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Title: The Author's Printing and Publishing Assistant - Comprising Explanations of the Process of Printing; Preparation and Calculation of Manuscripts; Choice of Paper, Type, Binding, Illustrations, Publishing, Advertising, &c.; with an Exemplification and Description of the Typographical Marks Used in the Correction of the Press
Author: Saunders, Frederick
Language: English
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Transcriber's Note

      Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. A list of
      corrections is found at the end of the text. A number of
      words were inconsistently spelled or hyphenated. A list of
      these words is found at the end of the text.

      An asterism, which is not available in the character set
      used for this book is indicated by "*.*".



THE AUTHOR'S
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING
ASSISTANT.


THE AUTHOR'S
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING
ASSISTANT

Comprising Explanations of
the Process of Printing

Preparation and Calculation of
Manuscripts

Choice of
Paper, Type, Binding, Illustrations, Publishing,
Advertising, &C.

With an Exemplification and Description of
the Typographical Marks
Used in
the Correction of the Press



London
Saunders and Otley, Conduit Street
1839.

W. Blatch, Printer, Grove Place, Brompton.



The object of this little Work is to afford such a view of the Technical
details of Printing and Publishing as shall enable Authors to form their
own judgment on all subjects connected with the Publication of their
Productions.

The want of such a little Manual has been repeatedly suggested to the
Publishers by the frequent enquiries of Authors, and they trust that the
information here given will prove satisfactory.

CONDUIT STREET, _March_ 1, 1839.



CONTENTS.


                                                                  Page.

  Process of Printing,                                                1
  Origin and Progress of Printing,                                   12
  Stereotype Printing,                                               21
  Copper Plate Printing,                                             25
  Engraving on Wood,                                                 25
  Preparation and Calculation of Manuscript,                         26
  Choice of Paper,                                                   30
  Paper Making,                                                      30
  Choice of Type,                                                    32
  Correcting the Press,                                              39
  Typographical Marks,                                               40
  Illustrative Engravings,                                           50
  Choice of Binding,                                                 51
  Publishing and Advertising,                                        53



  THE AUTHOR'S
  PRINTING AND PUBLISHING
  ASSISTANT.


As it is very desirable that Authors, and those who may have to give
directions to the Printer, should be acquainted with the manner in which
Printing is performed, it may be proper, in commencing this little work,
to give in the first place a brief outline of


THE PROCESS OF PRINTING.

The Printing Office is divided into two branches; the one entitled the
_Composing_, the other the _Press_ department.

The Composing-room is furnished with a number of what are called
_Cases_,[2-*] properly fitted up, which are placed before the
Compositor. The Compositor then places the Manuscript[2-+] before him,
and taking a small iron frame, or measure, adapted to the purpose, fixes
it by a screw to the width which the Page he is to set up is intended to
be, and commences the putting it into Type, in the following manner.
Supposing the first words of the Manuscript to be "The City of London,"
he first selects the Capital Letter T, then the Lower-Case letter h, and
then e, each from their respective compartments; after this he takes
what is called a Space,[2-++] which is used to separate the words from
each other; and thus proceeds until he comes to a Stop, which he selects
in like manner, and places next to the last letter of the last word.
When the frame he holds is filled, he removes the Type thus set into a
larger, first to form Pages, and afterwards, when assembled together, to
form Sheets.

The number of Pages in each Sheet is determined by the size in which the
work is to be printed:--if in Folio, four pages; if in Quarto, eight
pages; if in Octavo, sixteen; if in Duodecimo, twenty-four, &c.

When a sufficient number of Pages have been set to form a Sheet, they
are what is called _Imposed_,[3-*] and the _Forme_ is removed to the
Press-room, where the first impression, technically called the first
Proof, is taken off. This Proof is then transferred to the Reading
room, where it is carefully compared with the original by two persons,
one reading the Manuscript, and the other the Proof-sheet, marking as he
goes on any errors which may have occurred in the Setting. This first
Proof is then given back to the Compositor, who has the forme again laid
on the stone, and having, as it is called, unlocked it,[4-*] proceeds to
make such corrections as by the marks on the proof he is directed to.

When the Type has been made to correspond with the Manuscript, the first
Corrected Proof is struck off, and transmitted to the Author. Should the
Author not have occasion to make many alterations, he may not think it
necessary to require a Second Proof; in that case he writes the word
"Press" upon it, and having been again carefully read in the Office, it
is then Printed off: but should it be otherwise, he writes the word
"Revise" upon it, and it is again, when corrected, transmitted to him;
and this as often as he may think necessary, until he adds the word
"Press," which is the order for Printing off the entire number of copies
of which the Edition is to consist.

Thus, Sheet by Sheet,[5-*] the Printing is proceeded with: and as soon
as one Sheet has been printed off, the Type used in that Sheet is
distributed,[5-+] to be employed in setting up the subsequent parts of
the work.

From what has been said, it will be seen that the principal expense in
Printing a work is the setting of the Type, arising from the fact that
the many thousand[5-++] Letters, Spaces, Points, &c. of which it is
composed have each to be selected, assembled, and again distributed
_singly_; in doing which the greatest attention and accuracy are
necessary.

For the information of Authors not accustomed to Printing, it may be
proper to state that the printing of the body of a work is always first
in order; the Title, Preface, Contents, &c. being uniformly deferred
till the completion.[6-*]

The process of Printing off a work is thus conducted. The quantity of
Paper for Printing the number of sheets required is first laid open. It
is then in successive portions of six or eight sheets dipped into a
cistern of clear water, and laid one upon the other; when the whole has
been thus immersed, a board of the proper size is placed on the top, and
some heavy weights are added; thus the whole becomes properly imbued
with moisture, and is fit for working. Without this, the paper would
neither sink into the interstices, nor receive the ink; besides which,
it would be very liable to injure the Type. When therefore the Paper has
been thus prepared, it is laid on a stand adjoining the Press, and the
process of Printing commences. Over the surface of the Type a
Roller[7-*] charged with Printing Ink is passed; the Sheet is laid on a
frame which falls exactly on the forme; it is then shut down, rolled
under the bed of the Press, the screw is turned which causes the weight
to descend, the impression is given, and another turn of the hand
delivers the Sheet Printed.

It is not surprising that so powerful an engine as the Press should have
attracted the combined attention of the learned and ingenious. Gentlemen
have devoted much of their time to it. Among these may be mentioned
Horace Walpole, who printed several of his favorite works at his seat,
Strawberry Hill; Sir Egerton Brydges, at Lee Priory; and the late Earl
Stanhope, at his family mansion, Chevening, Kent. To no one, probably,
is the present advanced stage of Printing more indebted than to the
last-named nobleman. With a natural talent for mechanical invention
which no difficulty could subdue, he applied his enlightened mind with
persevering ardour to a variety of useful objects, especially to the
improvement of Printing. The result was not only the production of the
most complete Printing Press then known, together with a variety of
collateral improvements, but the increasing, if not originating, that
impulse which has since carried this important branch of art so near to
perfection.

To those who are accustomed to Printing, and who are aware how much its
beauty depends on what is called the Press-work, to produce which long
practice and great manual dexterity are necessary, it might have
appeared impossible that any Machine could have been invented to perform
such an operation with any degree of precision and success; yet this the
continued labour of mechanical ingenuity has accomplished.

The Steam Printing Press is perhaps one of the most complete specimens
of the perfection of mechanical contrivance ever afforded. To this the
public are in a great degree indebted for that early and rapid
communication of intelligence which is now brought down almost to the
hour of the morning on which it is circulated. The Times Newspaper,
which was the first to adopt this astonishing invention, is still
printed by it with a rapidity which is scarcely conceivable.[10-*] An
inspection of it cannot fail to gratify every intelligent observer. Its
use has now become very general.

The Steam Press, however, is chiefly applicable where large numbers, or
great speed are required; for ordinary works, and fine Printing, the
hand Press is still preferred, and probably ever will be.

In a work like the present, it may not perhaps be deemed uninteresting
to take a brief view of the


ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF PRINTING.

There appears to be no reason to doubt that, from a very remote period
in the history of the world, devices were used for the purpose of
transmitting to after times the records of important events, but these
are for the most part more a matter of curiosity than of positive
information. Of the Origin of Printing as now practised, the Rev.
Archdeacon Coxe gives the following account in his History of the House
of Austria:--"It took its rise about the middle of the fifteenth
century, and in the course of a few years reached that height of
improvement which is scarcely surpassed even in the present times. The
Invention was at first rude and simple, consisting of whole pages carved
on Blocks of Wood,[12-*] and only impressed on one side of the leaf:
the next step was the formation of moveable Types in Wood, and they were
afterwards cut in Metal, and finally rendered more durable, regular, and
elegant, by being Cast, or Founded.

"The consequence of this happy and simple discovery was a rapid series
of improvements in every art and science, and a general diffusion of
knowledge among all orders of society. Hitherto the tedious, uncertain,
and expensive mode of multiplying books by the hand of the Copyist, had
principally confined the treasures of learning to Monasteries,[14-*] or
to persons of rank and fortune. Yet, even with all the advantages of
wealth, Libraries were extremely scarce and scanty; and principally
consisted of books of devotion and superstition, legends, or the
sophistical disquisitions of the schoolmen. An acquaintance with the
Latin classics was a rare qualification, and the Greek language was
almost unknown in Europe; but the Art of Printing had scarcely become
general before it gave a new impulse to genius and a new spirit to
inquiry. A singular concurrence of circumstances contributed to multiply
the beneficial effects derived from this invention, among which the most
considerable were the protection afforded to literature and the arts by
the States of Italy, and the diffusion of Greek learning by the literati
who sought an asylum in Europe after the capture of Constantinople.

"A controversy has arisen concerning the first discoverer of the art of
Printing, between the three towns of Haerlem, Mentz, and Strasburg,
each, from a natural partiality, attributing it to their own countryman.
The dispute, however, has turned rather on words than facts; and seems
to have arisen from the different definitions of the word "Printing." If
we estimate the discovery from the invention of the principle, the
honour is unquestionably due to Laurence Coster, a native of Haerlem,
who first found out the method of impressing characters on paper, by
means of carved blocks of wood. If moveable types be considered as a
criterion, the merit of the discovery is due to John Gutenberg, of
Mentz; and Schoeffer, in conjunction with Faust, was the first who
founded Types of Metal."--_Coxe_, vol. i. p. 421. 8vo.

Although some attempts have been made to support a different statement,
it is pretty generally admitted that William Caxton, who had lived
abroad and learned the art there, was the person who introduced Printing
into England; in this Stowe, Leland, and others agree, that "in the
almonry at Westminster, the Abbot of Westminster erected the first Press
for Book-printing that ever was in England, about the year 1471; and
where Wm. Caxton, Citizen and Mercer, who first brought it into England,
first practised it."

The first work printed in England was "The Recueil of The Historeys of
Troye," of which Caxton thus speaks:--"Thus end I this book, &c., and
for as moche as in wrytyng of the same my penne is worn, myne hande
wery, and myne eyen dimmed, with overmoche lokyng on the whit paper--and
that age crepeth on me dayly--and also because I have promised to
dyverce gentilmen and to my frendes to adresse to them as hastely as I
myght this said book, therefore I have practysed and learned at my grete
charge and dispense to ordayne this sayd book in prynte after the manner
and forme as ye may here see, and is not wreten with penne and ynke, as
other bokes ben, to thende that every man may have them att ones; for
all the books of this storye named the Recule of the Historyes of Troyes
thus emprynted as ye here see were begonne in oon day and also finished
in oon day," &c. In another place he enumerates the works he had printed
thus:--"When I had accomplished dyvers workys and historyes translated
out of Frenshe into Englyshe, at the requeste of certayn lords, ladyes,
and gentylmen, as the Recule of the Historyes of Troye, the Boke of
Chesse, the Historye of Jason, the Historye of the Mirrour of the
World, I have submysed myself to translate into English, the Legende of
Sayntes, called Legenda Aurea in Latyn--and Wylyam Erle of Arondel
desyred me--and promysed to take a resonyble quantyte of them--sente to
me a worshipful gentylman--promising that my sayd lord should during my
lyf give and grant to me a yearly fee, that is to note a bucke in
sommer, and a doo in wynter," &c.

It appears that Caxton continued his employment at Westminster, with
considerable success, until his death, which occurred in 1491. He seems
to have been extensively patronised, and to have been a person of great
moral worth. He is supposed to have lived to beyond the age of eighty.

Wynkyn de Worde, who was an assistant, and afterwards succeeded Caxton,
was a foreigner, born in the dukedom of Lorrain. He made great
improvements, especially in the form of his types. Most of his books now
remaining, were printed in Fleet Street, in St. Bride's Parish, at the
sign of the Sun. He died in 1534.

Richard Pynson, who had been brought up under Caxton, set up a Press at
Temple Bar, and was the first who obtained the patent of King's Printer;
he died in 1529.

After this, Printing was practised very generally, not only in London,
but in many other places, especially Oxford and Cambridge, both which
Universities obtained the exclusive right, which they still retain, of
Printing all Bibles and Prayer Books; that is, with the exception of the
person holding the patent of King's Printer, who also has this right.

The principle of moveable Types having been once introduced, little room
was left for improvement, beyond the slight variations in the form of
the Letters, which, as a matter of taste, would always be liable to
fluctuate: a comparison of works, printed at different periods, will
exemplify this.

An experiment was made some years since, in Logographic, or Word
Printing; the Words of most frequent occurrence being cast together,
instead of setting them up in single Letters; but it does not appear to
have succeeded, or to have been generally adopted, though a Volume, at
least, was printed on this plan, which the Publishers of this little
work happen to have in their possession.

In the improvement of the Printing Press, and the manufacture of
Printing Ink, a larger sphere was opened, inasmuch as to the advancement
of these, Printing must be ever indebted for its degrees of excellence.

Printing Ink is a sort of Black Varnish, the making of which is still a
secret in the hands of the manufacturers, so far as its finer qualities
are concerned.

Its requisites are, that it should have a sufficient, and not too great
a degree of tenacity; that it should produce a perfectly black
impression, and that it should dry quickly: in proportion as the Ink is
deficient in these qualities, it will be liable to injure the paper, or
produce specks, to surround the printing with a yellow hue, from the too
great preponderance of the oily ingredients; or to soil the paper during
the subsequent processes. The excellence of the Printing of Baskerville
was chiefly attributable to his discoveries in the art of Ink Making.
The late Mr. Bulmer, also, who printed some of the most splendid works
of the last half century, was very successful in his experiments. The
manufacture is now in the hands of several persons, who are eminent in
this art, and who have made it a distinct branch of business.


STEREOTYPE PRINTING,

which is a modern improvement, is a mode of rendering a work permanent
in Type, in the following manner. When the Type has been accurately
corrected, the Pages of Type are properly arranged for the purpose, when
a cast is taken of them in a Plaster Cement, which becomes hard when
dry: into this mould melted Type Metal is poured, and thus a perfect
counterpart of the Type is produced of each Page, in one solid Plate.
This mode was brought into notice by the late Lord Stanhope. The first
attempt to render a work thus permanent, and which appears to have been
adopted solely with the view of preventing error, was made by a Printer
at Leyden, about a hundred years since. He produced a Quarto Bible,
Printed from solid Pages, but these were rendered solid by soldering
together the backs of the Types. The present mode is, of course, a great
improvement on this; as instead of incurring the heavy expense of so
large a quantity of moveable Type, the same result is produced, and the
Type from which the cast is taken remains uninjured, to be used again
and again, for the same, or any other purpose.

Stereotype Printing is thus a very valuable process, for works not
liable to alteration, as Bibles, School Books, and other works of which
large numbers are required, as it would be impossible to keep the
moveable Types standing for such works, without a very great outlay of
Capital.[22-*]

Another mode of Printing, is that called


LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING,

or PRINTING FROM STONE. This is also a recent invention. It was brought
into England about twenty years since. Invented by M. Senefelder, of
Munich. It is founded on the principles of Chemical Affinity. A Writing
or Drawing is made on Stone, with an Ink prepared with a sort of
unctuous ingredient--to this is applied another Ink of a contrary
quality; the Ink with which the Writing or Drawing is made, remains on
the Stone, while that with which the Printing is performed, separates
from it, and is thus transferred to the Paper. This method has been
brought to very great perfection; so much so, as to produce Prints from
Drawings possessing nearly all the beauty and delicacy of Copperplate or
Steel Engravings. It is also very useful in multiplying Fac-similes, as
it admits of Printing from the hand-writing itself, when written with
Ink prepared for the purpose. At Munich, Paris, and St. Petersburgh,
this mode of Printing has been adopted in the Government Offices. All
Resolutions, Edicts, Orders, &c., agreed to at the Cabinet meetings, are
written down on paper, by the Secretary, with Chemical Ink, and in the
space of an hour, an ample supply of copies is obtained. For Circulars,
and in general, all such orders of Government as must be rapidly
distributed, an invention like this is of the utmost consequence, and it
is probable that eventually it will be universally employed. In time of
war it would prove of the greatest use for the general staff of the
Army, completely supplying the want of a field Printing-Office, and
especially as it admits of greater despatch and secresy. The Commanding
Officer might write his orders with his own hand, and in his presence a
number of impressions might be taken by a person who could neither write
nor read. In mercantile transactions, it is very generally employed
where a quick and accurate multiplication of Price Lists, Letters, and
Accounts, is of the utmost importance.


COPPER-PLATE PRINTING.

Copper, or Steel-plate Engravings, are Printed by a different process.
The Copper, or Steel-plate Press, is formed of two Rollers, one placed
over the other, with only a sufficient space between to allow a board to
pass, when a strong force is applied. The Plate is then laid on a small
fire adapted to the purpose, so as to heat it sufficiently to liquify
the Ink, and cause it to diffuse itself over every part of the
Engraving. It is then made perfectly clean, so as to leave no soil on
the paper, except from the parts indented. It is then laid on the board,
the Paper spread upon it, and a soft cloth being added, the Roller is
turned by a Cross Lever, when the Print, with all its varied tints, is
immediately produced.


ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD.

Engravings on Wood, are usually Printed with the Letter Press, for which
they are peculiarly adapted.

The next subject which claims attention is the


PREPARATION OF THE MANUSCRIPT.

When a Manuscript intended for the Press has been written hastily, has
many erasures and interlineations, or is otherwise to any extent
rendered partially, or perhaps in some cases wholly illegible, the
consequence will be, that if given into the hands of the Printer in that
state, the Printing will be retarded, the expense of Printing increased,
and much additional trouble occasioned to the Author, in correcting
those errors, (should he discover them,) which a clearly written
Manuscript would have entirely prevented. In such cases it would be
decidedly preferable, indeed it has been found a saving both in time and
expense, to have the whole fairly copied. In so doing there would
besides be this additional advantage,--that the Manuscript might be
again finally revised by the author[26-*] previously to its being put
into the Printer's hands; every correction which can be made in the
Manuscript being a measure strongly to be recommended in every
view.[27-*]

There is another point of which Authors are frequently not aware--the
desirableness of their Manuscripts being written on one side only. The
convenience of this is, that any Remarks, Notes, Interlineations or
Directions to the Printer, may be inserted on the opposite Blank Pages;
and also that in the process of Printing, it may, if needful for speed
or otherwise, be divided at any given point, without danger of mistake
or confusion.

In all cases it is desirable that Manuscripts intended for the press
should be written as much as possible, with a tolerable degree of
uniformity, each Page containing about the same number of Lines, and
each Line about the same number of Words. This is certainly not
essential, but it will generally be very convenient, as it will at once
enable the Author to judge of the probable extent of his work, and the
Printer or Publisher, when the Manuscript is completed, to decide on the
quantity. To write on Ruled Paper is perhaps the most effectual mode of
accomplishing this.

Another point to be attended to is, that Manuscripts should always be
Paged. This will not only shew the quantity either in whole, or in part,
without the trouble of counting, but will prevent mistake should any
portion be misplaced.

When a Manuscript, therefore, is about to be written or copied for the
Press, it would be desirable to have prepared, a Quarto Book, Ruled,
with a narrow margin, and lines across, and to have it Paged beforehand,
on the right hand page only, on which page only the Manuscript should
be written.

It is not, however, essential that these points should be regarded,
should circumstances not permit. In such cases, if legibility can be
secured, other obstacles may be surmounted: there will always, however,
be considerable difficulty in calculating an irregularly written
Manuscript. Should a Manuscript be closely written, and insertions be
necessary, it will be preferable not to interline them, but write them
on a separate Paper, numbering each, and referring them to the Pages,
and on the Pages to the Paper.

When a Manuscript is about to be sent to the Press, it should be finally
and carefully read over by the Author, who should mark any directions he
may wish attended to in the Printing, and with his pen make any words
plain which may happen to be obscure, by doing which, he will frequently
prevent those errors of the Press which often change the sense of a
passage, and are liable to escape detection.

When the Manuscript has thus been prepared, the next step will be the


CHOICE OF PAPER,

that is, to determine on the Size of the Work. This is a question which
will generally be decided by what is customary. If a work of Fiction,
the size will be what is called Post 8vo. If Historical or Scientific,
Demy 8vo. If Poetry, Foolscap, Post, or Demy 8vo. as may be preferred.
There are, however, a variety of other sizes, regulated by the number of
leaves into which the sheet may be folded, as well as by the size of the
Paper adopted, which may be more readily seen than described. The size
and qualities of Paper, are of every variety.


PAPER MAKING.

The Manufacture of Paper, as now used, is not an Art of very ancient
date, probably not earlier than the thirteenth century; but of its
origin nothing is certainly known.

Various substances were in ancient times employed for writing, as Skins,
Ivory, Lead, &c. In Egypt, from a very remote period, the inner films
pressed together of the Papyrus or Biblos, a sort of Flag, or Bulrush,
growing in the marshes there. From whence the word Paper is derived.

Paper is made from Rags, the best from Linen Rags; thus rendering that
which had become useless, an article of universal importance, and
permanent value. Without this indispensable material, Printing would
have been deprived of its chief auxiliary; but with it, and by the
present improved system of Manufacture, the productions of the Press,
and of the Paper Mill, can be carried to any extent.

The Process of Paper Making is thus conducted. The Rags are first
washed; then ground in the Mill with water, so as to form a Pulp; this
Pulp is then conveyed to a Vat, furnished with a Mould of fine wire
cloth, which takes up a sufficient quantity to form the Sheet, which,
when the water has drained from it, is laid on a pile, and pressed so as
to discharge the remaining moisture: it is then hung up to dry, after
which, unless it has been sized in the Vat, which is the case with some
kinds, it is dipped into a tub of fine size; and when again dried and
pressed, is fit for use.

One of the greatest modern improvements in Paper making, is Bleaching
the Rags. This enables the Paper-maker to produce the finest Paper from
any kind of Rags. He has only, therefore, to find such materials as will
make a Paper of a strong texture, and a fine even surface, and by the
Bleaching process he can produce whatever shade of Colour he may desire.

A good supply of clear water is of the greatest importance in Paper
Making. On this account, Paper Mills are built on clear streams.

By the recent improvements in machinery, Paper can now be made with
almost any required degree of rapidity.

The next consideration to the size of the Paper, will be


THE CHOICE OF TYPE.

Type is cast of almost every conceivable variety. The sizes most in use
for Books, are English, Pica, Small Pica, Long Primer, Bourgeois,
Brevier, Nonpareil. The following are specimens of these various
sizes:--

(_English._)

[Illustration: Speaking of the art of Printing, the late Earl Stanhope
observed, "I participate in the encomiums bestowed by all former
eulogists on this transcendant art, which may justly be considered as
the nurse and preserver of every species of knowledge; and while I look]

(_Pica._)

[Illustration: into history for an examination of the benefit which
mankind has already derived from it, I feel equal, or even still more
pleasure in anticipating that which it is yet capable of effecting, when
by being perfectly unfettered all over the globe, it will give rise to,
and promote a system of universal education, and]

(_Small Pica._)

[Illustration: when as a certain consequence of that education, all
societies will direct their strenuous efforts towards bringing into
complete operation, that divine morality which has for its basis this
simple, but sublime maxim--Do unto another that which you would wish
another should do unto you. Printing, from its commencement, has always
had some opponents, actuated from selfish interest, who, in many]

(_Long Primer._)

[Illustration: cases, possessed such influence over their fellow-men, as
to corrupt their judgments and decisions, whenever the question of its
advantages or disadvantages to mankind, came to be agitated. The monks
in particular, were its inveterate opposers; the great majority of them
acting upon the spirit of an avowal made by the Vicar of Croydon, in a
sermon preached by him at St. Paul's Cross, when he declared, "We must
root out printing, or printing will root out us." Happily this superior
art withstood their]

(_Bourgeois._)

[Illustration: hostility, and it became the main engine by which their
artifices, invented to keep the people in ignorance and superstition,
were detected and punished. Though much good has already resulted from
the use of printing, yet much of what it is capable of still remains to
be accomplished; for its utmost utility is not to be looked for while
there remains any restraint]

(_Brevier._)

[Illustration: upon its practice throughout the world. The real
Philanthropist and Philosopher, cannot but view with regret the state of
persecution under which Printing labours in most of the Catholic
countries in Europe, wherein it still remains subject to the control of
bigotted ecclesiastics, who feel, as being still applicable to
themselves, all the force of the declaration of the Vicar of Croydon. If
at the present day they are not so bold as to attempt to annihilate it
entirely, yet they watch over the productions of the Press, with such a]

(_Nonpareil._)

[Illustration: scrutinizing eye, and impose such shackles upon it, as
not to permit any thing to be printed, but what has a tendency to uphold
the iniquitous system of continuing the people in ignorance: even in
England it cannot be disavowed that Printing has many and powerful
opponents, who attack it under various pretences; sometimes upon
pretended allegations of danger to the State, sometimes upon general
allegations of injuring Society by its licentiousness; and there are
some persons, even, so unblushing as to declare their aversion to
Printing, upon the ground that it is dangerous to give a too extended
education to the lower classes of the people."]

It will be well to familiarize the eye with these different Sizes of
Type, which may easily be done by a little practice, as it will greatly
facilitate the understanding of the various technical details connected
with the Press.

Next to the Size of the Type, the Size of the Page will have to be
decided upon. Though both these points are in a great degree regulated
by custom, they are yet in practice sufficiently open to variation, to
meet the case of each particular Work. Thus by the Size of the Type, and
Number of Lines, a Work may be either expanded, or compressed, as may be
desired.

Pica is the type usually employed in Printing works of History,
Biography, Travels, &c., in the Demy octavo size; Small Pica, in Novels,
Romances, &c., in the Post octavo size; and Long Primer, Poetry, in the
Foolscap octavo size.

To take for an example, the Novel, or Romance size. The ordinary Page
employed in Works of this kind, contains twenty-two Lines, each Line
containing, on an average, eight Words. Three hundred such Pages are
considered the proper quantity for an ordinary size Volume. If a
Manuscript, therefore, should contain about two hundred Pages, each Page
containing about thirty-three Lines of eight Words, it would occupy
about three hundred Pages in Print. Should the Manuscript, however,
contain but one hundred and eighty such Pages, then in order to form
three hundred Printed Pages, each Page would have to consist of but
twenty, instead of twenty-two Lines.

On the above principle, it will not be difficult for an Author to form a
tolerably correct idea of the extent of a Work--that is, sufficiently so
for all general purposes; and the comparison may be extended to any Work
of any kind thus--having first selected a Work in Print, which it is
desired that in Manuscript should resemble, the Number of Words in a
Line, and of Lines in a Page of each, being ascertained, if the
disparity between them shall be in any specific ratio, as in the
instance above, a Page of Manuscript being equal to a Page and a half of
Print, the result will be immediately apparent; but should it be
otherwise, a different process may be necessary: should the Manuscript
contain but twenty-five, instead of thirty Lines, then the most direct
mode of Calculation would be to take the three Lines per Page, by which
the Manuscript would exceed the Print, and multiply the Manuscript Pages
by three--this would give six hundred; these six hundred lines divided
by twenty-two, the number of Lines in the Printed Page, give
twenty-seven and a fraction; the whole would therefore, on this
supposition, make about two hundred and twenty-seven Printed Pages, of
twenty-two Lines each. There are, however, other circumstances which may
affect such Calculations--as the Breaks in Chapters, Paragraphs,
Conversations, &c., where the Work may have been written in Manuscript
continuously. These points would, where desired, be best ascertained by
having a number of Pages set up, and by then comparing them in the
aggregate with the Manuscript.

The next point in order, will be


CORRECTING THE PRESS;

and this should invariably, when possible, be done by the Author; no one
can so thoroughly enter into the train of thought and expression, and to
no one could the disturbance of either prove so annoying: where this
cannot be done, and the task must be deputed, the Manuscript should, in
all cases, be considered the Authority, and no departure be made from
it, except as may have been directed, or in extreme cases.

Corrections of the Press should be marked clearly; and this can never be
done so satisfactorily, both to the Corrector and Printer, as by
employing those Typographical Marks, which, from having been universally
adopted, are, in consequence, understood by all persons connected with
the Press.--The following Pages will exemplify these: First, the Proof
corrected; Secondly, the Proof Revised.

_Proof Corrected._

[Illustration: This page is a specimen of Lithographic Printing. The
impression from the Type being first taken on Paper, in Lithographic
Ink, the Corrections then added with the Pen, and the whole transferred
to the Stone from which the Page is printed.]

_Proof Revised._

[Illustration: In all the more celebrated nations of the ancient world,
we find established those twin elements of belief, by which religion
harmonizes and directs the social relations of life, viz. a faith in a
future state, and in the providence of Superior Powers, who, surveying
as Judges the affairs of earth, punish the wicked, and reward the good.

It has been plausibly conjectured, that the fables of Elysium, the slow
Cocytus, and the gloomy Hades, were either invented or allegorized from
the names of Egyptian places. Diodorus assures us that by the vast
catacombs of Egypt, the dismal mansions of the dead--were the temple and
stream, both called Cocytus, the _foul_ canal of Acheron, and the
Elysian plains; and according to the same equivocal authority, the body
of the dead was wafted across the waters by a pilot, termed Charon in
the Egyptian tongue. But previous to the embarkation, appointed judges
on the MARGIN of the ACHERON listened to whatever accusations were
preferred by the living against the deceased; and if convinced of his
mis-deeds, deprived him of the rights of Sepulture.--_Athens, by Sir
Lytton Bulwer_, vol. i. p. 52.]

_Explanation of the Typographical Marks._

No. 1, is used to correct a _wrong letter_, drawing a line down through
it, and placing the right letter before a corresponding stroke in the
margin; _a wrong word_ is corrected by drawing a line across it, as in
No. 2, and writing the proper word in the margin.

_Where any thing has been omitted_, or is wished to be inserted, a Caret
is marked at the place where it is to come in, and the word or words
written in the margin, putting underneath an answering Caret.

_Where a space is wanting between two words or letters_ that are
intended to be separated, a parallel line must be drawn where the
separation ought to be, and the mark No. 4 placed opposite in the
margin. Also _where words or letters should join_, but are separated,
the circumflex No. 5, must be placed under the separation, and the same
mark be made in the margin.

_When letters or words are set double_, and are required to be taken
out, a line is drawn through the superfluous word or letter, and the
mark No. 6, which is the letter _d_, an abbreviation of _dele_ (_expunge
or erase_) must be placed in the margin.

_A turned letter_, or one placed the wrong way upward, is noticed by
making a dash under it, and placing the mark No. 7, in the margin.

_Where a black mark_ is seen in any part of the line, which is
occasioned by a space standing up, it is noticed by making a dash under
it, and placing the mark, No. 8, in the margin.

_Where two words are transposed_, the word placed wrong, should be
encircled, and the mark 9, (_tr._ an abridgement of transpose,) be
placed in the margin; but where several words are to be transposed, that
which is intended to come first should have the figure 1 placed over it,
that second 2, and so on, the mark (_tr._) being also placed opposite in
the margin.

_Where a new paragraph is required_, a crotchet should be made at the
place where the new paragraph should begin, and a similar mark (No.
10.) be placed in the margin. Where a new paragraph should not have been
made, a line should be drawn from the last word of the previous
paragraph, and in the margin should be written, _No break_.

_Where several lines or words are to be introduced_, they should be
written at the bottom of the page, and at the place where they are to
come in, a Caret should be made, from which a line should be drawn to
the first word of the passage to be inserted.

If a word, or words, are required to be in Capitals, Small Capitals or
Italic, such word or words should be underlined--for Capitals with three
lines; for Small Capitals, with two; for Italic, with one; writing
opposite in the margin, _Caps._, _Small Caps._, or _Ital._

If they should be required to be altered back, a line should be drawn
under the Italic, and the word _Roman_, and under the Capitals or Small
Capitals, and the words _Lower-case_, written in the margin.

_Where words have been erroneously struck out_, or are otherwise wished
to remain, dots should be placed under them, and the word _Stet_ (_let
it stand or remain_) written in the margin.

_Where the Punctuation requires to be altered_, the Semicolon, Colon, or
Period, should be marked and encircled in the margin, a line being drawn
at the word at which either is to be placed, as in No. 15.--16 describes
the manner in which the hyphen and ellipsis line are marked; and 17,
that in which the Apostrophe, Inverted Comma, the Star, and other
References, and Superior Letters, and Figures, are marked for insertion.
Notes, if added, should have the word _Note_, with a Star, and a
corresponding Star at the word to which they are referred.

_Where letters or lines are altered_, they are noticed by drawing lines
before and after them, as in No. 18.

A little practice will soon render the use of these Marks familiar.

It has been before observed, that Correcting the Press, so far as the
Printers are concerned, is an extremely troublesome, and to them, the
most unpleasant part of their business. It occupies much more time than
could be supposed, and consequently occasions an Expense which the mere
alteration of a few Words in a Page would perhaps scarcely be thought
sufficient to justify. But when it is considered that every alteration
disturbs the whole adjoining mass of Type, and may do so to the end of
the Page, or several Pages, it will be less difficult to perceive the
reason of the well ascertained fact, that Printers always greatly prefer
being employed in the Setting, rather than in the Correcting department
of their office.

It is not uncommon for Authors, unaware of these circumstances, to
deliver their Manuscript for the Press, in a very unfinished state; and
in some instances, as if they actually considered that they could not
satisfactorily Correct their Work, until they saw it in Print--an error
which it would probably only require them to combat to overcome: it
should, however, in all such cases, be distinctly understood, that the
Expenses of Correcting will, if considerable, unavoidably enhance that
of the Printing, and this in a ratio that would very naturally surprise
those unacquainted with the subject.

All errors which are not in the Manuscript, are considered as errors of
the Press; the correction of which devolves on the Printer. Indeed, no
proof should be submitted to the Author, until these have been made: a
careful Reader in the Printing Office will also sometimes draw the
Author's attention to some Word or Sentence, which appears to be
susceptible of improvement, and which might otherwise have passed
unnoticed; this is, however, not always done, unless requested.

In Correcting a Proof, for the reasons already given, as few alterations
as possible should be made; when these are, however, unavoidable, it
would be advisable to observe this Rule, namely--always if possible, to
insert in a Line or Page, as much as is taken out, or vice versâ; this
is in a great majority of instances very practicable; and the advantage
of it is, that it will avoid what is technically called _Overrunning_.
This will, perhaps, be best explained by referring to the Corrected
Proof (p. 40) in the 3rd line of which, it will be seen that the word
_for_ is marked out, and the word _of_ inserted in its stead; which, it
will be perceived by the opposite Revised Page, has occasioned no
alteration beyond the line; but at line 17 there is an insertion marked
without an omission; which would have rendered it necessary to carry as
many lines as were inserted to the next Page, if the Page had been
previously filled up in the usual way. This is called _Overrunning_, and
often requires that each subsequent Page should be altered to the end of
a Chapter, or if the work is continuous, to the end of all that has at
that time been set in Type.

There is also another point to be observed; which is, that where Revises
are considered necessary, as few as possible should be required, each
Revise requiring the repetition of the process already described in
striking off a Proof, and which will not only occasion additional
Expense, but will also frequently cause considerable delay in the
progress of the Work. Generally speaking, if the Corrections are clearly
marked, and not very numerous, the final Revision may be safely
entrusted to the care of a skilful Printer. If any error should escape
the notice of the Author, or Corrector, and be Printed off, it may be
corrected by Re-printing the leaf in which it occurs, which is called a
Cancel. This is, however, seldom necessary, when the error is clearly
typographical.

It is frequently a convenience to the Author to have two proofs of each
sheet, one to be returned corrected, the other to be retained for
reference.

It is not, perhaps, generally known, that Works Printed in London may be
corrected by Authors residing at any distance, the Proof Sheets passing
and re-passing through the Post Office at Single Postage, provided they
are not cut, and that the direction is Written _upon_ the Sheet. An
Envelope would occasion Double Postage. It is usual also to add the
words "Proof Sheet" in the corner.

The various kinds of


ILLUSTRATIVE ENGRAVINGS

have already been slightly referred to. They are of three kinds:
Engravings on Steel,[50-*] or Copper; Lithographic Drawings, or Prints
from Stone; and Engravings on Wood. The first two are Printed
independently of the Work; the latter in connection with it; either
incorporated with the Text, or otherwise, as may be desired. Each of
these modes may be employed with advantage, where Embellishment is
intended, or information beyond that which description is adapted to
convey. Coloured Engravings are also frequently employed in such cases.

Next to the Printing a Work, is the


CHOICE OF BINDING.

Until a very recent period, Binding was of two kinds only--that in Paper
and that in Leather. The former, called Boarding, being used for Books
when first Published, or when purchased for use in that state; the
latter for Books when read, or intended to form a permanent part of a
Library. Binding in Leather has been carried to very great perfection;
and, according to the skill employed, is susceptible of the most varied
and tasteful embellishment. The Titles of Books in Boards are affixed by
printed Labels--those of such as are bound in Leather in Letters worked
in Gold. These latter are produced by laying a leaf of Gold on the
Leather, and stamping each Letter singly, a process requiring great
skill and labour.

Recently a new mode has been introduced, called Cloth Binding. This is
done by covering the Book with Cloth; and, by means of a strong
pressure, Stamping it with some Ornamental Device Engraved for the
purpose, and which is called Embossing. There is in this new method also
another improvement--that of Lettering the back in Gold at one
operation, which is thus effected:--instead of the mode employed in
Leather Binding, of impressing each Letter singly on the Gold, the whole
of the Lettering is cut on a solid piece of brass, and in this form
impressed on the back at once. This is not only a great saving in time
and labour, but admits also of much tasteful ornament in emblematical
and other fanciful devices, which produce a very pleasing effect at a
comparatively trifling cost.

This latter process, now very generally adopted, and of which the
Binding of this little Work, presents a Specimen, is applicable to
almost all works of Science, History, Biography, Travels, &c., and not
only gives to them a very superior appearance when first Published, but
also, from their close imitation of Leather Binding, renders them fit to
be placed at once in the Library. This mode of Binding does not,
however, possess much durability, as it differs only in the exterior
from the former Boarding--still, until a Book is Bound in Leather, it
certainly forms a very agreeable substitute.

Cloth Binding, general as its use has become, has not, however, been
adopted for Novels, which are still usually published in Boards. For
Annuals, and other Embellished Works, as well as many of those of a
smaller size, this mode has been justly and generally preferred.


PUBLISHING AND ADVERTISING.

Publishing, though the last step in order, is undoubtedly one of the
first in importance to most Works issuing from the Press. There may
perhaps be some few exceptions, but, generally, their success must in a
great degree be influenced by the mode and means adopted for their
Publication. Not that it can be supposed that all Works can alike
succeed; but that many fail in obtaining that degree of attention which
they might otherwise have received owing to some circumstances attending
the means adopted in the final step of Publication.

London is undoubtedly the great emporium for Literary Works, as for
almost every other species of Production. Even Printers in the country
are so well aware of this, that they rarely fail to obtain the
co-operation of a London Publisher in bringing out any Works in which
they may venture to engage; though Works thus Published labour under the
disadvantage naturally arising from their not being entirely under the
management of the London Publisher.

There are other reasons which render London[54-*] the peculiar, and it
might be said almost the exclusive channel for Publication. In it all
the branches of the Periodical Press are conducted; Daily, Weekly,
Monthly, and Quarterly, the various avenues to the public, not only in
this vast city, but in every part of the empire, and of the world, are
here open, and consequently all the vehicles for Announcements,
Advertisements, and Criticisms, are here only accessible. Add to this
that from London every species of literary production is constantly
despatched to every part of the empire and of the world, and it will
then be seen how small a probability there can be that any work not
Published in London can obtain even the most moderate share of general
attention.

London Publishers are of two classes: those who reside at the West End
of the Town, and who confine their attention to Publishing only; and
those who reside in the City, and who are also engaged in Wholesale
Bookselling. Wholesale Booksellers generally devote their especial
attention to the supply of the Retail Trade both in Town and Country.
Some make no further arrangements for Publishing than simply to supply,
when applied for, such Works as their Country Correspondents, who are
Printers, may have transmitted to them for that purpose; while others
are Publishers to a considerable extent of what are called Standard
Works--Works on Education, Science, &c., and such as are in regular and
constant demand. To these, therefore, the attention of the City
Booksellers is very generally directed; while that of the Publishers at
the West End of the Town is almost entirely devoted to what may be
called the Literature of the Day--Works of Amusement and light reading,
Travels, Memoirs, Novels, Tales, Poems, and other productions of a
similar character.

This distinction of the two Classes of Publishers arises therefore, in
the first place, from the nature of their avocations, and in the second
from their peculiar Locality; the one having their Establishments in the
centre of resort, for those who are engaged in Trade and Business; the
other in that of Fashion and Amusement; so that there is not only a
convenience but propriety in the arrangement that custom has
established, that works of what may be called Current Literature should
be Published at the West End of the Town, while those more immediately
connected with the Business of Life should appear in the City.

It is generally understood that the name of an Established Publisher
operates not only as a Recommendation to those Works to which it is
Prefixed, but also tends to make them known through Extensive Connexions
already formed. It also tends to associate them with other Popular Works
issuing from the same Establishment.

There are three modes of Publishing--that in which a Work is Published
entirely for, and at the expense of the Author, who thus retains the
Property of the Work; that in which the Publisher takes all or part of
the risk, and divides the profit; and that in which the Publisher
purchases the Copyright, and thus secures to himself the entire
proceeds. The First of these is the basis on which many First
Productions are Published; the Second, where a certain demand can be
calculated upon; and the Third, where an Author has become so popular as
to ensure an extensive circulation.

The first step that should be taken by an Author intending to produce a
Work should be to take the opinion of an experienced Publisher, by doing
which not only much unnecessary trouble may be spared, but frequently
much unavailable labour and even expense. It is not at all uncommon for
Authors, in the course of their reading, to become so impressed with
some favourite subject as to conclude that it must prove of the same
interest to others, and under this impression proceed to bestow
considerable labour upon it. Had they, however, taken the course here
recommended, they would probably have learned either that there was
already some very similar Work, or that the production proposed would
not, from some cause known perhaps only to the Publisher, be at all
likely to meet with the success anticipated. These are circumstances of
constant occurrence, which the Publishers of this little Work have had
frequent opportunities of knowing.

Generally speaking, Publishers are the most competent advisers on all
subjects connected with their peculiar avocations, having constantly
before them the best means of judging, and being naturally interested in
the success of the Works in which they engage. Authors cannot therefore
adopt a more judicious course than to commit the entire management of
their Productions to their care.

Many Authors, after having written their Works, consign them to
oblivion, from Publishers declining, often in consequence of their own
peculiar engagements, to undertake their Publication. This may be
avoided by the Plan now adopted of _Publishing for Authors_, and which
is more particularly referred to in a subsequent page.

Advertising, as an essential part of Publication, should never be lost
sight of; but it is a measure which should be judiciously regulated and
cautiously pursued, or a large amount of expense may be incurred to very
little purpose.

Another point to be attended to, is the placing in the proper channels
Copies for Review. This is a very advisable measure, as without it many
of the Works issuing from the Press would not be likely to meet the eye
of those engaged in the announcement of New Works.

Where Authors may desire to Print only a limited number of Copies for
the use of their friends, this may easily be accomplished without the
least personal inconvenience, through the intervention of the
Publishers.

Should further information on any of the foregoing subjects be desired,
the Publishers will have great pleasure in affording it on application
personally, or by letter.


FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 2-*: Shallow frames of wood, divided into as many compartments
as there are Letters, Capital, Small Capital, and ordinary (called
_Lower-Case_), together with Italic, and the different Stops, Marks, and
other Points employed for reference, quotations, &c.]

[Footnote 2-+: Technically called Copy.]

[Footnote 2-++: A blank piece of Type metal, or one without a Letter, of
which there are various kinds; used also to separate the lines from each
other, according as the pages may be; whether _full_, having the lines
close together, or _light_, with a greater distance between them.]

[Footnote 3-*: This is done by placing the several pages at proper
distances on a large stone, fixed on a strongly constructed table; each
Page being surrounded by blocks of wood prepared for the purpose, and
when firmly wedged together in an iron frame are ready for the press,
and are then called a _Forme_.]

[Footnote 4-*: Driven back the wedges by which the Type is compressed
and held firmly together within the iron frame, in order to allow of his
separating any part of the Pages which may be necessary.]

[Footnote 5-*: It is desirable to observe this, as it has sometimes been
supposed that the Proof-sheets of an entire work may be furnished at
once. This it will be seen could not be, in a work of any extent; as the
quantity of Type required for each sheet renders it necessary that the
type should be liberated as speedily as convenient, in order to
facilitate the progress and completion of the Printing.]

[Footnote 5-+: Taken asunder, and every Letter, Space, Point, &c.
restored to its allotted compartment in the Type Case.]

[Footnote 5-++: The cost of Setting the Type is regulated by the
Thousand, which will explain why a full page or a smaller type is more
expensive than a light or a larger.]

[Footnote 6-*: From the labour required in setting the Type, it will be
easily conceived that Printing must necessarily be a rather slow
process: it is so generally, three or four sheets per week being usually
considered tolerably good speed, allowing for the unavoidable
impediments occasioned by the transmitting and correcting of Proofs, &c.
On urgent occasions, however, much greater progress may be made, which
is accomplished by dividing the Manuscript among a greater number of
hands. The publishers of this little work have had a volume printed in
the astonishingly short space of three days. It was a work by Sir Lytton
Bulwer, and the effort was rendered necessary in consequence of the
arrangements made for the Foreign Editions. Nearly one hundred workmen
were employed in effecting it.]

[Footnote 7-*: The Roller is a modern improvement. Formerly, the Inking
process was performed with two large Balls, filled with wool, and
covered with a sort of parchment. The Roller is a great improvement,
diffusing the Ink more equally and producing a much greater uniformity
of colour (as it is called) in the Printing.]

[Footnote 10-*: The Newspaper Press affords a remarkable instance of the
surprising effect of combined and persevering effort. Few persons,
perhaps, among those who are accustomed to receive the Daily Papers, are
aware of the vast amount of cost and labour constantly employed in their
production. To take for an instance the Times Newspaper. To accumulate
the various articles of intelligence which are there collected, persons
are constantly and assiduously employed in all directions, both at home
and abroad. For the Foreign department, gentlemen, men of education and
address, especially fitted for their office, resident in the various
foreign capitals, and who regularly transmit (when necessary, by
express) the earliest accounts of important occurrences, so effectually
indeed as sometimes even to precede the government couriers; so that
during the late war, events of the highest importance were first
promulgated through the columns of this paper.--For the daily
occurrences of the metropolis and its environs, others, devoted to this
particular office. For the political circles, the Courts of Law, Police
Offices, Accidents, Offences, &c., others;--and for the two Houses of
Parliament, expert and expeditious short-hand writers; all of whom are
continually engaged in transmitting their various reports to the office
with the most persevering activity, to be there arranged, condensed, and
fitted to their respective columns, by the sub-editors and those
employed in what is called making up the Paper; while the Editor's
attention is more especially engaged in watching the progress of events,
and in furnishing on the moment those remarks which are to be found in
what is called the Leading Article. Thus the whole is in one day
communicated, arranged, and printed; and by the same evening's post
transmitted to the most distant parts of the Empire; a result which may
well strike those who enter into the contemplation of the vast
expenditure of effort and capital which are constantly employed for the
purpose, with astonishment.

In the completion of their Steam Printing Press alone, the Proprietors
are said to have expended upwards of sixty thousand pounds. The daily
sale of the paper is understood to be about ten thousand copies; and
these, by means of the Steam Press, are printed off in the almost
incredibly short space of about two hours and a half.]

[Footnote 12-*: Something like this is the plan originally invented and
still practised in China. The work intended to be printed is transcribed
by a careful Writer upon thin transparent Paper. The Engraver glues this
with its face downwards upon a smooth tablet of Pear or Apple tree, or
some other hard wood; and then with Gravers and other instruments, he
cuts the wood away in all those parts upon which he finds nothing
traced, thus leaving the transcribed characters Embossed and ready for
Printing. In this manner he prepares as many Blocks as there are written
Pages. In printing they do not as in Europe use a Press; the delicate
nature of their Paper would not admit of it; when once, however, their
Blocks are engraved, the Paper is cut, and the Ink is ready, one man,
says Du Halde, with his brush, can without fatigue print ten thousand
sheets in a day. The Block is Inked with one Brush, and with another the
Paper is rubbed down upon it so as to take the Impression. In this way
the Printer can travel with his Ink and his Blocks, and from place to
place take off as many copies as he may find occasion for. According to
Chinese chronology, this art was discovered in China about fifty years
before the Christian era. It seems to be especially adapted to their
language, in which are employed such a vast variety of characters.]

[Footnote 14-*: "Before the invention of this divine art, mankind were
absorbed in the grossest ignorance, and oppressed under the most abject
despotism of tyranny. The clergy, who before this era held the key of
all the learning in Europe, were themselves ignorant, proud,
presumptuous, arrogant, and artful; their devices were soon detected
through the invention of typography. Many of them, as it may naturally
be imagined, were very averse to the progress of this invention, as well
as the _brief-men_, or writers, who lived by their manuscripts for the
laity. They went so far as to attribute this blessed invention to the
devil, and some of them warned their hearers from using such diabolical
books."--_Lemoine._]

[Footnote 22-*: Mr. Lodge's Peerage is perhaps the only instance in
which a whole work, of that magnitude, has been kept standing in Type.
This has been done for two reasons; first, because of the great expense
of setting the Type afresh for each Edition; and secondly, that by being
thus kept standing, it may be rendered constantly and uniformly correct,
a point of the greatest importance in a work containing so large a mass
of family history, the value of which so much depends on the accuracy of
names and dates.]

[Footnote 26-*: The Rev. Dr. Macknight, who translated anew the
Apostolic Epistles, is said to have copied over with his own hand that
laborious and valuable work five times, previously to his committing it
to the Press.]

[Footnote 27-*: The Publishers of this little work have frequently had
Works committed to their care for Publication, on which the charge for
Correcting has almost equalled that of the Setting of the Type,
occasioned in a great degree by a want of attention to the points above
referred to.]

[Footnote 50-*: Engraving on Steel is a modern and highly important
improvement. Previously, elaborate Engravings on Copper would lose their
delicate tints after Printing a few hundred copies, but from Steel many
thousand impressions may be taken without the slightest perceptible
difference between the first and the last. To this is chiefly
attributable the present very moderate price of beautifully Embellished
Works, the use of Steel instead of Copper rendering it no longer
necessary to Re-Engrave the Plates.]

[Footnote 54-*: This is of course not to be understood as applying to
Edinburgh and Dublin, both of which have their respective local circles,
though for their English circulation they depend chiefly on London.]



PUBLICATION OF WORKS FOR AUTHORS.

Having been for many years engaged in conducting an extensive Publishing
Business comprising the productions of the most Popular Writers, the
Publishers of this little Work beg leave respectfully to state that they
have, in consequence of repeated applications, now devoted a branch of
their Establishment to conducting the


PUBLICATION OF WORKS FOR AUTHORS,

securing to them the direction and controul, as well as the entire
proceeds and property of their Publications.

Estimates of the Cost of large or small Editions, including Paper,
Printing, &c., will be given on application personally, or by Letter
addressed to Messrs. SAUNDERS and OTLEY, Publishers, Conduit Street,
Hanover Square, London.



  PUBLISHED BY
  MESSRS. SAUNDERS AND OTLEY.
  CONDUIT STREET, HANOVER SQUARE,
  LONDON,

ON THE FIRST OF EVERY MONTH.

THE METROPOLITAN MAGAZINE,

A Monthly Journal

OF

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, & THE FINE ARTS.


THE METROPOLITAN was commenced in 1831, Edited by THOMAS CAMPBELL, Esq.,
Author of "The Pleasures of Hope;" afterwards assisted by THOMAS MOORE,
Esq., Author of "Lalla Rookh," &c.; and subsequently by CAPTAIN MARRYAT,
R.N., Author of "Newton Forster," "The King's Own," "Peter Simple," &c.
In its pages have appeared all the Popular Novels of Captain Marryat, as
well as many productions of the first writers of the day, among whom may
be mentioned JAMES MONTGOMERY, Esq., Author of "The World before the
Flood," whose valuable "Lectures on General Literature" are to be found
in its pages only. Tales by CAPTAIN CHAMIER, Articles in Prose and
Verse by THOMAS CAMPBELL, Esq., and THOMAS MOORE, Esq., Papers by Sir
CHARLES and Lady MORGAN, UGO FOSCOLO, Lady CLARKE, the AUTHOR of the
"Kuzzilbash," WILLIAM SOTHEBY, Esq., and a great number of other
distinguished writers, comprising a vast variety of ORIGINAL ARTICLES,
CRITICAL NOTICES, REVIEWS, PAPERS on the FINE ARTS, LITERATURE, THE
DRAMA, &c. &c.

The whole forming an interesting Miscellany, as well as a valuable
permanent Record of the Progress of Literature and Science, throughout
the entire period from its first publication, under the auspices of its
distinguished Editor.

No effort is spared to perpetuate the high character which


THE METROPOLITAN

has attained, both at home and abroad, for its ORIGINAL PAPERS; while
its Review Department will continue to receive that attention which has
hitherto rendered its Criticisms so impartial and satisfactory.

Orders for THE METROPOLITAN may be forwarded through any of the
Booksellers or Newsmen of the United Kingdom, or for the Continent or
Colonies through the Agents at the Post Office.

All communications are requested to be addressed (post free) to the
Editor at the Publishers.



  POPULAR WORKS,
  BY DISTINGUISHED WRITERS.

  PUBLISHED BY
  MESSRS SAUNDERS AND OTLEY,
  CONDUIT STREET, HANOVER SQUARE,
  LONDON.



WORKS BY SIR LYTTON BULWER, BART., M.P.


I.

  In One Vol. Royal 8vo.
  THE PILGRIMS OF THE RHINE.
  Beautifully illustrated with Engravings, by the first artists.

    "This is in all respects a most superb book; the Literary contents,
    which are of the highest order, being fully equalled by the
    splendour of the pictorial embellishments."--_News._


II.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE STUDENT.
  A Series of Essays.

    "Great as is both the power and beauty of the Author's former works,
    we know none that mark the creative thinker, more than the present
    production. Its pages are full of new lights and happy
    illustrations."--_Literary Gazette._


III.

  In Three Vols. Post. 8vo.
  RIENZI,
  THE LAST OF THE TRIBUNES.

    "It required a master genius to trace the career of such a spirit as
    Rienzi's."--_Athenæum._

    "It is the author's as yet greatest work."--_New Monthly._


IV.

  In 8vo.
  LETTER TO A LATE CABINET MINISTER ON THE PRESENT CRISIS.
  To which is added A LETTER FROM LORD BROUGHAM TO THE AUTHOR.
  Thirteenth Edition.


V.

  In 8vo.
  THE DUCHESSE DE LA VALLIERE.
  A DRAMA, in Five Acts.


VI.

  In Two Vols. 8vo.
  ATHENS--ITS RISE AND FALL.
  With Views of the Arts, Literature, and Social Life of the Athenian
  People.

     "Years of labor have not been mis-spent in the research and
     consideration of the subject, and the style is worthy of the best
     names in this elevated department of our National
     Literature."--_Literary Gazette._


VII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  ERNEST MALTRAVERS.

    "A splendid work, bearing the impress of genius stamped on every
    page."--_Monthly Review._


VIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  ALICE; OR THE MYSTERIES.

    "The most popular of all the Author's popular Novels."--_Chronicle._


IX.

  In Octavo.
  THE LADY OF LYONS,
  OR LOVE AND PRIDE.
  A PLAY. In Five Acts. Eighth Edition.



WORKS BY CAPTAIN MARRYAT, R.N.


X.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  NEWTON FOSTER;
  OR THE MERCHANT SERVICE.


XI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE KING'S OWN.


XII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  PETER SIMPLE.


XIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  JACOB FAITHFUL.


XIV.

  In Three Vols. Post. 8vo.
  THE PACHA OF MANY TALES.


XV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  JAPHET IN SEARCH OF A FATHER.


XVI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  MR. MIDSHIPMAN EASY.

*.* Most of the above Popular Works were first published in _The
Metropolitan_, Edited by Captain Marryat. They have since passed through
several Editions.



WORKS BY MRS. JAMESON.


XVII.

  In Two vols. Post. 8vo.
  MEMOIRS OF FEMALE SOVEREIGNS.


XVIII.

  In Two Vols. Post. 8vo.
  CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN.

With upwards of Fifty illustrative Etchings, by the Author. New and
revised Edition.

     "A beautiful and touching commentary on the heart and mind of
     Woman."--_Literary Gazette._

     "Two truly delightful volumes, the most charming of all the works
     of a charming writer."--_Blackwood._


XIX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  VISITS AND SKETCHES AT HOME AND ABROAD.


XX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  WINTER STUDIES AND SUMMER RAMBLES IN CANADA.

     "We cordially recommend to all lovers of amusing anecdote these
     lively, elegant and most feminine volumes."--_Post._



WORKS BY MISS MARTINEAU.


XXI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  SOCIETY IN AMERICA.

     "This book will sustain the great reputation of Miss Martineau,
     both as a sound scientific observer on questions of moral and
     political philosophy, and as a writer of first-rate descriptive
     powers."--_Examiner._


XXII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  RETROSPECT OF WESTERN TRAVELS.

    "This work of Miss Martineau's is even more interesting than her
    former admirable productions on America. Her descriptions are
    perfectly delightful."--_London and Westminster Review._


XXIII.

  MRS. HEMANS' LIFE, AND LETTERS.
  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  MEMORIALS OF MRS. HEMANS.

With selections from her PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE, by H. F. CHORLEY, ESQ.
Illustrated with a beautifully engraved Portrait, and a view of her
House.



WORKS BY THE AUTHOR OF "RANDOM RECOLLECTIONS OF THE LORDS AND COMMONS."


XXIV.

  In One Vol. Post 8vo.
  RANDOM RECOLLECTIONS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
  Fifth Edition. Revised.

    "A work more extensively circulated and read than any that has
    appeared for years."--_Sun._


XXV.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE GREAT METROPOLIS.
  First Series.


XXVI.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE GREAT METROPOLIS.
  Second Series.

    "A work of extraordinary and peculiar research."--_Monthly
    Repository._


XXVII.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  TRAVELS IN TOWN.

    "The reader is almost sure to gain from this author's various
    productions such an amount of useful information as it would be
    scarcely possible for him to gather in the same compass
    elsewhere."--_Metropolitan._



TRAVELS, BIOGRAPHY, MEMOIRS, &c.


XXXIII.

  In 4to. with Portraits, Fac-similes, &c.
  MEMOIRS OF THE GREAT LORD BURGHLEY.

With his State Papers, and Private Letters, from the Original
Manuscripts. By the Rev. Dr. NARES, Regius Professor of Divinity in the
University of Oxford.


XXIX.

  In Three Vols., 8vo. with Portrait
  MEMOIRS, CORRESPONDENCE, AND MANUSCRIPTS OF GENERAL LA FAYETTE.
  Published by his Family.


XXX.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  MEMOIRS OF PRINCE LUCIEN BUONAPARTE.
  Written by Himself.


XXXI.

  In One Vol. 8vo. with Portrait.
  MEMOIRS OF LORD HERBERT OF CHERBURY.
  Written by Himself.


XXXII.

  In One Vol. 8vo. with Portrait.
  MEMOIRS OF SIR KENNELME DIGBY.
  Written by Himself.


XXXIII.

  In One Vol. 8vo. with Portrait.
  MEMOIRS OF LORD LIVERPOOL.
  With a View of his Administration.


XXXIV.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. with coloured Plates.
  RECORDS OF TRAVELS IN THE EAST.
  By ADOLPHUS SLADE, ESQ.


XXXV.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo. with coloured Plates.
  TRAVELS IN ALEXANDRIA, DAMASCUS, AND JERUSALEM.
  By Dr. HOGG.


XXXVI.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. with coloured Plates.
  TRAVELS TO CONSTANTINOPLE AND GREECE.
  By CHARLES MACFARLANE, ESQ.


XXXVII.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo. with coloured Plates.
  EXCURSIONS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN.
  By Sir GRENVILLE TEMPLE, BART.


XXXVIII.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo. with Engravings,
  TRAITS AND TRADITIONS OF PORTUGAL.
  By MISS PARDOE.


XXXIX.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. with coloured Plates.
  MADRID AND ITS VICINITY.
  By an English Officer.


XL.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. coloured Plates.
  TURKEY, GREECE, AND MALTA.
  By ADOLPHUS SLADE, Esq.


XLI.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo. coloured Plates,
  ALGIERS AND TUNIS.
  By Sir GRENVILLE TEMPLE, Bart.


XLII.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. with Engravings, and large Maps.
  THE TOPOGRAPHY OF ROME AND ITS VICINITY.
  By Sir WILLIAM GELL.


XLIII.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. with Engravings.
  FRANCE IN ITS LAST REVOLUTION.
  By LADY MORGAN.


XLIV.

  In Two Vols. 8vo. with Portrait.
  LITERARY REMAINS OF THE LATE WILLIAM HAZLITT.
  With Remarks on his Genius by Mr. SERJEANT TALFOURD, and Sir LYTTON
  BULWER, Bart.



HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY, &c.


XLV.

  In Two Vols. with Maps. 8vo. Third Edition.
  DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA.
  By ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE.

    "The very best work on the subject we have ever met
    with."--_Blackwood._


XLVI.

  In Two Vols. 8vo.
  LECTURES ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY.
  By FREDERIC VON SCHLEGEL. Translated by J. H. ROBERTSON, Esq.
  with Life of the Author.


XLVII.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  CIVILIZATION.
  By the Hon. AUGUSTUS MORETON, M.P.


XLVIII.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF GERMANY.
  By G. P. R. JAMES, Esq. Author of Memoirs of Louis XIV. &c.


XLIX.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  VINDICATION OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION.
  By B. D'ISRAELI, Esq.


L.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo. with Engravings.
  THE NAVAL OFFICER'S MANUAL.
  By CAPTAIN GLASCOCK. R.N.


LI.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE POETRY OF LIFE.
  By Miss STICKNEY.


LII.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  PERICLES AND ASPASIA.
  By WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR, Esq.


LIII.

  In 4to. with Twelve Original Etchings.
  THE ANCIENT BALLAD OF CHEVY CHASE.
  Illustrated by JOHN FRANKLIN, ESQ.


LIV.

  In Three Vols. Post. 8vo.
  INKLINGS OF ADVENTURE.
  By N. P. WILLIS, Esq.


LV.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  IMAGINARY BIOGRAPHY.
  By Sir EGERTON BRIDGES, Bart.


LVI.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  DRAMATIC SCENES.
  By LADY MORGAN.


LVII.

  In One Vol. Post 8vo.
  CITATION AND TRIAL OF SHAKSPEARE FOR DEER STEALING.
  By WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR, Esq.


LVIII.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE INFIRMITIES OF GENIUS.
  By DR. MADDEN.


LIX.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  HOLY BREATHINGS.
  A Series of Morning and Evening Prayers.
  By LADY CHARLOTTE BURY.


LX.

  In 8vo. with many Plates.
  FLORAL EMBLEMS.
  By HENRY PHILLIPS.


LXI.

  In One Vol., silk, gilt, coloured Plates.
  THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS.
  Sixth Edition, Revised by the Editor of the "Forget me not."


LXII.

  In One Vol., silk, gilt, coloured Plates.
  THE BOOK OF FLOWERS.
  By Mrs. HALE.


LXIII.

  In One Vol. silk, gilt, coloured Plates.
  THE LANGUAGE OF BIRDS.
  By Mrs. SPRATT.


LXIV.

  In 4to. with original Plates.
  RETZSCH'S FANCIES.
  With Remarks, by Mrs. JAMESON.


LXV.

  In One Vol. Fourth Edition, with illustrations,
  ADVENTURES OF A GENTLEMAN IN SEARCH OF A HORSE.
  By Sir GEORGE STEPHEN.


LXVI.

  In One Vol. 8vo. with the Arms of the Peers beautifully engraved,
  and incorporated with the Text.
  THE PEERAGE OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
  From the Personal Communications of the Nobility. By EDMUND LODGE, ESQ.
  Norroy King of Arms.


LXVII.

  In One Vol. Second Edition.
  THE MANAGEMENT OF BEES.
  With a description of the Lady's Safety Hive. With Forty Illustrations.
  By SAMUEL BAGSTER, ESQ.


LXVIII.

  In One Vol. 8vo. uniform with the Peerage.
  THE GENEALOGY OF THE PEERAGE.
  Containing the Ancestral History of the British Nobility. By
  EDMUND LODGE, Esq. Norroy King of Arms.


LXIX.

  In One large Vol. 8vo.
  REMARKS AND EVIDENCE ON THE FACTORY SYSTEM.
  By CHARLES WING, Esq. Surgeon to the Royal Infirmary for Children.


LXX.

  In One Vol. Post 8vo.
  SARTOR RESARTUS.
  The Life and Opinions of Herr Teufelsdröck. By THOMAS CARLYLE, ESQ.


LXXI.

  In Three Vols. 8vo.
  HISTOIRE DE LA REVOLUTION DE 1688 EN ANGLETERRE.
  Per F. A. J. MAZURI, Inspecteur Général des Etudes.



POPULAR NOVELS.


LXXII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo. Third Edition.
  ALMACKS; A NOVEL.

    "These volumes present perhaps the best picture of the gayest
    fashionable life that has ever issued from the press."--_Literary
    Gazette._


LXXIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  ALLA GIORNATA.
  OR, TO THE DAY.
  A Tale of Italy. By LADY CHARLOTTE BURY.


LXXIV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  TALES OF THE MUNSTER FESTIVALS.
  By the Author of "The Rivals."


LXXV.

  In Two Vols, Post 8vo.
  THE JOURNAL OF AN EXILE.
  By T. A. BOSWELL, ESQ.


LXXVI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE ENGLISH IN ITALY.


LXXVII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE AYLMERS.
  By THOMAS HAYNES BAYLEY, Esq.


LXXIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE ENGLISH IN FRANCE.
  By the Author of "The English in Italy."


LXXIX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  RECOLLECTIONS OF A PEDESTRIAN.
  By the Author of "The Journal of an Exile."


LXXX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  TALES OF CONTINENTAL LIFE.
  By the Author of "The English in Italy."


LXXXI.

  In Two Vols. Foolscap 8vo.
  THE ZENANA; OR A NEWAB'S LEISURE HOURS.
  By the Author of Pandurang Huri.


LXXXII.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  TWO OLD MEN'S TALES.


LXXXIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  CONTI THE DISCARDED.
  By the Author of "Tales of a Sea-port Town."


LXXXIV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  MY AUNT PONTYPOOL.


LXXXV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  TALES OF THE WOODS AND FIELDS.
  By the Author of "Two Old Men's Tales."


LXXXVI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE COLLEGIANS.
  By the Author of "Tales of the Munster Festivals."


LXXXVII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE LADY ANNABETTA.
  By the Author of "Constance."


LXXXVIII.

  In One Vol. Post 8vo.
  COUNTRY STORIES.
  By MISS MITFORD, Author of "Our Village."


LXXXIX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE TWO FRIENDS.
  By THE COUNTESS OF BLESSINGTON.


XC.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE DESULTORY MAN.
  By G. P. R. JAMES, Esq. Author of "Richelieu," &c.


XCI.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE STATE PRISONER.
  By Miss BOYLE.


XCII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE WIFE AND WOMAN'S REWARD.
  By the Hon. Mrs. NORTON.


XCIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  ANNE GREY.
  Edited by the Author of "Granby."


XCIV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  TALES OF MY NEIGHBOURHOOD.
  By the Author of "The Collegians."


XCV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE PILGRIMS OF WALSINGHAM.
  By Miss STRICKLAND.


XCVI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE MAYOR OF WINDGAP.
  By "The O'Hara Family."


XCVII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE PURITAN'S GRAVE.
  By the REV. PITT SCARGILL.


XCVIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  CHANCES AND CHANGES.
  By the Author of "Six Weeks on the Loire."


XCIX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE HAMILTONS.
  By the Author of "Mothers and Daughters."


C.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE EXILE OF PALESTINE.
  By J. CARNE, Esq. Author of "Letters from the Holy Land."


CI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  HUNGARIAN TALES.
  By Mrs. C. GORE.


CII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE MARDENS AND THE DAVENTRYS.
  By Miss PARDOE.


CIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE WONDROUS TALE OF ALROY.
  By the Author of "Vivian Grey."


CIV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  COUNTRY HOUSES.


CV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE RIVALS.
  By The Author of "The Collegians."


CVI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE ARMENIANS.
  By CHARLES MAC FARLANE, ESQ.


CVII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  FIRST LOVE.


CVIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  POLISH TALES.
  By Mrs. C. GORE.


CIX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE INVASION.
  By the Author of "The Collegians."


CX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE BIT O' WRITIN'.
  By "The O'Hara Family."


CXI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  WARNER ARUNDELL;
  OR, MEMOIRS OF A CREOLE.
  By D. L. JOSEPH, ESQ.


CXII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE VICTIMS OF SOCIETY.
  By the COUNTESS of BLESSINGTON.


CXIII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  FALKNER.
  By Mrs. SHELLEY.


CXIV.

  In Two Vols. Post 8vo.
  TALES OF THE SOUTHERN COUNTIES.


CXV.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  THE LOST EVIDENCE.
  By Miss BURDON.


CXVI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  MISREPRESENTATION.


CXVII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  HENRY ACTON; AND OTHER TALES.
  By the Hon. Mrs. SAYERS.


CXVIII.

  In Three Vols. Post. 8vo.
  HUSSARS, GUARDS, AND INFANTRY.
  By Major R. HORT.


CXIX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  AGNES DE MANSFELDT.
  By T. C. GRATTAN, Esq.


CXX.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  FITZHERBERT.
  By the Author of "The Bride of Sienna."


CXXI.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  MORTIMER DELMAR.
  By the Author of "Conrad Blessington."


CXXII.

  In Three Vols. Post 8vo.
  JANET; OR A GLANCE AT HUMAN NATURE.
  By the Author of "Misrepresentation."



POETRY.


CXXIII.

  In Two Large Vols. with upwards of 100 Engravings, by the First Artists.
  THE BOOK OF GEMS.
  Containing Memoirs and Specimens of the Poets, From Chaucer to Cowper.
  By S. C. HALL, Esq.

    "This is in all respects so beautiful a book that it would be
    scarcely possible to suggest an improvement. Its contents are not
    for a year nor for an age, but for all time."--_Examiner._


CXXIV.

  In Eight Vols. with fine Engravings, by the FINDENS, From
  original Drawings.
  THE LIFE AND WORKS OF COWPER.
  Including his Private Correspondence. By the Rev. T. GRIMSHAWE.


CXXV.

  In one Vol. Foolscap 8vo. New Edition.
  THE MESSIAH.
  By the Rev. R. MONTGOMERY.


CXXVI.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  ITALY;
  With Historical and Classical Notes, by J. E. READE, Esq.


CXXVII.

  In One Vol. Foolscap.
  MELANIE; AND OTHER POEMS.
  By N. P. WILLIS, Esq.


CXXVIII.

  In One Vol. Foolscap 8vo. with Portrait.
  THE VOW OF THE PEACOCK.
  By Miss LANDON.


CXXIX.

  In One Vol. Foolscap 8vo.
  THE SONGS OF THE ALHAMBRA.
  By Miss SMITH.


CXXX.

  In 8vo.
  THE STAR OF SEVILLE.
  By Mrs. BUTLER; Late Miss KEMBLE.


CXXXI.

  In Foolscap 8vo.
  TRANQUIL HOURS.
  By Mrs. E. THOMAS.


CXXXII.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  HOURS AT NAPLES; AND OTHER POEMS.
  By Lady E. STUART WORTLEY.


CXXXIII.

  In One Vol. Foolscap. 8vo.
  SATAN; A POEM.
  By the Rev. R. MONTGOMERY.
  New Edition.


CXXXIV.

  In One Vol. Foolscap 8vo.
  GAZELLA; OR RILCAR THE WANDERER.
  A Poetical Romance. By F. WORSLEY, Esq.


CXXXV.

  THE SERAPHIM;
  AND OTHER POEMS.
  By Miss BARRETT.


CXXXVI.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  IMPRESSIONS OF ITALY.
  By Lady E. STUART WORTLEY.


CXXXVII.

  In One Vol. 8vo.
  THE DELUGE.
  A DRAMA in Twelve Scenes.
  By J. E. READE, Esq., Author of "Italy," and "Cain the Wanderer."


CXXXVIII.

  In 8vo.
  RICHELIEU; OR THE CONSPIRACY.
  A PLAY, in Five Acts.
  By the Author of "The Lady of Lyons," "Eugene Aram," &c.



PAMPHLETS.


  THE CABINETS COMPARED; OR AN ENQUIRY INTO THE LATE AND PRESENT
    ADMINISTRATIONS.

  THE RIGHTS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND VINDICATED.

  EXAMINATION OF RECENT WORKS ON CHURCH REFORM.

  THE CRISIS EXAMINED. BY D'ISRAELI THE YOUNGER.

  REPLY TO A PAMPHLET ENTITLED "WHAT HAS THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON GAINED
    BY THE DISSOLUTION?"

  HOW LONG WILL THEY LAST? A LETTER FROM A RETIRED MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT.

  DEFECTS IN ELECTION COMMITTEES, WITH A PLAN FOR IMPROVING THEM.

  WHAT WAS THE OBJECT OF THE REFORM BILL?

  REMARKS ON THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF ENGLAND. By MONTAGUE GORE, ESQ.

  AN APPEAL AGAINST THE TAMWORTH ADDRESS.

  SPEECH OF SIR ROBERT PEEL, ON RETIRING FROM OFFICE.

  THE REFORM OF THE REFORM BILL. By WM. EWART, ESQ.

  OBSERVATIONS ON PUBLIC AFFAIRS, BY A WHIG OF THE OLD SCHOOL.

  THE TIME TO SPEAK; OR, WHAT DO THE PEOPLE SAY?

  A LETTER TO THE QUARTERLY REVIEW ON THE COURSE AND PROBABLE
    TERMINATION OF THE NIGER.

  THE REFORM BILL PROVED TO BE AN ERROR.

  LORD ELDON'S SPEECH IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS ON CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION.


  AN APOLOGY FOR THE BALLOT.

  A LETTER TO SIR R. H. INGLIS, BY A MEMBER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

  A LETTER TO LORD PALMERSTON ON BRITISH RELATIONS WITH CHINA.

  THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND'S DEFENCE AGAINST HER REAL ENEMIES AND PRETENDED
    REFORMERS.

  OPEN VOTING BETTER THAN BALLOT.

  ON THE DISTURBANCES IN CANADA. BY MONTAGUE GORE, ESQ.

  LETTERS OF A CONSERVATIVE. BY WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR, ESQ.

  CONSIDERATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE NATION.

  LETTER ON THE WELLINGTON AND NELSON MEMORIALS.


London: W. BLATCH, Printer, Grove Place, Brompton.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's Note

The following typographical errors have been corrected.

 Page  Error
  TOC* Origin and Progress of Printing, 11 changed to
       Origin and Progress of Printing, 12
  TOC  Stereotype Printing, 25 changed to Stereotype Printing, 21
  TOC  Engraving on Wood, 22 changed to Engraving on Wood, 25
  TOC  Paper Making, 31 changed to Paper Making, 30
  TOC  Illustrative Engravings, 20 changed to
       Illustrative Engravings, 50
  TOC  Choice of Binding, 49 changed to Choice of Binding, 51
  TOC  Publishing and Advertising, 55 changed to
       Publishing and Advertising, 53
  30   CHOICE OF PAPER. changed to CHOICE OF PAPER,
  fn. 5-+  Point, &c changed to Point, &c.
  fn. 22-*  expence changed to expense
  Ad XLII      THE TOPOGRAPAY changed to TOPOGRAPHY
  Ad LXVIII    THE GENEAOLOGY changed to GENEALOGY
  Ad LXXXVIII  "Our Village. changed to "Our Village."
  Ad XC        "Richlieu," changed to Richelieu
  Ad XCVIII    the Loire. changed to the Loire."
  Ad CXXVI     J. E Reade changed to J. E. Reade
  Pamphlets section  DISSOLUTION? changed to DISSOLUTION?"

  *TOC is Table of Contents

The following words were inconsistently spelled or hyphenated.

  Post. 8vo. / Post 8vo.





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