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Title: The Curry Cook's Assistant - or, Curries, How to Make Them in England in Their Original Style
Author: Santiagoe, Daniel
Language: English
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  [ Transcriber's Note:
    Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as
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                                  THE
                         CURRY COOK'S ASSISTANT



NOTE ABOUT "CURRIES" IN "SATURDAY REVIEW," OCTOBER 22, 1887.


Everybody who likes Curry, and who can get it (the pamphlet, not the
Curry), should invest in a little pamphlet by "DANIEL SANTIAGOE, son of
Francis Daniel, butler and fiddler, of Colombo, Ceylon, and the Ceylon
Court, Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Liverpool." It is written in delightful
pigeon-English (or whatever other bird may be more appropriate to
Ceylon's isle), is quite unpretentious, avows the author's very
legitimate, and, indeed, laudable desire to "make a small fortune" by
its sale, and contains admirable receipts. Mr. Santiagoe is much less
cynical than the apocryphal Mrs. Glasse. He says, after recommending the
more excellent way of the Curry Stone, "The best and easy way is to buy
from your respected grocers, which, I should say, ought to be of two
colours--one is brown and the other is yellow, and the red is cayenne
pepper (if required, hot curries)." He is a little plaintive about
mulligatawny. "Why English people always spell this word wrong?
Everybody knows this--mollagoo, 'pepper;' tanney, 'water.'" So the
reformers who call it "mulligatunny" are just as bad as we devotees of
mumpsimus and mulligatawny ourselves. We note with special pleasure a
receipt for "chicken moley"--evidently the same genus as that "mollet"
which puzzled Mrs. Clarke. And all the prescriptions are interesting.
"Maldive fish" seems to take the place of "Bombay duck" in these
southern regions, and the number of Vegetable Curries is particularly
noteworthy. Nobody need think from the specimens we have given that
Mr. Santiagoe is unintelligible. His English may be "pigeon," but it
is a much more easily digestible tongue than the high and mighty
gobble-gobble of some of our own professors of style and matter.

[True copy from "SATURDAY REVIEW."]



                                  THE
                        CURRY COOK'S ASSISTANT;


                                CURRIES,
                      HOW TO MAKE THEM IN ENGLAND
                       _IN THEIR ORIGINAL STYLE_.


                                   BY
                   DANIEL SANTIAGOE, General Servant,
        SON OF FRANCIS DANIEL, Butler and Fiddler, Trichinopoly,
                   Madras, India, and Colombo, Ceylon

                        CEYLON TEA HOUSE WAITER

               Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Liverpool, 1887
                International Exhibition, Glasgow, 1888


                             THIRD EDITION


                                 LONDON
            KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., 1, PATERNOSTER SQUARE
                                  1889



    (_The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved._)



INDEX.


LIST AND NAMES OF CURRIES, Etc.

  NO.                                                         PAGE

   1. Home-made Curry Powder                                     1

   2. Beef Curry (Plain)                                         5

   3. Beef Curry (Ceylon Way)                                    6

   4. Beef Curry (Madras)                                        7

   5. Beef Curry (Kabob) Madras                                  9

   6. Beef Curry (Dry)     do.                                  11

   7. Beef Curry (Balls)   do.                                  12

   8. Chicken Curry        do.                                  13

   9. Snipe Curry          do.                                  14

  10. Pigeon Curry         do.                                  15

  11. Pork Curry           do.                                  16

  12. Veal Curry           do.                                  17

  13. Mutton Curry         do.                                  18

  14. Partridge Curry      do.                                  19

  15. Tripe Curry          do.                                  20

  16. Liver Curry          do.                                  21

  17. Chops Curried        do.                                  22

  18. Steaks Curried       do.                                  23

  19. Game Curry (Various) Madras                               24

  20. Rabbit (or Young Hare) Curry                              25

  21. Egg Curry (Whitish Yellow)                                27

  22. Egg Curry (Brown)                                         28

  23. Egg Curry (Omelet)                                        30

  24. Egg Curry (Poached)                                       31

  25. Fried Eggs for Curries                                    32

  26. Curry Sauce (Brown), for any Meat                         33

  27. Curry Sauce (Yellow), for Vegetables and Fish             35

  28. Curried Fowl (a Joint)                                    36

  29. Chicken Moley                                             38

  30. Fish Moley                                                39

  31. Fish Curry (Salmon)                                       41

  32. Fish Curry (Various)                                      42

  33. Sardines Curried                                          43

  34. Vegetable Curries                                         44

  35. Potato Curry                                              45

  36. Cabbage Curry                                             46

  37. Bean Curry                                                47

  38. Onion Curry                                               48

  39. Devilled Cabin Biscuits                                   49

  40. Devilled Meats                                            50

  41. Mulligatawny                                              51

  42. Pillau Rice (a Mohammedan Dish)                           53

  43. Lemon (Hot) Sauce                                         54

  44. Apple Chutney (How to Make it in England)                 55

  44a. Mint Chutney                                             56

  45. Quickly-made Samball                                      57

  46. How to Fry Red Herrings for Curries                       58

  47. Toast Curry                                               59

  48. How to Make Rice Powder                                   60

  49. Mushrooms Curried and Served on Toast                     61

  50. How to Boil Rice for Curries                              62

  51. A Salad for Dinner, etc., in Hot Weather                  64

  52. Sundal or Poogathu, made of Cabbage and other Greens      66

  53. Vegetables Boiled for Table                               67

  54. Economical Curry Paste                                    68

  55. Curry Powder (a Recipe)                                   69

  56. Curry Powder (Ordinary Way)                               70

  57. Curry Powder (a Most Excellent)                           71

  58. Tomato Curry                                              73

  59. Curries under Various Names                               74

  60. Chutney Chicken                                           75

  61. When to use Curries                                       76

  Tamil and English Names for Curry Stuffs, Etc.                77



INTRODUCTION BY J. L. SHAND, Esq.


Daniel Santiagoe, who has twice come from his Ceylon home to serve me in
England and Scotland, now gives to the world a second edition of a very
valuable little book, and has asked me to write him an introduction.

An introduction is generally apologetic, but I depart from custom and
congratulate the purchasers of this book upon obtaining a collection of
recipes which may add much to their gastronomic enjoyment, and perhaps
also contribute to health and longevity.

"I do not care for Curry, it is too hot!!!" is a common but erroneous
plaint; and the disciple of Santiagoe will find recipes which provide
the full delicacy of Eastern condiments without the discomfort of
excessive heat.

Why do old East Indians live so long? is a question often asked.

Because so many of them are pensioners, says the student of finance.

Because so many of them are Curry eaters, says the student of hygiene.

All human nature requires to be occasionally stimulated, and a mild
Curry acts upon the torpid liver, reacts upon the digestive organs, and
provides the necessary stimulant without injurious consequences.

It is a remarkable fact that nearly all Curry-eating nations are
abstainers from strong drinks.

Daniel Santiagoe's English may occasionally provoke a smile, but it is
"English as she is spoken" by several millions of Her Majesty's
subjects, and its originality often lends it force.

Were excuse necessary it would be found in this, that Daniel Santiagoe
is a domestic servant to whom English is a foreign tongue.

                                             JOHN LOUDOUN SHAND.

24, Rood Lane, London, E.C.



PREFACE BY AUTHOR.


With much thankfulness to Mr. A. Egmont Hake for his kindness in writing
a preface for my first book on Curries, and great credit is due to
_Saturday Review_ and humble respect is due to my two masters, Shand,
Haldane & Co., of London, who brought me over to England and Scotland,
with four other servants, and allowed me to publish a little book to
make my desired little fortune, which is highly creditable. From the
first edition of 500 copies I fully sold 400, and another hundred copies
presented to friends in England and Ceylon. My intention in publishing
this second edition is that I have given too little recipes and
information in my first book for sixpence each copy. Though I thought it
is worth making it an enlarged and revised edition for same price this
time, I should like to give good many recipes for making a Curry, and
give the names of all Meat and Vegetable in English and Tamil. In each
heading of Curries two sorts of ingredients are given--one to be
procured in England, the other in Ceylon; and also each Curry will be
properly instructed. I have tasted the Curries made by Bengalee, etc.,
on board of steamers and on shore. They use proper Curry Stuffs, etc.,
but they flavour it too much; using plenty of ghee and fat mutton,
etc.,--these spoil the taste. Just the same with Bombay Curries, but in
Madras is the only place you could taste a proper Curry, and also in
Ceylon, as a good many cooks of Madras Presidency came to Ceylon several
years ago and spread out the art of general cooking in Ceylon. I believe
at first the cooking business was instructed by European cooks. At
present there is too many cooks in Ceylon; almost every butler, appoo,
second servant, kitchen mate, groom, etc., knows to cook a English
dinner!!!

Now we shall go on with our Curry business. I recommend to try Curry
Powders from several grocers. The best Curry Powder is made of coriander
seed (which could be got from the chemist's), saffron, dry chillies,
cumin seed, few mustard seed, few pepper corns. If the Curry Powder
contains all the above, it is a good Curry Powder. Some Curry Powders
tastes of acid, flour, and other mixtures, which I believe is
unwholesome in every means. The Tamils use tamarind for the acid taste.
To every brown Curries the Singalese use Gorakka[1] (a sour fruit),
slightly dried, and lime juice to their yellow Curries. There is much
different taste between a Singalese Curry and a Tamil Curry--the taste
just differs the same as a Madras beef Curry, No. 4, and a potato Curry
(vegetable). The Curries should be treated same as a ordinary entree. If
one article you had too much, it will spoil the whole Curry. If the meat
over done, no taste in it. If you have all Curry stuffs, etc., at hand,
could make a Curry Sauce in ten minutes the longest, and can warm up any
meat for table in it (I mean the brown). The white Curry Sauce is not
suitable, unless for a vegetable or fish.

  [1] For Fish Curries, but not fresh fish--the fresh fish could be
  given acid taste from lemon, or tamarind, or vinegar.

I could give several other recipes to Curries, but the above said sixty
will be quite sufficient. If you carefully tried the above said Curries
will be found most economical.

A Madras woman can beat any other Indian woman in Curry cooking. In
several gentry's houses in Madras, etc., they keep a woman to make
Curries and prepare vegetables for table--we call her "Thanney
Kareyitchi"--besides the cook and kitchen matey.

The Madras Curry always the best, much different than a Bengal or Bombay
Curry, to my opinion.

                                                   D. SANTIAGOE.

  International Exhibition,
       Glasgow, 1888.



PREFACE OF MY FIRST EDITION.

By A. Egmont Hake, Esq.

[_TRUE COPY._]


The author of this little work has asked me to write him a Preface, and
I gladly do so, especially if it will help to find him buyers, as well
as readers, who will put into practice the admirable receipts he offers
to gourmets and others. For my own part I can speak with some
authority--indeed the best--as to the excellence of Santiagoe's Curries,
for I am among the fortunate few who have tasted them in England.

I was particularly struck by a remark which Santiagoe made when I asked
him what he would like me to write in his little book. Some authors
might have replied "Speak up for my Curries!" others might have said,
"Say a good word for my book;" but he, in the fulness of gratitude,
said, "Praise my Masters." He then went on to speak of how Mr. Shand
and Mr. Haldane had brought him and his fellow-servants all the way from
Ceylon to England.

It is only fair to point out that the English of this little book is not
"English as she is spoken," but represents the expression of Santiagoe
in its native costume--it is Tamil Anglicised by Santiagoe himself. As
Santiagoe says, "I like broken English, because ladies gentlemen like
that." The author is a native of Trichinopoly. His grandfather and uncle
were distinguished drummers in Indian infantry regiments--in other
words, they were masters of the tom-tom. He has lived all his life
in Ceylon,[2] and for the last seven years--that is, since he was
sixteen--has been in the service of English residents, of whom he
appears to have nothing but pleasant recollections. It would seem that
this will be the case in his experience of England, whither he has
come with others as waiter at the Ceylon Tea Rooms in the Liverpool
Exhibition--though he told me with much modesty that "people were very
kind, but he supposed the Ceylon servants were a novelty."

  [2] In 1879 have been to Maldive Island, or Minicoi Island, with my
  master, to a wrecked steamer of "Bird" Line.--Ed.

  Please to read the article of _Saturday Review_ of 22nd October, 1887.

It is, to say the least, highly creditable to Santiagoe that, with many
duties to perform, and these amid the distracting influences of our
Western civilization, he should have compiled this useful little guide
to the art of Curry cooking. The spirit of Brillat-Savarin and of Soyer
is stronger than the ephemeral attractions of an exhibition. Let us hope
Santiagoe's enterprise will be more lasting than these; that it will
achieve its aim in popularizing Ceylon Curries in this country; and that
his "Book on Curries" will pass through many editions, and bring him the
"little fortune" he deserves.

                                       (Signed)  A. EGMONT HAKE,

_Author of "General Gordon's Journal at Khartoum;" Editor of "The Story
of Chinese Gordon," etc., etc.; Commissioner of War Trophies, Royal
Jubilee Exhibition, Liverpool, 1887._



COPY OF THE NOTE OF MY FIRST EDITION ON CURRIES.


I beg to bring the following Receipts to Curries, etc. I hope it will be
handy to ladies, housekeepers, cooks, etc. I only mention the easy way
of making it in England, for scarcity of fresh and pure Curry stuffs
none procurable. Still, it is very troublesome to grind the Curry stuffs
without a Curry stone, which is very common to a native Cooly of India.
No native houses without a Curry stone. The way the native girls, etc.,
grind the Curry stuffs will be an astonishment to European ladies. The
best way to grind the Curry powder in England, by hard stone made mortar
or pounder, but the best and easy way is to buy from your respected
grocers, which, I should say, ought to be of two colours, one is brown
and the other is yellow, and the red is cayenne pepper (if required hot
Curries).

With regard to above, if care should be taken and make the Curries with
any of the following meat:--Beef, mutton, chicken, fish, etc., etc.,
and vegetables, you will find it an economical dish for an English meal
to have an Indian dish; if little care and attention is given to it,
will find it as a relish. The same time I must say, many parties visited
our Indian continent will know the taste of a Curry as well as my own
experience. I have been instructed by several head cooks of India and
Ceylon. My own people are cooks under several respected gentry of Ceylon
and India. Now, I must say, it is a national food to natives of India
and Ceylon as beef and bread to Europeans. With attention to this I
myself am a servant of gentlemen as approved cook, second boy, dressing
boy, house and general servant, and will answer to several other
capacity, as clerk, store-keeper, etc., etc. I only thought of
publishing this little work by request of several parties requiring me
to write some good Curries.

So just the same time I may have the chance of printing it and make a
small fortune by the favour of customers, and by their favouring me to
sell these few hundred copies, will be highly thankful; but I regret to
say that I should have written large and more recipes, but my time is
very little to spare to attend to this work.

With regards I hope the lovers of Curry will be satisfy with these
accompanying recipes, which, I should say can be made in England with
Curry stuffs and provisions procurable here. The fact is I myself have
tried several of these Curries in England during my short visit in
England, and found to be a good result, in fact, not in its original
taste, but only second to it in my opinion. If carefully prepared will
find it as a economical dish for breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Only
little time and attention is required. I wish the reader will have the
pleasure of reading this book right through first.

Another matter to point out, that in Madras cooks make Curries with or
without cocoanut, but in Ceylon no Curries without cocoanut, neither any
vegetable Curries without Maldive fish. For this point I have given
recipes to make with milk, cream, and gravy; and to every vegetable
Curry add a spoonful of chopped ham or corned beef; this for imitation
of Maldive fish.[3] Still it is much richer to vegetable Curries than
Maldive fish.

  [3] Dried shark, prepared in the Maldive Islands.--Ed.

                                                   D. SANTIAGOE.

  Ceylon Court, R.J.E.,
      Liverpool, England, 1887.



THE CURRY COOK'S ASSISTANT.



No. 1.--HOME-MADE CURRY POWDER.


In England.

  1 lb. Coriander Seed.
  1/2 oz. Saffron.
  1 Eggspoon Cumin Seed.
  1/2 doz. Pepper Corns.
  Small bit of Cinnamon (1 in. square).
  8 Dried Chillies Capsicums.
  4 Tablespoons good Rice.

In Ceylon.

  Coriander.
  Saffron and Cumin Seed.
  Pepper Corns. Cinnamon.
  Dried Chillies--Rice.
  Curry Leaves, and few other things of which cannot be procured in
      England.

N.B.--I only mention this home-made Curry Powder, if you can procure the
above said Curry Stuffs separately from the chemists or grocers. As I
heard from a gentleman in Liverpool, "Everything the world produces can
be bought in London"!!!

_Mode._--Place a frying-pan (not an enamelled one) on fire; soon as it
gets hot put in the coriander; when nice and gold colour take it off
and put on a plate again. Set the frying-pan on fire and add the cumin
seed, pepper corns, dry chillies. Just give a shake, and take it off and
give it two or three more shakes and put on a plate, but don't put the
saffron in the frying-pan. Now wipe the frying-pan, and set on fire
again; when hot, put in the rice, and keep on shaking till each grain
gets goldish brown; do not let it burn. The rice on board of ships will
answer to this better than you buying from your grocer's; but in the
scarcity of above any rice will do.

Now when all these are done we shall have to grind it to a smooth
powder. These cannot be done unless you have a stone-made pounder or
Curry stone and grinder. The latter I have not seen in England, still
there is the finest strong metal stones in England. The Curry stone and
grinder is bought for no money in up country of Ceylon, but in Colombo,
the chief city here, we pay 50 cents, to Rs. 2 50 cts. each. Curry stone
and grinder will last for generations. It is better to grind all Curry
stuffs separately and keep each in its own bottle, then you will be
careful of what you are about, and you will know how much you are using
of each stuff.

For any meat Curry (per lb.) add one tablespoon coriander seed, a
saltspoon of saffron, a pinch of cumin seed, dash of pepper, small bit
of cinnamon, one-half tablespoon of rice powder; if preferred hot, add a
bit of cayenne. For white Curries, only one-half teaspoon of saffron to
be added. If at hand, just cut a young capsicum in quarters and add to
the Curry. You can add a green chillies to Meat Curries also. If the
above home made Curry Powder cannot be done, you shall have to buy three
sorts of Curry Powder. Coriander, rice, cumin seed, and pepper (one
mixture); cayenne and saffron each separately bottled. Other things can
be got from your respective grocers. If you buy a mixed Curry Powder or
Paste, it will taste everything too much, as following:--Heat! hot?
bitter, sour flour, spice, and too much of yellow colour of saffron, and
too much of a nice Curry smell. The fact is, I have tasted several Curry
Powders and Paste in England, and also in Scotland, but nothing equal to
separate Curry stuffs. If the Curry stuffs, etc., are imported from
India to Europe it will keep good for a long time, and will have a good
market, except the dry chillies, because there is plenty of cayenne
in England. Garlic ginger (green), used for any Meat Curry, it is very
healthy and helps to digest the Curry and rice sooner, as parties think
Curries are not easily digestible. The Curries must not be prepared too
rich, as richness takes away all flavour, and the meat will taste like
stewed Curry. The butter you add to fry the Curry stuffs will be quite
sufficient to richen the Curry without using fat meat.



No. 2.--BEEF CURRY (Plain).


  1 lb. Beef (Fresh or Cooked Meat will do).
  1 Tablespoon Curry Powder (not hot).
  1 Pint good Milk or strong (Beef) Gravy.
  1 Large Onion or few small ones.
  1 Young Capsicum and 1 Tablespoon Rice Powder.
  Small piece of Cinnamon.
  Pinch of Cumin Powder; Salt to taste.

N.B.--In Ceylon we use Cocoanut Milk (the juice), Curry Leaves, and some
other Leaves for Spices.

_Mode._--Cut the meat in half-inch squares; put into a clean stew-pan,
then slice the onions, and add the onions, Curry stuffs, chillies,
cinnamon, milk, cumin seed, etc., and salt. Mix all well together, and
set on fire for 15 to 20 minutes; do not let it burn. When serving add a
few drops of lemon juice. If required hot add a pinch of cayenne when
preparing.



No. 3.--BEEF CURRY (Ceylon).

For a Pound of Good Beef (I mean lean).


  1 Tablespoon Coriander Powder and 1 of Rice Powder.
  1/2 Eggspoon Saffron Powder and Pinch of Cumin Powder.
  1 Pint good Milk or Gravy.
  1 Large Onion or few small ones.
  2 Young green Chillies (Capsicum).
  A bit of Cinnamon (if you like spices); Salt to taste.

N.B.--In Ceylon all the Curry stuffs are freshly grinded. Cocoanut
Juice, Curry Leaves, etc., are used. This is a very delicious Curry to
eat with rice boiled or bread toasted.

_Mode._--Cut the meat in half-inch squares and put into a clean stew-pan
with the onions sliced, the chillies in quarters; then add all the Curry
Powder, etc. Mix well with a wooden spoon and add three parts of a pint
of milk or gravy; then salt to taste. Set on slow fire for 15 to 20
minutes; soon as the meat is tender (but not overdone), then add the
other quarter of milk and a few drops of lemon juice. Just heat it again
and send to table in a vegetable dish with boiled rice separate. If you
add gravy to this Curry then you must put in two tablespoons of cream
before sending to table.



No. 4.--BEEF CURRY (Madras).

For a Pound of Beef.


  2 Tablespoons Coriander Powder and 1 of Rice Powder.
  1 Saltspoon Saffron and a Pinch of Cumin Powder and Fenugreek.[4]
  1/2 Pint of Milk or good Gravy.
  1 Large or few small Onions.
  A bit of Cinnamon, 2 Cloves (if you wish spices).
  1/2 Teaspoon Green Ginger chopped up fine.
  A Small Garlic chopped up fine.
  1 Large Spoonful of Butter (fresh); Salt to taste.

  [4] If could be procured.

N.B.--This Curry is made in Madras with or without Cocoanut, but little
Tamarind will flavour this Curry better than Lemon Juice. Vinegar, Curry
Leaves, etc., are used in Madras and Ceylon. This is a first-class Curry
if carefully prepared.

_Mode._--Have the meat ready cut in half-inch squares; then slice the
onions; put a good stew-pan on the fire, add the butter; soon as the
butter gets hot put in the onions and Curry Powder, but not the ginger,
garlic, and spices. When the onions, Curry stuffs, etc., are nicely
browned, add the meat, garlic, ginger, spices, and give it a turn. Let
it stand for a few seconds, then add the milk or gravy, salt, etc.; set
on slow fire for about 20 minutes. When sending to table add a few drops
of lemon or good pickle vinegar, but tamarind is best. Add little
cayenne if preferred hot; a hot Curry is considered always nice and
healthy, the cayenne to be added when preparing.



No. 5.--BEEF CURRY (Kabob or Cavap Curry).


  1 1/2 lb. Lean Beef.
  2 Tablespoons Coriander Powder and 1 of Rice Powder.
  1 1/2 Saltspoon Saffron and a good Pinch of Cumin Powder.
  1 Good Pint of fresh Milk or Gravy.
  1 Large Onion or few small ones.
  Ginger, about 2 inches long.
  2 Long Budded Garlics.
  1 Large Spoon Butter (fresh).
  Spices; Salt to taste.

N.B.--This Curry same as Madras Curry, No. 4, but the meat ought to be
of tender part. Must not overdo it, neither burn it. If tamarind used,
it is nicer.

_Mode._--This is a first-class Curry if carefully prepared. Cut the meat
in half-inch squares; the ginger as round as a threepenny piece, and the
garlic the same size, but thicker. Now sharpen few thin sticks with
points to stick the meat (I mean as large as champagne bottle wire,
three to four inches long). Now begin the job; stick one of meat,
another of garlic, another of meat, and one of ginger (I mean a piece of
meat must be between garlic and ginger). Proceed as above till you
finish the meat, etc.; now place a stew-pan on fire; put in the butter
and the onions sliced. When nicely browned add the Curry stuffs and the
meat. Now let the whole fry gently in the butter for five minutes; now
pour the milk in and let it simmer gently for 20 minutes. When serving
add a spoonful of cream and a few drops of lemon, and send to table with
boiled rice (separate).



No. 6.--BEEF CURRY (Dry).


Same ingredients as for Madras Curry, No. 4, and prepare the same way,
but do not add any milk. Add about four tablespoons of good gravy when
preparing, but add two tablespoons of cream five minutes before serving.
(If I say dry, not very dry, but second to it; add few drops of lemon
when sending to table.) This Curry must be put on very slow fire, a hot
oven will do; if so, you must look every five minutes in case it burns.
This Curry can be eaten with rice, boiled potatoes, or toast if wished.
Some dry Curries are done in a frying-pan within ten minutes, only the
onions and Curry stuffs should be browned, and the meat mixed with it.

N.B.--Must use a wooden spoon to all Curries when browning the Onion and
Curry Stuffs, etc.; better than a plated one.



No. 7.--BEEF CURRY (Ball).


Take a pound of beef free from skin, bone, etc., put into a sausage
machine, and get it mashed up; put on a plate, pepper it slightly. Now
take ingredients same as for No. 4, and chop fine the ginger, garlic,
and mix with the meat with little salt. Now make this meat into balls as
large as a marble, flour it, and fry in lard to a brown colour. Do not
let it break. Now keep this to a side, and place a good stew-pan on
fire, and put in the butter and the onions sliced, and the Curry Powder.
When all these nice and brown add the meat balls to it. Just mix slowly,
not to break the meat balls. Now add half-pint of good milk, or gravy,
and let it stand on a slow fire till wanted. When serving, add a
spoonful of cream, few drops of lemon, and salt to taste, and send to
table with boiled rice, etc.

N.B.--This Curry must not overdo, neither must the meat be overdone when
frying; and when passing the meat through sausage machine, at the same
time you can add the spice, garlic, ginger, with the meat to be mashed
up. If preferred hot, add little cayenne pepper.



No. 8.--CHICKEN CURRY.


  One good-sized Chicken (about a pound or more).

Other ingredients same as for Madras Curry, No. 4. Now cut up the
chicken in half of each joint. Keep it to a side. Now fry the onions,
sliced, in a stew-pan, with a large spoon of butter. When the onions are
nice and brown, just fry the chicken in it less than half done. Take it
out and keep to a side. Now fry the Curry Powder till it is nice and
dark brown, then add the chicken, more onions, and other things into the
frying Curry Powder, etc., and add half-pint of good gravy, and set it
on a slow fire for 20 minutes. When serving, add two large spoons of
cream. If it is very dry, add little more gravy to it. A few drops of
lemon will flavour it, but I recommend to make the chicken into a
"moley," as No. 29. Much nicer to be eaten with rice or treated as an
ordinary entree, and the curried fowl (whole) nicer as a joint.



No. 9.--SNIPE CURRY.


Dress four snipes as for serving on toast; then cut in halves, pepper
and salt it, roll it in little (or sprinkle with) flour, and fry it in a
large spoon of butter or lard, quarter done or nearly half done. Keep it
to a side. Now take a good stew-pan, put on fire, melt a spoonful of
butter, and fry a large onion, sliced; put in

  1 Tablespoon Coriander.
  1 Dessertspoon Rice Powder.
  A pinch of Cumin Powder.
  A pinch of Saffron and Spices.

Let all these fry gently in the butter, then add half-pint of good
gravy, salt to taste, and let this stand on a hot oven, simmering gently
till required. Five minutes before serving, add the fried _snipes_, with
a few drops of lemon juice, and send to table. Do not let it be too
juicy, but the half-pint of gravy should be reduced to a quarter-pint.
Cayenne pepper should be added if preferred hot Curries. Snipe should
only be heated through, and not quite _over_done. This Curry nice with
rice, toast, etc. etc. Can almost be treated as an entree.



No. 10.--PIGEON CURRY.


Take four young pigeons and dress same as for salmi of pigeon, and treat
the same way as for Snipe Curry, No. 9. Any curry may be made of
different taste by reducing the ingredients or exceeding it, or by using
tamarind or pickle vinegar instead of lemon juice, or using milk instead
of gravy; and to some Curries add cream, and other Curries using
cocoanut juice (milk).



No. 11.--PORK CURRY.


One pound of fresh and lean pork, and the ingredients same as for Madras
Curry, No. 4; use only three parts of everything. A pinch of Cayenne
will flavour this Curry. Tamarind (an acid?) is nicer than lemon juice,
vinegar, etc. To use the tamarind, take a piece the size of a large
walnut, put into a cup and add about two tablespoons of cold water, and
squeeze it with a spoon or with your finger, strain through a clean
muslin and add to the Curry. Tamarind is always good for any sort of
brown Curry, and lemon juice for yellow or white Curries, and vinegar
for "moley," because it is an entree, and not much Curry stuffs are
used.



No. 12.--VEAL CURRY.


Everything same as Madras Curry, No. 4, but veal Curry, not nicer. If
you have veal chops, treat same as Curried mutton chops, No. 17.



No. 13.--MUTTON CURRY.

For One Pound Mutton (without Fat).


Ingredients same as for Madras Curry, No. 4 but not the quantity. Only
three parts should be taken of each; the Curry stuffs need not be fried
as for Madras Curries, but cut the mutton in half-inch squares, put into
a stew-pan, and then add the Curry stuffs (powders?), spices, etc., and
add a tablespoon of cream when serving, as well as a few drops lemon
juice. Curries made from mutton are not so nice as if made from tender
part of beef, but in India and Ceylon several castes do not touch
beef--they call themselves high caste people, and bear numerous
names--they always eat mutton, fowl, vegetable, etc. The Brahman caste
never eat any meat of any sort; still they eat the pure juice of
beef--as milk, ghee,[5] butter, and another kind of medicine made out of
the flesh of the ox, called in Tamil "paroong kayam."[6]

  [5] Ghee is only melted butter, much used in India, most by Bengali.

  [6] Natives of India says it is a very useful medicine, but I myself
  know too little history about it, but has a nasty smell.



No. 14.--PARTRIDGE CURRY.


I have nothing to say for this Curry, because you can imitate the pigeon
Curry; anyhow you must put in strong gravy, as partridge does not taste
nice if curried. If you have any partridge left from dinner, the next
day you may Curry it same as pigeon, but don't let it simmer too long
over the oven. Any kind of game (birds?) can be made same as the
pigeon.



No. 15.--TRIPE CURRY.


Take about two lbs. of good, thick part of the tripe, cut them in about
four inches square, or not at all, dip it in hot water, not boiling, but
nearly so. Then take out and scrape off all the black stuff, and clean
it as white as a white tablecloth, and boil it tender as you boil for
"Tripe Fricassee." When cool cut it in half-inch squares, slightly
pepper it. Place a stew-pan on fire, and put in a lump of butter. When
hot add the tripe, fry it to a brownish gold colour, then take out and
put in a plate till required. Now add the Curry stuffs, as No. 4, into
the stew-pan on the fire, and turn it over and over till nice and brown.
Now add the tripe you fried, and half-pint of good gravy, and let it
simmer gently on slow fire. When serving add a tablespoon of cream and
few drops of lemon. Some nice spices and a pinch of cayenne pepper
should be added when frying the Curry Powders. This is a very nice
Curry. By-the-by, the gravy you boil the tripe in should be boiled with
other bones, vegetables, etc., and add to the Curry instead of other
gravy.



No. 16.--LIVER CURRY, WITH BACON.


Take a pound of liver and a piece of fat of bacon, boil both in one pan
for quarter of an hour, then take it off the fire, let it cool, then cut
it in half-inch squares, add about 1/4 lb. bacon to a pound of liver,
and treat it same as Madras Curry, No. 4. The Liver Curry considered not
nicer. Parties in India and Ceylon (Europeans) do not care much for
Liver Curry but as an entree, "Liver and Bacon." A breakfast dish in
India and Ceylon.



No. 17.--CHOPS CURRIED.


This is a changeable way to have mutton chops done for breakfast or as
an entree for dinner. Take eight good chops, and flavour it the usual as
for serving itself (I mean place the chops on a flat dish, pepper and
salt it). Vinegar, a dash of Lucca oil, and few drops of sauce, and let
these soak for a few minutes, then place a frying-pan on fire, add a
lump of butter. When melted add the chops, and fry it in usual way of
mutton chops. When done take it off the frying-pan, keep it in a plate.
Now take a large onion and slice it, and fry it to a gold colour in the
frying-pan you fried the chops, then add all the Curry stuffs to it as
said in the Madras Curry, No. 4, except the cayenne, ginger, and garlic.
When all these are nicely fried add four spoons of good stock (brown),
and now add the chops into the frying-pan. Let it warm, then serve on a
hot dish, and send to table with potatoes, vegetables, etc., same as an
entree. Certainly can used with boiled rice too.



No. 18.--STEAKS CURRIED.


Same as chops curried, but to fry the steaks first, then proceed same as
for mutton chops. Mashed potatoes should join this dish, and boiled
spinach fried in butter with an onion will be a nice accompaniment, but
tough part of beef wouldn't do neither. You must not beat up the steaks
with a chopper or steak tenderer, because all the juice will be out;
scarcely any taste. When serving add a few drops of lemon juice, and
this Curry will taste nicer if gleeced before sending to table in the
following way:--Set a stew-pan on fire, when hot put a small bit of
butter and a small onion, finely sliced, and teaspoon of any gravy. Now
use a wooden spoon for frying the onions, and press them in the
sauce-pan. When nice and brown colour, and the fried onions have stuck
in the sauce-pan, pour the Curry you prepared and a spoon of cream; let
it simmer a few minutes. Send to table with rice. Don't forget to add
lemon juice or vinegar.



No. 19.--GAME CURRIES (Various).


The Game Curry I mean is thus:--elk; venisons; poultry, as turkey,
geese, duck, etc.; rabbit, etc. Can be curried same as No. 4, but it is
not nicer to make them into a yellow Curry, as for fish or vegetables.



No. 20.--RABBIT OR YOUNG HARE CURRY.


N.B.--I think the Rabbit made into a gleeced brown stew much nicer than
putting it in a jar, and prepare like a jugged hare, as it takes away
all the flavour, and the gravy tastes nice, and the meat almost like the
soup meat or plain boiled meat; but the Curried Rabbit is not a bad
recipe, if properly made, to use as an ordinary entree.

Take a small rabbit; skin it; and cut up in small pieces as large as two
inch square; flour it, and fry in butter or lard, just underdone, and
brown it outside; keep it to a side. Now place a stew-pan on fire, and
add the remaining butter or lard you fried the rabbit with; when this
lard is nice and hot, slice one onion, and brown in the stew-pan. Now
add Curry powder same as Madras Curry, No. 4. When all these are nice
and brownish gold, add a pint of gravy or milk, and let it simmer gently
on slow fire; and quarter of an hour before sending to table, add the
fried rabbit to the Curry sauce, and let it simmer for 15 minutes. When
serving add few drops of lemon juice, and a spoon of cream. The above
Curry for boiled rice; if for an "entree," just cut the rabbit in
joints, and prepare same as the above Curry. When serving add a glass of
claret in place of lemon juice.



No. 21.--EGG CURRY (Whitish Yellow).


Hard boil six eggs, and put in cold water till wanted. Now place a
stew-pan on fire, and add half teaspoon of saffron powder (yellow);
half-pint of milk; one large onion, sliced; one tablespoon finely
chopped ham or corned beef; one green capsicum, cut in quarters; one
potato, mashed up (the potato left from last meal will do). Now simmer
this for quarter of an hour; don't let it burn. When serving, take eggs
out of the shell; cut in halves; place the eggs on a vegetable dish (the
cut part up). Now add a tablespoon of cream, and a few drops of lemon
juice; salt to taste, and pour over the eggs, and send to table with a
brown Curry to accompany the rice (boiled). Samball and fried herring
may be sent with these above Curries and rice. Poppadoms[7] and Bombay
ducks will be a good accompaniment if could be procured.

  [7] Poppadoms is a thin kind of flour and turtle eggs, and a kind of
  grain, mixed and made as thin as paper.



No. 22.--EGG CURRY (Brown).


Boil the eggs same as No. 21, and put in cold water till wanted. Now
prepare Curry sauce (brown) as No. 26, pour over the eggs cut in halves,
as egg Curry (yellow). Egg Curries always called in Ceylon "a rest-house
Curry," because in several rest-houses in Ceylon usually not many
visitors pass that way, beside these rest-house keepers cannot get fresh
beef, etc. They always have plenty of eggs, fowls, native vegetables,
etc., but egg Curry only can be made quick. When a gentleman is going
from one planting district to another, a box cooly or a horse-keeper
(groom) runs in front to a certain place, by order of his master. When
he gets into the rest-house, the rest-house keeper knows that a
gentleman is coming. At once he will order to kill a chicken and grill
it in Scotch form? and boil two eggs; when this is doing the kitchen
mate[8] will squeeze half of a cocoanut, with little water mix some
saffron, salt green chillie, Maldive fish, etc., now he boils this for
five minutes. There is the breakfast ready! The bill of fare may be
thus:--Grilled chicken; boiled pumpkin or beans, sometimes potatoes;
boiled rice; egg Curry; samball; tea, coffee, or beer, etc. The dinner
might be similar to above with addition of soup. Sometimes the Curries
are made from native vegetables, as there is plenty of nice and
wholesome vegetables in Ceylon (I mean) besides the English vegetables.
The rest-houses are in place of refreshment rooms and eating-houses are
in England.

  [8] Kitchen mate is a boy kept under the cook to do all the washing,
  etc., etc.



No. 23.--EGG CURRY (Omelet).


Make a savoury omelet with chopped ham, parsley, etc. When done, cut in
one-inch squares, and pour over the Curry sauce, brown or yellow, as
Nos. 21 and 22.

N.B.--The omelet should only be made just before serving, as it will get
tough, etc. The Curry sauce may be made beforehand.



No. 24.--EGG CURRY (Poached).


Prepare Curry sauce, brown or yellow, as Nos. 26, 27. When serving just
let the Curry sauce simmer gently. Now break the eggs carefully and
put in the Curry sauce, each separately. Same as poaching eggs in a
frying-pan. The pan must be a wide stew-pan. When dishing you must
carefully take the yolks without breaking them and pour over the gravy,
and send to table with boiled rice; and thin slices of ham should be
handed round with this Curry and rice. Don't forget the samball for
every Curry, as well as fried red herring.



No. 25.--FRIED EGGS FOR CURRIES.


Beat up the eggs same as for savoury omelet, but omit the sweet herbs,
add chopped ham, salt, pepper, dash of flour, and pinch of cayenne, and
fry in butter or lard (same as omelets, or in small cakes). Send to
table with the Curry and rice in separate dish. The above dish (usually
the native way) not used in gentlemen's houses, but I recommend it to be
tried.



No. 26.--CURRY SAUCE (Brown, for Meat of any sort).


Place a stew-pan on fire, add a spoonful of butter; when melted add one
onion, sliced; when half brownish colour add a tablespoon and a half of
coriander powder, one of rice powder as No. 48, a saltspoon saffron, a
pinch of cumin-seed powder. Now turn this well with a wooden spoon. When
nicely fried, add the spices as said in the Curry No. 4, ginger and
garlic chopped up fine. Now add a pint of good gravy or fresh milk, and
let it simmer on slow fire till you find it reduced to a half-pint. Add
salt to taste, and a little cayenne if preferred hot. Now this Curry
Sauce is ready. This sauce can be heated up with any cold meats, as
beef, mutton, pork, poultry, game, etc., etc., because the meat cooked
beforehand cannot be cooked up in the above sauce, only warmed up. When
preparing, the meat should only be added to the gravy about five to ten
minutes before serving. The above recipe is only suitable for cold
meats, fried livers, chops, steaks, etc., etc. The above is a brown
Curry for parties, like the Curry stuffs; but for yellow Curry with less
Curry stuffs, etc., see the accompanying recipe. But in Ceylon or in
India always two Curries, etc., accompany the rice; especially in Ceylon
a brown and yellow Curry, etc., accompanies the rice to table.



No. 27.--YELLOW CURRY SAUCE (for Vegetables, Fish, etc.).


Slice one onion, one large spoonful of chopped-up ham (fresh, best) or
nice corned beef (cooked), one green capsicum cut in quarters, one small
teaspoon of saffron powder, pinch of cayenne pepper if preferred hot
Curry, half-pint of milk, salt to taste. Now put all these into a clean
stew-pan and set on fire for twenty minutes or more, simmer gently, and
let it reduce to half-pint. When serving add few drops of lemon juice
and a large spoon of cream. The above Curry Sauce is very nice for fish
and vegetables. If it is cooked up vegetable or fish, just add ten
minutes before serving. If it is fresh vegetable or fish, to be cooked
in the sauce from the beginning; see their separate headings. The above
Curry only second to a moley made of fish or fowl.



No. 28.--CURRIED FOWL (a Joint).


  1 good-sized Fowl and Curry Stuffs.

Everything same as for Madras Curry, but an extra spoon of coriander
powder and spoonful of cocoanut scraped up fine (_i.e._, in England I
have seen and also used cocoanut scraped and preserved in tins by some
firm in London). This cocoanut can add to all kinds of brown Curries, as
it gives flavour to Curry; but it is a new idea, not suitable or used in
the East for a Curry. Dress the fowl as for boiling, and boil it for few
minutes (underdone). Keep this to a side, but don't waste the broth. Now
place a large stew-pan on fire (large enough to hold the fowl), slice
one large onion and fry in the butter. When nicely brown take out the
onions and put in the fowl, and fry it all sides nice and gold colour,
take the fowl out of the pan. Now add all the Curry stuffs, spices,
ginger, garlic, etc., etc., and the broth that the fowl has been boiled
in, and a half-pint of milk and bay leaves. Let all these simmer till
the Curry Sauce is reduced to a pint or little more. Now add the fowl
and turn it occasionally; do not let it burn. When serving, add a few
drops of lemon juice or vinegar (pickled), a spoonful of cream, salt to
taste, and cayenne if preferred. Send to table on a flat dish large
enough to carve the fowl, and leave enough gravy to go round the table;
I mean not juicy, neither dry. The above should be treated as a joint.
If any left can be warmed up in frying-pan, the fowl cut in pieces, and
send to table with fried potatoes, garnished with nice green cabbage
(boiled), or Brussels sprouts will do best. The above will do better on
a Sunday for dinner, as thus:--

Not a bad dinner for a small party.

  Beef, mullagatawny, and rice.
  Curried fowls, and plenty of vegetables and potatoes.
  Some kind of pudding.



No. 29.--CHICKEN MOLEY.

For Two Young Chickens and some Gravy.


Cut up the chicken in joints, and boil all the bones, etc., for gravy.
Place a stew-pan on fire, add the chicken-bone gravy, half-pint milk,
one small spoon of butter, one eggspoon saffron powder, one tablespoon
of chopped ham, small pinch of cayenne, one bay leaf, spices (bit of
cinnamon, two cloves), salt to taste, one onion sliced. Let it boil (I
mean simmer) for five minutes, then add the chicken, set on slow fire
till the meat is tender. When serving, mix a dessertspoon of flour in
two tablespoons of cream in a tea cup, then add this into the moley and
stir well; let simmer for two or three minutes. When dishing, add a few
drops of lemon juice or pickled vinegar. The above dish should be
light-yellow colour, the gravy thick as cream. Mashed potatoes and fried
bacon may garnish this dish, with red carrots, cut fine and pretty, and
stuck in the mashed potatoes round the dish. The above entree should be
served up on a small flat dish for a dinner, lunch, supper, etc.



No. 30.--FISH MOLEY.

For Two Pounds of Salmon.


N.B.--The Fish Moley is almost like a Curry (_see_ Fish Curry, Salmon,
No. 31).

Cut the salmon nearly an inch thick, then cut it in two inches long,
one inch wide, or little round pieces. Now mix in a stew-pan the
following:--a pint of fish stock, white gravy, or milk, one small
spoon of butter, one eggspoon saffron powder, one dessertspoonful
finely-chopped ham, pinch of cayenne, one bay leaf, spices (bit of
cinnamon or cloves), one large onion sliced, salt to taste. Mix all the
above into the stew-pan, and set on fire. When it simmers, add the fish
and let it simmer gently until the fish is done. When serving, mash up a
boiled potato in two tablespoons of cream. Pour to the moley, and add
few drops of lemon juice, and send to table with boiled potatoes (mashed
up and baked in an oven), in shape as a pudding. Suppose if you have any
cold fish boiled the day before, just only mix up the sauce and let it
simmer till wanted, and add the fish five or ten minutes before sending
to table. Any fresh beef, cold beef, mutton, etc., can be made into
moley, but the fresh beef ought to be tender part--the under cut of a
sirloin will do nicely. It cannot be made from pork, because it will not
taste as nice as chicken or fish.



No. 31.--FISH CURRY (Salmon).


The fish Curry is made several different ways in Ceylon and India, as
brown or yellow Curry, but similar to fish moley, hard-boiled egg Curry,
No. 22, and the potato Curry, No. 35; but you must add a spoonful of
chopped ham or corned beef, and use lemon juice, not vinegar. The fish
Curry (brown) can be made same as Madras Curry, No. 4. But proceed to
make the Curry Sauce, No. 26, then add the fish. As soon as the fish is
tender, the Curry is ready. Don't add any butter to fish Curries. The
native cooks use the coriander, saffron, chillies, etc., without
roasting them in the frying-pan.--See "Home-made Curry Powder," No. 1,
but grinding it without roasting.



No. 32.--FISH CURRY (Various).


  Salmon.
  Haddocks.
  Soles.
  Whiting.
  Codfish.
  Whitebait.
  Fresh Herrings.
  Lobsters.
  Crabs.
  Oysters.
  Prawns.
  Shrimps, etc.

The above Fish Curries can be made same as Salmon Curry, No. 31, egg
Curry (yellow), fish moley, Madras Curry, No. 4, but great care must be
taken not to be burned. The soles and whiting are not nice when curried,
and the oysters should be used without the liquor. Prawns and shrimps
are celebrated Curries if they are freshly caught and properly prepared.
Tamarind used for Fish Curries (brown) are very nice--better than lime
(lemon) juice or vinegar.



No. 33.--TINNED SARDINES (Curried).

For a Small Tin of Sardines of One Dozen.


Take the sardines, and take off the black part; just finely scrape; with
a spoon place on a tin or plate, and make it warm in an oven. Now make a
Curry sauce (brown), same as No. 26, but less milk or gravy. The Curry
sauce must not be more than a small tea cup, nice and thick, if not
thicker,--just mash up a boiled potato, and add to the sauce. Just
before serving, take each sardine carefully and place in the Curry sauce
you made; do not stir it; set on slow fire for five minutes. When
serving take each carefully without breaking, arrange them nicely on a
Curry or vegetable dish; pour over the gravy, and send to table with
boiled rice or hot toast. Any tinned fish can be made same as the above,
except Yarmouth bloaters, smoked fish, salt fish, mackerel, etc., etc.
Tinned salmon makes a nice Curry. Afraid it will mash up and be like a
gruel instead of lumps. The above Curry sauce will answer to several
boiled fish--boiled the day before.



No. 34.--VEGETABLE CURRIES (Various).


With reference to above, the potato, knol khol, turnips, carrots,
parsnips, vegetable marrow, cucumber, beans, etc., can be made same way
as potato Curry, No. 35; but cabbage, spinach, turnip tops (young
shoots), Brussels sprouts, can be made same way as potato Curry, with
same ingredients, but the cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc., take little
more time to tenderly boil; therefore extra gravy, milk, butter, and
extra spoon of ham or corned beef. Onions should be added for greens.
The more good gravy you add the better the Curry. As far as I have seen,
there is not many English vegetables can be Curried, but in India and
Ceylon there is numberless vegetables, greens, grasses, etc., can be
Curried.



No. 35.--POTATO CURRY.

For One Pound of Good Potatoes (peeled).


Cut them in half-inch squares; put them into a clean stew-pan with an
eggspoon of saffron; one large onion, sliced; one large spoon of chopped
ham or corned beef (salt to taste); three parts of a pint of milk. Mix
well together; put in a bay leaf; set on fire, and let it simmer till
the potatoes are tender. If the three-quarters pint of milk is not
sufficient to tender the potatoes, add some good gravy (stock), but not
brown stock. When serving, add a quarter pint of milk and a dessertspoon
or more of cream, and let it simmer. When simmering add a few drops of
lemon juice, and send to table with boiled rice. But a Brown Curry must
accompany the above Curry.



No. 36.--CABBAGE CURRY.


Take half of a small cabbage, and cut it with a sharp knife as big as
you cutting a lettuce for a salad; wash it thoroughly clean; put into a
stew-pan with a pint of gravy, and boil it till half done. Now take it
off the fire; add an eggspoonful of saffron powder; two large spoons of
chopped ham, etc.; a pinch of cayenne (if required hot); one large
onion, sliced; salt to taste. Mix well; set on fire. More gravy or milk
should be added, till the cabbage is soft as usual form.



No. 37.--BEAN CURRY.

For a Pound of French Beans.


Cut up the beans one inch long and prepare same as the cabbage Curry.
The same ingredients will do and must accompany a meat Curry to table.
These Curries may only be gleeced, if you please, or can serve plain,
but the gleece gives a nice smell and good taste. Any Curry can be
gleeced. If you wish to make Curry of broad beans, must take off the
thicker skin and weigh a pound; but broad beans are not a useful bean
for Curry, but only better as a vegetable by cooking it in a jar with
butter and mint.--See Vegetables for Table, as No. 53.



No. 38.--ONION CURRY.


Same as potato Curry, No. 35. The large onions should be cut in
quarters, and the small onions put in whole; but in India and Ceylon we
have onions (I mean the button onions with red skin) which makes a
delicious Curry.



No. 39.--DEVILLED CABIN BISCUITS.


  1 Onion sliced.
  1 Dessertspoon Butter.
  2 Tablespoons of good Beef Gravy.
  1 Eggspoon or less of Cayenne.
  Pinch of Pepper; Salt to taste.
  1 Small Potato mashed up.
  1 Dessertspoon of Worcester Sauce (Lea & Perrins).

_Mode._--Slice the onions and fry in a stew-pan with the butter; when
the onions turn to a gold colour add all other ingredients. During you
preparing the above, soak six cabin biscuits in boiling water for two
minutes, then take it out of the water and dish the biscuits, and pour
over the devil gravy you prepared. Cover the biscuits with gravy and
serve hot. The above dish is good for lunch, etc.



No. 40.--DEVILLED MEAT (Various).


Same ingredients as for biscuits, No. 39, but meat must be cut two
inches long and added to the stew-pan soon as the onions are fried.
Give it stirring for some while by turning the pieces of meat in it.
By-the-bye, the fresh meat should be fried a little brown, because fresh
meat devilled always tough unless the meat is undercut. Extra spoons of
gravy should be added to devilled meats. Cuttings from cold joints are
nice devilled; but fresh beef ought to be of tender part (as I said
before, undercut). Fowl, duck, mutton, turkey, geese can be done in same
way (I mean from joints roasted beforehand); but you must reduce or
exceed the ingredients for the amount of weight. The quantities given
for devilled biscuits are sufficient for 1 lb., or less of meat. Be
careful not to burn.--See Devilled Biscuits.



No. 41.--MOLLAGOO TANNEY, AND NOT MULLIGATAWNY.[9]

  [9] Why English people always spell this word wrong? Everybody knows
  this--Mollagoo, _pepper_; tanney, _water_. In proper Tamil the
  mollagoo tanney is pronounced "Mollagoo Neer" and "Mollagoo Tannir."


  2 Good Quarts of Gravy of Mutton Beef or Chicken Soup.
  2 Large Spoons of Coriander Powder.
  1 Tablespoon of Rice Powder as No. 48, and Pinch of Pepper.
  1 Pint of good Milk.
  2 Large Onions, sliced.
  1 Piece of Ginger.
  1 Garlic, small one.
  1/2 Teaspoon of Cumin Powder.
  Pinch of Saffron.
  1 Dessertspoon Butter.

_Mode._--The Curry stuffs you use for mollagoo tanney should be very
fine. Take a large stew-pan and mix all the above together, only one
onion (sliced), garlic and ginger chopped up fine. Let these simmer for
ten minutes, now strain it through a muslin or gravy strainer. Now fry
the other onion in the dessertspoon of butter in another stew-pan. When
the onions are browned add the mollagoo tanney with a small bay leaf,
and skim off the grease, and send to table in a soup tureen as a soup;
but this should be used instead of soup, or the first dish for a lunch
or breakfast or dinner, but I recommend for dinner in Europe. Cut lemon
should be handed round with the above and plain boiled rice. Fried red
herring wouldn't be a bad accompaniment. In India the mullagatawny is
used generally once a week--say on a Sunday or Wednesday. The natives
usually have this mullagatawny on Fridays after their caste. Some
mullagatawny are made of plain Curry stuffs, tamarind, etc., not worth
for Europeans. Some parties who visited India like native mullagatawny
better than the above, according to taste, but I recommend the above for
Europeans. The cayenne pepper should be added if required hot.



No. 42.--PILLAU RICE (a Mohammedan Dish), au Joint for Dinner.


Cook rice as No. 50. Keep it aside till wanted, then place a frying-pan
on fire. Have two large onions (sliced) and two tablespoons of butter,
and add half-teaspoon of saffron. When all the above is nicely brown add
the rice, and keep on turning for few minutes, sprinkle a little salt.
Now this is ready after dishing the above. Fry a large onion (sliced),
and raisins (fried), sliced almonds. Sprinkle the above three over the
pillau rice. The pillau rice should accompany roast fowl or mutton chops
by dishing the meat on a flat dish, and cover it with pillau rice, and
sprinkle over with fried onions, etc. Parsley mint can be fried and
added. If it is to be eaten with Curry, use Madras Curry, kabob, or
salmon, and omit the meat with pillau.



No. 43.--LEMON (HOT) SAUCE.


  Juice of a Large Lemon.
  1 Dessertspoon Cayenne.
  1 Dessertspoon Pounded White Sugar; some Salt.

Mix all together in a cup and use. If required to be kept, boil the
whole in an enamel-plated saucepan; when cold bottle it. This sauce is
very nice with cold meat or with made dishes.



No. 44.--APPLE CHUTNEY.

How to make in England.


  1/2 lb. Sour Apples, peeled and cored.
  1/4 lb. Currants.
  1 oz. Chillies (or 1/2 oz. Cayenne).
  1 Tablespoon Brown Sugar.
  4 oz. Salt, or to taste.
  1 Eggspoon Pepper, finely ground.
  1 oz. Garlic, chopped up fine.
  1/4 oz. Green Ginger, chopped up fine.
  1/4 lb. Raisins.

_Mode._--Have the currants and raisins clean, and pound them in grinder
or pounder of stone. Now grind the apples and all other ingredients to a
smooth paste (I mean, not too thin or in lumps). Now mix these well
together with half bottle of best vinegar, and bottle it in tart fruit
bottles, corked well. If you require sweeter have more sugar, and if it
is too watery put in a little less of vinegar. The above plan of chutney
is suitable for cold meats, Curries, etc. In Ceylon, Mango Chutney is
made in similar way, but they use tamarind, and when grinding use
vinegar to soften the ingredients when grinding.



No. 44a.--MINT CHUTNEY.


  1/2 lb. Mint.
  1 oz. Cayenne.
  1/4 lb. Salt.
  1/4 lb. Raisins.
  2 oz. Ginger.
  1/4 lb. Brown Sugar.
  1 oz. Garlic.
  1/2 Bottle Vinegar to grind the above.
  1/2 Bottle Vinegar, hot, to pour over.

_Mode._--Grind or pound the above by adding the cold vinegar by degrees
to soften. When nice and smooth, put into a bowl and pour over the hot
vinegar. When cool, bottle it in tart fruit bottles, and cork well.

N.B.--I can give dozens of recipes for chutney. I am afraid it is no use
telling in this book, because the ingredients cannot be procured fresh,
as mangoes, pineapples, lavi-lavi, blinga, tamarind, ripe chillies,
chutnies, etc., etc. The above is a recipe I tried in Newera Eliya,
Ceylon, where fresh mint can be had in any quantity of first class, same
as in England and Scotland.



No. 45.--QUICKLY-MADE SAMBALL.

How to make it in England.


Chop up fine one large onion, a teaspoon of cayenne, another of crushed
sugar, one tablespoon finely-chopped ham (cooked), one teaspoon salt,
one tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice.

_Mode._--Mix all the above in a small bowl with a wooden spoon or with
your clean finger. Now add the vinegar. Again mix well, and send to
table with cold pork, Curries, etc. A little more sugar may be added if
preferred sweet. There are great many samballs can be made, but all must
pass the Curry stone or stone-made pounder. The samballs made of dry
chillies, green chillies, cocoanut juice, Maldive fish, onions, cooked
fishes, meats, mint, etc., etc. The samballs are a great improvement to
Curries. In Ceylon every cook would send a samball to table with the
Curry and rice; also native meals are never without a samball--especially
_samball_, or some ball. It is only a new-made chutney or pickle, but
_fresh_ made, called _sampball_.



No. 46.--HOW TO FRY RED HERRINGS FOR CURRIES.


Take two stout common red herrings, cut them about one and a-half inch
long (cross ways); put in a plate and add one tablespoon of vinegar and
a little dash of cayenne; roll the herrings well, and fry them in butter
or lard, and send to table dry, free from grease. To be eaten with rice
and Curry instead of Bombay ducks.

The above is a new idea, which I came to know during my first visit to
England, Royal Jubilee Exhibition, 1887, in Liverpool.



No. 47.--TOAST CURRY.


Prepare some Curry gravy, same as Madras Curry, No. 4. Now toast two
slices of bread; cut thin, and in diamond shape. After toasted, dish the
toast on a vegetable dish, and pour over the gravy you prepared, and
send to table hot, with Curry and rice, samball, etc.



No. 48.--HOW TO MAKE RICE POWDER.


Take a pound of good rice, and pick out all the black and other things
from it. And now place a frying-pan on fire; soon as it gets hot put in
the rice, and keep on turning till you find it nice and brown colour;
then put on a plate to get cool; then pound this in a stone-made mortar
or pounder (very fine), and bottle it, well corked. Use a tablespoon to
brown Curries.



No. 49.--MUSHROOMS CURRIED AND SERVED ON TOAST.


Pick out half-pound of fresh and good mushrooms; sprinkle with little
pepper and salt. Now prepare Curry sauce as for Snipe Curry. Fry the
mushrooms in a dessertspoon of butter, and add to the Curry sauce; let
it simmer gently for five minutes, then serve on hot toast. A nice dish
for lunch or supper. When eating, a dash of cayenne and mushroom ketchup
may be a nice taste. Try the above.



No. 50.--RICE, HOW TO BOIL FOR CURRIES.


Take an enamelled saucepan to hold four quarts, and fill it
three-quarters full of fresh water, and let it boil. During the time the
water is boiling, soak two pounds of rice (white) for three minutes in
cold water; then strain off the water, and put the rice in the pan that
is boiling, and stir for two minutes, and cover it up. When boiling put
in a spoon, and take out some rice and feel it with your finger. If it
is done drain off all the water, and place the pan near a hot oven till
wanted.

Must not let it be overdone. If it is overdone and nearly soft, just
drain the boiling rice water, and add a few cups of very cold water.
Stir it, and drain again, and set by the fire or on hot oven for a few
minutes, and you will find each grain separate. Boiled rice ought to
have each grain separate.

N.B.--The rice I have seen in England they call it "Patcha Areysi," used
for rice cakes, etc., in India and Ceylon, etc. I mean the rice taken
out the shell without boiling the paddy. The rice taken out the shell,
called "Sothareysigal," as follows, of Rangoon, Chittagong, Bengal,
etc., etc.:--

  Samba.
  Muthoo Samba.
  Mollagoo Samba.
  Oosi Samba.
  Collundha.
  Bangalam.
  Cara.
  Vallareysee.
  Masareysi.
  Waddakathy Samba.

And several other native names too numerous to mention. The above all
good for eating after boiled.



No. 51.--A SALAD FOR DINNER, Etc., for Hot Weather.


  Cucumber.
  Beet Root, boiled.
  Hard-Boiled Eggs.
  Ripe Tomatoes.
  Water-Cress.
  1 Large Onion, thin sliced.
  Cold Fowl, Beef, or Mutton.

_Mode._--Cut the meat in thin slices, and put in a flat dish, then slice
the cucumber, beet root, eggs, tomato, and onion, and dress the dish
with the above, neatly arranging by putting one piece cucumber, another
of beet root, another of eggs, and another of tomato, and put the sliced
onions in the middle, and the water-cress round the dish as a
decoration. Now prepare this

  Sauce.

  Yolks of 2 Hard Boiled Eggs.
  1 Potato, finely mashed up.
  1 Dessertspoon of Made Mustard.
  1 Teaspoonful of crushed Sugar, another of Butter.
  2 Dessertspoons of Condensed Milk (omit the Sugar); or,
  1 Large spoon of Cream instead of Condensed Milk.
  1/2 Teaspoon of Salt, Dash of Cayenne and Pepper.
  3 Tablespoons Vinegar, or more.

Take a small bowl and mash up the potato, yolks of eggs, mustard,
sugar, salt, butter. When nice and smooth add the milk or cream. After
mixed add the vinegar, and mix well and keep separate. When sending to
table just pour the sauce all over the salad with a spoon. Let it stand
for two minutes and serve. The above can be made with or without meat,
and also with lettuce if at hand. Several other salads could be made as
learned cooks have written in the cooks' books; but the above I tried
myself in one of my former masters' bungalows in Ceylon and in England.



No. 52.--SUNDAL OR POOGATHU (a Native Dish).


Finely cut one cabbage (a small one)--I mean as fine as the tobacco used
for cigarettes, put a stew-pan on fire, add a small spoonful of butter,
one onion (sliced). When the onions are nice and brown put in the
cabbage, give it a turn, and add a teacup of good gravy, and cover it
up, and set on gentle fire for few minutes; then add a spoonful of
chopped ham, dash of cayenne and pepper, a pinch of saffron powder, and
set over an oven till wanted. Do not let it burn; keep on turning. When
nice and dry send to table with Curry, and rice, and samball. The above
can be made from any greens; but this is not in use in European houses
in Ceylon, but very nice dish for Curries.



No. 53.--VEGETABLES BOILED FOR TABLE.


French beans, broad beans, peas, Brussels sprouts, etc., will be nice
when boiled in preserve jar with a lump of butter, salt, and dash of
pepper (and mint to peas), but Brussels sprouts requiring lots of
cooking may add some water to it. Spinach and sorrel can be cooked in a
jar with a small onion (sliced), and little more salt to sorrel. Any
vegetables might be done as above. I think it is an economical way of
cooking vegetables; but I am afraid it wouldn't do for large
establishments as hotels, etc., but for family houses it is a better
way. The jar to be placed in a large pan, half full of water, and see it
occasionally to prevent drying up.



No. 54.--ECONOMICAL CURRY PASTE.


  1 lb. Coriander Seed.
  1/4 lb. Dry Chillies.
  1/2 lb. Mustard Seed.
  2 oz. Garlic.
  2 oz. ----
  1/2 lb. Dried Peas.
  1/2 pint Vinegar.
  1/4 lb. Saffron.
  1/4 lb. Pepper.
  2 oz. Dry Ginger.
  1/2 lb. Salt.
  1/2 lb. Brown Sugar.
  2 oz. Cumin Seed.
  1/2 pint Lucca Oil.

N.B.--Few Bay Leaves in Ceylon and India. Using Carugapilbay or _Curry
Leaves_, black.

_Mode._--Grind all the above with the vinegar using to moisten the
ingredients, using a Curry stone or stone-made pounder. When all the
above nice and thin as a paste, put in a jar and pour over the Lucca
oil, and cover it up. Use a large spoon for Madras Curries. The above
good for mushroom, snipe, partridge, and other brown Curries of superior
quality.



No. 55.--CURRY POWDER (a Recipe).


  2 lbs. Coriander Seed.
  1/2 oz. Chillies.
  4 oz. Pepper.
  7 oz. Cumin Seed.
  7 oz. Mustard Seed.
  1 oz. Bay Leaves.
  8 oz. Carum Seed.
  2 oz. Saffron.

Make all the above into powder, and calculate the weight--ought to
equal. Use one and a-half tablespoonful for brown Curries only.



No. 56.--CURRY POWDER (a Recipe).


  1 lb. Coriander Seed.
  1/4 lb. Cumin Seed.
  6 oz. Saffron.
  10 oz. Dry Chillies.
  2 1/2 oz. Vantheyam (Tamil name) Fenugreek.
  4 oz. Ginger.
  1 Handful chopped-up Bay Leaves.

Pound smooth all these, and bottle it in, well corked, and use as above.
The above three recipes are from Mr. Symon Nayajam, cook, of Madras and
Colombo, Ceylon.



No. 57.--CURRY POWDER (a most excellent).


  2 Large Old Fowls.
  1 lb. Coriander.
  1/8 lb. Chillies or Cayenne.
  6 oz. Saffron.
  2 Large Spoons Cumin Seed.
  1 oz. Dry Ginger.
  2 oz. Garlic.
  4 Large Spoons of Rice Powder, as No. 48; or 4 Large Spoons of Dried
      Peas (roasted and ground).
  1/2 Handful Dried Bay Leaves.
  1 Tablespoon Peppercorns.
  2 doz. Cloves.
  1/4 lb. Button Onions,
  1/4 lb. Butter or Ghee.

_Mode._--Clean the fowls and cut them in small pieces, the giblets and
all. Put into a large saucepan, and add a few quarts of water, and boil
it very tender--I mean simmer gently for two days. The bones, meat,
etc., should be mashed up. Now take out all the bones, and keep to a
side. Take a large saucepan, put in the butter and sliced onions, and
fry it to a brown colour. Now add all the Curry Powders, garlic chopped
up, bay leaves, dry ginger, cloves, pepper, all in powders, and fry
gently for a few minutes. Now add the gravy of boiled fowls, with the
meat, etc., and let it simmer so a few minutes. When all these are
reduced to three quarts, just dish it on a flat dish and let it cool for
a day, or till it gets hard as a brick. Now pound this in a stone-made
mortar to a smooth powder, and bottle it, well corked, and use for Brown
Curries, a dessertspoon to a pound, with sliced onions, milk or gravy,
and lemon juice.

N.B.--The above recipe is a most excellent of all the Curry Powders and
Pastes, only second to none. In India we can prepare the above with
tamarind included, for acid taste, and few other ingredients which can
get fresh in Ceylon and India, but I think not procurable in England.



No. 58.--TOMATO CURRY.


For a pound of young or green tomato, ingredients same as for Potato
Curry, No. 35, or for Brown Curry same as No. 4, Madras Curry. Treat it
same as the Cabbage Curry. But I recommend that tomatoes should be made
Brown Curry--tastes nice. Tomato curried is better than all the
vegetables if it is properly made. Ripe tomato not nice when curried,
only for salads.



No. 59.--CURRIES UNDER VARIOUS NAMES.


As to my opinion, Curries can be made from anything, if you could
procure the proper Curry Powders, etc. Almost every Curry is made one or
two ways, by only reducing, exceeding, or mixing the various Curry
stuffs. Some Curries are hot, some dry, some juicy, some sour, and so
on. Then the cooks celebrate the names in the menu as Delhi Curry, Agra
Curry, Madras Curry, Curry à la Punjab, Bengal Curry, Mysore Curry, and
several other names too numerous to mention in this little work. But I
myself and several parties who have visited India will be glad to
recommend Madras Curries as best; and Ceylon Singhalese Curry (yellow)
is good, made of cocoanut juice, Maldive fish, lemon, Curry leaves,
saffron, etc. Several cooks add too much ghee or butter, lard, etc., but
it only spoils the taste of the Curry; and some cooks put too much
spice, and give it too much flavouring. Reasonable ingredients couldn't
spoil a Curry. A small girl of 10 years of age will make a Curry, as
Curries are easily made in India and Ceylon.



No. 60.--CHUTNEY CHICKEN.


Same as country capon, or country captian, but mix few tablespoons of
mango chutney, or any other chutneys, but not hot.



No. 61.--WHEN TO USE CURRIES.


_First Course._

  Soup.
  Fish.
  Entrees.
  Joints.

_Second Course._

  Curry and Rice.
  Sweets.
  Cheese.
  Dessert.
  Coffee.



TAMIL AND ENGLISH NAMES FOR CURRY STUFFS, etc., as used in Ceylon.


I only give a few of Tamil languages as generally in use, but not high
words. Many parties visited our Indian continent will understand the
following and names of native vegetables:--

  English.                Tamil.

  Rice.                   Areysi.
  Curry.                  Currie.
  Coriander.              Cotha Mulle.
  Saffron.                Münjal.
  Cumin Seed.             Seeragam.
  Ginger, Dry.            Sukkoo.
  Ginger, Green.          Engi.
  Salt.                   Oopoo.
  Dry Chillie.            Cotchi Kaie.
  Green Chillie.          Patcha Kotchi Kaie.
  Cocoanut.               Thankaie or Thayangaie.
  Maldive Fish.           Massi.
  Milk.                   Paal.
  Bread.                  Rotti.
  Sugar.                  Sèèney.
  Water.                  Thannir.
  Cocoanut Oil.           Thankaie Annay.
  Ghee.                   Naie.
  Butter.                 Vannai.
  Onions.                 Vengayam.
  Curry Leaves.           Caruga Pillay.
  Lemon or Limes.         Thascekaie.
  Tamarind.               Puley.
  Cinnamon.               Carova Patta.
  Cloves.                 Ikramba.
  Dry Fish.               Caroowadoo.
  Fish.                   Meen.
  Beef.                   Erratchi.
  Mutton.                 Art Erratchi.
  Pork.                   Pandi Erratchi.
  Fowl.                   Coley.
  Chicken.                Coley Kunju.


Articles of Food--Posana Patharitlaugal.

  Meat.                   Ereitchi.
  Fresh Meat.             Patcha Eratchi.
  Ghie Fish.              Ney Meen.
  Soles.                  Nakoo Meen.
  Shrimps.                Cooni, Erraal.
  Prawn.                  Erraal.
  Lobster.                Singeerral.
  Crab.                   Nandoo.
  Turkey.                 Van Coley.
  Goose.                  Peria Vathu, or Wathu.
  Teal.                   Seeragi.
  Snipe.                  Collan or Collaan.


  Cereals.                Thaniya Vagayi.

  Boiled Rice.            Soru.
  Pearl Barley.           Barli Arisi.
  Sago.                   Sav-vari-si.
  Kurrakan Raggy.         Koorakan _Kapay_.
  Maize.                  Sollam, Mâkka, Solam.
  Pulses.                 Payaroo Vagaie.
  Grain.                  Kadalay, Thaniam.
  Flour.                  Mahà, Vagai.
  Wheat Flour.            Gothuma Mâ.
  Corn Flour.             Sollam Mâ.
  Tapioca.                Eli lay Mâ.
  Arrowroot.              Coova Mâ.
  Cabbage.                Govis Keeray.
  Cucumber.               _Wellari._
  Pumpkin.                Poosani Kai.
  Bringall.               Kathari Kay.
  Wenda Kay.              Wenda Kai.
  Drumstick.              Mooroonga Kai.
  Curry Stuffs.           Masalai.
  Pepper.                 Melagu.
  Mustard.                Kadoogoo.
  Garlic.                 Vella Vengâyam.
  Fenugreek.              Vanthayam.
  Dark Margosa Leaves.    Caroova Pillay.
  Aniseed.                Sôômboo.
  Cardamom.               Alâmor elam.
  _Nutmeg._               Sathi Kai.
  Mace.                   Sathi Pathari.
  Lime.                   Ellumitchan _Palam_.
  Fruit.                  Pala, Vagai.
  Mango.                  Mâm _Palam_.
  Plantain.               _Vala_ Palam.
  Custard Apple.          Seitha _Palam_.
  Jack Fruit.             Paala, Palam.
  Bread Fruit.            Lera Palla Kai.
  Bullock's Heel.         Rama Seitha Palam.
  Pine Apple.             Annâsi Palam.
  Orange.                 Pani Thottam, Palam.
  Guava.                  Coiya Palam.

I can give several other names in Tamil and English, but my little book
is too light to carry the burden.

                                                   D. SANTIAGOE.



              PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
                          LONDON AND BECCLES.



  [ Transcriber's Note:

    The following is a list of corrections made to the original. The first
    line is the original line, the second the corrected one.

  pepper (if required, hot curries). He is a little plaintive about
  pepper (if required, hot curries)." He is a little plaintive about

  its England. Garlic ginger (green), used for any Meat Curry, it is very
  in England. Garlic ginger (green), used for any Meat Curry, it is very

  No. 13. MUTTON CURRY.
  No. 13.--MUTTON CURRY.

  o. 22.--EGG CURRY (Brown).
  No. 22.--EGG CURRY (Brown).

  let the Curry sauce simmer gently Now break the eggs carefully and
  let the Curry sauce simmer gently. Now break the eggs carefully and

  No. 38. ONION CURRY.
  No. 38.--ONION CURRY.

  ]





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