the daily food
given from the public stores. Some islands were at war; but only used
sticks in their quarrels. Yet all the islands formed a single kingdom, the
great Cazic resided at Saomoto.

_62d Event._ The Caribas of Ayay having multiplied, spread again over the
eastern islands: they are repulsed in Boriquen; but meeting their ancient
tribes in _Curucueria_ now Guadeloupe: it becomes their chief island:
whence they send war parties to 1000 miles off, even to the continent; and
occupy _Galana_ now Marigalante, _Matinino_ or _Madinino_ now Martinique,
_Liamaca_ now Antigua, _Liamuiga_ St. Christopher, _Bayaraco_ St. Vincent,
_Bequia_ Grenada &c. called collectively _Caliaqua_ the islands of the

_63d Event._ They molest the shores of Boriquen, where they are always
repulsed, but often steal men and children to eat them.

_64th Event._ They assail the shores of Hayti, where they are much feared;
signals by smoke are made when they appear. In Higuey and Caizimu, eastern
regions of the island, the Haytians become warlike to defend themselves,
and use poisoned arrows as they did. Elsewhere the Haytians used only
darts, lances and macanas, peculiar wooden swords.

_65th Event._ The Caribs went as far as the shores of Cuba, and desolated
the south shores: the Cubans removing their towns inland. They were called
Canibas and Canimas: and succeed in forming a settlement at Baracoa to the

_66th Event._ They were repulsed in their attempt against the warlike
Jamaicans who used arrows; they do not appear to have molested the
Yucayans, owing to their former alliance and gift of the island Ayay.

These events are chiefly collected from Columbus’ own account, and
personal narratives of his travels, with other retrospective hints by the
Spanish writers. They will also afford the notices of the subsequent

_67th Event._ The population of all the Tainos in the Antilles was at
least two millions; 1,200,000 in Hayti; 600,000 in Cuba; 100,000 in
Boriquen; 60,000 in Jamaica; 40,000 in the Yucayas; besides the unknown
Carib population.

This is the least calculation, at the Spanish arrival: others have swelled
it to 6 millions, including all the West Indies. Las-Casas states that the
Lucayas had 500,000, Jamaica and Boriquen 600,000.

_68th Event._ The domestic animals of these islands, were among beasts,
Alco dogs, gochi-dogs, agutis, cavias, pecari hogs and manatis: turtles
and guanas among reptiles: parrots, doves, partridges, fowls, ducks and
red cranes among birds: remoras among fishes; and even cucuyos or fire
flies used for lamps among insects.

Such were found either in one or all the islands; which were not therefore
destitute of domestic animals, as commonly believed. Columbus found tame
fowls at Cuba in 1492; which were probably the Powis fowls.

_69th Event._ Beroica was king of Jamaica (about the year 1420) he began a
dynasty; his two successors were Bemberoica and _Abem-beroica_, meaning
Beroica II., Beroica III.

Garcia states this fact; but in 1503 Columbus found Ameyro Cazic of the
east, and Huarco of the west of Jamaica.

_70th Event._ The island Puta or Cahiri now Trinidad at the furthest east
end of the Antilles was still inhabited by several Aruac tribes, Cahiris,
Yaoy &c. which resisted the inroads of their constant foes the Galibis and

_71st Event._ Between 1450 and 1480 Guaramatex was the greatest king and
Cazic of Hayti, in Bainoa and Maguana.

_72d Event._ Cayacoa was king of Caizimu and Higuey in the east from about
1460 to 1494 when he died.

_73d Event._ About 1470 some Caribs settle in Samana, the east peninsula
of Hayti; and two valiant brothers Caonabo and Manicatex, form themselves
a small kingdom inland near to the Mayoriex nation, Mayo-banex their king
admits them as allies. Caonabo conquers 3 provinces, Dahabon, Zibaho and
Manababo. He was so much esteemed for his valor, that Anacoana the Venus
of Hayti, sister of the king of Xaragua, becomes his wife soon after.(81)

_74th Event._ About 1475, Behechio is king of Guacarima in the west, till
1500. His capital was Xaragua. He became a conqueror of several provinces,
as far as Neyba and Ozama rivers. He had 32 vassal Cazics, and 30 wives,
his favorite queen was Guanahata.

Dangleria calls him Beuchicus Anaca-choa, and says that as usual with
great kings, he received many titles, being called Shining Copper, Bright
Highness, and Rich Flood. These titles were really

_Tureigua hobin_, Heaven-like of Yellow Copper.
_Siarei-huibo_, Star-bright Highness.
_Duyh-zinequen_, Wealthy in Streams.

_75th Event._ In 1480 Guarionex succeeds Guaramatex as the greatest king
of Hayti.

_76th Event._ In 1486 the Cubans send a colony to Florida, in search of a
river and spring restoring to youth; they visit the _Pola_ islands, now
Martyrs or Florida keys, the _Colas_ nation of South Florida, and settle
the town of Abaiba near the cape of Florida.—Herrera.(82)

This proves a previous trade and knowledge of Florida. The _Colas_ are
perhaps descendants of the ancient Cara-_Cols_ of Hayti: they dwelt in
Florida till 1760, when they removed to Cuba.

_77th Event._ In 1490 and previous to it, war in Cuba between the kingdom
of Cuba or Colba, and Cavilla king of the _Cami_ nation, in the country of
Bafan, whose capital was Fava.—_Columbus’ Narrative._

Columbus heard of this war in 1492. The _Cami_ are the same as the
Cama-yegua, the foreign people of Cuba.(83)


    THE HAYTIAN OR TAINO LANGUAGE _restored, with fragments of the
    dialects of Cuba, Jamaica, Lucayas, Boriquen, Eyeri, Cairi,
    Araguas. Grammar, roots, and comparative Vocabularies._

At an early period I endeavored to collect all the scattered fragments of
this language, in order to elucidate and support the historical
traditions. This labour concluded in 1828, has given very important
results, which shall now be explained. At the time of the Spanish
discovery and conquest, many Spaniards spoke that language; many slaves
were sent to Spain; but philology was not then attended to. Therefore we
have no dictionary nor grammar of this language. Meantime the very nation
has disappeared, destroyed by Spanish cruelty.

However, nearly all the early travellers and writers on the West Indies
have preserved by chance, some words of it. Columbus himself mentions some
of them in his original journal. Roman and Dangleria explain many of the
quoted words. Others are scattered in Acosta, Gomara, Oviedo, Garcia,
Diaz, Las-Casas &c.; which had never been all collected even by Vater nor
Edwards. Gili alone undertook to give a long list of Haytian words; but
three-fourths of them are geographical or historical names unexplained and

I have used, compared and brought together all these loose materials, and
thus succeeded in restoring about 234 words of this language, a list ample
enough for all historical purposes. This contains besides 50 words of the
Eyeri and eastern dialects, with 38 of the Cuban or western dialects,
useful to show the variations of dialects. We know that from Bahama to
Cuba, Boriquen to Jamaica, a same language was spoken in various slight
dialects, but understood by all: Columbus himself says so.

But this language, which had also partly spread in Florida, and in South
America, has the appearance of being a mixt speech. This appears from the
many synonyms, the deviations of dialects, and the double forms, or
relative position of words. In the small eastern islands the _Eyeris_ or
_Cabres_ had been destroyed by the Caribs, who preserved the women, and
these preserved their own language, mixt with some Carib words and taught
it to their daughters; so as to produce a double language, that of the
women being quite peculiar. This singular fact well authenticated, will
enable us to presume a similar conquest and custom, wherever we shall meet
in America, with a peculiar female idiom.

The many nations or tribes mentioned in the traditions, which had
gradually amalgamated; and the settlement in Cuba and Hayti of the Mayas,
will account for this mixture of synonyms. But the existence also of many
homonyms, leads us to a former more simple speech, probably monosyllabic
and quite regular as the oriental idioms, to which it is most akin.

From the primitive languages of North Africa and South Europe, it had
received this regular position of ideas; but by the mixture with the Maya
and Mexican nations using the inverse form, it borrowed that new form. The
same happened in Europe to the Celtic and Oriental tribes, who received in
Greece and Italy the inverse form of speech from the Scythian, Illyrian
and Gothic tribes.

The comparative examination of the Haytian and dialects, was pursued by
me, _upon all the languages of the earth_, as I was determined that one
American nation at least, should be traced philologically to its real
origin. Thus I found many thousand analogies of it, out of which I have
used about 1500 in the annals, notes and vocabularies. A single American
language does then contain more comparative analogies in about 200 words
than all those collected by Vater and Malte, out of 400 American
languages; and this fact upsets all the illusions, theories and false
views, based thereon by them, Humboldt and others.

But this comprehensive labour teaches other facts, by far more important
and available. 1. That American languages have analogies with all the
languages of the earth, 2. That they have similar analogies with each
other, 3. That it is only the superior number of analogies that may
indicate a filial or parental connection out of America, 4. And that also
similar greatest number of analogies, indicate the parental relations of
American languages and nations between themselves, 5. Lastly that unless a
language and nation is compared _with all the others_, we can never
ascertain accurately, nor trace its real parentage philologically.

This consequence is obvious, although it will not please the lazy or timid
philologists and historians. It shall be further pursued and elucidated
hereafter; but now let us apply these rules to the Haytian.

I could give 400 comparisons. Let us select a few.

1. _Ainu of Choka_ islands between Japan and _Kamchatka_, 22 comparable
words 4 alike in Haytian—Boat, house, no, drink—Mutual affinity only 21
per cent. No parentage.

2. _Singala_ of Ceylon, 50 comparable words, 16 analogies, with
Haytian—Mutual affinity 32 per cent. Very distant parentage.

3. _Guanch_ of the Canary island nearest to Hayti in the east, 32
comparable words, 14 akin. Mutual affinity 42 per cent. Distant

4. _Mandara._ Handsome black nation in the centre of Africa, 12 words
comparable, 6 akin,—one, water, man, king, mother, river—Mutual analogies
50 per cent. Nearer connection than with the Guanch, or separation less

5. _Pelagic_, or ancestors of the Greeks and Italians. Comparable words in
all the ancient and modern dialects nearly 200, whereof about 160 offer
more or less analogies!—Mutual affinity 80 per cent! Complete and near

_Therefore the Haytians are of Pelagic origin!_ No other group of
languages offer anything like as many. The nearest after, are the Atlantic
L. Lybian, Egyptian, Bask, Sanscrit, Persian &c. who are all connected
with the Pelagic nations. The analogies with the Tartars, Chinese,
Polynesians &c., are all less in amount.

In America the Haytian affinities are of course the greatest with the
_Aruac_ nations of South America; who are their brothers, and extend to
the Taos of Tucuman and the Tinguis or true Patagons of Pigafetta. Yet
they may have been divided long ago, or ever since their American
settlement: since out of two selected for comparisons, after the
vocabularies, the _Araguas_ had only 70 per cent of analogy, and the
_Cairi_ only 56 per cent. The nearest affinities after these, were with
the _Apalachis_, _Nachez_, _Cadoz_, _Huastecas_, _Mexican_, _Tarasca_,
_Maya_, _Chontal_ &c. of N. America, and the _Darien_, _Betoy_,
_Peruvian_, _Chili_, _Mbaya &c._ of South America.

Those with the nations of N. America of Asiatic origin, and the nations of
South America of African origin, such as the Linapis and Guaranis, were
much reduced. See the compared vocabularies.

The Haytian shall now become therefore one of the touchstones of other
American languages, to verify their eastern or Atlantic origin, and above
all the connection with the American Pelagians.

Let us now consider the forms and peculiarities of this interesting
language, and first its phonology.

It appears to have all the sounds of the Italic languages; but it lacks
the Greek TH, PS, the Cairi had _TH_. It has been written by Spaniards,
and their simple orthography applies well to it; but leaves a doubt
whether it had the Celtic and French û (unless it be y) Hebrew and English
SH, lacking in Spanish. Their CH is as in English, and the French TCH.—It
had the gutural X of the Greeks and Spanish, written X and J. Also the
Spanish LL, GN or Ñ, and TZ.

It had few P being changed to B; few F often changed to V; few L changing
to Y; few S changed to Z; few D changed to T.—It had no nasal sounds as in
Italian, AN becoming _Ana_ &c. Many dipthongs AO, OEI, IA, AI, UA, AU, EI
&c. as in Italian, each vowel sounded. This made the language soft,
pleasing and musical as in Italian and Polynesian. Dangleria says the
accent was always on the last syllable, as in French.

On the grammar of it, nothing has been written; what Vater has said is
quite loose and inaccurate. We have not even the _Lord’s Prayer_ in it, so
as to serve as a model. Our only guides are a few translated phrases of
Roman and Dangleria; but they enable us to perceive the main features of

One of the chief was the great use of articles, as in Italian; but with a
peculiar one GUA, put commonly before, but sometimes after the nouns. It
was a demonstrative article, meaning _such_, or _this_, _that_, _these_,
_those_; but never changing and common as our _The_: while this indicative
_The_ was declinable or changing as in the Italic languages, and extremely
various, although always prefixed, expressed by I, HI, HIN, NI, N’, ZI, LI
&c. A third kind of article was O, which when added, appears to have been
comparative, and to mean _Akin_, _Like_, _Similar_, or our English AS. The
relative article _Of_ was A prefixed.

Examples of Articles.

_Gua-yava_ This pear.
_Gua-ma_ This great, or lord.
_Gua-tiaos_ Those brothers.
_Ma-za-gua_ Great plain such.
_Bala-gua_ Sea such, the ocean.
_I-Guana_ The guana or lizard.
_Ni-taino_ The good or noble.
_Mi-taino_ My noble lord.
_Li-ani_ The wife. Eyeri dialect.
_Hin-Guaili_ The such-sons, the children.
_Ziba o_ Stone like, stony.
_A-na_ Of bloom, a flower.
_A-boria_ Of labor, a vassal.
_A-maca_ Of wood, a bed.
_A-ma_ Of great, water.
_A-reiti_ Of rite, song.

These articles formed probably the declinations of nouns, as we do not
perceive a different desinense. This form was more like the Celtic, Oscan,
and Greek, than the Latin.

The feminine was formed nearly as in Italian, O changing to A.—_Taino_,
_Taina_, Lord, Lady—_Hito_, _Hita_, Man, Woman; but there must have been
irregularities difficult to trace: as some words masculine end in I, S, N,
U, L. Perhaps some were neutral.

Some words are formed by duplication, implying an amplitude, as in the
Oriental language.—_Bi_ life, _Bibi_ mother and wife in dialects. _Ba_
habitation, _Baba_, _Vava_ Father. _Ma_ great, _Mama_ mother. _Xau_ cake,
_Xauxau_ bread or large cake.

The plurals are chiefly in I as in Italian, or in S as in Spanish; but
there are some irregular plurals. _Taino_, _Taini_, Lord, Lords. _Hito_,
_hitos_ man, men.

EL son. ILI sons. _Zemi_ angel, _Zemes_ angels.

The Eyeri dialect forms many plurals in UM. _Eyeri_ man, _Eyerium_ men;
_Inaru_ woman, _Inayum_ women.

The adjectives are put before or after the substantives, blending the two
forms; and the prevailing form in compound words is doubtful, perhaps the
regular as in Latin.

Examples of regular position.

_Hay-ti_ Land-high.
_Ana-caona_ Flower (of) gold.
_Buhui-tihu_ Priest high or eminent.

Examples of inverse positions.

_Bo-hito_ Old man or priest.
_Jaya-el_ Earth-son.
_N’abor-itas_ The working men.

The adjectives are chiefly formed from nouns, and often by a simple O
added, thus _Ziba_ stone, _Zibao_ stony, _Zibayo_ mount.

_Turei_ heaven, _Tureigua_ heavenly or heaven-like.

_Duhos_ wealth, _Duihzi_ wealthy or wealth-is.

The superlatives are commonly formed by duplication. _Ua_ old, _Uaua_ very
old. _Co_ fruitful, _Coco_ very fruitful, the coco nut.

Or else by the affix _Ma_ which amplifies every thing.

The pronouns appear very simple.

MI, M’ first person for I, me, my, mine; but _our_ is _Ahia_?

TI, T’ Second person for thee, thou, thy, thine.

LI, L’ Third person for he, she, his, her.

NI, N’ Common like _It_ or rather _On_ of the French.

How their plurals are formed, is doubtful; but perhaps the inflexions
alone formed them. These pronouns are pure Italian! or rather primitive.
They were often dispensed with as in Italian.

Of the verbs we know little or nothing. By a few examples of the verb _to
be_, it was quite irregular as with us.

_Ei_ To be—_Tei_ be thou—_Bei_ being.
_Beira_ a being—_Dacha_ I am.
_El_ he is—_Zi_ it is, this is.

In these _Ei_ appears the root, derives from _Eil_, and was then similar
to _El_ son, as _Zi_ to _Izi_ eyes.

This verb joined to others was added to words. _Guarocoel_ we know he is,
may be analyzed _Gua-roco-el_ such-know-he-is.

We have an example of negative verbs in _Macabuca_ I do not care, which is
_Macabuca_ not-care, or never-mind; in French _n’importe_, in Italian _non

Of the syntax we may form an idea by the few preserved phrases; which I
have analyzed as follow, and compared with the Italian.

1. _Teitoca_ thou be quiet. _Tacitu_ Italian.
_tocheta_ much. _molto._
_zinato_ angry. _irato._
_Guame-chyna_ this great God. _gran-Nume._

2. _Gua-ibba_ that go. _Vai_ It.
_zinato_ angry. _irato._
_macabuca_ not care. _non curo._

3. _Dios_ Spanish God. _Dio_ It.
_Aboria_ Servant. _Servo._
_dacha_ I am. _Sono._

This idiom or position of words is perfect in Italian which admits of many
transpositions; but in English syntax and idiom these phrases mean

1. Be quiet, God will be very angry.
2. Begone, I do not care if he is angry.
3. I am the servant of the Spanish God.

The Haytian numbers have not been transmitted to us, and I could only
collect the following secondary numbers—_Ata_ first, _Bem_ second, _Abem_
third: which however are primitive and indicate a binary numeration:
although the language had probably the decimals.

By a careful analytical process I have been able to decompose the compound
words, and even reach their monosyllabic roots. All the long words can be
thus analyzed, and show that this compound form only arises, as usual in
American languages, by the blunders of the Spanish writers, who wrote long
words instead of short ones; blending articles and affixes. The Haytian
thus analyzed and reduced is a very simple language, approximating to the
primitive and oriental forms, wherein short monosyllables of generic
import, formed the base of the speech, and became modified by union and
relative position.

By these means the following essential roots of the language have been
collected, and are given to help future similar investigations of American

Examples of composition.

_Cazabi_ Bread. _Ca-za-bi_ soil-fruitful-life.
_Manati_ Sea cow. _Ma-na-ti_ great-thing-eminent.
_Turei_ Heaven. _T’ur-ei_ Thou-light-be.
_Furzidi_ Cloudy. _Fur-zi-di_ gloom-it-is-day. (or now)
_Areiti_ Song, rites. _A-rei-ti_ of reality eminent.
_Nanichi_ Soul. _Na-ni-chi_ thing the active.
_Maroyo_ Moon. _Ma-ro-yo_ great lovely.

74 essential monosyllabic roots of this language or genera of ideas.

A, Of, as, like.
AC, Holy, sacred, religious.
AM, Water, root, plenty.
AN, Male thing, man, people, folk.
AT, One, alone, first, unic.
BA, Father, ancestor, dwelling.
BAL, Raft, floating, wave, sea.
BAN, Wind, air.
BAO, Music, lyre, instrument.
BAT, Beating, game, play, ball.
BEM, Second, double, twin, two, next.
BI, Life, wife, mother.
BOA, Habitation, house.
BOR, Labor, work, vassal, service.
CA, Land, soil, earth, dry.
CAN, Fish, swift, bad.
CHI, Active, soul, work, wine, lively.
CHON, Hot, dry, fever.
CHUC, Take, grasp, hold.
CO, Soil, fruitful, fountain, dog, thread.
COAI, Joy, delight, happiness.
CU, Chapel, altar, hearth, fire, all.
CUS, Worm, creeping.
DI, Day, now, actual.
DUH, Wealth, riches, treasures, property.
EI, Existence, to be.
EL, Son, tribe, child, he is.
FUR, Gloom, dark, cloud, fury.
GIA, Fowl, bird, flying.
GUA, Such, this, that, these, those.
GUEY, Shell, hollow, closed.
HA, Yes, sure, certain.
HI, The, indication, here.
HIO, House, hut, cottage.
HUIB, Head.
I, The, sign of life and action.
IO, God, the living-type.
IT, Man, male.
IN, Woman, female.
IZ, Eyes, looks.
L’, LI, He, she, they, his &c., oft. changed to Y.
MA, Great, big, larger, increase, mothers, water &c.
MAS, Food, to eat &c.
MI, M’, Me, my, mine.
NA, Thing, bloom, lizard.
NI, N’, The thing, my thing.
NO, NOA, Boat, navigation, noble.
O, Like, similar, akin.
OB, Copper, yellow.
OP, Dead.
PU, Wood, purple.
RA, REI, Real, rite, evidence, offspring.
RIS, Red.
RO, Love, belove.
RI, Male, people, men.
SOR, West, Eve, late, far.
TOA, Breast, milk.
TI, High, lofty, eminent.
TAB, Tube, pipe.
TAI, TIAO, Brother, friend, good.
TOC, Rest, peace, quiet.
UA, Old, ancient.
UR, Light.
UT, Rabbits.
VA, Cave, hollow, father, origin.
VAR, War, warrior.
XAU, Cake, baked, bread.
XI, Strong, pungent, pepper.
YAR, End, tail, vent.
YU, White, bright.
ZA, Grass, fruitful, plenty.
ZEM, Angels, deities, idols.
ZIB, Stone, rock.
ZIC, King, ruler.

Such was the Haytian language, once spoken by several millions, and a
western branch of the Pelagic stock; that derived from the Asiatic
_Pelegs_ and _Palis_, once peopled nearly all the shores of the
Mediterranean 3 or 4000 years ago.

The following comparative vocabularies will prove this fact. They have not
been made to support it; but to find the truth, and the probable ancestors
of this American nation, by seeking them all over the earth. If this
nation one of the nearest to the eastern hemisphere, is thus found of such
remote antiquity, those further removed and inland may well be deemed
equally old, or rather older still: which their own history shall

Out of the 234 words collected; many it will be perceived, are hardly
comparable; being names of peculiar animals and plants. About 200 offer
comparisons with our languages well known. It must be remarked that the
Spaniards borrowed many Haytian words, which have since been introduced
into Spanish and other European languages. Humboldt has given a list of
them. Those admitted in the English language now are, hurricane, canoe,
keys or islands, tobacco, pimento, yam, tomato, cassava, savana, mahogany,
patatas, mangrove, indigo, copal, maize, bananas, parrot, guano, coco,
cacao, guava, hammock or hanging bed &c.; which must not be compared,
since they have been borrowed by us from the Haytian. The Spaniards have
besides, chichas, balza, Cazic spelt cacique, aguti, manati, maguey,
tiburo, guayac, macana, bejuco, nigua, tuna, aji, zeyba, &c.

Yet several of those words may be usefully compared in ancient languages
often extinct, previous to the late connection with America. Thus we find
analogies for maize, canoe, cazic, cayman, yam, chicha, macana, manati
&c., in many: indicating very ancient connections.—Even the words manati,
hurricane, canoe, nigua &c., have affinities in modern Italic languages,
not derived from Hayti.

_Comparative_ TAINO _Vocabulary of Hayti._

_Authorities_,—R. Roman—C. Columbus—D. Dangleria,—Ac. Acosta,—Her.
Herrera,—M. Munoz,—L. Las-Casas,—O. Oviedo,—G. Garcia or Gili,—E.
Edwards,—H. Humboldt,—V. Vater,—A. all or nearly all of
them,—Laet,—Diaz,—St. Mery,—Ey. Eyeri Dialect.

All or whole QUIS R. D. Xus O.

    Analogies, _Oya_ Congo, _Jikoga_ Japan, _Chukoat_ Nepal, _Huy_
    Copt, _Qualunque_ Italy.—_Ixquich_ Mexican, _Kiyih_ Mohigan &c.

Angel and Idol. ZEMI, _Zemes_, _Chemes_ A. analogies in annals.

Alligator or crocodile. CAYMAN A.—

    _Caram_ Bornu, _Taymah_ Arabic, _Cuina_ Bechuana, _Caimio Chamoa_
    Egyptian Dialects.—_Cayman_ Peruvian, _Camac_ Mexican, _Amangam_

Ants or pismires COMEXON R. see notes. Apple, pear, guava. GUAVA,
_Guaiva_, _Guayaba_, _Xagua A._—

    _Apis_, _Puar_, old French, _Apple_ English, _Aguas_, _Carba_
    Pelagic, _Carpos_ Greek, _Carpath_ Aramic, _Ribi_ Egypt.

Angry ZYNATO D.—

    _Irato_ Ital, _Orgytheis_ Greek, _Cato_ (bad) Ausonian, _Yahat_
    Malay, _Ita_ Tonga.

Am, I am DACHA D.—

    _Nach_ Turan, _Da_ (is) Bask, _Davo_ Sanscrit.—_Naca_ Maipuri,
    _Ehaca_ Tarasca.

Arachis or ground-nut. MANI, _Manis_ A.—_Nux_ Latin.

Aloe MAGUEY. Magheih H.—_Agave_ Greek.

Annona or Papaw GUANAVAN H.

Ananas or pine-apple BONIAMA G. _Fanpolomi_ E.

Annato or red paint ACHIOTO H. _Bixa_ G.

Apart, aside, the side NARA R.—_Parte_ It., _Share_ English &c.

Armadillo ATATU E.

Army GUARAVARA G., see War.

Air, see Wind.

Above _Ubek_ in Eyeri. _Super_, _Ubique_, Latin.

Breast and milk TOA R—primitive word found in all languages,—

    _Teth_ Celtic, _Tit_ Saxon, _Tad_ Chaldaic, _Toho_ Ainu, _Aha_
    (milk) Aramic, _Aho_ Guanche, _Tea_ Bisharis, _Doa_ Hindu &c.

Bread or cake CAZABI, _Cazavi_ A. _Cuac_, _Maru_ in dialects.—

    Also primitive found in 100 languages. _Oguia_ Bask, _Ahran_
    Celtic and Berber, _Shakua_ Abask, _Kabaka_ Nuba, _Khas_ Haikan,
    _Maru_ Zingani, _Yacu_ Dhagul mountains, _Axaus_ Pelagic, _Artos_
    Greek &c.—_Cuzavi_ Tayrones, _Cosque_ Chili, _Casaah_ Cado,
    _Cancu_ Peru, _Shokua_ Atakapas, _Pasca_ Apalachi &c.

Be, to be, TEI, EI D.—Primitive.

    _Ei_ Aramic, _E_ Italic, _Hei_ Arabic, _Eu_ Armoric, _Hei_ Oscan,
    _Esti_ Greek, _E_ Haikan, _Hein_ Pelagic, Eolian, _Pet_ Egypt
    &c.—_Eini_ Tarasca, _Atz_ Chaymas &c.

Being, and a being, BEI, BEIRA A.—primitive, same roots,

Boat, CANOA A. _Pages._—

    Primitive word of 100 languages, _Nau Sanscrit_, Pelagic, Osset,
    _Nave_, _Barca_ Italic, _Naus_ Greek, _Guyon_ Guanch, _Scafo_,
    _Cahekiu_ Sicilian, _Xepec_ Lybian, _Bacolo_ Illyric, _Cahani_
    Ainu, _Cayic_ Turk, _Doa_ Arabic, _Naos_ Haikan, _Ani_ Aramic,
    _Cana_ Bastul or Iberian, _Naoi_ Celtic, _Kan_ Teutonic
    &c.—_Noatek_ Mbaya, _Canahua_, _Canabir_ Galibis, _Palayak_
    Aleutian, _Banias_ Panama &c.

Bird, fowl, BOGIAEL R. _Ipis_ in Cuba.—

    Compare _Halit_ and _Ibis_ Egypt, _Pirid_ old Saxon, _Ipira_
    Hindu, _Vogel_ German, _Pollo_ Oscan. _Ugedu_ Sicily, _Ogia_
    Celtic, _Uchel_ Ausonian, _Bo_ Burman, _Mapel_ Suanic, _Haliga_
    Pelagic &c.—_Gualpa_ Peru, _Coxol_ Huasteca &c.

Bed. AMACA A. _Amazas_ L. _Barbacoa_ H. _Nehera_, _Nekera in Dialects_.—

    _Ekia_, _Kunera_, Greek, _Tamapat_ Malay, _Nedokuri_ Japan, _Cama_
    Lusitanian, _Make_ Egypt—_Camata_ Peru, _Amaca_, _Akat_ Galibi,
    _Mucara_ Betoy? _Amaca_ Yaoy, _Chinchero_ Guarauna.

Blue and violet, TUNNA, _Quibey_, _Guei_, dialects.—_Cyanus_ Greek,
_Chuanta_ Abask.

Beer, CHICHA A.—

    _Alicha_, _Cheruisa_ Gauls, _Chelia_ Cantabrians, _Chacoli_ Bask,
    _Shashu_ China, _Ichua_, _Isua_ African Atlantes, _Acha_ (Wine)
    Aramic—_Chica_ Peru, _Chicha_ Chili, Mbayas, _Cachina_ Apalachi,
    _Huicu_ Galibis &c.

Beloved, loved, ROZI, _Berozi_ R.—

    _Eros_ Greek, _Behar_ Persian, _Careich_ Celtic, _Cara_ Italic and
    Hebrew, _Heri_ Sanscrit, _Eiras_, _Meres_ Egypt, _Amore_ Italian,
    _Amuri_ Sicilian.

Ball, ball-game, BATOS D. _Batei_ G.—

    _Orpatos_ Greek, _Ballota_ Italic, _Baton_ French, _Bandy_, _Bate_
    old English—_Pali_, _Palican_ Chili.

Beast, beastly, wild, _Caracol_ R.—

    _Caracal_ Lybian, _Car_ Turan, _Heraca_, _Ferua_ Italy, _Caracol_
    Berber Atlantes, _Caracoler_ old French, _Ho-lo_ old Chinese,
    _Olo-olo_ Bugis and Macasar.

Basket, HAVA G.—Primitive, see Cave.

Bright, TUREIGNA D.—see Light.

Bananas, BANANAS Her. _Camois_ G.

Bad fellow, VAQUIANO Ac.—_Paquiano_ Sicily.

Brother, GUATIAO Her.—_Tayo_ Polynesia, _Fratielo_ Ital. D.

Blood, MOINALU Ey.—

    _Omoina_ Aramic, _Idoimen_ African Atlantes, _Odola_ Bask, _Zemo_
    Zend, _Tola_ Arabic, _Haimai_ Pelagic, _Haematos_ Greek, _Aimonos_
    Romaic, _Hamanos_ Illyric, _Mulu_ Koriak and Kamchatka.

Corn, maize, MAHIZ, MAYZ A.—

    _Maiza_ Bask. _Mas_ Nepal and Congo. _May_ Kirata of Imalaya, _Me_
    Chinese, _Maza_ Pelagic, _Maiz_ Turan, _Zimidi_, _Zimind_
    Caucasian languages, _Mozen_ Guanch, _Tiemzin_, _timezin tomzin_
    African Atlantic—_Hazez_ Apalachi, _Iziz_ Huasteca, _Zara_ Peru,
    _Yasit_ Cora, _Umita_ Chili.

Cold, YMIZUI R.—_Hima_ Sanscrit, _Hiems_ Latin, _Frimat_ French.

Cave, cavern, COVA, _Vava_ D. _Giaga_, _Beina_ O.—

    _Cava_, _Cabina_, _Phinon_ Pelagic, _Caura_ Lybian, _Thebi_ old
    Egyptian, _Tabaita_ Ausonian, _Ketena_, _Phian_ Oscan and
    Etruscan? _Libanah_, _Cuena_ Aramic, _Tana_ Sicily, _Deina_ Teuton
    ... Primitive.

Cotton, MAPU E. ZEIBA A.—_Gosupon_ Greek, _Kapas_, _Kipi_ Sanscrit

_Bombaz_ Pelagic, _Cosib_ old Arabic.

Cloth, see dress.

Club, see sword.

Copper, TUOB C. Yellow copper, HOBIN D.—_Kuop_ Pelagic, _Kupros_ Greek,
_Cupreus_ Latin.

Careless, I don’t care, MACABUCA D.—_Bucanaco_ Congo.

Cutting, knife, HENEQUEN.—_Ecuta_ Bask, _Totenika_ Greek, _Sikunatant_
Pehlvi, _Kangiac_ Arabic &c.

Children or tribe, EL, ILI, GUAILI R.—Primitive, analogies already given
in annals.

Clusia alba, or copal tree, COPEI, _Copal_ G. H.

Conch-shell, _Maguey_ C. as Aloe.

Cake, XAUXAU G. _Akes_ C. see Bread. _Xau_ is primitive.

Cocos, COCO G. _Coquillas_ in Boriquen.


Cacao, CACAO A. same in Mexico &c.

Church, temple, chapel, CU Acosta, _Tzia_.—Primitive, same name in Maya,
Chontal, Mexican &c. _Gu_ Japan, _Tia_ Chinese D.

Cloudy, FURZIDI, Her.

Cane, YARUMA, Her.

Crabs, _Taracolas_.—_Grankio_ Italian, _Harkinos_ Greek.

Dress, mantle, cloth, COCHIO D. R. _Yaguas_ Her.—

    _Ahico_ Guanch, _Haico_ Berber, _Cachaca_ Gaul, _Cochaya_
    Slavonian—_Poncho_ Chili, _Cuayo_ Galibi.

Danse and song, rites and worship AREITOS A., _Areites_ D., _Areiti_ G.,
_Batocos_ G.—

    _Iroitos_ sacred songs of Greeks, _Ticos_ Illyrian, _Artesis_,
    _Orchesis_, _Xoreite_, danses of Pelagians and Greeks, _Ariette_
    (song) French and Ital., _Hurah_ Saxon, _Ahura_ Havay—_Yaravis_
    Peru, _Mitotes_ Mexican.

Dog, _Cuchis_, _Gochis_, _Alco_ (a peculiar kind.)—

    _Khoy_ Caucasus, _Cunis_ Pelagic, _Kiuen_ China, _Chiu_ Mungur of
    Nepal, _Chien_ French, _Cucus_ Persian, _Cucura_ Sanscrit, _Cucha_
    Newar, _Cuxur_ Nepal, _Cuncha_ Guanch Atlantes, _Cuch_ Curdish,
    _Cho_ Siam—_Chichi_, _Alco_ Mexican, _Chegua_ Chili, _Cule_ Lule,
    _Allco_ Peru, _Vichu_ Tarasca.

Day, DI—Primitive _Dies_ Latin and all Pelagic languages.

Daughter, RAHEN Ey.—

    _Chera_ Copt, _Ahu_, _Raena_ Sanscrit, _Nuora_ Italic—_Ninah_
    Darien, _Tahira_ Omagua.

Dead, ghost, spirit, OPIA, _Opoyem_, _Goeiz_.—

    _Boa_ old Ethiopic, _Aporoya_ Pelagic, _Iya_ Bishri, _Obit_ Latin,
    _Leoba_ Irish, _Zabi_ Bask, _Obiah_, _Oabye_, Africans—_Pitini_,
    _Conopas_ Peru, _Ho_, _Obihi_ Othomi, _Maboya_ Galibi, _Chipi_

Devil and Evil, TUYRA D., see Annals. _Mabuya_ Eyeri is Carib.

Eternal, MAMONA R. _Jemao_, title of God, see Annals.

Earth, land, and island, JAYA, _Khaya_, _Cayos_, _Hay_, _Guaca_ &c.
A.—Primitive, see Annals.

Eat, to eat, food, to feed, IMAS, Mani A.—

    _Mets_ Celtic, _Yam_ Slavic, _Jian_ Bask, _Ishamas_ Kamchatka,
    _Macanu_ Malay, _Uem_ Copt, _Mas_ Sanscrit and Thibet, _Mashu_
    Nepal—_Micuni_ Peruvian.

End, tail, YARIMA D.—

    _Uras_ Greek, _Ora_ Anglo-Saxon, _Gomera_ Aramic, _Oari_ Japan,
    _Ura_ Manchu, _Brim_ Teutonic—_Yara_ Tarasca.

Emerald, gem, and money, AGUACAT, O.—_Achates_ Greek, _Agata_ Latin &c.

Eyes, IZI, O.—Primitive, _Mizi_ in Polynesia, _Opsis_ Greek, _Aiz_
English, _Iz_ Oriental language—_Cosi_ Cahiri.

Field, plain, CONUCO G. V. ZAVANA _Zanaga, Mazagua_, A.—

    _Khana_ Pehlvi, _Bashan_ old Arabic, _Chonu_ Yakut, _Azagar,
    Zahal, Caha, Amaza_, African Atlantes, _Coy_ Copt, _Ager_ Latin,
    _Kuni_, _Nabeku_ Iberian Spanish—_Cog_ Guarani, _Cu_ Omaguas,
    _Tzallan_ Huasteca.

Fly, flying-insect, COCUYO, _Cuinix_, _Zievas_.—_Huica_ Pelagic, Cuic
Sanscrit, _Musca_ Latin.

Fountain, COA, _Maca_, _Mini_.—_Cum_ Hindi, _Ain_ Arabic, _Hecoas_

Frog, TOA G. Onomatopeia.

Father, AHIA, _Baia_, R., _Vava_, _Baba_ Ey.—Primitive, found in 500

    _Bap_ Lybian, _Ibas Babas_ of atlantes, _Ab_ Oriental Lang, _Pa_
    Thibet, _Yaya_ Kawi, _Babo Avo_ Italy, _Ayenl_ French, _Ay_ Votiac
    and Edda, _Oaba_ Abase, _Aita_ Bask; _Ba Ab Baba_, Sanscrit; _Bay_
    Jolof.—_Yaya_ Peru, _Iyay_ Taos, _Haia_ Sheba, _Ochai_ Yaqui,
    _Yapa_ Cora, _Lahai_ Cochimi and Lamones, _Ahay_ Eslen, _Aoy_
    Eclemac, _Aya_ Yarura, _Yai_ Zamuca, _Ahen_ Yameos, _Yare_ Puri,
    _Baba_ Saliva, _Papa_ Tamanac and Cuna, etc.

Frolic, Intoxication.—_Barbasco_ St. Mary, _Frasco_ Sicilian.

Fish, ICAN, _Guaycan M_.—

    _Ihan_ Malay, _Icthos_ Greek, _Guiena_ Iolof, _Nga_, _Gna_ Limbua
    and Newar of Nepal, _Piscan_ Oscan, _Ica_ Tonga and Nukahiva,
    _Sakana_ Japan, _Iguah_ Java,—_Yacun_ Wokon, _Hucat_ Cora,
    _Makach_ Nachez.

Fire, CUYO D, _Cuxo_ H.—

    _Ecu_ Hottentot, _Cuat_, _Taquat_ afr Atlantes, _Guy_ Kawi, _Koke_
    Coptic, _Ogiak_ Turk, _Cuasi_ Japan, _Fuyo_ Iberian, _Fuoco_
    Italy, _Ucut_ Moluccas.—_Totecuh_ Muscolgi, _Cu_ Sussih, _Icu_
    Lulè, _Eguza_ Saliva, _Yucu_, _Xucu_ Moxas, _Cutha_, Chili,
    _Cuyah_ Malali, _Cuati_ Sapibo, _Kueh_ Taculis.

Fire-fly, CUCUYOS G. _Cucuyo_ H. _Locuyos_ H. _Cucuix_ D. _Zievas_ in
Lucayas O. see Fire and Fly.

Foe, ANAKI O. _Akani_ Ey.—

    _Katahi_ Japan, _Neikos_ (strife) Greek, _Uaina_ Slavic, _Vahini_
    Sanscrit, _Katalki_ Kendy, _Anakim_ Aramic, _Acanitu_ Sicilian,
    _Nemico_ Italian.

Flower, Blossom, ANA A.—

    _Anu_, _Mana_, Egypt, _Anota_ Singala, _Anathos_ Greek, _Suan_
    Newar, _Athina_ Palo, _Tana_ Japan, _Dani_ Othomi.

Fruit. INAS. GUAUANAS, Ac.—Derived from Flower.

Fruitful Co.—_Com_ Iberian, _Comestible_ French.

Fever, see heat.

Flamingo, Red bird. IPIRIS Diaz in Cuba.

God. JOVANA O. _Yocahuna_ R. and many other names and titles in all the
Islands. See the annals and notes. All are compound primitive words:
additional analogies.—

    _Jan_ Janus of Etruscans, _Ju_ Ombrian, _Yu_ Ausonian, _Jovis_
    Latin,—_Jona_, _Yauna_, _Juncva_, _Jaungoieva_ of
    Basks—_Jo-cauna_, _Janum_ of Lybians, IEUE of Moses, _Joh_ Luchu,
    _Yavang_ Sunda, _Iona_ Troyan, _Iunak_ Slavic, _Achaman Ahican_
    Guanch, &c.—_Yah_, _yoha vah_ Chactah, _Hioh_ New Albion, _Yaho_
    Apalachi, _Oyuac_ Old Peruvian, _Jahuagon_ Huron, _Wakon_ Ozages,
    _Conome_ Yaruras, _Oho_ Aleutian, _Ogha_ Othomi, &c.

Great, Big, Large. MA, _Magua_, _Guama_, A.—Primitive, akin to all old

    —_Magnus_ Latin, _Megas_ Greek, _Ma_ Oriental and Sanscrit
    Languages, _Masa_ Pehlvi, _Mese_ Zend, _Maha_ Hindu and Bali,
    _Maque_ Jolof, _Maunu_ Fulah, _Mah_ Iran, _Mag_ Medic and Irish,
    _Guadul_ Phenician, _Maigh_ Celtic, _Magla_ Carthuli, _Waka_
    Japan.—_Ecuah_ Tzuluki, _Gua_ Nachez, _Guazu_ Guarami, _Zhuma_
    Muyzcas, _Ma_ Apalachi, _Manaho_ Othomi.

Green. HUARAHUA, _Guaragua_ Laet.—

    _Xloris_ Greek, _Viridis_ Latin, _Huryo_ Nepal,—_Veragua_ Chontal.


    _Canchana_ Sanscrit, _Sona_ Hindu, _Kin_ China, _Sanu_ Manding,
    _Sun_ Nepal, _Cancha_, Peru.

Go and Come. HA. _Guaiba_ D.—

    _Odebo_ Greek, _Amòular_, _Va_, _Vaya_ Italic D, _Hanba_ Cosa afr,
    _Ya_, _Gati_ Sanscrit,—_Hoye_ Tarahumara, _Hupua_ Yaqui, _Aya_
    Chactah, _Hai_ Patagon, _Auha_ Aleutian.

Gourd. HIGUERA. _Hibuera_ D. O. _Hibue ra_ M.—

    _Guara_ Bask, _Cucurbita_ Latin.

Gentle, mild, tame. MATUM D. _Boniatum_ O.—

    _Manso_ Italy, _Matio_ (Foolish,) _Amato_ (beloved), _Bonus_,
    _mitis_ Latin, _Gathos_ Greek.

Guitar, Lyre. HABAO. R.— _Hiuhaba_ Bask, _Chobao_ Hindi, _Balajo_ Jolof,
_Oboe_, _Hinoa_ Italic D.

Garden, Delight, Joy, Happiness. COAI R. CHALI Ey.—

    _Lali_, _Loula_ Egypt, _Chagla_ Aramic, _Shali_ Cashmir, _Shialar_
    Sicily, _Gala_ Italy, _Yaul_ Scand, _Hali_ Zend, _Coya_ Pelagic,
    _Noali_ Armoric,—_Quali_ Mexican, _Haylli_ Peru, _Ululaez_ Maya.

Ghost, Spirit of Dead. GOEIZ. _Opoyem_ Ey.—

    _Necuya_ Epirian, _Goe_ Greek, _Ghaib_ Aramic and Persian, _Goiti_
    Slavic—_Goz_ Vilela, _Coyocop_ Nachez, _Aguis_ Peru.

Grand-father. AHIACAVO R. See Father. _Narguti_ In Eyeri D.

Guayac, Holy-wood. GUAYAC. _Guayacan_ H. _Guacum_ O.

Grove, Forest. ARCABUTOS Ac.

Good. TIAO R. _Taino_ D. See noble.

House, Habitation. BOA. _Bohio_ A. _Bai_ R. _Canei_ M. _Tunohoko_ Eyeri D.

    _Ocos_ Pelagic, _Hustau_ Romanic, _Acam_ Afr Atlantic, _Uyon_
    Uigur, _Huis_ Old French, _Khaneh_ Persian, _Kanaba_ Thibet,
    _Oneh_ Old Egypt, _Bantaba_ Fulah, _Beit_, _baith_ Aramic, _Bara_
    Pelvi, _Batos_, _Beotes_ Pelagic, _Xoa_ Dorian, _Hu_ Chinese,
    _Bohiga_ Celtic, _Ca_ Etruscan, _Abode, Booth_ English—_Bohio_
    Apalachi, _Buhio_ Maya, _Ochoch_ Poconchi, _Aothi, Baua_ Galibi,
    _Pokos_ Tao, _Nixai_ Quiché, _Uya_ Lulé, _Bahi_ Aruac, _Huachi_
    Peru, _Oca_ Guarani, _Uca_ Omagua, _Ba_ Mizteca, _Chaho_ Tarasca.

Head, Summit, beginning, upon, peak. ZIMU D. _Huibo_.—

    _Cima_, _Suma_ Italic, _Ima Sama_ Pelagic and Sanscrit, _Imula_
    Ombay Id, _Kimita_ Yedzo, _Kima_ Ligurian, _Iman_ Arabic, _Zimba_
    Bunda Congo, _Yuma_ Japan—_Uma_ Peruvian, _Chémé_ Quiché, _China_
    Poconchi, _Umitz_ Nutka, _Muhuti_ Cora, _Yama_ Othomi.

Heliconia. BIHAO.

High, lofty, eminent, excellent, strong, raised. TIHU. _Tichetu, Car,
Huibo, Uta_—

    _Ti_ Pelagic, _Tien_ Chinese, _Tithos_ Greek, _Auti, Alti_ Italic,
    L. _Tith_ Lybian, _Tip_ Saxon, _Timal_ Oscan, _Tohu_ Copt, _Gibor_
    Aramic, _Bop_ Jolof, _Obo_ Mogol, _Ube_ Singala.—_Iba_ Apalachi,
    _Uebo, Uipo_ Galibi, _Hayo_ Cado.

Heaven, sky. TUREI D. _Siela_ O, _Coaiba_ R. _Coyaba_ (Paradise.) _Soraya_
(West sky.) _Ubec_ Ey.—

    _Uranus_, _Skia_ Greek, _Turan_ Old Persian, _Irem_ Persian, _Aru_
    Osset, _Ciel_ French, _Coelum_ Latin, _Arai_ Tahiti, _Coelba_
    Ausonian, _Suraga_ Bugis, _Suroloyo_ Kawi, _Surya_ Sanscrit,
    _Sora_ Japan, _Uren_ Armoric, _Arai_ Turan, _Serua_ Baik, _Urain_
    Pelagic, _Hyalla_ Fullah.—_Capu_ Yaoy and Tamanac, _Coane_ Maya,
    _Cabu_ Otomacas, _Turci_ Paria, _Hetucoba_ Apalachi, _Yabe_
    Guarani, _Purini_ Tarasca, _Cabo_ Galibi, _Tacab_ Poconchi,
    _Pacha_ Aymara.

Heart and Soul. NANICHI—

    _Nasha_ Chaldic, _Anima_ Latin, _Han_ Chinese, _Gan_ Turk, _Huchi_
    Deri Persian, _Uhane_ Havay, _Zinio_ Afgan, _Nima_ Pelagic, _Amé_
    Egypt, _Anichal_ Celtic, _Nehima_ Congo,—_Kaueshin_ Aleutian,
    _Ichick_ Huazteca, _Agna_ Cumana, _Cama_ Peru, _Nashawanith_
    Powhatan, _Ninohuani_ Galibi, _Nandi_ Ottomaca, _Juani_ Yarura,
    _Amitani_ Maipuri, &c.


    _Cadish_ Aramic, _Aucus_ Old Latin, _Hagios_ Greek, _Agi_ Touga,
    _Haga_ Pelagic, _Ca_ Turan, _Hancus_ Ausonian, _Khuab_ Old
    Egypt,—_Aca_, _huaca_ Peru, _Wakon_ Dacota, _Huacan_ Cora,
    _Hualic_ Huazteca.

Heat, hot, fever, dry. ZECHON. ZEZIONES M.—

    _Ako_ Old Arabic, _Sicus_ Latin, _Xerone_, _Chaone_ Pelagian,
    _Chon_ Egypt, _Chaud_ (Cho) French, _Cau_ Romanic,—_Achi_ Chili.

Hog, Swine, Pecari. ZAINO. _Scuna_ Ac.

    —_Sis-ino_ Japan, _Chinia_ Ausonian, _Suina_ Russian, _Zayos_
    Pelagic, _Zanno_ Oscan, _Zinial_ Ligurian, _Muaca_, _Charcu_
    Celtic, _Taguazen_ Guanch,—_Tayasu_ Guarani, _Sayones_ Calamari,
    _Nigda_ Mbaya.

His, her, He, she. LI.

Hill. HUIBO D. _Carive_ Laet, see mountain.

Hollow, hole, YARA. _Yari_, _Yaru_. _Coatris_.—_Trou_, _Creux_ French.

Hut. BOHARQUE M. _Canei_ G. _Tuhonoko_ Ey. See House.

Insect. See Little.

Island, CAYA, _Caic_, _Caiz_, _Caiques_. All—see Earth and Land.

Infinite, RAPITA, _Apito_, _Virita_ R. D. O. title of God with _Guaca_
holy. Analogies with _Rapid_ and _Veritas_ Latin.

Invisible, GUIMAZOA, _Zuimaco_, _Quinazona_ R. D. O.—other title of God,
compound words, perhaps of different import: with many affinities in
divine names of Lybia, &c.

In, Within, Inside. _Hiqui_ in Cuba Laet. _Nacan_ C.

Indigo, DIGO R.

Is, it is, this is. ZI—primitive _Ze_ in Mosaic and Oriental Languages.—He
is, she is, EL or _eil_, see Grammar.

King. CAZIC A. _Cacique_, _Caciqui_, _Caxicus_, _Casiche_ Various
spellings.—See the Annals.

Knowledge, to know. GUAROCO, D.—_Char_ Aramic, _Imparar_ Italic, _Rasaca_

Life. BI G.—Primitive. I Oriental L. _Vita_ Italic, _Bios_ Greek, _Vie_

Lizard. GUANA. _Iguana_ A. _Yuanas_ Her,—_Aguana_ Guinea, _Iagandu_ Congo,
_Athaguan_ Pelagic, _Manatha_ Aramic, _Guha_ Singala,—_Iuganas_ Cumana,
_Leguan_ Aruwak.

Labor. BORIA.

Laborer, Vassal, Servant. NABOR, _Anaboria_, _Naboritis_. See Annals.

Little, Small, Nothing, Insect. NIGUA. _Nianti_ Ey.—

    _Nigu_, _niga_ Sicily, _Niente_ Italic, _Ngai_ Birman, _Naga_
    Hindi, _Ngni_ Newar, _Guti_ Bask, _Minizi_ Gothic,—_Piqua_ Peru,
    _Chigua_ Darien, _Nechet_ Adaiz, _Enchique_ Yaoy.

Land. See Earth.

Lord. See Noble.

Light, Shining. TUREIGNA D. See Heaven.

Lake, HAGUAI. See Water.

Man, men, male, husband, people. HITO GUANI, CARI R. _Magua_ G. 3 roots
IT, RI, AN, connected all over the world: IT found in

    _Iota_ Old Gothic, _Itua_ Polynesia, _Toy_ Old Egypt, _Hitnos_
    Pelagic, _Hita_ Sanscrit, _Ati_ Zend, _Itga_ Nubian, _Hetus_
    Ausonian, _Het_ Talahet, _Dito_ Kawi, _Fito_ Japan, _Tuhihuit_
    Cumanche, &c.—

    RI in _Ria_ Congo, _Vir_ Latin, _Hari_ Tombuctu, _Ira_ Tambu, _Er_
    Turk, _Air_ Celtic and Haikan, _Yeri_ Hungarian, _Ari_ Peruvian,
    _Nieri_ Illyrian, _Vair_ Gothic, _Viro_ Timuacan, _Ir_ Oscan, &c.—

    AN in _Nan_, _Yang_, Chinese D. _Ani_ Anam, _Gens_ Latin, _Han_
    Mbaya, _Huinac_ Tzendal, _Aner_ Greek, _Orang_ Malay, _Guan_
    Gaunch,—_Hua_ Apalachi, _Huentu_ Chili, _Guana_ Guanas, &c.

Mother. MAMA D.—Primitive word, found in 500 Languages; identic or nearly
so in all the Sanscrit and European Languages, the Atlantic Dialects, Bask
and Manchu, Egypt and Tartary, Thibet and Polynesia; changed to _Mu_ in
Chinese; _Am_, _Om_ in Arabic Languages—In America quite common also,
least changed in _Hama_ Shebaoy, _Amani_, Adaiz _Ma_ Mobima, _Mama_ Betoy,
Omagua and Peru.

Moon. MAROYO R. _Marohus_ O. _Mona_, _Kati_ in Eyeri. See the Annals.

Much, Many. TOCHETA D.—_Tucho_ Iberian, _Chuanti_ Ausonian, _Chehel_
Persian, _Totus_ Latin.—_Tacha_ Achagua, _Mioch_ Mexican, _Tobu_

Mammeafruit. MAMEY D.

Millet. PANYCKE D.—_Panicum_ Latin.

Mountain or hill, highlands, rough country. TIHUI. _Huibo_, _Baino_,
_Zibao_, _Hayti_.—

    _Mtay_ Carthul, _Oiten_ Lusitanian, _Hauteur_ (pr hotoer) French,
    _Tith_ Pelagic, _Buno_, Romaic, _Guibo_ Aramic, _Tohu_
    Copt,—_Uibui_ Galibi, _Caquihuin_ Totonaca, _Titi_ Collas of Peru,
    _Ehuata_ Omagua, _Vata_ Tarasca, _Hatez_ Chontal, _Guetia_ Mbaya,

Music, Noise. HABAO, _Giahuba_.—

    _Hapan_ Pelagic, _Hubub_ Celtic, _Buba_ Congo, _Bhatai_ Bali,
    _Behan_ Turan and Khorazan.—_Paypa_ Peru, _Ahbal_ Huazteca,
    _Tupan_ Guarani.

Me, I, my, mine, myself—NI, N’, MI, M’.—Primitive, found in all the
European and Asiatic Languages more or less deviated—

    _Ni_, _Mich_ Bask, _Ani_ Aramic, _Mina_ Negro Langs, _Nio_
    Japan,—_Ne_, _Me_ Mexican Languages, _Na_ Apalachi, _Ni_, _Mi_
    Linapi Dial, _Hi_ Tarasca, _Ani_ Pimas Muscolgi, _Nia_ Cora, _Mio_
    Dacota, _Gane_, _Kuno_ Japan.

Metal, hard. NIN. _Guanin_ C. _Hobin_ D.—_Irania_ Sanscrit, _Vina_
Jolof,—_Panilgue_ (Iron) Chili.

Manati, Sea-Cow. MANATI A.—_Lamantin_ French, _Mamatino_ Sicilian.

Mosquito. JEJEN D.—_Zinzara_ Toscan.

Mushroom. YEGAN. _Guayegan_ R.—_Fungus_, _Agaricus_ Latin, _Mycos_ Greek,
_Guarib_ Slavic, _Guaygrion_ Celtic, and Old French.

Meadow. ZAVANA. _Zabana_ A. See Field.

Master, Lord. GUAMA. See Prince.

Mantle. YAGUAS. Her. See Dress.

Moving. MANA. See Grammar.

Manioc. BONIATA O, is the mild kind, _Yuco_ D.

Mahogany. MAHOGANI H. _Cahoba_.

Mangrove tree. MANGLE H.

Noble, good, fine, handsome, lord, chief. TAINO A. _Mato_ Her, _Nitaino_,
_Mitaino_ Dialects.—

    _Thano_ Oscan, _Tona_ Japan, _Hainac_, _Theano_, _Tuyano_
    Pelagian, _Turanos_ Greek, _Zain_ Turk, _Atueyn_ Birman, _No_
    (fine) Greek, _Ethauo_ Singala, _Tayon_ Kamchatka, _Talen_
    Iberian, _Ona_ (good) Bask, _Sitino_ Old Arabic; _Tonos_,
    _Taminas_ Scythian, _Maitai_ Polynesia,—_Toani_ Mexican,
    _Tzalleine_ Huazteca, _Votan_ Chontal, _Noen_ Mocobi, _Nin_
    Abipon, _Hitana_ Apalachi.

No, Not, Nothing, Bad. MAYANA, MACA D.—

    _Eyni_ Mozabi, Lybian; _Nani_ Romanic, _May_ Dorian, _Niani_
    Ausonian, _Niente_ Italian, _Ima_ Tahiti, _Mabi_ Birman, _An_
    Copt,—_Ama_ Othomi, _Isana_ Cado, _Nitio_ Guarani, _Mayan_
    Puncays; _Ma_, _Matar_ Maya, _Mana_ Peru, _Mani_ Poconchi.

Nuts. _Zibayos_ D—Derived from _Ziba_ Stone.

Now, To-day. DI. See Grammar.—_Adesso Oggidi_ Italian.

One, first, alone, unique. ATA, ATU R. D.—Primitive, found in 200

    _Bat_ Bask, _Yat_ Kong Chinese, _Atus_ Oscan, _Ada_ Aramic, _Ath_
    Egypt, _Ata_ Pelagic, _Tahi_ Polynesia, _Tah_ Gaman Afr, _Auto_
    Greek, _Yat_ Shilo Atlantic, _Suat_ Sumatra.—_Ata_ Muyzcas,
    _Hatun_ Peru, _Mato_ Pimas, _Ata_ Innuit, _Aguit_ Vilela, _Carata_
    Sapibo, _Nacut_ Micmac, _Scatta_ Onondago.

Old, oldman. UA, BOH. _Beh_, _Bohito_, _Bohique_ A. See Priest.—_Holbo_
Copt,—_Bial_ Huazteca, &c.—Very old Uaua as in Mexican.

Oldest, Eldest. NENECHIN, R.—_Ainé_ French.

Onion, Bulb. CABAICOS R. _Macoanes_ D.—

    _Cepa_ Latin, _Ceba_ Tonga Isl., _Kipo_ Nepal, _Cipola_ Italian,
    _Cipuda_ Sicilian, _Zaibel_ German, _Bacang_, _Bawang_ Malay and

Omnipotent. LIELLA R. _Siela_. Title of God, analogies with EL, and _Ciel_
Heaven in French, pr. _Siel_.

Opossum. TONA R.

Ocymum. ZOCHEN R.

Paddle, Oar. PAGAYA, _Pages_, _Nae_ D.—_Pahi_ (boat) Tahiti, _Nae_ is the
root of boat in all Oriental and Pelagic Languages.

Pheasant. _Babiayas_ Her. Cuba.—_Phasianus_ Latin.

Palace. CANEI H. See House.

Peace, repose, rest, quiet. TOCA D.—_Sata_ Lybian, _Netuc_ Tozi old
Arabic, _Cueto_ Sicilian, _Paca_ Aussonian, _Thegi_ Scand.

Pepper, pungent, sharp, strong taste. AXI, AJI. _Ages_ A.—_Ac_ is a
primitive word for sharp. _Ac_, _ag_ Celtic, _Acutus_ Latin, _Oxus_
Greek,—_Axi_ Cumana.

Priest. BOHITO. _Bautio_, _Buhui_, _Bohique_, _Behique_. _Boition_,
_Bouiti_, _Buutio_, _Boyeto_, &c., by different writers, and in Dialects.
See the Annals and Notes.

Pontif, High-priest. BUHUI-TIHU A. See High.

Part or Share. See Apart.

Pipe, Tube. TOBACO D. _Tubus_ Latin, _Sipos_ Greek, _Hukah_ Hindi,
_Chibuc_ Turk,—_Bacana_ Carib.

Purple. RAGUI. _Anigua_ D.—_Uarg_ Celtic, _Banicos_, Iberian.

Patatos. BATATAS.—The same in South America.

Place. GUARA R.

People, men. CHIVI, IBAR D. _Cabres_ Eyeri. See Man.

Parrot. PARACA. _Maca_ Cuba and Aruac.

Psidium pyriferum. Guava pear. _Guayava_, _Guaxaba_ D.

Pimento. PIMENTO.—_Pimienta_ Maya.

Poke. CUCATO. _Xucato_.—_Pocan_ Powhatan, _Coacum_ Mohigan, _Cuechiliz_

Plain. MAGUA. See Field.

Palm. YAGUA O. _Caico_ Eyeri.

Paradise. COAIBAI R. Her. See Heaven.

Physician. BOITI G. See Priest.

Parsnep. _Guaieros_ D.

Plumbtree, Myrobolan. XOBOS R. Plumbs _Hicaco_ H. _Cainito_ D.

Prince, Lord. GUAMA D.

    _Tequeni-gua_, _Gua-miniqui_ Her, _Hamon_ afr Atlantes, _Samah_
    Lybian, _Lucumon_ Etruscan, _Vimala_ Sanscrit, _Magister_ Lat.,
    _Mana_, _Menuh_, Zend and Old Sanser, _Haman_ Iran, _Buyama_ Old
    Arabic—_Tequanes_ Mexican., _Tuinametin_ Tarasca, _Tequenes_
    Muyzcas, _Inquathil_ Huazteca, _Amo_ Choco, _Ahan_ Maya, &c.

Raft. BALZA A.—_Balza_, _Balca_ Italian D. _Balagan_ Malay.

Root, Yam. NIAMES. _Ames_, _M’ames_.—

    _Ima_ Molucas, _Lami_ Macasar, _Nuni_ Copt, _Boniam_ Celtic,
    _Boan_ Persian, _Niami_ African L.—_Nanat_ Cora, _Moniatos_

Rabbits. AGUTI, _Aguchi_, _Huti_, _Utia_, _Cuti_ A. R. Peculiar Genus
_Cavia_ like Rabbits, 4 kinds in Hayti, says Laet.—_Hutia_ Largest;
_Chemi_, _Cori_, _Mohuy_, Smallest.—_Cavia_ and _Pucarara_ in Dialects E.
_Quinaxes_ E. Cuba.—

    _Saraguchi_ Egypt, _Guniyu_ Sicilian, _Cuniculus_ Latin, _Lagotis_
    Greek,—_Cuyes_ Quito, _Coy_ Huazteca, _Cuya_ Peru, _Curus_
    Tayronas, _Quinazis_ Cauca.

Red. RIS. Diaz, ACHIOTO Her. Bay or Scarlet-red. PU, BU.—

    _Giria_ Bask, _Kiris_ Arab, _Rehita_ Sanscrit, _Rosso_ Italian,
    _Rubus_, _Badius_, _Puniceus_ Latin, _Phoenis_, _Erythros_ Greek,
    _Bai_ Egypt, _Bugra_ Maroco, _Arbho_ Thibet.

Rich, Wealth, Wealthy, Treasure. DUCHI M. _Duhos_ G. _Duyhzi_ D.—

    _Divitia_ Latin, _Guhya_ Sanscrit, _Duhut_ Hindi,—_Dites_ Darien,
    _Cusca_ Quichè.

Rattle, Holy music. MARACA.—

    _Amara_ Bali, _Raya_ Pelagic.—_Quaqua_ Huazteca, _Amaraca_ Tupi
    Brazil, _Tamaraca_ Aruac and Anzerma, _Malaca_ Apalachi.

Retreat. TIBA.—_Thbe_ Moses, _Tiba_ Thibet, _Theba_ Egypt. &c.

Remora fish. REMORA G. _Reveo_ H. _Rambos_ Ac.—_Remor_ Pelagic.

Rope. CABUYA G.—_Cable_, _Cord_, English, French, Italian.

River. See Stream.

Rites, worship, reality. REITI.—_Ritus_ Latin &c.

Sea, Ocean. BAGUA V. _Balahua_ Ey. Evident analogy with _Agua_, _Aqua_,
(water) in Spanish and Italian.—

    _Talahua_ Mogol, _Balua_, _Pela_ Pelagic, _Va_ Sanscrit, _Ab_
    Persian, _Baa_ Sussu of Afr, _Panyui_ Tarahum, _Cagua_ Saliva,
    _Gua_ Tupi.

Star, Bright. STAREI D.—Primitive, found from England to India.

    _Asterias_ Greek, _Aster_ Pelagic, _Sial_ Osset, _Taroth_ Aramic,
    _Tara_ Hindi, _Stara_ Sanscrit, _Izeran_, _Yethra_ African
    Atlantic, _Izara_ Bask, _Sitarah_ Persian.—_Sirica_ Galibi,
    Tamanac and Otomaca, _Chirica_ Yaoy, _Silico_ Betoy, _Ergrai_
    Abipon, _Stan_ Aleutian, _Setere_ Patagon.

Sword, Club, Weapon. MACANA A. _Machana_ O.—

    _Mukenai_ Dorian, _Makaira_ Greek, _Magal_ Aramic, _Maguila_ Bask,
    _Maco_ (spear) Gaunch, _Mayado_ (club) Do. _Mazza_ Italian, _Mace_
    Old English,—_Macana_ Darien, and many other languages of South
    America. _Macahui_ Mexican.

Stream, River, Flood, NIQUEN. _Neguin_ D. _Ziniquin_, _Cuhen_, _Agua_ in

    _Dhuni_ Sanscrit, _Dunic_ Osset, _Dexamen_ Guanch, _Chuen_
    Chinese, _Cuemen_ Celtic, _Hunica Kayan_ Turan, _Nahuen_ Pehlvi,
    _Amnica_ Ausonian, _Nukil_ Afgan, _Binanga_ Bugi, _Annigan_ Scand,
    _Annegar_ (to drown) Italian, _Nikli_, _Khian_ Lezghi, _Nikar_,
    Toba Old Arabic.—_Wuinic_ Aruac, _Necua_ Yarura, _Cuyk_ Aleutian,
    _Nidachi_ Cado, _Uchi_ Chacta.

Storm, Hurricane, Fury. FURACANE D. _Huracanes_ G. _Urogan_ Ey. Derived
from rage and fury of elements, primitive roots.—

    _Rages Soarah_, (rage and storm) Aramic, _Racas_ Toba Arabic,
    _Taravat_ African Negros, _Burasca_ Italian, _Orage_ French,
    _Hurlig_ Saxon, &c.

Sun. BOINIAL, BINTHAITEL. See Annals. _Kachi_ in Eyeri. See King.

Setting Sun, the West. SORAYA. See Heaven.—

    _Surya_ Sanscrit, _Soir_ evening in French, _Sera_ in Italian,
    _Vesper_, _Hesper_, Pelagic, _Spera_ Romaic.

Song, see Dance.—Soul, see Heart.—Small, see Little.

Son, EL. Sons, ILI. See Annals. _Rabu_, in Eyeri. See Grammar.

Stone, Rock. ZIBA A. See the Annals. Rocky _Zibao_.

Such. GUA. Demonstrative article much employed, found in many old
languages.—_Ath_ Aramic, Arabic, Hebrew, Egyptian, &c.—_Gua_ in South


Strong. CARIB, AGI A. See Pepper.


Stranger. CHAPETON AC. _Guachinango_ Diaz in Cuba.

Soup, Boiled. CALALU.—_Bollito_ It. _Olla_ Spt.

Snake. BOBA in Boriquen.—_Boa_ African L., _Ob_ Oriental L., _Coluber_
Latin, _Ophis_ Greek.—_Coa_ Mexican, _Boya_ Guarani.

The, English indicative article I, HI, HIN, ZI, NI, LI.—Primitive,
variable in Dialects, root I, same as I Italian, IL, L’ do. Y, _Ye_ Old
English, I Persian and Lybian, _Yn_ Celtic, Y Old Arabic, _Ni_, _N’_
Illyrian, _Ohi_ Havay,—TI Cora, TL Mexican, _Ini_ Pimal, _Ni_ Lapani D.,
_Nuya_ Achagua, _Iu_ Payuri. See Grammar.

This, that, these, those. GUA, same as such. See Grammar.

Thou, thy, thine. TI, TE.—Primitive from Celtic to Sanscrit. _Ti_, _te_,
_toi_, _tien_ Greek and Illiryan, nearly similar in Bask, Gothic, Pelagic,
Latin, Italian, Persian, Magyar, &c.

Take. CHUC C. _Chugue_ Her.—_Busca_ Italian, _Aku_ Lampung of
Sumatra.—_Huyca_ Huazteca, _Uhca_ Tarasca.

Tomato. TOMATES G.

Temple. See Church.

Tree. See Wood.

Town, habitation. BOHIO, same as house—

    _Bahus_, _Pagus_, _Urbis_ Italic L., _Paese_, _Pays_, _Payz_
    Modern I., _Choyo_ Greek D., _Bajeth_ Aramic, _Huebo_ Iberian,
    _Bohus_ Pelagic, _Bya_ Scand, &c.

Thread. HICO D.—_Hilo_ Oscan, _Trico_ Greek, _Hagu_ Nepal—_Hito_, _Pito_

Tobacco, COHIBA O. COGIOBA R. _Cohoba_ D.—_Dokhan_ Arabic, _Tuhica_ Nuba.

Turtle. ICOTA G. ICOTEA H. _Cabini_ D.—_Chucua_, _Icuma_ Sanscrit, _Boco_
Bali.—_Cotos_ Cumana.

Two, or Second. BEM?—_Bi_ Bask, _Binus_ Latin, _Ambi_ Italian.

Three, or Third. ABEM?

Tame, Mild. MATUM D. _Boniatum_ O.—_Bonus_ Latin.

Throne. DUCHI M.

Vine, Creeper. BEJUCO D.—_Bixuco_, _Bexucum_ O., _Bochuco_ M. Grape-vine.
UVERIU. _Uyeros_ M.—_Uva_ Italian, _Viniera_ Catalan, _Zibi_ Arabic, _Ivy_
(pr Aivi) English.

Vassal. See Laborer.

Water. AMA. BAGUA.—

    Primitive. _Ma_ Atlantes and Lybian, _Aman_ Modern Atlantes,
    _Aemon_ Gaunch, _Mohu_ Copt, _Nam_ Siam, _Maim_ Arabic, _Balua_
    Pelagic, _Oman_ Old Arabic, _Ameh_ Affadeh Negros, _Maza_ Congo,
    _Kama_ Corana, _Asma_ Romaic, _Agua_ Spanish, _Aigo_ Romanic,
    _Lagus_, _Lacus_ (lake) Latin and Celtic.—_May_, _Mayu_, Peru,
    _Nhama_ Puris, _Amuk_, _Ahua_ Tzuluki, _Iia_ Chontal, _Maya_, _A_
    Mexican, _Agua_ Veragua, _Ak_ Atakapus, _Haya_ Shebay, _Aya_
    Yarura, _Ahay_ Eslen, &c.

Woman, Wife. INUYA. HITA. ITI. BIBI _Inara_, _Liani_, _Churon_, Ey.—

    Several roots, _Iti_ same as _Hito_ man,—_Bibi_ is wife D. _Gyna_
    Greek, _Guine_ Old French, _Nurin_ Desatir and Hindi, _Cunica_,
    _Enaztia_, _Toya_ Bask D., _Iona_ Pelagic, _Zaita_ (girl) Bask,
    _Zitta_ (bride) Sicilian, _Tanaya_ Tedla Atlantic, _Yuri_, _Nin_
    Chinese Dialects, _Ita_, _Itua_, Oscan, _Gin_ Haikan, _Gina_
    Australia, _Cuinta_ Congo, _Nuriu_ Hindi, _Machini_ Polynesia;
    _Ana_, _Biana_ Oscan, _Puta_ Venitian, _Heana Beana_ Celtic,
    _Zitella_ (girl) Italian, _Nurani_ Pehlvi, _Shina_ Copt, _Wanito_
    Kawi, _Uxor_ (wife) Latin, _Boba_, _Chura_ Slavic Bulgar, _Biby_
    Malabar, _Muchn_ Iran, _Keron_ (girl) Dorian Greek, _Koriza_
    Romanic, &c.—_Uita_ Cora, _Zitua_ Mexican, _Nuatitu_ Saliva,
    _Esena_ Moxas, _Tiguy_ Muyzcas, _Tinio_ Maypuri, _Yatè_ Mocobi,
    _Nikib_ Atakapus, _Zina_ (girl) Othomi, _Wanita_ Uchi, _Iras_
    Cumana, _Ira_ Coyba, _Nia_ Apalachi.

White. YUCA, LUCA A.—

    _Leucas_ Greek, _Ca_ Turan, _Casis_ Scythian, _Chuna_ Bask,
    _Aluca_ Lezghi, _Cucua_ Abask,—_Luza_ Chacta, _Elu_ Galibi,
    _Lapaca_ Mbaya, _Zaco_ Totonaca, _Luc_ Chili, _Yurac_ Peru,
    _Hacaya_ Cado, _Usca_ Ozage, _Yutaga_ Mocobi, _Zac_ Maya.

Wood or Tree. MACA, MAPU A. BUTOS Ac.—_Maica Chimala_ Dialects.—

    _Kha_ Circaz, _Micha_ Abask, _Khad_ Osset, _Taimala_ Lezghi,
    _Makia_ Oscan, (yet forest in Toscan.) _Gas_ Hindi, _Gatz_ Pehlvi,
    _Agaz_ Tartar, _Cayu_ Malay,—_Ca_ Omagua and Guarani, _Caa_ Mbaya,
    _Kag_ Atakapas, _Canch_ Nachez, _Manga_ Adaiz, _Aca_ Peru, &c.
    _Butos_ is like _Bois_ (bua) French, _Wood_ (Vud) English.

War, Army. GUAZAVARA G. _Huctu_ Ey. Warrior. VARA.—Root same as in English
and Gothic, _Guerra_ Italian, &c.

Wanderer. UMAKUA Ey.—_Omuvagu_ Sicilian.

Wind or Air. BANZEX D.—Primitive.

    _Baud_ Old Arabic, _Bao_ Hindu, _Bad_ Persian, _Bau_ Ruyaga,
    _Andai_ Oscan, _Nabha_ Sanscrit, _Bentus_ Ausonian, _Bana_ Kawi,
    _Hanem_ Pelagic, _Abklia_ Abask,—_Eheca_ Mexican, _Acate_ Cora,
    _Peco_ Chetimacha, &c.

West. SORAIA R.—_Warab_ Old Arabic, _Varapa_, _Saraya_ Sanscrit, _Urop_
Pelagic, _Hesper_ Greek, _Vesper_ Latin, _Urai_ Bugis. _Sor_ Aramic. See
Setting Sun.

World. QUEYA, OCON R. D.—_On_ Oriental Root, _Xton_ Greek, _Queya_ from
_Quiscaya_ whole earth.

Which, HIQUI Laet.—_Qui_ French, _Ilquale_ Italian, _Cui_ Sicilian.

Worms. CUSI. _Piojo_ in Jamaica.—_Cus_ Lybian, _Baco_ Toscan, _Pioc_
(vermin) Celtic.

Yes. HA.—Primitive. _Ha_ Lezghi, _Ya_ Gothic and Lamut, _Do_ Ostiac,
_Aham_ Arabic, _Am_ Haikan, _A_ Timani and Bulam Africa, _Uaa_ Jolof,
_Yaga_ Congo, _Ay_ English, _Hea_ African Atlantes,—_Haha_ Apalachi, _Aa_
Aleutian, _Haa_ Otomaco, Othomi and Cumanchi, _Ya_ Totonac and Puris,
_May_ Chili, _Oyah_ Ozage, _Ahi_ Cado, _Yasay_ Aruac.

Yellow. HOBAS.—_Majob_ Lezghi, _Lobidus_ Ausonian, _Bahenda_ Biaju of
Borneo, _Aubain_ (Oben) Old French, _Hoang_ Chinese.

Yuca gloriosa. YUCA E. same in Mexico, meaning bright, white.

Fragments On The Western Dialects Of Cuba, Jamaica, And The Lucayas

C. Cuba, by Herrera, Diaz, Columbus, Acosta, Laet, Munoz, &c.

J. Jamaica, by Columbus, Garcia, Gomara, &c.

L. Lucayas, by Columbus, Acosta, Oviedo, &c.

Land or Country, _Katos_, L. _Xai_ J. _Nacan_, _Guaca_, C.

Island, _Caya_, L _Cayo_, C _Caic_ J.

Stranger, _Guachinango_, C.

House, _Bohio_, C.

Remora, _Reves_, C.

Partridge, _Lizas_, C. by Ocampo.

Pheasant, _Babiayas_, C.

Parrot, _Maxa_ C. _Macan_, J.

Prince, Lord, _Guami_, C.

Rabbits, _Usias_, _Hutic_, _Quinaxes_ C. _Hutia_ L.

Opuntia, _Tuna_ C.

Cacao, _Cacao_ C.

Priest, _Behique_, _Bohique_ C. L.

River, _Agua_ C.

Corn, _Maysi_, C.

Bread, _Zabi_, C.

God, _Yocahuna_, _Guama-coti_, _Guama-oxocoti_, C.

Supreme being, _Attabex_, C.

Ghost, _Dupi_, J.

Life, _Bi_, C. L.

Fountain, _Mini_, C. L.

Wood, _Maica_, J.

Cedar, _Cauvana_, C.

Dog, _Alco_, C.

Alligator, _Cayaman_, C.

Poke, _Cucato_, J.

Fire-fly, _Locuyos_, C. _Zievas_, L.

Noble, _To_, _Mato_, C.

Shell, _Cohobas_, C.

Guayac, Guacum, C.

Red, _Ris_, C.

White Worm, _Cusi_, J.

Palm Worm, _Piojo_, J.

King. _Caxicus_, C.

Within, _Hiqui_, _Nacan_, C.

Gold, _Nucay_, C. L. Columbus.

Yams, _Mames_, C.

Grape Vine, _Uveros_, C.

Fragments On The Eyeri Eastern Dialects Of Boriquen And The Carib Islands.

B. Boriquen, by Herrera, Acosta, &c.

E. Dialect of the Women of Carib, quite different from Carib, by
Rochefort, &c.

Land, Island, _Kati_, E. _Ca_, _Ay_, B.

God, _Iocana_, _Guama-nomocon_, B.

Noble, _Ditayno_, B.

Snake, _Boba_, B.

Cloudy, _Furzidi_, B.

Mahogany, _Maga_, B.

Poison Apple, _Manzanila_, B.

Cotton Tree, _Zeyba,_ B.

Violet, _Quibey_, B.

Bananas, _Camois_, E.

Coco, _Coquillas_, B.

Guayac, _Guage_, B.

Hog, _Saine_, B.

Boat, _Piraguas_, B.

Wood, Tree, Bow, _Chimala_, E.

Angel, _Chemin_, Angels, _Chemignum_, E.

Spirits, _Opoyem_, E.

Moon, _Mona_, _Kati_, E.

Storm, _Urogan_, E.

Blood, _Moinalu_, E.

Heaven or above, _Ubec_, E.

Bread, _Maru_, E.

Boat, _Canoa_, _Pages_, E.

Man, _Eyeri_, Men, _Eyerium_, E.

Woman, _Inaru_, Women, _Inuyum_, E.

Foe, _Akani_, E.

Little, _Nianti_, E.

House, Hut, _Tuhonoco_, E.

Garden, _Chali_, E.

War, _Nihuctu_, E.

Mother, _Bibi_, _Nucu-churon_, E.

Father, _Baba_, _Nucu-chili_, E.

Grandfather, _Narguti_, E.

Wife, _Liani_, E.

Son, _Rabu_, E.

Daughter, _Rahen_, E.

The, _Ni_, N’.

Heart, _ Nanichi_, E.

Vassal, _Labuyu_, E.

Sea, _Balana_, E.

Bed, _Nekera_, E.

Sun, _Kachi_, _Cochi_, E.

Money, _Agucat_.

Palm, _Caico_.

Red, _Pu_, E.

People, _Ibas_, B. Cabres, E.

Priest, _Boyez_, E.

Wanderer, _Umckua_, E.

Devil, _Mabuya_, E.

Vocabulary Of The Cairi Of Trinidad Island, 1594.

This Dialect of the ARUAC is the nearest geographically to the _Eyeri_,
and yet very different; nearer in words to the _Aruac_ of the Continent.
Therefore the _Aruac_ and _Taino_ altho’ belonging to the same group, are
distinct Languages, and the two people had been separated for ages.

Dudley collected in 1594, about 55 words of it, which are in Purchas, yet
have been neglected by all the Philologists. Out of these 27 are in my
_Taino_ List, and offer 16 affinities, equal to 56 per cent. The remainder
27, lack there and cannot be compared; but afford a kind of supplement to

16 Comparable Words Akin In Both.

Man, _Guttemock_.

Woman, _Hiaru_.

Heaven, _Huihua_.

Gold, _Calcoari_.

Maize, _Mauris_.

Pipe, _Bayu_.

Shell, _Tibetibe_.

Water, _Bara_, _Oronuy_.

Sun, _Hadali_.

Moon, _Katti_.

Bread, _Callit_.

Fire, _Hicket_.

Eyes, _Cosi_, _Scrath_.

Boat, _Canoa_, _Canosin_.

Stone, _Sibath_.

Head, _Cabbo_.

12 Different Comparable Words.

Copper, _Arara_.

Metal, Iron, _Mointiman_.

Emerald, _Taarao_.

Sword, _Caspara_.

This, My, _Da_, D.

Parrot, _Wahowa_.

Tree, _Mentini_.

Potato, _Halete_.

Batatas, _Caenuda_.

Knife, _Yedola_.

Basket, _Queca_.

Tobacco, _Hurreit_.

27 Additional Words Not Comparable.

Hand, _Can_.

Feet, _Cutti_.

Knees, _Cude_.

Toes, _Boda_.

Hair, _Bairo_, _Barah_.

Bow, _Marahabo_.

Arrow, _Semaro_.

Spoon, _Heldaro_.

Silver, _Perota_.

Forehead, _Dessi_.

Tongue, _Dill_.

Ears, _Dudica_.

Lips, _Desire_.

Teeth, _Arehe_.

Monkey, _Howa_.

Chest, _Bodad_.

Well, _Sakel_.

Bracelet, _Techir_.

Scissors, _Arkeano_.

Comb, _Baruda_.

Mouth, _Lacoak_.

Bell, _Toletilero_.

Stick, _Adoth_.

Beach, _Barenaine_.

Flying fish, _Bohery_.

Tunny fish, _Uassa_.

I don’t know, _Nonguo_, _Nonquapa_.

Fragment On The Araguas Of Brazil, 1519.

As early as 1519, Pigafetta collected a dozen words of the Brazilian
Language; which are quite different from the _Tupi_; but very akin to the
Haytian. Altho’ he does not name the tribe he visited, they must have been
_Araguas_, who are thus traced to the _Aruac_ Stock. This great nation was
still further extended; since the Patagons or _Tinguis_, the Chiquitos or
_Taos_, and perhaps the _Charruas_ belonged to it, as I shall show
elsewhere. Meantime adding some words from Cabot & Vespucci, we have 17
Araguas words, whereof 14 are comparable with the Haytian, offering 10
affinities, which gives 72 per cent of mutual analogy, much more than with
the _Cairi_.

10 Consimilar Words.

House, _Boi_, _Bohio_, by Cabot.

Corn, _Maiz_.

Rattle, _Hanmaraca_.

Boat, _Canoe_.

Sword, _Macana_, Cabot. King, _Cachic_, (written _Cacich_) Italian

Good, _Tum_.

Bed, _Hamac_. Big-land, _Taquino_, by Vespuci, name of Brazil.

4 Different Comparable Words.

Knife, _Tarse_.

Bananas, _Pacaras_.

Pear, _Caxus_, by Cabot.

Meal or Cassave, _Hui_.

3 Words Not Comparable.

Hook, _Pinda_.

Scissors, _Pirame_.

Comb, _Chipag_.

End Of First Volume.


    1 In 1824, I published my first essay on American history, a pamphlet
      on the _Ancient History of Kentucky_, or Central North America,
      before 1770. Although it was a mere rude sketch, it contains many
      important historical facts. I was too little advanced then in
      philological studies, to give it their support, and many of my
      surmises must be rectified by it. My late researches have also
      greatly impaired the general belief of the Tartarian origin, and
      western route of the Mexican nations.

    2 I published this presumed key in 1832 in my Atlantic Journal; but
      many accurate comparisons are yet required to confirm my surmises,
      although the Lybian analogies are evident.

    3 In Hughes’ Travels in Sicily, Greece and Albania in 1813-14,
      published 1820, we find this fact about Hesiod’s mention of maize,
      used by the poor in mush and cakes by the early Greeks: the modern
      Greeks call it _Arabo-sité_, Arabic corn, in Italy it is called
      _Grano-turco_, or Turkish-corn: having reached Greece and Italy
      through the Arabs, and not from America. It has been cultivated in
      Java, Central Africa, Soudan, &c. from time immemorial, having
      native names in the Negro languages. Gebelin thinks it was known in
      Assyria. Polo found it in Tartary in the 13th century. Frazer lately
      saw it almost wild in the Imalaya mts.: it has never been found
      quite wild in America.

    4 The _Poncho_ is a long strip of cloth, with a hole in the middle for
      the head, the ends hanging before and behind, often fastened on the
      sides. It was used by the ancient Mexicans, the Muyzcas, Peruvians
      and Chilians. It has been adopted as quite convenient by the Spanish
      colonists, and is very becoming when ornamented.

    5 E-AD’M, Self-Adam, is the name given by Moses to the first men,
      pronounced since Adam. Gen. 1. v. 27; but called also ZXR and N’K’BE
      or male and female. The 2d AD’M or Adam was subsequent: although the
      commentators have blended them, as they have the floods, days and
      other things. Our bible translation of early events is besides very
      erroneous; the Talmudist or Jewish version with points is not
      correct, being in a late dialect: the true text of Moses which I
      follow, has no points, but admits of a sheva or soft breathing
      between consonants.

    6 Geological comments are not here required, my business is with
      mankind. Moses calls men beside _Aish_, _Anush_, _G’bforeign_, and
      women _N’shim_, _Itath_, _Ashe_, _Ashth_; which are perhaps as many
      names of early tribes! as well as ALEIM or _Elohim_, XRBIM
      _Cherubim_, _Nahash_, &c. If these primitive names will offer any
      analogies in America, they shall be thoroughly pointed out
      hereafter. HUE is the real Eve. See the chapter on the Mosaic
      Ontology for many other human beings, or early tribes. But it may be
      well to add here the names of the beings of the 7th and 8th Yums
      which we all deem animals, although there are indications to the

      7. YUM. The MIM waters produced SH’R’TZ production—translated
      reptile! No soul. N’F’SH-HIE, soul living. OUF, Fowl, made to come
      from waters, and their motion. LOUF’F means both flying and flirting
      or swimming, G. 1. v. 20. But ALEIM realized or created the TH’NI
      NIM whales, or rather Great fishes, having a soul living NFSH-EHIE,
      verse 21. This fine word _soul_ has been translated creature.

      8. YUM. The earth produces with soul BEME. Cattle or Herdsmen of
      life? v. 24. R’M’SH, Reptiles or creeping Troglodytes? HITHU, Beasts
      or Hunters. The BEME are perhaps Herdsmen! and all these may be men,
      over whom Adam was to reign, giving them names. Else all these
      animals had real souls like men! The fishes or fishermen D’G’TH only
      appear in v. 26. at subjects of Adam.

      Moses and the Hebrew poets divided the animals in 3 classes, which
      represent also men! and were personified.

      1. SH’R’TZ, Production—Moses. LUITH’N of Job. The Leviathan of

      2. N’F’SH, Animated—Moses. OZN or Hozan of Poets. Moses has 2 kinds
      of these: THNINIM Aquatic, and OUF-XNF, Fowl strong winged, as he
      had 2 of the last. SH’R’TZ, aquatic reptile, and OUF aerial fowl.

      3. HITHU, Beast: of 2 kinds, BEME and RMSH, which are the BEMUTH of
      Job, BEHEMOTH of Poets.

    7 The Cherubim were deemed Angels, but of 4 sorts, 3 having faces of a
      lion, ox, and eagle: which indicates tribes bearing those names, or
      the 4 primitive castes of mankind, the oxen referring to the
      laboring caste, the lion to the militant caste.

    8 See his learned work, translation and paraphrase of the first
      chapters of Genesis: wherein the best account of the creation,
      antidiluvian history and flood has been given.

_    9 Lanca_ was according to the Hindus a big land under the equator,
      including perhaps the Decan or south of India, then separated by a
      sea from the Imalaya mountains, now yet a vast level plain; and
      united to Ceylon and other islands. It is in this land of _Lanca_
      that many traditions place Adam, with several early events.

      The _Sunda_ land was very different, a large peninsula south of Asia
      including Java, Sumatra, Borneo &c. Or perhaps an island, if Malaca
      was separated from Siam by a strait.

   10 The monumental archeology and history of America, is not the least
      curious. Humboldt opened the way; but did little: the facts since
      collected in Central and North America, will astonish all the
      reflecting minds, and lead us to times of great civilization and
      prosperity. In the single small state of Kentucky, have already been
      found the sites of 200 ancient towns in ruins, or having monuments.
      If as many exist in all the neighbourhood, there must have been 2000
      towns in North America, west and south of the Apalachian mountains.
      Many earthy remains are gradually disappearing under the plough, and
      will be obliterated ere long.—_See_ my account of monumental sites,
      published in 1824.

   11 The Tao is one of the earliest religions of China. It is the
      personification and worship of the powers of nature, the earth, air,
      winds, thunder, sea, mountains, lakes, trees &c. The spiritual
      worship of their souls is the purest part of it, while the blind
      material worship of the objects themselves is the degradation of it,
      as in Egypt and Guinea.

   12 See my Memoir on the Domestic Annnals of Both Hemispheres, 1832,
      Atlantic Journal, where the names of all are given. But I have
      collected a few more since.

   13 By admixture with American women, the Spaniards formed a mixed race
      in Hayti, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay &c.; called Cholas, Mestizos &c.;
      which partook of the qualities and vices of both races; few great
      men have been produced by them; although we know of some exceptions.
      Lavega one of the best American historians was son of a Peruvian
      princess by a Spaniard. In Paraguay the Spaniards having no women,
      took Guarani concubines, and all their offsprings were of mixt
      breed, a sad set, like the Mamalucos of Brazil born from Portuguese
      and Tupi women. These instances, and the production of mulatoes
      subsequently, teach us how some former nations were born in America.

   14 The Missouri tribes, Panis and Cumanches, the Abipons and Talahets
      of the vast plains of N. and S. America; are already become
      wandering horsemen like Tartars, quite formidable in war. Many
      tribes now possess and use guns. Brandy, rum and whiskey, liquors of
      hell, ... make the savage foes furious and reckless: they have
      killed as many as guns have. The small pox is another scourge sent
      to America from Europe, the Cholera may be another. The Syphilis
      wrongly ascribed to America, has been traced to the ancient
      continent also: although it was returned from hence again, like

   15 The precious commodities of America are numberless. If the Europeans
      had traded there for them, as they now do in China, Persia, Arabia
      and Africa, how different would have been the fate of America? Iron
      would have purchased gold and pearls, with every thing else: there
      was no need to use the steel swords, nor thundering guns. Coffee and
      rice are not American productions, but lately introduced from Arabia
      and India. The origin of the sugar cane is also oriental; but it was
      found wild in South America, as orange trees were in Florida.

   16 The physical changes undergone in America within late historical
      recollections are very numerous, and ought to be collected into one
      connected body by historians or geologists.

   17 These two figures of speech, _Personification_ and _Animalization_,
      are two of the keys of ancient history. By the first is not meant
      alone the personification of the passions or divine attributes; but
      likewise the individuality of men, tribes and nations pervading
      primitive history, by the frequent substitution of the singular for
      the plural, as was done by the Asiatics, the Greeks, and the
      Americans. It is thus that the ancient patriarchs, Hercules, Heros,
      Gods &c. are often meant for their followers; the head for the whole
      set or social body. This practice has survived to our days, and we
      mean all the English when we speak of _John Bull_, the Russians by
      the _Northern Bear_ (a kind of animalization), all the Turks by _the
      Grand Turk_ &c. The reverse mode of speech or the employment of the
      plural for the singular, is less frequent: but used when we
      substitute in our modern languages, _We_ and _You_ instead of I or
      Thee. It was less common anciently, yet it appears Moses employed it
      when he called God, ALEIM our _Elohim_ or _the Angels_, and
      polytheism was the consequence of similar mistakes or substitutions;
      but in his account of the patriarchs, he has used the individuality
      of tribes.

      _Animalization_ pervades the whole of the fabulous periods of
      history. It is to this mode of speech that we owe the fables of
      Pilpay and Esopus, where animals are made to speak. Whenever we meet
      in history or fables, animals acting like men and conversing, they
      are surely men, and often tribes individualized by an animal
      appellation: such as might be emblematic or patronymic, adopted
      honorable names, as lion, tyger, eagle; or else nicknames given in
      derision by foes, such as snake, dog, ape &c. Even the Hebrew had
      their _Cherubim_, who were beings like a man, a lion, ox, and eagle;
      who drove the Adamites from Eden. This name is preserved by the
      Turks in _Cherabi_ or _Chelabi_, which means _Lords_ in the old
      Turkish language of Turan or Tartary. Perhaps also in the _El-abi_,
      now Arabians, which meant _Angel-fathers_, or our forefathers the
      angelic men. _Elapi_ means _the most manly_ in Linapi!

   18 The word _Olum_ is remarkable, because it is analogous to the OLEN,
      the legislator and teacher of Runes of the Celts. The writings of
      the Druids and Irish were called OCOL, CALLAN, OGHAM, the Irish OLAM
      were recorders and teachers. _Olum_ does not properly mean a
      writing, since _Leki_ is book, paper or letter in Linapi; but it
      implies _a record_, _a notched stick_, an engraved piece of wood or
      bark. It comes from _Ol_ hollow or graved record. Hekewelder says
      that _Oluma-pisid_ was in the 18th century, a king of the Linapis on
      the river Susquehanna, who kept the _Olum_ or records of the nation.
      It is probable these were part of them.

   19 These actual _Olum_ were at first obtained in 1820, as a reward for
      a medical cure, deemed a curiosity; and were unexplicable. In 1822
      were obtained from another individual the songs annexed thereto in
      the original language; but no one could be found by me able to
      translate them. I had therefore to learn the language since, by the
      help of Zeisberger, Hekewelder and a manuscript dictionary, on
      purpose to translate them, which I only accomplished in 1833. The
      contents were totally unknown to me in 1824, when I published my
      Annals of Kentucky; which were based on the traditions of
      Hekewelder, and those collected by me on the Shawanis, Miamis,
      Ottawas, &c.

   20 This account of the creation is strikingly similar to the mosaic and
      oriental accounts; although it does not speak of days or _Yums_. The
      word for angels _Angelatawiwak_, is not borrowed, but real Linapi,
      put in the plural: thus the same as the Greek _Angelos_.

_   21 Jin-wis_ is the AISH or _Adam_ of all the Linapi tribes. W’IS is
      identic with ISH, W’ being the article _he_, WI added to words is
      common, meaning but _he_, _she_ and _they_, the plural _wak_ means

_   22 Owini_ may be analyzed O-WI-NI, meaning _such-they-men_ or beings.
      O is the common article for pronouns _On_ and _Ce_ of the French, in
      English _such_, _it_, _this_, _these_, preserved in many Linapi
      dialects, _Ni_ and _Ini_ mean both _me_, _I_, _my_ and _men_. It
      must be noticed that many words of these two ancient songs are often
      obsolete now in some modern dialects; but preserved in others. This
      with the peculiar ancient style, and the many words suppressed in
      the narrative, and the constant compound words, have rendered this
      translation a difficult task.

   23 Here the _Owini_ become _Ni-jini_, evidently the Jins of China and
      Iran; Jains of India.

_   24 Wakon_ is the god of all the Missouri tribes, and many Asiatic
      nations. _Akon_ of Syria.

_   25 Tula_ is the ancient seat of the Toltecas and Mexican nations in
      Asia: the _Tulan_ or _Turan_ or Central Tartary. In Linapi the
      meaning is _Turtle_ or _Tortoise_, names derived from _Thor_ turtle
      in Hebrew. But all derive from strong and tall. _Tul-ap-in_ is the
      real tortoise of Linapi meaning _strong-manly-thing_: the water soft
      turtle is called _Unami_. The Chinese, Hindus &c. point also to a
      turtle as the THBE refuge of the flood. _Nana_ appears Noah; his
      title of Hare must allude to his long ears? All the Linapi tribes
      have tales and songs on Nana-bush, which they venerate as a god; but
      his symbol is a turtle body with a large head and nose, and a crest
      of feathers or hair on the head.

   26 The symbol is a kind of Hercules, with a club and arrow; his name
      appears to be Eluwi, thrice repeated and meaning _the most he_.
      _Elu_ the root is probably akin to the _Aleim_ or _Elohim_ of Moses,
      and _Elai_ meaning strong in Hebrew: also to _Her-cules_ of the
      Latins, _Hera-cleen_ of the Greek, _Her_ prefixed meaning Lord.

   27 Here the people begin to be called O-LINI, this was probably their
      old name when coming to America. The tribes that used R for L must
      have said _O-rini_, those who have neither, as the Niniwas and
      Ottawas, say _O-nini_. This will afford matter for many philological
      enquiries and comparisons.

_   28 W’oken-api_ properly mean _the fathers manly_. _Shinaki_ the first
      seat in America must have been near Alaska, and the big _Shinaki_,
      the N. W. coast.

   29 It is doubtful whether these 10 nameless kings were successive or
      contemporary during the civil strifes. But the first is most
      probable. If otherwise, this lessens the generations.

   30 This southern land of _Akolaking_, and the subsequent _Minihaking_,
      cannot be identified; but were west of Oregon mountains, probably
      the Oregon country.

   31 As early as 72 generations before 1600 or about 800 years before our
      era, we find a recorder of old events, by means of _Olum_. Compare
      _Olen_ and _Olam_ of Celts.

   32 Here this people leave at last the Sea shores, and strike to the
      east over the mountains. In _Oligon_, we have the etymology of

_   33 Wisawana_ is either the Missouri or Yellowstone.

   34 This _Tamenend_ is famous in the songs of the Linapis, and many
      kings took that title afterwards. He is also the _Amik-wi_ or great
      beaver of the Miamis and Ottawas.

   35 Wingenund must have been another legislator, and high-priest. His
      festivals are called _Gentiko_, and known to many nations.

_   36 Maskan-Sini_, must be the Sioux and Assinis, called stony or hard
      people throughout North America. The subsequent foes _Akowini_
      appear to be the _Kowetas_, the _Lowanuski_ are the Esquimaux,
      _Lowakon_ are the Ozages and Missouri tribes. Thus this was a period
      of invasions by many nations, which compelled the Linapis to go
      further east.

   37 The Nemasipi is the Mississippi, so says Hekewelder: where began the
      wars with the _Talegas_, the northern Toltecas or Atlantes, towards
      48 generations before 1600, near the beginning of our era, which
      continued for 4 generations or over 130 years, till about 150 after
      Christ. The allies Talamatans are the Hurons and Iroquois then
      united, since called _Delamatan_ and _Lamatan_. The traditions of
      Hekewelder and Cusick both agree here in fact and time. That of
      Hekewelder is most ample, taken from other songs; but these supply
      names omitted by both. I rather think the Nemosipi must have been
      the Ozages or Illinois river, since the Mississippi is called
      afterwards Masispek, and the monuments of the Talegas are found west
      of it at St. Louis &c.

      In my ancient history of Kentucky, having only for guide Hekewelder
      and some other traditions, I placed the conquest of the Talegas
      about 500 of our era; but these annals are more correct and remove
      further this event. The computation of Cusick annals of Ongwis place
      this great event still earlier, or between 300 and 100 years before
      our era. I knew neither Cusick nor the Wallam-Olum in 1824.

   38 Here we find another recorder of events who probably wrote the
      former wars with the Talegas.

   39 The Linapi tribes begin to disperse now, about 600 years of our era.

   40 This prophet, pontiff and king, went probably to visit many tribes,
      and became their legislator.

   41 These new wars were again with the Missouri tribes, _Lowako_ is a
      new invading tribe from the north.

   42 The passage of the Alleghanies was towards 800 of our era: the
      atlantic states appear to have had no inhabitants, or but few.
      Hekewelder confirms these facts.

   43 Hekewelder has given no etymology of this river, the name means
      either branching or roaring stream, perhaps both. _Winaki_ was the
      name of east Pennsylvania.

   44 By this account the Mohigans only separated towards 970 from the
      main body. This may be inaccurate, as the north-east tribes appear
      older by their traditions.

      By the account given by the missionary Beatty in 1766, this event
      would be still later: he states that after separating from the
      western tribes and long wanderings, the Lenaps (Linapis) settled on
      the river Delaware 370 years before 1766, or in 1396; which was
      preserved in a mosaic belt.—_See Moulton’s Hist. of New-York, Vol

   45 This is the second Tamenend who united all the tribes 1010. This
      famous name is spelt very variously _Tamanend_, _Tamany_, _Tamini_
      &c. all meaning beavering or acting like a beaver. There are many
      songs and traditions on them.

   46 Here is the first mention of white men towards 1170 by the
      computation of generations: whether they were Eric or Madoc, or
      both, will be enquired hereafter. The Tuscororas of North Carolina
      were visited at the same time by Cusick tradition, the Mohigans had
      also their _Wach-queow_. Hekewelder has omitted this tradition like
      many others. But Holm in his description of New Sweden positively
      gives two traditions of the Linapis, tribe Renapis, of a _white
      woman_ who came to America, married an American, had a son, who went
      to heaven; and of 2 bigmouths (or preachers) who came afterwards
      with long beards, and also went to heaven. This relates to the
      bishop Eric who went to convert the Americans between 1120 and 1160,
      rather than Madoc or a warlike band.

   47 The Miamis or M’amiwis were descendants of the first beaver tribe,
      separated long before.

   48 This verse is double, or has 2 symbols with 6 words, appearing to be
      two different readings united, or two modes of expressing the same
      thing, the separation of the real Linapis into three tribes.

   49 This may allude to the subjection of the Linapis, by the _Mahongwis_
      (Mengwi or Iroquois) about this time, caused by the division of the
      tribes. The name of failer is certainly an epithet or nickname
      given: most of the names of kings appear of the same kind or titles.
      We know they changed names when becoming kings or after great deeds.

_   50 Otali_ is the real name of the Cheroki mountaineers, so says Adair:
      this recalls the Talegas to mind, of whom they may be a fragment.
      The _Wasioto_ are the Cumberland mountains, meaning the _South
      Sioto_. The _Siotos_ were a Missouri tribe that advanced as far as
      the _Sioto_ river in Ohio, gave name to it, and were expelled by the
      Ottawas; probably akin to the _Otos_ of Missouri. They bear the
      snake sign in the symbol.

   51 The symbolic glyph for this event is nearly the same as for the
      arrival of _Wapsi_ or Eric. A sea, a boat, with mast, sail, and
      cross over it. Every nation is denoted by a peculiar sign on the
      head in these annals. 1. _Jinwis_ and his wife by an aureole, 2. the
      _Ako_ or snakes by a forked tongue or 2 horns, 3. the _Jins_ by a
      crown of rays, 4. the _Owinis_ by a feather, 5. the kings by 3
      feathers, the medial longer, 6. the Esquimaux by a T, 7. the
      Talamatans by the same reversed T, 8. the Talegas by a bar pointing
      to the right, 9. the Nentegos by a hook, 10. the Europeans by a
      cross. This evinces a kind of systematic symbolic plan, like the
      Mexican; but the symbols are very seldom similar.

_   52 Mattanikum_ appears to be both the _Tinikum_ and _Mattahorn_ of the
      Swedes and Holm. Horn is not a Linapi word, but Swedish, so as to
      translate half the name. He was king in 1645.

   53 Holm says the Renapis called the Swedes, Akhoures, which in dialect
      Linapi would be _Akoli_, meaning _ugly_ or _snake-looking_; the
      prefix _Win_, means either _the beings_ or snow, or may refer to

   54 The assertion that no land was ever sold to the colonists is
      singular. They thought to buy land with trifling presents; but the
      natives understood all the while the permission to dwell with them.

   55 This is a third Tamanend, the great king of the whole nation
      dwelling at the forks of the Delaware, which appears in Penn’s
      treaties, and came in great pomp in 1697. The other chiefs mentioned
      in deeds, were only his vassals: he is also called Taminy; but is
      very different from _Tatami_ who was king till 1748 at Welakamika or
      Nazareth, where he was killed by an Irish settler. Hekewelder
      mentions him; but has many blunders on Tamanend, having mixt the
      three into one.

   56 Netawatwis was king in the west from 1748 till 1776. Alimi or
      Coquetha-gekton (Heck.) was regent of his grandson _Unamiwi_ till
      1780, after him Gelelelund was regent till 1782 when the boy
      _Unamiwi_ was killed by the Bigknives.—(Heck.) this was the cause of
      the wars till 1795.

   57 General Wayne was compared to their old foes, and called Black
      Snake, because he beat the allied nations.

   58 These are the chiefs of the two united tribes, that appear in the
      last treaty with the United States.

   59 The United States here are called snakes like the oldest foes of
      mankind. The insiduous manner in which the English settled North
      America, and wronged the natives, has procured them that
      appellation. The French and Canadians are never called snakes. The
      former names of _Yankwis_ has only been preserved as our Yankees.
      The belief of their being _Gishakis_ or children of the sun-land, at
      the sun-rise, has long been exploded here as in South America. The
      Spanish cruelties did since procure to the Castillians the names of
      devils, assassins, snakes of the sea &c.

   60 Many other notions on the primitive nations, may be collected from
      the mythologies of the various Linapi tribes. Their true devils are
      similar to vampyres.

   61 Wakon is the god and ancestor of all the Washashas or Ozage tribes,
      Arkanzas, Sioux &c. belonging to the _Capaha_ or Missouri group of

   62 The account of these strangers in Hayti is very slender and
      confused, some writers deem them the ancestors of all the Caribs;
      yet they acknowledge Caonabo as a late comer. _Mayo-banex_ name of
      their last king means Maya-head in the Maya language. They must have
      been an ancient colony or remain of the Mayas, since they had
      already three dialects. All strangers were called Caribs at last by
      the Haytians, whence the blunder.

   63 Traces of 44 distinct nations or tribes are found in the ancient
      history of the Antilles, (see last note) which are the ancestors of
      all the American nations of eastern origin by the Atlantic ocean.

   64 These titles of the Supreme God might furnish many pages of compared
      analogies. _Mamona_ is identic with the _Mammon_ of Africa and Asia.
      _Liella_ has analogies with all the EL or suns, gods and lords of
      the east. _Atabeira_ is identic with _Atabyrius_ the Jove of the
      Phrygians and Pelasgians: The meaning _Unic-being_ has analogies in
      _Ata-beira_ all over the world. _Ata_ is one or first in many
      languages. Compare _Atmon_ of Egypt, _Baracata_ or _Paraxacta_ the
      nature or mother of _Brama_ of the Hindus. _Mamona_ with _Vimana_
      eternal god of the Jains, the _Manitos_ of North America. _Até_ was
      god in Thracian, _Ata_ in Brazil, _Etua_ and _Heyta_ in Polynesia.
      The names of God in the Cantabrian and Oscan dialects is _Ian_,
      _Ion_, _Jauna_, _Jain_, _Janieva_, _Janugoieva_ &c. similar to
      _Jemao_, _Jocana_ and _Hiauna_ of Hayti.

_   65 Gua-ma-o-con_ was such-great-of-world, in the early monosyllabic
      language of the Antilles. Compare with _Con-el_, and the gods of the
      Atlantes, Guanches &c.

   66 Compare the following words for winds with _Gua-banzex_.

      _Vayajam_ Sanscrit.
      _Band_ old Arabic.
      _Watem_, _Vato_ Zend.
      _Bangin_ Bali.
      _Bentus_ old Latin.
      _Ventus_ Latin.
      _Andas_ Etruscan.
      _Abka_ Abask.
      _Sabam_ Ceylon.

   67 It was _Jaia_, _Khaya_, _Cayo_, _Hay_ in the dialects and it is pure
      Greek and Egyptian. Compare _Aya_, _Ai_, _Eia_, _Ia_, _Gaya_, in the
      Pelasgic dialects, since become _Aya_, _Yaia_, _Gea_ in Greek.

      _Kahi_ Egyptian.
      _Akhé_ Zend.
      _Kay_ Deri of Iran.
      _Iya_ Sanscrit.
      _Ca_, _Aion_ Phenician.
      _Ay_ Lybian.
      _Aya_ old Irish.
      _Ayate_, _Gays_ Ausonian and Oscan.

      In America numerous analogies are found,

      _Aya_ Betoy, _A_ in Lulé, _Catun_ Tzuluki, _Acuti_ Moxos &c.

   68 EL for son was primitive Haytian and synonymous with tribe,
      children, family, divine or son of God as in Asia. In the dialects
      _Rabu_, _Rahen_, _Muru &c._ meant Son. Compare _Ili_ tribe in
      Persian, _Zitl_ man in Circassian, _Leh_ Osset, _Lez_ Lezghi. _Lele_
      in Pelasgian, UL in Turan, now _Oglu_ in Turk—_Olgos_ Eolian,
      _Vulgus_ Latin, _Chuli_ in Carthulan, _Oleos_, _Laos_ in Greek,
      _Eleuth_ in Mongol, _Chula_ old Spanish, _Alu_ Copt, _Bail_
      Etruscan, _Cobayl_ Berber, _Haial_ in D. _Shiluh_, _Ulu_ Afgan,
      _Eli_ Hungarian, _Filius_ and _fam-ilia_ Latin &c. Even our words
      _Fellow_, _Child_ and _Folks_ derive from this ancient source, the
      oriental EL, IL, OL.—In America we find it in the OL-mecas, Chols
      &c.—_Olo_ in Vilela, _Yoale_ Abipon, ELES Mexican &c.

   69 The _Cols_ are perhaps the Chols, Olmecas, _Colas_ of Florida,
      _Collas_ of Peru &c. The _Caras_ may be the ancient Caribs, or the
      Guaranis, the _Caras_ of Peru, the _Coras_ of Mexico &c.; compare
      with the ancient Carians and many other primitive nations.

   70 Although we do not meet in Hayti the Greek name of Atlantis, we have
      so many allusions to the devils _Taras_, and Amazons _Amayuna_, that
      we can connect these traditions with the Greek accounts. The
      ancestors of the Haytians if Pelagians were foes and vassals of the
      Atlantes; but allies of the Amazons.

   71 Compare _Cazic_ with the following names for king:

      _Oriental Names._

      _Ach_ Egypt and Etruscan.
      _Vasil_ of Greeks.
      _Kasek_ in Sitka.
      _Cazi_ in Iran.
      _Sheik_ in Arabic.
      _Zic_ Iberians and Sicules.
      _Acalic_, _Agazi_ Berber.
      _Bazilik_ Pelagian.
      _Cahin_ Lybian.
      _Hazil_ Carian.
      _Cay_ Zend.
      _Iza_ Tigreh.
      _Cazil_ Mindanao island.
      _Cazis_ Socotora island.
      _Izcan_ of Haikans.
      _Izca_, _Kan_ of Turans.
      _Casis_ of Syrians.

      _American Names._

      _Acachi_ of Totonacas.
      _Wachil_ of Nachez.
      _Zac_ of Muyzcas.
      _Cathi_ of Pinindas.
      _Ahatic_ of Huaztecas.
      _Inca_ of Peruvians.
      _Chiaca_ of Coras.
      _Cuchi_ of Puncays.
      _Kiuska_ of Tzulukis.

   72 Compare _Ziba_ with the following names for stone:

      _Hiban_ in Berber.
      _Uben_ in Hebrew.
      _Aben_ in Syriac.
      _Keibe_ Celtic.
      _Siwa_ Nukahiva island.
      _Ripa_, _Rupes_ in Latin.
      _Sitaba_ Pelasgian.
      _Bahiba_ old Arabic.
      _Iba_ Samoyed.
      _Batu_ Malay.

      It is in America, _Siba_ in Cahiri, _Tabu_ in Yaoy; _Saba_, _Tebu_,
      _Tobu_ in Galibi dialects, _Tushub_ in Huasteca, _Tepe_ in Mexican,
      _Tzacapu_ in Talasca &c.

   73 Although Matinino was one of the names of Martinico, it may have
      been given afterwards, and there may have been another land of that
      name, perhaps the Atlantis or Trinidad.

      Garcia gives _Matalino_ as a synonym, _Ma_ means great, and thus it
      would be the great TALINO, the real great _Atalantis_. The
      conjecture is plausible; but the name was afterwards transferred to
      South America. If the real African Atlantis is meant, the event must
      be before the last flood.

   74 This metal Guanin is the Orichalc of the ancient Greeks; which has
      so much puzzled the learned, being wrongly deemed Platina, which
      would have been infusible. It was the production of Atlantis!

   75 But Garcia gives a different version of this fable, he says that the
      men being in want of women sent 4 Caracols (their vassals?) to catch
      wives, who were like ants on trees; but slippery like eels: yet some
      being caught became the wives of the Guaninis. Ants were called
      _Comekhon_ in Haytian, and thus we have another tribe akin to the
      _Comaguas_, _Comayaguas &c._ who were previous settlers of Hayti,
      and descendants of _Kon_! the _Khons_ of Lybia? But it is strange
      that we find here the _Myrmidons_ of Grecian fable! and many
      affinities in the name of that tribe of ants. _Mur-mekon_ in
      Pelagian and Greek, _Umekon_ in Thracian, _Formica_ in Latin,
      _Camot_ in Bali, _Mohur_ in Iran &c., while in America _Comagen_ of
      Uraba, _Camaxen_ of the Talascas and Opatas. All referring perhaps
      to the ancient people of Ants; the Pismires of Gothic tribes; a
      people of dwarfs or weakness, akin to Pygmies and Troglodytes! thus
      traced also to America.

   76 Compare with _Anaboria_ or _Naboritas_ (working men) the following
      names for vassals and laborers—_Naboriti_ in Coyba, _Labuyu_ of
      Caribs, _Anaconas_ of Peru and Muyzcas, _Naboria_ of Mayas &c.—and
      in the east.

      _Tabara_ in Turan.
      _Burutis_ in Ausonian.
      _Aborian_, _Abeirgon_ Pelagic.
      _Boor_, _Bura_ Frisic.
      _Ambactos_ in Gaul.
      _Manahunis_ in Tahiti.
      _Nerba_ Hindostani.
      _Bendar_ Pehlvi.
      _Abondas_ Saxon.
      _Canabas_, Knave Gothic.
      _Nebara_ Nepal.
      _Parias_ India.

   77 It is remarkable that the primitive notions of the Haytians about
      ghosts &c. prevail yet among the Negroes of the Antilles. The
      _Obiah_ or sortilege, and _Dupin_ ghosts, of Jamaica &c., appear to
      have survived. If introduced lately by the African Negroes, it is
      strange they should be similar to the Haytian names of old.

   78 The two brothers became gods of good and evil, as their names
      indicate—_Gua-tauva_ implies _such goodness_: while _Pregonero_ is
      the devil of Cumana, under the names of _Proruru_ or _Proguro_.

   79 These priests drest in white as in Central America, and the Druids;
      are primitive Lybian or Druidic priests and Pelagic Bramins. Their
      name is found in

      _Hubantes_ in Pelagic.
      _Faybo_ of the Guanches.
      _Vates_ Ausonian and Gaul.
      _Aobu_ in Aramic.
      _Behotus_ Dorian.
      _Bedo_ old French.
      _Phonto_ in Egypt.
      _Purohito_ in Sanscrit.
      _Budan_ in Pelvi.
      _Budha_ of Budhists.
      _Baharas_ Nepal.
      _Heotes_ Sicanian &c.

   80 The Caribs went nearly naked; when the Spaniards came with clothes
      and guns the prophecy was explained. _Cochio_ for dress and mantle
      has affinities with many ancient languages, _Gonachen_ in Iran,
      _Ahico_ of Guanches, _Poncho_ of Peru and Chili, _Cachaca_ of Gauls,
      _Cochaya_ of Slavonians, _Cota_ in Celtic &c.: whence our coat.

   81 This is the most plausible account of Caonabo; but he perhaps was a
      Maya and not a Carib: his name is not Carib, but Haytian, meaning
      _gold of the house_. Anacaona would hardly have married a Carib? I
      have attempted to put probable dates to these retrospective events,
      loosely mentioned by Dangleria and the Spanish writers.

   82 The intercourse between Cuba, Florida and the Lucayas was frequent.
      Dangleria says the Lucayas were a happy people, with beautiful
      women, for whose sake many Cubans and Floridans came to live there.

   83 It will be proper to recapitulate here the ancient nations and
      tribes of the Antilles, mentioned in these traditions and annals;
      adding to each some well-known modern nations of the continent,
      bearing nearly the same name, and most probably descended from them:
      unless it is preferred to consider them as ancestors rather than
      posterity, a very improbable fact. Meantime we acquire thereby a new
      clue to American annals and ethnology: since nearly all the nations
      of America may be connected with those by other links of languages,
      traditions &c.

      1. _Zemis_ or _Chemes_, Compare Zemis and Zemayos of Chaco and
      Chimus of Peru.

      2. _Tuyras_ or _Taras_, Compare Tarascas and Tarahumara of Mexico,
      Taricas and Talas of Tucuman, Atures of Oronoc &c.

      3. _Guabanz_, Compare Abays and Abipons of Chaco?

      4. _Khayas_, Compare Cayubas and Khakhas of Peru.

      5. _Higueras_ or _Hibueras_, Compare Guaranis, they called man
      _Ibi_, the Borias &c.

      6. _Boinis_, Bohanes of Charcas, and names of priests in South

      7. _Marohus_ or _Marocas_, Muras of Brazil, Aymaras of Peru,
      Maronios of Charcas.

      8. _Corocores_, Coretus of Brazil, Coras of Peru, Coros of Cumana,
      Coras of Mexico.

      9. _Coles_, probably same as Cores, Colas of Florida, Collas of
      Peru, Chols of Central America, Cholas of South America.

      10. _Caracara_ again same, Caras, Caris, Carios of Guaranis and
      Peru, perhaps also Caribs?

      11. _Manicos_ or _Manacos_, the great Nacos—Manicas or Manoas,
      Maynas of Peru, Nacos of Comayagua.

      12. _Icotas_ or _Hicoteas_, Cotos Carib tribes.

      13. _Cautas_ appear same as _I-cota_—_I_ and _Hi_ are articles,
      Cotos and Cotas tribes of Cumana and Oronoc.

      14. _Caanau_ or _Caonas_, Cagnas, Canaris of Peru.

      15. _Giagau_ or _Xaguas_, Changas of Peru, Achaguas of Guyana.

      16. _Amayunas_, Mayoriexes of Hayti, Mayas of Yucatan, Mbayas of

      17. _Machocha_, Machicuis of Charcas, Chunchos of Peru.

      18. _Zibas_, Zipas of Muyzcas, Shibaois of Guyana.

      19. _Khoboses_, Coropos of Brazil, Coybas of Darien, Mocobis of

      20. _Gionas_ or _Aunas_, Yana-conas of Peru.

      21. _Kadrus_, Aruacs of Guyana.

      22. _Giahubas_, Yaoys, Shiahubas and Yahus of Guyana.

      23. _Guaninis_, Guanas all over South America.

      24. _Tonas_, Atun-collas of Peru, Tuncas of Popayan, Tun of Chili.

      25. _Anacac_ or _Manati_, Tamanacus of Guyana.

      26. _Boras_, Anaborias of S. America. Boroas of Chili.

      27. _Comos_, _Comis_ or _Come-Khon_, Comayaguas of Honduras, Comagre
      of Darien, Aculma of Mexico.

      28. _Goeiz_, Goyaz of Brazil, Guyanas of Oronoc.

      29. _Aumatex_, Yumas, Yameos of Peru, Amatalas of Moxos.

      30. _Guatauvas_, Guatayos or Aruac tribes.

      31. _Moretes_, Muretes of Moxos? Muras of Brazil.

      32. _Caribas_, _Canibas_, _Canimas_, The Calibis or Caribs.

      33. _Timanis_, Timanas of Chaco, Tamanacs and Tamecas of Oronoc.

      34. _Labouyous_, Abuyas and Abayes synonym of Mbayas.

      35. _Cahiris_ Caris of South America.

      36. _Eyeris_, Yaros of Parana.

      37. _Toas_, Taos of Tucuman, and of New Mexico.

      38. _Oumekwas_, Omaguas, Humayons of Chaco &c.

      39. _Mabuyas_, Abuyas, Poyas, Poyay of North and South America.

      40. _Cofachis,_ Cofachis or Cowetas of North America?

      41. _Apalachis_, Apalaches, Yamasis of North America.

      42. _Mayoriex_ or _Ziguayos_, Mayas, Guayos of Chaco.

      43. _Cons_, Chons and Yana-Conas of Peru, Conos of Chaco, Conivos
      and Conamas of South America.

      44. _Els_ or _Ili_ (children), Eles and Ols of Mexico, Yoales or
      Vilelas and Lules or Pelé of Chaco.

      Thus, how gratuitous was the common opinion that only one nation
      filled the Antilles. Meantime we find nowhere in these annals that
      name of Antilia, which in their language would have been _Anti-ili_
      sons of Antes, or _Ana-ti-ili_ flower-high-children. It may be a
      Lybian name like Atlantes, both referring to the _Antis_ or Anteus,
      the early inhabitants of North Africa, and of Peru.

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