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Title: Principles of Orchestration - With musical examples drawn from his own works
Author: Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay, 1844-1908
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Principles of Orchestration - With musical examples drawn from his own works" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



transcribed by Linda Cantoni. Thanks to Alex Guzman for
his assistance in interpreting orchestral notation.



[Transcriber's Notes: This e-book was prepared from a 1964 reprint
published by Dover Publications, Inc., New York, which in turn was
prepared from the two-volume 1922 English translation published by
Édition Russe de Musique, Paris.

Volume I contains the text of the work; Volume II contains the musical
examples referred to in Volume I. This plaintext version of the e-book
contains only Volume I and the front matter of Volume II. To see and
hear the musical examples in Volume II, see the HTML version.

The original uses boxed numbers to refer to sections of musical
scores. They are represented here in double square brackets, e.g.,
[[27]], [[B]]. See the footnote at the beginning of Chapter II for the
editor's explanation of the musical examples and the boxed rehearsal
numbers. The use of asterisks is explained in the Editor's Preface.

Obvious printer errors have been corrected without note. Other
apparent errors are noted with a [Transcriber's Note].

The original contains a number of tables of instrument distribution.
Those occurring in the middle of a line are rendered in a single line,
using forward slashes to indicate line breaks. For example, where the
following occurs in the middle of a line, in the original,

Vns I  ]
Vns II ]
Vns III] 8

it is rendered in this e-book as

Vns I/Vns II/Vns III] 8.

This e-book uses the octave numbering system to describe the
single-note music examples. Under this system, for example, middle C
is C4, and the scale following would be D4, E4, etc.; the C below
middle C is rendered as C3, and the scale following would be D3, E3,
etc.; the C above middle C is rendered as C5, and the scale following
would be D5, E5, etc.

Sharp, flat, and natural symbols are rendered as [sharp], [flat], and
[natural], respectively. Other musical symbols are rendered as
[symbol: name].

Italics are surrounded by _underscores_. Boldface text is surrounded
by =equal signs=.]



NIKOLAY RIMSKY-KORSAKOV


_Principles of Orchestration_


_with musical examples
drawn from his own works_


Edited by
MAXIMILIAN STEINBERG

English translation by
EDWARD AGATE


[VOLUME I]


[Édition Russe de Musique, Paris, 1922]



CONTENTS


                                                                  page

Editor's Preface                                              VII--XII
Extract from the Author's preface (1891)                             1
Extract from the Preface to the last edition                         5

Chapter I.--General review of orchestral groups

  A. Stringed instruments                                            6
  B. Wind instruments:
     Wood-wind                                                      12
     Brass                                                          21
  C. Instruments of little sustaining power:
     Plucked strings                                                26
       Pizzicato                                                    27
       Harp                                                         27
     Percussion instruments producing determinate sounds, keyed
       instruments
       Kettle-drums                                                 29
       Piano and Celesta                                            30
       _Glockenspiel_, Bells, Xylophone                             32
     Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds             32
     Comparison of resonance in orchestral groups, and combination
       of different tone qualities                                  33

Chapter II.--Melody

  Melody in stringed instruments                                    36
  Grouping in unison                                                39
    Stringed instruments doubling in octaves                        40
    Melody in double octaves                                        44
    Doubling in three and four octaves                              45
    Melody in thirds and sixths                                     45
  Melody in the wood-wind                                           46
    Combination in unison                                           47
    Combination in octaves                                          49
    Doubling in two, three and four octaves                         51
    Melody in thirds and sixths                                     52
    Thirds and sixths together                                      53
  Melody in the brass                                               53
    Brass in unison, in octaves, thirds and sixths                  55
  Melody in different groups of instruments combined together       56
    A. Combination of wind and brass in unison                      56
    B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves                     57
    C. Combination of strings and wind                              58
    D. Combination of strings and brass                             61
    E. Combination of the three groups                              61

Chapter III.--Harmony

  General observations                                              63
    Number of harmonic parts--Duplication                           64
    Distribution of notes in chords                                 67
  String harmony                                                    69
  Wood-wind harmony                                                 71
    Four-part and three-part harmony                                72
    Harmony in several parts                                        76
    Duplication of timbres                                          77
    Remarks                                                         78
  Harmony in the brass                                              82
    Four-part writing                                               82
    Three-part writing                                              84
    Writing in several parts                                        84
    Duplication in the brass                                        85
  Harmony in combined groups                                        88
    A. Combination of wind and brass                                88
       1. In unison                                                 88
       2. Overlaying, crossing, enclosure of parts                  90
    B. Combination of strings and wind                              94
    C. Combination of the three groups                              95

Chapter IV.--Composition of the orchestra

  Different ways of orchestrating the same music                    97
  Full _Tutti_                                                     101
  _Tutti_ in the wind                                              103
  _Tutti pizzicato_                                                103
  _Tutti_ in one, two and three parts                              104
  _Soli_ in the strings                                            104
  Limits of orchestral range                                       106
  Transference of passages and phrases                             107
  Chords of different tone quality used alternately                108
  Amplification and elimination of tone qualities                  109
  Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo                           110
  _Sforzando-piano_ and _piano-sforzando_ chords                   111
  Method of emphasising certain notes and chords                   111
  _Crescendo_ and _diminuendo_                                     112
  Diverging and converging progressions                            113
  Tone quality as a harmonic force. Harmonic basis                 114
  Artificial effects                                               116
  Use of percussion instruments for rhythm and colour              117
  Economy in orchestral colour                                     118

Chapter V.--Combination of the human voice with orchestra.
The Stage band

  Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices                          119
    General remarks                                                119
    Transparence of accompaniment. Harmony                         120
    Doubling voices in the orchestra                               122
    Recitative and declamation                                     125
  Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus                           126
    Solo voice with chorus                                         128
  Instruments on the stage and in the wings                        129

Chapter VI (Supplementary).--Voices

  Technical terms                                                  132
  Soloists                                                         133
    Range and register                                             133
    Vocalisation                                                   134
    Vowels                                                         136
    Flexibility                                                    137
    Colour and character of voices                                 137
  Voices in combination                                            139
    Duet                                                           139
    Trios, quartets etc.                                           141
  Chorus                                                           142
    Range and register                                             142
    Melody                                                         144
  A. Mixed chorus                                                  145
     Chorus in unison                                              145
     Progression in octaves                                        145
     Voices _divisi_; harmonic use of the mixed chorus             146
  B. Men's chorus and Women's chorus                               148



Editor's Preface.


Rimsky-Korsakov had long been engrossed in his treatise on
orchestration. We have in our possession a thick note book of some 200
pages in fine hand writing, dating from the years 1873-1874,
containing a monograph on the question of acoustics, a classification
of wind instruments and a detailed description of the construction and
fingering of the different kinds of flute, the oboe, clarinet and
horn.[1]

[Footnote 1: This manuscript was given to me by Alexander Glazounov;
if a Rimsky-Korsakov museum is ever founded it will be placed there.]

In his "Memoirs of my musical life" (1st edition, p. 120) the
following passage occurs: "I had planned to devote all my energies to
the compilation of a full treatise on orchestration. To this end I
made several rough copies, jotting down explanatory notes detailing
the technique of different instruments. What I intended to present to
the world on this subject, was to include _everything_. The writing of
this treatise, or, to be more exact, the sketch for it took up most of
my time in the years 1873 and 1874. After reading the works of Tyndall
and Helmholtz, I framed an introduction to my work, in which I
endeavoured to expound the laws of acoustics as applied to the
principles governing the construction of musical instruments. My
manual was to begin with a detailed list of instruments, classified in
groups and tabulated, including a description of the various systems
in use at the present day. I had not yet thought of the second part of
the book which was to be devoted to instruments in combination. But I
soon realised that I had gone too far. With wind instruments in
particular, the different systems were innumerable, and each
manufacturer favoured his own pet theory. By the addition of a certain
key the maker endowed his instrument with the possibility of a new
trill, and made some difficult passages more playable than on an
instrument of another kind.

"There was no end to such complications. In the brass, I found
instruments with three, four, and five valves, the mechanism varying
according to the make. Obviously, I could not hope to cover so large a
field; besides, of what value would such a treatise be to the student?
Such a mass of detailed description of the various systems, their
advantages and drawbacks, could not but fail to confuse the reader
only too eager to learn. Naturally he would wish to know what
instrument to employ, the extent of its capabilities etc., and getting
no satisfactory information he would throw my massive work aside. For
these reasons my interest in the book gradually waned, and finally I
gave up the task."

In 1891 Rimsky-Korsakov, now an artist of standing, the composer of
_Snegourotchka_, _Mlada_, and _Shéhérazade_, a master of the
orchestral technique he had been teaching for twenty years, returned
to his handbook on instrumentation. He would seem to have made notes
at different times from 1891 to 1893, during which period, after the
first performance of _Mlada_, he gave up composition for a while.
These notes, occasionally referred to in his _Memoirs_, are in three
volumes of manuscript-paper. They contain the unfinished preface of
1891, a paragraph full of clear, thoughtful writing, and reprinted in
this book.[2]

[Footnote 2: This preface had already been published in his _Notes and
Articles on Music_ (St. Petersburgh, 1911).]

As the author tells us in his _Memoirs_ (p. 297), the progress of his
work was hampered by certain troublesome events which were happening
at the time. Dissatisfied with his rough draft, he destroyed the
greater part of it, and once more abandoned his task.

In 1894 he composed _The Christmas Night_; this was the beginning of
his most fertile period. He became entirely engrossed in composition,
making plans for a fresh opera as soon as the one in hand was
completed. It was not until 1905 that his thoughts returned to the
treatise on orchestration, his musical output remaining in abeyance
through no fault of his own. Since 1891 the plan of the work had been
entirely remodelled, as proved by the rough drafts still extant. The
author had given up the idea of describing different instruments from
their technical standpoint, and was more anxious to dwell upon the
value of tone qualities and their various combinations.

Among the author's papers several forms of the book have been found,
each widely differing in detail from the other. At last, in the summer
of 1905 Rimsky-Korsakov brought his plans to a head, and outlined the
six chapters which form the foundation of the present volume. But the
work suffered a further interruption, and the sketches were once more
laid aside. In his _Memoirs_, Rimsky-Korsakov explains the fact by
lack of interest in the work and a general feeling of weariness: "The
treatise remained in abeyance. To start with, the form of the book was
not a success, and I awaited the production of _Kitesh_, in order to
give some examples from that work" (p. 360).

Then came the autumn of 1906. The composer experienced another rush of
creative energy; his opera, _The Golden Cockerel_ made rapid strides,
and kept him busy all that winter and the following summer. When it
was finished, in the autumn of 1907, his thoughts reverted to the
treatise on orchestration. But the work made little progress. The
author had his doubts as to the adequacy of the plan he had adopted,
and, in spite of the entreaties of his pupils and friends, he could
not bring himself to broach the latter part of the book. Towards the
end of 1907 Rimsky-Korsakov was constantly ailing in health, and this
materially affected his energy. He spent the greater part of his time
reading old notes and classifying examples. About the 20th of May
he set out for his summer residence in Lioubensk, and having just
recovered from a third severe attack of inflammation of the lungs,
began to work on the first chapter of the treatise in its present,
final form. This chapter was finished on June 7/20, about 4 o'clock in
the afternoon; the same night, the composer was seized with a fourth
attack which proved fatal.

The honour fell on me to prepare this last work of Rimsky-Korsakov for
publication. Now that _Principles of Orchestration_ has appeared in
print I think it necessary to devote a few words to the essential
features of the book, and to the labour imposed upon me in my capacity
as editor.

On the first point I will say but little. The reader will observe from
the Contents that the work differs from others, not merely by reason
of its musical examples, but more especially in the systematic
arrangement of material, not according to orchestral division in
groups (the method adopted by Gevaert for instance), but according to
_each constituent of the musical whole, considered separately_. The
orchestration of melodic and harmonic elements (Chapters II and III)
receives special attention, as does the question of orchestration in
general (Chapter IV). The last two chapters are devoted to operatic
music, and the sixth takes a supplementary form, having no direct
bearing on the previous matter.

Rimsky-Korsakov altered the title of his book several times, and his
final choice was never made. The title I have selected seems to me to
be the one most suitable to the contents of the work, "principles" in
the truest sense of the word. Some may expect to find the "secrets" of
the great orchestrator disclosed; but, as he himself reminds us in his
preface, "to orchestrate is to create, and this is something which
cannot be taught."

Yet, as invention, in all art, is closely allied to technique, this
book may reveal much to the student of instrumentation.
Rimsky-Korsakov has often repeated the axiom that _good orchestration
means proper handling of parts_. The simple use of tone-colours and
their combinations may also be taught, but there the science of
instruction ends. From these standpoints the present book will furnish
the pupil with nearly everything he requires. The author's death
prevented him from discussing a few questions, amongst which I would
include full polyphonic orchestration and the scoring of melodic and
harmonic designs. But these questions can be partly solved by the
principles laid down in Chapters II and III, and I have no wish to
overcrowd the first edition of this book with extra matter which can
be added later, if it is found to be necessary. I had first of all to
prepare and amplify the sketches made by Rimsky-Korsakov in 1905;
these form a connected summary throughout the whole six chapters.
Chapter I was completed by the author; it is published as it stands,
save for a few unimportant alterations in style. As regards the other
five chapters, I have tried to keep to the original drafts as far as
possible, and have only made a few changes in the order, and one or
two indispensable additions. The sketches made between 1891 and 1893
were too disconnected to be of much use, but, in point of fact, they
corresponded very closely to the final form of the work.

The musical examples are of greater importance. According to the
original scheme, as noted on the 1891 MS., they were to be drawn from
the works of Glinka and Tschaikovsky; those of Borodin and Glazounov
were to be added later. The idea of choosing examples solely from his
own works only came to Rimsky-Korsakov by degrees. The reasons for
this decision are partly explained in the unfinished preface of 1905,
but other motives may be mentioned. If Rimsky-Korsakov had chosen his
examples from the works of these four composers, he would have had to
give some account of their individual, and often strongly marked
peculiarities of style. This would have been a difficult undertaking,
and then, how to justify the exclusion of West-European composers,
Richard Wagner, for example, whose orchestration Rimsky-Korsakov so
greatly admired? Besides, the latter could hardly fail to realise that
his own compositions afforded sufficient material to illustrate every
conceivable manner of scoring, examples _emanating from one great
general principle_. This is not the place to criticise his method;
Rimsky-Korsakov's "school" is here displayed, each may examine it for
himself. The brilliant, highly-coloured orchestration of Russian
composers, and the scoring of the younger French musicians are largely
developments of the methods of Rimsky-Korsakov, who, in turn, looked
upon Glinka as his spiritual father.

The table of examples found among the author's papers was far from
complete; some portions were badly explained, others, not at all. The
composer had not mentioned which musical quotations were to be printed
in the second volume, and which examples were to indicate the study of
the full score; further, no limit was fixed to the length of
quotation. All this was therefore left to the editor's discretion. I
selected the examples only after much doubt and hesitation, finding it
difficult to keep to those stipulated by the composer, as every page
of the master's works abounds in appropriate instances of this or that
method of scoring.

I was guided by the following considerations which agreed with the
opinions of the author himself: in the first place the examples should
be as simple as possible, so as not to distract the student's
attention from the point under discussion; secondly, it was necessary
that one example should serve to illustrate several sections of the
book, and lastly, the majority of quotations should be those mentioned
by the author. These amount to 214, in the second volume; the
remaining 98 were added by me. They are drawn, as far as possible,
from Rimsky-Korsakov's dramatic music, since operatic full-scores are
less accessible than those of symphonic works.[3]

[Footnote 3: Recently the firm of Belaieff has published
Rimsky-Korsakov's symphonic works in miniature score, pocket-size.]

At the end of Vol. II I have added three tables showing different ways
of scoring full chords; all my additions to the text are marked with
asterisks. I consider that the careful study of the examples contained
in the second volume will be of the greatest use to the student
_without replacing_ the need for the study of other composers' scores.
Broadly speaking, the present work should be studied together with the
reading of full scores in general.

A few words remain to be said regarding Rimsky-Korsakov's intention to
point out the faulty passages in his orchestral works, an intention
expressed in his preface to the last edition. The composer often
referred to the instructional value of such examinations. His purpose
however was never achieved. It is not for me to select these examples,
and I shall only mention two which were pointed out by the composer
himself: 1. _The Legend of Tsar Saltan_ [[220]], 7th bar--the theme
in the brass is not sufficiently prominent the trombones being _tacet_
(a mistake easily rectified); 2. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[233]], bars
10-14, if the marks of expression are observed in the brass, the
counter-melody on the violas and violoncellos doubled by the wood-wind
will hardly be heard. Example 75 may also be mentioned, to which the
note on page 63, in the text, refers. I will confine myself to these
examples.

In conclusion I desire to express my deep gratitude to Madame
Rimsky-Korsakov for having entrusted me with the task of editing this
work, thereby providing me with the opportunity of performing a duty
sacred to the memory of a master, held so deeply in reverence.

_St. Petersburgh_, December 1912.

MAXIMILIAN STEINBERG.



Extract from the Author's Preface (1891).


Our epoch, the post-Wagnerian age, is the age of brilliance and
imaginative quality in orchestral tone colouring. Berlioz, Glinka,
Liszt, Wagner, modern French composers--Delibes, Bizet and others;
those of the new Russian school--Borodin, Balakirev, Glazounov and
Tschaikovsky--have brought this side of musical art to its zenith;
they have eclipsed, as colourists, their predecessors, Weber,
Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn, to whose genius, nevertheless, they are
indebted for their own progress. In writing this book my chief aim has
been to provide the well-informed reader with the fundamental
principles of modern orchestration from the standpoint of brilliance
and imagination, and I have devoted considerable space to the study of
tonal resonance and orchestral combination.

I have tried to show the student how to obtain a certain quality of
tone, how to acquire uniformity of structure and requisite power. I
have specified the character of certain melodic figures and designs
peculiar to each instrument or orchestral group, and reduced these
questions briefly and clearly to general principles; in short I have
endeavoured to furnish the pupil with matter and material as carefully
and minutely studied as possible. Nevertheless I do not claim to
instruct him as to how such information should be put to artistic use,
nor to establish my examples in their rightful place in the poetic
language of music. For, just as a handbook of harmony, counterpoint,
or form presents the student with harmonic or polyphonic matter,
principles of construction, formal arrangement, and sound technical
methods, but will never endow him with the talent for composition, so
a treatise on orchestration can demonstrate how to produce a
well-sounding chord of certain tone-quality, uniformly distributed,
how to detach a melody from its harmonic setting, correct progression
of parts, and solve all such problems, but will never be able to teach
the art of poetic orchestration. To orchestrate is to create, and this
is something which cannot be taught.

It is a great mistake to say: this composer scores well, or, that
composition is well orchestrated, for orchestration is _part of the
very soul of the work_. A work is thought out in terms of the
orchestra, certain tone-colours being inseparable from it in the mind
of its creator and native to it from the hour of its birth. Could the
essence of Wagner's music be divorced from its orchestration? One
might as well say that a picture is well _drawn_ in colours.

More than one classical and modern composer has lacked the capacity to
orchestrate with imagination and power; the secret of colour has
remained outside the range of his creative faculty. Does it follow
that these composers do not _know how_ to orchestrate? Many among them
have had greater knowledge of the subject than the mere colourist. Was
Brahms ignorant of orchestration? And yet, nowhere in his works do we
find evidence of brilliant tone or picturesque fancy. The truth is
that his thoughts did not turn towards colour; his mind did not exact
it.

The power of subtle orchestration is a secret impossible to transmit,
and the composer who possesses this secret should value it highly, and
never debase it to the level of a mere collection of formulæ learned
by heart.

Here I may mention the case of works scored by others from the
composer's rough directions. He who undertakes such work should enter
as deeply as he may into the spirit of the composer, try to realise
his intentions, and develop them in all their essential features.

Though one's own personality be subordinate to that of another, such
orchestration is nevertheless creative work. But on the other hand, to
score a composition never intended for the orchestra, is an
undesirable practice. Many musicians have made this mistake and
persist in it.[4] In any case this is the lowest form of
instrumentation, akin to colour photography, though of course the
process may be well or badly done.

[Footnote 4: In the margin of the MS. a question mark is added here.
(Editor's note.)]

As regards orchestration it has been my good fortune to belong to a
first-rate school, and I have acquired the most varied experience. In
the first place I have had the opportunity of hearing all my works
performed by the excellent orchestra of the St. Petersburgh Opera.
Secondly, having experienced leanings towards different directions, I
have scored for orchestras of different sizes, beginning with simple
combinations (my opera _The May Night_ is written for natural horns
and trumpets), and ending with the most advanced. In the third place,
I conducted the choir of the Military Marine for several years and was
therefore able to study wind-instruments. Finally I formed an
orchestra of very young pupils, and succeeded in teaching them to
play, quite competently, the works of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Glinka,
etc. All this has enabled me to present this work to the public as the
result of long experience.

As a starting-point I lay down the following fundamental axioms:

I. _In the orchestra there is no such thing as ugly quality of tone._

II. _Orchestral writing should be easy to play_; a composer's work
stands the best chance when the parts are well written.[5]

[Footnote 5: A. Glazounov has well expressed the various degrees of
excellence in scoring, which he divides into three classes: 1. When
the orchestra sounds well, playing from sight; magnificent, after a
few rehearsals. 2. When effects cannot be brought off except with the
greatest care and attention on the part of conductor and players. 3.
When the orchestra never sounds well. Evidently the chief aim in
orchestration is to obtain the first of these results. (Author's
note.)]

III. _A work should be written for the size of orchestra that is to
perform it_, not for some imaginary body, as many composers persist in
doing, introducing brass instruments in unusual keys upon which the
music is impracticable because it is not played in the key the
composer intends.

It is difficult to devise any method of learning orchestration without
a master. As a general rule it is best to advance by degrees from the
simplest scoring to the most complicated.

The student will probably pass through the following phases: 1. the
phase during which he puts his entire faith in percussion
instruments, believing that beauty of sound emanates entirely from
this branch of the orchestra--this is the earliest stage; 2. the
period when he acquires a passion for the harp, using it in every
possible chord; 3. the stage during which he adores the wood-wind and
horns, using stopped notes in conjunction with strings, muted or
_pizzicato_; 4. the more advanced period, when he has come to
recognise that the string group is the richest and most expressive of
all. When the student works alone he must try to avoid the pitfalls of
the first three phases. The best plan is to study full-scores, and
listen to an orchestra, score in hand. But it is difficult to decide
what music should be studied and heard. Music of all ages, certainly,
but, principally, that which is fairly modern. Fairly modern music
will teach the student how to score--classical music will prove of
negative value to him. Weber, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer (_The Prophet_),
Berlioz, Glinka, Wagner, Liszt, and modern French and Russian
composers--these will prove his best guides. It is useless for a
Berlioz or a Gevaert to quote examples from the works of Gluck. The
musical idiom is too old-fashioned and strange to modern ears; such
examples are of no further use today. The same may be said of Mozart
and of Haydn (the father of modern orchestration).

The gigantic figure of Beethoven stands apart. His music abounds in
countless leonine leaps of orchestral imagination, but his technique,
viewed in detail, remains much inferior to his titanic conception. His
use of the trumpets, standing out above the rest of the orchestra, the
difficult and unhappy intervals he gives to the horns, the distinctive
features of the string parts and his often highly-coloured employment
of the wood-wind,--these features will combine causing the student of
Beethoven to stumble upon a thousand and one points in contradiction.

It is a mistake to think that the beginner will light upon no simple
and instructive examples in modern music, in that of Wagner and
others. On the contrary, clearer, and better examples are to be found
amongst modern composers than in what is called the range of classical
music.



Extract from the Preface to the last edition.


My aim in undertaking this work is to reveal the principles of modern
orchestration in a somewhat different light than that usually brought
to bear upon the subject. I have followed these principles in
orchestrating my own works, and, wishing to impart some of my ideas to
young composers, I have quoted examples from my own compositions, or
given references to them, endeavouring to show, in all sincerity, what
is successful and what is not. No one can know except the author
himself the purpose and motives which governed him during the
composition of a certain work, and the practice of explaining the
intentions of a composer, so prevalent amongst annotators, however
reverent and discreet, appears to me far from satisfactory. They will
attribute a too closely philosophic, or excessively poetic meaning to
a plain and simple fact. Sometimes the respect which great composers'
names command will cause inferior examples to be quoted as good; cases
of carelessness or ignorance, easily explained by the imperfections of
current technique, give rise to whole pages of laborious exposition,
in defence, or even in admiration of a faulty passage.

This book is written for those who have already studied
instrumentation from Gevaert's excellent treatise, or any other
well-known manual, and who have some knowledge of a number of
orchestral scores.

I shall therefore only just touch on such technical questions as
fingering, range, emission of sound etc.[6]

[Footnote 6: A short review of these various questions forms the first
chapter of the book. (Editor's note.)]

The present work deals with the combination of instruments in separate
groups and in the entire orchestral scheme; the different means of
producing strength of tone and unity of structure; the sub-division of
parts; variety of colour and expression in scoring,--the whole,
principally from the standpoint of dramatic music.



Chapter I.

GENERAL REVIEW OF ORCHESTRAL GROUPS.


A. Stringed Instruments.

The following is the formation of the string quartet and the number of
players required in present day orchestras, either in the theatre or
concert-room.

--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
              | Full      | Medium    | Small     |
              | orchestra | orchestra | orchestra |
--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
              |           |           |           |
Violins I     |   16      |   12      |   8       |
              |           |           |           |
   "   II     |   14      |   10      |   6       |
              |           |           |           |
Violas        |   12      |    8      |   4       |
              |           |           |           |
Violoncellos  |   10      |    6      |   3       |
              |           |           |           |
Double basses | 8-10      |  4-6      | 2-3       |
--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

In larger orchestras, the number of first violins may amount to 20 and
even 24, the other strings being increased proportionately. But such a
great quantity of strings overpowers the customary wood-wind section,
and entails re-inforcing the latter. Sometimes orchestras contain less
than 8 first violins; this is a mistake, as the balance between
strings and wind is completely destroyed. In writing for the orchestra
it is advisable to rely on a medium-sized body of strings. Played by a
larger orchestra a work will be heard to greater advantage; played by
a smaller one, the harm done will be minimised.

Whenever a group of strings is written for more than five
parts--without taking double notes or chords into consideration--these
parts may be increased by dividing each one into two, three and four
sections, or even more (_divisi_). Generally, one or more of the
principal parts is split up, the first or second violins, violas or
violoncellos. The players are then divided by desks, numbers 1, 3, 5
etc. playing the upper part, and 2, 4, 6 etc., the lower; or else the
musician on the right-hand of each desk plays the top line, the one on
the left the bottom line. Dividing by threes is less easy, as the
number of players in one group is not always divisible by three, and
hence the difficulty of obtaining proper balance. Nevertheless there
are cases where the composer should not hesitate to employ this method
of dividing the strings, leaving it to the conductor to ensure
equality of tone. It is always as well to mark how the passage is to
be divided in the score; Vns I, 1, 2, 3 desks, 6 'Cellos div. à 3,
and so on. Division into four and more parts is rare, but may be used
in _piano_ passages, as it greatly reduces volume of tone in the group
of strings.

     _Note._ In small orchestras passages sub-divided into many
     parts are very hard to realise, and the effect obtained is
     never the one required.

String parts may be divided thus:

_a_ {Vns I div.  _b_ {Vns II div.  _c_ {Violas div.  _d_ {'Cellos div.
    {Vns II div.     {Violas div.      {'Cellos div.     {D. basses div.

Possible combinations less frequently used are:

_e_ {Vns I div.    _f_ {Vns II div.   _g_ {Violas div.
    {Violas div.       {'Cellos div.      {D. basses div. etc.

     _Note._ It is evident that the tone quality in _b_ and _e_
     will be similar. Still _b_ is preferable since the number of
     Vns II (14-10-6) and Violas (12-8-4) is practically the
     same, the respective rôles of the two groups are more
     closely allied, and from the fact that second violins
     generally sit nearer to the violas than the first, thereby
     guaranteeing greater unity in power and execution.

The reader will find all manner of divisions in the musical examples
given in Vol. II. Where necessary, some explanation as to the method
of dividing strings will follow in due course. I dwell on the subject
here in order to show how the usual composition of the string quartet
may be altered.

Stringed instruments possess more ways of producing sound than any
other orchestral group. They can pass, better than other instruments
from one shade of expression to another, the varieties being of an
infinite number. Species of bowing such as _legato_, detached,
_staccato_, _spiccato_, _portamento_, _martellato_, light _staccato_,
_saltando_, attack at the nut and at the point, [symbol: down bow] and
[symbol: up bow] (down bow and up bow), in every degree of tone,
_fortissimo_, _pianissimo_, _crescendo_, _diminuendo_, _sforzando_,
_morendo_--all this belongs to the natural realm of the string
quartet.

The fact that these instruments are capable of playing double notes
and full chords across three and four strings--to say nothing of
sub-division of parts--renders them not only melodic but also harmonic
in character.[7]

[Footnote 7: To give a list of easy three and four-note chords, or to
explain the different methods of bowing does not come within the scope
of the present book.]

From the point of view of activity and flexibility the violin takes
pride of place among stringed instruments, then, in order, come the
viola, 'cello and double bass. In practice the notes of extreme limit
in the string quartet should be fixed as follows:

for violins: [Music: A7], for violas: [Music: A5],
for 'cellos: [Music: A4], for double basses: [Music: G4].

Higher notes given in Table A, should only be used with caution, that
is to say when they are of long value, in _tremolando_, slow, flowing
melodies, in not too rapid sequence of scales, and in passages of
repeated notes. Skips should always be avoided.

     _Note._ In quick passages for stringed instruments long
     chromatic figures are never suitable; they are difficult to
     play and sound indistinct and muddled. Such passages are
     better allotted to the wood-wind.

A limit should be set to the use of a high note on any one of the
three lower strings on violins, violas and 'cellos. This note should
be the one in the fourth position, either the octave note or the ninth
of the open string.

Nobility, warmth, and equality of tone from one end of the scale to
the other are qualities common to all stringed instruments, and render
them essentially superior to instruments of other groups. Further,
each string has a distinctive character of its own, difficult to
define in words. The top string on the violin (_E_) is brilliant in
character, that of the viola (_A_) is more biting in quality and
slightly nasal; the highest string on the 'cello (_A_) is bright and
possesses a "chest-voice" timbre. The _A_ and _D_ strings on the
violin and the _D_ string on the violas and 'cellos are somewhat
sweeter and weaker in tone than the others. Covered strings (_G_), on
the violin (_G_ and _C_), on the viola and 'cello are rather harsh.
Speaking generally, the double bass is equally resonant throughout,
slightly duller on the two lower strings (_E_ and _A_), and more
penetrating on the upper ones (_D_ and _G_).

     _Note._ Except in the case of pedal notes, the double bass
     rarely plays an independent part, usually moving in octaves
     or in unison with the 'cellos, or else doubling the
     bassoons. The quality of the double bass tone is therefore
     seldom heard by itself and the character of its different
     strings is not so noticeable.

The rare ability to connect sounds, or a series of sounds, the
vibration of stopped strings combined with their above-named
qualities--warmth and nobility of tone--renders this group of
instruments far and away the best orchestral medium of melodic
expression. At the same time, that portion of their range situated
beyond the limits of the human voice, e.g. notes on the violin higher
than the extreme top note of the soprano voice, from

[Music: E6]

upwards, and notes on the double bass below the range of the bass
voice, descending from

[Music: D3] (written sound)

lose in expression and warmth of tone. Open strings are clearer and
more powerful but less expressive than stopped strings.

Comparing the range of each stringed instrument with that of the human
voice, we may assign: to the violin, the soprano and contralto voice
plus a much higher range; to the viola, the contralto and tenor voice
plus a much higher register; to the 'cello, the tenor and bass voices
plus a higher register; to the double bass, the bass voice plus a
lower range.

The use of harmonics, the mute, and some special devices in bowing
produce great difference in the resonance and tone quality of all
these instruments.

Harmonics, frequently used today, alter the timbre of a stringed
instrument to a very appreciable extent. Cold and transparent in soft
passages, cold and brilliant in loud ones, and offering but little
chance for expression, they form no fundamental part of orchestral
writing, and are used simply for ornament. Owing to their lack of
resonant power they should be used sparingly, and, when employed,
should never be overpowered by other instruments. As a rule harmonics
are employed on sustained notes, _tremolando_, or here and there for
brilliant effects; they are rarely used in extremely simple melodies.
Owing to a certain tonal affinity with the flute they may be said to
form a kind of link between string and wood-wind instruments.

Another radical change is effected by the use of mutes. When muted,
the clear, singing tone of the strings becomes dull in soft passages,
turns to a slight hiss or whistle in loud ones, and the volume of tone
is always greatly reduced.

The position of the bow on the string will affect the resonance of an
instrument. Playing with the bow close to the bridge (_sul
ponticello_), chiefly used _tremolando_, produces a metallic sound;
playing on the finger-board (_sul tasto_, _flautando_) creates a dull,
veiled effect.

     _Note._ Another absolutely different sound results from
     playing with the back or wood of the bow (_col legno_). This
     produces a sound like a xylophone or a hollow _pizzicato_.
     It is discussed under the heading of instruments of little
     sustaining power.


Table A. String group.

(These instruments give all chromatic intervals.)

Violin.
(I. II.)

Viola.

Violoncello.

Double bass.

[Music]


Black lines on each string denote the general range in orchestral
writing, the dotted lines give the registers, low, medium, high, very
high.

The five sets of strings with number of players given above produce a
fairly even balance of tone. If there is any surplus of strength it
must be on the side of the first violins, as they must be heard
distinctly on account of the important part they play in the harmonic
scheme. Besides this, an extra desk of first violins is usual in all
orchestras, and as a general rule they possess a more powerful tone
than second violins. The latter, with the violas, play a secondary
part, and do not stand out so prominently. The 'cellos and double
basses are heard more distinctly, and in the majority of cases form
the bass in octaves.

In conclusion it may be said that the group of strings, as a melodic
element, is able to perform all manner of passages, rapid and
interrupted phrases of every description, diatonic or chromatic in
character. Capable of sustaining notes without difficulty, of playing
chords of three and four notes; adapted to the infinite variety of
shades of expression, and easily divisible into numerous sundry parts,
the string group in an orchestra may be considered as an harmonic
element particularly rich in resource.


B. Wind instruments.

Wood-wind.

Apart from the varying number of players, the formation of the string
group, with its five constituent parts remains constant, satisfying
the demands of any orchestral full score. On the other hand the group
of wood-wind instruments varies both as regards number of parts and
the volume of tone at its command, and here the composer may choose at
will. The group may be divided into three general classes: wood-wind
instruments in pair's, in three's and in four's, (see table on page
13).

Arabic numerals denote the number of players on each instrument; roman
figures, the parts (1st, 2nd etc.). Instruments which do not
require additional players, but are taken over by one or the other
executant in place of his usual instrument, are enclosed in brackets.
As a rule the first flute, first oboe, first clarinet and first
bassoon never change instruments; considering the importance of their
parts it is not advisable for them to turn from one mouth-piece to
another. The parts written for piccolo, bass flute, English horn,
small clarinet, bass clarinet and double bassoon are taken by the
second and third players in each group, who are more accustomed to
using these instruments of a special nature.

---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------------+
   Wood-wind         |     Wood-wind            |     Wood-wind           |
   in pair's         |     in three's           |     in four's           |
---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------------+
                     |                          |                         |
  (II--Piccolo).     |    (III--Piccolo).       |    1 Piccolo (IV).      |
                     |                          |                         |
  2 Flutes I. II.    |  3 Flutes I. II. III.    |   3 Flutes I. II. III.  |
                     |                          |                         |
                     |    (II--Bass flute).     |    (III--Bass flute).   |
                     |                          |                         |
  2 Oboes I. II.     |     2 Oboes I. II.       |   3 Oboes I. II. III.   |
                     |                          |                         |
 (II--Eng. horn).    |   1 Eng. horn (III).     |    1 Eng. horn (IV).    |
                     |                          |                         |
                     |  (II--Small clarinet).   |  (II--Small clarinet).  |
                     |                          |                         |
 2 Clarinets I. II.  |  3 Clarinets I. II. III. | 3 Clarinets I. II. III. |
                     |                          |                         |
(II--Bass clarinet). |  (III--Bass clarinet).   |  1 Bass clarinet (IV).  |
                     |                          |                         |
  2 Bassoons I. II.  |    2 Bassoons I. II.     |  3 Bassoons I. II. III. |
                     |                          |                         |
                     | 1 Double bassoon (III).  |  1 Double bassoon (IV). |
---------------------+--------------------------+-------------------------+

The formation of the first class may be altered by the permanent
addition of a piccolo part. Sometimes a composer writes for two
piccolos or two Eng. horns etc. without increasing the original number
of players required (in three's or four's).

     _Note I._ Composers using the first class in the course of a
     big work (oratorio, opera, symphony, etc.) may introduce
     special instruments, called _extras_, for a long or short
     period of time; each of these instruments involves an extra
     player not required throughout the entire work. Meyerbeer
     was fond of doing this, but other composers, Glinka for
     example, refrain from increasing the number of performers by
     employing _extras_ (Eng. horn part in _Rousslân_). Wagner
     uses all three classes in the above table (in pair's:
     _Tannhäuser_--in three's: _Tristan_--in four's: _The Ring_).

     _Note II._ _Mlada_ is the only work of mine involving
     formation by four's. _Ivan the Terrible_, _Sadko_, _The
     Legend of Tsar Saltan_, _The Legend of the Invisible City of
     Kitesh_ and _The Golden Cockerel_ all belong to the second
     class, and in my other works, wood-wind in pair's is used
     with a varying number of extras. _The Christmas Night_, with
     its two oboes, and two bassoons, three flutes and three
     clarinets, forms an intermediate class.

Considering the instruments it comprises, the string group offers a
fair variety of colour, and contrast in compass, but this diversity of
range and timbre is subtle and not easily discerned. In the wood-wind
department, however, the difference in register and quality of flutes,
oboes, clarinets and bassoons is striking to a degree. As a rule,
wood-wind instruments are less flexible than strings; they lack the
vitality and power, and are less capable of different shade of
expression.

In each wind instrument I have defined the _scope of greatest
expression_, that is to say the range in which the instrument is best
qualified to achieve the various grades of tone, (_forte_, _piano_,
_cresc._, _dim._, _sforzando_, _morendo_, etc.)--the register which
admits of the most _expressive_ playing, in the truest sense of the
word. Outside this range, a wind instrument is more notable for
richness of colour than for expression. I am probably the originator
of the term "scope of greatest expression". It does not apply to the
piccolo and double bassoon which represent the two extremes of the
orchestral compass. They do not possess such a register and belong to
the body of highly-coloured but non-expressive instruments.

The four kinds of wind instruments: flutes, oboes, clarinets and
bassoons may be generally considered to be of equal power. The same
cannot be said of instruments which fulfil a special purpose: piccolo,
bass flute, Eng. horn, small clarinet, bass clarinet and double
bassoon. Each of these instruments has four registers: low, middle,
high and extremely high, each of which is characterised by certain
differences of quality and power. It is difficult to define the exact
limits of each register; adjacent registers almost blend together and
the passage from one to another is scarcely noticeable. But when the
instrument jumps from one register to another the difference in power
and quality of tone is very striking.

The four families of wind instruments may be divided into two classes:
a) instruments of nasal quality and dark resonance--oboes and bassoons
(Eng. horn and double bassoon); and b) instruments of "chest-voice"
quality and bright tone--flutes and clarinets (piccolo, bass flute,
small clarinet, bass clarinet).

These characteristics of colour and resonance--expressed in too simple
and rudimentary a form--are specially noticeable in the middle and
upper registers. The lower register of the oboes and bassoons is thick
and rough, yet still nasal in quality; the very high compass is
shrill, hard and dry. The clear resonance of the flutes and clarinets
acquires something nasal and dark in the lower compass; in the very
high register it becomes somewhat piercing.


Note to Table B.

     In the following Table B the top note in each register
     serves as the bottom note in the next, as the limits to each
     register are not defined absolutely. The note _G_ fixes the
     register of flutes and oboes, _C_ for the clarinets and
     bassoons. In the very high compass those notes are only
     given which can really be used; anything higher and not
     printed as actual notes are either too difficult to produce
     or of no artistic value. The number of sounds obtainable in
     the highest compass is indefinite, and depends, partly on
     the quality of the instrument itself, partly on the position
     and application of the lips. The signs [music symbol:
     decrescendo] [music symbol: crescendo] are not to be
     mistaken for _crescendo_ and _diminuendo_; they indicate how
     the resonance of an instrument increases or diminishes in
     relation to the characteristic quality of its timbre. The
     scope of greatest expression for each typical instrument is
     marked thus, [symbol: horizontal bracket] under the notes; the
     range is the same in each instrument of the same type.

Table B. Wind group.

These instruments give all chromatic intervals.

Piccolo.

Flute.

Bass Flute
Alto Fl. _F_, _G_).

Oboe.

English Horn
(Cor anglais, alto oboe _F_).

Small Clarinet
(_E[flat]-D_).

Clarinet
(_B[flat]-A_).

Bass Clarinet
(_B[flat]-A_).

Bassoon
(Fagotto).

Double bassoon
(Contra-fagotto).

[Music]


     _Note._ It is a difficult matter to define tone quality in
     words; we must encroach upon the domain of sight, feeling,
     and even taste. Though borrowed from these senses, I have no
     doubt as to the appropriateness of my comparisons, but, as a
     general rule definitions drawn from other sources are too
     elementary to be applied to music. No condemnatory meaning
     however should be attached to my descriptions, for in using
     the terms thick, piercing, shrill, dry, etc. my object is to
     express _artistic_ fitness in words, rather than material
     exactitude. Instrumental sounds which have no musical
     meaning are classed by me in the category of _useless
     sounds_, and I refer to them as such, giving my reasons.
     With the exception of these, the reader is advised to
     consider all other orchestral timbres beautiful from an
     artistic point of view, although it is necessary, at times,
     to put them to other uses.

     Further on, a table of wind instruments is appended,
     outlining the approximate limit of range, defining different
     qualities of tone and indicating the scope of greatest
     expression (the piccolo and double bassoon excepted).

Flutes and clarinets are the most flexible wood-wind instruments (the
flutes in particular), but for expressive power and subtlety in
_nuances_ the clarinet supersedes them; this instrument can reduce
volume of tone to a mere breath. The nasal instruments, oboe and
bassoon, are less mobile and supple; this is accounted for by their
double reed, but, having to effect all sorts of scales and rapid
passages in common with the flutes and clarinets, oboes and bassoons
may be considered melodic instruments in the real sense of the word,
only of a more _cantabile_ and peaceful character. In very quick
passages they often double the flutes, clarinets or strings.

The four families are equally capable of _legato_ and _staccato_
playing and changing from one to the other in different ways, but
distinct and penetrating _staccato_ passages are better suited to the
oboes and bassoons, while the flutes and clarinets excel in
well-sustained _legato_ phrases. Composite _legato_ passages should be
allotted to the first two instruments, composite _staccato_ passages
to the latter pair, but these general directions should not deter the
orchestrator from adopting the opposite plan.

In comparing the technical individualities of the wood-wind the
following fundamental differences should be noted:

a) The rapid repetition of a single note by single tonguing is common
to all wind instruments; repetition of a single note by means of
double tonguing is only possible on the flute, a reedless instrument.

b) On account of its construction the clarinet is not well adapted to
sudden leaps from one octave to another; these skips are easier on
flutes, oboes and bassoons.

c) _Arpeggios_ and rapid alternation of two intervals _legato_ sound
well on flutes and clarinets, but not on oboes and bassoons.

Wood-wind players cannot manage extremely long sustained passages, as
they are compelled to take breath; care must be taken therefore to
give them a little rest from time to time. This is unnecessary in the
case of string players.

In the endeavour to characterise the timbre of each instrument typical
of the four families, from a psychological point of view, I do not
hesitate to make the following general remarks which apply generally
to the middle and upper registers of each instrument:

a) Flute.--Cold in quality, specially suitable, in the major key, to
melodies of light and graceful character; in the minor key, to slight
touches of transient sorrow.

b) Oboe.--Artless and gay in the major, pathetic and sad in the minor.

c) Clarinet.--Pliable and expressive, suitable, in the major, to
melodies of a joyful or contemplative character, or to outbursts of
mirth; in the minor, to sad and reflective melodies or impassioned and
dramatic passages.

d) Bassoon.--In the major, an atmosphere of senile mockery; a sad,
ailing quality in the minor.

In the extreme registers these instruments convey the following
impressions to my mind:

                _Low register_         _Very high register_

a) Flute--      Dull, cold             Brilliant
b) Oboe--       Wild                   Hard, dry
c) Clarinet--   Ringing, threatening   Piercing
d) Bassoon--    Sinister               Tense.

     _Note._ It is true that no mood or frame of mind, whether it
     be joyful or sad, meditative or lively, careless or
     reflective, mocking or distressed can be aroused by one
     single isolated timbre; it depends more upon the general
     melodic line, the harmony, rhythm, and dynamic shades of
     expression, upon the whole formation of a given piece of
     music. The choice of instruments and timbre to be adopted
     depends on the position which melody and harmony occupy in
     the seven-octave scale of the orchestra; for example, a
     melody of light character in the tenor register could not be
     given to the flutes, or a sad, plaintive phrase in the high
     soprano register confided to the bassoons. But the ease with
     which tone colour can be adapted to expression must not be
     forgotten, and in the first of these two cases it may be
     conceded that the mocking character of the bassoon could
     easily and quite naturally assume a light-hearted aspect,
     and in the second case, that the slightly melancholy timbre
     of the flute is somewhat related to the feeling of sorrow
     and distress with which the passage is to be permeated. The
     case of a melody coinciding in character with the instrument
     on which it is played is of special importance, as the
     effect produced cannot fail to be successful. There are also
     moments when a composer's artistic feeling prompts him to
     employ instruments, the character of which is at variance
     with the written melody (for eccentric, grotesque effects,
     etc.).

The following remarks illustrate the characteristics, timbre, and
employment of special instruments:

The duty of the piccolo and small clarinet is, principally, to extend
the range of the ordinary flute and clarinet in the high register. The
whistling, piercing quality of the piccolo in its highest compass is
extraordinarily powerful, but does not lend itself to more moderate
shades of expression. The small clarinet in its highest register is
more penetrating than the ordinary clarinet. The low and middle range
of the piccolo and small clarinet correspond to the same register in
the normal flute and clarinet, but the tone is so much weaker that it
is of little service in those regions. The double bassoon extends the
range of the ordinary bassoon in the low register. The characteristics
of the bassoon's low compass are still further accentuated in the
corresponding range of the double bassoon, but the middle and upper
registers of the latter are by no means so useful. The very deep notes
of the double bassoon are remarkably thick and dense in quality, very
powerful in _piano_ passages.

     _Note._ Nowadays, when the limits of the orchestral scale
     are considerably extended (up to the high _C_ of the 7th
     octave, and down to the low _C_, 16 ft. contra octave), the
     piccolo forms an indispensable constituent of the
     wind-group; similarly, it is recognised that the double
     bassoon is capable of supplying valuable assistance. The
     small clarinet is rarely employed and only for colour
     effects.

The English horn, or alto oboe (oboe in _F_) is similar in tone to the
ordinary oboe, the listless, dreamy quality of its timbre being sweet
in the extreme. In the low register it is fairly penetrating. The bass
clarinet, though strongly resembling the ordinary clarinet, is of
darker colour in the low register and lacks the silvery quality in the
upper notes; it is incapable of joyful expression. The bass flute is
an instrument seldom used even today; it possesses the same features
as the flute, but it is colder in colour, and crystalline in the
middle and high regions. These three particular instruments, apart
from extending the low registers of the instruments to which they
belong, have their own distinctive peculiarities of timbre, and are
often used in the orchestra, as solo instruments, clearly exposed.

     _Note._ Of the six special instruments referred to above,
     the piccolo and double bassoon were the first to be used in
     the orchestra; the latter, however, was neglected after
     Beethoven's death and did not reappear until towards the end
     of the 19th century. The Eng. horn and bass clarinet were
     employed initially during the first half of the same century
     by Berlioz, Meyerbeer, and others, and for some time
     retained their position as _extras_, to become, later on,
     permanent orchestral factors, first in the theatre, then in
     the concert room. Very few attempts have been made to
     introduce the small clarinet into the orchestra (Berlioz
     etc.); this instrument together with the bass flute is used
     in my opera-ballet _Mlada_ (1892), and also in my most
     recent compositions, _The Christmas Night_, and _Sadko_; the
     bass flute will also be found in _The Legend of the
     Invisible City of Kitesh_, and in the revised version of
     "_Ivan the Terrible_".

Of late years the habit of muting the wood-wind has come into fashion.
This is done by inserting a soft pad, or a piece of rolled-up cloth
into the bell of the instrument. Mutes deaden the tone of oboes, Eng.
horns, and bassoons to such an extent that it is possible for these
instruments to attain the extreme limit of _pianissimo_ playing. The
muting of clarinets is unnecessary, as they can play quite softly
enough without artificial means. It has not yet been discovered how to
mute the flutes; such a discovery would render great service to the
piccolo. The lowest notes on the bassoon,

[Music: B1] and on the oboe and Eng. horn [Music: B3]

are impossible when the instruments are muted. Mutes have no effect in
the highest register of wind instruments.


Brass.

The formation of the group of brass instruments, like that of the
wood-wind is not absolutely uniform, and varies in different scores.
The brass group may be divided into three general classes
corresponding to those of the wood-wind (in pair's, in three's, and in
four's).

----------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
 Group corresponding  |  Group corresponding    |  Group corresponding    |
  to the wood-wind    |   to the wood-wind      |    to the wood-wind     |
     in pair's        |      in three's         |       in four's         |
----------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------|
                      |                         |  (II--Small trumpet).   |
  2 Trumpets I, II.   | 3 Trumpets I, II, III.  | 3 Trumpets I, II, III.  |
                      |  (III--Alto trumpet     |  (III--Alto trumpet or  |
                      |         or:             |     Bass trumpet.)      |
                      |  {2 Cornets I, II.      |                         |
                      |  {2 Trumpets I, II.)    |                         |
                      |                         |                         |
  4 Horns I, II,      | 4 Horns I, II, III, IV. | 6 or 8 Horns I, II,     |
          III, IV.    |                         |         III, IV, V,     |
                      |                         |      VI, VII, VIII.     |
                      |                         |                         |
   3 Trombones.       | 3 Trombones I, II, III. | 3 Trombones I, II, III. |
                      |                         |                         |
      1 Tuba.         |     1 Tuba[8].          |       1 Tuba.           |
----------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+

[Footnote 8: Of late years sometimes two tubas are employed, by
Glazounov for instance in his Finnish Fantasia. (Editor's note.)]

The directions are the same as in the preceding table for wood-wind.
It is evident that in all three classes the formation may vary as the
composer wishes. In music for the theatre or concert room page after
page may be written without the use of trumpets, trombones and tuba,
or some instrument may be introduced, temporarily as an _extra_. In
the above table I have given the most typical formations, and those
which are the most common at the present day.

     _Note I._ Besides the instruments given above, Richard
     Wagner used some others in _The Ring_, notably the quartet
     of tenor and bass tubas, and a contrabass trombone.
     Sometimes these additions weigh too heavily on the other
     groups, and at other times they render the rest of the brass
     ineffective. For this reason composers have doubtless
     refrained from employing such instruments, and Wagner
     himself did not include them in the score of _Parsifal_.
     Some present-day composers (Richard Strauss, Scriabine)
     write for as many as five trumpets.

     _Note II._ From the middle of the 19th century onward the
     natural brass disappeared from the orchestra, giving place
     to valve instruments. In my second opera, _The May Night_ I
     used natural horns and trumpets, changing the keys, and
     writing the best notes "stopped"; this was purposely done
     for practise.

Though far less flexible than the wood-wind, brass instruments
heighten the effect of other orchestral groups by their powerful
resonance. Trumpets, trombones, and tubas are about equal in
strength; cornets have not quite the same force; horns, in _forte_
passages, are about one half as strong, but _piano_, they have the
same weight as other brass instruments played softly. To obtain an
equal balance, therefore, the marks of expression in the horns should
be one degree stronger than in the rest of the brass; if the trumpets
and trombones play _pp_, the horns should be marked _p_. On the other
hand, to obtain a proper balance in _forte_ passages, two horns are
needed to one trumpet or one trombone.

Brass instruments are so similar in range and timbre that the
discussion of register is unnecessary. As a general rule quality
becomes more brilliant as the higher register is approached, and _vice
versa_, with a decrease in tone. Played _pp_ the resonance is sweet;
played _ff_ the tone is hard and "crackling". Brass instruments
possess a remarkable capacity for swelling from _pianissimo_ to
_fortissimo_, and reducing the tone inversely, the _sf_ [music symbol:
decrescendo] _p_ effect being excellent.

The following remarks as to character and tone quality may be added:

a) 1. _Trumpets_ (_B[flat]-A_). Clear and fairly penetrating in tone,
stirring and rousing in _forte_ passages; in _piano_ phrases the high
notes are full and silvery, the low notes troubled, as though
threatening danger.

2. _Alto trumpet_ (in _F_). An instrument of my own invention, first
used by me in the opera-ballet _Mlada_. In the deep register (notes 2
to 3 in the trumpet scale) it possesses a fuller, clearer, and finer
tone. Two ordinary trumpets with an alto trumpet produce greater
smoothness and equality in resonance than three ordinary trumpets.
Satisfied with the beauty and usefulness of the alto trumpet, I have
consistently written for it in my later works, combined with wood-wind
in three's.

     _Note._ To obviate the difficulty of using the alto trumpet
     in ordinary theatres and some concert rooms, I have not
     brought into play the last four notes of its lowest register
     or their neighbouring chromatics; by this means the alto
     trumpet part may be played by an ordinary trumpet in _B[flat]_
     or _A_.

3. _Small trumpet_ (in _E[flat]-D_). Invented by me and used for the
first time in _Mlada_ to realise the very high trumpet notes without
difficulty. In tonality and range the instrument is similar to the
soprano cornet in a military band.

     _Note._ The small trumpet, (_B[flat]-A_) sounding an octave
     higher than the ordinary trumpet has not yet appeared in
     musical literature.

b) _Cornets_ (in _B[flat]-A_). Possessing a quality of tone similar to
the trumpet, but softer and weaker. It is a beautiful instrument
though rarely employed today in theatre or concert room. Expert
players can imitate the cornet tone on the trumpet, and _vice versa_.

c) _Horn_ (in _F_). The tone of this instrument is soft, poetical, and
full of beauty. In the lower register it is dark and brilliant; round
and full in the upper. The middle notes resemble those of the bassoon
and the two instruments blend well together. The horn, therefore,
serves as a link between the brass and wood-wind. In spite of valves
the horn has but little mobility and would seem to produce its tone in
a languid and lazy manner.

d) _Trombone._ Dark and threatening in the deepest register, brilliant
and triumphant in the high compass. The _piano_ is full but somewhat
heavy, the _forte_ powerful and sonorous. Valve trombones are more
mobile than slide trombones, but the latter are certainly to be
preferred as regards nobility and equality of sound, the more so from
the fact that these instruments are rarely required to perform quick
passages, owing to the special character of their tone.

e) _Tuba._ Thick and rough in quality, less characteristic than the
trombone, but valuable for the strength and beauty of its low notes.
Like the double bass and double bassoon, the tuba is eminently useful
for doubling, an octave lower, the bass of the group to which it
belongs. Thanks to its valves, the tuba is fairly flexible.


Table C. Brass group.

These instruments give all chromatic intervals.

Trumpet, Cornet.
(_B[flat]-A, alto in F_).[A]

Horn
(_F, E_).

Trombone
(tenor-bass).[B]

Tuba
(_C_-bass).

[Music]

Natural sounds are given in white notes. The upper lines indicate the
scope of greatest expression.

[Footnote A: The 7th natural harmonic is everywhere omitted as
useless; the same in the horns, the notes 11, 13, 14 and 15.]

[Footnote B: The _b[natural]_ of the octave -1 does not exist on the
trombones.]


The group of brass instruments, though uniform in resonance throughout
its constituent parts, is not so well adapted to expressive playing
(in the exact sense of the word) as the wood-wind group. Nevertheless,
a scope of greatest expression may be distinguished in the middle
registers. In company with the piccolo and double bassoon it is not
given to the small trumpet (_E[flat]-D_) and tuba to play with any great
amount of expression. The rapid and rhythmical repetition of a note by
single tonguing is possible to all members of the brass, but double
tonguing can only be done on instruments with a small mouth-piece,
trumpets and cornets. These two instruments can execute rapid
_tremolando_ without difficulty. The remarks on breathing, in the
section devoted to the wood-wind, apply with equal force to the brass.

The use of stopped notes and mutes alters the character of brass tone.
Stopped notes can only be employed on trumpets, cornets and horns; the
shape of trombones and tubas prevents the hand from being inserted
into the bell. Though mutes are applied indiscriminately to all brass
instruments in the orchestra, tubas rarely possess them. Stopped and
muted notes are similar in quality. On the trumpet, muting a note
produces a better tone than stopping it.

In the horn both methods are employed; single notes are stopped in
short phrases, muted in longer ones. I do not propose to describe the
difference between the two operations in detail, and will leave the
reader to acquire the knowledge for himself, and to form an opinion as
to its importance from his own personal observation. Sufficient to say
that the tone is deadened by both methods, assuming a wild "crackling"
character in _forte_ passages, tender and dull in _piano_. Resonance
is greatly reduced, the silvery tone of the instrument so lost and a
timbre resembling that of the oboe and Eng. horn is approached.
Stopped notes (_con sordino_) are marked [music symbol: mute]
underneath the note, sometimes followed by [music symbol: no mute],
denoting the resumption of open sounds, _senza sordini_. Brass
instruments, when muted, produce an effect of distance.


C. Instruments of little sustaining power.

Plucked strings.

When the usual orchestral string quartet (Vns I, Vns II, Violas,
'Cellos, D. basses) does not make use of the bow, but plucks the
strings with the finger, it becomes to my mind a new and independent
group with its own particular quality of tone. Associated with the
harp, which produces sound in a similar manner, I consider it
separately under the heading of plucked strings.

     _Note._ In this group may be classed the guitar, zither,
     balalaïka; instruments plucked with a quill, such as the
     domra,[9] the mandoline etc., all of which may be used in an
     orchestra, but have no place in the scope of the present
     book.

[Footnote 9: A Russian instrument which, like the balalaïka, is better
known abroad. (Translator's note.)]


Pizzicato.

Although capable of every degree of power from _ff_ to _pp_,
_pizzicato_ playing has but small range of expression, and is used
chiefly as a colour effect. On open strings it is resonant and heavy,
on stopped strings shorter and duller; in the high positions it is
rather dry and hard.

Table D on page 31 indicates the range in which _pizzicato_ may be
used on each stringed instrument.

In the orchestra, _pizzicato_ comes into operation in two distinct
ways: a) on single notes, b) on double notes and chords. The fingers
of the right hand playing _pizz._ are far less agile than the bow;
_pizz._ passages therefore can never be performed as quickly as those
played _arco_. Moreover, the speed of _pizzicato_ playing depends upon
the thickness of the strings; on the double basses, for instance, it
must always be much slower than on the violins.

In _pizzicato_ chords it is better to avoid open strings, which
produce a more brilliant tone than of covered strings. Chords of four
notes allow of greater freedom and vigour of attack, as there is no
danger of accidentally touching a wrong note. Natural harmonics played
_pizz._ create a charming effect; the tone is weak however, and they
are chiefly successful on the violoncello.


Harp.

In the orchestra, the harp is almost entirely an harmonic or
accompanying instrument. The majority of scores require only one harp
part, but in recent times composers have written for two or even three
harps, which are sometimes compressed into the one part.

     _Note._ Full orchestras should include three or even four
     harps. My operas _Sadko_, _The Legend of the Invisible City
     of Kitesh_, and _The Golden Cockerel_ are designed for two
     harps, _Mlada_ for three.

The special function of the harp lies in the execution of chords, and
the florid figures springing from them. As only four notes at the most
can be played by each hand, the notes of a chord should be written
close together, with not too great a space between one hand and the
other. The chords must always be broken (_arpeggiato_); should the
composer wish otherwise he should notify it (_non arpeggiato_). In the
middle and lower octaves the resonance of the strings is slightly
prolonged, and dies away gradually. In changes of harmony the player
stops the vibration of the strings with his hands, but, in quick
modulations, this method is not feasible, and the mixture of one chord
with another produces a discordant effect. It follows that more or
less rapid figures can only be realised clearly and neatly in the
upper register of the harp, where the strings are shorter and harder
in tone.

As a general rule, in the whole range of the harp:

[Music: C1[flat]-F7[sharp]]

only the notes of the first to the fourth octave are used; the extreme
notes in both compasses may be employed in special circumstances, and
for doubling in octaves.

The harp is essentially a diatonic instrument, since all chromatic
passages depend on the manipulation of the pedals. For this reason the
harp does not lend itself to rapid modulation, and the orchestrator is
advised to bear this fact in mind. But the difficulty may be obviated
by using two harps alternately.[10]

[Footnote 10: A chromatic harp without pedals has now been invented in
France (Lyon's system), on which the most abrupt modulations are
possible. (Translator's note.)]

     _Note._ I would remind the reader that the harp is not
     capable of double sharps or double flats. For this reason,
     certain modulations from one key to another one, adjacent to
     it can only be accomplished enharmonically. For instance,
     the transition from _C_ flat, _G_ flat or _D_ flat, major to
     their minor subdominant chords or keys is not possible owing
     to double flats. It is therefore necessary to start
     enharmonically from the keys of _B_, _F_ sharp or _C_ sharp,
     major. Similarly, on account of double sharps, it is
     impossible to change from _A_ sharp, _D_ sharp or _G_ sharp,
     minor to their respective dominant major chords or keys; _B_
     flat, _E_ flat and _A_ flat, minor must be the
     starting-points.

The technical operation known as _glissando_ is peculiar to the harp
alone. Taking for granted that the reader is conversant with the
methods of acquiring different scales by means of double-notched
pedals, it will be sufficient to remark that _glissando_ scales
produce a discordant medley of sound owing to the length of time the
strings continue to vibrate, and therefore, as a _purely musical_
effect, _glissando_ can only be used in the upper octaves, quite
_piano_, where the sound of the strings is sufficiently clear, yet not
too prolonged. _Forte glissando_ scales, entailing the use of the
lower and middle strings are only permissible as embellishments.
Glissando passages in chords of the seventh and ninth, enharmonically
obtained, are much more common, and as the above reservations do not
apply, every dynamic shade of tone is possible. Chords in harmonics
can only consist of three notes written close together, two for the
left hand and one for the right.

The tender poetic quality of the harp is adapted to every dynamic
shade, but it is never a very powerful instrument, and the
orchestrator should treat it with respect.

At least three, if not four harps in unison are necessary, if they are
to be heard against a full orchestra playing _forte_. The more rapidly
a _glissando_ passage is played, the louder it will sound. Harmonic
notes on the harp have great charm but little resonance, and are only
possible played quite softly. Speaking generally, the harp, like the
string quartet, _pizzicato_, is more an instrument of colour than
expression.


Percussion instruments producing determinate sounds, keyed
instruments.

Kettle-drums.

Kettle-drums, indispensable to every theatre and concert orchestra
occupy the most important place in the group of percussion
instruments. A pair of kettle-drums (_Timpani_), in the tonic and
dominant keys, was the necessary attribute of an orchestra up to, and
including Beethoven's time, but, from the middle of the 19th
century onward, in western Europe and in Russia, an ever-increasing
need was felt for the presence of three or even four kettle-drums,
during the whole course or part of a work. If the expensive chromatic
drum, permitting instant tuning is rarely met with, still, in the
majority of good orchestras, three screw drums are generally to be
found. The composer can therefore take it for granted that a good
timpanist, having three kettle-drums at his command, will be able to
tune at least one of them during a pause of some length.

The limits of possible change in Beethoven's time was considered to
be:

Big kettle-drum: [Music: F2-C3 (chromatically)]
Small kettle-drum: [Music: B[flat]2-F3 (chromatically)]

In these days it is difficult to define the precise extent of high
compass in the kettle-drums, as this depends entirely on the size and
quality of the smallest one, of which there are many kinds, but I
advise the composer to select:

[Music: E2-G[sharp]3 (chromatically)]

     _Note._ A magnificent kettle-drum of very small size was
     made for my opera-ballet _Mlada_; this instrument gave the
     _D[flat]_ of the fourth octave.

Kettle-drums are capable of every dynamic shade of tone, from
thundering _fortissimo_ to a barely perceptible _pianissimo_. In
_tremolando_ they can execute the most gradual _crescendo_,
_diminuendo_, the _sfp_ and _morendo_.

To deaden the sound, a piece of cloth is generally placed on the skin
of the drum, according to the instruction: _timpani coperti_ (muffled
drums).


Table D.

Pizzicato.

Violin.

Viola.

Violoncello.

Double bass.

[Music]

The black notes are dry and hard, without resonance, and should only
be used when doubled with the wood-wind.


* Table E.

Glockenspiel, celesta, xylophone.

Glockenspiel
(with keyboard).

Glockenspiel
(ordinary).

Celesta.

Xylophone.

[Music]


Piano and Celesta.

The use of a piano in the orchestra (apart from pianoforte concertos)
belongs almost entirely to the Russian school.[11] The object is
two-fold: the quality of tone, either alone, or combined with that
of the harp, is made to imitate a popular instrument, the guzli, (as
in Glinka), or a soft peal of bells. When the piano forms part of an
orchestra, not as a solo instrument, an upright is preferable to a
grand, but today the piano is gradually being superseded by the
celesta, first used by Tschaikovsky. In the celesta, small steel
plates take the place of strings, and the hammers falling on them
produce a delightful sound, very similar to the _glockenspiel_. The
celesta is only found in full orchestras; when it is not available it
should be replaced by an upright piano, and not the _glockenspiel_.

[Footnote 11: Rimsky-Korsakov's opera _Sadko_ and Moussorgsky's _Boris
Godounov_ are particularly interesting in this respect. (Translator's
note.)]


Glockenspiel, Bells, Xylophone.

The _glockenspiel_ (_campanelli_) may be made of steel bars, or played
with a keyboard. The first type is the more satisfactory and possesses
greater resonance. The use of the _glockenspiel_ is similar to the
celesta, but its tone is more brilliant and penetrating. Big bells in
the shape of hollow discs or metal tubes,[12] or real church bells of
moderate size may be considered more as theatrical properties than
orchestral instruments.

[Footnote 12: Recently, bells have been made of suspended metal plates
possessing the rare quality of a fairly pure tone, and which are
sufficiently portable to be used on the concert platform. (Editor's
note.)]

The xylophone is a species of harmonica composed of strips or
cylinders of wood, struck with two little hammers. It produces a
clattering sound, both powerful and piercing.

To complete this catalogue of sounds mention should be made of the
strings playing _col legno_, that is with the wood or back of the bow.
The sound produced is similar to the xylophone, and gains in quality
as the number of players is increased.

A table is appended showing the range of the celesta, _glockenspiel_
and xylophone.


Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds.

Instruments in this group, such as triangle, castanets, little bells,
tambourine, switch or rod (_Rute._ Ger.), side or military drum,
cymbals, bass drum, and Chinese gong do not take any harmonic or
melodic part in the orchestra, and can only be considered as
ornamental instruments pure and simple. They have no intrinsic
musical meaning, and are just mentioned by the way. The first three
may be considered as _high_, the four following as _medium_, and the
last _two_ as deep instruments. This may serve as a guide to their use
with percussion instruments of determinate sounds, playing in
corresponding registers.


Comparison of resonance in orchestral groups and combination of
different tone qualities.

In comparing the resonance of the respective groups of
sound-sustaining instruments we arrive at the following approximate
conclusions:

In the most resonant group, the brass, the strongest instruments are
the trumpets, trombones and tuba. In loud passages the horns are only
one-half as strong, 1 Trumpet = 1 Trombone = 1 Tuba = 2 Horns.
Wood-wind instruments, in _forte_ passages, are twice as weak as the
horns, 1 Horn = 2 Clarinets = 2 Oboes = 2 Flutes = 2 Bassoons; but, in
_piano_ passages, all wind-instruments, wood or brass are of fairly
equal balance.

It is more difficult to establish a comparison in resonance between
wood-wind and strings, as everything depends on the number of the
latter, but, in an orchestra of medium formation, it may be taken for
granted that in _piano_ passages, the whole of one department (_all_
1st Violins or _all_ 2nd Violins etc.) is equivalent in strength
to one wind instrument, (Violins I = 1 Flute etc.), and, in _forte_
passages, to two wind instruments, (Violins I = 2 Flutes = 1 Oboe + 1
Clarinet, etc.).

It is still harder to form a comparison with instruments of little
sustaining power, for too great a diversity in production and emission
of sound exists. The combined force of groups of sustained resonance
easily overpowers the strings played _pizz._ or _col legno_, the piano
played softly, or the celesta. As regards the _glockenspiel_, bells,
and xylophone, their emphatic tone will easily prevail over other
groups in combination. The same may be said of the kettle-drums with
their ringing, resounding quality, and also of other subsidiary
instruments.

The influence of the timbre of one group on another is noticeable when
the groups are doubled; for instance, when the wood-wind timbre is
closely allied to the strings on the one hand, and to the brass on the
other. Re-inforcing both, the wind _thickens_ the strings and
_softens_ the brass. The strings do not blend so well with the brass,
and when the two groups are placed side by side, each is heard too
distinctly. The combination of the three different timbres in unison
produces a rich, mellow and coherent tone.

All, or several wind instruments in combination will absorb one
department of added strings:

     2 Fl.  +  2 Ob.   +  Vns I,
or:  2 Ob.  +  2 Cl.   +  Violas,
or:  2 Cl.  +  2 Fag.  +  'Cellos.

One department of strings added to the wood-wind in unison produces a
sweet coherent quality, the wood-wind timbre still predominating; but
the addition of one wind instrument to all or part of the strings in
unison, only thickens the resonance of the latter, the wood-wind
timbre being lost in the process:

     Vns I    +  Vns II     +  1 Ob.,
or:  Violas   +  'Cellos    +  1 Cl.
or:  'Cellos  +  D. basses  +  1 Fag.

Muted strings do not combine so well with wood-wind, as the two tone
qualities remain distinct and separate. Uniting plucked strings and
percussion with instruments of sustained resonance results in the
following: wind instruments, wood and brass, strengthen and clarify
_pizzicato_ strings, harp, kettle-drums and percussion generally, the
latter lending a touch of relief to the tone of the wood-wind. Uniting
plucked strings and percussion with bowed instruments does not produce
such a satisfactory blend, both qualities being heard independently.
The combination of plucked strings with percussion alone, is
excellent; the two blend perfectly, and the consequent increase in
resonance yields an admirable effect.

The relationship which exists between string harmonics and the flute
or piccolo constitutes a link between the two groups in the upper
range of the orchestra. Moreover, the timbre of the viola may be
vaguely compared to the middle register of the bassoon and the lowest
compass of the clarinet; hence, in the medium orchestral range, a
point of contact is established between the quartet of strings and the
wood-wind.

The bassoon and horn provide the connection between wood-wind and
brass, these two instruments being somewhat analogous in character
when played _piano_ or _mezzo-forte_; the flute also, in its lowest
register, recalls the _pianissimo_ trumpet tone. Stopped and muted
notes in horns and trumpets are similar in quality to the oboe and
Eng. horn, and blend tolerably well with the latter instrument.

Concluding this survey of orchestral groups I add a few remarks which
seem to me of special importance.

The principal part in music is undertaken by three instrumental groups
of sustained resonance, representing the three primary elements,
melody, harmony and rhythm. Instruments of little sustaining power,
though sometimes used independently, are chiefly employed for ornament
and colour; instruments producing indeterminate sounds play no melodic
or harmonic part, their functions being purely rhythmical.

By glancing at the order in which the six orchestral groups are
placed, strings, wood-wind, brass, plucked strings, percussion
producing definite, and those producing indefinite sounds, the reader
will be able to determine the part played by each in the art of
orchestration, from the secondary standpoint of colour and expression.
As regards expression, the strings come first, and the expressive
capacity of the other groups diminishes in the above order, colour
being the only attribute of the last group of percussion instruments.

The same order obtains from the standpoint of general effect in
orchestration. We can listen to strings for an almost indefinite
period of time without getting tired, so varied are their
characteristics (_vide_ the number of string quartets, suites,
serenades etc. written for strings alone). The addition of a single
group of strings will add lustre to a passage for wind instruments. On
the other hand, the quality of wind instruments soon becomes
wearisome; the same may be said of plucked strings, and also
percussion of every kind which should only be employed at reasonable
intervals in orchestral composition.

It cannot be denied that the constant use of compound timbres, in
pair's, in three's etc. eliminates characteristics of tone, and
produces a dull, neutral texture, whereas the employment of simple,
elementary combinations gives infinitely greater scope for variety in
colour.

7 (20) June 1908.



Chapter II.

MELODY.


Whether it be long or short, a simple theme or a melodic phrase,
melody should always stand out in relief from the accompaniment. This
may be done by artificial or natural means; artificially, when the
question of tone quality does not come into consideration, and the
melody is detached by means of strongly accentuated dynamic shades;
naturally, by selection and contrast of timbres, strengthening of
resonance by doubling, tripling, etc., or crossing of parts
(violoncellos above the violas and violins, clarinets or oboes above
the flutes, bassoons above the clarinets etc.).

Melody planned in the upper parts stands out from the very fact of
position alone, and likewise, to a less degree when it is situated in
the low register. In the middle of the orchestral range it is not so
prominent and the methods referred to above come into operation. They
may also be employed for two part melody (in thirds and sixths) and
for polyphonic writing.


Melody in stringed instruments.

Instances of the melodic use of stringed instruments are innumerable.
The reader will find many examples in the present treatise. With the
exception of the double basses,--dull in tone and of little
flexibility, chiefly employed in unison or in octaves with the
violoncellos,--each of the other stringed instruments, taken
independently, is qualified to assume full responsibility for the
melodic line.


a) Violins.

Melody in the soprano-alto register and an extra-high compass usually
falls to the lot of the 1st Violins, sometimes to the 2nd
Violins or to both in unison, a process which produces fuller
resonance without impairing quality of tone.

_Examples:_

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[84]].[C]--_Pianissimo_ melody (Vns I) of a
troubled dramatic character. Harmonic accompaniment (Vns II and
Violas _tremolando_--middle parts; the Violoncellos forming the bass).

[Footnote C: The present volume is divided into two parts, text (pp.
1-152) and musical examples (pp. 1-333). The first page of the second
part lists the standard full-score editions of Rimsky-Korsakov's works
that are referred to throughout the book. These references to specific
passages are always indicated by boxed numbers or boxed letters
corresponding to the ones marking the sub-divisions of the particular
score. On the other hand, references in the text to the 312 musical
examples in the second part of the book are always indicated as "No.
1," "No. 2," etc. Thus, "_The Tsar's Bride_ [[84]]" indicates that the
reader should look at section [[84]] of the score of _The Tsar's
Bride_ as published by Belaieff in Leipzig, the music of which is not
reprinted here; whereas "No. 1. _Shéhérazade_ 2nd movement [[B]]"
indicates that the reader should look at the first musical example in
the second part of the present book, which comes from the section
marked [[B]] in the second movement of the score of _Shéhérazade_ as
published by Belaieff.]

_Antar_, before [[70]].--Descending melodic phrase, Vns I _con
sordini piano_.

No. 1. _Shéhérazade_ 2nd movement [[B]]. A _piano_ melody (Vns
I) graceful in character.

_Antar_ [[12]]. Light graceful melody, oriental in style; a dance
measure (Vns I _con sord._), the mutes producing a dull ethereal
quality of tone.

No. 2. _The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh_ [[283]].

No. 3. _Spanish Capriccio_ [[J]]. Vns I in the upper register
doubling the high register of the wood-wind. Choice resonance.


b) Violas.

Melody in the alto-tenor register and a still higher compass is
assigned to the violas. _Cantabile_ melodies however are not so
frequently written for violas as for violins and 'cellos, partly
because the viola tone is slightly nasal in quality and better fitted
for short characteristic phrases, partly because the number of viola
players in an orchestra is smaller. Melodies confided to the violas
are generally doubled by other strings or by the wood-wind.

_Examples:_

No. 4. _Pan Voyevoda_, duet in Act II [[145]]. A long _cantabile_
melody in the violas, _dolce_, in unison with the _mezzo soprano_
voice.

No. 5. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[193]].--Flowing _cantabile_.

No. 6. _Sadko._ Symphonic tableau [[12]].--Muted violas. A short dance
theme, _piano_ in _D[flat]_ major. (The same theme in Eng. horn in the
6th scene of the opera _Sadko_ is slightly more penetrating in
tone).


c) Violoncellos.

Violoncellos, representing the tenor-bass range + an extra-high
compass are more often entrusted with tense passionate _cantabile_
melody than with distinctive figures or rapid phrases. Such melodies
are usually laid out for the top string (_A_) which possesses a
wonderfully rich "chest" quality.

_Examples:_

_Antar_ [[56]]. _Cantabile_ on the _A_ string.

_Antar_ [[63]]. The same melody in _D[flat]_ maj. on the _D_ string
(doubled by the bassoons).

No. 7. _Pan Voyevoda_ [[134]], nocturne, "Moonlight". A broad melody
_dolce ed espressivo_, afterwards doubled by the first violins an
octave higher.

No. 8. _Snegourotchka_ [[231]]. At the fifth bar, a melody on the _A_
string _cantabile ed espressivo_, imitating the first clarinet.

No. 9. _Snegourotchka_ [[274]]. Melodic phrase with embellishments.


d) Double basses.

Owing to its register--_basso profondo_ + a still lower compass,--and
its muffled resonance, the double bass is little capable of broad
_cantabile_ phrases and only in unison or in octaves with the 'cellos.
In my own compositions there is no phrase of any importance given to
the double bass without the support of 'cellos or bassoons.

_Examples:_

* No. 10. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[306]]. Double bass solo, doubled first
by the double bassoon, later by the bassoon. This example affords an
instance of the rare use of the alto clef (in the last few notes).

* No. 11. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[120]].--D. basses + D. bassoons.


Grouping in unison.

a) Vns I + Vns II.--It goes without saying that this combination
entails no alteration in colour; it gains in power and richness of
tone by reason of the increased number of players, and is usually
attended by doubling of the melody in some departments of the
wood-wind. The large number of violins prevents the wood-wind
predominating, and the tone quality remains that of the string
quartet, enriched and amplified.

_Examples:_

No. 12. _Shéhérazade_, beginning of the third movement. _Cantabile_
for Vns I and II on the _D_ string, then on the _A_.

_The May Night_, overture [[D]]. Quick _piano_ melody, beginning
_cantabile_ and divided later in octaves (Vns I/Vns II] 8) with
florid embellishment.

No. 13. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[170]].--Vns I + II muted.

b) Violins + Violas.--The combination of violins and violas presents
no special characteristics, as in the preceding case. The violins
remain predominant, and the resonance is rich and full.

_Examples:_

No. 14. _Sadko_ [[208]].--Vns I + II + Violas (_G_ string). Quiet
_cantabile_ melody _pp_, in unison with the altos and tenors of the
chorus.

The _Golden Cockerel_ [[142]].--Same combination.

c) Violas + 'Cellos.--Produces a rich full resonance, the 'cello
quality predominating.

_Examples:_

No. 15. _Snegourotchka_ [[5]].--Apparition of Spring. Violas + 'Cellos
+ Eng. horn. The same melody, _mezzo-forte cantabile_ as in Ex. 9; but
in a brighter key, a third higher, its resonance is more brilliant and
tense. The addition of the Eng. horn makes no essential difference to
the compound tone; the 'cellos stand out above the rest.

No. 16. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[71]]. Violas + 'Cellos muted.

d) Violins + 'Cellos.--A combination similar to the preceding one. The
'cello tone prevails and the resonance is fuller.

_Examples:_

No. 17. _Snegourotchka_ [[288]]. "Spring descends upon the lake".
Vns I + Vns II + 'Cellos + Eng. horn. The same _cantabile_ as in
Ex. 9, and 15. The Eng. horn is absorbed in the musical texture, the
principal colour being that of the 'cellos. Still more powerful in
resonance.

No. 18. _The May Night._ Act III [[L]]. Chorus of _Roussâlki_. The
combination of the solo 'cello with the violins gives the latter a
touch of the 'cello timbre.

e) Vns I + II + Violas + 'Cellos.--Combining violins, violas and
'cellos in unison is not possible except in the alto-tenor register;
this process unites the full resonance of the instruments into an
_ensemble_ of complex quality, very tense and powerful in _forte_
passages, extremely full and rich in _piano_.

_Examples:_

No. 19. _Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[P]].--Energetic phrase _ff_.

_Mlada_, Lithuanian dance, before [[36]].

_Mlada_, Act III. [[40]].--Cleopatra's dance. _Cantabile_ embellished
in oriental fashion.

f) Violoncellos + D. basses.--A combination of rich full resonance,
used occasionally for phrases in the very low register.

_Examples:_

No. 20. _Sadko_ [[260]].--A persistent _forte_ figure, severe in
character.

No. 21. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[240]].--A _pianissimo_ phrase, sinister
and horrible in character.


Stringed instruments doubling in octaves.

a) Vns I and Vns II in octaves.

This is a very common process used for all kinds of melodic figures,
in particular those in the very high register. It has already been
stated that the _E_ string diminishes in fulness of tone the higher
it ascends from the limits of the soprano voice. Moreover, melodic
figures in the very high register of the violins become too isolated
from the rest of the _ensemble_ unless doubled in octaves. Such
doubling secures expression, fulness of tone and firmness of timbre.
The reader will find numerous examples of violins in octaves; a few
are added below, chiefly broad and expressive phrases.

_Examples:_

No. 22. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[166]]. _Cantabile, piano._

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[206]]. _Cantabile, mezzo-piano_; the lower part
is in unison with the soprano voice.

_Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[J]]. _Cantabile_ in _G_ major;
_dolce_ and _cantabile_ (the same as Ex. 12).

No. 23. _The Legend of Tsar Saltan_ [[227]]. Melody with reiterated
notes, _dolce, espress. e cantabile_.

_Sadko_, Symphonic tableau [[12]]. Vns I/Vns II] 8 muted. A short
dance phrase _pianissimo_, given first to the violas, then to the
violins (cf. Ex. 6).

No. 24. _Sadko_, opera [[207]]. Perhaps an unique example of its kind;
violins playing in the very extremity of the high register.

     _Note._ This passage is difficult but nevertheless quite
     playable. One or two desks of the 1st Violins are
     sufficient to double the melody in the upper octave, all the
     other 1st Violins can play the octave below. In this way
     the piercing quality of the highest notes will be
     diminished, the melody will acquire a clearer and more
     pleasant sound, and the expressive tone quality of the lower
     octave will be strengthened.

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[156]].

*   "    "       "      [[165]].

* _Antar_, 1st movement [[11]].

* No. 25. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[63]].


b) Violins _divisi_ in octaves.

First and second violins divided in two parts and progressing in
octaves will deprive the melody of resonance, since the number of
players is diminished by half, the consequences being specially
noticeable in small orchestras. Nevertheless the method can be used
occasionally when the strings are doubled by the wood-wind, and when
the melody falls in a sufficiently high register.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[166]].--Vns I/Vns II] 8 _mezzo-forte
espressivo_. Partial doubling of Coupava's song (Sopr.). One flute and
one oboe double the melody.

No. 26. _Snegourotchka_ [[283]].--Chorus of Flowers--2 Vns
soli/Vns I + Fl. I] 8. _Pianissimo cantabile_ in two octaves,
progressing with the women's chorus (Sopr. I), and given out earlier
by the Eng. horn. The flute and all the 1st Violins except two play
in the lower octave, the two solo violins, only, in the upper. The
solo desk will be sufficiently prominent owing to the general
_pianissimo_.


c) Violins and Violas in octaves.

First and second Violins progressing with the Violas in octaves is a
common method, especially when the lower octave in the melody happens
to go below the open _G_ string on the violins.

1. Vns (I or II)/Violas] 8.

_Example:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[137]], finale of Act I. Quick melody, _piano_.

2. Vns I + II/Violas] 8 and 3. Vns I/Vns II + Violas] 8.

These two distributions are not exactly the same. The first should be
used to obtain greater brilliance in the upper part, the second to
give the lower part a fuller and more _cantabile_ quality.

_Examples:_

No. 27. _Sadko_, before [[181]].--Vns I + II/Violas] 8. Quick
animated passage, _forte_, introducing reiterated notes.

No. 28. _Snegourotchka_ [[137]], finale to Act I--Vns I/Vns II +
Violas] 8. _Cantabile_ phrase, transmitted to the flute and clarinet
(cf. Ex. 8).


d) Violas and Violoncellos in octaves.

Of special use when the Violins are otherwise employed.

_Example:_

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[59]], Violas/Cellos] 8, doubled by bassoons.


e) Violins and Violoncellos in octaves.

Used in very expressive passages where the 'cellos have to play on the
_A_ or _D_ strings. This method produces a more resonant tone than the
preceding one; instances of it are frequent.

_Examples:_

No. 29. _Antar_ [[43]].--Vns I + Vns II/'Cellos] 8. _Cantabile_
of Eastern origin.

_Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[H]].--Vns I/'Cellos] 8. _Cantabile
mezzo-forte appassionato_ (cf. Ex. 1).

* No. 30. _Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement, before [[P]]--Vns
I/Vns II + 'Cellos] 8 and Vns I + II/'Cellos] 8. The first
arrangement is rarely found.

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[134]], nocturne "Moonlight"--Vns I/'Cellos] 8.
_Cantabile_ melody given first to 'cellos alone (cf. Ex. 7).

_The May Night_, Act III [[B, C, D]]--Vns I + Vns II/'Cellos] 8.
A _forte_ melodic phrase.


f) Violoncellos and Double basses in octaves.

The bass is usually constructed in this manner. Examples of it are to
be found everywhere. Sometimes the double bass part is simplified in
comparison with the 'cello part.

_Example:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[9]], Fairy Spring's _Aria_.


g) Violas and Double basses in octaves.

This combination seldom arises and is only used when the 'cellos are
otherwise employed.

_Example:_

No. 31. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[223]].


h) Parts progressing in octaves, each part doubled in unison. Melodies
situated in the middle orchestral range may be allotted to 1st and
2nd Vns, in octaves with Violas and 'Cellos. This arrangement is
constantly found, and produces a beautiful quality of tone, somewhat
severe in character.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[58]], [[60]], [[65]] and [[68]]. The same melody,
played twice _pianissimo_, not doubled, then twice (_mezzo-forte_ and
_forte_), doubled in the wood-wind.

_Mlada_, Act II, the beginning of the Lithuanian dance. A lively
_piano_ theme.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[28]].

     _Note I._ It may be of use to point out that melodies lying
     in the extreme upper register, e.g. those exceeding the
     middle of the 5th octave, are generally doubled an octave
     below, whilst those situated in the extreme low register
     (below the middle of the 1st octave) are doubled an
     octave higher.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[207]] (cf. Ex. 24).

     _Note II._ Progression in octaves of divided strings _of the
     same kind_ is generally to be avoided:

     Violas I   'Cellos I   D. basses I  ]
     Violas II, 'Cellos II, D. basses II ] 8,

     for, in such cases the parts are played on strings which do
     not correspond, and unity of tone is impaired. This,
     however, does not apply to violins.

     _Note III._ The following distribution is occasionally
     found:

     Violas    + 'Cellos I  ]
     D. basses + 'Cellos II ] 8.


Melody in double octaves.

a) Vns I] 8/Vns II/Violas] 8 or Vns I] 8/Vns II/'Cellos] 8
may be used for full _cantabile_ melodies extremely tense in
character, and in _forte_ passages for choice.

_Example:_

No. 32. _Antar_ [[65]].--Vns I] 8./Vns II/Violas + 'Cellos] 8.


b) Violas] 8/'Cellos/D. basses] 8 or Vns I + II] 8/Violas +
'Cellos/D. basses] 8 or Vns I + II + Violas] 8/'Cellos/D. basses] 8
are employed when the low register of each instrument is brought into
play, and also to suit phrases of a rough and severe character.

_Examples:_

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[66]], opening of the 2nd Act.

No. 33. _Snegourotchka_ [[215]]. Tumblers' dance.

     _Note._ The lack of balance in the distribution:

     Vns I + II +Violas   ] 8

     'Cellos              ]
     D. basses            ] 8

     is not of any great importance, for, in such cases, the
     partial harmonics of one octave support the tone of the
     other, and _vice versa_.


Doubling in three and four octaves.

The distribution Vns I/Vns II/Violas/'Cellos/D. basses] 8/8/8/8
is very seldom found, and as a rule, only when supported by wind
instruments.

_Examples:_

_The Legend of Kitesh_ [[150]] (_allargando_).

* _Shéhérazade_, 4th movement, commencing at the 10th bar.

Vns I            ]
Vns II           ]
Violas + 'Cellos ] 8.
D. basses        ]


Melody in thirds and sixths.

In confiding a melody in thirds to the strings it is frequently
necessary to use the same quality of tone in both parts, but in the
case of a melody in sixths different timbres may be employed. In
writing thirds doubled in octaves, the first and second violins should
be used. In spite of the difference in the quantity of players, the
thirds will not sound unequal. The same arrangement may obtain in the
viola and 'cello groups, but it is useless in the case of melody in
sixths.

_Examples:_

* No. 34. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[34]]--Vns I _div._) 3/Vns II
_div._) 3] 8.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[39]]--Vns I/Violas] 6.

Cf. also _Legend of Kitesh_ [[223]]: Vns I/Vns II} 3/Vns
I/Vns II} 3] 8 (Ex. 31).

Distribution in octaves, thirds, and sixths is usually regulated by
the normal register of the respective instruments, so as to avoid any
suggestion of mannerism resulting from the disturbance of balance. But
such a departure from the recognised order may be permitted in special
cases. For instance, in the following example of writing in sixths the
upper part is allotted to the 'cellos, the lower part to the violins
on the _G_ string; this arrangement produces a quality of tone
distinctly original in character.

_Example:_

No. 35. _Spanish Capriccio_ [[D]]--'Cellos/Vns I + II] 6.


Melody in the wood-wind.

* The choice of instruments for characteristic and expressive melody
is based on their distinctive qualities, discussed minutely in the
foregoing chapter. To a large extent the question is left to the
orchestrator's own personal taste. Only the best methods of using the
wood-wind in unison or octaves, and distributing a melody in thirds,
sixths and mixed intervals, from the standpoint of resonance and tone
quality will be indicated in this section of the work. Examples of the
use of solo wood-wind are to be found in any score; the following are
typical instances:

_Examples of solo wood-wind:_

1. _Piccolo: Serbian Fantasia_ [[C]]; No. 36. _Tsar Saltan_ [[216]];
_Snegourotchka_ [[54]].

2. _Flute: Antar_ [[4]]; _Servilia_ [[80]]; _Snegourotchka_ [[79]],
[[183]]; _A Fairy Tale_ [[L]]; _The Christmas Night_ [[163]]; No. 37.
_Shéhérazade_, 4th movement, before [[A]] (_Fl. à 2_ in the low
register).

_Flute_ (double tonguing): _Pan Voyevoda_ [[72]]; _Shéhérazade_,
4th movement, after [[V]]; No. 38. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act III,
after [[10]].

3. _Bass flute_: No. 39. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[44]].

4. _Oboe_: No. 40. _Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[A]]; _The May
Night_, Act III [[Kk]]; No. 41. _Snegourotchka_ [[50]];
_Snegourotchka_ [[112]], [[239]]; _The Tsar's Bride_ [[108]] (cf. Ex.
284), No. 42 and 43. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[57]] and [[97]].

5. _Eng. horn: Snegourotchka_ [[97]], [[283]] (cf. Ex. 26); No. 44.
_Spanish Capriccio_ [[E]]; No. 45. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[61]].

6. _Small Clarinet_: No. 46. _Mlada_, Act II [[33]]; _Mlada_, Act III
[[37]].

7. _Clarinet: Serbian Fantasia_ [[G]]; _Spanish Capriccio_ [[A]];
_Snegourotchka_ [[90]], [[99]], [[224]], [[227]], [[231]] (cf. Ex. 8);
_The May Night_, Act I, before [[X]]; _Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement
[[D]]; _A Fairy Tale_ [[M]]; _The Tsar's Bride_ [[50]], [[203]]; _The
Golden Cockerel_ [[97]] (lowest register, cf. Ex. 43).

8. _Bass clarinet_: No. 47 and 48. _Snegourotchka_ [[243]] and
[[246-247]].

9. _Bassoon: Antar_ [[59]]; No. 49. _Vera Scheloga_ [[36]];
_Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement, beginning (cf. Ex. 40); No. 50. _The
Golden Cockerel_ [[249]]; No. 51. _Mlada_, Act III, after [[29]]; cf.
also Ex. 78.

10. _Double bassoon: Legend of Kitesh_, before [[84]], [[289]]; cf.
also Ex. 10 (D. bassoon + D. bass solo).

The normal order of wood-wind instruments and that which produces the
most natural resonance is the following: _Flutes_, _Oboes_,
_Clarinets_, _Bassoons_ (the order used in orchestral full scores).
Departure from this natural order, e.g. placing bassoons above
clarinets and oboes, or flutes below oboes and clarinets, and
especially below the bassoons, creates a far-fetched, unnatural tone,
useful, however, in certain cases to attain certain special effects. I
do not advise the student to make too free a use of this proceeding.


Combination in unison.

The combination of two different wood-wind instruments in unison
yields the following tone qualities:

a) _Flute + Oboe._ A quality fuller than that of the flute, sweeter
than that of the oboe. Played softly, the flute will predominate in
the low, the oboe in the upper register. Example: No. 52.
_Snegourotchka_ [[113]].

b) _Flute + Clarinet._ A quality fuller than that of the flute, duller
than that of the clarinet. The flute will predominate in the lower,
the clarinet in the higher register. Examples: No. 53. _Legend of
Kitesh_ [[330]]; also [[339]] and [[342]].

c) _Oboe + Clarinet._ A fuller quality than that of either instrument
heard separately. The dark, nasal tone of the oboe will prevail in the
low register, the bright, "chest" quality of the clarinet in the high
compass. Examples: _Snegourotchka_ [[19]]; No. 54. _Snegourotchka_
[[115]]. Cf. also _Legend of Kitesh_ [[68]], [[70]], [[84]]--2 Ob. + 3
Cl. (Ex. 199-201).

d) _Flute + Oboe + Clarinet._ Very full in quality. The flute
predominates in the low register, the oboe in the middle, and the
clarinet in the high compass. Examples: _Mlada_, Act I [[1]]; *
_Sadko_ [[58]] (2 Fl. + 2 Ob. + Small Cl.).

e) _Bassoon + Clarinet._ Very full quality. The gloomy character of
the clarinet prevails in the lower register, the sickly quality of the
bassoon in the higher. Example: _Mlada_, Act II, after [[49]].

f) _Bassoon + Oboe_, and

g) _Bassoon + Flute._

The combinations _f_ and _g_, as well as _Bassoon + Clarinet + Oboe_,
and _Bassoon + Clarinet + Flute_ are very seldom found except in
certain orchestral _tutti_, where they produce increased resonance
without creating a fresh atmosphere. But in such combinations, the
range of which is practically restricted to the limits of the third
octave, the low notes of the flute will predominate in the lower third
of this register, and the high notes of the bassoon in the middle
third. The clarinet, weak in the middle compass will not stand out
prominently in this particular combination.

h) _Bassoon + Clarinet + Oboe + Flute._ This combination is equally
rare. The colour is rich, and difficult to define in words. The tone
of each instrument will be separated from the others more or less in
the manner detailed above. Examples: _Russian Easter Fête_, the
beginning; No. 55. _Snegourotchka_ [[301]]; _The May Night_, Act III
[[Qqq]].

The process of combining two or more qualities of tone in unison,
while endowing the music with greater resonance, sweetness and power,
possesses the disadvantage of restricting the variety of colour and
expression. Individual timbres lose their characteristics when
associated with others. Hence such combinations should be handled with
extreme care. Phrases or melodies demanding diversity of expression
alone should be entrusted to solo instruments of simple timbres. The
same applies to the coupling of two instruments of the same kind, such
as 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons. The quality of tone
will lose nothing of its individuality, and will gain in power, but
its capacity for expression will be diminished accordingly. An
instrument enjoys greater independence and freedom when used as a solo
than when it is doubled. The use of doubling and mixed timbres is
naturally more frequent in loud passages than in soft ones, also where
expression and colour is broad rather than individual or intimate in
character.

     I cannot refrain from mentioning how greatly I dislike the
     method of duplicating all the wood-wind, in order to balance
     a group of strings, reinforced out of all reason, to suit
     the ever-growing dimensions of concert halls. I am convinced
     that, artistically speaking, a limit should be set to the
     size of both concert room and orchestra. The music performed
     at these super-concerts must be specially composed on a plan
     of its own--a subject which cannot be considered here.


Combination in octaves.

When the melody is entrusted to two wood-wind instruments in octaves,
the usual arrangement producing natural resonance is:

8 [Fl. Fl. Fl. Ob. Ob. Cl.
  [Ob. Cl. Fag. Cl. Fag. Fag.] 8.

The combination of flute and bassoon in octaves is rare on account of
the widely separated registers of the two instruments. Deviation from
the natural order, such as placing the bassoon above the clarinet or
oboe, the clarinet above the oboe or flute etc., creates an unnatural
resonance occasioned by the confusion of registers, the instrument of
lower compass playing in its high register and _vice versa_. The lack
of proper relationship between the different tone qualities then
becomes apparent.

_Examples:_

No. 56. _Spanish Capriccio_ [[O]]--Fl./Ob.] 8.

No. 57. _Snegourotchka_ [[254]]--Fl./Eng. horn] 8.

* No. 58. _Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[E]]--Fl./Cl.] 8.

_Sadko_ [[195]]--Fl./Eng. horn] 8.

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[132]]--Fl./Cl.] 8.

_Tsar Saltan_ [[39]]--Cl./Fag.] 8.

No. 59. _Vera Scheloga_ [[30]]--Cl./Fag.] 8, likewise any number of
examples in the scores of various composers.

The use of two instruments of the same colour in octaves, e.g. 2
flutes, 2 clarinets or 2 bassoons etc., if not exactly to be avoided
is certainly not to be recommended, as the instruments, playing in
different registers will not correspond one with the other.
Nevertheless this method may be safely employed when stringed
instruments, _arco_ or _pizzicato_ double the two members of the
wood-wind, and especially in the middle compass. The process is most
satisfactory for repeated notes or sustained passages.

_Examples:_

_The May Night_, Act I [[T]]--Cl. I/Cl. II] 8.

* _Sadko_, after [[159]]--Ob. I/Ob. II] 3, doubled by _pizz._ strings.

* _Servilia_, after [[21]]--Fag. I/Fag. II] 8 + _pizz._ strings.

Instruments of the same branch playing in octaves, e.g.

8 [Fag.    Cl.       Ob.       Small cl. Flute    Picc.]
  [C-Fag.  Cl. basso Eng. horn Clar.     Alto Fl. Fl.  ] 8

always produce a good effect.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[5]]--Picc./Fl.] 8 (cf. Ex. 15).

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[133]]--Picc./Fl.] 8.

_Tsar Saltan_ [[216]]--Picc./Fl.] 8 (cf. Ex. 36).

_Sadko_, after [[59]] Small cl./Cl.] 8.

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[240]]--Fag./C-Fag.] 8 (cf. Ex. 21).

No 60. _Mlada_, Act III, before [[44]]--Ob./Eng. horn] 8.

As in the strings, so in the wood-wind it is advisable to double in
octaves any melody situated in the extremely high or low compass; an
octave lower in the first case, an octave higher in the second. Thus
the piccolo will be doubled by the flute, oboe or clarinet an octave
lower; the double bassoon will be doubled by bassoon, clarinet or bass
clarinet an octave higher.

8 [Picc. Picc. Picc.]
  [Fl.   Ob.   Cl.  ] 8.

8 [Fag.   Bass cl. Cl.  Cl.      Fag. Fag.    ]
  [C-Fag. Fag.     Fag. Bass cl. Fag. Bass cl.] 8.

_Examples:_

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[39]]--Picc./Ob.] 8.

* No. 61. _Mlada_, Act II, Lithuanian dance [[32]]--Picc./Small cl.]
8.

_Sadko_ [[150]]--Picc./Small cl.] 8.

* Mixed qualities of tone may be employed in doubling in octaves, the
above remarks still holding good.

_Examples:_

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[134]]--Cl. + Ob./Cl. + Eng. horn] 8 (cf. Ex. 7).

No. 62. _Servilia_ [[168]]--2 Fl. + Ob./2 Cl. + Eng. horn] 8.

No. 63. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[120]]--3 Fl. + Ob./2 Cl. + Fag. + Eng.
horn] 8.

_Mlada_, Act III [[41]]--Fl. + Bass fl./Cl. + Bass cl.] 8.


Doubling in two, three and four octaves.

In such cases the student should follow the above-mentioned rules, and
should take care not to infringe the natural order:

              Fl. Ob. Fl. Fl.   ] 8
In 3 octaves: Ob. Cl. Cl. Ob.   ]
              Cl. Fag. Fag. Fag.] 8.



              Fl. ] 8
In 4 octaves: Ob. ]
              Cl. ] 8
              Fag.] 8.

Mixed timbres may also be employed.

_Examples:_

No. 64. _Spanish Capriccio_ [[P]]--melody in 4 octaves:
Picc./2 Fl./2 Ob. + Cl./Fag.] 8/8/8.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[141]]--melody in 3 octaves.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[212]]--2 Cl./Bass cl./D. bassoon] 8/8.

* No. 65. _Antar_, (1st version) 3rd movement, the
beginning--Picc. + 2 Fl./2 Ob. + 2 Cl./2 Fag.] 8/8; also [[C]], melody
in 4 octaves (piccolo in the upper octaves).

* _Mlada_, Act III, after [[42]]--Fl./Ob./Eng. horn] 8/8.

No. 66. _Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[G]]--Picc./Cl. I/Cl. II] 8/8.

Examples of melody doubled in five octaves are extremely rare; in such
cases the strings participate in the process.


Melody in thirds and sixths.

Melodic progression in thirds and sixths demands either two
instruments of the same colour (2 Fl., 2 Ob., 2 Cl., 2 Fag.), or
instruments of different colours in the normal order of register:

Fl. Fl. Ob. Cl.  Ob. ]
Ob. Cl. Cl. Fag. Fag.] 3 (6).

If this order is inverted, e.g. Ob. Cl. Fag./Fl. Fl. Cl.] 3 (6), a
strained and forced resonance is created. For progressions in thirds,
the best method, from the standpoint of equality in tone is to use
instruments of the same kind in pairs; for progressions in sixths
instruments of different kinds are more suitable, but both courses are
good and useful. They may also be employed for progressions in thirds
and sixths, or thirds, fifths and sixths mixed, as for example:

[Music]

_Examples:_

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[24]]--different wind instruments in turn.

_The May Night_, Act III [[G]]--Cl./Cl.] 3.

_Sadko_ [[279-280]]--Fl./Fl.] 3 (6).

No. 67. _Spanish Capriccio_, before [[V]]--various wood-wind in thirds
and sixths.

_Servilia_ [[228]]--Fl./Fl.] 3 and Cl./Cl.] 3.

_The Golden Cockerel_ [[232]]--2 Fl./2 Ob.] 6.

* _Sadko_ [[43]]--All wood-wind in turn, simple timbres.

When the doubled parts progress in thirds or sixths, the following
method is advisable:

Fl. + Ob. ]          Fl. + Cl.
Fl. + Ob. ] 3 (6) or Fl. + Cl. ] 3 (6) etc., as well as:

Fl. + Ob. ]          Ob. + Fl. ]
Fl. + Cl. ] 3 (6) or Fl. + Cl. ] 3 (6) etc.

In the case of tripling the following arrangement may be adopted:

Fl. + Ob. + Cl. ]          Ob. + 2 Fl. ]
Fl. + Ob. + Cl. ] 3 (6) or Ob. + 2 Cl. ] 3 (6) etc.

_Examples:_

* No. 68. _The Christmas Night_ [[187]]--Ob. + Cl./Ob. + Cl.] 3.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[202-203]] different mixed timbres.


Thirds and sixths together.

[Music]

Apart from the obvious distribution:

Fl.    Ob.
Ob. or Cl.,
Cl.    Fag.

there are certain complicated methods which involve doubling:

Upper part.  Ob. + Fl.
Middle  "    Fl. + Cl.
Lower   "    Ob. + Cl.

The following is a complex instance somewhat vague in character:

No. 69. Legend of Kitesh [[35]]--Ob./Ob./Cl. + Cl. and Fl./Fl./Ob. +
Ob.


Melody in the brass.

The natural scale, the only one which brass instruments had at their
disposal prior to the invention of valves was:

[Music]

giving, in two part harmony:

[Music]

With the help of rhythm, these component parts have given rise to a
whole series of themes and phrases named fanfares, trumpet calls or
flourishes, best adapted to the character of brass instruments.

In modern music, thanks to the introduction of valves, this scale is
now possible in all keys for every chromatic brass instrument, without
it being necessary to change the key, and the addition of a few notes
foreign to the natural scale has enriched the possibilities of these
flourishes and fanfares, and endowed them with greater variety of
expression.

These phrases, either as solos, or in two or three parts, fall
specially to the lot of the trumpets and horns, but they may also be
given to the trombones. The full, clear, ringing notes of the middle
and upper register of horns and trumpets are best suited to figures of
this description.

_Examples:_

_Servilia_ [[20]]--Trumpets.

_The Christmas Night_ [[182]]--Horn, Trumpets.

_Vera Scheloga_, beginning of Overture, and after [[45]]--Horn,
Trumpets.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[3]]--Cornet.

_Snegourotchka_ [[155]]--Trumpets.

No. 70. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[65]] and elsewhere.--3 Trumpets, 4 Horns.

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[191]]--2 Trombones, Trumpet.

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[20]]--2 Horns and Trumpets/Horns] 8 (cf.
further on).

After fanfare figures, those melodies best suited to the brass quality
are those of an unmodulated diatonic character, rousing and triumphant
in the major key, dark and gloomy in the minor.

_Examples:_

No. 71. _Sadko_ [[342]]--Trumpet.

_Sadko_, before [[181]]--Trombones (cf. Ex. 27).

No. 72. _Snegourotchka_ [[71]]--Trumpet.

_Russian Easter Fête_ [[M]]--Trombone.

_Spanish Capriccio_ [[E]]--Alternative use in the horn of open and
stopped notes (cf. Ex. 44).

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act II, before [[17]]--Bass trumpet, and 3 Horns
a little further on.

_Mlada_, Act II [[33]]--Bass trumpet (cf. Ex. 46).

The genial and poetic tone of the horn in _piano_ passages affords
greater scope in the choice of melodies and phrases that may be
entrusted to this instrument.

_Examples:_

_The May Night_, Overture [[13]].

_The Christmas Night_ [[1]].

_Snegourotchka_ [[86]].

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[37]].

No. 73. _Antar_ [[40]].

Melodies involving chromatic or enharmonic writing are much less
suitable to the character of brass instruments. Nevertheless such
melodies may sometimes be allotted to the brass, as in the music of
Wagner, and the modern Italian realists, who, however, carry the
proceeding to extremes. Vigourous phrases in the form of a fanfare,
although introducing chromatic notes sound singularly beautiful on the
brass.

_Example:_

No. 74. _Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[D]].

As a general rule, brass instruments lack the capacity to express
passion or geniality. Phrases charged with these sentiments become
sickly and insipid when confided to the brass. Energetic power, free
or restrained, simplicity and eloquence constitute the valuable
qualities of this group.


Brass in unison, in octaves, thirds and sixths.

As, from its very nature, the brass is not called upon to realise a
wide range of expression, kindred instruments of one group may be
employed _solo_, as well as in unison. The combination of 3 trombones
or 4 horns in unison is frequently met with, and produces extreme
power and resonance of tone.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[5]]--4 Horns (cf. Ex. 15).

_Snegourotchka_ [[199]]--4 Horns and 2 Trumpets.

_Sadko_ [[175]]--1, 2, 3 Trumpets.

No. 75. _Sadko_ [[305]][13]--3 Trombones.

[Footnote 13: The composer has emended the score in the following
manner: from the fifth to the ninth bar after [[305]], and also from
the fifth to the ninth bar after [[306]], the three clarinets play in
unison, the trumpet being marked _forte_ instead of _fortissimo_; in
the example, the first of these passages is corrected according to the
composer's alteration. (Editor's note.)]

No. 76. _The May Night_, beginning of Act III--1, 2, 3, 4 Horns.

_Legend of Kitesh_, end of Act I--4 Horns (cf. Ex. 70).

No. 77. _Shéhérazade_, 4th movement p. 204--3 Trombones.

_Mlada_; Lithuanian dance--6 Horns (cf. Ex. 61).

Owing to the resonant power of the entire group, the equality and even
gradation of tone between the dark colour of the deep compass and the
bright quality of the upper register, the use of brass instruments of
the same kind in octaves, thirds or sixths invariably leads to
satisfactory results. For the same reason the employment of brass
instruments of different kinds, arranged according to normal order of
register:

Trumpet  Trumpet   Trombone  2 Trombones      2 Trumpets   2 Horns
2 Horns  Trombone  Tuba      Trombone + Tuba  2 Trombones  Tuba

is likewise successful whether the instruments are doubled or not.
Another possible method, though not so reliable, is to combine horns
(above) with trombones, exclusively in octaves:

2 Horns   ]      4 Horns    ]
1 Trombone] 8 or 2 Trombones] 8.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_, before [[120]]--Trumpet/Trumpet] 8.

_Sadko_ [[5]]--2 Trumpets/4 Horns] 8.

_Snegourotchka_ [[222]]--2 Trombones/Trombone + Tuba] 8.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[10]] 1 Trombone + Trumpet/2 Trombones]
8 (cf. Ex. 38)

_The Golden Cockerel_ [[125]]--Trumpet/Trombone] 8.

Cf. also _Snegourotchka_ [[325-326]]--Trombone/Trombone] 8 (Ex. 95).


Melody in different groups of instruments combined together.

A. Combination of wind and brass in unison.

The combination of a wood-wind and brass instrument produces a complex
resonance in which the tone of the brass predominates. This resonance
is naturally more powerful than that of each instrument taken
separately, but slightly sweeter than the brass instrument alone. The
tone of the wood-wind blends with that of the brass, softens and
rarefies it, as in the process of combining two wood-wind instruments
of different colour. Instances of such doubling are fairly numerous,
especially in _forte_ passages. The trumpet is the instrument most
frequently doubled: Trumpet + Cl., Trumpet + Ob., Trumpet + Fl., as
well as Trumpet + Cl. + Ob. + Fl.; the horn, less often: Horn + Cl.,
Horn + Fag. Trombones and Tuba may also be doubled: Trombone + Fag.,
Tuba + Fag. Combining the Eng. horn, bass clarinet and double bassoon
with the brass, in corresponding registers, presents the same
characteristics.

_Examples:_

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[56]]--Trombone + Eng. horn.

* _Mlada_, Act III, before [[34]]--3 Trombones + Bass cl.

As a rule, the addition of a wind to a brass instrument yields a finer
legato effect than when the latter instrument plays alone.


B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves.

Doubling the horns in octaves by clarinets, oboes or flutes often
replaces the combination

1 Trumpet           ]
1 Horn (or 2 Horns) ] 8.

This is done when it is a question of introducing a rich tone into the
upper octave which the trumpet is not capable of imparting. If a
single horn is used, the upper part is allotted to 2 clarinets, 2
oboes, or 2 flutes. But if there are two horns playing the lower
octave in unison, three or four wind instruments will be necessary
above, especially in _forte_ passages:

8 [2 Ob. or 2 Cl. or 2 Fl.
  [1 Horn

as well as

1 Ob. + 1 Cl.]    2 Fl. + 2 Cl.]
1 Horn       ] 8; 2 Horns      ] 8.

To double a trumpet in the upper octave three or four wind instruments
are required, but in the top register two flutes will suffice.

[Music] [Music]

Wood-wind instruments should not be used to double a trombone in the
octave above; trumpets are more suitable.


Examples of doubling in octaves:

* _Snegourotchka_ [[71]]--Ob. + Cl./Horn] 8.

* _Legend of Tsar Saltan_, before [[180]]--Ob. + Cl./Ob. + Cl.]
6/Horn/Horn] 6] 8.

* Mention should also be made of mixed timbres (wood and brass) in
progression in octaves.

_Examples:_

_Mlada_, Act III, beginning of Scene III--Trombone + Bass cl./Tuba +
C-fag.] 8.

No. 78. _Mlada_, Act III after [[25]]--2 Cl. + 2 Horns + Trombone/Bass
cl. + 2 Horns + Trombone] 8 (low register).

No. 79. _Mlada_, Act III, before [[35]]--general unison.

When it is desired to distribute the melody over three or four
octaves, it is difficult to achieve perfect balance of tone.

_Examples:_

* _Shéhérazade_, 4th movement, 15th bar after [[W]]--Picc./2 Fl.
+ 2 Ob./2 Trumpets] 8/8.

* _Legend of Tsar Saltan_ [[228]]--Picc./2 Fl. + 2 Ob./Trumpet + Eng.
horn] 8/8.


C. Combination of strings and wind.

In commencing this section of the work I consider it necessary to lay
down the following fundamental rules which apply equally to melody,
harmony, counterpoint and polyphonic writing.

All combinations of strings and wood-wind are good; a wind instrument
progressing in unison with a stringed instrument increases the
resonance of the latter and amplifies its tone, while the quality of
the strings softens that of the wood-wind. In such combinations the
strings will predominate provided that the two instruments are of
equal power, e.g. when violins are coupled with an oboe, a bassoon
with the 'cellos. If several wind instruments play in unison with one
group of strings, the latter will be overpowered. As a rule all
combinations refine the characteristics of each instrument taken
separately, the wood-wind losing more than the strings.


_Doubling in unison._

The best and most natural combinations are between instruments whose
registers correspond the nearest:

Vns + Fl. (Bass fl., picc.), Vns + Ob., Vns + Cl. (small Cl.);
Violas + Ob. (Eng. horn), Violas + Cl., Violas + Fag.
'Cellos + Cl. (Bass cl.), 'Cellos + Fag.;
D. basses + Bass cl., D. basses + Fag.; D. basses + C-fag.

The object of these combinations is: a) to obtain a new timbre of
definite colour; b) to strengthen the resonance of the strings; c) to
soften the quality of the wood-wind.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[5]]--'Cellos + Violas + Eng. horn (cf. Ex. 15).

      "         [[28]]--Violas + Ob. + Eng. horn.

      "         [[116]]--Vns I + II + Ob. + Cl.

      "         [[288]]--Vns I + II + 'Cellos + Eng. horn (cf. Ex. 17).

No. 80. _The May Night_, Act III [[Bb]]--Violas + Cl.

No. 81. _Sadko_ [[311]]--Vns + Ob.

No. 82.    "    [[77]]--Violas + Eng. horn.

No. 83.    "    [[123]]--Violas + Eng. horn.

_Servilia_ [[59]]--Vns _G_ string + Fl.

_Tsar Saltan_ [[30]]--Vns I + II + 2 Cl.

No. 84. _Tsar Saltan_ [[30]], 10th bar.--'Cellos + Violas + 3 Cl. +
Fag.

_Tsar Saltan_ [[156-159]]--Vns detached + Fl. _legato_.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[10]] Violas + 'Cellos + Fag.

_Antar_, 4th movement [[63]]--'Cellos + 2 Fag.

_Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[H]]--Violas + Ob. + Eng. horn.


_Parts doubled in octaves._

Examples of strings in octaves doubled by wood-wind also in octaves
are numerous, and do not require special description; they are used
according to the rules already laid down. The following are examples
of melody distributed over 1, 2, 3 and 4 octaves:

_Examples:_

No. 85. _Ivan the Terrible_, beginning of Overture--Vns I + II + 2
Cl./Violas + 'Cellos + 2 Fag.] 8.

No. 86. _Sadko_ [[3]]--'Cellos + Bass cl./D. basses + C-fag.] 8.

_Sadko_ [[166]]--'Cellos + Fag./D. basses + C-fag.] 8.

   "    [[235]]--Violas + 2 Cl./'Cellos + D. basses + 2 Fag.] 8.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[14]]--'Cellos + Fag./D. basses + Fag.] 8.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[81]]--Vns I/Vns II div. + Fl./+ Ob.] 8.

  "    "      "    [[166]]--Vns I + Fl./Vns II + Ob.] 8 (cf. Ex. 22).

In three and four octaves:

_Servilia_ [[93]]--Vns + 3 Fl./Violas + 2 Ob./'Cellos + 2 Fag.]
8/8.

No. 87. _Kashtcheï_ [[105]]--Vns I + Picc./Vns II + Fl. +
Ob./Violas + 'Cellos + 2 Cl. + Eng. horn + Fag.] 8/8.

_Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[M]]--Vns I + Fl./Vns II +
Ob./'Cellos + Engl. horn] 8/8.


_Examples of melody in thirds and sixths:_

_Servilia_ [[44]]--Fl. + Ob. + Cl. + Vns/Fl. + Ob. + Cl. + Vns
div.] 3.

No. 88. _Servilia_ [[111]]--Strings and wood-wind in thirds.

No. 89.     "      [[125]]--same combination, in thirds and sixths.

_Kashtcheï_ [[90]]--The same.

It is necessary to pay more attention to cases where, of the two parts
in octaves, only one is doubled. When this method is applied to a
melody in the soprano register it is better to allow the wood-wind to
progress in octaves, the lower part only being doubled by one of the
string groups; Picc./Fl. + Vns] 8. Fl./Ob. (Cl.) + Vns] 8.

_Examples:_

_Tsar Saltan_ [[102]]--2 Fl. + Picc./Vns I + II + Ob.] 8 (cf. Ex.
133).

* No. 90. _Shéhérazade_, 4th movement [[U]]--2 Cl./'Cellos + 2
Horns] 8.

In the case of a melody in the low register demanding a sweet soft
tone, the violoncellos and double basses should be made to progress in
octaves, the former doubled by a bassoon, the latter not doubled at
all: 'Cellos + Fag./D. basses] 8. Sometimes a composer is obliged to
use this method on account of the very low register of the double
bass, especially if a double bassoon is not included in his orchestral
scheme.[14]

[Footnote 14: The process of doubling strings and wood-wind in
octaves: Fl./Vns] 8, Ob./'Cellos] 8, etc. often used by the
classics to obtain balance of tone, is not to be recommended, as the
tone quality of the two groups is so widely different. As a result of
the ever-increasing tendency to profusion of colour, this method has
recently come into fashion again, notably among the younger French
composers. (Editor's note.)]

_Example:_

No. 91. _Tsar Saltan_ [[92]]--Violas + Fag./'Cellos + Fag./D. basses]
8/8.


D. Combination of strings and brass.

Owing to the dissimilarity between the quality of string and brass
tone, the combination of these two groups in unison can never yield
such a perfect blend as that produced by the union of strings and
wood-wind. When a brass and a stringed instrument progress in unison,
each can be heard separately, but the instruments in each group which
can be combined with the greatest amount of success are those whose
respective registers correspond the most nearly; Violin + Trumpet;
Viola + Horn; 'Cellos/D. basses + Trombones/Tuba (for heavy massive
effects).

The combination of horns and 'cellos, frequently employed, produces a
beautifully blended, soft quality of tone.

_Examples:_

_Tsar Saltan_ [[29]]--Vns I + II + Horn.

* No. 92. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[98]]--Violas _con sord._ + Horn.


E. Combination of the three groups.

The combination of members of the three groups in unison is more
common, the presence of the wood-wind imparting a fuller and more
evenly blended tone. The question as to which group will predominate
in timbre depends upon the number of instruments employed. The most
natural combinations, and those most generally in use are: Vns +
Ob. (Fr., Cl.) + Trumpet; Violas (or 'Cellos) + Cl. (Eng. horn) +
Horn; 'Cellos/D. basses + 2 Fag. + 3 Trombones + Tuba.

Such groupings are used for preference in loud passages or for a heavy
_piano_ effect.

_Examples:_

No. 93-94. _Snegourotchka_ [[218]] and [[219]]--Vns I + II + Cl. +
Horn and Vns I + II + Cl. + Trumpet.

_Servilia_ [[168]]--Violas + Trombones/'Cellos + Trombone + Bass
Cl./D. basses + Tuba + Fag.] 8/8 (cf. Ex. 62).

No. 95. _Snegourotchka_ [[325]]--'Cellos + Violas + Fag. + Trombone/D.
basses + Fag. + Tuba] 8.

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[224]]--Vns + Fag. + Horn + Vn. + Cl. + Trumpet.
(Stopped notes in the brass.)

* _Mlada_, Act III, after [[23]]--Violas + 2 Cl. + Bass trumpet.

* No. 96. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act III, before [[66]]--Bass Cl. + Horn
/D. basses + C-fag. + Tuba] 8.

* _Ivan the Terrible_, Overture, 4th bar after [[9]]--Violas +
'Cellos + Eng. horn + 2 Cl. + Bass Cl. + 2 Fag. + 4 Horns. (The melody
simplified in the horns.)



Chapter III.

HARMONY.


General observations.

The art of orchestration demands a beautiful and well-balanced
distribution of chords forming the harmonic texture. Moreover,
transparence, accuracy and purity in the movement of each part are
essential conditions if satisfactory resonance is to be obtained. No
perfection in resonance can accrue from faulty progression of parts.

     _Note._ There are people who consider orchestration simply
     as the art of selecting instruments and tone qualities,
     believing that if an orchestral score does not sound well,
     it is entirely due to the choice of instruments and timbres.
     But unsatisfactory resonance is often solely the outcome of
     faulty handling of parts, and such a composition will
     continue to sound badly whatever choice of instruments is
     made. So, on the other hand, it often happens that a passage
     in which the chords are properly distributed, and the
     progression of parts correctly handled, will sound equally
     well if played by strings, wood-wind or brass.

The composer should picture to himself the exact harmonic formation of
the piece he intends to orchestrate. If, in his rough sketch, there
exist any uncertainly as to the number or movement of harmonic parts,
he is advised to settle this at once. It is likewise essential for him
to form a clear idea as to the construction and musical elements of
the piece, and to realise the exact nature and limitations of the
themes, phrases and ideas he is going to employ. Every transition from
one order of harmonic writing to another, from four-part harmony to
three, or from five-part harmony to unison etc., must coincide with
the introduction of a new idea, a fresh theme or phrase; otherwise the
orchestrator will encounter many unforeseen and insurmountable
difficulties. For example, if, during a passage written in four parts
a chord in five-part harmony is introduced, a fresh instrument must
needs be added to play this particular fifth part, and this addition
may easily damage the resonance of the chord in question, and render
the resolution of a discord or the correct progression of parts
impossible.


Number of harmonic parts--Duplication.

In the very large majority of cases harmony is written in four parts;
this applies not only to single chords or a succession of them, but
also to the formation of the harmonic basis. Harmony which at first
sight appears to comprise 5, 6, 7 and 8 parts, is usually only four
part harmony with extra parts added. These additions are nothing more
than the duplication in the adjacent upper octave of one or more of
the three upper parts forming the original harmony, the bass being
doubled in the lower octave only. The following diagrams will explain
my meaning:

[Music: _A. Close part-writing._

Four part harmony.
Duplication of 1 part.
Duplication of 2 parts.
Duplication of 3 parts.]

[Music: _B. Widely-divided part-writing._

Four part harmony.
Duplication of 1 part.
Duplication of 2 parts.]

     _Note._ In widely-spaced harmony only the soprano and alto
     parts may be doubled in octaves. Duplicating the tenor part
     is to be avoided, as close writing is thereby produced, and
     doubling the bass part creates an effect of heaviness. The
     bass part should never mix with the others:

     Bad: [Music]

On account of the distance between the bass and the three other parts,
only partial duplication is possible.

Good: [Music]

     _Note._ Notes in unison resulting from correct duplication
     need not be avoided, for although the tone in such cases is
     not absolutely uniform, the ear will be satisfied with the
     correct progression of parts.

Consecutive octaves between the upper parts are not permissible:

Bad: [Music]

Consecutive fifths resulting from the duplication of the three upper
parts moving in chords of sixths are of no importance:

Good: [Music]

The bass of an inversion of the dominant chord should never be doubled
in any of the upper parts:

Good: [Music] Bad: [Music]

This applies also to other chords of the seventh and diminished
seventh:

Bad: [Music] Good: [Music]

The rules of harmony concerning sustained and pedal passages apply
with equal force to orchestral writing. As regards passing and
auxiliary notes, _échappées_, considerable licence is permitted in
rapid passages of different texture:

One texture: [Music]

A different one: [Music]

One texture: [Music]

A different one: [Music]

A certain figure and its essentials, in simplified form, may proceed
concurrently, as in the following example:

One texture: [Music]

A different one: [Music]

A third: [Music]

Upper and inner pedal notes are more effective on the orchestra than
in pianoforte or chamber music, owing to the greater variety of tone
colour:

[Music]

In Vol. II of the present work many examples of the above methods will
be found.


Distribution of notes in chords.

The normal order of sounds or the natural harmonic scale:

[Music]

may serve as a guide to the orchestral arrangement of chords. It will
be seen that the widely-spaced intervals lie in the lower part of the
scale, gradually becoming closer as the upper register is approached:

[Music]

The bass should rarely lie at a greater distance than an octave from
the part directly above it (tenor harmony). It is necessary to make
sure that the harmonic notes are not lacking in the upper parts:

To be avoided: [Music]

The use of sixths in the upper parts, and the practice of doubling the
upper note in octaves are sometimes effective methods:

[Music] [Music]

When correct progression increases the distance between the top and
bottom notes of the upper parts, this does not matter:

Good: [Music]

But it would be distinctly bad to fill in the second chord thus:

Not good: [Music]

Hence it follows that the distribution of intermediate parts is a
question of the greatest importance. Nothing is worse than writing
chords, the upper and lower parts of which are separated by wide,
empty intervals, especially in _forte_ passages; in _piano_ passages
such distribution may be possible. Progression in contrary motion, the
upper and lower parts diverging by degrees gives rise to the gradual
addition of extra parts occupying the middle register:

Schematic Example: [Music]

When the voices converge, the middle parts are eliminated one by one:

Schematic Example: [Music]


String harmony.

It is an incontrovertible rule that the resonance of different
harmonic parts must be equally balanced, but this balance will be less
noticeable in short sharp chords than in those which are connected and
sustained. Both these cases will be studied separately. In the first
case, in order to increase the number of harmonic parts, each
instrument in the string group may be provided with double notes or
chords of three and four notes. In the second case, the resources are
limited to double notes _unis_, or division of parts.

A. _Short chords._ Chords of three or four notes can only be executed
rapidly on the strings.

     _Note._ It is true that the two upper notes of a chord can
     be sustained and held a long time; this, however, involves
     complications and will be considered later.

Short chords, _arco_, only sound well when played _forte_ (_sf_), and
when they can be supported by wind instruments. In the execution of
double notes and chords of three and four notes on the strings,
balance, perfect distribution of tone, and correct progression of
parts are of minor importance. What must be considered before
everything is the resonance of the chords themselves, and the degree
of ease with which they can be played. Those comprising notes on the
gut strings are the most powerful. Chords played on several strings
are usually assigned to 1st and 2nd violins and violas, the
different notes being divided between them according to ease in
execution and the demands of resonance. On account of its low register
the 'cello is rarely called upon to play chords on three or four
strings, and is usually allotted the lowest note of the chord in
company with the double bass. Chords on the latter instrument are even
more uncommon, but it may supply the octave on an uncovered string.

_Examples:_

No. 97. _Snegourotchka_ [[171]]; cf. also before [[140]] and before
[[200]].

* _Spanish Capriccio_, before [[V]] (cf. Ex. 67).

_Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[P]] (cf. Ex. 19.)

* No. 98. _Tsar Saltan_ [[135]]; cf. also [[141]] and before [[182]].

Isolated chords may be added to a melodic figure in the upper part,
accentuating, _sforzando_, certain rhythmical moments.

_Example:_

No. 99. _Snegourotchka_, before [[126]]; cf. also [[326]].

B. _Sustained and tremolando chords._ Chords sustained for a shorter
or longer period of time, or tremolando passages, often used as a
substitute, demand perfect balance of tone. Taking for granted that
the different members of the string group are equal in power, the
parts being written according to the usual order of register, (cf.
Chap. I), it is patent that a passage in close four-part harmony, with
the bass in octaves will also be uniformly resonant. When it is
necessary to introduce notes to fill up the empty middle register, the
upper parts being farther distant from the bass, doubled notes on the
violins or violas should be used, or on both instruments together. The
method of dividing strings, which is sometimes adopted, should be
avoided in such cases, as certain parts of the chord will be divided
and others will not; but, on the other hand, if a passage in six and
seven-part harmony be written entirely for strings divided in the same
manner, the balance of tone will be completely satisfactory, e.g.,

div. { Vns I/Vns I
div. { Vns II/Vns II
div. { Violas I/Violas II

If the harmony in the three upper parts, thus strengthened, is written
for divided strings, the 'cellos and basses, playing _non divisi_ will
prove a trifle heavy; their tone must therefore be eased, either by
marking the parts down or reducing the number of players.

In the case of sustained chords or _forte tremolando_ on two strings,
the progression of parts is not always according to rule, the
intervals chosen being those which are the easiest to play.

_Examples:_

No. 100. _The Christmas Night_ [[161]]--Full _divisi_.

No. 101.   "      "       "    [[210]]--Violas div./'Cellos div.} 4
                               part harmony.

No. 102. _Snegourotchka_ [[187-188]]--Four-part harmony, Vns I,
                         Vns II, Violas and Violoncellos.

                "        [[243]]--4 Solo 'cellos _divisi_.

_Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement, beginning.--4 D. bass soli div. (cf.
Ex. 40).

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[179]]--Chords on all strings (cf. Ex. 243).

No. 103. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[8]]--Harmonic basis in the strings.

             "   "    "     [[240]]--(Cf. Ex. 21).

             "   "    "     [[283]]--Harmonic basis in the strings
                            (cf. Ex. 2).

No. 104. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[4]]--Basis in the strings.

           "    "       "      [[125]]--Undulating rhythm in the
                               strings as harmonic basis (cf. Ex. 271).

In a _forte_ or _sfp_ chord, where one or two of the upper notes is
held, either sustained or _tremolando_, the balance of tone must still
be maintained, as in the following example:

[Music:

Vns I
VnII
Violas
D. basses]


Wood-wind harmony.

Before entering upon this section of the work I would remind the
reader of the general principles laid down in the beginning of the
chapter.

Harmonic texture, composed of plain chords or ornamental designs,
simple or contrapuntal in character, must possess a resonance equally
distributed throughout. This may be obtained by the following means:

1. Instruments forming chords must be used continuously in the same
way during a given passage, that is to say they must be doubled or not
throughout, except when one of the harmonic parts is to be made
prominent:

To be avoided: [Music]

2. The normal order of register must be followed, except in the case
of crossing or enclosure of parts, which will be discussed later on:

To be avoided: [Music]

3. Corresponding or adjacent registers should be made to coincide
except for certain colour effects:

To be avoided: [Music]

The second flute will sound too weak and the oboes too piercing.

4. Concords (octaves, thirds and sixths) and not discords (fifths,
fourths, seconds and sevenths), should be given to instruments of the
same kind or colour, except when discords are to be emphasised. This
rule should be specially observed in writing for the oboe with its
penetrating quality of tone:

To be avoided: [Music]


Four-part and three-part harmony.

Harmonic writing for the wood-wind may be considered from two points
of view: a) instruments in pairs, 2 Fl., 2 Ob., 2 Cl., 2 Fag.; and b)
instruments in three's, 3 Fl., 2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3 Cl., 2 Fag., C-fag.

A. _In pairs._ There are three ways of distribution: 1.
_Superposition_ or _overlaying_ (strictly following the normal order
of register), 2. _Crossing_, and 3. _Enclosure_ of parts. The last
two methods involve a certain disturbance of the natural order of
register:

[Music: Overlaying. Crossing. Enclosure.]

In choosing one of these three methods the following points must not
be forgotten: a) the register of a particular isolated chord; the soft
and weak register of an instrument should not be coupled with the
powerful and piercing range of another:

[Music:

Overlaying.
Oboe too
piercing.

Crossing.
Low notes
of the flute
too weak.

Enclosure.
Bassoon too
prominent.]


b) In a succession of chords the general progression of parts must be
considered; one tone quality should be devoted to the stationary and
another to the moving parts:

[Music]

When chords are in widely-divided four-part harmony notes may be
allotted in pairs to two different tone qualities, adhering to the
normal order of register:

Good: [Music] etc.

Any other distribution will result unquestionably in a grievous lack
of relationship between registers:

To be avoided: [Music] etc.

If one tone quality is to be enclosed, it must be between two
different timbres:

Good: [Music] etc.

It is possible to lend four distinct timbres to a chord in
widely-divided four-part harmony, though such a chord will possess no
uniformity in colour; but the higher the registers of the different
instruments are placed, the less perceptible becomes the space which
separates them:

[Music: Fairly good Better Still better]

The use of four different timbres in close four-part harmony is to be
avoided, as the respective registers will not correspond:

[Music: Bad Better Still slightly better]

     _Note._ In _Mozart and Salieri_, which is only scored for 1
     Fl., 1 Ob., 1 Cl. and 1 Fag., wood-wind chords in four-part
     harmony are of necessity devoted to these four different
     timbres.

The same rules apply to writing in three-part harmony, which is the
most customary form when it is a question of establishing a harmonic
basis, the lowest register of which is entrusted to another group of
instruments (strings _arco_ or _pizz._, for example). Chords in
three-part harmony are generally given to two instruments of one
timbre and a third instrument of another, but never to three different
timbres. Overlaying of parts is the best course to adopt:

[Music] etc.

The use of crossing and enclosure of parts (which in a way amount to
the same thing) must depend on the manner of their progression:

[Music: Enclosure]

B. _Wood-wind in three's._ Here the distribution of chords in close
three-part harmony is self-evident; any grouping of three instruments
of the same timbre is sure to sound well:

[Music]

also: [Music]

[Music]

Overlaying of parts is the best method to follow in writing close
four-part harmony; three instruments of the same timbre with a fourth
instrument of another. Crossing and enclosure of parts may also be
employed. Correspondence of timbres and the progression of remote
parts must be kept in mind:

[Music]

The method of using three instruments of the same timbre in
widely-divided three-part harmony is inferior:

[Music: Not good Better Better Not good Better Better]

But if the third instrument is of low register (Bass Fl., Eng. horn,
Bass cl., or C-fag.), the resonance will be satisfactory:

[Music]

In chords of four-part harmony, three instruments of the same timbre
should be combined with a fourth instrument of another:

[Music] etc.


Harmony in several parts.

In writing chords of 5, 6, 7 and 8 part-harmony, whether they are
independent, or constitute the harmonic basis, the student should
follow the principles outlined in the previous chapter, dealing with
the progression of wood-wind instruments in octaves. As the 5th,
6th, 7th and 8th notes are only duplications in octaves of
lower notes of the real harmony (in 4 parts), instruments should be
chosen which combine amongst themselves to give the best octaves. The
process of crossing and enclosure of parts may also be used.

A. Wood-wind in pairs (close distribution):

[Music]

In widely-divided harmony chords in several parts are to be avoided as
they will entail both close and extended writing:

[Music]

     _Note._ In the majority of cases this distribution is
     employed when the two upper harmonic parts have a special
     melodic duty to perform--this question is discussed above.

B. Wood-wind in three's:

[Music]

[Music] etc.

Overlaying of parts is the most satisfactory method in dealing with
close three-part harmony. Crossing of parts is not so favourable, as
octaves will be produced contrary to the natural order of register:

[Music] Here the arrangement [Music] is bad.


Duplication of timbres.

A. If the wood-wind is in pairs it is a good plan to mix the doubled
timbres as much as possible:

[Music: Excellent],

also: [Music]

In chords of four-part harmony the classical method may be adopted:

[Music]

In this case, though the high _C_ in the flute is fairly powerful, the
resonance of the _G_ and _E_ in the oboes is softened by the
duplication of the 2nd flute and 1st clarinet, while the _C_ in
the 2nd clarinets (not doubled) is feeble in comparison with the
other notes. In any case the two extreme parts are the thinnest and
weakest in tone, the intermediate parts the fullest and strongest.

B. _Wood-wind in three's_ admit of perfectly balanced mixed timbres in
chords of three-part harmony:

[Music]

These timbres may even originate from three-fold duplication:

[Music]


Remarks.

1. Modern orchestrators do not allow any void in the intermediate
parts in writing close harmony; it was permitted to some extent by the
classics:

[Music]

These empty spaces create a bad effect especially in _forte_ passages.
For this reason widely-divided harmony, which is fundamentally based
on the extension of intervals, can be used but seldom and only in
_piano_ passages. Close writing is the more frequent form in all
harmony devoted to the wood-wind, _forte_ or _piano_.

2. As a general rule a chord of greatly extended range and in several
parts is distributed according to the order of the natural scale, with
wide intervals (octaves and sixths), in the bass part, lesser
intervals (fifths and fourths) in the middle, and close intervals
(3rds or 2nds) in the upper register:

[Music]

3. In many cases correct progression of parts demands that one of them
should be temporarily doubled. In such cases the ear is reconciled to
the brief overthrow of balance for the sake of a single part, and is
thankful for the logical accuracy of the progression. The following
example will illustrate my meaning:

[Music]

In the second bar of this example the _D_ is doubled in unison on
account of the proximity of the three upper parts to their
corresponding parts an octave lower. In the fourth bar the _F_ is
doubled in unison in both groups.

4. The formation of the harmonic basis, which is essentially in four
parts, does not by any means devolve upon the wood-wind alone. One of
the parts is often devoted to the strings, _arco_ or _pizz._ More
frequently the bass part is treated separately, the chords of greater
value in the three upper parts being allotted to the wood-wind. Then,
if the upper part is assigned to a group of strings, there remains
nothing for the wind except the sustained harmony in the two middle
parts. In the first case the three-part harmony in the wood-wind
should form an independent whole, receiving no assistance from the
bass; in this manner intervals of open fourths and fifths will be
obviated. In the second case it is desirable to provide the
intermediate parts with a moderately full tone, choosing no other
intervals except seconds, sevenths, thirds or sixths.

All that has been said with regard to the use of wood-wind in the
formation of harmony, and the division of simple and mixed timbres
applies with equal force to sustained chords, or harmonic progressions
interchanging rapidly with _staccato_ chords. In short chords,
separated by rests of some importance, the arrangement and division of
timbres is not so perceptible to the ear, and progression of parts
attracts less attention. It would be useless, nay, impossible to
examine the countless combinations of tone colour, all the varieties
of duplication and distribution of chords. It has been my aim to
denote the fundamental principles upon which to work, and to indicate
the general rules to be followed. Once having mastered these, if the
student devote a little time to the study of full scores, and listen
to them on the orchestra, he will soon learn when certain methods
should be used and when to adopt others. The pupil is advised,
generally, to write for wood-wind in its normal order of distribution,
to take heed that each particular chord is composed entirely either of
duplicated or non-duplicated parts, (except in certain cases resulting
from progression), to use the methods of crossing and enclosure of
timbres with full knowledge of what he is doing, and finally to
concentrate his attention on close part-writing.

_Examples of wood-wind harmony:_

a) Independent chords.

No. 105. _The Christmas Night_ [[148]]--Cl., 2 Fag.

No. 106.   "      "       "    beginning--Ob., Cl., Fag. (crossing
                               of parts).

_Snegourotchka_ [[16]]--2 Cl., Fag.

       "        [[79]], 5th bar.--2 Ob., 2 Fag. (cf. Ex. 136).

* No. 107. _Snegourotchka_ [[197]]--Picc., 2 Fl. (_tremolando_).

No. 108.          "        [[204]]--2 Fl., 2 Ob. (high register).

No. 109. _Shéhérazade_, beginning--Total wood-wind in different
distribution.

* _Russian Easter Fête_ [[A]]--3 Fl. _tremolando_ (cf. Ex. 176).

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[45]] Ob., 2 Fag.

No. 110. _Tsar Saltan_, before [[115]]--mixed timbres.

No. 111.   "     "      [[115]], and other similar passages--very
                        sweet effect of wood-wind in three's.

           "     "      [[177]]--2 Ob., 2 Fag.

_Sadko_, Symphonic Tableau [[9]]--Ob., 2 Cl., Fag.

* _Sadko_, Opera [[4]]--Eng. horn, 2 Cl.

     "       "   before [[5]]--Total wood-wind.

No. 112. _Sadko_ [[72]]--Chords in three-part harmony; simple and
mixed timbres.

* No. 113. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[126]] Full wind.

* No. 114. _Legend of Kitesh_, before [[90]]--Enclosure of parts
                               (Ob. I in the high register).

No. 115.      "    "    "      before [[161]]--Wind and brass
                               alternately.

No. 116.      "    "    "      [[167]]--Full wind except oboe,
                               with chorus.

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[269]]--Fl., Cl., Fag.

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[125]]--Various wind instruments, 4 part
                        harmony (cf. Ex. 271).

    "     "      "      [[218]]--Ob., Eng. horn, Fag., C-fag.; cf.
                        also [[254]].

No. 117. _The Golden Cockerel_, before [[236]]--Mixed timbre; 2 Fag.
form the bass.

b) Harmonic basis (sometimes joined by the horns).

_The May Night_, Act III [[L]]--2 Fag., Eng. horn (cf. Ex. 18).

_Antar_ [[68]]--3 Flutes.

_Snegourotchka_ [[20]]--2 Cl., high register.

       "        before [[50]]--2 Fl., Fag.

       "        [[187]]--2 Ob., 2 Fag.

       "        [[274]]--2 Cl., low register (cf. Ex. 9).

       "        [[283]]--Fl., Eng. horn, Cl., Fag. (cf. Ex. 26).

No. 118. _Snegourotchka_ [[292]]--Widely-divided harmony and
                              doubling of parts in the wind.

No. 119.        "        [[318-319]]--2 Flutes.

_Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[B]]--2 Cl., Fag. (sustained note in
the horn) (cf. Ex. 1).

_The Christmas Night_ [[1]]--3 Cl.

_Sadko_ [[1]]--Cl., Bass Cl., Fag., C-fag.

No. 120. _Sadko_ [[49]]--Ob., Cl., Horn, Fag.

            "    [[99]]--2 Cl. (cf. Ex. 289, 290).

No. 121. _Sadko_ [[144]]--Cl., Fag.

No. 122.    "    [[195-196]]--2 Cl., Bass Cl.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[80]]--Cl., Fag.

  "    "      "    [[166]]--harmonic parts in motion, Fl. and
                   Cl. (cf. Ex. 22).

_Servilia_ [[59]]--Cl. (low. register), Fag.

* No. 123. _Kashtcheï the Immortal_ [[80]]--Ob., Fag. muted.

* No. 124. _Legend of Kitesh._ [[52]]--Fl., Fag.

              "    "     "     [[55]]--Fl., Ob. (cf. Ex. 197).

              "    "     "     [[68]]--Eng. horn, Fag., C-fag. (cf.
                               Ex. 199).

No. 124.      "    "     "     [[118]]--mixed timbre: 2 Ob., Eng.
                               horn and 3 Cl.

              "    "     "     [[136]]--harmonic parts in motion:

              "    "     "     before [[185]]--3 Fl. (low register)
                               and 2 Cl.

              "    "     "     [[223]]--Fl., Ob., Cl. (cf. Ex. 31).

* No. 125.    "    "     "     [[247]]--2 Cl., Bass Cl.

              "    "     "     [[273]]--Eng. horn, 2 Cl. and Bass
                               Cl., Fag.

* No. 126.    "    "     "     [[355]]--Eng. horn muted, Cl., 2 Fag.

* No. 127. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[3]]--Cl., Bass Cl., Fag., C-fag.

             "    "       "      [[40-41]] Bass Cl., Fag.; Fl., Cl.;
                                 Cl., Bass Cl.

* No. 128.   "    "       "      [[156]]--harmonic parts in motion:
                                 Fl. and Cl.


Harmony in the brass.

Here, as in the wood-wind, part writing should be of the close order
with no empty spaces in the intervals.

Four-part writing.

It is evident that the quartet of horns presents every facility for
four-part harmony, perfectly balanced in tone, without doubling the
bass in octaves:

[Music]

     _Note._ In the diagrams of the present section the actual
     sounds of horns and trumpets are given, as in a piano score,
     for the sake of simplicity.

When it is found necessary to double the bass in octaves, the too
resonant trombone and tuba are seldom used, the duplication being
effected by the bassoon, as explained further on. The quartet of
trombones and tuba is not often employed in close four-part harmony;
the third trombone and the tuba usually form the bass in octaves, and
the three upper parts are generally allotted to the two remaining
trombones reinforced by a trumpet or two horns in unison, so as to
obtain a perfect balance of tone:

[Music]

I have often adopted the following combination of brass instruments,
and consider it eminently satisfactory: 2 horns and tuba to form the
bass in octaves, the three other parts given to the trombones:

[Music] (beautiful full resonance).

In the higher registers, four-part harmony, of which the two upper
parts are given to the trumpets, may be completed by two trombones or
four horns in pairs:

[Music]

When 3 trumpets are available the fourth part should be allotted to
one trombone, or two horns in unison:

[Music]

Enclosure of parts may be used in single chords:

[Music]

or in progression:

[Music]

Three-part writing.

The best combination is trombones, horns, or trumpets in three's. If
the instruments are mixed the number of horns should be doubled:

[Music] etc.

Writing in several parts.

When the whole group is used the number of horns should be doubled:

[Music] etc.

In seven, six, or five-part harmony certain instruments must be
omitted:

[Music]

[Music] etc.

Discords of the seventh or second are preferably entrusted to
instruments of different tone colour:

[Music]

When such chords are written for an orchestra which only includes two
trumpets, it is impossible for the horns to proceed in pairs. In such
cases the following arrangement may obtain, the horns being marked one
degree louder than the other instruments, to secure balance of tone:

[Music]

The same method should be followed whenever the use of horns in pairs
fails to produce satisfactory tone.

When chords of widely-divided harmony are distributed throughout
several harmonic registers, the register occupied by the horns need
not be doubled; the arrangement of the chord will resemble that of a
chorale written for double or triple choir. For example:

[Music]

Duplication in the brass.

Duplication in the brass group is most frequently effected by placing
a chord for horns side by side with the same chord written for
trumpets or trombones. The soft round quality of the horns intensifies
the tone, and moderates the penetrating timbre of the trumpets and
trombones:

[Music]

Similar juxtaposition of trumpets and trombones:

[Music]

is not so common, as this unites the two most powerful agents in the
group.

In handling an orchestra the brass is frequently employed to sustain
notes in two or three octaves; this sphere of activity must not be
ignored. The _tenuto_ is generally given to two trumpets, or to two or
four horns in the octave, (in double octaves). The octave is sometimes
formed by trumpets and horns acting together:

[Music]

The trombone with its ponderous tone rarely takes part in such
combinations. Sustained notes in double octaves are usually
apportioned thus:

[Music]

The imperfect balance arising from the duplication of the middle note
is compensated for by the mixture of timbres, which lends some unity
to the chord.

_Examples of harmony in the brass:_

a) Independent chords:

_Snegourotchka_ [[74]]--3 Trombones, 2 Horns.

       "        [[140]]--3 Trombones, 2 Horns. Chords in different
                groups alternately (cf. Ex. 244).

       "        [[171]]--Full brass; further on 3 Trombones (cf. Ex. 97).

       "        [[255]]--4 Horns (stopped).

No. 129. _Snegourotchka_, before [[289]]--4 Horns.

                "         [[289]]--Full brass.

* _Sadko_, before [[9]]--Full brass (enclosure of parts).

No. 130. _Sadko_ [[175]]--Mixed timbres (juxtaposition) 3 Horns
                 + 3 Trumpets.

            "    before [[338]]--Full brass except Tuba.

No. 131.    "    [[191-193]] (Full brass).

No. 132. _The Christmas Night_, before [[180]]--Full muted brass.

           "      "       "     [[181]]--4 Horns + 3 Trombones
                                + Tuba (cf. Ex. 237).

* _The Tsar's Bride_ [[178]]--Strings and brass alternately (cf. Ex.
242).

* No. 133. _Tsar Saltan_ [[102]], 7th bar.--2 Trumpets, 2 Trombones
                         + 4 Horns (juxtaposition).

              "    "     [[230]]--Full brass, thickly scored (cf.
                         Table of chords No. II at the end of Vol. II,
                         Ex. 12).

* _Servilia_ [[154]]--Various brass instruments.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[130]]--3 Trumpets, Trombone and Tuba.

No. 134. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[199]]--Short chords (juxtaposition).

* No. 135. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[115]]--Horns, Trombones
(enclosure).

b) Harmonic basis:

No. 136. _Snegourotchka_ [[79]], 6th bar.--4 Horns.

                "        [[231]]--3 Trombones, soft and sweet (cf.
                         Ex. 8).

_Antar_ [[64-65]]--4 Horns; later 3 Trombones (cf. Ex. 32).

* _Shéhérazade_, 1st movement, [[A]], [[E]], [[H]], [[K]],
[[M]]--Harmonic bases of different power and timbre (cf. Ex. 192-195).

No. 137. _Servilia_ [[93]]--Full brass.

* No. 138. _Tsar Saltan_ [[127]]--4 muted Horns + 3 Trombones
                         and Tuba _con sord. pp._

              "    "     before [[147]]--Full brass _ff_ (the 2 Oboes
                         and Eng. horn are of no particular importance).

* _Pan Voyevoda_ [[136]], 9th bar.--4 Horns, then Trombones, 2
Horns.

* No. 139. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[158]]--Trumpets, Trombones.

No. 140.      "    "    "     [[248]]--3 Trombones.

              "    "    "     before [[362]]--Full brass.


Harmony in combined groups.

A. Combination of wind and brass.

Wind and brass instruments may be combined by the method of placing a
chord in one timbre side by side with the same chord in another
timbre, or by any of the three methods already described: overlaying,
crossing and enclosure of parts.

1. _In unison (juxtaposition or contrast of tone qualities)._

This class of combination possesses the same features as combinations
in the melodic line (cf. Chap. II). Wood-wind reinforces the brass,
softens it and reduces its characteristic qualities. Arrangements such
as the following are possible:

2 Trumpets + 2 Fl.; 2 Trumpets + 2 Ob.; 2 Trumpets + 2 Cl.
3 Trumpets + 3 Fl.; 3 Trumpets + 3 Ob.; 3 Trumpets + 3 Cl.

Also

[Music] etc.

as well as:

2 Horns + 2 Fag.; 2 Horns + 2 Cl.;
3 Horns + 3 Fag.; 3 Horns + 3 Cl.; and:
2 Horns + 2 Fag. + 2 Cl. etc.

The combinations 3 Trombones + 3 Fag., or 3 Trombones + 3 Cl. are very
rare.

A chord scored for full brass doubled by the same chords scored for
full wood-wind (in pairs) produces a magnificent and uniform tone.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[315]]--2 Horns + 2 Cl. and 2 Horns + 2 Ob. (cf. Ex.
236).

No. 141. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[50]]--4 Horns + 2 Cl., 2 Fag.

No. 142.   "    "      "    [[142]]--Juxtaposition of full wind
                            and brass.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[30]]--Juxtaposition and enclosure (cf.
Table of chords II, Ex. 8).

No. 143. _The Christmas Night_ [[165]]--4 Horns + Fl., Cl., Fag.

* No. 144. _Sadko_, before [[79]]--Horn, Trumpet + doubled wood-wind.[15]

No. 145.      "     [[242]]--Full brass + Fl., Cl.

[Footnote 15: In the full score a misprint occurs in the clarinet
part; it is corrected in the example. (Editor's note.)]

_Legend of Kitesh_, beginning--Horn, Trombones + Cl., Fag. (cf. also
[[5]]--Ex. 249).

* No. 146. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[10]]--Eng. horn, 2 Cl., Fag. _legato_
                                   + 4 Horns non legato.

              "    "    "     [[324]]--Full brass + wind.

* No. 147. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[233]]--Trumpets + Ob./Horn + Cl.]
8.

Stopped or muted notes in trumpets and horns resemble the oboe and
Eng. horn in quality; the combination of these instruments produces a
magnificent tone.

_Examples:_

No. 148. _Russian Easter Fête_, p. 11.--Horn (+), Trumpets (low
register) + Ob., Cl.

* _The Christmas Night_, before [[154]]--Full muted brass + wind.

* No. 149. _Tsar Saltan_ [[129]]--2 Ob., Eng. horn, + 3 Trumpets
                              muted (3 Cl. at the bottom).

* No. 150.    "    "     [[131]] 17th bar.--Same combination with
                         added horns.

* No. 151. _Antar_ [[7]]--Ob., Eng. horn, 2 Fag. + 4 Horns (+).

A beautiful dark tone is derived from the combination of middle notes
in stopped horns and deep notes in the clarinet:

[Music]

If bassoons are substituted for clarinets the effect loses part of its
character.

_Examples:_

* _Kashtcheï the Immortal_ [[29]], 11th bar,--2 Ob., 2 Cl. + 4 Horns (+).

       "      "     "      [[107]], 6th bar.--2 Cl., Fag. + 3 Horns (+).

* _The Christmas Night_, p. 249--Cl., Fag. + 3 Horns (+).

* _Mlada_, Act III [[19]]--3 Horns (+) + 3 Fag. and 3 Horns (+) + 3
Ob. (cf. Ex. 259).

2. _Overlaying (superposition), crossing, enclosure of parts._

It has already been stated that the bassoon and horn are the two
instruments best capable of reconciling the groups of wood-wind and
brass. Four-part harmony given to two bassoons and two horns,
especially in soft passages, yields a finely-balanced tone recalling
the effect of a quartet of horns, but possessing slightly greater
transparence. In _forte_ passages the horns overwhelm the bassoons,
and it is wiser to employ four horns alone. In the former case
crossing of parts is to be recommended for the purposes of blend, the
concords being given to the horns, the discords to the bassoons:

[Music] and not: [Music]

Bassoons may also be written inside the horns, but the inverse process
is not to be recommended:

[Music]

The same insetting of parts may be used for sustained trumpet notes in
octaves. In soft passages, thirds played in the low register of the
flutes, sometimes combined with clarinets, produce a beautiful
mysterious effect between trumpets in octaves. In a chain of
consecutive chords it is advisable to entrust the stationary parts to
the brass, the moving parts to the wood-wind.

Clarinets, on account of their tone quality should rarely be set
inside the horns, but, in the upper register, and in the higher
harmonic parts, a chord of four horns, (_piano_), may be completed by
clarinets as effectively as by oboes or flutes; the bassoon may then
double the base an octave below:

[Music]

Played _forte_, the horns are more powerful than the wood-wind;
balance may be established by doubling the upper harmonic parts:

[Music]

_Examples:_

a) Superposition.

* _Sadko_, Symphonic Tableau [[1]], [[9]]--Fl., Ob., Cl., Horn (basis).

     "     before [[14]]--2 Fl., Cl., Horns.

     "     final chord--Fl., Cl., Horn.

* _Antar_ [[22]]--Fl., Cl., Horns (basis).

No. 152. _Antar_ [[56]]--3 Fl., 4 Horns (basis).

* _Snegourotchka_ [[300]]--Full wind and horns.

* _Shéhérazade_--Final chords of 1st and 4th movements.

* _Russian Easter Fête_ [[D]]--Fl., Cl., Horn; later trumpets and
trombones in juxtaposition (cf. Ex. 248).

* No. 153. _The Christmas Night_ [[212]], 10th bar.--Wind and Horns;
                                      trumpets and trombones added
                                      later.

             "      "       "    [[215]] 3 Fl. + 3 Cl./3 Horns] 8.

* _Sadko_, Opera [[165]]--Juxtaposition and Superposition.

No. 154. _Sadko_ [[338]]--Same distribution.

No. 155. _Servilia_ [[73]] 3 Fl + 2 Ob., Cl./4 Horns.

* No. 156. _Legend of Kitesh_, before [[157]]--3 Flutes, 3 Trombones.

              "    "    "      final chord (cf. Table III of chords,
                               Ex. 15).

* _The Golden Cockerel_, before [[219]]--Mixed timbre of wood-wind, 4
Horns.


b) Crossing.

* _The Christmas Night_, before [[53]]--Horn, Fag.

    "      "       "     [[107]]--Clar., Horn, Fag.

* _Legend of Tsar Saltan_, before [[62]]--Horn, Fag.

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[220]]--3 Trombones, 2 Fag., C-fag. (cf. Ex.
232).

* No. 157. _Antar_, before [[30]]--Wood-wind, Horns, then Trumpets.


c) Enclosure:

No. 158. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[33]]--Flutes within horns; later
horns within bassoons.

No. 159. _Snegourotchka_ [[183]]--Trumpet/Fl., 2 Cl./Trumpet

* _Sadko_, symphonic tableau [[3]]--Cl. + Fag./4 Horns/Cl. + Fag.

* _Antar_ before [[37]]--Fag./2 Horns (+)/Cl.

* _Sadko_, Opera [[105]]--Harmonic basis; oboes within trumpets (cf.
Ex. 260).

* No. 160. _Sadko_, Opera, before [[155]]--Flutes within trumpets.

* _The Tsar's Bride_, end of Overture--Bassoons within horns (cf.
Table III of chords, Ex. 14).

* No. 161. _Tsar Saltan_ [[50]]--Trumpets within wood-wind doubled.

No. 162.      "    "     [[59]]--Flutes within trumpets; clarinets
                         within horns.

* No. 163. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[82]]--Oboes and clarinets within
trumpets.

The relationship which has been shown to exist between stopped horns
and oboe or Eng. horn authorizes the simultaneous use of these
instruments in one and the same chord, played _p_ or _sfp_:

[Music]

_Examples:_

* _The Christmas Night_ [[75]]--3 Horns (+) + Oboe.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[123]]--Ob., Eng. horn, Horn (+) (cf. Ex. 240).

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[244]]--Cl., 2 Fl., + 2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3 Horn
(+).

* No. 164. _Legend of Kitesh_, before [[256]]--2 Ob., Eng. horn/3
Horns (+)] 8.

* Cf. also _Tsar Saltan_, before [[115]]--Horn (+)/2 Fl. + 2 Fag. (Ex.
110).

If trumpets and trombones take part in a chord, flutes, oboes and
clarinets are better used to form the harmonic part above the
trumpets. The following should be the arrangement:

[Music] etc.

[Music] etc.

_Examples:_

* _Sadko_, symphonic tableau [[20]].

* No. 165. _The May Night_, Act I [[Ee]]--3 Trombones, 2 Ob.
                                       + 2 Cl. + 2 Fag.

             "   "    "     p. 325.--Final chord, _C_ maj. (cf.
                            Table I of chords, Ex. 1).

* No. 166. _Snegourotchka_ [[198]]; cf. also [[200]] and before
[[210]].

* _Shéhérazade_, 1st movement [[E]], 2nd movement [[P]], 3rd
movement [[M]], 4th movement p. 203 (cf. Ex. 195, 19, 210, 77).

No. 167. _The Christmas Night_ [[205]]; cf. also [[161]], [[212]],
14th bar. (Ex. 100, 153).

* _Mlada_, end of Act I (cf. Chord Table II, Ex. 13). Act II [[20]].

No. 168-169. _Sadko_, Opera, before [[249]], [[302]]; cf. also Ex.
120.

No. 170. _Sadko_, Opera [[244]]--Chord of widely extended range;
                             bassoons at the limit of low compass.

            "       "   [[142]], [[239]]; cf. also [[3]] (Ex. 86).

* _The Tsar's Bride_ [[179]] (cf. Ex. 243).

_Antar_ [[65]]--Alternation of notes in horns and wood-wind on
trombone chords (cf. Ex. 32).

_General observations._ It is not always possible to secure proper
balance in scoring for full wood-wind. For instance, in a succession
of chords where the melodic position is constantly changing,
distribution is subordinate to correct progression of parts. In
practice, however, any inequality of tone may be counterbalanced by
the following acoustic phenomenon: in every chord the parts in octaves
strengthen one another, the harmonic sounds in the lowest register
coinciding with and supporting those in the highest. In spite of this
fact it rests entirely with the orchestrator to obtain the best
possible balance of tone; in difficult cases this may be secured by
judicious dynamic grading, marking the wood-wind one degree louder
than the brass.

B. Combination of strings and wind.

1. We frequently meet with the combination of strings and wood-wind in
the light of comparison of one timbre with another, either in long
sustained notes, or _tremolando_ in the strings. Apart from the
complete or partial doubling of the string quartet (two methods
frequently used), the general and most natural arrangement is:

Fl./Ob. (Cl.) + Vns div.; Clar./Fag. + 'Cellos + Violas div., etc.

_Examples:_

* _Sadko_, Symphonic Tableau before [[4]], and [[4]], 9th bar.

* _Shéhérazade_, 1st movement [[M]] 6 Vns soli + 2 Ob. (2 Fl.),
Cl.

* _Antar_ [[7]]--String quartet _divisi_ + wood-wind (cf. Ex. 151).

* No. 171. _Antar_ [[57]]--Vns II, Violas div. + Fl., Horn (florid
accompaniment in the Clar.).

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[295]]--the same; rhythmic motion in the wind,
sustained harmony in the strings (cf. Ex. 213).

2. Owing to the complete absence of any affinity in tone quality, the
combination of strings with brass is seldom employed in juxtaposition,
crossing, or enclosure of parts.

The first method may be used however when the harmony is formed by the
strings _tremolando_, and the brass is employed in sustaining chords,
also when the strings play short disconnected chords, _sforzando_.
Another possible exception may be mentioned; the splendid effect of
horns doubled by divided violas or 'cellos.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[242]]--Full brass + strings _tremolando_ (cf. 1st
Table of chords, Ex. 6).

* _Legend of Kitesh_, before [[240]]--the same (Horn, Trumpet +).

* _Sadko_, Opera, before [[34]]--Horn + Violas _div._, Trombones +
'Cellos _div._[16]

[Footnote 16: A splendid example of the combination of strings and
brass may be found in the introduction to the 2nd scene of the
4th act of "_Khovanstchina_" by Moussorgsky, orchestrated by
Rimsky-Korsakov. (Editor's note.)]

C. Combination of the three groups.

The combination of strings, wood-wind and brass instruments, set side
by side, produces a full, round and firm tone.

_Examples:_

No. 172. _The Tsar's Bride_, before [[145]]--Ob., Fag. + Horns
                             + Strings.

           "    "      "     final chord (cf. Table I of chords,
                             Ex. 5).

* No. 173. _Sadko_, end of 1st tableau--short chords. Last chords
of the 1st, 3rd and 7th tableaux (cf. Table I and III, Vol.
II, Ex. 9, 10, 18).

* No. 174. _The Christmas Night_ [[22]]--Wind + Brass _c. sord._ +
_tremolo_ strings.

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[162]] (cf. Ex. 250).

_Snegourotchka_--end of opera, (cf. Table III in Vol. II, Ex. 17) and
a host of other examples.

_General Observations._ Balance and correct distribution of tone is
much more important in dealing with long sustained chords or those of
rhythmic design; in the case of short, disconnected chords resonance
is a minor consideration, but one which should not be entirely
neglected.

I have endeavoured to outline the general principles to be followed,
but I do not profess to deal with all the countless cases which may
arise in the course of orchestration. I have given a few examples of
well-sounding chords; for further information I advise the reader to
study full scores with care, as this is the only method to acquire
perfect knowledge of the distribution and doubling of various
instruments.



Chapter IV.

COMPOSITION OF THE ORCHESTRA.


Different ways of orchestrating the same music.

There are times when the general tone, character and atmosphere of a
passage, or a given moment in an orchestral work point to one, and
only one particular manner of scoring. The following simple example
will serve for explanation. Take a short phrase where a flourish or
fanfare call is given out above a _tremolando_ accompaniment, with or
without change in harmony. There is no doubt that any orchestrator
would assign the _tremolo_ to the strings and the fanfare to a
trumpet, never _vice versa_. But taking this for granted, the composer
or orchestrator may still be left in doubt. Is the fanfare flourish
suitable to the range of a trumpet? Should it be written for two or
three trumpets in unison, or doubled by other instruments? Can any of
these methods be employed without damaging the musical meaning? These
are questions which I shall endeavour to answer.

If the phrase is too low in register for the trumpets it should be
given to the horns (instruments allied to the trumpet); if the phrase
is too high it may be entrusted to the oboes and clarinets in unison,
this combination possessing the closest resemblance to the trumpet
tone both in character and power. The question whether one trumpet or
two should be employed must be decided by the degree of power to be
vested in the given passage. If a big sonorous effect is required the
instruments may be doubled, tripled, or even multiplied by four; in
the opposite case one solo brass instrument, or two of the wood-wind
will suffice (1 Ob. + 1 Cl.). The question whether the _tremolo_ in
the strings should be supported by sustained harmony in the wood-wind
depends upon the purpose in view. A composer realises his intentions
beforehand, others who orchestrate his music can only proceed by
conjecture. Should the composer desire to establish a strongly-marked
difference between the harmonic basis and the melodic outline it is
better not to employ wood-wind harmony, but to obtain proper balance
of tone by carefully distributing his dynamic marks of expression,
_pp_, _p_, _f_ and _ff_. If, on the contrary, the composer desires a
full round tone as harmonic basis and less show of brilliance in the
harmonic parts, the use of harmony in the wood-wind is to be
recommended. The following may serve as a guide to the scoring of
wood-wind chords: the harmonic basis should differ from the melody not
only in fullness and intensity of tone, but also in colour. If the
fanfare figure is allotted to the brass (trumpets or horns) the
harmony should be given to the wood-wind; if the phrase is given to
the wood-wind (oboes and clarinets) the harmony should be entrusted to
the horns. To solve all these questions successfully a composer must
have full knowledge of the purpose he has in view, and those who
orchestrate his work should be permeated with his intentions. Here the
question arises, what should those intentions be? This is a more
difficult subject.

The aim of a composer is closely allied to the form of his work, to
the aesthetic meaning of its every moment and phrase considered apart,
and in relation to the composition as a whole. The choice of an
orchestral scheme depends on the musical matter, the colouring of
preceding and subsequent passages. It is important to determine
whether a given passage is a complement to or a contrast with what
goes before and comes after, whether it forms a climax or merely a
step in the general march of musical thought. It would be impossible
to examine all such possible types of relationship, or to consider the
_rôle_ played by each passage quoted in the present work. The reader
is therefore advised not to pay too much attention to the examples
given, but to study them and their bearing on the context in their
proper place in the full scores. Nevertheless I shall touch upon a few
of these points in the course of the following outline. To begin with,
young and inexperienced composers do not always possess a clear idea
of what they wish to do. They can improve in this direction by
reading good scores and by repeatedly listening to an orchestra,
provided they concentrate the mind to the fullest possible extent. The
search after extravagant and daring effects in orchestration is quite
a different thing from mere caprice; _the will to achieve is not
sufficient; there are certain things which should not be achieved_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The simplest musical ideas, melodic phrases in unison and octaves, or
repeated throughout several octaves, chords, of which no single part
has any melodic meaning are scored in various ways according to
register, dynamic effect and the quality of expression or tone colour
that may be desired. In many cases, one idea will be orchestrated in a
different way every time it recurs. Later on I shall frequently touch
upon this more complicated question.

_Examples:_

* _Snegourotchka_ [[58]]; [[65]] and before [[68]]--sustained note in
unison.

There are fewer possible ways of scoring more complex musical ideas,
harmonico-melodic phrases, polyphonic designs etc.; sometimes there
are but two methods to be followed, for each of the primary elements
in music, melody, harmony, and counterpoint possesses its own special
requirements, regulating the choice of instruments and tone colour.
The most complicated musical ideas sometimes admit of only one manner
of scoring, with a few hardly noticeable variations in detail. To the
following example, very simple in structure I add an alternative
method of scoring:

_Example:_

No. 175. _Vera Scheloga_, before [[35]]--a) actual orchestration,
*b)--another method.

It is obvious that the method b) will produce satisfactory tone. But a
3rd and 4th way of scoring would be less successful, and a
continuation of this process would soon lead to the ridiculous. For
instance if the chords were given to the brass the whole passage would
sound heavy, and the soprano recitative in the low and middle register
would be overpowered. If the _F_ sharp in the double basses were
played _arco_ by 'cellos and basses together it would sound clumsy, if
it were given to the bassoons a comic effect would be produced, and if
played by the brass it would sound rough and coarse, etc.

The object of scoring the same musical phrase in different ways is to
obtain variety either in tone colour or resonance. In each case the
composer may resort to the inversion of the normal order of
instruments, duplication of parts, or the two processes in
combination. The first of these is not always feasible. In the
preceding sections of the book I have tried to explain the
characteristics of each instrument and the part which each group of
instruments plays in the orchestra. Moreover many methods of doubling
are to be avoided; these I have mentioned, while there are also some
instruments which cannot be combined owing to the great difference in
their peculiarities. Therefore, as regards the general composition of
the orchestra, the student should be guided by the general principles
laid down in the earlier stages of the present work.

The best means of orchestrating the same musical idea in various ways
is by the adaptation of the musical matter. This can be done by the
following operations: a) complete or partial transference into other
octaves; b) repetition in a different key; c) extension of the whole
range by the addition of octaves to the upper and lower parts; d)
alteration of details (the most frequent method); e) variation of the
general dynamic scheme, e.g. repeating a phrase _piano_, which has
already been played _forte_.

These operations are always successful in producing variety of
orchestral colour.

_Examples:_

No. 176, 177. _Russian Easter Fête_ [[A]] and [[C]].

_The Christmas Night_ [[158]] and [[179]].

No. 178-181. _The Tsar's Bride_, Overture: beginning, [[1]], [[2]],
[[7]].

_Sadko_ [[99-101]] and [[305-307]] (cf. Ex. 289, 290, and 75).

No. 182-186. _Tsar Saltan_ [[14]], [[17]], [[26]], [[28]], [[34]].

No. 187-189.    "    "     [[181]], [[246]], [[220]].

* No. 190-191. _Ivan the Terrible_, Overture [[5]] and [[12]].

_Spanish Capriccio_--compare 1st and 3rd movement.

* No. 192-195. _Shéhérazade_, 1st movement--beginning of the
                              _allegro_ [[A]], [[E]], [[M]].

                     "        3rd movement--beginning [[A]], [[I]].

                     "        3rd     "       [[E]], [[G]], [[O]].

* No. 196-198. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[55]], [[56]], [[62]].

* No. 199-201.    "    "    "     [[68]], [[70]], [[84]].

(Cf. also Ex. 213, 214. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[294]] and [[312]].)

* No. 202-203. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[229]], [[233]].

The process of scoring the same or similar ideas in different ways is
the source of numerous musical operations, _crescendo_, _diminuendo_,
interchange of tone qualities, variation of tone colour etc., and
incidentally throws new light upon the fundamental composition of the
orchestra.


Full _Tutti_.

The word _tutti_ generally means the simultaneous use of all
instruments, but the word "all" is used relatively, and it must not be
inferred that every single instrument must necessarily be employed to
form a _tutti_. In order to simplify the following illustrations I
will divide the word into two classes, _full tutti_ and _partial
tutti_,--independently of whether the orchestra is constructed in
pairs, in three's, or a larger number of instruments. I call _full
tutti_ the combination of all melodic groups, strings, wind, and
brass. By _partial tutti_ I mean passages in which the brass group
only takes part, whether two horns or two trumpets participate alone,
or whether two horns are combined with one or three trombones, without
tuba, trumpets, or the two remaining horns, etc.:

[4 Horns, 2 Horns           2 Horns    ]
[...      or 2 Trumpets, or ...  etc.  ]
[...      ...               3 Trombones].

In both species of _tutti_ full wood-wind may be employed or not,
according to the register and musical context of the passage. For
instance, in the extreme high register it may be essential to include
the piccolo; in the low register flutes will be unnecessary, and yet
the passage can still be called _tutti_. The inclusion of
kettle-drums, harp, and other instruments of little sustaining power,
as of the percussion in general, does not come under discussion.

The variety of orchestral operations increases with the number of
instruments forming a _tutti_, in fact, so great does it become that
it is impossible to consider all combinations. I can only give a few
examples of full and partial _tutti_, and leave the reader to draw his
own conclusions. Some of these examples fall under the double heading
of full and partial _tutti_, and the student is reminded that the
_tutti_ is used essentially in _forte_ and _fortissimo_, rarely in
_pianissimo_ and _piano_ passages.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[61]] and [[62]]--Partial and full _Tutti_.

       "        [[231]] Partial _Tutti_, without the trumpets
                (cf. Ex. 8).

No. 204. _Snegourotchka_ [[216]]--Full _Tutti_.

                "        [[325-326]]--Full _Tutti_ and chorus
                         (cf. Ex. 8).

_Sadko_ [[3]], [[223]], [[239]]--Full _Tutti_ (cf. Ex. 86).

No. 205-206. _Sadko_ [[173]], [[177]]--Full _Tutti_ with chorus,
differently scored.

No. 207-208. _The Christmas Night_ [[184]] and [[186]]--Full _Tutti_,
orchestrated in different ways, with and without chorus.

* _The Tsar's Bride_, Overture [[1]], [[2]], [[7]]--Full and partial
                      _Tutti_ (cf. Ex. 179-181).

*   "    "      "     [[141]]--Full _Tutti_.

*   "    "      "     [[177]]--  "     "

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[186]] and [[188]] Full _Tutti_.

* _Antar_ [[65]]--(cf. Ex. 32).

* No. 209. _Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[M]]; cf. also 1st
movement [[A]], [[E]], [[H]]; 2nd movement [[K]], [[P]], [[R]];
3rd movement [[G]], [[O]]; 4th movement [[G]], [[P]], [[W]] and
further on to [[Y]] (No. 193, 194, 19, 66, 77).

* _Spanish Capriccio_ [[B]], [[F]], [[J]], [[P]], [[V]], [[X-Z]] (cf.
Ex. 3).

* _Russian Easter Fête_ [[F]], [[J]], before [[L]], [[Y]], up to the
end.

* _3rd Symphony_, 1st movement [[D]], [[R-T]], [[X]]; 2nd
movement [[A]], [[E]]; 4th movement [[A]], [[H]], [[S]].

* _Sadko_, Symphonic tableau [[20-24]].

* _Mlada_, Act III [[12]] (cf. Ex. 258).

* For examples of _Tutti_ chords, see special Tables at the end of
Vol. II.


_Tutti_ in the wind.

In many cases the wood-wind and brass groups can form a _tutti_ by
themselves for periods of varying length. Sometimes this is effected
by the wood-wind alone, but more frequently with the support of horns.
At other times the horns are found alone without the wood-wind, and,
lastly, a _tutti_ may be comprised of instruments of each group in
varying numbers. The addition of kettle-drums and the rest of the
percussion is quite common and constitutes what the Germans call
"Janitscharenmusik", or Turkish infantry music. Violoncellos and
double basses playing more or less important _pizz._ notes are often
added to wood-wind instruments (_tutti_), likewise the remainder of
the strings and the harps; this process renders the sustained notes in
the wood-wind more distinct. _Tutti_ passages in wood-wind and horns
do not produce any great amount of power in _forte_ passages, but, on
the other hand _tutti_ in the brass groups alone may attain an
extraordinary volume of tone. In the following examples the formation
of pedal notes by strings or wood-wind in no way alters the general
character of the _Tutti_:

_Examples:_

No. 210-211. _Snegourotchka_ [[149]], [[151]] (compare).

_Tsar Saltan_ [[14]], [[17]], [[26]] (cf. Ex. 182-184).

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[57]], [[186]], [[262]].

No. 212. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[19]]; cf. also Act. III [[5]].

* No. 213-214. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[294]], [[312]] (compare).

* No. 215. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[116]]; cf. also [[82]] and [[84]].

* _Antar_ [[37]] (cf. Ex. 65).


_Tutti pizzicato._

The quartet of strings (_pizzicato_), reinforced occasionally by the
harp and piano, may, in certain cases constitute a particular kind of
_tutti_, which can only attain any great degree of strength by support
from the wood-wind. Without this support it is of medium power, though
still fairly brilliant in quality.

_Examples:_

No. 216. _Snegourotchka_, before [[128]]; cf. also [[153]] and before
[[305]].

* No. 217. _Russian Easter Fête_ [[K]]; cf. also [[U]] and [[V]].

* _Spanish Capriccio_ [[A]], [[C]], before [[S]], before [[P]]; cf.
also [[O]] (Ex. 56).

_Mlada_, Act II [[15]].

* _Sadko_: [[220]] (cf. Ex. 295).

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[101]].

* No. 218. _The May Night_, Act I, The Mayor's Song--combination of
strings, _arco_ and _pizz._


_Tutti_ in one, two and three parts.

It often happens that a moderately full orchestral _ensemble_ executes
a passage composed of one or two harmonic parts, in unison or in
octaves. Such melodic phrases call for more or less simple
orchestration with the usual doubling of parts, or, in ornamental
writing, admit of contrast in tone colouring, occasionally with the
addition of sustained notes.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_, before [[152]], [[174]], [[176]].

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[120-121]] (cf. Ex. 63).

_The Golden Cockerel_ [[215]].

* No. 219-221. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[142]], [[144]], [[147]]--3 part
_Tutti_, with different scoring.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[138]], [[139]]--_Tutti_ in one part.


_Soli_ in the strings.

Although, in any orchestral piece, numerous instances are to be found
of melodies and phrases entrusted to a solo wind instrument (generally
the first of each group, wood-wind or brass), solos for stringed
instruments, on the other hand, are extremely rare. Whilst the 1st
violin and 1st 'cello are fairly frequently used in this manner,
the solo viola is seldom found, and a solo on the double bass is
practically unknown. Phrases demanding particular individuality of
expression are entrusted to solo instruments; likewise passages that
require extraordinary technique, beyond the scope of the orchestral
rank and file. The comparatively weak tone of the solo instrument
necessitates light, transparent accompaniment. Difficult virtuoso
solos should not be written, as they attract too much attention to a
particular instrument. Solo stringed instruments are also used when
vigourous expression and technical facility are not required, but
simply in order to obtain that singular difference in colour which
exists between a solo stringed instrument and strings in unison. Two
solo instruments can be coupled together, e.g. 2 _Violins soli_, etc.
and in very rare cases a quartet of solo strings may be employed.

_Examples:_

_Violin solo:_

No. 222-223. _Snegourotchka_ [[54]], [[275]].

_The May Night_, pp. 64-78.

_Mlada_, Act I [[52]]; Act III, before [[19]].

* _A Fairy Tale_ [[W]].

* _Shéhérazade_, 1st movement [[C]], [[G]]; also the passages at
the start of each movement.

* _Spanish Capriccio_ [[H]], [[K]], [[R]], and the cadence on p. 38.

* No. 224. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[310]]--Vn. solo, on harmonic basis of
strings _sul ponticello_ and wood-wind.

_Snegourotchka_ [[274]], [[279]]--2 Vns soli (cf. Ex. 9).


_Viola solo:_

No. 225. _Snegourotchka_ [[212]].

_Sadko_ [[137]].

* No. 226. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[163]]; cf. also [[174]], [[177]].


_Violoncello solo:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[187]] (cf. Ex. 102).

_The Christmas Night_, before [[29]], [[130]].

_Mlada_, Act III [[36]].

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[177]], [[180]] (cf. Ex. 229).


_Double bass solo:_

* No. 227. _Mlada_, Act II [[10-12]]--a special instance where the
first string is tuned down.


_Solo quartet:_

_The Christmas Night_ [[222]]--Vn., Viola, 'Cello, D. bass.

* No. 228. _Tsar Saltan_ [[248]]--Vn. I, Vn. II, Viola, 'Cello.

* The case of a solo stringed instrument doubled by the wood-wind in
unison must not be forgotten. The object is to attain great purity and
abundance of tone, without impairing the timbre of the solo instrument
(especially in the high and low registers), or to produce a certain
highly-coloured effect.

_Examples:_

* _Mlada_, Act II [[52]]--Vn. + Fl.; Act IV [[31]]--Viol. + Fl. +
Harp.

* _The Christmas Night_ [[212]]--2 Vns + Fl. + Small Cl. (cf. Ex.
153).

* _Pan Voyevoda_ [[67]]--2 Vns + 2 Ob.; 2 Violas + 2 Cl.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[306]]--Bass cl. + C-fag. (cf. Ex. 10).

     "    "    "     [[309]]--Vn. + Fl.

* No. 229. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[179]]--Vn. + Picc.; 'Cello + Bass
cl.

* As shown in Chap. II, 2 Vns soli or Violin solo + Fl. (Picc.) are
often sufficient to double a melody in the upper register.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[207]]--cf. Chap. II, p. 42 and Ex. 24.

* No. 230. _Russian Easter Fête_, p. 32--2 Solo violins (in
harmonics).

* No. 231. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[297]]--2 Solo violins + Picc.


Limits of orchestral range.

It is seldom that the entire orchestral conception is centred in the
upper register of the orchestra (the 5th and 6th octaves), still
more rarely is it focussed wholly in the lowest range (octaves 1 and
-1) where the proximity of harmonic intervals creates a bad effect. In
the first case the flutes and piccolo should be used along with the
upper notes of the violins, _soli_ or _divisi_; in the second case
the double bassoon and the low notes of the bassoons, bass clarinet,
horns, trombones and tuba are brought into play. The first method
gives brilliant colour, the second combination is dark and gloomy. The
contrary would be fundamentally impossible.

_Examples:_

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[122]], [[137]]           }
_Servilia_ [[168]], 8th bar. (cf. Ex. 62) }   low
No. 232. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[220]];   }   register.
  cf. also [[218]], [[219]]               }

* _Snegourotchka_, before [[25]]                  }
* _Legend of Kitesh_, before [[34]]               }  high
* No. 233. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[113]], [[117]] }  register.
* No. 234. _Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement pp. 59-62  }

The upper and lower parts of a passage can seldom be widely separated
without the intermediate octaves being filled in, for this is contrary
to the first principles of proper distribution of chords. Nevertheless
the unusual resonance thus produced serves for strange and grotesque
effects. In the first of the following examples the piccolo figure
doubled by the harp and the sparkling notes of the _glockenspiel_ is
set about four octaves apart from the bass, which is assigned to a
single Double bass and Tuba. But in the 3rd octave, the augmented
fourths and diminished fifths in the two flutes help to fill up the
intermediate space and lessen the distance between the two extreme
parts, thus forming some sort of link between them. The general effect
is fanciful.

_Examples:_

No. 235. _Snegourotchka_ [[255]].

* No. 236.      "        [[315]], 5th and 6th bars.

                "        [[274]] (cf. Ex. 9).

_A Fairy Tale_ [[A]].

_The Golden Cockerel_ [[179]], 9th bar. (cf. Ex. 229).


Transference of passages and phrases.

A phrase or a figure is often transferred from one instrument to
another. In order to connect the phrases on each instrument in the
best possible way, the last note of each part is made to coincide with
the first note of the following one. This method is used for passages
the range of which is too wide to be performed on any one instrument,
or when it is desired to divide a phrase into two different timbres.

_Examples:_

* _Snegourotchka_ [[137]]--The melody is transferred from the violins
                  to the flute and clarinet (cf. Ex. 28).

*        "        before [[191]]--Solo violin--Solo 'cello.

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[57]]--Trombones--Trumpets; Horn--Ob. + Cl.

A similar operation is used in scoring passages covering the entire
orchestral scale, or a great portion of it. When one instrument is on
the point of completing its allotted part, another instrument takes up
the passage, starting on one or two notes common to both parts, and so
on. This division must be carried out to ensure the balance of the
whole passage.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[36]], [[38]], [[131]]--Strings.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[190]]--Wood-wind.

_Sadko_ [[72]]--Strings (cf. Ex. 112).

   "    [[223]]--Strings.

_The Christmas Night_, before [[180]]--Strings, wind and chorus (cf.
Ex. 132).

* No. 237. _The Christmas Night_, before [[181]]--String figure.

* _Servilia_ [[111]]--Strings (cf. Ex. 88).

      "      [[29]], 5th bar.--Ob.--Fl.; Cl.--Bass cl., Fag.

No. 238. _The Golden Cockerel_, before [[9]]--Wood-wind.

*          "    "       "       [[5]]--Fag.--Eng. horn (+ 'Cellos
                                _pizz._).


Chords of different tone quality used alternately.

1. The most usual practice is to employ chords on different groups of
instruments alternately. In dealing with chords in different registers
care should be taken that the progression of parts, though broken in
passing from one group to another, remains as regular as if there
were no leap from octave to octave; this applies specially to
chromatic passages in order to avoid false relation.

_Examples:_

No. 239. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[29]].

No. 240-241.  _The Tsar's Bride_ [[123]], before [[124]].

* No. 242-243.  "    "      "    [[178]], [[179]].

     * _Note._ The rules regulating progression of parts may
     sometimes be ignored, when extreme contrast of timbre
     between two adjacent chords is intended.

     _Examples:_

     * _Shéhérazade_, 8th bar from the beginning, (the
     chromatic progression at the 12th bar is undertaken by
     the same instruments, the 2nd cl. is therefore placed
     above the first in the opening)--cf. Ex. 109.

     * _The Christmas Night_, opening (cf. Ex. 106).

2. Another excellent method consists in transferring _the same chord
or its inversion_ from one orchestral group to another. This operation
demands perfect balance in progression of parts as well as register.
The first group strikes a chord of short value, the other group takes
possession of it simultaneously in the same position and distribution,
either in the same octave or in another. The dynamic gradations of
tone need not necessarily be the same in both groups.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, commencement of the overture (cf. Ex. 85).

No. 244. _Snegourotchka_ [[140]].


Amplification and elimination of tone qualities.

The operation which consists in contrasting the resonance of two
different groups (* or the different timbres of one and the same
group), either in sustained notes or chords, transforms a simple into
a complex timbre, suddenly, or by degrees. It is used in establishing
a _crescendo_. While the first group effects the _crescendo_
gradually, the second group enters _piano_ or _pianissimo_, and
attains its _crescendo_ more rapidly. The whole process is thereby
rendered more tense as the timbre changes. The converse operation--the
transition from a complex to a simple timbre, by the suppression of
one of the groups, belongs essentially to the _diminuendo_.

_Examples:_

No. 245. _Snegourotchka_ [[313]].

                "        [[140]] (cf. Ex. 244).

_A Fairy Tale_ [[V]].

_Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[D]] (cf. Ex. 74).

*     "        4th movement p. 221.

No. 246. _Servilia_ [[228]]; cf. also [[44]].

_The Christmas Night_ [[165]] (cf. Ex. 143).

No. 247. _The Tsar's Bride_, before [[205]].

* No. 248. _Russian Easter Fête_ [[D]].

* No. 249-250. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[5]], [[162]].


Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo.

As regards choice of timbre, phrases in imitation are subject to the
law of register. When a phrase is imitated in the upper register it
should be given to an instrument of higher range and _vice versa_. If
this rule is ignored an unnatural effect will be produced, as when the
clarinet in its upper range replies to the oboe in the lower compass
etc. The same rule must be followed in dealing with phrases, actually
different, but similar in character; repeated phrases of different
character should be scored in a manner most suitable to each.

_Examples:_

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[157]], [[161]].

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[40-41]].

* No. 251. _Spanish Capriccio_ [[S]].

In echo phrases, that is to say imitation entailing not only decrease
in volume of tone but also an effect of distance, the second
instrument should be weaker than the first, but the two should possess
some sort of affinity. An echo given to muted brass following the same
phrase not muted produces this distant effect. Muted trumpets are
eminently suited to echo a theme in the oboes; flutes also may imitate
clarinets and oboes successfully. A wood-wind instrument cannot be
used to echo the strings, or _vice versa_, on account of the
dissimilarity in timbre. Imitation in octaves (with a decrease in
resonance) creates an effect resembling an echo.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[3]].

No. 252. _Sadko_ [[264]].

* _Spanish Capriccio_ [[E]].--This example is not precisely an echo
but resembles one in character (cf. Ex. 44).

* _Shéhérazade_, 4th movement before [[O]].


_Sforzando-piano_ and _piano-sforzando_ chords.

Besides the natural dynamic process of obtaining these marks of
expression, a process which depends upon the player, they may also be
produced by artificial means of orchestration.

a) At the moment when the wood-wind begins a _piano_ chord, the
strings attack it _sforzando_, a compound chord for preference, either
_arco_ or _pizz._ In the opposite case the _sf_ in the strings must
occur at the end of the wood-wind chord. The first method is also
employed for a _sf-dim._, and the second for a _cresc.-sf_ effect.

b) It is not so effective, and therefore less frequent to give the
notes of sustained value to the strings, and the short chords to the
wood-wind. In such cases the _tenuto_ chord is played _tremolando_ on
the strings.

_Examples:_

_Vera Scheloga_, before [[35]], [[38]], 10th bar.

* No. 253. _Legend of Kitesh_, before [[15-16]].

* _Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement, [[P]], 14th bar.


Method of emphasising certain notes and chords.

In order to stress or emphasise a certain note or chord, besides the
marks of expression [music symbol: decrescendo] and _sf_, chords of 2,
3, and 4 notes can be inserted into the melodic progression by the
instruments of the string quartet, each playing a single note; short
notes in the wood-wind may also be used as well as a chain of three
or four grace notes, in the form of a scale, either in strings or
wood-wind. These unstressed notes (anacrusis), generally written very
small, form a kind of upward glide, the downward direction being less
common. As a rule they are connected to the main note by a slur. In
the strings they should not lead up to chords of three or four notes,
as this would be awkward for the bow.

_Examples:_

No. 254. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[142]]--Anacrusis in the strings.

* No. 255. _Shéhérazade_, 2nd movement [[C]]--Short _pizz._ chords.

*                "         "     "     [[P]]--Short wind chords
                                       (cf. Ex. 19).


_Crescendo_ and _diminuendo_.

Short _crescendi_ and _diminuendi_ are generally produced by natural
dynamic means; when prolonged, they are obtained by this method
combined with other orchestral devices. After the strings, the brass
is the group most facile in producing dynamic shades of expression,
glorifying _crescendo_ chords into the most brilliant _sforzando_
climaxes. Clarinets specialise in _diminuendo_ effects and are capable
of decreasing their tone to a breath (_morendo_). Prolonged orchestral
_crescendi_ are obtained by the gradual addition of other instruments
in the following order: strings, wood-wind, brass. _Diminuendo_
effects are accomplished by the elimination of the instruments in the
reverse order (brass, wood-wind, strings). The scope of this work does
not lend itself to the quotation of prolonged _crescendo_ and
_diminuendo_ passages. The reader is referred, therefore, to the full
scores:

* _Shéhérazade_, pp. 5-7, 92-96, 192-200.

* _Antar_ [[6]], [[51]].

* _The Christmas Night_ [[183]].

* _Sadko_ [[165-166]].

* _The Tsar's Bride_ [[80-81]].

Many examples of shorter _crescendi_ and _diminuendi_ will be found in
Vol. II.


Diverging and converging progressions.

In the majority of cases, diverging and converging progressions simply
consist in the gradual ascent of the three upper parts, with the bass
descending. The distance separating the bass from the other parts is
trifling at first, and grows by degrees. On the other hand, in
converging progressions, the three upper parts, at first so far
distant from the bass, gradually approach it. Sometimes these
progressions involve an increase or a decrease in tone. The
intermediate intervals are filled up by the introduction of fresh
parts as the distance widens, so that the upper parts become doubled
or trebled. In converging progressions the tripled and doubled parts
are simplified, as the duplicating instruments cease to play.
Moreover, if the harmony allows it, the group in the middle region
which remains stationary is the group to be retained, or else the
sustained note which guarantees unity in the operation. Below, the
reader will find double examples of both descriptions. The first pair
represents a diverging progression, 1. _piano_, in which the human
voice takes part; 2. a purely orchestral _crescendo_. The second
depicts two similar diverging progressions, firstly a gradual
_crescendo_, secondly _dim._, during which the strings become more and
more divided as the wind instruments cease to play. Ex. 258
accompanies the apparition of Mlada, Ex. 259, its disappearance. The
atmosphere and colouring are weird and fanciful. The third pair of
examples forms instances of converging progressions. In the first (Ex.
260) Princess Volkhova relates the wonders of the sea. Then in the
middle of a powerful orchestral _crescendo_ the Sea-King appears (Ex.
261). Both examples include a sustained stationary chord of the
diminished seventh. The handling of such progressions requires the
greatest care.

_Examples:_

No. 256-257. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[102]] and [[107]].

No. 258-259. _Mlada_, Act III [[12]] and [[19]].

No. 260-261. _Sadko_ [[105]] and [[119]].

_Sadko_ [[72]] (cf. Ex. 112).

   "    before [[315]].

* _The Christmas Night_, beginning (cf. Ex. 106).

* No. 262. _Antar_, end of 3rd movement.

_Note._ A sustained note between the diverging parts does not always
allow the empty space to be more completely filled up.

_Example:_

No. 263. _The Golden Cockerel_, before [[106]].


Tone quality as a harmonic force.

Harmonic basis.

Melodic design comprising notes foreign to the harmony, passing or
grace notes, embellishments etc., does not permit that a florid
outline should proceed at the same time with another one, reduced to
essential and fundamental notes:

[Music]

If, in the above example, the upper part is transposed an octave
lower, the discordant effect produced by the contact of appoggiaturas
and fundamental notes will be diminished; the quicker the passage is
played the less harsh the effect will be, and _vice versa_. But it
would be ill-advised to lay down any hard and fast rule as to the
permissible length of these notes. There is no doubt that the harmonic
notes, the thirds of the fundamental one (_E_) are more prominent from
their proximity with the notes extraneous to the harmony. If the
number of parts is increased (for instance, if the melodic figure is
in thirds, sixths etc.), the question becomes still more complicated,
since, to the original harmonic scheme, chords with different root
bases are added, producing false relation.

Nevertheless, for the solution of such problems, orchestration
provides an element of the greatest importance: difference of timbres.
The greater the dissimilarity in timbre between the harmonic basis on
the one hand and the melodic design on the other, the less discordant
the notes extraneous to the harmony will sound. The best example of
this is to be found between the human voice and the orchestra, next
comes the difference of timbres between the groups of strings,
wood-wind, plucked strings and percussion instruments. Less important
differences occur between wood-wind and brass; in these two groups,
therefore, the harmonic basis generally remains an octave removed from
the melodic design, and should be of inferior dynamic power.

_Examples of harmonic basis in chords:_

No. 264. _Pan Voyevoda_, Introduction.

_Legend of Kitesh_, Introduction (cf. also Ex. 125 and 140).

* _Mlada_, Act III [[10]].

The harmonic basis may be ornamental in character, in which case it
should move independently of the concurrent melodic design.

_Examples:_

* No. 265-266. _Tsar Saltan_ [[103-104]], [[128]], [[149]],
[[162-165]] (cf. below).

Chords the most widely opposed in character may be used on a simple,
stationary harmonic basis, a basis, founded, for example, on the chord
of the tonic or diminished seventh.

_Examples:_

No. 267. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[326-328]]--Wood-wind and harps on a
string basis.

No. 268-269. _Kashtcheï the Immortal_ [[33]], [[43]].

No. 270. _Mlada_, Act II, before [[17]], [[18]]], [[20]].

No. 271. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[125]]--Chords of the diminished
seventh, on arpeggio basis (augmented fifth).

The effect of alternating harmony produced between two melodic
figures, e.g. one transmitting a note, held in abeyance, to the other,
or the simultaneous progression of a figure in augmentation and
diminution etc. becomes comprehensible and pleasant to the ear when
the fundamental sustained harmony is different.

_Examples:_

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[34]], [[36]], [[297]] (cf. Ex. 34 and 231).

No. 272-274. _Tsar Saltan_ [[104]], [[162-165]] (cf. also
[[147-148]]).

* _Russian Easter Fête_, before [[V]].

The whole question as to what is allowed and what forbidden in the
employment of notes extraneous to the harmony is one of the most
difficult in the whole range of composition; the permissible length of
such notes is in no way established. In absence of artistic feeling,
the composer who relies entirely on the difference between two timbres
will often find himself using the most painful discords. Innovations
in this direction in the latest post-Wagnerian music are often very
questionable; they depress the ear and deaden the musical senses,
leading to the unnatural conclusion that what is good, taken
separately, must necessarily be good in combination.


Artificial effects.

I apply this name to some orchestral operations which are based on
certain defects of hearing and faculty of perception. Having no wish
to specify those that already exist or to foretell those which may yet
be invented, I will mention, in passing, a few which have been used by
me in my own works. To this class belong _glissando_ scales or
arpeggios in the harp, the notes of which do not correspond with those
played simultaneously by other instruments, but which are used from
the fact that long _glissandi_ are more resonant and brilliant than
short ones.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[325]] (cf. Ex. 95).

No. 275. _Pan Voyevoda_ [[128]].

* _Shéhérazade_, 3rd movement [[M]], 5th bar (cf. Ex. 248).

* _Russian Easter Fête_ [[D]] (cf. Ex. 248).

* Enharmonic _glissando_ in the strings should also be mentioned.

No. 276. _The Christmas Night_ [[180]], 13th bar--'Cellos
_glissando_.


Use of percussion instruments for rhythm and colour.

Whenever some portion of the orchestra executes a rhythmic figure,
percussion instruments should always be employed concurrently. An
insignificant and playful rhythm is suitable to the triangle,
tambourine, castanets and side drum, a vigourous and straightforward
rhythm may be given to the bass drum, cymbals and gong. The strokes on
these instruments should almost invariably correspond to the strong
beats of the bar, highly-accented syncopated notes or disconnected
_sforzandi_. The triangle, side drum and tambourine are capable of
various rhythmic figures. Sometimes the percussion is used separately,
independently of any other group of instruments.

The brass and wood-wind are the two groups which combine the most
satisfactorily with percussion from the standpoint of colour. The
triangle, side drum, and tambourine go best with harmony in the upper
register; cymbals, bass drum and gong with harmony in the lower. The
following are the combinations most generally employed: _tremolo_ on
the triangle and tambourine with trills in wood-wind and violins;
_tremolo_ on the side drum, or cymbals struck with drum sticks, and
sustained chords on trumpets and horns; _tremolo_ on the bass drum or
the gong with chords on trombones or low sustained notes on 'cellos
and double basses. It must not be forgotten that the bass drum,
cymbals, gong and a _tremolo_ on the side drum, played _fortissimo_,
is sufficient to overpower any orchestral _tutti_.

* The reader will find instances of the use of percussion instruments
in any full score, and in several examples of the present work.

_Examples:_

* _Shéhérazade_ pp. 107-119, also many passages in 4th movement.

* _Antar_ [[40]], [[43]] (cf. Ex. 73, 29).

* _Spanish capriccio_ [[P]] (cf. Ex. 64); the cadences to be studied
in the 4th movement, where they are accompanied by various
percussion instruments.

* _Russian Easter Fête_ [[K]] (cf. Ex. 217).

* _The Tsar's Bride_ [[140]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[196-197]]--"The Battle of Kerjémetz".

* _Pan Voyevoda_ [[71-72]].


Economy in orchestral colour.

Neither musical feeling nor the ear itself can stand, for long, the
full resources of the orchestra combined together. The favourite group
of instruments is the strings, then follow in order the wood-wind,
brass, kettle-drums, harps, _pizzicato_ effects, and lastly the
percussion, also, in point of order, triangle, cymbals, big drum, side
drum, tambourine, gong. Further removed stand the celesta,
_glockenspiel_ and xylophone, which instruments, though melodic, are
too characteristic in timbre to be employed over frequently. The same
may be said of the piano and castanets. A quantity of national
instruments not included in the present work may be incorporated into
the orchestra; such are the guitar, the domra, zither, mandoline, the
oriental tambourine, small tambourine etc. These instruments are
employed from time to time for descriptive-aesthetic purposes.

These instruments are most frequently used in the above-named order. A
group of instruments which has been silent for some time gains fresh
interest upon its reappearance. The trombones, trumpets and tuba are
occasionally _tacet_ for long periods, the percussion is seldom
employed, and practically never all together, but in single
instruments or in two's and three's. In national dances or music in
ballad style, percussion instruments may be used more freely.

After a long rest the re-entry of the horns, trombones and tuba should
coincide with some characteristic intensity of tone, either _pp_ or
_ff_; _piano_ and _forte_ re-entries are less successful, while
re-introducing these instruments _mezzo-forte_ or _mezzo-piano_
produces a colourless and common-place effect. This remark is capable
of wider application. For the same reasons it is not good to commence
or finish any piece of music either _mf_ or _mp_. The scope of the
musical examples in this work does not permit of illustrating by
quotation the use of economy in orchestral colour, nor the re-entry of
instruments thrown into prominence by prolonged rests. The reader must
examine these questions in full scores.



Chapter V.

COMBINATION OF THE HUMAN VOICE WITH ORCHESTRA. THE STAGE BAND.


Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices.

General remarks.

In accompanying the voice orchestral scoring should be light enough
for the singer to make free use of all the dynamic shades of
expression without hardness of tone. In overflowing lyrical moments,
where full voice is required, the singer should be well supported by
the orchestra.

Opera singing may be divided into two general classes, lyric singing
and declamation or recitative. The full, round, _legato_ aria affords
greater facility for tone production than florid music or recitative,
and the more movement and rhythmic detail contained in the vocal part,
the greater freedom and liberty must there be given to the voice. In
such a case the latter should not be doubled by the orchestra, neither
should rhythmical figures be written for any instrument corresponding
with those in the vocal part. In accompanying the voice the composer
should bear these points in mind before turning his attention to the
choice of orchestral colour. A confused, heavy accompaniment will
overpower the singer; an accompaniment which is too simple in
character will lack interest, and one which is too weak will not
sustain the voice sufficiently.

In modern opera it is rare that orchestral writing is confined to
accompaniment pure and simple. It frequently happens that the
principal musical idea, often complex in character, is contained in
the orchestra. The voice may then be said to form the accompaniment,
exchanging musical for literary interest. It becomes subordinate to
the orchestra, as though it were an extra part, subsequently added as
an after-thought. But it is evident that great care must be taken with
orchestral writing in such cases. The scoring must not be so heavy or
complicated as to drown the voice and prevent the words from being
heard, thereby breaking the thread of the text, and leaving the
musical imagery unexplained. Certain moments may require great volume
of orchestral tone, so great that a voice of even phenomenal power is
incapable of being heard. Even if the singer is audible, such unequal
struggles between voice and orchestra are most inartistic, and the
composer should reserve his orchestral outbursts for the intervals
during which the voice is silent, distributing the singer's phrases
and pauses in a free and natural manner, according to the sense of the
words. If a prolonged _forte_ passage occurs in the orchestra it may
be used concurrently with action on the stage. All artificial
reduction of tone contrary to the true feeling of a passage, the sole
object being to allow the voice to come through, should be strictly
avoided, as it deprives orchestral writing of its distinctive
brilliance. It must also be remembered that too great a disparity in
volume of tone between purely orchestral passages and those which
accompany the voice create an inartistic comparison. Therefore, when
the orchestra is strengthened by the use of wood-wind in three's or
four's, and brass in large numbers, the division of tone and colour
must be manipulated skillfully and with the greatest care.

In previous sections I have frequently stated that the structure of
the orchestra is closely related to the music itself. The scoring of a
vocal work proves this relationship in a striking manner, and, indeed,
it may be stipulated that _only that which is well written can be well
orchestrated_.


Transparence of accompaniment. Harmony.

The group of strings is the most transparent medium and the one least
likely to overpower the voice. Then come the wood-wind and the brass,
the latter in the following order: horns, trombones, trumpets. A
combination of strings, _pizz._, and the harp forms a setting
eminently favourable for the voice. As a general rule a singer is more
easily overpowered by long sustained notes than by short detached
ones. Strings doubled in the wood-wind and brass, and brass doubled
by wood-wind are combinations liable to drown the singer. This may be
done even more easily by _tremolando_ in the kettle-drums and other
percussion instruments, which, even by themselves are capable of
overpowering any other orchestral group of instruments. Doubling of
wood-wind and horns, and the use of two clarinets, two oboes or two
horns in unison to form one harmonic part is likewise to be avoided,
as such combinations will have a similar effect on the voice. The
frequent use of long sustained notes in the double basses is another
course unfavourable to the singer; these notes in combination with the
human voice produce a peculiar throbbing effect.

Juxtaposition of strings and wood-wind which overweights _legato_ or
declamatory singing may nevertheless be employed if one of the groups
forms the harmony in sustained notes and the other executes a melodic
design, when, for instance the sustaining instruments are clarinet,
and bassoon, or bassoon and horn, and the melodic design is entrusted
to violins or violas--or in the opposite case, when the harmony is
given to violas and 'cellos _divisi_, and the harmonic [Transcriber's
Note: melodic] figure to the clarinets.

Sustained harmony in the register of the second octave to the middle
of the third does not overpower women's voices, as these develop
_outside_ this range; neither is it too heavy for men's voices, which
although opening out _within_ the range itself sound an octave higher,
as in the case of the tenor voice. As a rule women's voices suffer
more than men's when they come in contact with harmony in a register
similar to their own. Taken separately, and used in moderation, each
group of orchestral instruments may be considered favourable to each
type of voice. But the combination of two or three groups cannot be so
considered unless they each play an independent part and are not
united together at full strength. Incessant four-part harmony is to be
deprecated. Satisfactory results will be obtained when the number of
harmonic parts is gradually decreased, with some of them sustaining
pedal notes, and when the harmony, interspersed with necessary pauses
is confined to the limits of one octave, distributed over several
octaves, or duplicated in the higher register.

These manipulations allow the composer to come to the singer's aid; in
voice-modulations, when the singer passes from the _cantabile_ to the
declamatory style, the composer may reduce or eliminate some harmony
which is found to be too heavy as the vocal tone diminishes, and
conversely, support the voice by a fuller orchestral tone in broad
phrases and climaxes.

Ornamental writing and polyphonic accompaniment should never be too
intricate in character, entailing the use of an unnecessary number of
instruments. Some complicated figures are better partially entrusted
to _pizz._ strings and harp, as this combination has little chance of
overpowering the voice. Some examples of accompanying an _aria_ are
given below.

_Examples:_

_The Tsar's Bride_, Lykow's supplementary _Aria_ (Act III).

  "    "      "     [[16-19]]--Griasnov's _Aria_.

No. 277. _Snegourotchka_ [[45]].

* _Snegourotchka_ [[187-188]], [[212-213]] the two Cavatinas of Tsar
Berendey (cf. extracts, Ex. 102, 225).

No. 278. _Sadko_ [[143]].

            "    [[204-206]]--The Venetian's Song.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[39-41]], [[222-223]] (cf. Ex. 31).

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[153-157]], [[163]].

Florid singing which limits volume of tone requires a light
accompaniment, simple in outline and colour, involving no duplication
of instruments.

_Examples:_

No. 279. _Snegourotchka_ [[42-48]]--_Snegourotchka's Aria_ (Prologue),
Fragment.

* _Sadko_ [[195-197]]--Hindoo Song (cf. Ex. 122).

* _The Christmas Night_ [[45-50]]--Oxana's _Aria_.

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[131-136]]--_Aria_ of Queen Shémakhâ.


Doubling voices in the orchestra.

Melodic doubling of voices by orchestral instruments (in unison or
octaves) is of frequent occurrence, but incessant duplication for an
extended period of time should be avoided; it is only permissible in
isolated phrases. The most natural duplication in unison of womens'
voices is performed by violins, violas, clarinets and oboes; that of
mens' voices by violas, 'cellos, bassoons and horns. Doubling in
octaves is usually done in the upper register. Trombones and trumpets
overpower the voice and cannot be used for this purpose. Uninterrupted
or too frequent duplication should be avoided, not only because the
operation deprives the singer of full freedom of expression, but also
because it replaces by a mixed timbre the rare characteristic
qualities of the human voice. Doubling, when limited to a few special
phrases supports the voice and endows it with beauty and colour. It is
only suitable _in tempo_; to apply it, in unison or octaves to a
passage _ad. lib._ is both ineffective and dangerous.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[50-52]]--Snegourotchka's Arietta (cf. Ex. 41).

_Sadko_ [[309-311]]--Volkhova's Cradle-song (cf. Ex. 81).

Besides the question of doubling the voice for the object of colour
there are instances when the singer executes only part of a phrase,
allotted in its entirely to an orchestral instrument.

_Example:_

_Vera Scheloga_ [[30]], [[36]] (cf. Ex. 49).

Lyrical climaxes, _a piena voce_, or dramatic passages for the voice
situated outside its normal range should be supported melodically and
harmonically by the orchestra, in the register in which the voice is
placed. The culminating point in such passages often coincides with
the entry or sudden attack of the trombones or other brass
instruments, or by a rush of strings. Strengthening the accompaniment
in this manner will soften the tone of the voice.

_Examples:_

No. 280. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[206]].

_Servilia_ [[126-127]].

    "      [[232]].

No. 281. _Sadko_ [[314]].

_Vera Scheloga_ [[41]].

If the culminating point is soft in colour and outline it is better
left unsupported in the orchestra, but sometimes the wood-wind,
sustaining such passages with light transparent melody or harmony may
produce an entrancing effect.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[188]].

       "        [[318]] (cf. Ex. 119).

No. 282. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[214]].

It is a common practice to support voices in concerted numbers by
harmony and duplication; this operation makes for accuracy and
brilliance when applied to duets, trios, quartets etc.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[292-293]]--Duet (cf. Ex. 118).

_Sadko_ [[99-101]]--Duet (cf. Ex. 289 and 290).

No. 283. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[169]]--sextet.

           "    "      "    [[117]] quartet.

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[341]]--quartet and sextet (cf. Ex. 305).

The beautiful effect produced by a solo instrument accompanying a
_cantabile aria_ cannot be denied. In such cases the instruments used
are generally the violin, viola, and 'cello, or the flute, oboe, Eng.
horn, clar., bass clar., bassoon, horn and harp. The accompaniment is
often contrapuntal or composed of polyphonic designs. The solo
instrument either plays alone or as the leading melodic voice in the
_ensemble_. In combination with the voice, or associated with some
action on the stage, a solo instrument is a powerful expedient for
musical characterisation. Instances of this description are numerous.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[50]]--Soprano and oboe (cf. Ex. 41).

       "        [[97]]--Contralto and Eng. horn.

       "        [[243]], [[246]]--Baritone and bass clar.
                (cf. Ex. 47-48).

No. 284. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[108]]--Soprano, 'cello and oboe.

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[163]]--Soprano and viola (cf. Ex. 226).

It is comparatively rare for percussion instruments to take part in
accompanying the voice. The triangle is occasionally used, the cymbals
less frequently. An accompaniment may be formed by a figure or a
_tremolo_ on the kettle-drums.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[97]], [[224]], [[247]] (Lell's 1st and 3rd
songs).

_Tsar Saltan_, before [[5]].

* No. 285. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[135]]; cf. also [[161]], [[197]].

The following are examples of powerful and expressive orchestral
passages, the voice _tacet_:

No. 286. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[81]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[282]], [[298]].

* _Servilia_ [[130]].


Recitative and declamation.

The accompaniment of recitative and melodic declamatory phrases should
be light enough to allow the voice to come through without strain, and
the words to be heard distinctly. The most convenient method is to
employ sustained chords and _tremolo_ on the strings or wood-wind,
giving free latitude to the voice from a rhythmic point of view (_a
piacere_).

Another excellent plan is to write short chords in the strings
combined with wood-wind in different ways. Sustained chords and those
entailing change of position should occur preferably when the voice is
silent, thus permitting both conductor and orchestra to keep a closer
watch over the singer's irregularities of rhythm in _a piacere_
recitatives. If the accompaniment is more complex in character,
melodic, polyphonic or ornamental in design, the recitative must be
sung _in tempo_. Any phrase which it is necessary to emphasise in
accordance with the sense of the words assumes a more _cantabile_
character, and must be reinforced by the orchestra. Opera, today,
besides demanding much greater care in the treatment of the text than
in the past, abounds in constant transition from declamation to
_cantabile_, or in the fusion of the two. The orchestra offers more
variety of texture and must be handled with greater regard to its
relationship to the words, and the action on the stage. This class of
orchestration can only be studied from lengthy examples. I refer the
reader to operatic full scores and content myself with giving one or
[Transcriber's Note: 'two' missing in original] short instances:

_Examples:_

No. 287. _Snegourotchka_ [[16]].

No. 288. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[124-125]].

The following double examples, similar from a musical point of view,
show different methods of handling an orchestra from the standpoint of
accompaniment to the voice, and the _tutti_ form.

_Examples:_

No. 289-291. _Sadko_ [[99-101]] and [[305-307]] (compare also Ex. 75).

_Vera Scheloga_ [[3-7]] and [[28]].

Care should be taken not to score too heavily when accompanying
singers in the wings.

_Examples:_

* No. 292. _Sadko_ [[316]], [[318]], [[320]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[286-289]], [[304-305]].


Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus.

The chorus, possessing much greater unity and power than the solo
voice, does not demand such careful handling in the accompaniment. On
the contrary, too great a refinement of orchestral treatment will
prove harmful to the resonance of the chorus. As a general rule
orchestration of choral works follows the rules laid down for purely
instrumental scoring. It is obvious that dynamic marks of expression
must correspond in both bodies, but doubling one orchestral group with
another and coupling instruments of the same kind in unison (2 Ob., 2
Cl., 4 Horns, 3 Trombones etc.) are both possible operations, if
performed according to the requirements of the musical context.
Doubling choral parts by instruments is generally a good plan. In
_cantabile_ passages such duplication may be melodic in character,
and the design more ornamental in the orchestra than in the chorus.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[3-6]]; Act III [[66-69]].

_The May Night_, Act I [[X-Y]]; Act III [[L-Ee]], [[Ddd-Fff]].

_Snegourotchka_ [[61-73]], [[147-153]], [[323-328]].

_Mlada_, Act II [[22-31]], [[45-63]]; Act IV [[31-36]].

_The Christmas Night_ [[59-61]], [[115-123]].

_Sadko_ [[37-39]], [[50-53]], [[79-86]], [[173]], [[177]], [[187]],
[[189]], [[218-221]], [[233]], [[270-273]].

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[29-30]], [[40-42]], [[50-59]], [[141]].

_Tsar Saltan_ [[67-71], [[91-93]], [[133-145]], [[207-208]].

_Legend of Kitesh_ [[167]], [[177-178]].

_The Golden Cockerel_ [[237-238]], [[262-264]].

The reader will find instances of choral accompaniment in many
examples relating to other sections of the work.

In the case of solitary exclamations or phrases in recitative, melodic
doubling is not always suitable. It is better to support the voice
simply by harmonic duplication.

The repetition of notes--required by declamation--forming no
fundamental part of the rhythmical structure of a phrase or chord
should not be reproduced in the orchestra; the melodic or harmonic
basis alone should be doubled. Sometimes the rhythmical structure of a
choral phrase is simplified in comparison with its orchestral
duplication.

_Examples:_

No. 293. _The Tsar's Bride_ [[96]].

No. 294. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act I, before [[75]].

Choral passages, the musical context of which is complete in itself,
forming a chorus _a cappella_ often remain undoubled by the orchestra,
accompanied solely by sustained notes or an independent polyphonic
figure.

_Examples:_

No. 295. _Sadko_ [[219]].

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[207]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[167]] (cf. Ex. 116).

* _The Golden Cockerel_ [[236]].

Heavier scoring is required for a mixed chorus; for a male voice
chorus the orchestration should be lighter; still more so for women's
voices alone. In scoring a certain passage the composer should not
lose sight of the number of choristers he is employing, for scenic
conditions may necessitate a reduction of that figure. The approximate
number should be marked in the full score as a basis upon which to
work.

_Examples:_

No. 296. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[37]].

* _Sadko_ [[17]], [[20]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[61]] (cf. Ex. 198).

     _Note._ It must also be remembered that a _ff_ passage on an
     enlarged orchestra, comprising wood-wind in fours, and
     numerous brass (sometimes in three's), is capable of
     overpowering a large mixed chorus.

A chorus in the wings requires as light an accompaniment as that
employed for a solo singer on the stage.

_Examples:_

* _Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[25-26]], [[90]]; Act III [[13-14]].

* _The May Night_, Act I, before [[X]]; Act III [[Bbb-Ccc]].

* No. 297. _Sadko_ [[102]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[54-56]] (cf. Ex. 196 and 197).


Solo voice with chorus.

When an _aria_ or recitative is coupled with the chorus great care
must be taken in the choral writing. A woman's solo voice stands out
well against a male voice chorus, likewise a solo male voice against a
women's chorus, for in both cases, the timbre of the solo voice
differs from the rest. But the combination of solo voice and chorus,
of the same timbre, or mixed chorus, creates a certain amount of
difficulty. In such cases the soloist should sing in a higher register
than the chorus, the former _a piena voce_, the latter _piano_. The
soloist should stand as near to the footlights as possible; the chorus
up-stage. The orchestration should be adapted to the soloist, not to
the chorus.

_Examples:_

No. 298. _Snegourotchka_ [[143]].

_Ivan the Terrible._ Act II [[37]] (cf. Ex. 296).

When the chorus sings in the wings the soloist is always heard
distinctly.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[25-26]].

* _The May Night_, Act III [[Ccc]].

* _Sadko_ [[102]], [[111]].


Instruments on the stage and in the wings.

The use of instruments on the stage or in the wings dates from distant
times (Mozart, _Don Giovanni_, string orchestra in Act I, _finale_).
In the middle of last century orchestras of brass instruments, or
brass and wood-wind combined, made their appearance on the stage
(Glinka, Meyerbeer, Gounod and others). More modern composers have
abandoned this clumsy practice, not only unfortunate from the
spectators' point of view, but also detrimental to the mediaeval or
legendary setting of the majority of operas. Only those stage
instruments are now used which suit the scene and surroundings in
which the opera is laid. As regards instruments in the wings,
invisible to the audience, the question is simple. Nevertheless, for
the musician of today the choice of these instruments must be
regulated by aesthetic considerations of greater importance than those
governing the selection of a military band. The instruments are played
in the wings, those visible on the stage are only for ornament.
Sometimes stage-instruments may be replicas of those common to the
period which the opera represents, (the sacred horns in _Mlada_, for
example). The orchestral accompaniment must vary in power according
to the characteristics of the instruments played in the wings. It is
impossible to illustrate the use of all the instruments mentioned
below, and to outline suitable accompaniments. I can only give a few
examples and refer the reader once again to the passages in the full
scores.

a) Trumpets:

_Servilia_ [[12]], [[25]].

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[53]], [[55]], [[60]].

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[139]] and further on.


b) Horns, in the form of hunting horns:

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[38-39]].


c) Trombones, leaving the orchestra to go on the stage:

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[191]].


d) Cornets:

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[3]], [[7]].


e) Sacred horns (natural brass instruments in various keys):

_Mlada_, Act II, pp. 179 onwards.


f) Small clarinets and piccolos:

No. 299-300. _Mlada_, Act III [[37]], [[39]].


g) Pipes of Pan: instruments, specially made, with many holes which
are passed over the lips. These particular pipes produce a special
enharmonic scale (_B_ flat, _C_, _D_ flat, _E_ flat, _E_, _F_ sharp,
_G_, _A_), which has the effect of a glissando:

_Mlada_, Act III [[39]], [[43]] (cf. Ex. 300).


h) Harp, reproducing the effect of an aeolian harp:

_Kashtcheï the Immortal_ [[32]] and further on (cf. Ex. 268, 269).


i) Lyres. Instruments specially made and tuned so as to be able to
perform a glissando chord of the diminished seventh:

_Mlada_, Act III [[39]], [[43]] (cf. Ex. 300).


k) Pianoforte, grand or upright:

_Mozart and Salieri_ [[22-23]].


l) Gong, imitating a church bell:

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[57]] and further on.


m) Bass Drum (without cymbals) to imitate the sound of cannon:

_Tsar Saltan_ [[139]] and later.


n) Small kettle-drum, in _D_ flat (3rd octave):

_Mlada_, Act III [[41]] and later (cf. Ex. 60).


o) Bells in various keys:

_Sadko_ [[128]] and [[139]].

No. 301. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[181]] and further on. See also [[241]],
[[323]] and later.

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[139]] and further on.


p) Organ:

No. 302. _Sadko_ [[299-300]].

Wood-wind and strings are comparatively seldom used on the stage or in
the wings. In Russian opera the strings are employed in this way by
Rubinstein (_Gorioucha_), and in a splendidly characteristic manner by
Serov (_Hostile Power_): in the latter opera the _E_ flat clarinet is
used to imitate the fife in the Carnival procession.[17]

[Footnote 17: Mention should be made of the happy use of a small
orchestra in the wings (2 picc., 2 cl., 2 horns, 1 trombone,
tambourine, 4 Vns, 2 violas, 1 D-bass) in _The May Night_, Act II,
Sc. I. [[M-P]]. (Editor's note.)]



Chapter VI (Supplementary).

VOICES.


Technical Terms.

Among all the confused terms employed in singing to denote the
compass, register and character of the human voice, there are four
which may be said to represent elemental types: soprano, alto or
contralto, tenor and bass. These names are used to denote the
composition of the chorus with sub-divisions of _firsts_ and
_seconds_, to determine how the parts must be divided. (Sopr. I, Sopr.
II etc.) While the range of an instrument is exactly governed by its
construction, the compass of the voice, on the other hand, depends on
the individuality of the singer. It is therefore impossible to define
the exact limits of each of these vocal types. When it is a question
of dividing choristers into 1st and 2nd parts, those with the
higher voices are classed among the firsts and _vice versa_.

Besides the principal terms mentioned above, the names mezzo-soprano
(between sop. and alto), and baritone (between tenor and bass) are
also employed.

     _Note._ In the chorus mezzo-sopranos are classed with 2nd
     sopranos or 1st altos, baritones with 2nd tenors or
     first basses, according to quality and timbre of voice.

Apart from these denominations which represent the six principal solo
voices, a quantity of others are in use to denote either compass,
timbre or technique, such as light soprano, _soprano giusto_, lyric
soprano, dramatic soprano, light tenor, _tenorino-altino_,
_baryton-martin_, lyric tenor, dramatic tenor, _basso cantante_
("singing bass"), _basso profondo_ (deep bass) etc. To this lengthy
list must be added the term _mezzo-carattere_, of intermediate
character (between lyric and dramatic soprano, for example).

If we try to discover the real meaning of these designations it soon
becomes apparent that they are derived from widely different
sources--for instance, "light soprano" implies agility and mobility in
the voice; "dramatic tenor", the power to express strong dramatic
feeling; _basso profondo_ signifies great resonance in the deep
register.

Minute examination of all the methods of attack and emission of sound
lies within the province of the singing master and to enumerate them
here would only perplex the student. The same applies to the position
and exact limits of register (chest voice, middle and head voice in
women; chest voice, mixed voice and falsetto in men). The work of a
teacher of singing consists in equalising the voice throughout its
whole compass, so that the transition from one register to another, on
all the vowels, may be accomplished imperceptibly. Some voices are
naturally even and flexible. The professor of singing must correct
faults in breathing, determine the range of the voice and place it,
equalise its tone, increase its flexibility, instruct as to the
pronunciation of vowels, modulation from one grade of expression to
another, etc. A composer should be able to rely upon flexible and
equal voices without having to trouble himself as to the abilities or
defects of individual singers. In these days a part is seldom written
for a particular artist, and composers and librettists do not find it
necessary to entrust a certain rôle to _fioriture_ singers, another to
heavy dramatic voices. Poetic and artistic considerations demand
greater variety of resource in the study of opera or vocal music in
general.


Soloists.

Range and register.

I advise the composer to be guided by Table F. which gives the
approximate range of the six principal solo voices. A bracket under
the notes defines the normal octave, the register in which the voice
is generally used. Within these limits the composer may write freely
without fear of hardening or tiring the voice. The normal octave
applies also to declamatory singing and recitative; the notes above it
are exceptional and should be used for the culminating points of a
passage or for climaxes, the notes below, for the fall or decline of a
melody. Employing voices in unusual registers for long periods of time
will weary both singer and listener, but these registers may
occasionally be used for brief intervals so as not to confine the
voice too strictly to one octave. A few examples are added to
illustrate melody in different types of voices.

_Examples:_

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[102-109]] (for extracts cf. Ex. 256, 280,
                   284)--Marfa's Aria (Soprano).

  "    "      "    [[16-18]]--Griaznov's Aria (Baritone).

_Snegourotchka_--The 3 songs of Lell. (Contralto).

_Sadko_ [[46-49]] (cf. extract, Ex. 120)--Sadko's Aria (Tenor).

   "    [[129-131]]--Lioubava's Aria (Mezzo-sopr.).

   "    [[191-193]] (cf. extract, Ex. 131)--Bass Aria.


Vocalisation.

A good vocal melody should contain notes of at least three different
values, minims, crotchets and quavers (or crotchets, quavers and
semiquavers etc.). Monotony in rhythmic construction is unsuited to
vocal melody; it is applicable to instrumental music, but only in
certain cases. _Cantabile_ melody requires a fair number of long
notes, and a change of syllable in a word should occur at a moment
when the voice quits a long sustained note. Short, single notes,
changing with every syllable produce a harmonious effect. Owing to the
requirements of diction, extended melodic figures sung _legato_ on one
syllable must be used with care on the part of the composer; to
perform these the singer must possess greater command over flexibility
and technique. The possibility of taking breath in the right place is
one of the conditions essential to all vocal writing. Breath cannot be
taken in the middle of a word, sometimes not even during the course of
a sentence or phrase in the text; hence the voice part must be
suitably interspersed with rests.


Table F. Voices.

Chorus:

[Music: Soprano.

Contralto.

Tenor.

Bass.]


Soloists:

[Music:

Soprano.
Mezzo-soprano.
Contralto.
Tenor.
Baritone.
Bass.]

     _Note._ It must be remembered that there are some words upon
     which the voice may not dwell, or sing more than one or two
     notes. These words may be nouns, pronouns, numerals,
     prepositions, conjunctions and other parts of speech. It
     would be impossible and ridiculous, for instance, to write a
     sustained note on such words as "who", "he" etc. The voice
     may dwell on certain words which, so to speak, possess some
     poetical colour.[18]

[Footnote 18: Here the author approaches a question so well known to
the Russians that it does not require any further elucidation for
their guidance. But a whole book would have to be written to form a
compendium of practical rules on this subject, and to point out the
errors which nearly all French composers openly commit--even those who
are famous for their sense of diction and literary style. We can only
conclude that the question has come to be considered of minor
importance in France, perhaps on account of the lack of definite
stress on the syllables of words, which is characteristic of the
French language. It is not within the translator's province to discuss
the question of French versification or to elaborate the excellent
maxims laid down by Rimsky-Korsakov, the first, among many, to touch
upon this delicate and important subject. (Translator's note.)]

_Examples:_

No. 303. _Sadko_ [[236]]--Sadko's Aria (Tenor).

            "    [[309-311]] (see extract, Ex. 81). Volkhova's Cradle
                 Song (Soprano).

_Snegourotchka_ [[9]]--Fairy Spring's Aria (Mezzo-sopr.).

       "        [[187-188]], [[212-213]] (see extracts, Ex. 102 and
                225)--the two Cavatinas of Tsar Berendey (Tenor).

       "        [[247]]--Miskir's Aria (Baritone).


Vowels.

As regards vocalisation on one syllable, on long sustained notes and
in the high register, the choice of vowels is a matter of some
importance. The difference in the position of the mouth and lips in
forming the open vowel =a= and the closed vowel =ou= is apparent to
everyone. The series of vowels from the point of view of open sounds
is: =a=, =i=, =o=, =e=, =u=. In women's voices the easiest vowel on
high notes is =a=, for men it is =o=. The vowel =i= softens the
penetrating quality of the top notes of a bass voice, and the vowel
=a= adds to the extension of range in the very lowest compass. Lengthy
florid passages are often written on the interjection =ah=, or simply
on the vowel =a=. Owing to the restrictions imposed by literary and
dramatic laws, the composer can only follow the above rules to a
limited extent.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[293]], [[318-319]] (cf. Ex. 119).

No. 304. _Sadko_ [[83]].


Flexibility.

Voices possess the greatest amount of flexibility in their normal
octave. Women's voices are more supple than men's, but in all types,
the higher voice is the more agile, sopranos in women, the tenor voice
in men. Although capable of performing florid and complicated figures,
different varieties of phrasing and the rapid change from staccato to
legato, the human voice is infinitely less flexible than a musical
instrument. In passages of any rapidity, diatonic scales and
_arpeggios_ in thirds come easiest to the voice. Intervals bigger than
fourths in quick succession and chromatic scales are extremely
difficult. Skips of an octave or more starting from a short note
should always be avoided. Preparation should precede any extremely
high note either by leading up to it gradually, or by the clear leap
of a fourth, fifth or octave; but sometimes the voice may attack a
high note without any due preparation.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[46-48]] (cf. extract, Ex. 279)--Snegourotchka's
                Aria (Soprano).

       "        [[96-97]]--Lell's first song (Contralto).

_Sadko_ [[196-193]] [Transcriber's Note: so in original] (cf. extract,
        Ex. 122)--Hindoo song (Tenor).

   "    [[203-206]]--Venetian song (Baritone).

_Pan Voyevoda_ [[20-26]]--Maria's cradle song (Sopr).


Colour and character of voices.

The colouring of the voice, whether it be brilliant or dull, sombre or
sonorous depends upon the individual singer, and the composer has no
need to consider it. The chief question is interpretation and may be
solved by the judicious choice of artists. From the point of view of
flexibility and expression voices may be divided into two classes,
_lyric_ and _dramatic_. The latter is more powerful and of greater
range, the former possesses more suppleness and elasticity and is more
readily disposed to different shades of expression. Granted that the
rare combination of the two classes is the composer's ideal, he should
nevertheless be content to follow the main artistic purpose which he
has set out the [Transcriber's Note: to] achieve. In complicated and
important works the composer should bear in mind the characteristics
of the various voices he employs; moreover, if he use two voices of
the same calibre, e.g. 2 Sopranos or 2 Tenors, he should discriminate
between the range and register of their respective parts, writing for
one slightly higher than the other. It is no rare occurrence to meet
with voices of an intermediate character (mezzo-carattere) combining
the qualities of each type to a modified extent. To such voices the
composer may assign rôles demanding the characteristics of each class,
especially secondary rôles. At the present day, besides the rôles
suitable to the dramatic and lyric type of voice, it is customary to
give prominence to those demanding some special qualifications, voices
of a certain tenderness or power, a specified range or degree of
flexibility--attributes decided by the artistic object in view. In
casting secondary and minor rôles the composer is advised to employ a
medium range and less exacting demands on technique.

     _Note._ After Meyerbeer, who was the first to write for a
     special type of heavy mezzo-soprano and baritone, Richard
     Wagner created a type of powerful dramatic soprano, of
     extensive range, combining the quality and scope of the
     soprano and mezzo-soprano voices; likewise a similar type of
     tenor, possessing the attributes and compass of the tenor
     and baritone together. To demand that voices shall be
     equally brilliant and resonant in the high and low register,
     that singers shall be endowed with a super-powerful
     breathing apparatus and an extraordinary faculty for
     resistance to fatigue (Siegfried, Parsifal, Tristan,
     Brünhilda, Kundry, Isolda), is to exact something little
     short of the miraculous. Such voices are to be found, but
     there are some singers with excellent though not phenomenal
     vocal powers, who, by the constant pursuit of Wagnerian
     parts endeavour to increase their range and volume, and only
     succeed in depriving the voice of correct intonation, beauty
     of tone, and all subtlety of _nuances_. I believe that less
     exacting demands and greater perception of what is required,
     skilful and judicious use of the high and low registers of
     the voice, a proper understanding of _cantabile_ writing
     combined with orchestration which never overpowers the vocal
     part will be of greater service to the composer, from an
     artistic point of view, than the more elaborate methods of
     Richard Wagner.


Voices in combination.

Treating solo voices in a polyphonico-harmonic manner is the best
method of preserving their individual character in _ensembles_. A
distribution which is wholly harmonic or entirely polyphonic is seldom
found. The first plan, largely used in choral writing, simplifies the
movement of the voices too greatly, eliminating their melodic
character; the second method is wearisome and somewhat disturbing to
the ear.

As a general rule the voices are arranged according to the law of
normal register. Crossing of parts is rare and should only be done
with the intention of emphasising the melody in the ascending voices
above those adjacent in register, e.g. the tenor part above contralto,
the mezzo-soprano above the soprano, etc.


Duet.

The combinations most conducive to the proper movement of parts are
those of two voices related within an octave 8 [Sopr./Ten.,
M.-sopr./Bar., C.-alto/Bass. Movement in tenths, sixths, thirds or
octaves (the last very seldom) will always produce satisfactory
_ensemble_, and if the parts progress polyphonically, it need not
happen _frequently_ that they are separated by more than a tenth, or
that undesirable crossing of parts will result.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[99-101]]--Sopr. and Tenor (cf. Ex. 289, 290).

_Servilia_ [[143]]--Sopr. and Tenor.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[48-50]]--Sopr. and Tenor.

_Kashtcheï the Immortal_ [[62-64]]. Mezzo-sopr. and Baritone.

=Voices related in fifths and fourths, 5 [Sopr./C.-alto, 4
[C.-alto/Ten., 5 [Ten./Bass.= should progress nearer to one another; it
is rare for them to move in tenths, common in sixths and thirds; they
may also proceed in unison. The two voices are seldom separated at a
greater distance than an octave, and certain cases will require
crossing of parts, which, however, should only be for periods of short
duration.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[263-264]]--Soprano and Alto.

* _The Christmas Night_ [[78-80]]--Alto and Tenor.

* _Legend of Kitesh_ [[338]]--Tenor and Bass.

Voices related in thirds;

3 [Sopr.     M.-sopr. Ten.  Bar.
  [M.-sopr., C.-alto, Bass, Bass,

may move in unison, in thirds and sixths, and admit very largely of
the crossing of parts. Separation by more than an octave must only be
momentary, and is generally to be avoided.

_Examples:_

* _The Tsar's Bride_ [[174]]--Sopr. and Mezzo-sopr.

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[5-6]]--Sopr. and Mezzo-sopr.

In the case of voices related in twelfths: 12 [Sopr./Bass, intervals
approaching one another do not create a good effect, for this
transplants the deeper voice into the upper register and _vice versa_.
Singing in unison is no longer possible, and thirds are to be avoided;
the use of sixths, tenths and thirteenths is recommended. The voices
will often be separated by more than a twelfth and crossing of parts
is out of the question.

_Example:_

* _Tsar Saltan_ [[254-255]].

Relationship in tenths 10 [Sopr./Bar. or M.-sopr./Bass is fairly
common. The explanations given above are also applicable in this case.

_Example:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[291-300]] (cf. extract, Ex. 118) Sopr. and Bar.

The use of similar voices in pairs: Sopr./Sopr., Ten./Ten. entails
singing in unison and thirds. They should rarely be separated beyond a
sixth, but crossing of parts is inevitable, as otherwise the resultant
volume of tone would be too weak.

     _Note._ Other possible combinations: C.-alto/Bar.,
     M.-sopr./Ten., call for no special remarks.

_Examples:_

* _The May Night_, Act I pp. 59-64--Mezzo-sopr. and Tenor.

* _Sadko_ [[322-324]]--Mezzo-sopr. and Tenor.

As a general rule, writing for two voices is only successful when the
progression of parts is clear, when discords are prepared by a common
note, or are the outcome of conveniently separated movement and
correctly resolved. Empty intervals of fourths and perfect fifths,
elevenths and twelfths should be avoided on the strong beats of a bar,
especially on notes of some value. If, however, one of the voices
assumes a melodic character, the other forming the harmonic
accompaniment in declamatory style, it is not absolutely necessary to
avoid the intervals mentioned above.

     _Note._ It is not within the scope of the present work to
     consider the writing of vocal parts in closer detail. This
     question must be left to the professor of free counterpoint.
     It remains to be noted that the human voice accompanied by
     the orchestra is always heard independently as something
     apart, something complete in itself. For this reason a
     composer may never rely on the orchestra to fill up an empty
     space or correct a fault in the handling of voices. All the
     rules of harmony and counterpoint, down to the last detail,
     must be applied to vocal writing, which is never dependent
     upon orchestral accompaniment.


Trios, quartets etc.

All that has been said regarding the relationship of voices in duet
applies with equal force to the combination of three, four, five or
more voices. An _ensemble_ of several voices is seldom purely
polyphonic; as a rule, although some parts move polyphonically,
progression in thirds, sixths, tenths and thirteenths is used for the
remainder. Declamation for some voices on notes forming the harmony is
also possible. This variety of simultaneous movement of vocal parts
renders the comprehension of the total effect less difficult for the
ear, and sanctions the distribution of distinctive and suitable
figures or tone colouring to certain voices with other figures or
timbres which may be proceeding at the same time. The skilful
arrangement of pauses and re-entries facilitates the understanding of
the whole, and gives desirable prominence to detail.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[267]]--Trio, Finale to Act III.

_The Tsar's Bride_ [[116-118]]--Quartet in Act II.

  "    "      "    [[168-171]]--Sextet in Act III (cf. extract, Ex. 283).

_Servilia_ [[149-152]]--Quintet in Act III.

The movement of solo voices is seldom purely harmonic in character
with predominance given to the upper voices homophonically treated.
The blending of all the parts into an harmonic whole, without any
distinctive predominant feature in any one part (as in a chorale) is
employed for songs or _ensembles_ in traditional style, prayers,
hymns, etc. If this method is adopted for the quartet of voices,
Sopr./Alto/Ten./Bass, it will be noted that widely-spaced part writing
is the most natural and suitable form (especially in _forte_
passages), as the four voices can sing together in their proper
registers (low, middle and high), while, in close part writing they
may find themselves at a given moment in registers, which are entirely
foreign. But both methods should be employed, as, otherwise, it would
be impossible to guarantee equality in even the shortest succession of
chords.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[178]] Hymn of Tsar Berendey's subjects.

No. 305. _Legend of Kitesh_ [[341]].

The second half of the last example is an instance of six-part
harmonic writing; the upper voice stands out prominently, the rest
form a kind of accompaniment.


Chorus.

Range and register.

The range of choral voices is slightly more limited than that of
soloists. The exceptional register may be considered as two notes
above and below the normal octave. The dotted lines extended still
further indicate the limits upon which a composer may rely in very
exceptional cases, as every full chorus must contain a few voices of
more than average compass, in this respect approaching the solo voice
in character. In many choruses one or two bass singers may be found
who are able to go still lower than the limit of the exceptional range
(they are called _octavists_).[19]

[Footnote 19: _Contrebasses_ voices as they are called when mentioned
in French works are peculiar to Russia, in which country they are
plentiful. (Translator's note.)]

     _Note._ These uncommonly deep notes must be moderately well
     sustained and can only be used when the whole chorus is
     singing quite _piano_; they are hardly applicable except in
     unaccompanied choruses (_a cappella_).

The difference in range between the "firsts" and "seconds" in each
type may be fixed as follows: the normal octave and the exceptionally
low register should be allotted to the "seconds", the same octave and
the exceptionally high register to the "firsts".

The composition of the chorus is approximately as follows: for a full
chorus, 32 singers to each of the 4 parts sopr., alt., ten. and bass;
for a chorus of medium size, from 16 to 20, and for a small chorus
from 8 to 10 singers. The number of women will often predominate, and
more voices are given to the "firsts" than to the "seconds".

On account of stage requirements a chorus may have to be divided into
two or even three separate parts. This is a great disadvantage,
especially with a small chorus, as each chorister becomes more or less
a soloist.

The methods of writing for operatic chorus are very numerous. Besides
the primary harmonico-polyphonic arrangement, containing the whole
musical idea, the voices may be made to enter separately, singing or
declaiming phrases of varying length; they may progress in unison or
in octaves; one vocal part may repeat certain notes or the whole
chorus reiterate certain chords; one melodic part may predominate (the
upper part for preference), the others forming an harmonic
accompaniment; isolated exclamatory phrases may be given to the whole
chorus or to certain portions of it, and finally, the entire chorus
may be treated in a purely harmonic manner in chords, with the
essential melodic design allotted to the orchestra. Having outlined
the principal methods of handling the chorus, I advise the reader to
study vocal and orchestral scores where he will find many
illustrations impossible to deal with here.

There exists another most important operation, the division of the
chorus into different groups. The most natural method is to divide it
into men's chorus and women's chorus. Less frequent combinations are
altos, tenors and basses, or sopranos, altos and tenors. There remains
yet another point to be considered, the sub-division of each part into
two's and three's. Men's and women's choruses, considered as distinct
unities may alternate either one with the other, or with the principal
chorus. For this reason sub-division increases the possibilities of
choral writing, and, as I have already remarked, it is only by the
study of choral works that the student will acquire mastery over this
branch of composition, the fundamental principles of which can only be
faintly outlined in the course of the present work.


Melody.

Melody is more limited in the chorus than in the solo voice, both as
regards range as well as mobility. Choristers' voices are less
"settled" and not so highly trained as those of soloists. Sometimes
solo and choral melody are similar in point of range and technique,
but more often the latter is lacking in freedom and variety of rhythm,
restricted as it is to the repetition of short phrases, while the solo
voice demands broader melodic outline and greater freedom in
construction. In this respect choral melody more closely resembles
instrumental melody. Pauses for taking breath are not so important
with chorus singers as with soloists; the former do not need to
breathe all together and each singer may take a slight rest from time
to time, thus obviating the necessity for sudden complete silences.
The question of suitable vowels is likewise of secondary importance.

The change from notes of short value to long, vocalisation on
syllables and other questions mentioned above are equally applicable
to choral melody, but in a minor degree. Not more than two or three
notes should be written on one syllable except for fanciful and
whimsical effects.

_Example:_

No. 306. _The Golden Cockerel_ [[262]]; see also before [[123]].


A. Mixed chorus.

Chorus in unison.

The simplest and most natural combination of voices is sopranos and
altos, or tenors and basses. These combinations produce ample and
vigourous tone, and the mixed timbres serve to give prominence to a
melody in the upper or bass parts. In practice the other voices are
often divided to thicken the harmony. The combination of altos and
tenors produces a peculiar mixed tone quality, somewhat _bizarre_ and
seldom used.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[64]].

_Sadko_ [[208]] (cf. Ex. 14).


Progression in octaves.

The most beautiful and natural combinations are sopranos and tenors 8
[Sopr./Ten., altos and basses 8 [Altos/Basses; they produce a tone
both brilliant and powerful. Progression of sopranos and altos, or
tenors and basses is seldom practised. Though the latter combinations
may occur in choruses for women and men alone, they can only be used
in melodies of restricted length. The difference of register in which
the voices move does not permit of the same balance of tone obtained
by voices of a distinctive kind.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[60]], [[61]]--Carnival Procession.

       "        [[113]]--Wedding Ceremony.

_Sadko_ [[37]]--Chorus of Guests, 1st Tableau.

Dividing kindred voices in octaves is seldom done, 8 [Sopr. I/Sopr. II
etc., except perhaps in the basses 8 [Basses I/Basses II, when the
progression of parts demand it, or it is required to double the bass
part in octaves.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[68]]--Final chorus (cf. Ex. 312).

_Sadko_ [[341]]--Final chorus.

A beautifully round tone results from doubling men's and women's
voices in octaves 8 [Sopr. + Altos/Ten. + Basses.

_Example:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[323]]--Final chorus.

Brilliance and vigour is achieved when sopranos and altos progress in
thirds doubled in octaves by tenors and basses also in thirds: 8
[Sopr./Altos] 3/[Ten./Basses] 3.

_Examples:_

_Mlada_, Act I [[24]]; Act II, before [[31]].

_The Golden Cockerel_ [[235]].

On the rare occasions when the whole chorus progresses in double
octaves the usual arrangement is:

Sopr. + Altos]            8 [Sopr.
     8 [Ten. ] 8, or else   [Altos + Ten.  ]
       [Basses                       Basses] 8.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[319]].

_Sadko_ [[182]].


Voices (_divisi_); harmonic use of the mixed chorus.

The purely harmonic progression of a four-part mixed chorus is more
natural and resonant when the harmony is of the widely divided order,
so that the volume of tone is equally distributed throughout.

_Example:_

No. 307. _Sadko_ [[144]]--Beginning of 3rd tableau.

To secure a well-balanced _forte_ chord in close part writing the
following distribution is recommended:

[Sopr. I
[Sopr. II

 Altos

[Ten. I
[Ten. II

[Basses I
[Basses II.

Three harmonic parts in the high register (2 sopranos and altos) are
doubled an octave lower by 2 tenors and the 1st basses. The lower
part is undertaken by the 2nd basses. In this manner the tenors
sing in the soprano octave, the 1st basses in the alto octave and
the 2nd basses are independent.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[327]]--End of the work.

_Mlada_, Act II [[20]]--Procession of Princes.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[19]] (cf. Ex. 212).

Division of parts can be adopted when one of them is entrusted with a
melody, the remainder forming a sufficiently full accompaniment. The
choice of parts to be divided depends upon the range of the upper one.
When a harmonic-melodic phrase is repeated in different keys and
registers, it may be necessary to distribute the parts and divide them
in another manner, so as to maintain proper choral balance. As an
illustration I give two extracts of identical musical context, the
second (_F_ major) being a third higher than the first (_D_ major). In
the first example the altos are added to the sopranos to strengthen
the melody; the tenors and basses _divisi_ form the harmony. In the
second example the melody being a third higher may be given to the
sopranos alone; the altos therefore take part in the harmony, and
consequently the lower parts are divided in a different way.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[173]] and [[177]] (cf. Ex. 205 and 206); compare also the
same music in _G_ major [[189]].

No. 309-310. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[77]].

Example 307 is an instance of widely-spaced four-part writing forming
the harmonic basis, with the melodic idea in the orchestra. In Example
308, the same in musical context, the melodic figure is given to the
sopranos, and among the other parts which form the harmony the tenors
are divided.

_Example:_

No. 308. _Sadko_ [[152]].

In polyphonic writing exceeding 4 part harmony the voices should be
divided so as to obtain the necessary number of actual parts. One part
may be divided into as many as three different parts, 3 sopranos, 3
altos etc.

_Examples:_

No. 312. _Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[69]]--Final chorus.

_Servilia_ [[233]]--Final chorus.

_Mlada_, Act IV [[35-36]]--Final chorus.

In _fugato_ writing and fugal imitation for mixed chorus the
distribution is generally in four parts, but this number may be
increased for cumulative effects as in the example quoted. In such
cases the composer should be careful as to the arrangement of the
final chord, the summit and climax of the passage. After the entry of
the last of the voices the progression of such a passage should be
handled with a view to the tone of the final chord. The treatment
should be such that concords produced by divided voices or different
groups of voices retain their full value; and if the final chord be a
discord its effect may be heightened by means of crossing of parts.
The reader is advised to examine carefully the progression of parts
leading up to the final chord in each of the examples given above,
paying special attention to the distribution of these final chords.
Crossing of parts must not be effected at random. The arrangement of
choral parts follows the natural order of register and can only be
altered for short spaces of time to give momentary prominence to some
melodic or declamatory phrase.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[79]], Act II [[5]], Act III [[67]].


B. Men's chorus and women's chorus.

In writing a three-part female chorus the division should be either
Sopr. I/Sopr. II/Altos or Sopr./Altos I/Altos II; the same for men:
Ten. I/Ten. II/Bass or Ten./Bass I/Bass II. The choice of distribution
depends upon which voice is to predominate, or the register in which
the group is to be placed. The manner of dividing the parts may
change, one following the other at will. In four-part harmonic writing
the method of division is self-evident:

Sopr. I
Sopr. II
Altos I
Altos II

Ten. I
Ten. II
Bass I
Bass II

To give prominence to a melody in the middle part in three-part
harmony, the following method may be adopted:

Sopr. I                Ten. I
Sopr. II + Altos I, or Ten. II + Bass I.
Altos II               Bass II

If, in three-part writing, the melody has to stand out in the upper
part, the harmony may be either widely-divided or close.

_Examples:_

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act I [[25-26]], [[23-31]] (Women's chorus).

_Sadko_, before [[181]]--Men's chorus (cf. Ex. 27).

No. 311. _Sadko_ [[270-272]]--Women's chorus.

In four-part choral writing close harmony is preferable, otherwise the
upper part will be in too high a register and the range of the bottom
part too low.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[17]]--Male chorus.

_Ivan the Terrible_, Act II [[36-38]]--Female chorus (cf. Ex. 296).

Distribution in two parts which is generally polyphonic does not call
for any special remarks; the same may be said of chorus in unison.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[50]]--Male chorus.

_Mlada_, beginning of Act I.            }
_Ivan the Terrible_, Act III [[13-15]]. } Female chorus.
_Servilia_ [[26]].                      }

If male and female choruses are handled in a purely harmonic manner
close part writing should be adopted. This is the only way to secure
proper balance of tone in chords given to voices of the same kind.
Successions of chords in three parts are more frequent than those in
four; sometimes a series of chords is practicable only in two parts.

_Examples:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[19]]--Chorus of Birds.

       "        [[281-285]]--Chorus of Flowers (cf. Ex. 26).

In _fugato_ writing, and fugal imitation in three parts, allotted to a
chorus composed of voices of one kind, the principal subject is given
to two parts, the counter subject to one; by this method the doubled
themes will stand out to better advantage.

_Examples:_

_Sadko_ [[20-21]].

* _The Tsar's Bride_ [[29-30]].

Male and female choruses, apart from the part they play as individual
unities, may be introduced as separate groups in mixed choruses
alternating with the whole _ensemble_.

_Example:_

_Snegourotchka_ [[198]]--Hymn of Tsar Berendey's Subjects (cf. Ex.
166).

As a general rule a female chorus does not contain the real harmonic
bass part when this part is situated in the low register, so that no
octaves are formed between the real bass and the lower choral voice.
Harmony in a chorus for women is generally given to the three upper
parts, the lower part acting as accompanying bass. It will be noticed
that this rule may lead to the employment of chords of the sixth and
empty consecutive fourth's and fifth's which should be avoided. In
example No. 311 (_Sadko_ [[270]]), this is remedied by the high
position of the bass part; later an empty interval (4/5) occurs, but
only for a moment, and still further on another such interval is
avoided by the union of all the voices in the octave (_B/B_). In Ex.
No. 304 (_Sadko_ [[83]]) the harmonic bass in the low register is
carefully omitted, but when transferred to the upper register it is
doubled.

I conclude the present chapter with the following necessary
observations:

1. The operation of dividing voices undoubtedly weakens their
resonance, and as the reader will have observed, one of the principal
factors in good orchestration is _equal_ balance of tone in the
distribution of chords. But in choral writing the question is somewhat
different. The orchestra, even after repeated rehearsal always _plays
from music_; the operatic chorus, on the other hand, sings by heart.
The chorus master can carry out the composer's instructions as to the
division of parts in one way or another, varying and adjusting the
number of singers to each part. By manipulating some shade of
expression he can maintain a balance of tone between divided and
undivided voices. In orchestral material the composer has to handle a
great number of timbres, widely different in character and volume of
tone. In the chorus there are but four qualities. A chorus moving
about the stage cannot convey varying shades of expression so exactly
as an orchestra seated at the desk. It may therefore be safely assumed
that a composer is entitled to some licence in the question of
dividing choral parts; dealing with the orchestra involves greater
foresight and care.

2. In trying to obtain equal balance in writing three-part choruses
for male or female chorus I have often resorted to the method of
doubling the middle part as recommended on p. 149. The chorus master
is at liberty to equalise the chorus by transferring voices from one
part to another. In choruses divided into three parts I have noticed
that chorus masters are in the habit of giving the upper part to Sopr.
I, or Ten. I, and the two lower parts to Sopr. II and Ten. II divided.
I consider this arrangement unsound, as the balance of parts can never
be equal. The attention of chorus masters is called to the necessity
of strengthening middle parts, for the expedient of giving prominence
to the upper part concerns melody alone and leaves harmony out of the
question.

3. Skilful management of choral parts is a fairly safe guarantee of
clear and satisfactory performance. Miscalculations in writing are a
great hindrance to study, and the most experienced chorus may come to
grief through faulty progression of parts. If the progression of parts
is correct, if discords are properly prepared, sudden and remote
modulations, even of the harshest and most uncommon kind will be
comparatively simple and may be approached with some degree of
confidence. This is a fact which composers do not always bear in mind,
but singers know it well and appreciate its importance to the full. As
an instance I quote the very difficult modulation which occurs in Ex.
No. 169 (_Sadko_ [[302]]). I doubt whether it could be sung if written
in any other way. Careful endeavour on the part of a composer is
better than useless struggle inflicted upon the performer.

July 31st (Aug. 13th) 1905.



_Principles
of Orchestration_

[VOLUME II]


The musical examples in this volume are taken from the composer's
following works:


W. BESSEL & CO., publishers, Petrograd.

"IVAN THE TERRIBLE", opera in 3 acts, 1894 edition.
"SNEGOUROTCHKA", opera in prologue and 4 acts (1880-1881).
"THE LEGEND OF TSAR SALTAN", opera in prologue and 4 acts (1899-1900).
"SERVILIA", opera in 5 acts (1900-1901).
"KASHTCHEÏ THE IMMORTAL", opera in 1 act of 3 scenes (1902).
"PAN VOYEVODA", opera in 4 acts (1902-1903).
"VERA SCHELOGA", prologue to "IVAN THE TERRIBLE", op. 54 (1898).
"ANTAR", symphonic suite (2nd symphony), _new edition_ of 1897, published
  in 1913.


P. JURGENSON, publisher, Moscow.

"SADKO", symphonic poem, 1891-1892 edition.
"THE GOLDEN COCKEREL", opera in 3 acts (1906-1907).


M.P. BELAIEFF, publisher, Leipzig.

"THE MAY NIGHT", opera in 3 acts (1878-1879).
"MLADA", opera-ballet in 4 acts (1889-1890).
"THE CHRISTMAS NIGHT", opera in 4 acts (1894-1895).
"SADKO", opera-legend in 7 scenes (1895-1896).
"THE TSAR'S BRIDE", opera in 4 acts (1898).
"THE LEGEND OF THE INVISIBLE CITY OF KITESH AND THE MAID FEVRONIA",
  opera in 4 acts (1903-1905).
"SPANISH CAPRICCIO", op. 34 (1887).
"SHEHERAZADE", symphonic suite from the "THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS",
  op. 35 (1888).
"RUSSIAN EASTER FÊTE", Overture on Russian Church Themes, op. 36 (1888).


[Transcriber's Note: See the HTML version for the musical examples in
Volume II.]





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