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Title: Bible Studies in the Life of Paul - Historical and Constructive
Author: Sell, Henry T. (Henry Thorne)
Language: English
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BIBLE STUDIES

IN THE LIFE OF PAUL


HISTORICAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE



BY

REV. HENRY T. SELL, D.D.


Author of "Supplemental Bible Studies," "Bible Study by Books,"
  "Bible Study by Doctrines," "Bible Study by Periods,"
    and "Bible Studies in the Life of Christ."



CHICAGO NEW YORK TORONTO

FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY

LONDON & EDINBURGH



COPYRIGHT, 1904

BY FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY


  Chicago: 63 Washington Street
  New York: 158 Fifth Avenue
  Toronto: 27 Richmond Street, W.
  London: 21 Paternoster Square
  Edinburgh: 30 St. Mary Street



PREFACE

The book of Acts shows in a very graphic way the
rapid growth and marvelous progress of Christianity in
the midst of great opposition.  We see in process of
fulfillment the promise of Jesus Christ to his disciples that
they should receive power after the Holy Ghost had come
upon them and that they should be witnesses unto Him
"both in Jerusalem and in all Judea and in Samaria and
unto the uttermost part of the earth."  Those were
earnest times and full of stirring events, when men went forth
to conquer a hostile world not with swords, but by the
preaching of a gospel of peace and good will.  As soon as
this proclamation was made in Judea and Samaria a new
instrument was chosen by Jesus Christ, in Paul, to carry
His message to the uttermost part of the earth.  He
thus became at once the chief character in the larger work
of planting and developing churches outside of Palestine.
The study of Paul's life shows the difficulties encountered,
the doctrines taught, and the organization perfected in the
early churches.  "We here watch the dawn of the gospel
which the Savior preached as it broadens gradually into
the boundless day."

Bible Studies in the Life of Paul is designed to follow
the author's Bible Studies in the Life of Christ and to
show the work of the Great Apostle in carrying the
gospel to a Gentile world.  The aim is to present the work
of Paul in a constructive and historical way.  While there
has been a careful consideration, on the part of the author,
of disputed questions, only conclusions upon which there
is a general agreement amongst scholars, and which can be
consistently held, are presented.  The great main facts of
Paul's life and work stand forth unchallenged and the
emphasis is placed upon them.  This book is divided into
three parts, Paul's preparation for his work, his missionary
journeys, and his writings.  This is a text book, and,
with the analysis of each study and questions, is prepared
for the use of normal and advanced Sunday-school classes,
teachers' meetings, schools, colleges, and private study.
This is the sixth book of the kind which the author has
prepared and sent forth.  The large favor with which the
other books have been received, and the desire, first of all,
of making the life and work of Paul even better known,
have been the motives which have led to its preparation.

CHICAGO, ILL.

HENRY T. SELL.



CONTENTS


        I.  PAUL'S PREPARATION

STUDY

    I.  Early Life
   II.  Conversion


        II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

  III.  First Missionary Journey
   IV.  Second Missionary Journey
    V.  Third Missionary Journey
   VI.  Jerusalem to Rome


        III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS

  VII.  The Future of Christ's Kingdom
 VIII.  The Old Faiths and the New
   IX.  The Supremacy of Christ
    X.  Pastoral and Personal



I.  PAUL'S PREPARATION


STUDY I

EARLY LIFE


ANALYSIS

+The Place of Paul+--The Man.  The Work of the Apostle.  The
Leading Thought.

+Birth+--Place.  Time.  Family.

+Training+--Home.  Mental, Moral and Religious.  Industrial.

+The World as Paul Saw It+--The World.  Political.  Religious.
The Difficulties.



Bible Studies in the Life of Paul


I.  PAUL'S PREPARATION


STUDY I

EARLY LIFE

THE PLACE OF PAUL

+The Man, Paul,+ judged by the influence he has
exerted in the world, is one of the greatest characters in
all history.  He is pre-eminent not only as a missionary,
but as a marvelous thinker and writer.  "He was
a personality of vast power, force, and individuality."  There
are some men who seem to be born and prepared
to do a large work for the world; Paul makes the impression
upon those who carefully read the record of his life
that he stands first in this class of men.

+The Work of the Apostle.+--As John the Baptist
preceded Christ and prepared the way for His coming, so
Paul succeeded Christ and went throughout the heathen
world proclaiming that the Christ had come, and calling
upon all men, Jews and Gentiles, to repent and accept
Him as their Lord and Savior.  So wide was his work as
a missionary of the cross, and an interpreter of the Christ,
that a certain class of critics have sought to make him the
creator of Christianity, as we know it; a position which
Paul would be the first to repudiate.  He sought of
himself, before he was apprehended by Christ on the way to
Damascus, to drive Christianity from the face of the
earth.

+The Leading Thought+ in Paul's mind, after his
conversion, was personal devotion to Christ; this was the
mainspring of every act.  He said, "I am crucified with
Christ: nevertheless, I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth
in me": (Gal. 2:20).  "For me to live is Christ"
(Phil. 1:21).  In his letters to the churches which he founded,
there are found no picturesque descriptions of cities or of
scenery; his one thought is to make known the Christ.
He says, writing to the Corinthian church, "and I,
brethren, when I came to you, came not with excellency of
speech or of wisdom, declaring unto you the testimony of
God.  For I determined not to know anything among
you, save Jesus Christ and Him crucified" (1 Cor. 2:1,
2).  In the evangelization of the heathen world, for
which task he had been set apart by the Holy Spirit
(Acts 13:2) and which he had accepted with all his heart,
it is not only his leading, but his only thought to make
known Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior.

To miss this supreme purpose of Paul in the study of
his life is to miss its whole significance (Phil. 2:1-11;
Col. 1:12-20).


BIRTH

+Place.+--The world is interested in the birthplaces of
its great men.  Some of these birthplaces are in doubt.
There is no doubt about the place in which Paul was
born.  He says, in making a speech to the Jews, "I am
verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in
Cilicia" (Acts 22:3).  This city was the capital of
Cilicia and was situated in the southeastern part of Asia
Minor.  It was but a few miles from the coast and was
easily accessible from the Mediterranean sea by a navigable
river.  A large commerce was controlled by the
merchants, on sea and on land.  Tarsus, while one of three
university centers of the period, ranking with Athens and
Alexandria, was an exceedingly corrupt city.  It was the
chief seat of "a special Baal worship of an imposing but
unspeakably degrading character."

+Time.+--The date of Paul's birth is nowhere recorded,
but from certain dates given in the Acts, from which we
reckon back, it is thought that he was born about the
same time as Jesus Christ.

+Family.+--We are left, in this matter, without any
uncertainty.  Paul says, "I am a Pharisee, the son of a
Pharisee" (Acts 23:6).  I was "circumcised the eighth
day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, an
Hebrew of the Hebrews, as touching the law, a Pharisee"
(Phil. 3:5).  Paul's father and mother were Jews
of the stricter sort.  The expression which Paul uses, "An
Hebrew of the Hebrews" is very significant.  The Jews
of the Dispersion were known at this time as Hebrews
and Hellenists.  The Hebrews clung to the Hebrew
tongue and followed Hebrew customs.  The Hellenists
spoke Greek by preference and adopted, more or less,
Greek views and civilization.  Paul had a married sister
who lived in Jerusalem (Acts 23:16) and relatives in Rome
(Rom. 16:7, 11).


TRAINING

+Home.+--The instruction received in the home has often
more influence and is more lasting than any other.  Paul
received the usual thorough training of the Jew boy
accentuated in his case, in all probability, by the open iniquity
which was daily practised in his native city.  We never
hear him expressing any regret that he received such
thorough religious instruction at the hands of his parents.

+Mental, Moral, and Religious.+--Good teachers were
employed to instruct the boy, who was afterwards to make
such a mark in the world.  After going through the
school, under the care of the synagogue at Tarsus, he
was sent to Jerusalem to complete his education.  Paul,
speaking in this chief Jewish city, says, I was "brought
up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught
according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers"
(Acts 22:3).  It is very evident that He had a profound
knowledge of the Scriptures from the large use he makes
of them in his Epistles.  He seems also to have been
quite well acquainted with Greek philosophy and
literature.  He quotes from the Greek poets, Aratus,
Epimenides, and Menander.  No man ever studied men and the
motives which actuate them more than he.  His inward
life was pure (Acts 23:1; 24:16).  Paul differed from
Christ in that he was a man who sought the cities and
drew his illustrations from them, while Christ was much
in the country and drew his illustrations from country life.
But in this study of and work for the city Paul was but
carrying out the commands of Christ.

+Industrial.+--It was required of every Jew father that
his boy should learn some trade by which he might
support himself should necessity require it.  It was a
common Jewish proverb that "he who taught his son no trade
taught him to be a thief."  Paul was taught the trade of
tent making.  "The hair of the Cicilian goats was used
to make a cloth which was especially adapted for tents for
travelers, merchants, and soldiers."  He afterwards
found this trade very useful in his missionary work
(Acts 18:3; 20:34; 1 Cor. 4:12; 1 Thess. 2:9; 2 Thess. 3:8).


THE WORLD AS PAUL SAW IT

+This World+ was very different from the world as we
see it to-day.  This makes it difficult for us to appreciate
his work at its full value.  Now, Christianity is the great
religion of the world; then it was unknown, outside a very
limited circle of believers.  The state and society were
organized upon a different basis and were in strong
opposition to the new religion.

+Political.+--The world was under the dominion of the
Romans.  They, in conquering it, broke down the
barriers that had separated tribe from tribe and nation from
nation.  Yet it was a comparatively small world for all
interests centered about the Mediterranean Sea.  Before
the Romans the Greeks had been in possession of a part
of this world and had permeated and penetrated the whole
of it, with their art, language, and commerce.  With the
upheavals of war and the tribulations that had befallen
the Jews, they were everywhere scattered abroad and had
their synagogues in most of the cities.

+Religious.+--For the Romans, Greeks, and conquered
nations and tribes, it was an age of scepticism.  While the
gods and goddesses in the great heathen temples still had
their rites and ceremonies observed yet the people, to a
large degree, had ceased to believe in them.  The Roman
writers of the period are agreed in the slackening of
religious ties and of moral restraints.  Yet it was the policy
of the state to maintain the worship of the gods and
goddesses.  Any attack upon them or their worship was
regarded as an offense against the state.

+The Difficulties+ of the situation were threefold: (a)
To seek to overturn the religion of the state constituted
an offense which was punishable by stripes and imprisonment;
(b) To rebuke men's sins and the evils of the times
stirred up bitter opposition on their part; (c) To proclaim
a crucified and risen Christ as the Messiah to the Jews,
when they expected a great conquering hero, often excited
and put them in a rage.

That Paul could preach Christ and establish churches,
under all the opposition that he encountered, shows how
fully and implicitly he believed in his Lord.


QUESTIONS

What impression has the man, Paul, made upon the world?
What was his work as an apostle?  What his leading thought?
Where is the place of his birth?  What can be said of his family?
How was he educated and trained, in the home, in school, and for
a trade?  What was the political and religious condition of the
world as Paul saw it?  What were the three difficulties in the way
of his work in preaching Christ?



I.  PAUL'S PREPARATION


STUDY II

CONVERSION


ANALYSIS

+Paul the Persecutor+--Order of Events.  The Inevitable Conflict.
Cruelty of the Persecutor.

+Conversion+--Cause.  Effects (physical, mental and spiritual,
penalty, relief to the Christians, triumph of Christ, and estimates
of the results).

+Period of Waiting+--Retirement of Paul.  Reasons.  The Gospel
for the Gentiles.  Paul Brought to Antioch.



I.  PAUL'S PREPARATION


STUDY II

CONVERSION

PAUL, THE PERSECUTOR

+Order of Events.+--It seems to be quite evident, when
Paul finished his studies in Jerusalem, that he left the city
and engaged in work somewhere else, during the years
when John the Baptist and Jesus were preaching and
teaching.  In all probability he did not return until after
the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ.

Paul first appears in the narrative of the Acts, under
the name of Saul, at the martyrdom of Stephen, where he
takes charge of the clothes of the witnesses (Acts
7:58, 59).

From the Ascension of Christ to the martyrdom of
Stephen is an important period in the history of the infant
church.  On and after the day of Pentecost (Acts 2) the
apostles and followers of the risen Lord assumed a very
bold attitude.  They did not hesitate to speak openly in
the temple (Acts 3:12-16) of the crime of putting "The
Prince of Life" to death and asserted that He was risen
from the dead.  The priests and Sadducees strongly
objected to this kind of preaching (Acts 4), laid hands upon
the preachers, and put them in prison.  When they were
examined the next day before (Acts 4:5-13) the Jewish
tribunal, the apostles spoke even more boldly of Jesus and
his resurrection and refused to be silenced (Acts 4:13-20,
33).  Again an attempt was made to stop the preaching
of the apostles, but they refused to keep still (Acts
5:16-33).  A remarkable prison deliverance by the "Angel
of the Lord" (Acts 5:19, 20) gave them great courage in
proclaiming "all the words of this life."

At this point Gamaliel (Acts 5:34-42) proposes in the
Jewish council a new policy, which was to let the followers
of Christ alone, arguing that then they would speedily
give up their preaching.  This policy was adopted (Acts
5:40).  But with the election of Stephen as a deacon
(Acts 6:1-8) the followers of Christ began to multiply
with great rapidity and it was soon seen that "the
let-alone policy" was a mistake (Acts 6:9-15).  Persecution
again breaks out which results in the death of Stephen
(Acts 7), the bringing out of Saul as the arch persecutor,
and the scattering of the church (Acts 8:1-4).

+The Inevitable Conflict.+--Had the early Christians
been content to have proclaimed Jesus Christ to be but a
great teacher and prophet, they would in all probability
have become a Jewish sect and been speedily lost to sight.
But extraordinary claims were put forth that Jesus Christ
was the promised Messiah (Acts 2:25-40), the Son of
God (Acts 3:26), the Forgiver of sins (Acts 2:38; 5:31),
that He was risen from the dead (Acts 4:33), that
obedience to Him was above that to the Jewish rulers (Acts
4:18-20), that the Jews had wickedly slain Christ (Acts
3:14, 15), and that salvation was only through Him
(Acts 4:12).  Further than this they wrought miracles in
the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 3:2-8, 16; 2:43; 5:12).

It was very soon plainly seen that Christianity could
keep no truce, and proposed to keep no truce, which
called in question or denied the supremacy of Christ.

+The Cruelty of the Persecutor.+--To a man of Paul's
temperament and zeal there could be no half way measures
in a case like this.  He could not be content to bide his
time.  Either the claims of Christ were true or false.  If
false, then they were doing harm and His doctrine and
teaching must be eradicated at any cost.  All the aggressive
forces of the Jews found a champion in this Saul of
Tarsus.  Drastic measures were at once inaugurated.
There was to be no more temporizing.  The cruelty and
thoroughness of the persecutor, in his work, are shown in
his instituting a house to house canvass seeking for the
Christians and sparing neither age nor sex (Acts 8:1, 3).

In the first persecutions the Jews had been content to
arrest and imprison those who publicly preached Christ,
but now the policy was changed and Christianity was to
be exterminated root and branch.  All believers in Christ
were to be hunted out.

The character of Saul, the arch persecutor, is shown
in the characterization of him by Luke, when he
represented him as breathing out, "threatenings and slaughter
against the disciples of the Lord" (Acts 9:1).


CONVERSION

+Cause.+--The book of the Acts, opened at one place,
shows a fierce hater and persecutor of the Christians (8:3),
opened at another place it shows this same persecutor as
an ardent and enthusiastic preacher of the faith in Jesus
Christ (13:16-39)  We seek for the cause of this
remarkable change.  Luke tells us that Saul was on his way to
Damascus, seeking victims for his persecuting zeal, when
Jesus suddenly appeared to him and Saul was changed
from a persecutor to a believer in Christ (Acts 9:3-7).
The account is very brief.  For an event which has had
such tremendous results, the narrator is very reticent; a
light from heaven, a voice speaking, and a person
declaring that He is Jesus.  Paul gives us two accounts of his
conversion and how it took place (Acts 22:6-15;
26:12-18).  The men who were with Paul saw a light
and heard a voice, but not what was said.  It is
impossible to describe or exaggerate what took place in Paul's
mind in those brief moments while Jesus talked to him;
but his beliefs, and his whole life plan were radically
changed.  It had been well if no explanation of this
conversion had been attempted and the great fact had been
left to stand as it does in the Acts.  Attempts, however,
have been made to minimize the power of this conversion
and the marvelous and sudden change it wrought in the
character and life of Paul.  Some critics seeking a natural,
rather than a supernatural, cause have attributed to Paul
certain compunctions of conscience and misgivings about
his persecution of the Christians, together with a hot day
and a certain temperament, which led him to have a
subjective experience, which he thought was real.  But there
is no recorded evidence forthcoming that Paul ever had
any compunctions of conscience about persecuting the
Christians.  Paul was an honest man to the very core of
his being; in the two accounts he gives us of this
conversion, and in incidental references to it, he never even
hints at any such state of mind.  The expression used by
Jesus, "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks"
(Acts 9-5), of which so much has been made, means no
more than that Saul's opposition and hard work against
the Christians (Acts 8:3; 9:1), would be of no avail.  In
doing what he did Paul thought he was doing God's
service.  Again the language which Paul uses and the
references which he makes to this appearance of Christ forbid
us to think that it was only a mere vision of Christ which
he saw.  "He ranks it as the last of the appearances of
the risen Savior to His disciples and places it on the same
level as the appearances to Peter, to James, to the eleven,
and to the five hundred" (1 Cor. 15:1-8).  In these
appearances Jesus had eaten with his disciples and been
touched by them (John 20:24-31; Luke 24:36-43),
appearing as a real being, according to the narrative.

"It was the appearance to Paul of the risen Lord,
which made him a Christian, gave him a gospel to preach,
and sent him forth as the apostle of the Gentiles."

The time of Paul's conversion was about 36 A.D.

+Effects.+--There is no question as to the very marked
results which followed the appearance of the risen Lord
to Saul on the way to Damascus.

1.  Physical.  He was smitten with blindness (Acts
9:8), and was without food for three days (Acts 9:9).
His sight was restored by Ananias at the command of the
Lord (Acts 9:15-18).

2.  Mental and spiritual.  His whole outlook upon life
and its significance was changed.  He received baptism
and was filled with the Holy Spirit (Acts 9:17).  From
being a persecutor he became an enthusiastic witness for
Christ (Acts 9:20-22).

3.  Penalty.  The consequences of his former course
of action were visited upon him; for the Jews sought to
kill him and the disciples of Christ were at first afraid of
him (Acts 9:23-26).  But Barnabas vouched for his
sincerity (Acts 9:27).

4.  The relief to the Christians at Damascus, when
Saul was converted, was very great.  They had looked
forward to his coming with dread.

5.  The triumph of Christ.  In Paul Christianity won
its most efficient missionary and, next to Christ, its
greatest thinker, preacher, and teacher.

6.  The estimates of the results of this conversion of
Saul cannot be too large; they are world wide.


PERIOD OF WAITING

+Retirement of Paul.+--From the conversion of Paul
(Acts 9:3-7) to his call to the missionary work (Acts
13:2) is a period of about ten years.  During this time
we have only incidental notices of him and what he was
doing.  When we think of it there is nothing strange in
this retirement.  It is the divine method, as in the case of
Moses, when a man is to do a very large work for God
that he should be well prepared for it.  The chief
scripture notices of this period of retirement are found in
Acts 9:19-30; Gal. 1:15-24; (Acts 11:25-30; 12:25).
From these notices it is quite plain: (a) That Paul retired
into Arabia.  (b) That he preached in Damascus and
Jerusalem, but was compelled to flee from both cities on
account of the persecutions of the Jews, who sought his
life.  (c) That he went to Tarsus and "into the regions of
Syria and Cilicia."  (d) That he came to Antioch, where
there was a great revival (Acts 11:25-30), at the
solicitation of Barnabas.  Luke in his account (Acts 9:19-30)
does not mention the trip to Arabia spoken of by Paul in
his epistle to the Galatians (1:15-24).  It must be
remembered however that each is writing from a
different point of view.  Luke is a historian recording only the
most salient facts and passing over the mention of many
events.  We see this in the compression in eight and a
half short chapters of the events of the three missionary
journeys.  Paul writing to the Galatians is anxious to
establish the fact that he received his commission, as an
apostle, not from man, but from Christ himself (Gal. 1:1);
hence he enters more into details and we get from him the
inside view.  The accounts of Luke and Paul if read
carefully, keeping in mind all the circumstances, are seen not
to be in any way antagonistic, but to supplement each other.

+Reasons.+--Many reasons have been given for the
retirement of Paul to Arabia, and what seems to be the
period of comparative inactivity that followed it.

1.  Fierce opposition on the part of the Jews whenever
Paul attempted to preach, as in the cities of Damascus
and Jerusalem.

2.  A preparation of mind and heart for his great
work.  As a thinker he needed to look upon all sides of
the gospel, which he was afterwards to preach so
effectively to the Gentiles.

3.  A careful rereading of the Old Testament.  As a
Jew he had read the Scriptures in one way, now he reread
them seeing Christ there.

4.  System of doctrine.  He may at this time have
wrought out that magnificent system of Christian doctrine
which he afterwards presented to the churches in his
Epistles.

+The Gospel for the Gentiles.+--While Paul was waiting
for the call to his great missionary work there came a
new crisis in the history of the early church, and a new
era was inaugurated.  In the tenth and eleventh chapters
of the book of Acts Luke tells us of the conversion of the
Gentile Cornelius, "a centurion of the band called the
Italian band" (Acts 10:1-8), and of the instructions given
to Peter to receive him (Acts 10:9-44).

Cornelius was the first Gentile convert and we note
here the beginning of the preaching of the gospel to the
Gentiles, which was to have such large results.  "The
day of Pentecost, the conversion of Saul of Tarsus, the
call of Cornelius and the foundation of the Gentile church
at Antioch are, if we are to pick and choose amid the
events related by Luke, the turning points of the earliest
ecclesiastical history."  How great and epoch making was
this new departure of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles,
and receiving them into the church, is shown in the
eleventh chapter of the Acts (11:1-18) where, when Peter
goes up to Jerusalem, he is put on the defensive and
compelled to explain why he received Cornelius into the
church.  When however the matter was fully explained
the early disciples rejoiced over the fact that to the
Gentiles was granted by God repentance unto life (Acts 11:18).

+Paul Brought to Antioch+ by Barnabas, on account of
the revival that had broken out in that city, is another
step which he takes up to his work as the great missionary
to the Gentiles (Acts 11:25-26).  It was here that the
disciples were first called Christians (Acts 11:26).  It
was from this city that Paul went forth on his missionary
journeys and it was here that he returned (Acts 13:1-3;
14:26; 15:24-41; 18:22; 18:23).

"Antioch was the capital of the Greek kingdom of
Syria, and afterwards the residence of the Roman
governor of the province.  It was made a free city by Pompey
the Great, and contained an aqueduct, amphitheater,
baths, and colonnades.  It was situated on the Orontes
about twenty miles from the mouth of the river.  Its
sea-port was Seleucia.  It was intimately connected with
apostolic Christianity.  Here the first Gentile church was
formed" (Acts 11:20, 21).


QUESTIONS

Give the order of events which led to the persecution in
which Paul was so prominent.  Why was the conflict between
Christianity and Judaism inevitable?  What can be said of the
cruelty of Paul, the persecutor?  Give the cause of Paul's
conversion.  What were some of the effects?  What can be said of the
period of waiting; the retirement of Paul?  What are some of
the probable reasons for this retirement?  What can be said about
the beginning of the gospel to the Gentiles?  By whom was Paul
brought to Antioch and for what purpose?  In what relation does
Antioch stand to the missionary journeys of Paul?



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Acts 13:1-28:31_


STUDY III

FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 13:1-14:26_

ANALYSIS

+Introduction to the Three Missionary Journeys+--The call.  The
Significance.  Extent and Time.  The Record.  Other Long
Journeys.  Method of Work and Support.  The Message.

+The First Journey+--Preparation.  Companions.  Paul Comes to
the Front.  Time and Extent.  Rulers.

+The Itinerary+--Salamis.  Paphos.  Perga.  Antioch.  Iconium.
Lystra and Derbe.  The Return Journey.

+The Jerusalem Council+--One Problem of the Early Church.  The
Decision of the Council.



[Illustration: Outline map illustrating the first and second
missionary journeys of Paul.]



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Acts 13:1-38:31_


STUDY III

FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 13:1-14:26_

INTRODUCTION TO THE THREE MISSIONARY JOURNEYS

Before taking up the study of the first missionary
journey, attention is called to certain points which should be
considered in regard to all three of them (Acts 13:1-21:17).

We have now arrived at what we might call the watershed
of the Acts of the Apostles.  Hitherto we have had
various scenes, characters, personages to consider.
Henceforth Paul, his labors, his disputes, his speeches, occupy
the entire field, and every other man who is introduced
into the narrative plays a subordinate part.

Our attention is now turned from the Jewish world,
considered so largely in the first twelve chapters of the
Acts, to the heathen world and the struggle which Paul
and his fellow laborers had with it, in bringing it to Christ.

+The Call+ to this work was by the Holy Ghost in the
city of Antioch (Acts 13:1-4).  Luke says, "As they
ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Ghost said,
separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I
have called them" (Acts 13:2, 4).  Contrast this with
the beginning of the work in Jerusalem which was also
inaugurated by the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost
(Acts 1:14; 2:1-4).  This call was in accordance with
what Jesus had told his disciples before His ascension
(Acts 1:8).

The agency of the Holy Ghost in directing and
promoting this missionary work is very manifest (Acts
13:2, 4, 9, 52; 15:8, 28; 16:6; 19:2, 6; 20:23, 28;
21:11; 28:25).

+The Significance+ and importance of these journeys
cannot be overestimated.  It is probable, when the call
came, that Paul had but little idea of their magnitude and
that in the end they would result in changing not only the
religion, but the philosophy and civilization of the world.

+Extent and Time.+--It is estimated that the first
journey was 1,400 miles long, the second 3,200, and the
third 3,500, making 8,100 miles traveled by Paul.
The time occupied for the three journeys was about
ten years.

+The Record+ of the three missionary journeys, is briefly
comprised in eight and a half chapters (Acts 13:1-21:17),
and it does not profess to be a complete one.  Only the
most striking incidents and events, and probably not all
of these, are given.  There were side trips not recorded
by Luke; Paul speaks of one to Illyricum (Rom. 15:19),
and of others in which he underwent great perils (2
Cor. 11:24-27).

The purpose of Luke seems to be to show how, in
accordance with the command and promise of Christ, the
knowledge and power of the gospel was spread, beginning
in Jerusalem, through Judea, and Samaria, throughout
the heathen world (Acts 1:8); everything seems to be
made to bend to this purpose.  Certainly there could be
no more graphic and concise account of these epoch
making events than that given us by this wonderful
narrator.

+Other Long Journeys.+--1.  Paul's voyage to Rome as
a prisoner.  Luke gives a full account of this voyage, its
many interesting incidents (Acts 27:1-28:16), and of the
circumstances which led up to it (Acts 21:17-27:1).

2.  There is every reason to believe that Paul was
released at the end of his two years imprisonment in
Rome (Acts 28:30) and that he made an Eastern journey
as far as Colossæ and a Western journey as far as Spain.

NOTE.--These last journeys are considered in chapter ten.

+Method of Work and Support.+--Paul and his companion,
or company, when they entered into a city would
first seek for a lodging and then for work, going from one
tent maker's door to another until finally a place was
found.  Then upon the following Sabbath they would
seek the Jewish synagogue and after the reading of the
Scriptures, when an opportunity was given, Paul would
arise and begin to speak, (Acts 13:14-16) leading up
through the Old Testament message (Acts 13:17-43) to
the great topic of Jesus Christ as the promised Messiah
and closing with an exhortation to believe on Him.  Such
a speech would naturally excite great interest coming from
the lips of one, who by his speech and the handling of the
Old Testament, would be recognized as a cultivated
Jewish Rabbi.  Paul would be asked to speak again the next
Sabbath (Acts 13:44-52), the synagogue would be full of
people and he would set forth Jesus Christ more plainly
as the Savior both of Jew and Gentile.  This would
generally be a signal for the Jews to contradict and oppose
Paul, but some Jews would believe with a number of
Gentiles.  This would be the starting point of the
Christian church in that community.  The Jews, however, who
were untouched by what Paul preached, and who looked
upon him as the destroyer of their religion, would raise a
cry against him and seek to have him expelled from the
city.  This experience was frequently repeated.  There
were great difficulties also to be encountered when the
heathen thought that their worship was in danger (Acts
19:20-30).

+The Message+ which Paul bore to Jew and Gentile was
the moving force of all his work.  The starting point was
the memorable day when Jesus Christ appeared to him on
his way to Damascus.  Paul believed that he received his
commission as an apostle directly from Jesus Christ
(Gal. 1:1-24).  The four main positions of Paul, set
forth so plainly in his Epistle to the Romans, are: (a)
All are guilty before God (Jew and Gentile).  (b) All
need a Savior.  (c) Christ died for all.  (d) We are all
(through faith) one body in Christ.  Paul leaves us in no
doubt as to how he regards Jesus Christ.  He is to him
the Son of God, through whom God created all things
and who is the Divine Savior of man (Eph. 3:9-21;
Phil. 2:9-11; Rom. 9:5).  There is no doubt, no
hesitation on Paul's part in delivering his message.  He is a
witness, testifying to the glory of his Divine Lord.  He
is a messenger who cannot alter or tamper with that which
has been entrusted to him.  To the rude inhabitants of
the mountain regions of Asia Minor, to the philosophers
in Athens, to the Roman governors in Cæsarea, to the
dwellers in Corinth and in Rome the purport of the
Message is always the same.


THE FIRST JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 13:1-14:28_

+Preparation.+--First, on the part of Paul.  About ten
years have passed since his conversion.  During this time
we have few notices of him, but he was undoubtedly
making ready for this very important work of a missionary.
Second, on the part of the church.  The first step
had already been taken, in the conversion of Cornelius, in
the giving of the gospel to the Gentile world.  Third,
Paul was brought to Antioch by Barnabas to assist the
church in the great revival which broke out in that second
early center of Christian work and teaching (Acts 11:21-26).
Fourth, the large success of the disciples who went
throughout Judea and Samaria, preaching the gospel, after
the death of Stephen (Acts 7:5-8:4; 11:19-21) made
possible this new aggressive movement to the regions
beyond.  Fifth, the Christian prophets and teachers at
Antioch "ministered to the Lord and fasted."  They
desired to know the will of the Lord and it was made
known to them by the Holy Ghost.  "And when they
had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they
sent them away."  "So they being sent forth by the
Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia (Acts 13:3, 4).

+Companions of the Journey+, Barnabas and Saul (Acts
13:2) and John Mark (Acts 13:5).  Barnabas has been
called the discoverer of Saul.  He was probably a convert
of the day of Pentecost.  He was a land proprietor of the
island of Cyprus and early showed his zeal for Christ by
selling his land and devoting the proceeds to the cause in
which he so heartily believed (Acts 4:36, 37).  He
early sought out and manifested, in a very practical way,
his friendship for Paul (Acts 9:27; 11:22, 25, 30;
12:25).  John Mark, who started on this journey with
Barnabas and Saul, was a nephew of Barnabas (Acts
13:5, 13; 12:25; Col. 4:10).

+Paul Comes to the Front+ when his company leave
Paphos and ever after he has the first place (Acts 13:
13).  Here also he is called Paul for the first time, a
name which he retains.

+Extent and Time+--This was the shortest of the three
journeys (about 1,400 miles).  It extended over the island
of Cyprus and a part of Asia Minor.  In time it occupied
about three years, 47-50 A.D.

+Rulers+--Claudius was the emperor of Rome, since
41 A.D.  Herod Agrippa was king of Chalcis, Ananias
was high priest in Jerusalem.


THE ITINERARY

NOTE.--The cities, which Paul visited in this and the other
journeys, should be located upon the map by the student.  It will
greatly increase the interest to consult some good Bible dictionary
and get well acquainted also with the history of the places.


+Salamis+, on the island of Cyprus, was the first place
reached, after sailing from Seleucia (Acts 13:4, 5) the
sea-port of Antioch.  It was the natural thing to go first to
this island as it had been the home of Barnabas and many
Jews had settled there; it was about eighty miles to the
southwest of Seleucia.

+Paphos.+--After passing through the island from east
to west the missionaries came to Paphos.  This city was
the seat of the worship of Venus, the goddess of love.
This worship was carried on with the most degrading
of immoralities.

The chief incidents in the ministry here were the
smiting of the Jewish sorcerer, Elymas, with blindness for his
persistent opposition and the conversion of the deputy of
the country, Sergius Paulus (Acts 13:6-12).  Saul is
filled with an unusual power of the Spirit for his work in
this city and takes the name of Paul.  It is now no longer
Barnabas and Saul, but Paul and Barnabas.

+Perga in Pamphylia+--(Acts 13:13, 14).  The missionaries
take ship from Paphos and sail in a north-easterly
direction across the Mediterranean Sea to this city of Asia
Minor.  John Mark, doubtless appalled by the difficulties
which had already been experienced and now that the
journey seemed to promise still greater hardships, left the
company and returned to Jerusalem.

+Antioch in Pisidia+ (Acts 13:14-52) was about ninety
miles directly north of Perga.  It was a good-sized city
with a large Jewish population.  Luke's account of this
visit is notable in that we have the chief points in Paul's
speech in the synagogue set down.  This address is worth
study from the fact that it is the first sermon of Paul of
which we have any record, and is probably the usual way
in which he began his work in a great many Jewish
synagogues.  Paul is asked to speak to the assembled Jews.
He begins upon the common ground of the history of
Israel.  He declares the promise of a Savior.  This
Savior is to be of the seed of David.  Then Paul sets
forth that Jesus is the promised Savior.  He reminds
them of the testimony of John and of those who had seen
Jesus before and after His resurrection.  He declares
unto them the glad tidings of a Savior.  He warns them
of their peril in rejecting Jesus Christ.  Paul is invited to
speak upon the next Sabbath, but there is a division and
those who oppose Paul try to drive him out of their city
which they finally succeed in doing.  But the Word has
fallen into good soil and there is the beginning of a
Christian church.

+Iconium in Lycaonia+ (Acts 14:1-5) is over one
hundred miles distant from Antioch.  The missionaries were
now in a country of a people with strange ways.  They
remained here for some time and their ministry was
attested by "signs and wonders."  But again some of
the Jews opposed them and stirred up the multitude.  A
plan was made by the ringleaders of the opposition to
stone them, but being made aware of it Paul and Barnabas
"fled unto Derbe and Lystra."  They had, however, the
satisfaction of leaving behind "a great multitude of
believing Jews and Greeks" (Acts 14:1).

+Lystra and Derbe in Lycaonia+ (Acts 14:6-21).--"And
there they preached the gospel."  There is no
mention of any Jewish synagogue at either of these cities.
The inhabitants were worshippers of the heathen gods.
The healing of a lame man at Lystra brought Paul and
Barnabas directly into touch with the heathen priests and
populace.  When they saw this miracle of healing, they
thought that the gods had come down to earth in the
likeness of men.  Barnabas was called Jupiter "and Paul
Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker."  When
Paul and Barnabas sought to restrain the priests and
people from doing sacrifice to them, it is interesting to
note what words Paul uses in addressing them.  As with
the Jews he here seeks first of all a common ground.  He
says, "We are men of like passions with you and preach
unto you that you should turn from these vanities unto
the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the
sea, and all things that are therein; who in times past
suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.
Nevertheless He left not Himself without a witness, in that He
did good, and gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful
seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness" (Acts
14:15-17).  We find the same earnestness the same desire
to preach the gospel to the heathen here as to the Jews
elsewhere.  But the Jews who had made trouble in
Antioch and Iconium for the missionaries came to Lystra and,
forming a plot against Paul, persuaded the people and
stoned him so that he was drawn out of the city, they
"supposing he had been dead."  But he was not dead, he
soon rose up and came back into the city and the next
day departed with Barnabas to Derbe, where they
preached the gospel and taught many.

+The Return Journey+ is very briefly recorded (Acts
14:21-28).  The missionaries returned through the same
cities, Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, and so back to Perga.
But from the last city they did not sail to the island of
Cyprus, but took a different course, westerly along the
coast to Attalia in Pamphylia and from thence they sailed
to Antioch, the starting point of their trip.  During this
return journey they proved to their friends and enemies
that, in departing from the cities where mobs threatened
them, it was through no cowardice on their part, but for
other reasons and for the purpose of preaching the gospel
in the regions beyond.  They "confirmed the souls of the
disciples exhorting them to continue in the faith."  They
also further perfected the organization of the churches,
ordaining elders in every church.  They prayed with and
for the disciples and commended them to the Lord.

When the missionaries at last entered the city of
Antioch, "they rehearsed all that God had done with them,
and how He had opened the door of faith unto the
Gentiles."  There must have been great rejoicing over this
happy return of Paul and Barnabas.


THE JERUSALEM COUNCIL

_Acts 15:1-35_

+One Problem of the Early Church+ was how to
reconcile the commandments of Moses with the new law of
liberty in Jesus Christ.  Ought the Gentile Christians to
observe the law of Moses?  Ought they to become Jews
before they became Christians?  Were there to be two
churches?  One for Jewish and another for Gentile
Christians?  These questions are obsolete now, but then they
were burning ones and hotly debated.  Hence this Jerusalem
Council, where the matter was debated and settled,
was exceedingly important and fraught with great and
grave consequences for the future welfare of the church.
Because certain of the Jewish brethren came to Antioch
and began to teach that it was necessary to salvation
that a certain Jewish ordinance and the law of Moses be
kept, it was determined to send Paul and Barnabas to
Jerusalem.

A council of "the apostles and elders came together
for to consider of this matter" (Acts 15:6).  At this
council in Jerusalem, Peter, Paul, Barnabas, and James
were the chief speakers.  All matters were carefully gone
over.  Of all the speeches made, Luke records only the two
made by Peter (Acts 15:7-12) and James (Acts 15:13-2l),
which must have embodied the sense of the meeting
in that both spoke for liberty, from the Mosaic yoke, in
Christ.

+The Decision+ of the council was for the freedom of the
Gentile Christians and that they should not be obliged to
become Jews before they became Christians.  Thus was
one of the grave crises of the early church safely passed.
Paul and Barnabas went back happy in that great victory
for Gentile Christianity to their brethren at Antioch.

It should be borne in mind, however, that while the
question of the relation of the Gentile Christians to the
law of Moses was decided at this council, it was one
which came up again and again to hamper and bother
Paul in his missionary work.


QUESTIONS

What is to be considered in the introduction to the three
missionary journeys?  By whom was the call to this work?  What is
the significance of the journeys?  The extent and time?  What
can be said of the record?  Were there other long journeys by
Paul?  What was the method of work and support?  What was
the message?  The first journey; what was the preparation for it?
Who the companions?  Time and extent?  Rulers?  Give some
of the incidents that took place upon the Itinerary, at Salamis,
Paphos, Perga, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe?  What
can be said of the return journey?  Why was the Jerusalem
Council necessary, and what was decided by it?



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Acts 13:1-28:31_


STUDY IV

SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 13:36-18:32_

ANALYSIS

+Second Missionary Journey+--The Inception.  The Companions.
The Wide Scope.  Value to the World.  Time and Rulers.
Epistles to the Churches.

+The Itinerary+--Through Asia Minor.  In Europe (Philippi.
Thessalonica.  Berea.  Athens.  Corinth).

+The Return Voyage+--Ephesus.  Cæsarea.  Antioch.



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Scripture, Acts 13:1-28:32_


STUDY IV

SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 15:36-18:22_

+The Inception+--After the Jerusalem Council Paul
returned to Antioch where he spent some time, "teaching
and preaching the Word of the Lord with many others
also."  "And some days after Paul said unto Barnabas,
Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where
we have preached the Word of the Lord, and see how
they do" (Acts 15:35, 36).  He felt that he must be
advancing the work of Jesus Christ.

+The Companions+ (Acts 15:37-40).--Barnabas
proposed to take John Mark, his nephew, with them on this
second journey.  But Paul strenuously objected, basing
his objection on the ground that this young man had
deserted them (Acts 13:13) at a very important juncture
in the first journey.  We are told that the contention was
very sharp between Barnabas and Paul over this matter.
It was finally settled by Barnabas taking John Mark and
sailing for the island of Cyprus and Paul choosing Silas
for his companion.  When Paul came to Derbe and
Lystra Timotheus was invited to join him, which he did
(Acts 16:1-4).  Luke, the author of the Acts, goes with
this company into Macedonia (Acts 16:10).  We can
trace Luke's connection with the missionaries by the
"we" passages.

That Paul was afterwards reconciled to Barnabas and
John Mark is shown by his kindly mention of them in his
Epistles (1 Cor. 9:6; Col. 4:10; 2 Tim 4:11;
Philem. 24).

+The Wide Scope+ is a marked feature of this journey of
about 3,200 miles.

The first journey was through Cyprus, where Barnabas
was well acquainted, and through that section of Asia
Minor roundabout the province of Cilicia, where Paul was
practically at home.  Paul was born in Tarsus in Cilicia
and it was to this region that he went for some part of
the time between his conversion and his call to the
missionary work (Acts 9:30; Gal. 1:21).

The second journey carries Paul into entirely, to him,
new provinces of Asia Minor and into Macedonia and
Achaia.  He comes into close contact not only with the
rough native populations of the Asian provinces but with
the cultivated philosophers of Greece and the effeminate
voluptuaries of the heathen temples.  Here are new tests
for this missionary and the gospel which he preaches, but
he meets them all.  This journey had a large significance
for the spread of Christianity.  Had the gospel failed to
meet the wants of all sorts and conditions of men, there
would have been no further triumphs for it.

+Value to the World.+--"This journey was not only the
greatest which Paul achieved but perhaps the most
momentous recorded in the annals of the human race.  In
its issues it far outrivalled the expedition of Alexander the
Great when he carried the arms and civilization of Greece
into the heart of Asia, or that of Cæsar when he landed
on the shores of Britain, or even the voyage of Columbus
when he discovered a new world."

To Paul's turning westward, instead of eastward,
through the guidance of the Spirit, and his entering upon
his work in Macedonia (Acts 16:7-11) Europe to-day
owes her advancement and Christian civilization.  It is
stating a sober fact when it is asserted that without
Christianity Europeans would now be worshipping idols, the
same as the inhabitants of other sections of the world
where the gospel of Christ has not been made known.

+Time and Rulers.+--In time this journey extended over
about three years, 51-54 A.D.  The rulers were: Claudius,
Emperor of Rome (Nero became Emperor in 54 A.D.);
Herod Agrippa II., King of Chalcis (who also gets
Batanea and Trachontis); and Gallio, Procurator of
Achaia.

+Epistles to the Churches.+--Upon this journey Paul
makes a new departure.  With the multiplication of the
churches and the impossibility of visiting them often,
when occasions demanded it, Paul begins the writing of
special and circular letters to the churches.  The two first
Epistles, of which we have any record, were those to The
Thessalonians from Corinth, written probably in the
winter of 52-53 A.D.

NOTE.--For an account of and an analysis of these Epistles
see study 7.


THE ITINERARY

+Through Asia Minor+ (Acts 15:40-16:8).--It was
Paul's custom to revisit the churches which he had
organized, and to care for them.  Following out this plan he
went through Syria and Cilicia confirming the churches,
then to Derbe and Lystra, where he found Timotheus
who joined his company.  After visiting the churches
founded on the first missionary journey, Paul and his
company turned northward and "went throughout
Phrygia and the region of Galatia" (Acts 16:6) though
there is no record of any church having been founded in
these regions.  "After they were come to Mysia, they
assayed to go into Bithynia; but the Spirit suffered them
not" (Acts 16:7).

It is important to note that the Holy Ghost now forbade
Paul, at this time, to further preach the word in Asia
(Acts 16:7).  Paul and his company tried after this to go
into Bithynia but they were prevented from doing so by
the Spirit, and came down to Troas (Acts 16:8-12).
Of this long journey through Asia Minor, of its perils and
difficulties, of the rejoicings of the former Christian
converts, when they saw Paul again, and of the many
interesting facts and incidents we have only a glimpse.

+In Europe+ (Acts 16:9-18:18).--Paul, following
what was to him a clear indication of the guidance of the
Holy Ghost (Acts 16:6-11), left Troas and set out by
ship, by way of Samothracia, for Neapolis, which he
reached on the following day.  There have been many
conjectures as to what the fortunes of the Christian
church would have been had Paul been allowed to carry
out his intention to visit Bithynia, and to preach the gospel
in the regions of the east.  Had he done so, however, it
is quite certain, that the history of the world would have
been quite different from what it is to-day.  In this
invasion of Europe Paul came within the charmed circle of
what was then the highest civilization.  The gospel was
now to try its strength with the keenest philosophers and
the most seductive fascinations of immorality, masquerading
under the guise of religion in the licentious rites of the
heathen temples and groves.  What could this missionary
do?  What could he preach?  If philosophy, if art, if
beauty could have saved the souls of men then they would
not have needed the gospel which Paul preached.  But
this was a gilded age, and the gilding hid the corruption,
beneath.  The message of Paul to the men in this charmed
circle of civilization was the same that he had set forth
in the rough mountain towns of Asia Minor.  Human
nature, under a rough or a polished exterior, is the same
the world over.  Paul was seeking men, to bring them to
a knowledge of their alienation from God through sin, and
to show them the way of salvation through repentance and
faith in Jesus Christ?  Greece, over whom the Romans
held sway at this time, had been divided into two parts:
Achaia on the south and Macedonia on the north.  A
great Roman road ran from east to west through Macedonia.
It was by this road that the missionaries traveled.

1.  Philippi (Acts 16:12-40) will be forever memorable
as the first city in Europe in which a Christian church
was established.  It had the character of a Roman rather
than a Greek city; both the civil and the military authorities
being Roman.  It had the rank of a Roman colony.
Situated as it was on the great Egnatian way travelers
and traders passed through it, eastward and westward,
from all parts of the Roman world.  "The Greek character
in this northern province of Macedonia was more
vigorous and much less corrupted than in the more
polished society of the south.  The churches which Paul
established here gave him more comfort than any he
established elsewhere."  The beginning of the work at Philippi
was not very promising and to most men would have been
very discouraging.  Luke tells us that "on the Sabbath
we went out of the city by a riverside where prayer was
wont to be made; and we sat down, and spake unto the
women which resorted hither."  But there they met
Lydia, an energetic business woman and a work was
begun which has had far reaching consequences.  Paul
and his company had been but a short time in the city
when they came in conflict with the Roman authorities.
A damsel, possessed with a spirit of divination, who
brought much gain to her masters, testified to Paul and
his work; this spirit Paul cast out and in consequence the
owners of the girl brought the charge against Paul and
Silas that they were Jews who taught customs not lawful
for Romans to receive.  Notice, the shrewdness of the
trumped-up charge against Paul and Silas.  Nothing is
said about the real state of the case.  In this charge the
status of the Jews is shown in this city.  Paul and Silas
are beaten and thrown into prison; their feet are made
fast in the stocks; their wounds are left unwashed and
undressed.  But in the earthquake, which opens the
prison doors and gives release to the prisoners, Paul has
an opportunity to preach the gospel to the jailer.  How
magnificently, forgetting himself, he sets forth the way of
salvation through Christ!  We turn to the Epistle to the
Philippians (see Study 9) to see how Paul loved this
church, and how this church loved him.

2.  Thessalonica (Acts 17:1-9).  Thinking it best
to leave Philippi, Paul and his company passed on their
way along the Egnatian road through the two beautiful
Greek cities of Amphipolis and Apollonia to Thessalonica,
distant about seventy-three miles from Philippi.
Thessalonica is one of the few cities which has retained its
importance up to the present time.  It was founded by
Cassander, King of Macedon in 315 B.C.  It came under
the Roman rule in 168 B.C.  In Paul's time it was a
great commercial center, the inhabitants being Greeks,
Romans, and Jews.  Here was a Jewish synagogue and
for three Sabbath days Paul went into it and reasoned
with the assembled Jews about Jesus Christ, declaring to
them that He was the promised Messiah, and had suffered
and was risen from the dead.  We have the same results
here which followed similar preaching elsewhere
(1 Thess. 1:8).  Out of the storm again emerges a
Christian church.  Paul and his company, after the
usual tumult, pass on to another city but the church
remains to send its blessed influence through all that
region.  The Epistles to the Thessalonians (see Study 7)
give us some graphic pictures of the converts and their
ways of working.

3.  Berea (Acts 17:10-14) was a secluded inland city.
It must have been somewhat of a surprise to Paul to find
the Jews of this place so ready to receive the Word of
God, which he preached to them in their synagogue.
There was great searching of the Scriptures and many
believed.  A large work was in progress when Jews from
Thessalonica, hearing of the success of Paul in Berea,
came down and stirred up the people against him.  It
became quite evident now that there was a persistent and
organized effort being made to drive Paul out of this
section.  As the opposition seemed to be directed against
Paul alone, the brethren proposed to send him away, and
to have Silas and Timotheus remain for a short time.
This plan was carried out.

4.  Athens (Acts 17:15-34) was the most cultivated
city of the old world; a statue was set upon every
corner and an altar in every street.  "Here the human
mind had blazed forth with a splendor it has never
exhibited elsewhere.  In the golden age of its history
Athens possessed more men of the very highest genius
than have ever lived in any other city.  To this day their
names invest her with glory.  Yet even in Paul's day the
living Athens was a thing of the past.  Four hundred
years had elapsed since its golden age, and in the course
of these centuries it had experienced a sad decline.
Philosophy had degenerated into sophistry, art into dilettanteism,
oratory into rhetoric, poetry into verse making.  It
was a city living on its past."  Paul entered into the open
places where the people gathered and talked with them.
So much interest was aroused by what he had to say that
he was asked to speak to them upon Mars Hill.  Thither
they all went.  Paul as his custom was sought a common
starting point in the altar to the unknown God.  So long
as he spoke of God and man in general terms he was
listened to, but when he came to touch their hearts and
consciences and to apply what he said, speaking of the
judgment through Christ and His resurrection from the
dead, he was left alone.  Paul did not fail, the trouble
with the Athenians was that they possessed only intellectual
curiosity; they had no appetite for the truth.  But
still some converts were made.  "Certain men clave unto
him and believed; among whom were Dionysius the
Areopagite and a woman named Damaris and others with
them" (Acts 17:34).

5.  Corinth.  (Acts 18:1-18) was the largest and most
important city in Greece.  From Athens Paul came to
Corinth and remained over a year and a half.  We have
a graphic picture of this church in the Epistles to the
Corinthians.  (See Study 8.) Probably no better place
than this highway of all peoples could have been selected
in which to preach the gospel.  No one knew better than
Paul how to select strategic places.  A stream of travelers,
merchants, scholars, and sailors was constantly passing
through this great commercial city; what was preached
here would be carried to the ends of the earth.  It was a
city of art and culture and yet a place where the vices of
the east and west met and held high carnival.  Religion
itself was put to ignoble uses; a thousand priestesses
ministered to a base worship in the magnificent temple of
the goddess Aphrodite.  Greek philosophy showed its
decay in endless discussions about words and the tendency
to set intellectual above moral distinctions.  There was a
denial of the future life for the sake of unlimited
enjoyment in the present.  Paul, when he came into the city,
found a lodging with Aquila and his wife Priscilla, and
wrought with them at the occupation of tent making.
When Silas and Timotheus joined him he openly testified
to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ.  Crispus, the chief
ruler of the synagogue, was converted together with many
Corinthians.  Paul was comforted at this time by a vision
of the Lord which bade him to speak and not to hold his
peace.  After a year and a half of earnest preaching an
attempt was made by the Jews to drive Paul out of the
city by bringing accusations against him before the Roman
proconsul Gallio, but in this they were unsuccessful.  Paul
tarried and worked here until it seemed best for him to
turn his steps homeward again to Antioch.  The keynote
of his preaching in this city is given by him in his First
Epistle to the Corinthians where he says (2:2), "For I
determined not to know anything among you save Jesus
Christ and him crucified."  If this gospel could win
converts in Corinth, it can win converts anywhere.

+The Return Voyage+ (Acts 18:18-22) was by way of
Ephesus where he entered into the synagogue and
reasoned with the Jews.  Leaving Ephesus he sailed for
Cæsarea where he landed.  After he had gone up and
saluted the church he went down to Antioch.


QUESTIONS

Who proposed the second missionary journey?  Who were the
companions?  What can be said of the wide scope?  What was
its value to the world?  Time and Rulers?  What can be said of
the new departure in writing Epistles to the churches?  What can
be said of the itinerary through Asia Minor?  Give the incidents,
of preaching the gospel, that occurred during the trip in Europe,
in the different cities; Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens, and
Corinth.  How was the return voyage made?



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Scripture, Acts 13:1-28:31_


STUDY V

THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 18:23-21:17_

ANALYSIS

+Third Missionary Journey+--Method.  The Chief City.  Time
and Extent.  Epistles Written.

+Itinerary+--Through Galatia and Phygia.  Ephesus.  Through
Macedonia and Greece.  The Return Voyage.



[Illustration: Outline map illustrating the third
missionary journey of Paul and the voyage to Italy.]



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Acts 13:1-38:31_


STUDY V

THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 18:23-21:17_

+Method.+--A study of the three missionary journeys
shows the method of evangelization of the ancient world.
The first journey was comparatively near home.  The
second was a review of the work done in the first and a
pushing on to new work in Asia Minor and the larger
conquests in Europe.  In the third we have a review visit
to the churches of Asia Minor, a long stop at Ephesus,
and a review visit to the churches of Macedonia and
Achaia, which were organized upon the second missionary
journey.  There was always a method in what Paul
did.  He was not only a missionary preaching and testifying
to Jesus Christ, but he was an organizer and leader of
men.  The churches formed were visited again and again;
messengers were sent to them to instruct, to chide, and
to encourage them; circular and special letters from
Paul's own hand were dispatched to them, when occasion
required.  Wherever Paul preached, whatever might be
the tumults raised, he always won some adherents for
Jesus Christ, who were brought together and organized
into a church.

On this third journey he was already planning to go to
Rome (Acts 19:21) and wrote an epistle to the Romans
announcing his coming (Rom. 1:7, 15).

+The Chief City+, in which Paul spent most of his time
(Acts 19:1, 8, 10), between two and three years upon
this journey, was Ephesus in Asia Minor.  This city
situated midway between the extreme points of his former
missionary journeys was a place where he could have an
intelligent oversight over all the work which he had
previously accomplished.

Ephesus has been thus described: "It had been one
of the early Greek colonies, later the capital of Ionia, and
in Paul's day it was by far the largest and busiest of all
the cities of proconsular Asia.  All the roads in Asia
Minor centered in Ephesus and from its position it was
almost as much a meeting place of eastern and western
thought as Alexandria.  Its religion was oriental.  Its
goddess called Artemis or Diana, had a Greek name but
was the representative of an old Phrygian nature worship.
The goddess was an inartistic, many-breasted figure, the
body carved with strange figures of animals, flowers, and
fruits.  The temple built by Alexander the Great was
the most magnificent religious edifice in the world.  It
was kept by a corporation of priests and priestesses, who
were supported by the rents of vast estates.  For
centuries Ephesus was a great center of pilgrimage, and
pilgrims came from all parts of Asia to visit the famous
shrine."

"The first great blow which this worship received was
given by Paul during his two years' stay in Ephesus, and
the story told in this chapter is the history of the
beginning of a decline from which the worship of Diana never
recovered.  The speech of Demetrius perhaps exaggerates
the effects of Paul's work, but it should be remembered
that the gospel took firm hold of proconsular Asia
from a very early period.  Paul's Epistles tell us of the
churches in Ephesus, Laodicea, and Colossæ, and the
Apocalypse adds churches in Pergamos, Smyrna, Thyatira,
Sardis, and Philadelphia.  Half a century later, Pliny
asserted that in this region the temples were deserted,
the worship was neglected, and the sacrificial victims were
unsold."

During his long stay in Ephesus, Paul doubtless received
many delegations and visitors from the churches formerly
organized by him.

The character of the Ephesian Christians can be seen
from the Epistle addressed to them (See Study 9).

+Time and Extent.+--About four years, 54-58 A.D.,
were occupied by Paul in going about among the churches
and about 3,500 miles were traveled.

+Epistles.+--This journey was prolific in masterly
writings.  Paul wrote the First and Second Epistles to the
Corinthians from Ephesus about 57 A.D., Galatians from
the same city (somewhere between 54 and 56 A.D.), and
Romans at Corinth in 58 A.D.  (See Study 8).


ITINERARY

+Through Galatia and Phrygia+ (Acts 18:23).--After
Paul had spent some time at Antioch, at the close
of the second missionary journey, "He departed and
went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order
strengthening all the disciples."  Thus Luke briefly sums
up in a few words all the incidents of a journey of
hundreds of miles of travel.

+Ephesus+ (Acts 19:1-20:1).--Evidently with the
purpose of showing what is new and of chief importance in
each journey Luke, as is his habit, calls attention to the
work of Paul in Ephesus; other parts of this journey are
passed over with slight mention.

Having gone through the upper coasts, Paul comes to
Ephesus.  The chief events in this city, during the visit
of the Apostle, were:

1.  The incident of the work of Apollos is given (Acts
18:24-19:1) to show how Paul found about twelve
disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 19:7) at Ephesus and
instructed them further, baptizing them in the name of
the Lord Jesus (Acts 19:5, compare Acts 19:1-7).

2.  Three months were spent by Paul (Acts 19:8, 9)
with the Jews in their synagogue, "disputing and persuading
the things pertaining to the kingdom of God."  But
when certain of them became hardened and it was plainly
seen that little good was being done he left the synagogue.

3.  About two years' time was given, after the apostle
had separated himself and followers from the Jewish
synagogue, to teaching in the school or lecture room of
Tyrannus (Acts 19:9, 10).  The result of this preaching
and teaching was that a great multitude of men and
women was brought to a confession of faith in Christ,
throughout Asia.

4.  The mighty growth of the Word of God (Acts
19:20) was attested by the miracles which Paul did in the
name of Christ (Acts 19:11, 12).  He confounded the
Jewish exorcists, who attempted to imitate these miracles
(Acts 19:13-20).  This great work was shown to be a
thorough one from the fact that many who used curious
arts brought their books and burned them amounting in
value to over $31,000.

5.  Paul now proposed, thinking the Ephesian church
could stand alone (Acts 19:21, 22), "after he had passed
through Macedonia and Achaia to go to Jerusalem,
saying, after I have been there, I must also see Rome."  In
anticipation of this visit he sent Timotheus and Erastus
into Macedonia, "but he himself stayed in Asia for a
season."

6.  The tumult made by Demetrius (Acts 19:23-40) is
a strong proof of the large impression made by the gospel
of Jesus Christ upon not only the city of Ephesus but all
Asia Minor.  The burning of the magical books had
arrested the attention of many people, but when the sale
of the silver images of the idol, Diana, began to fall off
so as to touch the trade of the silversmiths they were up
in arms at once.  Demetrius showed how the power of
Christ had prevailed with men when he declared that,
"Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people,
saying that there be no gods which are made with
hands."  The violence of the men who composed the mob showed
how deeply Christianity had taken hold upon large
numbers of people.  Paul, after the uproar had quieted down,
carried out his intention of departing for Macedonia.

+Through Macedonia and Greece+ (Acts 21:1-6).--"The
order of events seems to have been: (a) Timotheus
and Erastus were sent to look after the church discipline
at Corinth (Acts 19:22).  Stephanas and others came
from Corinth and returned with the First Epistle to the
Corinthians (1 Cor. 16:17).  (b) Paul meant to visit
Corinth (1 Cor. 4:18, 19); instead he went to Macedonia
by Troas (2 Cor. 2:12, 13).  (c) He waited at Troas
for news from Corinth, and his anxiety told on his health
(2 Cor. 2:12; 1:8; 4:10, 11; 12:7).  (d) In spite of
illness he pressed on to Macedonia (2 Cor. 2:13), where
he met Titus, who brought him good news of the state of
the Corinthian church (2 Cor. 7:5-9).  (e) He wrote
the Second Epistle to the Corinthians and sent it by Titus,
and resolved to wait sometime longer before going to
Corinth, for he wished to take a contribution from the
Corinthians to Jerusalem (2 Cor. 9:1-5).  (f) In Macedonia
he probably visited Berea, Thessalonica, and Philippi,
with perhaps a journey to Illyricum (Rom. 15:19).
(g) He went to Greece (Corinth and Cenchrea).  (h)
He proposed sailing for Syria with the contributions of
the various churches, and with delegates who carried
the money; Sopater from Berea, Aristarchus and Secundus
from Thessalonica, Gaius from Derbe, Timotheus from
Lystra, Tychicus and Trophimus from Ephesus (Acts
20:4; 21:29).  (i) The Jews of Corinth conspired to
murder Paul on his embarkation, so his friends went by
ship, and he eluded the conspirators by going by land to
Philippi.  (j) Then he took ship for Troas, having Luke
who had been at Philippi for his companion ("We
sailed").

+The Return Journey,+ Troas to Jerusalem (Acts 20:6-21:15).

1.  Troas.  Luke and Paul were five days in reaching
Troas, from Philippi, where they found a number of the
brethren who had preceded them (Acts 20:6, compare
Acts 20:4-6).  Seven days were spent at Troas (Acts
20:6).  We have here the record of how the disciples
spent the Sabbath day in breaking bread together and in
listening to the preaching of Paul.  (Acts 20:7-12).  This
last day here came near being marred by Eutychus meeting his
death, when he fell down from the third loft.  But
Paul was there and Eutychus's life was spared.  The
meeting did not break up until the next morning, so
interested were they in talking over "The Way."

2.  Troas to Miletus (Acts 20:13-15).  Paul's
company went by ship first to Assos, where Paul met them;
he having covered the distance of about twenty miles on
foot.  At Assos Paul joined the company on the ship and
they sailed from Assos to Mitylene.  "And we sailed
thence," says Luke, "and came the next day over against
Chios; and the next day we arrived at Samos, and tarried
at Trogyllium; and the next day we came to Miletus."

3.  At Miletus (Acts 20:17-38) Paul sent for the elders
of the Ephesian church to come to him.  When they
came he spoke to them in a very touching and tender
way.  This address has been divided into four parts: (a)
What was behind Paul; he called them to witness that he
had been faithful in declaring to them the full gospel of
Jesus Christ, repentance toward God and faith in the
Lord Jesus Christ.  (b) What was before Paul; he said
that in every city the Holy Ghost witnessed that bonds
and afflictions awaited him.  (c) What was before the
elders of the Ephesian church; it was theirs to take care
of the flock over which they presided and "to feed the
church of God."  (d) Commendation of the elders to
God in their good work.  (e) Paul's earnest prayer for
their welfare.  (f) The farewell words.

4.  Miletus to Cæsarea and Jerusalem (Acts 21:1-15)
by way of Coos, Rhodes, Patara, Tyre, and Cæsarea.
At Tyre there was a wait of seven days and a change of
ships; in this city it was testified to Paul that he should
not go up to Jerusalem.  At the parting, when Paul and
his company took ship to go to Cæsarea, the disciples of
Tyre came out to see them off and all kneeled down
on the shore and prayed.  At Cæsarea where Paul's
company tarried many days, it was again made known to
Paul by the Holy Ghost that bonds and imprisonment
awaited him at Jerusalem, but still he pressed on saying,
"The will of the Lord be done."  Arriving in Jerusalem
they were gladly received by the brethren.


QUESTIONS

What was the method of evangelizing the ancient world?
How did the three missionary journeys differ from each other?
What can be said of the chief city in which Paul spent so much
of the time of this journey?  Time and extent of this journey?
What Epistles were written?  Give the chief incidents of the
itinerary; through Galatia and Phrygia; in Ephesus; through
Macedonia and Greece; the return voyage.



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Scripture, Acts 13:1-28:31_


STUDY VI

JERUSALEM TO ROME

_Acts 21:17-28:31_

ANALYSIS

+This Journey+--From Jerusalem to Rome.  The Seven Speeches.
The Writings.  Time and Extent.  The Historical Connections.

+Paul at Jerusalem+--The Return to Jerusalem.  The Meeting
with James and the Elders of the Church.  The Temple Riot.
The Speech of Paul to the Rioters.  Before the Jewish
Council.  Paul Comforted by God.  Conspiracy of Jewish
Fanatics.

+Paul at Cæsarea+--The First Defense, before Jewish Accusers
and the Roman Governor Felix.  Second Defense, before
Felix.  Third Defense, before Festus.  Fourth Defense,
before Festus and King Agrippa II.

+The Voyage to Rome+--Cæsarea to Myra.  Myra to Melita.  Melita
to Rome.

+Paul at Rome+--Testifying to the Jews.  Testifying to the
Gentiles.  Incidental Notices of the Imprisonment.  The Further
Travels of Paul.



II.  PAUL'S JOURNEYS

_Scripture, Acts 13:2-28:31_


STUDY VI

JERUSALEM TO ROME

_Scripture, Acts 21:11-28:31_

THIS JOURNEY

_Scripture, Acts 21:17-28:31_

+From Jerusalem to Rome.+--This portion of the book
of the Acts comprises more than one quarter of the whole,
or seven and a half chapters.  There must have been
some important purpose to be served by thus relating so
fully the incidents of this period in Paul's life; for Luke
elsewhere narrates only the incidents of the missionary
journeys which are of great interest.  It may be that his
purpose was to show, with the full connecting incidents,
how clearly and strongly Paul testified, to the Jews in the
temple (Acts 22:1-23), and before the Roman tribunal
(Acts 25:13, 14, 26; 26:1-32), that Jesus was the
Christ.  Jesus himself, before his death, gave the same
testimony to the Sanhedrin (Matt. 26:63, 64; Mark 14:61,
62; Luke 22:67-69), and the Roman tribunal (John
18:33-37).  The testimony of Paul was further carried to
imperial Rome, the capital of the world (Acts 28:17-24).

+The Seven Speeches.+--The last recorded addresses of
the Great Apostle are a striking feature of this period.
They show his faith after it had been tried and tested in
his toilsome years of missionary labors.  They reveal the
courage and character of the man in that they were given
when he was in bonds and in imminent peril of his life.

1.  The speech before the Jewish mob in the temple
(Acts 22:1-29) in which Paul tells the Jews how he was
changed from a persecutor to a believer in Christ.  He
relates also the story of his conversion.

2.  The speech before the Jewish council (Acts 22:30;
23:1-10) in which he creates confusion by raising the
question of the resurrection.  But the provocation was
great for the high-priest had commanded that Paul be
smitten on the mouth when he began to speak.

3.  The speech before Felix, the Roman governor
(Acts 24:10-22) in which he makes his defense against
Jewish accusers, and affirms his belief in the new "Way"
and in the resurrection.

4.  The speech before Felix and Brasilia, his wife,
(Acts 24:24-27).  Paul, being sent for by Felix to tell
him of his faith in Christ, reasons "of righteousness,
temperance, and judgment to come."

5.  The speech before Festus the Roman governor
(Acts 25:7-11) in which Paul appeals to Cæsar.

6.  The speech before Festus, the Roman governor,
and King Agrippa and his wife, Bernice, (Acts 25:13;
26:1-32).  Here Paul again relates the story of his
conversion and shows that Jesus is the Christ.

7.  The speech before the chief Jews in Rome (Acts
28:17-31) showing that Jesus is the Christ.

+The Writings.+--During the two years' imprisonment
of Paul in Cæsarea we have no account of any Epistles
written by him.  But when he arrives in Rome he again
begins to indite those writings which have made his name
so famous.  From his prison in Rome he sent out four
letters which have been called, "The Epistles of the First
Imprisonment"; Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and
Philippians (See Chapter 9).  For profound expositions
of the Christian doctrines, lofty ethical teaching, and
mellowness of feeling they stand unequalled.

+Time and Extent.+--Paul arrived in Jerusalem in 58
A.D.  He was imprisoned two years in Cæsarea, 58 to
60 A.D.  The voyage to Rome was in the winter of 60
and 61 A D.  He was imprisoned in Rome two years, 61
to 63 A.D.  In extent the journey which Paul took from
Cæsarea to Rome was about 2,300 miles.

+The Historical Connections.+--Nero was Emperor of
Rome (since 54 A.D.).  Felix was Procurator of Judea
from 51 to 60 A.D., when he was succeeded by Festus.
We fix the date of Paul's going to Rome by the fact that
when Festus came in 60 A.D., he made his appeal to
Cæsar.


PAUL AT JERUSALEM

+The Return+ to Jerusalem (Acts 21:17-23:23) was at
the feast of Pentecost when it was crowded with strangers
from all parts of the world.  Paul had been warned not
to come back to this city (Acts 21:10-14) and it might
have been possible for him to have remained away, passing
the last years of his life in high honor and peace as
the Great Apostle and Head of the Gentile churches.
But he seems to have felt it incumbent upon him to return
to Jerusalem and testify for his faith (Acts 21:14), and to
carry alms (Acts 24:17).  Paul was now about sixty
years of age and for more than ten years had been
engaged in the most arduous missionary labors, enduring
stonings, beatings, and contumelies of all kinds, for the
sake of preaching Jesus Christ.  More than twenty years
had elapsed since his conversion; and before his
well-known three missionary journeys he had been actively
engaged in the work which he loved so well.  In his body
he must have borne the marks of these incessant labors,
but his spirit was as fresh and undaunted as ever.
Whatever awaited him in Jerusalem he was ready for it.

+The Meeting with James and the Elders of the
Church+ (Acts 21:17-25) seems to have been a pleasant
one.  Paul told his story of the wonders wrought in the
Gentile world, and God was glorified, but there seems to
have been a certain constraint upon the company.  Paul
was well known everywhere as an exponent of that liberty
in Christ by which the Gentiles when they became
Christians were not obliged to become Jews and obey the laws
of Moses.  We find the elders, while freely admitting
the binding nature of the decision of the Jerusalem
Council upon this matter, advising him to show the
many thousands of Jews who believed and kept the law,
that he himself still held to the observance of the law.
Hence the urgency with which they requested him to
purify himself in the temple, with certain men who had
a vow, so that the Jews might see that he was not a
renegade.  The consequences of this advice soon became
evident.

+The Temple Riot and Paul's Imprisonment+ (Acts
21:26-39).--When the days of purification for his
companions were almost completed some Jews of Asia saw
him and at once raised a great tumult.  It is a wonder
that he was not seen and recognized earlier.  Doubtless
the Asian Jews had been restrained in their own cities
from wreaking their hatred upon Paul to the full, by the
strong arm of the Roman magistrate.  At once a great
outcry was raised and Paul would have fared badly if he
had not been rescued by the Roman soldiers, to be
imprisoned by them.

+The Speech of Paul to the Rioters+ (Acts 21:40-22:23).--He
requested that he be permitted to speak to
this angry crowd of fanatic Jews, who were howling for
his life.  What would he say?  What defense could he
make?  Listen to him!  He is telling the story of his life
and conversion, on the way to Damascus.  He is glorifying
Jesus and urging them to believe in Him.  There is
not one word about the indignities that have been heaped
upon himself.  This personal testimony in this city where
Paul had been the chief persecutor was wonderful.  But
as the Jews had demanded the life of Christ, when he was
upon earth and testified to His mission, so now they
demanded the life of Paul.

+Before the Jewish Council+ (Acts 22:24-23:10).--Paul,
rescued from the clutches of the mob, would have
been scourged by the Romans had he not declared himself
a Roman.  On the morrow, taken before the Sanhedrin,
and seeing no hope of any justice being done him, he sets
one party of it over against the other by declaring that he
was a Pharisee and "of the hope of the resurrection of
the dead I am called in question."  So great was the
dissension that arose over this matter that Paul was faring
badly when he was rescued by the chief captain and his
soldiers.

+Paul Comforted by God+ (Acts 23:10).--Paul must
have been quite worn out with the tumults and mobs of
the last two days.  The encouragement of God speaking
to him and telling him to be of good cheer, and that as he
had testified of Him in Jerusalem, he must also bear
witness in Rome, put a new heart in him.  It had been
Paul's great desire to visit Rome and preach Christ in
that city (Rome 1:11-15; Acts 19:21).

+Conspiracy of Jewish Fanatics+ (Acts 23:10-30).--The
mad hatred of the Jews against Paul is shown by
more than forty men binding themselves under a curse to
kill him.  The astonishing thing about this conspiracy is
that the conspirators showed what they proposed to do to
the chief priests and elders and asked their aid to bring
Paul down for another examination that they might kill
him.  The plot was brought to naught by Paul's nephew,
who heard of it and told Paul.  This information was at
once given to the chief captain, who determined to send
Paul away that night to the Roman governor at Cæsarea.
It was a large escort, 200 legionaries, 200 light armed
troops, skirmishers, and 70 cavalry, which was sent out
with Paul.  This great company of soldiers showed the
immanent danger in which Paul stood at this time.


PAUL AT CÆSAREA

_Scripture, Acts 23:33-27:1_

Paul now comes under Roman jurisdiction and remains
for two years (Acts 24:27) a prisoner in Cæsarea.  He
is not kept in close confinement and his friends are
allowed to see him (Acts 24:23).  Who came to see
him of these friends and what they talked about Luke
does not tell us.  Our attention seems to be purposely
directed to the defense which Paul made of his faith and
work before the Roman governors, Felix and Festus, and
the Jewish King Agrippa II.  As Pilate had seen no just
cause why Christ should be condemned to death, so Felix
and Festus, when Paul had testified of his faith in Christ
before them, saw no reason why he should suffer the
death penalty.

+The First Defense; before Jewish Accusers and the
Roman Governor, Felix+ (Acts 23:33-24:23).--Awaiting
the coming of his accusers from Jerusalem Paul was
kept in Herod's judgment hall.  After five days Ananias,
with the elders, and an orator, named Tertullus, came to
Cæsarea, and charged Paul with being "a mover of
sedition among all the Jews throughout the world, and a
ring-leader of the sect of the Nazarenes"; they also accused
him of profaning the temple.

Paul being beckoned by the governor to speak replied
in answer to the charges made against him: (a) That
Felix, who has been governor so long (since 51 A.D.),
must know from personal knowledge, that he had not been
engaged in any sedition and that this charge could not be
proved against him.  It had only been twelve days since
he went up to Jerusalem and a number of them had been
spent in Roman custody.  During this period there had
been no time to plot against the government.  (b) While
he worshipped God after the way that they called heresy,
yet he believed all that was written in the law and the
prophets.  He had come he said "after many years to
bring alms to my nation, and offerings."  It was true
that certain Jews had found him "purified in the temple,
neither with multitude, nor with tumult."  These ought
to have been present and to have testified to these things.
(c) He denied that he had committed any sacrilege.
When he was seized in the temple he was in the very act
of performing a portion of the worship prescribed by the
Mosaic law.  (d) The knowledge of those present "went
no further than that they had heard him declare his belief
in the doctrine of the resurrection from the dead" (Acts
22:30-23:1-6).  Upon the conclusion of Paul's argument,
Felix adjourned the case until Lysias, the chief
captain, should come down and give his testimony.

_Second Defense; before Felix and his Wife, Drusilla_
(Acts 24:24-27).--This was evidently a private
hearing of Paul of his faith in Christ.  There was ample
reason for the trembling of Felix when Paul "reasoned
of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come."  Felix
was a notoriously unjust ruler who had taken bribes,
murdered a high-priest and, relying upon the influence of
his infamous brother Pallas at Rome, was steeped in
crimes.  He had induced his wife Drusilla to desert her
husband to marry him.  Felix showed his character when
he sent for Paul a number of times and communed with
him, hoping to receive a bribe.  When recalled to Rome
in consequence of repeated complaints of his misadministration
of justice he, "willing to show the Jews a pleasure,
left Paul bound."

+Third Defense; before Festus, the New Governor+
(Acts 25:1-12).--Festus, Josephus tells us, was one of
the best procurators of Judea.  He was appointed by
Nero in the year 60 A.D., and died two years after this.
He is importuned by "the high-priest and the chief of the
Jews, as soon as he takes office, to send Paul back to
Jerusalem (in order that he might be killed on the way
thither).  Festus replies that they are to come to Cæsarea
and there make their accusations against Paul.  When
they are come and Festus sits on the judgment seat they
make "many and grievous complaints against Paul which
they could not prove."  Paul's answer is: neither against
the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet
against Cæsar, have I offended in anything at all."  But
Festus showed, notwithstanding his many good traits, a
decided leaning toward Paul's accusers.  When therefore
Festus asked Paul if he would go back to Jerusalem and
be there judged before the Sanhedrin, Paul recognizes the
hopelessness of his case and exercised his right as a
Roman citizen in taking an appeal to the judgment seat
of Cæsar.  This right of appeal was one of the most
important prerogatives of the Roman citizen; he had only
to say the word, "Appello" and proceedings must at once
be stopped; his case must go to the court of the emperor.
In exercising this appeal Paul very justly said that if he
had done anything worthy of death he was willing to die,
but if the charges made against him by the Jewish
high-priest and elders were not true he ought not to be
delivered up to them.

+Fourth Defense; before Festus and King Agrippa II.+--In
Acts 25:13-27 we have an account of the visit of
Jewish King Agrippa II. to Festus and the statement of
the latter in regard to the case of Paul.  Festus is at a
loss what to write about the prisoner, to the imperial
court (Acts 25:25-27), the accusations of the Jews
having failed of proof.  To send a prisoner to Cæsar and
not be able to state clearly what his crime was might
involve Festus in difficulties.  Agrippa, as a Jew, might
be able to give some light upon this matter.  The
question seemed to be in regard to religious freedom.  Rome
did not allow religious liberty.  The Jewish religion,
however, was licensed as one of the forms under which men
were allowed to worship God in the Roman empire.
Agrippa might be able to solve this question as to whether
Paul was or was not within his legal rights and the
Christianity which he professed be as legal as Judaism.

Paul in his argument (Acts 26:1-29) before Festus
and King Agrippa II., took the ground that Christianity,
as an outgrowth of Judaism, had a legal status.  Paul
said that he preached that the Messiah had come in the
person of Jesus Christ and this was the One whom Moses
and the prophets had foretold, (a) Paul's introduction
is very courteous.  He recognizes King Agrippa as well
versed "in all customs and questions which are among
the Jews."  (b) He declares his early life to be well known,
as a Jew, and, of the strictest sect, a Pharisee.  (c) He
stands accused because he believes that the Messiah, whom
all Jews are praying may come, has come.  (c) Here, as
Prof. Lindsay says, in his commentary on the Acts,
"Agrippa may by look, word, or gesture have suggested,
A crucified Messiah! and Paul have answered, No, but a
risen Redeemer!  Is it incredible that God should raise
the dead?"  Then Paul continues saying, that he himself
was an enemy of Christ at first.  (d) Paul proceeds with
his argument, giving his personal testimony, how this
risen Messiah had appeared to him on the way to
Damascus and what He had said to him.  (e) Then he shows
how it had been foretold by the prophets and Moses that
Christ should suffer "and that He should be the first that
should rise from the dead, and should show forth light
unto the people, and to the Gentiles."

The argument is over and after certain remarks, by
Festus and Agrippa which are characteristic of both men,
there is a conference and a decision rendered by the
Roman governor and Jewish King, "That this man doeth
nothing worthy of death or of bonds."  But the appeal
to Cæsar cannot be set aside and Paul must go to Rome.


THE VOYAGE TO ROME

_Scripture, Acts 21:1-28:31_

Paul now begins his long delayed trip to Rome not,
however, as he expected a free man, but as a prisoner.
He comes finally to Rome and there testifies of his faith
in Christ.  His native force of character and Christian
graces bring him to the front upon this voyage and in the
time of shipwreck he takes over the command.

Three ships convey him to Rome, one of which is cast
away on the island of Melita; if we follow the fortunes
of these three ships this section of Acts may be divided
into three parts:

+Cæsarea to Myra+ (a city of Lycia) or the fortunes of
Paul upon the first ship (Acts 27:1-5).  Aristarchus
and Luke were the companions who embarked with the
Great Apostle upon a ship of Adramyttium.  Paul was
in charge of Julius, "a centurion of Augustus's band."  The
first stop was at Sidon where Paul was given "liberty
to go unto his friends and refresh himself."  The ship
then sailed for the city of Myra in Lycia passing to the
east and north of the island of Cyprus.

+Myra to the Island of Melita+, or the fortunes of Paul
upon the second ship (27:6-28:10).  Arrived at
the city of Myra the whole company changed ships,
re-embarking in a large ship which was probably engaged in
the grain carrying trade between Alexandria in Egypt and
Rome.  This portion of the voyage was full of difficulties
from the beginning.  From Myra to Cnidus (a peninsula
which projected from the Carian coast having Cos on the
north and Rhodes on the south) the progress against
baffling winds was slow.  The first stop was made at Fair
Havens, a place upon the southern coast of Crete (the
modern Candia).  It was here that Paul foretold the
serious danger to the ship if the voyage should be continued.
But the centurion taking the advice of the master and
owner of the ship, and because the harbour "was not
commodious to winter in," determined to make an attempt
to reach Phenice (a harbour west of Crete and upon the
same side of the island).  The adventures that befell the
ship's company, and, the misfortune that came to the ship,
in the terrible fourteen days that followed after the
departure from Fair Havens are best understood through the
graphic language of Luke, an eye witness (Acts 27:14-44
should be read carefully in this connection).  It is in
this time of trial that Paul steps forth and shows his
mastery over men.  Comforted himself by "the angel of
God" he comforts others in declaring that no harm shall
come to the lives of those in the ship.  In the midst of
this great storm he alone is calm and able to insist that
his companions keep up their courage and strength, and
not to give away to despair.  The island of Melita (the
modern Malta), where the shipwreck took place, lies
directly south of Sicily.  The place where the Great
Apostle was cast ashore is now known as St. Paul's Bay.
The inhabitants of the island received the ship's company
"with no little kindness" and Paul engaged here in a
healing ministry, curing the father of Publius, the chief man
of the island, of a fever and many others of diseases.  In
whatever place or circumstances Paul comes he at once
begins to exercise his Christian gifts.

+The Island of Melita to Rome+, or the adventures of
Paul on the third ship (Acts 28:11-16).  Three months
were spent at Melita.  Then Paul and the company
embarked on another Alexandrian grain ship for Puteoli,
"eight miles southwest of Naples and the principal
harbour south of Rome in Paul's day."  "It was the port
at which the Egyptian grain ships usually unloaded."  There
were two stops made on the way to Puteoli, one at
Syracuse in Sicily and the other at Rhegium, at the
southern point of Italy.  At Puteoli Paul found Christian
brethren with whom he remained for seven days.  The
Roman Christians came but to meet Paul at Apii Forum,
forty-three miles, and the Three Taverns, thirty-three
miles from Rome.  This expression of love and interest
in him and his welfare greatly cheered the heart of the
Apostle.


PAUL AT ROME

+Testifying to the Jews+ (Acts 28:17-27).--After an
interval of only three days Paul called the chief of the
Jews together, and explained to them why he had been
sent to Rome.  He declared that he had no accusation
to make against his nation to the Roman authorities, but
that he was a prisoner on account of his advocacy of the
hope of Israel fulfilled in Jesus Christ.  But the Jews
replied that they had had no word about Paul from
Jerusalem.  Desiring to hear more of what Paul had to say
about the Christians they appointed a day in which they
would hear Paul at his lodgings.  This hearing was
evidently very thorough, and the usual division was made of
believing and unbelieving Jews.

+Testifying to the Gentiles+ (Acts 28:28).--Paul
receiving no sufficient response to his words from the
Jews now turns his attention to the Gentiles.

+The Two Years' Imprisonment+ (Acts 28:30, 31) was
spent in preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ, in his own
hired house, and receiving all who came to him.  Although
Paul was a prisoner he was allowed complete freedom of
speech.

+Incidental Notices of this Imprisonment+ are found in
the four Epistles which were written from Rome during
its continuance.  Prof. J. R. Lumby, D.D. (Acts,
Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges) says: "We know
from first to last the prisoner's chain hurt Paul (Eph. 3:1;
4:1; Phil. 1:13, 16; Col. 4:18; Philem. 1, 9, 10), and
that his cause was at times an object of much anxiety
(Phil. 2:23, 24).  We also learn from the same letters
that besides Luke and Aristarchus (Acts 27:2; 28:15) he
had also the fellowship, for some time at least, of
Tychicus, who (Eph. 6:21) was the bearer of his letter to
Ephesus; of Timothy, whom (Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1;
Philem. 1) he joins with himself in the greeting to the
churches of Philippi and Colossæ and also in that to
Philemon.  In the former of these churches Timothy had
been a fellow laborer with the Apostle.  Epaphroditus
came with the Philippian contributions to the aid of the
imprisoned Apostle (Phil. 4:18).  Onesimus found out
Paul when in flight from his master he made his way to
Rome (Col. 4:9; Philem. 10).  Mark, the cousin of
Barnabas, was also there and another Jewish convert,
Jesus, called Justus, of whom we only know that the
Apostle considered him worthy to be called a fellow
worker unto the kingdom of God (Col. 4:11).  Epaphras
from the churches of Laodicea and Hieropolis, had come
to visit Paul, and to bring him greetings doubtless of the
Christians there, and carry back some words of earnest
council and advice from the Roman prisoner (Col. 4:12,
13).  Last of all Demas was there to be mentioned
as having forsaken the good way through love of this
present world (Col. 4:14; 2 Tim. 4:10).  More than
this and the few words in verses thirty and thirty-one, of
Acts 28, we do not know of this first imprisonment."  His
spirit however was unsubdued through all his hardships
and he was ever exhorting the disciples of Christ to
rejoice in Him (Phil. 2:1, 2; 4:4).

+The Further Travels of Paul+ are considered in Study 10.


QUESTIONS

How much space does the account of this journey occupy in
the Acts, and why is so much given to it?  What do the seven
speeches of Paul signify?  What Epistles did Paul write while at
Rome?  Give the time and extent of this journey.  Give the
historical connections.  Why did Paul return to Jerusalem?  Give
an account of his meeting with James and the elders; the temple
riot; his speech to the rioters; and his speech before the Jewish
Council.  How was Paul comforted by God?  What was the
conspiracy of the Jewish fanatics?  How long did Paul remain a
prisoner at Cæsarea?  Give an account of his first defense before
his Jewish accusers, and the Roman governor Felix; his second
defense before Felix; his third defense before Festus; and his
fourth defense before Festus and King Agrippa II.  Give an
account of the voyage to Rome; Cæsarea to Myra; Myra to
Melita; and Melita to Rome.  What did Paul testify to the Jews
and Gentiles in Rome?  Where do we find incidental notices of
this imprisonment?



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY VII

THE FUTURE OF CHRIST'S KINGDOM

FIRST GROUP OF EPISTLES

FIRST AND SECOND EPISTLES TO THE THESSALONIANS

ANALYSIS

+Introduction to the Epistles of Paul+--Epistolary Writings.  Some
Reasons for Paul's Writings.  Qualifications of Paul.  How
the Epistles are Best Understood.  Titles and Groups.
Common Plan.  Supreme Purpose.

+The Future of Christ's Kingdom+--The First Group of Epistles.
The Chief Doctrinal Point.

+The First Epistle to the Thessalonians+--The Founding of the
Church.  Occasion, Time, and Place of Writing.  Contents.
Analysis.

+The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians+--Occasion, Time, and
Place of Writing.  Principal Divisions and Chief Points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY VII

THE FUTURE OF CHRIST'S KINGDOM

FIRST GROUP OF EPISTLES

THE FIRST AND SECOND EPISTLES TO THE THESSALONIANS

INTRODUCTION TO THE EPISTLES OF PAUL

+Epistolary Writings.+--The New Testament is
composed of twenty-seven books, twenty-one of which are
Epistles.  Of this latter number thirteen are ascribed to
Paul.  It is thus seen how largely the New Testament is
made up of Epistles and how many of these are attributed
to the Great Apostle.

In the letters of men of great prominence and power
of any age we get closer to the real condition of the affairs
of that age than by any other means.  In this way, we
get information at first hand from the participants in the
events of which they write.  It is fortunate for us that
we have this first hand material with which to deal, when
we come to study the early growth and development of
Christianity.

By means of the New Testament Epistles (which are
real letters and written with a definite purpose in view)
we look directly into the faith, the customs, and practices
of the early Christian churches.  We see how they were
organized and how they conducted their services.  We
see the marvelous changes wrought in the lives and
characters of the converts.  We note that the triumphs of faith
were won through a belief in the Divine Son of God and
the power of the Holy Ghost.  The struggles and difficulties
of these early Christians in coming out of heathenism
are depicted in a masterly way.  Paul, in his endeavor
to guide aright the churches, of which he had been the
spiritual father, shows what he believes and teaches about
God, the Holy Ghost, Jesus Christ, sin, redemption, and the
future state of the soul.  In these letters the incidental
and indirect references to the doctrines taught, and the
customs of the early churches, are as valuable as the direct.

+Some Reasons for Paul's Writings.+--The Apostle
was the founder of churches over a large area of territory.
He soon realized, however, that it was impossible to visit
them as often as he desired and as frequently as he
ought.  Many of the converts had come out of heathenism
and needed doctrinal and ethical instruction in the
way of Christ.  They also needed encouragement,
comfort, and sometimes sharp correction for outbreaking sins.
As means of communication were open and easy along
the well kept Roman roads, what was more natural than
that Paul should begin to write letters which were not
only to be read by the particular churches to which they
were addressed, but passed on to the other churches.

+Qualifications of Paul.+

1.  Intellectual.  He was not only pre-eminent as a
missionary, but even more remarkable as a writer.  "He
was the greatest thinker of his age, if not of any age,
who in the midst of his outward labors was producing
writings which have ever since been among the mightiest
intellectual forces of the world and are still growing."

2.  Spiritual.  He had been converted in a wonderful
way and had received a special revelation from Christ
(Acts 9:3-15; 1 Cor. 15:3; Gal. 1:11, 12).  He had
been called to his great work among the Gentiles by Christ
and the Holy Ghost (Acts 9:15; 13:2).  He was
absolutely absorbed in the work of Christ and in making
known His gospel.

+How the Epistles are Best Understood.+--Each one
should be studied in the light of the occasion which called
it forth and in connection with the church, group of
churches, or the individual to which it is addressed.

+Titles and Groups.+--The thirteen Epistles fall naturally
into four groups; in each of which is set forth some
great doctrinal and ethical truth.

First Group, First and Second Thessalonians.  "These
Epistles are short, simple, and practical.  They may be
regarded as illustrating Paul's earlier missionary instruction
to his converts--hence the name 'Missionary Epistles,'
sometimes applied to them.  They treat of but one
doctrinal subject--the second coming of Christ."  It should
be borne in mind, however, that Paul speaks of Jesus
Christ as "The Lord," "Our Lord," about twenty-five
times in First Thessalonians; this shows how thoroughly
he believed in the Deity of Christ.

Second Group, Galatians, First and Second Corinthians
and Romans.  "This group is the great repertory of
Paul's doctrinal and ethical teaching.  Galatians and
Romans deal chiefly with his doctrine of justification by
faith.  They are designed to disprove the current Jewish
teaching (which was invading the churches) that men
might be saved by obedience to the Mosaic law.  On the
contrary Paul maintained that the sole basis of salvation
is the grace of God to be appropriated by faith on man's
part."

Third Group, Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and
Philippians.  "This group is predominantly Christological.
Errors had invaded the churches addressed, which
tended to degrade the person and work of Christ, and the
Apostle writes with a view to showing his pre-eminence
and saving power, so that the readers may be induced to
keep their allegiance to Christ and His gospel."

Fourth Group, First Timothy, Titus and Second Timothy.
"These are called 'The Pastoral Epistles,' and were
designed to instruct Timothy and Titus as
superintendents of the churches
in Ephesus and Crete, and were thus
semi-official in character.  But they have also a strong
personal element and a tone of warm sympathy and
affection."  The above characterization of the four groups of
these Epistles by Prof. G. B. Stevens is brief and to the
point.

+Common Plan.+--The plan in all of Paul's Epistles,
with slight variations, is much the same.  The outlines of
these letters fall uniformly into six divisions.  "First, a
greeting sometimes very brief, sometimes extending over
several verses, in which he generally manages with
consummate skill to strike the keynote of the whole letter.
Secondly, a thanksgiving to God for the Christian gifts
and graces of his converts.  Thirdly, a doctrinal part, in
which he argues out or explains some great topic of
Christian truth, specially required by the condition of the
church to which he is writing.  Fourthly, a practical
section, in which he applies to daily moral duties the great
doctrines which he has developed.  Fifthly, personal
messages, salutations, and details.  Sixthly, a brief
autograph conclusion to ratify the genuineness of the entire
letter."

+The Supreme Purpose+ was to make known the Divine
Christ as the Savior of all men, both Jew and Gentile
(1 Cor. 2:1-16; Col. 1:9-29; Phil. 2:9-11; Acts 26:22,
23; Rom. 3:9-31).


THE FUTURE OF CHRIST'S KINGDOM

FIRST GROUP OF EPISTLES

THE FIRST AND SECOND EPISTLES TO THE THESSALONIANS

+The First Group of Epistles.+--The First and Second
Epistles to the Thessalonians are the earliest writings of
Paul of which we have any certain knowledge.  He may
possibly have written earlier epistles, which are now lost.
He speaks of writing a salutation "in every epistle"
(2 Thess. 3:17), "with mine own hand," which may
imply that he had already written a number of Epistles.
In regard to later writings he also speaks of an Epistle
(1 Cor. 5:9) to the Corinthians written to them before
that now known as First Corinthians and of one written
to the Laodiceans (Col. 4:16); of these writings we have
no record save these incidental notices, if these notices
refer to lost Epistles.

+The Chief Doctrinal Point+ considered in this group is
"The Future of Christ's Kingdom" as it was related to His
second coming (1 Thess. 4:13-5:9, compare 2 Thess. 2:1-17).
It was natural that, after so great a manifestation
of the Divine Christ, the earlier believers in Him
should make much of the promise that He said He would
come again, and amid their troubles and difficulties the
strong tendency would be to think that second coming
was close at hand.  It is a well known fact however that
the near approach of a great joy or sorrow unfits men and
women for the ordinary pursuits of life.  Paul, in his first
letter to the members of the church of Thessalonica,
spoke of the second coming of Christ to relieve their
minds of a worry over those who had died since he had
preached to them (lest they should not see the Lord when
He came), and also to encourage them in their faith
(1 Thess. 4:13-18).  It seems that Paul was taken to mean
by what he wrote that Christ's coming was near at hand.
The believers in Christ, in Thessalonica, began to give up
their ordinary avocations and pursuits in speedy anticipation
of this great event.  He therefore takes occasion in
his second letter to the church to correct the impression
that Christ's coming (2 Thess. 2:1-17) was near at hand.
He exhorts them to true and faithful living in the sight of
their Lord Jesus Christ (2 Thess. 3:1-18) as the best way
to serve their Divine Master.  The principle of the true
Christian life is here set forth in a masterly way; it holds
good for all time and all peoples.



THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS

+The Founding of the Church at Thessalonica+ (Acts
17:1-10).--Paul was on his second missionary journey
and this church was the second which he organized in
Europe.  He entered into the synagogue at Thessalonica
and three Sabbath days reasoned with the Jews out of the
scriptures, "opening and alleging, that Christ must needs
have suffered and risen again from the dead; and that this
Jesus, whom I preach to you, is Christ" (Acts 17:3).  Through
this preaching a few of the Jews believed "and
of the devout Greeks a great multitude, and of the chief
women not a few."  It appears from this account that
the church was mostly made up of Gentiles.  But through
the opposition of the Jews all the city was set in an uproar
and Paul was sent away by night to Berea.

+Occasion, Time, and Place of Writing.+--Paul left
Thessalonica unwillingly for he had a great affection for
his converts in this city.  Twice he endeavored to return,
but was prevented from doing so (2:17, 18).  When
he reached Athens (Acts 17:15) he grew so anxious about
the church at Thessalonica that he sent Timothy back to
see how it prospered (3:1, 2).  While Timothy was
gone on his mission Paul went on to Corinth (Acts
18:1).  Here Timothy found him when he returned with
his report of the church (Acts 18:5; 1 Thess. 3:6).
Paul was greatly pleased with what Timothy had to say
about the converts.  While enduring persecution they
were standing fast in the Lord and devoted to their faith
in Christ (3:7-13).  The report which Timothy brought
was the occasion of the first letter to this church.

The time was, in all probability, in the winter of 52-53
A.D., and the place of writing was at Corinth, where
Paul remained for over a year and a half (Acts 18:1, 11, 18).

+Contents.+--The first three chapters are of a personal
character and show how dear to Paul's heart were these
converts of Thessalonica.  They also show the good
record made for the short time since they had embraced
Christianity.  But nothing could be more revolutionary
in those days than to become a Christian; therefore Paul
takes occasion to correct social, moral, and doctrinal
faults and to instruct them more fully in the faith, in
Christ, which they professed.  In the matter of doctrine
Paul mentions Christ as "the Lord," "our Lord" about
twenty-five times, showing his belief in and teaching of
the Deity of Christ.  In regard to Christ's speedy second
coming, of which many seem to have had a lively
expectation so that they were troubled when some died lest
these had lost their opportunity to see this glorious event,
Paul writes to reassure them that all believers, those who
have died and those who are alive at that time, "will enter
together and share equally in the blessings of Christ's
heavenly kingdom" (4:13-18).  The Epistle closes with
exhortations to be joyful, thankful, and prayerful.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Introduction (1:1-10).  Personal address and
salutation.  Thanksgiving for their faith, love and hope in
Jesus Christ and for their conversion.

2.  Narrative (2:1-4:12).  How the gospel was given
and how it was received at Thessalonica.  An account of
Paul's care and anxiety for the church.  Paul's prayer for
their establishment in the faith of Jesus Christ.  Exhortation
to abstain as followers of Christ from impurity and
fraud; to follow after holiness and brotherly love.

3.  Doctrinal (4:13-5:11).  The second advent of
Christ.  The parts which the dead and living will have
when Christ shall come again.  The uncertainty of the
time.  The need of constant watchfulness.

4.  Practical (5:12-28).  Rules for the conduct of the
church, its overseers and members.  Exhortation to be
joyful, prayerful, and thankful.  Closing prayer that they
may be preserved blameless unto the coming of the Lord
Jesus Christ.  Greeting and benediction.


THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS

+Occasion, Time, and Place of Writing.+--What Paul
wrote about the second coming of Christ, in the First
Epistle, seems to have been misunderstood by the church
at Thessalonica (1:7-3:11).  Then too there was
probably a spurious epistle (and this may have occasioned
much of the trouble) in circulation, in which Paul is
evidently made to declare that the day of Christ is close at
hand (2:2).  He writes of this false epistle very vigorously
that they be not troubled in spirit by a letter, "as
from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand."  Evidently
some were neglecting their work, becoming impatient at
the delay in Christ's coming (3:5, 11, 12) and walking
disorderly.

The Epistle opens, with an expression of thanks for the
general condition of the church and that it was enduring
persecutions and tribulations well (1:2-6).  Hence it is
evident that some but not all of the church members were
out of accord with an earnest sensible faith in Christ.
This Epistle reflects certain conditions which Paul had
to meet in his work and shows how he sought to check
any defections from right conceptions of true Christian
doctrine and life.  In the second chapter Paul shows that
the "day of Christ" may not speedily come, that certain
other things must come to pass before it is revealed
(compare Matthew ch. 24), and that the true Christian way is
to stand fast always in the Lord.  In thus standing fast
every believer will grow in faith and grace.

The duties taught are "courage and faith under persecution
and calmness and quiet industry in the presence of
the greatest expectations."

The time of writing was probably, a few months after
that of the First Epistle, in 53 A.D.  The place of
writing was Corinth.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Introduction (1:1-4).  Salutation.  Thanksgiving
for the growth of faith in the Thessalonian church.

2.  Doctrinal (1:5-2:17).  The great day of the
Lord.  The Thessalonians seemingly misunderstood Paul's
first letter and he now more fully explains the second
advent of Christ.  It will be a day of terrible retribution
for the unbeliever but one of glory for all who trust in
Him.  A warning is given not to think the day near at
hand.  Certain things must first come to pass; "a falling
away," "a man of sin," "signs and lying
wonders."  Thanksgiving that the
Thessalonians have been chosen to
salvation through the sanctification of the Spirit.

3.  Conclusion (Ch. 3).  Paul requests prayer for
himself that "the word of the Lord may have free course
and be glorified" with him; he also desires that the Lord
may direct their "hearts into the love of God and into the
patient waiting for Christ."  Paul gives command to
discipline the disorderly and that every man earn his own
living.  Exhortation to be not weary in well doing.
Salutation and benediction.


QUESTIONS

What can be said of epistolary writings; their place and
usefulness?  Give some reasons for Paul's writings.  What were the
qualifications of Paul?  How are the Epistles best understood?
What can be said of the four groups and their characteristics?
What is the common plan?  What is the supreme purpose?  What
can be said of the first group of Epistles; First and Second
Thessalonians?  What is the chief doctrinal point?  The First
Epistle; what can be said of the founding of the church at
Thessalonica?  What can be said of the occasion, time, and place of
writing?  What are the contents?  Give the four parts of the
principal divisions and chief points.  The Second Epistle; what
can be said of the occasion, time, and place of writing?  Give the
three parts of the principal divisions and chief points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY VIII

THE OLD FAITHS AND THE NEW

SECOND GROUP OF EPISTLES

GALATIANS.  FIRST AND SECOND CORINTHIANS.  ROMANS.

ANALYSIS

+Problems of Early Christianity+--The Old Faiths and the New.
The Great Question.  The Jewish Faith.  The Heathen Faith.
The New Faith in Christ.  Practical Bearing upon Present
Day Living.  The Epistles of this Group.

+The Epistle to the Galatians+--The Galatians.  Time of Writing.
Occasion and Purpose.  Principal Divisions and Chief Points.

+The Epistles to the Corinthians+--The Church at Corinth.  The
City of Corinth.

+The First Epistle to the Corinthians+--Occasion and Purpose.
Place and Time.  The Supremacy of Christ.  Principal
Divisions and Chief Points.

+The Second Epistle to the Corinthians+--Occasion and Purpose.
Place and Time.  Principal Divisions and Chief Points.

+The Epistle to the Romans+--The Church at Rome.  Occasion and
Purpose.  Place and Time.  Central Thought.  Principal
Divisions and Chief Points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY VIII

THE OLD FAITHS AND THE NEW

SECOND GROUP OF EPISTLES

GALATIANS.  FIRST AND SECOND CORINTHIANS.  ROMANS.

PROBLEMS OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY

+The Old Faiths and the New.+--In this second group
of Epistles, Galatians, First and Second Corinthians, and
Romans, we enter upon a period of conflict in which
Christianity is being defined, and differentiated from
Judaism and Heathenism.  No great truth ever came into
the world without a battle for its right to the attention of
men.

The new faith in Christ made large claims for itself.
It marked an advance upon Judaism and maintained that
in Christ was fulfilled all the promises made by the
prophets of the coming of the Jewish Messiah.  It radically
antagonized the heathen religions.  It had a double task to win
men out of Judaism and heathenism.  Only by a careful
study of these great doctrinal Epistles, and the circumstances
out of which they arose, can it be seen how really
great was this task.

+The Great Question+ was: "On what terms does God
save men?  Does He owe salvation to any because of
what they have done, or does He bestow it as an
unmerited favor upon condition of trust and self-surrender?"  Paul
maintained that the sole basis of salvation is the
grace of God through Jesus Christ to be appropriated by
faith on the part of man.  This is still the great question.

+The Jewish Faith+ had been long in the world.  Its
prophets had two great themes, the Messiah and the
Messianic Kingdom.  All Israel, while observing feast and
fast days, the precepts of the Mosaic law and offering
sacrifices, looked forward to the coming of the Messiah
and the establishment of His kingdom upon earth, as the
supreme fulfillment of its hopes.

It is the contention of Paul in these Epistles that this
Messiah has come in the person of Jesus Christ and
fulfilled all the promises made to Israel, and that, through
faith in Him, believers are released from the observance
of the precepts of the Mosaic law.

There were two parties of Jews who sought to check
the advance of the early church, with its all sufficient
Savior.  First, there were the Jews who denied any and
every claim of Christ to be the Messiah; of this party
were the rioters who drove Paul out of city after city and
sought to kill him in the temple.  Second, there were the
Jewish Christians who "asserted that their faith was
Judaism with a new prophet; that the law of Moses and Mosaic
ceremonial practices were binding on Christians as well as
on unbelieving Jews; that Gentile believers must first
become proselytes to Judaism before they could become
Christians; and lastly that circumcision was the only
gateway to baptism."  With the first class of Jews it was not
so difficult to deal, for they were out and out antagonists,
but the Jewish Christians, (who still clung to the Jewish
law) were constantly making trouble not only amongst the
Christian Jews, who had fully come out from under the
law of Moses and expressed their faith in Christ, but also
among the Christian Gentiles who had come out of the
heathen religions.  The masterly arguments of Paul,
presented in Galatians and Romans, deal chiefly with the
doctrine of justification by faith in Jesus Christ alone.  In
Gal. 5:1-4 he calls the return to Jewish belief and
practice, "falling from grace."

+The Heathen Faith.+--The people of the Roman
empire were idolaters.  Temples for the worship of idols
occupied prominent positions in every city.  Some of
them were very beautiful, from an architectural point of
view.  But the objects of worship, frequently, were of the
basest sort.  This worship caused a notorious laxness of
view in regard to the relations between the sexes.  This
state of things is not overstated by Paul in his epistle to
the Romans (1:18-23).  It was this condition of idolatrous
worship which led to the decision of the Jerusalem
Council in regard to the Gentile converts (Acts 15:29).
The Christianity which Paul taught called for a pure and
upright life and a subjugation of human passion.  We see
the effects of former idolatrous lives manifesting
themselves in the evils which Paul sought to correct in his
letters to the Corinthians.  It was no small conflict in
which the Great Apostle to the Gentiles engaged when he
sought to cleanse, through Christ, the base idolatrous
hearts of the men of his times.

+The New Faith in Christ.+--Paul stands for spiritual
freedom in Christ and loyalty to Him as Divine Lord
without the necessity of observing the minute regulations
of the Jewish ritual.  He insists upon purity of soul and
outward life as opposed to the laxness of the idolaters.
Each individual soul is related to Christ to whom it is
responsible.

+Practical Bearing upon Present Day Living.+--The
things contended for, the evils scored in these Epistles
may seem to belong to dead controversies, but they do
not.  While it is a fact that Christianity has freed itself
from Judaism and the heathen religions have been
conquered, the old evils still manifest themselves and the
same remedies must be applied to them.  Many to-day
will do works of the law (Gal. 2:16) who have no use for
Christ, or His church, thinking in this way to buy their
way to God.  These are the old Judaizers come to life
again.  They often know nothing and care less for spiritual
things and heart righteousness.  Sensuality, and all its
attendant evils, driven from the old heathen temples,
manifests itself in many ways; it still seeks to array itself
in beautiful garments that it may lure many to ruin.
There is need of repeating over again the arguments of
Paul for a pure life lived in the faith of Jesus Christ, and
the spiritual upbuilding of the soul through Him.  Paul
also insists upon good works as the outcome of faith, but
faith must come first.

+The Epistles of this Group were Written+ on the third
missionary journey.


THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS

+The Galatians+ to whom this Epistle was addressed;
who were they?  The name Galatia was used in two ways.
Geographically to denote the country inhabited by the
Celtic tribes (who were descended from the Gauls and
who formerly inhabited the country we now call France).
Politically it meant the Roman province which also
included "Psidia, Lycaonia, and part of Phrygia to the south
of Galatia proper."  It has been a question which of the
two Paul intended to address in his letter.  There are no
particular names of churches which are specified.  Many
scholars think that Paul means to address his Epistle to
the churches of the Roman province.  In this case the
letter would be sent to the churches of a wide area, and
primarily addressed to those founded in the first
missionary journey at Antioch, Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra
(Acts 14:1-28).

Luke speaks also of a region lying roundabout Derbe and
Lystra where the gospel was preached on this first journey
(Acts 14:6).  The passage in Galatians (2:5) in which
Paul refers to the Jerusalem Council where he contended
for the liberty in Christ of the Gentiles would naturally be
taken to mean these first churches (however wide the
application) as the Jerusalem Council was held at the close
of the first missionary journey.  The word Galatia may
be used in the narrower sense also by Luke in speaking of
the beginning of Paul's second (Acts 16:6) and third
(Acts 18:23) missionary journeys.  It would be natural
for the Judaizers, who sought to turn back the converts
of Paul to Judaism, to begin with the churches in South
Galatia first.

+Time of Writing.+--The common opinion is that this
epistle was written at Ephesus, during Paul's long stay
there on his third missionary journey or between 54 and
56 A.D.  Some however would place the date earlier.

+Occasion and Purpose.+--That which caused Paul to
write this first of his great doctrinal Epistles was the
teaching of certain Judaizers who had found their way
into the churches of Galatia.  They claimed that the
Jewish law was binding upon believers in Christ, and
declared that salvation was through works of the law.
They insisted upon the rite of circumcision.  Paul's
gospel and authority were disparaged.

Paul wrote this Epistle for the purpose of showing
that "faith in Christ was the sole and sufficient condition
of salvation."

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Introduction (1:1-10) Salutation.  Subject of the
Epistle; the defection of the Galatian churches.

2.  The divine commission given to Paul as an apostle
(1:11-2:21).  He makes a statement of his claims and
gives a sketch of his life.  The gospel he preached came
not from man but through a revelation of Jesus Christ.
All this is to show the authenticity of his claims.

3.  Doctrinal.  Justification is by faith (ch. 3-4).
The Galatian churches had received the Spirit through
faith and not by law; why should they turn back?  The
superiority of faith is shown by Abraham's faith.  The
covenant of the promise of Christ was before the law.
The law is subordinate to faith, its purpose is to bring
men to Christ.  There is serious danger in returning to
the law.

4.  Practical.  Application of the doctrinal teaching
(ch. 5-6:10).  An exhortation to stand fast in the liberty
of Christ; this liberty excludes Judaism.  A warning
against the abuse of Christian liberty.  The works of the
flesh and the fruits of the Spirit.  Sowing and reaping.

5.  Autograph conclusion (6:11-18).  Summary of
the Epistle.  The glory of the Apostle is in the cross of
Christ.  Benediction.


THE EPISTLES TO THE CORINTHIANS

+The Church at Corinth+ was founded during Paul's
second missionary journey (Acts 18:1-18).  When the
Apostle came to Corinth he found a home with Aquila
and Priscilla and worked with them at his trade as a
tent-maker.  He preached in Corinth for over a year and a
half.  Although Paul was the means of converting
Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, and his family, he had no
large success with the Jews and consequently turned to
the Gentiles.  The Gentiles gladly heard him and there
was a great ingathering into the church.

Paul's sole purpose was to preach Christ for he says,
"I determined not to know anything among you, save
Jesus Christ and Him crucified" (1 Cor. 2:2).

+The City of Corinth+ was the largest and most
important city of Greece.  The commerce of the world flowed
through its two harbours.  The population consisted of
Greeks, Jews, Italians, and a mixed multitude; it was
excitable, pleasure loving, and mercurial.  In this city
was held a perpetual vanity fair.  The vices of the east
and west met and clasped hands in the work of human
degradation.  The Greek goddess Aphrodite had a
magnificent temple in which a thousand priestesses ministered
to a base worship.  While it was a center of wealth and
fashion it was a city of gilded vice.  In the philosophical
schools there was an endless discussion about words and
non-essentials and a strong tendency to set intellectual
above moral distinctions.


THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS

+Occasion and Purpose.+-It was natural that the
pressure of heathen customs and practices should be very great
upon this young church.  It was also to be expected that
parties and divisions would arise.  The immediate cause
of this Epistle was that strifes and divisions had arisen in
the church.  It was the reporting of these matters to
Paul by those "of the house of Chloe" (1 Cor. 1:11)
that led him to write in the way in which he did.  To
settle the strifes of this church and to define the relations
which Christians should assume towards the political,
religious, and domestic institutions of the heathen was a
matter of no little delicacy and difficulty.  The mastery
of Paul is shown in the laying down of principles, in
accordance with the gospel of Christ, that were effective
not only for the Corinthian church but which are applicable
to-day to all such church difficulties and the conduct
of Christians towards non-Christians.

+A Former Epistle.+--Previous to the one now called
"The First," had been written to the Corinthians (1
Cor. 5:9) and "it appears that the church had replied and
requested further explanation and instruction on certain
points" (5:11; 7:1; 8:1; 12:1; 16:12).

+Place and Time.+--This Epistle was written during
Paul's long stay in Ephesus (Acts 19:10; 1 Cor. 16:19)
and the date is in all probability 57 A.D.

+The Supremacy of Christ+ over all parties, His love as
the touchstone of all service, and His resurrection are
the great subjects of this Epistle.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Salutation and thanksgiving (1:1-9).

2.  Correction of divisions of party spirit (1:10-4:21).
It having been reported to Paul that four parties
were striving for mastery in the church and there was
great contention; he rebukes the party spirit, sets forth
the principles of his teaching, and declares that Christ
alone is the center of the Christian system.  Faith stands
not in the wisdom of men.  The only foundation is in
Christ.

3.  Correction of moral disorders (ch. 5-7).  In
consequence of the close contact of the church with
heathendom grave moral evils found their way into the
fold.  (a) The case of an incestuous person, Paul writes
that such a person is to be expelled because the leaven of
evil separates men from Christ.  (b) The sin of going to
law in heathen courts.  Christians ought to settle their
own disputes.  (c) Sins of the body.  No man should
commit a sin as his body is the temple of the Holy Ghost.

(d) Advice concerning marriage.  The purpose of the
gospel is not to antagonize but to Christianize the natural
relations between society and the believer.

4.  Correction of social and ecclesiastical misconceptions
(ch. 8-14).  (a) The question of eating of meats
offered in idol worship is decided on the ground of love
rather than knowledge.  (b) The preacher of the gospel
has the right to be supported by the church.  (c) The
true Christian liberty to be observed in the matters of
eating and drinking.  The proper celebration of the
Lord's Supper.  (d) The use and abuse of spiritual gifts.

(e) The greatness of love (ch. 13) The touchstone
of all is love.  (f) The end to be sought in every spiritual
gift is the edification and upbuilding of the church.

5.  The true doctrine of the resurrection (ch. 15),
Paul lays great stress upon this doctrine.  "If Christ be
not risen from the dead, then is our preaching vain and
your faith is also vain."

6.  Parting directions, exhortations, and salutations
(ch. 16).


THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS

+Occasion and Purpose.+--Paul was quite anxious about
the reception of his first letter by the Corinthian church.
Not long after its dispatch he sent Titus (2 Cor. 2:13) to
see how it was received and to note whether the strife of
parties had ceased, the incestuous person had been dealt
with, and other matters properly adjusted.  While Titus
was absent on this mission Paul left Ephesus on account
of the riot made by Demetrius and his fellows (Acts
19:23-41; 20:1) and went over into Macedonia (Acts
20:1).  On the way, at Troas, he expected to meet Titus
and was greatly disappointed in not seeing him (2
Cor. 2:12-13).  It is evident that he met Titus in Macedonia
and received from him the report of the condition of the
Corinthian church and the manner in which his first letter
had been received and acted upon (2 Cor. 7:5-16).
Again it is evident, from the Epistle, that Titus brought
back the encouraging news to the Apostle that the
incestuous person had been dealt with and had repented, and
that, as a whole, the church stood loyally by him, but still
there were some who were making trouble.  It was this
report that was the occasion of the Second Epistle.
Prof. G. B. Stevens says in regard to this letter, It reflects
the mingled joy and grief of the Apostle.  The earlier
chapters are predominately cheerful and commendatory,
the latter mainly sorrowful and severe.  In the light of
these facts the letter may be described as threefold: First,
to encourage and instruct the church (1-7).  Second,
to induce the Corinthians to make a collection for the
poor Judean churches (8-9).  Third, to defend the
writer's apostolic authority against the calumnies of his
enemies (10-13).

+Place and Time.+--There are a number of references
by the Apostle which show that this Epistle was written
in Macedonia (1:15, 16; 2:12, 13; 8:1; 9:2) and shortly
after Paul came out of Asia (1:8, compare Acts 20:1,
2).  The time probably 57 A.D., the same year in which
the First Epistle was written.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Salutation (1:1, 2)

2.  Paul's principles and ways of working (1:3-7:16).
In these chapters the Apostle endeavors to
remove any feeling of bitterness which may have been
produced in the Corinthian church by his dealing with a
certain evil in the previous Epistle.  He also vindicates
his spiritual ministry.  He declares his love for the church
and its spiritual advancement.  He also declares that he
has put off his visit to Corinth that he might not come in
sorrow.  He rejoices in the good news brought by Titus.
While he is weak in body, the power is of God and the
ministry is a communication of the Spirit.  He asserts
that he is sustained by the hope of the future life.  He
earnestly exhorts the church to receive and live the gospel
which he preached to them, for separation from the world
and unity with God.  In chapter seven he rejoices that
they have received his words so well.

3.  The collection for the poor Christians in Jerusalem
(8-9).  Paul here speaks of the liberality of the
Macedonian churches and the work of Titus who is sent to
forward the contributions.

4.  Paul's vindication of his authority as an apostle
(10:1-13:10).  He has been attacked in his person,
character, and teaching by parties in the Corinthian church
who would overthrow his authority and ruin the church.
These four chapters are a magnificent setting forth of his
apostolic claims.  (a) His power and glory are not in his
bodily presence or his letters but in the spiritual might of
God.  (b) His preaching is the pure gospel of Christ.
In bodily labor, trials, and persecutions he has excelled
them all (ch. 11).  (c) He has the highest qualifications
(in visions and revelations) but he will glory only in
his infirmities.  His object is not to boast but to put an
end to the disorders in the church.  (d) The Apostle
declares his intention to visit the church.  By the power
of Christ he will not spare the evil.  His desire is only
for righteousness.

5.  Farewell greetings and messages (13:11-14).


THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS

+The Church at Rome.+--When and by whom this
church was founded it is not known.  It is thought that
the "strangers of Rome" (Acts 2:10), who were present
at the day of Pentecost when the great manifestation of
the Holy Spirit took place, carried back the good news
and that this was the beginning of the church.  It was
composed of both Jews and Gentiles for Paul addresses
both classes (Rom. 1:13; 9:24; 11:13; 2:17; 4:1;
9:13; 7:1; 9:1-5).  This church seems to have made
rapid progress (1:8).  Paul was evidently acquainted
with some of the Roman Christians (16:3-15).

+Occasion and Purpose.+--This Epistle grew out of a
desire on the part of Paul to see Rome (Acts 19:21;
Rom. 1:11; 15:24-28).  As this would be his first visit
it was no more than a courteous act that he should write
to the church of this intention.  Again as the Christians
in Rome might have heard false and distorted reports of
the gospel which he preached, Paul takes care to clearly
and logically set forth the principles and doctrines which
he was teaching.  This letter then becomes very
important as the summing up of the experience and teaching of
many years of service in the cause of Jesus Christ.

+Place and Time+.--This Epistle was in all probability
written from Corinth during Paul's stay there in the
course of his third missionary journey 58 A.D. (compare
Acts 19:21; 20:1-3; Rom. 16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14; 2 Tim. 4:20).

+Central Thought.+--The theme is justification by faith
and not by works.  There are four main positions.  First,
All are guilty before God.  Second, All need a Savior.
Third, Christ died for all.  Fourth, We are all (through
faith) one body in Him.  The thought may be put in
other ways, but all to the same purpose.  The doctrine
of sin, and the doctrine of grace; or the universality of
sin and the universality of grace.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+--There are
two great sections, Doctrinal (ch. 1-11), and Practical,
(ch. 12-16).

1.  Introduction (1:1-15).  Paul's salutation to and
thanksgiving for (the faith of) the Roman church.

2.  Doctrinal (1:16-11:36).  (a) The great theme
stated, Justification by Faith.  (b) All have sinned and
all are guilty, Gentiles without the law and Jews with the
law have failed to attain righteousness.  (c) Righteousness
for all comes through faith in Jesus Christ and not
by law or works; the universality of grace.  Abraham
was justified by faith (ch. 4).  The blessedness of
justification by faith in Jesus Christ (ch. 5).  (d)
Objections against free grace that it will multiply sin or
discredit the law are taken up and answered.  Thorough
union with Christ on the part of the believer annihilates
sin and the law has no more any power.  The believer
justified by his faith in Christ is dead to the law while
quickened to a new and holy life by the Spirit.  (e) The
apparent rejection of Israel is the problem considered in
chapters 9-11.  The nation sought righteousness through
the law and not by faith.  (f) Christ is the end of the law
for righteousness.  (g) The restoration of Israel.

3.  Practical (12-16).  (a) Advice and exhortation.
The Christian's duty to the church and his conduct outside
of it; duty to the state and society; duty of toleration and
supreme trust in Christ.  (b) Salutations.  Paul's
apology and explanation for addressing the Roman church.
Greetings to various persons and farewell words.


QUESTIONS

What can be said of the old faiths and the new?  What was
the great question?  The Jewish faith; how fulfilled in Christ?
What can be said of the heathen faith?  What of the new faith in
Christ?  What is the practical bearing of this group of Epistles
upon every day life?  When written?  Give some account of the
Galatians.  When was the Epistle to the Galatians written?
What was the occasion and purpose?  Give the principal divisions
and chief points.  What can be said of the Epistles to the
Corinthians?  When was the church founded?  Give some account
of the city.  What was the occasion and purpose of writing the
first Epistle to the Corinthians?  What was the place and time?
What the thought of Christ.  Give the principal divisions and
chief points.  What was the occasion and purpose of writing the
Second Epistle?  Place and time?  Give the principal divisions
and chief points.  When was the church at Rome founded?
What was the occasion and purpose of writing the Epistle to the
Romans?  Time and Place?  Central thought?  Give the principal
divisions and chief points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY IX

THE SUPREMACY OF CHRIST

THIRD GROUP OF EPISTLES

COLOSSIANS.  PHILEMON.  EPHESIANS.  PHILIPPIANS.

ANALYSIS

+The Question at Issue+--The Supremacy of Christ.  Reason for
Raising this Question.  The Answer to the Question.
Present Day Attention.

+The Writing of the Epistles+--The Interest.  The Sending of the
Epistles.

+The Epistle to the Colossians+--The Church at Colossæ.  The
Occasion.  Central Thought.  Time and Place of Writing.
Principal Divisions and Chief Points.

+The Epistle to Philemon+--Occasion.  Principal Divisions and
Chief Points.

+The Epistle to the Ephesians+--The City and the Church.  Title
and Time of Writing.  Subject.  Principal Divisions and
Chief Points.

+The Epistle to the Philippians+--The City and the Church.
Occasion.  Objects.  Time of Writing.  Principal Divisions and
Chief Points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY IX

THE SUPREMACY OF CHRIST

THIRD GROUP OF EPISTLES

COLOSSIANS.  PHILEMON.  EPHESIANS.  PHILIPPIANS.

THE QUESTION AT ISSUE

+The Supremacy of Christ.+--These Epistles mark a
new stage in the writings of Paul.  The great question
discussed in the second group of Epistles was in regard
to the terms of salvation.  The question now at issue
(in Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians) is: What is the
nature, the rank, the dignity of the Mediator of salvation?
Is He one of a series of Saviors?  Does He belong to
some angelic order (Col. 2:18), or, does He stand supreme
(Col. 2:8, 9, 19) and solitary?  Is He the Head and Chief
of all creation (Col. 2:19; 1:16).  Other matters are
discussed in these Epistles, but this is the great doctrinal
question and burden of the Apostle's thought.

+The Reason for the Raising of this Question+ was the
development of certain false religious beliefs among which
were, "asceticism, the worship of angels, revelings in
supposed visions and belief in emanations."  These "degraded
the object of faith and so destroyed its meaning and
power."

+The Answer to the Question.+--Paul is in no doubt as
to the supremacy of Christ.  All his argument is to show
the Deity of Christ.  He holds "aloft the true object of
faith namely, the supreme Divine Savior Himself, in
opposition to speculation which would degrade and deny
to Him the eminence which belongs to Him" (Col. 1:15-20;
Eph. 1:10, 20-23; 3-9; Philippians 2:5-11).

+Present Day Attention+ has been focused upon this
matter of the supremacy of Christ.  Was he human or
divine?  The arguments of Paul still hold good for a stout
belief in the Divine Christ.  The writings of the Great
Apostle are all characterized by his grasp of fundamental
things; they serve their purpose for the modern church
in bringing it back to Jesus Christ as the only Savior, as
they also in times past corrected the errors of the early
church.


THE WRITING OF THE EPISTLES

+The Interest+ in these Epistles is heightened by the
fact that they were written during Paul's first Roman
imprisonment of which Luke gives all too brief an account
(Acts 28:30,31).  They have been called from this fact,
"The Epistles of the First Imprisonment."  It is a
marvel that Paul with his surroundings could have written in
such a masterly way and handled such lofty themes in a
manner which has commanded the attention of the
thinking world ever since his day and age.

+The Sending of the Epistles+--Colossians, Philemon,
and Ephesians were evidently dispatched from Rome by
the same messenger, Tychicus (Col. 4:7, 9; Eph. 6:21).
Philippians was sent by the hand of Epaphroditus
(Phil. 2:25; 4:18).


THE EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS

The Church at Colossæ--The city of Colossæ was
situated about 110 miles east of Ephesus where Paul
spent so long a time during his third missionary journey
(Acts 19:10).  We have no record of any visit of Paul to
this city or how the church was founded (Col. 2:1).
It is supposed that Ephaphras might have organized this
church (Col. 1:7).

+The Occasion+ (and purpose) of this Epistle was
evidently the coming of Epaphras to Rome to consult Paul
about the affairs of this church (1:7, 8).

In chapter 2:8-23 we have some account of the things
which were troubling this Christian community and
drawing them away from faith in Jesus Christ as their Savior.
False teachers had appeared at Colossæ who were
confusing the minds of the Christian converts.  The
starting point of the error of teaching was the old oriental
dogma that matter is evil and the source of evil (2:8),
that as God is good the world could not have come directly
from God.  To bridge the chasm between God and the
matter of the world a long chain of intermediate beings
was conceived to exist.  This doctrine played havoc with
the simplest moral conceptions for if matter is evil, and
its source, then man's sin is not in his will, but in his
body.  Redemption from sin can come only through
asceticism and the mortification of the flesh.

The result of all this was a lowering of the dignity of
Christ, taking away His saving power and the "substitution
of various ascetic abstinences and ritualistic practices
(2:20) for trust in Him, the worship of angels (2:18),
and a reveling in dreams and visions."  "This was kindred
to a type of speculation which later became rife under
the name of Gnosticism."

To these ideas Paul opposed the true doctrine of the
Headship of Christ (2:19) and that He is the only link
between God and the universe (1:15-17).  "By Him
were all things created (1:16) that are in heaven and that
are in earth."  Christ is the only Mediator (1:13, 14).
In this faith there is no place for ascetic mortification.
Evil is in our unwillingness to live the life in Christ.  In
Christ we are dead to sin and risen with Him to a life
of holiness (2:20-23; 3:1-4).  Christ is not only our
Redeemer (1:14) and the Head of the church, but the
source of creation and its Lord (1:16, 17).  We have
a similar error (against which Paul warns) taught to-day
by the speculative thinker, who fills the world with forces
which leave no room for the working of a personal will.

+Central Thought+--Jesus Christ the sole Savior of
men and Mediator between God and men (1:13-14), the
Creator (1:16; 2:9) and Head of the church (1:18).
Exhortation to follow Christ (3:1-4).

+Time and Place.+--This Epistle was written at Rome
and sent by the messenger, Tychicus, (4:7, 8, 18) to the
church at Colossæ about 63 A.D.

Paul also directed that it be read to the church at
Laodicea (4:16).

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Introduction (1:1-12) Salutation.  Thanksgiving
for their faith and prayer for their increase and knowledge
of the will of God.

2.  Doctrinal.  "The sole Headship of Christ"
(1:13-3:4).  (a) Christ the Mediator.  There is redemption
for us through His blood.  (b) Christ, the image of
the invisible God, Creator and Preserver of all things.
(c) He is the Head of the church, reconciliation is only
through Him.  The Colossians were reconciled to God
through the mediation of Christ.  It is the earnest desire
of Paul that the church at Colossæ should remain rooted
in the faith which it had been taught.  (d) Warning
against wrong speculation; lest any man "through
philosophy or vain deceit" obscure or cause the Colossians
to deny the true Godhead of Christ (2:8-15).  (e)
Renewed warnings against errors in worship; Jewish
observances, ordinances and asceticisms, and the
adoration of angels.  (f) In Christ we are dead to the
rudiments of the world and risen into communion with God
in Christ.

3.  Practical (3:5-4:6).  (a) Exhortations to cast
out all sins of the unregenerate nature and to put on the
new man in Christ.  Then Christ will be all and in all.
(b) All family and social duties are to be performed as in
the sight of Christ.  (c) Renewed exhortations to prayer
and watchfulness.

4.  Conclusion (4:7-18).  (a) The mission of
Tychicus and Onesimus, the greetings of the companions of
Paul and his expressed desire that the churches of Colossæ
and Laodicea exchange Epistles.  (b) The Salutation.


THE EPISTLE TO PHILEMON

+Occasion.+--This is the only purely personal letter of
Paul that we possess.  It is placed in this group because
it was sent with the Epistle to the Colossians and by the
same messenger, Tychicus (Col. 4:7-9).  Philemon was
a member (with his wife Apphia) of the church at
Colossæ (Philemon 2).  Onesimus was a runaway slave,
belonging to Philemon, who had found his way to Rome
and been converted by Paul (Philemon 10), who returned
him, with this letter, to his master (Col. 4:9; Philemon
10-12).

In this letter we have a picture of the Apostle's
kindness of heart and a carrying out of the principles which
Paul had advocated in his First Epistle to the Corinthians
(7:20-24), "Let every man abide in the same calling
wherein he was called."  We find also this same principle
set forth, in another way, in his letter to the Colossians
upon the "Supremacy of Christ."  These principles will
make all men brethren in Christ and every man will strive
to serve Christ in his own place, whatever that place is.
Paul exhorts Philemon, along this very line, to receive
Onesimus not as a servant but as a brother beloved
(Philemon 16).

The practical teaching of this letter upon the relations
between masters and servants and employers and employees
is very pertinent to the present times.  The true
solution of all labor troubles is that men should regard
each other as brethren under the leadership of Jesus Christ.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Salutation and Thanksgiving (1-7).

2.  Statement of the object of the letter (8-21).  As
a favor for love's sake Philemon is asked to receive back
Onesimus no longer a runaway slave but Paul's spiritual
child.  Emphasis is laid upon the fact that he is now a
Christian brother and should be received as such.

3.  Conclusion (22-25).  (a) In expectation of a
speedy release from imprisonment the Apostle asks that
a lodging be secured for him (22 v.).  (b) Salutation
and benediction (23-25).


THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS

+The City of Ephesus and the Church.+--This city
was, next to Rome, the most important visited by Paul.
It was the capital of Asia Minor and a great commercial
center.  It was the seat of the worship of the goddess
Diana.

Paul first visited the city when he was returning from
his second missionary tour, but, while asked to prolong
his stay, he remained only for a short time (Acts 18:19-21).
During his third missionary journey he again visited
the city and remained for three years (Acts 20:31,
compare 19:10, 22).  His success in Ephesus was very great
(Acts 19:18-20, 26) and extended beyond the city.  The
letters to the churches at Colossæ (Col. 1:2) and Laodicea
(this letter is lost) (Col. 4:16) show his care for the
churches that were adjacent to Ephesus and of which we
have no account of his visiting.

+Title and Time of Writing.+--Many scholars think
that this Epistle was a circular letter written for the
edification of the churches of Asia Minor and sent to the
church of the capital city.  This opinion is strengthened
by the lack of local allusions and the naming of friends,
as in other epistles.  The inscription "at Ephesus" is
wanting in two of the more important manuscripts.  "On
this view it may be supposed that a space was left in the
salutation in which could be inserted the name of the
particular place where the letter was being read, that the letter
finally fell wholly into the keeping of the Ephesian church,
and that the space was at length permanently filled by the
phrase 'at Ephesus.'"

The time and place of writing was at Rome about 63
A.D.  This Epistle was sent by the messenger, Tychicus,
(Eph. 6:21) who also carried the letters to the church at
Colossæ and to Philemon (Col. 4:7-9).

+Subject.+--As in Colossians, the subject is the
Headship of Christ (3:9-11); His person and work.  God's
eternal purpose is disclosed.  Christ is given sway over
all things "both which are in heaven and which are on
earth" (1:10, 2l).  The unity of the church in Christ
is set forth; the unity of the Gentile and Jewish branches
in Him; the unity of all the individual members in Him.
This union is spiritual and not mechanical; it is holy and
pure; therefore sin is excluded.  Paul looks upon this as
the mystery of the ages, now revealed to him.  There is
one great kingdom, the risen and glorified Christ is the
Head of this kingdom (1:19-23).  Redemption and
reception into this kingdom is through Jesus Christ (1-7).

Paul in this epistle rises above the controversies of the
hour and sees in clear vision the eternal realities and the
great plan of God for the saving of men.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Introduction (1:1-23).  (a) Salutation.  (b)
Thanksgiving and Thesis (1:3-14).  Unity in Christ.
He who is the Head of the church is the Center of the
universe (1:10).  The eternal purpose of God in
Salvation is now made known.  Before the foundation of the
world, man and the redeemed church of Christ were in
the thought of God.  Christ in whom we have redemption
looked forward to His mission from eternity.  "Creation,
nature, and redemption are all parts of one system"; in
the reconciliation of the cross all orders of beings are
concerned.  "That in the dispensation of the fulness of times
He might gather together in one all things in Christ, both
which are in heaven and which are on earth; even in
Him" (1:10).  (c) Prayer.  A petition that the
understanding of believers may be illuminated; that they may
know the hope of their calling and the riches of their
heritage, which comes through unity with their risen and
ascended Lord.

2.  Doctrinal.  Unity in Christ (ch. 2-3).  (a) The
calling of the Gentiles out of "trespasses and sins" into
a new life in Christ.  (b) Jews and Gentiles are
reconciled and brought together in one body by the cross; "no
more strangers and foreigners but fellow citizens with the
saints, and of the household of God."  All built upon
the foundation of Jesus Christ, through the Spirit.  (c)
The mystery of the universal call was made known to
Paul by a new revelation.  Prayer for a more full
comprehension of this unity.

3.  Practical.  The new life in unity with Christ
(4:1-6:17).  (a) Exhortation to walk worthy of this new
life.  (b) Exhortation to gain the victory over sin "in
virtue of the sense of unity with man in Christ."  (c)
Social duties.  The regeneration and consecration in this
new life of the relations of husbands and wives, children
and parents, and slaves and masters, (d) Final entreaty,
in the battle against the powers of evil, to put "on the
whole armour of God."

4.  Conclusion (6:18-24).  (a) Personal.  Paul requests
special prayer for himself in captivity.  Tychicus
is commended.  (b) Farewell and blessing.


THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS

The City of Philippi and the Church.--This city is
notable from the fact that it was the first, in Europe, in
which the gospel tidings were made known.  Accounts
of how Paul came to visit Macedonia and to begin the
work in Philippi are given in Acts (16:10, 12-40).
Going out of the city as he did by the river side, where
prayer was wont to be made, and talking to a number of
women about the "New Way" would not seem to be a
very favorable beginning for a movement which was to
produce such exceedingly large results.  But Paul was so
full of zeal for Christ that he seized every opportunity,
no matter how small, to make Him known.  This church
afterwards was a great comfort to the Apostle.  This
letter shows how he loved it and how he exhorted them to
rejoice in the Lord (4:4).

+Occasion.+--Paul was in prison in Rome.  The
Philippian converts were greatly concerned about him,
therefore they sent Epaphroditus with gifts and offerings to
him (4:18).  This was not the first time that they had
taken thought of and remembered their founder, in a
similar way (4:15, 16).  The Apostle was very grateful for
their care (4:10-14).  While in Rome, Epaphroditus
was taken very sick and came near death (2:25-28).
As soon as he had recovered from his sickness Paul sent
him back to Philippi (2:28), with this letter.  The
reference to Cæsar's household shows how strong a hold
Christianity was getting in Rome (4:22; 1:12-14), and
that there was great boldness in proclaiming the gospel.

+Objects.+--It is an Epistle of thanks to the Philippians
for their kindness (4:10-18) in remembering the Apostle
with substantial gifts in his work and for their fellowship
(1:5) in the gospel.

Another object is to give them friendly advices and
warnings (2:12-24; 3:2-3, 17-21).  Paul does not
forget, in this connection, to remind them of Him to
whom they owe a whole-hearted allegiance, their Lord
and Master, Jesus Christ (4:1).

The great doctrinal object, the Supremacy of Christ,
is also set forth as is markedly manifest in the Epistles of
Colossians and Ephesians.  The whole Christian creed,
"the incarnation, passion, and exaltation of Christ" is
expressed in the second chapter (2:5-11), "That at the
name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven,
and things in earth and things under the earth; and that
every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to
the glory of God the Father."  The great end to be
attained is likeness to Christ (2:5).

+Time of Writing.+--This epistle is generally regarded
as the latest of the letters written during the first
imprisonment in Rome, and in the same year with those to the
churches at Colossæ, and Ephesus.  It was probably sent
to Philippi shortly after the other Epistles (Colossians,
Philemon, and Ephesians) had been dispatched to Asia
Minor.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+--This epistle
is divided into two parts.

First part (1:1-3:1).

I.  Introduction (1:1-2:4).  (a) Greeting.  (b) Paul's
thanksgiving, joy in the fellowship, and prayer for the
Philippians.  (c) An account of the rapid spread of the
gospel in Rome and the apostle's rejoicing that Christ is
preached.  (d) Exhortation to unity in Christ.

2.  Doctrinal (2:5-12).  In this short passage we
have the Christian creed in brief form.  "The Godhead
of Christ and His Manhood--His Pre-existence and His
Incarnation--His Passion and His Exaltation."

3.  Conclusion of the first part (2:13-3:1).  (a)
Renewed exhortation to an upright and blameless Christian
life.  (b) The return of Epaphroditus.  (c) Farewell
message.

Second part (3:2-4:23).  This section seems to
have been added after the letter had been finished.

1.  Warnings (3:2-21).  (a) Against Judaic errors.
Paul could boast that he had been a good Jew and
scrupulously kept the law, yet he renounced all that he might
win Christ.  True righteousness can come only through
faith in Christ.  (b) Against a false idea of the liberty of
the gospel; whereby men, claiming to be Christians,
walked in evil ways.

2.  Final exhortations (4:1-9) to steadfastness, unity,
joy, and the following of all good in Christ.  Acknowledgment
of gifts and benedictions (4:10-23).


QUESTIONS

What is the question at issue in this group of Epistles?  What
the reason for raising this question?  What answer is given?
What attention is now paid to this question?  When were these
Epistles written?  How were they sent?  What can be said of the
Epistles to the Colossians?  The church at Colossæ, how was it
organized?  What was the occasion of this Epistle?  What the
central thought?  What the time and place of writing?  Give the
principal divisions and chief points.  What was the occasion of
the Epistle to Philemon?  Give the principal divisions and chief
points.  What can be said of the Epistle to the Ephesians?  Give
an account of the founding of this church.  What can be said of
the title and time of writing?  What is the subject?  Give the
principal divisions and chief points.  What can be said of the
Epistle to the Philippians?  How was this church organized?
What was the occasion of the Epistle?  What the objects?  Give
the time of writing.  Give the principal divisions and chief points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY X

PASTORAL AND PERSONAL

FOURTH GROUP OF EPISTLES

FIRST TIMOTHY.  TITUS.  SECOND TIMOTHY.

ANALYSIS

+The Place of the Epistles+--When Written.

+Paul's Fourth Missionary Journey+--Notices and Time.  The First Trip
Eastward.  The Trip Westward to Spain.  The Second Trip Eastward.  The
Second Imprisonment of Paul.

+The Questions Discussed+--The Personal Element.  The Doctrinal Part.
The Practical Teaching.  The Special Theme.

+Paul's Last Declaration of His Faith.+

+The First Epistle to Timothy+--Timothy.  Time and Place.  Purpose.
Principal Divisions and Chief Points.

+The Epistle to Titus+--Titus.  Purpose.  Time and Place.  Principal
Divisions and Chief Points.

+The Second Epistle to Timothy+--The Last Words of Paul.  Time and
Place of Writing.  Purpose.  Principal Divisions and Chief Points.



III.  PAUL'S WRITINGS


STUDY X

PASTORAL AND PERSONAL

FOURTH GROUP OF EPISTLES

FIRST TIMOTHY.  TITUS.  SECOND TIMOTHY.

THE PLACE OF THE EPISTLES

+When Written.+--It is generally agreed among scholars that no place
can be found for the writing of First Timothy, Titus, and Second
Timothy in the period covered by Luke in his narrative in Acts.

Agreeing with the tradition of the church, however, the opinion of many
eminent scholars is that Paul was released from the first Roman
imprisonment (Acts 28:16, 30), that he again took up his missionary
work, and at the end of a few years of such work, he was a second time
imprisoned and suffered martyrdom under the Roman Emperor Nero.

It was during this period between the first and second imprisonments
that First Timothy and Titus were written.  Second Timothy was written
during the second imprisonment at Rome, and at the time when Paul was
expecting his sentence of death.  Eusebius (H. E. 2:22-2) says, that
"at the end of the two years of imprisonment, according to tradition,
Paul went forth again upon the ministry of preaching; and in a second
visit to the city ended his life by martyrdom under Nero, and that
during his imprisonment he wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy."


PAUL'S FOURTH MISSIONARY JOURNEY

+Notices and Time.+--From the notices given in the Epistles and other
sources the probable course of the missionary travels of Paul from
63-67 A.D. has been reconstructed.

+The First Trip Eastward.+--When Paul wrote to the church at Philippi
(2:24) and to Philemon at Colossæ (22 v.) he evidently expected to be
released from his imprisonment very soon and to see his beloved
Philippian church and Philemon.  He was so sure of speedily visiting
Colossæ that he asked that a lodging be prepared for him.  With Paul to
plan was to act and it is quite possible that he undertook this trip
immediately upon his release from prison.  He probably also visited
Ephesus and a number of other cities.

+The Trip Westward to Spain.+--In the Epistle to the Romans Paul
declared his intention to visit Spain (Rom. 15:24, 28).  It is probable
that he, upon his return from the visit to Asia Minor, remained for a
very short time in Rome and then made a voyage to Spain.

The tradition of the early church is very pronounced upon this voyage
to Spain.  Clement of Rome (Cor. 5) speaks of Paul "having reached the
furtherest bound of the west."  This could hardly mean anything but
Spain.  The Muratorian Fragment names "the departure of Paul from the
city to Spain."

+The Second Trip Eastward.+--We can now, from notices in First and
Second Timothy and Titus, quite closely follow Paul in his travels.
From Spain he probably went by various stages to Ephesus, where as he
tells us (1 Tim. 1:3) he left Timothy in charge when he went into
Macedonia.  From Macedonia he probably wrote his first letter to
Timothy (1:3).  From Macedonia he went to Troas and from Troas to
Miletus (2 Tim. 4:13).  On account of sickness Trophimus was left at
Miletus (2 Tim. 4:20).  He next probably visited Crete, where he left
Titus (Titus 1:5).  From Crete it is thought that Paul went to Corinth
(2 Tim. 4:20) where he left Erastus and in all probability wrote to
Titus (1:5).  In the letter to Titus Paul speaks of being at Nicopolis
and of his intention to spend the winter in that city (Titus 3:12).
But these notices of places are by no means exhaustive.  They show,
however, how wide were Paul's last travels.

+The Second Imprisonment of Paul.+--It is by no means unlikely that the
enemies of Paul, of whom we hear so much in the first three missionary
journeys, were stirred to renewed activity by again seeing him at
liberty and conducting an active missionary campaign.  But with a
prisoner on parole from the Imperial Court the local magistrates could
do nothing.  But a new element came in.  The great fire, which
destroyed so large a part of the city of Rome on the 18th of July, 64
A.D., was used by the Emperor Nero as an excuse for starting a great
persecution against the Christians.  This was done to divert the odium
of the starting of the fire from himself, for he had sung and danced
the "Mime of the Burning of Troy" from a turret of his palace during
this great conflagration.  It was some time before this persecution was
extended to the provinces and Paul's enemies saw their opportunity to
accuse him to the Imperial Court, where under the circumstances they
would then find a ready hearing.  Paul was probably rearrested at
Nicopolis where he intended to winter (Titus 3:12) and hurried off to
Rome.  This time he endured no light imprisonment.  Onesiphorus had
difficulty in finding him (2 Tim. 1:16, 17) and he was closely confined
in a common criminal dungeon (2 Tim. 2:9).  From this dungeon he wrote
the Second Epistle to Timothy and from thence he went to his death.


THE QUESTIONS DISCUSSED

+The Personal Element+ in these epistles is quite large both in respect
to Timothy and Titus and Paul himself, but it is quite evident that
this element is not the chief cause for the writing.

+The Doctrinal Part.+--Paul is here as strenuous for the need of
repentance, the atonement through Jesus Christ and His sole sufficiency
as Mediator, Savior, and Lord of all (1 Tim. 1:15-17; Titus 2:13;
3:4-7), as in his other Epistles.  There are also enemies of the truth
who are to be opposed (2 Tim. 3).  It is quite evident from what Paul
says in the second chapter and elsewhere in Titus and Second Timothy
that the Colossian heresy is already bearing its evil fruit and is
likely in the future to do great injury to the churches.

+The Practical Teaching+ about the necessity of developing and
conserving the Church's system of government occupies, however, the
chief place.  "The two notes which are struck again and again are:
First, 'Hold fast the tradition, the deposit of faith.'  Second,
'Preserve order in the church.'  In short this group of Epistles
constitutes Paul's last will and testament in which he gives his final
instructions for the maintenance and continuity of the faith."

The church of Jesus Christ must have form and order.  The truth must
have a proper shelter.  Churches must have and observe certain
regulations.  There must be proper officers.

The gospel is applied to outward conduct.  Great stress is laid upon
the character of church officers (1 Tim. 3:1-13; Titus 1:5-7).  Pastors
are directed how they should bear themselves toward church members and
what they should teach (1 Tim. 5; Titus 2).  The conduct of the Church
in the presence of the heathen world and its magistrates is set forth
(Titus 3).  Instruction is given in regard to public worship (1 Tim.
2).  The most effective barrier against all forms of evil, it is
declared, is a diligent study of the Scriptures and a fervent preaching
of the word (2 Tim. 3:13-4:5).

+The Special Theme+ then is, "The constitution, methods, and conduct of
the early churches."  (1 Tim. 2:1, 2, 8, 9-12; 3:1-13; Titus 1:5-14;
2:1-10; 3:1, 2, 8-11, 13, 14; 2 Tim. 2:2, 14-18; 3:6-9).


PAUL'S LAST DECLARATION OF HIS FAITH

The famous passage in 2 Timothy (4:6-8) shows how the Great Apostle
went triumphantly to his death.  It is a declaration of the sustaining
power of his faith in the Savior whom he had everywhere proclaimed.

"I am now ready to be offered and the time of my departure is at hand.
I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the
faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness,
which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day; and not
to me only, but unto all them also that love His appearing."


THE FIRST EPISTLE TO TIMOTHY

+Timothy+ was one of the close companions of Paul.  His father was a
Greek and his mother a Jewess, by the name of Eunice, (2 Tim. 1:5; Acts
16:1).  He was a native of Lystra, Paul took him as his companion in
travel and addressed two Epistles to him; he was sent on a number of
important missions.  Timothy is mentioned twenty-four times by name in
the Acts and Epistles; from these notices we can construct his
itinerary with Paul and see how beloved and how trusted he was by the
Great Apostle.  During Paul's last journey he left him in charge of the
affairs of the church at Ephesus (1 Tim. 1:3).  When Paul was
apprehended a second time and lying in a dungeon at Rome, in
expectation of death, he wrote Timothy the last letter (2 Timothy) he
ever penned, and besought him to come to him as speedily as possible (2
Tim. 4:9).

+Time and Place of Writing.+--Paul in all probability wrote the First
Epistle to Timothy from Macedonia (1 Tim. 1:3) in the year 66 A.D.

+The Purpose+ "involved is through the instruction and exhortation of
Timothy, to purify, strengthen, and elevate the Christian life of the
church in Ephesus."  This teaching is put in such a way that it is
applicable to every Christian minister and church.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Greeting (1:1, 2).

2.  The True teaching of the gospel (ch. 1).  Timothy is warned against
false teachers and reminded of the aim and end of life in Christ.

3.  The order and regulation of public worship (ch. 2).  (a) Prayer,
for those in authority and for all men.  (b) Instruction.  There is one
God and one Mediator (Christ) between God and man.  (c) Conduct of men
and women in the church assemblies.

4.  Qualifications of the church officers (ch. 3).  (a) The ideal
minister.  (b) The ideal deacon and the ministering women.  (c)
Conclusion of chapter.  Paul declares his intention to visit Timothy.
An ascription of praise.

5.  The government of the Christian church and community (ch. 4-6).  In
these three chapters Timothy is charged by Paul to keep before him a
high view of the church and its grand destiny.  (a) Timothy, as a
teacher, is reminded of his commission to put the church on guard
against errors of doctrine and life (ch. 4).  (b) Timothy is shown how
he should bear rule and conduct himself towards the elders and women of
his congregation.  Paul adds instructions in regard to a man's care for
his family, support of the ministry, discipline of offenders, etc. (ch.
5).  (c) Relations of masters and servants.  Right attitude of
believers in Christ toward riches.  The chief thing is to follow after
righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness, and to fight
the good fight of faith (6:1-19).  (d) Closing charge to Timothy with
benediction (6:20, 21).


THE EPISTLE TO TITUS

+Titus+ was a beloved disciple of Paul.  He was a Gentile and was taken
by Paul to Jerusalem and was made a test case of the freedom of the
gospel and was not compelled to be circumcised (Gal. 2:1-5).  He is
mentioned by name, by Paul, twelve times in four of the Epistles (2
Cor. 2:13; 7:6, 13, 14; 8:6, 16, 23; 12:18; Gal. 2:1, 3; 2 Tim. 4:10;
Titus 1:4).  The early church tradition is that Titus was descended
from the royal family of Crete.  He was an able and capable missionary.
We have no account of his conversion.  He might have come first in
contact with Paul and been converted when the Great Apostle visited
Crete on his way to Rome as a prisoner (Acts 27:7-13).  Some time was
spent at this island by Paul's company (Acts 27:9).  Paul again visited
Crete after his first Roman imprisonment and when he went away he left
Titus in charge of affairs (Titus 1:5), "To set in order things that
are wanting and to ordain elders in every city."  This message of Paul
to Titus not only shows the confidence which Paul reposed in him, but
also how widespread Christianity was in Crete.  After Titus had
completed his special work in Crete he was to rejoin Paul at Nicopolis
(Titus 3:12).

+The Purpose+ of this letter is to show Titus what he is to do, in his
work with the churches, and how to do it.

+Time and Place of Writing.+--It is thought that this Epistle was
written from Corinth in 66 A.D.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Greeting and subject of the Epistle (1:1-5).  Titus is left in
Crete to accomplish certain things (1:5) after which he is to rejoin
Paul (3:12).

2.  The kind of officers to be appointed in the Cretan churches
(1:5-16).  Special moral and spiritual fitness is set forth as
necessary in view of the peculiar character of the Cretans and certain
forms of doctrinal error.

3.  The instruction to be given to the Cretans (2:1-3:11).  (a) "The
things which become sound doctrine."  (b) Practical teaching for the
proper regulation of the conduct of all classes.  (c) The foundation of
the instruction rests upon Christ.  (d) Proper attitude of the
Christian community toward the Pagan world; magistrates and those who
have not yet believed in Christ.  Kindness and gentleness and the
avoidance of foolish questions best reveal the spirit of Christ by
those who profess His name.  (e) Parting requests and benediction
(3:12-15).


THE SECOND EPISTLE TO TIMOTHY

+The Last Words of Paul.+--This Epistle is of special interest as it
contains the last recorded words of Paul to his faithful disciple,
Timothy.  The Great Apostle is writing from a strict prison confinement
(1:16, 17; 2:9).  He has had a first preliminary trial (4:16) and this
was of such a dread nature that none of his friends dare to stand with
him, yet he rejoices in his Lord that He stood by him and strengthened
him.  He feels however that his end is near and gives a magnificent
testimony of his faith (4:6-8).  He urges Timothy to come to him in
Rome and bring Mark with him (4:9, 11).

+Time and Place of Writing.+--It was written by Paul in prison at Rome
67 A.D.

+The Purpose.+--Paul shows here his care for the churches, their
upbuilding in the faith and their proper regulation of the things that
pertain to worship and organization.  Timothy, as a preacher of the
Word, has his personal responsibility, for the upbuilding of the
churches, presented to him.

+Principal Divisions and Chief Points.+

1.  Greeting and thanksgiving (1:1-5).

2.  The Christian conduct of Timothy (1:6-2:14).  Paul exhorts Timothy
not to allow himself to be daunted by fear of opposition or suffering
in doing his work for Christ.  He encourages him by, (a) The great
revelation and power of the gospel.  (b) His own work.  (c) The sure
hope of a great reward.

3.  Timothy as a preacher of the Word (2:15-4:5).  Paul exhorts
Timothy, (a) To study to show himself a workman.  (b) In the perilous
times that are coming to feed on the Word of God and preach it in
season and out of season.

4.  Last words of Paul (4:6-22).  The Apostle now turns to himself and
speaks of his coming martyrdom.  He is ready to be offered, he has
fought a good fight.  He beseeches Timothy to come and see him and
bring Mark.  He refers to his first hearing when every friend left him
alone and only the Lord stood by him.  He, after various messages,
closes with the usual benediction.


QUESTIONS

What is the place of these Epistles in Paul's life?  What can be said
of Paul's fourth missionary journey; the first trip eastward, the trip
westward to Spain, and the second trip eastward?  How did Paul come to
be imprisoned a second time?  What are the questions discussed in these
Epistles; the personal element, the doctrinal part, the practical
teaching, and the special theme?  What is Paul's last declaration of
faith?  What can be said of the First Epistle to Timothy; Timothy's
life, time, and place of writing, the purpose, and the principal
divisions and chief points?  What can be said of the Epistle to Titus;
the life of Titus, the purpose, time, and place of writing, and the
principal divisions and chief points?  What can be said of the Second
Epistle to Timothy; the last words of Paul, time and place of writing,
and the principal divisions and chief points?



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