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´╗┐Title: Agricultural Implements and Machines in the Collection of the National Museum of History and Technology - Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, No. 17
Author: Schlebecker, John T.
Language: English
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MACHINES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND
TECHNOLOGY***


Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology--Number 17

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINES IN THE COLLECTION OF
THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY

by

JOHN T. SCHLEBECKER



[Illustration]

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS
City of Washington
1972


SERIAL PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

The emphasis upon publications as a means of diffusing knowledge was
expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In his
formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry articulated a program that
included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of
reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the
changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge." This
keynote of basic research has been adhered to over the years in the
issuance of thousands of titles in serial publications under the
Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to
Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:

    Smithsonian Annals of Flight
    Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
    Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics
    Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
    Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences
    Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
    Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
    Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology

In these series, the Institution publishes original articles and
monographs dealing with the research and collections of its several
museums and offices and of professional colleagues at other institutions
of learning. These papers report newly acquired facts, synoptic
interpretations of data, or original theory in specialized fields. These
publications are distributed by mailing lists to libraries,
laboratories, and other interested institutions and specialists
throughout the world. Individual copies may be obtained from the
Smithsonian Institution Press as long as stocks are available.

S. Dillon Ripley

Secretary

Smithsonian Institution


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office

Washington, D.C. 20402--Price 70 cents

Stock Number 4700-0209



Contents


    Introduction                                           1

    The Use of Farm Machinery in America                   2

    Catalog of Agricultural Implements and Machines in
    the Collection                                         6

    Index to the Catalog                                  51

    Publications on Farming by the Staff of the
    Division of Agriculture and Mining                    58



Agricultural Implements and Machines

in the Collection of the

National Museum of History and Technology

The Author: John T. Schlebecker is curator in charge, Division of
Agriculture and Mining, Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian
Institution.


Introduction

The art and science of agriculture embrace most intentional human
efforts to control biological activity so as to produce plants and
animals of the sort wanted, when wanted. Rubber plantations, cattle
ranches, vegetable gardens, dairy farms, tree farms, and a host of
similar enterprises all represent human efforts to compel nature to
serve man. Those who undertake agriculture have had, from time
immemorial, a variety of names, not all of them complimentary. The
people involved in attempted biological control have been called
farmers, planters, ranchers, and peasants. Farmers carry on a
complicated business in which they use a variety of tools, implements,
and machines. They also employ land, chemicals, water, plants, and
animals. Their business, however, focuses on living things. No matter
how crude their attempts, or how uncertain their successes, those who
try to grow living things rank as agriculturalists.[1]

[Footnote 1: Of course, the definition excludes brewers, distillers,
biological supply houses, and others, such as zoo curators, who manage
living things. Agriculture takes place on a piece of land widely and
commonly known as a farm.]

For the most part, a museum cannot show the essential biological aspects
of agriculture. Agricultural production involves the farmer in the
course of nature in its seasons, and in the peculiar laws of living
things. In these respects, agriculture stands rather apart from
transportation, manufacturing, and artistic industries where the tools,
machines, and raw materials remain fairly inert as men work on them.
Machines move but do not live, and therein lies the major difference
between agriculture and the other arts. Farmers deal with plants and
animals but the museum can show only the things a farmer uses as he
accommodates to and regulates nature. Some of the objects, in
themselves, give a fair idea of how the farmer used them. Most people,
after all, know about edged blades and digging tools. Nearly anyone can
grasp what a man might do with a scythe or a plow. Even the working of a
modern reaper needs only a little explanation. But museums cannot well
show cross-breeding of plants and animals. Museums seldom can show the
results of that cross-breeding. Bags of fertilizer can be put on
display, as can vials of penicillin, and jars of herbicide. Although
some may find these interesting, such items show little in and of
themselves.

Unfortunately, the things that cannot be shown in any easily
intelligible way surpass in importance the items that can be shown. The
sheep shears, which anyone can understand, represent less to the farmer
than do the sheep. Sheep shears, no matter how sophisticated and no
matter how necessary, do not explain sheep husbandry. The shears tell
little about the wool industry, and nothing much about sheep breeds. And
so on through the list of agricultural enterprises.

Museums must collect and exhibit the tools, implements, and machines
which farmers use in their business. These items, however, seldom make
up the core of real agricultural activity. The catalog here presented
shows something of the range of items that farmers use and that can be
preserved and shown. The variety nearly equals the volume. Most museums
try to avoid duplication. Even so, few museums manage to collect a
continuous series of things showing any one line of development. The
discontinuity of farm objects on hand virtually rules out the telling of
a coherent and complete history of agriculture. Nevertheless, the museum
can show something about the major technological developments in
agriculture. The evolution of the plow, the reaper, or the tractor can
be suggested even if not fully illustrated. Hitting the highlights has
to suffice.

The full history of technological change also involves several social
and economic conditions.

First, changes in implements, tools, and methods result from the
accumulation of knowledge. Device builds upon device: first came the
wheel, and then, much later, the tractor.

Secondly, the potential user of the device must feel a need for it. The
new method or device not only must save him work but must clearly
increase his well-being. If any device or change merely increases the
wealth of someone else (a tax collector or a landlord for example), the
farmer seldom will adopt the new technology.

Thirdly, since, at first, the new technology almost invariably costs
more than the old, the user must have or be able to get the capital to
buy and use the newer devices and methods.

Of these conditions for technological change, only the cumulative nature
of the knowledge can be shown by the objects. Even here, however,
missing objects make it possible to present only the most obvious
changes, and then not all of them. Still, seeing the things once
used--no matter how crude or how few--can sometimes help us understand
the way changes took place. Also, this knowledge sometimes can help us
guess how other changes will take place:

     The sequence of inventions also depends upon the changing needs of
     a society. Needs and circumstances vary more than do degrees of
     talent. Thus when need and knowledge merge, inventors quickly
     appear. Indeed, several men in several places are likely to work on
     the same problems at the same time, and they often solve it in
     almost identical fashion. Nearly simultaneous inventions or
     discoveries occur with astonishing frequency in the history of
     technology.[2]

[Footnote 2: "The Combine Made in Stockton," Pacific Historian, no. 10
(Autumn, 1966), p. 14.]


The Use of Farm Machinery in America

The part of America that was destined to become the United States
started its history at the very time when the parent European
civilization began to make major breakthroughs in science and
technology. Thus, Americans became the automatic beneficiaries of the
achievements of others. Because of peculiar opportunities and needs,
Americans could and did push on to unique achievements. Nowhere,
however, did this building on the past appear as early, or as
impressively, as in the agricultural sector of the economy. American
inventors of farm implements made important strides earlier than those
in any other field. In turn, American farmers made more and better use
of discoveries and inventions.

From the 1650s onward Europeans expanded their activities in all fields
and in all directions. By that time Europeans had already discovered the
New World, and had seized or bullied most of the Old. European trade and
industry increased, and as these grew so also did population and
urbanization. People multiplied, and an increasingly greater proportion
of them began to live in towns and cities. Simultaneously, the Europeans
increased in wealth; indeed, most of their activities created more
wealth. The ever-increasing number of people called for more food, and
for changes in European farming. The Europeans' growing wealth also
allowed them to buy luxury items from around the world: silk and spice
and everything nice. The goods came not only from the Far East and
Africa but also from the New World. When Europeans began to settle
America, they almost at once had the advantages of a large and growing
metropolitan market in western Europe. This market provided
opportunities for wealth, but only if the American farmers developed
appropriate commodities and produced them at reasonable prices.

The English, Dutch, Swedes, French, and Spanish settled in North America
at trading and exploring stations. So located, they could direct the
flow of products to Europe. The English chiefly sought rare products
such as gold and spices, and they sent back furs. The Dutch concentrated
on furs. All European pioneers, however, had to feed themselves. This
took a bit of doing, which at first involved a merging of European
technology with Indian crops and methods. Later, the settlers adapted
European crops and animals. In spite of starving times in almost every
colony from Virginia to New England, the new Americans at least mastered
the art of feeding themselves.

European technology used animals for draft and employed plows, harrows,
and similar implements. This technology fit European crops better than
it fit American crops. Thus, European implements and draft animals did
not appear until comparatively late. As long as they depended chiefly on
Indian crops, Europeans simply substituted iron hoes for stone hoes, and
iron axes for stone axes. But methods such as girdling, slash and burn,
and the rest, came almost directly from Indian technology. The Pilgrims
of Plymouth Plantation went 12 years without a plow; Virginians went
almost as long. The hoe of corn culture served well enough to keep men
alive. Hunting and fishing, of course, supplemented the food supply, as
it did for the Indians.

From north to south the story was largely the same in the 17th century.
Everywhere the new Americans pursued a subsistence agriculture which
supported some other major economic activity. Pennsylvania developed
possibly the most flourishing subsistence farming. The commercial
production of tobacco, an American crop with American methods and uses,
began early in Virginia and Maryland. This specialty developed
commercially almost exclusively in the upper South. Farmers and planters
of the lower South had hesitantly begun rice culture, but as the 17th
century ended men in the Carolinas still found hides and furs the most
rewarding commodities. Meanwhile, rapid changes took place in the
European metropolitan centers, and in the West Indian islands. The
growth of population in both places created consumers for more and
cheaper food. Markets for American foods definitely began to increase as
the 18th century got under way.

Europeans, of course, primarily wanted European foods rather than exotic
Indian crops. The foods also had to be comparatively nonperishable and
easily transported. Grains, particularly wheat, and processed meat
(hams, salt pork, and such) especially met European preferences.
Commercial production of these commodities compelled American farmers to
embrace the best European technology insofar as that technology fit the
American scene. The plants, animals, methods, and tools all derived from
Europe. Contrary to a common European view at the time, the immigrants
did not bring the worst available methods to the New World. Nor did the
Americans allow any deterioration of stock or plants without good
economic reasons.

Most European criticism about American farming centered on things of no
consequence to American farmers, who were selling in a world market.
True, Americans tended toward slovenly cultivation, but niceness of
method mattered little if the land yielded an abundant exportable
surplus. Americans paid less attention than Europeans to fertilizer, but
Americans at first had less need for it. Livestock, in spite of nearly
continual importations from Europe, tended to decline from a European
standpoint. Still, the animals yielded meat of a quality suitable for
export. The hardy American animals could survive in spite of casual
care. Americans had few barns and sheds, but the world market for meat
did not demand barns, stalls, and fancy feeding. American dairy cows
yielded ridiculously low volumes of milk, butter, and cheese, but dairy
products, after all, served only the resident Americans. The corn- and
mast-fed hogs of America provided ham that was equal to any in Europe.
If the European consumer bought American food, the American farmer
thought it pointless to consider the comfort and emotional well-being of
his animals.

New Englanders tended to concentrate on animals, the middle Atlantic on
grains, the upper South on tobacco, and the lower South on rice and
indigo. The Revolutionary War disrupted the marketing from the farmer's
view, but the major commercial commodities remained largely unchanged in
the years immediately after the war. Indigo declined and then
disappeared as a major export commodity, but cotton almost at once
replaced it.

In the 19th century men everywhere made great technological advances. In
America, the advances took place in a sort of reciprocal action with
three major historical series and events dominating the story: the
westward movement, urbanization, and industrialization.

The greatest westward expansion in American history took place during
the 19th century. American farmers and stockmen conquered, and almost
entirely settled, a continent. They did this in a single century,
1801-1900. Nothing quite like it had ever happened before. Starting from
a thin line of people on the eastern seaboard (with a few incursions
across the mountains as of 1800), farmers and herders pushed into a
nearly empty land, dispossessed the Indians, and exploited the country.
And in course of time the American pioneers wanted and received
political organization. California entered the Union in 1850, the Plains
states mostly in the 1880s, and more states, such as Arizona, New
Mexico, and Oklahoma, came into the Union in the 20th century.

At the same time, a nation that was weak and underdeveloped in 1801,
had, by 1900, become the world's leading industrial nation. From
virtually no industry in 1801, America rose to leading industrial power
in 1900, with more railroads and more manufactured goods per capita than
any other nation. Involved in the industrialization, and importantly so,
was the farm implement and machinery industry. Factories everywhere
supplied farmers with the sophisticated tools and machines of the new
agriculture.

In these years urbanization also went forward rapidly. Cities of the
east grew fantastically, and even in the interior cities rose from
wilderness outposts to gigantic metropolises. Within one man's lifetime
Chicago increased from 350 people in 1830 to 1,099,000 in 1890.
Simultaneously, tremendous developments in transportation kept the
nation and its economy tied together. All of these developments had a
profound influence on farming and farmers. The rich cities provided ever
greater markets for the farmers' produce. The transportation system,
rapidly moving farm commodities, made farming profitable in remote
regions far distant from the coast. Farmers also felt the advantages of
the return flow of goods and services: the mail order catalog, the
industrially made reapers and threshers, and countless other items. City
people made a countless range of devices for farmers--from steel plows
to steam engines.

Meanwhile, as these events altered the life of the farmer, a burst of
activity took place in invention and discovery. These activities had a
delayed but considerable impact on farm methods and technology. The list
of inventions and discoveries could hardly fit in this narrative, but
this catalog of items reflects fairly well what men accomplished in the
19th century. The changes included such diverse elements as the
invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793, the introduction of
Mexican Upland cotton in 1805, the discovery of the cause of Texas fever
in cattle in 1889, and the invention of the internal combustion tractor
in 1892. These and many other achievements substantially changed the
farm enterprise in two major directions: first, advances in technology
allowed farmers to do more in less time; second, discoveries in science
allowed farmers to increase the yield from the land. Farmers got more
from each acre, plant, and animal.

Farmers could use the savings in time brought by better implements and
new machines to increase the amount of land farmed and the number of
animals cared for. Presumably, the farmer could also use the saved time
for greater leisure. In fact, however, they usually used the extra time
for more work. In the 20th century they often used the saved time for
outside employment. Farmers did this in the 19th century, but not so
commonly as later. Greater man-hour efficiency gave the farmer more time
to devote to managing his enterprise, to keeping records, and to
studying his business.

Technological efficiency also allowed farmers to use more land and more
animals. The average size of farms steadily increased across the
century. Furthermore, the new machines and the pure-bred livestock cost
money which could be most profitable only if the farmer specialized in
one, or at most two, types of enterprise. So the greater efficiency
created by technology impelled farmers to greater specialization, and
with specialization came even greater efficiency. Anyone who specializes
will likely be more efficient because of the mastering of skills. He
will also have a minimum of other cares to distract him. Of course, for
the consumers, foreign or domestic, greater farming efficiencies
resulted in abundant food at comparatively low cost.

Plant and animal importation, improvement of breeds, and discoveries in
genetics, soil chemistry, the use of fertilizers, and in controlling
plant and animal diseases all helped the living things which form the
basis of farming yield. Grain farmers not only had to have a wheat which
yielded well but a wheat which resisted the attacks of nature. For
example, Turkey Red wheat, introduced in 1873 by Mennonites from Russia,
not only survived drought and yielded well but provided the genetic
elements for newer breeds of wheat. The farmer not only wanted
good-producing meat cattle, such as the Herefords, but had to control
diseases and predators which killed the animals. Sick animals do not
grow properly or, in the case of dairy animals, give much milk. Steady
advances in disease control for both plants and animals brought fewer
losses and greater productivity to farmers.

The 19th century also brought scientific discoveries in both plant and
animal nutrition. Fertilizer and soil chemistry made great advances
through scientific experiments, at first by farmers and later by
government servants. The first experiment station in the modern era
began in Connecticut in 1875, and in 1887 the Congress established such
stations in every state in conjunction with the agricultural Land Grant
colleges. Scientists at many of the stations also made discoveries in
animal nutrition. For example, as a result of animal feeding experiments
E. V. McCollum discovered vitamins A and B at the experiment station in
Wisconsin in 1915.

None of these scientific advances left much residue in the form of
artifacts for museums, but the reality of the changes should not be
obscured by the lack of objects on exhibit. Even so, some of the related
equipment survived. For example, the centrifuge used in the butterfat
test, discovered in 1890 by Stephen M. Babcock, survived in several
forms. Manure spreaders and tree sprayers, reflective of advances in
biochemistry, also survived. But these only suggest the more important
biological control activities for which these machines and tools served
merely as agents in some way.

The 20th century introduced Americans to total war. World Wars I and II
demanded the total mobilization of all resources by all contenders. In
both conflicts America became the food reservoir of the Allies. From a
technological view, the wars engendered a level of prosperity which both
allowed and encouraged farmers to adopt new methods and devices. The
principal technological change in farms was the widespread adoption of
the internal combustion tractor, first used in 1892. Inventors and
manufacturers gradually but constantly improved tractors along with the
various devices attached to them. Most notable were the corn picker, in
1909, and the cotton picker, in 1942. (Dates are for commercial
production in each instance.) Farmers found both machines impracticable
until a power source independent of the ground wheel had been developed.
More than anything else the tractor and its related equipment finally
set men free from the worst drudgery of farming. It also set many
farmers free from the need to farm at all.

The tractor and its equipment accomplished several other remarkable
things, some obvious and some not so obvious. First, it allowed the
farmer to get rid of horses and mules, and these animals steadily
declined--to such an extent that in the 1960s the census did not even
bother to count them. As a result of this decline, land that farmers had
used to raise feed for animals could grow food for people or fodder for
dairy animals. The amount of land thus released for other needs finally
amounted to perhaps 60 million acres, and maybe even more. The change
took place with increasing rapidity into the 20th century.

Also, the tractor sharply reduced labor needs for the major crops of the
United States. Even dairying, least susceptible to this sort of
improvement, felt the impact of the tractor in such things as harvesting
fodder and storing silage by running loaders off the tractor
power-take-off. Since the very founding of agriculture men had
discovered only one way to prosper in farming. The farmer had to exploit
somebody or something. Animals, serfs, slaves, tenants, sharecroppers,
or whatever, including the farmer's family and farm, had at various
times been exploited on the farmer's way to success. After the age of
machinery, however, the farmer tended to exploit the machine instead of
other people or things. People had to leave farming, but in the long run
they benefited from their removal. The machine had set them free. Chief
of the machines was the gasoline tractor.

The influence of science and technology inside a free society may have
been even more profound than seems at first glance. The farming of the
20th century, with its chemicals, genetics, machines, and all, required
not only vast infusions of capital but brains and a considerable
knowledge. Farmers had to be literate at the very least. Elitist
systems, where one group of people get educated and the others get
worked, could not accomplish much in the modern agricultural world.
Furthermore, notions of two kinds of education--one for the better sort
who think, and another for the inferiors who do the work--could and did
seriously impede the development of a modern agriculture. The
backwardness of most of the world, the poverty of the underdeveloped
countries, stemmed in large part from the impediments created by an
ignorant population.

A country like the United States with its highly technical and
scientific farming could not afford, simply could not endure, limited
educational opportunities for its people. Neither could it long endure
any class structure which placed farmers in an inferior position; for
when men feel inferior because of their work they tend to shift to some
other task, leaving the despised work to those who cannot avoid it. A
highly developed agriculture in the hands of the truly inferior, the
stupid and uneducated, would simply collapse. America, the land of
plenty, had to maintain a high level of education open to all and a
society where men reached status, at least partly, by effort and talent.
In 20th century America the comparative social and economic equality
continued, in large part, because the level of technology and science
used in America demanded it. This equality may be one of the most
important consequences of the technological and scientific advances in
agriculture during the years 1607-1972.


Catalog of Agricultural Implements and Machines in the Collection

In the following catalog the items are listed numerically in the order
in which the museum received them, with the earliest first and the
latest last. This arrangement permits expansion and reissue of the
catalog simply by adding new entries; and the user of the catalog can
easily find everything acquired in any given year. In effect, the
catalog thus presents an historical account of the development of the
museum collection. Following the item's title appears the National
Museum accession number (USNM number); year of accession, if known;
description; and donor.

The index to the catalog has several major categories of
cross-referenced entries. In addition to the general object class, such
as "Tractor," it includes use-entries, such as "Plant husbandry," the
names of donors, vendors, and those who arranged for the gifts.

1. Korean Sketch of Farming in the Late 18th Century. USNM 19048; 1887.
Korean farmers plowing and breaking clods of earth. Painted by Han Chin
U. Gift of G. Goward, Washington, D. C.

2. Korean Sketch of Threshing in the Late 18th Century. USNM 19048;
1887. Korean farmers threshing rice. By Han Chin U. Gift of G. Goward,
Washington, D. C.

3. Korean Fishing Scene of the Late 18th Century. USNM 19048; 1887.
Koreans using a fish trap. By Han Chin U. Gift of G. Goward, Washington,
D. C.

4. Scene of Korean Farmers Chopping Tobacco in 18th Century. USNM 19048;
1887. Korean farmers chopping tobacco after it has been cured. By Han
Chin U. Gift of G. Goward, Washington, D. C.

5. Scene of Korean Farmers Working on Farm Buildings in Late 18th
Century. USNM 19048; 1887. Korean farmers doing carpentry work,
including roof repair. By Han Chin U. Gift of G. Goward, Washington, D.
C.

6. Scene of a Korean Blacksmith at Work in Late 18th Century. USNM
19048; 1887. A Korean blacksmith working at his forge and anvil. By Han
Chin U. Gift of G. Goward, Washington, D. C.

7. A Korean Farrier Shoeing a Horse in the Late 18th Century. USNM
19048; 1887. By Han Chin U. Gift of G. Goward, Washington, D. C.

8. Centrifugal Cream Separator, 1868. USNM 23744; 1890. The first
centrifugal cream separator used commercially in the United States. The
Deerfoot Farm at Southborough, Massachusetts, used this machine,
patented by D. M. Weston of Boston. Gift of Deerfoot Farm Company,
Southborough, Massachusetts.

9. Model of Blount's Daisy Plow, 1890. USNM 23873; 1891. This model of a
one-horse plow shows Blount's Daisy steel plow as pictured in the
catalog of Henry F. Blount. Gift of Henry F. Blount, Evansville,
Indiana.

[Illustration: Figure 1.--Views of Old Colony Strong Plow, about 1732.
(Catalog No. 10.)]

10. Old Colony Strong Plow, 1732. USNM 34769; 1899. In 1732 Peter Hardy
of Raymond, New Hampshire, made this plow for Henry Lamprey of
Kensington, New Hampshire. Gift of J. P. Lamprey, Kensington, New
Hampshire.

11. Winnowing Basket, 1799. USNM 37441; 1901. A winnowing basket, or
pan, made of willow woven over wide sprints; elliptical in shape, with a
frame of thick rods. Noah Rogers bought this pan in New York in 1799 or
1800. Gift of Frank A. Brown, Savage, Maryland.

12. Model of Flail Threshing Machine, 19th Century. USNM 46812; 1906.
The frame of this wooden model is 7-1/2 inches high and 5 by 6 inches,
rectangular. The levers, 14 inches long, project from the frame and
strike the floor much as a flail would. Pins set in the shaft of a hand
crank act as cams, raising the flails which then fall to the ground by
gravity. Gift of United States Department of the Interior.

13. Model of Gallic Grain Header, about A.D. 70. USNM 46812; 1906. A
wooden box on wheels, 12 by 5 inches, has metal teeth set at the front
end. Shafts extend to the rear, where an ox is yoked. The forward
movement of the cart causes the grain to lodge against the teeth, which
pulled the heads off. The grain then fell back into the box. Gift of
United States Department of the Interior.

14. Model of Ten Eyck Grain Harvester, 1825. USNM 46812; 1906. Model is
made of wood and iron, 15 inches by 8 inches. Long knives on a drum were
rotated by belt shaft on traveling wheels. Long projecting points
gathered the straw. Iron shafts at the rear allowed animals to be
harnessed to push the machine. James Ten Eyck patented the harvester on
November 2, 1825. Gift of United States Department of the Interior.

15. Model of Manning Grain Harvester, 1831. USNM 46812; 1906. Model of
horse-drawn reaper measures 16 inches by 8 inches, with a wheel diameter
of 6 inches. Projecting iron points at the front end gather the grain,
and vibrating knives, powered from the hob of the wheel, cut the grain.
Patented by William Manning on May 3, 1831. Gift of United States
Department of the Interior.

16. Model of Boyce Grain Harvester, 1799. USNM 46812; 1906. This model,
made of wood and iron, is 15 inches long, 6 inches wide, and 5-1/2
inches high. Six rotating knives radically positioned on a vertical
shaft rotate by level gearing on the wheel axle. The whole is mounted on
a two-wheeled cart with shafts for draft animals. English patent number
2324 granted to James Boyce in 1799. Gift of United States Department of
the Interior.

17. Model of Newbold Plow, 1797. USNM 46812; 1906. This model of a metal
plow, with wooden beam and handles 14 inches long, represents the plow
patented by Charles Newbold on June 26, 1797, the first American patent
for a cast-iron plow. Moldboard, share, and landside were cast in one
piece. If the plow broke, it became totally useless. Not until the parts
were made in separate pieces did the iron plow come into wide use. The
cast iron broke more readily than did the later wrought-iron plows. Gift
of United States Department of the Interior.

18. Winnowing Basket, about 1750. USNM 54513; 1912. Used by the three
Richardson brothers, the first settlers of Woburn, Massachusetts. The
threshed grain could be winnowed in two ways. It could be poured slowly
from the edge of the basket in a breeze, where the heavier grain fell to
the ground while the chaff blew away. More commonly, the farmer tossed
the grain into the air and caught it in the basket, while the chaff blew
away. This rectangular basket measures 50 inches by 30 inches. Gift of
Mrs. Clarissa W. Samson, West Medford, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Figure 2.--De Laval centrifugal cream separator of 1879.
(An earlier version of Catalog No. 19.)]

19. Centrifugal Cream Separator, 1914. USNM 56432; 1914. Carl Gustav De
Laval of Sweden invented this successful continuous-flow cream separator
in 1879. Loaned by De Laval Separator Company, New York, New York.

20. Model Tractor, 1919. USNM 64098; 1919. No particular manufacturer
seems represented by this spring-driven toy, which merely represents
tractors of around 1919. The heavy-duty field tractor has four widely
spaced iron wheels. Gift of Toy Manufacturers of the United States, New
York, New York.

21. Model Tractor with Plow, Harrow, and Roller, 1919. USNM 64098; 1919.
Spring-driven, toy tractor. The plow, harrow, and roller, as well as the
tractor itself, represent a typical machine of the period. The product
of no particular firm seems to have been copied. Gift of Toy
Manufacturers of the United States, New York, New York.

22. Meat Grinding Machine, about 1810. USNM 110326; 1930. Hand made of
wood and iron, with six parts held together by two iron bolts. The
cutting edges are set in the sides of a box parallel to each other and
about one-quarter inch apart. A shaft, set in the center of the box, is
turned by a crank. The horizontal shaft has iron slugs, graduated from
coarse to fine, set into the shaft in a helical pattern. The meat enters
through the square hole at the top and the iron teeth press it against
the knife edges; thus, the meat is cut smaller and smaller until it
comes out a small hole in the bottom of the machine. The device is very
ancient in design and could still be found in common use in the United
States as late as 1860. Gift of R. C. Fairhead, Rushville, Nebraska.

23. Carey Plow, about 1815. Received from Division of Ethnology in 1931.
A Carey plow with a slot in the beam for a colter. The landside handle
passes through the beam. Usually, the beam tenon passes through a
mortise in the handle. Possibly made by the farmer. Replication of a
common and popular American plow of the 18th century. Donor not known.

24. Hoe, about 1830. USNM 115122; 1931. Wrought-iron, handmade hoe made
in Ohio and attributed to very early 19th century. The hoe's blade is 5
inches wide and its handle is 6 feet long. Gift of Mrs. Grace M.
Swiggett, Washington, D. C.

25. Reaper Sickle Bar, about 1847. USNM 115878; 1931. Sickle bar from a
McCormick reaper. The blade style suggests a comparatively sophisticated
stage of development, most surely after 1833. David Cromer of Seneca
County, Ohio, used this sickle bar on a McCormick reaper. The blade is 5
feet long and 5 inches deep. Gift of Frank Hepp, Berwick, Ohio.

[Illustration: Figure 3.--Gail Borden's vacuum pan of 1853, used to make
condensed milk. (Catalog No. 26.)]

26. Borden Vacuum Pan, 1853. USNM 119188; 1932. The original vacuum pan
used by Gail Borden in 1853 for condensing milk by concentrating it in a
vacuum. He patented the process on August 19, 1856. Borden borrowed this
pan from nearby Shaker farmers who had used it for canning. Borden did
his early work at New Lebanon, New York. Borden at first failed to get a
patent because the process was not deemed useful. There is nothing
exceptional about this pan except that Borden used it. Gift of Borden
Milk Company, New York, New York.

27. Model of McCormick Reaper, 1834. USNM 121105; 1932. Scale model of
the grain reaper patented by Cyrus McCormick on June 21, 1834. Roderick
Davis constructed the model from the specifications of the patent. Gift
of Charles G. Abbot, Washington, D. C.

28. Model of McCormick Reaper, 1845. USNM 124615; 1933. Scale model of
the reaper patented by Cyrus H. McCormick on January 31, 1845. Roderick
Davis constructed the model from the specifications of United States
patent 3895. Gift of McCormick Historical Association, Chicago,
Illinois.

29. Model of McCormick Reaper, 1847. USNM 124615; 1933. Cyrus McCormick
patented this reaper on October 23, 1847. Roderick Davis built the model
from specifications of United States patent 5335. Gift of McCormick
Historical Association, Chicago, Illinois.

30. Wheeled Plow, 1769. USNM 127755; 1934. Wheeled plow made by Matthew
Thumb in 1769 at Palatine, New York, for Henry Kloch. It has an almost
flat, wooden moldboard; wrought-iron share and colter; a two-wheel truck
in front for the beam; and one handle. The large wheel ran in the furrow
and the small wheel on the land. The wooden parts of the hitch and the
draft chain have been restored. The plow is probably a copy of a German
one. Gift of Sir Henry Solomon Wellcome, London, England.

31. Model of Grain Separator, 1875. USNM 129836; 1934. Working model of
a grain separator for a threshing machine made by Daniel Garver. The
model represents inventions covered by three patents issued to Daniel
and Cyrus Garver: the grain separator, patent 114546, issued May 9,
1871; the fan blast regulator, patent 114547, issued May 9, 1871; and
the bag holding device, patent 161501, issued March 30, 1875. Loaned by
Miss Melchora Garver, Hagerstown, Maryland.

32. Waldron Cradle Blade and Snead, about 1840. USNM 129789; 1934. The
blade has holes for attaching the cradle. The wooden frame, or snead,
supports the cradle fingers, now missing. Gift of Sydney S. Stabler,
Washington, D. C.

33. Settling Can Cream Separator, about 1890. USNM 129789; 1934. Cooley
brand creamer, used for separating milk from cream prior to churning.
The milk and cream were set in a cool place for several hours while the
cream rose to the top. The farmer drew skim milk off through a spigot at
the bottom, after which the cream could be drawn off. Used on farms
before the hand centrifugal separator came into wide use. By 1890, in
butter-producing areas, the centrifugal separator had already caused the
disuse of the Cooley and similar separators. Gift of Sidney S. Stabler,
Washington, D. C.

34. Wooden Hayfork, about 1879. USNM 137459; 1936. Hayfork of
second-growth white oak, made by John Heiss, Lima Township, Lagrange
County, Indiana. It was used for feeding stock and for handling clover
and short straw of all kinds. Gift of E. W. Heiss, Washington, D. C.

35. Wooden Measure, 1845 or earlier. USNM 137960; 1936. Small, round
wooden measure used in 1845 by William Heiss, Lagrange County, Indiana,
to feed small grain or mill feed to livestock. William Heiss was a
grandfather of the donor, E. W. Heiss of Washington, D. C.

36. Half-Bushel Measure, about 1829. USNM 137960; 1936. Made and used by
William Heiss on his farm in Lagrange County, Indiana, about 1829.
Probably used in local barter and trade in such items as beans, corn,
and seeds for various crops. Loaned by E. W. Heiss, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: Figure 4.--Cotton planter, about 1895. (Catalog No. 37.)]

37. Wooden Drum Cotton Planter, about 1895. USNM 14557; 1937. All wood
except for a duckbill furrow opener in front and two duckbill row
coverers in the rear, both made of metal. The drum of soft wood measures
20 inches in diameter and 13 inches wide. About the center of the drum
is a wooden, metal-rimmed wheel which ran down the furrow, keeping the
seeder on course. Near the wheel, and all around the drum, are 13 evenly
spaced holes through which the cotton seeds fell into the furrow as the
drum revolved. No counting or tripping mechanism was involved, so the
device undoubtedly wasted seed. A mule or a horse pulled the planter and
the farmer walked behind it. James Nelson of Greenwood, South Carolina,
made this planter about 1895. Gift of Ruben F. Vaughn, Honea Path, South
Carolina.

38. Cast-Iron Plow, 1854. USNM 150396; 1938. A cast-iron plow made by
Stephen McCormick of Fauquier County, Virginia, in 1854. The plow
embodies features covered by patents issued to Stephen McCormick on
February 3, 1819, January 28, 1826, and December 1, 1837. Plows of this
type, made chiefly between 1826 and 1850, involved interchangeable
parts. The first patent precedes that of Jethro Wood by seven months,
but the principle of interchangeable parts had been worked out and
patented as early as 1813. Gift of Leander McCormick-Goodhart, Silver
Spring, Md.

39. Mehring's Milking Machine, 1884. USNM 148530; 1938. Original working
model of a hand-powered milking machine built by William M. Mehring in
1884. Mehring subsequently improved and patented the machine in 1892.
The improved machine did not work well because it created continuous
suction for the length of the stroke. The successful application of
intermittent suction, necessary so as not to injure the cow, was worked
out in Scotland in 1902. Gift of Mrs. Bessie D. Mehring, Keymar,
Maryland.

40. Hand-Powered Milking Machine, 1892. USNM 148530; 1938. Practical
hand-pump milking machine designed and built in 1892 by William M.
Mehring, who was granted patent 488282 on December 28, 1892. This
milker, which injured cows when used rapidly, represents an effort to
solve the problem of machine milking, although the use of human power
also limited its usefulness. Gift of Mrs. Bessie D. Mehring, Keymar,
Maryland.

41. Ox Yoke, 1838. USNM 148675; 1938. Edward Scoville (1813-1887) used
this ox yoke when driving an ox cart from Trumbull County, Ohio, to De
Kalb County, Indiana, in 1838. Until well after the Civil War, oxen
pulled most of the wagons going west, and this yoke is typical of all
used in the westward migration, in the North as well as in the South.
Gift of Reign Scoville, Poplar Bluff, Missouri.

[Illustration: Figure 5.--John Deere plow, one of the three plows made
by Deere in 1838. (Catalog No. 42.)]

42. Deere Plow, 1838. USNM 148904; 1938. John Deere made this plow, with
steel share and polished wrought-iron moldboard, at Grand Detour,
Illinois, in 1838. Joseph Brierton bought it and used it on his farm,
and the Deere Company obtained it in 1901. It is one of three plows made
by John Deere in 1838, and presumably it is identical to his first steel
share plow, made in 1837 at Grand Detour. Called the singing plow, it
proved especially effective in prairie country after the sod had been
broken because the earth did not adhere to the share and moldboard. The
implement could also be used as a breaking plow. Gift of Deere and
Company, Moline, Illinois.

43. Model of Sulky Plow, 1899. USNM 156653; 1940. Working model of the
Hy-Lift sulky plow invented by Niels O. Starks of Madison, Wisconsin,
and made by the Fuller and Johnson Company around 1900. Starks received
patent 616984 on January 3, 1899. The land wheel on this plow
automatically raises and lowers the plow at the end of a furrow. Gift of
S. O. Strucksberg, St. Joseph, Missouri.

44. Barbed Ribbon Wire, 1879. USNM 159858; 1941. Specimen of barbed wire
made with saw teeth cut out of twisted ribbon wire. Gift of B. F.
Arthur, Winchester, Virginia.

45. Chinese Plow, date unknown. USNM 161555; 1941. This primitive,
one-handled plow has an iron hook on the end of the beam. Apparently it
had an iron shoe for a share, which is now missing. This style of plow
is typical of the kind used in rice-growing sections of China. Gift of
United States Department of Agriculture.

46. Carey Plow, about 1820. USNM 161555; 1941. The share and landside of
this small cultivating plow are in one piece of wrought iron with
sockets for the left handle and the standard bar share. It has a flat
wooden moldboard. Used in Northumberland County, Virginia, until 1855 or
1860, for cultivating corn and other row crops. Gift of United States
Department of Agriculture.

47. Plow, about 1790. USNM 161555; 1941. Only the share, colter, and
beam of this plow are original, the rest having been reconstructed. The
original parts came from Northumberland County, Virginia. Gift of Edwin
Brown, Brown's Store, Virginia.

48. Old Colony Strong Plow, 1740. USNM 161555; 1941. The moldboard of
this plow is made of wood and covered with thick pieces of iron. The
plow has a lock colter and wrought-iron share fitted on the end of a
wooden beam. Pelatiah Kinsman of Ipswich, Massachusetts, had the plow
made in 1740. It represents the New England open-drawn plows of that
time. Gift of United States Department of Agriculture.

49. Old Colony Plow, 1783. USNM 161555; 1941. This plow resembles the
Old Colony Strong Plow (No. 48) but it is not as large and the moldboard
is covered with uniform, narrow iron straps. Farmers used this plow for
cross-plowing after initial breaking by the Strong Plow and for
cultivating. It probably was drawn by oxen. John Foster, a corporal in
the Revolutionary Army, had this implement made at Ipswich,
Massachusetts, in 1783. Gift of United States Department of Agriculture.

50. Tavenner Plow, between 1810 and 1860. USNM 161555; 1941. The
Tavenner plow has a cast-iron moldboard and a wrought-iron share and
colter. Plows of this type were made and used widely in Loudon County,
Virginia. Gift of United States Department of Agriculture.

51. Smith Plow, about 1800. USNM 161555; 1941. This sod-turning plow has
its landside, moldboard, and colter in separate pieces. It was built on
the lines of a plow patented by Robert Smith in 1800. Gift of United
States Department of Agriculture.

52. Gideon Davis Plow, about 1825. USNM 161555; 1941. Gideon Davis
received a patent in 1825 for his improvements of the Newbold plow
patented in 1797. In tests in 1825 to determine the efficiency of
different plows, the Davis plow took first place in a competition with
five others. Gift of United States Department of Agriculture.

53. Woodcock Plow, about 1848. USNM 161555; 1941. The Woodcock plow has
separate landside, moldboard, share, cutter, and point. This plow has
the first reversible point. Woodcock plows were first used in 1847, in
Maryland. Gift of United States Department of Agriculture.

[Illustration: Figure 6.--Eagle plow, about 1849. (Catalog No. 54.)]

54. Eagle Plow, 1849. USNM 161555; 1941. The Number 25 Eagle Plow, which
first appeared in the catalog of the J. Nourse Company in 1849, became
the standard plow of New England after the middle of the 19th century.
Its moldboard was based on a design worked out by Thomas Jefferson. Gift
of United States Department of Agriculture.

55. Mexican Plow, about 1890. USNM 161555; 1941. This Mexican bull
tongue plow has an iron shoe on the point and it closely resembles
Spanish plows of the 16th century. It was intended to be pulled by an ox
and to break the soil for only three or four inches at the most. Gift
of United States Department of Agriculture.

56. Butcher's Saw, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. This saw is part of a set of
butcher's tools (Nos. 56-67) presented to William H. Hoover by the
Washington Light Infantry Corps in 1879. All the tools have a silver
presentation plate on the handle and have nickel plating. A. Nittinger,
Jr., of Philadelphia, made the set. Gift of N. Auth Provision Company,
Washington, D. C.

57. Splitting Cleaver, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of
N. Auth Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

58. Cleaver, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of N. Auth
Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

59. Meat Axe, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of N. Auth
Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

60. Knife, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's knife. Gift of N. Auth
Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

61. Knife, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of N. Auth
Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

62. Triangular Scraper, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of
N. Auth Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

63. Hand Meat Hook, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of N.
Auth Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

64. Meat Hooks, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of N. Auth
Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

65. Carcass Spreader, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of
N. Auth Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

66. Carcass Spreader, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tool. Gift of
N. Auth Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

67. Meat Pins, 1879. USNM 130572; 1942. Butcher's tools. Gift of N. Auth
Provision Company, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: Figure 7.--Babcock butterfat tester, about 1895. (Catalog
No. 68.)]

68. Babcock Butterfat Tester, about 1895. USNM 173353; 1946. A machine
used in determining the amount of butterfat in milk or cream. The
Vermont Farm Machine Company of Bellows Falls, Vermont, made the
centrifuge, which mixed sulphuric acid with the milk in order to
produce a reading of the amount of butterfat tested. The Brighton Farm
at Patuxent River, Montgomery County, Maryland, used this machine around
1895. Stephen M. Babcock developed this tester in 1890 and released it
to the public, without patent, in 1891. The device had far-reaching
effects in the dairy industry, because for the first time it allowed
accurate payment to farmers for the actual amount of butterfat in their
milk; also, it allowed farmers to test their cows to discover which ones
produced the most butterfat. Gift of Sidney S. Stabler, Hyattsville,
Maryland.

69. Buggy Rake, 1840. USNM 175393; 1947. The buggy rake harvested grain
after it had been cut with a cradle. The rake has handles and a wheel,
like a wheelbarrow, with long wooden tines in front to scoop up the
grain. When the binder stepped on a bar at the back of the buggy the
tines would move up and allow the grain to slide back against the
uprights in a convenient position for binding. Although it undoubtedly
reduced the physical labor of binding, this rake would not have been
very efficient and would have allowed the reaper to get far ahead of
the binder. Gift of F. B. Day, Owosso, Michigan.

70. Model of Plow, about 1885. USNM 179841; 1949. The model has a share,
standard, and moldboard of metal with a gauge wheel on the beam. The
beam pivots on the standard, allowing adjustments of the angle of draft.
The end of the beam is fastened to a brace which extends to the back of
the moldboard. The share and point are in one piece; and the moldboard
is one piece. The model resembles the plows of James Oliver, which by
1885 had been widely known and were quite possibly copied. Donor
unknown.

71. Diorama of Tropical Banana Plantation, late 19th century. USNM
186623; 1950. The diorama shows bananas being harvested and trees being
cut. The banana bunches get to the railroad cars on burros. At the
bottom, bananas are shown in various stages of growth and ripening. Gift
of United Fruit Company, Washington, D. C.

72. Diorama of Tropical Coffee Plantation, late 19th century. USNM
186553; 1950. The diorama shows coffee berries being dried in the sun
and in the shade in preparation for marketing the coffee. At the bottom,
various stages of growth and ripening of the coffee berries are
depicted. Gift of The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A & P),
New York, New York.

73. Food-Slicing Machine, mid 19th century. USNM 188878; 1950. Cutting
knives, set in helix in a wooden axle, move the meat through the box,
cutting it finer and finer. Gift of George Murphy, Washington, D. C.

74. Fanning Mill, about 1860. USNM 192872; 1951. A hand-crank operated
the winnowing mill for separating grain from chaff and beans from hulls.
A four-blade, wooden fan, shaped like a paddle wheel, blows a draft
below oscillating screens. The chaff is blown off from the threshed
grain, and the grain or beans fall from the screens into the path of the
draft. The screens catch any straw left after threshing. Gift of Arden
Wilson, Harrisville, West Virginia.

[Illustration: Figure 8.--Two-row corn planter, about 1854. (Catalog No.
75.)]

75. Two-Row Corn Planter, about 1854. USNM 193259; 1952. This
hand-operated planter, of a type patented by S. Malone on January 3,
1854, was sold by William M. Plant, a dealer in seeds, tools, and
machines at St. Louis, Missouri. When the planter was dropped to the
ground, the two handles moved about 8 inches in a slot toward the
outside. This movement opened a space for the corn to drop into the
shoe, where a small piece of wood opened and the corn fell to the
ground. Gift of Warren Hammond, Fayette, Missouri.

76. Model of Ferguson Tractor, 1952. USNM 193939; 1952. This plastic and
metal model of a Ferguson tractor operates a Ferguson hitch. Gift of
Topping Models, Inc., Akron, Ohio.

77. Model of Two-Disk Plow, 1952. USNM 193939; 1952. A plastic and metal
model of a two-disk plow for a Ferguson tractor. Gift of Topping Models,
Inc., Akron, Ohio.

78. Model of New Idea Mower, 1952. USNM 193939; 1952. A cast-iron model
of a New Idea mower with an operating pitman for use behind a tractor.
Gift of Topping Models, Inc., Akron, Ohio.

79. Model of New Idea Manure Spreader, 1952. USNM 193939; 1952. A
plastic and metal model of a New Idea, tractor-drawn manure spreader.
Gift of Topping Models, Inc., Akron, Ohio.

80. Model of New Idea Corn Picker, 1952. USNM 193939; 1952. A plastic
and metal model of a one-row, tractor-drawn corn picker. Gift of Topping
Models, Inc., Akron, Ohio.

81. Tiling Spade, 1952. USNM 193940; 1952. This hand-forged steel spade
has a bit with three tines. This style spade was invented around 1895
and was widely used for digging trenches for drain tiles on sticky or
mucky soil. The Osmundson Forge Company of Webster City, Iowa, made
these spades as late as 1952. Gift of A. G. Osmundson, Webster City,
Iowa.

82. Glass Churn, about 1900. USNM 193941; 1952. This German-made churn,
of 4-liter capacity, has a hand crank which drives a metal propeller at
the bottom in one direction while paddles on the shaft turn in the other
direction. Gift of A. G. Osmundson, Webster City, Iowa.

83. Cedar Sap Spouts, about 1800. USNM 194893; 1952. Sap spouts, made
of cedar, about 15 inches long. Spouts like these were made and used by
settlers of upper New York about 1800 to gather the maple sap after the
trees had been tapped. Gift of Frank E. Olmstead, Potsdam, New York.

84. Cedar Sap Spouts, about 1800. USNM 194893; 1952. Sap spouts for
maple tree tapping, about 15 inches long and made of cedar. The maple
syrup and sugar industry provided some income for frontier farms, as
well as providing sugar for domestic use. Although maple syrup often
sold at high prices, the industry never achieved major importance even
in the localities where it flourished. These spouts are of the sort used
in the pioneer period in New York. (See also Nos. 83, 85-87.) Gift of
Frank E. Olmstead, Potsdam, New York.

85. Iron Sap Spout, possibly late 19th century. USNM 194893; 1952. A
cast-iron maple sap spout, about 3 inches long, used for gathering the
sap into buckets. Possibly factory-made and used later than the frontier
period, after maple syrup manufacture had become a commercial
enterprise. The leading areas for maple syrup have long been Ohio, New
York, Vermont, and New Hampshire. Gift of Frank E. Olmstead, Potsdam,
New York.

86. Iron Sap Spout, possibly late 19th century. USNM 194893; 1952. A
thin, metal trough, plated, and about 3 inches long, used to convey
maple sap from the tap in the tree to the sap bucket. This is the type
spout most commonly used today in those areas where farmers supplement
their income with maple syrup production. Gift of Frank E. Olmstead,
Potsdam, New York.

87. Sap Bucket Spikes, possibly late 19th century. USNM 194893; 1952.
Hand-made iron spikes used to hold buckets for maple tree sap. They had
to be hooked somewhat so the bucket could hang on them well. Gift of
Frank E. Olmstead, Potsdam, New York.

88. Diagram of Jefferson Moldboard, 1798. USNM 198605; 1953. A
three-dimensional wire diagram, at half scale, illustrating Thomas
Jefferson's design of a plow mold-board as he described it in a letter
to Sir John Sinclair in 1798. In the same year Jefferson read a paper to
the American Philosophical Society that was titled "Description of a
Mold-Board of the Least Resistance and of the Easiest and Most Certain
Design." The wire diagram was constructed by the Division of Crafts and
Industries, Smithsonian Institution.

89. Model of Jefferson Moldboard, 1798. USNM 198605; 1953. The model
consists of four separate blocks of wood cut to show the progressive
steps in the construction of the Jefferson moldboard: (1) the block of
wood marked for sawing with the rear section cut out, and in two parts;
(2) the block of wood sawed on two diagonals, with the rear section cut
out, and in three parts; (3) the block of wood sawed transversely on
guide lines down to the diagonals, with the wood between the transverse
cuts removed and leaving the face of the moldboard roughly shaped; (4)
the rear surface of the board produced in the same manner as the front,
resulting in a completed moldboard. The models were constructed by the
Division of Crafts and Industries, Smithsonian Institution, after
Jefferson's original moldboard, located at the Natural History Museum,
Paris, France.

90. Wooden Curd Breaker, about 1860. USNM 198617; 1953. This curd
breaker is made of wood with iron pegs in the cylinder and hopper. Gift
of Laurence Hathaway, Easton, Maryland.

[Illustration: Figure 9.--Grain cradle in use in the field.
International Harvester Corporation photo. (Catalog No. 91.)]

91. Grain Cradle, about 1844. USNM 198620; 1953. Caleb Paul Duval used
this cradle on his Glen Echo farm near Baltimore, Maryland. Gift of
Virginia Duval, College Park, Maryland.

92. Barrel Churn, about 1860. USNM 198620; 1953. A wooden barrel churn
with iron crank and paddles. Such churns were of too small volume to be
used on commercial dairy farms, and they were not at all useful in
creameries, which first appeared in 1861. Gift of Virginia Duval,
College Park, Maryland.

93. Cookie Roller, about 1860. USNM 198620; 1953. A wooden, grooved,
one-handled cookie roller, about 14-1/2 inches long and about 3-1/4
inches in diameter. The roller added an esthetic touch to home-made
cookies but was of little importance in the history of commercial food
processing. Gift of Virginia Duval, College Park, Maryland.

94. Meat Grinder, 1859. USNM 198620; 1953. This iron, hand-cranked meat
grinder was patented August 2, 1859. Gift of Virginia Duval, College
Park, Maryland.

95. Butter Prints, about 1860. USNM 198620; 1953. Two butter prints. One
is circular, with a tri-lobed leaf design and about 3 inches in
diameter; the other is a box mold with two five-point star designs and
about 5 inches long, 2-1/2 inches wide, and 4 inches high. The butter
was pressed into these molds before being served, or, sometimes, before
being rolled in paper and sold in towns. This aspect of farm dairying
quickly disappeared after the creamery dominated the industry. Gift of
Virginia Duval, College Park, Maryland.

96. Shoe Last, possibly mid 19th century. USNM 196820; 1953. A small
last, to fit either foot, for a shoe about 8-3/4 inches long and 2-1/4
inches wide. Such implements were useful in frontier communities and
generally were owned by itinerant cobblers who went from house to house.
Gift of Virginia Duval, College Park, Maryland.

97. Model of Fanning Mill, 1857. USNM 198620; 1953. This is a working
model of a fanning mill invented by Joseph and James Montgomery and
covered by patents 10324, issued in 1853; 13062, issued in 1855; and
16447, issued in 1857. The crank handle and the slide, which governed
the flow into the hopper, are missing. James Montgomery took the model
on sales trips as a demonstrator. Gift of Ruth Montgomery, Peoria,
Illinois.

[Illustration: Figure 10.--McCormick reaper (1831) in use in the field.
Photo courtesy of International Harvester Corporation. (Catalog No.
98.)]

98. Model of McCormick Reaper, 1831. USNM 121526; 1953. A scale model of
the 1831 reaper of Cyrus McCormick, built long afterwards from
descriptions by the inventor. Gift of McCormick Historical Association,
Chicago, Illinois.

99. Bee Colony, 1953 (renewed yearly). A 3-story bee hive with about
60,000 bees. The hive was designed by experts at the Department of
Agriculture Research Station, Beltsville, Maryland. The United States
Department of Agriculture donated the hive and the Italian bees.

100. Model of Ox-Powered Sugar Cane Mill, 1925. USNM 200380; 1954. Model
of a mill of a type used in Puerto Rico as early as 1523. It took ten
men and four yoke of oxen to operate the mill, which could crush about
four tons of cane in a 12-hour day. This type of mill extracted about 40
to 45 percent syrup based on the weight of the cane, compared to 80 to
85 percent extracted by modern mills. Gift of Daniel Thompson,
Petersburg, Virginia.

101. Model of Water-Lifting Wheel, 1884. USNM 200380; 1954. A model of a
wind-driven waterwheel used for raising water into the evaporating beds
in salt works. This type of device lifted water from the ocean in Puerto
Rico. Gift of Daniel Thompson, Petersburg, Virginia.

102. Model of Grist Mill, 1883. USNM 200380; 1954. This model of a
water-powered grist mill resembles those used throughout America in the
19th century before the discovery of the gradual reduction process and
the consequent centralization of the milling industry. This particular
mill, known to have operated from 1883 to 1940, ground corn in Puerto
Rico. Gift of Daniel Thompson, Petersburg, Virginia.

103. Farm Copybook, about 1840. USNM 209042; 1955. Wells Forbes, who had
a farm near Alexandria, Virginia, kept this book for about a year in the
1840s. Gift of Bessie W. Palm, Washington, D. C.

104. Grain Cradle, about 1900. USNM 210597, 1956. Grain cradle used
before 1900. Gift of Jennie Sabrosky, Sturgis, Michigan.

105. Model of Hussey Reaper, 1833. USNM 212910; 1956. A model of the
1833 reaper patented by Obed Hussey and based on the specifications of
the patent. Constructed by the Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian
Institution.

106. Horse Spurs, possibly late 19th century. USNM 211312; 1956. Gift of
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

107. Bridle Bits, possibly late 19th century. USNM 211312; 1956. A
rugged type of bridle bit with steel rings used to control horses. This
particular bridle bit may have been used in Texas and Mexico in the
cattle industry. Gift of Catholic University of America, Washington, D.
C.

108. Cow Bell, possibly late 19th century. USNM 211312; 1956. Gift of
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

109. Braided Whip, possibly late 19th century. USNM 211312; 1956. A
home-made horsewhip. Gift of Catholic University of America,
Washington, D. C.

110. Tobacco Clips, possibly late 19th century. USNM 211312; 1956. Seven
clips, each different, denoting a brand for labeling tobacco. Gift of
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

111. Bar Share Plow, 1807. USNM 214608; 1957. A left-handed wooden
moldboard plow. Most American plows cast the furrow to the right. The
Reverend Christian Lesher brought this rare sort of plow from Lancaster
County, Pennsylvania, to Washington Township, Pennsylvania, in 1807.
Gift of Daniel Lesher, Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

[Illustration: Figure 11.--Sausage stuffer, early 19th century. (Catalog
No. 112.)]

112. Sausage Stuffer, about 1820. USNM 213816; 1957. This hand-lever
sausage stuffer, mounted on a bench, may have been made in England in
the early 19th century and later brought to Brampton, Ontario. Not all
parts are of the same age. The replaced parts seem to be those most
subject to wear and tear. This style sausage stuffer was quite common in
the 18th and 19th centuries. Gift of Tee-Pak, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.

113. Meat Grinder, about 1830. USNM 312816; 1957. A hand-cranked meat
grinder made of wood with iron slugs to push the meat against stationary
knives. Overall, 14 inches long, 10 inches wide, and 10 inches high.
Gift of Tee-Pak, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.

114. Sausage Stuffer, early 19th century. USNM 213816; 1957. This
hand-cranked sausage stuffer, made of wood and with an iron screw, fits
on a small bench with lard press. It is 20 inches long, 8-1/2 inches
wide, and 11 inches high. Gift of Tee-Pak, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.

115. Lard Press, late 19th century. USNM 213816; 1957. A lard press made
of cylindrical perforated metal, with a screw press to be mounted on a
small bench. The press is 11 inches in diameter and 10 inches high. The
bench is about a yard long, 8 inches wide, and 18 inches high. Gift of
Tee-Pak, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.

116. Butcher's Table, late 19th century. USNM 213816; 1957. A heavy, low
table made of two thick slabs of wood with a gutter cut along the edges
of the table. Used in cutting up animal carcasses. Some 6 feet long, 34
inches wide, and 24-1/2 inches high. Gift of Tee-Pak, Inc., Chicago,
Illinois.

117. Chopping Bowl, late 19th century. USNM 213816; 1957. Elliptical
wooden chopping bowl, some 30 inches long, 17-1/2 inches wide, and 7
inches high. Gift of Tee-Pak, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.

118. Thresher, about 1855. USNM 214890; 1957. A threshing machine marked
"J. and P. Flickinger, Hanover, Pa., No. 41." It once had a drive for a
vibrating straw separator. Gift of James W. Brown, Brookeville,
Maryland.

119. Grain Cradle, about 1870. USNM 214890; 1957. A grain cradle made at
Brighton, Maryland, by William Nickerson, Jr. The cradle fingers are of
ash, and the braces of hickory. This type of cradle continued in use in
many places even after the advent of harvesting machinery. Farmers with
only small acreages in bread grains or who farmed rough or hilly soil
could not effectively use the reapers and harvester of the middle 19th
century. Gift of James W. Brown, Brookeville, Maryland.

120. Binder's Rake, about 1870. USNM 214890; 1957. The binder followed
the cradler. This hand rake, used by the binder for gathering the grain
before binding and later shocking, had teeth rived out of hickory. Such
a rake could also be used by a binder who followed those the early
reapers used before the invention of the twine binder. Gift of James W.
Brown, Brookeville, Maryland.

[Illustration: Figure 12.--Harpoon hayforks. (Catalog Nos. 121, 123.)]

121. Harpoon Hayfork, late 19th century. USNM 214890; 1957. A
double-harpoon hayfork and pulley for lifting hay from a wagon to a barn
hayloft. Power was supplied by horse or mule. The small barbs on the
harpoon could catch and hold a surprising amount of hay. Gift of James
W. Brown, Brookeville, Maryland.

122. Grain Sack, 1842. USNM 214608; 1957. A grain sack of homespun linen
made from flax grown on the John Lesher farm near Waynesboro,
Pennsylvania. Woven at a roadside mill, the sack has a capacity of three
bushels and is marked "John Lesher, No. 26, 1842." Prior to the advent
of and widespread use of the elevator system of grain handling, nearly
all grain was moved in sacks that had to be shifted about by hand and
stored in warehouses. The elevator system began in Buffalo, New York, in
1842, but reached a position of prominence only in the 1870s when it
began flourishing in Chicago and Milwaukee. Thereafter the grain sack
became virtually a curiosity. Gift of James W. Brown, Brookeville,
Maryland.

123. Single-Harpoon Hayfork, about 1895. USNM 216224; 1957. A hay
harpoon, commonly called a hay needle, about 35-1/2 inches long. Gift of
Cora E. Robinson, Schenectady, New York.

124. Tractor Engine Starter, 1930. USNM 218874; 1958. The starting
device could be bolted to the rear wheel hub of an automobile. An
extendible shaft went from the wheel-fitting to the crank on the
tractor. The car engine then could turn over the tractor engine. The
starter was made by C. O. Goodrich, who marketed it for about eight
years in five midwestern states. Self starters on tractors eventually
ended the need for the device. Gift of C. O. Goodrich, Plymouth,
Indiana.

125. Fordson Crank, about 1925. USNM 218874; 1958. This device was used
to crank the engine on Fordson tractors. Gift of C. O. Goodrich,
Plymouth, Indiana.

126. Milking Machine, 1896. USNM 220004; 1958. A Mehring foot-powered
milking machine. Gift of Earl J. Waybright, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

127. Carey Plow, about 1800. USNM 220005; 1958. A type of plow widely
used in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the United States.
This particular plow was a one-horse, single-bottom, walking type, with
wooden handles, beam, stock, and moldboard. The share point is of iron.
All wooden joints are joined with wooden pegs. There is a bolt-type
brace from beam to stock and a small iron brace with a larger wooden
brace between the handles. Gift of International Harvester Co., Albany,
New York.

128. Hoe, possibly mid 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. Only the blade
remains of this socket-type hoe. Gift of New York Historical
Association, Cooperstown, New York.

129. Log Roller, late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. Oxen drew this
roller in preparing seed beds. The roller crushed clods and compressed
the soil, leaving a firm, compact seed bed. It was useful, obviously,
only on certain types of soil in fairly humid areas. The roller is made
of four log sections, each 23 inches long and 14 inches in diameter. The
logs are set in a weighted frame measuring 35 inches by 9 feet, with a
tongue about 13 feet long. Gift of New York Historical Association,
Cooperstown, New York.

130. Grain Cradle, late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. A form of
scythe used for harvesting grain before the reaper came into use, or
used in places where the reaper proved uneconomical or technologically
inappropriate, as rough or hilly land. This specimen has four wooden
fingers, or tines, that are 45 inches long and spaced 7 inches apart.
The blade is 2 inches wide and as long as the fingers. Gift of New York
Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

131. Self-Rake Reaper, 1895. USNM 213356; 1958. A McCormick Daisy Reaper
of 1895 in which the operator sat on a seat mounted on the axle of the
left wheel. Two horses drew the reaper. Three rotating arms with 3-inch
projections raked, bound and shocked the grain. The cutter bar, over 5
feet long, has three triangular sickle blades which oscillate through
the guard teeth, as in Hussey or modern cutter bars. Gift of New York
Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

132. Barley Fork, possibly late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. A
rectangular wooden barley fork with a one-eighth-inch-gauge wire guard
for holding the barley on the four tines. The guard was needed because
of the nasty stings that the beard could give the worker. Gift of New
York Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

133. Brush Hook, late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. A typical iron
sickle, called a hook because of its general shape. It has a circular
tip on the end of the blade so that it could be used for cutting brush.
Gift of New York Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

134. Fanning Mill, late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. An early
fanning mill with pulley and leather belt. Gift of New York Historical
Association, Cooperstown, New York.

135. Scythe, late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. A crooked-handled
scythe used for cutting grain before the cradle, and thereafter for
cutting hay. Gift of New York Historical Association, Cooperstown, New
York.

[Illustration: Figure 13.--Flop-over hay rake. (Catalog No. 136.)]

136. Flop-Over Hay Rake, about 1895. USNM 213356; 1958. A rake for
piling hay that would be carried from the field or put into a mow. This
sort of implement was used as early as 1820. The farmer walked behind
the horse-drawn rake and raised the handle when the rake was full; this
caused the double set of teeth to revolve, releasing the hay in a pile
and putting the second set of teeth into position to rake more hay. The
older method involved using small hand rakes and required considerable
time and effort in a very disagreeable task. Gift of New York Historical
Association, Cooperstown, New York.

137. Victor Mowing Machine, 1880. USNM 213356; 1958. A one-horse,
front-cut mowing machine similar to the Buckeye mower. The cutter bar
can be raised and lowered parallel to the ground for desired cutting
heights, and it can be lifted and fastened in an upright position for
transport to and from the field. Mowers cut more rapidly and lower than
did reapers, and thus they used a different gear ratio; however, farmers
sometimes used reapers for mowing. Gift of New York Historical
Association, Cooperstown, New York.

138. Spring-Tooth Hay Rake, late 19th century. USNM 213356; 1958. A
sulky rake with spring teeth designed to jump over obstructions in the
field. Gift of New York Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

139. "Railway Horse Power," about 1885. USNM 213356; 1958. A
horse-powered treadmill made chiefly of wood, with metal parts where the
wear would be greatest. It was used to produce power for belt-driven
equipment such as threshers or fanning mills. The machine is set in
motion by putting a horse in the pen and releasing the brake. The weight
of the horse causes the slats to move endlessly, which in turn rotates
the belting wheel. Two-horse treadmills also were used, but such
machines, although portable, worked less efficiently than the
sweep-power machines. This treadmill was made in Vermont. Gift of New
York Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

[Illustration: Figure 14.--Dog-powered churn, 1881. (Catalog No. 140.)]

140. Dog-Powered Churn, 1881. USNM 213356; 1958. H. M. Childs of Utica,
New York, patented this dog-powered churn in 1871, with improvements
patented in 1881. A dog, tied or strapped into the pen, ran forward and
so moved the slats of the treadmill which in turn rotated a flywheel.
Attached to the flywheel is a pitman rod which raises and lowers a churn
dasher. Devices of this sort had appeared earlier for use in the
farm-dairy industry. The change of direction effected by the pitman rod
caused some loss of energy; in any case, a revolving barrel-churn proved
more efficient in the long run. Gift of New York Historical Association,
Cooperstown, New York.

141. Winnowing Basket, about 1800. USNM 213356; 1958. The winnowing
basket was used to work off the chaff from the threshed grain. When the
grain was tossed into the air, the wind would blow away the chaff and
the grain would fall back into the basket. Sometimes the grain would be
poured from another basket into a winnowing basket, with the wind doing
the winnowing. Gift of New York Historical Association, Cooperstown, New
York.

[Illustration: Figure 15.--Avery Bulldog tractor, about 1919. (Catalog
No. 142.)]

142. Avery Bulldog Tractor, 1919. USNM 222860; 1958. This is one of the
several makes of tractors which set a trend toward lighter tractors
about the time of World War I. It was designed for light field work such
as cultivating but could also be used for belt drive. It developed 5 to
10 horsepower. Sold by Everett Noirot, Freehold, New York.

143. Grain Cradle, about 1870. USNM 230323; 1958. This grain cradle
resembles a scythe, with modification by the addition of a light wooden
frame of four fingers with braces. Gift of Massachusetts Society for
Promoting Agriculture.

144. Scythe, about 1840. USNM 230323; 1958. A straight-handled scythe,
probably hand-made, that largely was used for mowing, although it could
be used for reaping grain. Gift of Massachusetts Society for Promoting
Agriculture.

145. Harness Vise, probably mid 19th century. USNM 230323; 1958. This
wooden device could be used to pry open the jaws of a recalcitrant
horse. More often, it held parts of the harness as the saddler worked.
Gift of Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture.

146. Wooden Hand Fork, late 19th century. USNM 230323; 1958. A wooden
pitchfork for handling hay, straw, and the like. The metal pitchfork
gradually replaced these wooden forks between the middle and end of the
19th century. Gift of Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture.

147. Horse-Drawn Hayfork, late 19th century. USNM 230323; 1959. The fork
was driven into the hay and the handle compressed until it latched. A
rope was attached to the fork, run up over a pully in the barn, and
then down to a horse. In this way the hay could be lifted into the barn.
Gift of Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture.

148. Horse-Drawn Planter, 1856. USNM 230323; 1958. E. C. Fairchild of
Deerfield, Massachusetts, made this planter, which has compartments for
seeds and fertilizer. As the drive-wheel pulled a sliding bar back and
forth, seeds and fertilizer alternately dropped into the ground. The
spacing of seeds and fertilizer could be set by adjusting the metal bar.
Gift of Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture.

149. Fanning Mill, mid 19th century. USNM 230323; 1958. A machine for
winnowing grain after it had been threshed. Grain fed into the machine
landed on vibrating screens which permitted the kernels to fall into the
path of a draft of air which blew off the chaff and debris. The clean
grain fell into a container beneath the mill. The operator turned a
crank which operated both the screens and the fan. Gift of Massachusetts
Society for Promoting Agriculture.

150. Hoe, mid 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. A small hand hoe used for
cultivating. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

151. Tile Knife, late 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. This knife,
resembling a small spade, was used to cut the trench in which tile was
laid. It has a triangular metal cutter at right angles on the right
side, and this gave the trench a straight edge on one side and perhaps
helped keep the trench straight. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley,
Massachusetts.

152. Hand Hayfork, about 1895. USNM 230322; 1958. Farmers used this
metal fork for pitching hay, straw, and possibly manure. Gift of
Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

153. Grain Sickle, 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. This hand tool for
harvesting grain has not changed in design for the last thousand years.
The sickle has a curved blade some 22 inches long. The reaper would grab
a handful of stalks and cut them with the blade. One man could cut up
to an acre of grain by this method. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley,
Massachusetts.

154. Grafting Knife, possibly 20th century. USNM 230322; 1958. A knife
especially designed to make the cuts necessary for grafting branches
onto fruit trees. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

155. Manure Fork, possibly 20th century. USNM 230322; 1958. A typical
manure fork. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

156. Ox Muzzle, about 1830. USNM 230322; 1958. Threshers used the muzzle
to prevent the ox from stopping to graze while pulling equipment or from
eating the grain while treading on it in a threshing operation. This
muzzle is made of thin strips of wood. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley,
Massachusetts.

157. Hay Cutter, 20th century. USNM 230322; 1958. A knife made with the
handle and serrated blade as one piece, all of metal. A wooden stock
with a handgrip is fastened to the metal handle. This tool obviously was
intended for cutting very small amounts of hay. Gift of Farmer's Museum,
Hadley, Massachusetts.

158. Narrow Hoe, probably mid 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. This is a
typical cultivating hoe. Farmers used hoes of this type for cultivating
crops until the innovation of plows and harrows. Gift of Farmer's
Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

159. Ox Yoke, about 1830. USNM 230322; 1958. This yoke, for a single ox,
probably was used in pulling small agricultural implements such as
cultivating plows. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

160. Grain Flail, about 1840. USNM 230322; 1958. This type flail was
used to beat grain free from unbound bundles of grain scattered about on
the barn floor. The harvesters then threw the straw to one side and
swept up the grain and chaff. The grain then had to be winnowed. Gift of
Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

161. Curd Breaker, late 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. This machine
has a wooden roller with projecting wooden pegs which, when rotated,
broke up cheese curds. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts.

162. Horse-Drawn Cultivator, late 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. This
triangular cultivator was used for stirring the soil and removing
foreign vegetable matter. It is adjustable and has five teeth spaced
from 12 to 14 inches apart. Gift of Farmer's Museum, Hadley,
Massachusetts.

163. Ice Saw, late 19th century. USNM 230322; 1958. This steel-bladed
saw cut ice in lakes, ponds, and streams. Gift of Farmer's Museum,
Hadley, Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Figure 16.--Frick portable steam engine of 1877. (Catalog
No. 164.)]

164. Portable Steam Engine, 1877. USNM 211811; 1958. Portable steam
engines provided belting power on farms to run threshing machines,
circular saws, etc. This Frick model steam engine operated regularly
from 1877 to 1949. Gift of Frick Company, Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

165. Broadcast Seeder, 1930. USNM 230573; 1958. The operator saddles
this implement from his shoulder by means of a strap fastened to the
seed pack. By turning the crank at a normal pace, seeds are scattered
from a spinning disk. The seeder is equipped with a gauge which can be
set to sow prescribed amounts of seed per acre. Gift of Mrs. Arnold
Miles, Washington, D. C.

166. Cigar Formers, about 1885. USNM 230573; 1958. These instruments
consist of two pieces of wood dowelled together with twenty holes that
taper from 7/16 inch to 3/16 inch. The name "Miller Burial and Pliers
Co." is stamped in the wood. Gift of Mrs. Arnold Miles, Washington, D.
C.

167. Manure Forks, about 1895. USNM 230573; 1958. Two steel manure
forks. Gift of Mrs. Arnold Miles, Washington, D. C.

168. Wooden Hayfork, 19th century. USNM 230573; 1958. A typical wooden
hayfork of the 19th century. Gift of Mrs. Arnold Miles, Washington, D.
C.

169. Model of Manning Mower, 1831. USNM 230438; 1959. William Manning of
Plainfield, New Jersey, invented this mower in 1831. The cutter bar,
suggestive of Hussey's, has triangular knives which vibrate over long
fingers. Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

170. Model of Bailey Mower, 1822. USNM 230438; 1959. This mower,
invented in 1822 by Jeremiah Bailey of Pennsylvania, has a rotating disk
that serves as the cutter. The cutting disk, which can be raised to
avoid obstacles, is geared from the axle. Constructed by Office of
Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

171. Model of Gallic Reaper, first century A.D. USNM 230438; 1959. This
is a model of a reaper as described in use in Gaul in the first and
second centuries A.D. A donkey or an ox pushed the reaper through the
grain; the heads of the grain were ripped off by the blade and fell into
the box. Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

172. Model of Hussey Reaper, 1833. USNM 230438; 1959. The first Hussey
reapers were crude two-wheel mowers with a platform attached to the rear
right side of the machine. The sickle or cutter bar was made of a series
of triangular knives riveted to a flat bar that oscillated back and
forth between guard teeth. The action was initiated by means of a gear
mounted on the main axle. The raker stands on the platform to remove the
cut grain. Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

173. Model of Hussey Reaper, 1850. USNM 230438; 1959. This is a
one-eighth scale model of the Hussey reapers built between 1845 and
1850. Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

174. Model of Bell Reaper, 1828. USNM 230438; 1959. On this machine a
reel pressed the grain against the cutters and made it fall back on an
apron. The apron could be set to run in either direction to deposit the
cut grain at the side, out of the way of the machine on the next trip
around. The reaper was invented by the Reverend Patrick Bell, Carmyllie,
Scotland. The model was constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian
Institution.

175. Models of Landis Eclipse Thresher, 1907. USNM 230438; 1957.
Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

176. Model of New England Strong Plow, about 1780. USNM 230438; 1959.
Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

177. Model of Mahlon Smith Plow, about 1825-1840. USNM 230438; 1959.
Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

178. Check Row Corn Planter, about 1870. USNM 230441; 1959. This machine
planted two rows at a time and required two men to operate. One man
drove the horses and the other operated a lever for dropping the corn at
the point desired. Patents for "check" row planters were issued in 1853,
1855, and 1857. Gift of Clayton Kanter, New Knoxville, Ohio.

179. One-Row Hand "Corn Jobber," mid 19th century. USNM 230441; 1959.
Seed corn is released by means of a lever. Gift of Clayton Kanter, New
Knoxville, Ohio.

180. Wide Single-Shovel Plow, about 1840. USNM 230574; 1959. Farmers in
the western part of the United States in the 1840s used this type of
plow to cultivate corn. Gift of John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

[Illustration: Figure 17.--Double-shovel plow. (Catalog No. 181.)]

181. Double-Shovel Plow, about 1850. USNM 230574; 1959. This plow, with
shovels placed in a staggered position, was commonly used for
cross-plowing or cultivating. Gift of John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

182. Double-Shovel Plow, about 1850. USNM 230574; 1959. This
double-shovel plow has the shovels placed opposite one another. Gift of
John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

183. A-Frame Harrow, mid 19th century. USNM 230574; 1959. This
triangular harrow has wooden beams with 22 ten-inch iron spikes driven
through them. This type of harrow pulverized and leveled plowed land,
covered the seed, and cultivated between rows of corn. Triangular
harrows worked better than square types because the triangles had
greater strength on newly cleared land. Gift of John Offenbacker,
Sidney, Ohio.

184. Trolley Carrier for Hayfork, about 1875. USNM 230574; 1959. This
steel trolley carrier supported a one-horse hayfork. A pulley attached
to the trolley carrier lifted and lowered the hayfork. The first trolley
carriers for hayforks were invented by J. E. Porter of Ottawa, Illinois,
in 1869 and 1872. They were made of wood and iron. The first steel
carriers were patented by Jacob Ney, Canton, Ohio, and (in 1886) by P.
A. Myer, Ashland, Ohio. Gift of John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

185. Riding Disk Cultivator, late 19th century. USNM 230574; 1959. This
cultivator has two sections, each with three 15-inch disk wheels spaced
5-3/4 inches apart. It has handgrip levers for making cutting
adjustments. This machine worked best on ground between row crops. Gift
of John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

186. Singletree, late 19th and early 20th centuries. USNM 230574; 1959.
This singletree is made of wood. The trace chains of the team of horses
could be attached to the hooks on the singletree. Gift of John
Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

187. Doubletree, late 19th century to early 20th century. USNM 230574;
1959. A doubletree made of wood. The doubletree served as a lever on
which to mount two singletrees. This arrangement distributed equally the
pull of a load between two horses. Gift of John Offenbacker, Sidney,
Ohio.

188. Singletree, late 19th century. USNM 230574; 1959. The trace chains
of two horses are attached to this home-made, wooden singletree. The
tongue of a machine would be hooked to the center of the tree. Gift of
John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

189. Grain Fork, about 1870. USNM 230574; 1959. This three-tine iron
fork was used to move bundled grain. Gift of John Offenbacker, Sidney,
Ohio.

190. One-Row, Hand "Corn Jobber," late 19th century. USNM 230574; 1959.
Gift of John Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

191. Double-Harpoon Hay Fork, about 1870. USNM 230574; 1959. S. E.
Harris patented this double-harpoon, iron hayfork in 1867. Gift of John
Offenbacker, Sidney, Ohio.

192. Ground Hog Thresher, about 1830. USNM 230579; 1959. This early
thresher did not separate the grain from the chaff. Grain fed into the
trough passed into a compartment with a rotating iron cylinder filled
with finger-like projections which broke the grain into its component
parts. A fanning basket then separated the grain from the chaff.
Purchased from George Rhoades, Greenville, Ohio.

193. Sweep Horse Power, late 19th century. USNM 230579; 1959. This type
of horse power operated by the horse pulling a shaft in a circular
motion that set iron gears into motion. The gears connected to a pulley
for operating grain threshers, flour mills, saws, and the like.
Purchased from George Rhoades, Greenville, Ohio.

194. Marker Sled, possibly late 19th century. USNM 230579; 1959. This
wooden sled marked rows for future planting. The sled could mark three
rows approximately 34 inches apart. Purchased from George Rhoades,
Greenville, Ohio.

195. Large Hand Rake, late 19th century. USNM 230579; 1959. Made
entirely of wood. Purchased from George Rhoades, Greenville, Ohio.

196. Jointed, Wooden Harrow, mid 19th century. USNM 230579; 1959. This
two-sectioned, rectangular wooden harrow has five wooden beams per
section, each section having 18 rounded teeth. Very primitive. Purchased
from George Rhoades, Greenville, Ohio.

197. Wheeled Cultivator, early 20th century. USNM 230579; 1959. This
cultivator has individual levers for setting each set of teeth and
contains a neck yoke, singletree, and guard shields. This type of
cultivator improved on the one-horse type, which required harrowing one
side of a row at a time. A variety of teeth could be used on this
machine. Purchased from George Rhoades, Greenville, Ohio.

198. Double A-Frame Harrow, 19th century. USNM 230580; 1959. This
wooden, triangular harrow has iron teeth driven through the beams.
Purchased from Ruth Brown, Sardinia, Ohio.

199. Wheeled Cultivator, early 20th century. USNM 230580; 1959. This
riding-type cultivator has two sections with three teeth each. It
differs from most wheeled cultivators by having iron bars for setting
teeth depth, with one lever to elevate and lower the teeth. It has a
neck yoke and a singletree. Purchased from Ruth Brown, Sardinia, Ohio.

200. Flop-Over Hayrake, about 1895. USNM 230580; 1959. A flop-over rake
used as early as 1820. Purchased from Ruth Brown, Sardinia, Ohio.

201. Side Hill Plow, late 19th century. USNM 230581; 1959. One of
several types of plows used for plowing along hillsides. The moldboard
and share could rotate on a horizontal axis. At the end of each furrow
the farmer could reverse it and hook in position so that the plow cast
each furrow in the same direction. Purchased from Albert Knecht,
Lancaster, Ohio.

202. Grain Drill, about 1850. USNM 230581; 1959. This drill was made by
the Eagle Machine Company of Lancaster, Ohio. It has a double bar,
singletree, neck yoke, one grain compartment with eight grain boots, and
a packing wheel for each boot. It sowed eight rows at a time, 6 inches
apart. Drills of this type became popular in the 1850s. Purchased from
Albert Knecht, Lancaster, Ohio.

203. Wheeled Cultivator, about 1860. USNM 230581; 1959. This
walking-type cultivator, divided into two sections, has three plow teeth
per section with guard shields attached. The name J. Deere is printed on
the toolbox. Purchased from Albert Knecht, Lancaster, Ohio.

[Illustration: Figure 18.--Flop-over hayrake, mid 19th century. (Catalog
No. 204.)]

204. Flop-Over Hayrake, mid 19th century. USNM 230581; 1959. Wooden,
horse-drawn rake which the farmer could flop over to empty as he walked
behind it. Purchased from Albert Knecht, Lancaster, Ohio.

205. Wheeled Cultivator, early 20th century. USNM 230575; 1959. This
McCormick Deering, wheeled cultivator has one lever for lowering and
elevating the plow teeth and two levers for setting the depth of the
plow teeth. Gift of Mrs. Lucy F. Robinson, Chandlersville, Ohio.

206. Grubbing Hoe, about 1920. USNM 230576; 1959. This narrow grubbing
hoe resembles a pick. It broke up soil and removed obstructions such as
roots and shrubs. Gift of Mrs. Harley Climpson, Bethesda, Maryland.

207. Model of 18th-Century American Mower. USNM 230437; 1959. A copy of
a model reaper on display at the American Philosophical Society,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Purchased from Mrs. L. C. Eichner, Clifton,
New Jersey.

208. Barbed Wire, about 1890. USNM 230572; 1959. A stamped zigzag ribbon
between two twisted wires. Gift of Don Holst, Washington, D. C.

209. Barbed Wire, about 1890. USNM 230577; 1959. A stamped, ribbon-type
wire with barbs on one edge and with the ribbon twisted. Gift of John
Blake, Washington, D. C.

210. Narrow Hoe, date unknown. USNM 230578; 1959. Blade from a
socket-type hoe. The words "Bedsteel Oil Tempered" are stamped on the
blade. Gift of James W. Rutherford, Springfield, Ohio.

211. Wallis Tractor, 1919. USNM 230439; 1959. A Model K Wallis tractor
of a series made from 1919 to 1924. It succeeded the 1913 Wallis Cub and
the 1916 Wallis Cub, Jr. Gift of Massey-Ferguson, Inc., Racine,
Wisconsin.

212. Single-Shovel Plow, about 1840. USNM 240816; 1959. This type of
shovel plow cultivated corn in the western part of the country in the
1840s. This specimen resembles a row-buster for opening rows to plant
seed, etc. Gift of Andrew W. Frye, Woodstock, Virginia.

213. Fiddle-Bow Broadcast Seeder, late 19th century. USNM 240745; 1959.
The operator saddled the seeder on his shoulder by means of a strap
fastened to the seed sack. Sliding the bow back and forth caused the
seeds to be broadcast from a spinning disk. A gauge on the seeder could
be set to sow a prescribed amount of seeds per acre. Gift of Benjamin
Lambert, Woodstock, Virginia.

214. Grain Riddle, mid 19th century. 1959. Sieve for sifting grain.
Constructed by Office of Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

215. Broad Hoe, mid 19th century. 1959. Constructed by Office of
Exhibits, Smithsonian Institution.

216. Miniature Plow, late 19th century to early 20th century. 1959. This
plow, made entirely of steel, was found in Alexandria, Virginia.

217. Mattock, 19th century. USNM 230440; 1960. This is an implement for
grubbing and digging. Gift of Veikko Jarvis, Negaune, Michigan.

218. Fodder Cutter, 1872. 1960. This hand-cranked machine could cut all
kinds of fodder--hay, straw, and corn stalks--with ease and rapidity.
Called the "Improved Baldwins American," it was patented in 1867 and
1872. Gift of Thomas W. Bein, Bethesda, Maryland.

219. Oliver Chilled Plow, 20th century. 1960. Steel share, moldboard,
and coulter, with wooden beam, frame, and handles. Gift of Oliver
Corporation, South Bend, Indiana.

[Illustration: Figure 19.--Hart-Parr tractor of 1903, the third in line
of the first commercial tractors. (Catalog No. 220.)]

220. Hart-Parr Tractor, 1903. USNM 230442; 1960. The third internal
combustion tractor built by the company founded earlier by Charles
Hart and Charles Parr. The Hart-Parr tractor could pull gangs of plows
or drive large threshers. Oil circulating through the pipes in the
square stack cooled the engine. Gift of Oliver Corporation, South Bend,
Indiana.

221. Corn Grinder, about 1890. USNM 233465; 1960. This iron corn grinder
has "#17" printed on the grease caps of the axle. Gift of Walter A.
Hitchcock, Warrenton, Virginia.

222. Cider Mill and Press, late 19th or early 20th century. USNM 234465;
1960. This wooden-frame mill has iron parts, with a feeder-trough and
two tubes for draining the apple cider. It was operated by means of a
hand crank. Gift of Walter A. Hitchcock, Warrenton, Virginia.

223. Model of John Deere Plow, 1960. Received in 1961. An example of a
typical plow of the 1960s. Gift of John Deere Company, Moline, Illinois.

224. Model of John Deere Tractor, 1960. Received in 1961. An example of
a typical tractor of the period. Gift of John Deere Company, Moline,
Illinois.

225. Sample Fertilizers, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. Samples of 22 types of
fertilizers in common use at the time. Gift of Dr. John B. Blake,
Washington, D. C.

226. Sample Fertilizers, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. Samples of six types
of fertilizer in common use at the time. Gift of Dr. John B. Blake,
Washington, D. C.

227. Sample Fertilizers, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. Samples of eight types
of fertilizer in common use at the time. Gift of Dr. John B. Blake,
Washington, D. C.

228. Sample Fertilizers, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. Samples of six types
of fertilizer in common use at the time. Gift of Dr. John B. Blake,
Washington, D. C.

229. Sample Fertilizers, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. Samples of thirteen
types of fertilizers in common use at the time. Gift of Dr. John B.
Blake, Washington, D. C.

230. Cast-Iron Centrifuge, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. A centrifuge used
for running the Babcock milk test, which determined the percentage of
butterfat. Gift of Dr. John B. Blake, Washington, D. C.

231. Insecticide, 1960. USNM 238503; 1961. A sample of a Pyrox
insecticide in common use in 1960. Gift of Dr. John B. Blake,
Washington, D. C.

232. Hoe, 20th century. USNM 239136; 1961. A socket-type, three-tine hoe
used to weed vegetable gardens, tobacco, and similar row crops. Gift of
Mrs. Henry H. Byrne, Washington, D. C.

233. One-Row Planter, about 1870. USNM 237951; 1961. The gears from the
drive-wheel mesh with a set of gears that turn the seed plate. The
distance for dropping the seed could be determined by the size of the
gear used on the drive-wheel. Gift of H. C. Cole, Crestline, Ohio.

234. Portable Gasoline Engine, 1903. USNM 240546; 1961. This machine
provided belting power for operating feed mills, cream separators, wood
saws, etc. It generated 2 hp at 300-600 rpm. It was covered by two
patents dated April 7, 1903. Gift of New Holland Machine Co., New
Holland, Pennsylvania.

235. Cotton Planter, 20th century. USNM 240545; 1961. This one-row,
horse-drawn cotton planter drilled cottonseed in rows by means of a
revolving wooden drum with one-inch holes spaced around the center of
the drum. Gift of Lester Souter, Boerne, Texas.

236. Wooden Spade, about 1840. USNM 240543; 1961. This wooden spade has
a metal cutting edge. Purchased from Mrs. H. J. Cummings, Washington, D.
C.

237. Model of McCormick Reaper, 1831. USNM 236710; 1961. A full-scale
model of the 1831 McCormick reaper. Gift of Franklin Institute,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

238. Hoe, date unknown. USNM 239502; 1961. This is a socket-type hoe
with a half-moon cutting blade. Gift of Dr. Ivor Cornman, Miami,
Florida.

239. Curd Breaker, mid 19th century. USNM 239502; 1961. This tool for
cutting cheese curds has four 15-inch parallel blades. Gift of Dr. Ivor
Cornman, Miami, Florida.

240. Wooden Brace, possibly mid 19th century. USNM 239502; 1961. This
implement was used to hold open the split carcasses of hogs. Gift of Dr.
Ivor Cornman, Miami, Florida.

[Illustration: Figure 20.--A view in the Hall of Farm Machinery,
National Museum of History and Technology. The Holt combine in 1887
(Catalog No. 241) is at left. The Victor mowing machine of 1880 (Catalog
No. 137) is in right foreground.]

241. Holt Combine, 1887. USNM 236419, 1961. Benjamin Holt made this
combine around 1887. Its main feature is the use of linked, wrought-iron
chain belts for the drive rather than a system of gears as commonly
found on combines of that day. Gift of Mrs. C. Parker Holt, Stockton,
California.

242. Waterwheel and Shafting, mid 19th century. USNM 238174; 1961.
Components of a one-blade, sash sawmill. Purchased from Robert E.
Clement, Chester Springs, Pennsylvania.

243. Apple Parer, about 1760. USNM 240544; 1962. The operator sat on the
wooden seat and turned a crank which rotated the apple fastened to a
spindle. When held at the proper contact, the knife peeled the rotating
apple. Purchased from Mrs. Gladys Harbst, Butler, Ohio.

244. Miniature Plow, mid 19th century. USNM 239068; 1962. This plow was
caught in a fisherman's net in the Susquehanna River near
Havre-de-Grace, Maryland, in 1924. It probably was a display piece for
the manufacturer. Purchased from F. P. Leithiser, Milford, Delaware.

[Illustration: Figure 21.--John Deere sulky plow, about 1920. (Catalog
No. 245.)]

245. Sulky Plow, about 1920. USNM 239073; 1962. An all-steel John Deere
sulky plow. Purchased from Irwin Vette, Westboro, Missouri.

246. Tobacco Transplanter, late 19th or early 20th century. USNM 239063;
1962. The driver sat on a wooden water barrel on this horse-drawn
tobacco transplanter. The men who set the plants in the furrow used the
two seats in the rear. Gift of Pollitt Graybill, Diver, Kentucky.

247. Ice Cream Freezer, 1870. USNM 241690; 1962. Thomas Mills and
Brothers of Philadelphia made this 40-quart commercial ice cream freezer
which was patented on March 15, 1870. Gift of John G. Mills,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

248. Barbed Wire, about 1890-1900. USNM 230572; 1962. A sample of ribbon
barbed wire. Gift of Don Holst, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: Figure 22.--Moline Universal Tractor, Model D, of 1918,
in the Hall of Farm Machinery, National Museum of History and
Technology. (Catalog No. 249.)]

249. Moline Universal Tractor, 1918. USNM 242414; 1962. This Model D is
particularly unique in that it could be adapted as horse-drawn
equipment and could be operated from its seat. It is light and versatile
and equipped with front pulley drive and head lights. Gift of
Minneapolis-Moline, Inc., Hopkins, Minnesota.

250. Two-Bottom Plow, 1918. USNM 242414; 1962. This plow is
attached to the Moline Universal Model D tractor of 1918. Gift of
Minneapolis-Moline, Inc., Hopkins, Minnesota.

251. Sulky Plow, 1880. USNM 242414; 1962. A Moline two-wheeled sulky
plow. Three horses drew the plow, which has three singletrees and one
doubletree. Gift of Minneapolis-Moline, Inc., Hopkins, Minnesota.

252. Grain Binder, 1935. USNM 422427; 1962. This McCormick-Deering grain
binder cut the grain and, by means of an apron, carried it through a
bundling and tying mechanism. The bundles of grain fell into a set of
forks which the operator released. The machine is covered by Patents
1,328,781 and 1,464,736. It is similar to binders used in the 1880s.
Gift of J. D. Major, Belton, South Carolina.

[Illustration: Figure 23.--Cattle dehorner. (Catalog No. 253.)]

253. Dehorner, about 1920. USNM 242977, 1962. This implement, used to
trim cattle horns, works like a gigantic clipper. Gift of Newton E.
Wiat, Arlington, Virginia.

254. Portable Steam Engine, 1869. USNM 246139; 1962. The first portable
steam engine built by the J. I. Case Company in 1869. It burned wood and
developed 8 hp. Gift of J. I. Case Company, Racine, Wisconsin.

255. Japanese Cultivating Machine, 1960. USNM 242908; 1962. This
Japanese Model KF850 power cultivator has a detachable rotary hoe and a
diesel engine with direct drive.

256. Wooden Grain Fork, about 1870. USNM 252786; 1963. A four-tined
wooden fork for handling bundles of grain. It was used by the donor's
grandfather on his farm in Maryland. Gift of C. Gordon Dentry,
Washington, D. C.

257. Model of Lawn Mower, 1962. USNM 256817; 1963. A model of the
Suburbia 38, a riding mower powered by a 5-3/4-hp gasoline engine with
three speeds between 1/2 mph and 4-1/2 mph. Gift of Herman Becker,
Washington, D. C.

258. Broadcast Seeder, about 1892. USNM 257164; 1964. A hand-cranked
seeder. Gift of Milton J. Brandon, Silver Spring, Maryland.

259. Tobacco Axe, mid 20th century. USNM 257163; 1964. A tobacco axe
used to harvest sun-cured tobacco in the Connecticut Valley region. Gift
of Minner J. Cooper, Windsor, New York.

260. Daveat Milk Sterilizer, 1959. USNM 259871; 1964. An autoclave
combined with vacuum chambers and other devices that sterilized and
canned milk or other liquid dairy products. The process preserved the
product with a minimum loss of nutritional value and without causing
coagulation. Patent 2,899,320 granted to Elmer S. Davis, August 11,
1959.

261. Hay Bale Hooks, 19th century or later. USNM 260120; 1965. Two bale
hooks. Gift of E. Peterkin, Forest Heights, Maryland.

262. Model of Huber Steam Tractor, 1901. USNM 261334; 1965. An operable
scale model of a 1901 Huber steam tractor. Gift of Raymond Stout,
Washington, D. C.

263. Hand Cultivating Hoe, 20th century. USNM 262244; 1965. A
three-tine, curved cultivating hoe probably used in vegetable gardening.
Gift of Arnold Miles, Bethesda, Maryland.

264. Cast-Iron Implement Seat, about 1890. USNM 262243; 1965.
A cast-iron seat typical of those found on late-19th and
early-20th-century farm implements. Gift of K. E. Clark, Los Angeles,
California.

265. Grain Flail, 1840. USNM 262250; 1965. A typical flail used in
Wisconsin in 1840 for threshing grain. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

266. Turkey Collars, late 19th century. USNM 262250; 1965. Small leather
collars, with bells attached, placed on turkeys at a time when farmers
typically let their poultry run loose. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

267. Branding Iron, 20th century. USNM 262250; 1965. A #30 branding
iron, circle W, used to mark cattle. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

268. Riding Spurs, 1890 or later. USNM 262250; 1965. Gift of Dr. Frank
Horsfall, Blacksburg, Virginia.

269. Harness Hames, early 20th century. USNM 262250; 1965. Brass knobs
from the collar of a horse's harness. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

270. Reaper Hook, about 1860. USNM 262250; 1965. A hand sickle used for
harvesting grain. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall, Blacksburg, Virginia.

271. Iron Pot Hooks, late 19th century. USNM 262250; 1965. Pot hooks
made of two pieces of heavy wire hinged on the ends. The hook fastened
onto pots to remove them from open fires. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

272. Iron Spike, late 19th century. USNM 262250; 1965. An iron spike,
probably from a harrowing device such as a triangular beam harrow. Gift
of Dr. Frank Horsfall, Blacksburg, Virginia.

[Illustration: Figure 24.--Flax hackle. (Catalog No. 273.)]

273. Flax Hackle, late 19th century. USNM 263350; 1965. This hackle
consists of a piece of wood, 6 by 12 inches, with square iron nails
protruding from one side. The homemade hackle shredded flax in
preparation for making linen cloth. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

274. Barley Fork, late 19th or early 20th century. USNM 262250; 1965. A
wooden, four-tined fork used for handling barley. Gift of Dr. Frank
Horsfall, Blacksburg, Virginia.

275. Wooden Wheelbarrow, 20th century. USNM 262250; 1965. All parts of
this wheelbarrow are homemade. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall, Blacksburg,
Virginia.

276. Wooden Wheel, 19th century. USNM 262250; 1965. A wooden wheel used
on a wheelbarrow. Seven separate parts to the wheel illustrate the
general construction of wooden wheels. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

277. Grain Sack, about 1865. USNM 263077; 1965. Peter Brugler Snyder
used this grain sack about 100 years ago on his farm near Montour Falls,
New York. The initials P. B. S. appear on the sack. Gift of Howard S.
Rappleye, Washington, D. C.

[Illustration: Figure 25.--Corn sheller. (Catalog No. 278.)]

278. Corn Sheller, about 1898. USNM 264779; 1965. A corn sheller that
was operated by means of a hand crank. Gift of Dr. Stephen Lang, San
Fernando, California.

279. Barbed-Wire Display Panel, about 1940. USNM 264475; 1966. Display
panel of 78 different types of barbed wire. Gift of Dr. Frank Horsfall,
Blacksburg, Virginia.

280. Barbed Wire, about 1878. Eight pieces of "Brotherton Barb," a wire
patented by J. Brotherton of Ames, Iowa, in 1878; Patent 207,710. It
became very popular, and was second only to Glidden's "The Winner" in
sales. It had nonslipping barbs and was easy to make.

281. Barbed Wire, about 1882. "Baker Perfect," a barbed wire invented by
George Baker of Des Moines, Iowa. It was popular and widely used but
never patented.

282. Barbed Wire, about 1881. From Jefferson County, Iowa. Patented by
Edward M. Crandall of Chicago, Illinois, in 1881; Patent 247,540.

283. Barbed Wire, about 1876. Two pieces of "Twist Oval," a wire
patented by Josiah F. Glidden of De Kalb, Illinois, in 1876; Patent
181,433. The use of oval wire shows an effort to prevent slipping of the
barb.

284. Barbed Wire, about 1877. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
Henry M. Rose of Waterman, Illinois, in 1877; Patent 198,688.

285. Barbed Wire, about 1878. From Jefferson County, Iowa. Patented by
Michael Daley of Waterman, Illinois, in 1878; Patent 209,467.

286. Barbed Wire, date unknown. From Jefferson County, Iowa. A handmade
specimen made with a tool in this collection.

287. Barbed Wire, about 1875. "Dobbs and Booth," patented by John Dobbs
and Benjamin Booth of Victor, Iowa, in 1875; Patent 171,105.

288. Barbed Wire, about 1877. From south-western Arkansas. Patented by
J. F. Glidden.

289. Barbed Wire, date unknown. From Nodaway, County, Missouri. A claim
that this wire was patented by J. F. Glidden has not been verified.

290. Barbed Wire, about 1878. From Jefferson County, Iowa. Patented by
Spencer St. John of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1878; Patent 205,697.

291. Barbed Wire, date unknown. Standard cattle barbed wire patented by
J. F. Glidden and made by Republic Steel Wire Company.

292. Barbed Wire, date unknown. Standard hog barbed wire patented by J.
F. Glidden and made by Republic Steel Wire Company.

293. Barbed Wire, about 1878. From Atchison County, Missouri. Patented
by William H. Frye of Marshalltown, Iowa, in 1878; Patent 204,312.

294. Barbed Wire, about 1883. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
Joseph Goss of Beloit, Wisconsin, in 1883; Patent 282,453.

295. Barbed Wire, about 1885. Two pieces of "Brink-Martelle," a wire
patented by John J. Brinkerhoff of Auburn, New York, in 1885; Patent
324,211. The round wire lacks its barbs.

296. Barbed Wire, about 1883. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
William S. Bate of Boston, Massachusetts, in 1883; Patent 273,245.

297. Barbed Wire, about 1879. "Champion," or "Zig-Zag," patented by
Edward M. Crandall of Chicago, Illinois, in 1879; Patent 221,158.

298. Barbed Wire, about 1881. Two pieces of "Buckthorn" (modified),
patented by T. V. Allis of New York, New York, in 1881; Patent 244,726.

299. Barbed Wire, about 1878. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
Ole O. Kittleson of Milan, Illinois, in 1878; Patent 203,349.

300. Barbed Wire, about 1881. Two pieces of "Brink Flat," patented by
Jacob and Warren M. Brinkerhoff of Auburn, New York, in 1881; Patent
241,601.

301. Barbed Wire, about 1884. Four pieces of "Decker Spread," patented
by Alexander C. Decker of Bushnell, Illinois, in 1884; Patent 299,916.

302. Barbed Wire, about 1879. "Brink Twist," patented by Jacob and
Warren M. Brinkerhoff of Auburn, New York, in 1879; Patent 214,095.

303. Barbed Wire, about 1877. "Ladder Barbed Wire," patented by
Alexander Decker of Bushnell, Illinois, in 1877; Patent 186,716.

304. Barbed Wire, about 1876. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
Elijah Sims of Aurora, Illinois, in 1876; Patent 178,195.

305. Barbed Wire, about 1884. "Sunderland Kink," patented by L. E.
Sunderland of Joliet, Illinois, in 1884; Patent 303,406. This wire has
nonslipping barbs.

306. Barbed Wire, about 1892. From Caldwell County, Missouri. Patented
by J. W. Griswold of Troy, New York, in 1892; Patent 486,179.

307. Barbed Wire, about 1883. "Stubbe Plate," patented by John Stubbe of
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1883; Patent 287,337. This wire carried a
patch so animals could see it easily.

308. Barbed Wire, about 1875. "Haish 'S'," patented by Jacob Haish of De
Kalb, Illinois, in 1875; Patent 167,240.

309. Barbed Wire, about 1874. "Kennedy Barbs," patented by Charles
Kennedy of Aurora, Illinois, in 1874; Patent 153,965.

310. Barbed Wire, about 1868. "Thorny Fence," patented by Michael Kelly
of New York, New York, in 1868; Patent 74,379.

311. Barbed Wire, about 1874. "The Winner," patented by Josiah F.
Glidden of De Kalb, Illinois, in 1874; Patent 157,124. This was the most
successful and most popular barbed wire. It neither slipped nor twisted.

312. Barbed Wire, about 1939. War wire (World War II) from the
Australian shoreline.

313. Barbed Wire, about 1880. "Haish 'S'" (modified).

314. Barbed Wire, about 1939. War wire (World War II) from Bizerta,
Tunis, North Africa.

315. Barbed Wire, about 1939. War wire (German or Italian, World War II)
from Naples, Italy.

[Illustration: Figure 26.--Haish barbed wire and advertisement. (Catalog
No. 316.)]

316. Barbed Wire, about 1881. "Brink Flat," patented by Jacob and Warren
M. Brinkerhoff of Auburn, New York, in 1881; Patent 241,601. This piece
has a factory splice.

317. Barbed Wire, about 1875. "Corsicana Clip," patented by Daniel C.
Stover of Freeport, Illinois, in 1875; Patent 164,947.

318. Barbed Wire, about 1883. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
Andrew J. Upham of Syracuse, Illinois, in 1883; Patent 284,261.

319. Barbed Wire, about 1883. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
William M. Clow of Wheatland, Illinois, in 1883; Patent 285,014.

320. Barbed Wire, about 1882. From Galloway County, Missouri. Patented
by Joseph H. Connelly of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1882; Patent
254,278.

321. Barbed Wire, about 1882. "Dodge and Washburn," patented by Thomas
H. Dodge and Charles G. Washburn of Worcester, Massachusetts.

322. Barbed Wire, about 1879. "Ross's Four Point," patented by Noble S.
Ross of Chicago, Illinois, in 1879; Patent 216,294. This wire was very
common in the prairie states.

323. Barbed Wire, about 1878. Two pieces of "Billings' Simple," patented
by Frank Billings of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1878; Patent 205,234. This wire
hurt the animals but it was cheap and easy to make.

324. Barbed Wire, about 1881. "Shinn's Four Point," patented by Milton
Shinn of Burlington, Iowa, in 1881; Patent 238,447.

325. Barbed Wire, about 1879. Two pieces of "Four Point Wager" from
Andrew County, Missouri. Patented by J. F. Glidden of De Kalb, Illinois,
in 1879; Patent 214,211.

326. Barbed Wire, about 1877. "Burnell's Four Point," patented by Arthur
Burnell of Marshalltown, Iowa, in 1877; Patent 192,225.

327. Barbed Wire, about 1876. Two pieces of "Hold Fast," or "Merrill
Twirl," patented by John C. Merrill of Turkey River, Iowa, in 1876;
Patent 185,688.

328. Barbed Wire, about 1876. "Lazy Plate," patented by W. Watkins of
Joliet, Illinois, in 1876; Patent 184,486.

329. Barbed Wire, about 1879. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
John S. Crowell of Springfield, Ohio, in 1879; Patent 215,888.

330. Barbed Wire, about 1883. From Nodaway County, Missouri. Patented by
James B. Oliver of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1883; Patent 286,147.

331. Barbed Wire, about 1875. "Split Diamond," patented by Henry
Frentress of Dunleith, Illinois, in 1875; Patent 171,008.

332. Barbed Wire, about 1876. "Jayne-Hill," patented by William Jayne
and James Hill of Boone, Iowa, in 1876; Patent 176,120. The barbs clamp
very firmly in this wire.

333. Barbed Wire, about 1874. From Andrew County, Missouri. Patented by
Josiah F. Glidden of De Kalb, Illinois, in 1874; Patent 150,683.

334. Barbed Wire, about 1939. War wire used by the British army in World
War II.

335. Barbed Wire, about 1914. War wire used by the U. S. Army in World
War I.

336. Barbed Wire, date unknown. "Glidden No. 51," a wide-faced cattle
wire made by Republic Steel Wire Company.

337. Barbed Wire, date unknown. "Glidden No. 50," a closed-face hog wire
made by Republic Steel Wire Company.

338. Tool for Barbed Wire, about 1875. Device for making barbed wire on
the farm. Patented by John Dobbs and Benjamin Booth in 1875; Patent
166,511.

339. Barbed Wire, 1881. USNM 265912; 1966. "Brink Flat," patented in
1881. Gift of Mrs. Miles McPeek, Washington, D. C.

340. Stump Puller, 20th century. USNM 266811; 1966. A one-man,
hand-operated stump puller. The machine consists of several pulleys, a
length of wire cable, and a rachet mechanism to give leverage. Gift of
A. E. McMechan, Joplin, Missouri.

341. Plowshare, about 1840. USNM 268949; 1966. A wrought-iron fragment
from a plowshare said to have been used for cultivating cotton in South
Carolina. It appears to be from a "duck foot" type plow. Gift of Great
Plains Museum, Lawton, Oklahoma.

342. Saddler's Buck, late 19th century. USNM 268199; 1966. A small bench
with a wooden vise to hold leather and parts of saddles. Gift of Museum
of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.

343. Flax Breaker, mid or late 19th century. USNM 268199; 1966. A
rectangular bench measuring about 3 feet long, 3 feet high, and 3 feet
wide. The operator pulled a hinged arm of slats down on the bench, which
also has slats. The flax stems broke between the slats. Gift of Museum
of Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.

344. Prairie Sod Plow, late 19th century. USNM 268199; 1966. This heavy
plow with an 8-foot beam broke virgin prairie soil. The long fingers of
the moldboard helped break the sod further. Gift of Museum of Science
and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.

[Illustration: Figure 27.--Butter worker, 19th century. (Catalog No.
345.)]

345. Butter Worker, late 19th century. USNM 268199; 1966. This butter
worker consists of a wooden tray (3 feet by 2 feet) and a grooved wooden
roller. The roller is passed over the butter in the tray by means of a
hand crank, thus working the excess water to the top of the butter where
it could be poured off. Gift of Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago,
Illinois.

346. Grain Scoop, late 19th century. USNM 268199; 1966. This wooden
grain scoop, or possibly flour scoop, measures 12 inches by 18 inches
and has a 4-foot handle. Gift of Museum of Science and Industry,
Chicago, Illinois.

347. Barrel Churn, 1876. USNM 268199, 1966. This rocking churn consists
of a wooden barrel of 5-gallon capacity and a wooden "X" type stand. It
was in use in 1876. Gift of Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago,
Illinois.

348. Plunger Churn, late 19th century. USNM 268199; 1966. A small (1
gallon) plunger-type butter churn which consists of a wooden barrel and
a wooden paddle attached to a 3-foot handle. Gift of Museum of Science
and Industry, Chicago, Illinois.

349. Tobacco Hogshead, 1869. USNM 249254; 1966. A tobacco hogshead
reconstructed from a picture appearing in Harper's Weekly of December
11, 1869. The hogshead, constructed of rough lumber, is 6 feet long and
4 feet in diameter. A horse or mule was hitched to the hogshead. Gift of
Laross & Bros. Co., Richmond, Virginia.

[Illustration: Figure 28.--Fordson tractor (1918) before restoration
work. The winch and wheel fenders were added by the tractor's owners.
(Catalog No. 350.)]

350. Fordson Tractor, 1918. USNM 268896; 1966. The 1918 Fordson was the
first tractor marketed by the Ford Motor Co. for domestic use. Its
four-cylinder gas engine developed 20 hp. The tractor measures 42 inches
across the rear wheels and 28 inches across the front. The rear wheels,
of steel, have riveted lugs. A winch has been added in the front. Gift
of Thomas A. DeLong, New York, New York.

351. Steel Bear Trap, 1876. USNM 4882; 1966. This is a typical bear trap
of the late 19th century. It has steel jaws with a spread of 11-3/4
inches and a wrought-iron pan. It weighs 17 pounds. Gift of Oneida
Community, New York.

352. Steel Deer Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. This is a No. 4 steel deer
trap manufactured by the Oneida Community in the late 19th century. It
has steel jaws with a spread of 6-1/2 inches, a wrought-iron pan, and a
double spring. Gift of Oneida Community, New York.

353. Steel Beaver Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. A double-springed, steel
beaver trap. Gift of Oneida Community, New York.

354. Steel Otter Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. This trap has a double
spring and a jaw spread of 5-1/2 inches. Gift of Oneida Community, New
York.

355. Steel Fox Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. This steel, No. 2 fox trap
has a double spring and a jaw spread of 4-7/8 inches. Gift of Oneida
Community, New York.

356. Steel Mink Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. This trap has a single
spring and a jaw spread of 4-7/8 inches. Gift of Oneida Community, New
York.

357. Steel Muskrat Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. This muskrat trap has a
single spring and a jaw spread of 4 inches. Gift of Oneida Community,
New York.

358. Steel Rat Trap, 1876. USNM 4772; 1966. This trap has a single
spring and a jaw spread of 3-1/2 inches. Gift of Oneida Community, New
York.

359. Bottle of 2,4-D Herbicide, 1944. USNM 268668; 1966. This bottle
contains a small amount of the original purchase of 2,4-D by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture from the American Chemical and Paint Company
of Ambler, Pennsylvania, in 1944. It cost $12.50 a pound at the time.
Scientists at the Department of Agriculture used the material in
extensive experiments on plant growth inhibitors. Subsequently, 2,4-D
became the most common chemical used for weed killing. Gift of Dr. J. W.
Mitchell, University of Maryland, through Gale Peterson, University of
Maryland.

360. Winnowing Machine, mid 19th century. USNM 270009; 1966. Typical
mid-19th-century fanning mill with vibrator cleaner. Gift of Mrs. Henry
C. Slunt, Hyattsville, Maryland.

361. Winnowing Machine, mid 19th century. USNM 270009; 1966. Typical
mid-19th-century fanning mill with screen vibrator cleaner. Gift of Mrs.
Henry C. Slunt, Hyattsville, Maryland.

[Illustration: Figure 29.--John Deere Model D tractor, 1923. (Catalog
No. 362.)]

362. John Deere Model D Tractor, 1923. USNM 270865; 1967. The John Deere
Model D was the first tractor of the line bearing that name. The
Waterloo Tractor Works, Waterloo, Iowa, made the tractor in 1923. Gift
of Deere & Company, Moline, Illinois, through George F. Neiley.

363. Waterloo Boy Model N Tractor, 1918. USNM 270864; 1967. The Waterloo
Boy tractor was manufactured first as Model R, in 1914, and then as
Model N, beginning in 1918. The Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company of
Waterloo, Iowa, made the Waterloo Boy. It was the first tractor marketed
by the John Deer Company, which acquired the Waterloo Gasoline Engine
Company in 1918. The Waterloo Boy continued to be produced by John Deere
Company until 1923, when that company brought out its own Model D. Gift
of Deere & Company, Moline, Illinois, through George F. Neiley.

[Illustration: Figure 30.--Cheese press. (Catalog No. 364.)]

364. Cheese Press, late 19th century. USNM 170886; 1967. Small, wooden,
hand-operated cheese press, dating from the late 19th century but not
unlike those in use a century before. Gift of Carlton M. Gunn,
Sunderland, Massachusetts, through Allister F. MacDougall.

365. Gas-Turbine Tractor, 1965. USNM 274549; 1967. This HT-340
experimental gasoline turbine tractor operates with a hydrostatic
transmission. It is air-cooled and has no brakes, gears, or clutch. The
90-pound motor produces 85 hp. It tended to rear back because of its
excessive power and so could not be put into commercial production until
a less-powerful engine had been developed. Gift of International
Harvester Company, through John J. Dierbeck.

[Illustration: Figure 31.--Fitzhenry-Guptill power sprayer (1908), seen
here spraying for elm leaf beetles on the grounds of the U.S. Capitol,
May 1911. (Catalog No. 366.)]

366. Fitzhenry-Guptill Power Sprayer, 1908. USNM 275103; 1967. This is
the first power sprayer used by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. It
was built in 1908 and used to spray for gypsy moths in New England. It
was horse-drawn and had a 2-cylinder mounted engine to furnish power for
the sprayer. Gift of U. S. Department of Agriculture, through E. D.
Burgess.

367. Truck Seat, about 1921. USNM 276080; 1967. This truck seat,
invented and manufactured by the Bostrom Corporation, is significant
because of its suspension system, which gave greater comfort and
convenience to the driver and came to be used in many truck and tractor
lines of several manufacturers. Gift of Bostrom Corporation, Milwaukee,
Wisconsin, through Karl Bostrom.

368. Tractor Seat, about 1921. USNM 276080; 1967. A suspension seat for
tractors produced by the Bostrom Corporation in 1921. It was used first
on the Oliver tractor. All seats now used on tractors derived from this
basic design. Gift of Bostrom Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, through
Karl Bostrom.

369. Hog Snouter, late 19th century. USNM 275604; 1968. The snouter is a
scissors-like device for clamping a ring in the pig's nose. The ring
prevents the animal from rooting under or against fences. Gift of Mr.
and Mrs. George E. Morgenstern of Lake Forest, Illinois.

370. One-Way Disk Plow, about 1924. USNM 277629; 1968. Invented in the
1920s but declared unpatentable by the Patent Office, the one-way disk
plow became commonplace in the dry farming areas of the Great Plains.
The disks, set at an angle, cast less furrow than a moldboard plow. This
specimen is a reconstruction of the original. Gift of Francis Angell,
Plains, Kansas.

371. Wine Press, about 1884. USNM 279451; 1968. The donor's father
brought this wine press to the United States from Rheinfeldon,
Switzerland, in 1884. Gift of Mrs. Clara Bieber, Washington, D. C.

372. Mill Picks, late 19th century. USNM 279452; 1968. Steel picks used
to repair and sharpen grooves in millstones. Gift of C. W. Wimberly, San
Marcos, Texas.

373. Seamless Flour Sack, late 19th century. USNM 279452; 1968. A fairly
typical flour sack of the time, although sacks with seams were more
common. Gift of C. W. Wimberly, San Marcos, Texas.

374. Sorghum Cane Mill, late 19th century. USNM 280276; 1968. A steel,
horse-powered mill, about 4 feet high and 3 feet in circumference, for
crushing sorghum stalks to produce syrup; factory made. Gift of Mrs.
Emery L. Stout, Lost Creek, West Virginia.

375. Midget Incubator, about 1945. USNM 280277; 1968. Midget incubator
and literature pertaining to it. This incubator was patented by E. A.
Braun in 1945 (Patent 2,583,993). It was made for educational purposes
for schools and laboratories and for use in private homes to germinate
seeds, microscopic organisms, etc. Gift of E. A. Braun, Chatham, New
Jersey.

376. Ten-Gallon Milk Can, 1920s or later. USNM 282324; 1968. An
unexceptional milk can of about 1920, with the more common type of lid.
It was found at the farm of Malcolm Brumback, near Belle Grove
Plantation, Middleton, Virginia. Purchased.

377. Hand Corn Shuckers, late 19th century. USNM 282324; 1969. Seven
hand corn shuckers, each consisting of a spike attached to a handle
which fits over the hand. These are quite typical and of a type used for
over a century. Gift of John N. Hoffman, Washington, D. C.

378. Model Toy Tractors, 1968. USNM 282697; 1969. Ten model toy
tractors, authentic as to outward details: (1) Caterpillar D6, (2) A. C.
Crawler, (3) Minneapolis-Moline, (4) Oliver, (5) Case, (6)
Allis-Chalmers, (7) G-1000 Vista, (8) Ford, (9) I. H. Hay Baler, (10)
Ford set. Gift of Ertl Company, Dyersville, Iowa, through Fred Ertl, Jr.

379. Sidehill Plow (Knapp), late 19th century. USNM 282926; 1969.
Sidehill plow patented and manufactured by the Knapps. The plow can be
flipped over at the end of the row to cast all the furrows in one
direction when plowing on hills. One of several variations on the idea.
This is a copy of a 19th-century plow. Gift of N. E. Knapp, through
Leslie O. Merrill of San Mateo Historical Association, San Mateo,
California.

380. Crop Meter, about 1925. USNM 283306; 1969. This crop meter was
developed in 1925 by the Department of Agriculture as an aid in
estimating the acreage of cotton in Mississippi. The crop meter was
attached to the dashboard of an automobile and connected by cable to the
odometer. A circuitous route was followed through the cotton area, and
when the driver came to the edge of a cotton field he pushed a button
which started the meter measuring the frontage of the field. The total
mileage registered could be interpreted in terms of the acreage. The
meter method was later replaced by aerial observation. Gift of
Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, through
Harry C. Trelogan.

381. Cotton Boll Weigher, about 1930. USNM 283306; 1969. A cylinder,
2-1/2 feet high, for measuring the size of a cotton boll by water
displacement. When this device was used in conjunction with the crop
meter, the actual fiber yield of a year's crop could be estimated. Gift
of Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

382. Viking Garden Tractor, about 1916. USNM 287592; 1969. A garden
tractor with a gasoline engine and equipped with cultivator prongs. The
operator walked behind the tractor and guided it down the rows. Gift of
Woodson High School, Fairfax, Virginia.

383. Clam Rake, mid 20th century. USNM 284898; 1969. A small rake, with
tines about 10 inches long and a handle of about 2 feet, used by a clam
digger on Cape Cod. Gift of Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., West Barnstable,
Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Figure 32.--Scale model of Aultman-Taylor steam tractor
of 1892. (Catalog No. 384.)]

384. Model of Aultman-Taylor Steam Tractor, 1892. USNM 285053; 1969.
This scale model is fully operative and correct in every detail. It is
about 3 feet long, 1 foot high, and 6 inches wide. Gift of Mrs. Raymond
Stout, Washington, D. C.

385. Maps of U. S. National Forests, 1908. USNM 284897; 1969. Eight
maps. Regional maps of forest reserves in the U. S. and territories as
of 1908. Transferred from Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering,
National Museum of History and Technology.

386. Corn Sheller, late 19th century. USNM 285052; 1969. This
factory-made implement is all wood except for the teeth and gears. It
could handle only one ear of corn at a time and it was neither shaped
properly nor adjustable enough to get the nubbins. Gift of Daniel
Gartling, Cockeysville, Maryland.

387. Grass Mower, about 1930. USNM 285052; 1969. This mower,
manufactured by International Harvester, has a gasoline engine. The
cutters are similar to mower and reaper cutter-bars, but there is no
protective cover on the cutting mechanism. Gift of Daniel Gartling,
Cockeysville, Maryland.

388. Spring-Toothed Harrow, early 20th century. USNM 285052; 1969. This
was a commonplace implement of its type and period. The steel frame,
measuring about 4 feet by 4 feet, was designed to be linked into gangs
of harrows, of whatever size desired, and to be pulled by horses or
tractors. Made by J. I. Case Company. Gift of Daniel Gartling,
Cockeysville, Maryland.

389. McCormick-Deering Cream Separator, 1920s. USNM 285052; 1969. A
hand-powered, centrifugal cream separator commonly found on dairy and
other farms all over the country in the late 19th century and early 20th
century. The original owner kept this specimen for replacement parts but
he never needed it for that purpose. It is complete and fully
operational. Gift of Daniel Gartling, Cockeysville, Maryland.

390. Hay Baler, mid 19th century. USNM 286522; 1969. A horse-drawn
screw-press that packed the hay, which was then tied by hand. This
baler, 7 feet square and 15 feet high, is similar to machines advertised
in the 1850s that were largely superseded in the 1870s. Gift of John
Hosford, Stone Ridge, New York.

391. Grass Sickles, about 1884. Received in 1969. Two ordinary grass
sickles. Gift of T. H. Bean, Barnridge, Pennsylvania, in 1884.
Transferred from Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution.

392. Grain Clips, about 1894. Received in 1969. Gift of "D.E.T." in
1894. Transferred from Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian
Institution.

393. Wright's Patented Expansion Bit, 19th century. Received in 1969.
Woodworking tool, a drill. Gift of N. Materville of Connecticut Valley
in 1917. Transferred from Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian
Institution.

394. Heavy Knife, late 19th century. Received in 1969. A knife for
cutting hay and straw. From Beardsly Scythe Company. Transferred from
Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution.

395. Grain Drill, 1900-1910. USNM 287135; 1969. This wheeled, wooden
seed box, with metal disks to open the soil, drilled about seven rows at
a time. The drill was designed to be horse-drawn, but this specimen has
been modified to be pulled by a tractor. The brand name "Hoosier"
appears on the box. Gift of Innes Saunders, Leesburg, Virginia.

396. Mowing Machine, 1900-1910. USNM 287135; 1969. A horse-drawn,
McCormick-Deering sulky mower that later was modified to be pulled by a
tractor. This mower is representative of machines in the last years of
the horse era in American farming. Gift of Innes Saunders, Leesburg,
Virginia.

397. Corn Cultivator, 1900-1910. USNM 287135; 1969. A McCormick-Deering
four-shovel corn cultivator with two arms for working two rows at once.
Gift of Innes Saunders, Leesburg, Virginia.

398. Corn Cutter, 1900-1919. USNM 287135; 1969. A McCormick-Deering,
horse-drawn corn cutter. The rider grabbed the corn stalks in his arms
while a blade cut the stalks on the ground. This implement was used
chiefly to cut fodder for livestock. Gift of Innes Saunders, Leesburg,
Virginia.

399. Fanning Mill, 1900-1910. USNM 287135; 1969. A hand-operated, wooden
fanning mill with hurdle, screen, grader, and side spout. The separator
and winnower are combined. Gift of Innes Saunders, Leesburg, Virginia.

400. Hay Rake, 1900-1910. USNM 287135; 1969. A McCormick-Deering sulky
rake with spring steel teeth and a hand-operated dumping mechanism. Gift
of Innes Saunders, Leesburg, Virginia.

401. Book: The Growth of Industrial Art, 1892. USNM 287863; 1969. This
200-page book by Benjamin Butterworth was printed at the Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., in 1892. It contains line drawings
of many agricultural tools and implements, some of them ancient. Gift of
William Perkins, Hyattsville, Maryland.

402. Corn Huskers, early 20th century. USNM 287593; 1969. These huskers
fit over the hand like a glove without fingers. A steel hook in the palm
removed the corn husks. Similar devices date back to at least the early
19th century. Gift of Melvin Deschner, Halstend, Kansas.

403. Corn Huskers, late 19th century. USNM 287591; 1969. Similar to the
huskers in Number 402. Gift of Cecil Eberle, Newton, Kansas.

404. Milking Machine, about 1950. USNM 287862; 1969. A McCormick-Deering
milking machine with four suction cups that worked from a
gasoline-powered vacuum pump. It is a machine typical of its time and
place. Gift of Conrad Lawlor, Madrid, Iowa.

[Illustration: Figure 33.--International Harvester spindle cotton
picker, 1942. (Catalog No. 405.)]

405. Mechanical Cotton Picker, 1942. USNM 288163; 1970. International
Harvester Model H-10-H, single-row, spindle cotton picker of 1942. The
Model H-10-H, developed in 1941, was the first commercially successful
spindle picker. It is about 13 feet high and weighs about 4 tons. This
machine and its successors completely transformed the cotton farming
industry and led to the destruction of the share-cropping system. Gift
of Producers Cotton Oil Co., Fresno, California, through International
Harvester Corporation.

406. Duplicator, late 19th century and early 20th century. USNM 290936;
1970. This duplicator, a tube about 2-1/2 inches in diameter and about
12 inches long, was used to copy farm records. The user wrote on paper
with an indelible pencil. The original paper and copy papers were placed
between two water-soaked linen leaves and all was rolled up on a wooden
spool. Then the spool was inserted in the tube and left for a few
minutes until the penciled ink stained through the wet papers and thus
made copies. This specimen was used on a farm in Virginia. Gift of Mrs.
Arthur Z. Gardiner, McLean, Virginia.

407. Orchard Ladder, 20th century. USNM 290936; 1970. This ladder, about
9 feet high and with 10 steps, narrows toward the top. Adjustable legs
allowed it to be moved forward or backward for the desired positions in
fruit picking. Gift of Mrs. Arthur Z. Gardiner, McLean, Virginia.

408. Tobacco, 1969. USNM 291350; 1970. Leaves of tobacco, a plug of
tobacco for chewing, and a leaf roll of tobacco. Gift of Mrs. Wanda
White, Thurmond, North Carolina.

409. John Deere Garden Tractor, 1963. USNM 275276; 1970. The first
garden tractor-riding lawn mower made by John Deere Company in 1963.
Called the 110, it is a typical suburban tractor with a 7-horsepower
engine and forward and reverse gears. Gift of John Deere Company,
Moline, Illinois, through George Neiley.

410. Montamower Lawn Mower, 1923. USNM 293356; 1970. This lawn mower,
made by Montamower Co., Traverse City, Michigan, has 16 rotary blades
that are about 2 inches in diameter. The blades are set in a frame and
are geared to the same number of wheels on the ground. The machine was
patented on August 21, 1923. Gift of Andrew Corle, Chevy Chase,
Maryland.

411. "Cyclone" Seeder, early 20th century. USNM 292872; 1971. A
crank-operated broadcast seeder that the farmer carried as he walked
across the field. Gift of Mrs. Alice Wiser, College Park, Maryland.

412. Straw Beehive, 20th century. USNM 296260; 1971. This skep (a
beehive made of woven straw) was made in the 1950s but is of a sort that
has been used since ancient times. Gift of A. G. Woodson Company, Grand
Rapids, Michigan.

413. Apple Cider Press, about 1875. Received in 1971. This "Buckeye"
press, made mostly of wood, was manufactured by the P. P. Mast Company
of Springfield, Ohio. Many presses of this design were used throughout
the country. Gift of Mrs. S. D. Mottley, Marshall, Virginia.

[Illustration: Figure 34.--Roberts-Mackensen bee insemination
instrument, 1944. (Catalog No. 414.)]

414. Roberts-Mackensen Bee Insemination Instrument, 1944. USNM 295414;
1971. This stainless steel device holds the queen bee while the
technician performs the operation. Controlled breeding of bees has
resulted in hardy and gentle breeds and greater production of honey.
Gift of Dadant & Sons, Hamilton, Illinois, through Charles Dadant.


Index to the Catalog

(All numbers refer to catalog entries, not to pages)

A. G. Woodson Co., 412

A & P Co., donor, 72

Abbot, Charles G., donor, 27

Agriculture, Department of, donor, 45, 46, 48-53, 55, 99, 366, 380,
381, 385

Allis, T. W., 298

Allis-Chalmers crawler tractor, 378

American Chemical and Paint Co., 359

American Philosophical Society, 88, 207

Angell, Francis, donor, 370

Animals, see Livestock

Animal husbandry, 253, 369, 390

Anthropology, Department of Smithsonian Institution, donor, 391, 392,
394

Anvil, Korean, 6

Apples, implements used in connection with, 222, 243, 413

Apiary, 99, 412

Artificial insemination of bees, 414

Arthur, B. F., donor, 44

Aultman-Taylor steam tractor, 406

Auth Provision Co., donor, 56, 57

Avery Bulldog tractor, 142

Axe, meat, 59;
  tobacco, 259


Babcock butterfat tester, 68, 230

Bailey, Jeremiah, 170

Bailey mower, 170

Baker, George, 281

Baker Perfect barbed wire, 281

Baking, 93

Baldwin's Improved American Fodder Cutter, 218

Baler, 261, 390

Bananas, 71

Barbed wire, 44, 208, 209, 248, 279-339

Barley, forks for, 132, 274

Barrel, churn, 92, 347;
  tobacco, 349

Bar share, 111

Basket, winnowing, 18, 141

Bate, William S., 296

Bean, T. H., donor, 391

Beans, equipment for, 74

Bear, trap for, 351

Beardsly Scythe Co., donor, 394

Beaver, trap for, 353

Becker, Herman, donor, 257

Bees, 99, 412, 414

Bein, Thomas W., donor, 218

Bell, Patrick, 174

Bell reaper, 174

Bell(s), cow, 108; turkey, 266

Bench, for lard press, 115;
  saddler's, 342

Bieber, Mrs. Clara, donor, 371

Billings, Frank, 323

Billings' Simple barbed wire, 323

Binder, grain, 252

Binder's rake, 120

Bit, expansion, 393

Blacksmith, Korean, 6, 7

Blake, John B., donor, 209, 225-231

Blount, Henry F., donor, 9

Blount's plow, 9

Boll, cotton, 381

Book, farm copy, 103

Booth, Benjamin, 287, 338

Borden, Gail, 26

Borden Company, donor, 26

Bostrom, Karl, 367, 368

Bostrom Corporation, donor, 367, 368

Bowl, 117

Boyce, James, 16

Brace, butcher's, 240

Braid, horsewhip, 109

Branding iron, 267

Brandon, Milton J., donor, 258

Braun, E. A., donor, 375

Breaker, cheese curd, 90, 161, 239;
  flax, 343

Bridle bits, 107

Brierton, Joseph, 42

Brink-Martelle barbed wire, 295

Brinkerhoff, Jacob, 300, 302, 316

Brinkerhoff, John J., 295

Brinkerhoff, Warren M., 300, 302, 316

Brink Flat barbed wire, 300, 316, 339

Brink Twist barbed wire, 302

British barbed wire, 334

Broadcast seeder, 165, 213, 258, 411

Brotherton, J., 280-287

Brown, Edwin, donor, 47

Brown, Frank A., donor, 11

Brown, James W., donor, 118-121

Brown, Ruth, 198-200

Brumback, Malcolm, 377

Brush cutter, 298

Buckeye cider press, 413

Buckthorn barbed wire, 298

Buggy rake, 69

Bulldog tractor, Avery, 142

Burgess, E. D., 366

Burnell, Arthur, 326

Burnell's Four Point barbed wire, 326

Butcher, table for, 116;
  tools of, 56-67, 240

Butter, implements used in preparing, 68, 82, 92, 95, 140, 230, 345, 347,
  348

Butterfat tester, 68, 230

Butterworth, Benjamin, 401

Byrne, Mrs. Henry H., donor, 232


Cane mill, sugar, 100;
  sorghum syrup, 374

Canning, pan for, 26

Cape Cod clam rake, 383

Carey plow, 23, 46, 127

Carrier for hayfork, 184

Caterpillar tractor, 378

Catholic University of America, donor, 106-110

Cattle, dehorner for, 253;
  branding iron for, 267

Centrifugal cream separator, 8, 19, 411

Champion barbed wire, 297

Cheese making, implements for, 90, 161, 239, 364

Childs, H. M., 140

China, plow from, 45

Churns, 82, 92, 140, 347, 348

Cider mill and press, 222, 413

Cigars, 166

Clam rake, 383

Clark, K. E., donor, 264

Cleavers, 57, 58

Clement, Robert E., 242

Climpson, Mrs. Harley, donor, 206

Clow, William M., 319

Coffee, 72

Cole, H. C, donor, 233

Collars for turkeys, 266

Colter plow, 47

Combine, horse-drawn, 241

Condensed milk, 26

Connelly, Joseph H., 320

Cookie roller, 93

Cooley creamer, 33

Cooper, Minner J., donor, 259

Corle, Andrew, donor, 410

Corn, tools and machines for, 75, 80, 178-182, 190, 194, 212, 218, 221,
  278, 377, 386, 397, 398, 402, 403

Corman, Ivor, donor, 238-240

Corsicana Clip barbed wire, 317

Cotton, implements used in connection with, 37, 235, 341, 380, 381, 405

Cow, bell for, 108;
  milker for, 39, 40

Cradle, grain harvesting, 32, 69, 91, 104, 119, 130, 143

Crandall, Edward M., 282, 297

Crank, tractor, 125

Cream, implements used for, 8, 19, 33, 68, 230, 391;
  see also Butter

Crop meter, 380

Crowell, John S., 329

Cultivator(s), 46, 49, 150, 158, 162, 180-183, 185, 195-199, 203, 205, 212,
  255, 341, 342, 382, 388, 397

Cummings, Mrs. H. G., 236

Curd breaker, 90, 161, 239

Cutter(s), 218, 387, 398

Cyclone seeder, 411


Dadant, Charles, 414

Dadant & Sons, donor, 414

Dairying, 8, 19, 26, 33, 39, 40, 68, 82, 90, 92, 95, 108, 126, 140, 161,
  230, 239, 247, 260, 345, 347, 348, 364, 376, 389, 404

Daley, Michael, 284

Daveat milk sterilizer, 260

Daveat Milk Processes Co., donor, 260

Davies, Elmer S., 260

Davis, Gideon, 52

Davis, Roderick, 27-29

Day, F. B., donor, 69

Decker, Alexander C., 301, 303

Decker Spread barbed wire, 301

Deer, traps for, 352

Deere, John, 42

Deere plows and tractors, 42, 223, 224, 362

Deere and Company, donor, 42, 362, 363, 409

Deerfoot Farm Co., donor, 8

Deering, see McCormick-Deering

Dehorner, 253

De Laval cream separator, 19

De Laval Separator Co., donor, 19

De Long, Thomas A., donor, 350

Dentry, Gordon, donor, 256

Department of Agriculture, see Agriculture, Department of

Deschner, Melvin, donor, 402

Dierbeck, John J., Jr., 365

Diesel cultivator, 255

Disk(s), for plows and cultivators, 77, 185, 370

Dobbs, John, 287, 338

Dodge, Thomas H., 321

Dodge and Washburn barbed wire, 321

Dry farming, plow for, 370

Drill, grain, 202

Duplicator for farm records, 406

Duval, Caleb Paul, 91

Duval, Virginia, donor, 91-96


Eagle plow, 54

Eagle Machine Co., 202

Eberle, Cecil, donor, 403

Eichner, L. C., 207

Engines, gasoline portable, 234;
  starter, 124;
  steam portable, 164, 254;
  tractor, 262

Ertl Company, donor, 378


Fairchild, E. C., 148

Fairhead, R. C., donor, 22

Fanning mill, winnowing, 74, 97, 134, 149, 360, 361, 399

Farmer's Museum, Hadley, Massachusetts, donor, 150-163

Fencing, barbed wire, 44, 208, 209, 248, 279-339

Ferguson, Harry, 76

Ferguson tractor, 76;
  disk plow, 77

Fertilizer, 148, 225-229

Fiber, 273, 343

Fitzhenry-Guptill power sprayer, 366

Flails, 12, 160, 265

Flax, 273, 343

Flickinger, J. and P., 118

Flop-over hay rakes, 136, 200, 204

Flour mill, 102

Flour sacks, 378

Food processing, implements used in, 22, 26, 56, 73, 90, 92-94, 100, 102,
  112-117, 163, 221, 222, 230, 239, 242, 243, 247, 260, 271, 278, 345,
  347, 348, 364, 371-374, 376, 389

Fodder, implements used in connection with, 34, 121, 123, 136-138, 146,
  147, 152, 157, 168, 184, 191, 200, 204, 218, 261, 398

Forbes, Wells, 103

Ford tractor, 378

Fordson tractor, 350; crank for, 125

Forestry, 366, 385

Forge, Korean, 6

Fork(s), 34, 121, 123, 132, 146, 147, 152, 155, 167, 168, 184, 189, 191,
  256, 274

Foster, John, 49

Four Point barbed wire, 322, 324-326

Fox trap, 355

Franklin Institute, donor, 237

Frentress, Henry, 331

Freezer, ice cream, 247

Frick Co., donor, 164

Frick steam engine, 164

Frye, Andrew W., donor, 212

Frye, William, 293


Gallic grain header, 13, 171

Garden tractor(s), 382, 409

Gardiner, Mrs. Arthur Z., donor, 406, 407

Gartling, Daniel, donor, 386-389

Garver, Cyrus, 31

Garver, Daniel, 31

Garver, Melchora, donor, 31

Gasoline engines, 234, 366, 387, 404

Gas-turbine tractor, 365

Gideon Davis plow, 52

Glass butter churn, 82

Glidden, Josiah F., 283, 288, 289, 291, 292, 311, 325, 333, 336, 337

Glidden barbed wire, 336, 337

Goss, Joseph, 294

Goodrich, C. O., donor, 124, 125

Gould, Mary E., 90

Goward, G., donor, 1-7

Grafting knife, 154

Grain, implements used in connection with, 12, 14-16, 31, 32, 36, 69, 74,
  91, 98, 102, 104, 105, 118-120, 122, 130-132, 135, 141, 143, 144, 148,
  149, 153, 160, 165, 171-174, 189, 192, 193, 202, 213, 214, 221, 233, 237,
  241, 252, 256, 265, 270, 274, 277, 278, 346, 392, 395, 401-403, 411;
  see also, Combines; Harvesting; Reapers, etc.

Grass mowers, 387, 409, 410

Grass sickles, 391

Graybill, Pollitt, donor, 246

Great Atlantic & Pacific Co., see A & P Co.

Grinder(s), for corn, 221;
  for meat, 22, 94, 113

Grist mill, 102

Griswold, J. W., 306

Ground Hog thresher, 192

Grubbing, hoe for, 206;
  mattock for, 217

Gunn, Carlton M., donor, 364

Guptill, see Fitzhenry-Guptill

Gypsy moths, sprayer for, 366


Hackle, flax, 273

Haish, Jacob, 308, 313

Haish "S" barbed wire, 308, 313

Hames, horse, 269

Hammond, Warren, donor, 75

Han Chin U, 1-7

Hand tools, see Tools, hand

Harbst, Gladys, 243

Hardy, Peter, 10

Harness, 145, 209

Harpoon hayfork, 121, 123, 191

Harris, E., 191

Harris, S., 191

Harrows, 21, 162, 183, 196, 272, 388

Hart, Charles, 220

Hart-Parr tractor, 220

Harvester, see Combines; Harvesting; Reapers

Harvesting, implements used in, 11-16, 18, 25, 27-29, 31, 32, 69, 71, 74,
  80, 91, 97, 98, 104, 105, 118, 120, 122, 130-132, 134, 135, 141, 143,
  144, 149, 153, 160, 164, 171-175, 189, 192, 214, 237, 241, 252, 254, 256,
  259, 265, 270, 274, 277, 377, 386

Hathaway, Laurence, donor, 90

Hay, implements used in connection with, 34, 78, 121, 123, 136-138, 146,
  147, 152, 157, 168-170, 184, 191, 200, 204, 218, 261, 390, 394, 396,
  400;
  see also, Fodder

Hayfork, 34, 146, 147, 152, 168

Headers, Gallic, 13, 171

Hepp, Frank, donor, 25

Herbicide, 359

Heiss, E. W., donor, 34-36

Heiss, John, 34

Heiss, William, 35, 36

Hill, James, 332

Hitchcock, Walter A., donor, 221, 222

Hoe(s), 24, 128, 150, 158, 206, 210, 215, 232, 238, 263

Hoffman, John N., donor, 377

Hogs, 240, 361

Hogshead, tobacco, 349

Hold Fast barbed wire, 327

Holst, Don, donor, 208, 248

Holt, Benjamin, 241

Holt, Mrs. C. Parker, donor, 241

Holt combine, 241

Honey; see Bees

Hook(s), for cutting, 133, 270;
  for pots, 271;
  hay bale, 261;
  meat, 63, 64

Hoover, William H., 56-67

Hoosier brand of grain drill, 395

Horses, implements used in connection with, 106, 107, 109, 139, 145, 147,
  186-188, 193, 269, 366, 374, 390;
  shoeing of, 7

Horsfall, Frank, donor, 265-276, 279-339

Hosford, John, donor, 390

HT-340 tractor, 365

Huber steam tractor, 262

Huskers, corn, 402, 403

Hussey, Obed, 105, 172, 173

Hussey reaper, 172, 173


Ice saw, 163

Ice cream freezer, 247

Incubator, midget, 375

Insecticide, 231;
  sprayer for, 366

Insemination, bee, 414

Interior, Department of the, donor, 12-17

International Harvester Co., 127 (donor), 365, 378, 387, 405


J. I. Case, Co., 335, 378, 388

Jayne, William, 332

Jayne-Hill barbed wire, 332

Jefferson, Thomas, 54, 88, 89

Jobber, corn, 190

John Deere Co., 203, donor, 223, 224, 245


Kanter, Clayton, donor, 178, 179

Kelly, Michael, 310

Kennedy, Charles, 309

Kennedy Barbs barbed wire, 308

Kinsman, Pelatiah, 48

Kittleson, Ole O., 299

Kloch, Henry, 30

Knapp, N. E., donor, 379

Knapp sidehill plow, 379

Knecht, Albert, 201-204

Knives, 60, 61, 133, 151, 154, 157, 394


Ladder, orchard, 407

Ladder Wire barbed wire, 303

Lambert, Benjamin, donor, 213

Lamprey, J. P., donor, 10

Landis Eclipse thresher, 175

Lard press, 115

Laross and Brothers Co., donor, 349

Lawlor, Conrad, donor, 404

Lawn mower, 257, 409, 410

Lazy Plate barbed wire, 328

Leather, implements used in connection with, 96, 342

Leithiser, F. P., 244

Lesher, Christian, 111

Lesher, Daniel, donor, 111, 122

Livestock, implements and materials used in connection with, 35-41,
106-109, 145, 156, 159, 208, 209, 248, 253, 267, 268, 280-337, 369, 390

Log roller, 129


MacDougall, Allister F., 364

McCormick, Cyrus H., 98, 237

McCormick, Stephen, 38

McCormick-Deering, 205, 252, 289, 396-398, 400, 404

McCormick-Goodhart, Leander, donor, 38

McCormick Historical Association, donor, 28, 29, 98

McCormick reapers, 25, 27-29, 98, 131, 237

McMechan, A. E., donor, 340

McPeek, Mrs. Miles, donor, 339

Machinery, for corn picking, 80;
  for corn shelling, 278;
  for curd breaking, 161;
  for fanning mills, 74, 134, 149;
  for food slicing, 73;
  for milking, 39, 40, 126;
  for power sources, 164, 193, 234, 254;
  for reaping and mowing, 78, 131, 137, 169, 172-174, 237;
  for threshing, 12, 118;
  tractor, 124, 142, 220, 249, 262

Mahlon Smith plow, 177

Major, J. D., donor, 252

Malone, S., 75

Manning, William, 15, 169

Manning mower, 169

Manure, implements used in connection with, 79, 152, 155, 167

Maple sugar, implements used in connection with, 83-87

Marker sled, 194

Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, donor, 143-149

Massey-Ferguson, Inc., donor, 211

Matterville, N., donor, 393

Mattock, grubbing, 217

Meal, grist mill for, 102

Measures, feed, 35, 36

Meat, implements used in connection with, 22, 56-67, 94, 112-116, 240

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Division, Smithsonian Institution, donor,
  385

Mehring, Bessie D., donor, 39, 40

Mehring, William M., 39, 40, 126

Mehring cow milker, 39, 40, 126

Merrill, John C, 327

Merrill, Leslie O., 379

Merrill Twirl barbed wire, 327

Meter, for crop estimating, 380

Miles, Mrs. Arnold, donor, 165-168, 263

Milk, implements used in connection with, 26, 260, 376;
  see also Dairying; Milking machine

Milking machine, 39, 40, 126, 404

Miller Burial and Pliers Co., 166

Mills, John G., donor, 247

Mill(s), cider, 222;
  grist, 102;
  picks for, 372;
  sorghum, 374;
  sugar, 100

Mink, trap for, 356

Minneapolis-Moline, Inc., 249-251, 378

Mitchell, John W., donor, 259

Mittinger, A., Jr., 56-67

Moldboard, 51, 88, 89, 201

Moline Co., donor, 249-251;
  see also Minneapolis-Moline, Inc.

Montgomery, James, 97

Montgomery, Joseph, 97

Montgomery, Ruth, donor, 97

Motley, Mrs. S. D., donor, 413

Mower(s), grass, 387, 396;
  machine, 137;
  models of, 78, 169, 170, 257;
  seat for, 264

Murphy, George, donor, 73

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, donor, 342-348

Muskrat trap, 357

Muzzle, ox, 156


Neck yoke, 188

Needle; see harpoon fork

Neiley, George F., 362, 363, 409

Nelson, James, 37

Newbold, Charles, 17, 52

Newbold plow, 52

New Holland Machine Co., donor, 234

New Idea brand of implements, 78-80

New York Historical Association, donor, 128-141

Nickerson, William, 119

Noirot, Everett, 142

Nourse, J., 54


Offenbacker, John, donor, 180-191

Old Colony strong plow, 10, 48, 49

Oliver, James, 70, 219

Oliver, James B., 330

Oliver, S. H., donor, 82

Oliver chilled plow, 219

Oliver Corporation 219 (donor), 220, 378

Olmstead, Frank E., donor, 83-87

Oneida Community, donor, 351-358

Orchard ladder, 407

Osmundson, A. G., donor, 81

Osmundson Forge Co., 81

Otter trap, 354

Oxen, implements used in connection with, 41, 100, 156, 159


P. P. Mast Co., 413

Palm, Bessie W., donor, 103

Parr, Charles, 220

Peeler, apple, 243

Perkins, William, donor, 401

Peterkin, E. W., donor, 261

Peterson, Frank D., 260

Peterson, Gale E., 359

Picker, corn, 80;
  cotton, 405

Pigs, see Hogs, Livestock

Pins, meat, 67

Pitchfork, 146, 152, 155, 167, 168

Plantation, banana, 71;
  coffee, 72

Planters, 75, 148, 178, 179, 190, 194, 233, 235, 246;
  see also Seeders

Plow(s), 1, 9, 10, 17, 21, 23, 30, 38, 42, 43, 45-55, 70, 77, 88, 89, 111,
  127, 176, 177, 180-182, 201, 212, 216, 219, 223, 244-246, 250, 251, 341,
  344, 370, 379

Plowshare, 47, 341

Plunger churn, 348

Pork, see Hogs; Meat

Porter, J. E., 184

Pot hooks, 271

Poultry, implements used in connection with, 266, 375

Power, sources of, 139-142, 186-188, 193, 211, 220, 224, 234, 242, 249,
  262, 350, 362, 363, 365, 366, 384

Press, cheese, 364;
  cider, 222, 413;
  lard 115;
  wine, 371

Processing, fiber, 273, 343;
  food, 22, 26, 72, 73, 82, 90, 92, 94, 102, 112-117, 221, 222, 242, 243,
  247, 271, 278, 345, 347, 348;
  tobacco 166

Producers Cotton Oil Co., donor, 405

Pulley, 121, 340

Pyrox (insecticide), 231


Rakes, clam, 405;
  hand, 120, 195;
  horse-drawn, 69, 136, 138, 200, 204

Rappleye, Howard S., donor, 277

Rat trap, 358

Reapers, 13-16, 25, 27-29, 32, 91, 98, 104, 105, 119, 130, 131, 135, 143,
  144, 153, 171-174, 207, 237, 241, 252

Republic Steel Wire Co., 336, 337

Rhoades, George, 192-197

Rice threshing, 2

Riddle, grain separator, 214

Roberts-Mackensen bee inseminator, 414

Robinson, Cora E., donor, 123

Robinson, Lucy, donor, 205

Rogers, Noah, 11

Roller(s), for butter worker, 345;
  for cookies, 93;
  for soil, 21, 129

Rose, Henry M., 284

Ross, Noble S., 322

Ross's Four Point barbed wire 322

Rutherford, James W., donor, 210


Sabrosky, Jennie, donor, 104

Sacks, flour, 373;
  grain, 122, 277

Saddler's buck, 342

St. John, Spencer, 290

Salt processing, 101

Samson, Clarissa W., donor, 18

Sap spouts, 83-87

Saunders, Innes, donor, 395-400

Sausage stuffer, 112, 114

Saw, butcher's, 56;
  ice, 163

Scoop, grain, 346

Scoville, Edward, 41

Scoville, Reign, donor, 41

Scraper, butcher's, 62

Scythe, 135, 144

Seat(s), sulky, 264;
  tractor, 368;
  truck, 367

Seeders, 37, 75, 148, 165, 178, 179, 190, 202, 213, 233, 235, 258, 395

Seeds, germinating incubator for, 397

Self-rake reaper, 131

Separators, cream, 8, 19, 33, 389;
  grain, 31, 74, 97, 175, 214, 360, 361, 399

Shakers (religious community), 26

Share for plow, 47, 341

Sheller, 278, 386

Shinn, Milton, 324

Shinn's Four Point barbed wire, 324

Shoe last, 96

Shovel(s), grain, 346;
  plow, 180-182, 212

Shredder, flax, 273

Shuckers, 377

Sickle, 153, 270, 391

Sickle bar, 25

Sidehill plow, 379

Singletree, 185

Sims, Elijah, 304

Sinclair, Sir John, 88

Skep, 412

Sketches, Korean, 1-7

Sled marker, 194

Slicer, food, 73

Slunt, Mrs. Henry C., donor, 360, 361

Smith, Mahlon, 177

Smith, Robert, 51

Smith plow, 51

Snouter, hog, 369

Snyder, Peter Brugler, 277

Sod plows, 51, 344

Sorghum cane mill, 374

Souter, Lester, donor, 235

Spade(s), 81, 151, 236

Spike(s), 87, 272

Spindle cotton picker, 405

Split Diamond barbed wire, 331

Spouts, maple sap, 83-86

Sprayer, power, 366

Spreader, butcher's, 65, 66;
  manure, 79

Spring-tooth harrow, 388

Spring-tooth rake, 138, 400

Spurs, 106, 268

Stabler, Sydney S., donor, 32, 33, 68

Starks, Niels O., 43

Starter, tractor, 124

Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, donor,
  380, 381

Steam engines, 164, 254, 341, 384

Sterilizer, milk, 260

Stout, Mrs. Emery L., donor, 374

Stover, Daniel C., 317

Strucksberg, S. O., donor, 43

Stubbe, John, 307

Stubbe Plate barbed wire, 307

Stump puller, 340

Sugar, cane, 100;
  maple, 83-87

Sulky, implements for, 43, 199, 245, 251, 264, 396, 400

Sunderland, L. E., 305

Sunderland Kink barbed wire, 305

Swiggett, Grace M., donor, 24

Swine, see Hogs; Meat

Swingplow, 30


Tavenner plow, 50

Table, butcher's, 116

Taylor, see Aultman-Taylor

Tee-Pak, Inc., donor, 112-117

Ten Eyck, James, 14

Thomas Mills and Brothers, 247

Thompson, Daniel, donor, 100-102

Thorny Fence barbed wire, 310

Threshers, see Threshing

Threshing, implements used in connection with, 2, 12, 31, 118, 139, 160,
  175, 192, 241, 265

Thumb, Mathew, 30

Thurmond, Wanda W., donor, 408

Tile knife, 151

Tile spade, 81

Tobacco, 4, 110, 166, 246, 259, 349, 408

Tools, hand, 24, 56-67, 81, 128, 132, 150, 151, 154, 155, 158, 189, 195,
  206, 210, 217, 236, 238, 263, 270, 274, 338, 346, 377, 391, 394, 402, 403

Topping Models, Inc., donor, 76-80

Toy Manufacturers Association, donor, 20, 21

Toy tractors, 20, 21, 223, 224, 378

Tractor(s), 20, 21, 76-79, 124, 125, 142, 211, 220, 223, 224, 249, 250,
  262, 350, 362, 363, 365, 378, 382, 384, 409;
  seats for, 368;
  with cotton picker, 405

Transplanter, tobacco, 246

Trap(s), animal, 351-358;
  fish, 3

Treadmill, 139, 140

Trelogan, Harry C., 380

Trolley carrier, hay, 184

Trucks, seat for, 367

Turbine tractor, 365

Turkey, collars for, 266

Twist barbed wire, see Brink Twist

Twist Oval barbed wire, 283

2,4-D, sample of, 359


United Fruit Company, donor, 71

Upham, Andrew J., 318


Vacuum pan, 26

Vaughn, Ruben F., donor, 37

Veikko, Jarvis, donor, 217

Vermont Farm Machine Co., 68

Vette, Irwin, 245

Victor mower, 137

Viking garden tractor, 382

Vise, bench, 342;
  harness, 145

Vista tractor, 378

Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr., donor, 383


Waldron cradle, 32

Wallis tractor, 211

War wire, barbed, 312, 314, 315, 334, 335

Washburn, Charles G., 321

Water lift, wheel for, 101, 242

Waterloo Boy tractor, 363

Waterwheel, 101, 242

Watkins, W., 328

Waybright, Earl J., donor, 126

Welcome, Sir Henry S., donor, 30

Weston, D. M., 8

Wheat, implements used in connection with, 69, 91, 118, 131, 135, 141, 143,
  144, 153, 160, 202, 213, 241, 252, 265, 360, 361, 395

Wheelbarrow, 275, 276

Whip, 109

Wiat, Newton E., donor, 253

Wilson, Arden, donor, 74

Wimberly, C. W., donor, 372, 373

Winch, tractor, 350

Windmill, 101

Wine press, 371

Winner barbed wire, 311

Winnowing, baskets for, 11, 18, 141;
  mills for, 31, 74, 97, 134, 149, 360, 361, 399

Wire, barbed, see Barbed wire

Wiser, Alice, donor, 411

Wood, Jethro, 38

Woodcock plow, 53

Woodson, A. G., 412

Woodson High School, Fairfax, Virginia, donor, 382

Wright expansion bit, 393


Yoke, ox, 41, 159


Zig-Zag barbed wire, 297


Publications on Farming by the Staff of the Division of Agriculture and
Mining, 1965-1971

Christian, Pauline B.

     1968. Annotated List of Photographs in the Division of Agriculture
     and Forest Products. Smithsonian Institution, Information Leaflet
     519. 126 pages.

Peterson, Gale E.

     1967. "The Discovery and Development of 2,4-." Agricultural
     History, 41 (July 1967): 243-253.

     1967. "Living Historical Farms: A Feasibility Study." Smithsonian
     Journal of History, 2 (Summer 1967): 72-76.

Schlebecker, John T.

     1965. "The Great Holding Action: The NFO in September, 1962."
     Agricultural History, 39 (October 1965): 204-213. [Reprinted in
     Readings in Collective Behavior, edited by Robert B. Evans.
     Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.]

     1966. "Research in Agricultural History at the Smithsonian
     Institution." Agricultural History, 40 (July 1966): 207-210.

     1966. "The Combine Made in Stockton." The Pacific Historian, 10
     (Autumn 1966): 14-21. Illustrated.

     1967. A History of American Dairying. Chicago: Rand McNally. 48
     pages, illustrated.

     1967. A Bibliography of Books and Pamphlets on the History of
     American Agriculture, 1607-1967. Santa Barbara: Clio Press. 182
     pages.

     1967. "Agriculture in Western Nebraska, 1906-1966." Nebraska
     History, 48 (Autumn 1967): 249-266.

     1967. "Henry Ford's Tractor." Smithsonian Journal of History, 2
     (Summer 1967): 63-64. Illustrated.

     1967. The Past in Action: Living Historical Farms. Washington:
     Smithsonian Institution 67 pages.

     1968. Living Historical Farms: A Walk into the Past. Washington:
     Smithsonian Institution Press. 31 pages, illustrated. [Reprinted in
     Early American Life, 2 (January-February 1971): 8-13, 54-59.]

     1969. [Editor.] "Colonial American Agriculture," 1701-1800.
     Agricultural History, 43(1): 1-212.

     1970. "Living Historic Farms Tell It Like It Was." In Contours of
     Change, Yearbook of Agriculture, 1970 (pages 229-236, illustrated).
     Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

     1971. "Farmers in the Lower Shenandoah Valley, 1850." Virginia
     Magazine of History and Biography, 79 (October, 1971): 462-476.

     1972. "Curatorial Agriculture." Agricultural History, 46 (January,
     1972): 95-103.

Schlebecker, John T. and Gale E. Peterson

     1972. "Living Historical Farms Handbook." Smithsonian Studies in
     History and Technology, 16: 1-91.

Sharrer, George Terry

     1970. George Washington Carver. Washington: Smithsonian Institution
     Press. 12 pages, illustrated.

     1971. "Indigo in Carolina, 1671-1796." The South Carolina
     Historical Magazine, 72 (April, 1971):94-103.

     1971. "The Indigo Bonanza in South Carolina, 1740-90." Technology
     and Culture, 12 (July 1971): 447-455.

Summons, Terry G.

     1968. "Animal Feed Additives, 1940-1966." Agricultural History, 42
     (October 1968): 305-313.

Wessel, Thomas R.

     1967. "Prologue to the Shelterbelt, 1870-1934." Journal of the
     West, 6 (January 1967): 119-134. Illustrated.

     1967. The Honey Bee. Smithsonian Institution, Information Leaflet
     482. 16 pages, illustrated. [Revised 1968.]

     1969. "Roosevelt and the Great Plains Shelterbelt." Great Plains
     Journal, 8 (Spring 1969): 57-74.

     1970. "Agriculture and Iroquois Hegemony in New York, 1610-1779."
     Maryland Historian, 1 (Fall 1970): 93-104.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1972 O--455-244



+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| Transcriber's Note                                           |
|                                                              |
| Amendments to the text:                                      |
|                                                              |
| p. 6 - #2. "USNM 10948" has been                             |
| changed to "USNM 19048"                                      |
|                                                              |
| p. 7 - #11. "eliptical in shape, with a frame of thick rods" |
| has been changed to "elliptical in shape, with a frame of    |
| thick rods"                                                  |
|                                                              |
| p. 7 - #12. "5 by 6 inches, restangular" has been changed to |
| "5 by 6 inches, rectangular"                                 |
|                                                              |
| p. 8 - #18. "the first settlers of Wobrun, Massachusetts"    |
| has been changed to "the first settlers of Woburn,           |
| Massachusetts"                                               |
|                                                              |
| p. 12 - #42. "and the Deer Company" has been changed to "and |
| the Deere Company"                                           |
|                                                              |
| p. 14 - #68. "the amount of buterfat in milk" has been       |
| changed to "the amount of butterfat in milk"                 |
|                                                              |
| p. 15 - #71. "diarama" has been changed to "diorama"         |
|                                                              |
| p. 15 - #72. "diarama" has been changed to "diorama"         |
|                                                              |
| p. 16 - #81. "used for digding trenches" has been changed to |
| "used for digging trenches "                                 |
|                                                              |
| p. 18 - #96. "such an implements" has been changed to "such  |
| implements"                                                  |
|                                                              |
| p. 18 - #97. "Model of Fanning Miill" has been changed to    |
| "Model of Fanning Mill"                                      |
|                                                              |
| p. 21 - #117. "Eliptical wooden chopping bowl," has been     |
| changed to "Elliptical wooden chopping bowl,"                |
|                                                              |
| p. 22 - #129. "It was useful, obivously" has been changed to |
| "It was useful, obviously"                                   |
|                                                              |
| p. 23 - #136. Figure 13. "(Catalog No. 136)." has been       |
| changed to "(Catalog No. 136.)"                              |
|                                                              |
| p. 34 - #246. "Gift of Pollitt Grayhill" has been changed to |
| "Gift of Pollitt Graybill"                                   |
|                                                              |
| p. 41 - #345. Figure 27. "Catalog No. 345.)" has been        |
| changed to "(Catalog No. 345.)"                              |
|                                                              |
| p. 43 - #357. "This muckrat trap" has been changed to "This  |
| muskrat trap"                                                |
|                                                              |
| p. 45 - #375. "miscroscopic organisms" has been changed to   |
| "microscopic organisms"                                      |
|                                                              |
| p. 47 - #391. "291. Grass Sickles" has been changed to "391. |
| Grass Sickles"                                               |
|                                                              |
| p. 47 - #393. No change to "Gift of N. Materville of         |
| Connecticut Valley". Inconsistent with the spelling          |
| "Matterville" listed in the index.                           |
|                                                              |
| p. 51 - "Allis, T. W. 298" has been changed to "Allis, T.    |
| W., 298"                                                     |
|                                                              |
| p. 52 - "Deer traps for" has been changed to "Deer, traps    |
| for"                                                         |
|                                                              |
| p. 54 - "McCormick-Deering, 205 252," has been changed to    |
| "McCormick-Deering, 205, 252,"                               |
|                                                              |
| p. 55 - "Pyrox (insetcicide)" has been changed to "Pyrox     |
| (insecticide)"                                               |
|                                                              |
| p. 56 - "Sunderland Kink barbed wire 305" has been changed   |
| to "Sunderland Kink barbed wire, 305"                        |
|                                                              |
| p. 56 - "Swiggett, Grace M., donor 24" has been changed to   |
| "Swiggett, Grace M., donor, 24"                              |
|                                                              |
| p. 56 - Tractor(s) "262, 450, 362" has been changed to "262, |
| 350, 362"                                                    |
|                                                              |
| p. 57 - "Colonial American Agriculture, has been changed to  |
| "Colonial American Agriculture," with closing quotes         |
|                                                              |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+





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