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Title: History of Education
Author: Seeley, Levi, 1847-1928
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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 HISTORY

 OF

 EDUCATION

 BY

 LEVI SEELEY, PH. D.

 PROFESSOR OF PEDAGOGY IN THE NEW JERSEY
 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL


 _REVISED EDITION_


 NEW YORK : CINCINNATI : CHICAGO

 AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

 COPYRIGHT, 1899, 1904, BY

 LEVI SEELEY.

 Entered at Stationers' Hall.

 HIST. OF EDUCATION



PREFACE


The importance of a knowledge of the history of education was never so
fully recognized as at the present time. Normal schools and teachers'
colleges give this subject a prominent place in their professional
courses, superintendents require candidates for certificates to pass
examination in it, and familiarity with it is an essential part of the
equipment of every well-informed teacher. The history of education
portrays the theories and methods of the past, warns of error and
indicates established truth, shows difficulties surmounted, and
encourages the teacher of to-day by examples of heroism and consecration
on the part of educators whose labors for their fellow-men we discuss.
To the teacher this study is a constant help in the schoolroom, the
trials of which are met with the added strength and inspiration from
contact with great teachers of the past.

No text-book can be said to contain the last word upon any subject.
Least of all can such a claim be made for a history of education, which
aims to trace the intellectual development of the human race and to
indicate the means and processes of that evolution. Any individuals or
factors materially contributing thereto deserve a place in educational
history. As to which of these factors is the most important, that is a
question of choice, upon which, doubtless, many will differ with the
author. Some educators, whose claims to consideration are unquestioned,
have been reluctantly omitted on account of the limitations of this
work.

On the other hand, many teachers lack time for exhaustive study of such
a subject. This book is designed to furnish all the material that can be
reasonably demanded for any state, county, or city teacher's
certificate. It also provides sufficient subject-matter for classes in
normal schools and colleges and for reading circles. The material
offered can be mastered in a half-year's class work, but, by using the
references, a full year can be well employed. For those who desire to
make a more extended study of particular topics, the author gives such
authorities as years of careful research have shown to be most valuable.
Every investigator knows the labor involved in finding suitable
material. To spare the reader something of that labor, the literature is
given at the beginning of each chapter. By following the collateral
readings thus suggested, this book will be found suitable for the most
advanced classes.

The plan of references embraces three features: (1) literature at the
beginning of each chapter; (2) foot references to special citations; and
(3) a general bibliography in the Appendix. In the first two, titles are
sometimes abbreviated because of their frequent repetition. In case of
doubt the reader should refer to the general bibliography, in which all
the authorities cited are arranged alphabetically, with full titles.

To get the greatest value from this study, classes should be required to
keep a notebook which should follow some uniform plan. I suggest the
following as such outline: (1) historical and geographical; (2) home
life; (3) physical, religious, and æsthetic education; (4) elementary
and higher education; (5) summary of lessons taught; (6) educators:
(_a_) life, (_b_) writings, (_c_) pedagogical teachings. Of course each
teacher will modify this outline to suit his own ideals. Such notebook
will be found to be of value not only in review, but also in fixing the
subject-matter in the mind of the student.

It is generally conceded that the plan of an historical work should be
based upon the evolution of civilization. In common with other recent
writers on educational history, the author accepts the general plan of
Karl Schmidt in his "Geschichte der Pädagogik," the most comprehensive
work on this subject that has yet appeared. But the specific plan, which
involves the most important and vital characteristics of this book, is
the author's own. The details of this specific plan embrace a study of
the _history_ and _environment_, of the _internal_, _social_, _political_,
and _religious_ conditions of the people, without which there can
be no accurate conception of their education.

Our civilization had its inception in that of ancient Egypt, and thence
its logical development must be traced. If desirable the teacher can
omit the chapters on China, India, Persia, and Israel. It will be found,
however, that the lessons taught by these countries, though negative in
character, are intensely interesting to students, and most instructive
and impressive. These countries are also admirably illustrative of the
plan employed in the book, and thereby prepare the way for later work.
That plan is more fully set forth in the Introduction, a careful study
of which is recommended to both teacher and student.

The author wishes to acknowledge his appreciation of the valuable
assistance in the preparation of this volume rendered by Dr. Elias F.
Carr of the New Jersey Normal School, and Professor W. J. Morrison of
the Brooklyn Training School for Teachers.

 LEVI SEELEY.


REVISED EDITION

I have taken advantage of the necessary reprinting of the book to make
certain changes and additions, and to correct a few errors which were
found to exist. An attempt has been made to note the recent changes that
have taken place, especially in the French and English school systems.

 L. S.


SECOND REVISION

The continued and hearty reception which teachers are giving this book
has led me to desire to make still further improvements in it.
Accordingly, I have added brief sketches of the Sophists, Plutarch,
Marcus Aurelius, Rollin, and Jacotot. The space available is all too
limited to warrant such treatment as the subjects deserve. All that can
be expected is that the reader may become interested and seek further
information from special sources. An appendix is added in which the
National Educational Association, the National Bureau of Education, the
Quincy Movement, the Herbartian Movement, Child Study, Parents'
Meetings, Manual Training, and Material Improvements in Schools are each
given a brief consideration.

 L. S.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

 CHAPTER I                                                           PAGE

 INTRODUCTION                                                          15

 1. Purpose of the history of education. 2. Plan of study. 3.
 The study of great educators. 4. Modern systems of education.
 5. General outline.


 CHAPTER II

 CHINA                                                                 20


 1. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The elementary
 school. 4. Higher education. 5. Degrees. 6. Examinations.
 7. Criticism of Chinese education. 8. Confucius.


 CHAPTER III

 INDIA                                                                 29

 1. Geography and history. 2. The caste system. 3. The home.
 4. The elementary school. 5. Higher education. 6. Criticism of
 Hindu education. 7. Buddha.


 CHAPTER IV

 PERSIA                                                                36

 1. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The State education.
 4. Criticism of Persian education. 5. Zoroaster.


 CHAPTER V

 THE JEWS                                                              40

 1. Geography and history. 2. The home. 3. The Jewish school.
 4. Esteem for the teachers. 5. The Schools of the Rabbis. 6. Criticism
 of Jewish education. 7. The Talmud.


 CHAPTER VI

 EGYPT                                                                 46

 1. Geography and history. 2. The caste system. 3. The home.
 4. Education. 5. Criticism of Egyptian education. 6. General
 summary of oriental education.


 CHAPTER VII

 GREECE                                                                53

 1. Geography and history. 2. Manners and customs. 3. The
 Olympian games.


 CHAPTER VIII

 ATHENS                                                                56

 1. Historical. 2. The difference in spirit between Athens and
 Sparta. 3. The home. 4. Education. 5. The Sophists. 6. Criticism
 of Athenian education.


 CHAPTER IX

 ATHENIAN EDUCATORS                                                    61

 1. Socrates,--life, method, death. 2. Plato,--life, his "Republic,"
 scheme and aim of education. 3. Aristotle,--life, pedagogy,
 estimate of him.


 CHAPTER X

 SPARTA                                                                68

 1. Historical. 2. The home. 3. Education. 4. Criticism of
 Spartan education. 5. Lycurgus. 6. Pythagoras.


 CHAPTER XI

 ROME                                                                  74

 1. The Age of Augustus. 2. Geography and history. 3. The
 home. 4. Education,--elementary, secondary, higher. 5. Criticism
 of Roman education.


 CHAPTER XII

 ROMAN EDUCATORS                                                       81

 1. Cicero,--life, philosophy, pedagogy. 2. Seneca,--the teacher
 of Nero, great orator, writer, etc., pedagogical writings. 3.
 Quintilian,--his school, his "Institutes of Oratory," pedagogical
 principles. 4. Plutarch and Marcus Aurelius.


 CHAPTER XIII

 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION--INTRODUCTION                                     89

 1. General view. 2. New principles introduced by Christianity.
 3. Importance of the individual. 4. Obstacles which the early
 Christians had to meet. 5. Slow growth of Christian education.


 CHAPTER XIV

 THE GREAT TEACHER                                                     96

 1. Life and character. 2. Impression which Christ made. 3. His
 work as a teacher. 4. An example of pedagogical practice.


 CHAPTER XV

 GENERAL VIEW OF THE FIRST PERIOD OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION              101

 1. The period covered. 2. The connection of the Church with
 education. 3. The monasteries. 4. Influence of the crusades.
 5. Of the Teutonic peoples.


 CHAPTER XVI

 THE FIRST CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS                                          104

 1. The catechumen schools. 2. Chrysostom. 3. Basil the
 Great. 4. The catechetical schools. 5. Clement of Alexandria.
 6. Origen.


 CHAPTER XVII

 CONFLICT BETWEEN PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION                       111

 1. General discussion. 2. Tertullian. 3. Saint Augustine.
 4. Augustine's pedagogy.


 CHAPTER XVIII

 MONASTIC EDUCATION                                                    116

 1. Monasteries. 2. The Benedictines. 3. The seven liberal arts.
 4. Summary of benefits conferred by the monasteries.


 CHAPTER XIX

 SCHOLASTICISM                                                        121

 1. Its character. 2. Its influence. 3. Summary of its benefits.


 CHAPTER XX

 CHARLEMAGNE                                                          125

 1. History, character, and purpose. 2. Personal education.
 3. General educational plans. 4. Summary of Charlemagne's
 work.


 CHAPTER XXI

 ALFRED THE GREAT                                                     130

 1. History and character. 2. Educational work.


 CHAPTER XXII

 FEUDAL EDUCATION                                                     132

 1. Character of the knights. 2. Three periods into which their
 education was divided. 3. Education of women. 4. Criticism of
 feudal education.


 CHAPTER XXIII

 THE CRUSADES AS AN EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENT                              136

 1. Causes of the crusades. 2. The most important crusades.
 3. Summary of their educational value.


 CHAPTER XXIV

 THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES                                         139

 1. What led to their establishment. 2. The most important
 early universities. 3. Their privileges. 4. Their influence.


 CHAPTER XXV

 MOHAMMEDAN EDUCATION                                                 143

 1. History of Mohammedanism. 2. The five Moslem precepts.
 3. Education. 4. What the Mohammedans accomplished for
 science. 5. General summary of education during the Middle
 Ages.


 CHAPTER XXVI

 THE RENAISSANCE                                                      148

 1. The great revival. 2. Principles proclaimed. 3. The movement
 in Italy. 4. In Germany. 5. Summary of the benefits of the
 Renaissance to education.


 CHAPTER XXVII

 HUMANISTIC EDUCATORS                                                 155

 1. Revival of the classics their purpose. 2. Dante. 3. Petrarch.
 4. Boccaccio. 5. Agricola. 6. Reuchlin. 7. Erasmus. 8. Pedagogy
 of Erasmus.


 CHAPTER XXVIII

 THE REFORMATION AS AN EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCE                          164

 1. Conditions at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 2. The
 invention of printing. 3. The rulers of the leading countries.
 4. Intellectual conditions. 5. Luther. 6. Luther's pedagogy.
 7. Melanchthon.


 CHAPTER XXIX

 OTHER PROTESTANT EDUCATORS                                           174

 1. Sturm. 2. The _Gymnasium_ at Strasburg. 3. The celebrated
 course of study. 4. Trotzendorf. 5. Neander.


 CHAPTER XXX

 THE JESUITS AND THEIR EDUCATION                                      182

 1. The order. 2. Loyola. 3. Growth of the society. 4. Jesuit
 education. 5. Use of emulation. 6. Estimate of their educational
 work. 7. Summary. 8. The Port Royalists.


 CHAPTER XXXI

 OTHER EDUCATORS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY                             190

 1. Roger Ascham. 2. Double translating. 3. Rabelais. 4. First
 appearance of realism in instruction. 5. Montaigne. 6. Summary
 of progress during the sixteenth century.


 CHAPTER XXXII

 EDUCATION DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY                             200

 1. Political and historical conditions. 2. The educational situation.
 3. Compulsory education. 4. The Innovators.


 CHAPTER XXXIII

 EDUCATORS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY                                 205

 1. Bacon. 2. The inductive method. 3. Ratke. 4. His pedagogy.
 5. Comenius. 6. The "Orbis Pictus." 7. Summary of his
 work. 8. Milton. 9. Locke. 10. Fénelon. 11. His pedagogy.
 12. La Salle and the brothers of the Christian schools. 13. Rollin.
 14. Summary of the educational progress of the seventeenth century.


 CHAPTER XXXIV

 FRANCKE AND THE PIETISTS                                             231

 1. Pietism. 2. Francke. 3. The Institutions at Halle. 4. The
 training of teachers. 5. _The Real-school._


 CHAPTER XXXV

 GENERAL VIEW OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES              237

 1. The abolition of slavery. 2. The extension of political rights.
 3. Science as an instrument of civilization. 4. Religious freedom.


 CHAPTER XXXVI

 MODERN EDUCATORS--ROUSSEAU                                           241

 1. Life. 2. Pedagogy. 3. The "Émile."


 CHAPTER XXXVII

 MODERN EDUCATORS--BASEDOW                                            250

 1. Life. 2. The Philanthropin. 3. Writings. 4. Jacotot.


 CHAPTER XXXVIII

 MODERN EDUCATORS--PESTALOZZI                                         257

 1. Childhood. 2. Schooling. 3. Life purpose. 4. The Christian
 ministry. 5. The law. 6. Farming. 7. Marriage. 8. At
 Neuhof. 9. Authorship. 10. At Stanz. 11. At Burgdorf. 12. At
 Yverdon. 13. Summary of Pestalozzi's work.


 CHAPTER XXXIX

 MODERN EDUCATORS--FROEBEL                                            272

 1. Life. 2. As teacher. 3. His first school. 4. The kindergarten.
 5. The "Education of Man."


 CHAPTER XL

 MODERN EDUCATORS--HERBART                                            278

 1. Life. 2. Experience as a tutor. 3. As a university professor.
 4. His practice school in the university. 5. Writings. 6. His
 pedagogical work. 7. Work of modern Herbartians.


 CHAPTER XLI

 MODERN EDUCATORS--HORACE MANN                                        284

 1. Life. 2. Work as a statesman. 3. As an educator. 4. His
 Seventh Annual Report. 5. Love for the common schools.


 CHAPTER XLII

 THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF GERMANY                                         289

 1. Administration. 2. School attendance. 3. The schools.
 4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers.


 CHAPTER XLIII

 THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF FRANCE                                          296

 1. Administration. 2. School attendance. 3. The schools.
 4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers.


 CHAPTER XLIV

 THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF ENGLAND                                         304

 1. Administration. 2. School attendance. 3. The schools.
 4. Support of schools. 5. The teachers.


 CHAPTER XLV

 THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES                               309

 1. No national system. 2. State systems--Administration.
 3. School attendance. 4. The schools. 5. Support of schools.
 6. The teachers.


 APPENDIX

 RECENT EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS                                         315

 1. The National Educational Association. 2. The National Bureau of
 Education. 3. The Quincy Movement. 4. The Herbartian Movement.
 5. Child Study. 6. Parents' Meetings. 7. Manual and Industrial Training.
 8. Material Improvements.



HISTORY OF EDUCATION



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


The history of education begins with the childhood of the race, and
traces its intellectual development step by step to the present time. As
such history is academic in character, and furnishes information
concerning the educational systems, methods, theories, and practices of
the past, it should be placed early in the professional pedagogical
course, to serve as the foundation for an improved educational science
which profits by the experience of mankind. The history of education
presents many of the great problems that have interested thoughtful men,
shows how some of these have been solved, and points the way to the
solution of others. It studies educational systems, selecting the good,
and rejecting the bad, and introducing the student directly to the
pedagogical questions that have influenced the world. For these reasons,
the study of education should begin with its history.

Karl Schmidt says: "The history of the world is the history of the
development of the human soul. The manner of this development is the
same in the race as in the individual; the same law, because the same
divine thought, rules in the individual, in a people, and in humanity.
Humanity has, as the individual, its stages of progress, and it unfolds
itself in them. The individual as a child is not a rational being; he
becomes rational. The child has not yet the mastery over himself, but
his environment is his master; he belongs not to himself, but to his
surroundings. _The oriental peoples are the child of humanity....
Classical antiquity represents the period of youth in the history of the
world.... Christ is the type of perfected manhood._ The history of the
individual reflects and repeats the history of humanity, just as the
history of humanity is a reflection of the history of the Cosmos, and
the history of the Cosmos is an image of the life of God; all history,
be it that of humanity or of the individual, of the starry heavens, or
of the earth, is development of life toward God." "Where there is
development, there is progress. Progress in history is only the more
visible, audible, perceptible embodiment of God in humanity."[1]

In the study of the education of a people it is necessary first to
become acquainted with their social, political, and religious life. To
this end a knowledge of the geography and history of their country is
often essential, because of the influence of climate, occupation, and
environment, in shaping the character of a people. Examples of this
influence are not wanting. The peculiar position of the Persians,
surrounded on all sides by enemies, required a martial education as a
preparation for defensive and offensive measures. Physical education was
dominant among the Spartans, because of serfdom which involved the
absolute control of the many by the few. No less striking are the
effects of physical conditions upon all peoples in stimulating mental
activity and in developing moral life, both of which processes are
essential to true education. The intellectual product of the temperate
zone differs from that of the torrid zone, the product of the country
from that of the large city. For these reasons stress is here laid upon
the geographical and historical conditions of the peoples considered.

For the same purpose we must study the home and the family, the
foundations upon which the educational structure is built. The ancient
Jew looked upon children as the gift of God, thereby teaching the great
lesson of the divine mission of children and of the parents'
responsibility for their welfare. This race has never neglected the home
education, even when it became necessary to establish the school. The
family was the nursery of education, and only when diversified duties
made it no longer possible to train the children properly in the home
was the school established. Even then the purpose of the school was but
to give expression to demands which the home created. The spirit and
purpose of the education of a people can be understood only when the
discipline, the ideals, and the religion of the home are understood.

When we have learned the environment of a people, we are ready to study
their elementary education. This takes us into the schoolroom,
introduces us to the place where the school is held, indicates the
course of study pursued, the discipline, methods of instruction, spirit
and training of the teacher, as well as the results obtained. After this
we are ready to consider the higher education, which completes the
system and measures its efficiency.

Another task demanded of the student is to draw lessons from the
educational systems studied, to note what can be applied to modern
conditions, and to avoid the errors of the past. The product of a
method, as shown in the character of the people pursuing it, is of great
interest in estimating the value of a scheme of education.

Great movements have often been the outcome of the teachings of some
individual who, inspired by a new idea, has consecrated his life to it.
Through such men the world receives new and mighty impulses toward its
enlightenment, civilization takes vast strides in its development, and
man approaches nearer his final emancipation. Confucius, Socrates,
Augustine, Charlemagne, Luther, Bacon, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel,
are names that suggest the uplifting of humanity and the betterment of
the world. The study of the lives of these men, of their victories and
their defeats, cannot fail to be an encouragement and a suggestive
lesson to teachers of all lands and all times. The history of education
must therefore consider the biographies of such men as well as their
theories and their teachings.

Finally, modern systems of education are the outgrowth of the
experiences of the past. They represent the results attained and
indicate present educational conditions. Nothing can better summarize
the total development reached, or better suggest lines of future
progress than a comparative discussion of the leading school systems of
the world. The last chapters of this book, therefore, are devoted to a
study of the school systems of Germany, France, England, and America.
These are typical, each being suggestive of certain phases of education,
while one of them has largely influenced the education of several other
countries. Each furnishes lessons valuable to the student of history.
Although many practices in other countries may not be applicable to our
conditions, the broad-minded, genuine patriot will not refuse to accept
sound principles and good methods from whatever source derived.

It must not be forgotten that there is a vital distinction between
_Education_ and _Schooling_. Education takes into account all those
forces which enter into the civilization and elevation of man, whether
it be the home, the school, the state, the church, the influences of
environment, or all these combined. It is a continuous process which
begins at birth and ceases only at the end of life. By schooling we mean
the educative process which is carried on during a limited period of the
child's life under the guidance of teachers.

The school is a product of civilization. It became necessary because of
the division of labor caused by the multiplication of the interests of
mankind which made it impossible for the home to continue wholly to care
for the training of its children. The history of education must not
merely treat of the development of the school, but it must consider
education in its broader meaning; that is, as a history of civilization.
For this reason some of the great educators of the world who have not
been school teachers, must receive consideration.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] "Geschichte der Pädagogik," Vol. I, pp. 1, 2.



CHAPTER II

CHINA

=Literature.=--_Martin_, The Chinese; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions;
_Houghton_, Women of the Orient; _Doolittle_, Social Life of the
Chinese; _Johonnot_, Geographical Reader; _Lord_, Beacon Lights of
History; _Ballou_, Due West and Footprints of Travel; _Ploetz_, Epitome
of Universal History; _Barnes_, Studies in Education; _Stoddard's_
Lectures; _Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu_, The Awakening of the East; _McClure's
Magazine_, December, 1900, A Character Study of the Chinaman.


The civilization of the "Celestial Empire" is, with the possible
exception of that of Egypt, the oldest in the world. And yet, it has
contributed but little to the advancement of mankind. Their system of
education has failed to stimulate national and individual progress, has
fostered narrow egotism, and has excluded external suggestion. It is
studied rather for its negative lessons, and therefore suggests
practices which the student of education will do well to avoid. The
result in China furnishes the best argument against a method of
instruction that appeals solely to the memory. This alone is sufficient
reason for a study of Chinese education, aside from its strange and
unique characteristics which never fail to interest the reader.

=Geography and History.=--The Chinese Empire occupies a position on the
eastern side of the Asiatic continent within about the same parallels of
latitude as the United States, extending from twenty degrees latitude on
the south to fifty-three degrees on the north. Its area is about four
and a quarter million square miles, being somewhat larger than that of
the United States. Its population is estimated at about six times that
of our country. It has an abundance of rivers, intersected by numerous
canals, which greatly facilitate internal commerce. Many parts of the
country are densely populated. The people are largely engaged in
agriculture. Tea and silk are the chief articles of export, while rice
and millet form the principal food.

The Chinese belong to the Mongolian or yellow race. They are an
industrious, frugal, and temperate people, though the opium habit is
very general and is disastrous in its effects. Doubtless the overcrowded
population, which has driven many to live in boats and in crowded
apartments, has had much to do in molding the Chinese character. Until
recently they have been slow to admit modern improvements and are
conservative in the maintenance of their customs, religion, education,
and social practices. Consequently they have for many centuries made but
little progress. Their authentic history covers, according to extant
records, a period of nearly four thousand years. The government is an
absolute monarchy; the emperor is regarded as the father of all his
people and has complete power over the lives of his subjects.

The Chinese language contains no alphabet; each symbol represents a
different word; the substantives are indeclinable, and the verbs are
without inflection. It thus becomes necessary in mastering the language
to learn by rote a vast number of signs and characters,--a prodigious
feat for the memory.

The religion most widespread among the Chinese is Buddhism (which was
imported from India), though ancestor worship is still universal. Women
are the principal worshipers, yet the Chinese believe that women have
no souls. The belief in transmigration of souls is implicit, and this is
used to keep woman in a most degraded condition. If a woman is obedient
to her husband and his relatives, and is the mother of sons, she may
hope to return to this world, in the future, as a man, and thus have a
chance ultimately to reach Buddha's heaven. The belief in the
transmigration of souls explains the vegetarian diet of the Buddhist. No
zealous Buddhist will touch meat or even eggs, neither will he kill the
smallest insect, lest he should thus inadvertently murder a relative.[2]
The men care but little for any religion beyond a veneration for their
ancestors.

Polygamy is very generally practiced, the limit to the number of wives
being determined by the ability to support them. Women usually become
more religious as they advance in years, and they spend much time in
worshiping in the temples. It is they who preserve the national religion
and make most difficult the work of missionaries.[3]

=The Home.=--The wife exists only for the comfort of her husband. It is
her duty to serve and obey him. If she abuses her husband, she receives
one hundred stripes; but abuse from him is not a punishable offense.
Instruction, at home as well as at school, is confined to boys. The
birth of a boy is indicated by hanging a bow and arrow over the door;
that of a girl, by a spindle and yarn. In naming the number of his
children, the father counts only the boys. Boys are clothed in the
finest material the family can afford; girls, in rags. Parents may
destroy their children, but only girls are ever sacrificed. The mother
can seldom read and write, her chief duty being to instill into her
children the two cardinal Chinese virtues--_politeness_ and _obedience_.
The relation of parents and children is the highest and purest
representation of the relation between the Creator and the creature, and
to venerate the parents is the first and holiest of all duties, higher
than the love of wife to husband, higher than the reverence for the
emperor; therefore the emperor's father cannot be his subject.

To the Chinaman all other duties are included in filial duties. The
bringing up of the children is left almost entirely to the mother. The
training begins very early, and greatest stress from the first is laid
upon obedience. Disobedience is a crime punishable by the father with
death.

There are no illustrated children's books, no nursery rhymes to inspire
the imagination, none of the bright and useful things so necessary to a
happy childhood. The child grows up with but few playthings calculated
to stimulate the powers of the mind.

=The Elementary School.=--At about six or seven years of age the child
enters school. Sometimes a few parents unite to employ a teacher for
their children. The government has no concern for the qualifications of
the teacher; no license to teach is required, there is no governmental
inspection or control, nor does the State assume any part of the expense
of the school. Attendance is not compulsory, and yet male education is
so universal that scarcely a boy can be found who does not enjoy
opportunities for education. Charity schools are furnished by the
wealthy for those who cannot afford to contribute toward the maintenance
of a school.

There are no public schoolhouses. The school is sometimes held in the
temple, sometimes in the home of the schoolmaster, and sometimes in the
home of a wealthy patron. The furniture of the schoolroom consists of an
altar consecrated to Confucius and the god of knowledge, a desk and a
chair for the teacher, and the pupils' desks and stools, provided by the
children themselves. No effort is made to render the room attractive.

The child is admitted the first time with much ceremony in order that
the day may be one of pleasant memories. He also receives a new name,
the name of his babyhood being dropped. Indeed, a change of name
accompanies each new epoch of his life, as the time he takes a new
degree, the day of his marriage, etc. Thus the boy enters upon his new
work. The first years of study are devoted to reading, writing, and the
elements of arithmetic, which studies complete the education of the
majority of the pupils. No effort is made to interest the child; he is
simply required to memorize and write as many as possible of the fifty
thousand characters. Not until after the names of the characters have
been learned by rote is there any effort to teach the meaning of the
words which they represent. The child's writing, too, is mechanical, for
the expression of thought is but a secondary consideration. Thought
awakening is not encouraged in the Chinese course of education. Fear,
not interest, is the motive which drives the child to study. Memory is
the chief faculty to be cultivated, and each child vies with the others
to make the most noise in study.

The teacher is greatly revered, only less so than the father. His
discipline is rigid, the rod not being spared. There are no new methods
to learn; the practice to-day is the same as that of hundreds of years
ago; it consists simply in hearing what the children have learned by
heart.

The second stage of study consists of translations from text-books and
lessons in composition. This work brings some pleasure to the child, as
it is a little less mechanical. The third stage consists of
belles-lettres and essay writing. Only a few ever reach this stage, and
the purpose of this advanced work is not intellectual development, or
even the accumulation of knowledge, but to prepare for a position under
the government, which can be reached by no other means. Even in these
last two stages of study memory is the principal faculty brought into
play. Without great exercise of this power the vast amount of material
can never be mastered.

=Higher Education.=--There are no high schools, but men who have taken
degrees gather about them young students, who are to devote themselves
to study, and give them instruction in the Chinese classics and prepare
them for the State examinations for degrees. Great attention is paid to
style, and in order to cultivate a good style, students are required to
commit to memory many of the productions of their classical authors.
They write a great many essays and verses, which are criticised by their
teachers. The attention is confined solely to the Chinese classics. The
educated Chinaman is usually ignorant of any field of knowledge not
embraced in his own literature.

There is in the royal library at Pekin a catalogue consisting of one
hundred and twelve octavo volumes of three hundred pages each,
containing the titles of twelve thousand works, with short extracts of
their contents. These works treat of science, medicine, astronomy, and
philosophy, while history has an especially rich literature. The Chinese
knew how to observe the heavens four thousand years ago, and yet were
unable to construct a calendar without the help of the Europeans. They
invented gunpowder, the mariner's compass, porcelain, bells, playing
cards, and the art of printing long before they were used in Europe, yet
they lacked the ability to use these inventions as instruments to their
advancement.

China is divided into provinces which are subdivided into districts.
Candidates must pass three examinations in their own district and those
who are successful receive the lowest degree, that of "Budding
Intellect." Many thousands enter for this degree, but only about one per
cent succeed in attaining it. The possession of this degree does not yet
entitle the holder to a public office, but most of those who have
secured it become teachers, physicians, lawyers, etc. Once in three
years there is another examination for the second degree, called
"Deserving of Promotion," conducted by an examiner sent from Pekin. A
third examination is also held once every three years, in Pekin, and
success in this is rewarded by the title "Fit for Office." Holders of
the last two degrees are entitled to an appointment to some office, the
highest aim of a Chinaman. All of these examinations are conducted with
great strictness and fairness, no one being excluded. Thus every Chinese
child of ability has the opportunity to reach the highest positions in
the country.

There is a still higher degree called the "Forest of Pencils," which is
open only to members of the Royal Academy, the _Hanlin_. The acquirement
of this degree is the greatest honor to be attained; its possessor is
highly esteemed, and may hold the highest offices in the country.

In 1905 an edict was promulgated abolishing the old system of
examinations. This marks an epoch in Chinese educational history and
will tend to place China in the line of modern political and industrial
development.

=Criticism of Chinese Education.=--1. It is not under government
control.

2. It has no interest beyond the boundaries of China, and regards no
literature save the Chinese classics.

3. It is non-progressive, having made practically no improvement for
many centuries.

4. It cultivates memory to the neglect of the other powers of the mind,
and places more emphasis on the acquirement of knowledge than on the
development of the human faculties.

5. It obtains its results through fear, not by awakening interest in or
love for study.

6. Women are not embraced in the scheme of education.

7. It produces a conservative, untruthful, cunning, and non-progressive
people.

8. It reaches practically all of the male sex, and there is opportunity
for all to rise to the highest positions of honor, but its methods are
so unnatural as to awaken little desire for education on the part of the
young.

9. Its motive is debasing to the character.


CONFUCIUS (B.C. 550-478)

The name of Confucius is the one most revered among the Chinese. To him
and his disciples are due not only the native religion, now supplanted
by Buddhism, but also the language and literature. He began to teach in
a private school at the age of twenty-two. He rejected no pupil of
ability and ambition, but accepted none without these qualities. He
said, "When I have presented one corner of a subject, and the pupil
cannot make out the other three, I do not repeat the lesson." The
following are extracts from the analects of Confucius:--

1. What you do not like when done to yourself, do not to others.

2. Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is
perilous.

3. To see what is right and not do it is want of courage.

4. Worship as if the Deity were present.

5. Three friendships are advantageous: friendship with the upright,
friendship with the sincere, and friendship with the man of observation.
Three are injurious: friendship with a man of spurious airs, friendship
with the insinuatingly soft, and friendship with the glib-tongued.

6. Shall I tell you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold
that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to confess your
ignorance.

FOOTNOTES:

[2] Mrs. E. E. Baldwin, Foochow, China.

[3] Houghton, "Women of the Orient," p. 14.



CHAPTER III

INDIA

=Literature.=--_Marshman_, History of India; _Ragozin_, Vedic India;
_Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters; _Butler_, Land of the
Veda; _Houghton_, Women of the Orient; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions;
_Johonnot_, Geographical Reader; _Macaulay_, Essays; _Ballou_,
Footprints of Travel; _Stoddard's_ Lectures; Encyclopaedia Britannica;
_Arnold_, Light of Asia; _Chamberlain_, Education in India.


=Geography and History.=--India lies between the sixth and thirty-sixth
parallels of north latitude. It is bordered on the north by the
Himalayas and on the south by the Indian ocean. The climate in general
is hot, which makes the natives indolent and accounts for their lack of
enterprise. The country is very rich, the chief products being wheat,
cotton, rice, opium, and tea. The area is about one and a half million
square miles, and the population two hundred millions.

The early history of India is obscure, as the Brahmans, from religious
scruples, have ever been opposed to historical records. It is certain
that there was an aboriginal race which occupied the country from an
unknown period, and that a branch of the Aryan[4] or Indo-Germanic race
came to India and struggled for supremacy. The Aryans succeeded in
reducing the natives to subjection or in driving them into the
mountains. The comparatively pure descendants of these races are about
equal in number in India, their mixed progeny composing the great mass
of the Hindu population. The Sanskrit was their classic language, and
the Veda their Bible.

=The Caste System.=--There are four great castes in India:--

1. The _Brahmans_, or highest caste, who are the priests, scholars,
lawyers, physicians, teachers, etc. This order is highly reverenced by
the lower castes, and its members are dignified, abstemious, and sedate.
Their highest ideal is to bring their desires and appetites under
complete control. They exercise great influence in the land.[5]

2. The _warriors_, who comprise the army and the office holders.

3. The _merchants_, _mechanics_, and _farmers_, who constitute the bone
and sinew of India.

4. The _servants_, who receive no education excepting in matters of
politeness and other things connected with their station in life.

Each caste must pay respect to the higher castes, and association with
persons of a lower caste is considered a degradation. The English
government of India does not interfere with the caste system, but it is
gradually breaking down.

Besides the above-mentioned castes, there are tradesmen's castes which
have grown up as new occupations have been introduced. Thus there is a
potters' caste, a weavers' caste, a carpenters' caste, etc., each son
following his father's trade. This accounts for the marvelous skill of
the craftsmen of India in weaving carpets and fine muslins, in metal
work, and other arts,--workmanship not equaled anywhere else in the
world.

Brahmanism and Mohammedanism are the chief religions. Buddhism overran
the country in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., but it did
not seem to be suited to the Hindus, and now it is found in its purity
only in Ceylon. Unlike the Chinese, the Hindus are a very religious
people. The Shastas[6] declare that "when in the presence of her
husband, a woman must keep her eyes upon her master, and be ready to
receive his commands. When he speaks, she must be quiet and listen to
nothing besides. When he calls, she must leave everything else and
attend upon him alone. A woman's husband is her god, her priest, and her
religion. The most excellent work that she can perform is to gratify him
with the strictest obedience."[7] The system of sale of girls at birth,
for wives, of early betrothal and marriage, of perpetual widowhood under
most degrading circumstances,[8] and the practice of polygamy make the
condition of woman in India still worse than in China.

The English now rule the country with such wisdom and justice that the
people are generally contented and loyal. Reforms have been introduced,
commerce has been established, improvements have been made, and new life
has been awakened. They have also established schools and universities;
but as the purpose here is to give a picture of the _caste_ education,
the English system will not be described.

=The Home.=--Woman has no educational advantages in India, and she is
regarded more as the servant than as the equal of her husband. She may
never appear uninvited in the presence of any man except her husband.
This has worked great hardships for her, especially in cases of
sickness, as she can have no medical attendance unless a female medical
missionary can be reached. This fact has opened a fertile field for
missionary enterprise which has been a great blessing to Hindu women.

A member of a caste may marry in his own or in a lower caste; thus the
Brahman may have four wives, the warrior three, the farmer two, and the
servant one.

Parents love their children, and expect of them unquestioning obedience.
Children are taught to love and honor their teachers even more than
their parents. They are taught to reverence and respect older persons
under all circumstances. Contrary to the Chinese idea of education,
which is to prepare for this life, the Hindu idea is to prepare for the
future life, and children in the home, from their earliest years, are
trained with reference to this idea.

=The Elementary School.=--All teachers belong to the Brahman caste. They
receive no salary, depending upon gifts for their support. They are mild
in discipline, and generally humane in their treatment of their pupils.
The instruction is given under trees in the open air on pleasant days,
and in a tent or shed when the weather is bad. Instruction is given in
reading, writing, and arithmetic, though religion constitutes the
principal theme. Memorizing the holy sayings of Brahma occupies a large
portion of the time. While the Chinaman worships nature and his
ancestors, the Hindu worships Brahma. The cultivation of the memory is
considered important, but by no means so essential as in the Chinese
system.

The reading lessons are from the Veda. In writing, the child begins by
forming characters in sand with his finger or a stick, then he writes
upon leaves, and finally upon paper, with ink. The work in arithmetic is
very elementary, being only such as will fit the learners for practical
life. Servants and girls are excluded from even this limited education.

M. Ida Dean says: "How amused you would be if you could take a peep at a
school in India taught by a native teacher. The school is often held in
an open shed, and no pains whatever is taken to keep it clean. Often the
rafters are festooned with cobwebs and dirt. Of furniture, save the
teacher's low desk, there is none. The teacher uses a grass mat, while
the boys sit cross-legged on the earthen floor. The teacher, in a
singsong voice, reads a sentence which the boys shout after him. Then
another sentence is read, which the pupils likewise shout in a singsong
voice, while their bodies sway to and fro. This goes on until sentence
after sentence is memorized. No one knows nor cares what he is saying.
The teacher never explains. Neither teacher nor pupil is ever bothered
by that troublesome and inquisitive little word _why_."

The castes are taught separately, and especial attention is given to
such instruction as will fit them for their station in life. The highest
virtues to be cultivated are politeness, patience, modesty, and
truthfulness. Morning, noon, and evening there are impressive religious
ceremonies in the school, and the pupils must throw themselves at the
feet of their teacher with reverential respect. There is no theory of
education among the Hindus, each teacher instructing as he pleases,
according to historic custom. This precludes any considerable
improvement in method or advance in the art of education. There is no
authority to decide upon qualifications of teachers, the only essential
requisite being that they shall belong to the Brahman caste.

=Higher Education.=--The Brahmans are the only educated class, although
warriors attend their schools for the purpose of such study as is
necessary in connection with their calling. The farmer caste, too, may
attend the Brahman schools to learn the studies pertaining to their
caste. They pursue in their schools the study of grammar, mathematics,
astronomy, philosophy, medicine, law, literature, and religion. Many of
them still speak their classic language, the Sanskrit. As their religion
is based on philosophy, this study takes precedence over all others.

"The Hindus are believed to have originated the decimal system of
arithmetical notation which has been transmitted to us through Arabian
channels."[9]

The end of Hindu wisdom is to rise above all human suffering through
knowledge. Wuttke says, "Christians pray, 'Thy Kingdom come'; the
Chinese, 'Thy Kingdom remain'; the Hindus, 'Let whatever thou hast
created pass away.'"

=Criticism of Hindu Education.=--1. It is not universal, a large part of
the people being excluded from its benefits.

2. It is based on castes and the promulgation of the caste system, which
is baneful.

3. It depends too much upon the cultivation of the memory.

4. It has no philosophy of education, and, therefore, is
non-progressive.

5. It does not properly honor woman, and excludes her from its
advantages.

6. It produces a dreamy, self-satisfied, indolent, selfish, and
non-progressive people.

7. It makes the people self-reflective, which doubtless accounts for
their profound philosophical and mathematical discoveries.


BUDDHA[10]

Buddha lived in the first half of the sixth century B.C. He
sought to overthrow Brahmanism and taught that all men are brothers,
that they should show friendship, kindness, pity, and love toward their
fellow-men. His religion and his spirit approach nearer to Christianity
than any other oriental faith, and doubtless his influence was great for
the uplifting of the race, though it cannot be classed as technically
educational. "Self-denial, virtuous life, suppression of all
self-seeking, love for fellow-men," said he, "are cardinal virtues which
bring blessedness to mankind." T. W. Rhys Davids says, "Buddha did not
abolish castes, as no castes existed at his time." Had the spirit of his
teaching prevailed, India would never have been cursed by this baneful
system. Buddhism is a religion based on moral acts. In a corrupted form
it has many millions of adherents in China, Tibet, Japan, and other
countries; but it is found in its purity only in Ceylon.

FOOTNOTES:

[4] The Aryans are supposed to have originally occupied the country east
of the Caspian Sea, though some authorities locate them north of it. The
branches of this race are the Hindus, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Celts,
Teutons, and Slavs. These branches are related in language and color,
and the peoples that find their common origin in the Aryans represent a
large part of the world's enterprise and progress.

[5] See article in Johonnot's "Geographical Reader," p. 197.

[6] A commentary on the sacred book, the Veda of the Hindus.

[7] Houghton, "Women of the Orient," p. 34.

[8] A betrothed girl becomes a widow upon the death of her promised
husband even though she be only two or three years old and may never
have seen him. She must always remain a widow, and as such is constantly
humiliated.

[9] Williams, "History of Modern Education."

[10] See North American Review, Vol. 171, p. 517.



CHAPTER IV

PERSIA

=Literature.=--_Benjamin_, Story of Persia; _Ragozin_, The Story of
Media, Babylon, and Persia; _Rawlinson_, The Seventh Great Oriental
Monarchy; _Myers_, Ancient History; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions;
_Lord_, Beacon Lights of History; _Fergusson_, History of Architecture.


=Geography and History.=--Persia lies in the pathway of the great
caravans which formerly carried on trade between Europe and India. It
consists largely of a high plateau, surrounded by mountains. Large parts
of the country are sandy and dry from lack of sufficient rain, and
therefore are unproductive. The people are a branch of the Aryan race.
They doubtless lived a nomadic life, and were obliged to be ever ready
to defend themselves. Success in defense against the frequent assaults
of their surrounding enemies stimulated them to become a nation of
warriors. This fact had much to do in shaping their education. Cyrus the
Great conquered Media and brought Persia to the summit of her greatness.
The Persians boasted that they had become great by the sword, hence they
cared but little for agriculture or manufactures. They levied tribute
upon the nations they had subdued. Home production was therefore
unnecessary, and they could devote all of their time to the art of war.
About one fourth of the population are still classed as wandering
tribes, and the nation is an aggregation rather than a unity of
peoples.

The early Persians worshiped fire, and holy fires which only the Magi,
or priests, were allowed to approach, were kept perpetually burning upon
the mountain tops. The sun also was worshiped, the Persian kneeling with
his face toward the east at sunrise in beatific joy. This worship may
have been borrowed from the Egyptians, who were conquered by the
Persians, and with whom they stood in close relations. In later times
the religion of Zoroaster became the religion of the people.

=The Home.=--Wife and children were required to show the father great
respect. Each morning the wife was expected to ask her husband nine
times, "What do you wish me to do?" The teacher stood next to the father
in the child's esteem. The child was kept at home under the care of the
mother until seven years of age. An astrologer gave him a name and
outlined his future destiny by reference to the stars. It was forbidden
to tell him the difference between right and wrong before his fifth
year. No corporal punishment was administered before his seventh year.
The mother was greatly beloved by her children, though women were
excluded from education. The position of woman was much higher than in
either China or India. The chief training of children in the home was
physical. Throwing, running, archery, riding, etc., were the principal
employments of children. Absolute truthfulness and justice were early
inculcated. A quick eye, a steady hand, accurate power of observation,
and unwavering courage were qualities sought for in every child, and all
of the training in the home, as well as in the later education, had for
its aim the acquirement of these powers. Thus children were early taught
to be self-reliant and fearless.

=The State Education.=--1. Persian education was national in character.
After the seventh year the boy was taken from home and educated entirely
by and for the State.

His training in the use of arms, in riding, and in other athletic
exercises was continued. There were large public institutions in which
the boys were quartered, and simplest food and clothing were given them.
Besides the training for war, they were taught religious proverbs and
prayers, and were led to practice truth and justice. This education
continued until their fifteenth year. The teachers were men who had
passed their fiftieth year, and who were chosen for virtue as well as
knowledge, that they might serve as models to their pupils.

2. The second period of education consisted of a military training,
which occupied the ten years between the age of fifteen and twenty-five.

3. The final period was that of the soldier, which continued till the
fiftieth year, when the Persian could retire from the army with honor.
The most competent were retained as teachers.

Reading and writing were taught to a limited degree, but the chief end
of education was to prepare the citizen for war. The Magi were educated
in astronomy, astrology, and alchemy, and many of the dervishes have
ever been renowned for their acuteness, sense of justice, great powers
of observation, and good judgment.

=Criticism of the Persian Education.=--1. The State robs the family of
its inherent right to educate the children.

2. It neglects intellectual education, giving undue prominence to the
physical and moral; and demands too great a part of the active life of
man.

3. It makes the highest aim of education to prepare for war, and
therefore does not cultivate the arts of peace.

4. It excludes woman from the benefits of education.


ZOROASTER[11]

Zoroaster, the founder of the Persian religion, was a great teacher. The
exact date of his birth is unknown, but it is generally placed at about
B.C. 600. The testimony of ancient classic literature confirms
the belief that he was an historical person. A tablet unearthed in
Greece contains an account of his life and his doctrines. Pliny says
that he laughed on the day of his birth and that for thirty years he
lived in the wilderness on cheese. He was the founder of the Magi
priesthood, but did not teach the worship of fire.

His philosophy is _dualistic_. There are two spirits or principles that
rule the universe. These are Ormuzd, the principle of light, and
Ahriman, the principle of darkness. These two opposing principles are in
constant conflict, each striving for the mastery. Man is the center of
the conflict, but Ormuzd as his creator has the greater power over him.
All influences are summoned to bring about the success of the good, and
in the end it will surely prevail. No remission of sin is taught, but
judgment is represented as a bridge over which those whose good deeds
outweigh their evil deeds are allowed to pass to paradise: in case the
evil deeds outweigh the good, the person is cast off forever; in case of
a balance of good and evil deeds, there is another period of probation.

This dualism shows itself in nature as well as in the spiritual world.
Order is opposed to lawlessness, truth to falsehood, life to death, good
to evil. It is a religion in which the ideas of guilt and merit are
carried out to the extreme. Zoroaster believed that he was the prophet
chosen to promulgate these doctrines, and his influence as a teacher
upon the Persian nation was unquestionably great. Persia is now a
Mohammedan country.

FOOTNOTES:

[11] North American Review, Vol. 172, p. 132.



CHAPTER V

THE JEWS

=Literature.=--_Hosmer_, Story of the Jews; _Clarke_, Ten Great
Religions; _Durrell_, New Life in Education; _Myers_, Ancient History;
Stoddard's Lectures; _Lord_, Beacon Lights of History; _Josephus_,
Antiquities of the Jews; _Morrison_, The Jews under Roman Rule;
_Larned_, History for Ready Reference; _Hegel_, Philosophy of History;
Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1895; _Peters_,
Justice to the Jew.


=Geography and History.=--The Jews were the ancient people of God, the
"chosen people," whose history is recorded in the Old Testament
Scriptures. They reached their greatest power and glory during the
reigns of David and Solomon, and they occupied Palestine, with Jerusalem
as their capital city. Within this small territory, some six thousand
square miles in extent, have occurred some of the most important events
of history, and the Jewish race has been the representative of God's
purposes toward man. The Almighty communicated directly with his people,
who were thus made acquainted with the divine will. The early Jews were
nomadic in their habits, living in tents, and tending their flocks. The
patriarch, who was at the head of a family or tribe, made laws for the
people under him and governed them according to the command of God,
whose representative he was. Because God directly or through the
patriarch led and instructed the people, their education, like their
government, is called _theocratic_.

The Jews lost their independence B.C. 63 in becoming subject to
the Romans, and in A.D. 70 Jerusalem was destroyed and the
Jews were dispersed. Since that time they have been wanderers on the
face of the earth, and there is no part of the world where they are not
to be found. They have maintained their racial characteristics with
remarkable purity. They were an agricultural people until the Babylonian
captivity, after which they became a commercial people. Persecutions,
which have universally followed them, making the acquirement of fixed
property unsafe, had much to do with this change.

=The Home.=--The Jewish family was the purest of antiquity. In general,
monogamy was practiced, and the wife was regarded as the companion and
equal of the husband. Children being accepted as the gift of God, the
father stood in the same relation to his children as Jehovah stood to
man. Therefore the father's highest aim was to bring up his children in
the knowledge and service of the Lord. We have here the highest and best
type of family training to be found in history, a characteristic that
still holds in Jewish families wherever they exist, and that has
contributed largely to the maintenance of the strong racial
peculiarities of the Jews. The father taught his boys reading and
writing, and the mother taught the girls household duties; but the
latter were not entirely excluded from intellectual training.

Great attention was given to the rites and ceremonies of the tabernacle
and the Jewish law. History was also taught as a means of stimulating
patriotism. The Jewish child was early made acquainted with the
Scriptures, and history, law, and prophecy became familiar to every Jew.
As there were no schools, this was all done in the home by the parents.
Religion was the central thought of all education, and preparation for
the service of the tabernacle and the worship of God was early given to
every child. Thus in an atmosphere of love and piety the Jew discharged
his sacred duty with care and faithfulness. Obedience to the commands of
parents, veneration for the aged, wholesome respect for their ancestors,
and familiarity with the Jewish law were instilled into the minds of all
children. Music and dancing were taught in every household, not for
pleasure, but as a means of religious expression. By prayer and holy
living, by precept and example, by word and deed, the father discharged
the duty committed to him by God, leading his children by careful
watchfulness toward the ideal manhood which was revealed to him by the
teachings of Holy Writ.

There were no castes among the Hebrews, and the same kind of training
was given to the children of rich and poor, high and low, alike. No
other race of people has given such careful home training to its
children, from earliest times to the present.

=The Jewish School.=--There were no elementary Jewish schools until
after the destruction of the nation and the loss of their civil liberty.
After the defeat at Jena the Prussians turned to education as the sole
means of retrieving their national greatness; the same was true of the
Austrians after the defeat of Sadowa, and of the French after the fall
of the empire at Sedan. But the Jewish people had set this example
eighteen centuries before. Dittes says, "If ever a people has
demonstrated the power of education, it is the people of Israel."

The rabbis required, A.D. 64, that every community should
support a school, and that attendance should be compulsory. This is the
first instance of compulsory education on record. If a town was divided
by a stream without a connecting bridge, a school was supported in each
part. Not more than twenty-five pupils could be assigned to one
teacher, and where the number was greater an assistant was employed. If
there were forty pupils, there were two teachers. It will thus be seen
that the Jews put into practice eighteen centuries ago a condition of
things which, owing to the complexity of our civilization, is with us
to-day largely an unrealized ideal.

Teachers were respected even more than parents, for it was held that
parents prepared their children for the present, but teachers for the
future. None but mature married men were employed as teachers. It was
said that "he who learns of a young master is like a man who eats green
grapes, and drinks wine fresh from the press; but he who has a master of
mature years is like a man who eats ripe and delicious grapes, and
drinks old wine."

The child entered school at six. Previous to that age physical exercise
and bodily growth were to be the ends sought. "When he enters school,"
says the Talmud, "load him like an ox." Other authorities, however,
encouraged giving him tasks according to his strength. The subjects
taught were reading, writing, natural history, arithmetic, geometry, and
astronomy. The Scriptures were taught to all the children, and all were
versed in religious rites.

The methods were good and attractive, great effort being made to lead
the children to understand, even though it might be necessary to repeat
four hundred times. The discipline was humane. According to the Talmud,
"children should be punished with one hand and caressed with two."
Corporal punishment was administered only to children over eleven years
of age.

=The Schools of the Rabbis.=--Karl Schmidt says: "Culture in a people
begins with the creation of a literature and the use of writing." The
oldest monument of writing among the Israelites is found in the tables
of stone containing the Ten Commandments. Moses, David, Solomon, and
Isaiah, and the other prophets were the founders of the Hebrew
literature.

Among the instrumentalities of higher education were the Schools of the
Prophets, which taught philosophy, medicine, poetry, history, and law to
the sons of prophets and priests, and of leading families. These schools
were influential in stimulating the production of the historical,
poetical, and prophetic books of the Old Testament.

But more important as direct means of higher education were the Schools
of the Rabbis. These sprang up in Alexandria, Babylon, and Jerusalem in
the early centuries of the Christian era. They were private institutions
founded by celebrated teachers. Doubtless it was in such a school as
this that St. Paul was brought up at the feet of Gamaliel. The principal
subjects studied were theology and law,--politics, history, mathematics
and science being excluded. The collection of the sayings and
discussions was begun in the second century A.D. and afterward
took form in the Talmud.

=Criticism of Jewish Education.=--1. It exalted the home and insisted on
the control of children by their parents.

2. It gave to woman an honored place in the home.

3. It gave an intelligent interpretation of the school and its
functions. In regard to school attendance, the number of pupils under
one teacher, the respect due to teachers, the course of study, and many
other matters, it showed practical wisdom.

4. It taught obedience, patriotism, and religion.

5. It provided only for Jewish children.

6. It was mild and generally wise in discipline, though mistaken in
forbidding corporal punishment before the eleventh year, while admitting
its use after that.

7. It developed an honest, intelligent, progressive, God-fearing people.

8. It produced some of the greatest poets and historians of the world.


THE TALMUD[12]

This book, as we have seen, is the outgrowth of the discussions of the
rabbis, whose sayings, collected from the second to the sixth century
A.D., are herein contained. It proclaims with great minuteness
rules of life which the faithful Jew still rigidly observes. It has
aided in perpetuating Jewish laws, ceremonies, customs, and religion,
and has been the most potent means of preserving the national and racial
characteristics of the Jews for nearly two thousand years. Driven from
one country to another, they have always carried the Talmud with them
and have been guided and kept united by its teachings. During the last
quarter of the nineteenth century the study of the Talmud has been
revived, not only among the Jews, but also among Christians and students
of all classes.


EXTRACTS FROM THE TALMUD

1. Even if the gates of heaven are shut to prayer, they are open to
tears.

2. Teach thy tongue to say, "I do not know."

3. If a word spoken in its time is worth one piece of money, silence is
worth two.

4. Not the place honors the man, but the man the place.

5. The world is saved by the breath of school children.

FOOTNOTES:

[12] See Peters, "Justice to the Jew."



CHAPTER VI

EGYPT

=Literature.=--_Maspero_, Egyptian Archaeology; _Wilkinson_, The Ancient
Egyptians; _Stoddard's_ Lectures; Myers, Ancient History; _Routledge_,
The Modern Wonders of the World; _Johonnot_, Geographical Reader;
_Edwards_, A Thousand Miles up the Nile; _Knox_, Egypt and the Holy
Land; _Ballou_, Due West; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions; _Ebers_, Uarda;
and Egyptian Princess; _Curtis_, Nile Notes of a Howadji.


=Geography and History.=--Egypt consists of a narrow strip of land about
six hundred miles long, lying in the northeastern part of Africa. Its
geographical importance is due to the river Nile, which flows through
it, and which, by its annual overflow, enriches the soil, and makes one
of the most productive portions of the globe. For many centuries
reservoirs for the storage of water in time of the overflow, and
irrigation canals for its later distribution, have secured the country
against drought, and thus abundant harvests were always assured
"independent of the seasons and the skies." This, with the mild climate
and exceedingly rich soil, made food attainable with slight labor,
furnishing an abundance, not only for its own population, but making
Egypt the granary of the Mediterranean countries. We learn from the
Scriptures, of the visits of the sons of Jacob to Egypt to buy corn of
Joseph when famine existed in their own land. These conditions, which
made living so cheap, were doubtless the main causes of the early
settlement of the valley of the Nile, and the rapid increase in its
population. In confirmation of the foregoing we have the testimony of
Diodorus Siculus, a Greek writer, who visited Egypt nearly two thousand
years ago. He tells us that the entire cost to bring up a child to
manhood was not more than twenty drachmas (less than four dollars of our
money).[13]

Of the antiquity of Egyptian history we have abundant evidence. Swinton
says, "Egypt is the country in which we first find a government and
political institutions established. Egypt itself may not have been the
oldest _nation_, but Egyptian history is certainly the oldest _history_.
Its monuments, records, and literature surpass in antiquity those of
Chaldea and India, the two next oldest nations."[14] The records of the
history of Egypt are found in abundance carved on her monuments, tombs,
buildings, implements, etc. They were written in hieroglyphics, the
meaning of which was unknown until the discovery of the "Rosetta stone,"
which furnished the key to their interpretation.

The ancient Egyptians excelled in mechanics and arts. It is doubtful
whether to-day we know as much of certain sciences as they did four
thousand years ago. Their applications of mechanics, engineering,
dyeing, and embalming still remain to us "lost arts." The wisdom of the
Egyptians was proverbial, and the great scholars of other countries made
pilgrimages to Egypt to study philosophy, literature, law, and science.

=The Caste System.=--The caste system existed also in Egypt, but in no
such strict sense as in India. The first and highest caste consisted of
the priests, who represented the learning and wealth of the country.
They owned one third of the land, upon which they paid no tax. They
held all the offices, were the surveyors, engineers, teachers,--indeed,
their caste alone furnished all the higher professions. They ruled the
land with an iron hand. Concerning their influence, Swinton says, "The
priests were the richest, most powerful, and most influential order. It
must not be supposed, however, that the modern word 'priest' gives the
true idea of this caste. Its members were not limited to religious
offices; they formed an order _comprising many occupations and
professions_. They were distributed all over the country, possessing
exclusively the means of reading and writing, and the whole stock of
medical and scientific knowledge. Their ascendency, both direct and
indirect, over the minds of the people was immense, for they prescribed
that minute religious ritual under which the life of every Egyptian, not
excepting the king himself, was passed."[15]

The second caste consisted of the military class, who also belonged to
the nobles. There was freer intercourse between the two higher castes
than was possible in the Hindu system. It was not uncommon to find
brothers belonging to different castes. Ampère found an inscription on a
monument mentioning one son as a priest, another as governor of a
province, and a third as superintendent of buildings. To each member of
this caste was assigned a parcel of land (six and one half acres), which
also was free from taxation. These two higher castes were especially
privileged, and the gulf between them and the lower castes was very
wide.

The third, or _unprivileged_ caste was subdivided into three orders: (1)
the farmers and boatmen; (2) the mechanics and tradespeople; and (3) the
common laborers. Between these, also, there were bonds of common
interest, though a decided difference between the orders was recognized.

The caste system may be outlined as follows:--

            {   I. _Priests_, who represented the learning and wealth and
            {      ruled the land.
            {
 Egyptian   {  II. _Soldiers_, who, though lower in caste than the priests,
 Castes.    {      yet associated with them.
            {      {1. _Farmers_ and _boatmen_, who ranked next.
            { III. {2. _Mechanics_ and _tradespeople_, who ranked next.
            {      {3. The common laborers.

The slaves were lower than the common laborers, and were not classified
among the castes. They were generally captives taken in war. Respect and
reverence for the higher castes were by no means so marked as in India,
and outbreaks between the various classes were common.

=The Home.=--Woman occupied a much higher plane in Egypt than in China
or India, though polygamy was practiced by all classes except the
priests. She was the recognized mistress of the home, possessed some
education, and largely directed the education of the children. Children
of wives of different castes had equal rights before the law to
inheritance. Great attention was paid to religious ceremonies, and the
children were taught piety and obedience in their early youth. They were
highly regarded in the Egyptian home, and were brought up in an
atmosphere of love and filial respect. The day of a child's birth was
regarded as determining its destiny. The child was brought up on the
simplest food, and furnished with scanty clothing, in order that its
body might be strong and supple.

=The Education.=--The education, like that of India, was suited to the
different castes. Priests were the only teachers. While chief attention
was given to the education of boys, girls also received some
instruction. The principal subjects taught in the lowest caste were
writing and mathematics. The papyrus plant, found along the Nile,
furnished a material on which writing was practiced. In arithmetic we
find an anticipation of modern principles in the concrete methods
employed. Religious instruction was also given. Bodily exercise was
severe, running being a favorite pastime. The expense of schooling was
very small. The boy usually followed the trade of his father, though
this was not an inflexible rule. The occupation he was to follow had
some influence in shaping his education.

The higher castes received an extensive education, including a knowledge
of higher mathematics, astronomy, language, natural science, medicine,
music, engineering, and religion. The annual overflow of the Nile
necessitated the construction of reservoirs and irrigation canals, and
caused frequent changes of boundary lines. For all this a knowledge of
mathematics was necessary, and this study was therefore greatly
encouraged. Institutions of higher learning for the training of priests
and soldiers were found at Thebes, Memphis, and Heliopolis. The Museum
of Alexandria, which reached its highest prosperity about the middle of
the third century B.C., and which made Alexandria the center of
the learning of the world at that period, attracted philosophers and
investigators from Athens and Rome. In connection with the Museum was
the celebrated Alexandrian library, which was fostered by the Ptolemies,
and which contained a vast collection of books, variously estimated at
from four hundred thousand to seven hundred thousand volumes.[16]

=Criticism of Egyptian Education.=--1. It was dominated by the priests
under the caste system, and did not recognize equality of man.

2. It encouraged greater respect for woman than other oriental systems,
but took little account of her intellectual training.

3. It made use of concrete methods, at least in writing and arithmetic,
for the first time in history.

4. It was non-progressive in its elementary education, the father
generally expecting his son to follow his calling.

5. In higher education it was justly noted, as it attracted wise men
from Greece and Rome to study its science and philosophy.


GENERAL SUMMARY OF ORIENTAL EDUCATION

With the discussion of Egyptian education, the consideration of oriental
systems ceases. Concerning the education of the Phoenicians,
Babylonians, and other oriental nations we know but little. To the
Phoenicians the invention of the alphabet, glass making, and purple
dyeing is generally credited, and the knowledge of these things was
communicated to the Mediterranean nations with whom they engaged in
trade. The classical countries were materially influenced by Egyptian
culture, and the way was prepared for a broader and more enlightened
interpretation of the purpose of education, and for a more successful
evolution of civilization on soil better suited to that end. We may
briefly summarize the lessons of oriental education, as follows:--

1. The Oriental systems fostered class distinctions by furnishing but
little enlightenment to the lower classes, and affording superior
advantages to the privileged few.

2. They were non-progressive, for centuries witnessed no improvement in
methods of instruction, reached no higher ideals, and marked no advance
in civilization.

3. They did not feel the need of trained teachers.

4. The importance of the individual was not appreciated, and man was
regarded as belonging to the State.

5. The end sought was good conduct, which was to be attained through
memorizing moral precepts. This gave undue importance to the memory.

6. Little encouragement was given to free investigation; authority of
teachers and ancestral traditions were the principal factors employed.
The progress of civilization was therefore very slow.

7. In general, excepting with the Jews, woman had no part in education,
being regarded as incapable of any considerable intellectual
development.

8. In China the motive of education was to prepare for success in this
life; in India, for the future life; in Persia, to support the State; in
Israel, to rehabilitate the nation; and in Egypt, to maintain the
supremacy of the priests.

9. In no case was the conception reached that the aim of education
should be to emancipate all the powers of man,--physical, intellectual,
moral, spiritual.

10. Finally, we may sum up the conditions that prepared the way for
classical education in the words of Karl Schmidt: "In Greece at last the
idea of human individuality as the principal end, and not as a means to
that end, was grasped. Conformable to this truth, all human, social, and
political conditions were shaped and education given its form. This idea
of the emancipation of the individual became established in Greece with
a brilliancy which attracts attention to that land until the present
time."

FOOTNOTES:

[13] The student should bear in mind the fact that the purchasing power
of a sum equivalent to four dollars was much greater in those days than
now.

[14] "Outlines of the World's History," p. 12.

[15] "Outlines of History," p. 20.

[16] It must be observed that the ancient volume, or roll, contained
much less matter than the modern book.



CHAPTER VII

GREECE

=Literature.=--_Davidson_, Education of the Greek People; _Felton_,
Ancient and Modern Greece; _Grote_, History of Greece; _Curtius_,
History of Greece; _Morris_, Historical Tales (Greek); _Mahaffy_, Old
Greek Education; Social Life in Greece; The Greek World under Roman
Sway; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions; _Guhl_ and _Koner_, Life of Greeks
and Romans; _Timayenis_, History of Greece; _Wilkins_, National
Education in Greece; _Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Monroe_, Source Book of the
History of Education.


=Geography and History.=--Greece lies in the center of the ancient
world. The numerous islands between it and the mainland of Asia made
stepping-stones for the hardy mariners who, filled with the spirit of
adventure, pushed out farther and farther from the Asiatic shores until
they reached Greece--the first European country to be settled. Here we
find another branch of the great Aryan race.

The coast is broken up by many indentations which afford fine harbors
and invite seafaring life. The surface is mountainous, the ranges
cutting the country up into many sections or states. The climate is
varying, depending upon proximity to the sea, and upon the elevation.
The scenery is beautiful, and the soil in the valleys is fertile. The
productions are fruit, grain, and silk. As might be expected from the
nature of the country, the people show much commercial enterprise. The
area is about twenty-five thousand square miles, and the population
about 2,200,000.

The Greeks were a brave and ambitious people, and their history is full
of heroic deeds and stirring events. The many small states were often
hostile to one another. Athens and Sparta were the two most important
cities. Around them centered two diverse forms of civilization, and in
them were developed two very different standards of education. It will
be necessary, therefore, to discuss separately the education of these
two cities. When the Grecian states were united in defense, no outside
power was able to conquer them; but, unfortunately, jealousies often
arose which brought them into conflict with one another, and which
finally caused the overthrow of all. In art and literature Greece
reached the summit of her glory in Athens in the age of Pericles, the
fifth century B.C. The work accomplished by Athens has been the
inspiration of the world for nearly twenty-four hundred years.

In government, in manners, and in customs the Greeks were very different
from the oriental nations. The spirit of political freedom prevailed
here for the first time in the history of the world. Doubtless the small
size of the states, which were separated from each other by natural
boundaries, was an important factor in stimulating the people to secure
and maintain this independence. "Man's character is formed by the
surroundings of his home." The beautiful valleys and mountains, the
varying climate, the sea with its many islands and harbors, the soil, in
the main yielding its fruit only by hard labor, were elements well
calculated to produce a hardy race,--a race with lofty ideals, loving
beauty both of mind and body.

=The Olympian Games.=--Because of their national popularity and their
direct influence on the education of the people, a description of the
Olympian games is not out of place in a history of education. At first
they were religious in character. They were celebrated in honor of Zeus,
at Olympia, in Elis, which became the Holy Land of Greece. They took
place once in four years, and this period, called an Olympiad, furnished
the basis of computing time. The first Olympiad begins with
B.C. 776. All of the states took part in these contests, and
when at war, hostilities were suspended during the games, that visitors
might attend them unmolested. Thus once in four years the various states
of Greece were united in friendly contest and joyous festivity.

At first there was only the foot race, but afterward wrestling, jumping,
and throwing the spear were added. Still later, chariot and horse races,
and contests in painting, sculpture, and literature, were included. Only
Greek citizens of good moral character could enter the contests. The
prize, though but a simple wreath of laurel or olive, was most highly
esteemed. At first spectators were attracted from the different parts of
Greece only; but afterward the games became great fairs for the exchange
of commodities, as well as contests which attracted people from all
parts of Europe.

The Olympian games tended to unite the people and cultivate the arts of
peace. They encouraged the development of perfect bodies, the training
being designed to produce superior athletes. They inculcated broader
views, bringing together people from different parts of their own land
and from other lands. They incited intellectual ambition by adding in
later times literary productions. They created a manly spirit and
stimulated a national patriotism.



CHAPTER VIII

ATHENS

=Literature.=--(See general literature for Greece.) _Harrison_, Story of
Greece; _Macaulay_, Essays; _Curtius_, History of Greece; _Davidson_,
Education of the Greeks; _Wilkins_, National Education in Greece;
_Freeman_, Historical Essays.


=History.=--The ideals of Athens--educational, political, and
moral--were in direct contrast to those of Sparta. At Athens, love of
liberty, love of knowledge, and love of beauty went hand in hand. Though
the body was not neglected, as is proved by the beautiful types of
manhood preserved for us in Athenian art, the Athenians believed that
the truest beauty was to be reached only by the development of the mind.

Hence Athens brought forth great men like Pericles, Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle, she created a literature that has influenced the world, she
developed art to its highest excellence, and gained for herself a
permanent and high place in the world's history. Sparta did none of
these things, therefore her ruin was sure and speedy; while the decline
of Athens was slow and her influence still lives.

The spirit of Athens was liberty, while that of Sparta was tyranny. It
is true that Athens had slaves; indeed, only one fourth of the
inhabitants were free; but even the slaves had a large share of freedom,
and enjoyed some means of education. We learn that children of the
wealthy were committed to trusted slaves, called _pedagogues_, who
escorted them to school, instructed them in many things, and had a
right to punish them for disobedience. This could not have been allowed
by parents with such high ideals had the slaves been debased as were
those of Sparta.

In Athens we find for the first time the democratic idea of government;
this was by no means so completely realized as it is in modern times,
especially in the western world. The "Age of Pericles" (B.C.
480-430) forms the most brilliant period of Athens, a period hardly
surpassed in some respects by any other in the world's history. Solon
(B.C. 638) was the great lawgiver of Athens. His wise laws had
much influence on the prosperity and intellectual development of the
people.

=The Home.=--In Athens the child was left with the mother until the
sixth or seventh year. The toys were greater in variety than with any
other people of antiquity. They were much the same in character as those
of modern times, and their purpose was to amuse the children rather than
to furnish a definite preparation for life, as in Persia and Sparta.
Play, therefore, was recognized as an important factor in the child's
life, and the toys in use stimulated and encouraged the joyous element
in the child's nature. That toys are a potent influence toward healthful
mental and physical growth is an educational truth that has been fully
recognized by us only within recent years. And yet the Athenians
appreciated it in the home, twenty-five centuries ago.

The training was intellectual and humane, though strict obedience was
enforced. Great attention was paid to the works of the poets, selections
being taught to all the children. The father interested himself chiefly
in the education of the boys, and when he was unable to discharge this
duty an elderly male relative was selected as mentor, who devoted his
leisure hours to such training. Little attention was paid to the mental
training of the girls.

Women were not held in so high esteem as in Sparta, nor were they as
worthy of respect. The husband exercised over his wife the same
authority as over his children. Neither by social position nor by
intellectual attainment was she his equal. "Her own chamber was the
world of the Athenian woman; her maids were her companions; household
duties and the preparation of clothing for her family were her
employment."

=Education.=--The father was free to choose for his children their
school and the character of their education. The State furnished
gymnasia in which schools could be held, fixed the qualifications of
teachers, the school hours, and the number of pupils to a teacher. Once
a year public examinations were held, the expense of which the State
defrayed. The schools were private institutions, supported by private
means, though under State inspection. The teachers were philosophers or
wise men, thoroughly competent to discharge the duties of their office.

At six or seven years of age, the boy was sent to school in charge of a
pedagogue, or leader of the young,--usually an old and trusted slave.
While not intrusted with the actual teaching of his charge, he was
responsible for his morals and manners, and was allowed, as we have
seen, to administer punishment. The pedagogue was the constant attendant
of the boy. The character of the school chosen depended upon the means
of the parents.

The first two years were devoted chiefly to gymnastics. The two subjects
of the elementary course were _gymnastics_ and _music_, the latter term
including reading and writing. But little arithmetic was taught, as the
Athenians believed that the object of the study of arithmetic was
simply utility, and but little arithmetic was needed for practical use.
"Calculating boards" made the reckoning for all business needs a purely
mechanical process. The idea of education was the development of the
_beautiful_, and they held that arithmetic contributed but little to
this end. The works of the poets were given prominence throughout the
Athenian education, and pupils were required to commit to memory many
selections.

=The Sophists.=--The Sophists flourished during the fifth century
B.C. Their greatest exponents were Protagoras and Gorgias. They
introduced a movement of which Schwegler says, "It had struck its roots
into the whole moral, political, and religious character of the Hellenic
life of that time." They wandered about from place to place proclaiming
themselves as philosophers and bidding for the patronage of the rich by
charging large fees and considering public questions. They discussed
error and wrong with the same eloquence and zeal that they discussed
truth and justice, their purpose being to foster eloquence rather than
discover truth. Hence, we have the word "sophistry," which means
fallacious reasoning. And yet, in the words of Schwegler, "It cannot be
denied that Protagoras also hit upon many correct principles of
rhetoric, and satisfactorily established certain grammatical categories.
It may in general be said of the Sophists that they gave the people a
great profusion of general knowledge; ... that they called out
investigations in the theory of knowledge, in logic, and in language;
that they laid the basis for the methodical treatment of many branches
of human knowledge, and that they partly originated and partly assisted
the wonderful intellectual activity which characterized Athens at that
time."

Children of the poorer classes were kept in school until their
fourteenth or fifteenth year, when they learned a trade. Those of the
rich remained in school until their twentieth year. The course of study
of the latter included music, rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy. At
twenty the youth's education was regarded as completed, and the young
man became a citizen. Teachers were paid fees and not fixed salaries.

It was the atmosphere of Athens, more than the discipline of the school,
that fostered culture and inspired learning. The aim of education was
the _beautiful_, and the ideal was the aesthetic in mind and body.

=Criticism of Athenian Education.=--1. It sought to educate the entire
man, giving him beauty of form, keenness of intellect, and nobleness of
heart.

2. It acknowledged the right of parents to direct and determine the
education of their children.

3. It recognized the importance of the individual as no other people had
before.

4. Strict obedience was required of the children.

5. It produced great men, with high moral and intellectual ideals, but
these ideals were centered in Athenian culture.

6. It excluded women and slaves from its benefits, and was by no means
universal.

7. It recognized the value of play as an educational force, thereby
anticipating the kindergarten.

8. The State exercised a certain control over the school by furnishing
places where it might be held, by defraying the expense of examinations,
by determining the number of pupils to a teacher, by fixing the limit of
school hours, and by deciding upon the qualifications of teachers. And
yet the choice of education was free, and its aim was the good of the
individual and not the glory of the State.



CHAPTER IX

ATHENIAN EDUCATORS

=Literature.=--_Bulkley_, Plato's Best Thoughts; _Schwegler_, History of
Philosophy; _Morris_, Historical Tales; _Curtius_, History of Greece;
_Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters;
_Jowett_, The Republic of Plato; _Vogel_, Geschichte der Pädagogik;
_Emerson_, Representative Men; _De Quincey_, Plato's Republic; _Hegel_,
Philosophy of History.


SOCRATES (B.C. 470-399)

Socrates was the son of a sculptor of Athens. Though he learned his
father's trade and followed it in early manhood, he relinquished it to
devote himself to the study of philosophy, for which he had a natural
bent. In person he was far from fulfilling the Athenian ideal of beauty,
being short of stature, corpulent, with protruding eyes, upturned nose,
large mouth, and thick lips. His domestic life was not happy, his wife,
Xantippe, being a noted shrew. His failure to provide for the material
welfare of his family, though quite natural in a man to whom all
material things seemed unessential, must have sorely tried her patience.
But Socrates bore her scolding with resignation. Indeed, he seemed to
regard it as furnishing an opportunity to practice the philosophic
patience that he preached.

Socrates believed that he had a divine call to "convince men of
ignorance mistaking itself for knowledge, and by so doing to promote
their intellectual and moral development." Like many other
philosophers, he spent his time in the streets, markets, and other
public places, arguing with any one who would stop to listen or
converse. This manner of teaching was common in Athens, and he never
lacked hearers. The whole atmosphere of the classic city was charged
with the spirit of intellectual activity and philosophic discussion.
Socrates did not teach positive doctrines, but assumed ignorance himself
in order to convince others of ignorance. By a series of suggestive
questions he would lead his pupils or opponents into admissions which
finally established the truth that Socrates saw at the outset. This is
known as the "Socratic Method," or the dialectical method, and this form
of inductive teaching was an important contribution to education.

Although Socrates left no writings, his great pupils, Xenophon and
Plato, have given the world a full account of his teachings. Plato
speaks in highest terms of his moral character, declaring that "he was
not of this world." Xenophon also adds his testimony in the following
words: "No one ever knew of his doing or saying anything profane or
unholy." Socrates believed in one Supreme Being, the intelligent Creator
of the universe. He also believed in the immortality of the soul. These
doctrines were altogether contrary to Greek polytheism, the prevailing
religion of Athens, and they prove him to have been far in advance of
the age in which he lived. While he established no school, Socrates
nevertheless must ever rank as one of the world's greatest teachers and
thinkers.

In his death he fully exemplified the truth of his own philosophy. He
was accused of corrupting the youth and denying the deities, and was
condemned to die by drinking a cup of hemlock. He calmly submitted to
his fate, refusing to avail himself of an opportunity to escape.
According to the account given in Plato's "Phaedo," he spent his last
hours discussing with the friends who attended him the question of the
immortality of the soul.


PLATO (B.C. 429-347)

Plato was a disciple of Socrates, and to him we are chiefly indebted for
an account of the teachings of his great master. For twenty years he sat
at the feet of the philosopher, and drank from the fountain of knowledge
possessed by that wonderful man. He also traveled in other lands,
particularly Egypt and Italy, in pursuit of knowledge. He became one of
the most remarkable scholars and philosophers, not only of antiquity,
but of all time. When forty years of age he founded a school at Athens,
though it is not as a teacher that he is chiefly known, but as a writer
and sage. "Plato among the Greeks, like Bacon among the moderns, was the
first who conceived a method of knowledge." His great work is his
"Republic," in which he pictures the ideal State and outlines his scheme
of education, which is built on ideals of both Spartan and Athenian
citizenship. From Sparta comes the thought of an education which shall
be controlled by the State from birth; while Athens adds the aesthetical
aspects to those purely physical.

In his scheme he divided the people into the following classes:--

1. The _common people_. They should be allowed to rise, but no education
is provided for them in his scheme.

2. The _guardians_ or _citizens_, who shall study music and gymnastics.
Music includes literature, that is, human culture as distinguished from
scientific knowledge. Writing and arithmetic are also included under
music, the latter not being studied for practical purposes, but to
develop the reason.

3. The _rulers_, who, in addition to the preceding subjects, shall study
geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, and philosophy.

The State is to have absolute control of every citizen; it shall arrange
marriages, destroy weak and unpromising children, and remove the healthy
babes at birth to public nurseries, where mothers may care for the
children in common, but will not recognize or take special interest in
their own children. Boys and girls are to be educated alike. Great care
is to be taken that nothing mean or vile shall be shown to children;
their environments shall be beautiful and ennobling, though simple.

From birth to seven years of age the child is to have plenty of physical
exercise. He shall hear fairy tales and selections from the poets, but
careful censorship must be placed on everything presented to him.
Suitable playthings are to be provided, precaution taken against fear of
darkness, and by gentleness combined with firmness a manly spirit is to
be produced. Beauty of mind and body are to be harmoniously united.

From seven to thirteen intellectual as well as physical activity is
required.

The special education begins at twenty by the selection of the most
promising youths. At thirty another selection of those able to continue
their education five years more is made.

Higher mathematics, astronomy, harmony, and science constitute the work
of the first ten years, and philosophical study that of the last five.
Fifteen years then are to be given to the service of the State, after
which, at fifty, the student may return to the study of philosophy for
the remainder of his life.

Education is to be compulsory, as the child belongs to the State and not
to the parent.

Plato gave predominance to intellectual rather than to physical culture,
as he said, "If the mind be educated it will take care of the body, for
the good soul improves the body, and not the good body the soul."

He taught that it is the aim of education to bring all of the powers of
man into harmonious coöperation.

It will thus be seen that Plato's scheme of education centers around the
oriental idea that man belongs to the State, and the main purpose of
education is to fit him to serve the State. And Plato clearly set forth
how the education which he demanded should be attained, and therefore he
is to be remembered as originating the _first systematic scheme of
education in history_.


ARISTOTLE (B.C. 384-322)[17]

Aristotle was born in Stagira in Macedonia, and from this fact he is
called the Stagirite. For twenty years he was a pupil of Plato, as Plato
had been of Socrates. Aristotle was not only one of the greatest
philosophers that ever lived, but he enjoyed the distinction of being
the teacher and chosen counselor of Alexander the Great. Much of the
greatness of the man who conquered the world and "wept because there
were no more worlds to conquer" was due to his wise teacher. Alexander
loved and revered Aristotle as much as his father, declaring "that he
was indebted to the one for _living_, and to the other for living
_well_." He assisted Aristotle in founding a school at his native place,
Stagira.

It is not simply as the teacher of Alexander the Great that Aristotle is
to be remembered in the history of education, though that would entitle
him to lasting fame. After the education of Alexander was finished,
Aristotle went to Athens, where he founded the Lyceum. Here he lectured
for many years, in the morning to his riper pupils on philosophical
subjects, and in the evening to the masses on such topics as were within
their comprehension and as would tend to elevate them.

His _pedagogy_ may be briefly outlined as follows:--

1. Education is a lifelong task, beginning at birth and continuing till
death. The first seven years are to be spent in the home under the
fostering care of the parents. During this period the child is to have
no severe tasks, but chief attention is to be given to physical
development. He must learn obedience, as the first step to an ethical
life. His food and clothing are to be simple, and his toys and games of
a character to stimulate wholesome activity. At the age of seven he is
to enter upon the direct intellectual training, and nothing must
interfere with this during the next seven years. From fourteen to
twenty-one the education is to include such exercises as directly
prepare for life. The diet is to be simple, the physical training
severe, for the double purpose of counteracting the tendencies of the
adolescent period, and of preparing for war.

2. Education includes the development of the body, the character, and
the intellect. Courage, endurance, self-denial, temperance,
truthfulness, and justice are essential characteristics to be sought.
The purpose of instruction is to develop the imperfect, untrained child
into the well-rounded, intelligent, and patriotic citizen.

3. The course of study, which begins seriously after the seventh year,
includes music, gymnastics, drawing, grammar, rhetoric, and mathematics.
Later, dialectics, philosophy, and political science are to be added.

4. Woman is to have part in education that she may properly train her
children, and may, by an intelligent understanding of the laws, uphold
the State.

5. Aristotle considered education as the most important and most
difficult of all problems. He based his pedagogy upon a knowledge of the
individual.

6. His method was the analytical. He began with things and advanced from
the concrete to the abstract.

The foregoing will show that Aristotle began the study of problems that
still occupy the minds of educational thinkers, after more than
twenty-two centuries of search for the truth. Some of the problems he
discussed have found their solution, and the seed sown by the great
thinker has come to fruitage. Karl Schmidt says, "Aristotle is the
intellectual Alexander. Rich in experience and profound in speculation,
he penetrates all parts of the universe and seeks to reduce all
realities to concepts. He is the most profound and comprehensive thinker
of the pre-Christian world,--the Hegel of classical antiquity,--because,
like Hegel, he seeks to unify all knowledge, brings together the
scattered materials of the present into one system, constructs in a
wonderful intellectual temple the psychical and physical Cosmos, the
universe and God, proclaims the destruction of an earlier culture epoch,
and sets in motion waves in the ocean of history that are destined to
influence the intellectual life of all centuries to come.... Aristotle
stands for the highest intellectual summit of antiquity,--the bridge
which binds the Grecian to the modern world,--the philosophical
mouthpiece and the intellectual master of twenty centuries."

FOOTNOTES:

[17] Brother Azarias, "Essays Philosophical."



CHAPTER X

SPARTA

=Literature.=--(See general literature for Greece.) _Sankey_, Spartan
and Theban Supremacies; _Smith_, History of Greece; _Plutarch's_ Lives;
_Mombert_, Great Lives; _Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters.


=History.=--Sparta was the capital of Laconia, the southern province of
Greece. Its inhabitants consisted of:--

1. _Citizens_, composed of nine thousand families of nobles, who ruled
the other classes.

2. _Perioeci_,[18] composed of thirty thousand families of freemen who
lived in the territory surrounding Sparta, but who were subject to the
nobles.

3. _Helots_,[19] about three hundred thousand in number, who were
slaves.

The Perioeci and the helots, with the love of freedom characteristic
among the Greeks, chafed under their yoke of subjugation, and eagerly
watched for opportunities for revolt. Only by an exercise of superior
force could the nobles maintain their supremacy, and they were obliged
to seek by martial training the strength they lacked in numbers. Hence
the education of the Spartan youth was of necessity military, and every
citizen was trained to become a warrior.

The Spartans were dignified, austere, and of few words, "laconic" in
speech. The young were expected to be silent in the presence of their
elders except when addressed. They were taught to give way to their
seniors, especially to old men, whenever they met upon the street or in
a public place.

=The Home.=--The child was left in charge of the mother until six or
seven years of age. Toys inciting to warlike sports were provided, and
childhood was made happy. The father usually superintended the child's
training, but sometimes an aged relative assumed the responsibility. The
treatment was humane and intelligent. From the first the child was
taught implicit obedience and modesty.

The _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ have been called the Bible of the Greeks,
and children early learned extracts from the works of the great poet,
Homer. The Spartan mother was highly respected by her husband and her
children, and she was noted for her chastity and nobility of character.
She entered fully into the Spartan idea, and cheerfully gave her sons to
her country, while she often inspired them to deeds of bravery and
patriotism. The lofty and self-sacrificing patriotism of the Spartan
mother is illustrated by her words upon sending her son to
battle,--"Return either with your shield or on it!"

It is said that weak and unpromising children were either killed as soon
as they were born, or abandoned to the wild beasts upon the mountains.
This was because the State would assume the training only of strong
children, such as were likely to make good soldiers. It is probable
that many of these abandoned children were rescued and reared by the
lower classes, which would partially account for the fierce resistance
so often offered by these classes to those who deprived them of liberty.
If such an inhuman practice had been encouraged by other nations of the
world, many of the greatest benefactors of the race would have been
consigned to an untimely death, for some of the noblest men that have
ever lived were weak in infancy.

=Education.=--At six or seven the boy was taken from the home, and the
State had entire jurisdiction over his education. The boys were placed
in groups in charge of young men who were responsible for their
education, which was almost wholly physical. They lived on very simple
food, and were often obliged to appease hunger by theft. They were
taught that crime did not lie in the commission of the offense, but in
its detection. Their dress from seven to twelve consisted of a long coat
of very coarse material, the same for summer and winter. They were
taught to bear blows without a murmur, and instances are related of boys
being whipped to death without crying out.

Children sat at table with older men and listened to their conversation,
but they were never allowed to speak except in answer to questions. Thus
they absorbed wisdom and were incited to deeds of bravery by the stories
of heroism related by their seniors.

The State furnished barracks poorly provided with the comforts of life,
in which the boys slept in severe weather; at other times they slept in
the open air. They were wholly separated from their homes, and
completely under control of the State. The purpose was to secure strong,
beautiful, and supple bodies, inured to hardship, as a preparation for
the life of the soldier. The only intellectual education was music,
which consisted in playing the lyre as an accompaniment to the dance.
Reading and writing were despised as being fit only for slaves.

At the age of twelve the boy exchanged the long coat for the mantle,
thereby entering upon manhood. From this time until the age of thirty,
much the same form of training was continued, though it became more
definitely military. At thirty the Spartan youth became a citizen and
was expected to marry. Girls also received gymnastic training, in many
cases with the boys. The purpose of this was to develop strong and
beautiful wives and mothers. The effect of this coeducation of the sexes
was in the highest degree salutary, impurity among women being unknown
in Sparta. We have already noted the patriotism of the Spartan mother.
Woman was highly esteemed in the home. Her praises and her reproofs were
alike respected, and all her opinions bore much weight.

=Criticism of Spartan Education.=--1. It produced men and women of
beautiful physique.

2. It inculcated obedience, politeness, modesty, sobriety, respect for
the aged, courage, and patriotism.

3. It checked luxury and extravagance.

4. On the other hand, it gave little attention to intellectual training,
hence it produced few men of lasting fame.

5. Its aim was martial supremacy, and this attained, the State fell into
a hasty decline because of the instability of such a foundation.

6. It excluded a large part of the inhabitants from its benefits, only
the nobles being included.

7. It was selfish because it trained for Sparta and not for Greece, or
for humanity.

8. It taught the duty of man to the State, and not the duty of man to
man.

9. It took boys at an early age away from the influences of home, thus
robbing the parents of the sacred prerogative of directing the education
of their offspring.

10. It produced men cruel in battle and revengeful in victory, men
incapable of cultivating the arts of peace.


LYCURGUS

There is so much that is mythical and uncertain concerning Lycurgus that
many have doubted whether he ever lived. Curtius, however, says, "There
really lived in the ninth century B.C. a legislator of the name
of Lycurgus." Lycurgus formed the constitution which gave Sparta its
peculiar institutions, and which established its place in history. His
laws were intended to check luxury and to inculcate the simplest habits.
Some of his important laws led to the introduction of the following
customs:--

1. All the men ate at common tables, fifteen at a table.

2. Children sat at these tables, but were required to maintain silence
save when addressed. They were not allowed to ask for food. The object
was to teach them good manners, to inculcate implicit obedience, and to
impart to them the wisdom of the Spartan fathers.

3. The food was of the simplest kind.

4. Sparta was divided into nine thousand parts, a part for each of the
nine thousand citizens, or noble families. The provinces under Spartan
rule were divided into thirty thousand parts, a part for each Perioeci
family.

5. Iron was made the only money, so that the people could not become
rich; for its great weight rendered burdensome the possession of a
considerable amount.

6. All children belonged to the State, to which only soldiers were
valuable, therefore weak or deformed children were cast out. Marriage
was also controlled by the State.

Lycurgus exerted a great influence upon Sparta, and his laws were
responsible for her peculiar political system and her resulting
greatness.


PYTHAGORAS

Pythagoras, though not a Spartan, is associated with southern Greece.
Little is known of his early life. He was born on the island of Samos,
about B.C. 582. He was familiar with the Ionic philosophy, and
probably visited Egypt for study, a custom common among scholars of that
time. Such a visit would in part explain his knowledge of mathematics,
as the Egyptians had long been masters in that science. One of his
teachers was Thales, the father of philosophy. The fundamental thought
of the Pythagorean philosophy was the idea of proportion and harmony.

"Through number alone, the quantitative relations of things, extension,
magnitude, figure (triangular, quadrangular, cubic), combination,
distance, etc., obtain their peculiar character; the forms and
proportions of things can all be reduced to number. Therefore, it was
concluded, since without form and proportion nothing can exist, number
must be the principle of things themselves, as well as the order in
which they manifest themselves in the world." (Schwegler's "History of
Philosophy.")

While mathematics was the central idea of his system, medicine, physics,
and philosophy were also taught in his school. He did the world great
service in the discovery of the so-called Pythagorean theorem in
geometry, that the square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle
is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

FOOTNOTES:

[18] The Perioeci (dwellers around) were the older population of the
land, who inhabited the mountains and hillsides about Sparta. They were
farmers, and they also worked the mines and quarries, manufactured
articles for the Spartan market, and carried on the commerce. Though
freemen, they were allowed no part in the government, could not bear
arms, and had to pay tribute to Sparta.

[19] The Helots were probably peasants who occupied the land about
Helos, and, defeated in war, became Spartan subjects. They could not be
sold or given away, but belonged to the inventory of the farm.



CHAPTER XI

ROME

=Literature.=--_Bryce_, The Holy Roman Empire; _Bury_, The Roman Empire;
_Church_, Pictures from Roman Life and Story; _Clarke_, Ten Great
Religions; _Gibbon_, Decline and Fall of Roman Empire; _Lord_, Beacon
Lights; _Capes_, Roman Empire; _Merivale_, History of the Romans;
_Shumway_, A Day in Ancient Rome; _Mommsen_, History of Rome; _Liddell_,
History of Rome; _Ploetz_, Epitome of Universal History; _Gilman_, Story
of Rome; _Collins_, Ancient Classics; _Monroe_, Source Book of the
History of Education.


=The Age of Augustus.=--The history of Rome covers a period of a
thousand years. From the little village on the Palatine Hill Rome grew
to be the mightiest empire of the world. The "Age of Augustus"
represents not only the summit of military glory, but also the highest
civilization, and the noblest ideals of the Roman people. It was the age
of Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Seneca. Rome was at peace with the
world, and therefore had time to devote to art, literature, and other
intellectual pursuits. It was during this period that Christ was born.

Like Sparta, Rome for a long time maintained her supremacy by force of
arms, and therefore encouraged physical education. But when she became
mistress of the world, and came in contact with the culture of the
Greeks, she began to feel the need of an intellectual and aesthetic
development. Accordingly it became the fashion to study Greek, to bring
teachers from Athens to Rome, and to send young men to Athens to study.
The Roman Empire was therefore the medium through which Grecian culture
was transmitted to the western world, and during the Augustan Age the
center of learning was transferred from Athens to Rome.

Gibbon says, "The first seven centuries were filled with a rapid
succession of triumphs; but it was reserved for Augustus to relinquish
the ambitious design of subduing the whole earth, and to introduce a
spirit of moderation into the public councils."[20] The Augustan Age
shows Rome at her best, and a study of the educational system at that
time will be most fruitful for the student of pedagogy.

=Geography and History.=--We have seen that Rome began with a small
territory in the center of Italy, and that province after province was
added, until in the time of Augustus she ruled the world. Italy, the
center of the empire, has a diversified surface, a mild climate, and a
fertile soil. In the time of Augustus, the Roman Empire embraced all of
the border of the Mediterranean, extended as far north as the North Sea,
as far east as the Euphrates, as far south as the Sahara, and west to
the Atlantic. With the great Mediterranean entirely under its control,
including the seas, bays, and rivers tributary to it; with its rich
territories; and with its vast population, which represented most of the
enterprise and civilization of the world,--this great empire possessed
wonderful advantages for the spread of Christianity, for the
dissemination of intelligence, and for the improvement of the human
race.

The government of the Romans was generally some form of republic, the
people always being jealous of their rights. Their religion took on
gross forms of idolatry, for they readily adopted and worshiped the gods
of the Grecians, Egyptians, and other conquered peoples. Temples to
Faith, Hope, Concord, and other virtues were erected and maintained. The
Romans were very superstitious. These facts have a bearing upon
Christian education, and will explain some of the chief difficulties
which it had to encounter.

=The Home.=--While in Athens the father had charge of the education of
the boy in his early years, in Rome that duty devolved almost entirely
upon the mother. In early Roman history the matron was celebrated for
her virtues--fidelity to her husband, love for her children, and queenly
guardianship of the sacred precincts of the home. The name of the Roman
matron became a synonym of all that is noble, wifely, and motherly in
the home. Without doubt the character had sadly deteriorated at the
period of which we write, but there still remained with many the lofty
ideals which had been fostered in earlier times.

The husband was the head of the house, but to the wife was committed the
care of the children and their instruction for the first six or seven
years of their lives. She taught them strict obedience and politeness,
and instructed them in the "Twelve Tables of Roman Law."[21]

The mother also took great pains to teach her children correct
pronunciation. She taught them their letters, first the name and then
the form, a practice which is pedagogically false, as Quintilian pointed
out. She also taught them poems from the great masters. In taking pains
with pronunciation she prepared the way for later training in oratory,
which was the most important study in Roman education.

Only when Rome had begun to decay did mothers commit the training of
their children to nurses and slaves. When Rome was at her best, the
child grew up in an atmosphere of love under direct care of the mother,
who shaped his morals and guided his religious life as well as his early
mental development. Around the mother centered all that was ennobling
and elevating in the first seven years of the child's life. The father
had but little to do with this period, and did not interfere with the
mother's work. His duty lay in public life; hers lay within the home,
and well did she meet her responsibilities until the time of her
debasement with all the other elements of Roman society.

=Elementary Education.=--At six or seven years of age the child was sent
to school in charge of a slave, who carried his books and protected him
from harm. This was in imitation of the practice in Athens, where the
pedagogue performed a like office. But the duties of the Roman slave do
not seem to have been as responsible as those of the Athenian pedagogue.
As we have seen, in Rome the mothers looked after the morals of their
children with great care, and the attendant of the child to school was
regarded as but little else than a servant. In some of the wealthier and
more aristocratic families, however, in addition to the slave who
performed the menial duties mentioned, there was also a pedagogue who
attended the youth to school and to the theater, superintended his
games, and, in short, accompanied him wherever he went. This pedagogue
was intrusted with full power to discipline and to direct the morals of
his charge. In some cases several boys were placed in the care of the
same pedagogue. On the other hand, it often happened that a boy had a
whole retinue of slaves, each having his special duty to perform.

The schools were in charge of _literators_, usually men of little
culture and no social standing. These institutions were public, though
supported by private means. The discipline was severe, strict obedience
being exacted by the teacher, who made use of the rod when he thought it
necessary. The subjects taught were reading, writing, and arithmetic.
Great care was taken with pronunciation, just as had been done in the
early years under the mother's instruction. In writing, the characters
were traced with the stylus on waxed tablets. Arithmetic was learned for
its utility. Indeed, the whole purpose of the schools was to prepare the
children for practical life. The easier poets were read, explained, and
committed to memory, not so much for their content as to fit youth for
public speaking. Obedience, politeness, modesty, cleanliness, and
respect for teachers were virtues insisted upon. These schools, which
covered the instruction of children from five to twelve years of age,
did not, as already intimated, reach the very highest classes, who
preferred to employ private tutors.

=Secondary Education.=--At twelve the boy entered a school taught by an
educated man, called _literatus_. Many of the teachers of this class
were Greeks. Here, in addition to the studies of the elementary school,
the pupils were taught the Greek and Latin languages; and the poets,
history, oratory, philosophy, and criticism were also studied. The
school of the _literatus_ was much better than that of the _literator_,
but it reached only a limited number of the Roman youth.

=Higher Education.=--Upon entering his sixteenth year, the boy was
inducted with ceremony into the dignity of manhood, and was clothed with
the _toga virilis_, the dress of men. He now chose his calling and began
definite preparation for it. Five vocations were open to him,--namely,
oratory, politics, arms, law, and agriculture. Those without talent or
inclination for any of the others devoted themselves to agriculture.
They were taken to the farms, where they received definite instruction
in the principles and practices of this occupation. To those who chose
oratory, politics, or law, were assigned persons experienced in their
respective fields, and the boys were taken to the forum, the senate, and
other places where they could hear renowned orators and become familiar
with public life. They had also definite instruction in their chosen
branch. Those who entered the army were placed in charge of military
officers, who taught them military tactics and the practical duties of
life in camp. These learners also gave attention to oratory and other
intellectual studies.

It will thus appear that in their schools, as in life, the Romans were
thoroughly practical. Each boy was carefully prepared for the life which
he had chosen, by being inducted into it during his school course.
Cicero asked the question, "What have we to learn?" and answered it, "To
honor and strengthen the State, in order that we may become the rulers
of the world." Roman parents demanded that their children should be
trained in the practical duties of life, in order that they might know
how to become rich. Therefore all training for children was in this
direction.

While this in general was the purpose of education, the Romans had their
ideal of what an educated man should be, and that ideal found its
expression in the name of _orator_. He who was the best orator was the
best educated man. The schools, however, were for boys, little account
being taken of the education of girls except in household duties. Still,
women were more respected, and had wider privileges than they had before
enjoyed. Most of the wealthy citizens employed Greek tutors for their
sons, and sought to ape Grecian manners and culture. Education was
completed by study in Athens and by travel--advantages within reach only
of the very wealthy.

=Criticism of Roman Education.=--1. It took great care to instill
respect for law and obedience to parental and civil authority.

2. It honored the home and taught respect for the mother. In this, Rome
took a great step in advance over many nations of antiquity.

3. It was not a State institution, and therefore could not offer equal
advantages to all.

4. Its end was to prepare the youth for practical life and to fit him
for the acquirement of wealth, rather than for the development of all
the human powers.

5. It was superficial, and sought to apply Greek culture to Roman
conditions and character.

6. It did not take a strong hold upon the Roman people so as to shape
the course of the nation.

7. It ignored the claims of the masses, including women, to equal
education and equal rights.

FOOTNOTES:

[20] "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," Vol. I, p. 2.

[21] The "Twelve Tables" were formulated about B.C. 450. They
constituted the code of written law, and were written or engraved on
tables of wood. They settled usages long in practice, but never before
written, defining the rights of _plebeians_ and _patricians_. They were
agreed to only after ten years of dispute and mutual concession. They
resembled Solon's laws, owing, doubtless, to the commission which was
sent to Greece to study the laws of that country. These tables were
destroyed when the Gauls sacked Rome (B.C. 390), but their contents had
been widely committed to memory, and were handed down from generation to
generation. The mothers saw to it that these laws were early taught to
their children, who thus came to venerate them and to have respect for
authority.



CHAPTER XII

ROMAN EDUCATORS

=Literature.=--(See Literature, Chapter XI.) _Forsyth_, Life of Cicero;
_Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters; _Watson_, Quintilian's
Institutes (Pedagogy, in Bks. I & II).


CICERO[22] (B.C. 106-43)

Cicero was born B.C. 106, of noble parents. As a boy he had the
advantage of the best schools and teachers that Rome could furnish.
Later he studied at Athens, under the greatest Greek masters, and became
proficient in the Greek language. According to the common practice among
the better classes in Rome, he spent some time in travel to complete his
education, visiting Egypt, Asia Minor, and other parts of the known
world. But Cicero's education can hardly be said to have been
"completed" as long as he lived, for he remained a student even in the
midst of his most exacting duties of State, and often employed teachers,
especially in oratory. Forsyth says of him, "Philosophy and oratory seem
to have been the two chief objects of his study; but if of any man
before Bacon appeared that might be said which the great master of
modern philosophy claimed for himself, that he 'had taken all knowledge
for his province,' it might be truly declared of the youthful Cicero.
His appetite for knowledge was insatiable, and his desire for
distinction boundless."[23]

Becoming an advocate in Rome, he devoted himself chiefly to the defense
of men high in position, often those who were charged with bribery,
extortion, or other abuse of political trust. Some of his finest
orations were delivered on these occasions. In the meantime he lost no
opportunity to advance his own political interests. He was elected to
one office after another until he reached the height of his political
ambition,--the consulship of Rome, the loftiest position attainable by
the Roman citizen. As consul he devoted himself with such zeal,
integrity, and success as to win the title "Father of his Country."
While he held this office he exposed the conspiracy of Catiline and
saved Rome from civil war. He conducted the office with honesty and
efficiency. Indeed, at a time of great corruption, Cicero stands out
during his entire life of nearly sixty-four years as the purest patriot,
the broadest-minded statesman, the noblest man of the age. His honesty
in public or private life is unquestioned. Of his intellectual greatness
Forsyth says, "The greatness of his intellect dwarfed that of every
other man alive."[24]

That he was vain of his accomplishments admits of no doubt. That he also
sometimes lacked moral courage and was vacillating seems also true. But
he was incorruptible in a corrupt age; above reproach when impure life
was the rule; and when treason was common, he remained a firm patriot.
His celebrated "Philippics" were delivered against practices which
indicated the approaching ruin of the republic. That ruin was complete
when the Second Triumvirate was formed,--an event which also sealed the
doom of Cicero. Upon learning that he was proscribed, Cicero attempted
to escape from Italy, but was overtaken and assassinated. His head and
hands were carried to Rome and presented to Antony, who gave the head
to his wife, Fulvia, whose crimes Cicero had often rebuked. Forsyth
says, "She took it, and placing it on her lap, addressed it as if it
were alive, in words of bitter insult. She dragged out the tongue, whose
sarcasms she had so often felt, and with feminine rage pierced it with
her bodkin. It was then taken and nailed to the rostra, together with
the hands, to molder there in mockery of the triumphs of his eloquence,
of which that spot had so often been the scene. A sadder sight was never
gazed upon in Rome."[25]

=Cicero's Pedagogy.=--It is not as a teacher, but as a writer, that
Cicero demands a place in educational history. His writings furnish the
finest examples of Latin style, and his orations are studied for their
classic beauty and rhetorical finish. He wrote many philosophical works,
in which are set forth advanced ideas on education. Especially was he in
advance of his age in regard to the punishment of children. He held that
corporal punishment should be resorted to only when all else has failed;
that the child should not be degraded in the mode of punishment; that
punishment should never be administered in anger, should be deferred
until ample time for reflection has been allowed to both teacher and
pupil; and that reasons for it should be given, so that, if possible,
the child may be led to see the justice of the punishment inflicted. The
teachings of Cicero on this subject are of great pedagogical importance,
and they have at last come to be recognized in the school practice of
the present day.

While these were Cicero's most important pedagogical teachings, he also
taught many other truths valuable in education. Among them are these:
that education begins in childhood, and is a steady growth throughout
life; that memory should be cultivated by learning extracts from classic
authors; that great care should be taken to make the amusements and
environments of the child such as to elevate and refine, as well as
properly to develop its powers; that at the suitable time some calling
should be chosen for which the youth has evident fitness; that religion
is the basis of morals, therefore careful attention should be given to
religious instruction.


SENECA (B.C. 3-A.D. 65)

Seneca was one of the most distinguished men that Rome produced. Even as
a boy he showed remarkable talent, and his father furnished him the best
educational opportunities by placing him under the greatest masters in
the city. He also had the benefit of travel in Greece and Egypt, after
which he practiced law in Rome. The student of education is interested
in Seneca chiefly as the tutor of Nero, who was committed to his charge
at the age of eleven. Without doubt the lad had already formed vicious
habits, as his teacher had great trouble in managing him; nor did Seneca
eradicate those evil tendencies which bore such terrible fruit in Nero's
later years.

Nero retained his love for his teacher for a long time, keeping him as a
trusted counselor for several years. Seneca drew up all of Nero's state
papers, among others one defending the crime of matricide, Nero having
put his own mother to death. This brought deserved odium upon Seneca's
name. It indicates that he was a time-server, lacking moral independence
and firmness. This may explain his failure in the training of his royal
pupil. Nero himself wearied of his old teacher and friend, and
condemned him to death. Seneca, however, committed suicide, a mode of
death quite in accord with his Stoic philosophy.

Seneca was the most eminent writer, rhetorician, and orator of his time.
He anticipated many modern ethical teachings, and in some of his
writings we find a strong religious sentiment, quite like that of
Christianity, leading one to think that he may have been influenced by
Christ and his disciples, with whom he was contemporary. On the other
hand, some of his teachings are decidedly repulsive to Christianity.

=Seneca's Pedagogy.=--1. Like Cicero, he believed that punishment should
be mild and reasonable. "Who condemns quickly, condemns willingly; and
who punishes too much, punishes improperly."

2. The office of education is to correct the evil tendencies in the
child.

3. The character of each child must be studied, and each individual
should be developed according to his peculiarities.

4. Do not flatter the child, but teach him truthfulness, modesty, and
respect for his elders.

5. Take great care that the environment of the child is elevating, and
allow only pure and ennobling examples to be reflected before him.

6. Give the child but few studies, in order that he may be thorough and
acquire right habits of learning.

7. The office of teacher is one of the most important of all offices.
"What the teacher, who instructs us in the sciences, imparts to us in
noble effort and intellectual culture, is worth more than he receives;
for, not the matter, but the trouble; not the desert, but only the
labor, is paid for.... Such a man, who consecrates his whole being to
our good, and who awakens our dormant faculties, is deserving all the
esteem that we give a benevolent physician or our most loved and dearest
kindred."


QUINTILIAN[26]

No other Roman contributed so much pedagogy to the world as Quintilian.
He was born in Spain, but early moved to Rome, in order to be trained in
the atmosphere of culture which that city alone afforded. His education
was conducted by his father, a celebrated rhetorician, to whom he owed
the particular direction of his powers which afterward made him so
famous. He chose the law as a profession, because it offered the best
opportunity for the exercise of oratory. Not finding the practice of law
congenial, he soon abandoned it, and devoted his time to teaching. He
founded a school at Rome, and conducted it with great success for twenty
years, having for pupils children from the most distinguished patrician
families. Among these were the grandnephews of Domitian, possible heirs
to the throne. This was the best school in Rome at that time. Vespasian
honored Quintilian by creating for him a chair of rhetoric and
conferring upon him the title "Professor of Oratory." This is the first
instance in history of State endowment of a chair for teaching a
specific subject. Royal recognition was not without effect upon the
fortunes of Quintilian, as it placed him in the front rank of the
teachers of Rome. This, together with his subject, the teaching and
mastery of which were considered by the Romans to be the climax of
education, enabled him to wrest supremacy from the Greek teachers who so
long had enjoyed a monopoly of teaching in the city.

When fifty-three years of age, Quintilian retired from his school, and
devoted himself to authorship. In the first two books of his great work,
"Institutes of Oratory,"[27] he sets forth his ideas on education. This
is the most remarkable treatise on education bequeathed to us by
antiquity.

He taught that as oratory was the climax of Roman education, especial
attention should be given to it. He was not in sympathy with the
prevailing use that was made of oratory. Oratorical contests were
frequent, and they excited popular interest. Courts, lawyers, and public
speakers resorted to all the tricks of speech to win popular favor, and
audiences demanded something startling, dramatic, and unusual.
Quintilian tried to stay this tide, and taught that oratory should
conceal itself. He met, however, with poor success in reforming the
evil.

=Quintilian's Pedagogy.=--His pedagogical teachings, some of which we
present, are of the greatest importance.

1. There should be no corporal punishment, as punishment administered to
slaves is not suitable for children who are to be citizens.

2. Nurses must be irreproachable in life and language, so that children
be not brought in contact with anything impure.

3. Amusements should be turned to account as a means of education.

4. Teachers should be men of ability and of spotless character.

5. Children should begin early with a foreign tongue, as their own
language will come to them naturally in their intercourse with those
about them.

6. Education should begin with the earliest childhood.

7. The forms and names of the letters should be learned simultaneously,
playthings being utilized to assist in this.

8. Care should be taken that children do not acquire a distaste for
learning.

9. In learning to read, advance very slowly.

10. Writing should begin with tracing, and the copies should consist of
moral precepts.

11. The individuality of the child should be studied.

12. Public schools are preferable to other means of education, because
they do not subject the child to greater moral danger, while they
stimulate him by association, friendship, and example, to nobler
endeavor.

13. Under the _literatus_, grammar, composition, music, geometry,
astronomy, and literature are to be studied.

14. The climax of education should be _rhetoric_.

=Other Roman Educators.=--Among the other Roman educators may be
mentioned Plutarch (50-138 A.D.) and the Emperor Marcus
Aurelius. Plutarch in his "Parallel Lives" gives particular attention to
morals. He offers valuable suggestions as to the training of children,
laying great stress upon family life, an admonition particularly needed
in Rome at that period. He also urges that women should be educated in
order properly to train their children, being one of the first to
consider this question.

Marcus Aurelius, called "the philosopher on the throne," in his
"Meditations" gave expression to most lofty thoughts, showing keenest
self-examination and obedience to conscience. His moral teachings are
among the noblest of all the writers of antiquity.

FOOTNOTES:

[22] Forsyth, "Life of Cicero." This is a very complete, just, and
discriminating treatment of Cicero and his relation to the times in
which he lived.

[23] "Life of Cicero," Vol. I, p. 30.

[24] Vol. II, p. 213.

[25] Vol. II, p. 317.

[26] Authorities differ as to the dates of Quintilian's birth and death,
placing his birth at from A.D. 35 to 42, and his death from A.D. 95 to
120. Drieser, who is perhaps the best authority, places his birth at
A.D. 35, but does not fix the date of his death, which, however, was
probably much later than A.D. 95 as he lived to a ripe old age.

[27] _Institutio Oratoria._



CHAPTER XIII

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Bryce_, Holy Roman Empire; _Guizot_, History of
Civilization; _Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Sheppard_, Fall of Rome; _Draper_,
Conflict between Religion and Science; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions;
_Gibbon_, Decline and Fall of Roman Empire; _Laurie_, Rise of
Universities; _Stillé_, Studies in Mediaeval History; _Arnold_, Essays
in Criticism; _Lecky_, History of European Morals; _Hegel_, Philosophy
of History; _Allies_, The Formation of Christendom; _Châteaubriand_, The
Genius of Christianity; _Azarias_, Essays Philosophical.


INTRODUCTION

Oriental civilization was based on the theory that the individual
belonged to the State, and could have no interest except that which was
bound up in the interests of the State. Christianity, on the other hand,
taught that while the individual has duties which he owes to the State,
and while he must look to the State for his protection, and for the
preservation of his material interests, he owes a higher allegiance
elsewhere, and no fetters can be placed on the aspirations or wants of
his own soul. In a word, Christianity taught the importance and worth of
the individual.

The great teachers, Confucius, Buddha, Socrates, Plato, had many
glimpses of truth, but Christ is truth itself. He discovered to the
world the final principle of the value of the human soul, and brought to
fruition the truth that "all men are equal before God." This thought
made human development possible; a new principle was introduced upon
which civilization could build and advance, and improve to the end of
time. Perhaps the highest test of civilization is found in the respect
shown to women. Measured by this test, the oriental nations have made
but little progress, as the position of woman with them is much the same
to-day as it was centuries ago. While this is true of each individual
nation, we have found among the nations themselves, as we have traced
the growth of civilization, steady improvement in the condition of
woman. Thus, in Athens and Rome, where we find the highest types of
ancient civilization, there was also the greatest respect for woman. In
no country of the East was it equaled. If the Jews are mentioned as an
exception, it must be admitted that the Jewish women held the highest
place among those of antiquity; but this eminence was given by the Jews
only to the women of their own race, and was by no means universally
accorded to womankind, as it is by the spirit of Christianity. If we
discover a greater respect for woman in Rome or Athens than in China or
India, it only shows the movement of civilization toward the west.

The coming of Christ marked a new era both in religion and education.
Let us look at some of the lessons which Christianity teaches.

1. _God is the common Father of all men._--This does not limit the
blessings of the world to the Jew and exclude the Gentile. All men of
whatever race or color may approach God as their Father, and all are
equal in his sight. This gives hope to all, and makes possible an
exercise of faith in the present and in the future life. It proclaims a
higher citizenship than that of the State, and demands allegiance first
of all to God.

2. _The universal brotherhood of man._--This principle sweeps away
castes, abolishes slavery, destroys class distinctions, and gives equal
rights to all men. It stimulates love for fellow-men, checks
selfishness, promulgates peace and good will, and implants the spirit of
the Golden Rule in the hearts of men.

3. _Marriage is a divine rite and husband and wife are equal._--Nothing
like this teaching had been practiced in the pagan world. Woman was
simply the servant, the creature, of man. She was to do his bidding, and
might be divorced for trivial cause, or for none. Man was supreme and
his will was law. The home in the Christian sense did not exist, because
the husband and wife were not one.

4. _Children are the gift of God._--This was a Jewish as well as a
Christian teaching. If children are the gift of God, the power of life
and death over them cannot rest with the father, as in China, Persia, or
Rome. It is the duty of the father to preserve them, teach them, train
them for this life, and prepare them for the life to come. Since the
children come from God, the pious parent must consider them as a sacred
trust which he does not neglect. Hence he must see to it that they are
properly educated.

5. _The central pedagogic truth of Christ's teaching is this: All
education is for the individual._ Oriental education had for its end the
interests of the State. Christian education has for its end the
interests of the individual. The State is the creature of man, and not
man the creature of the State. Man will create, and support, and
preserve the State for his self-protection and for his own good. The
highest ideal of the State is that in which the people rule, that which
furnishes the greatest liberty. This is the logic of Christianity, and
the logical conclusion of education. It is really for the individual.
The world has been slow to learn this lesson taught by Christ; but now
it is mastering it more thoroughly every day, as shown by the more
liberal forms of government, the broader interpretation of courses of
study, and the greater attention to the needs of the individual child.

All these teachings of Christianity have a direct educational meaning,
and suggest lessons for all humanity. For the school is not the only
contributor to the education of a people. Every truth that affects
mankind, every principle that touches the home or the State, has its
influence upon the life and character of the individual, and is,
therefore, an element in his education.

The natural consequence of these principles is that education must be
universal. Every child must be fitted for the duties of life, both for
his own sake and for the sake of the State of which he is a part. As an
individual, he must work out his destiny, and to make this possible in
the broadest and best sense from the Christian standpoint both mind and
heart must be developed. As a member of the State he must assume duties
in public affairs which require the possession of superior intelligence.
This is particularly true in free governments which are the logical
product of the spirit of Christianity. While the idea of universal
education had its beginning with the Christian era, we shall see that
many centuries elapsed before it reached its fulfillment. There were
many serious and almost insurmountable obstacles against which the early
Christians had to contend, and these made progress necessarily slow. Let
us look at some of these obstacles.

=Their Poverty.=--The early Christians were almost without exception
poor. Christ appealed to the poor and lowly, and chose his disciples
from among them. The acknowledged followers of the Nazarene had to face
confiscation of property, persecution, death. Homeless and without
protection they wandered about, and had neither the opportunity nor the
right to acquire property. They, therefore, had little means to apply to
the education of their children. They could neither establish schools
nor employ teachers; they could give only such instruction as the
limitations of their poverty, their misery, and their fear permitted.
Consequently, only the most meager training could be secured, and that
almost wholly in religious matters.

=Their Own Ignorance.=--Chosen as they were from the lowly ranks of
life, many of the early Christians were ignorant. Most of them were
servants and slaves, who had been converted from paganism, and who did
not possess even the rudiments of education. They had to be instructed
in the rites and ceremonies of the Church, and in the practices and
requirements of their new belief. Unlettered as they were themselves,
they could scarcely undertake to educate their children. It is marvelous
that under these conditions any attempt was made to do it; yet we find
that great pains were taken even in the early centuries of the Christian
era to perform this duty toward those who were regarded as gifts of God
and heirs of salvation.

=Their Small Number.=--Even when free from persecution and under
comparatively happy conditions, they were so scattered and so few in
number, as well as so poor, that to maintain schools was almost an
impossibility. They would not permit their children to attend the pagan
schools, as they feared moral and intellectual contamination. The only
safety, especially for the converts from paganism, was in being
"separate from the world" about them. So where their numbers were
sufficient they established schools of their own. But in many
communities they could not do this; hence they could only teach their
children at home.

=Opposition of the Rulers.=--Rome ruled the world, and her highways, her
commerce, her military expeditions, and her mighty enterprises furnished
excellent means for the spread of Christianity. But while Rome had many
religions, adopted from her conquered peoples, Christianity was so
different from these that the rulers were readily brought to regard the
Christians with suspicion. Humility, returning good for evil, refusal to
avenge, were contrary to the Roman spirit. Therefore many persecutions
followed, which disturbed the life of the Christians so as to make
impossible the work of educating their children.

=Lack of Christian Literature.=--The early Christian Fathers fully
realized the dangers that surrounded their children. To come in contact
with pagan schools, or even with pagan literature, they felt to be
dangerous. How easy it would be for pagan converts to fall away, or even
for others not pagan, attracted by popular influences. For Christianity
was not yet popular. Hence the only safety of the converts lay in
totally abstaining from the use of pagan literature. Here was introduced
a discussion that affected the Church and educational progress for
centuries, and caused learned men when converted to abjure their
favorite authors who had furnished the material for their education in
their early years. Having no literature of their own, and condemning the
use of pagan literature, the Christians found it hard to overcome the
obstacles which stood in the way of Christian education. As a result,
almost the only things taught to children were certain parts of the
Bible, and the rites and duties of the Church.

=Other Difficulties.=--New ideas do not readily take hold of the world.
Men naturally cling to the old and tried, and are not easily turned to
new thoughts and practices. The teachings of Christ were so radically
new that men were slow to adopt them. Their acceptance involved a change
of habit, the abandonment of customs not before regarded as evil, the
yielding up of social caste, the humbling of the individual. Herein
existed a most serious obstacle to the establishment of Christian
education.

These are a few of the great difficulties that had to be met, many of
which were not overcome for centuries. We shall see, as we trace the
development of education, how the new ideas which had their birth with
the Christian era struggled for recognition, how they have become
established, how they have brought great blessings to mankind, how they
have aroused ambition and awakened hope, and how they give promise of
still greater advancement in times to come. The boundless field thus
opened to mankind, and the knowledge of how to enter and possess it,
constitute the world's great inheritance from Christ. But to know how to
appreciate and use this inheritance, we must study the slow and painful
growth of these new educational ideals from the Christian era till the
present time.



CHAPTER XIV

THE GREAT TEACHER

=Literature.=--The Bible; _Beecher_, Life of Christ; _Hanna_, Our Lord's
Life on Earth; _Geikie_, Life of Christ; _Azarias_, Philosophy of
Literature; _Fouard_, Life of Christ.


=Life and Character.=--Christ was born in Bethlehem, spent his early
life at Nazareth, entered upon his ministry when thirty years of age,
continued it for three years, and was then crucified by the Romans at
the instigation of the Jews. These are simple facts of history
corroborated by both sacred and profane writings. All agree that his was
the most noble character that ever appeared on earth. The most careful
study of his life for nineteen centuries, by friends and enemies, by
scholars and critics, by philosophers and statesmen, by Christians and
unbelievers, only adds to its luster, and sustains the conviction that,
though he was a man, he was also more than man. The most critical
research, the most careful examination of his life, his motives, his
teachings, only compel the testimony that he was "without spot or
blemish." The great have studied his sayings and his life, and have
bowed in admiration before the sublime teachings of the Son of Man. The
simple and unlettered have listened to his words of truth and been
comforted. Faith has been awakened, hope inspired, love quickened, and
man redeemed by the power of the Christ. Millions have been influenced
by the sweetness and purity of his life. The spirit of Christianity has
led to the founding of hospitals, asylums, and institutions of mercy
everywhere; to the establishment of schools and colleges; to the
universal spread of education; to the uplifting of the individual; to
the furtherance of human brotherhood; and to the fostering of peace
among men and nations.

Christ produced a profound impression alike upon the great and the
small. Rousseau says of him, "The life and death of Jesus Christ are
those of a god." Napoleon says of Christ, "His birth and the story of
his life; the profoundness of his doctrine, which overturns all
difficulties, and is their most complete solution; his gospel; the
singularity of his mysterious being; his appearance, his empire, his
progress through all centuries and kingdoms,--all this is to me a
prodigy, an unfathomable mystery. I defy you to cite another life like
that of Christ." It has well been said that "Christ is the God who is
man, and the man who is God."

Nor was the impression upon the lowly less profound. He called ignorant
fishermen to discipleship, and by three years' contact and instruction
prepared them to "go into the world and teach all nations." The
inspiration of his life and teachings made them able to stand before
kings, and to "confound the wisdom of the wise."

=His Work as a Teacher.=--But the question here is not concerning Christ
as the founder of a religion, nor of his divine character or life, but
of Christ as a _teacher_. He is justly entitled to be called "The Great
Teacher." Karl Schmidt says, "By his doctrines and through his
deeds,--in and with his entire life,--is Christ the teacher and educator
of humanity." His method is the foundation of all true teaching. Let us
note some of the important characteristics of this method.

1. _It was suited to his hearers._--When Christ taught the people he
used material that they could comprehend. Thus, when he spoke his
parable of the sower, while he sat by the seaside, the multitude before
him had gathered from the villages and farms of the country round about.
They therefore could thoroughly appreciate the lesson. His parable of
the vineyard was doubtless suggested by the vine-clad hills of Judea,
and the lessons taught were made more forcible by their suitableness. In
his conversation with the learned Nicodemus he plunged at once into the
most profound doctrines, but when he talked with the ignorant Samaritan
woman, his approach to the truth he would teach was most simple and
gradual. No one ever failed to understand him, and he is a most
remarkable example of the teacher suiting himself to the capacity of his
pupils.

2. _It was full of illustrations._--When he wished to teach the evil of
covetousness he told of the rich man and his barns; he encouraged
faithfulness by the parable of the talents; he stimulated to fruit
bearing by the story of the fig tree; he taught mercy by the account of
the Good Samaritan; joy over repentance was illustrated by the story of
the ninety and nine. And so we find that by ample and suitable
illustration the Savior enforced the sublime truths that he taught.

3. _It was simple and yet logical._--There was no effort to be
philosophical, yet the teachings of Christ are full of philosophy. The
language used and the manner of putting the truth were so simple that
the ignorant man and the child were never left in doubt as to his
meaning. Nevertheless his teaching was not haphazard; it was connected
and logical. It contained so much of truth, so systematically put and so
much to the point in view, that, while it appealed at once to the
understanding of his hearers, it also furnished material for thought
for the most learned of all ages. Whether it was a parable or a story,
an admonition or a rebuke, a sermon or a prayer, a word of comfort to
the sisters of Bethany or an argument with the chief priests, a familiar
conversation with his disciples or a stern rebuke of the scribes and
Pharisees,--Christ always expressed himself with simplicity and
clearness.

4. _It drew from Nature._--Christ loved to walk in the fields with his
disciples and draw lessons from the plants, the birds, the sowing of the
farmer, the gathering of fruit from the vineyard, the ripening harvests,
and the whispering breezes. "Consider the lilies of the field how they
grow;" "behold the fowls of the air;" "a sower went forth to sow;" "a
certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and
sought fruit thereon and found none;" "lift up your eyes and look on the
fields; for they are white already to harvest;" "the wind bloweth where
it listeth,"--these and many other texts show that Christ was familiar
with Nature, and loved to call upon her for illustration and example.

5. _It elevated the truth and sought to enforce it._--Christ gave
himself a sacrifice for the truth. He allowed no thought of personal
safety or success to overshadow the truth. All his words, his acts, his
teachings, aimed at establishing the truth. He overthrew old systems and
introduced a new spirit into the world, even the spirit of truth. He was
the very essence of truth, declaring to Thomas, "I am the way, the
truth, and the life." He thus gave to teachers for all time a noble
example and an immortal principle, vital to their success in true
teaching. It is the _truth_ that must be taught and practiced by every
one worthy of the name of teacher.

6. _It was earnest and full of sympathy._--The earnestness of Christ
aroused the populace to shout "Hosanna!" and provoked the bitter
hostility of his enemies. It drew multitudes into the wilderness and
attracted crowds wherever he went. His sympathy went out to the people
as "sheep having no shepherd." It led him to feed the multitude, heal
the sick, raise the dead, take little children in his arms and bless
them, and weep over Jerusalem. He came close to the lives and hearts of
those whom he instructed. This is one of the grandest lessons that the
Great Teacher left for teachers of all time.

These are some of the chief characteristics of Christ's spirit and
method. He loved little children, and taught his disciples, when he had
set a little child in the midst of them, "Whosoever, therefore, shall
humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom
of heaven." Every one of the principles above stated is essential to the
teacher, and these principles contain the sum and substance of all true
pedagogy. Well has Karl Schmidt expressed the truth, when he says,
"Christ, the perfect teacher, gave by his example and by his own
teaching the eternal principles of pedagogy."



CHAPTER XV

GENERAL VIEW OF THE FIRST PERIOD OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Allies_, Peter's Rock in Mohammed's Flood; _Newman_,
Historical Essays.


This period covered the time from the birth of Christ till the
Reformation. It included the early centuries of struggling Christianity,
in which old customs had to be combated, and the new ideas, born with
the coming of the Savior, and propagated by him and his followers, were
slowly and surely to take possession of the world. These fifteen
centuries embrace those generally known in history as the "Dark Ages,"
during which progress was indeed slow. But when we remember the
obstacles which, as we have seen, were to be met, the prejudice to be
set aside, the great changes inaugurated, and the limited means at
command, we marvel at the great results attained. Let us now briefly
examine some of the factors that are prominent in Christian education
during its first period.

1. _The apostles and Church Fathers were foremost in all educational
matters._--These men were not simply spiritual leaders; they caught the
spirit of the Master, and sought to instruct the head as well as the
heart. They established schools and themselves became teachers, directed
educational movements, formed courses of study, and by fostering
education furthered the success and perpetuity of Christianity. Men like
Paul, Origen, Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and Augustine did much good,
not only in building up the Church, but also in promoting education, the
chief handmaid of the Church. Indeed, all educational progress during
the early Christian centuries centers around the names of these men.

2. _The Church was the sponsor of the schools._--During this long period
the State had not yet assumed the obligation of educating her youth, and
we find only rare instances of the State taking any part in the training
of the young. No attempt at universal education was made, and none could
be made, for the Church could not furnish the means to do it;
consequently nearly all educational effort was directed to training the
priesthood and providing for the perpetuity of the Church. The Church
was the mother of the schools, and to her fostering care alone do we owe
their establishment and maintenance during this long period. Her
authority was supreme, and acknowledged by all temporal powers; hence
the subjects studied in the schools and the persons chosen to share the
benefits of education were such as would subserve the interests of the
Church.

3. _The monasteries rendered valuable service to education._--They were
long the centers of learning, being the only places where schools
existed. They were the repositories of valuable manuscripts, which were
copied with marvelous diligence and preserved for future generations.
The monasteries adopted courses of study which, however incomplete, were
efficiently carried out, and formed the basis of future courses. The
influence of the monasteries for many centuries was of great value to
learning.

4. _The crusades brought new life into education._--While the crusades
were primarily religious movements, they were also educational in their
results. They infused new life into the stagnant conditions of Europe.
They aroused the people to physical and mental, as well as religious,
activity. They led to the establishment of schools and universities.

5. _The Teutonic peoples became an important instrument of
progress._--Rome began to decline, and the Teutons of the north, whom
Rome had never been able to subjugate, became her conquerors. The Latin
race had served a noble purpose in the world's history, but now another,
perhaps stronger race, joined in the work of civilization. The physical
and intellectual vigor of the various branches of the Teutonic
family,--the German, the Anglo-Saxon, the Scandinavian,--which has won
for them leadership in evangelization, in commerce, in conquest, and in
educational enterprise, showed itself unmistakably during the period
under discussion. These peoples now joined with the Latin peoples in
assuming the ever increasing responsibilities of Christian civilization,
and the interests of education were greatly enhanced and furthered
through these combined influences.

These are the principal agencies to which were committed the most vital
interests of humanity during the first fifteen centuries of the
Christian era. We shall see that some grave errors were made, errors
that blocked the path of improvement sometimes for centuries; we shall
find that narrowness, bigotry, prejudice, and ignorance often hindered
the introduction of truth because it did not coincide with tradition; we
shall see how the Church assumed prerogatives that did not belong to
her, especially in the field of scientific research, and thereby delayed
human progress; nevertheless, we shall ever remain thankful to these
agencies for the encouragement they gave to education, and for whatever
good results they were instrumental in attaining.



CHAPTER XVI

THE FIRST CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS

=Literature.=--_White_, Eighteen Christian Centuries; _Durrell_, A New
Life in Education; _Laurie_, Rise of Universities; _Lecky_, History of
European Morals; _Allies_, The Formation of Christendom; _Azarias_,
Philosophy of Literature; _Azarias_, Essays Philosophical.


We have already seen that the early Christians were obliged to endure
great hardships and surmount great difficulties in securing education
for their children. Indeed, during the first two centuries almost all
that was done was to train the converts in the rites and ceremonies of
the Christian Church. But as they grew stronger in numbers, and as
persecution diminished, they could give greater attention to education.
Unwilling to make use of pagan schools, which could not satisfy their
chief need--to prepare for the new religion--they gradually established
their own.

=Catechumen Schools.=--The first Christian schools were _catechumen
schools_. A _catechumen_ was a person who desired instruction in the new
faith with a view to baptism and admission into the Church. As many of
the converts had been pagans, and as all were ignorant of the
requirements of the Church as well as of the new doctrines, such
instruction was absolutely necessary. Therefore the converts were
divided into classes, at first two, later, four; and instruction was
given them in the rudiments of Christianity. In the beginning the
catechumen schools were for adults only, but afterward children were
admitted, and reading and writing were taught. Previous to this change,
if children received any secular instruction at all, it was given at
their homes by parents or tutors, or in the pagan schools. At the close
of the second century Protogenes established a school at Odessa, in
which reading, writing, texts of Scripture, and singing of psalms were
taught. This was the first _Christian common school_. Other schools
followed rapidly as the persecutions ceased, until Rome became
Christianized, and pagan schools gave place to Christian schools
throughout the empire. Two great names are closely connected with this
movement.


CHRYSOSTOM (347-407)

One of the greatest representatives of the early Christian Church
interested in education was Chrysostom.[28] He was born at Antioch in
Syria, and educated in the pagan schools, but the influence of his
devout Christian mother kept him true to her faith. He was noted for his
eloquence, hence the name by which he is known in history, for
Chrysostom means _golden-mouthed_. John Malone says of him, "First of
the great Christian preachers after the Church came from the caves, he
was not less able as a teacher."[29] He became bishop of the Church, and
was the greatest pedagogue of his time. Some of his educational
principles may be stated as follows:--

1. As Christ lowered himself to man's estate in order to raise man to
his estate, so the teacher must lower himself to the capacity of his
pupils in order to elevate them.

2. Christ did not reveal everything to his disciples, suggesting
sometimes truths for them to discover; so the teacher must not do for
his pupils what they can do for themselves.

3. The foundation of all true education is the Christian life and
example; therefore teachers and parents must walk circumspectly before
children.

4. Women, especially mothers, are the natural educators of children.

5. Religious instruction is an essential factor of the school work. It
is of the highest importance that children should be brought up "in the
nurture and admonition of the Lord."


BASIL THE GREAT (329-379)

Basil the Great was born at Caesarea. He studied at Constantinople and
Athens, and sat at the feet of the greatest pagan philosophers and
teachers of his time. He was not perverted by their teachings, but told
them frankly that, though they possessed all learning, he had found
something greater than this, and that was the Christ. Basil was one of
the foremost Fathers of the Church, a great writer, and a promoter of
education. He was very fond of classic literature, and, in face of the
bitter opposition of many of the Church Fathers, urged its proper use in
the schools. He was instrumental in founding monasteries, hospitals,
orphanages, and refuges for the poor.

=Pedagogical Teachings.=--1. Every misdeed should be punished in such a
way that the punishment shall be an exercise in self-command and shall
tend to correct the fault. For example, if a child has lied, used
profane language, or been quarrelsome, give him solitude and fasting. If
he is greedy and gluttonous, let him stand by and see others eat while
he remains hungry.

2. Orphan children and those that are dependent should be taught in the
cloister.

3. The Bible, with its stories, promises, history, and doctrines, should
be the chief text-book.

4. Not only monks and priests should be allowed to teach, but also the
laity.

5. Children while still young and innocent must be taught good habits
and right precepts.

It is worthy of note that Chrysostom and Basil were the first to mark
out definite lines of Christian instruction. During this period, also,
the first songs of the Christian Church originated in the huts and caves
of the poor. Thus in religious instruction and church song the
foundations of the Christian common school were laid.

=Catechetical Schools.=--The principal catechetical school was
established at Alexandria A.D. 181, by Pantaenus. Others were
located later at Antioch, Odessa, and Nisibis. The Alexandrian school,
however, was by far the most important. Alexandria, at the close of the
second century, was the seat of philosophy, as Athens had formerly been.
It possessed the most important library in the world, and students and
sages from all parts of the world flocked to this place of learning.
Laurie says, "The great Alexander, in founding Alexandria, connected
Europe, Asia, and Africa, not merely by mercantile bonds, but in their
intellectual and literary life. Here arose, under the Ptolemies, a
complete system of higher instruction, and libraries such as the world
had not before seen. The books were lodged in the temple of Serapis, and
accumulated to the number of seven hundred thousand. They formed the
record of all human thought, until they fell a prey to internal civic
and religious dissensions. The Serapeum dates from B.C. 298,
and, after recovering from the fire of B.C. 48, it finally
disappeared about A.D. 640."

Under the stimulus of these surroundings, and with such an abundance of
literary material at command, pagans and Christians vied with each other
in their search for truth. But the pagans had better schools and better
means of preparing themselves for intellectual combat. Christian
teachers were called upon to defend their faith against subtle
philosophers and trained thinkers, who had had the advantage of
excellent schools. In order to meet this apparent defect and fortify
themselves against their skillful opponents, the Christians established
the catechetical school at Alexandria, the most celebrated school of its
kind at that period. It took the name _catechetical_ from the fact that
the method of instruction was largely that of catechising, though
lectures were also given. Many pagans had been converted to
Christianity, and it was necessary that they should be taught the reason
of their faith, in order that they might maintain their ground when they
came in contact with unbelievers. This was particularly necessary, if
Christianity was to hold its own, in a city like Alexandria, where so
many learned men had gathered. It was also necessary for the extension
of the new faith among men of superior intelligence. Thus the object of
the catechetical school was to instruct learned men in the doctrines and
usages of the Church, to prepare believers to meet the arguments of the
philosophers, and to train teachers.

While it was a sort of theological school, it also taught philosophy,
rhetoric, grammar, and geometry. From the nature of things it will be
seen that the catechetical school was for adults only, and it may be
called a kind of university, whose chief attention was given to the
study of the Scriptures and the promulgation of religious doctrine. The
catechetical school was much higher than the catechumen school in its
course of study, and in the intelligence and learning of its students
and professors.


CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (150-220)

Among the most promising of the pupils of Pantaenus was Clement of
Alexandria, who was his successor in the direction of the school.
Clement was brought up a pagan, but was not satisfied with the heathen
religion, and made a careful study of Christianity. He traveled
everywhere, and sought out old men who had listened to the apostles, or
whose parents had done so; and thus he hoped to learn the truth
directly. As a result of his research, he became profoundly impressed
with the purity of the morals of the Christians and the truth of their
religion. He was a great teacher as well as Father of the Church.

=His Pedagogy.=--1. Faith is the cornerstone of knowledge.

2. Mosaic law and heathen philosophy are not opposed to each other, but
simply parts of the same truth. Both prepared the way for Christianity.
Jewish law and Greek philosophy are steps in the development of the
world which prepare the way for revelation. Christianity is the
fulfillment of law and philosophy.

3. He brought all the speculations of the Christians and the culture of
the Greeks to bear upon Christian truth, and sought to harmonize the
two.

The teachings of Clement gain in importance when we remember the bitter
strife in the Church over the use of classic literature, which lasted
for centuries, and the scholastic movement a thousand years later, which
also sought to harmonize philosophy and religion.


ORIGEN (186-253)

Origen was a pupil of Clement in the catechetical school at Alexandria,
and became his successor. Besides being brought up in an atmosphere of
culture in his native city, and surrounded by influences that stimulated
intellectual growth, he was fortunate in having a man of learning for
his father. From him he learned Greek, mathematics, grammar, rhetoric,
logic, and a knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. He began to teach in the
catechetical school when only eighteen years of age, a remarkable fact
when one remembers that he had among his students learned pagan
philosophers, and that it was very unusual for so young a man to be
allowed to teach. He was abstemious in his habits, self-sacrificing,
generous, and withal consistent in his life.

=Origen's Pedagogy.=--1. Never teach pupils anything that you do not
yourself practice.

2. The end of education is to grow into the likeness of God.

3. Pupils must be taught to investigate for themselves.

4. The teacher must seek to correct the bad habits of his pupils, as
well as to give them intellectual instruction.

Under Origen, the catechetical school at Alexandria reached its highest
prosperity, and its decay began soon after his death. Already in the
middle of the fourth century its power and influence were practically
gone.

None of the other catechetical schools ever reached the fame of that at
Alexandria, and they, too, gradually disappeared. Indeed, as the Roman
Empire became Christianized, and as Christians gained in education and
intelligence, there was less and less occasion for the existence of
schools of this character.

FOOTNOTES:

[28] Warner's "Library of the World's Best Literature," Vol. VI, 3665.
Lord, "Beacon Lights," Vol. I, Lecture on Sacred Eloquence.

[29] Warner's Library, Vol. VI, 3666.



CHAPTER XVII

CONFLICT BETWEEN PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Spofford_, Library of Historical
Characters; _White_, Eighteen Christian Centuries; _Fisher_, Beginnings
of Christianity; _Azarias_, Essays Educational; _Allies_, The Formation
of Christendom; _Allies_, The Monastic Life; _Maitland_, The Dark Ages.


GENERAL DISCUSSION

As Christianity became more powerful; as the Roman nation privately and
officially accepted the new religion; as the bishops of the Church came
more and more to be recognized as the vicegerents of Christ and the
apostles; as the Church authorities became convinced that tolerance of
paganism was dangerous to believers, and irreconcilable with the
principles of Christianity,--as these things became apparent, it was
seen that nothing would suffice short of the utter destruction of pagan
schools. Pagan philosophy and art were tolerated only as they served the
Church. Pagan education had an earthly purpose; the new education, a
spiritual aim, a preparation for eternal life.

The pagan temples and schools preserved the spirit of paganism long
after the Roman Empire had become Christian, and the leaders of
Christianity finally became convinced that ultimate success would be
reached only when these institutions were destroyed. The conflict
between these two parties continued during the fifth century and until
529, when a complete victory was gained by the Christians. After 529 we
have therefore only Christian schools to consider. For the next
thousand years education was entirely in the hands of the Church, whose
power was not always exercised for the good of humanity, but often for
the furtherance of her own ends. Still, it must not be forgotten that
all that was done for education was done by her, and therefore the world
owes her a debt of gratitude, as later pages will show. She did not
undertake the education of the masses, a task that was beyond her power,
and perhaps beyond the scope of her vision. Yet great honor is due the
Church for what was accomplished in education during the Middle Ages,
and to her alone must be given credit for an advancement in civilization
by no means small, considering the difficulties to be met and the
obstacles to be overcome. During this long period there were many bright
spots in the educational firmament, many brilliant leaders of the Church
who also were conspicuous educators, and many important movements toward
higher civilization. An examination of this period has led recent
historians to abandon the term "Dark Ages." A more careful study of some
of these leaders and the movements that they inaugurated will be
reserved to later pages.

We shall find the spirit of the period best illustrated by a study of
two great men who are preëminent in the educational affairs of the
time,--namely, Tertullian and St. Augustine.


TERTULLIAN (150-230)[30]

Tertullian was born at Carthage of pagan parents. He was converted to
Christianity when forty years of age, and by his talent, his zeal for
the new religion, and his faithfulness, he rose rapidly until he became
Bishop of Carthage. He was an orator, a writer, and a teacher. His
immoderate zeal led him into the vice of rigorism, quite foreign to the
real spirit of the Christian religion. He joined the Montanists, a sect
that believed in withdrawal from the world, the unlawfulness of second
marriages, and the speedy second advent of the Savior. Having received a
thorough training as a jurist at Rome, he became a great
controversialist.

He was the founder of Christian Latin literature, being bitterly opposed
to everything pagan. He would use nothing manufactured by the pagans,
would not dress like them, nor have anything to do with their schools or
writings. This of course excluded classic literature, and was in direct
opposition to the teachings of the catechetical schools, especially that
of Alexandria. Tertullian's attempt to create a literature for the
schools which should take the place of classic literature, while it
produced discord for centuries, and influenced other great men to follow
his example, had no permanent result. Perhaps the downfall of paganism
may have removed all danger to the Christians from pagan philosophy and
letters; at all events it is certain that in later centuries the Church
was most efficient in preserving them. Tertullian held that philosophy
of whatever kind is dangerous, claiming that it makes man arrogant, and
less inclined to faith.

In the fourth century the Fathers of the Church were opposed to pagan
literature. The "Apostolic Constitutions" commanded, "Refrain from all
writings of the heathen; for what hast thou to do with strange
discourses, laws, or false prophets, which, in truth, turn aside from
the faith those who are weak in understanding." It was urged that, "As
the offspring of the pagan world, if not, indeed, inspired by demons,
they were dangerous to the new faith." This introduced into education a
narrow view, which evoked many bitter discussions, and which it took
centuries to eradicate.


ST. AUGUSTINE (354-430)

Augustine was born in Numidia, Africa. His father was a pagan, and his
mother a devout Christian. Augustine grew up in the faith of neither,
and in his early years seems to have had no settled belief. As a
student, he was wild and profligate, though attentive to his studies. He
became thoroughly versed in Greek and Latin. He studied at Carthage and
later at Milan. At the latter place he made the acquaintance of St.
Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, who was instrumental in Augustine's
conversion. His life was radically changed, and he who had been the
wild, careless unbeliever became the greatest of the Church Fathers.
Like Tertullian, he condemned the very classic literature to which he
was indebted for his intellectual greatness. His greatest literary works
are "City of God" and "Confessions."

="Confessions."=--In this work are found his chief pedagogical
teachings. Karl Schmidt says, "In his 'Confessions' he develops a
complete psychology of the human soul, from which the pedagogue can
learn more than from many theories of education."

This work shows step by step his own development from childhood to
mature manhood,--how a word, a look, an act may awaken passions, and
lead to evil desire, or stimulate to noble deed or self-sacrificing
consecration. From his own life and experiences he portrays the whole
nature of man. Augustine is called the "St. Paul of the fifth century,"
and he certainly was the greatest man, since Paul, that the Church has
produced. In his writings is found the most luminous exposition of the
Catholic doctrine, and probably Augustine is the most noted of all
Catholic Fathers. In the domain of theology and morals he based all
teaching on authority rather than on investigation, yet the excessive
application of this principle to subjects of physical science was
destined later on to hinder investigators in the fields of scientific
research. Draper says, "Augustine antagonized science and Christianity
for more than fifteen centuries." This was doubtless due to the
application of the principle of authority in fields that Augustine did
not contemplate. But we shall have occasion to recur to this subject in
later pages.

=Augustine's Pedagogy.=--1. All teaching is based on faith and
authority.

2. All pagan literature must be excluded from the schools.

3. The chief subject in the school course is history pursued in the
narrative form.

4. Make abundant use of observation in instruction.

5. The teacher must be earnest and enthusiastic.

While the Roman Empire became officially Christian in the fourth century
under Constantine, it was not until Justinian decreed the abolition of
pagan schools and temples, A.D. 529, that paganism, as we have
seen, was finally destroyed. Thus the long conflict was ended, and
henceforth we have to do only with Christian education. We now enter
upon the thousand years of the world's history known as the Middle Ages,
the close of which brings us to the Reformation.

FOOTNOTES:

[30] See Draper, "Conflict between Religion and Science," p. 59.



CHAPTER XVIII

MONASTIC EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Lecky_, History of European
Morals; _Myers_, Mediaeval and Modern History; _White_, Eighteen
Christian Centuries; _Harper_, Book of Facts; _Mrs. Jameson_, Legends of
Monastic Orders; _Gasquet_, Henry VIII. and the English Monasteries;
_Châteaubriand_, The Genius of Christianity; _Allies_, The Monastic
Life; _Taunton_, The English Black Monks of St. Benedict.


=Monasteries.=--Monasteries were established as early as the third
century A.D.; but it was not until the sixth century that they
became powerful. The spirit of asceticism, urged by the Church as one of
the most important virtues, took a strong hold upon the people, and led
many to withdraw from the world. For such the founding of monasteries
became a necessity. The monasteries were the result of the ascetic
spirit, and their teaching was based upon authority and not upon free
investigation or original research. Thus there was introduced into
society and education a principle that, wrongly interpreted, impeded
progress for a thousand years.

Most of the time during this period the Church held supremacy over the
State with authority unquestioned. This authority was carried not only
into spiritual matters, but also into social, political, and educational
affairs. Everything that conflicted with that authority, or with the
decrees of the Church, was condemned. Even scientific discoveries that
did not harmonize with preconceived and accepted theories were
reluctantly received, if not absolutely rejected. Discoverers in the
realm of science were silenced, and sometimes actually punished, for
promulgating theories contrary to the teachings of the Church. A
notable example is that of Galileo, who taught the Copernican theory of
the universe, and for which teaching he was condemned to imprisonment
and a ban put upon his work. This exaggerated interpretation of
authority worked harm to the Church. It seemed to be forgotten that the
Bible is a book of religion and morals and not a text-book of science.

=The Benedictines.=--The most important monastic order from the
standpoint of education was that of the Benedictines. St. Benedict
founded the first monastery of the order that bears his name--Monte
Cassino, near Naples,--in 529. It will be remembered that this is the
date of the abolition of pagan schools by Justinian. On the site of
Monte Cassino had stood a pagan school. The monastery which supplanted
it remains to the present day.

Benedict's two important principles--to which cloisters hitherto had
been unaccustomed--were industry and strict discipline. These principles
made the Benedictine the most successful and beneficent of all monastic
orders. It grew rapidly, and within one hundred years from its
foundation there were more than two hundred and fifty Benedictine
monasteries. It is claimed that the order has produced 4600 bishops,
1600 archbishops, 200 cardinals, 40 popes, 50 patriarchs, 4 emperors, 12
empresses, 46 kings, 41 queens, 3600 canonized saints, and 15,700
authors, and that prior to the French Revolution it possessed 37,000
cloisters. There have been times when the wealth of this order in some
states comprised more than half of all the property. The Benedictine
monks tilled the soil of the country surrounding their monasteries,
literally making the "desert blossom as the rose." They were untiring in
zeal for the Church and in deeds of mercy. They established cloister
schools in Italy, France, Spain, England, Ireland, Germany, and
Switzerland. Monte Cassino (529), Italy; Canterbury (586) and Oxford
(ninth century), England; St. Gall (613), Switzerland; Fulda (744),
Constance, Hamburg, and Cologne (tenth century), Germany; Lyons, Tours,
Paris, and Rouen (tenth century), France; Salzburg (696), Austria; and
many other schools were founded chiefly by the Benedictines. Among the
many great teachers that they produced were Alcuin of England, Boniface
of Germany, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and Abelard. It thus appears
that the Benedictine order took a deep interest in education, and their
work deserves a most honorable place among the educational agencies of
the period under discussion.

=The Seven Liberal Arts.=--We have seen that much attention was always
given to religious instruction in the Christian schools. The Bible, the
doctrines of the Church, and its rites and ceremonies were at first
exclusively taught. But later secular branches were introduced. These
secular branches were known as the seven liberal arts, which comprised
the following subjects:--

                                                     {Reading and
                                        {1. Grammar. {Writing.
                   {I. Trivium[1]       {2. Rhetoric.
 The Seven         {                    {3. Logic.
 Liberal Arts.     {
                   {                    {1. Arithmetic.
                   {                    {2. Music.
                   { II. Quadrivium[31]  {3. Geometry.
                   {                    {4. Astronomy.

This course required seven years. Latin was the only language used, and
consequently the native tongues suffered. The _trivium_ was the most
popular course; such knowledge was considered an absolute necessity for
any one making claim to culture. After completing the _trivium_, those
who wished for higher culture studied the _quadrivium_.

Under the term _grammar_ were included reading and writing, as well as
the construction and use of language. In _rhetoric_ the works of
Quintilian and Cicero were studied, and sermons delivered in the
churches were made to serve for a practical application of the rules. In
_logic_ the works of St. Augustine were used in the exercises of
constructing syllogisms, of disputation, and of definition. In
_arithmetic_, before the introduction of the Arabic notation, numbers
were considered to have a mysterious meaning. The hands and fingers were
used to indicate numbers. For example, the left hand upon the breast
indicated ten thousand; both hands folded, one hundred thousand. For the
practical purposes of life the reckoning board was used. This was a
board with lines drawn upon it, between which pebbles were placed to
indicate the number to be expressed. For example, the number 3146 would
be indicated as follows:--

 |  3   |   1  |   4    |   6    |
 |      |      |        |        |
 | '''  |   '  |  ''''  | '''''' |

_Music_ was designed for the church service. Knowledge of music was held
to be positively essential to priest and teacher. Under the term _music_
were also sometimes included the fine arts, painting, drawing,
architecture, sculpture, etc.

In _geometry_ Euclid was used. Lines, angles, surfaces, and solids were
studied. With geometry there seems to have been connected a meager study
of _geography_. Early maps have been found, one dating from the seventh
century, being in possession of St. Gall monastery. Astronomy was
closely connected with _astrology_. Its practical application was
limited to the formation of the Church calendar, fixing the date of
Easter, etc.

This celebrated course of study formed the basis of secular instruction
in the monasteries, and, indeed, in all schools, for several centuries.
Religious instruction always remained a prominent feature of the work.
History had no place in the curriculum.

=Summary of Benefits conferred upon Civilization by the
Monasteries.=--1. They preserved classic literature. Though many of the
Church Fathers, as we have seen, were bitterly opposed to pagan
literature, the monasteries copied it with great industry and preserved
it with care. The archives of these institutions have yielded up some
most remarkable and valuable manuscripts that otherwise would have been
lost to the world.

2. They kept alive the flickering flame of Christianity. The Middle Ages
were indeed dark for Christianity, as unbelief, ignorance, and
faithlessness prevailed. But the monasteries were centers of religious
interest and zeal.

3. They maintained educational interest during this long, dark period.
We have seen that the monasteries contained the only schools. Through
them the Church kept up whatever educational interest survived during
the Middle Ages, and her work then conserved the energies employed in
later educational enterprise.

4. They originated a great course of study by giving to the world the
seven liberal arts.

5. They furnished places of refuge for the oppressed.

FOOTNOTES:

[31] Laurie thinks that these names were first appropriately used about
the end of the fourth century.



CHAPTER XIX

SCHOLASTICISM

=Literature.=--_Fisher_, History of the Reformation; _Lord_, Beacon
Lights; _Thalheimer_, Mediaeval and Modern History; _Schwegler_, History
of Philosophy; _Seebohm_, Era of the Protestant Revolution; _Hegel_,
Philosophy of History; _Azarias_, Philosophy of Literature; _Azarias_,
Essays Philosophical; _Schwickerath_, Jesuit Education, its History and
Principles.


Compayré remarks, "It has been truly said that there were three
Renascences: the first, which owed its beginning to Charlemagne, and
whose brilliancy did not last; the second, that of the twelfth century,
the issue of which was Scholasticism; and the third, the great
Renaissance of the sixteenth century, which still lasts, and which the
French Revolution has completed."[32]

As scholasticism, in a sense, was the rival of monasticism, and as it
covered a large part of the Middle Ages, we shall discuss it at this
point. Scholasticism was a movement having for its object the
harmonizing of ancient philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, with
the doctrines of Christianity. It covered a period reaching from the
ninth to the fifteenth century, and displayed its greatest activity
between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. It is called the
philosophy of the Middle Ages. The term _scholastic_ is also applied
generally to forms of reasoning which abound in subtleties.
Scholasticism was a dissent from the teachings of St. Augustine and the
ascetics. It laid chief stress upon _reason_ instead of _authority_,
thus asserting a vitally different principle, which would tend to
change the whole spirit of education.

The first prominent leader of this movement was Erigena, who lived
during the ninth century, and was the most interesting writer of the
Middle Ages. He was also a great teacher, and was called to give
instruction at the court of Charles the Bald, and afterward at Oxford.
He opposed the prevailing tendencies of the monasteries to base all
teaching on authority, and made its foundation philosophy and reason.
Schwegler[33] denominates Anselm (born about 1033) as "the beginner and
founder of scholasticism." Thus it was not till the eleventh century
"that there was developed anything that might be properly termed a
Christian philosophy. This was the so-called scholasticism."[34]

Greater than either of these was Abelard (born 1079), who by his
eloquence attracted great numbers of students to Paris. It is said that
"few teachers ever held such sway as did Abelard for a time." He made
Paris the center of the scholastic movement, attracting students from
all parts of the world. He did more than any of his predecessors to give
accepted ecclesiastical doctrines a rational expression. Scholasticism
influenced the establishment of institutions of learning in England,
Germany, Italy, and Spain, some of which later developed into great
universities. Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and Occam may also be
mentioned as great schoolmen. Of the first two Schwegler says,[35] "At
the summit of scholasticism we must place the two incontestably greatest
masters of the scholastic art and method, _Thomas Aquinas_ (Dominican,
1225-1274) and _Duns Scotus_ (Franciscan, 1265-1308), the founders of
two schools, into which after them the whole scholastic theology divides
itself,--the former exalting the understanding (_intellectus_), and the
latter the will (_voluntas_), as the highest principle, both being
driven into essentially differing directions by this opposition of the
theoretical and practical. Even with this began the downfall of
scholasticism; its highest point was also the turning point to its
self-destruction. The rationality of the dogmas, the oneness of faith
and knowledge, had been constantly their fundamental premise; but this
premise fell away, and the whole basis of their metaphysics was given up
in principle the moment Duns Scotus placed the problem of theology in
the practical. When the practical and the theoretical became divided,
and still more when thought and being were separated by nominalism,
philosophy broke loose from theology and knowledge from faith. Knowledge
assumed its position above faith and above authority, and the religious
consciousness broke with the traditional dogma."

Toward the end, another thing contributed to the downfall of
scholasticism. The philosophical subtleties of discussion made the
schoolmen lose sight of the main issue, and devote themselves to the
most ridiculous questions.[36] Schwickerath remarks,[37] "It can not and
need not be denied that the education imparted by the mediaeval
scholastics was in many regards defective. It was at once too dogmatic
and disputatious. Literary studies were comparatively neglected;
frequently too much importance was attached to purely dialectical
subtleties.... The defects of scholasticism became especially manifest
in the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when much time
and energy were wasted in discussing useless refinements of thought."
That it did a great deal of good will appear from the following
summary:--

=Summary of the Benefits of Scholasticism.=--1. It attempted to
harmonize philosophy with Christianity, and may be called the first
Christian philosophy.

2. It sought to base learning on reason and investigation, rather than
on authority. In this we find the first impulse of that movement which
later led to the founding of science.

3. Many universities were established through the scholastic influence,
notably, Paris, Heidelberg, Bologna, Prague, and Vienna.

4. While it failed to establish them, it at least recognized the
desirableness of a universal language for schools, and a universal
church for man.

5. Although, with the exception of the universities which it founded,
its direct work in education cannot be said to have been permanent, yet
it imparted fresh vigor to educational endeavors.

6. Schwegler says,[38] "It ... introduced to the world another principle
than that of the old Church, the principle of the thinking spirit, the
self-consciousness of the reason, or at least prepared the way for the
victory of this principle. Even the deformities and unfavorable side of
scholasticism, the many absurd questions upon which the scholastics
divided, even their thousandfold unnecessary and accidental
distinctions, their inquisitiveness and subtleties, all sprang from a
rational principle, and grew out of a spirit of investigation, which
could only utter itself in this way under the all-powerful
ecclesiastical spirit of the time."

FOOTNOTES:

[32] "History of Pedagogy," p. 71.

[33] "History of Philosophy," p. 186.

[34] _Ibid._, p. 185.

[35] _Ibid._, p. 186.

[36] See K. Schmidt, "Geschichte der Pädagogik," Vol. II, p. 265, for
subjects of these discussions.

[37] "Jesuit Education," p. 46.

[38] "History of Philosophy," p. 189.



CHAPTER XX

CHARLEMAGNE

=Literature.=--_Ferris_, Great Leaders; _Emerton_, Introduction to the
Middle Ages; _Guizot_, History of Civilization; _Wells_, The Age of
Charlemagne; _Bryce_, The Holy Roman Empire; _Church_, The Beginning of
the Middle Ages; _Lord_, Beacon Lights; _White_, Eighteen Christian
Centuries; _Laurie_, Rise of the Universities; _Bulfinch_, Legends of
Charlemagne; Encyclopaedia Britannica, Article on Charlemagne.


=History, Character, and Purpose.=--Charlemagne was not only the
greatest ruler of the Middle Ages, but one of the greatest and wisest
rulers the world has known. By birth and instinct he belonged to the
Teutonic race, to which, as before stated, the world's enlightenment has
been committed. Like Alexander the Great, Charlemagne united many
peoples into one, until he ruled over the territory now included in
France, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, and Italy,--in fact, his
empire comprised the richest part of central Europe. He designed to
rebuild the Roman Empire, and was crowned "Emperor of Rome" by the Pope,
in the year 800. While he protected the Pope and was loyal to him, he
did not admit the papal supremacy in matters of State.

Two very important influences were wisely utilized by Charlemagne in his
work of civilization, namely, the political ideas of the Teutons, and
the adhering power of the Christian church. He cherished German customs,
and left, in various parts of Germany, many monuments of his love for
that people. He was of commanding presence, being seven feet in height,
and of good proportions, blond in type, and of genial manners. His real
capital was at Aix-la-Chapelle, but Rome was a nominal capital. Bulfinch
says of Charlemagne: "Whether we regard him as a warrior or legislator,
as a patron of learning or as the civilizer of a barbarous nation, he is
entitled to our warmest admiration." If his successors had possessed the
ability, enterprise, and breadth of view that characterized him, the
world might never have known the period in history commonly called the
"Dark Ages."

=Personal Education.=--When Charlemagne arrived at the estate of manhood
and ascended the throne, he was ignorant of letters and lacked any
considerable intellectual training. His education had been that of the
knight who believed that skill in the use of arms and physical prowess
were of far more importance than a knowledge of letters.[39] After he
had come to the throne, and especially after he had conquered his foes
and had leisure to study the welfare of his people, he realized his
deficiencies, and sought to overcome them by diligent study.

He called to his court the most learned men of the world, received
personal instruction from them, and had them read to him and converse
with him while at his meals. In this way he overcame, in a measure, the
defects of his early education. He thoroughly mastered Latin, became
familiar with Greek, and learned also grammar, rhetoric, logic, music,
astronomy, and natural history. He never learned to write well, owing to
the late period of life at which he began, and to the clumsiness of the
hand accustomed to wielding the sword rather than the pen.

Among his instructors was _Alcuin of England_, the most celebrated
teacher of his time. Charlemagne established the "School of the Palace,"
and placed Alcuin at its head. Here the children of the emperor as well
as his courtiers were taught. He had his own daughters learn Latin and
Greek. France is indebted to Alcuin for its polite learning. Alcuin was
also the counselor of the emperor in the educational matters of the
empire, and it was probably his influence that led Charlemagne to adopt
such broad views concerning the culture of his people.

=General Education.=--We have seen that the prevailing idea was that
education should subserve the interests of the Church. Charlemagne
turned the current of thought toward the national idea. He believed in
religious training, but wanted to found a great State, and therefore
insisted that those things which encouraged intelligent patriotism
should be taught. He protected the Church, but insisted that the Church
was subordinate to the State, and that his will was law over both.
Consequently he required priests to preach in the native tongues rather
than in Latin, and decreed that monasteries that would not open their
doors to children for school purposes should be closed. The priests, he
insisted, should be able to read and write, should have a knowledge of
the Holy Scriptures and of the chief doctrines of the Church, and should
instruct the people in these things.

The seven liberal arts formed the basis of school instruction. Monks
were not to remain in idleness and ignorance, but were required to
teach, not only in the monasteries, but also outside of them. He also
encouraged education among his nobles, and plainly intimated that merit
and not noble birth would entitle them to favor. Charlemagne visited the
schools himself, and required the bishop to report to him their
condition. He thus became a superintendent of schools, being as familiar
with the educational interests of his kingdom as he was with every other
interest. He sought to teach first the priests and nobles, and after
that the masses of his people. He introduced the practice of _compulsory
education_ for all children, and decreed that truant children be first
deprived of food as punishment, and if that did not suffice, that they
be brought before him.

Reading, writing, arithmetic, and singing were taught, especial
attention being given to music, which was of use in the church services.
The Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer were also taught. In 801
Charlemagne decreed that women and children should receive instruction
in the doctrines of religion, because he believed religion to be the
foundation of a civilized nation.

Charlemagne's career shines out in brilliant contrast with the ignorance
and superstition of his age. The world was not yet ripe for his advanced
ideas, hence when the work lost the support of his strong personality,
its effects soon became obliterated, and a retrogression of civilization
resulted.

The clergy, who had entertained but little sympathy for the enterprises
of the emperor, soon closed the monasteries to outside students, and
returned to the same practices from which the authority and energy of
Charlemagne had aroused them. His work was not wholly in vain, however,
for he laid the foundations of the Prussian school system.[40]

=Summary of Charlemagne's Work.=--1. He elevated the clergy by demanding
greater educational qualifications of them and by insisting that they do
their duty.

2. He gave dignity to native tongues by requiring the priests to preach
more frequently in the vernacular of the people, and thus helped to make
the services of the Church of greater profit to the people.

3. He opened the cloisters to the purposes of education, and thereby
greatly extended their usefulness.

4. He sought to perpetuate religion and insure the stability of his
empire by making education compulsory and universal.

5. He believed in the education of women.

6. He laid the foundations of future school systems, and indicated
certain principles that are still recognized as valid.

FOOTNOTES:

[39] See "Feudal Education," Chap. XXII.

[40] Professor Masius, Lectures in the University of Leipsic.



CHAPTER XXI

ALFRED THE GREAT

=Literature.=--_Ferris_, Great Leaders; _Lord_, Beacon Lights;
_Mombert_, Great Lives; _Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters;
_Green_, History of the English People.


=History and Character.=--Alfred became king of the West Saxons in 871
at the age of twenty-three. As a boy he had already shown remarkable
energy and ability, and as a man he more than fulfilled the promise of
his early years. England was divided into several kingdoms, the Danes
having taken possession of the eastern part of the island. Alfred
carried on war against them for many years with varying success, until
he made peace by skillful diplomacy in giving them territory. He
afterward showed remarkable statesmanship in winning them to peaceful
acquiescence in his sovereignty, and thus he came to rule over united
England.

He laid the foundation of England's naval greatness by building ships to
defend the country against Danish pirates. Many stories are told of his
simplicity, his perseverance, his strategy in defeating his enemies, and
the love with which he inspired his people. Karl Schmidt says, "Alfred,
as victor in fifty-six battles, as lawgiver, as king and sage, as
Christian and man, as husband and father, is rightly called--'The
Great.'"

He was very methodical in his habits, and divided his day into three
equal parts of eight hours each: eight hours he gave to government,
eight hours to religious devotion and study, and the other eight hours
to sleep, recreation, and the recuperation of his body.

=Education.=--Alfred did not learn to read until twelve years of age.
His mother then stimulated him by the promise of a book to that one of
her sons who should first commit to memory a Saxon poem. With
indomitable energy he mastered reading, learned the poem, and secured
the prize. Throughout his life he gave much attention to literary
matters. He translated many portions of the Bible, as well as other
books, into Anglo-Saxon, and encouraged literary efforts in others.

Without doubt the intellectual activity of Charlemagne acted as a spur
to Alfred's personal ambition and to his desire to elevate his people.
Although he did not follow the example of Charlemagne in seeking
universal education for his people, he did urge that the children of
every freeman should be able to read and write, and should have
instruction in Latin. The distinction thus made in the purposes of these
two great rulers has been perpetuated till the present time, the Germans
encouraging universal education, while the English have attended chiefly
to the education of the higher classes. Alfred established many
monasteries and made them centers of learning. It seems clear that he
assisted in laying the foundations from which Oxford University grew. He
left his impress upon the English people as no other ruler has done,
implanting love for law, justice, freedom, national honor, and the
domestic virtues which characterize that nation. His influence is felt
upon English institutions to this day.



CHAPTER XXII

FEUDAL EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Stillé_, Studies in Mediaeval History; _Bulfinch_,
Legends of Charlemagne; _Emerton_, Mediaeval Europe.


Emerton defines feudalism as "an organization of society based upon the
absence of a strong controlling power at the center of the State."[41]
It marks a step in the reorganization of society which was slowly going
forward during the Middle Ages. It was an element in the movement toward
freedom, in which men of large landed possessions gained the allegiance
of vassals by gifts of land, in return for which the latter bound
themselves to defend the former in case of attack. "The tie by which the
higher freeman bound the lower one to himself was ordinarily a gift of
the use of a certain tract of land, together with more or less extensive
rights of jurisdiction over the dwellers thereon. By means of this gift
he secured the service of the lesser man in war, and as war was the
normal condition of things, such service was the most valuable payment
he could receive."[42]

While it is true that the feudal lords were in many cases little else
than robber chieftains, especially in the earlier history of the system,
it would be false to history to picture them in general as being of that
character. The knights were chivalrous in battle, ever ready to fight
for their religion, as shown in the crusades, to defend the weak, to
show greatest respect for woman, and to maintain freedom. Fortified in
an impregnable castle on some eminence, with his loyal retainers about
him, the feudal baron was able to defy kings. The system marks a stage
in the development of civilization, and when feudalism fell into decline
its purpose had been fulfilled.

With such an independent manner of living, and such ideas of their own
rights, it is not strange that the knights had a form of education
peculiar to themselves, and this education is full of interest to the
student. There was little in the schooling of the monasteries that could
appeal to them, and their ideas of manhood were very different from
those of the ecclesiastics. Prowess in the use of arms, skill in
horsemanship, acquaintance with the chivalric forms of politeness and
with knightly manners, were of far more importance to them than ability
to read and write. Indeed, they despised book-learning as something
beneath their own dignity, however suitable it might be for their
vassals. In such a school as this Charlemagne grew up. It was a school
of action rather than of thought; a school which looked to the present
rather than the future.

The education of the knights was in striking contrast with the
prevailing modes. Instead of the seven liberal arts, the seven
perfections of the knight were taught,--horsemanship, swimming, use of
bow and arrow, swordsmanship, hunting, chess-playing, and verse-making.
Their purpose was to prepare for the activities of the life in which
their lot was cast; that of the monasteries was to preserve learning to
fit men for the duties of the Church, and to prepare them for the life
to come. It must not be inferred, however, that the knight was unmindful
of religion, for he was inducted into knighthood by most solemn
religious ceremonies and vows.

The education of the knight was divided into three periods.

=First Period.=--The first seven years of the boy's life were spent in
the home under the mother's careful direction. Obedience, politeness,
and respect for older persons were inculcated, and stress was also laid
upon religious training. By the development of strong and healthy bodies
the boys were well prepared for the later education upon which they
entered after the seventh year.

=Second Period.=--After the seventh year the boy was generally removed
from home to the care of some friendly knight, in order that he might
receive a stricter training. Here he remained till his fourteenth year,
chiefly under the care of the lady whom he served as page. He was taught
music, poetry, chess, and some simple intellectual studies, besides the
duties of knighthood, especially in relation to the treatment of women,
and to courtly manners.

=Third Period.=--At fourteen the boy left the service of his lady and
became an esquire to the knight. He now attended his master upon the
chase, at tournaments, and in battle. He was taught all the arts of war,
of riding, jousting, fencing. It was necessary that he should have a
watchful eye to avert danger, protect his master, and quickly anticipate
his every wish. The service of this period completed his education, and
at twenty-one he was knighted with imposing ceremonies. After partaking
of the sacrament, he took vows to _speak the truth, defend the weak,
honor womanhood, and use his sword for the defense of Christianity_.

This form of education was most potent in preserving knighthood for
several centuries and was a powerful factor in shaping the destinies of
Europe. It was faithfulness to the vow _to defend Christianity_ that led
finally to the overthrow of chivalry, as will appear in the study of the
crusades.

=Education of Women.=--The girls remained at home and were taught the
domestic arts, as well as the forms of etiquette which were practiced in
this chivalric age, and which the peculiar homage paid to woman made
necessary. They were also taught reading and writing, and were expected
to be familiar with poetry. Daughters of the better families were
sometimes collected in some castle, where a kind of school was
organized, in which they were instructed in reading, writing, poetry,
singing, and the use of stringed instruments, religion, and sometimes in
French and Latin. Among no other class during the Middle Ages was such
great attention paid to the education of women. It was the duty of
mothers to see that their daughters were carefully prepared to sustain
the peculiar dignity of feudal womanhood.

=Criticism of Feudal Education.=--1. It honored woman and gave her the
highest position afforded by any system during the Middle Ages.

2. It gave the world a splendid example of chivalry, teaching manliness,
courage, devotion to the right as it was understood, and the espousal of
the cause of the weak.

3. It contributed to literature through the compositions of the
_Minnesingers_.

4. It counteracted the ascetic tendencies of the monastics by
encouraging an active participation in life's affairs.

5. It restricted its advantages to the privileged class.

6. It despised intellectual training, while laying great stress upon
physical prowess.

7. It lacked the elements of progress.

FOOTNOTES:

[41] "Mediaeval Europe," p. 478.

[42] _Ibid._, p. 480.



CHAPTER XXIII

THE CRUSADES AS AN EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENT

=Literature.=--_Michaud_, The Crusades; _Stubbs_, Mediaeval and Modern
History; _Mombert_, Great Lives (see Godfrey); _Myers_, Mediaeval and
Modern History; _Guizot_, History of Civilization; _Lord_, Beacon
Lights; _Archer and Kingsford_, The Crusaders; _White_, Eighteen
Christian Centuries; _Andrews_, Institutes of General History;
_Ridpath_, Library of Universal History (article on the Crusades).


Among the most remarkable movements that took place during the Middle
Ages were the crusades. The Saracens had overrun and conquered the Holy
Land, and the Christian nations of the west attempted to recover from
the hands of the infidels the soil made sacred by the life and death of
Christ. For a long time the pilgrims who made journeys to the tomb of
the Savior were undisturbed, as their pilgrimages were a source of
profit to the Saracens. But when the Turks gained possession of
Jerusalem, they began to persecute both the native Christians and those
who came from abroad. Peter the Hermit, who had suffered from these
cruelties at Jerusalem, returned to Europe, and by his crude eloquence
and earnestness stirred the people almost to a frenzy. Obtaining the
sanction of the Pope, he gathered an immense crowd of men, women, and
children, and started for the Holy Land.

They encountered great hardships, many died of hunger, disease, and the
hostility of the people through whose countries they passed, and the
remnant who reached the Bosporus, were totally destroyed by Turkish
soldiers.

The first successful crusade was organized by the feudal lords, who
gathered an army of six hundred thousand men under the leadership of
Godfrey of Bouillon. They had connected with their army one hundred
thousand splendidly mounted men. After untold losses and horrors, which
reduced their forces to sixty thousand men, they succeeded in taking
Jerusalem. They established a Latin kingdom with Godfrey at the head,
and thus accomplished the purpose for which they had set out. This
crusade lasted from 1096 to 1099.

For about fifty years the Latin kingdom held its own; but it was
constantly harassed by the Mohammedans, until it became necessary to
organize a second crusade. The leaders in this were Conrad III. of
Germany and Louis VII. of France. Jealousies soon arose between the
rival leaders, who cared more for personal glory than for the purpose of
the crusade. As a result, only a small portion of the three hundred
thousand soldiers ever reached the Holy Land; and this crusade, which
lasted from 1147 to 1149, resulted in failure.

Forty years later Saladin, a Mohammedan ruler, having captured
Jerusalem, a third crusade was organized. This was led by Richard the
Lion-Hearted of England, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip
Augustus of France. Barbarossa went overland, but Richard and Philip,
profiting by past experiences, made the journey by water, thus
accomplishing it with greater ease and fewer losses. The rivalries
between the different nationalities engaged prevented successful
warfare; but a truce was made with the humane Saladin,[43] whereby he
guaranteed protection to the Christians, and thus the crusade came to an
end. This crusade lasted from 1189 to 1192.

Other crusades followed from time to time for several centuries, with
but little advantage gained over the conditions granted by Saladin.

=Results of the Crusades.=--This, in brief, is a historical account of
the crusades.[44] It remains for us to note their educational value.

1. They drew various nations together by one common purpose.

2. They increased the knowledge of the manners, customs, culture,
products, and civilization of the East.

3. They stirred up commerce, especially that of the Mediterranean,
making Venice and Genoa great commercial centers.

4. They broke up the power of feudalism. Lord and vassal together
entered upon enterprises of danger and suffering, which were great
levelers of class distinction. In the enthusiasm of the holy cause, many
feudal lords disposed of all their worldly possessions, and became as
poor as their vassals. This broke up the feudal estates.

5. They widened the horizon of thought, made Europeans more liberal, and
prepared the way for an intellectual and religious revival.

6. They emancipated philosophy from theology. As a result of movements
inaugurated by the crusades, the university of Paris established the
faculty of philosophy separate from that of theology.

7. G. W. Cox says, "By rolling back the tide of Mohammedan conquest from
Constantinople for upward of four centuries they probably saved Europe
from horrors the recital of which might even now make one's ears
tingle."

FOOTNOTES:

[43] See Lessing's "Nathan der Weise."

[44] It would be impossible to give a full historical account of the
crusades in a work of this kind. The reader is referred to any standard
work on that subject.



CHAPTER XXIV

THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES

=Literature.=--_Laurie_, Rise of the Universities; _Hallam_, Middle
Ages; _Guizot_, History of Civilization; _Paulsen_, The German
Universities; _Hurst_, Life and Literature in the Fatherland; _Brother
Azarias_, Essays Educational.


We have seen that the Church had almost entire control of education
during the Middle Ages. Through her influence schools were established
and maintained, learning was preserved, and the interests of
civilization were promoted. She was also influential in the founding of
universities, though not to her alone were these institutions due.
Laurie says:--

"Now looking first to the germ out of which the universities grew, I
think we must say that the universities may be regarded as a natural
development of the cathedral[45] and monastery schools; but if we seek
for an external motive force urging men to undertake the more profound
and independent study of the liberal arts, we can find it only in the
Saracenic schools of Bagdad, Babylon, Alexandria, and Cordova. The
Saracens were necessarily brought into contact with Greek literature,
just when the western Church was drifting away from it; and by their
translations of Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle, and other Greek classics,
they restored what may be quite accurately called the 'university life'
of the Greeks."

The first universities, however, can hardly be said to have been
inspired by the influence of the Church. Nor did the State assist in
their establishment, though it afterward sanctioned them, and conferred
upon them their peculiar privileges. The first universities grew out of
organizations of scholars and students who joined themselves together
for the purpose of study and investigation. The oldest institution of
this kind was that of Salerno, Italy, which Laurie says was a "public
school from A.D. 1060, and a privileged school from 1100." It
taught medicine only, and was established by a converted Jew. It was
entirely independent of both Church and State, and attracted students
from many countries.

The next university was that of Bologna, Italy. It also had only one
faculty, that of law. In 1158 Frederick I. recognized the institution by
giving it certain privileges. It awakened widespread interest throughout
Europe, so that by the end of the twelfth century it is estimated that
twelve thousand students had flocked to Bologna, most of them from
foreign lands. This is an indication that the revival of learning was
quite general throughout the world.

But the greatest university of the Middle Ages was that of Paris, which
attracted at least twenty thousand students. The university of Paris was
evolved from a cathedral school, and it always retained a strong
theological tendency. Philip Augustus gave it privileges as a
corporation, and Pope Innocent III. recognized it as a high school of
theology. The course of study was by no means narrow, as it was held
that broad knowledge was essential as a preparation for theological
study. Consequently it was not long before a philosophical
faculty[46]--the first in history--was added as separate from the
theological faculty. The greatest name connected with the university of
Paris is that of Abelard. Early in the twelfth century he attracted
great numbers of students, and it was his personality that made Paris
the greatest university of the Middle Ages.

The university of Oxford, England, was founded in 1140,[47] that of
Cambridge in 1200. The oldest German university is Prague, founded in
1348. Then follow: Vienna, 1365; Heidelberg, 1386; Cologne,[3] 1388;
Erfurt,[48] 1392; Würzburg, 1403; Leipsic, 1409; Rostock, 1419;
Greifswald, 1456; Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1457; Trier, 1472; Tübingen,
1477; and Mainz, 1477. In France, after Paris, Toulouse, 1233; Orleans,
Cahors, Caen, Poitiers, Nantes, and others during the fourteenth
century. In the same century at Lund and Upsala in Sweden, Christiania
in Norway, and Copenhagen in Denmark. Italy, Spain, England, Ireland,
and Scotland also felt this wonderful impulse. These universities were
usually modeled after that of Paris.

The European universities were early granted certain privileges, many
of which are accorded to this day. Indeed, some of these privileges were
assumed and allowed before the institutions had official recognition by
charter. These educational associations acquired so much influence and
power that princes and popes vied with each other to gain favor with
them by granting them special privileges. One of the most important of
these is that the government of the student body rests with the
university faculty, both as to their life in connection with the
university, and also outside of it. Thus to this day if a student is
arrested by the police, his case is turned over to the authorities of
the university for trial and punishment. This was an important
concession largely growing out of the fact that a great many of the
students were citizens of other countries than that in which the
university was located. It will readily appear that this privilege alone
would have a tendency to create a world for university students and
professors apart from that of the citizens. Doubtless the moral tone
among the former was often very low. Students took advantage of the
situation created by their peculiar privileges, and disregarded laws
which the citizens were obliged to obey. Conflicts between these two
classes, therefore, were frequent and bitter.

The universities stimulated a desire for learning, created a respect for
it, and began a movement toward free investigation, and for the
promulgation of liberal ideas, which gains strength with each decade of
the world's history. They have greatly contributed to the growth of
knowledge, to the advancement of science, and to the elevation of
mankind.

FOOTNOTES:

[45] The cathedral schools were institutions connected with each
cathedral for the purpose of training priests for their sacred office,
but they were not limited entirely to priests. Instructions in the seven
liberal arts was imparted, and also in religion. Parochial schools were
established in many places for the purpose of training children in the
doctrines of the Church. Thus, as early as the ninth century, the Church
sought to extend the benefits of education to the people as well as to
the priesthood. While the parochial schools were limited in their
instruction, somewhat after the manner of the early catechumen schools,
the changed conditions of Christianity permitted a much broader training
than formerly.

[46] The complete university has four faculties, which embrace all human
knowledge. The historical order of precedence is as follows: _Theology_
(1259-60), _Law_ (1271), _Medicine_ (1274), and _Arts_ or _Philosophy_
(1281). The last includes all subjects not embraced in the first three.
Thus all branches of science, history, language, mathematics, etc.,
belong to the "philosophical" faculty.

[47] Laurie, "Rise of the Universities."

[48] No longer in existence



CHAPTER XXV

MOHAMMEDAN EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Warner_, Library of the World's Best Literature (see
article on the Koran); _Johonnot_, Geographical Reader; _Lane-Poole_,
Story of the Moors in Spain; _Lord_, Beacon Lights of History;
_Thalheimer_, Mediaeval and Modern History; _Stillé_, Studies in
Mediaeval History; _Irving_, Mahomet and his Successors; _Church_, The
Beginnings of the Middle Ages; _Andrews_, Institutes of General History;
_White_, Eighteen Christian Centuries; _Myers_, Mediaeval and Modern
History; _Mombert_, Great Lives; _Clarke_, Ten Great Religions;
_Ferris_, Great Leaders; _Laurie_, Rise of the Universities; _Walker,
John Brisben_, The Building of an Empire ("Cosmopolitan," Feb.-Sept.,
1899); "North American Review," Vol. 171, p. 754.


We have thus far described the work of Christian education. Parallel
with this and almost entirely independent of it grew the educational
work of the Moslems. This was a very important movement most valuable to
civilization.

=History of Mohammedanism.=--Mohammedanism dates from the time of the
Hegira, or flight of Mohammed from Mecca, A.D. 622. From this
date Moslems reckon their time, as the Christian world reckons from the
birth of Christ. Mohammed first appeared as prophet when forty years of
age. The religion of the Arabs was a most degraded one, and there was
great need of the reformation which Mohammed undertook. The prophet was
not well received at first, and, being obliged to flee from Mecca, he
retired to a cave at Medina, where he meditated and studied. It was
during this retirement that he wrote the Koran, the Bible of the
Mohammedans. He claimed that the angel Gabriel appeared to him, giving
him a new revelation, which was more significant than that of the
Christians. Indeed, these so-called revelations were strangely suited to
the varying ambition of the founder of this religion. The Koran teaches
that as Jesus was greater than Moses, so Mohammed was greater than
Jesus.

There is no doubt that the new religion was an improvement upon the
degraded form of worship that Mohammed found among the Arabs, or that in
the beginning of his activity he did much to purify and elevate his
people. But as he gained great numbers of adherents, and as he acquired
power, Mohammed became a warrior, and attempted by the sword to compel
belief in his doctrines. Moslemism met with such wonderful success that
already, during the life of Mohammed, all Arabia was conquered to this
belief, while his successors spread his teachings into northern Africa,
western Asia, Spain, and Turkey. They carried their triumphant arms into
France, until they were checked by Charles Martel; they overran Austria
and threatened the complete subjugation of southeastern Europe, until
John Sobieski dealt them a crushing blow before the gates of Vienna, and
forever destroyed their ambition for northern conquest; they occupied
Spain for seven hundred years, and still retain Turkey as their sole
European possession; they have extended their power over many parts of
Asia and Africa, until now they number about two hundred million souls.

The five chief Moslem precepts are:--

1. Confession of the unity of God. "There is one God, and Mohammed is
his prophet."

2. Stated prayer.

3. Almsgiving.

4. The fast of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Mohammedan year.

5. Observance of the festival of Mecca. Every Moslem is expected to make
a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his lifetime.

=Education.=--When Mohammedanism became secure in its power, it turned
its attention to education. The successors of Mohammed were called
caliphs, and the caliphs of Bagdad and Cordova rivaled each other in
fostering learning. Schools were established in all large Moslem cities
and in many smaller towns. Their scholars translated the works of
Aristotle and other Greek authors. They taught mathematics, astronomy,
philosophy, and grammar. They originated the science of chemistry, and
made great advances in the study of algebra and trigonometry. They also
measured the earth, and made catalogues of the stars. Every branch of
knowledge was studied, and students were attracted from all parts of
Europe to their schools, especially to Cordova.

Students lived in colleges with the professors, and there was an
atmosphere of culture and investigation not equaled in any of the
Christian universities of the Middle Ages.

Spain reached the summit of Moslem education during the reign of King
Hakem III. (961-976). This king fostered education, being himself a man
of learning. He had a private library of six hundred thousand volumes.

Education was not confined simply to the higher schools and
universities. There were also a great many elementary schools. The first
work of these was to teach the Koran, which was used as a reading book.
The Koran gives us the most perfect picture of the oriental mind that we
possess. Children of the poor attended school from their fifth till
their eighth year, when they were allowed to go to service. Children of
the rich entered school at their fifth year and remained till their
fourteenth or fifteenth year. After that, if parents could afford it,
boys traveled until their twentieth year, under care of a tutor. This
completed their education. Any person could teach who chose to do so, no
authority fixing the qualifications of teachers.

The Mohammedan schools began to decline in the eleventh century. At the
present time, but little attention is paid to education in any of the
countries under the sway of Islam.


GENERAL SUMMARY OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS DURING THE MIDDLE AGES

1. Paganism gave way to Christianity, and the benign influence of the
latter began to be felt in the recognition of the importance of the
individual.

2. The Church undertook the direction of education, which, though
necessarily limited chiefly to the ecclesiastics, had also a great
influence upon the masses at large.

3. The Church Fathers were the leaders in intellectual as well as in
spiritual matters, while monks and priests were the principal teachers.

4. The monasteries were the centers of educational activity, both in
fostering scholarship and in preserving classic literature.

5. Secular courses of study were established, the most important being
the "seven liberal arts."

6. Education was based on authority, and free investigation found but
little encouragement, except among the scholastics.

7. The State assumed no part in the training of the young. Charlemagne's
educational work is an exception to this rule. He asserted the
prerogative of the State to control education, recognized the necessity
of universal education, and the principle of compulsory attendance.

8. The crusades checked the growth of feudalism, aroused the
intellectual as well as the spiritual energies of the people, led to a
broader conception of man's duty to his fellow-man, and prepared the way
for greater religious and political freedom.

9. As an important result of the stimulated educational activity, both
among Christians and Mohammedans, many universities were founded.

10. "The Middle Ages," says Emerson, "gave us decimal numbers,
gunpowder, glass, chemistry, and gothic architecture, and their
paintings are the delight and tuition of our age."[49]

FOOTNOTES:

[49] Emerson, Progress of Culture in "Letters and Social Aims," p. 204.
Boston, 1895.



CHAPTER XXVI

THE RENAISSANCE

=Literature.=--_Williams_, History of Modern Education; _Quick_,
Educational Reformers; _Bryce_, The Holy Roman Empire; _Andrews_,
Institutes of General History; _Fisher_, History of the Reformation;
_Reeve_, Petrarch; _Symonds_, Renaissance in Italy; _Seebohm_, Era of
Protestant Revolution; _Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters;
_Hegel_, Philosophy of History; _Draper_, Intellectual Development of
Europe; _Azarias_, Philosophy of Literature; _Schwickerath_, Jesuit
Education; _Dr. Ludwig Pastor_, History of the Popes, Vol. I, p. 54,
etc.


As the fifteenth century drew to a close there were unmistakable
evidences of the dawn of a better day, and the long period known as the
"Dark Ages" was to be succeeded by a brighter and more glorious era. The
sway of the Church over the consciences, lives, and material interests
of men was disputed; the feudal system had begun to disintegrate; the
world had been aroused to new enterprise by the discovery and
exploration of distant continents, by the invention of paper, the
printing press, gunpowder, and the mariner's compass; the Ptolemaic
system of astronomy had been superseded by that of Copernicus; the great
empires of the Middle Ages had disappeared, and upon their ruins had
been constructed smaller nationalities which spoke a language of their
own. The period in which these remarkable changes were taking place is
known as that of the Renaissance. It cannot be confined to definite
chronological limits, but is the period of transition from one
historical stage to another, in which there was a "gradual metamorphosis
of the intellectual and moral state of Europe." The Renaissance must be
viewed as "an internal process whereby spiritual energies latent in the
Middle Ages were developed into actuality and formed a mental habit for
the modern world." It prepared the way for the Reformation, and
introduced the era of wonderful progress upon which modern civilization
has entered. It was the new birth, the regeneration (renascence) of the
world.

A most important instrumentality for carrying forward the great work
thus inaugurated was the Teutonic race. The despised northern
barbarians, who had conquered Rome, had become civilized and
Christianized, and were found to possess the sterling qualities which
made them capable of bearing the great responsibilities of progressive
civilization. The proud Roman Empire had at last succumbed to its
internal weaknesses and vices, and had disappeared forever from the face
of the earth.

With the greater enlightenment of men had come once more an appreciation
of the value of the classic languages, and Greek, the language of the
Eastern Empire, was no longer regarded with antipathy. The revival of
learning, which had its inception in Italy and spread northward, found
its most important expression in the new interest awakened in the
classic languages. It is in this, the so-called humanistic phase of the
Renaissance, that the student of education is chiefly interested. To
this we turn our attention.

We have already alluded to the social conditions, the inventions, and
discoveries, which prepared the way for the revival of learning. New
and powerful impulses were shaping the progress of the world, and the
leaders of the humanistic movement were not slow to utilize the
instruments thus opportunely furnished them. Chief among these was the
art of printing, which enabled them to multiply and distribute copies of
the classics, that had been consigned to comparative oblivion.

Another important element must be considered if we are to understand
this revival. We have seen that during the Middle Ages the ecclesiastics
largely shaped the intellectual activity of Europe, that mystery was
made of science, and that the authority of the Church was supreme on all
questions of education as well as of religion. A new and vital doctrine
was taught which had much to do with the intellectual and spiritual
emancipation of man. This new doctrine may be stated as follows:--

_Man is a rational, volitional, self-conscious being, born with
capabilities and rights to enjoy whatever good the world offers._

This doctrine, it will readily appear, is capable of being perverted to
an excuse for unbridled license, as was done by the Italians; or,
rightly interpreted, of being productive of great good, as in the case
of the Germans.

Another new doctrine taught was that there was goodness in man and his
works even previous to the Christian era, and that a study of the
writings of all who have contributed to human progress is essential to
culture, and of value to mankind. This was an argument for the revival
of the study of Greek, which had for centuries been neglected. Indeed,
Gibbon tells us that in the time of Petrarch, "No more than ten votaries
of Homer could be enumerated in all Italy."

Again, it was held that the gates of learning must be opened to all and
not limited to the clergy, the recluse, and the sage. Intellectual
culture must be offered to all men, to make them better and happier, and
is not to be confined to the few for the purpose of increasing their
power and widening the breach between the classes. The Renaissance made
learning popular, it created a passion for culture, it aroused and
stimulated widespread desire for greater enlightenment. Some of the
leaders in the movement, however, merited opposition because of their
efforts to introduce not only the beauties of pagan art and literature,
but likewise some of their licentiousness.

We may now turn our attention to a more detailed history of this revival
and its effect upon different peoples, and to a brief study of some of
its great leaders.

=Humanism in Italy.=--Italy was the first to catch the impulse of
humanism. Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio in the fourteenth century
inspired men with their new ideas, and set in motion influences which
were attended with results often far from good. They revived the study
of Latin and Greek classics, extracted manuscripts from their hidden
archives, incited in society a passion for learning, and created a
popular literature in their own vernacular. They implanted a love of
freedom of thought in the Italian masses. Their enthusiasm for the new
learning attracted scholars from Germany, France, and other countries,
who spread the influence in their own lands.

The effect of humanism upon the Italian mind and life was pernicious in
the extreme. It led to infidelity, to immorality, and to a return to
many pagan practices. This was owing to two chief causes. First, the
evil influence of many leaders of the Church, and second, the passionate
nature of the Italian people. Karl Schmidt says, "Humanism, but not
morality, ruled in the Vatican." Brother Azarias, in speaking of this
period, says:[50] "The clergy loved their own ease too well; they were
too great pleasure-seekers and gold-coveters to attend to their flocks
with that pastoral spirit of simplicity and good faith that is to be
witnessed in the Church to-day. The bishops were no better. They looked
for emoluments and court favor. Even the better class of ecclesiastics
gave themselves up to the intellectual luxury of admiring Plato and
imitating Cicero. While a general laxity of morals in all orders of
religious life--among priest and monk, pope and cardinal--was bringing
odium on the Church, and weakening her hold upon the people--especially
upon the Teutonic races--the seeds of regeneration were germinating in
her own body. She was even then the mother of sanctity.... The Catholic
hierarchy at last realized that with themselves should begin the
reformation they would see established; they therefore pronounced the
most withering denunciations upon the clerical and religious abuses of
the day."

The people interpreted the teaching of Petrarch that the world was made
for man's enjoyment, as a plea for license and absence of restraint.
Even monks and priests, who had been held to the rigid life of the
cloister, imbued with this teaching, indulged in excesses that were
subversive of both morals and religion.[51]

But without doubt there was a great intellectual movement in Italy.
Draper says, "Between 1470 and 1500 more than ten thousand editions of
books and pamphlets were printed, and a majority of them in Italy,
demonstrating that Italy was in the van of the intellectual movement."

=Humanism in Germany.=--A far different result was attained among the
Teutonic peoples. The best students of Germany went to Italy, and,
becoming acquainted with the new education, returned to introduce it
into their own universities. Being less directly under the influences
that obtained in Italy, and possessing the moral stability which had
brought the Teutonic race to the front, the Germans obtained good where
the Italians had absorbed evil. The same principle, with different
interpretation, under different conditions, and in different soil,
brought forth far different fruit. Thus Petrarch's teaching was
interpreted to mean that the good things of earth are not to be abused,
and that man's acquirements are to be consecrated to his
self-development and to the glory of God.

The German humanists revived the study of the classics, Greek, Latin,
and Hebrew, until, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, these
languages were taught in every German university. The Bible was studied
in the original, and classic writings were redeemed from obscurity,
printed, and given to the world. Heidelberg and Tübingen became centers
of the humanistic movement, and Agricola, Reuchlin, and Erasmus were the
great leaders.

=Artisan Schools.=--During the 13th and 14th centuries another type of
schools flourished, namely, the Bürger or Artisan Schools, whose
purpose, contrary to that of the humanistic influences, was to prepare
men for practical and useful work, and to fit for citizenship. The need
of these schools grew out of the changed conditions of life, especially
the growing tendency to live in cities and to divide labor into crafts.
They were supported by the secular authorities, and ultimately they came
to exert a great influence upon city governments, particularly those of
the Hanseatic league. Many of the teachers were priests, and the
instruction was usually given in the mother tongue. These schools
flourished in Germany, France, Italy, Denmark, and other countries, and
they doubtless furthered the idea of the maintenance of education at
public expense, an idea that has come to have universal acceptance.

=Summary of the Influence of Humanism.=--1. It laid the foundation for
future liberty of thought and conscience.

2. It revived the study of the classic languages, and gave them a place
in education which they still hold.

3. It utilized the art of printing by placing the works of ancient
authors in form to be used by the world.

4. It increased the number of students in the universities, and
stimulated intelligence among the masses.

5. It changed courses of study, making them more practical.

6. It exerted an influence on schools of all kinds by giving better
preparation to teachers.

7. It stimulated all forms of elevating activity,--in art, in science,
in exploration, in invention.

8. It prepared the way for the Reformation, which broadened and
perfected the work thus inaugurated.

FOOTNOTES:

[50] "Philosophy of Literature," p. 123.

[51] _Ibid._



CHAPTER XXVII

HUMANISTIC EDUCATORS

=Literature.=--_Spofford_, Library of Historical Characters; _Symonds_,
Renaissance in Italy; _Reeve_, Petrarch; _Macaulay_, Essays; _Warner_,
Library of the World's Best Literature (see articles on Dante, Petrarch,
and Boccaccio); _D'Aubigné_, History of the Reformation; _Morris_, Era
of the Protestant Revolution; _Leclerc_, Life of Erasmus; _Fisher_,
History of the Reformation; _Mrs. Oliphant_, Dante; _Azarias_,
Philosophy of Literature; _Schwickerath_, Jesuit Education.


The mission of the humanistic leaders was to "awake the dead," for Greek
had become in the fullest sense a dead language, and while classic Latin
was still read, its spirit was not comprehended and therefore it also
was practically dead. We have seen that the Italians were the first to
catch the inspiration of this revival, and Germany, France, Spain, and
England "were invited to her feast." The great leaders of Italy were
Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. It is not the purpose here to discuss
these men in all of their intellectual activities, but simply to
consider the part of their work that had a bearing on education.


THE ITALIAN HUMANISTS

DANTE (1265-1321)

Dante was born and educated in Florence. He was favored with a devoted
teacher, Brunetto Latini, who was said to be "a great philosopher and a
consummate master of rhetoric, not only knowing how to speak well, but
to write well." Under him Dante became familiar with all of the great
Latin poets, with philosophy, history, and theology. Dante always spoke
of his teacher with great affection. Those were times of revolution and
political disturbance, and Dante was readily drawn into politics. This
caused his banishment and even endangered his life.

Dante's greatest work is the "Divine Comedy," which has made his name
immortal. His was the first great name in literature after the long dark
period of the Middle Ages. It is said of him that "he was not the
restorer of classic antiquity, but one of the great prophets of that
restoration." He brought the Italian language into use in literature and
gave to it a dignity that it has never lost. Dante prepared the way for
the humanistic movement and was therefore an important factor in this
great revival.


PETRARCH (1304-1374)

The father of Petrarch was an eminent jurist, and he desired his son to
adopt his profession, but Petrarch had neither taste nor capacity for
Roman law. He was determined to be a man of letters. Like Dante, he too
mixed in politics, and several important diplomatic positions were given
to him. Though he succeeded in learning a little Greek late in life,
Petrarch was not a Greek scholar. This did not hinder him from being a
warm advocate of the claims of the Greek language as an important
element of a liberal education. Although he possessed a manuscript of
Homer, "Homer was dumb to him, or rather he was deaf to Homer."

Petrarch was the real founder of humanism. Being enthusiastic for the
works of antiquity himself, he inspired the Italians with a remarkable
zeal in the pursuit of classic lore; nor was his influence confined to
the limits of his native country. He was the first to make a collection
of classic works, and to bring to light the literary treasures which the
monasteries had so carefully preserved for centuries. He inaugurated
that great movement which "restored freedom, self-consciousness, and the
faculty of progress to human intellect." He recognized that the most
wonderful thing in the world is the human mind, the emancipation of
which can be brought about only through its own activity. He was the
first to appreciate the importance of Greek in human culture. Unlike
Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine, he believed that classic authors,
together with the Holy Scriptures and the writings of the Church
Fathers, produce the broadest intelligence. All of these have the same
purpose, and all are necessary to human enlightenment. Petrarch broke
down the unfruitful methods of the scholastics, and laid the foundations
upon which modern education is based; namely, intellectual freedom,
self-consciousness, and self-activity.


BOCCACCIO (1313-1375)

The third of the great Italian leaders in the humanistic movement was
Boccaccio. At the age of twenty-five, while standing at the grave of
Vergil, he decided to devote himself to a literary career. He admired
the great work of Petrarch, and was proud that, "at his own expense, he
was the first to have the works of Homer and other Greek authors brought
to his native land; that he was the first to call and support a teacher
of Greek; and that he was the first among all Italians who could read
Homer in the original."


THE GERMAN HUMANISTS

The German mind is more earnest, disputative, and practical than the
Italian, therefore the trend of German humanism was at first chiefly
theological, and the study of the classic languages, especially Hebrew
and Greek, was undertaken for the purpose of better understanding the
Holy Scriptures. Only a few scholars, however, were interested, and not
until a violent attack was made upon Reuchlin, was general attention
attracted.


AGRICOLA (1443-1485)

Rudolphus Agricola was the first to prepare the northern countries for
the reception of the classic revival. After studying for some time under
the great Italian masters, he returned to Germany and accepted a
professorship at Heidelberg, where he delivered courses of lectures on
the literature of Greece and Rome. He lectured also at Worms at the
request of the bishop, and drew around him a large number of students in
both places. Hallam says of him, "No German wrote so pure a style, or
possessed so large a portion of classic learning." He prepared the way
for the introduction of humanistic teachings and some of his pupils
became the great leaders of that movement among the Teutonic peoples.

The testimony of Erasmus concerning Agricola is as follows: "There was
no branch of knowledge in which he could not measure himself with the
greatest masters. Among the Greeks, he was a pure Greek, among the
Latins a pure Roman.... Even when he spoke _ex tempore_, his speech was
so perfect and so pure that one could easily believe that one heard a
Roman rather than a German. United with his powerful eloquence was the
broadest erudition. He had investigated all the mysteries of philosophy,
and thoroughly mastered every branch of music. In his later years he
devoted his whole soul to the mastery of Hebrew and to the study of the
Holy Scriptures. He cared but little for glory."


REUCHLIN (1455-1522)

Reuchlin may properly be called the first great German humanist. He was
educated at Freiburg, Paris, and Basel, and gave especial attention to
the classic studies, which had almost disappeared from the university
courses in Germany. He took his master's degree at Basel, and then began
to lecture on classical Latin and Greek. Being a born teacher, he drew
about him a great number of students, who became interested in classic
studies. He made several visits to Italy, where he imbibed the
humanistic theories of the Italians, though he was already far advanced
in those theories before he went to Italy. In 1481 he was appointed
professor at Tübingen, which thus became the first German university to
teach humanistic doctrines.

At Linz, where he had been sent on an embassy, he made the acquaintance
of the emperor's Jewish physician, with whom he began the study of
Hebrew. This marks an important epoch in his history, as he is best
known for his Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon, published in 1506, and for his
championship of the Hebrew literature. Owing to the scarcity of classic
text-books, Reuchlin was obliged to mark out courses for his students,
and, in a measure, to supply text-books for them. Much of his work in
the university had to be dictated, and students were obliged to copy
their work from manuscripts. He published a Latin lexicon and prepared
the manuscript of a Greek grammar which he never published, but from
which doubtless he drew in his work with students.

In 1496 his friend Count Eberhard died, and Reuchlin's enemies succeeded
in alienating the new prince, so he was glad to avail himself of the
opportunity to go to the university of Heidelberg. Here he gave chief
attention to Hebrew.

While in Heidelberg he became involved in an unfortunate controversy
regarding Hebrew literature, a controversy which was forced upon him.
John Pfefferkorn, a converted Jew, zealous for the conversion of his
race, obtained an order from the emperor to confiscate and destroy all
Hebrew works which opposed the Christian faith. Reuchlin was appealed to
as the highest authority on Hebrew, and he urged that, instead of
destroying the literature, two professors should be appointed in each
university to teach Hebrew and thereby refute the Jewish doctors by
making the students acquainted with the Bible. The struggle continued
for years, and although the Church and even the universities were
against him, Reuchlin was finally victorious, thereby saving a noble
literature to the world. This was a great victory for humanism. A short
time before his death Reuchlin returned to Tübingen, where he closed his
illustrious career in 1522.

Reuchlin was the first to introduce Greek into Germany, and the first to
recognize the necessity of a knowledge of Hebrew in interpreting the
Holy Scriptures. He began a reform in the schools which prepared the way
for a like movement in the Church, and in Luther he saw the man who was
destined to carry both of these reforms to fulfillment. "God be
praised," said he, "in Luther they have found a man who will give them
work enough to do, so that they can let me, an old man, go to my rest in
peace."


ERASMUS (1467-1536)

Erasmus was born at Rotterdam. Though not a German, he belonged to the
Teutonic race. He has well been called a "citizen of the world," as he
lived in so many countries, and came to be the most learned man of his
time. He was left an orphan at an early age, and his guardians placed
him in a convent. They wished to make a monk of him so that they could
inherit his patrimony, but this plan was resisted by the boy for a long
time. The life of the convent was very distasteful to him, and though he
afterward took vows, he never was in sympathy with asceticism. Possibly
the condition of the monasteries at that time may have had something to
do with the repugnance of Erasmus to the monastic life. He was certainly
greatly relieved when the Pope absolved him from his vows.

Erasmus was precocious as a child, and it was early predicted of him
that he would be a great man, a prediction which he fully verified.
Through the influence and help of the Bishop of Cambray, he was enabled
to go to Paris for study, though the means furnished were not sufficient
for his support. He took pupils and gave lectures, thereby supplying the
deficiency in his funds. It is recorded that, in his eagerness for
books, he said, "When I get money, I will first buy Greek books, and
then clothing." He also studied at Oxford, and afterward at Turin, where
he took the degree of Doctor of Divinity. Though many high offices in
the Church, and many positions in universities, were offered to him, he
refused them all, preferring to be an independent man of letters.
Erasmus was recognized as the supreme literary authority of the world,
and this lofty position was the summit of his ambition. Nothing could
turn him aside from the path that led to that eminence, and, once
attained, nothing could attract him away from it.

Basel had become the center of the new printing industry. This led
Erasmus to choose that city as his home for the latter part of his life,
and here he furthered the cause of humanism as no other man had done, by
editing and giving to the world many of the classic treasures of the
monasteries. He translated Greek works into Latin, thereby making them
available to the world, as Latin was better understood than Greek. His
edition of the Greek Testament was his most eminent service, though his
"Colloquies" are better known. His "Praise of Folly" is a satirical
work, in which he holds up to ridicule the ignorance and vice of the
monks.

Though he never broke away from the Church, without doubt his sympathies
were with the reformers. But neither the persuasions nor the
denunciations of Luther could bring him to take a decided stand on
either side. He thought that the reform could be wrought within the
Church. He accepted the dogmas of the Church, and remained within it as
long as he lived.

Erasmus was the exact counterpart of Luther. He appealed to the limited
few, Luther to the masses; he to the educated and higher classes, Luther
to the ignorant and lowly; he was a man of reflection, Luther a man of
action. The apparent vacillation of Erasmus may have been due to ill
health, to the influence of the Pope, to the ties of the Church in which
he had been reared, to the satisfaction he found in his eminent literary
position, and to his dislike for controversy.

Erasmus gives us some very valuable pedagogical teachings, which may be
summed up as follows:--

=Pedagogy of Erasmus.=--1. The mother is the natural educator of the
child in its early years. The mother who does not care for the education
of her children is only half a mother.

2. Until the seventh year the child should have little to do but play,
in order to develop the body. It must have no earnest work, but must be
taught politeness.

3. After the seventh year earnest work must begin. Latin and Greek
(which should be studied together) must be taught early so that right
pronunciation and a good vocabulary may be attained.

4. The first subject to be learned is grammar. Language is necessary
before a knowledge of other things can be gained.

5. Teachers should be better trained and better paid, and suitable
places must be furnished for the schools.

6. The religious side of education must not be neglected.

7. Great attention must be paid to the cultivation of the memory: (_a_)
by a proper understanding of the subject; (_b_) by logical order in
thinking; (_c_) by comparison.

8. As the bee collects honey from many flowers, so knowledge is gathered
from many sources.

9. The foundation of all training of children must be laid in the home.
Parents should know what their children ought to be taught. Above all
things children must be taught to _obey_.

10. The first care with girls is to inculcate in them religious
feelings; the second to protect them from contamination; the third, to
guard them from idleness.



CHAPTER XXVIII

THE REFORMATION AS AN EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCE

=Literature.=--_White_, Eighteen Christian Centuries; _Taylor_, History
of Germany; _Draper_, Intellectual Development of Europe; _Guizot_,
History of Civilization; _Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Seebohm_, The
Protestant Revolution; _Gasquet_, Eve of the Reformation; _Spaulding_,
History of the Reformation; _Bryce_, The Holy Roman Empire; _Morris_,
Era of the Protestant Revolution; _Hurst_, History of the Reformation;
Lewis, History of Germany; _Myers_, Mediaeval and Modern History;
_Schiller_, The Thirty Years' War; _Hallam_, Literary History; _Kiddle
and Schem_, Cyclopaedia of Education; _Dyer_, Modern Europe;
_D'Aubigné_, History of the Reformation; _Yonge_, Three Centuries of
Modern History; _Mombert_, Great Lives; _Schwickerath_, Jesuit
Education.


=Historical Conditions.=--At the beginning of the sixteenth century we
find the stage of political, religious, and educational activity
transferred from the shores of the Mediterranean to the north of the
Alps. We have seen the great work of civilization taken from the Greek
and Latin races and committed to the Teutonic race. We have traced the
humanistic movement from its birthplace in Italy to Germany, where it
found a more congenial atmosphere and a more suitable soil. The world
was ripe for a great revolution, which was destined to advance the
interests of mankind with gigantic strides.

The invention of printing by Gutenberg, in the middle of the fifteenth
century, must be mentioned as the primary material agency in forwarding
this advance. It was said of this art that it would "give the deathblow
to the superstition of the Middle Ages." It multiplied readers a
hundredfold; it stimulated authorship; it revolutionized literature,
because it made the preservation and dissemination of thought easy; it
was a mighty influence in bringing about universal education, a
principle for which the Reformation stood.

Another event of great importance was the discovery of America, which
stimulated various European enterprises. Thus, at the beginning of the
sixteenth century, the world awakened from its long sleep, and
educational enterprise was born anew.

The German Reformation had been preceded by similar movements in other
lands. Huss and Jerome of Prague, in Bohemia, Wyclif in England, Zwingli
in Switzerland, the Waldenses in Italy, and the Albigenses in France,
had raised their voices in solemn protest against clerical abuses,[52]
and many of the reformers had paid for their temerity by martyrdom. But
the German Reformation, under the leadership of Martin Luther, was
destined to exert a mighty influence throughout northern Europe, and to
set in motion impulses which were to shape all later history.

The chief rulers of Europe were Frederick the Wise of Saxony, known as
Luther's friend, Henry the Eighth of England, Francis the First of
France, and Charles the Fifth, king of Spain, Naples, Sicily, and
Austria, and afterward emperor of Germany. Leo the Tenth was Pope, and
he had great influence in temporal affairs. Emperor Charles the Fifth
was the most powerful ruler of this period. Though a foreigner in
manners, customs, and sympathy, and unacquainted with the German tongue,
he became emperor of Germany by bribing the electors who had a voice in
selecting the ruler of that nation. It is said that he paid $1,500,000
to these corrupt electors, besides making many promises of future
favors. He was treacherous, and never hesitated to break the most solemn
pledges when his interests so demanded. Bayard Taylor says of him, "His
election was a crime, from the effects of which Germany did not recover
for three hundred years."

=Intellectual Conditions=.--These, then, were the external conditions
which existed at the beginning of the sixteenth century. We have seen
that the need of reformation was acknowledged on all sides. There were
but few good teachers to be found, even in the Church which had so long
been the mother of schools. Education was at such a low ebb, and the
advantages offered by the schools were so poor, and of such a doubtful
character, that but few persons cared to avail themselves of their
privileges. Even the universities failed to educate. Luther says, "Is it
not pitiable that a boy has been obliged to study twenty years or longer
to learn enough bad Latin to become a priest, and read mass?" Again he
says, "Such teachers and masters we have been obliged to have
everywhere, who have known nothing themselves, and have been able to
teach nothing good or useful."

There was need, then, of reform in education as well as in religion, and
Luther took the burden of both upon his shoulders. As an educational
reformer, he has earned for himself the world's gratitude. It must be
admitted that Luther's main purpose was the reformation of the Church,
and that his educational work merely grew out of the need of general
intelligence as a necessary adjunct to that work. Of the existing
conditions, Compayré well says, "With La Salle and the foundation of the
Institute of the Brethren of the Christian Schools, the historian of
education recognizes the Catholic origin of primary instruction; in the
decrees and laws of the French Revolution, its lay and philosophical
origin; but it is to the Protestant Reformation,--to Luther in the
sixteenth century, and to Comenius in the seventeenth,--that must be
ascribed the honor of having first organized schools for the people. In
its origin, the primary school is the child of Protestantism, and its
cradle was the Reformation."[53]


LUTHER (1483-1546)

Martin Luther was born at Eisleben, Germany, of poor and humble parents.
He was brought up under the rigid discipline of the typical German home,
in which the rod was not spared. Upon this point he writes, "My parents'
severity made me timid; their sternness and the strict life they led me
made me afterward go into a monastery and become a monk. They meant
well, but they did not understand the art of adjusting their
punishments."

When he was fourteen years of age, his parents, then in better
circumstances, sent him to Magdeburg to prepare for the university. But
the expense being too great, he was withdrawn from this school and sent
to Eisenach, where he could live with relatives. Here he sang in the
street for alms, and his sweet voice attracted the attention of Ursula
Cotta, a wealthy lady, who took him to her own home and gave him an
excellent teacher.

When eighteen years of age he entered the university of Erfurt, then a
center of humanistic learning. He made marvelous progress in his
studies until he took his degree. His father had intended him for the
law, but Luther determined to devote himself to the Church, much to his
father's disappointment. Accordingly he became an Augustinian monk when
twenty-two years of age. Unlike many of his brethren, he kept up his
studies while in the monastery, and was called to a professorship in the
new university at Wittenberg in 1508, where he found an ample field for
his remarkable powers. Two years later, he went as a delegate to the
papal court at Rome, where his eyes were opened to the condition of the
Church in her holiest sanctuaries. Returning to Wittenberg, he continued
his studies and his lectures, and drew about him a great number of
students. His lectures and his writings against the practices of the
Church became so pronounced that he was summoned before the Diet of
Worms and commanded to retract. This he refused to do in the memorable
words: "Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise. God help me! Amen." On his
return from Worms, fearing for his safety, his friends took him prisoner
and confined him in the Wartburg castle at Eisenach. During the nine
months of his confinement he translated the Bible into German.[54]
Luther took great pains to make the language so pure and plain that it
could be understood by the common people, to whom he appealed. He was
never ashamed of his humble origin. When he came to be the honored
friend and trusted adviser of princes and kings, he was wont to say, "I
am a peasant's son; my father, grandfather, and remote ancestors were
nothing but veritable peasants."

The language of Luther's translation of the Bible became the standard
German, which was to supplant the many dialects.

His great watchword was, "Make the people acquainted with the Word of
God." But the Bible was of little use to the masses so long as they
could not read. Luther therefore set himself sturdily to the improvement
of the schools, which were in a deplorable condition. He urged the
principle of parental responsibility for the education of children.
"Believe me," said he, "it is far more important that you exercise care
in training your children than that you seek indulgences, say many
prayers, go much to church, or make many vows." His pedagogy constitutes
the foundation of the German common school system of to-day. Luther,
then, must be remembered as the greatest educator of his time for two
reasons.

1. _He gave the German people a language by his translation of the Holy
Scriptures._

2. _He laid the foundation of the German common school system._

=Luther's Pedagogy.=--1. Parents are responsible for the education of
their children.

2. It is the duty of the State to require regular attendance at school
of every child, and the parents must be held accountable for
non-attendance.

3. Religion is the foundation of all school instruction.

4. Every child must learn not only the ordinary subjects taught at
school, but also the practical duties of life,--boys, a trade; girls,
housework.

5. Every clergyman must have pedagogical training and experience in
teaching before entering upon a pastorate.[55]

6. The teacher must be trained, and in that training singing is
included.

7. Children must be taught according to nature's laws,--the knowledge of
the thing must precede its name.

8. Due respect should be shown to the office of teacher, and by example
and precept every teacher should be worthy of respect.

9. His course of study included Latin and Greek, history, mathematics,
singing, and physical training, besides religion.

10. Every school should have a library.

11. It is the inherent right of every child to be educated, and the
State must provide the means to that end.

The principles above stated are fundamental in the German school systems
of the present time. Religious instruction, trained teachers, compulsory
and universal education, are the central principles of the schools of
Germany and of many other nations. Luther could not give his chief
attention to education, but with deep insight he saw the necessity of
it, and laid the foundations upon which later generations have built a
marvelous structure, true to the design of its architect.


MELANCHTHON (1497-1560)

Philipp Melanchthon was the friend, colaborer, and adviser of Luther.
Luther was a resolute, energetic, impulsive man; Melanchthon was quiet,
reserved, and conciliating. There is no doubt that these two men of
such opposite dispositions exerted a salutary influence upon each
other,--Luther stimulated and encouraged Melanchthon; Melanchthon
checked and restrained Luther. It is certain that each was helpful to
the other, and that the great cause of the Reformation, to which they
mutually consecrated themselves, was furthered by their friendship and
union.

Melanchthon had excellent training as a boy, and early showed signs of
unusual ability. At fifteen he took his bachelor's degree at Heidelberg
University, and when only eighteen years of age Erasmus said of him,
"What hopes may we not conceive of Philipp Melanchthon, though as yet
very young, almost a boy, but equally to be admired for his proficiency
in both languages! What quickness of invention! What purity of diction!
What vastness of memory! What variety of reading! What modesty and
gracefulness of behavior! And what a princely mind!"

After completing his course at Heidelberg, he went to Tübingen, where
his studies were directed by Reuchlin, who was his kinsman. He gave
public lectures at Tübingen on rhetoric and on various classic authors,
attracting worldwide attention. In 1518 he was called to the Greek
professorship at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther.
Bishop Hurst says, "The life of Melanchthon was now so thoroughly
identified with that of Luther that it is difficult to separate the two.
They lived in the same town of Wittenberg. They were in constant
consultation, each doing what he was most able to do, and both working
with unwearied zeal for the triumph of the cause to which they gave
their life."

His success at Wittenberg was assured from the first. Though youthful in
appearance, being but twenty-one years of age, his pure logic, his
profound knowledge of philosophy, his familiarity with the Scriptures,
his perfect mastery of the classic languages, his fine diction, and his
broad knowledge awoke enthusiasm at once. Wittenberg, possessing two
such great men as Luther and Melanchthon, became the center of
humanistic studies, not less than two thousand students being attracted
to its university. Melanchthon was an inspiring teacher; among his
pupils were men who afterward became leaders of thought in Germany, and
who did much to shape the destiny of Europe.

Perhaps Melanchthon's greatest service to the schools was his
publication of text-books, which were very much needed. He wrote a Greek
grammar for boys when himself but a boy of sixteen. Grammar he defined
as "the science of speaking and writing correctly," a definition that
has been scarcely improved upon. Ten years later his Latin grammar was
published, after being tested for some years in his classes. For more
than one hundred years this was the principal Latin grammar in use, and
there were not less than fifty-one editions of it.

He wrote also text-books on logic, rhetoric, and ethics. It will be seen
that the trivium--grammar, rhetoric, logic--furnished the foundation of
his literary activity, so far as the schools are concerned. He was
active also in authorship of theological works, producing the first
theological work of the Protestant Church, the "Loci Communes," which
Luther placed next to the Bible for theological study.

The interest of Melanchthon for education made him the chief adviser and
leader among the school men. His advice was constantly sought in the
educational movements of Germany. After visiting the schools of Saxony,
he drew up the "Saxony School Plan," which furnished the basis of
various similar organizations throughout Germany. There were three
fundamental principles in this system.

1. There must not be too many studies in the schools, and Latin should
be the only language taught.

2. There must not be too many books used.

3. The children should be divided into at least three classes, or
grades.

In the first grade, reading, writing, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed,
prayers and hymns, and some Latin should be taught. In the second, the
Latin grammar, Latin authors, and religion. In the third, completion of
the grammar, difficult Latin authors, rhetoric, and logic. Williams
calls this "Melanchthon's somewhat artless ideas of a proper school
system," which he excuses as being "marked possibly by the crudity of a
first effort at organization, but more probably controlled in form by
the fewness of teachers in the schools of his time."

Melanchthon is also known as the first Protestant psychologist.

To sum up the educational work of Melanchthon, we find that he was a
"born teacher," attracting and inspiring thousands of young men whom he
instructed; that he was the author of many text-books for the schools,
and of theological works; that he was an educational authority; that he
outlined a complete school system; and that he was the adviser and
friend of Luther in the work of the Reformation.

FOOTNOTES:

[52] See Brother Azarias, "Philosophy of Literature," pp. 122-124.

[53] "History of Pedagogy," p. 112.

Karl Schmidt, in speaking of the spirit of the Reformation, says, "These
ideas form the basis of the common school, which up to this time had
been sporadically established only in isolated places." "Geschichte der
Pädagogik," Vol. III, p. 16.

[54] In 1877, Mr. H. Stevens published at South Kensington, a "List of
Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition." He says: "Not only are there many
editions of the Latin Vulgate long anterior to that time (1507 A.D.),
but there were actually nine _German_ editions of the Bible in the
Caxton exhibition earlier than 1483, the year of Luther's birth, and at
least three more before the end of the century." The general use of the
printing press about this time made popular translations opportune, as
it placed the Bible within the reach of all. It thus became a powerful
instrument for universal education.

[55] This was because the pastor had an oversight of the school, a
practice still very common in Germany.



CHAPTER XXIX

OTHER PROTESTANT EDUCATORS


The educational work of Luther and Melanchthon bore remarkable fruit.
Luther had urged parents to see to it that their children should be
educated, and had appealed to magistrates to assist the Church in
maintaining schools. He insisted upon compulsory education in the
memorable words, "The authorities are bound to compel their subjects to
send their children to school." As a result schools were organized in
Nuremberg, Frankfort, Ilfeld, Strasburg, Hamburg, Bremen, Dantzic, and
many other places. Eton, Rugby, Harrow, and other educational
institutions were founded about this time in England.

Melanchthon's course of study (Schulplan) for Saxony had appeared in
1528, and in 1558 the school law of Würtemberg, by far the best yet
enacted, went into force. Other German provinces adopted more or less
efficient school systems, and for the first time in the history of
Christian education, the duty of the State to assume the responsibility
of the education of its subjects was recognized. Out of these primitive
systems have grown the completer systems of the present, after more than
three centuries of experiment, study, and struggle.

The Reformation taught the right of every person to an education,
primarily, it is true, for religious ends, and it gradually came to be
understood that the State must assume that duty. For the Church had
neither the means nor the power to accomplish universal education. But
it was not till the nineteenth century that this end was reached,
whereby the advantages of education were offered to the child of every
parent of whatever rank or station, and the State assumed full control
of the schools.

This was the great work marked out by Luther and Melanchthon, and their
pupils and disciples carried that work to its fulfillment. Among these
immediate followers we may mention Sturm,[56] Trotzendorf, and Neander,
who contributed to educational reform.


STURM[57] (1507-1589)

Johann Sturm is counted among the greatest schoolmen that the
Reformation produced, though he belonged to the French rather than the
German reformers. He received an excellent training in the schools of
Germany, and completed his education at Paris, where he afterward became
professor of Greek. He soon gained such a wide reputation that when only
thirty years of age he was called to the rectorship of the _Gymnasium_
at Strasburg, a position which he held for forty-seven years, and where
he gained lasting fame. This fame rests not on his work as a teacher,
but as an organizer and an executive. Paulsen doubts his having been a
great teacher. He says, "He was a man who gave his attention to great
things. He had his hands in universal politics; he was in the service of
nearly all the European potentates, drawing his yearly salary from
all.... It is not probable that such a wonderful man was also a good
schoolmaster."[58]

But his great work was the organization of the Strasburg _Gymnasium_,
especially its course of study, which became the model for the Latin
schools for many years. Sturm's counsel was sought by schoolmen all over
Europe, and he came to be the recognized leader of educational forces.
His school course took the boy at six years of age and provided at first
a nine years', afterward a ten years' course, ending at the sixteenth
year of age. He added a five years' course to this later, and evidently
planned to found a university.[59]

Sturm believed that the mother should have charge of the child for the
first six years of its life. In his ten years' course he required ten
years of Latin, six of Greek, besides rhetoric, logic, religion, and
music. He introduced the practice of translating Latin into German and
then translating it back into Latin.[60] His course took no account of
German, history, mathematics, or science. He thus sought to reinstate
Greece and Rome, but entirely neglected those things which prepare for
life. Williams says, "With regard to Sturm's plan of organization, it
should be borne in mind that it is the very earliest scheme that we
have, looking to an _extended_, _systematic_, _well-articulated_ course
of studies for a school of several teachers, in which is assigned to
each class such portion of the subject-matter of the course of
instruction as is suited to the age and stage of advancement of its
pupils."[61]

This course of study attracted the attention of all Europe. Karl Schmidt
says that in 1578 "his school numbered several thousand students, among
whom were two hundred of noble birth, twenty-four counts and barons, and
three princes--from Portugal, Poland, Denmark, England, etc."

Paulsen, while not belittling the work of Sturm, thinks that the
celebrated course has but little in it different from the courses of the
Wittenberg reformers. He says, "If Melanchthon had had the planning of a
school course for a large city, it would have been much the same (as
Sturm's). The Saxon school plan of 1528 was effective only in small
cities and country places. The basis of both (Melanchthon's and Sturm's)
is the same,--grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, with music and religion. In
the large schools, like those of Nuremberg and Hamburg, a beginning of
Greek and mathematics was added."[62]

Sturm's course has the merit of definiteness, thoroughness, and unity.
There seems to be some doubt as to his success in carrying it out. It is
certain that but few students completed his course compared with the
number who began it. Instead of sixty to seventy pupils in the last
class, there were only nine or ten. The influence of Sturm, however,
spread not only over Germany, but also reached to many other countries,
and his Strasburg course of study shaped the work in the classical
schools for many years.


TROTZENDORF (1490-1556)

Valentine Trotzendorf was born in poverty and beset by many difficulties
in boyhood. His mother was a constant inspiration to him, and when he
was disposed to give up the struggle, her words, "My son, stick to your
school," led him to continue until he overcame the obstacles. When ready
for the university he went to Leipsic, where he studied Greek and Latin
for two years. In 1515 he became a teacher in a village near Leipsic, a
position that he retained for three years. He then went to Wittenberg,
where he studied under Melanchthon for five years, and became very
intimate with that great teacher. His fame as a teacher was made at
Goldberg, where he was thirty-five years rector of a school. Like
Melanchthon, he believed that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of
wisdom, and that the school is an adjunct of the Church. With Sturm, he
laid great stress upon the classic languages, and insisted that his
pupils should speak in the Latin tongue. As a teacher he possessed
remarkable power. He loved to mingle with his pupils, converse with and
question them, and he had great skill in drawing them out. In his
instruction he employed many illustrations, and proceeded from the
concrete to the abstract.

His discipline was unique and original. He introduced a practice before
unknown, namely, that of self-government on the part of the students, an
experiment that has been tried in recent years with excellent results in
many American institutions for higher learning. Trotzendorf established
a senate of twelve students, a consul, and other officers, who were made
responsible for the government of the school. These constituted a court
of which he was president. Offenders were brought before the tribunal
and tried with great formality and dignity. This body sentenced the
culprit to such punishment as his guilt merited, the master reserving to
himself the right of being a court of final appeal. Besides the officers
above named, there were others who were in charge of the boys in their
domestic relations,--such as keeping guard over their punctuality, table
manners, diligence in study, etc. It was considered a high honor to hold
one of these offices. The scheme worked well under Trotzendorf; it
taught self-government, and inculcated the spirit of freedom as well as
an intelligent submission to law. Trotzendorf thus gives an example of
school government which is quite in accord with the spirit of modern
times. He also had his best pupils instruct the lower classes under his
supervision, and thus prepared them to go forth as teachers. Teachers
from his school were sought for by intelligent patrons of education in
all parts of Europe.


NEANDER (1525-1595)

Michael Neander was another of Melanchthon's pupils who became great as
a teacher. Neander was for forty-five years the sole teacher of a Latin
school at Ilfeld. Though he never had many pupils, his school was
pronounced by Melanchthon as "the best seminary in the country." He was
a most successful teacher, and the students whom he sent to the
university were found to possess the very best preparation, and always
stood among the first. He was well versed in medicine and chemistry, and
was one of the best Greek and Latin scholars of his time. Contrary to
the practice of his contemporaries, he favored the teaching of
geography, history, and the natural sciences. His position in regard to
the sciences places him in advance of other educators, and in this he
was a follower of Melanchthon, who also believed that science should be
taught.

Neander is celebrated also for the Greek and Latin text-books which he
wrote. Speaking of these books, Paulsen says, "What he especially
emphasized is: as few and as short rules as possible, and these rules
are to be progressive; at the proper time they are to be committed to
memory. The pupil must also commit words, phrases, and sentences to
memory, which is equally important." Lastly, he gave a careful outline
of the work of a boy for every year from the sixth to the eighteenth.
This was especially valuable for that period when parents and teachers
alike had nothing to guide them except the monastic course of study, and
when the world was giving birth to new theories in education as well as
in religion.

Neander's whole life was concentrated on the work of teaching, and in
the schoolroom he found his greatest joy. Here, also, he made a lasting
impression upon his pupils and upon mankind. His father was mistaken
when he addressed the boy, "Into a cloister with you; you will amount to
nothing in the world."

       *       *       *       *       *

Other great teachers in the schools and in the universities carried
forward the educational work begun by the great reformers. Many cities
had founded schools, and several of the German states had established
school systems. The educational ideas of the Protestant Reformation had
taken deep root, and were destined to spread over the whole world,
gaining in force with each succeeding century.

The practical outcome of this great movement was the establishment of
schools in every village in Germany under the direction of the pastor,
and where he was unable to teach, under his clerk or assistant. As the
chief purpose was to prepare the children for entrance to the church by
confirmation, religion was the center of the school course. But reading,
writing, arithmetic, and singing were also taught.

The clerk of the church gradually became the schoolmaster, and while the
relations of these two offices have materially changed, there is still a
close official connection between the two, particularly in the country.
In many cases the pastor is the local superintendent of the school, and
the teacher is the clerk and chorister of the church. As fast as
Lutheran churches were organized, schools were also established in
connection with them. Nor were boys alone included in the work of
education. Girls' schools were organized and an effort was made at
universal education. Many provinces adopted advanced school laws, and
the principle of compulsory education was recognized, though by no means
successfully carried out.

Thus was born in the middle of the sixteenth century the common school,
and thus was recognized the right of all men to an education, and a
practical illustration of the means of securing it was given to the
world.

FOOTNOTES:

[56] Though Sturm was not a Lutheran, he was a Protestant, being a
follower of Calvin.

[57] See Quick, "Educational Reformers," and Williams, "History of
Modern Education," p. 88.

[58] "Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts."

[59] Sturm's school course appeared in 1538. It was not the oldest
school course of the Protestants. The oldest school course for a German
school was prepared by Johannes Agricola and Hermann Talich in 1525 for
the school at Eisleben, Luther's birthplace. Indeed, Paulsen thinks that
Melanchthon had a hand in its preparation. He says ("Geschichte des
Gelehrten Unterrichts," p. 182), "This is the oldest published school
course of the Reformed Church, which, if not composed by Melanchthon,
was without doubt outlined, or at least approved, by him." This was
discovered in 1865 by F. L. Hoffmann in the Hamburg city library.

[60] See Ascham, p. 191, and Ratke, p. 210.

[61] "History of Modern Education," p. 91.

[62] "Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts," p. 197.



CHAPTER XXX

THE JESUITS AND THEIR EDUCATION

=Literature.=--_Draper_, Intellectual Development of Europe; _Durrell_,
A New Life in Education; _Dyer_, Modern Europe; _Fisher_, History of the
Reformation; _Guizot_, History of Civilization; _Ferris_, Great Leaders;
_Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Parkman_, The Jesuits in North America; _White_,
Eighteen Christian Centuries; _Quick_, Educational Reformers; _Symonds_,
Renaissance in Italy; _Hughes_, Loyola; _Larned_, History for Ready
Reference; _Schwickerath_, Jesuit Education; _Châteaubriand_, The Genius
of Christianity.


=The Order.=--The remarkable spread of Protestantism, however, was not
to go on unchallenged. Already before the rupture of the Church, the
need of a better-educated clergy had been acknowledged. We have seen
that Luther and the Reformers laid great stress upon the education of
the young as a means of propagating the new faith, and they had employed
this means with great success. It is not to be gathered from this that
the Roman Church had been unmindful of her duty in the training of the
young. It has already been shown that the Church maintained education
from the beginning of the Christian era down through the Middle Ages,
that she never slackened in her zeal for this work, and that she held it
to be her right and duty, as she does to this day, to train the young.
At this very time she was maintaining many schools. But the "Order of
Jesus" was destined to systematize education in such a degree as the
Church had never witnessed.

It has been claimed that the founding of the "Society of Jesus" was a
"Counter-Reformation," the purpose of which was to check the growth of
Protestantism. Whatever may have been the effect of its work in this
direction, it seems clear that such was not the purpose for which it was
organized. Schwickerath shows that it is doubtful if the founder of the
Jesuit order had ever heard the name of the German Reformer. He
says,[63] "The Papal Letters and the Constitutions assign as the special
object of the Society: 'The progress of souls in a good life and
knowledge of religion; the propagation of faith by public preaching, the
Spiritual Exercises and works of charity, and particularly the
instruction of youth and ignorant persons in the Christian religion.'"
It cannot be denied, whatever the original purpose of the Society, that
it not only checked the onward march of Protestantism, but it even
restored many provinces and communities to their fealty to the Mother
Church. How well the last clause of the admonition above quoted was
carried out will be seen when we remember that the Jesuits originated
the most successful educational system of the sixteenth, seventeenth,
and eighteenth centuries, a system having a definite end in view, and
whose adherents by indomitable energy, by self-sacrifice, by oneness of
purpose, secured remarkable success. Let us turn our attention to the
founding of the "Order."

=Loyola= (1491-1556), the originator of the order, was a Spanish
nobleman. While recovering from a severe wound received in battle, he
read some religious books which made such a profound impression upon him
that he resolved to consecrate himself to religious work. Not being an
educated man, he devoted some years to study, and while at the
university of Paris he gathered around him other young men who also were
ready to consecrate themselves to the service of God. They formed
themselves into the "Order of Jesus," with the avowed purpose at first
of rescuing Jerusalem from the hands of the infidels. This was not to
be done by force of arms, as in case of the crusaders, but by peaceful
means. This purpose was abandoned, but the zealous missionary spirit of
the Jesuits endured. In 1540 Pope Paul III. recognized the new order and
gave it the sanction of the Church. The organization was military in
character, Loyola becoming its first general.

=The Growth of the Society= was remarkable from the outset. In 1600 it
had 200 schools; in 1710, 612 colleges, 157 boarding or normal schools,
59 houses for novitiates, 340 residences, 200 missions, and 24
universities. The college at Clermont had, in 1651, 2000 students, and
in 1675, 3000 students. These institutions controlled the education of
the Catholic Church in all Europe, and many Protestant young men also
were attracted to the Jesuit schools by their superior teachers and
their thorough training.

The society became so strong that various attempts were made to check
its power. It spread, however, to China and Hindustan, to the Indian
tribes of North America, and to South America. Its spirit and its
practices aroused the suspicion of princes and people, of many Catholics
as well as Protestants. In 1773 the Jesuits were in possession of 41
provinces, and had 22,589 members, of whom 11,295 were priests. Since
that time popes have suppressed them, rulers have expelled them from
their countries, their property and power have been taken from them,
until their influence has been greatly lessened and their progress
checked.

=Jesuit Education.=--Unlike the monastics, the Jesuits mingled with the
world; they assumed no peculiarities of dress, and held themselves ready
to act as missionaries to the most remote parts of the world, as agents
of the Church to which they so fully consecrated themselves, and as
teachers of youth. They established schools everywhere, and placed them
in charge of teachers of remarkable skill and pedagogical training.[64]
We have seen that their efforts were chiefly directed to higher
education, their schools being designed for boys not less than fourteen
years of age. In general, primary education did not enter into their
scheme. Schwickerath thinks that the "Jesuits could not undertake
elementary education" because "they had never men enough to supply the
demands for higher education."[65] This shows that they held higher
education as of the greater importance, and the same author further
adds: "Besides, the whole intellectual training of the Jesuits fitted
them better for the higher branches." They reached sons of princes,
noblemen, and others who constituted the influential classes,[66] but
"the Constitutions expressly laid down that poverty and mean extraction
were never to be any hindrance to a pupil's admission."[67] Instruction
was free.

Their schools became the most efficient and the most popular means of
education furnished throughout Europe,--and justly so, for their work
was thorough, their teachers were competent and well trained, and their
course of study comprehensive. It is worthy of especial note that all
teachers of the Jesuit schools were carefully trained before they were
allowed to give instruction. This is the first time in history that the
necessity of special preparation for the work of teaching was recognized
as an essential element in the work of education.

Every Jesuit school was divided into two departments, the lower,
_studia inferiora_, consisting of five classes, and the higher, _studia
superiora_, requiring two or three years. Boys were admitted to the
lower course at the age of fourteen, and the work consisted chiefly of
the study of the humanities, while that of the advanced course embraced
philosophy and theology.[68] With reference to these courses of study,
Quick says, "The Jesuit system stands out in the history of education as
a remarkable instance of a school system elaborately thought out and
worked as a whole." Again, he says of the _Ratio Studiorum_:[69] "It
points out a perfectly attainable goal, and carefully defines the road
by which that goal is to be approached. For each class was prescribed
not only the work to be done, but also the end to be kept in view."
Surely these are most commendable features of any course of study. The
work was remarkably thorough in every detail.

After the society had been in existence some forty years, Claudius
Aquaviva became its General Superior. He at once began the study of the
educational problem, using all the resources of his office in obtaining
information, and employing his executive ability in producing an
improved method of study. A committee of twelve most eminent churchmen
was appointed in 1581 to study the question, and three years later a
commission of six, representing different countries, began the labor of
preparing a course of study. Their work, called the _Ratio
Studiorum_,[70] completed in 1599, has remained, with some
modifications, the guide of Jesuit institutions of learning.

=Emulation=.--Emulation was employed to stimulate pupils to work and to
secure good conduct. Prizes, decorations, rewards, titles, were offered
as a means of attaining desired ends. Emulation is a natural instinct in
mankind, and it may be utilized to stimulate endeavor and "foster
ambition." The principle ever to be kept in mind should be _excellency
without degrading others_. Schwickerath thinks that such was the spirit
in which the Jesuits employed this incentive.[71] He admits, however,
that there are dangers connected with prizes, and, on the whole, that
certain methods of fostering emulation recommended by the _Ratio
Studiorum_ are less suitable to northern countries and less in
accordance with modern taste.

While corporal punishment was allowed, it was generally administered by
an official disciplinarian. It was seldom used, however, the discipline
being mild and humane.

=Criticism of Jesuit Education.=--As to the efficiency of the
instruction in the Jesuit schools, opinions widely differ. Bacon and
Descartes indorse it in highest terms, while Leibnitz, Voltaire, and
others are equally strong in its condemnation. Bacon remarks, "As to
whatever relates to the instruction of the young, we must consult the
schools of the Jesuits, for there can be nothing that is better done."
Leibnitz, on the other hand, says, "In the matter of education, the
Jesuits have remained below mediocrity." Ranke, in speaking of the
success of the Jesuit schools, says, "It was found that young persons
learned more under them in half a year than with others in two years."

Mr. Quick says: "I have said that the object which the Jesuits proposed
in their teaching was not the highest object. They did not aim at
developing _all_ the faculties of their pupils, but merely the receptive
and reproductive faculties. When the young man had acquired a thorough
mastery of the Latin language for all purposes, when he was well versed
in the theological and philosophical opinions of his preceptors, when he
was skillful in dispute, and could make a brilliant display from the
resources of a well-stored memory, he had reached the highest point to
which the Jesuits sought to lead him."[72] Some critics of the Jesuits
claim that they lack in originality of thinking, and that they neglect
training in the power of forming correct judgments. They have produced,
however, many great men.

=Summary.=--Summarizing the educational work of the Jesuits, the
following would appear to us to be just:--

1. Their educational system was by far the most efficient and successful
of any during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.

2. This, however, applies only to higher education, as primary education
was not undertaken by them.

3. They made their schools interesting, and learning pleasant. Their
work was thorough, their consecration complete, their success as
teachers marvelous, they being the greatest schoolmasters of their time.

4. They produced a course of study, the _Ratio Studiorum_, which lays
principal stress upon the humanities and religious instruction.

5. They taught the necessity of trained teachers, and developed a
remarkable power and tact in the work of instruction and school
management.

6. They made use of emulation as a means of stimulating ambition,--a
principle that tends to arouse the baser motives, and which is therefore
to be used guardedly.

7. They were indefatigable in missionary enterprise, and zealous in the
propagation of their principles, both religious and educational.

8. They stimulated authorship, advanced learning, and produced many
great men.

9. They exerted a powerful influence upon the intellectual, social, and
political movements of their time.


THE PORT ROYALISTS

Opposed to the Jesuits was another body of Catholics, sometimes called
Jansenists from the organizer of the movement, and sometimes Port
Royalists, because their chief school was at Port Royal near Paris.
Their purpose was to check the progress of the Jesuits, to promote
greater spirituality in the Church, and to revive the pure Catholicism
of St. Augustine. Among their great leaders may be mentioned Pascal,
Nicole, and Launcelot. The purpose of the Jansenists was very different
from that of the Jesuits, and their methods were more modern. They gave
preference to modern languages, while the Jesuits gave chief attention
to the classic tongues. Their discipline, like that of the Jesuits, was
humane, but firm.

Their greatest contribution to education is the _phonic method_ of
spelling. They also laid stress upon the use of objects, the development
of the sense perceptions, especially in early childhood. One of their
axioms was, "The intelligence of childhood always being very dependent
on the senses, we must, as far as possible, address our instruction to
the senses, and cause it to reach the mind, not only through hearing,
but also through seeing." This appears to be the first instance in which
_object teaching_ was taught as a principle, a principle which Bacon,
Comenius, Pestalozzi, and Froebel worked out, and which has been one of
the most important factors of modern educational progress.

FOOTNOTES:

[63] "Jesuit Education," p. 77.

[64] See Hughes, "Loyola," pp. 46, 113, 156, 282. Also Schwickerath,
"Jesuit Education," p. 415.

[65] "Jesuit Education," p. 105. See also Hughes, "Loyola," pp. 4, 14,
43, 46, 68, 72, 82, and 86 (lines 12-23).

[66] See Hughes, "Loyola," pp. 72, 151.

[67] "Educational Reformers" p. 26.

[68] K. Schmidt, Vol. III, p. 230.

[69] "Educational Reformers," p. 34.

[70] See Hughes, "Loyola," p. 141, for full description of this work and
outline of the course. Also Schwickerath, "Jesuit Education," p. 191.

[71] See Hughes, "Loyola," p. 511.

[72] "Educational Reformers," p. 35.



CHAPTER XXXI

OTHER EDUCATORS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

=Literature.=--_H. M. Skinner_, The Schoolmaster in Literature, The
Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire; _Gill_, Systems of Education;
_Quick_, Educational Reformers; _Williams_, History of Modern Education;
_Besant_, Rabelais; _Monroe_, Educational Ideal; _Collins_, Montaigne;
_Emerson_, Representative Men; _Vogel_, Geschichte der Pädagogik;
_Carlisle_, Two Great Teachers (Ascham and Arnold); _Azarias_, Essays
Educational; _Davidson_, History of Education.


We have thus far discussed educators who were directly connected with
the great Protestant and Catholic movements. There were others who were
more or less independent of these movements. Among these we may mention
Roger Ascham, Rabelais, and Montaigne.


ASCHAM (1515-1568)

Roger Ascham was the most celebrated English educator of the sixteenth
century. He was educated at Cambridge, and studied three years in
Germany. He had a thorough knowledge of the classic languages. For these
reasons he was chosen tutor to Elizabeth, a position which he held for
two years. Upon her accession to the throne, Ascham came to read with
her several hours a day, and she retained her affection for her old
teacher throughout his life.

His chief literary work is his "Scholemaster," which is the first
educational classic in English. Dr. Johnson says of this book, "It
contains, perhaps, the best advice that ever was given for the study of
languages." This method was as follows, given in Ascham's words: "First,
let him teach the child, cheerfully and plainly, the cause and matter of
the letter (Cicero's Epistles); then, let him construe it into English
so oft as the child may easily carry away the understanding of it;
lastly, parse it over perfectly. This done, then let the child by and by
both construe and parse it over again; so that it may appear that the
child doubteth in nothing that his master has taught him before.

"After this, the child must take a paper book, and sitting in some place
where no man shall prompt him, by himself let him translate into English
his former lesson. Then showing it to his master, let the master take
from him his Latin book, and pausing an hour at the least, then let the
child translate his own English into Latin again in another paper book.
When the child bringeth it turned into Latin, the master must compare it
with Tully's book, and lay them both together, and where the child doth
well, praise him, where amiss, point out why Tully's use is better.

"Thus the child will easily acquire a knowledge of grammar, and also the
ground of almost all the rules that are so busily taught by the master,
and so hardly learned by the scholar in all common schools. The
translation is the most common and most commendable of all other
exercises for youth; most common, for all your constructions in grammar
schools be nothing else but translations; but because they be not
_double_ translations (as I do require), they bring forth but simple and
single commodity; and because also they lack the daily use of writing,
which is the only thing that breedeth deep root, both in the wit for
good understanding, and in the memory for sure keeping of all that is
learned; most commendable also, and that by the judgment of all authors
which entreat of these exercises."[73]

Ascham often refers to his illustrious pupil in claiming merit for his
system. He says, "And a better and nearer example herein may be our most
noble Queen Elizabeth, who never took yet Greek nor Latin grammar in her
hand after the first declining of a noun and a verb; but only by this
double translating of Demosthenes and Isocrates daily, without missing,
every forenoon, and likewise some part of Tully every afternoon, for the
space of a year or two, hath attained to such a perfect understanding in
both tongues, and to such a ready utterance of the Latin, and that with
such a judgment as there be few now in both universities, or elsewhere
in England, that be in both tongues comparable with her Majesty." Mr.
Quick thinks that while Ascham may have thus flattered his royal pupil,
there is no doubt that she was an accomplished scholar.

We have seen that Sturm made some use of double translation, but Ascham
is entitled to full credit for the method, which he adopted from Pliny
and perfected. Many teachers of language since that time have employed
this method with excellent results.


RABELAIS[74] (1483-1553)

Though there is some obscurity as to the exact date of the birth of
Rabelais, it is generally believed that he was born the same year as
Luther, 1483. He was the son of a French innkeeper, and, after
completing a classical course, was consecrated to the priesthood. His
great ability and independent thinking, and his humanistic tendency
brought reproof from his superiors, and he was ordered to perform works
of penance in his cell; but through the influence of powerful friends he
was freed and allowed to go over to the Benedictines, with whom,
however, he did not remain long. He became an independent preacher, and
as such had many friends among the reformers, chief among whom was
Calvin. His intimacy with Calvin led the more radical reformers to be
suspicious of him, and not without reason. Walter Besant tells us that,
"One hears he is a buffoon--he is always mocking and always laughing.
That is perfectly true. He laughs at the pretensions of pope, cardinal,
bishop, and priest; he laughs at monkery and monks; he mocks at the
perpetual iteration of litanies; he laughs at the ignorance and
superstition which he thinks are about to vanish before the new day of
modern learning."[75] Nor was his sympathy with the reformers any more
marked. Besant further adds, "It was at that time all important that, as
in England, the scholars should range themselves on the Protestant side.
Rabelais refused to do this. More, he set an example which deterred
other scholars, and kept them, in sheer impatience, in the enemy's
camp."[76]

The great literary work of Rabelais is embodied in a series of
chronicles, the first of which is called "Gargantua" and the second,
"Pantagruel." It is believed that these were popular names of giants in
the Middle Ages. In these books we find Rabelais's pedagogy.[77] The
giant Gargantua attends a school in which scholastic methods are
employed. The author skillfully ridicules the methods, and shows the
utter inefficiency of the instruction by contrasting the result in
Gargantua and Eudemon, a page of the king. Gargantua, a man of
fifty-five, is introduced to Eudemon, a boy of twelve. The former is
awkward, bashful, and does not know what to say, while the latter meets
Gargantua cap in hand, with open countenance, ruddy lips, steady eyes,
and with modesty becoming a youth. In reply to the polite and
intelligent conversation of the lad, Gargantua "falls to crying like a
cow, casting down his face, and hiding it with his cap." Compayré says,
"In these two pupils, so different in manner, Rabelais has personified
two contrasted methods of education: that which, by mechanical exercises
of memory, enfeebles and dulls the intelligence; and that which, with
large grants of liberty, develops intelligences and frank and open
characters."

The deficiencies of the old education (the scholastic) being thus shown,
Rabelais places his pupil under Ponocrates, Eudemon's teacher, who has
produced such practical results. He then opens up his system of pedagogy
in the plan pursued for the redemption of Gargantua.

=Realism in Education.=--Compayré's estimate of this pedagogy is as
follows: "The pedagogy of Rabelais is the first appearance of what may
be called _realism_ in instruction, in distinction from the scholastic
_formalism_. The author of 'Gargantua' turns the mind of the young man
toward objects truly worthy of occupying his attention. He catches a
glimpse of the future reserved to scientific education, and to the study
of nature. He invites the mind, not to the labored subtleties and
complicated tricks which scholasticism had brought into fashion, but to
manly efforts, and to a wide unfolding of human nature."[78]

In comparing Rabelais with Lucretius, Walter Besant says, "Both, at an
interval of fifteen hundred years, anticipated the nineteenth century
in its restless discontent of old beliefs, its fearless questioning, its
advocacy of scientific research."[79] Compayré thinks that Rabelais is
"certainly the first, in point of time, of that grand school of
educators who place the sciences in the first rank among the studies of
human thought."[80] It would seem, then, that the author of "Gargantua"
is worthy of a most honorable place among educational writers. Rabelais
began a movement, which was destined to revolutionize educational
methods.

The educational scheme of Rabelais embraced the study of letters, of
nature, of science, of morals and religion, of the physical
well-being,--in short, of everything necessary, as Herbert Spencer would
say, to complete living.


MONTAIGNE[81] (1533-1592)

Of a very different character from Rabelais was Montaigne. Rabelais was
radical and extravagant, Montaigne conservative and discreet; Rabelais
sought development of all the faculties alike, Montaigne gave preference
to the training of the judgment; Rabelais would thoroughly master every
branch of human knowledge, Montaigne was content to skim over the
sciences. And yet, Montaigne must be recognized as an important factor
in education, not only for his own teachings, but because undoubtedly
Bacon, Locke, Rousseau, and other apostles of reform were greatly
influenced by him. Bacon furthered Montaigne's theories concerning the
importance of science, and by his inductive method rendered the world a
far greater service than his great French contemporary. Locke enlarged
upon Montaigne's ideas of physical training. Rousseau accepted a vital
doctrine of Montaigne in the following words: "He (Émile) possesses a
universal capacity, not in point of actual knowledge, but in the faculty
of acquiring it; an open, intelligent genius adapted to everything, and,
as Montaigne says, if not instructed, capable of receiving instruction."

Montaigne's father was a French nobleman, who fully appreciated the
responsibility laid upon him in the education of his son. Doubtless his
training had much to do in shaping the pedagogy of the illustrious son.
It was wise, mild but firm, natural, and thorough. The tutors and
servants who surrounded him were allowed to speak only in Latin. That
tongue thus became as familiar as his native tongue. Indeed, it is said,
that at the age of six he was so proficient in the language of Cicero,
that the best Latinists of the time feared to address him. Nor was his
knowledge confined to Latin alone. He was instructed in modern lore as
well. At the age of six he was placed in the college of Guienne, where
he remained seven years. His experience there, so contrary to that under
which he had been brought up, led him to be utterly opposed to corporal
punishment. Of the methods of discipline employed in the school, he
says, "The discipline of most of our colleges has always displeased me.
They are veritable jails in which youth is held prisoner. The pupils are
made vicious by being punished before they become so. Pay a visit there
when they are at their work; you will hear nothing but cries,--children
under execution, and masters drunk with fury. What a mode of creating in
these tender and timid souls an appetite for their lessons, to conduct
them to their tasks with a furious countenance, rod in hand!--it is an
iniquitous and pernicious fashion. How much more becoming it would be
to see the classroom strewed with leaves and flowers than with
blood-stained stumps of birch rods! I would have painted up there scenes
of joy and merriment, Flora and the Graces, as Speusippus had his school
of philosophy: where they are to gain profit, there let them find
happiness too. One ought to sweeten all food that is wholesome, and put
bitter into what is dangerous."[82]

Here we find a strong plea for humane forms of punishment and a severe
criticism of the prevailing practice of flogging, a practice which did
not cease until long after Montaigne's time. It is an equally forcible
plea for beautiful and pleasant schoolrooms, decorated with works of art
intended to awaken and cultivate the aesthetic sense of the children,
while contributing to their happiness. It has been left to the educators
of the end of the nineteenth century to take up and seriously act upon
this suggestion made over three hundred years ago. "The purpose of
education," said Montaigne, "is the training, not of a grammarian, or a
logician, but of a complete gentleman." Education should be of a
practical nature. The child must become familiar with the things about
him. He must learn his own language first and then that of his
neighbors, and languages should all be learned by conversation.

A decided weakness in his system is found in his ideas concerning women.
He made no provision for their education, and, indeed, expressed great
contempt for their abilities of either mind or heart.

Montaigne's chief literary work is his "Essays." Compayré pronounces
Montaigne's pedagogy, "a pedagogy of good sense," and further adds that
he has "remained, after three centuries, a sure guide in the matter of
intellectual education."

Observation and experience were to be abundantly employed, and visits to
other lands, together with intercourse with intelligent men everywhere,
were to "sharpen our wits by rubbing them upon those of others."

To sum up, we may say that the pedagogy of Montaigne teaches the
training and use of the senses; the study of science; the learning of
the mother tongue first by conversation, and then the language of our
neighbors with whom we come in contact; the abolition of corporal
punishment, and the beautifying of schoolrooms. This surely is no small
contribution to education. His definition of education is worthy of
note. He says, "It is not the mind only, nor the body, but the whole man
that is to be educated."[83]

=Summary of Educational Progress during the Sixteenth Century.=--1.
Humanism had reached its climax and begun to decline. It stimulated
invention and discovery; it revived classic literature and put it in
such form that it could be used; it emancipated the mind; it prepared
the way for later reforms; it produced great educators such as Petrarch,
Erasmus, and Reuchlin.

2. The Reformation took up the educational work of humanism, and carried
it forward. It instituted primary education, the education of the
masses, compulsory education and parental responsibility therefor; it
asserted the right and duty of the State to demand and secure universal
education; it elevated and gave dignity to the office of teacher; it
formulated several school systems, and laid the foundation of the
present German school system. Among its great educators were Luther,
Melanchthon, Sturm, and Neander.

3. The Jesuits established a remarkable system of schools, noted for
their thoroughness, for their singleness of purpose, for their rapid
growth, and for their trained teachers. They gave little attention to
primary education, but sought to reach the higher classes. Emulation was
the principal incentive employed.

4. Opposed to the Jesuit education was that of the Port Royalists. They
appealed to the intelligence of the children and cultivated the
sense-perceptions. They invented the phonic method of spelling.

5. Sturm's celebrated course of study was introduced during this century
at Strasburg.

6. The method of double translations in learning a language was taught
by Ascham and Sturm.

7. In Rabelais we find the first appearance of _realism_, which bore
rich fruit in later scientific education.

8. Montaigne opposed the use of the rod, and taught that the schoolroom
should be made attractive. He also advocated the study of modern
languages by conversation, and gave science an honorable place in the
curriculum.

It thus appears that the sixteenth century surpassed many previous eras
in its contributions to educational progress.

FOOTNOTES:

[73] H. M. Skinner, "The Schoolmaster in Literature," p. 20.

[74] For special reference see Besant's "Rabelais."

[75] "Rabelais," 192.

[76] Ibid., 193.

[77] "Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire," 9-33.

[78] "History of Pedagogy," p. 91.

[79] "Rabelais," p. 187.

[80] "History of Pedagogy," p. 96.

[81] See Collins, "Montaigne."

[82] Collins, "Montaigne," p. 14.

[83] A good summary of Montaigne's educational ideas may be found in
Collins's "Montaigne," p. 102.



CHAPTER XXXII

EDUCATION DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

=Literature.=--_Taylor_, History of Germany; _Guizot_, History of
Civilization; _Schiller_, The Thirty Years' War; _Dyer_, Modern Europe;
_Lewis_, History of Germany; _Macaulay_, History of England.


=Political and Historical Conditions.=--The seventeenth century was
remarkable for the wars for religious supremacy. The Reformation had
challenged the authority of the Church, aroused a questioning spirit,
and instilled into men's minds a love for religious liberty. During the
latter half of the sixteenth century, Europe had swayed back and forth
between Protestantism and Catholicism, according as success in arms had
favored one side or the other. The spirit of Protestantism had taken
possession more especially of the common people, who formed the bone and
sinew of the armies. Bitter animosities existed between the adherents of
the papal church and the reformers, which found expression in bloodshed,
rapine, and destruction of property.

England was torn asunder by civil war, which resulted in the death of
Charles I. and the establishment of the Commonwealth under
Cromwell,--the struggle between _Cavalier_ and _Roundhead_, between
established church and Puritan, ending finally in the revolution of
1688. The country was in a religious ferment during the greater part of
this century, caused by a growing jealousy for the maintenance of the
principle of the right to worship God according to the dictates of one's
own conscience. Nor was the struggle less virulent or disastrous in
continental Europe. The religious upheaval of the previous century
culminated in the terrible conflict known as the Thirty Years' War; this
lasted from 1618 till 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia secured
religious liberty to all men. Northern Germany, Austria, France,
Holland, Denmark, and Sweden, as well as minor countries, were involved
in this great war.

Let Bayard Taylor paint the result of this fearful struggle. "Thirty
years of war! The slaughters of Rome's worst emperors, the persecution
of the Christians under Nero and Diocletian, the invasions of the Huns
and Magyars, the long struggle of the Guelfs and Ghibellines, left no
such desolation behind them. At the beginning of the century, the
population of the German Empire was about 30,000,000; when the Peace of
Westphalia was declared, it was scarcely more than 12,000,000! Electoral
Saxony, alone, lost 900,000 lives in two years.... The city of Berlin
contained but 300 citizens, the whole of the Palatinate of the Rhine but
200 farmers. In Hesse-Cassel, 17 cities, 47 castles, and 300 villages
were entirely destroyed by fire; thousands of villages, in all parts of
the country, had but four or five families left out of hundreds, and
landed property sank to about one twentieth of its former value.... The
horses, cattle, and sheep were exterminated in many districts, the
supplies of grain were at an end, even for sowing, and large cultivated
tracts had relapsed into a wilderness. Even orchards and vineyards had
been wantonly destroyed wherever armies had passed. So terrible was the
ravage that, in a great many localities, the same amount of population,
cattle, acres of cultivated land, and general prosperity was not
restored until the year 1848, two centuries afterward!

"This statement of the losses of Germany, however, was but a small part
of the suffering endured.... During the last ten or twelve years of the
war, both Protestants and Catholics vied with each other in deeds of
barbarity; the soldiers were nothing but highway robbers, who maimed and
tortured the country people to make them give up their last remaining
property.... In the year 1637, when Ferdinand II. died, the want was so
great that men devoured each other, and even hunted down human beings
like deer or hares, in order to feed upon them.

"In character, in intelligence, and in morality, the German people were
set back two hundred years. All branches of industry had declined,
commerce had almost entirely ceased, literature and the arts were
suppressed, and except the astronomical discoveries of Copernicus and
Kepler, there was no contribution to human knowledge. Even the modern
High German language, which Luther had made the classic tongue of the
land, seemed to be on the point of perishing. Spaniards and Italians on
the Catholic, Swedes and French on the Protestant side, flooded the
country with foreign words and expressions, the use of which soon became
an affectation with the nobility, who did their best to destroy their
native tongue.

"Politically, the change was no less disastrous. The ambition of the
house of Hapsburg, it is true, had brought its own punishment; the
imperial dignity was secured to it, but henceforth the head of the 'Holy
Roman Empire' was not much more than a shadow.... As for the mass of the
people, their spirit was broken; for a time they gave up even the
longing for the rights which they had lost, and taught their children
abject obedience in order that they might simply live."[84]

=The Educational Situation.=--These political conditions had a marked
influence upon education. Schools were abandoned, colleges gave up their
charters, and people were content to allow their children to grow up in
ignorance. Indeed, it was not to be expected that, in the midst of their
poverty and sorrow, parents should care for education. And yet, some
most important and wise school laws were enacted and put into force,
which form the basis of the present German school system, as well as the
school systems of many other countries. In 1619 the Duke of Weimar
decreed that all children, girls as well as boys, should be kept in
school for at least six years,--from six to twelve. This is the first
efficient compulsory education law on record intended for all classes of
children.

Besides Weimar, Würtemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Mecklenburg, Holstein,
Hesse-Cassel, and other provinces were active in school work. They
organized schools, appointed teachers, and formulated school
regulations. In 1642, Duke Ernst of Gotha adopted a new school
regulation which was a century in advance of the time, and this action
was taken when the Thirty Years' War was at its height and in a
territory sadly devastated by contending armies.

This law required every child to enter school at the beginning of his
sixth year, and to remain in school until he could read his mother
tongue, had mastered Luther's catechism, and was well grounded in
arithmetic, writing, and church songs. A course of study was marked out,
the schools were graded, and methods of instruction were outlined. The
greatest defect in the system was the lack of competent teachers.
Discharged soldiers, worthless students, and degraded craftsmen who
could read and write, and who possessed a little knowledge of music,
continued for many years to be employed as schoolmasters. But little
progress could be made under these adverse circumstances; and the only
reason for encouragement was the fact that the duty of parents to keep
their children at school was everywhere recognized.

=The Innovators.=--We must here mention also the Innovators or
Reformers, whose period of educational activity falls chiefly within the
seventeenth century. Among these appear the names of Francis Bacon,
Ratke, Milton, Comenius, Rollin, Fénelon, and Locke. These men started
movements which revolutionized education and laid the foundation of
modern methods. The demands of the Reformers are summed up by Quick as
follows: "First, that the study of _things_ should precede, or be united
with, the study of _words_; second, that knowledge should be
communicated, where possible, by appeal to the senses; third, that all
linguistic study should begin with that of the mother tongue; fourth,
that Latin and Greek should be taught to such boys only as would be
likely to complete a learned education; fifth, that physical education
should be attended to in all classes of society for the sake of health,
not simply with a view to gentlemanly accomplishments; sixth, that a new
method of teaching should be adopted, framed 'According to nature.'"[85]
In another chapter we shall study the life and work of some of these
men.

FOOTNOTES:

[84] "History of Germany," p. 409.

[85] Quick, "Educational Reformers," p. 50.



CHAPTER XXXIII

EDUCATORS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

=Literature.=--_Church_, Bacon; _Macaulay_, Essays; _Spofford_, Library
of Historical Characters; _Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Montagu_, Life of
Bacon; _Barnard_, English Pedagogy; _Quick_, Educational Reformers;
_Williams_, History of Modern Education; _Laurie_, Life and Works of
Comenius; _Comenius_, Orbis Pictus; _Barnard_, Journal of Education;
_Milton_, Tractate on Education; _Pattison_, Milton; _Fowler_, Locke;
_Leitch_, Practical Educationists; _Gill_, Systems of Education;
_Schwegler_, History of Philosophy; _Courtney_, John Locke; _Vogel_,
Geschichte der Pädagogik; _Compayré_, History of Pedagogy; _Fénelon_,
Education of Girls; _Azarias_, Philosophy of Literature; _Monroe_,
Comenius.


BACON[86] (1561-1626)

But little is known of the early years of Francis Bacon, but it is
probable that he was well trained, as his father was a man of good
education, and the boy was able to enter Cambridge when only a little
over twelve years of age. His father was for many years Lord Keeper of
the Seals, and this brought Francis in contact with court life, where
his precocity made him a favorite with the queen. He thus early acquired
that taste for the court, by which he climbed to the height of his
ambition only to fall therefrom in ignominious defeat.

He remained at Cambridge only about three years. Lord Macaulay sums up
the result of Bacon's university experience in the following words:
"Bacon departed, carrying with him a profound contempt for the course of
study pursued there, a fixed conviction that the system of academic
education in England was radically vicious, a just scorn for the trifles
on which the followers of Aristotle had wasted their powers, and no
great reverence for Aristotle himself."[87]

Some think that thus early, while not yet fifteen years of age, Bacon
began to formulate that inductive system which made him a great
benefactor of the human race. There seems to be but little proof of
this; and, if it be so, he laid it aside until near the close of his
life, and devoted himself to politics. After leaving Cambridge, he went
abroad with the English ambassador at Paris, with whom he served until
the death of his father compelled his return to England. Unexpectedly
finding that his patrimony was gone, he began a career at the bar, and
rose step by step, amid many discouragements, until he reached the
height of his ambition, the Lord High Chancellorship of the realm. In
reaching this position he resorted to many of the tricks of the
politician, and sacrificed his best friends to further his selfish
interests. Concerning his actions toward his benefactor, Essex, Macaulay
says, "This friend, so loved, so trusted, bore a principal part in
ruining the earl's fortunes, in shedding his blood, and in blackening
his memory. But let us be just to Bacon. We believe that, to the last,
he had no wish to injure Essex. Nay, we believe that he sincerely wished
to serve Essex, as long as he could serve Essex without injuring
himself."[88] Such seeming mitigation of Bacon's ingratitude serves only
to bring the Lord Chancellor's cowardice more completely to light.

This lack of principle and greed for office, together with the luxurious
tastes which kept Bacon constantly in debt, made him susceptible to
corruption. Accordingly he accepted bribes; and, when exposed, his
degradation from the highest office under the crown was most complete
and humiliating. He was summoned before the bar of Parliament; and,
finding the evidence against him complete, he admitted his guilt and
pleaded for clemency. These are the words of his confession, "Upon
advised consideration of the charges, descending into my own conscience
and calling upon my memory to account so far as I am able, I do plainly
and ingenuously confess that I am guilty of corruption, and do renounce
all defense."

He was found guilty and condemned to imprisonment in the Tower during
the pleasure of the king, and to a fine of £40,000; he was forbidden
ever to sit in Parliament or come within the verge of the court, and was
forever debarred from holding office. He never paid the fine, was
released from the Tower after two days, was permitted to visit the
court, and was summoned to the meetings of Parliament.[89] He never,
however, took any part in public affairs. The king granted him a pension
upon which he lived the remainder of his days. Thus disappeared from
public life one of England's greatest statesmen, whose political career
ended in disgrace. But during the remaining six years of his life, he
wrote his principal works, which made him famous for all time, and which
mark a new era in education as well as in the world's progress.

In 1620 his greatest work, the "Novum Organum," was published. In this
appears his _Inductive Method_, a great educational discovery, which has
been of inestimable value to mankind. It revolutionized science, and
suggested the application of the forces of nature to the wants of man,
thus opening to man's enterprise an illimitable field for research. In
the three centuries since Bacon's discovery, science has made vast
strides, and yet is only at the threshold of its possible development.
The watchwords of the inductive method--experiment, investigate,
verify--have led to the establishment of laboratories, to the founding
of experimenting stations, and to the study of Nature herself. As
Macaulay puts it, "Two words form the key of the Baconian doctrine,
Utility and Progress." Again he says, "The philosophy of Plato began in
words and ended in words.... The philosophy of Bacon began in
observation and ended in arts."[90]

Macaulay depreciates the work of Bacon, and shows that he was not the
original inventor of the inductive method, "which," he says with truth,
"has been practiced ever since the beginning of the world by every human
being."[91] Nor was he the "first person who correctly analyzed that
method and explained its uses," as Aristotle had done so long before.
But these facts do not detract from the glory of Bacon any more than the
discovery of America by the Norsemen five hundred years before the time
of Columbus detracts from his glory. The same process of reasoning would
take all credit from every philosopher that has ever lived, for with
equal truth it may be said that every mental process "has been practiced
ever since the beginning of the world by every human being."

Bacon's teachings resemble those of Montaigne, though Bacon's work was
far more important and complete than that of his French contemporary.
His pedagogy may be summed up in these pregnant words from his own pen:
"A judicious blending and interchange between the easier and more
difficult branches of learning, adapted to the individual capabilities
and to the future occupation of pupils, will profit both the mental and
bodily powers, and make instruction acceptable."

We find in Bacon, then, the beginning of a new era in education. It
remained for Comenius, Locke, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and their compeers
to apply to specific educational systems the great truth contained in
the inductive method; and to scientists and investigators of all kinds
has been intrusted the mission of furthering, through this method, the
marvelous scientific development which has almost re-created the world.


RATKE[92] (1571-1635)

Perhaps the first to urge the reforms which constitute the basis of
educational theory was Ratke, a German, born in the province of
Holstein. He originated a scheme by which he promised to teach any
language, ancient or modern, in six months. He traveled throughout
Europe, endeavoring to sell his discovery to princes and men of
learning. Purchasers had to agree strictly to maintain the secret.
Professor Williams speaks of this conduct as follows: "These were the
acts of a charlatan peddling some secret quack nostrum."[93] Mr. Quick
says, "He would also found a school in which all arts and sciences
should be rapidly learned and advanced; he would introduce, and
peacefully maintain throughout the continent, a uniform speech, a
uniform government, and, more wonderful still, a uniform religion. From
these modest proposals we should naturally infer that the promiser was
nothing but a quack of more than usual impudence; but the position which
the name of Ratich holds in the history of education is sufficient proof
that this is by no means a complete statement of the matter."[94]

Many thinkers fully believed that the schools were in bondage to the
classic studies, that they did not prepare for life, and that science,
which had begun to show signs of awakening, should have a place in
education. The extravagant theories of Ratke, therefore, attracted
attention. Opportunity was given him to put his theories into practice,
first at Augsburg, then at Köthen, and finally at Magdeburg. In each
instance he utterly failed, more from want of tact in dealing with
men,--with those in authority, as well as with his teachers and
pupils,--than from lack of soundness in theory. Of course much of his
theory was worthless, especially that referring to the mastery of a
language in six months, and that proposing uniformity in speech,
government, and religion.

Ratke's method of teaching a language was not original with him, being
similar to, though not so effective as, that advocated by Roger Ascham,
more than a hundred years before (see p. 191), and suggested first by
Pliny, fifteen centuries earlier. Ratke required the pupil to go over
the same matter many times, to learn the grammar in connection with
translation, and finally to translate back into the original. He
proposed to follow the same course with all languages, and have all
grammars constructed on the same plan.

The work which Ratke began was more successfully carried out by others
who followed him, and thus fruit has been borne to these new and radical
ideas.

Quick sums up Ratke's pedagogy in a few words, as follows:[95]--

1. Everything after the order and course of nature.

2. One thing at a time.

3. One thing again and again repeated.

4. Nothing shall be learned by heart.

5. Uniformity in all things.

6. Knowledge of the thing itself must be given before that which refers
to the thing.

7. Everything by experiment and analysis.

8. Everything without coercion;[2] that is, by gentle means, and not by
the use of the rod.

Others have worked out these principles until they have become
thoroughly incorporated into every system of modern pedagogy.


COMENIUS[96] (1592-1670)

By far the greatest educator of the seventeenth century, and one of the
greatest in educational history, was Johann Amos Comenius. He was born
in Moravia, and belonged to the Protestant body known as the Moravian
Brethren. His early education was neglected, a fact that was not without
its compensation, for, not beginning the study of Latin until sixteen
years of age, he was mature enough to appreciate the defects in the
prevalent method of instruction. One of his most valuable services to
education grew out of his attempt to remedy the defects thus discovered.

Of the schools he attended, he says, "They are the terror of boys, and
the slaughterhouses of minds,--places where a hatred of books and
literature is contracted, where ten or more years are spent in learning
what might be acquired in one, where what ought to be poured in gently
is violently forced in, and beaten in, where what ought to be put
clearly and perspicuously is presented in a confused and intricate way,
as if it were a collection of puzzles,--places where minds are fed on
words."[97]

In speaking of his own experience at school, he says, "I was continually
full of thoughts for the finding out of some means whereby more might be
inflamed with the love of learning, and whereby learning itself might be
made more compendious, both in the matter of charge and cost, and of
labor belonging thereto, that so the youth might be brought by a more
easy method unto some notable proficiency in learning."[98]

The life of Comenius, which extended over nearly eighty years, was full
of vicissitudes and trials. Briefly told, it is as follows: He was left
an orphan at an early age, had poor educational advantages in childhood,
began the study of Latin at sixteen, and completed his studies at
Heidelberg at twenty-two, having previously studied at Herborn. After
leaving the university, he was teacher of the Moravian School at Prerau
for two years, and then having been ordained to the ministry, became
pastor of Fulnek. Here he remained for a number of years, living a happy
and useful life. In the meantime, the Thirty Years' War had broken out,
the battle of Prague had been lost by the Protestants, and the town of
Fulnek sacked. Comenius lost everything he possessed, and this
misfortune was soon followed by the death of his wife and child. After
hiding in the mountains for some time, he was banished from his native
land, together with all the other Protestants. This took place in 1627,
when Comenius was thirty-five years old. Though he often longed to
return to his fatherland, he was never permitted to do so.

He settled in Poland, and began by the study of the works of Ratke,
Bacon, and other writers to prepare himself for the great task of
educational reform. Of this experience he writes, "After many workings
and tossings of my thoughts, by reducing everything to the immovable
laws of nature, I lighted upon my 'Didactica Magna,' which shows the art
of readily and solidly teaching all men all things."

He visited England, Sweden, and Hungary in the interests of education,
and was invited to France, but did not accept the invitation. While
living at Leszno, Poland, for a second time his house was sacked and all
his property destroyed. Among other things, his work on Pansophia, and
his Latin-Bohemian dictionary, on which he had labored for forty years,
were burned. He closed his days at Amsterdam, Holland. In addition to
the great honors bestowed upon him by the various countries that sought
his advice on educational matters, he was made the chief bishop and head
of the Moravian Brethren. Raumer forcibly sums up the life of Comenius
as follows: "Comenius is a grand and venerable figure of sorrow. Though
wandering, persecuted, and homeless, during the terrible and desolating
Thirty Years' War, yet he never despaired, but with enduring courage,
and strong faith, labored unweariedly to prepare youth by a better
education for a happier future. Suspended from the ministry, as he
himself tells us, and an exile, he became an apostle to the Christian
youth; and he labored for them with a zeal and love worthy of the chief
of the apostles."[99]

=Pedagogical Work.=--The great educational works of Comenius are his
"Gate of Tongues Unlocked," the "Great Didactic," and his "Orbis
Pictus." Mr. Quick thinks that the "Great Didactic" contains, in the
best form, the principles he afterward endeavored to work out"[100] in
his other educational writings. "The services of Comenius to pedagogy,"
says Professor Williams, "were of a threefold character, in each of
which his merit was very great. First, he was the true originator of the
principles and methods of the Innovators. Second, he was a great
educational systematist. Third, he was the author of improved
text-books, which were long and widely famous."[101] This is a fair
summing up of the remarkable activity of this man with the exception of
the first point. Montaigne, Ratke, and Bacon had previously taught many
of the fundamental truths which Comenius merely amplified and brought to
practical fruition, and he himself acknowledged the influence of the
last two men upon him. That the whole purpose of the life of Comenius
was far nobler than that of Ratke or Bacon, there remains no room for
doubt. Compayré says, "The character of Comenius equals his
intelligence. Through a thousand obstacles he devoted his long life to
the work of popular instruction. With a generous ardor he consecrated
himself to infancy. He wrote twenty works and taught in twenty cities.
Moreover, he was the first to form a definite conception of what the
elementary studies should be."[102]

Bacon gave the inspiration and Comenius worked the truth into practical
form; Bacon invented a new theory of scientific investigation, Comenius
employed that theory in education; Bacon originated and Comenius
applied. This does not detract from the merit of Comenius any more than
his work detracts from the merit of Rousseau, Pestalozzi, or Horace
Mann, all of whom gathered inspiration from him.

=Summary of the Work of Comenius.=--(1) He was the author of the first
illustrated text-book, the "Orbis Pictus."[103] The cost of
illustrations was for a long time a serious barrier to their general
adoption in schoolbooks; but modern inventions and improvements have
removed this obstacle, and many of the text-books of to-day are as
valuable for their illustrations as for their text. The "Orbis Pictus"
appeared in 1658.

(2) In his "Great Didactic," he presents a scheme for general
organization of the school system which covers the first twenty-four
years of life. It divides this time into four equal periods of six
years, each as follows:--

1. _Infancy_, or the mother school, from birth up to six years of age.

2. _Boyhood_, the vernacular or national school, from six to twelve.

3. _Adolescence_, the _Gymnasium_ or Latin school, from twelve to
eighteen.

4. _Youth_, the university (including travel), from eighteen to
twenty-four.

"The infant school should be found in every house, the vernacular school
in every village and community, the gymnasium in every province, and the
university in every kingdom or large province." This scheme, with
variation of details, forms the basis of present school systems: first,
the period in the home with the mother till six; second, the period of
general education in the common school, from six to twelve or fourteen;
third, the period of preparation for the professional schools, from
twelve or fourteen to eighteen; and fourth, the professional or
university course, from eighteen to twenty-four. The last is usually
divided into a college and a university course.

(3) The educational principles of Comenius were revolutionary as to the
school practices of the time. They have come to be almost universally
accepted at present. We can here state only a few of the most
essential.[104]

1. If we would teach and learn surely, we must follow the order of
Nature.

2. Let everything be presented through the senses.

3. Proceed from the easy to the difficult, from the near to the remote,
from the general to the special, from the known to the unknown.

4. Make learning pleasant by the choice of suitable material, by not
attempting too much, by the use of concrete examples, and by the
selection of that which is of utility.

5. Fix firmly by frequent repetitions and drills.

6. Let all things advance by indissoluble steps, so that everything
taught to-day may give firmness and stability to what was taught
yesterday, and point the way to the work of to-morrow.[105]

7. Let everything that is useless be eliminated from teaching.

8. Learn to do by doing.

9. Each language should be learned separately, have a definite time
assigned to it, be learned by use rather than precept,--that is, the
practice in learning should be with familiar things,--and all tongues
should be learned by one and the same method.

10. The example of well-ordered life of parents, nurses, teachers, and
schoolfellows is very important for children; but precepts and rules of
life must be added to example.

11. As knowledge of God is the highest of all knowledge, the Holy
Scriptures must be the alpha and omega of the Christian schools.

Comenius gives explicit directions as to methods of instruction, class
management, discipline, courses of study, including a discussion of each
branch, and moral and religious teaching. He presents these directions
in the most remarkable and complete series of precepts and principles to
be found in educational literature.[106]


MILTON (1608-1674)

John Milton was "the most notable man who ever kept school or published
a schoolbook." While his fame rests on "Paradise Lost" and other great
literary works, he deserves a place among educators for his "Tractate on
Education," and for his sympathy with educational reform. He anticipated
Herbert Spencer's celebrated definition,--"To prepare us for complete
living is the function which education has to discharge,"--in the
following words: "I call, therefore, a complete and generous education
that which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously
all the offices, both private and public, of peace and war."

He criticised the schools of his time and sought to make them more
practical. Like the earlier Innovators, and in harmony with the spirit
that was rapidly growing, he thought that too much time was given to the
study of Latin, and urged that science, music, physical culture, and
language as a means of acquiring a knowledge of useful things, should
receive more attention in the schools. Quick says, "A protest against a
purely literary education comes with tremendous force from the student
who sacrificed his sight to his reading, the accomplished scholar whose
Latin works were known throughout Europe, and the author of 'Paradise
Lost.'"[107]

Milton's experience in teaching was confined to a small boarding school,
such as those usually resorted to for educating the sons of the better
classes in England at that time. For pupils he began with two nephews,
to whom were soon added a few other boys. These were sons of Milton's
friends, and some of them came as boarders, others as day students.
Milton seemed to like the work of teaching, and it was during this
period that his "Tractate" was written. He probably taught school in
this way for eight or nine years, and then was appointed to a small
office under the government, which secured his living. The rest of his
life was devoted chiefly to literary work.

=Milton's "Tractate."=--The principal lessons from this educational work
are embodied in the following quotation: "The end then of Learning is to
repair the ruines of our first Parents by regaining to know God aright,
and out of that knowledge to love him, and to imitate him, to be like
him, as we may the nearest by possessing our souls of true virtue, which
being united to the heavenly grace of faith makes up the highest
perfection."[108] This rather cumbersome definition shows how fully
Milton was possessed of the Puritan spirit, which then controlled
England, and which magnified religious zeal.

Milton's scheme of education may be briefly summed up as follows:--

1. The school premises should consist of a spacious house with large
school grounds, intended for about one hundred and thirty students from
twelve to twenty-one years of age, who should receive their complete
secondary and university education in the same school. This scheme, so
unique in Milton's time, is practically carried out in France and the
United States, where the connection between the lower and higher schools
is direct. In England, the land of its inception, and in Germany, there
is no such direct articulation between the lower and the higher schools.

2. The course of study embraces, first, the Latin grammar, arithmetic,
geometry, religion, and Greek authors to be read in translation; second,
Latin authors, geography, natural philosophy; third, Greek,
trigonometry,--intended to prepare for fortification,--architecture,
engineering, and navigation, anatomy, and medicine.

This course is supposed to be completed at about the age of sixteen. The
harder topics now follow, together with the study of those subjects
intended to teach ethical judgment. Milton says, "As they begin to
acquire character, and to reason on the difference between good and
evil, there will be required a constant and sound indoctrinating to set
them right and firm, instructing them more amply in the knowledge of
virtue and the hatred of vice." Then come Greek authors, Holy Writ,
poetry, and "at any odd hour, the Italian tongue," ethics, and politics.
He is consistent with his definition of education,--"that which fits a
man to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the offices,
both public and private, of peace and war," when he would train men to
be "steadfast pillars of the State." He adds in his course also the
study of law, including Roman edicts and English common law, a knowledge
of Hebrew, and possibly Syrian and Chaldaic.

Nor were physical exercises omitted. Sword exercises, wrestling,
military tactics, riding, etc., were to be daily practiced, each in its
proper time. Finally, the young man, when about twenty-three years of
age, should travel abroad, and thus, when mature enough to comprehend
them, become acquainted with the geography, history, and politics of
other countries. This was to be the final preparation for citizenship
and service of country. Mr. Browning pronounces this a "magnificent and
comprehensive scheme." The most serious criticism of it is, that it
marks out much more than the average young man can accomplish.


LOCKE[109] (1632-1704)

John Locke was the son of a Puritan gentleman who took active part in
the wars for religious freedom fought during the latter part of the
seventeenth century. Without doubt the stirring scenes enacted and the
great moral movements which occupied England had a great influence upon
Locke's life. He was carefully trained at home until he was about
fourteen years old, when he entered Westminster School, a Puritan
institution, where he remained for six years. He then entered Oxford,
and in due time took his bachelor's and master's degrees. In 1660, when
twenty-eight years old, he was made tutor of Christ Church, Oxford,
where he lectured on Greek, rhetoric, and philosophy. He interested
himself in theology, but never took orders; and he also studied medicine
and for a time practiced it. His own health was precarious, he having
suffered, from chronic consumption nearly all his life. Nevertheless, he
accomplished a tremendous amount of work. The friendship of the Earl of
Shaftesbury gave Locke some political prestige. He lived in the family
of that nobleman for many years, and was the tutor of his son and
grandson.

Locke's great work, on which his fame securely rests, is the "Essay
concerning Human Understanding," which stamps him as the greatest of
English philosophers. This appeared in 1690. His most important
educational work is entitled "Some Thoughts concerning Education."
Compayré says, "From psychology to pedagogy the transition is easy, and
Locke had to make no great effort to become an authority on education
after having been an accomplished philosopher." Further, the same author
says concerning the essential principles discussed in "Thoughts
concerning Education," "These are: 1, in physical education, the
hardening process; 2, in intellectual education, practical utility; 3,
in moral education, the principle of honor, set up as a rule for the
free self-government of man."

In Locke, for the first time, we find a careful set of rules as to the
food, sleep, physical exercise, and clothing of children. While modern
science rejects some of these, most of them are regarded as sound in
practice. Plenty of outdoor exercise, clothing loose and not too warm,
plain food with but little meat or sugar, proper hours of sleep, and
beds not too soft, early retiring and rising, and cold baths, are means
prescribed to harden the body and prepare it to resist the attacks of
disease. "_A sound mind in a sound body_" is the celebrated aphorism
which sums up Locke's educational theory.

As to moral education, Locke declares, "That which a gentleman ought to
desire for his son, besides the fortune which he leaves him, is, 1,
virtue; 2, prudence; 3, good manners; 4, instruction." In his course of
study the idea of utility prevails. After reading, writing, drawing,
geography, and the mother tongue are mastered, Locke, like Montaigne,
would teach the language of nearest neighbors, and then Latin. Even the
Latin tongue should be learned through use, rather than by rules of
grammar and by memorizing the works of classic authors.

While his system of education was planned for sons of gentlemen, Locke
urged the establishment of "working schools" for children of the
laboring classes. This was in line with his utilitarian ideas, as the
intent was not so much intellectual training, as the formation of steady
habits and the preparation for success in industrial pursuits. Locke's
plan was for a sort of manual training school, the first appearance of
such a project in history.

Locke did not believe in universal education, nor in the public school.
Only gentlemen were provided for in his formal scheme, and herein he
followed the path marked out by Alfred the Great eight hundred years
before, which England has not completely forsaken to this day. Since he
had done all his teaching as a private tutor in the family of a
gentleman, one can easily understand his advocacy of that form of
instruction for the favored few. Locke's teachings in this respect are
gradually losing their hold even in England, the most conservative of
all countries in educational matters, and the latest great nation to
accept the principle of universal education. During the last quarter of
a century England has been earnestly seeking to give every child,
whether of gentle or of humble birth, rich or poor, what his birthright
demands,--a good common school education.

The influence of Locke upon education, then, has been very great.
Williams remarks that "he inspired Rousseau with nearly every valuable
thought which appears in the brilliant pages of his 'Émile.' He seems
himself to have derived some of his most characteristic ideas from
Montaigne, and possibly also from Rabelais."[110] Although Locke
differed from other educational reformers in many respects, though he
was somewhat narrow in his conception of education, owing to his
environment, he opposed the dry formalism that characterized the
educational practice of his time, and sought to emancipate man both
intellectually and physically.


FÉNELON (1651-1715)

Fénelon was born of noble parents in the province of Périgord, France.
During his early years his father attended very carefully to his
education, and later his uncle, the Marquis de Fénelon, became his
guardian. Though delicate in health, the boy showed remarkable aptness
in learning. At the age of twelve he entered the college of Cahors, and
thence went to the university of Paris. He was destined by his parents
for the Church, for which, by natural temperament and pious zeal, he was
well fitted. He preached at fifteen with marked success, and took up a
theological course at St. Sulpice. At the age of twenty-four he was
ordained priest. He desired to enter the missionary field, first in
Canada, and later in Greece, but had to abandon this purpose on account
of ill health.

Saint-Simon, in his "Mémoires," describes Fénelon as a man of striking
appearance, and says, "His manner altogether corresponded to his
appearance; his perfect ease was infectious to others, and his
conversation was stamped with the grace and good taste which are
acquired by habitual intercourse with the best society and the great
world."

For ten years Fénelon was at the head of the convent of the _New
Catholics_, an institution which sought to reclaim Protestant young
women to Catholicism. In this position, as well as in all his lifework,
though himself an ardent Catholic, Fénelon's course was so temperate and
just that he won the warmest admiration even of Protestants, who did not
accept his faith. Among his friends were the Duke and Duchess of
Beauvilliers, who had eight daughters and several sons. At their
suggestion, and for the purpose of helping them in educating their
daughters, he wrote his first and most important educational work, "The
Education of Girls." Compayré pronounces this "the first classical work
of French pedagogy." He further speaks of this book as "a work of
gentleness and goodness, of a complaisant and amiable grace, which is
pervaded by a spirit of progress."[111] It appeared in 1687.

In 1689, when thirty-eight years of age, Fénelon was chosen preceptor of
the grandson of Louis XIV., the young Duke of Burgundy. In this position
his remarkable powers as a teacher were brought to light, and he applied
the theories which he had promulgated. The young duke, who was eight
years of age, was of a passionate nature, hard to control, and yet,
withal, of warm-hearted impulses. It is said that "he would break the
clocks which summoned him to unwelcome duty, and fly into the wildest
rage with the rain which hindered some pleasure." The "Telemachus"[112]
of Fénelon, perhaps his greatest literary work, was composed at this
time, as were also his "Dialogues of the Dead" and his "Fables." The
inspiration of all these works was found in the charge committed to
him--that of properly instructing his royal pupil. Fénelon thus created
the material through which he interested the boy and taught him the
intended lessons. The "Telemachus" was designed for the moral and
political instruction of the prince; through his "Dialogues of the Dead"
he taught history; and his "Fables" were composed for the purpose of
teaching the moral and intellectual lessons which he wished to impart to
his illustrious, but headstrong, pupil. Fénelon's success with the
prince was phenomenal, as the passionate boy became affectionate,
docile, and obedient.

The success of the experiment, however, was never put to the final test,
as the duke died before coming to the throne. There seems to be no doubt
that the cure was permanent, and it is not believed that, like Nero, he
would have relapsed into his former viciousness and cruelty.

One naturally compares Fénelon with Seneca. To both were committed
children, heirs apparent to thrones,--willful, cruel, disobedient, and
hard to control. In Seneca's pupil the seeds of cruelty remained, to
germinate into the awful tyrant; in Fénelon's the evil seemed to be
permanently eradicated, and the result was a prince with generous
impulses and noble intentions. And this result was largely owing to the
difference in the teachers,--Fénelon, the gentle, but firm, patient,
painstaking conscientious man; Seneca, the more brilliant, but
vacillating and timeserving sycophant.

=Fénelon's Pedagogy.=--1. There must be systematic care of the body.
Therefore regular meals and plain food, plenty of sleep, exercise, etc.,
are essential.

2. All instruction must be made pleasant and interesting. Play is to be
utilized in teaching. In this he anticipated Froebel.

3. Let punishments be as light as possible. Encourage children to be
open and truthful, and do not prevent confession by making punishments
too frequent or too severe. Punishment should be administered privately,
as a rule, and publicly only when all other means have failed.

4. Present the thing before its name,--the idea before the word. Study
things, investigate. Employ curiosity. In this he was a disciple of
Bacon and Comenius, and a prophet to Pestalozzi.

5. Allow nothing to be committed to memory that is not understood.

6. Girls, also, must share the benefits of education. Especial attention
should be given to teaching them modesty, gentleness, piety, household
economy, the duties of their station in life, and those of motherhood.

7. Morality should be taught early and by means of fables, stories, and
concrete examples.

8. Proceed from the near at hand to the remote, from the known to the
unknown. Thus in language, after the mother tongue, teach other living
languages, and then the classics. The latter are to be learned by
conversation about common objects, and by application of the rules of
grammar in connection therewith. In geography and history one's own
environment and country should be learned first, then other countries.

9. Example is of great importance to all periods of life, but especially
to childhood. This Fénelon practically illustrated by his own life and
by the concrete cases which he used. Voltaire says of Fénelon, "His wit
was overflowing with beauty, his heart with goodness."


LA SALLE AND THE BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS[113]

In 1681, La Salle, a devoted priest of the Catholic Church, organized
the _Brothers of the Christian Schools_.

The idea primarily was to awaken interest in elementary education. He
perfected the work already done by Peter Faurier, Charles Demia, and
others. The method of instruction, up to this time, had been largely
individual. The pupils were called up to the teacher, one by one, or at
most two by two, and, after the lesson had been heard, they were sent
back to their seats to study. La Salle conceived the idea of grading
together pupils of the same advancement, and teaching them
simultaneously,--a practice now employed in primary schools everywhere.
It is known as the _Simultaneous Method_. Brother Azarias says of this
method, "Because we all of us have been trained according to this
method, and see it practiced in nearly all of our public and many of our
private schools throughout the land, and have ceased to find it a
subject of wonder, we may be inclined to undervalue its importance. Not
so was it regarded in the days of La Salle. Then a Brothers' School was
looked upon with admiration. Strangers were shown it as a curiosity
worth visiting."

La Salle laid down many explicit rules concerning punishment, methods of
teaching, and school organization in a book called "The Conduct of
Schools." While modern criticism would condemn many of these rules, we
think, with Compayré, that "whatever the distance which separates these
gloomy schools from our modern ideal,--from the pleasant, active,
animated school, such as we conceive it to-day,--there is none the less
obligation to do justice to La Salle, to pardon him for practices which
were those of his time, and to admire him for the good qualities that
were peculiarly his own."[114]

He established the first normal school in history at Rheims in 1684,
thirteen years before Francke organized his teachers' class at Halle,
and fifty years before Hecker founded the first Prussian normal school
at Stettin. La Salle magnified the teacher's office, and urgently
demanded professional training for instructors of the young. Brother
Azarias forcibly sums up La Salle's great work in this respect as
follows: "He is the benefactor of the modern schoolmaster. He it was who
raised primary teaching out of the ruts of never ending routine, carried
on in the midst of time-honored noise and confusion, and, in giving it
principles and a method, made of it a science. He hedged in the dignity
of the schoolmaster. He was the first to assert the exclusive right of
the master to devote his whole time to his school work."[115]

Education, therefore, owes to La Salle three important
contributions,--(1) the Simultaneous Method of Instruction, whereby a
number of children of the same advancement are taught together; (2) the
first Normal School, established at Rheims, France, in 1684; and (3) a
dignifying of the teacher's profession by setting apart trained persons
who should give all their time to the work of teaching.

=Rollin (1661-1741).=--This great teacher, connected for many years with
the University of Paris, and deposed therefrom in connection with the
Jansenists to whom he adhered, was not merely a university lecturer, but
also an author of educational works and a student of general education.
His most important educational work is his "Treatise on Studies." Rollin
anticipated modern practice by seeking to make learning pleasant and
discipline humane. He would use the rod only as a last resort--a theory
quite contrary to the practice of that time. Too much freedom, he
thought, would have a tendency to make children impudent; too frequent
appeal to fear breaks the spirit; praise arouses and encourages the
child, but too much of it makes him vain. Therefore the teacher must
avoid both extremes. While he would have girls know the four ground
rules of arithmetic, that is about all they should have except domestic
training. Rollin had no connection with elementary schools and but
little contact with children; therefore his precepts do not always have
the sound basis that experience furnishes. Nevertheless, he exerted a
salutary influence upon the education of his time.

=Summary of the Educational Progress of the Seventeenth Century.=--1.
School systems were established and compulsory attendance made efficient
in Weimar in 1619, in Gotha in 1642, and in many other cities, showing a
growing recognition of the principle of universal education and the duty
of the State to assume the responsibility for its attainment.

2. A school of educators, known as the "Innovators," laid emphasis on
_sense-realism_,--the study of things, the contact with nature, the
education that is of practical use.

3. Bacon laid the foundation of all future scientific research by his
_inductive method_. This increased the riches of the world beyond
calculation, taught how investigation is to be made, laid the foundation
of modern science, and gave direction to all later education.

4. Ratke, though erratic and vulgar, instituted wholesome reforms in the
teaching of languages, and promulgated theories which, under later
reformers, bore rich fruitage.

5. Comenius, one of the greatest educators of all time, produced the
first illustrated text-book, planned a general organization for schools
in several countries, which is the basis of present systems, and
proclaimed theories which are now universally accepted as the guide of
modern pedagogical practice.

6. Milton, though primarily a literary man, lent the weight of his
genius and his great name to school reform. He marked out a course of
study which contemplates a unity of purpose from the elementary school
to the university.

7. The great English philosopher, Locke, also found time to devote to
education. His principle, "_A sound mind in a sound body_," directed
attention to physical education.

8. In the noble French priest, Fénelon, we find an example of theory
practically applied. He gives, also, for the first time, a place in
pedagogy to the education of girls.

9. In general, we find that the seventeenth century laid stress upon the
principle of utility, gave great impulse to science, called attention to
the care of the body, decreased the influence of classic studies,
brushed away the fabric which superstition and conservatism had woven,
produced some of the greatest educators that have ever lived, and laid
the foundations on which modern education is built.

FOOTNOTES:

[86] For special reference see Macaulay's "Essays," Vols. II and III.

[87] "Essays," Vol. III, p. 354.

[88] _Ibid._, Vol. III, p. 368.

[89] For a full description of his trial consult Macaulay's "Essays."
Also his biographer, Montagu, whose judgment of Bacon is much milder
than Macaulay's.

[90] "Essays," Vol. III, p. 459.

[91] _Ibid._, Vol. III, p. 470.

[92] Also Rateke, Radtke, and Ratich. Paulsen pronounces the last "an
abominable mutilation of Latinization."

[93] "History of Modern Education," p. 141.

[94] Quick, "Educational Reformers," p. 51.

[95] "Educational Reformers," p. 53.

[96] Especial attention is called to Laurie's "Life of Comenius," and
Monroe's "Comenius." For other works, see Appendix of Bardeen's edition
of Laurie's "Comenius."

[97] Laurie, "Life of Comenius," p. 14.

[98] Preface to the "Prodromus."

[99] Raumer, "Geschichte der Pädagogik."

[100] "Educational Reformers," p. 73.

[101] "History of Modern Education," p. 151.

[102] "History of Pedagogy," p. 122.

[103] See "Orbis Pictus," edited and published by C. W. Bardeen,
Syracuse, N.Y.

[104] Laurie's "Life and Works of Comenius," p. 77.

[105] _Ibid._, p. 105.

[106] For full discussion of the pedagogical principles of Comenius, see
Professor Laurie's great work.

[107] "Educational Reformers," p. 59.

[108] "Tractate," p. 3.

[109] See Fowler's "Locke." Also Quick, Compayré, and Williams.

[110] "History of Modern Education," p. 181.

[111] "History of Pedagogy," p. 165.

[112] "Schoolmaster in Comedy and Satire," pp. 73-100.

[113] Especial reference is made to Brother Azarias, "Essays
Educational."

[114] "History of Pedagogy," p. 276.

[115] "Essays Educational," p. 238.



CHAPTER XXXIV

AUGUST HERMANN FRANCKE AND THE PIETISTS (1663-1727)

=Literature.=--_Rein_, Encyklopädisches Handbuch; _Strack_, Geschichte
des Volkschulwesens; _Dyer_, Modern Europe; _Rein_, Am Ende der
Schulreform? _Russell_, German Higher Schools.


PIETISM

Pietism is the name of a movement in Germany which sought to revive
spiritual life in the Lutheran Church. In that church, religion had
become purely a matter of intellect, instead of heart. Cold formality
and adherence to the letter, rather than the spirit, had taken
possession of the Protestant Church. Like the Jansenists in France, who
had a similar purpose with reference to the Catholic Church, and later
the Methodists in England, who sought to awaken religious zeal in the
Church of England, the Pietists of Germany endeavored to vitalize
religious life, and to lead men away from creeds promulgated by human
agency, to the pure word of God. The Pietists differed from the orthodox
Lutherans not in doctrine, but in insisting on the necessity of a change
of heart and a pious life, instead of mere adherence to formal doctrine.

The Pietists founded the university of Halle, and this remained the
center of the movement until it had run its course. Pietism had its
inception during the latter part of the seventeenth century, and it
extended through the first half of the eighteenth century. Its
originator was Philipp Jakob Spener, a man of remarkable zeal and godly
life. Though it met with bitter opposition on the part of the orthodox
Lutherans, it certainly did great good, not only to its adherents, but
to the Church at large, by awakening deeper spiritual life. Its
influence was also great in reviving Biblical study in Germany, in
improving the character of teachers, and in giving a spiritual direction
to the studies of the schools. It has left an enduring monument in the
great _Institutions_ that it founded at Halle. The greatest of the
Pietists was August Hermann Francke, who is celebrated, not only as a
theologian, but as a philanthropist and teacher.


FRANCKE[116] (1663-1727)

Francke's early education was conducted by private teachers, though his
parents, who were intelligent and God-fearing people, exerted a strong
influence upon him. At thirteen he entered the highest class of the
_Gymnasium_ at Gotha, where he remained for one year. Here he was
introduced to the reform teachings of Ratke and Comenius. Two years
later he entered the university of Erfurt as a student of theology. He
studied also at Kiel and Leipsic. While he gave particular attention to
Hebrew and Greek, he also learned French, English, and Italian. He
seemed to be gifted with a talent for learning languages, for during a
short residence in Holland in later life he learned the Dutch language
so well that he was able to preach in it. Under the instruction of a
Jewish rabbi, he read the Hebrew Bible through seven times in one year.
After spending some time as teacher in a private school, he returned to
Leipsic as _Privat Docent_[117] in the university.

Having become acquainted with Spener and his teachings, Francke became
an earnest Pietist. His success in lecturing and his zeal in religious
work drew around him a large number of students. This awakened the envy
of the old professors of the university, and they began a persecution
which caused his dismissal. He then went to Erfurt and preached with
remarkable success, drawing great crowds by his earnestness and
eloquence. Persecution again followed him, and he was banished from the
city.

About this time the new university of Halle called Francke to the chair
of Greek and oriental languages and afterward to that of theology. He
began his work in 1692, and remained in that position for nearly
thirty-six years, until his death. As this position did not furnish
enough to live upon, he became pastor of the church in the neighboring
village of Glaucha. In his pastoral work he came in contact with
poverty, drunkenness, and every form of immorality. Moved with pity, he
collected small sums of money, which he distributed among the poor after
catechising the children.

At Easter, 1695, he found seven guldens ($2.80) in the collection boxes,
which he declared to be "A splendid capital with which something of
importance can be founded; I will begin a school for the poor with it."
This was the beginning of the great orphan asylum at Halle,--an
enterprise the magnitude of which we shall describe later. Without
visible income, with no means at command, but with a sublime faith in
God and humanity, and an overwhelming sense of the ignorance and misery
of the children about him, Francke began at once the great work; nor was
his faith misplaced, as the result shows. He gathered together a few
children and placed a student over them as a teacher. Soon the better
class of citizens took an interest, and desired him to provide a school
for their children. Two rooms were rented, one for those who could not
pay and the other for those who could. This was the foundation of the
_free school_ and the _citizens' school_ still connected with the
_Institutions_. In the fall of 1695, Francke founded the orphan asylum.
Money flowed in from all parts of the country as people began to
understand the great work. Francke was thus able to branch out in many
directions. He established a _Pedagogium_ to prepare teachers for his
and other schools; free meals were furnished to students who devoted a
part of their time to teaching in the institutions; separate schools for
boys and girls, a _Gymnasium_, a _Real-school_, a bookbindery and
printing establishment, and many other institutions were founded.

=The Institutions at Halle.=--In a few years Francke had in successful
operation a marvelous system, a work founded upon love of humanity and
dependent upon philanthropy for its support. The results attracted
attention from all Europe, and students came from many lands. "At the
death of Francke in the year 1727, the following report of the
_Institutions_ was sent to King Frederick William I.: (1) In the
_Pedagogium_, 82 scholars, 70 teachers and other persons; (2) in the
Latin school, 3 inspectors, 32 teachers, 400 pupils, and 10 servants;
(3) in the common school, 4 inspectors, 98 male teachers, 8 female
teachers, 1725 boys and girls; (4) orphans, 100 boys, 34 girls, 10
overseers; (5) at the free table, 225 students, 360 poor children; (6)
employed in the drug store, bookstore, etc., and other persons in the
establishment, 82."[118] This makes a total of over 3200 persons
instructed, sheltered, employed, or otherwise connected with these great
_Institutions_. The foundations were so firmly laid that the progress
has been steady from that time to this. At present there are no less
than twenty-five different enterprises connected with the
_Institutions_, among which may be mentioned a free school for boys, and
one for girls; a common school for boys, and one for girls; a royal
_Pedagogium_; a Latin school; a higher girls' school; a _Realgymnasium_;
a preparatory school for the high school; a _Real-school_; an orphan
asylum for boys, and one for girls; a boarding house for students; a
Bible house, which has distributed about 6,500,000 Bibles and religious
works; a teachers' seminary (normal school) for each sex; a bookstore, a
printing house, and a drug store.[119] About 3000 children receive
instruction in the various schools, and about 118,000 have been
recipients of the benefits since the _Institutions_ were founded two
hundred years ago. The cost is about one million marks a year, which is
covered by endowments, by tuition fees, by profits from the productive
departments (bookstores, printing establishment, etc.), and by moneys
received from the State. Francke's idea of depending upon voluntary
gifts has been abandoned.

All this work is the result of the energy of a man who began with a
capital of less than three dollars, and a vast amount of faith to found
"something of importance."

=The Training of Teachers.=--While Francke's greatest work for mankind
was the _Institutions_ mentioned above, we must notice one field of his
activity that is of especial importance to us,--that of the training of
teachers. We have seen that, on account of the scarcity of funds, he was
obliged to rely upon students to do the work of instructing the children
committed to his care. The young theologians made use of this
opportunity as a stepping-stone to their future calling, the ministry,
and Francke, perceiving this, sought to secure the most pious and gifted
among his theological students for this work. He also established a
pedagogical class (_Pedagogium_). After two years' membership therein,
the student was allowed to teach provided he pledged himself to devote
three years to teaching in the schools. This class met once a week for
criticism and discussion under the leadership of the inspector of the
school, and the various inspectors met Francke every evening for further
instruction. The results soon attracted widespread notice, and created a
great demand for Francke's teachers. Although this was very crude
pedagogical training, it may be regarded as the inception of the normal
school, which has now come to be an essential part of every educational
system.

=The Real-school.=--A third service is credited by many to Francke,
namely, the founding of the _Real-school_[120] of Germany. The best
authorities give that credit to Professor Erhard Weigel of Jena. Whether
or not the idea originated with Francke, he was ready to accept the
necessity of such a change, and founded schools for higher learning in
which Greek and Latin were not required, and in which more attention was
given to modern languages and science.

FOOTNOTES:

[116] Rein's "Encyklopädisches Handbuch," Vol. II, p. 336.

[117] The _Privat Docent_ is the first step in the professor's career in
the German university. He is allowed to lecture in the university, but
receives no pay except fees from the students who hear him.

[118] K. Schmidt, "Geschichte der Pädagogik," Vol. III, p. 462.

[119] See Rein, "Encyklopädisches Handbuch," Vol. II, p. 348.

[120] The _Real-school_ is the great rival of the _Gymnasium_ in
Germany. The latter is the old established school which bases culture on
the _Humanities_,--the classic languages, and literature. The
_Real-school_ is more modern and gives greater attention to the
_Realities_,--to things of practical utility. Precedence is given to the
modern languages, sciences, and arts. While the chief purpose of the
_Gymnasium_ is to prepare for the learned professions, that of the
_Real-school_ is to prepare for practical life. The relation of these
two institutions to each other and to the university led to the _Berlin
Conference_ in 1890, at which it clearly appeared that the younger is
outstripping the older and more conservative institution. See Russell,
"German Higher Schools."



CHAPTER XXXV

GENERAL VIEW OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES

=Literature.=--_Dyer_, Modern Europe; _Duruy_, The French Revolution;
_Yonge_, Three Centuries of Modern History; _Andrews_, Institutes of
General History; _Lord_, Beacon Lights; _Taylor_, History of Germany;
_Guizot_, History of Civilization; _Draper_, Conflict between Religion
and Science; _Schwickerath_, Jesuit Education.


The history of the world since the seventeenth century has been crowded
with events, and characterized by movements of greatest moment to
mankind. It is not the purpose of this work to discuss political
movements, to chronicle wars, or to study the great upheavals of society
except in so far as they have a direct bearing upon educational
questions.[121]

The political chains that fettered the nations of the world have
gradually been broken until greater liberty has been secured, a more
perfect acknowledgment of the rights of the individual brought about,
and a more tolerant religious spirit fostered in every civilized land.
These things have exerted a tremendous force in the intellectual
emancipation of man. At last the long struggle of the centuries begins
to bear legitimate fruit, and the supreme educational purpose of
Christianity, that of asserting and maintaining the importance of the
individual, seems destined to complete realization. The noble truths of
brotherly love, equality before God, and human rights were obscured
during the long centuries,--obscured sometimes by the very institution
whose chief aim is to scatter light and give gladness to men. It has
remained for modern education to rediscover the educational principles
which the Great Teacher promulgated, and which through the struggle of
centuries failed of recognition, and bore indifferent fruit.

Among the many social and political changes that have taken place during
the last two centuries, we may mention a few that have a direct
influence upon education. Preceding centuries had prepared the way,--had
broken the ground and sown the seed, and now the world was ready to reap
an abundant harvest.

The great political events of this period may be briefly summarized as
follows:--

1. _The abolition of human slavery._--Great Britain, Spain, France,
Russia, and finally our own country have forever removed the shackles of
the slave within their borders. Perhaps the greatest of all emancipation
acts was that of Russia, which, in 1861, without bloodshed and without
serious disturbance, by royal decree, set free forty million serfs. The
abolition of slavery in nearly all civilized countries is the greatest
political triumph of Christian civilization. Without this there could
never have come that higher intellectual emancipation which is the aim
sought in all education.

2. _The extension of political rights._--This is another victory that
must be credited to the period under discussion. At the beginning of the
eighteenth century there was scarcely a nation that acknowledged the
right of the individual to a part in government, or to personal
freedom. Men were in vassalage to their immediate lord, who, in turn,
was obliged to acknowledge the "divine right" of the king over him. With
the exception of Switzerland, who for centuries had maintained her
freedom, and of England, who had secured the rights of man only by much
bloodshed, there was scarcely a people in the world that possessed the
right of self-government. Even England had secured that right only in
the latter half of the seventeenth century under the leadership of
Cromwell. This right she did not concede to her colonies, however, until
the American Revolution wrested her richest dependency from her, and
forever established the principle of self-government for a sovereign
people.

Immediately following the American Revolution came the French
Revolution, which taught the Old World the ideas so heroically
conceived, so bravely supported, and so successfully realized in the New
World. Nor is this all. The same principle has compelled the rulers of
most of the European nations to divide the responsibility of government
with their subjects, and to grant their people enlarged powers but
little short of absolute sovereignty.

3. _Science has been recognized as a powerful instrument of
civilization._--Through scientific discoveries there has been a
wonderful accession to material wealth, invention has been stimulated,
and progress has been made in all directions. The spirit of
investigation has been fostered, old theories and superstitions have
been abandoned, and truth has been established upon their ruins. In this
direction more has been done by science during the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries than during the whole previous history of the
world. Man has now become master of heretofore unknown forces which he
may utilize as a blessing for the human race. We shall see in later
pages that scientific investigation has become the greatest educational
principle of modern times.

4. _Religious freedom has been attained._--The sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries witnessed many struggles for religious liberty, which resulted
in no decided victory. It was not until the last two centuries that
complete religious freedom was gained. Men are no longer bound to accept
ecclesiastical decrees without question, but every one may weigh and
consider, and freely decide for himself. Civil law protects, civil
society sustains, and public opinion justifies men in the exercise of
personal liberty in religious matters.

By the realization of these great principles educational progress has
been encouraged. The greatest obstacles have been removed, and the
future opens with possibilities of universal brotherhood, universal
peace, and universal education.

It remains for us to study some of the men who have contributed to the
educational progress of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to
trace the chief movements in the intellectual development of the race,
and to examine the school systems of the representative nations of the
world at the present time.

FOOTNOTES:

[121] It must be freely admitted that such influences are powerful in
shaping the destiny of man, and that they have had much to do with
education, as we have often shown in the foregoing pages. We must,
however, leave the tracing of the movements to each individual student.



CHAPTER XXXVI

MODERN EDUCATORS

=Literature.=--_Davidson_, Rousseau; _Graham_, Rousseau; _Morley_, Life
of Rousseau; _Rousseau_, Émile; _Munroe_, Educational Ideal; _Vogel_,
Geschichte der Pädagogik; _Quick_, Educational Reformers; _Weir_, The
Key to Rousseau's Émile (article in _Educational Review_, Vol. XVI, p.
61); _Compayré_, History of Pedagogy.


ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)

Jean Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland. His father was a
watchmaker, and upon him devolved the education of the boy, as the
mother died in childbirth. Rousseau's father was a man of dissipated
habits, careless of responsibility, and of very violent temper. He
interested himself in his son far enough to teach him to read, and
supplied him with the worthless novels which he himself was fond of
reading. This unwise course doubtless had much to do in shaping the
character of the boy. Probably it was the evil effects of this early
literature that led Rousseau later in life to oppose teaching young
children to read. Quick says, "Rousseau professed a hatred of books,
which he said kept the student so long engaged upon the thoughts of
other people as to have no time to make a store of his own."

Abandoned by his father at the age of ten, he was taken into the family
of his uncle, who apprenticed him, first to a notary, and afterward to
an engraver. At the age of sixteen he ran away, and began a life of
vagabondage. While yet a young man, he became involved in intrigues,
which, according to his own account in his "Confessions," were no credit
to him. Madame de Warens, a young widow with whom he lived for some
years, sent him to school at St. Lazare, where he studied the classics
and music; but he soon lapsed again into vagabondage. He picked up a
little music, and attempted to give lessons in it, but with small
success. He also took a position as private tutor, but he had no talent
for teaching. Later in life he married Thérèse le Vasseur, a woman from
the common ranks of life. She bore him five children, all of whom he
committed to foundling hospitals without means of identification. He did
this because he was not willing that his own comfort or plans should be
disturbed by the presence of children. Rousseau had reason to regret
this heartless and unnatural course when, in later years, he sought in
vain to find some trace of his children. Compayré says, "If he loved to
observe children, he observed, alas, only the children of others. There
is nothing sadder than that page of the 'Confessions,' in which he
relates how he often placed himself at the window to observe the
dismission of a school, in order to listen to the conversations of
children as a furtive and unseen observer!"[122]

In 1749 Rousseau successfully competed for a prize offered by the
Academy of Dijon on the subject, "Has the restoration of the sciences
contributed to purify or to corrupt manners?" Rousseau entered this
contest quite accidentally. He saw the notice of the contest in a
newspaper, and decided at once to compete. Of this event he says, "If
ever anything resembled a sudden inspiration, it was the movement which
began in me as I read this. All at once I felt myself dazzled by a
thousand sparkling lights; crowds of vivid ideas thronged into my mind
with a force and confusion which threw me into unspeakable agitation; I
felt my head whirling in a giddiness like that of intoxication. A
violent palpitation oppressed me; unable to walk for difficulty of
breathing, I sank under one of the trees of the avenue, and passed half
an hour there in such a condition of excitement that when I rose I saw
that the front of my waistcoat was all wet with tears, though I was
wholly unconscious of shedding them. Ah, if I could have written the
quarter of what I saw and felt under that tree, with what clearness
should I have brought out all the contradictions of our social system;
with what simplicity should I have demonstrated that man is good
naturally, and that by institution only is he made bad."

This essay made him famous, and its publication was the beginning of a
remarkable literary career. His principal literary works are his
"Confessions," in which he declares that he conceals nothing concerning
himself; the "Social Contract," an anti-monarchic work, which many
believe incited the French Revolution; "Héloïse," a novel over-strained
in sentiment and immoral in its teachings, but "full of pathos and
knowledge of the human heart"; and "Émile," his greatest work, which
contains his educational theories. The "Émile"[123] was an epoch-making
book, which excited great interest throughout Europe. It is said that
the philosopher Emanuel Kant became so absorbed in reading it that he
forgot to take his daily walk.

=Pedagogy.=--(_a_) Rousseau's first principle is, "Everything is good as
it comes from the hands of the Author of nature; everything degenerates
in the hands of man." It follows, then, that education has only to
prevent the entrance of evil, and let nature continue the work begun.
It is to be a negative, as well as a natural, process. The fallacy of
this principle is very forcibly shown by Vogel[124] as follows: "The
very first sentence of 'Émile,' that man by nature is good, is a
fundamental error; for by nature, that is, from birth, man is neither
good nor bad, but morally indifferent. Only when the individual
possesses mature self-consciousness does he have a correct idea of good
and evil. If man by nature is good, it is inexplicable how evil can
originate within him. External things may, indeed, furnish motives to
evil, but are never in themselves evil; the evil arises rather from the
conduct of the individual toward outside objects. If, then, evil does
not come from without, and is not by nature already within the heart, it
is impossible that there shall be such a thing as evil."

(_b_) The first education is physical and it begins at birth. As the
physical wants of the child are natural they should be satisfied, but
the clothing should be of such character as not to interfere with the
perfect freedom of the body. Great care must be taken to distinguish
between the real wants of the child and its passing whims. To gratify
the latter because of the crying of the child will tend to form bad
habits. In this connection may be taught the first moral lessons. It
thus becomes important that the speech, gestures, and expressions of the
young child shall be carefully studied. This is the first suggestion of
the necessity for child study. The idea was later developed by
Pestalozzi and Froebel, and is one of the most important features of
recent pedagogical activity.

(_c_) The child's second period begins with his ability to speak and
continues till the twelfth year. No attempt must be made to educate the
child for his future, but he must be allowed to get the full enjoyment
of childhood by freedom to play as he will. Let him run, jump, and test
his strength, thereby acquiring judgment of the material forces about
him, and learning how to take care of himself. Leave him free to do what
he will, let him have what he wishes, but, as far as possible, he should
be led to depend upon himself to satisfy his wants. Give him perfect
freedom, for freedom is the fundamental law of education. If he
disobeys, do not punish him,--disobedience works its own punishment;
therefore, do not command him. The training of the senses is the
important work of this period; therefore, there should be as little
moral training as possible, and absolutely no religious training. The
only moral idea for the child to learn is that of ownership. He is to be
prevented from vice in a negative manner, that is, by never being
allowed to meet it. "The only habit that a child should be allowed to
form is to contract no habit."

He is to have a preceptor devoted entirely to him, not to instruct or
control him, but to lead him to discover and experience for himself. In
regard to his intellectual instruction, Rousseau says of _Émile_ at
twelve years of age, "that he has not learned to distinguish his right
hand from his left." Books are entirely proscribed, and, indeed, they
are useless to him as he cannot read; the only intellectual knowledge
the child receives is that which comes from things through his own
experience.

This is a brief outline of the erratic, impossible, and inconsistent
training that Rousseau provides for _Émile_ during this period when the
foundation of character in the child must be laid. Gréard says,
"Rousseau goes beyond progressive education to recommend an education
in fragments, so to speak, which isolates the faculties in order to
develop them one after another, which establishes an absolute line of
demarkation between the different ages, and which ends in distinguishing
three stages of progress in the soul. Rousseau's error on this point is
in forgetting that the education of the child ought to prepare for the
education of the young man."

(_d_) The third period extends from the twelfth to the fifteenth year.
It is the period of intellectual development. With no habits of thought
or study, being little else than a robust animal, in three years _Émile_
is to obtain all needed intellectual training. True, Rousseau excludes
everything that is not useful, and places limitations even on that. For
example, he naturally lays great stress upon the physical sciences which
are to be taught in connection with things themselves,--out of doors, by
travel, and in actual life; but he allows no history, or grammar, or
ancient languages. No books are permitted save "Robinson Crusoe," which
Rousseau finds entirely suitable for _Émile_. A trade is to be learned
during this period.

While in general we condemn Rousseau's scheme of education, there is
much in his methods that is most excellent. On this point Compayré
comments as follows: "At least in the general method which he commends,
Rousseau makes amends for the errors in his plan of study: 'Do not treat
the child to discourses which he cannot understand. No descriptions, no
eloquence, no figures of speech. Be content to present to him
appropriate objects. Let us transform our sensations into ideas. But let
us not jump at once from sensible to intellectual objects. Let us always
proceed slowly from one sensible notion to another. In general, let us
never substitute the sign for the thing, except when it is impossible
for us to show the thing.'"[125]

(_e_) The fourth period of education begins at fifteen, the period of
adolescence. At this time, "_Émile_ will know nothing of history,
nothing of humanity, nothing of art and literature, nothing of God; but
he will know a manual trade." Rousseau himself says, "_Émile_ has but
little knowledge, but that which he has is really his own; he knows
nothing by halves." He has a mind which, "if not instructed, is at least
capable of being instructed." The remaining work to be done in the
education of _Émile_ consists in training the sentiments of affection,
the moral and the religious sentiments. The feeling of love for his
fellow-beings is now to be cultivated. The error of this is shown by
Compayré, who says, "For fifteen years Rousseau leaves the heart of
_Émile_ unoccupied.... Rousseau made the mistake of thinking that a
child can be taught to love as he is taught to read and write, and that
lessons could be given to _Émile_ in feeling just as lessons are given
to him in geometry."

In morals Rousseau taught that the first duty of every one is to take
care of himself; we must love ourselves first of all, and find our
greatest interest in those things that best serve us. We must seek that
which is useful to us and avoid what harms us, instead of loving our
enemies and doing good to those that hate us, as taught by Christ. We
must love those who love us, while we must avoid and hate those who hate
us.

As to religion, _Émile_ does not yet know at fifteen that he has a soul,
and Rousseau thinks that perhaps the eighteenth year is still too early
for him to learn that fact; for, if he tries to learn it before the
proper time, he runs the risk of never really knowing that he possesses
an immortal soul. But as religion furnishes a check upon the passions,
it should be taught to the boy when eighteen years of age. He is not to
be instructed in the doctrines of any particular sect, but should be
allowed to select that religious belief which most strongly appeals to
his reason. Modern investigation has proven the utter fallacy of
Rousseau's teachings in this respect. Indeed, it seems to be established
that the most orthodox period of the child's life occurs before the
fifteenth year, the time when Rousseau would begin his religious
training. Conformable to this truth, many sects confirm children and
receive them into the church at or before the fifteenth year.[126]

(_f_) Having brought _Émile_ to the period of life at which he is to
marry, Rousseau proceeds to create in Sophie the ideal wife. It is not
the education of women as such that Rousseau discusses, but their
education with reference to man. He says, "The whole education of women
should be relative to men; to please them, to be useful to them, to make
themselves honored and loved by them, to educate the young, to care for
the older, to advise them, to console them, to make life agreeable and
sweet to them,--these are the duties of women in every age."
Consequently the sole instruction woman needs is in household duties, in
care of children, in ways to add to the happiness of her husband. Her
own happiness or development does not enter into Rousseau's scheme. This
is the weakest part of his educational theory. The world is gradually
awakening to the fact that woman's intellectual capacity is not
inferior to that of man, and the prejudices of ages are slowly
disappearing.

Rousseau's pedagogical theories made a profound impression throughout
Europe, and though often inconsistent, extravagant, and visionary, they
set the world to thinking of the child and his psychological
development. A new direction was thus given to educational theory and
practice, and upon this basis Pestalozzi, Froebel, and other modern
educators have built. Rousseau must, therefore, be reckoned among the
greatest pedagogical writers of modern times. Karl Schmidt pronounces
the "Émile" "a Platonic republic of education,--nevertheless, Rousseau's
work is a great universal achievement, the importance of which Goethe
recognizes when he calls the book the _nature-gospel_ of education."[127]

FOOTNOTES:

[122] "History of Pedagogy," p. 286.

[123] "Schoolmaster in Literature," pp. 40-63.

[124] "Geschichte der Pädagogik," p. 127. See also Compayré, "History of
Pedagogy," p. 286.

[125] "History of Pedagogy," p. 298.

[126] See address of Professor Earl Barnes, Proceedings of the National
Educational Association for 1893, p. 765. Also article by Dr. G. Stanley
Hall in _Pedagogical Seminary_, Vol. I, p. 196. Note also the religious
development of Laura Bridgman.

[127] "Geschichte der Pädagogik," Vol. III, p. 559.



CHAPTER XXXVII

MODERN EDUCATORS (_Continued_)


BASEDOW[128] (1723-1790)

The name of Basedow is connected with what is known as the
_Philanthropinic_ experiment. He was born at Hamburg, his father being a
wigmaker. Not being appreciated in his home, the son ran away and bound
himself out as servant in the household of a gentleman. Through the
influence of this man, who discovered his extraordinary abilities, he
was reconciled with his father, and returned home. He was sent to the
_Gymnasium_ at Hamburg, and afterward, through the assistance of
friends, went to the university of Leipsic, where he studied theology.
Here he lived a rather wild life, and upon the completion of his studies
was found too unorthodox to take orders. Accordingly, he became tutor
(Hauslehrer) to the children of Herr von Quaalen. In this position he
showed great aptitude and originality in the instruction of children.
His method of teaching included conversation, adaptation of play, and
use of the woods, fields, plants, birds, and other works of nature.

"Owing to his original manner of teaching, Basedow obtained the best
results. In teaching Latin, for instance, he began by pointing to
objects and giving their Latin names. His pupils, in a very short time,
learned to speak Latin almost as well as their native language. Basedow
himself learned French, after the same manner, of the governess of the
house."[129]

He next became Professor of Morals and Polite Literature at Soröe,
Denmark, where his unorthodox writings again led him into trouble. He
was removed to the _Gymnasium_ at Altona. Rousseau's "Émile" produced a
profound impression upon him, as it had done upon many other thinkers in
Europe, and many of his theories are probably traceable to that book.
Basedow was convinced of the need of a radical reform in the schools of
Germany, and set himself the task of effecting it. Bernsdorf, the Danish
minister of education, became interested in his writings, and, together
with several of the crowned heads of Europe, assisted him in bringing
out his "Elementary Book" (Elementarbuch), which foreshadowed his plans.
It was modeled after the "Orbis Pictus" of Comenius. The interest of
these distinguished patrons shows how urgent was the need of an
educational reform. Basedow also made the acquaintance of the great
literary men of the time, chief among whom was Goethe. In temperament he
was misanthropic and peevish, owing in part, doubtless, to ill health
brought on by overwork and worry.

=The Philanthropin.=--Indirectly through Goethe, Prince Leopold of
Dessau was attracted to Basedow. The prince determined to found an
institute in which the plans of the great educator could be carried out.
The institute, called the Philanthropin, was established, and became
celebrated throughout Europe. Quick says: "Then, for the first and
probably for the last time, a school was started in which use and wont
were entirely set aside, and everything done on 'improved principles.'
Such a bold enterprise attracted the attention of all interested in
education, far and near; but it would seem that few parents considered
their own children _vilia corpora_ (vile bodies), on whom experiments
might be made for the public good. When, in May, 1776, a number of
schoolmasters and others collected from different parts of Germany, and
even from beyond Germany, to be present by Basedow's invitation at an
examination of the children, they found only thirteen pupils in the
Philanthropin, including Basedow's own son and daughter."[130]

The main purpose of the Philanthropin was to give Basedow an opportunity
to carry out his new educational ideas. A prominent feature of the
undertaking was that it should be a model institute "for the preparation
of teachers in the theory and practice of the new education." The
institution, was to be a "school of true humanity. Its name was to give
evidence of its object--the education of youth in accordance with the
laws of nature and humanity." In it Basedow was to exemplify his ideas
of education. The best of teachers were to be employed, the best
appliances furnished, and the instruction was to be founded entirely on
sense-perception. The Philanthropin was opened in 1774, and at once
awoke universal interest.

But this school, conceived in love for humanity, founded with the
noblest of purposes, and exemplifying much of sound educational
philosophy, was destined to be shortlived. It was abandoned in less than
twenty years. This downfall was owing to several causes, some of which
may be mentioned. 1. The institution was purely secular in character,
and the world was not yet ready for this. Parents were suspicious of a
non-sectarian school, the idea of which was so contrary to that of the
traditional church-school. Hence the small number of pupils in the
Philanthropin, even at the height of its prosperity under Basedow.

2. Altogether too many subjects were included in the course. Quick
outlines the work undertaken as follows: "(1) Man. Here he would use the
pictures of foreigners and wild men, also a skeleton, a hand in spirits,
and other objects still more appropriate to a surgical museum. (2)
Animals. Only such animals are to be depicted as it is useful to know
about, because there is much that ought to be known, and a good method
of instruction must shorten rather than increase the hours of study.
Articles of commerce made from the animals may also be exhibited. (3)
Trees and plants. Only the most important are to be selected. Of these
the seeds also must be shown, and cubes formed of the different woods.
Gardeners' and farmers' implements are to be explained. (4) Mineral and
chemical substances. (5) Mathematical instruments for weighing and
measuring; also the air pump, siphon, and the like. The form and motion
of the earth are to be explained with globes and maps. (6) Trades. The
use of various tools is to be taught. (7) History. This is to be
illustrated by engravings of historical events. (8) Commerce. Samples of
commodities may be produced. (9) The younger children should be shown
pictures of familiar objects about the house and its surroundings."[131]

There are very many suggestive ideas in Basedow's course, which have
been adopted in modern schools; but the trouble was that he demanded too
much, and he himself acknowledged later in life that "he had exaggerated
notions of the amount boys were capable of learning," and accordingly
his curriculum was very much shortened.

3. Another reason for the failure of the Philanthropin was Basedow's
indiscriminate condemnation of everything that had been done before, and
of all who failed to agree with him. This awoke the antagonism of
teachers everywhere. All reformers are apt to be radical in their own
views and denunciatory of the opinions of others. Had there been less to
criticise in Basedow himself, he would doubtless have triumphed over all
opposition. But his educational theories and practices did not produce
the results which he predicted for them, and his opponents were quick to
mark every weakness that his system betrayed.

4. More fatal still, perhaps, was the unfitness of Basedow for the
directorship of the institution. He was capricious, lacking in
self-command and proper balance, visionary, and often suspicious of the
teachers under his direction. Such causes prevented the experiment at
Dessau from fulfilling the bright hopes of Basedow and the friends who
assisted him in starting the enterprise.

Basedow retired after four years' leadership, and the institution
continued for a few years with varying success, under such men as Campe,
Salzmann, and Matthison. Yet, when the Philanthropin was closed in 1793,
the teachers, dispersed throughout Germany, carried the new gospel
wherever they went, arousing fresh interest in education and doing much
for its advancement.

Quick thinks that Basedow's system possessed great merits "for children,
say, between the ages of six and ten." Kant was greatly disappointed at
the result. Rousseau's "Émile" had awakened his interest in education,
and he looked to the experiment at Dessau for an exemplification of the
new ideals. His estimate of the work accomplished is as follows:
"Experience shows that often in our experiments we get quite opposite
results from what we had anticipated. We see, too, that since
experiments are necessary, it is not in the power of one generation to
form a complete plan of education. The only experimental school which,
to some extent, made a beginning in clearing the road, was the Institute
at Dessau. This praise at least must be allowed, notwithstanding the
many faults which could be brought up against it--faults which are sure
to show themselves when we come to the results of our experiments, and
which merely prove that fresh experiments are necessary. It was the only
school in which teachers had liberty to work according to their own
methods and schemes, and where they were in free communication both
among themselves and with all learned men throughout Germany."[132]

=Writings.=--Basedow's chief educational writing is the book called the
"Elementary." The "Book of Method" was the first to appear, and was
really the first part of the "Elementary." Concerning the "Book of
Method," Lang says, "This famous manual was undoubtedly the greatest of
Basedow's educational writings.... It was full of valuable suggestions.
It set educators to thinking, and has been a powerful motor in bringing
about a change in school instruction."

The "Elementary," containing Basedow's complete scheme of education, has
been called the "Orbis Pictus of the eighteenth century." The general
opinion is that Basedow obtained the root ideas of this work from
Comenius, Locke, and Rousseau. There is but little that is original in
his pedagogical principles, but he made an effort to carry out the
progressive teachings which had entered into the theories of advanced
thinkers but had not been worked into practice. Still, the problem of
education became through Basedow better understood, and he is deserving
of a place among the great educators of the world for his experiment at
Dessau toward the solution of that problem. The experiment was crude,
but it has borne fruit in modern schools and their methods, in better
school buildings and apparatus, in trained teachers, in milder forms of
discipline, in the improved study of nature, and in a broader and more
philanthropic view of man's duty to his fellow-man.

=Jacotot (1770-1840).=--Perhaps the most famous of the French educators
and writers of this period was Jacotot, for a time professor of
languages and mathematics at Paris, and later professor of the French
language and literature at Löwen. His principal educational work is
entitled "Universal Instruction." Jacotot is best known for his
paradoxes, two of the most famous of which are, "Everything is in
Everything," and "All men have equal intelligence." But his method
rather than his paradoxical statements has proved his greatest
contribution to educational progress. His method consisted in the
selection of fundamental examples or types, having the pupils commit
them to memory, repeating this work daily, amplifying it, deriving the
rules or principles in relation to it, until the mastery in all
directions is complete. Thus in studying Latin a page of Caesar might be
taken and drilled upon until the style, rules of grammar, and meaning of
the passage are mastered; in mathematics the fundamental rules,--the
Pythagorean theorem must be repeated daily; in geography begin with a
map and master all its details. Gain a complete understanding of one
subject before taking up another. His method attracted much attention.

FOOTNOTES:

[128] Special References, Williams, "History of Modern Education";
Quick, "Educational Reformers," pp. 144, 288; Lang, "Basedow" (Teachers'
Manuals, No. 16).

[129] Lang, "Basedow," p. 6.

[130] "Educational Reformers," p. 150.

[131] "Educational Reformers," p. 151.

[132] Kant, "Ueber Pädagogik."



CHAPTER XXXVIII

MODERN EDUCATORS (_Continued_)


PESTALOZZI (1746-1827)

=Literature.=--_De Guimps_, Pestalozzi, his Life and Works; _Krüsi_,
Life, Work, and Influence of Pestalozzi; _Quick_, Educational Reformers;
_Von Raumer_, Life and System of Pestalozzi; _Durrell_, New Life in
Education; _Gill_, Systems of Education; _Skinner_, The Schoolmaster in
Literature; _Barnard_, Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism; _Vogel_,
Geschichte des deutschen Volksschulwesens; _Rein_, Encyklopädisches
Handbuch der Pädagogik.

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was born in Zurich, Switzerland, January 12,
1746. His father was a physician of great intelligence, and his death
before the boy reached his sixth year deprived the latter of a wise
counselor. The character of the mother is shown by the dying appeal of
Pestalozzi's father to his servant Bäbeli: "For God's sake and in the
name of mercy do not forsake my wife. When I am dead she will be
helpless, and my children will fall into the hands of strangers."

Bäbeli replied, "I will never leave your wife, if it should please God
to take you hence. I will remain with her till death, if she wishes me
to do so," a promise which she faithfully kept. Krüsi thinks that, "The
sacrifices of a mother for her children do not show more nobility of
soul than was displayed by this poor, uneducated girl, who gave up all
her worldly interest for a family not her own." Who can say that
Pestalozzi himself was not inspired to his long life of devotion to the
interests of the lowly by the unselfish consecration of this lowly woman
to his family?

Pestalozzi did not care for companions of his own age. He was peculiarly
a mother's boy, content to grow up dreamy and impractical at her quiet
hearthstone. Consequently he was awkward and reserved, easily imposed
upon, and lacking in self-reliance. These qualities remained with him as
long as he lived, and caused him many painful failures. On the other
hand, the pious example of his mother and the tranquil life he led with
her made the boy reflective and imaginative, while his soul became
filled with great thoughts for the well-being of mankind. His
grandfather, a country pastor, whom he often visited, by his simple,
godly life exerted a great influence in shaping Pestalozzi's religious
character.

=Schooling.=--At school he was the butt of ridicule among the scholars
because of his awkwardness, his simplicity, and his ingenuousness. His
comrades dubbed him "Harry Oddity of Follyville," a nickname that
carried no reproach with it, but was intended to express good-natured
appreciation of his characteristics. Mr. Quick tells us that "his good
nature and obliging disposition gained him many friends. No doubt his
friends profited from his willingness to do anything for them. We find
that when, on the shock of an earthquake, teachers and scholars alike
rushed out of the schoolhouse, Harry Oddity was the boy sent back to
fetch out caps and books." While not brilliant as a scholar, he was by
no means dull. He was more ready in grasping the _content_ than the
_form_ of the subject. Consequently all through life he never overcame
his weakness in some of the commonest requirements of education.[133]

=Life Purpose.=--After completing the work of the elementary schools, he
entered the university of Zurich, where he sustained himself with
credit. Even while yet a boy he joined a league of students which was
intended to resist injustice. Of himself and his fellow-students, he
says, "We decided to live for nothing but independence, well-doing, and
sacrifice for love of country."

Speaking of society as he saw it, he says, "I saw the unfortunate
condition of all mankind, especially of my own countrymen, in all its
hollowness. I saw indulgence despoiling the highest moral, spiritual,
and civil interests, and sapping the lifeblood of our race as never
before in the history of Europe. I saw finally the people of our nation
steeped in poverty, misery, and universal want. From youth up the
purpose of my life has been to secure to the poor of my country a
happier fate by improving and simplifying their educational privileges.
But the only sure foundation upon which we may hope to secure national
culture and elevate the poor is that of the home where the love of
father and mother is the ruling principle. Through the unselfishness,
truth, strength, and purity of their love, parents kindle faith in their
children. This leads to that implicit obedience which is based on
confidence and love."

Love for humanity, desire to ameliorate suffering, and thorough
unselfishness furnished the key to Pestalozzi's purpose and lifework.

=The Christian Ministry.=--It was this lofty purpose that led him first
to attempt the work of the Christian ministry, a work which his aged
grandfather encouraged. But he failed in his first sermon, and at once
decided that he had mistaken his calling. Krüsi[134] says that "he
stopped short in his sermon and made mistakes in the Lord's Prayer. This
may have been due to embarrassment, which made the young minister forget
the sermon which he had been obliged to commit to memory. More likely,
however, it was an exalted idea of the proper qualifications of a
clergyman, compared with his own humble merits, which induced him to
exchange the study of theology for that of law."

=The Law.=--His motive in devoting himself to law was the same that had
led him to the ministry,--his desire to be a blessing to his
fellow-beings. He saw the peasantry cheated and imposed upon because of
their ignorance, and determined to become their champion. Krüsi thinks
that his study of the law must "have produced negative results by
showing him the insufficiency of human legislation to do away with
abuses, unless supported by principles of charity and justice." He
therefore gave up this enterprise also.

=Farming.=--The advice of a dying friend, Bluntschli, "Never embark in
any operation which might become dangerous to your peace of mind,
because of the simplicity and tenderness of your disposition," may have
had its effect upon Pestalozzi. He now entered upon his third venture.
Having induced a wealthy firm in Zurich to advance him money, he bought
about one hundred acres of unimproved land in the canton of Aargau,
where he proposed to raise madder as a means of profit. Once more his
real purpose was philanthropic, as he intended to show the poor peasants
improved methods of farming whereby they could obtain better results for
their labor and thereby be enabled to live more comfortably. He named
the place Neuhof.

=Marriage.=--At this time he had just passed his twenty-first year. We
pause to mention an event that had much to do with his happiness and
with his later life. He had made the acquaintance of Anna Schulthess, a
young lady of considerable means, and sought her hand in marriage. His
letter to her, proposing marriage, is remarkable for its frankness, for
the ingenuous confession of his own weaknesses, and for its correct
estimate of himself. A few quotations from this letter must
suffice.[135] "My failings, which appear to me the most important in
relation to the future, are improvidence, want of caution, and want of
that presence of mind which is necessary to meet unexpected changes in
my future prospects. I hope, by continued exertions, to overcome them;
but know that I still possess them to a degree that does not allow me to
conceal them from the maiden I love.... I am further bound to confess
that I shall place the duties toward my fatherland in advance of those
to my wife, and that, although I mean to be a tender husband, I shall be
inexorable even to the tears of my wife, if they should ever try to
detain me from performing my duties as a citizen, to their fullest
extent. My wife shall be the confidant of my heart, the partner of all
my most secret counsel. A great and holy simplicity shall reign in my
house.... My dear friend, I love you so tenderly and fervently that this
confession has cost me much, since it may even take from me the hope of
winning you."

Anna was not discouraged by the picture which the man she loved drew of
himself, and she consented to become his wife. They were married in his
twenty-fourth year, and thus began a long period of happy wedded life
that extended over fifty years. Quick tells us that "the forebodings of
the letter were amply realized, ... and yet we may well believe that
Madame Pestalozzi never repented of her choice."

=Neuhof.=--But to return to Pestalozzi's experiment in farming, matters
had not progressed well. The Zurich capitalists became suspicious, and
after an investigation decided to withdraw their support, thus
precipitating failure. Of this Pestalozzi himself says, "The cause of
the failure of my undertaking lay essentially and exclusively in myself,
and in my pronounced incapacity for every kind of undertaking which
requires practical ability." One cannot fail to admire the energy and
courage of the man, who, conscious of his own weakness, still persevered
in great enterprises until he achieved success.

It was not for himself, but for humanity, that Pestalozzi labored, and
no discouragement could daunt, no failure defeat, no lack of
appreciation or misunderstanding check, the ardor of his zeal for the
great work that absorbed his life. Around him were men and women in
poverty and misery, whose children were growing up in vice and
ignorance, to perpetuate the evils under which their parents suffered.
With the spirit of his divine Master, Pestalozzi sought to elevate and
bless those around him.

Accordingly, after the failure caused by the withdrawal of the financial
support heretofore mentioned, he started again at Neuhof, using his
wife's money. He opened an "industrial school for the poor," which Krüsi
calls "the first school of its kind ever conceived, and the mother of
hundreds now existing on both sides of the Atlantic." This was in 1775.
He gathered fifty children together, and fed, clothed, housed, and
taught them without compensation; in return for this they were to work
in the fields in summer and at spinning in the winter. But this
experiment also was doomed to bring disappointment. The children were
lazy, shiftless, and dishonest; their work was of little use to
Pestalozzi, because of their lack of skill and their bad habits. They
would often run away as soon as they were well fed and had a new suit of
clothes. Parents were unappreciative and dissatisfied, demanding pay for
the labor of their children. Was there ever a more discouraging
situation than this which Pestalozzi had to confront, when people
demanded pay for accepting the philanthropic and unselfish measures
taken for the good of their children and for their own elevation?

This could not continue long, and in 1780 Pestalozzi was obliged to
close his school. He found himself badly in debt, with his wife's
property gone. But even under these overwhelming misfortunes he says,
"My failure showed me the truth of my plans," and this has long since
been verified, both in his ideas of farming and in the industrial
school.

=Authorship.=--The next eighteen years, though passed by Pestalozzi in
extreme poverty, were not unfruitful. He began to write pamphlets and
books, the first book being, "The Evening Hours of a Hermit," which
appeared in 1780. His second book, "Leonard and Gertrude,"[136] was
published the year following. It created great interest and brought
Pestalozzi immediate fame. The government of Berne presented him a gold
medal, which, however, he was obliged to sell to procure the necessities
of life for his family. In "Leonard and Gertrude" Pestalozzi gives a
homely and touching picture of life among the lowly, and shows how a
good woman uses her opportunities for uplifting and educating, first her
own family, and then her neighbors. In this work she is aided by the
village schoolmaster and the magistrate, who are inspired by her example
and leadership. Pestalozzi wrote several other books during this period,
but none to equal "Leonard and Gertrude."

=Stanz.=--In the meantime, the French Revolution broke out, and
Pestalozzi, influenced by the writings of Rousseau, became an ardent
champion of the new order of things. He seems to have acquired
considerable political influence, as the Directors of the Government of
Switzerland thought it necessary to win him to their cause by giving him
a political office. They therefore asked him what office he wanted, and
he replied, "I want to be a schoolmaster." Accordingly, when the French
had pillaged the inhabitants and burned their homes, Pestalozzi was sent
to Stanz,--the only village left in the canton of Nidwalden,--to
establish a school.[137] Now for the first time he found himself in the
calling for which his whole nature had yearned, for which he was
peculiarly suited, and in which he was destined to become famous.

At the age of fifty-three Pestalozzi began his work at Stanz. The
government gave him an empty convent in which to hold his school, and,
before it was ready for occupancy, children flocked to it for admission.
The devastation of the land by the French and the consequent lack of the
necessities of life among the people increased the difficulties of
Pestalozzi's task. His own description of the beginning of his work is
full of eloquence. Speaking of the school, he says, "I was among them
from morning till evening. Everything tending to benefit body and soul I
administered with my own hand. Every assistance, every lesson they
received, came from me. My hand was joined to theirs, and my smile
accompanied theirs. They seemed out of the world and away from Stanz;
they were with me and I with them. We shared food and drink. I had no
household, no friends, no servants around me; I had only them. Was their
health good, I enjoyed it with them; were they sick, I stood at their
side. I slept in their midst. I was the last to go to bed and the first
to rise. I prayed with them, and taught them in bed till they fell
asleep." How true is the saying that, "He lived with beggars in order
that beggars might learn to live like men."

Thus living with them, teaching them, inspiring them to be good,
devoting his whole thought to their welfare, Pestalozzi, who was
described as "either a good-natured fool, or a poor devil, who was
compelled, by indigence, to perform the menial office of schoolmaster,"
began a work that has revolutionized educational method.

But the same discouragements that had met him at Neuhof attended him at
Stanz. Parents brought their children to the asylum only to be clothed,
and then removed them upon the slightest pretexts. Nevertheless, the
work of Pestalozzi at Stanz was not a failure, though the school was
rendered houseless by the French soldiers in 1799, and had to be
abandoned after less than five months' existence. Krüsi comments upon
this period of Pestalozzi's life as follows: "Let those who now witness
the mighty changes that have taken place in education pay grateful
tribute to the man who first took up arms against the hollow systems of
the old school routine, and who showed the path to those delightful
regions of thought, in whose well-tilled soil rich harvests will ever be
reaped by the patient laborer.

"To the philanthropist and friend of education, Stanz will always be a
hallowed spot, exhibiting, as it does, the picture of this venerable
teacher sitting among the outcast children, animated by the very spirit
of Christ, and by a great idea which not only filled his own soul, but
also inspired those who witnessed his labors."[138]

=Burgdorf.=--But Stanz proved the turning point in Pestalozzi's career.
He was soon chosen assistant teacher at Burgdorf. His experience at
Stanz, without books and without appliances, had compelled him to invent
methods of interesting the children. He was thus brought to the use of
objects, and here we have the beginning of practical object teaching. It
was not long, however, before the head master of the school became
jealous of him because he secured the attention and affection of the
pupils, and Pestalozzi's dismissal was obtained on the ground that he
did not know how to read and spell correctly, a charge which, as we have
seen, was without doubt true. As to his method of teaching, Ramsauer,
one of his pupils, tells us that "there was no regular plan, not any
time-table.... As Pestalozzi, in his zeal, did not tie himself to any
particular time, we generally went on until eleven o'clock with whatever
we commenced at eight, and by ten o'clock he was always tired and
hoarse. We knew when it was eleven by the noise of the other school
children in the street, and then we usually all ran out without bidding
good-by." Certainly no one will commend such schoolroom practice, and at
first glance Pestalozzi would seem to merit only censure; but his
enthusiasm, his zeal for the good of his fellow-beings, and his
consciousness of possessing the truth triumphed over his lack of system
as well as over other obstacles. The school committee of Burgdorf
appreciated this, as is shown by their report. "He (Pestalozzi) has
shown what powers are hidden in the feeble child, and in what manner
they can be developed. The pupils have made astonishing progress in some
branches, thereby proving that every child is capable of doing something
if the teacher is able to draw out his talent, and awaken the powers of
his mind in the order of their natural development."

Upon his dismissal from this position he united with Hermann Krüsi in
founding a private school. Pupils increased in numbers, and at last
Pestalozzi was on the road to success as well as fame. He gathered a
strong corps of teachers about him, who not only contributed to the
success of the institution, but sat at the feet of their recognized
master, and loyally supported his measures. During his life at Burgdorf,
he issued his work entitled "How Gertrude teaches her Children" (1801),
in which he attempts to give his system of education. "A work," says
Professor Hunziker,[139] "whose contents in no way meet the demands of
the subtitle." (The full title is, "How Gertrude teaches her Children;
an Attempt to direct Mothers how to teach their own Children.")

=Yverdon.=--In 1804 Pestalozzi was obliged to vacate his quarters at
Burgdorf, and after some hesitation he moved his school to Yverdon, into
an old fortress, "which," says Krüsi, "having stood many a siege of
invading armies, was now captured by a schoolmaster; and it was
henceforth to become more formidable in its attack upon ignorance, than
it had before been in its defense of liberty." At Yverdon Pestalozzi was
enabled to carry out the principles of education which he had so long
held, and this place must be recognized as the Mecca of
Pestalozzianism. His success at Burgdorf had drawn to him the attention
of the world, and now educators, philosophers, and princes began to
study his theories, while many visited the institution to witness its
peculiar workings. Without doubt the many visitors seriously disturbed
the work, as Pestalozzi took great pains to show what his pupils could
do, especially when men of influence came. During the first five years
there was great prosperity, the number of students reaching one hundred
and fifty. Pestalozzi usually arose at two in the morning, and commenced
literary work; and his example was followed by his teachers, one of whom
testifies, "There were years in which not one of us was found in bed
after three o'clock, and summer and winter we worked from three to six
in the morning."[140]

At first the teachers were thoroughly united, cordially carrying out the
teachings of "Father Pestalozzi." But after a time private ambitions and
personal jealousies crept in and destroyed harmony. Many of the best
teachers left and the school was closed.[141] In 1825, after an
existence of twenty years, the institute at Yverdon was abandoned, and
once more Pestalozzi saw the apparent failure of his hopes. He died two
years later, at the age of eighty-one.

Mr. Quick comments upon this event as follows: "Thus the sun went down
in clouds, and the old man, when he died at the age of eighty,[142] in
1829,[143] had seen the apparent failure of all his toils. He had not,
however, failed in reality. It has been said of him that his true
function was to educate ideas, not children, and when twenty years later
the centenary of his birth was celebrated by schoolmasters, not only in
his native country, but throughout Germany, it was found that
Pestalozzian ideas had been sown, and were bearing fruit, over the
greater part of central Europe."[144]

Professor Hunziker says of Pestalozzi's influence, "Eighty years have
passed since Pestalozzi was laid in the grave. The social thinker, who
pointed out the way of reform for humanity in his 'Leonard and
Gertrude,' who attempted to solve the enigmas and inequalities of social
life in his 'Inquiries concerning the Course of Nature in the
Development of Mankind,' is almost forgotten. But the name of Pestalozzi
shines brighter than ever in the field of pedagogics. In every branch of
education we hear the warning cry, return to Pestalozzi! Let the
watchword for the future be: _Pestalozzi forever_!"[145]

=Summary of Pestalozzi's Work.=--No one can study the history of
Pestalozzi without discovering the secret of his educational purpose. It
is revealed in every enterprise he undertook, in every book he wrote, in
his whole lifework.[146] Let us briefly sum up the work he
accomplished:--

1. He showed how the theories of Comenius and Rousseau could be applied.
By this a decided impulse was given to educational reform, and the way
was prepared for the wonderful educational revival of the present
century.

2. His greatest pedagogical principle is that education consists in the
harmonious development of all the human powers.

3. Development should follow the order of nature. While he doubtless
borrowed this thought from Rousseau, unlike Rousseau he held that the
order of nature requires the child to be taught with other children.

4. All knowledge is obtained through the senses by the self-activity of
the child.

5. Instruction should be based on observation, especially with young
children. Hence objects must be freely used. There are three classes of
object lessons,--those applying to _form_, to _number_, and to _speech_.
Mr. Quick says, "By his object lessons Pestalozzi aimed at,--(1)
enlarging gradually the sphere of the child's intuition, that is,
increasing the number of objects falling under his immediate perception;
(2) impressing upon him those perceptions of which he had become
conscious, with certainty, clearness, and precision; (3) imparting to
him a comprehensive knowledge of language for the expression of whatever
had become or was becoming an object of his consciousness, in
consequence either of the spontaneous impulse of his own nature, or of
the assistance of tuition."

6. The mother is the natural educator of the child in its early years.
"Maternal love is the first agent in education; ... through it the child
is led to love and trust his Creator and his Redeemer." It follows,
therefore, that mothers should be educated.

7. He illustrated his principles in his methods of instruction. He
employed the phonic method in spelling;[147] made use of objects in
teaching number; graded the work according to the capacity of the
children; taught drawing, language, composition, etc., by use, thus
illustrating one of the aphorisms of Comenius,--"_We learn to do by
doing_."

8. But the greatest lesson that Pestalozzi taught is embodied in the
word _love_. He loved little children, he loved the distressed and
lowly, he loved all his fellow-men. By the spirit which actuated him, by
the methods of instruction employed, by a life of disappointment and
apparent failure, by the appreciation of his service after he had gone
to his rest, by the accelerated growth of his teachings throughout the
world, he more closely resembles the Great Teacher than any other man
that has ever lived. Dr. Harris says, "He is the first teacher to
announce convincingly the doctrine that all people should be
educated,--that, in fact, education is the one good gift to give to all,
whether rich or poor."[148] Hence there is no character in educational
history more worthy of study and more inspiring to the teacher than
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi.

FOOTNOTES:

[133] In regard to the criticisms made against him at Burgdorf,
Pestalozzi says: "It was whispered that I myself could not write, nor
work accounts, nor even read properly. Popular reports are not always
entirely wrong. It is true I could not write, nor read, nor work
accounts well."

[134] "Life, Work, and Influence of Pestalozzi," p. 17.

[135] Both Quick and Krüsi give this letter in full.

[136] "Schoolmaster in Literature," pp. 83-110.

[137] See Krüsi, p. 28, for an account of his appointment.

[138] "Pestalozzi," p. 36.

[139] "Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik," Vol. V, p. 315.

[140] "Encyklopädisches Handbuch," Vol. V, p. 319.

[141] Krüsi, whose father was associated with Pestalozzi, gives a full
account of these dissensions. He also tells many interesting incidents
connected with Pestalozzi and his school at Yverdon, p. 45.

[142] Should be eighty-one.

[143] 1827.

[144] "Educational Reformers," p. 183.

[145] "Encyklopädisches Handbuch," Vol. V, p. 320.

[146] "In him the most interesting thing is _his life_."--QUICK.

[147] Not original with Pestalozzi,--see Port Royalists.

[148] For statement of his principles, see Compayré, p. 438; Williams,
p. 312; Krüsi, p. 169.



CHAPTER XXXIX

MODERN EDUCATORS (_Continued_)


FROEBEL (1782-1852)

=Literature.=--_Lange_, Collected Writings of F. Froebel; _Kriege_,
Friedrich Froebel; _Bowen_, Froebel and Education by Self-activity;
_Herford_, The Student's Froebel; _Froebel_, Education of Man; _Quick_,
Educational Reformers; _Munroe_, Educational Ideal; _Williams_, History
of Modern Education; _Marenholtz-Bülow_, Reminiscences of F. Froebel;
_Rein_, Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik.

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was born at Oberweisbach, a village in
the beautiful Thüringian Forest of Germany. The first ten years of his
life were spent at home under the instruction of his father, who was a
Lutheran clergyman and had six villages under his pastorate. The many
cares of his office prevented the pastor from giving his son much
attention, and as the stepmother neither understood the boy, nor took
much interest in him, he spent most of his time in the woods, with birds
and flowers as his companions, and received far less rudimentary
training than most boys of his age. But at the age of ten an important
change took place in his life. He went to live with his mother's
brother, who sent him to school for four years. Here he was taught the
elementary branches and a little Latin. He tells us of the profound
impression made upon him the first day of school by the text of
Scripture that the children repeated. It was, "Seek ye first the kingdom
of God." He says, "The verse made an impression on me like nothing
before or since. Indeed, this impression was so lively and deep, that
to-day every word lives fresh in my memory with the peculiar accent with
which it was spoken; and yet since that time nearly forty years have
elapsed." His progress in the school does not seem to have been very
great.

At fourteen he returned to his father's home, and soon thereafter was
apprenticed to a forester. Here he was entirely in his element, and he
tells of four aspects of this life: "The homelier and more practical
life; the life spent with nature, especially forest nature; the life of
study, devoted to mathematics and languages, for which he found a good
supply of books ready to hand; and the time spent in gaining a knowledge
of plants, in which he was much helped by books on botany lent him by a
neighboring doctor."[149] But he obtained little help from the forester,
so at the end of three years Froebel withdrew, and soon thereafter
entered the university of Jena. He seems to have studied hard during the
year and a half he spent at Jena, but to have accomplished little. He
became involved in debt, and was imprisoned for nine weeks in the
university "Carcer."[150] After his liberation, he left the university.

=As Teacher.=--Meeting with little success in various enterprises in
which he engaged, he at last drifted to Frankfurt-am-Main, where he made
the acquaintance of Dr. Gruner, head master of the Model School. Dr.
Gruner quickly discovered Froebel's talent, and urged him to accept a
position under him as teacher. Froebel reluctantly consented, but in
speaking later of his first experience in the schoolroom, he says, "It
seemed as if I had found something I had never known, but always longed
for, always missed; as if my life had at last discovered its native
element. I felt as happy as the fish in the water, the bird in the air."

Although Froebel succeeded at once in his new profession, thereby
justifying Dr. Gruner's opinion of him, he felt that he needed special
preparation for the work of teaching. Accordingly, in 1808, after two
years' experience in teaching, having in the meantime visited Pestalozzi
at Yverdon, and having read his works, he gave up his position and
joined the institute at Yverdon.

He took with him three of his pupils to tutor, and "it thus happened,"
he tells us, "that I was there both as teacher and scholar, educator and
pupil." Froebel spent two years at Yverdon, and his testimony concerning
Pestalozzi is interesting. He says, "He set one's soul on fire for a
higher and nobler life, though he had not made clear or sure the exact
road toward it, nor indicated the means whereby to attain it." This sums
up in a word the secret and extent of Pestalozzi's power. Dittes thinks
that "the origin of the kindergarten is due to the pedagogical revival
of Pestalozzi." Froebel himself, speaking of his experience at Yverdon,
says, "I studied the boys' play, the whole series of games in the open
air, and learned to recognize their mighty power to awaken and to
strengthen the intelligence and the soul as well as the body." Here we
find the first suggestion of the kindergarten, which has made Froebel
famous.

After leaving Yverdon, Froebel spent about two years at the universities
of Göttingen and Berlin in furthering his preparation for educational
reform, to which he had devoted himself. In 1813 war for German liberty
broke out, and Froebel, with many other students, enlisted. It is not
the purpose here to follow his fortunes as a soldier, but while in the
army he made the acquaintance of two young men who afterward became
associated with him in educational enterprise,--Wilhelm Middendorff and
Heinrich Langethal.

=His First School.=--In 1816 Froebel opened his first school at
Griesheim, under the high-sounding title of "Universal German
Educational Institute." At first he had his five nephews as his only
pupils. Soon after, the school was removed to Keilhau, near Rudolstadt,
in the Thüringian Forest. Here he was joined by his old friends
Middendorff and Langethal. This institution continued for a number of
years with some success, until 1833, when Froebel removed to Burgdorf,
Switzerland. The Prussian government, far from giving encouragement to
the institution at Keilhau, had regarded it with suspicion. A commission
was sent by the government to examine the institution, and although the
report was highly complimentary to Froebel's work,[151] the persecution
did not cease. In 1851 the government prohibited kindergartens, as
forming "a part of the Froebelian socialistic system, the aim of which
is to teach children atheism"; and this decree was in force till 1860!

Indeed, to this day, Prussia does not regard the kindergarten as an
educational institution, nor does she give aid to it as such. The
kindergarten is officially recognized as a sort of _day nursery_, its
teachers are not licensed,--hence have no official standing,--and
"everything that pertains to the work of the elementary schools, every
specific preparation for the work of the latter, must be strictly
excluded, and these schools can in no way be allowed to take the
character of institutions of learning. Especially can neither reading
nor arithmetic be allowed a place in them."[152]

But Froebel received more encouragement in Switzerland. He admitted
children from four to six years of age, and organized a teachers' class
to study his theories. Although Froebel did not remain long in
Switzerland, that land proved congenial to his ideas, and the
kindergarten has flourished there from his time to the present. Great
credit is due to this country, which extended its hospitality to the two
great educational modern reformers, Pestalozzi and Froebel!

=The Kindergarten.=--Mr. Herford says of Froebel's institution at
Burgdorf, that, "Here we recognize the rise of the kindergarten, not yet
so named."[153] The name came to Froebel a few years later as an
inspiration. He had returned to Keilhau and opened a school in the
neighboring town of Blankenburg. For a long time he had been pondering
over a suitable name for the new institution. "While taking a walk one
day with Middendorff and Barof to Blankenburg over the Steiger Pass,
Froebel kept repeating, 'Oh, if I could only think of a good name for my
youngest born!' Blankenburg lay at our feet, and he walked moodily
toward it. Suddenly he stood still as if riveted to the spot, and his
eyes grew wonderfully bright. Then he shouted to the mountain so that it
echoed to the four winds, 'Eureka! _Kindergarten_ shall the institute be
called!'"

But, like Pestalozzi, Froebel was wholly incapable of financial
management, and the institution at Blankendorf had to be closed. He
devoted the remainder of his life to lecturing upon his theories in
different parts of Germany. He appealed to mothers, and endeavored to
instruct them in the duty of training young children. He taught that the
mother is the natural teacher of the child, and that it is her duty to
fit herself for the sacred responsibility that God has placed upon her.
Froebel's greatest discovery was that education comes only through
self-activity, though he never clearly formulated his discovery. The
Baroness Bertha von Marenholtz-Bülow has published one of the best
accounts of his life and work.[154]

=The "Education of Man."=--Froebel gives his philosophy of education in
his "Education of Man," but his most popular work is "Songs for Mother
and Nursery." His chief contribution to the work of educational reform
is the kindergarten, an institution that has been ingrafted upon the
school systems of many lands, and that is destined to become ever
increasingly potent for good. In no country in the world has the
kindergarten taken so strong a hold and made so great progress as in
America. The purpose of the kindergarten, according to Froebel himself,
is, "to take the oversight of children before they are ready for school
life; to exert an influence over their whole being in correspondence
with its nature; to strengthen their bodily powers; to exercise their
senses; to employ the awakening mind; to make them thoughtfully
acquainted with the world of nature and of man; to guide their heart and
soul in the right direction, and to lead them to the Origin of all life,
and to unison with Him."

FOOTNOTES:

[149] Bowen, "Froebel," p. 11.

[150] For a part of this debt Froebel's brother, also a student, was
responsible. The amount of the debt was less than twenty-five dollars.

[151] The sole recommendation of the commission that might be
interpreted as a criticism was that the boys should have their hair cut!
See Bowen's "Froebel," p. 26, for the full report of the visiting
commission.

[152] Rescript from the Prussian Minister of Education, April 7, 1884.

[153] "The Student's Froebel," XV.

[154] "Handbuch der Froebelischen Erziehungslehre," "Reminiscences of
Friedrich Froebel, Child and Child-nature."



CHAPTER XL

MODERN EDUCATORS (_Continued_)


HERBART (1776-1841)

=Literature.=--_De Garmo_, Herbart and the Herbartians; _Felkin_,
Introduction to Herbart; _Van Liew_, Life of Herbart and Development of
his Pedagogical Doctrines; Yearbooks of the Herbart Society; _Lange_,
Apperception; _Rein_, Outlines of Pedagogics; also, Encyklopädisches
Handbuch der Pädagogik; _Willmann_, Herbart's pädagogische Schriften.

It is probable that no system of pedagogy is attracting so much
attention and awakening so much interest at the present time as that of
Herbart. Professor Rein says, "He who nowadays will aspire to the
highest pedagogical knowledge, cannot neglect to make a thorough study
of Herbart's pedagogy." Johann Friedrich Herbart was born at Oldenburg,
May 4, 1776. His grandfather was rector of the _Gymnasium_ at Oldenburg
for thirty-four years; his father was a high official under the
government; but his mother seems to have wielded the most influence over
him. She watched over his studies with greatest care, and, indeed,
studied Greek herself to spur him on. Though gentle and mild, she was
firm in discipline. The father was satisfied to leave the direction of
the education of his son to her. There was, however, little sympathy
between the father and mother, and there were frequent family
dissensions, that must have had a bad influence on the lad. These
disagreements finally led to a separation. A tutor employed for Herbart
at this period developed in him a speculative tendency and taught him
the power of forcible expression. Herbart learned to play on several
musical instruments, and at the age of eleven displayed considerable
talent as a pianist.

When twelve years of age he entered the _Gymnasium_ at Oldenburg, and
six years later completed the course. He entered the university of Jena
in 1794 and became a student of Fichte, who was sure to inspire a young
man of Herbart's philosophical bent. His attention seems to have been
directed to educational questions, though he had not yet decided to be a
teacher.[155]

=As Teacher.=--After three years at Jena, Herbart became tutor
(Hauslehrer) in the family of Herr von Steiger, governor of Interlaken.
This was his only experience in teaching children. "Herbart's experience
as a teacher," says De Garmo, "would seem too small a thing to
mention--some two or three years in a private family in Switzerland with
three children aged respectively eight, twelve, and fourteen. Yet to a
man who can see an oak tree in an acorn, who can understand all minds
from the study of a few, such an experience may be most fruitful." It is
certain that Herbart often drew upon this experience in his later
writings. While in Switzerland he visited Pestalozzi, with whom he was
deeply impressed. Opinions differ as to the harmony of theory between
Pestalozzi and Herbart. Professor Rein thinks that, "In the ideas of
Pestalozzi are found the outlines of Herbart's pedagogical structure."

Having decided to devote himself to academic teaching, he gave up his
position in Switzerland and went to Bremen for further study. During the
two years spent there, he wrote several essays on educational subjects,
but gave his chief attention to the study of Greek and mathematics.

=As Professor.=--In 1802 he took the first step in his academic career
as _Privat Docent_ at the university of Göttingen. This with him was a
period of great literary activity.[156] In 1809, he was called to the
chair of philosophy at Königsberg once occupied by Kant. He calls this
"the most renowned chair of philosophy, the place which when a boy I
longed for in reverential dreams, as I studied the works of the sage of
Königsberg."[157]

=His Practice School.=--Here he established a pedagogical seminary,
having a practice school in which the students instructed children under
the criticism of Herbart himself. Concerning his pedagogical activity at
Königsberg, Herbart says, "Among my many duties, the consideration of
educational questions is of especial interest to me. But it is not
enough to theorize merely; there must be experiment and practice.
Furthermore, I desire to extend the range of my own experience (already
covering ten years) in this field. Therefore, I have long had in mind to
teach daily for one hour a few selected boys in the presence of such of
my students as are familiar with my pedagogical theory. After a little,
these students are to take up the work I have begun, and give
instruction under my observation. In time, in this way, teachers would
be trained, whose method by means of reciprocal observation and
discussion must be perfected. As a plan of teaching is valueless without
a teacher, and indeed a teacher that is in sympathy with that plan, and
is master of the method,--so perhaps a small experimental school, such
as I have in mind, would prepare the way for future greater
undertakings. There is a word from Kant, 'first experimental schools and
then normal schools!'"[158]

This was the first practice school in connection with the chair of
pedagogy in a university; the idea, however, does not seem to have taken
very deep root, as, with the exception of the celebrated practice school
at Jena, under Professor Rein, there is not one now in Germany. Most
professors of pedagogy conduct a _Seminar_, in which some practice work
with children is done, but none of them maintain a practice school.

=Literary Activity.=--Herbart's literary activity at Königsberg was
great. He worked out his psychological system, and wrote also on
philosophy, history, and pedagogy. But his greatest works in the latter
field are his "A B C der Anschauung,"[159] and his "Allgemeine
Pädagogik,"[160] both of which appeared while he was still at
Göttingen.[161] In 1833, after twenty-four years in Königsberg, he
returned to Göttingen, where his lifework was completed in 1841. Upon
his retirement from Königsberg, the practice school was closed. Ten
years later, a pupil of Herbart, Karl Volkmar Stoy, established the
practice school at Jena, of which mention has already been made. Two
schools of Herbartians exist in Germany, the Stoy school, which attempts
to follow Herbart very closely, and the Ziller school, which is freer in
its interpretation of him. The chief exponent of the latter is Professor
Wilhelm Rein of Jena, the place which is at present the center of
Herbartian activity. In America this movement is under the direction of
the National Herbart Society.

=His Pedagogical Work.=--Aside from the educational movements organized
by Herbart and his followers, the credit is due to him of being the
_first to elevate pedagogy to the dignity of a science_. Professor Rein
says, "Herbart has rendered an undisputed service in that he has
elevated pedagogics to the rank of a science. No one has ever repented
of having become familiar with Herbart's teachings, for, in any case, he
has thereby added richly to his own attainments. The development of our
people will be fortunate if the education of the youth shall be
intrusted more and more to those who stand and work upon the lines laid
down by Comenius, Pestalozzi, Herbart.

"The pedagogic thinking of Herbart has indeed borne rich fruit in
Germany. Other peoples, also, have been blessed by his teachings. Thus
Herbart, whose span of life did not reach to the middle of this century,
lives in the present. He created the basis of a science of education,
which furnishes a safe starting point for all pedagogical theories, and
which bears in itself the most fruitful germs for future
development."[162]

=Modern Herbartians= have carried forward that development far beyond
its original outline. The terms "many-sided interest," "apperception,"
"concentration," "culture-epochs," "the formal steps of instruction,"
"correlation," and "harmonious development," are phrases that have
become common in educational literature. The limits of this volume do
not permit a discussion of these subjects. Indeed, many of them belong
more properly to the disciples of Herbart, rather than to Herbart
himself.[163] Herbart's ideal was that education should aim to produce
well-rounded men, fit for all the duties of life; men well developed
physically, intellectually, morally, and spiritually. He himself was not
one-sided, being an enthusiastic teacher as well as psychologist and
philosopher.

FOOTNOTES:

[155] Professor Rein indicates that Herbart discussed educational
questions at this period. See "Encyklopädisches Handbuch," Vol. III, p.
468.

[156] For list of works produced, see De Garmo's "Herbart and the
Herbartians," p. 17.

[157] Felkin's translation of "Science of Education," p. 16.

[158] Willmann's "Herbart," Vol. II, p. 3.

[159] "The A B C of Observation."

[160] "General Pedagogy."

[161] The best collection of his works is that by Willmann, "Herbart's
Pädagogische Schriften," which has not been translated into English.

[162] "Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik," Vol. III, p. 485.

[163] For discussion of these subjects see the Yearbooks of the
Herbartian Society, and other works referred to on page 278. For the
completest list of references to Herbartian literature, see
"Encyklopädisches Handbuch," Vol. III, p. 485.



CHAPTER XLI

MODERN EDUCATORS (_Continued_)


HORACE MANN (1796-1859)

=Literature.=--_Mrs. Mary T. Mann_, Life of Horace Mann; _Hinsdale_,
Horace Mann; _Winship_, Horace Mann, the Educator; _Lang_, Horace Mann;
_F. W. Parker_, Article in Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 65; _Wm. T.
Harris_, Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 105; _Martin_, Education in
Massachusetts.

Colonel Parker says, "It would be difficult to find a child ten years of
age in our sixty-five millions who does not know of Abraham Lincoln or
George Washington; but the third, at least, in the list of the builders
of the American republic is not known to millions of intelligent people.
Washington and Lincoln represent the highest types of heroism,
patriotism, and wisdom in great crises of republic-building; Horace
Mann, the quiet inner building, the soul-development of the
nation."[164]

Horace Mann was born at Franklin, Massachusetts, May 4, 1796. Inured to
the hard work of the farm, with but a few weeks' schooling in the
winter, never blessed with very rugged health, left at the age of
thirteen by the death of his father with the responsibilities of a man,
it is no wonder that he "retained only painful recollections of the
whole period which ought to be, with every child, a golden age to look
back upon."[165]

When nearly twenty years of age, through the influence of Mr. Barrett,
an eccentric teacher who came to the village, he decided to go to
college, and in six months he prepared for the sophomore class of Brown
University. This preparation was a tremendous undertaking which broke
down his health for life. He now had an opportunity to satisfy the
cravings for knowledge, which the hardships of his early life had not
been able to stifle. He was graduated with the highest honors of his
class and decided to study law. He spent two years at Brown University
as tutor, meanwhile privately studying law, and then resigned that
position to enter the law school at Litchfield, Connecticut. Two years
later, at the age of twenty-seven, he was admitted to the bar.

=As Statesman.=--He was called upon to serve his state in the
legislature, and later as representative in Congress.[166]

The year 1837 marks a new epoch in the educational history of
Massachusetts. "Although Massachusetts had had schools for nearly two
centuries, the free school had been, to a great degree, a charity school
the country over.... Horace Mann, like Thomas Jefferson, saw clearly
that there could be no evolution of a free people without intelligence
and morality, and looked upon the common school as the fundamental means
of development of men and women who could govern themselves. He saw
clearly that the whole problem of the republic which was presenting
itself to intelligent educated men rested upon the idea of public
education."[167]

=As Educator.=--Accordingly, having secured the passage of a law
establishing a State Board of Education, Mr. Mann was made its
secretary at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. To accept this
work, he gave up a lucrative law practice, fine prospects of political
preferment, and probable fortune, as well as professional fame. He
entered upon an educational campaign full of discouragement, colossal in
its undertaking, and sure to arouse bitterest animosities. Of this
period Colonel Parker says, "The story of his early struggles in this
direction has not yet been written. When it is, it will reveal a
profound depth of heroism rarely equaled in the history of the world."
Mr. Mann visited all parts of the state, lecturing to parents and
stimulating the teachers. He was often received with coldness, sometimes
with active hostility.

=His Annual Reports.=--But he persevered until the whole state was
awakened. He continued in this work for twelve years, and presented its
results in his Annual Reports, the most remarkable documents of American
educational literature.[168] In the meantime, he visited Europe, studied
the schools, and gave the results of his investigations in his
celebrated Seventh Annual Report.

Mr. Martin summarizes the work of Horace Mann during these twelve years
as follows: "In the evolution of the Massachusetts public schools during
these twelve years of Mr. Mann's labors, statistics tell us that the
appropriations for public schools had doubled; that more than two
million dollars had been spent in providing better schoolhouses; that
the wages of men as teachers had increased sixty-two per cent, of women
fifty-one per cent, while the whole number of women employed as teachers
had increased fifty-four per cent; one month had been added to the
average length of the schools; the ratio of private school expenditures
to those of the public schools had diminished from seventy-five per cent
to thirty-six per cent; the compensation of school committees had been
made compulsory, and their supervision was more general and more
constant; three normal schools had been established, and had sent out
several hundred teachers, who were making themselves felt in all parts
of the state."[169]

=Love for the Common Schools.=--He believed most fully in the common
school, declaring that, "This institution is the greatest discovery ever
made by man.... In two grand characteristic attributes, it is
supereminent over all others: first in its universality, for it is
capacious enough to receive and cherish in its parental bosom every
child that comes into the world; and second, in the timeliness of the
aid it proffers,--its early, seasonable supplies of counsel and guidance
making security antedate danger."

In his first Annual Report Mr. Mann asserts that, "The object of the
common school system is to give to every child a free, straight, solid
pathway, by which he can walk directly up from the ignorance of an
infant to a knowledge of the primary duties of man." Horace Mann could
hardly have anticipated the kindergarten for the infant years, and the
high school at the end of the course, as they now stand in the common
school systems of our country. And yet, what has already been
accomplished in our educational scheme fulfills the prophecy implied in
his words.

The best known and most important of Mr. Mann's written documents is his
Seventh Annual Report, in which he gives an account of European schools.
Concerning this Mr. Winship says, "He had made a crisis, and his Seventh
Report was an immortal document; opposition to the normal schools was
never more to be heard in the land, and oral instruction, the word
method, and less corporal punishment were certain to come to the Boston
schools."[170]

After severing his connection with the State Board of Education, Mr.
Mann served in Congress from 1848 to 1853, and was defeated in his
candidacy for governor of Massachusetts. At the age of fifty-six he
accepted the presidency of Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, a
position which he held until his death in 1859. He closed his last
address to the graduating class at Antioch with these noble words: "_Be
ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity_." He
himself had won many great victories for humanity,--in the improvement
of the common school systems of his native country; in the establishment
of free schools; in the founding of normal schools where teachers might
be trained; in the adoption of milder means of discipline; in the
improvement of schoolhouses; in the better support of schools; in better
methods of instruction; and in the inspiration he gave to teachers for
all time. Therefore he at least had no need to be "ashamed to die."

FOOTNOTES:

[164] _Educational Review_, Vol. XII, p. 65.

[165] Mrs. Mann, "Life of Horace Mann," p. 10.

[166] Mr. Mann completed the term made vacant by the death of John
Quincy Adams, and was reëlected for the two succeeding terms.

[167] Colonel Parker in article cited.

[168] For an analysis of these Reports, see Dr. Harris's article in
_Educational Review_, Vol. XII, p. 112.

[169] "Education in Massachusetts," p. 174.

[170] "Horace Mann," p. 76.



CHAPTER XLII

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF GERMANY

=Literature.=--_Parsons_, Prussian Schools through American Eyes;
_Klemm_, European Schools; _Prince_, Methods in the German Schools;
_Seeley_, The German Common School System; _Russell_, German Higher
Schools; _Bolton_, Secondary Education in Germany.


We have traced the historical development of education to the present
time. It now remains for us to examine briefly the educational systems
of a few leading countries, in order that comparisons may be made,
lessons drawn, and the present condition of education clearly set
forth.[171]

The plan of discussion to be followed in each of the four systems
considered will embrace, 1, _Administration_; 2, _School Attendance_; 3,
_the Schools_; 4, _Support of Schools_; 5, _the Teachers_.

=Administration.=--Each German state is independent in its school
system, though there are many features in common, and there is a mutual
understanding on most educational questions between the various states,
which makes their systems practically uniform. The system here described
is that of Prussia, which, being the largest, most populous, and most
influential of the states comprised within the German Empire, as well as
the foremost in educational development, may well be taken as a type.

There is a minister of education whose jurisdiction extends over the
whole kingdom. He represents the school interests in the Prussian diet
or _Landtag_, listens to appeals, distributes school moneys, and is the
general educational executive officer. Each of the thirteen royal
provinces has a school board whose presiding officer is _ex officio_ the
royal president of the province. With him are associated other royal
counselors, and pedagogically trained men,--school superintendents and
principals. This board consists of men of highest integrity and
intelligence. Their duties extend to the higher institutions of
learning, and to institutions for the unfortunate; they have charge of
the school finances of their provinces, adopt the school books that are
used in the higher schools, and appoint teachers in the normal schools.
They report annually to the minister, and as much more frequently as he
may require.

The thirteen royal provinces are subdivided into the so-called
_governments_ (_Regierungen_), of which Prussia contains thirty-six.
These _governments_ have an administrative school board similar to that
of the province, with duties within their territory corresponding to
those of the provincial board. They come into close touch with the
schools, have a voice in the appointment of teachers and in the
selection of text-books for the elementary schools. Their work is
especially with the common schools, while that of the provincial boards
is with the higher schools.

The _governments_ are subdivided into districts. There is a district
school board similar to that of the larger territories mentioned, but
the chief and most important school officer of the district is the
school inspector. The district inspector is always a man of pedagogical
training and experience. He is appointed for life and devotes his whole
time to the schools in his district. His efficient and wise inspection
of the schools insures their success. The district school board erects
school buildings, determines the amount of the teachers' salaries,
oversees their pensions, enforces compulsory attendance laws, decides
upon taxable property, fixes boundary lines, and provides for the
finances.

Finally, there is the local school board for each separate school. These
men have charge of the external matters of the school such as the direct
enforcement of attendance, the repairs, supplies, etc.; but they may not
interfere with the teacher in his work. In the country villages they
have a voice in the choice of the teacher. The teacher may appeal to
them in matters that need immediate attention.

In the administration of the schools men of the highest character are
chosen without reference to their political leanings. There are usually
teachers among the number, on the principle that those who have made the
most careful study of education are the most competent to administer it.

=School Attendance.=--Every child in normal health is required to attend
school between the ages of six and fourteen for every day that the
school is in session. Parents are held responsible for the attendance of
their children, and may be fined or imprisoned for non-fulfillment of
the requirements of the law. In case parents are unable to secure the
attendance of their children, the latter are placed in reform schools.
The law is carried out with great strictness and wonderful efficiency.
For example, in 1893, out of 5,299,310 children of school age in
Prussia, there were only 945 unexcused absentees,--that is, 2 in
10,000. All parents expect their children to be in school every day, and
the children grow up fully impressed with the idea that they are to
attend school regularly. The chief reason for the efficiency of
compulsory attendance in Germany lies in the fact that it covers every
school day, and therefore does not allow the formation of habits of
truancy.

=The Schools.=--The common school (Volksschule) of Germany reaches every
child, as we have seen. In villages the sexes are taught together; but
in cities they are generally separated. The school hours are from eight
to eleven in the forenoon, for six days in the week, and from two to
four for four days in the week, Wednesday and Saturday afternoons being
holidays. These hours may be varied to suit local conditions. The school
is in session for about forty-two weeks each year. Each teacher is
required to give about twenty-eight hours of service per week, while the
pupils must attend from sixteen hours (for beginners) to twenty-eight.
The common schools of Prussia are now practically free. The common
school is intended for the common people, and it is not followed by a
high or secondary school. This is the greatest weakness of the German
school system. It perpetuates the class system, and effectually prevents
the child from rising above his station.

The sole opportunity for the child of the lower classes to receive a
higher education is through the normal school, and even this privilege
is limited to a small number of the pupils who show special ability. We
may mention also the _Continuation_ schools, which are held evenings and
Sundays. These schools are rapidly multiplying and becoming more
efficient, as many of them are held in the daytime. They furnish an
opportunity for the child who has completed the common school to review
his work, and also to add some subjects that will be of utility in his
lifework.

In general, there are three classes of secondary schools,--the
_Gymnasium_, the _Realgymnasium_, and _Oberrealschule_. Each prepares
for the university, and each has nine classes; namely, _Sexta_,
_Quinta_, _Quarta_, _Untertertia_, _Obertertia_, _Untersecunda_,
_Obersecunda_, _Unterprima_, and _Oberprima_. These schools differ
chiefly in the amount of classics they offer, the _Gymnasium_ laying
stress upon the classics and the _Realschule_ upon the realities.[172]
Neither of these schools succeeds the common school, and the boy who is
to pursue one of these courses of study must begin at not later than
nine or ten years of age.[173] Thus, if a professional life is chosen
for a boy, he cannot attend the common school,--at least not for more
than the first three or four years,--but must be sent to one of the
schools above mentioned, for they alone prepare for the university, and
without a university course he cannot enter a profession. The university
is the crowning institution of the German school system.

=Support of Schools.=--About one half of the expense of the schools is
paid from the general state fund, one third from local taxation, and the
balance comes from income from endowments, church funds, tuition, etc.
The general tendency is to make the schools free, according to the
recommendation of the minister of education, but some communities still
continue to charge tuition. In these cases, there are poor schools for
those who cannot pay tuition, thus affording school privileges to all.

=The Teachers.=--All teachers of the Prussian common schools are normal
graduates, or have had an equal pedagogic preparation.[174] Graduates of
the university seldom enter the common school work; they teach in the
secondary schools, in private schools, and as tutors. The common school
teachers generally come from the common schools. If a child shows
special aptness for teaching, the attention of the school inspector is
called to him, and, with consent of his parents, he is sent to a
preparatory school for three years. His work there is entirely academic
in character. At seventeen he enters the normal school and has another
year of academic work, after which he begins his technical work. His
normal course is three years, the last year being given almost entirely
to professional work. Each class in the normal school contains from
thirty to thirty-six students, thus making the total number of students
in a German normal school about one hundred. As only about thirty can
enter from the whole district, it will appear that the opportunities for
children to extend the common school course are very limited.

After completing the normal course, the graduate is provisionally
appointed to a position for three years. He is now under the oversight
of his former principal, as well as of the district inspector. If he
proves successful in teaching, he is required to pass a final
examination, chiefly on pedagogical questions, and then has a life
tenure, and can be removed only on the ground of inefficiency or
immorality. The average tenure of office with teachers is twenty-five
years. The salary is often very low, but with free rent, fuel, and
light, the schoolmaster's income is by no means inadequate. His salary
increases with the years of service, and his prospective pension also
increases year by year.[175]

The German schoolmaster is a state officer. He commands, by virtue of
his position, the respect which his character, his self-sacrifice, his
efficiency, and the great work that he is doing deserve. "It is the
schoolmaster that has won our battles," said Von Moltke; and it is he
that is preparing Germany for the arts of peace as well as those of war.

The Prussian school system is the most efficient in the world, at least
so far as the education of the masses is concerned. It has practically
obliterated illiteracy in the kingdom, more than 99½ per cent of the
recruits received into the army in 1893 being able to read and write.
Many countries have materially improved their school systems by adopting
some of the lessons taught by Prussia.

The three most important features of the German school system are:--

1. _Only professionally trained teachers can be employed._

2. _Such teachers are appointed to permanent positions._

3. _The attendance of every child during the entire school year is
compulsory._

FOOTNOTES:

[171] It will, of course, be impossible within the limitations of this
work to give more than a mere outline of these systems. The reader will
find full discussions in the works referred to in the Literature.
Particular attention is called to the Reports of the United States
Commissioner of Education from the year 1895 to the present time.

[172] In addition to these schools, there are also the Progymnasium, the
Realprogymnasium, and the Realschule, which, as their names indicate,
are modified forms of the principal types. These schools do not offer
the full nine years' course. See footnote on p. 236 for explanation of
the work of these schools.

[173] Russell's "German Higher Schools" fully describes these
institutions.

[174] In 1893 there were only 241 teachers out of 71,731 in Prussia, who
were outside of the above requirement. These 241 were old teachers who
began before the law was so strict, and who, because of their
efficiency, are retained. In a few years this band will entirely
disappear, and all will be normal graduates.

[175] For full statement of salaries and pensions, see "German Common
School System," pp. 172, 195. Though the German teacher's salary is much
smaller than that of the average American teacher, taking into account
the greater purchasing power of money in Germany, the simple habits, and
fewer demands upon the purse, the German teacher is fully as well off as
the American.



CHAPTER XLIII

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF FRANCE

=Literature.=--_Parsons_, French Schools through American Eyes;
_Richard_, The School System of France; _Weigert_, Die Volksschule in
Frankreich; _Schroeder_, Das Volksschulwesen Frankreichs; United States
Commissioner's Reports.


=Administration.=--France, like Germany, has a minister of education who
sits in the cabinet of the president. The work of his office is divided
into three departments, _higher_, _secondary_, and _primary_, and at the
head of each there is a director. There are two advisory bodies in
charge of education. One has general oversight of all the school
interests of France. The other is divided into three boards, appointed
by the minister himself, for supervision of the three departments above
mentioned. The general board consists of sixty members, fifteen
appointed by the president of the republic, and the others appointed by
the board itself whenever vacancies occur. This body meets once a year
to hear reports, to pass upon the general school policy, and to
legislate for the schools. Out of its membership is chosen an executive
committee that meets once a week, and upon which devolves the chief
management of educational affairs. This committee is answerable to the
general board, to which it renders an annual report. Men of the highest
character and intelligence constitute this board.

The whole of France is divided into seventeen parts called _académies_.
These divisions do not coincide with the political divisions, but are
made merely for convenience in school administration. Each _académie_
has a school board to which is committed the general oversight of all
educational interests within its territory, and particularly the care of
the higher schools.

A narrower division is into _départements_. There are ninety of these in
France and Algiers. Each is governed by an educational council which has
charge of the elementary schools. The principal officer of a
_département_ is a school inspector, a trained educator who devotes all
his time to the schools. In each _département_ there is a normal school
for each sex, though in a few instances two _départements_ combine to
maintain one normal school.

The _département_ is subdivided into _arrondissements_. Each has an
executive officer and a council in close touch with the schools. Lastly
there are the _cantons_, whose school board has direct control of each
individual school.

In this manner from the highest to the lowest division there are
executive officers with well-defined duties--all working together in
perfect harmony and with great efficiency. Trained teachers often sit in
these councils as members and advisers. Thus the highest pedagogical
training of the republic is utilized to obtain the best administration
of the school interests.

=School Attendance.=--School attendance is compulsory upon children from
six to thirteen years of age for every school day. As in Germany, the
child is not compelled to attend the public school, but must receive
instruction for the required time and in a manner approved by the State.
It is the right of the child to be educated, and the State asserts its
prerogative to secure that right to the child, whatever be the attitude
of the parent. But the manner of securing it is left to the parent if
he chooses to exercise that privilege. Although France has had
compulsory education only since 1882, the law is effective, and grows
more so each year. In 1895, 91 per cent of all the children of school
age attended school regularly.

=The Schools.=--In the arrangement of her schools, and the perfect
articulation between them from the mother school to the university,
France has the most perfect system in the world. The _mother_ schools
(_écoles maternelles_) take children from two to six years of age and
care for them from early morning till evening, thereby permitting
parents to go out to service. They combine the idea of the day nursery
and the kindergarten. These schools, in communes of 2000 or more, are
supported by the State, as are other schools.

Instead of the _mother_ school, sometimes the _infant_ school (_école
infantine_) takes the child from four to seven and prepares him for the
primary school. This school is more nearly like the kindergarten than
the _mother_ school. It is supported wholly by the State and is a part
of the school system, its work being entirely in sympathy with that
which follows. In this respect, France has taken a more advanced step
than any other nation.

With the lower _primary_ school (_école primaire élémentaire_), which
covers the period of from six to thirteen years of age, begins
compulsory education. The sexes are always taught separately except in
villages of less than five hundred inhabitants. The pupils all dress in
the same garb. The school is in session five days in the week, Thursdays
being free. There is no religious instruction in the schools. A peculiar
and very important factor is a book of registration for each child, in
which specimens of work in each subject are entered once a month for
the whole school course. This book is kept at the school, and furnishes
an accurate indication of progress to parents or inspectors.[176]

Following the _lower primary_ school is the _higher primary_ (_école
primaire supérieure_), which has two courses, one for pupils who wish to
review their elementary work and add some subjects, with the view of
better preparing for the ordinary walks of life; and the high school
course for those who wish to prepare for academic life. The former is
indefinite in length; the latter requires five years, thus being
completed at the eighteenth year. Here appears another superiority over
the German system, in which, it will be remembered, there is no
connection between the common and the high school.

These high schools prepare for the normal school and for the university.
There are also many other kinds of schools under State support,--such as
technical schools, apprentice schools, schools of mines, etc. In the
advantages offered to young men for perfecting themselves in a trade or
calling, France surpasses all other countries.

Finally there are the State universities, fifteen in number, the
professors of which are appointed by the State. While the State pays all
salaries, the maintenance of the buildings depends upon fees,
endowments, and such local support as is obtainable. These institutions
are open to students from the higher primary schools, thus making a
complete system from the lowest school to the highest, and offering
remarkable advantages to all. All degrees are given by the State,
thereby securing perfect uniformity.

=Support of Schools.=--All of the schools above mentioned, from the
_mother_ school to the university, are free. The expenses are
distributed as follows: (1) The State pays the salaries of all teachers,
administrators, and inspectors, and all the expenses of the normal
schools. Thus it will be seen that the bulk of the expense of education
is borne by the State in general. (2) The _départements_ erect the
normal school and furnish the apparatus and supplies for the same. (3)
The _communes_ pay for the needed supplies, for the janitor, and for
other local necessities of the elementary schools. They may also tax
themselves to increase the salaries of teachers beyond the State
allowance. Each community thus has the power to decide whether it will
be content with an average school, merely fulfilling the State
requirements, or whether it will have a superior school taught by the
best teachers obtainable.

=The Teachers.=--There are two classes of normal schools in France, the
elementary, of which there are eighty-seven for men and eighty-five for
women,--practically one for each sex in each of the departments,--and
the higher, of which there is one for men, one for women, and one for
kindergartners. Nearly all teachers are graduates of normal schools, and
as no candidates for positions are considered unless they hold a normal
certificate, in the near future all the teachers of France will be
professionally trained.

Candidates for admission to the normal school must be at least sixteen
years of age, of good moral character, and of fair abilities. They must
pledge themselves to teach for not less than ten years.[177] The
elementary course covers three years. After graduation, the young
teacher is appointed provisionally until he has taken a final
examination, which must be within ten years. If he has been successful
in the schoolroom, as well as in this second examination, he becomes a
permanent teacher, and can be removed only for immorality.

The course in the advanced normal school takes three or more years,
depending upon the preparation with which the candidate enters. Only
those between eighteen and twenty-five can be admitted. These schools
train principals, superintendents, inspectors, and teachers for the
elementary normal schools. They are the model schools of France, and
shape the educational practice of the republic. Graduates from the
elementary normal schools are not debarred from entering the higher
normal schools; thus ambitious teachers are encouraged to prepare
themselves for higher work.

No other country in the world does so much as France to assist young
teachers in their preparation. In all of the normal schools mentioned,
tuition, board, room, and books are free. And when the young teacher has
been graduated, the State recognizes its own work by giving him the
preference in appointments.

There are five classes of teachers in the elementary schools, the lowest
being the fifth. The young graduate teacher begins in the lowest class
and works his way up. The annual salaries for the different classes are
indicated by the following table:--

 --------------------+-------------+-----------
 CLASSES OF TEACHERS |     MEN     |    WOMEN
 --------------------+-------------+-----------
 Fifth Class         |   $200.00   |   $200.00
 Fourth Class        |    240.00   |    240.00
 Third Class         |    300.00   |    280.00
 Second Class        |    360.00   |    300.00
 First Class         |    400.00   |    320.00
 --------------------+-------------+-----------

Additional allowances are made in large schools, and the _communes_
often supplement the above amounts.

The annual salaries of principals are as follows:--

 -------------+------------+-------------------
              |   HIGHER   |
              |  PRIMARY   |  NORMAL SCHOOLS
 PRINCIPALS   |------------+---------+---------
              | Both Sexes |  Men    |  Women
 -------------+------------+---------+---------
 Fifth Class  |  $360.00   | $700.00 | $600.00
 Fourth Class |   400.00   |  800.00 |  700.00
 Third Class  |   450.00   |  900.00 |  800.00
 Second Class |   500.00   | 1000.00 |  900.00
 First Class  |   560.00   | 1100.00 | 1000.00
 -------------+------------+---------+---------

The assistants in these schools receive:--

 -------------+------------+-------------------
              |   HIGHER   |
              |  PRIMARY   |  NORMAL SCHOOLS
 ASSISTANTS   |------------+---------+---------
              | Both Sexes |  Men    |  Women
 -------------+------------+---------+---------
 Fifth Class  |  $240.00   | $500.00 | $440.00
 Fourth Class |   280.00   |  540.00 |  480.00
 Third Class  |   320.00   |  580.00 |  520.00
 Second Class |   380.00   |  620.00 |  560.00
 First Class  |   440.00   |  680.00 |  600.00
 -------------+------------+---------+---------

In addition to these amounts there is also a small allowance for rent.

After thirty-five years of service, the teacher may retire upon three
fourths of his salary as a pension.

Without doubt France has outstripped all other nations in educational
progress during the last twenty-five years,--the period in which her
school system has been constructed. The three great signs of advance in
French education are _the establishment of free schools_ (1881);
_compulsory education and the secularization of the schools_ (1882); and
_the restriction of teachers to lay persons_ (1886).[178] The strong
features of the French school system may be stated as follows:--

1. _Completeness and harmony of the system_, covering the period from
early childhood till the prescribed education is finished.

2. _Thoroughly trained teachers._

3. _Two kinds of normal schools_ to meet the various educational
requirements of teachers.

4. _Liberal support_ of schools of all kinds.

5. _Admirable administration_ of the schools.

FOOTNOTES:

[176] See Parsons, "French Schools through American Eyes," p. 82.

[177] This is no hardship, as they fully expect to devote their lives to
teaching.

[178] Previous to this the members of religious orders could teach in
the public schools.

NOTE.--In 1902 the government still further restricted the teaching by
religious orders. It is now proposed not only to forbid all teaching by
these orders, but also to sequestrate the property of such congregations
as exist solely for teaching purposes. This will close about 3500
schools of the Christian Brothers which have existed for a long time,
and necessitate the organization by the government of corresponding
school facilities to supply their place. Five years are allowed to
effect the change..



CHAPTER XLIV

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF ENGLAND

=Literature=.--_Sharpless_, English Education; _Craik_, Education and
the State; _Barnard_, English Pedagogy; _Clark_, The State and
Education; _Gill_, Systems of Education; _Balfour_, Educational Systems
of Great Britain and Ireland; United States Commissioner's Reports for
1889 to 1902.


Nearly a thousand years ago Alfred the Great encouraged education of the
higher classes to the exclusion of the masses--a principle that has
governed education in England until within recent times. Statistics
taken in 1845 showed that only one in six of the inhabitants could read,
one in four write, and one in fifty cipher as far as the Rule of Three.
Since 1870 important changes have been made, and the number of children
in the elementary schools of England has increased from 1,500,000 in
1870 to nearly 6,000,000 in 1902.[179]

"The principal features of the law of 1870 were (1) the obligation
assumed by the government to secure school provision for all children of
ages 5 to 14; (2) the recognition or creation of local agencies (private
or church managers or elected boards) for the execution of this purpose;
(3) provision for securing efficient instruction by means of an annual
grant from the treasury to be distributed to the local managers upon the
results of examination and inspection by government inspectors; (4) the
creation of a central agency to carry out the provisions on the part of
the government and of new local agencies or school boards which every
school district must elect except upon satisfactory evidence that
schools efficient and adequate to the needs of the district were
otherwise provided; (5) the admission of private and public elementary
schools to a share in the government grant upon the same conditions; (6)
the requirements that board schools should be strictly non-sectarian and
the children of private schools protected from enforced sectarian
instruction by a conscience clause."[180]

The most important modifications of this law are the laws of 1899 and
1903. The law of 1899 has reference to the general administration of
education in England and Wales, while that of 1903 entirely changes the
local management of schools and extends the sphere of public education
to secondary as well as elementary schools.

=Administration.= 1. _General._--Under the provisions of the law of 1899
the general administration of educational affairs is committed to a
board of education consisting of a president, appointed by the crown,
lord president of the council, the principal secretaries of state, the
first commissioner of the treasury, and the chancellor of the
exchequer--not less than five nor more than fifteen members. By means of
a sufficient number of royal inspectors who are trained educators, whose
duty it is to visit the schools and report thereon, the board of
education is able to reach every school in the kingdom. There is also a
consultation committee, two-thirds of whom are "persons representing
universities and bodies interested in education," whose office is to
advise the board of education.

2. _Counties and County Boroughs._--By the terms of the law of 1903 the
council of every county and of every county borough are constituted a
"local education authority," which controls secular instruction in all
elementary schools within its district, and performs the duties of
former school boards and school attendance committees. They may also
establish high schools. In boroughs of over 10,000 and cities of over
20,000 inhabitants a special board or "local education authority" is
allowed.

3. _Local Managers._--All public undenominational (board) schools have a
body of six managers, four of whom are appointed by the "local education
authority" and two by the minor local authority. All public
denominational (voluntary) schools shall also have six managers, four of
whom are foundation managers and two are appointed by state authority. A
greater number of local managers may be chosen, but the above proportion
of members must hold.

=School Attendance.=--The school age is from five to fourteen, and the
local authorities are required to compel attendance for that period
excepting in case where the pupil has obtained the educational
certificate of exemption, which cannot be given before the child is
twelve years of age. The average attendance in 1902 reached nearly 83
per cent of the enrollment. England has stringent laws in regard to the
employment of children in factories, mines, etc., which are well
enforced.

=The Schools.=--We have already mentioned the _board_ and the
_voluntary_ schools which supply the principal means of elementary
education. The voluntary schools are under the fostering care of the
Church, and their enrollment includes more than half of the children.
Secondary education is carried on chiefly in private schools, though the
law of 1903 permits the establishment of high schools to follow
elementary education. The private secondary schools are of two general
classes, "grammar" and "public" schools. The former are intended for the
middle classes, their main purpose being to prepare for civil service,
while the latter are the great endowed schools like Rugby, Eton, etc.

=Support of Schools.=--The expense of the elementary schools is met by
parliamentary grants, by local taxes, and by endowments. Parliamentary
grants cover about 62 per cent of the total, and the balance is made up
from the other sources. Formerly both denominational and
undenominational schools participated alike in the government grants,
but the former were compelled to make up the balance needed by private
subscriptions, school pence, etc., while the latter were allowed to levy
a local tax for this purpose. Under the law of 1903 both may share alike
in the local tax, thereby removing the necessity for private
subscriptions.

=The Teachers.=--The training of teachers is as peculiar as the other
features of the English system. Lancaster and Bell introduced the
monitorial system, by which one teacher could take charge of a large
school, the older pupils teaching the younger ones. This idea has been
perpetuated in the "pupil teacher" scheme. Children fifteen years old
are apprenticed to a school to assist in the work, and in return receive
instruction and a small stipend. At eighteen or nineteen they enter the
teachers' college for a two years' course. They may instead at this time
take an examination for the teachers' certificate, and if successful,
they are known as "assistant teachers." That the "pupil teacher" idea
has lost its force is shown by the following facts: From 1876 to 1893
the increase of graduate teachers was 114 per cent, the increase of
"assistant teachers" 691 per cent, while there was a decrease of 15 per
cent in the number of "pupil teachers." This would seem to indicate that
England is demanding better prepared teachers. The 131 teachers'
colleges graduate about 1900 students each year, which is about two
thirds of the number of teachers needed.

Teachers' positions are practically permanent, and the salaries are
good, being in 1901 an average for certificate teachers of $644 a year
for men and $432 for women.

Each teacher is entitled to a pension at the age of 65. This amounts to
at least $330 for men who have been in the service from their
twenty-first year, and $225 for women. If obliged to retire earlier on
account of breakdown, the amount of pension will be proportionate to the
length of service. Men teachers contribute three pounds annually and
women two pounds to this fund, while the State appropriates the balance
needed.

When one considers the traditions that have controlled English education
for centuries, and recalls the conservatism that rules English life, one
can only marvel at the tremendous strides taken by England during the
last third of a century. Victor Hugo says: "The English patrician order
is patrician in the absolute sense of the word. No feudal system was
ever more illustrious, more terrible, and more tenacious of life."
England has had to overcome her patrician ideas in regard to education,
and her growth in the last thirty years has been more rapid and more
effectual than for a thousand years before. Although she still has many
problems to solve, her recent educational enterprise places her in the
front rank among the nations of the world in school matters. The law of
1903 consisted of many compromises which satisfy neither party. It will
doubtless be followed by still further changes in the near future.

FOOTNOTES:

[179] The total enrollment in 1902 was 5,881,278, or 18.08 per cent of
the population.

[180] Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for
1896-1897, Vol. I, p. 12.



CHAPTER XLV

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES

=Literature.=--_Boone_, Education in the United States; _Williams_,
History of Modern Education; _Barnard_, _American Journal of Education_;
_Horace Mann_, Annual Reports; United States Commissioners Reports,
especially the more recent ones.


Each state in the United States has its own independent system of
education; there is no national system. In 1867 Congress established a
National Bureau of Education, the function of which is "to collect
statistics and facts showing the condition and progress of education in
the several states and territories, and diffuse such information
respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems
and methods of teaching as shall aid the people of the United States in
the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and
otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country." The
bureau issues an annual report, which is replete with information
concerning the educational interests of our own and other lands.

The United States government has given vast tracts of the public domain,
as well as large sums of money, to the various states, out of which have
been created, in some cases, large school funds which yield a permanent
income.[181] Up to 1876 the United States had granted nearly eighty
million acres of land for educational purposes.

The Bureau of Education is obliged to rely on such statistics as its
correspondents are willing to give, yet its work has been so valuable,
its information so extensive and accurate, and its educational purpose
so high, that cordial coöperation is generally given. This annual report
is the finest issued by any nation in the world.[182]


THE STATE SYSTEMS

=Administration.=--At the head of each state school system, there is an
executive officer usually called the State Superintendent of Public
Instruction. He is chosen for from two to five years, sometimes by
popular vote, sometimes by the joint houses of the Legislature,
sometimes by the State Board of Education, and in some cases is
appointed by the governor. His duties are to make reports, to examine
teachers, to inspect schools, to distribute school moneys, to hear
appeals in school matters, and to have general oversight of the
educational interests of the state. In some states there is a State
Board of Education that coöperates with the State Superintendent. The
interests of education seem to be best conserved when there is a
non-partisan State Board of Education, which appoints the executive
officers and has general charge of the schools.

The second administrative unit is the county, over which is placed a
Superintendent of Schools. He is chosen by popular vote or is appointed
by the State Board of Education, and holds office generally about three
years. He must visit the schools, examine teachers, hold institutes,
distribute school moneys, and oversee the educational work. The number
of schools under the inspection of the county superintendent is often so
great, and the territory so large, that his work cannot be well done. In
many cases the compensation is so small that he is obliged to devote a
part of his time to some other occupation. The work is of sufficient
importance to demand the full time of a competent man; and the salary
ought to be proportionate to such needs.

The next division is that of the township, though in most states the
school district is the next unit. The so-called "township system" has
been adopted in several states, and recommended in others. This system
has a board of education which appoints teachers, purchases supplies,
and manages the schools of the whole township. The district system has
outlived its usefulness. It maintains more schools than are warranted by
the small number of pupils. Many of these could be abandoned in favor of
better schools in neighboring districts, to which the children could be
sent. It often secures for its trustee a man of limited education and
narrow views, who conducts the school on the cheapest plan possible,
while the larger territory of the township furnishes better material
from which to choose; it limits its educational plan to the most
elementary course, whereas the "township system" contemplates a central
high school open to all children of the township. The "township system"
also admits of the employment of a special school inspector or
superintendent if desired. In some instances, two or more townships
unite in the employment of such a superintendent.

=School Attendance.=--The school age commences at from four to six and
extends to from eighteen to twenty-one, varying greatly in the
different states. The United States Commissioner's Report now covers the
period of from five to eighteen. On this basis he reports that 71.54 per
cent of the children who are of school age are enrolled in the schools,
while the average attendance is about 69 per cent of the enrollment.
This is a very low percentage as compared with that in Germany, France,
and England. The longer period covered by us (five to eighteen) thus
acts unfavorably. The natural period of the child's life to be devoted
to education is from six to fourteen.

School attendance in the United States is by no means so regular as it
should be, even during the period (six to fourteen). To remedy this,
compulsory education laws have been passed in most states. They cover
periods varying from eight consecutive weeks and a total of twenty weeks
during the year, to the full school year. These laws are generally a
dead letter, partly because of their own weakness, and partly because of
the indifference of the people. Compulsory attendance to be effective
must cover the whole school year, and must carry a sufficient penalty
for non-enforcement.

=The Schools.=--The schools of the United States may be classified as
follows: 1, the _elementary school_ having an eight years' course which
should be completed at fourteen; 2, the _secondary school_ with a four
years' course that fits for college or its equivalent training; 3, the
_undergraduate school_ or college with its four years' course; and the
_graduate school_ or university. The elementary school is generally
separated into primary and grammar grades, and is sometimes preceded by
the kindergarten. The secondary school usually offers commercial or
other practical courses to those who do not wish to prepare for college.
Colleges differ greatly in the scope of their work and in their courses
of instruction. Most universities open their doors to those who are not
graduates of colleges. In all states the elementary and the high schools
are free, while in some, particularly the western states, the entire
expense of the child's education from kindergarten to university is
defrayed at public expense.

=Support of the Schools.=--The annual cost of the schools of the country
is about two hundred and fifty million dollars. About two thirds of this
is raised by local tax, about one fifth by state tax, and the balance is
derived chiefly from permanent funds, etc. The preponderance of the
local tax shows that to each community is intrusted the important matter
of deciding as to the quality of school it will maintain. The American
people have always been liberal toward education, and no money is voted
so freely by legislative bodies as that necessary for the education of
the young.

=The Teachers.=--There are over 440,000 teachers in the United States,
of whom about 28 per cent are men and 72 per cent women. Only about 10
per cent of these have had a professional training. The average term of
service is five years, and about 100,000 new teachers are needed every
year. To supply this number the normal schools and other institutions
for training teachers are utterly inadequate, and will remain so until
the average term of service is lengthened.

The principal institutions for training teachers are the normal school,
the city training school, the pedagogical departments of universities,
and teachers' training classes. To these may be added the teachers'
institute and the summer school, which while they stimulate and instruct
the teachers, cannot be said to give them a professional training.

The course of the normal school usually covers three years, and embraces
both the theory of education and practice in teaching children. Within
the last few years, many colleges have established chairs of pedagogy,
but the work remains inadequate for a professional training so long as
practice in teaching is not added to the requirements.

Teachers are appointed by local boards generally for one year, though
they often remain undisturbed year after year. The average monthly
salary of men in 1902 was $49.05, and of women $39.77.

So long as professional training of the teacher guarantees neither
permanence of position nor adequate remuneration, many men and women
with ability to teach will be tempted to devote their energies to other
work, leaving the nation's most sacred trust, the education of its
children, to those who will not or cannot properly prepare themselves
for that great responsibility.

But there is in present tendencies no need for discouragement.
Everywhere brave men and women are preparing themselves in earnest for
the high calling of teacher, hopeful that the future will bring them the
recognition they deserve.

With free schools, abler teachers, consecrated to their calling, and
better courses of instruction; with a people generous in expenditures
for educational purposes, a coöperation of parents and teachers, and a
willingness to learn from other nations; with the many educational
periodicals, the pedagogical books, and teachers' institutes to broaden
and stimulate the teacher,--the friends of education in America may
labor on, assured that the present century will give abundant fruitage
to the work which has so marvelously prospered in the past.

FOOTNOTES:

[181] In 1836 there was a large surplus in the national treasury, which,
by act of Congress, was ordered "to be deposited with the several
states, in proportion to their representation in Congress." The amount
so distributed equaled about $30,000,000. Most of the states receiving
this deposit set it aside as a permanent school fund. See Boone,
"History of Education in the United States," p. 91.

[182] See an article by M. Stevens on "The National Bureau of
Education," in the _New York School Journal_, Vol. LVI, p. 743, for a
full description of this bureau and its work.



APPENDIX

RECENT EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS


=Literature.=--Proceedings of the National Educational Society; Reports
of the Commissioner of Education; Yearbooks of the National Society for
the Scientific Study of Education; Parker Memorial Number of the New
York School Journal, April 5, 1902.


In order to bring the history of education down to the present and
awaken an interest in questions that are now occupying the attention of
educational thinkers, a brief study of recent educational movements,
theories, and organizations is here presented. Such study should serve
as an introduction of the young teacher to the actual world of thought,
in which he is to live, and present to him the questions which he must
aid in solving.

=The National Educational Association.=--One of the most potent factors
of education in the United States is the National Educational
Association, founded in Philadelphia in 1857. The purpose of this
organization, in the language of the preamble to its constitution, is,
"To elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of
teaching, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United
States." It holds its meetings annually in different parts of the
country, attracting large numbers of teachers of all ranks and from
every section.[183] There are eighteen departments, each of which holds
special sessions during the time of the general meeting, which occurs
early in the summer vacation. The department of superintendence,
however, holds a midwinter meeting which attracts the leading educators
of the country.

Very valuable service has been rendered by the Association through its
committees that have been appointed from time to time to investigate and
report upon special problems. Among the notable reports may be mentioned
the following: Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary Schools;
Report of the Committee of Fifteen on Elementary Schools; Report of the
Committee on Normal Schools; Report of the Committee on Rural Schools.

The discussions of the Association are preserved in an annual volume of
proceedings. Its committee reports often appear also in special
bulletins. It must be admitted in general that the National Educational
Association fulfils its mission, as outlined in the preamble quoted, in
an admirable way.


THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF EDUCATION

While the United States has no national system of education, each state
having entire charge of its own educational affairs, there is a national
bureau whose office is twofold; namely: (1) to collect statistics, and
(2) to diffuse information concerning educational affairs. This bureau
was established by Congress in 1867, and since 1869 it has been a bureau
of the Department of the Interior. Henry Barnard was appointed the first
commissioner, and he has been succeeded in that office by John Eaton, N.
H. R. Dawson, William T. Harris, and Elmer E. Brown, the present
incumbent.

This bureau fosters the interests of education in three important
directions: (1) by its publications; (2) by its maintenance of a
pedagogical library, the most extensive in the country; and (3) by its
pedagogical museum, in which every feature of educational enterprise is
exhibited.

The most valuable service rendered, however, is through its
publications. It issues an annual report which has grown to two large
volumes of more than twenty-four hundred pages, in which are found
statistics concerning all kinds of schools and educational enterprises
throughout the United States. Nor are its investigations limited to our
own country and its territories. Educational movements in other
countries are described from time to time by experts with a view to
furnish complete information concerning current educational history
throughout the world. These reports are recognized as by far the best
furnished by any country.

In addition to the annual report the bureau issues many pamphlets
bearing upon special topics and furnishing valuable information.

In view of the fact that such vast interests are involved,--the
instruction of over twenty million pupils, requiring the service of more
than half a million teachers, involving the expenditure of nearly three
hundred million dollars per annum, and of vital interest to the whole
population,--many educators believe that the bureau should be elevated
to the dignity of a department of the government with a cabinet officer
at its head.


THE QUINCY MOVEMENT

In 1873 the School Board of Quincy, Massachusetts, took a new and very
important departure, namely, that of calling an educational expert to
take charge of their schools. They realized that the office of a school
board is to administer the external matters, but trained experts should
have entire direction of the internal affairs of the schools, such as
discipline, methods of instruction, course of study, etc. They called
Colonel Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) to the superintendency and said to
him practically: "We will furnish the equipment and the teachers, and it
is your business to run the schools. We will not interfere with your
methods or your plans, but will hold you responsible for results."
Colonel Parker, who had just returned from a careful study of European
schools, accepted this responsibility and at once began reforms in
primary education not second in importance to those of Horace Mann a
generation earlier. The "New Education" and "Quincy Methods" began to be
discussed everywhere, and Quincy became the educational Mecca for
teachers from every part of the land. Some of the reforms inaugurated
were the following: Text-books were abolished, the learning of the
alphabet discontinued, mere memorizing of facts discountenanced, nature
work was emphasized, concrete methods employed, and all school work made
natural and interesting. The results in comparison with those of other
schools were phenomenal, and it was recognized that a great reform
movement had been started.

Doubtless, like reformers generally, Colonel Parker was too extreme.
Some of his innovations were later modified, even by the originator
himself. Nevertheless, the Quincy Movement did incalculable good by
breaking up the formalism that prevailed, by making the work practical
and interesting, by offering suitable material, by improving the methods
of instruction, and by awakening great interest in educational problems
among both the teachers and the public at large. For this great work at
Quincy, for his many years' service as the head of the Chicago Normal
School, and for his stimulating influence upon elementary education
throughout the country, Colonel Parker deserves a place among the
foremost educators of recent times. The example of the Quincy School
Board in placing an educational expert over their schools has been
followed by many cities. The office of city superintendent has been
created, and to him is now committed duties that formerly were
undertaken by members of the School Board who were without professional
training. This change marks a decided step forward in the educational
progress of our country.


THE HERBARTIAN MOVEMENT

One of the most important educational movements of recent years, is that
inaugurated by the disciples of Herbart[184] in this country. At the
meeting of the New England Association in Denver in 1895 a number of
men, most of whom had studied under Stoy and Rein in Germany, formed the
National Herbart Society, whose purpose was declared to be "the
aggressive discussion and spread of educational doctrines." This society
was the outgrowth of the Herbart Club, formed three years before at
Saratoga. It is now known as the National Society for the Scientific
Study of Education. It holds semiannual meetings in connection with the
National Association, but is not a department of said Association. It
issues "Yearbooks" which contain the results of the investigations of
its members and which are valuable contributions to current educational
literature.

Among the most important educational theories brought forward by this
school may be mentioned that of Apperception, the Doctrine of Interest,
the Correlation of Studies, Concentration, the Culture Epoch Theory, and
Character Building as an end of education. The practical application of
these theories to school problems has not been neglected. There is no
doubt that the Herbartian teachings have served to bring education in
this country to a scientific basis. The members of this society have
been among the foremost contributors to the pedagogical literature of
the last decade.


VARIOUS TENDENCIES

=Child Study.=--The old psychologists based their theories and
deductions upon a study of the activities of the adult mind. Modern
educators have turned their attention to the being whom they are to
educate--the child. Questionnaires have been issued and syllabi
formulated concerning many characteristics of children, such as their
fears, their imaginations, their lies, their views of God, etc., for the
purpose of discovering laws governing the same. While as yet the
movement cannot claim to have added much to educational theory, it has
stimulated careful study and observation of children, brought teachers
into more genuine sympathy with them, suggested suitable material for
instruction, and fostered rational discipline. It offers an unlimited
and fruitful field for further investigation.

=Parents' Meetings.=--In the early history of the race parents assumed
the entire education of their offspring. When schools became numerous
and teachers efficient, parents largely absolved themselves from direct
responsibility in the matter of education. To arouse proper interest and
to unite all the agencies of the community in this work, parents'
meetings have been organized in many places. Thus the patrons of the
school have not only been led to coöperate with their teachers, but also
to study educational problems. Such organizations have strengthened the
hands of the teachers, stimulated educational interest, and aroused a
genuine and intelligent pride in the work of the school.

=Manual and Industrial Training.=--The marvelous industrial development
of recent years, together with the attitude of labor unions towards
apprenticeships, creates a demand for a reconstruction of courses of
study. Much of education that was secured in the shop and field must now
be furnished in the school. "Educate the whole child" is the watchword.
The motor activities must be trained as well as the mental activities.
Indeed, the latter cannot attain their proper development without the
former. Hence, manual training has been adopted as a part of the
curriculum.

=Material Improvements.=--A careful study of the ventilation, lighting,
seating, and other hygienic conditions, as well as construction of
school buildings, has characterized recent times. In many places not
only school materials, but also text-books, are furnished free of cost
to the pupil. Physicians are also employed periodically to visit the
schools and examine the children as to the condition of eyes and ears,
as to the prevalence of disease, and as to their general health.
Safeguards are inaugurated to prevent the spread of contagious diseases.
All of these material measures are founded upon the theory that only
under best conditions can the best results be obtained in education, and
therefore it is true economy for the community to furnish these
conditions.

FOOTNOTES:

[183] The membership at the Boston meeting in 1903 was 34,984. This,
however, is far in excess of the average attendance.

[184] See p. 278.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


The following works have a bearing upon some phase of the many topics
considered in this book. Most of them have been mentioned in abbreviated
form either in the literature at the beginning of each chapter or in the
footnotes. They are here given with their full titles.


 A

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 C

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 D

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 E

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 F

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 G

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 H

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 I

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 J

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 K

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INDEX


 _A. B. C. der Anschauung_, Herbart's, 281.

 Abelard at University of Paris, 141.
   Benedictine teacher, 118.
   leader of scholasticism, 122.

 Académies, in French school administration, 296, 297.

 Agricola, Johannes, school course of, 176 _n_.

 Agricola, Rudolphus, father of German humanism, 153, 158.
   lectures of, 158.

 Ahriman, principle of darkness in Persian religion, 39.

 Albigenses, reformers in France, 165.

 Alcohol, Arabians discover, 145.

 Alcuin of England, Benedictine teacher, 118.
   teacher of Charlemagne, 127.

 Alexander the Great, pupil of Aristotle, 65.

 Alexandria, catechetical school at, 107, 108.
   Museum of, 50.
   Saracenic school at, 140.
   school of rabbis at, 44.
   seat of philosophy, 107.

 Alexandrian library fostered by the Ptolemies, 50.

 Alfred the Great, becomes king, 130.
   character and history of, 130.
   education of, 131.
   encourages education of higher classes, 302.
   establishes monasteries, 131.
   founds Oxford University, 131.
   influence on English education, 131.
   literary work of, 131.
   statesmanship of, 130.

 Algebra, modern form of, 145.

 _Allgemeine Pädagogik_, Herbart's, 281.

 Ambrose, St., bishop of Milan, 114.

 America, discovery of, 165.

 American Revolution, establishes principle of self-government, 239.

 Analects of Confucius, 28.

 Analytical method of Aristotle, 67.

 Anatomy, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

 Annual Reports, Horace Mann's, 286.
   of Bureau of Education, 310.

 Anselm, founder of scholasticism, 122.

 Antioch, catechetical school at, 107.

 Antioch College, Horace Mann president of, 288.

 Apostles, active in education, 101.

 Apostles' Creed, taught during Charlemagne's reign, 128.

 _Apostolic Constitution_ quoted, 113.

 Apprentice schools, in France, 299.

 Aquinas, Thomas, Benedictine teacher, 118.
   leader of scholasticism, 122.

 Arabians, services to education, 145.

 Architecture, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

 Aristotle, analytical method of, 67.
   Athenian philosopher, 56.
   called the Stagirite, 65.
   pedagogy of, outlined, 66, 67.
   pupil of Plato, 65.
   teacher of Alexander the Great, 65.

 Arithmetic, in Charlemagne's reign, 128.
   in Chinese schools, 24.
   in India, 32, 33.
   in Jewish education, 43.
   in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   in monastic education, 119.
   in Roman schools, 78.

 Arrondissements, in French school system, 297.

 Art, in Athens, 56.
   in Egypt, 47.

 Arts, seven liberal, 118, 127.

 Aryans, in Greece, 53.
   in India, 30.
   in Persia, 36.

 Asceticism, influence on civilization, 116.

 Ascham, Roger, English educator, 190.
   method of, 191.
   _Scholemaster_, 190.
   tutor to Elizabeth, 190.

 Assistant teachers, 307.

 Astrology, applications of, 120.

 Astronomy, applications of, 120.
   Arabians' services to, 145.
   Copernican system, 148.

 Astronomy taught in Egypt, 50.
   taught in Mohammedan schools, 145.
   taught to Jews, 43.

 Athenian education, criticism of, 59.

 Athenian educators, 61-67.
   Aristotle, 65-67.
   Plato, 63-65.
   Socrates, 61, 62.

 Athens, 56-60.
   aesthetic education in, 58, 59.
   Aristotle founds Lyceum at, 66.
   art and literature in, 54.
   center of learning, 75.
   contrasted with Sparta, 56.
   criticism of education in, 59.
   democratic government in, 57.
   history of, 56.
   home in, 57.
   laws of Solon, 57.
   Pericles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, 56.
   philosophers from, at Museum of Alexandria, 50, 51.
   play important factor in child life, 57.
   Romans study at, 74.
   study of poets, 57, 59.
   training of children, 57.
   woman's status in, 58, 90.

 Attendance, compulsory, in English schools, 306.
   in French schools, 297, 298.
   in German schools, 291, 292.
   in United States schools, 312.

 Augustine, St., _City of God_, _Confessions_, 114.
   conversion of, 114.
   influence of, 18, 115.
   life of, 114.
   pedagogy, 115.
   services to education, 101.
   works of, used in monasteries, 119.

 Augustus, age of, 74, 75.

 Azarias, Brother, on La Salle, 228.
   on the Simultaneous Method, 227.


 Babylon, Saracenic school at, 140.
   school of rabbis at, 44.

 Bacon, Francis, character of, 206.
   Comenius applies principles of, 214.
   degradation of, 207.
   Inductive Method introduced, 207, 208.
   influence of, 18.
   life of, 205.
   Montaigne's influence on, 195.
   new era in education, 209.
   _Novum Organum_, 207.
   object teaching of, 189.
   on Jesuit schools, 186, 187.
   pedagogy of, 208, 209.
   political advancement of, 206.
   reforms of, 204.

 Bagdad, caliphs foster education, 145.
   Saracenic school at, 140.

 Barrett, influences Horace Mann, 285.

 Basedow, _Elementary Book_ (_Elementarbuch_), 251.
   failure of, 254.
   life of, 250.
   methods of teaching, 250.
   pedagogy of, 253, 255, 256.
   Philanthropin established, 251, 252.
   professor at Soröe, 251.
   writings of, 255.

 Basel, center of printing industry, 162.

 Basil the Great, life of, 106.
   pedagogy of, 106.
   services to education, 101.

 Beautifying of schoolrooms, 197, 198.

 Bell, Andrew, founds National Schools, 305.
   Monitorial system of, 307.

 Belles-Lettres, in Chinese education, 25.

 Benedict, St., principles of, 117.

 Benedictines, growth of, 117.
   principles of, 117.
   schools founded by, 118.
   teachers, 118.

 Berlin Conference, 236 _n_.

 Bernsdorf, Danish minister of education, 251.

 Besant, Walter, on Rabelais, 193, 194, 195.

 Bible, only literature of early Christians, 95.
   study of, 153.
   translated by Alfred the Great, 131.
   translated into German, 168.

 Biographies of educators, 18.

 Blankenburg, Froebel's school at, 276.

 Bluntschli, advice to Pestalozzi, 260.

 Board of Education in United States school system, 310, 311.

 Board schools, established in England, 305.

 Boatman, third caste in Egypt, 48.

 Boccaccio, humanistic leader of Italy, 155, 157.
   influences of, 151.

 Body, care of, 221, 230.

 Bologna, university established at, 124.

 Boniface, of Germany, Benedictine teacher, 118.

 _Book of Method_, Basedow's, 255.

 Books, school, adoption of, 290.

 Bouillon, Godfrey of, leads first crusade, 137.

 Brahma, Hindu worship of, 33.

 Brahmanism, Buddha seeks to overthrow, 35.

 Brahmans, highest caste in India, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34.
   marriage of, 32.

 Brotherhood of man, value of principle, 91.

 _Brothers of the Christian Schools_, La Salle organizes, 227.

 Brown University, Horace Mann at, 285.

 Browning, on Milton's scheme of education, 220.

 Buddha, religion and spirit of, 35.

 Buddhism, in China, 21, 22, 27.
   in India, 31.
   religion based on moral acts, 35.

 Budding Intellect, Chinese degree, 26.

 Bulfinch, on Charlemagne, 126.

 Bureau of Education, U. S., 309.

 Burgdorf, Froebel at, 275.
   Pestalozzi teaches at, 266.

 Burgundy, Duke of, taught by Fénelon, 224, 225.


 Caen, university at, 141.

 Cahors, university at, 141.

 Calculating boards, in Athens, 59.

 Caliphs, foster education, 145.

 Cambray, Bishop of, aids Erasmus, 161.

 Cambridge, University of, 141.

 Campe, leader of Philanthropin, 254.

 Canterbury, cloister school at, 118.

 Cantons, in French school system, 297.

 Caste system, in Egypt, 47-49.
   in India, 30, 32.

 Catechetical schools, 107, 108.
   decay of, 110.

 Catechumen schools, 104.

 Cathedral schools, 139 _n_.

 Catholic Church. See Church.

 Cavaliers, struggle with Roundheads, 200.

 Celestial Empire, civilization of, 20.

 Ceylon, Buddhism in, 35.

 Charity schools, in China, 23.

 Charlemagne, education of, 133.
   encourages education, 127, 128.
   history, character, purpose of, 125, 126.
   influence of, 18.
   School of Palace established, 127.
   summary of work of, 128, 129.

 Charles V., of Spain, Emperor of Germany, 165, 166.

 Chemistry, taught in Mohammedan schools, 145.

 Child study, 319.

 Children, a sacred trust, 91.
   home training of early Christians, 94.
   among Jews, 41, 42.
   in Athens, 57.
   in Egypt, 49.

 Children, in India, 32.
   in Persia, 37.
   in Rome, 76, 77.
   in Sparta, 69.
   weak, cast out in Sparta, 69, 73.

 China, 20-28.
   belief in transmigration of souls, 22.
   civilization of 20.
   classics of, 25.
   Confucius, 18, 24, 27, 28.
   conservative character of, 21.
   criticism of education, 27.
   degrees in, 25, 26.
   elementary schools in, 23, 25.
   examinations in, 26.
   geography and history of, 20, 21.
   government and language in, 21.
   higher education in, 25.
   home in, 22.
   lack of toys, 23.
   motive for education, 52.
   relation of parents and children, 22, 23.
   religion in, 21.
   science and inventions in, 26.
   treatment of women in, 22.

 Christ, disciples of, 92, 93.
   influence of, 96, 97.
   life and character of, 96, 97.
   methods of, 97, 98.
   nature study of, 99.
   principles of, 90, 91.
   teacher, 97-100.
   truth preached by, 99.
   type of perfect manhood, 16.
   value of teachings of, 89, 95.

 Christian education, 89-314.
   aim of, 91.
   Alfred the Great's influence, 130, 131.
   Basil the Great, 106, 107.
   Benedictines, 117, 118.
   catechetical schools, 107.
   catechumen schools, 104.
   Charlemagne, 125-129.
   Chrysostom, 105, 106.
   church connection with, 101.
   Clement of Alexandria, 109.
   conflict with pagan education, 111-115.
   crusades, 102, 136-138.
   difficulties in establishment of, 95.
   feudal education, 132-135.
   first Christian schools, 104, 105.
   general view of, 89, 101, 103.
   importance of individual, 91.
   lessons and principles of, 90, 91.
   monastic education, 102, 116-120.
   Origen, 110.
   St. Augustine, 114, 115.
   scholasticism, 121-124.
   seven liberal arts, 119, 120.

 Christian education, slow growth of, 92, 93.
     See also Renaissance, Humanistic educators, Reformation, Protestant
     educators, Jesuits, Modern educators, School systems, and sixteenth,
     seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century education.
   Tertullian, 112, 113.
   Teutonic peoples, instrument of civilization, 103.
   universities, 139-141.

 Christiania, university at, 141.

 Christianity, influence of, 96, 97.
   lessons of, 90-92.
   See also Christian education.

 Chrysostom, educational principles of, 105, 106.
   life of, 105.
   services to education, 101.

 Church, animosities between Catholics and Protestants, 200.
   authority in Renaissance, 150.
   controls education, 112, 139.
   corruption of, 151, 152, 166, 168.
   degradation of, 151, 152.
   influence of St. Augustine's writings on, 115.
   supremacy of, 116.
   the mother of schools, 102.

 Church Fathers, direct educational movements, 101.
  opposed to pagan literature, 113, 120.

 Cicero, called Father of his Country, 82.
   character of, 82.
   death of, 82.
   education of, 81.
   life of, 81.
   pedagogy of, 83.
   _Philippics_ of, 82.
   Roman consul, 82.
   services to education, 83.
   works of, studied in monastic education, 119.

 Citizens in Sparta, 68.

 _City of God_, St. Augustine's, 114.

 Classic languages, Humanists revive study, 149.
   in Trotzendorf's pedagogy, 178.
   new interest in, 149, 150.

 Classic literature, revival of study of, 155-157.
   Tertullian excludes, 113.

 Clement of Alexandria, pedagogy, 109.
   pupil of Pantaenus, 109.
   teacher, 109.

 Clermont, Jesuit college of, 183.

 Climate a factor in education, 16.

 Cloister schools established, 118.

 Clothing of children, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

 Coeducation, in France, 298.
   in German villages, 292.
   in Sparta, 71.

 Colleges, in United States school system, 312, 313.

 _Colloquies_, Erasmus's, 162.

 Cologne, cloister school at, 118.
   university of, 141.

 Comenius, Johann Amos, banished, 212.
   _Didactica Magna_, 213.
   education of, 211, 212.
   educational works of, 214.
   honors bestowed on, 213.
   influence of, 18.
   influence of Bacon on, 214.
   Latin Bohemian dictionary of, 213.
   member of Moravian Brethren, 211.
   object teaching of, 189.
   Pestalozzi applies principles of, 269.
   reforms of, 204.
   settles in Poland, 213.
   summary of his work, 215.
   trials of, 212.

 Commandments, Ten, oldest writing among Israelites, 44.

 _Committee of Council on Education_, in England, 305.

 Common schools, importance of, 287.
   in Germany, 292.
   in United States, 310.

 Commonwealth, established, 200.

 Communes, in French education, 300.

 Compass, invention of, 148.

 Compayré, on Comenius, 214.
   on Jesuit schools, 185, 187.
   on Jesuits and Jansenists, 189.
   on La Salle, 228.
   on Locke, 221.
   on Montaigne's pedagogy, 198.
   on Rabelais's Gargantua, 194, 195.
   on Rousseau, 242, 246.
   on the Reformation, 166, 167.
   on the Renaissance, 121.

 Composition, in Chinese education, 25.

 Compulsory education, among Jews, 42.
   Charlemagne introduces, 128.
   in England, 306.
   in France, 297, 298.
   in Germany, 170, 181, 203, 291.
   in United States, 312.
   Luther insists on, 174.
   Plato's scheme of, 65.

 _Conduct of Schools_, La Salle's, 228.

 _Confessions_, Rousseau's, 242, 243.

 _Confessions_, St. Augustine's, 114.

 Confucius, altar to, in Chinese schoolrooms, 24.

 Confucius, analects of, 28.
   influence of, 18, 27.

 Conrad III., of Germany, leads second crusade, 137.

 Constance, cloister school at, 118.

 Continuation schools, in Germany, 292.

 Copenhagen, university at, 141.

 Copernicus, astronomical discoveries of, 148, 202.

 Cordova, caliphs of, foster education, 145.
   Saracenic school at, 140.

 Corporal punishment, among Jews, 43.
   Basil the Great on, 106.
   Cicero's views regarding, 83.
   in Jesuit schools, 186.
   Quintilian's views regarding, 87.

 Council, Educational, governs French départements, 297.

 Counter-Reformation, 182.

 County, school administration of, 310.

 Cramer, on the crusades, 138.

 Criticism, of Athenian education, 59.
   of Chinese education, 27.
   of Egyptian education, 51.
   of Feudal education, 135.
   of Hindu education, 34, 35.
   of Jesuit education, 188.
   of Jewish education, 44, 186.
   of Persian education, 38.
   of Roman education, 80.
   of Spartan education, 71.

 Cromwell, Commonwealth under, 200.

 Crusades, influence on education, 102, 103, 136-138.
   results of, 138.

 Curtius, quoted, 72.


 Dancing, taught among Jews, 42.

 Dante, banishment of, 156.
   birth of, 155.
   _Divine Comedy_, 156.
   education of, 155, 156.
   humanistic leader of Italy, 155.
   influence of, 151.

 Dark Ages, slow progress during, 101.
   end of, 148.

 David, founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

 Dean, M. Ida, on schools in India, 33.

 Decimal system originated by Hindus, 34.

 De Garmo, on Herbart as a teacher, 279.

 Degrees in China, 25, 26.
   in French Universities, 299.

 Demia, Charles, 227.

 Democratic government in Athens, 57.

 Départements, erect normal schools, 300.
   in French school system, 297.

 Dervishes, in Persia, 38.

 Descartes on Jesuit schools, 186.

 Deserving of Promotion, Chinese degree, 26.

 Dessau, institute at. See Philanthropin.

 Dialectical method, of Socrates, 62.

 _Dialogues of the Dead_, Fénelon's, 225.

 _Didactica Magna_, Comenius's, 213.
   See Great Didactic.

 Discipline, in Chinese schools, 24.
   in Indian schools, 32.
   in Jewish schools, 43.
   in Roman schools, severe, 78.

 Discoveries, during Renaissance, 148.

 District inspector, in German schools, 291.

 District school board, in Germany, 290, 291.

 District system of education, in United States, 311.

 Dittes, quoted, 42, 274.

 Draper, on St. Augustine, 115.

 Drieser, on Quintilian, 86 _n_.

 Dualistic philosophy, of Zoroaster, 39.

 Duns Scotus, Benedictine leader, 118.
   leader of scholasticism, 122.

 Dyeing, in ancient Egypt, 47.


 Earth, size of, ascertained, 145.

 Eberhard, Count, Reuchlin's friend, 159.

 _Education of Girls_, Fénelon's, 224.

 _Education of Man_, Froebel's, 277.

 Egypt, 46-52.
   antiquity of its history, 47.
   caste system in, 47-49.
   criticism of education in, 51.
   dyeing, embalming, etc., in, 47.
   geography and history of, 46, 47.
   higher education in, 50.
   home in, 49.
   influence of priests in, 47, 48.
   mechanic arts in, 47.
   military class in, 48.
   motive for education in, 52.
   pilgrimages to, for study, 47.
   polygamy in, 49.
   status of woman in, 49.

 Egyptian education, criticism of, 51.

 Eighteenth century education, general view of, 237-240.
   See also Modern educators.

 _Elementary Book_ (_Elementarbuch_), Basedow's, 251, 255.

 Elementary education, among Arabians, 145.
   in Athens, 58.
   in China, 23.
   in England, 306.
   in France, 298, 299.
   in Germany, 192.
   in India, 32-34.

 Elementary education in Rome, 77.
   in United States, 312.
   neglected by Jesuits, 184, 187.

 Elizabeth, Queen, taught by Roger Ascham, 190, 192.

 Emerson, on the Middle Ages, 147.

 _Émile_, Rousseau's, 243-249.

 Emulation, as incentive in Jesuit schools, 186, 188.

 Engineering, in Ancient Egypt, 47-50.
   in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

 England, administration of schools, 305.
   attendance in schools, 306.
   educational enterprise in, 308.
   school system of, 303-308.
   support of schools in, 307.
   teachers in, 307, 308.

 English rule in India, 31.

 Environment, a factor in education, 16, 17.

 Erasmus, _Colloquies_, 162.
   compared with Luther, 162.
   humanistic leader, 153.
   life of, 161.
   literary authority of world, 162.
   on Agricola, 158.
   on Melanchthon, 171.
   pedagogy of, 162, 163.
   _Praise of Folly_, 162.
   studies of, 161.
   translation of Greek testament, 162.

 Erfurt, Francke preacher at, 233.
   university of, 141.

 Erigena, leader of scholasticism, 122.
   principles of, 122.

 Ernst of Gotha, Duke, school law of, 203.

 _Essay Concerning Human Understanding_, Locke's, 221.

 Essays, Montaigne's, 198.

 Essex, benefactor of Bacon, 206.

 Eton, college at, 174, 306.

 Euclid, used in monastic education, 119.

 _Eudemon_, page in Rabelais's _Gargantua_, 194.

 _Evening Hours of a Hermit_, Pestalozzi's, 263.

 Examinations in Athens, 58.
   in China, 25, 26.

 Exercise, Locke's rules regarding, 221.


 _Fables_, Fénelon's, 225.

 Factory laws, in England, 306.

 Family, the foundation of education, 17.
   See Home.

 Farmers, caste in India, 30.
   education of, 34.
   third caste in Egypt, 48.

 Fathers of church, opposed to pagan
   literature, 113.

 Faurier, Peter, 227.

 Fear, motive for study in China, 24, 27.

 Fénelon, compared with Seneca, 225, 226.
   education of, 223, 224.
   _Education of Girls_, 224.
   head of convent of new Catholics, 224.
   pedagogy of, 226, 227.
   preceptor of grandson of Louis XIV, 224.
   priest, 224.
   reforms of, 204.
   works of, 225.

 Feudal barons, influence of, 133.

 Feudal education, 132-135.
   criticism of, 135.

 Feudalism, crusades break power of, 138.
   defined, 132.

 Fichte, Herbart student of, 279.

 Finances, school, 290.

 Fit for Office, Chinese degree, 26.

 Food of children, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

 Forest of Pencils, Chinese degree, 26.

 Formalism in instruction, 194.

 Forsyth, on Cicero, 81, 82, 83.

 France, administration of schools, 296, 297.
   attendance in schools, 297.
   mother schools in, 298.
   normal schools in, 297.
   school system, 296.
   support of schools, 299, 300.
   teachers, 300, 302.

 Francis I., of France, 165.

 Francke, August Hermann, called to University of Halle, 233.
   education of, 232.
   founds orphan asylum at Halle, 234.
   Institutions at Halle, 234, 235.
   organizes teachers' class at Halle, 228.
   Privat Docent at Leipsic, 232.
   _Real-school_, 236.
   training of teachers, 235.
   work among poor, 233, 234.

 Frankfurt-am-Main, Froebel teaches in, 273.

 Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, leads third crusade, 137.

 Frederick I., recognizes university at Bologna, 140.

 Free schools, established in France, 298-300.
   in Germany, 293.
   in United States, 313.

 Freiburg-im-Breisgau, university at, 141.

 French Revolution, lessons of, 239, 264.

 Froebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August, as teacher, 273.
   at Burgdorf, 275.

 Froebel, F. W. A., at Universities of Göttingen and Berlin, 274.
   at Yverdon, 274.
   _Education of Man_, _Songs for Mother and Nursery_, 277,
   Fénelon anticipates, 226.
   first school of, 275.
   influence of, 18.
   kindergarten of, 276.
   lectures of, 277.
   life of, 272, 273.
   object teaching of, 189.
   on Pestalozzi, 274.
   school at Griesheim and Keilhau, 275.
   soldier, 275.

 Fulda, cloister school at, 118.


 Galileo, punishment of, 117.

 _Gargantua_, Rabelais's, 193.

 _Gate of Tongues Unlocked_, Comenius's, 214.

 Geography, a factor in education, 16.
   in Milton's scheme of education, 219
   in monastic education, 119.
   Neander favors study of, 179.

 Geometry, discovery of Pythagorean theorem, 73.
   in catechetical schools, 108.
   in Jewish schools, 43.
   in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   in monastic education, 119.

 Germany, administration of schools, 289.
   attendance in schools, 291.
   effects of 30 Years' War on, 201, 202.
   humanism in, 157.
   school system of, 169, 199, 289-295.
   State assumes responsibility of education, 174.
   support of schools, 293.
   teachers in, 294.

 Gibbon, Edward, quoted, 75, 150.

 Girls, education of, among Jews, 41.
   Fénelon advocates education of, 226.
   in Athens, 58.
   in China, 22.
   in Egypt, 50.
   in Rome, 80.
   in Sparta, 71.
   sale of, in India, 31.
   schools for, in Germany, 181.

 Glaucha, Francke pastor at, 233.

 Goethe, on the _Émile_, 249.

 Goldberg, Trotzendorf rector at, 178.

 Göttingen, University of, 280.

 Government, administrative school board of, in Germany, 290.
   democratic, in Athens, 57.
   no control of schools in China, 23.
   of Romans, 75.

 Government, self, in schools, 178, 179.

 Graduate school in United States school system, 312.

 Grammar, study of, begun, 59.
   in Athenian schools, 59.
   in catechetical schools, 108.
   in Mohammedan schools, 145.
   in monastic schools, 119.

 Gréard on Rousseau, 246.

 _Great Didactic_, Comenius's, 213, 214.
   organization of school system in, 215-217.

 Great Teacher, The. See Christ.

 Greece, 53-55.
   art and literature in, 54.
   Athens and Sparta, 54.
   geography and history in, 53, 54.
   manners and customs in, 54.
   Olympian games in, 54, 55.
   political freedom in, 54.

 Greek culture, influence on Rome, 74, 75, 80.

 Greek language, importance of, in human culture, 157.
   in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   in pedagogy of Innovators, 204.
   introduced into Germany, 160.
   Reuchlin introduces study of, 160.
   revival of study of, 150, 151, 153.
   study of, in Rome, 74.
   taught in Sturm's school course, 176.

 Greek text-books, Neander's, 180.

 Greifswald, University of, 141.

 Griesheim, Froebel's first school at, 275.

 Gruner, Dr., head master of Model School at Frankfurt-am-Main, 273.

 Guienne, Montaigne studies at, 196.

 Gunpowder, invention of, 148.

 Gutenberg, invents printing, 164.

 Gymnasia, furnished by State in Athens, 58.

 _Gymnasium_, course in, 293.
   established by Francke, 234.
   purpose of, 236 _n_.

 Gymnastics, taught in Athens, 58.
   in Sparta, 71.


 Hakem III., fosters education, 145.

 Hallam, on Agricola, 158.

 Halle, Institutions at, 234.
   Pietists found university at, 231, 232.
   teacher's class at, 228.

 Hamburg, cloister school at, 118.

 _Hanlin_, Royal Academy, in China, 26.

 Harris, Dr., on Pestalozzi, 271.

 Harrow, college at, 174, 306.

 Hebrew, revival of study, 153.
   used in interpreting Scripture, 158, 160.

 Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon, Reuchlin's, 159.

 Hecker, founds first Prussian Normal School, 228.

 Hegel, Aristotle compared to, 67.

 Hegira, Mohammedanism dates from, 143.

 Heidelberg, center of humanistic movement, 153.
   Reuchlin at, 160.
   University of, 124, 141.

 Heliopolis, institution for higher learning at, 50.

 _Héloïse_, Rousseau's, 243.

 Helots, in Sparta, 68.

 Herbart, Johann Friedrich, enters Gymnasium at Oldenburg, 279.
   in Bremen and Switzerland, 279.
   life of, 278.
   literary activity of, 281.
   on importance of common schools, 287.
   pedagogy of, 282, 283.
   practice school at Königsberg, 280.
   professor of philosophy at Königsberg, 280.
   student of Fichte, 279.
   teacher in Switzerland, 279.

 Herbartians, work of modern, 282, 318.

 Herford, on Froebel, 276.

 Hesse-Cassel, active in school work, 203.

 Hesse-Darmstadt, active in school work, 203.

 Hieroglyphics, Rosetta stone furnishes key to interpretation of, 47.

 High Schools, connected with common in France, 299.
   in United States, 313.

 Higher education, among Jews, 44.
   in China, 25, 27.
   in Egypt, 50.
   in India, 34.
   in Rome, 79.

 Hindu education, criticism of, 34, 35.

 Hindus. See India.

 History, a factor in education, 16.
   natural, taught in Jewish schools, 43.
   Neander favors study of, 179.
   taught in Roman schools, 78.
   taught in schools of prophets, 44.

 Holstein, active in school work, 203.

 Holy Land, of Greece, at Olympia, 55.
   pilgrimages to, 136.

 Home, foundation of education, 17.
   in Athens, 57.
   in China, 22.
   in Egypt, 49.
   in India, 32.
   in Persia, 37.
   in Rome, 76.

 Home, in Sparta, 69.
   of Jews, 41.

 Home training, among early Christians, 94.

 Horace, Roman poet, 74.

 _How Gertrude teaches her Children_, Pestalozzi's, 267.

 Humanism, art of printing aids, 150.
   decline of, 198.
   in Germany, 157.
   in Italy, 149-151.
   Petrarch founder of, 156.

 Humanistic educators, 155-163.
   Agricola, 158.
   Boccaccio, 157.
   Dante, 155.
   Erasmus, 161.
   German, 157-163.
   Italian, 156, 157.
   mission of, 155.
   Petrarch, 156.
   Reuchlin, 159.

 Humanities, studied in Jesuit schools, 185.

 Hunziker, Professor, on Pestalozzi, 267, 269.

 Hurst, Bishop, on Melanchthon, 171.

 Huss, reformer, 165.


 Ilfeld, Neander's school at, 179.

 Iliad and Odyssey, called Bible of Greeks, 69.

 Illustrated text-books, first, 215, 229.

 Illustration, teaching by, 98.

 India, 29-35.
   Brahminism and Mohammedanism in, 31.
   Buddha, 35.
   caste system in, 30.
   criticism of education in, 34.
   elementary schools in, 32-34.
   English reforms in, 31.
   geography and history of, 29.
   higher education in, 34.
   home in, 32.
   motive for education in, 52.
   polygamy in, 31.
   religious ceremonies in schools, 33.
   schoolhouses described, 33.
   skill of craftsmen in, 30, 31.
   status of woman in, 31.

 Individual, education for, 91.

 Individuality, of children, 88.

 Inductive method, Bacon's, 207, 208, 229.

 Industrial School, Pestalozzi establishes, 262.

 Infant school (_école infantine_) in France, 298.

 Innocent III., Pope, recognizes University of Paris, 141.

 _Inquiries concerning Course of Nature in Development of Mankind_,
 Pestalozzi's, 269.

 Inspector, in German schools, 290, 291.
   Royal, in English school system, 305.

 _Institutes of Oratory_, Quintilian's, 87.

 Institutions at Halle, 234.

 Instruction, method of, in India, 33.

 Introduction, 15-19.

 Inventions, Chinese, 26.
   during Renaissance, 148.

 Isaiah, founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

 Israel. See Jews.

 Italy, humanism in, 149-151.
   intellectual movement in, 152.


 Jansenists, introduce phonic spelling, 189.
   purpose of, 188.
   services to education, 189.

 Jena, center of Herbartian activity, 279, 282.

 Jerome of Prague, reformer, 165.

 Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom established at, 137.
   pilgrimages to, 136.
   school of rabbis at, 44.

 Jesuits, criticism of education, 186.
   education of, 184.
   emulation as an incentive, 186.
   founding of order, 182, 183.
   growth of society, 184.
   Loyola, 183.
   military character of order, 183.
   opposition of Port Royalists to, 189.
   school system of, 183-188, 199.
   spread of power, 184.
   summary of educational work, 188, 189.

 Jews, 40-45.
   compulsory education among, 42.
   criticism of education, 44.
   education in home, 17.
   esteem of teachers, 43.
   geography and history, 40, 41.
   higher education among, 44.
   home of, 41.
   mission of, 40.
   motive for education of, 52.
   prophets, 44.
   religion of, 41, 42.
   schools of, 42.
   schools of the prophets, 44.
   schools of the rabbis, 44.
   status of women, 41.
   the Talmud, 45.
   theocratic education of, 40.
   training of children, 41, 42.

 Johnson, Dr., on Ascham's _Scholemaster_, 190, 191.

 Justinian, abolishes pagan schools, 115.


 Kant, Emanuel, quoted, 254, 255, 281.

 Keilhau, Froebel's school at, 275.

 Kepler, astronomical discoveries of, 202.

 Kindergarten, Froebel founder of, 276.
   in Prussia, 275.
   in Switzerland, 276.
   in United States, 277, 312.
   prohibited, 275.
   purpose of, 277.

 Knight, chivalry of, 133.
   education of, 133.
   seven perfections of, 133.

 Knowledge, defined by Confucius, 28.

 Königsberg, Herbart teaches philosophy at, 280.
   practice school at, 281.

 Koran, Mohammed writes, 143.
   used as reading book, 145.

 Krüsi, Hermann, on Pestalozzi, 260, 261, 265, 266.
   on the sacrifices of Bäbeli, 257.
   Pestalozzi founds school with, 267.


 La Salle, _Conduct of Schools_, 228.
   organizes Brothers of the Christian Schools, 227.
   services to education, 228.
   simultaneous method introduced, 227.

 Laborers, third caste in Egypt, 49.

 Lancaster, Joseph, establishes Board Schools, 307.
   monitorial system of, 307.

 Land grants, for educational purposes, 310.

 Lang, on Basedow's _Book of Method_, 255.

 Langethal, Heinrich, joins Froebel, 275.

 Language, Ascham's method for study of, 191.
   classic, see Latin, Greek, classic languages,
   double translation in teaching, 199.
   in pedagogy of Innovators, 204.
   modern conversational method, 197-199.
   taught in Egypt, 50.
   taught in Roman schools, 78.

 Latin, in Locke's system of education, 222.
   in Melanchthon's course, 173.
   in Milton's pedagogy, 219.
   in pedagogy of Innovators, 204.
   in Sturm's school course, 176.
   in Trotzendorf's school course, 188.
   revival of study, 151, 153.

 Latin Kingdom, established at Jerusalem, 137.

 Latin Schools, Strasburg _Gymnasium_ the model for, 176.

 Latin text-books, Neander's, 180.

 Latini, Brunetto, teacher of Dante, 155.

 Launcelot, leader of Port Royalists, 188.

 Laurie, S. S., quoted, 107, 139, 140.

 Law, in Milton's scheme of education, 220.
   studied in Egypt, 47.
   taught in _Gymnasia_, 293.
   taught in schools of prophets and rabbis, 44.

 Leibnitz, on Jesuit schools, 187.

 Leipsic, University of, 141.

 Leonard and Gertrude, Pestalozzi's, 263, 264.

 Leopold of Dessau, establishes the Philanthropin, 251.

 Letters, forms and names to be learned simultaneously, 88.

 Library at Alexandria, 107.
   at Pekin, 25.

 _Literators_, in charge of Roman schools, 78.

 Literature, Hebrew, 44.
   in Athens influences world, 56.
   lack of Christian, 94.
   opposition to pagan, 94, 113, 115, 126.
   pilgrimages to Egypt to study, 47.

 _Literatus_, teacher of Roman school, 78.

 Local school board in Germany, 291.

 _Loci Communes_, Melanchthon's, 172.

 Locke, John, education of, 220, 221.
   educational works of, 221.
   _Essay Concerning Human Understanding_, 221.
   his influence on education, 223.
   Montaigne's influence on, 195, 196.
   reforms of, 204.
   tutor at Christ Church, 221.

 Logic, in monastic education, 119.
   taught in Sturm's school course, 176.

 Lord's Prayer, taught in Charlemagne's reign, 128.

 Louis VII. of France, leads second crusade, 137.

 Loyola, founds Jesuit order, 183.

 Lucretius, 74.
   compared with Rabelais, 194, 195.

 Lund, university at, 141.

 Luther, Martin, Augustinian monk, 168.
   contrasted with Erasmus, 162.
   educational reforms of, 166.
   influence of, 18.
   lays foundation of German school system, 169.
   leader German Reformation, 165.
   life and struggles of, 167.
   pedagogy of, 169.
   professor at Wittenberg, 168.
   Reuchlin on, 160.

 Luther, Martin, summoned before Diet of Worms, 168.
   translates Bible, 168.
   work marked out by, 175.

 Lutheran churches, schools in connection with, 181.

 Lyceum at Athens, founded by Aristotle, 66.

 Lycurgus, influence in Sparta, 73.
   laws of, 72.

 Lyons, cloister school at, 118.


 Macaulay, Lord, on Bacon, 205, 206, 208.

 Magi, Persian priests, 37, 38.

 Mainz, university at, 141.

 Malone, John, on Chrysostom, 105.

 Mann, Horace, _Annual Reports_, 286.
   at Brown University, 285.
   at Litchfield, 285.
   educational campaign of, 286.
   life of, 284, 285.
   on common schools, 285.
   president of Antioch College, 288.
   Secretary of State Board of Education, 286.
   services to education, 288.
   statesman, 285, 288.

 Manual and industrial training, 320.

 Manual training school, Locke advocates, 222.

 Maps, early, 120.

 Marenholtz-Bülow, Bertha von, disciple of Froebel, 277.

 Mariner's compass invented, 148.

 Marriage, Christ's teaching on, 91.
   controlled by State in Sparta, 73.

 Martel, Charles, checks Mohammedanism, 144.

 Martial training, in Sparta, 69-71.

 Martin, on work of Horace Mann, 286.

 Massachusetts, new epoch in educational history, 285-287.
   normal schools established in, 287.

 Mathematics, central idea of Pythagorean system, 73.
   discoveries of Hindus, 35.
   taught in Egypt, 50.
   taught in Mohammedan schools, 145.

 Matthison, leader of Philanthropin, 254.

 Mecca, Mohammed's flight from, 143.
   pilgrimages to, 145.

 Mechanics, third caste in Egypt, 47, 48.
   third caste in India, 30.

 Mecklenburg, active in school work, 203.

 Medicine, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   taught in Egypt, 50.
   taught in _Gymnasium_, 293.

 Medicine taught in schools of prophets, 44.

 Medina, Mohammed flees to, 143.

 Melanchthon, Philipp, colaborer of Luther, 170, 171.
   early life and studies of, 171.
   educational work of, 172, 173.
   first Protestant psychologist, 173.
   Greek professor at Wittenberg, 171.
   lectures at Tübingen, 171.
   _Loci Communes_, 172.
   Saxony school plan, 172, 173.
   service to schools, 172.
   text-books, 172.
   work marked out by, 175.

 Memory, cultivation of, in Chinese education, 24, 25, 27.
   in Cicero's pedagogy, 84.
   in Fénelon's pedagogy, 226.
   in humanistic education, 163.
   in India, 32-34.

 Memphis, institution for higher learning at, 50.

 Merchants, third caste in India, 30.

 Methodists, purpose of, 231.

 Middendorff, Wilhelm, joins Froebel, 275.

 Middle Ages, progress during, 146, 147.

 Military class, in Egypt, 48.

 Military schools, in China, 27.

 Military training, in Persia, 38.
   in Sparta, 69.

 Milton, John, defines education, 217.
   reforms of, 204.
   scheme of education, 219, 220.
   teacher, 218.
   _Tractate_, 218.

 Mines, schools of, in France, 299.

 Minister of education in France, 290, 296.

 Minnesingers, compositions of, 135.

 Missionary enterprise in India, 32.

 Model school at Frankfurt-am-Main, 273.

 Modern educators, 241-314.
   Basedow, 250-256.
   Froebel, 272-277.
   Herbart, 278-283.
   Mann, 284-288.
   Pestalozzi, 257-271.
   Rousseau, 241-249.

 Mohammed, flight of, 143.
   precepts of, 144, 145.
   spread of doctrines of, 144.
   writes Koran, 143.

 Mohammedan education, 143-147.
   five Moslem precepts, 144.
   history of Mohammedanism, 143-145.
   scientific progress made, 145.

 Mohammedanism, history of, 143-145.
   in India, 31.

 Monasteries, Alfred the Great establishes, 131.
   benefits to civilization by, 120.
   center of educational activity, 146.
   center of religious interest, 120.
   power of, 116.
   services to education, 102.
   suppress scientific discoveries, 116, 117.

 Monastic education, 116-120.

 Monitorial System, defined, 307.

 Montaigne, education of, 196.
   _Essays_, 197.
   influence on Locke, 223.
   pedagogy of, 195, 197, 198.

 Montanists, teachings of, 113.

 Monte Cassino, monastery at, 117, 118.

 Moravian Brethren, Comenius member of, 211, 213.

 Moravian School, Comenius teacher of, 212.

 Moses founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

 Moslemism. See Mohammedanism.

 Mother-school (_école maternelle_) in France, 298.

 Motive of education, among Jews, 52.
   in Athens, 59.
   in China, 27, 52.
   in Egypt, 52.
   in India, 34, 52.
   in Persia, 38, 52.
   in Rome, 80.
   in Sparta, 69, 71.

 Music, cultivation of, among Jews, 42.
   during Charlemagne's reign, 128.
   in Athens, 58, 59.
   in Egypt, 50.
   in monastic education, 119.
   in Sparta, 71.
   in Sturm's school course, 176.


 Nantes, university at, 141.

 Napoleon, quoted, 97.

 National Bureau of Education, in United States, 309, 310.

 National Herbart Society in America, 282.

 National Schools, Andrew Bell establishes, 305.

 Nature study, Christ advocates, 99.
   inductive methods lead to, 208.

 Navigation, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

 Neander, Michael, teacher at Ilfeld, 179.
   text-books of, 180.

 Nero, pupil of Seneca, 84.

 Neuhof, Pestalozzi's experiment at, 261, 262.

 Nicole, leader of Port Royalists, 188.

 Nile, importance to Egypt, 46.

 Nile, inundations encourage mathematical study, 50.

 Nineteenth century education, general view, 237-240. See also Modern
 Educators and School Systems.

 Nisibis, catechetical school at, 107.

 Nitric acid discovered, 145.

 Normal schools, in France, 297, 300, 301.
   in Germany, 290, 294.
   in Massachusetts, 287.
   in United States, 314.
   La Salle establishes first, 228.
   teachers appointed in, 290.

 _Novum Organum_, Bacon's, 207.


 Obedience, cardinal Chinese virtue, 23.

 Object teaching, beginning of, 266.
   of Jansenists, 189.
   Pestalozzi's, 270.

 Occam, leader of scholasticism, 122.

 Occupation, a factor in education, 16.

 Odessa, catechetical school at, 107.
   first Christian common school at, 105.

 Olympia, Holy Land of Greece, 55.

 Olympiad, basis for computing time, 55.

 Olympian games, influence and character of, 54, 55.

 Orations of Cicero, 82, 83.

 Oratory, ideal of education in Rome, 77, 78, 80.
   Quintilian's views regarding, 87.

 _Orbis Pictus_, Comenius's first illustrated text-book, 214, 215.

 Order of Jesus. See Jesuits.

 Oriental civilization, basis of, 89.

 Oriental education, aim of, 91.
   summary of, 51, 52.

 Origen, character of, 110.
   education of, 110.
   pedagogy of, 110.
   service to education, 101.

 Orleans, university at, 141.

 Ormuzd, principle of light in Persian religion, 39.

 Orphan asylum, at Halle, founded, 233, 234.

 Oxford, cloister school at, 118.
   Locke tutor at, 221.
   University of, 131, 141.


 Pagan education, conflict with Christian, 111-115.

 Pagan literature, opposition to, 94, 113, 115, 120.

 Pantaenus, establishes catechetical school, 107.

 _Pantagruel_, Rabelais's, 193.

 Paper, invented, 148.

 _Paradise Lost_, Milton's, 217.

 Paris, cloister school at, 118.
   university at, 124, 140, 141.

 Parker, Colonel, on Horace Mann, 284, 286.

 Parliamentary grants for school expenses, 306.

 Parochial schools, 139 _n_.

 Pascal, leader of Port Royalists, 188.

 Pastor, superintendent of German schools, 181.

 Paul, services to education, 102.

 Paul III., Pope, recognizes Jesuits, 183.

 Paulsen, on John Sturm, 175, 176, 177.
   on Neander's text-books, 180.

 Pedagogium, established by Francke, 234, 236.

 Pedagogue, duty of, in Athens, 56, 58.
   in Rome, 77.

 Pedagogy, begins with history of education, 15.
   elevated to dignity of a science, 282.
   of Agricola, 158.
   of Alfred the Great, 131.
   of Aristotle, 66, 67.
   of Ascham, 190-192.
   of Bacon, 207-209.
   of Basedow, 251-256.
   of Basil the Great, 106.
   of Benedictines, 118, 119.
   of Boccaccio, 157.
   of Charlemagne, 127-129.
   of Christ, 91, 97-100.
   of Chrysostom, 105.
   of Cicero, 83.
   of Clement of Alexandria, 109.
   of Comenius, 214-217.
   of Confucius, 28.
   of Dante, 156.
   of Erasmus, 162, 163.
   of Fénelon, 226, 227.
   of Feudalism, 132-135.
   of Francke, 234-236.
   of Froebel, 275-277.
   of Herbart, 282, 283.
   of Humanists, 153.
   of Innovators, 204.
   of Jesuits, 184-188.
   of La Salle, 227, 228.
   of Locke, 221-223.
   of Loyola, 183.
   of Luther, 169.
   of Mann, 285-288.
   of Melanchthon, 172.
   of Milton, 218, 219.
   of Mohammedans, 145.
   of Montaigne, 195-198.
   of Neander, 179-181.

 Pedagogy, of Origen, 110.
   of Pestalozzi, 269-271.
   of Petrarch, 151.
   of Plato, 63-65.
   of Port Royalists, 189.
   of Pythagoras, 73.
   of Quintilian, 87.
   of Rabelais, 194, 195.
   of Ratke, 211.
   of Reuchlin, 160.
   of Rousseau, 243-249.
   of St. Augustine, 115.
   of Scholastics, 124.
   of Seneca, 85.
   of Socrates, 62.
   of Sturm, 176, 177.
   of Tertullian, 113.
   of Trotzendorf, 178, 179.

 Pekin, royal library at, 25.

 Pendulum, applied to reckon time, 145.

 Pensions to teachers, in England, 308.
   in France, 302.
   in Germany, 294.

 Pericles, Age of, 54, 57.
   Athenian statesman, 56.

 Perioeci, in Sparta, 68.

 Persia, 36, 39.
   criticism of education, 38.
   geography and history, 36.
   home, religion in, 37.
   military education in, 16, 38.
   motive for education in, 52.
   state education in, 37, 38.
   status of women in, 37.
   training of children in, 37.
   Zoroaster, 39.

 Persian education, criticism of, 38.

 Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, childhood and character, 257, 258.
   Christian ministry, 259.
   failures of, 259, 260, 262.
   farming, 260.
   influence of, 18.
   law, 260.
   lesson of love taught by, 271.
   marriage, 261.
   Neuhof, experiences at, 262.
   object teaching of, 189.
   pedagogy of, 269, 271.
   purposes of, 259.
   school at Burgdorf, 266.
   school at Stanz, 264, 265.
   school at Yverdon, 267, 268.
   schooling of, 258.
   unites with Krüsi, 267.
   work of, 269.
   writings of, 263, 264.

 Peter the Hermit, crusade of, 136.

 Petrarch, father of humanism, 155, 156.

 Petrarch, influence of, 151-153.
   lays foundation of modern education, 157.

 Pfefferkorn, John, antagonism to Hebrew works, 160.

 _Phaedo_, Plato's, 63.

 Philanthropin, established, 251.
   failure of, 252-254.
   purpose of, 252.

 Philip Augustus, of France, aids university at Paris, 141.
   leads third crusade, 137.

 _Philippics_, of Cicero, 82.

 Philosophical discoveries, of Hindus, 35.

 Philosophy, in Athens, 59.
   in catechetical schools, 108.
   in Egypt, 47.
   in gymnasium, 293.
   in Jesuit schools, 185.
   in Mohammedan schools, 145.
   in Roman schools, 78.
   in schools of prophets, 44.
   natural, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   of Christ, 98.
   scholasticism, 124.

 Phoenicians, invent alphabet, glass making, and purple dyeing, 51.

 Phonic method of spelling, introduced, 189.

 Physical education, in Aristotle's scheme, 66.
   in Athens, 58.
   in Erasmus's scheme, 163.
   in Fénelon's scheme, 226.
   in Feudalism, 133, 135.
   in Innovators' scheme, 204.
   in Locke's scheme, 221, 229.
   in Luther's scheme, 170.
   in Milton's scheme, 220.
   in Persia, 38.
   in Pestalozzi's scheme, 263.
   in Plato's scheme, 64, 65.
   in Rome, 77.
   in Rousseau's scheme, 244.
   in Sparta, 70.

 Pietism, influence of, 232.
   purpose of, 231.

 Plato, Athenian philosopher, 56.
   disciple of Socrates, 63.
   first systematic scheme of education, 65.
   founds school at Athens, 63.
   republic, 63.
   State to have control of citizens, 64.
   testimony to Socrates, 62.

 Play, educational force in Athens, 57, 60.
   in Fénelon's pedagogy, 226.
   in Froebel's system, 274.

 Poetry, in Athens, 57, 59.
   in Roman schools, 78.
   in schools of prophets, 44.

 Poitiers, university at, 141.

 Political freedom of Greeks, 54.

 Political rights, extension of, 239.

 Polygamy, in China, 22.
   in Egypt, 49.
   in India, 31.

 Polytechnic schools, in China, 27.

 Port Royalists, purpose of, 189.
   services to education, 199.

 Practical training of Roman children, 79.

 Practice school, at Jena, 281.
   at Königsberg, 280.
   Herbart's, 280.

 Prague, battle of, 212.
   university established at, 124, 141.

 _Praise of Folly_, Erasmus's, 162.

 Prerau, Moravian School at, 212.

 Priests, influence in Egypt, 47, 48.

 Primary education. See Elementary Education.

 Printing, invented, 26, 148.
   influence on universal education, 150, 164, 165.

 Printing press, invented, 148.

 Privat Docent, in German universities, 232 _n._ 2.

 _Progymnasia_, in Germany, 292 _n_.

 Pronunciation, in Roman education, 76, 78.

 Prophets, schools of, 44.

 _Prorealgymnasia_, 292 _n_.

 Protestant educators, 174-181.
   _Gymnasium_ at Strasburg, 175.
   Melanchthon's course of study, 174.
   Neander, 179.
   Sturm, 175.
   Trotzendorf, 178. See also Humanistic Educators and Reformation.

 Protestant Reformation, 165-173.

 Protestantism, spirit of, among common people, 200.
   spread of, checked, 182.

 Protogenes, establishes school at Odessa, 105.

 Provinces, thirteen royal, school administration in, 290.

 Prussia, kindergarten in, 275, 276.
   school system of, 128, 289-295.

 Psalms, translated into Anglo-Saxon, 131.

 Ptolemaic system of astronomy, 148.

 Ptolemies, found Alexandrian library, 50.

 Public schools, first Christian, 105, 107.
   in England, 306.
   in France, 298.
   in Germany, 293.
   in Massachusetts, 286.

 Public schools, in Rome, 78.
   in United States, 313.
   Quintilian advocates, 88.

 Punishment, Basil the Great's views regarding, 106.
   Cicero's views regarding, 83.
   Fénelon's views regarding, 226.
   in Jesuit schools, 186.
   Montaigne's views regarding, 196, 197.
   Quintilian's views regarding, 87.
   Seneca's views regarding, 85.
   See also Corporal Punishment.

 Pupil teachers, 307.

 Pupils, number assigned to one teacher among Jews, 43.
   number of, fixed by State in Athens, 58.

 Puritans, struggles with established church, 200.

 Pythagoras, life of, 73.
   mathematical system of, 73.
   philosophy of, 73.


 Quadrivium, second course in seven liberal arts, 118, 119.

 Quick, on Ascham, 192.
   on Basedow's system, 254.
   on demands of Reformers, 204.
   on Jesuit education, 186, 187.
   on Milton, 218.
   on Pestalozzi, 258, 268, 269, 270.
   on Ratke, 209, 211.
   on Rousseau's hatred of books, 241.
   on the Philanthropin, 251, 252.

 Quintilian, education and life of, 86.
   founds school at Rome, 86.
   _Institutes of Oratory_, 87.
   pedagogy of, 87.
   receives title of Professor of Oratory, 86.
   works of, studied in monastic education, 119.

 Quincy Movement, the, 317.


 Rabbis, schools of, 44.

 Rabelais, compared with Lucretius, 194, 195.
   friend of Calvin, 193.
   _Gargantua and Pantagruel_, 193.
   influence of Locke on, 223.
   introduces realism into education, 194.
   life of, 192, 193.
   pedagogy of, 194.

 Ramadan, fast of, 144.

 Ramsauer, on Pestalozzi's method of teaching, 266.

 _Ratio Studiorum_, of Jesuits, 186.

 Ratke, method of teaching language, 209, 210.
   pedagogy of, 211.
   reforms of, 204.

 Raumer, on Comenius, 213.

 Reading, in Athenian schools, 58.
   in Chinese schools, 24.
   in Jewish schools, 43.
   in monastic schools, 119.
   in Persian schools, 38.
   in Roman schools, 78.
   in schools of India, 32.
   not taught in Sparta, 71.
   taught during Charlemagne's reign, 128.
   taught by Quintilian, 88.

 _Real-school_ in Germany, course in, 293.
   founded, 236.

 _Realgymnasia_, 292 _n_.

 Realism, in education, 194.

 Reformation, as an educational influence, 164-174, 199.
   conditions at beginning of sixteenth century, 164.
   instills love for religious liberty, 200.
   intellectual conditions, 166.
   invention of printing, 165.
   Luther, 167-169.
   Melanchthon, 170-173.
   spread of educational ideas of, 180.

 Registration, book of, in French schools, 299.

 Reichstag, school interests represented in, 290.

 Rein, Professor Wilhelm, chief exponent of Ziller school, 281.
   on Herbart's pedagogy, 278, 282.
   practice school under, 281.

 Religion, center of school course, 181.
   Chinese, 21, 28.
   Christian. See Christianity.
   in Egypt, 48, 50.
   in India, 31, 35.
   in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   in Persia, 37, 39.
   of Jews, 41, 42, 45.
   of Romans, 75.
   taught in Sturm's school course, 177.

 Religious freedom attained, 201, 240.

 Religious instruction, Cicero advocates, 84.
   in Egypt, 50.
   in German schools, 170.
   Rousseau's views regarding, 247, 248.
   See also Christian education.

 Removal of teachers, causes for, 294, 301.

 Renaissance, 148-173.
   defined, 148, 173.
   humanistic movement, 149-163.
   influence on Teutonic race, 149.
   inventions and discoveries during, 149, 150.
   revival of classics, 150.
   universal education advocated, 150, 151.

 Reuchlin, humanistic leader, 153.
   introduces Greek into Germany, 160.
   professor at Tübingen, 159.
   services to Hebrew learning, 159.
   teacher of Melanchthon, 171.

 Revival of learning. See Renaissance.

 Revolution, American, lessons of, 239.
   French, 239, 264.
   of 1688, 200.

 Rheims, first normal school established at, 228.

 Rhetoric, in Athenian schools, 59.
   in catechetical schools, 108.
   in monastic education, 119.
   in Sturm's school course, 176.
   the climax of education, 88.

 Richard the Lion-Hearted, leads third crusade, 137.

 Rod, discipline of, in China, 24.
   Montaigne's opposition to, 196, 197.
   used in Roman schools, 78.

 Rollin, reforms of, 204.

 Roman church, duty of, to education, 182.

 Roman educators, 81-88.
   Cicero, 81-84.
   Quintilian, 86-88.
   Seneca, 84-86.

 Rome, 74-80.
   Age of Augustus, 74, 75.
   birth of Christ, 74.
   criticism of education, 80.
   education in, 77-79.
   educators of, 81-88.
   government in, 75.
   home in, 76.
   home training of children, 76, 77.
   influence of Greek culture on, 74.
   oratory highest art in education, 77, 80.
   persecution of Christians, 94.
   philosophers from, visit Museum of Alexandria, 50, 51.
   practical training of children, 79.
   religion of, 75.
   supremacy of, 74.
   utility the aim of education, 79.
   woman's status in, 90.

 Rosetta stone, furnishes key to interpretation of hieroglyphics, 47.

 Rostock, University of, 141.

 Rote learning, in Chinese schools, 24.

 Rouen, cloister school at, 118.

 Roundheads, struggles with cavaliers, 200.

 Rousseau, Jean Jacques, _Émile_, 244-248.
   influenced by Montaigne, 195, 196.
   life of, 241, 242.
   on Christ, 97.
   on education of women, 248.
   pedagogy of, 243.

 Rousseau, Jean Jacques, Pestalozzi applies principles of, 269, 270.
   scheme of education, as outlined in _Émile_, 244-248.
   works of, 243.

 Rugby, college, founded at, 174, 306.

 Russia, serfs freed in, 238.


 St. Augustine. See Augustine, St.

 St. Gall, cloister school at, 118, 120.

 Saint-Simon, on Fénelon, 224.

 Saladin, captures Jerusalem, 137.

 Salaries of teachers, in England, 308.
   in France, 300, 302.
   in Germany, 295.
   in United States, 314.

 Salerno, university at, 140.

 Sallust, Roman writer, 74.

 Salzburg, cloister school at, 118.

 Salzmann, leader of Philanthropin, 254.

 Sanskrit, language of India, 30, 34.

 Saracens, conquer Holy Land, 136.
   schools of, 140.

 Saxony School Plan, principles of, 172, 173, 174, 177.

 Schmidt, Karl, on Alfred the Great, 130.
   on Aristotle, 67.
   on corruption of the church, 151.
   on culture, 43.
   on emancipation of the individual, 52.
   on history of humanity, 15, 16.
   on Johann Sturm, 177.
   on St. Augustine's _Confessions_, 114.
   on scholasticism, 123.
   on teachings of Jesus Christ, 97, 100.
   on the _Émile_, 249.

 Scholasticism, benefits of, 123, 124.
   defined, 121.
   downfall of, 123.

 _Scholemaster_, Roger Ascham's, 190.

 School attendance, in England, 306.
   in France, 297, 298.
   in Germany, 291, 292.
   in United States, 311, 312.

 School board, in England, 305.
   in France, 296.
   in Germany, 290, 291.
   in United States, 310.

 School fund in United States, 309.

 School government, Trotzendorf's reforms in, 178, 179.

 School hours, in Athens, 58, 60.
   in Germany, 292.

 Schoolhouses in India, 33.
   public, none in China, 23.

 School inspector, in German schools, 290.

 Schoolmaster, German, position of, 295.

 "School of the Palace," established, 127.

 School pence, expense of English schools met by, 307.

 School system, Comenius's organization of, 215.
   of England, 304-308.
   of France, 296-303.
   of Germany, 289-295.
   of United States, 309-314.

 Schools, apprentice in France, 299.
   catechetical, 107.
   catechumen, 104.
   cathedral, 139 _n_.
   charity, in China, 23.
   church, 102, 181.
   cloister, 118.
   common, 78, 88, 105, 107, 181, 286, 287, 292, 293, 298, 313.
   elementary. See Elementary Schools.
   established in Germany, 180.
   graduate, in United States, 312.
   _Gymnasium_, in Germany, 293.
   high. See High Schools.
   in Athens, under state inspection, 58, 60.
   industrial, for poor, 262.
   _infant_, in France, 298.
   Jesuit, 183-188.
   Jewish, 42.
   manual training, 222.
   Mohammedan, 145, 146.
   _mother_, in France, 298.
   national, in England, 305.
   normal. See Normal Schools.
   of mines, in France, 299.
   of the prophets, 44.
   of the rabbis, 44.
   pagan, abolished, 115.
   parochial, 139 _n_.
   primary, in France, 298, 299.
   public. See Public Schools.
   _Real_, in Germany, 236, 293.
   secondary, in United States, 312.
   summer, in United States, 313.
   support of, in England, 306, 307.
   support of, in France, 299, 300.
   support of, in Germany, 293.
   support of, in United States, 313.
   teachers' salaries in. See Teaching.
   technical, in France, 299.
   undergraduate, in United States, 312.
   voluntary, in England, 306.

 Schulthess, Anna, marries Pestalozzi, 261.

 Schwegler, on number, 73.
   on scholasticism, 122, 124.

 Schwickerath, on the scholastics, 123.
   on Luther, 183.

 Science, among ancient Egyptians, 47.
   instrumental in civilization, 239.
   monastic opposition to, 116.

 Science, natural, Neander favors study of, 179.
   natural, taught in Egypt, 47, 50.
   of Chinese, 26.
   Rabelais gives first rank to, 195.

 Scientific discoveries, results of, 239.

 Scriptures, Holy, in schools, 217.

 Secondary schools, in United States, 312.

 Secular courses of study established, 118.

 Self-government of students, Trotzendorf introduces, 178, 179.
   the principle established, 239.

 Seminar, in Germany, 281.

 Seneca, compared with Fénelon, 225, 226.
   education of, 84.
   pedagogy of, 85.
   religious sentiment of, 85.
   suicide of, 85.
   tutor of Nero, 84.

 Sense-realism, Innovators advocate, 224, 229.

 Serapis, temple of, library in, 107, 108.

 Servants, fourth caste in India, 30.
   marriage of, 32.

 Seven liberal arts, 118.
   basis of school instruction, 127.

 Seventeenth century, education during, 200-236.

 Seventh Annual Report of Horace Mann, 287.

 Shaftesbury, Earl of, friendship with Locke, 221.

 Shastas, commentary on Vedas, 31.

 Shrewsbury, school at, 306.

 Siculus Diodorus, Greek writer, 47.

 Simultaneous method, inaugurated, 227.

 Sixteenth century, education of, 164-199.

 Slavery, abolition of, 238.

 Slaves, in Athens, 56.
   in Egypt, 49.
   in Rome, 77.
   in Sparta, 68.

 Sleep of children, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

 Sobieski, John, checks Mohammedan advance, 144.

 Social Contract, Rousseau's, 243.

 Socrates, Athenian philosopher, 56.
   death of, 62, 63.
   dialectical methods of, 62.
   doctrines of, 62.
   influence of, 18.
   life and home of, 61.
   methods of teaching, 62.
   personal appearance of, 61.
   religious belief of, 62.

 Solomon, founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

 Solon, Athenian lawgiver, 57.

 _Some Thoughts Concerning Education_, Locke's, 221.

 Songs, church, 107.

 _Songs for Mother and Nursery_, Froebel's, 277.

 Sophists, teachers of grammar, 59.

 Soröe, Basedow professor at, 251.

 Sparta, 68-73.
   coeducation in, 71.
   contrasted with Athens, 56.
   criticism of education, 71.
   history of, 68.
   home in, 69.
   Lycurgus, 72, 73.
   martial training in, 69, 70, 71.
   physical education in, 16.
   State control of children, 69, 70, 73.
   status of woman in, 69-71.
   tyranny, the spirit of, 56.

 Spartan education, criticism of, 71.

 Spelling, phonic method introduced, 189.

 Spencer, Herbert, on function of education, 217.

 Spener, Philipp Jakob, originator of Pietism, 231.

 Stagira, Aristotle founds school at, 65.

 Stanz, Pestalozzi's school at, 264.

 State, assumes responsibility of education in Germany, 174.
   controls citizens in Plato's scheme of education, 64.
   controls education in Persia, 37, 38.
   controls education of Spartan children, 70.
   controls schools in Athens, 60.
   interest of, aim of oriental education, 91.
   supervises English schools, 306.
   supports schools in France, 298.

 State Board of Education, duties of, 311.
   established, 286.

 State school system, in United States, 310.

 State support of public instruction in American schools, 310.

 Stettin, first Prussian normal school at, 228.

 Stoy, Karl Volkmar, establishes practice school at Jena, 281.

 Strasburg _Gymnasium_, organization of, 175, 176.
   Sturm, rector of, 175.

 _Studia inferiora_ and _superiora_ of Jesuit schools, 185.

 Sturm, Johann, education of, 175.
   influence of, 177.
   rector at Strasburg Gymnasium, 175, 176.
   school course of, 176, 177.

 Sulphuric acid, Arabians discover, 145.

 Summer school, in United States school system, 313.

 Superintendent of schools, duties of, 310, 311.

 Superstition of Romans, 76.

 Support of schools, in England, 306.
   in France, 299.
   in Germany, 293.
   in United States, 313.

 Swinton, on antiquity of Egyptian history, 47.
   on influence of Egyptian priests, 48.

 Switzerland, Herbart in, 279.
   kindergarten in, 276.


 Talich, Hermann, school course of, 176 _n_.

 Talmud, extracts from, 45, 46.
   influence of, 45.
   on discipline of children, 43.
   origin of sayings in, 44.

 Tax for schools, in United States, 313.

 Taylor, Bayard, on Charles V., Emperor of Germany, 166.
   on Thirty Years' War, 201.

 Teachers, in Athens, 58, 59.
   in China, 23, 24.
   in Egypt, 49, 50.
   in England, 235, 307.
   in France, 300-302.
   in Germany, 290, 291, 293, 294.
   in India, 32, 33, 34.
   in Jesuit schools, 185.
   in Jewish schools, 43.
   in Mohammedan schools, 146.
   in Persia, 38.
   in United States, 313.
   professional training of, 163, 170, 188, 228, 235, 280, 294, 307, 313.
   salaries of, 58, 59, 286, 295, 300-302, 308, 313.
   tenure of office of, 294, 302, 307, 314.

 Teacher's Institute, in United States school system, 313.

 Technical schools, in France, 299.

 _Telemachus_, Fénelon's, 225.

 Tenure of office of teachers, in England, 307.
   in France, 302.
   in Germany, 294.
   in United States, 314.

 Tertullian, birth of, 112.
   conversion of, 112.
   founder of Christian Latin literature, 113.
   joins Montanists, 113.

 Testament, Greek, Erasmus's translation, 162.

 Testament, Old, books of, stimulated by prophets, 44.

 Teutonic nations, leaders in civilization, 103, 149.

 Text-book, first illustrated, 215.

 Thales, father of philosophy, 73.

 Thebes, institution for higher learning at, 50.

 Theocratic education, of Jews, 40.

 Theology, in Gymnasium, 293.
   in Jesuit schools, 185.
   in schools of rabbis, 44.

 Thirty Years' War, 201, 212.

 _Toga virilis_, when assumed, 79.

 Toulouse, university at, 141.

 Tours, cloister school at, 118.

 Township system of education, in United States, 311.

 Toys, lack of, in China, 23.
   of Athenian children, 57.
   of Persians, 57.
   of Spartans, 69.

 _Tractate on Education_, Milton's, 217, 218.

 Tradesmen's castes, in India, 30.

 Tradespeople, third caste in Egypt, 48.

 Training school, in United States, 313.

 Translation, double, for language study, 192.

 Transmigration of souls, Chinese belief in, 22.

 Trier, university at, 141.

 Trigonometry, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.
   taught by Mohammedans, 145.

 Trivium, first course in seven liberal arts, 118, 119.

 Trotzendorf, Valentine, discipline and methods of, 178.
   life of, 178.
   pupil of Melanchthon, 178.
   rector at Goldberg, 178.

 Tübingen, center of humanistic movement, 153, 159.
   university at, 141.

 Twelve Tables, of Roman Law, 76.


 Undergraduate school, in United States, 312.

 Understanding, development of, 189.

 United States, administration of schools, 310.
   attendance in schools, 311.
   education in, 309-314.
   land grants for education, 309, 310.
   State system, 309, 310.
   support of schools, 313.
   teachers, 313, 314.

 Universal education, advocated by Charlemagne, 128, 131.

 Universal education, in German schools, 131, 170.

 Universal German Educational Institute, at Griesheim, 275.

 Universities, established through scholastic
   influence, 124.
   in England, 306.
   in United States, 312, 313.
   preparation for, in Germany, 293.
   privileges granted to, 142.
   rise of, 139-142.
   services of, 142.
   State, in France, 299.

 Upsala, university at, 141.


 Vasseur, Thérèse le, wife of Rousseau, 242.

 Veda, Bible of India, 30.
   reading lessons from, 33.

 Vergil, Roman poet, 74.

 Vespasian, honors Quintilian, 86.

 Vienna, university established at, 124, 141.

 Vogel, on errors of _Émile_, 244.

 Volksschule (common school) in Germany, 292.

 Voltaire, condemns Jesuit education, 187.
   on Fénelon, 227.

 Voluntary schools, in England, 305 _n._, 306.

 Von Moltke, quoted, 295.


 Waldenses, reformers in Italy, 165.

 War, preparation for, chief end of education in Persia, 38.

 Warens, Madame de, befriends Rousseau, 242.

 Warriors, education of, 34.
   marriage of, 32.
   second caste in India, 30.

 Weigel, Erhard, founds _Real-school_, 236.

 Weimar, Duke of, law for compulsory education, 203.

 Westminster, school at, 306.

 Williams, Professor, on Comenius's services
   to pedagogy, 214.
   on Locke, 223.
   on Ratke, 209.
   on Sturm's school course, 176, 177.

 Winchester, school at, 306.

 Winship, Mr., on Mann's Seventh Annual Report, 287, 288.

 Wittenberg, center of humanistic studies, 172.
   Luther professor at, 168.

 Women, education of, among Jews, 41.
   education of, during Charlemagne's reign, 128.
   education of, in Aristotle's scheme, 67.
   education of, in Athens, 60.
   education of, in China, 47.
   education of, in Egypt, 50.
   education of, in India, 35.
   education of, in Persia, 38.
   education of, in Rome, 80.
   education of, in Sparta, 71.
   education of, Rousseau's ideas of, 248.
   improvement in culture of, 90.
   Montaigne's contempt for, 198.
   status of, among Jews, 41, 44.
   status of, among oriental nations, 90.
   status of, in Athens, 58.
   status of, in China, 22, 27.
   status of, in Egypt, 49, 51.
   status of, in India, 31, 32, 35.
   status of, in Persia, 37.
   status of, in Rome, 76.
   status of, in Sparta, 69, 71.

 Working schools, Locke urges establishment of, 222.

 Writing, during Charlemagne's reign, 128.
   in Athens, 58.
   in Chinese schools, 24.
   in Egypt, 50.
   in India, 32, 33.
   in Jewish schools, 43.
   in monastic education, 119.
   in Persian schools, 38.
   in Roman schools, 78.
   neglected in Sparta, 71.

 Würtemberg, active in school work, 203.

 Würzburg, University of, 141.

 Wuttke, quoted, 34.

 Wyclif, reformer, 165.


 Xantippe, wife of Socrates, 61.

 Xenophon, testimony to Socrates, 62.


 Yellow Springs, Antioch College at, 288.

 Yverdon, Froebel at, 274.
   Pestalozzi's school at, 267, 268.


 Zeus, Olympian festivals in honor of, 55.

 Ziller School, 281.

 Zoroaster, dualistic philosophy of, 39.
   founder of Persian religion, 39.
   religion of, in Persia, 37.

 Zwingli, Swiss reformer, 165.



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    +-------------------------------------------------+
    | Transcriber's Note:                             |
    |                                                 |
    | Typographical errors corrected in the text:     |
    |                                                 |
    | Page 234  Pedagogism changed to Pedagogium      |
    | Page 319  Questionaire changed to Questionnaire |
    | Page 340  Mechlenburg changed to Mecklenburg    |
    | Page 346  Schwickrath changed to Schwickerath   |
    | Page 349  Peslalozzi changed to Pestalozzi      |
    +-------------------------------------------------+





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