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Title: Beautiful Gardens in America
Author: Shelton, Louise
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: Book Cover]



       *       *       *       *       *

  BEAUTIFUL GARDENS IN AMERICA. Illustrated. 4to       _net_ $5.00
  CONTINUOUS BLOOM IN AMERICA. Illustrated. 4to        _net_ $2.00
  THE SEASONS IN A FLOWER GARDEN. Illustrated. 12mo    _net_ $1.00

[Illustration: PLATE I
"Mariemont," Newport, R. I. Mrs. Thomas J. Emory
_After an autochrome photograph by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]









  Here may I live what life I please,
  Married and buried out of sight,
  Married to pleasure, and buried to pain,
  Hidden away amongst scenes like these
  Under the fans of the chestnut trees:
  Living my child-life over again,
  With the further hope of a fuller delight,
  Blithe as the birds and wise as the bees.
  In green old gardens hidden away
  From sight of revel, and sound of strife,
  Here have I leisure to breathe and move,
  And do my work in a nobler way;
  To sing my songs, and to say my say;
  To dream my dreams, and to love my love,
  To hold my faith and to live my life,
  Making the most of its shadowy day.



         FOREWORD                                                     xv
      I. THE GARDEN AND ITS MEANING                                    1
     II. CLIMATE IN AMERICA                                            8
    III. NEW ENGLAND                                                  13
           MAINE                                                      14
           NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT                                  27
           MASSACHUSETTS                                              37
           RHODE ISLAND                                               79
           CONNECTICUT                                                89
     IV. NEW YORK                                                     99
           LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK                                     127
      V. NEW JERSEY                                                  155
     VI. PENNSYLVANIA                                                187
    VII. MARYLAND                                                    205
   VIII. VIRGINIA                                                    219
     IX. SOUTH CAROLINA                                              235
      X. GEORGIA AND FLORIDA                                         247
     XI. TENNESSEE AND MISSOURI                                      255
    XII. ILLINOIS AND INDIANA                                        265
   XIII. OHIO                                                        277
    XIV. MICHIGAN AND WISCONSIN                                      287
     XV. NEW MEXICO                                                  299
    XVI. CALIFORNIA                                                  303
   XVII. OREGON AND WASHINGTON                                       323
  XVIII. ALASKA                                                      337
    XIX. VANCOUVER ISLAND                                            340
         A FEW GARDEN GATES                                          347




     I   "MARIEMONT," NEWPORT, R. I.                      _Frontispiece_

    II }
   III } "FAIRLAWN," LENOX, MASS.                     _Facing page_   42

    IV   THE AUTHOR'S CHILDHOOD GARDEN                               106

     V   SOUTHAMPTON, L. I.                                          130

    VI   "GLEN ALPINE," MORRISTOWN, N. J.                            160

   VII }
  VIII } ROLAND PARK, BALTIMORE, MD.                                 210

_Plates I, V, VII, and VIII were reproduced from photographs colored by
Mrs. Herbert A. Raynes, the basis of which were autochrome photographs._





    3 }
    5 }

    6 }
    7 }
    8 } CORNISH, N. H.
    9 }
   10 }


   12 }
   14 }



   17 }
   19 }

   20 }
   22 }




   26 }
   28 }








   36   "THE ELMS," NEWPORT, R. I.








   44 } AUBURN, N. Y.
   45 }


   47   "WOODLAND," TUXEDO, N. Y.



   50 }

   52 }


   55 }


   58   SOUTHAMPTON, L. I.

   59 }
   60 }
   62 }

   63 }

   65   SOUTHAMPTON, L. I.

   66 }
   67 }
   68 } EAST HAMPTON, L. I.
   69 }


   71   CEDARHURST, L. I.

   72   WESTBURY, L. I.





   77   MORRISTOWN, N. J.

   78 }
   80 }


   82 }
   84 }

   85   "ONUNDA," MADISON, N. J.


   87   "THORNTON," RUMSON, N. J.

   88   HIGHLAND, N. J.


   90 } ANDALUSIA, PA.
   91 }



   94 }




   99   "HAMPTON," TOWSON, MD.





  104 }
  106 }
  107 }

  109 }


  111   RICHMOND, VA.

  113 }

  114 }
  116 }

  117 }
  119 }







  127 }

  129 }


  131 }
  133 }


  135 }




  141 }

  142   LAS CRUCES, N. M.

  144 }


  146 }
  148 }

  149   ROSS, CAL.

  150   PASADENA, CAL.

  151 }
  152 }
  154 }


  156 }
  158 }

  159 }
  160 } SEATTLE, WASH.





  165 }



  169 }

  171 }

  173   EAST HAMPTON, L. I.




From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals.

     "A garden was wonderful at night--a place of strange silences
     and yet stranger sound: trees darkly guarding mysterious
     paths that ran into caverns of darkness; the scents of
     flowers rising from damp earth heavy with dew; flowers that
     were weary with the dust and noise of the day and slept
     gently, gratefully, with their heads drooping to the soil,
     their petals closed by the tender hands of the spirits of
     the garden. The night sounds were strangely musical. Cries
     that were discordant in the day mingled now with the running
     of distant water, the last notes of some bird before it
     slept, the measured harmony of a far-away bell, the gentle
     rustle of some arrival in the thickets; the voice that could
     not be heard in the noisy chatter of the day rose softly now
     in a little song of the night and the dark trees and the
     silver firelight of the stars."



Books and magazines written by and for American architects usually show
in their illustrations fine imitations of lovely French, English, and
Italian formalism and works of art in marble or other stone ornamenting
the gardens of great mansions in this country.

The object of this book is to present, more particularly, another type
of garden, demonstrating the cultured American's love of beauty
expressed through plant life rather than in stone; showing the
development of his ideal in more original directions, when planning for
himself the garden spot in which he is to live rather than when building
wholly in imitation of some accepted type of classic art.

With but few exceptions, these illustrations are of a class which might
be called personal gardens. The attractive features in nearly every view
speak so eloquently for themselves that there seems but little need of
detailed verbal description of each beautiful spot.

In covering all sections of the country, occasion is given for the
observation and study of widely varying climatic conditions, the
results of which the author has also sought to consider.

Some difficulty has been felt in properly ascribing the ownership of a
number of the gardens illustrated. As a rule, there is but one
recognized director of the garden's welfare--rarely are two members of a
household equally interested. While he is by custom acknowledged master
of the house, it is oftener she who rules supreme among the flowers.
Misnaming the real possessor might be a serious mistake; attributing the
ownership to two is superfluous; the benefit, where any doubt existed,
has been therefore given to the fair sex, with due apology for possible

  October 28, 1915.




  Come not with careless feet
    To tread my garden's unfrequented ways.
  No highroad this, no busy clanging street,
    No place of petty shows and fond displays.
  Here there are blossoms sweet
    That shrink and pine from inconsiderate gaze;
  And here the birds repeat
    Only to loving ears their truest lays.
  Hither I can retreat
  And drink of peace where peace unravished stays.
  Herein are streams of sorrow no man knows--
  Herein a well of joy inviolate flows;
  Come not with careless feet
  To soil my garden's sanctuary ways.




A world without flowers! What would it be? Among those who know, such a
question needs no answer--and we are not seeking a reply from the
uninitiated who, for lack of understanding and sympathy, can but gaze at
us with wondering pity, when our gardens cause us to overlook so much
that to them means life. But is there any life more real than the life
in the garden for those who actually take part in its creation and
nurture it carefully week by week and year by year? If, owing to this
absorbing occupation, we fail to give a full share of ourselves to some
of the social avocations of the busy world are we to be pitied for
getting "back to the soil" to which we belong? Man was put by the
Creator "in the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it," and even
after his forced departure therefrom he was bidden to "till the ground,"
and the reward seems great to us who know the meaning of the signs and
wonders continually being revealed in the garden world.

In seeking the simpler life which many are now craving, if luxuries are
blessings that we could do without, must we count the flower garden a
luxury? Not while its beauty is a joy in which others may share, nor
when it helps to keep at home our interests which make the real home.
There is a luxury that often induces the roaming spirit, and doubtless
were there fewer motors there would be still more gardens and
incidentally more home life. Yet notwithstanding this temptation to
roam, gardens are now on the increase in almost every section of the
United States. We have made a brave beginning of which to be justly

If only we could live in the world more as we live in the garden, what
joy and contentment would be brought into the daily life! In the garden
hurry and noise are needless, for perfect system can prevail where each
plant, each labor has its own especial time, and where haste is a
stranger, quiet reigns. It is in the stillness of the green world that
we hear the sounds that make for peace and growth. In the garden, too,
we labor faithfully, as best we know how, in following rules that
promise good results. Then at a certain time we must stand aside,
consciously trusting to the source of life to do the rest. With hopeful
eyes we watch and wait, while the mysterious unseen spirit brings life
into plant and tree. When something goes wrong, how sublime is our
cheerful garden philosophy, as smiling we say: "Just wait until we try
next year!" And patiently we try again, and ever patiently, sometimes
again and yet again. Our unwritten motto is: "If others can, then why
not we?" Even the man who "contends that God is not" shows all this
wondrous reliance in the unseen force within his garden.

With hands plunged into the cool earth we seem to bury in the magic soil
all thoughts that jar till we almost feel ourselves a part of the garden
plan; as much in harmony with it as the note of the bird, the soft
splash of the fountain, the tints of the flowers and their perfumes.
This idea is better expressed in four lines found inscribed on an old
garden seat:

  "The kiss of the sun for pardon,
    The song of the birds for mirth,
  One is nearer God's heart in a garden
    Than anywhere else on earth."

It is not a selfish life--the object in view is not a narrow one. How
few would be content to create a beautiful garden if none could see! And
our pleasure is not complete until others have shared its sweetness with
us. The gardener is developing nature in the simplest and truest way,
following the thought of the first great Architect and gladdening the
hearts of men with the vision beautiful of the possibilities within
plant life. In the flower garden the efforts are for upbuilding, for
giving back some of the beauty intended in the Perfect Plan, too often
defaced by man's heedlessness.

Dating back their beginning some two hundred years in certain Southern
States, numerous gardens, beautiful with age, tell the story of the
ardent garden lovers of earlier days, who had to send abroad for their
green treasures which they planted and carefully tended, hopefully
planning for the future. Many such gardens with their choice shrubs and
trees still stand as green memorials to those long-ago people who had
time and money for this luxury. Since then the hardships following war
have brought sad neglect to the beautiful places--the number we can
never guess--many of which, however, are now being aroused to fresh life
by new owners who appreciate the charm and dignity of an ancient home.

Hidden away in some of the old plantations of the South, and scattered
over the Eastern States, near Philadelphia, along the Hudson River, and
in parts of Massachusetts, the best of the older gardens are found.
Beautiful, too, while often beyond reach of the camera, are many of the
more modern creations so skilfully and lovingly fashioned by men and
women of later generations. It is impossible to do justice in
photography to some of them when certain conditions prevent the camera
from being placed at a range favorable to getting a view of the larger
portions in one photograph. Sometimes they are composed of three or four
connecting sections, each bringing a surprised delight to the visitor
passing from one to the other, but such an arrangement cannot be
satisfactorily portrayed in a picture.

One strange reason why some American gardens are not photographed for
the public is that occasionally people are found who will not share
their blessings with others less fortunate; who jealously keep in
seclusion all the wealth of nature's sweetness contained in their garden

After all, is not the delight which belongs to a garden but a bit of
borrowed glory from the Creator of sunlight, and of the kingdom of
flowers? If a garden is worthy of showing to our intimates, can we close
it to the stranger who may need even more to breathe inspiration from
its peace and loveliness? The foreign custom of opening the fine places
to the public on stated days is one that we should freely emulate. And
to those who may not come to the gardens, what a boon is photography,
especially in color, placing in our very hands the beauty that we crave!

The views contained within this book show gardens that were planned,
with but few exceptions, by their owners, earnestly laboring to express
their sense of the beautiful in these their outdoor homes. And so great
is the individuality evinced in most of them that there are hardly two
gardens that resemble one another; for the differences in gardens are as
many as the endless number of varying characters written in the faces of
men. Both are stamped with the spirit behind them. In visiting gardens
it is not difficult to distinguish between the ones fashioned by "love's
labor" and those made by the practical gardener.

More and more we are getting away from the cold, stiff planting of
Canna, Coleus, and Salvia. Few of us can tolerate the impression of
newness and rigidity in the garden, and as Father Time cannot help us
fast enough we try to emulate him by stamping his mark of mellowness in
innumerable ways upon the youthful garden. Then Mother Earth is
consulted as to her unrivalled way for the grouping of her flower
family, and she shows us the close company they keep--hand in hand over
the whole meadow--nothing stands quivering alone, grasses and plants
blending to fill all spaces. Then above, in the rainbow, we learn the
harmony for our color scheme, and unto no nation on earth need we apply
for the latest theories dealing with these subjects for the beautifying
of our gardens. The more of the nature scheme we bring into them the
greater satisfaction will they give.

We should build the garden with a setting of fine trees grouped upon the
outskirts, otherwise it will seem as incomplete as a portrait without a
frame. Half of the charm attached to the beautiful old gardens of Europe
lies in the richness of their backgrounds of stately hedges and trees.

If comparisons were to be made between such views as those shown in this
book and the pictures of English gardens, for instance, the differences
would not in every case be favorable to England, although it must be
admitted that age has given a dignity and grandeur to many English
gardens that could hardly be surpassed. Time, doubtless, will add this
dignity to our gardens, but can we not feel that we have already
equalled some of the smaller English gardens when we consider the
poetical beauty found in most of these illustrations?

Unfortunately, except in a few localities, our climate does not
encourage the perfect development of the choicest of the evergreen
hedge-plants, and yet with time we can produce some moderately fine
effects in hedges. We may not hope soon to rival the best of the foreign
gardens that have been maturing through generations of continuous care.
Favored not only by climate but by riches unknown to the early
landowners of our States, the best of the old gardens across the sea
stand for the combined dreams of the many minds which gradually evolved
them, the loving handiwork of innumerable patient toilers who have
successively ministered to them.

Just as there are gardens peculiar to other nations, Dutch, French,
Italian, etc., might we not give serious consideration to evolving some
day a type peculiarly American, inasmuch as it would embody the poetic
and artistic sense of our country? Such a result might be attained even
should we claim the privilege of our individual liberty, to plant, each
one for the expression of his own soul, thus keeping our gardens
distinctly variable and original in type, and so ultimately national.



Few subjects are more bewildering than that of climate in the United
States, and its effect on gardens in different sections is an ever
interesting study. Replying to the question as to which locality in the
East might be said to have the longest continued flowering period, an
expert in the Agricultural Department writes: "The question of plant
life in relation to climate is a very large one and one about which it
is hard to generalize without close study in the various parts of the
country. Some little work along these lines is being attempted, but as
yet we have been unable to make any report upon it."

Correspondence with gardeners in the various States has furnished the
brief data given in connection with the following chapters, showing that
the local conditions as affecting garden culture are much more
encouraging in some places than in others.

Not only are there the matters of latitude and altitude to be
considered, but often quite as important is the influence of the Gulf
Stream in the Atlantic or of the Japan Current in the Pacific Ocean.
Again, there is the moist climate by the sea, or the quality of soil,
the periodic torrential rainfall of one section, and elsewhere the long
months of drought.

Generally speaking, our country is, in most parts, a land of sunshine,
with usually sufficient rain and moisture to benefit plant life, and
while we grumble at our sudden changes in temperature, how few of us
realize the blessing of an abundant sunshine pervading the "great
outdoors" and incidentally the gardens!

Nowhere do flowers grow more luxuriantly, in greater variety, or through
a season more prolonged than on the coasts of Oregon, Washington, and
California,--soil, moisture, and temperature combining to make gardening
a simpler task than it is elsewhere. The shore country of Southern
California is a perpetual garden, with a climate almost unrivalled for
plants and for humans. North of San Francisco the near approach of the
Japan Current produces a climate quite similar to that of England, and
with the exception of possibly two months (and even then an occasional
Rose may bloom) flowers are found all the year round. This favored
section of the Northwest nevertheless is not visited with as much
sunshine as is found elsewhere, but its gardens blossom with little
assistance save from the frequent rainfall, more welcome to plants than
to men.

In Kansas and the other flat and fertile States of the Middle West the
garden period, on account of the long, dry summers, is usually limited
to the weeks from late March to late June. In the more northern
temperature of the lake region gardens which flourish all summer are

The Atlantic States have a shorter blooming season than those on the
Pacific coast. Throughout the South, east of New Mexico, the warm
weather season is as prolonged as on the Pacific coast, and yet in the
Southern States garden bloom is checked half-way through the summer by
excessive heat and drought (except in the favored mountainous
localities), which at least interrupt the continuous succession of
flowers. For this reason gardening in the South except in spring, or in
high altitudes, is generally discouraged.

Although not stated as an indisputable fact, scientifically, we are
inclined to believe that the seacoast section of the Maryland peninsula
is the locality in the East especially favorable to the most prolonged
season of bloom. Lying between sea and bay, this particular district in
the latitude for early spring and late frost enjoys also the benefit of
surrounding waters, escaping thereby the parching summer climate from
which gardens of the interior suffer, to the west and south and to the
north, almost as far as Philadelphia.

In Maine conditions are different; April and May gardens are
conspicuously absent. The flower season generally begins in mid-June and
does not much exceed three months, but in that period the bloom is
exceptionally luxuriant. The season is necessarily a short one, as it is
throughout this latitude westward to Oregon, where after reaching the
Coast or Cascade Range there is a change and the climate becomes more
like that of England than Maine. Along the Atlantic coast from Maine to
New Jersey, where the climate is ideal for flowers, the greatest
proportion of Eastern gardens may be found, on the shore and inland as

So much for the general climatic effects upon flowers of the more
populous districts of our vast country. A few lines will suffice to
treat the climate question in connection with hedge-plants.

While the summer climate in the Southern States has not generally a
salutary effect upon the flowers, yet it has favored the best
development of Boxwood, Holly, and certain other choice shrubs and
trees, which do not thrive well north of Philadelphia. Fine specimens of
Boxwood are rare sights in New England, where the more severe winters
have from time to time destroyed the top growth. Many old New England
gardens show the characteristic Box-edged path, but the shrub is usually
not over two feet high, and is likely to remain so unless eventually the
winter climate should moderate. Boxwood is seen on the Pacific coast,
north of San Francisco, but not to the south, where Cypress is popular.
There is little Boxwood in the latitude of New York City, except for
edgings, where for tall hedges Privet, Arbor-Vitæ, Hemlock, and Spruce
are probably the most reliable evergreens. Arbor-Vitæ is unlikely to
live longer than seventy years.

Although all of our States are not represented in this volume, these
views are taken so generally from almost every section that the climatic
conditions describing one State may usually stand as well at least for
the States immediately adjoining. The only section of the Union omitted
is that part through which run the Rocky Mountains. As a rule, this part
of the country is not in its nature open to the cultivation of formal
gardens, although its wild flora is remarkable enough to deserve special

In the brief chapters to follow there will be given more detail relating
to climate, in order that we fellow gardeners in all parts of the Union
may know something more about one another's garden program, our several
problems, and our privileges in this outdoor life that we lead.



With dreams of the English gardens ever before them, our Pilgrim fathers
and mothers brought flower and vegetable seeds to the new land, and the
earliest entries in old Plymouth records contain mention of "garden
plotes."[1] John Josselyn, fifty years later, wrote a book called "New
England Rarities Discovered," including a list of plants originally
brought from old England, mentioning those suitable or not for this
climate, and showing that our ancestors had lost no time in planting not
only vegetables for the benefit of their bodies but flowers as well for
the cheer of their souls.

The New England States naturally have the largest representation in this
book, owing to the fact that the climate of numerous Western and
Southern States causes many of the inhabitants to find summer homes near
the North Atlantic seaboard. It is not that the New Englander is a more
ardent gardener, but rather that ardent gardeners from elsewhere are
tempted by the soil and climate to join the Easterners in creating these
flower "plotes," which beautify hundreds of hamlets in this section. On
the coast particularly flowers grow most luxuriantly, even within a few
hundred yards of the surf, where snug gardens protected by windbreak
hedges blossom as serenely as in an inland meadow. Not long ago most
people believed that gardening or gardens near the sea were an
impossibility; but when they realized the hardiness of certain dense
shrubs that make perfect hedges and windbreaks, gardens on the shore
sprang rapidly into existence, and we of the inland are apt to envy
nature's partiality to seaside flowers.


At Bar Harbor on the island of Mount Desert, Maine, as in other places
of this latitude, the season, of course, begins later and ends sooner
than near New York City. The flowering period is from five to six weeks
shorter at Bar Harbor. However, the wonderful summer climate somewhat
atones for this briefer season, and the gardens of Maine can boast of
unusual luxuriance, in richness of color and size of plants, with but
little heat or prolonged drought to affect their best development. The
hardier seeds sown in the open will germinate in mid-May; tender annuals
in June; the plants of tender annuals go out soon after June 10.
Daffodils appear about May 15, followed by late Tulips; German Iris
appears in the week of June 10; Sweet William and Roses in early July;
Delphinium in mid-July, and Hollyhocks about July 28. Late Phlox is at
its best by mid-August.

Thus the plants beginning to bloom near New York City in May and early
June do not, on account of the colder spring, appear at Bar Harbor for
several weeks to come, when they unite their bloom with the flowers of a
later period. The slow-coming spring retards earlier bloom, but has less
effect on that of midsummer. The summer residents owning gardens in
Maine rarely arrive much before the last of June, and consequently such
early bloomers as Tulips, etc., are not seen as often as in the milder
climates. In this northern State frost usually destroys the garden by
September 15.

Not only is it possible to grow all the favorite flowers along the
shore, but even on the islands lying off the coast of Maine there are
innumerable little gardens, such as those at Isleborough, which revel in
the moist sea climate of midsummer and blossom most satisfactorily until
frost. At this point it is interesting to contrast the climate of the
North Atlantic section with the region directly across the continent
along the Pacific coast, where at Vancouver's Island, for instance,
plant life enjoys a climate similar to that of England, with a growing
season quite as prolonged.

There are beautiful gardens at Bar Harbor, on the estates along the
shore as well as farther inland. Most of them, screened by fine growths
of trees and shrubbery from view of the highway, are equally well
protected from sea-winds, blooming luxuriantly in spite of the fact that
not very long ago the best authorities believed that gardens on this
shore could never prosper. Two of the most noted at Mount Desert are
shown in the following pages.

At Kenarden Lodge the garden in the clear atmosphere of this northern
climate is most beautiful in form and coloring, and its background of
distant hills combines to intensify the charm of this famous place,
which is in bloom all summer. The centre beds are filled with annuals in
prevailing colors of pink, blue, and white, noticeably Snapdragon,
Ageratum, Sweet Alyssum, pink Geranium, and Begonia. Planted in masses,
these and other dependable annuals blossom as long as needed. The broad
green sod paths act as a setting to the delicate hues covering the beds.
The perennials are banked against the vine-covered walls.

The Blair Eyrie garden on the High Brook Road is equally inviting and
contains many other attractive features beyond the limits of this
restricted view. Peacefully retired behind its boundaries of trimmed
hedge and dense woodland, it must always delight the flower lover.
Perennials abound with a good supply of enlivening annuals. Its
surroundings of evergreen trees are in strong contrast to the brilliant
tones of Phlox, Lilies, Hydrangeas, and Hollyhocks, and this garden as
seen from an upper terrace is a blaze of lovely color framed in green.

In southern Maine the garden at Hamilton House has no rival in that
section of New England. The hand of an artist has wrought a perfect
scheme delightfully in accord with an ideal environment; but pictures
cannot do it justice. Within the grassy court of the main garden the
several small open beds are filled with groups of annuals. The rear beds
contain tall-growing perennials mixed with some annuals. There are weeks
when the garden is all pink, and again all blue and white. It is
surrounded on three sides with most artistic pergolas, from one side of
which the view down the Piscataqua River is a picturesque feature. Stone
steps on another side lead to an upper garden filled with bloom
surrounding a quaint and ancient little building kept as a studio. In
isolation, simplicity, and ripeness the atmosphere of the whole place
breathes of olden days, and might well be taken as a model for a perfect
American garden. Its gates may be seen in a later section.

[Illustration: PLATE 1
"Kenarden Lodge," Mrs. John S. Kennedy, Bar Harbor, Maine]

[Illustration: PLATE 2
"Blair Eyrie," Bar Harbor, Maine
Garden of the late D. C. Blair, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 3
"Hamilton House," South Berwick, Maine. Mrs. George S. Tyson]

[Illustration: PLATE 4
End of pergola]

[Illustration: PLATE 5
Garden looking east
"Hamilton House," South Berwick, Maine. Mrs. George S. Tyson]


Side by side, these twin States have much in common--climate, mountains,
and old historical associations included. Owing to the short, cool
summers of this latitude and altitude, there may be less attention given
to flowers than in other parts of New England. But the few illustrations
in the following pages are fine evidences of garden art, at least in the
region of Cornish, the abode of artists, and where gardens are
plentiful. The season opens about four weeks later than near New York
City, and in early September frost lays waste the splendid bloom while
still in its prime. Although flowers are slow in appearing, a perfection
of growth later makes up for lost time. In fact, climatic conditions are
so favorable to summer plants that, once started, the garden tasks are
lighter than in warmer climates, where drought and pests are more

Possibly the most famous of Cornish gardens is that of Charles A. Platt,
Esq., whose beautiful gardens in several States are numerous and noted.
His own hillside place is a labyrinth of flowers, admirably suiting the
environment, spacious and dignified in its rich simplicity.

Perfectly in accord also with the atmosphere of this mountain country is
the lovely garden of Stephen Parrish, Esq., delightfully unique and
suggesting a little English garden. This enclosure of flowers is but a
section of a broader plan where pool, grass, and trees are pleasant

Mrs. Hyde's garden is a mass of bloom composed chiefly of the
longest-lived annuals and giving a charming color effect to this
picturesque spot.

The best gardens of Vermont, with its still greater area of uplands, are
probably those in and around Manchester and Bennington. They are usually
of the simplest character, and lovely under the personal care of devoted
owners. One worthy of special attention is seen in the view of
Longmeadow garden, which is an example of the great value of trees as a
background, and a strong argument in their behalf. As a gem needs a
setting, so the flowers, in even the most modest planting, are doubly
fair when framed in luxuriant green.

[Illustration: PLATE 6
Cornish, N. H. Charles A. Platt, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 7
Cornish, N. H. Charles A. Platt, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 8
Cornish, N. H. Mrs. George Rublee
_From photographs by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 9
Cornish, N. H. Stephen Parrish, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 10
Cornish, N. H. Mrs. William H. Hyde
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 11
Old Bennington, Vt. Mrs. James A. Eddy]


Probably no other section of the Union contains as many gardens, old and
new, as does this fertile State, combining the advantages natural to the
altitude of the beautiful Berkshires with the favorable climate of the
coast. People representing nearly every State help to form the summer
colonies of New England, more especially in Massachusetts. Everywhere
the luxuriance of bloom is very marked and most noticeable on the coast,
where all plants, especially certain less long-lived annuals like
Poppies, Salpiglossis, and Mallows, reach their limit of perfection and
continue at their best for an unusual period. In the latitude of Boston
the season starts two weeks later than near New York City, and the
gardens, beginning in the German Iris period, open about the fifth of
June. The Sweet William and its contemporaries follow by late June; the
Delphinium period is early July; Hollyhocks come about July 20. Tender
annuals can be safely planted out soon after June 1.

The garden season in the hill country opens a few days later than at
Boston, and in the Berkshires the frost is apt to destroy the garden
before September 20. Where the thermometer may drop occasionally to
twenty degrees below zero, ample winter covering is necessary, and snow
adds its still better protection to the plants during most of the winter
months. The average summer heat is not excessive and, although droughts
must sometimes be reckoned with, the water supply is generally

It would be a serious matter to attempt to name the best gardens in this
State, for who could judge where such an infinite variety exists? At
least some of the best examples in photography can be given, although
each view but hints at the fuller beauty to be found in the garden

Of the many wonderful gardens in Massachusetts possibly the most
remarkable of all is Weld, in Brookline, which is known to gardeners far
and wide. There is nothing in America more extensive and more richly
planted. The numerous beds are filled with bloom for many weeks, and
each bed contains a massing of one variety, whether perennials or
annuals, which, when it has finished flowering, is replaced by something
of another period. The French features in the garden are prominent and
the planting may be considered American in some respects--altogether a
most pleasant combination.

Of a distinctly opposite type but equally delightful is Holm Lea, near
Brookline, and a score of photographs would be necessary to depict this
place of flowering shrubs and perennial bloom bordering the winding
grass paths leading from one lovely spot to another.

An extremely interesting and unusual type in America is the stately
green garden at Wellesley, at this time without a rival in its
particular style of planting. Because of its frequent appearance in
various magazines of the country it is too well known to need further

Of still another class and very beautiful is one of the most noted
gardens in the Berkshires planned entirely by the owner of Fairlawn,
Lenox. It is a series of formal gardens, in coloring and setting most
perfectly devised. But how useless a photographic description when
applied to a combination of gardens spread over one or two acres!
Several pools and many old shade-trees play an important part, and its
charm is still more enhanced by the wide view of the distant hills
fitting so perfectly into the garden scheme.

Three fine illustrations of Bellefontaine but feebly suggest the beauty
of a place made of splendid gardens, pools, and temple, long shaded
grass walks lined with statuary and other features of Roman art,
blending with the natural attractions of this estate. Gardens, lawns,
and ponds have the rich woodlands as background, the hedges and shrubs
are developed maturely, and everywhere there are charming effects in
"green life." Most of this work, it is interesting to add, has been
accomplished under the direction of the owner.

Picturesque indeed are other Lenox gardens, including White Lodge. The
latter place is noted for its little white garden enclosed in a tall
green hedge, and the main garden, especially in June and August,
contains a delicious color scheme. Broad grass steps are another feature
of the place. Views were not obtainable in time for this volume.

At Fernbrooke is found the garden of an artist and sculptor, a study in
color and in garden design most artistically planned, but rambling
enough to prevent a connected view in photography. Golden Italian gourds
pendent from the pergolas; standard currant bushes bordering a path and
covered with red berries as late as September; dwarf fruit trees too,
used decoratively, are among the happy points of interest.

The scheme of the garden of a famous sculptor at Chesterwood, in
Glendale, is not as dependent on flowers as on the well-considered
adjustment of garden equipment to the natural beauty of the environment.
Sunshine mingling with the shadows of the spreading trees plays its part
by giving life and color in changeful tones to the old stone seat and
fountain. The vine-covered arch frames a view of the flower-bordered
path which fades away into a woodland, and these with other sights
gladsome to lovers of such art have given Chesterwood its place in the
ranks of beautiful gardens.

At Riverside Farm, overhanging the beautiful Tyringham Valley, and
possessing possibly the most wonderful of all Berkshire views, is the
dainty garden shown in the accompanying illustrations. It is the work of
an artist, and truly a place of delight. The garden nestles to the
hillside, enclosed in a low stone wall. On one side the sloping hill
down which winding rough stone steps descend to the garden; on another
side a rustic pergola and pool; the third side a line of old apple trees
overhanging the wall; the fourth side contains the simple entrance, and
beyond the boundaries on all three sides--the wonderful view.

At Naumkeag, Stockbridge, the formal garden full of bloom, which is part
of a larger plan, has a wide-spread reputation. It is especially noted
for its battlement-cut hedge, and has as an accessory a splendid
landscape background, so common to the Berkshires and so desirable to
the garden beautiful. "Naumkeag" is the Indian name for Salem, meaning
"Haven of Rest."

Recently completed at Great Barrington, the spacious garden at Brookside
is the best piece of Italian work in this section. The accompanying
illustration gives but a faint idea of its size, its flowers, and its
many other fine points.

The two pictures illustrating the garden at Overloch, Wenham, and at
Rock Maple Farm, Hamilton, are still other good examples of the variety
and charm of the flower planting of this coast State. Both of these
views are unique, and in fact how seldom do we find sameness in gardens!

Mr. Longfellow's place at Cambridge, Doctor Weld's at Brookline, and The
Witch's Place at Salem are typical of New England--the paths all edged
with Box, which shrub, on account of frost blights, has never attained
great height. These gardens are just simple, lovable little places
filled with shadows and sunshine, some flowers, and the good scent of
Box, which latter always seems so especially essential to old gardens.


[1] Quoted from "Old Time Gardens," by Alice Morse Earle.

[Illustration: PLATE II

[Illustration: PLATE III
"Fairlawn," Lenox, Mass. Miss Kneeland
_From autochrome photographs_]

[Illustration: PLATE 12
"Weld," Brookline, Mass. Mrs. Larz Anderson
_From a photograph by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 13
"Weld," Brookline, Mass. Mrs. Larz Anderson
_From a photograph by Thomas Marr and Son_]

[Illustration: PLATE 14
"Weld," Brookline, Mass. Mrs. Larz Anderson
_From a photograph by Thomas Marr and Son_]

[Illustration: PLATE 15
Wellesley, Mass. H. H. Hunnewell, Esq.
_From a photograph by Wurts Bros._]

[Illustration: PLATE 16
"Holm Lea," Brookline, Mass. Professor C. S. Sargent
_From a photograph by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 17
"Fairlawn," Lenox, Mass. Miss Kneeland
_From a photograph by William Radford_]

[Illustration: PLATE 18]

[Illustration: PLATE 19
"Fairlawn," Lenox, Mass. Miss Kneeland
_From photographs by William Radford_]

[Illustration: PLATE 20
"Bellefontaine," Lenox, Mass. Giraud Foster, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 21
"Bellefontaine," Lenox, Mass. Giraud Foster, Esq.
_From a photograph, copyright, by the Detroit Publishing Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 22
"Bellefontaine," Lenox, Mass. Giraud Foster, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 23
"Overloch," Wenham, Mass. J. A. Burnham, Esq.
_From a photograph by Miss M. H. Northend_]

[Illustration: PLATE 24
"Fernbrooke," Lenox, Mass. Thomas Shields Clark, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 25
"Chesterwood," Glendale, Mass. Daniel Chester French, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 26
"Riverside Farm," Tyringham, Mass. Mrs. Banyer Clarkson]

[Illustration: PLATE 27
"Riverside Farm," Tyringham, Mass. Mrs. Banyer Clarkson
_From photographs by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 28
"Riverside Farm," Tyringham, Mass. Mrs. Banyer Clarkson
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 29
"Naum Keag," Stockbridge, Mass. Joseph H. Choate, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 30
"Brookside," Great Barrington, Mass. Mrs. H. Hall Walker
_From a photograph lent by Ferruccio Vitali_]

[Illustration: PLATE 31
"Rock Maple Farm," Hamilton, Mass. George von L. Meyer, Esq.
_From a photograph by Miss M. H. Northend_]

[Illustration: PLATE 32
Brookline, Mass. Doctor Stephen Weld
_From a photograph by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 33
Longfellow's Garden, Cambridge, Mass.
_From a photograph by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 34
Old Witch House, Salem, Mass.
_From a photograph by G. A. Spence_]


Limited space permits but a suggestion of the various types of planting
along the Atlantic coast, which promises to become almost a continuous
garden by the sea from New Jersey to Maine. Rhode Island contains some
of the most magnificent places in the country, the majority of them
situated near bay or sea, where they thrive in congenial environment.
The quality of the climate as it affects plant life will be easily
realized after reading of the climatic conditions of Massachusetts as
well as of those to the south, on Long Island, for instance.

The older gardens are found in the vicinity of Providence, while at
Narragansett and Newport those of a later period abound. Newport by the
sea, more famous than any other American summer resort, naturally
possesses the greatest number of gardens on an elaborate scale. The
coast at this point is somewhat sheltered, the air is mild, and there is
sea moisture so beneficial to flowers. Windbreaks of hedges or walls are
used where the winds blow strong off the water.

Lovely and lovingly planned is the garden at Mariemont, a poetical spot,
overflowing with color and sunshine, yet with shadowy retreats, and the
stillness that belongs to an enclosure of grass paths. It might be taken
for a bit of foreign garden from any part of the world, and possesses a
quality of beauty of which one could never tire. The long, broad path
with its brilliant border and distant vista is the central division of
a charming plan.[2]

Few estates in America are as imposing and as suggestive of the grandeur
of an Italian or English country-seat as The Elms, and it is probably
among the oldest of Newport's famous places. The illustration is limited
to a narrow view of this great, green formal garden in some sections of
which flowers are included in rich profusion.

Probably no place at Newport is more noted for its beauty than Vernon
Court, and, while necessity forces the omission of pictures showing many
of its most elaborate features, a view of the stately formal garden is a
welcome addition to this collection which aims to present a variety in
types of planting in a few large formal gardens, as well as in those
which are smaller and more personal. Vernon Court is not a new garden;
it is unspoiled by garish accessories, and to the lover of the garden
majestic it represents a perfect type.

At Warren, near Providence, the place at Villaserra is delightfully
located, sloping to a bay. Here is one of the favored gardens where old
trees take an important part; in fact, of such consequence are they that
the garden was undoubtedly made to the scheme of the trees and the water
beyond--a beautiful sanctuary of blossoms and green life, shut in from
the discord of the outside world.

[Illustration: PLATE 35
"Mariemont," Newport, R. I. Mrs. Thomas J. Emory
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 36
"The Elms," Newport, R. I. Edward J. Berwind, Esq.
_From a photograph, copyright by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 37
"Vernon Court," Newport, R. I. Mrs. Richard Gambrill
_From a photograph by Alman & Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 38
"Villaserra," Warren, R. I. Reverend Joseph Hutcheson
_From a photograph lent by C. A. Platt, Esq._]


Connecticut gardens are many, both inland and along the shores of the
Sound. Those of the hilly western section have the advantage of a
somewhat cooler altitude. Otherwise it is unnecessary to give further
details as to climatic conditions,[3] as the northern boundary is about
a hundred miles distant from northern New Jersey and the temperatures
differ but little, although of course every hundred miles northward
makes gardening a somewhat simpler proposition, because of slightly
cooler conditions as well as a shortened flower season.

In a reputed true story of the long-ago settlement of Old Saybrook there
is mention of a woman's flower-garden, doubtless the earliest on Long
Island Sound. Here the sheltered inlets and bays must have seemed a
welcome haven to our Pilgrim fathers from the wind-swept coast of
Plymouth, whence they had wandered, probably seeking fertile farmland.
The gardens of this State, with some notable exceptions, are mainly
those of a simpler type, made and tended by their owners, who living in
them, will continue to beautify them more and more as time goes on.
These unpretentious creations of flower lovers often show originality
not always found in gardens of a more formal design, and might be
considered typically American.

Following the idea of simplicity, the first two illustrations of this
chapter portray the "lovesome spot," where flowers predominate, with
nothing to recall the splendor of other lands. A place for the harboring
of flowers for the sake of the flowers, and this was surely the thought
that brooded over the first New England gardens planted in the early
half of the seventeenth century, when American gardens had their

The glimpse through the arched gateway of the garden at
Knock-Mae-Cree--in old Irish, Hill of My Heart--(Plate 168), and the
curtailed view of the flowery planting in the Woodside garden stimulate
a longing further to penetrate into these lovely sanctums.

The garden at Elmwood is partly illustrated in the accompanying
picture--it is further gracefully adorned with pergola and pool.
Liberally designed without being elaborate, it has a charm that is all
its own.

Of quite another character is the perfect formal garden at Pomfret
Center, appealing to the garden lover for its surpassing beauty in
flower bloom, enhanced by the graceful architectural lines of the
buildings surrounding the enclosure, and giving it the sense of complete

Still another type of garden seen occasionally in America is that at
Branford House, a magnificent estate at Groton near New London, and one
of the famous places of that popular summer resort. This stately garden
suggests some of the foreign gardens familiar to us through travel and


[2] See also the frontispiece.

[3] These climatic conditions are explained in New Jersey chapter.

[Illustration: PLATE 39
"Woodside," Hartford, Conn. Walter L. Goodwin, Esq.
_From a photograph by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 40
"Elmwood," Pomfret, Conn. Vinton Freedley, Esq.
_From a photograph by Miss E. M. Boult_]

[Illustration: PLATE 41
Pomfret Centre, Conn. Mrs. Randolph M. Clark
_From a photograph by Miss E. M. Boult_]

[Illustration: PLATE 42
"Branford House," Groton, Conn. Morton F. Plant, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 43
Pomfret Centre, Conn. Mrs. Randolph M. Clark
_From a photograph by Miss E. M. Boult_]



There are gardens, old and new, around the many wealthy cities of this
great State, through the upper section, near Buffalo, Utica, Syracuse,
Albany, etc., as well as to the south. It must suffice to give a few of
the most picturesque views obtainable, almost all of which belong to
places within one hundred miles of New York City.

The garden at Auburn offers a vision of flowers in glorious profusion,
combined with perfect order, which latter condition is not always easily
attainable when plants are allowed a certain amount of freedom. The
location of this garden, in western New York not far from Lake Ontario,
is in about the latitude of northern Massachusetts--a climate congenial
to flowers.

A particular type of garden often predominates in some localities on
account of the conformation of the land; as, for instance, in a
mountainous section like Tuxedo Park, where the places are scattered
over hilly woodland country, many of the gardens naturally develop into
those of terraces, or else, ideal opportunities have created the
rambling wild garden with winding paths, shaded pools, ferns and
flowers. A glimpse of one of this kind is to be had in an accompanying
illustration--an exquisite bit of semi-cultivated wildness that moves
one to wish to see beyond the picture's limits.

Among its formal gardens, Tuxedo at present has nothing more imposing
than the one at Woodland. The wall-beds contain perennials in mass
against the vine-clad background, and the central fountain is framed in
broad beds of Roses, in bush and standard form. This garden's stately
effects are enhanced by the richly developed forms of clipped evergreens
in Boxwood and various Retinosporas, to all of which age, as must ever
be the case, lends force and dignity.

The Cragswerthe garden, a spacious plan on three connecting terraces,
charmingly exemplifies the results obtainable by the exercise of good
taste upon desirable opportunities. Each terrace illustrates, in harmony
with the whole, a special beauty of its own.

The hill gardens usually have also the advantage of a landscape
background, as a rule a pleasant feature also in the Mount Kisco region
of Westchester County, with its numerous hilltop homes. A garden with a
view possesses a setting all its own; one that can hardly be imitated in
that particular landscape at least, varying under the changing clouds,
and therefore never monotonous. Such also is the opportunity in many
Hudson River places, and only those who have lived in the highlands by
this most beautiful of American rivers know the charm of the
mountainsides, with their deep ravines and river vistas.

There is space for but a few of the river gardens in these limited
pages. The one at Blithewood, Barrytown-on-Hudson, is a charming example
of a more modern garden, beautifully located and planted especially for
May, June, and September. A vine-covered brick wall surrounds it on
three sides, and a terra-cotta balustrade is the boundary on the river
side. Chinese Junipers, not supposedly very hardy, are, however, the
well-grown, clipped evergreens in sight. Barrytown is about a hundred
miles from New York.

Up on the Beacon Mountain the Wodenethe gardens were begun about
seventy-five years ago, remaining ever since in the same family, and
always celebrated for their beauty, due doubtless to the devoted and
skilful care continuously given them. Trees, shrubs, and vines are rich
in maturity; the impress of Father Time has so kindly marked the place,
that of the older gardens Wodenethe is probably the finest on the

Not far away there was once another garden. Possibly there is nothing
fairer than the dearest memories of childhood--sometimes doubtless
wonderfully interwoven with the gossamer-like stuff of which air-castles
are made--and so it is with deep satisfaction that the author can dwell
upon views of an old garden relying on something more real than
semi-dreams. To be able to duplicate this happy place for some other
fortunate children would be a joy indeed, and some day the opportunity
may be realized while the dream still lives. Nearly three acres of land
might be required to contain the broad beds bordered with peach, plum,
pear trees and shrubs, and edged with flowers--the great centre spaces
filled with vegetables or small fruits. The outer court of this garden,
on three sides, was formed by two rows of arching apple trees, as shown
in an accompanying illustration. The fourth side was a lane running
between an evergreen hedge and a line of Poplar and nut trees. The outer
walks were broad, the inner intersecting paths were narrower; the tall
planting in the various beds prevented a view from one path to another,
and this was half of the garden's fascination to the children who played
there in the games of make-believe. Always there was something
unexpected awaiting them around the corner. Blissful the chance to
become suddenly lost in grape vines, corn, or dense shrubbery when the
world seemed to consist of just tree-tops, sunlight, flowers, fruits,
and birds! What a contrast to the life of the average fortune-favored
child of the present period!

Echo Lawn is another lovely place near the river, as old, too, as
Wodenethe, extensive in acres, abounding in splendid trees, and full of
a beauty and charm peculiarly characteristic of the old places on the
Hudson. The gardens, although of a later-date creation, are admirably
fitted to the surroundings, and with pools, wall basins, and flower
planting, hardly discernible in the illustration, are a rich addition to
the noted river places.

Twenty miles to the west of the Hudson River is Meadowburn Farm--famous
through its owner, the author of "Hardy Garden" books. Two photographs,
not hitherto published, must alone represent the acres of bloom on this
interesting place. In describing it, eight gardens must be considered
rather than _the_ garden. The Evergreen Garden (shown here), the May
Flowering Hillside, the Lily and Iris Garden, the Pool Garden, the
Perennial Garden, the Cedar Walk, the Vegetable Garden, bordered with
flowers, and the Rose Garden. A rare treat for garden lovers who visit
there by special arrangement.

At Ridgeland Farm, in Westchester County, the owner has shown that the
smallest garden possible when fitted to artistic surroundings and filled
with harmonious bloom can, as a garden and as a picture, satisfy our
craving for the beautiful quite as completely as a subject on a much
larger scale. This fair little plot, with its brick paths and gay
blossoms, continues in bloom for several months, which, in spite of
narrow beds, is always possible in a well-planned and carefully tended

New York includes within its borders the climate of all the New England
States, and, besides, the atmosphere of its lake shores and the milder
sea climate of New York City and Long Island. Between the high altitudes
of the Adirondacks on the north and the sea-level of Long Island on the
south there is a difference of nearly four weeks in the opening of
spring. Within a forty-mile radius of New York City and westward in the
same latitude Daffodils appear about April 15; early Tulips and Phlox
divaricata the last of April; late Tulips May 10; Lilies-of-the-Valley
May 15; German Iris May 22 (florentina alba a trifle earlier); and by
May 25 Lupins, Columbine, Pyrethrum hybrid, and Oriental Poppies, etc.,
arrive; Roses, Peonies, etc., about June 1; Sweet William, Anchusa, and
their companions June 5; Campanula medium June 15; Delphinium June 20;
Hollyhocks July 1 or a few days earlier. At the eastern end of Long
Island Tulips, Lily-of-the-Valley, Roses, shrubs and tree foliage appear
about a week later than the same near the city of New York. In our
extremely variable climate it is impossible to have fixed dates for the
opening of bloom. It must depend upon whether spring is early or late,
which sometimes causes a difference of a week or ten days in the
appearance of the flowers. Lily-of-the-Valley and German Iris seem less
affected by variable springs than other plants. It is perfectly safe
near Manhattan Island to plant out tender annuals May 25, and many
venture it by May 15. Killing frost may be expected between October 1
and November 1--rarely earlier than October 1.

Forty-five miles north of the city of New York, in such higher altitudes
as Mount Kisco or Tuxedo Park, the spring opens about a week later.
Within this radius of the city the summer thermometer occasionally rises
above seventy-eight degrees, and in winter it may average possibly
thirty to forty degrees above zero; only a few days know zero weather,
and rarely does it drop below. At least once a winter there will come a
period of weather as mild as fifty to sixty degrees, when one almost
fears the premature appearance of some of the plants. It is on account
of the thaws as well as the cold that the plants require a moderate
covering to keep the ground as far as possible frozen hard and
undisturbed by the sun, as frequent thawing injures the roots.

A garden at the other extreme of the State, in the Adirondack Mountains,
planted to begin with early Tulips, Phlox divaricata, and others of this
period, will make its display about June 1. Lilies-of-the-Valley arrive
soon after June 8; German Iris, Lupin, Pyrethrum, Oriental Poppy about
June 15; Sweet William and Roses near July 1; Delphinium July 15;
Hollyhocks July 25. Tender annuals are planted out about June 10, and a
frost after that date is of rare occurrence. The first killing frost of
autumn may be expected between the 15th and 20th of September. While the
thermometer in summer fluctuates between sixty and eighty degrees, it
often falls in winter to thirty degrees below zero. The hardy plants are
well protected under the heavy snow covering which is usually the winter
condition there.

[Illustration: PLATE IV
An outer walk
The author's childhood garden
_From a photograph, colored by H. Irving Marlatt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 44
Auburn, N. Y. Mrs. C. D. MacDougall]

[Illustration: PLATE 45
Auburn, N. Y. Mrs. C. D. MacDougall
_From photographs by Emil J. Kraemer, by courtesy of Wadley & Smythe_]

[Illustration: PLATE 46
Section of a wild garden at Tuxedo Park, N. Y.
_From a photograph by C. P. Hotaling_]

[Illustration: PLATE 47
"Woodland," Tuxedo, N. Y. Henry L. Tilford, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 48
A garden in three terraces
"Cragswerthe," Tuxedo, N. Y. Mrs. Samuel Spencer
_From photographs by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 49
"Blithewood," Barrytown-on-Hudson, N. Y. Mrs. Andrew C. Zabriskie]

[Illustration: PLATE 50
"Wodenethe," Beacon-on-Hudson, N. Y. Mrs. Winthrop Sargent
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 51
"Wodenethe," Beacon-on-Hudson, N. Y. Mrs. Winthrop Sargent
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 52
The centre section]

[Illustration: PLATE 53
The outer boundary
The author's childhood garden, Newburgh-on-Hudson, N. Y.]

[Illustration: PLATE 54
"Echo Lawn," Newburgh-on-Hudson, N. Y. Thaddeus Beals, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 55
The evergreen garden]

[Illustration: PLATE 56
A path in the perennial garden
"Meadowburn," Warwick, N. Y. Mrs. Helen Rutherfurd Ely]

[Illustration: PLATE 57
"Ridgeland Farm," Bedford, N. Y. Mrs. Nelson Williams
_From a photograph by F. Seabury_]


In considering the gardens belonging to the State of New York, its most
favored garden centre is undoubtedly Long Island. Here soil and climate
combine to encourage both vegetables and flowers. And on the shores,
particularly of the south side and eastern end, the most satisfactory
bloom is obtainable as a rule with less trouble than is expended upon
the flowers of the interior. Not that Long Island is secure from periods
of drought and visitations of rose-bugs, but on the whole the plants
weather the obstacles better here than in other places of this latitude.
There is a marked softness in the winter climate especially near the
sea. Possibly nowhere else except in southern California does the Privet
hedge make as remarkable growth as on the south shore, and near the west
end there are highly prized specimens of old Box. Southampton, at the
eastern end, in proportion to population has probably a greater number
of gardens than any town in the State, almost all of them designed and
developed by their owners, who have thus delightfully expressed their
love for flowers.

Most soul-satisfying, unique in many points, and overflowing with bloom
all summer is Mrs. Wyckoff's garden at Southampton. Within three hundred
yards of the beach it is truly a seaside garden, but the great Privet
hedges, fourteen feet high, make perfect windbreaks for the protection
of its bloom. Connected by arched openings in the Privet there are other
enclosures for various planting schemes, and noticeable is the rather
unusual variety of flowers growing in these several lovely gardens. The
color grouping in the long, broad beds against the tall Privet
background is as perfect as any planting known. The arbors on either
side of the garden proper are formed of arches of Dorothy Perkins and
Cedar trees alternating--the Cedars are bent and strapped at the top to
produce a curve. The effect is both unusual and delightful.

In the same place but farther from the sea is another famous garden, at
The Orchard, the estate of James L. Breese, Esq. The garden was started
about 1905 and is entirely original in design. The artistic sense of the
owner is responsible for the dexterous touches which beautify the garden
and pergolas. Neither photography nor word-picture could do justice to
the exquisite harmony of coloring throughout this wonderful place, where
bloom is continuous over a long period.

Fashioned in Box-edged parterres after the old-time plan and dear to the
heart of Americans is such a place as the sunny Box garden at The
Appletrees, so charmingly portrayed in this chapter. There is a
sweetness and trimness in its simplicity intermingling with the flowers
to make it one of the fairest of garden-plots.

We dwell with delight upon the picturesque view of a section of Mrs.
Curtis's garden which might well have been taken from an English garden,
so closely does it resemble that type which has been our inspiration
more especially during the last ten years. In America the walled garden
is found to be useful near the sea, and not undesirable in the cooler
northern interior, but by many experts it is not advised in a warm
climate, where it prevents the free circulation of air within its
enclosure, from which condition some plants may suffer.

In the near-by hamlet of East Hampton, Mrs. Lorenzo Woodhouse has an
ingenious scheme of connecting formal gardens that are as remarkable in
conception as they are exquisite in color harmony. In length the plan is
considerably greater than the width, and the long vista from end to end
presents to the artist's eye a lovely picture of flowers, pool, and

Near by, on Huntting Lane, the wild garden belonging to R. Cummins,
Esq., is considered the best piece of work of its kind in the country.
It is wonderfully composed with natural pools and streams, tea-houses
and rustic bridges suggestive of the Japanese art, yet lovelier than the
trim Oriental type of water garden because so delightfully wild and
overgrown with massive plants, vines, and shrubs, without, however,
being disorderly in appearance. It is an especially rare treat in early
July at the season of Japanese Iris.

At the west end of Long Island, near New York, gardens are almost as
plentiful as those in the region of the Hamptons. For lack of space the
illustrations of the lovely garden at Manor House, Glen Cove, and the
picturesque pool at Cedarhurst must alone represent this section. Later
periods of bloom succeed the Tulips at the Manor House, giving
continuous color all summer to this charming place. The view of Mr.
Steele's garden at Westbury is a fine example of an ideal hillside
planting leading to the flower-beds on a lower level.

       *       *       *       *       *

Probably the oldest garden in New York State is the one at Sylvester
Manor, on Shelter Island, between the shores of Long Island and
Connecticut. This charming little flower-plot is reached by a short
flight of descending steps. Some of its old Boxwood appears in the
illustration of the pool which is a part of the garden scheme. The
original owners of Shelter Island were the Manhasset Indians. "In 1651
Nathaniel Sylvester came from England with his young bride, and here
they planted the Box, still one of the wonders of the place, and erected
the first manor-house with its oak doors and panels and mantels fitted
in England, and brick tiles brought from Holland. The present house was
built in 1737 with enough of the woodwork of the old house to maintain
symmetry in traditions, and stands to-day as it has stood the better
part of two centuries, filled with its old furniture, paintings, and
curios. Here is kept the cloth of gold left by Captain Kidd and many
other things that time and space forbid mentioning." The old homestead
has always remained in the family in direct descent.

[Illustration: PLATE V
At the hour of sunset
Southampton, L. I. Mrs. Peter B. Wyckoff
_After an autochrome photograph by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 58
Arbor of cedars and roses alternating
Southampton, L. I. Mrs. Peter B. Wyckoff
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 59
"The Orchard," Southampton, L. I. James Lawrence Breese, Esq.
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 60
"The Orchard," Southampton, L. I. James Lawrence Breese, Esq.
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 61]

[Illustration: PLATE 62
"The Orchard," Southampton, L. I. James Lawrence Breese, Esq.
_From photographs, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 63
"The Appletrees," Southampton, L. I. Mrs. Henry E. Coe
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 64
"The Appletrees," Southampton, L. I. Mrs. Henry E. Coe
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 65
Southampton, L. I. Mrs. G. Warrington Curtis]

[Illustration: PLATE 66
East Hampton, L. I. Mrs. Lorenzo E. Woodhouse
_From photographs by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 67
East Hampton, L. I. Mrs. Lorenzo E. Woodhouse
_From a photograph by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 68
The wild garden
_From photographs by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 69
The wild garden
East Hampton, L. I. Stephen Cummins, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 70
"Manor House," Glen Cove, L. I. Mrs. John T. Pratt
_From a photograph by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 71
Cedarhurst, L. I. Samuel Kopf, Esq.
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 72
Westbury, L. I. Charles Steele, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 73
"Manor House," Glen Cove, L. I.
_From photographs by The J. Horace McFarland Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 74
Ancient boxwood
"Sylvester Manor," Shelter Island
_From a photograph by David Humphreys_]



It would take much time and long travel to discover the State possessing
the greatest number of fine gardens, but there is little risk of
misstatement in placing New Jersey as fourth or fifth on the list; New
York, including Long Island, in the lead, then Massachusetts, and
possibly Pennsylvania or California next. Near the sea the climate is,
of course, an especial incentive to flower-growing, and along the Jersey
coast, especially in Monmouth County, there are numerous gardens. Many
excellent specimens are to be seen at Princeton, Trenton, Short Hills,
and Morristown, as well as in the country around Bernardsville, in all
of which places garden clubs are rapidly developing the cult. Only about
fifty miles separate Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth Beach, in central
Jersey, from Morristown, Short Hills, etc., at the north, so that spring
gardens practically begin in both sections at the same time, with
possibly not more than three or four days' difference between them.
While the south Jersey soil does not always encourage gardening, the
northern half of the State may be considered on the whole quite fertile,
and the summer temperature is not too hot for flowers. Occasional
droughts are to be expected, but the water-supply is usually adequate.
In the northern part of the State the usual date for Crocuses is March
25; Daffodils, April 15; Lily-of-the-Valley, May 12; late Tulips, May
10; German Iris, May 22; Oriental Poppy, Columbine, Lupin, and
Pyrethrum, May 26; Roses, Peonies, Anchusa, and Sweet William, early
June; Delphiniums, June 20; Hollyhocks, July 1. In fact, the climatic
condition, as it affects plant life, is very similar throughout the
region surrounding New York City--not different enough to require
special attention.

The beautiful garden at Glen Alpine is one of prolonged bloom from May
22 until frost, and its planting plans are shown in the author's
"Continuous Bloom in America." Both English and Italian inspiration
commingle in this beautiful spot. Its setting of old trees on three
sides, with the upsloping hill to the rear covered with choice blossom
trees and evergreens, as well as the ancient hedge, furnish a background
in keeping with the dignity of the place. The pergola is only the
beginning of an interesting upper shrub and bulb garden with rambling
paths. Other views are given in plates 86 and 172.

At Cherrycroft, the garden also blooms continuously, and some of its
plans are likewise given in the book above-mentioned. The pergola and
tea-house lead out to a maze formed by a tall Arbor-Vitæ hedge.
Adjoining is a Rose garden, more or less continually in bloom, and near
by a garden for cutting-flowers. The outlook over the formal garden,
both from house and pergola, is upon a sea of flowers, possibly
unequalled in its profusion of bloom. The four beds encircling the pool
are first covered with Pansies and English Daisies, each bed containing
one large clump of German Iris, edged with Cottage Tulips. For later
bloom, white Petunias fill two beds, light pink Petunias the other two
beds. Surrounding the rim of the pool there are Campanula medium,
alternating with fall-sown Larkspur, the former replaced by Balsam. The
four large beds opposite the pool-beds are planted in predominating
tones of yellow, blue, pink, and dark red respectively, with white
freely intermixed. The beds on the upper level are treated rather

At both Glen Alpine and Cherrycroft nurseries of cold-frames abundantly
supply the many annuals and perennials required to fill the broad beds.
The prevailing colors required in both gardens are pink, dark red,
blues, and yellows. Of the latter, the stronger tones are used only in
yellow and blue beds. If there is strict adherence to their planting
schemes the richness of their bloom will continue through future
seasons. But, alas! how uncertain the fulfilment, when the most
necessary flowers may disappoint at the eleventh hour, or the gardeners
fail to abide by the plans, especially concerning the color scheme!

At Ridgewood Hill the planting is for spring and autumn bloom, and its
three-terraced garden is an excellent piece of work, nestling to the
hillside with its vista of hills beyond. This lovely nook deserves to
rank among the best in terraced gardens.

Mrs. Fraser's garden, enclosed within the semicircle of the house and a
curving Hemlock hedge, is veritably a gem in lovely color-blending. All
the periods of the garden season are represented here, difficult as it
is to accomplish continuous bloom in narrow beds. First Pansies and
early Tulips, followed by the later ones, flood the little court with
wonderfully tinted tones. Then Lupins, Canterbury Bells, Sweet William,
Chinese Delphinium and Lilium candidum, followed by Larkspur, Zinnia,
Snapdragon, Scabiosa, Salpiglossis, Heliotrope, Ageratum, and compact
Petunias, Gladioli, and September hardy Chrysanthemum. Constant
ministration to the needs of this garden keeps it in a state of fresh
bloom and order.

The garden at "Onunda," Madison, attracts many visitors and has long
been famous for its beauty and order. It is ablaze with color from May
to October. Annuals in richest massing fill all the small beds, and
perennials with annuals are closely grouped in the wall beds. The color
effect is unusual and the adjoining Rose garden is complete with
choicest bloom.

The planting at Blairsden, near Peapack, is probably the most perfect in
the State. The accompanying pictures give a limited idea of its beauty.
The hill covered with wild shrubs sloping to the lake, the formal
garden, the water garden and Rose garden, with the long inclined pathway
seeming to lead out to space immeasurable into the green Garden of
Everyman, combine with the scenery to make it a place of remarkable
beauty. The formal garden with vine-covered brick wall is like the
villa, Italian in design.

The numerous gardens of Short Hills must be represented by one charming
glimpse of Brooklawn, an idyllic spot embodying the creative sense of a
poet. Its design is quite unusual in the garden world, and perfect in
its simplicity. Informal rather than strictly formal, with beds of
curving lines and grass paths it may be considered the most original
plan in this collection.

Old Princeton, with its picturesque university, is additionally favored
in possessing gardens worthy of such associations and equalling the best
in our country. The one at Drumthwacket is probably more reminiscent of
English gardens than any other. The broad beds, profuse in glowing yet
orderly bloom, are especially lovely in June. The garden has the benefit
of ancient trees as a setting and the richness of its planting combined
with the white balustrade lends a noble effect, comparing favorably with
many of those abroad. The beautiful water garden, reached by a winding
stone stairway, is encircled by willows and forest trees which fill the
little lake with green reflections.

A winter garden is a luxury so rare that one dwells with keenest
pleasure upon the view from Thornton--a most perfect specimen of its
kind. This evergreen planting is the central scheme of an elaborate plan
and divides the perennial and Rose garden on one side from the "cutting"
garden on the other. The best of the evergreens in clipped forms,
Barberry with its bright winter berries, Laurel, and Rhododendron
foliage unite to enliven the winter scene in this pleasant space, when
outside all is gray and lifeless.

Mrs. Seabrook's garden belongs to still another distinctly different
class, illustrating a planting which appeals strongly to the many
Americans who ardently admire simplicity in outdoor art. Here we find a
sweet place in which to live in idle hours, with favorite flowers
well-kept, a pool, and shaded retreats from summer sun.

[Illustration: PLATE VI
"Glen Alpine," Morristown, N. J. Mrs. Charles W. McAlpin
_From a photograph, colored by Mrs. Herbert A. Raynes_]

[Illustration: PLATE 75
"Cherrycroft," Morristown, N. J. Dudley Olcott, Esq.
_From an autochrome photograph by Parker Brothers_]

[Illustration: PLATE 76
A three-terraced garden
"Ridgewood Hill," Morristown, N. J. Mrs. Frederic H. Humphreys
_From a photograph by Parker Brothers_]

[Illustration: PLATE 77
Morristown, N. J. Mrs. George C. Fraser
_From a photograph by Parker Brothers_]

[Illustration: PLATE 78
"Blairsden," Peapack, N. J. C. Ledyard Blair, Esq.
_Reproduced by courtesy of Doubleday, Page & Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 79
"Blairsden," Peapack, N. J. C. Ledyard Blair, Esq.
_Reproduced by courtesy of Doubleday, Page & Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 80
"Blairsden," Peapack, N. J. C. Ledyard Blair, Esq.
_Reproduced by courtesy of Doubleday, Page & Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 81
"Brooklawn," Short Hills, N. J. Mrs. Edward B. Renwick
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 82
"Drumthwacket," Princeton, N. J. Mrs. Moses Taylor Pyne
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 83
"Drumthwacket," Princeton, N. J. Mrs. Moses Taylor Pyne
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 84
"Drumthwacket," Princeton, N. J. Mrs. Moses Taylor Pyne
_From a photograph, copyright, by Miss Johnston--Mrs. Hewitt_]

[Illustration: PLATE 85
"Onunda," Madison, N. J. Mrs. D. Willis James
_From a photograph by Parker Brothers_]

[Illustration: PLATE 86
"Glen Alpine," Morristown, N. J. Mrs. Charles W. McAlpin
_From a photograph by Parker Brothers_]

[Illustration: PLATE 87
"Thornton," Rumson, N. J. Mrs. J. Horace Harding
_From a photograph by Alman & Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 88
Highland, N. J. Mrs. H. H. Seabrook
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]



The most zealous advocate of gardening in the early days was William
Penn, the original proprietor of the State, who persistently urged his
Quaker followers to plant gardens around the homesteads. With numerous
old ones and an ever-increasing number of new gardens the State stands
among the foremost as a garden centre. In olden times the Quaker ideas
against extravagant appearances resulted in the making of simpler places
than those built by the people who settled in the Southern States; but
these modest Pennsylvania gardens did not suffer the ravages of war, and
many of them have lived serenely through the years.

Andalusia came into the possession of the family of its present owners
in 1795, and a village has gradually grown around the place. The garden
is about one hundred years in age, and has been long noted for its trees
and hedges, its fruits and old-fashioned flowers. The simplicity of its
plan, so characteristic of the early gardens, detracts nothing from its
charm, but rather is it filled with picturesque features that are truly

At Fancy Field the formal garden is made somewhat on the plan of a type
of small English garden that is becoming familiar to us through the
English prints. This formal view is but one of a group or series of
lovely enclosed and connecting gardens, all seemingly bound together by
a long pergola bordering their rear;--a most pleasing study, as is also
the garden at Edgecombe, with its old Box and perennials, shut in
peacefully from the outer world and suggesting the type so dear to the
heart of the lady of the olden time.

Krisheim was the name given by some early German settlers in 1687 to a
locality where is now a famous garden. This beautiful enclosure, in its
spring garb, so unique in style, and with an adjoining flower garden,
has its place among the best of the many that adorn the State.

The garden at Willow Bank is a charming home of flowers, and its
attraction is enhanced by the spacious green court surrounding it,
giving double privacy to the flowery sanctum within.

Typical of some of the splendid newer gardens of the State is the one at
Timberline, rich in its background of old trees, gracefully designed and
planted. It is one of the best productions of a celebrated architect.

The Ballygarth garden, a section of which is shown in this chapter, is
beautifully situated on one of the oldest estates near Philadelphia, and
is of the kind so evidently the creation of a garden lover.

Near Philadelphia the climate is slightly warmer than in north New
Jersey, to which spring bloom comes at least a week later. In this
vicinity German Iris appears about May 15, Sweet William, May 28, and
Delphiniums, June 10, Hollyhocks, June 18. The time of the first frost
is as variable as it is elsewhere. Pansies are usually wintered in the
open, with a certain amount of covering. Tender annuals are set out
about May 10. The soil is mostly fertile enough for good results in the
garden. The best-known gardens lie chiefly in the neighborhood of

[Illustration: PLATE 89
"Allgates," Haverford, Pa. Horatio G. Lloyd, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 90
Andalusia, Pa. Mrs. Charles Biddle]

[Illustration: PLATE 91
Andalusia, Pa. Mrs. Charles Biddle
_From a photograph by C. R. Pancoast_]

[Illustration: PLATE 92
"Edgecombe," Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. Mrs. J. Willis Martin]

[Illustration: PLATE 93
"Krisheim," Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. Dr. George Woodward
_From a photograph by J. W. Kennedy_]

[Illustration: PLATE 94
The outer court]

[Illustration: PLATE 95
The inner garden
"Willow Bank," Bryn Mawr, Pa. Mrs. Joseph C. Bright
_From photographs by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]

[Illustration: PLATE 96
"Fancy Field," Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. Mrs. George Willing,

[Illustration: PLATE 97
"Timberline," Bryn Mawr, Pa. W. Hinckle Smith, Esq.
_From a photograph by Julian A. Buckly_]

[Illustration: PLATE 98
"Ballygarth," Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. Mrs. B. Franklin



Flower gardens adorn many of the places in Maryland, most of them of the
old-fashioned kind so characteristic of the Southern States, and others
of a more recent date. The latter, though less elaborate than those of
New England, are quite as attractive in the studied simplicity of their

Conspicuous often are the Ivy-edged paths sometimes replacing the low
Box border, and the great growths of Box and rare shrubs, once imported
luxuries from old England, speak the prosperity of early days.

In the low country of the interior the midsummer climate is humid and
hot enough to discourage the flowers of this season, but when certain
annuals are kept sufficiently moist and mulched they may pass unscathed
through the trying season and join the few fall perennials for several
weeks of bloom.

Winter protection is not a matter of importance and Pansies need but an
ordinary covering of leaves. An extreme of cold, which is rare, might
bring disaster to the leaf-covered Canterbury Bell in the open, but this
is one of the gambles in garden life.

In Maryland, as generally elsewhere in this section, spring and June
gardens prevail. The Crocus season opens in early March; Daffodils
follow a little later; late Tulips and German Iris come near May 1;
Sweet William and Peonies about May 20; and soon after the Delphiniums
and Hollyhocks appear. Spring work begins three weeks earlier than in
the latitude of Long Island, and frost may finish the persistent
Marigold near November 1; but, as elsewhere, by that time green life has
had its day, vitality has been spent, and nothing satisfactory can be
expected of any but the hardy late Chrysanthemum.

There is another region of this State to be separately accounted for
that has been more or less overlooked, and where the climate is more
inviting to summer gardening. From near Snow Hill, on the narrow
peninsula south of Delaware, a resident writes in part: "As to this
eastern shore, its flowers, climate, etc., too much cannot be said in
its praise. The wonder is that this section has been overlooked by
wealthy people seeking homes. With proper planting one can have flowers
in the garden ten months of the year. During the winter Holly and other
choice evergreens give plenty of color for the lawns." The distance
across between the Chesapeake Bay and the sea is about thirty-five
miles. Near the shore the place has a climate of its own, and summer
gardens need not wilt as they do inland, providing they can at times be
moderately sprinkled. Usually the summer climate is pleasant with an
evening sea-breeze in hot weather; sometimes a prolonged dry spell
causes many things to suffer, but as a rule all sorts of flowering
plants succeed--Roses, China Asters, and bulbous plants especially grow
to perfection.

The illustrations representing Maryland are gathered from the vicinity
of Baltimore, the particular garden region of the State. Hampton is the
oldest of them all, being an entailed estate and one of two old
manor-houses in Maryland still extant. A severe cold snap a few winters
past did great damage to the Box, which in consequence had to be cut
back, but time, it is hoped, may restore its original form and beauty.
The spring view of one of Hampton's gardens was taken recently prior to
the period of fullest bloom. This charming Box-edged parterre, with its
fine surroundings and associations, is possibly the best-known in the

Evergreen-on-Avenue is delightfully located on the outskirts of
Baltimore, where many old country-seats abound. The lower garden only is
discernible in the illustration, showing the dignity and charm of an
evergreen garden, relieved by a massing of color in narrow beds which
form a setting to the clipped Box and other shrubs. The upper garden is
full of bloom and kept chiefly as a place for cutting-flowers. Some of
the paths on this estate are edged with broad bands of Ivy.

The wild garden at Roland Park is a work of art too intricately devised
to be treated satisfactorily by picture or pen. The eye can only absorb
and memory retain it, but description will ever fail to present it. At
every turn there is a delightful surprise, at every season it is lovely;
even January finds it so dressed in evergreen that winter seems far
away. A few years ago the hillside was a wooded and abandoned
stone-quarry until purchased for the purpose of creating a place of
beauty out of chaos. An inspired imagination only could have wrought
this miracle.

The old Indian name for the Cylburn plantation was Cool Waters; it
covers two hundred acres, about five miles beyond Baltimore. Cylburn
House is of stone with broad verandas, and stands majestically on a high
plateau, surrounded by gardens, shrubbery, and an extensive lawn, which
is fringed by a beautiful primeval forest that stretches away on three
sides to the valley below. The garden is one of the old-fashioned
rambling kind, made lovely with a combination of tall shrubs and flowers
and occasional trees.

The fair little glimpse of a section of the garden at Ingleside breathes
of spring perfume and color, with that indescribable sense of peace
pervading especially a little enclosed garden where good taste and
harmony prevail. So great is the impression of seclusion produced by the
attractive picture that the farmer's cottage in the near background
seems almost disconnected from this inviting spot. The four white
standard Wistarias are remarkable enough to demand special attention.
The beds are early filled with the Tulips of both periods, blooming in
company with the Wistaria. Annuals follow, and the place is kept in
long bloom under the careful supervision of the owner.

At The Blind, Havre de Grace, on the Chesapeake, is a charming and
typically Southern garden with ancient Box hedges for a background, and
filled with the bloom of many old-fashioned hardy plants and shrubs. The
property of two hundred acres is partly under cultivation and partly
covered with Holly and ancient trees. Around the gray stone mansion in
springtime the place is like a fairy-land, with hundreds of blossoming
shrubs and fruit trees. Originally the land belonged to the Stumpp
family, who acquired it by grant from one of the early English
governors. It is now in the possession of a New Yorker, who keeps it as
a shooting-preserve and stock-farm.

[Illustration: PLATE VII
A rock garden]

[Illustration: PLATE VIII
A rock garden
Roland Park, Baltimore, Md. Mrs. Edward Bouton
_After autochrome photographs_]

[Illustration: PLATE 99
"Hampton," Towson, Md. Mrs. John Ridgely
_From a photograph by Laurence H. Fowler_]

[Illustration: PLATE 100
"Evergreen-on-Avenue," Baltimore, Md. Mrs. T. Harrison Garrett
_From a photograph by Christhill Studio_]

[Illustration: PLATE 101
"Cylburn House," Cylburn, Baltimore Co., Md. Mrs. Bruce Cotten
_From a photograph by Art View Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 102
"Ingleside," Catonsville, Md. Mrs. A. C. Ritchie]

[Illustration: PLATE 103
"The Blind," Havre de Grace, Md. James Lawrence Breese, Esq.]



Virginia was the first of the States to adopt a luxurious mode of
living. Its early men and women, so recently English, were not many of
them of the strictly Puritan type, but rather the ease and pleasure
loving class, and shortly their fertile plantations, developed by
countless slaves, yielded rich results, and Virginia, followed soon by
the neighboring States, became famous for homes and gardens on an
extensive scale.

One of the earliest and best of these estates was Mount Vernon, so well
preserved and yet so familiar as not to need an introduction or even a
space in this book. Brandon, Westover, Shirley, Berkeley, Castle Hill,
and others on the River James, as well as some of the splendid places in
the "hill country," have been renovated in recent years and should be
considered among the treasures of America.

Mr. William du Pont is the fortunate present owner of Montpelier, the
home of President Madison, in Orange County, and situated between
Charlottesville and Richmond. This splendid garden was planned by Mr.
Madison soon after 1794. To quote Mr. Capen:[4] "On the plan of our
House of Representatives, it is made in a series of horseshoe terraces
leading down to a flat rectangular stretch of ground. The walk from the
entrance to the garden passes first under a charming rustic arbor, and
then through a dense Box hedge in which some of the bushes have grown so
high that their branches form an arch overhead ... and when one emerges
from the arch of Box he finds spread before him in panorama the entire
garden ... the Box-edged aisle down its centre and every bed in
flower.... It must have been a rare garden, for trees and shrubs sent to
Mr. Madison by admirers from all over the world were jealously guarded
and nurtured."

At Rose Hill the terraced garden, with its distant view of hills and
valley, is among the best-known places of this section. Here the
flowers, most carefully tended, bloom considerably during the period
from April to October, which is unusually prolonged for a Southern
garden. Flowering plants and clipped evergreens border the broad, grassy
terraces and an air of simple stateliness pervades this charming
Virginia garden.

Delightful indeed is the spacious formal garden at Meadowbrook Manor, on
the James River. So cleverly arranged is the combination of trees and
flowers that the latter do not suffer from near association with the
trees--many of which are evergreens combining with the Box border to
gladden the winter garden with summer green, and giving the livable,
homey sense to this lovely enclosure in summer-time. In the old days
the property was known as Sequin and belonged to relatives of Sir Thomas
Gates of the same name. Upon this land in 1619 were operated the first
iron-works in the country.

Characteristic of the gardens of the older period is the lovely view of
the garden on the Valentine place overgrown and ripe as only a garden
can be that has lived through the years; unpretentious, yet richer in
that mellowed growth than the most costly planting of modern date.

In Virginia, mountains cover a part of the State, and the temperature
necessarily varies according to locality. The climate, at least of
Albemarle County, brings out the Crocuses in February or early March;
winter Jessamine in early February, sometimes January; Daffodils in
mid-March; Lily-of-the-Valley and Cottage Tulip early in April; German
Iris in mid-April. Roses and Sweet William appear in early May;
Delphinium in late May; Hollyhocks in early June; Phlox, July 1. And
thus before midsummer's heat many of the best hardy perennials have come
and gone. While summer bloom in the highlands is not necessarily
destroyed by hot weather, unless unusual drought occurs, yet the autumn
garden is apt to be a more refreshing sight with its fresh crop of
Roses, the late Chrysanthemum, Cosmos, and indefatigable Zinnia. Of
course to the south, and where altitude is lacking, the somewhat higher
temperature will more or less alter these garden dates.


[4] "Country Homes of Famous Americans."

[Illustration: PLATE 104
Ancient boxwood
Montpelier, Va. Mrs. William du Pont
_Reproduced by permission of Doubleday, Page & Co. From "Country Homes
of Famous Americans"--Oliver B. Capen_]

[Illustration: PLATE 105
Montpelier, Va. Mrs. William du Pont
_Reproduced by permission of Doubleday, Page & Co. From "Country Homes
of Famous Americans"--Oliver B. Capen_]

[Illustration: PLATE 106
Montpelier, Va. Mrs. William du Pont]

[Illustration: PLATE 107
Montpelier, Va. Mrs. William du Pont]

[Illustration: PLATE 108
"Rose Hill"]

[Illustration: PLATE 109
"Rose Hill," Greenwood, Va. Mrs. W. R. Massie]

[Illustration: PLATE 110
"Meadowbrook Manor," Drewry's Bluff, Va. Mrs. Thomas F. Jeffress]

[Illustration: PLATE 111
Richmond, Va. Garden of Mann S. Valentine, Esq.
_From a photograph by Jessie Tarbox Beals_]



There are few new gardens in South Carolina, but an untold number of old
ones deserving to be revived. Around Charleston, especially, old-time
mansions, quaint walls, and gateways abound that are an inspiration to
lovers of graceful antiquities. To restore an abandoned garden must be
indeed a joy to one with enough imagination to recreate flower places
fitted to the surroundings.

The illustrations in this chapter give some idea of the richness of the
early gardens laid out by the wealthy owners of many generations past.
Magnolia-on-the-Ashley, considered by some as one of the world's most
beautiful sights, especially in springtime, is the most famous place in
the State. It is owned by Colonel Drayton Hastie, who inherited it from
his grandfather, the Reverend Mr. Drayton, an Episcopalian minister, in
whose family it had remained since the latter part of the seventeenth
century. In the days of the Reverend Mr. Drayton it was discovered that
the garden had been laid out over land containing extremely valuable
phosphate deposits, but neither he nor his descendants would have the
place disturbed for the sake of an increased fortune, and the garden
continues as it was, the delight in early spring of visitors from all
over the world. To quote one who resides near by: "The garden first came
into notice about a hundred years ago. In spite of all the cultivation,
it still suggests the heart of the forest, with the old Oak and gray
moss and wild flowers mingling with Cherokee Roses, Jessamine, etc.
These Magnolia gardens are not only wonderfully beautiful, but, I
believe, quite unique. The great show is not Magnolias, or even the
Camellias, although they are lovely--but the Azaleas, which grow in such
profusion and variety of shades that one loses all sense of individual
plant and flowers and perceives only glowing, gleaming masses of color
veiled by festoons of gray moss, giving one a delicious feeling of
unreality, almost enchantment. In Owen Wister's 'Lady Baltimore' there
is a beautiful description of Magnolia. The coloring on the post-cards
is not in the least exaggerated." Live Oaks over two centuries old
draped with gray moss suspended from the branches! This wonderful growth
is not an uncommon sight in the Southern States.

Columbia, the capital, has the famous Preston garden, and for many
generations this beautiful property remained in the families of the
Hamptons and Prestons. By a marriage a century ago the Hampton estate
came into the possession of the Prestons, and for many years the stately
garden with its aged Box and shade trees, its choice shrubs and plants,
has been an object of veneration to garden lovers. A descendant writes:
"There is no interest of importance attached to the past history of the
Preston place, except that it has sheltered quite well known persons in
its day, Henry Clay, Thackeray, and Miss Martineau among others, for its
owner had acquaintances among prominent people in this country as well
as abroad, and delighted in showing them hospitality when they happened
in his neighborhood." After the war it shared the fate of almost all the
other Southern estates that could no longer be maintained as in former
years, and finally became a woman's college, and once more receives the
needed care.

In the low coastal country, including Charleston, spring opens in
February with Camellias, Daffodils, and bulbs. German Iris appears at
Charleston soon after March 15, Phlox in June. Delphinium and Hollyhock
and some others do not thrive in this section. The flowers that are
carried over for autumn bloom are hardy Chrysanthemum, with Cosmos,
Salvia, Marigolds, and Zinnias, and a few others able under care to
resist the summer heat. Frost may come by November 15, but in winter
thin ice forms only about three times, with the thermometer at
twenty-five degrees. White Camellias sometimes begin to blossom at
Christmas time. Such is the climate of this level. In the higher regions
of the State climatic conditions are somewhat different and the summer
heat is not as extreme.

[Illustration: PLATE 112
Azalea, Magnolia, and Camellia bloom
"Magnolia Garden," Charleston, S. C. Colonel Drayton Hastie
_From a photograph by The Carolina Arts and Crafts, Inc._]

[Illustration: PLATE 113
Live oaks, with gray moss suspended from branches
"Magnolia Garden," Charleston, S. C. Colonel Drayton Hastie
_From a photograph by The Carolina Arts and Crafts, Inc._]

[Illustration: PLATE 114
"Preston Garden," Columbia, S. C.
_From a photograph by Lyle & Escobar_]

[Illustration: PLATE 115
"Preston Garden"]

[Illustration: PLATE 116
"Preston Garden," Columbia, S. C.
_From photographs by Lyle & Escobar_]



Summer gardens, on account of the climate, are not attempted in the
States of the far South; but as popular winter and spring resorts the
grounds at these seasons about the villas and hotels are adorned with
Palms, Roses, and other plants adapted to the climate. Charming spring
gardens in formal designs are found in Georgia, where, because of its
somewhat cooler climate and better soil, there are a greater number of
private estates than in Florida. The former State doubtless suffered
more than any other in the Civil War and, consequently, enforced neglect
of the old gardens brought ruin to most of them. At present some of the
finest places in Georgia are delightfully located outside of the larger
towns, and many gardens, some new and others renewed after a
half-century of oblivion, adorn the home grounds of those who are so
fortunate as to reside here at the most favored seasons.

The illustrations of the gardens at Green Court are fair samples of the
extensive planting in many places. Spring bulbs begin to open in this
lovely spot by the middle of February, Camellias often come in January,
German Iris appears the middle of March, Delphiniums in April.

In Georgia the summer heat finishes most of the bloom, and few would
venture with autumn flowers. "The Roses, however, when well tended, rest
during summer to bloom gloriously again in October and until the time of
light frost, which comes in December." The interior of the larger garden
at Green Court, surrounded with its splendid outer court, is more
spacious than the glimpse through the gateway would suggest. The charm
of this enclosure, like Southern hospitality, is a combination of
bountifulness and grateful simplicity. Green Court deserves to stand as
a representative garden of its State.

With an almost similar climate the adjoining State of Alabama has its
gardens also, but, unfortunately, photographs are not now available.

Palms of every description are the characteristic plants of Florida. The
State is generally flat and open, but in the north the country is more
wooded, often wild and swampy, with picturesque winding little rivers
meandering to the coasts.

The conditions in the populous districts of Louisiana and Texas are so
similar to Florida, where gardens are concerned, that it is unnecessary
to use further space in describing plant life in these States.

[Illustration: PLATE 117
The outer court surrounding the main garden
"Green Court," Augusta, Ga. Mrs. H. P. Crowell]

[Illustration: PLATE 118
A glimpse into the inner garden
"Green Court," Augusta, Ga. Mrs. H. P. Crowell]

[Illustration: PLATE 119
"Green Court," Augusta, Ga. Mrs. H. P. Crowell
_From a photograph by A. H. Chaffee_]

[Illustration: PLATE 120
Tropical growth, Palm Beach, Fla.
_From a photograph by Brown Brothers_]



From Tennessee the following description of its garden life is agreeably
presented: "Here in the South interest in this subject is always
increasing. We have many old and beautiful gardens full of sentiment.
The mistress of the place is always head gardener, and in no instance
does she relinquish her position to another. I am filled with enthusiasm
in garden matters, and would preach the gospel of the garden to all

Daffodils appear in February, Lilies-of-the-Valley and Cottage Tulips in
mid-April, German Iris soon after. The droughts of midsummer may injure
but not necessarily destroy the flowers. The winter thermometer
occasionally falls to twenty degrees above zero in the cooler districts,
and such plants as Snapdragon and Campanula medium are more safely
wintered in a slat-frame. But winter once over the tender annuals can be
put out as early as April 25. These conditions apply almost equally to
the neighboring States of Kentucky and North Carolina, having as well
their records for old-time gardens.

The planting at Rostrevor speaks delightfully for the many others
belonging to this section of the South. This garden, filled with Lilies
and other blossoms, shows that the Southern woman is as truly a flower
lover as were they who planted the early gardens in the days before the

What more tantalizing to the garden devotee than the glimpse beyond the
gates of Longview garden as illustrated in this chapter, and again in a
later section? Such views as these, so exceedingly artistic in
themselves, suggest a still more lovely interior, at present withheld
because adequate photographs are lacking.

In Missouri, as in Kansas and elsewhere in the Middle West, there is
great variableness of climate from year to year, and never is it an
ideal district for _summer_ flower gardens. While much attention is
being given to shrubbery and perennial beds bordering the lawn, there
are few actual gardens, formal or otherwise. The discouragements of a
trying summer climate limit the bloom in most of the places to the
flowers of spring and June. Early flowering plants and bulbs, German
Iris, Foxglove, Canterbury Bells, Columbine, Peonies, Lilium candidum,
Roses, and Hollyhocks, give considerable satisfaction. But many other
perennials are not at all permanent. To quote an experienced amateur
gardener: "The climate of Kansas City, Missouri, is subject to every
eccentricity, and at times is very trying. One of my experiences was a
four or five inch snow-storm on the 3d of May after a month of warm
spring weather, when German Iris and many other things were in full
bloom, and Peonies in bud. Everything was mashed down and then it
froze. Often when Peonies have been in bloom torrential rains have
nearly ruined them. The greatest trouble with the summer garden is the
extreme heat and dryness of the air. The earth can be kept moist around
the plants, but many things wither in the dry air. With the greatest
care a garden of annuals might be kept looking fairly well through July
and August, but I am glad to get away from mine early in July."

The climate of these adjoining Middle States is practically the same
throughout, with possibly even more sunshine than in the eastern States.
"In May and June there are frequent heavy showers, but rarely all-day
rains. In the later summer and autumn cloudy days are exceptional. The
eastern side of Missouri is said to be slightly cooler than the western
part; Kansas City averages a somewhat higher summer temperature than
Washington, D. C., which is in the same latitude. Spring bulbs and many
spring perennials appear three weeks earlier than near New York City."
The gardens usually look spent by September, but in the cooler sections,
with an extra amount of summer care, there may be still seen flowers
sufficient to adorn a garden during some weeks of autumn.

The garden at Hazelwood, near St. Louis, is laid out with curving grass
paths and broad beds. The bright display begins with Daffodils, and the
beds retain rich bloom into the middle of June. In September, after good
care, Marigolds, Zinnias, Snapdragon, Cosmos, hardy Asters,
Chrysanthemum, and Helenium are the autumn decorations. Frost usually
finishes everything about October 15. The winter temperature is often
ten degrees below, and the tender plants, like Foxglove and Pansies, are
more safely wintered under slat-frames covered with straw, and Larkspurs
should have a light covering of leaves. Surely the gardens that are
faithfully tended through such changes and chances of climate as found
in this section bespeak the highest degree of devoted patience.

[Illustration: PLATE 121
"Rostrevor," Knoxville, Tenn. Mrs. William C. Ross
_From a photograph by James E. Thompson_]

[Illustration: PLATE 122
Longview, Tenn. Mrs. James E. Caldwell
_From a photograph by G. C. Dury Co. Reproduced by permission of the
author of "Your Garden and Mine"_]

[Illustration: PLATE 123
"Hazelwood," Kinloch, Mo. Mrs. Samuel W. Fordyce]



Illinois, with its claim to countless fine estates, includes a plentiful
share of gardens, and more especially in the lake region, where
luxuriant growths of trees tell of congenial soil and climate. As a
background the great lake stretches like a sea beyond many of the
beautiful flower-borders, which bloom almost as richly as those near the
distant ocean.

Unfortunately some of the finest plantings are not illustrated in this
book, which is limited to gardens of a formal design, and the type
characteristic of Illinois is mostly informal, as so frequently seen in
America,--an arrangement which does not lend itself satisfactorily to
photography. In such a plan the flowers are usually massed in long,
broad beds bordering the lawn, the front lines are laid in irregular
curves, with trees and shrubs for the background. Groups of shrubs with
other beds are sometimes used to break a wide stretch of lawn, and make
a rambling and delightful sort of garden scheme. But in photography
detail is lost when the camera is at sufficient distance to include more
than a small section of such a design. For this reason pictures can
never do full justice to the flower planting on such notable places as
those of Albert N. Day, Esq., Lake Forest; Wm. C. Egan, Esq., Egandale,
Highland Park; George Higginson, Esq., Meadow Farm; and W. G. Hibbard,
Esq., both at Winnetka, and many others.

The spring display of late Tulips at Highland Park and Lake Forest is
especially remarkable. Masses of Darwins and Cottage varieties in
perfect color blending are planted everywhere, in the woods, in
shrubbery, and in borders.

The illustration of the formal garden at Lake Forest, owned by Harold
McCormick, Esq., gives a vivid idea of the form and finish of this
charming place, which must always stand among the best of middle West
gardens, well favored in the beauty of its surrounding trees and
generously planted with perennials and shrubs. It has the charm of
individuality rather uncommon to large gardens, and stands for that
welcome type which seeks to be itself.

Hardin Hall garden, with the great lake as a background, has recently
joined the ranks of beautiful American gardens. Every new garden is as a
jewel added to the crown of its State, and this little gem in planting
is noted throughout the North Shore. Stepping-stones in the grass lead
to another green enclosure, designed on a less formal plan,--the whole
scheme being most artistically conceived.

The climate near the lake is slightly cooler than in other localities,
spring opening from one to two weeks later than inland. The difference
in time of spring bloom on this shore and near New York City is only
about a week. The climate on the lake front is especially variable. The
country is a flat upland broken with wooded ravines.

Out in central Illinois, in Piatt County, there are fifteen thousand
acres belonging to a famous estate beyond Monticello. The Farms contains
delightful gardens on an extensive scale, quite English in design, and
as far as possible in keeping with the Georgian architecture of the
house. Juniper Hibernica is freely used over the main garden, enriching
with its deep evergreen tones the broad expanse of flower-bordered beds.
The walls are covered with Chinese Wistarias, Japanese Honeysuckle,
trained peach trees, nectarines, pears, and plums.

Monticello is in the latitude of Philadelphia; the blooming dates almost
correspond, but frost destroys a trifle earlier. The highest summer
thermometer rarely reaches one hundred degrees, sometimes dropping in
winter to twenty-seven degrees below. Tender annuals can usually be
planted out after May 15. Mulching and watering is necessary to preserve
the summer bloomers.

Famous in the annals of southern Indiana is the large estate at
Lexington known as Englishton Park, and for six generations the property
of the English family.

Problems of insufficient rain, poor soil, and rocky ground have been
overcome by most scientific measures, and now a pool filled with Lilies
and bordered with water-loving plants is a feature of a wonderful rock
garden abundantly and tastefully planted with the perennials most
suitable for rocks or for moisture. The Rose garden near by and long
path leading to the house, bordered with beds of perennials, are further
delightful tributes to the devoted labor of one who has spent much time
on this, her gladdest task.

[Illustration: PLATE 124
Lake Forest, Ill. Harold McCormick, Esq.
_From a photograph by Julian A. Buckly_]

[Illustration: PLATE 125
"Hardin Hall," Hubbard's Wood, Ill. Mrs. John H. Hardin]

[Illustration: PLATE 126
"The Farms"]

[Illustration: PLATE 127
"The Farms," Monticello, Ill. Robert Allerton, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 128
The rock garden, "Englishton Park"]

[Illustration: PLATE 129
The rock garden, "Englishton Park," Lexington, Ind. Mrs. W. E.



The difference is slight between the climate of Ohio and other States of
its latitude in the East and middle West. While there is no mountainous
region, northern Ohio has the advantage of a great lake as its border.
On a line with central Connecticut, the temperature of Cleveland is
similarly favorable to flower growing, and garden enthusiasts are
increasing. Like most of the Middle States, the country is rather flat
and the soil fertile as a rule. But, except on the lake shore, the
gardens suffer more or less from the hot weather and scarcity of

In the northern half of Ohio spring bulbs appear simultaneously with
those in northern New Jersey, and the later plants follow in the same
succession. The southern half of Ohio is in the latitude of Maryland and
its climatic conditions are almost similar. The spring and June gardens
in the middle West give the best satisfaction. The climate is variable,
as it is elsewhere throughout the country.

One charming illustration conveys some idea of the garden at Gwinn,
which is eight miles from Cleveland, and undoubtedly the most notable
in this State. By early April the spring garden blooms with Hepatica,
Crocus, Chionodoxa, Scilla, Sundrops, Pansy, English Daisy, Spring
Beauty, Bloodroot, Trillium, Cypripedium, Violet, Tulip, Hyacinth, and
Daffodil, followed soon by many later garden favorites. Sufficient water
is supplied to carry the bloom safely through midsummer and September,
and year by year the beauty of this garden is increasing with the
maturing of its trees and shrubbery, and all that tends to complete the
dignity of so noble a design.

So artistically wrought are all the various features contributing to the
beauty of the Clifton garden that choice of illustrations is made
difficult when selection is limited to so few. This fact explains the
omission of the little flower garden which even though charming must
give place to the accompanying remarkable views.

Not far from Cleveland Shadyside, on the lake, is another place of
interest to flower lovers, and here a small formal garden has been
recently completed in addition to the older water garden. This
delightful spot is worthy of particular attention not only on account of
the variety of plants adorning its banks, but for its picturesque
setting as well.

Indian Hill offers a glimpse of a fair little garden, with no suggestion
of display; a vine-covered bower surrounded with flowers,--a creation of
simple loveliness.

[Illustration: PLATE 130
"Gwinn," Cleveland, Ohio. William G. Mather, Esq.
_From a photograph by Julian A Buckly_]

[Illustration: PLATE 131
A picturesque spot in Mrs. Taft's garden]

[Illustration: PLATE 132
A corner in the pergola
Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs. Samuel H. Taft]

[Illustration: PLATE 133
The water garden
Clifton, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs. Samuel H. Taft]

[Illustration: PLATE 134
The water garden
"Shadyside," Painesville, Ohio. Mrs. H. P. Knapp]

[Illustration: PLATE 135
"Indian Hill"]

[Illustration: PLATE 136
"Indian Hill," Mentor, Ohio. Mrs. John E. Newell]



Favored indeed are the gardens of these States, which border on the
Great Lakes, some five hundred and eighty feet above sea-level. The
country in most parts is fertile and flat, with a climate superior to
that of New England in summer, and winters equally as cold. To quote our
well known garden friend, Mrs. Francis King, of Alma, in central
Michigan: "We have a very fine summer climate, most favorable to
gardening; no humidity whatsoever, but dry and bracing, and while a
short summer, a merry one for flowers. We must plan for a late spring,
and frost is due in early September; but when we have learned these
things it is very simple to arrange for them. Our rainfall is usually
sufficient, and we practically never suffer from the heat. Hardy
Chrysanthemums need a very sheltered position in winter. At Detroit, one
hundred and fifty miles southeast of Alma, the trees are in spring
foliage almost ten days earlier, partly owing to the distance southward
and partly to the warming influence of Lake St. Clair."

The garden at Orchard House, Alma, so vividly described in "The
Well-Considered Garden," is too familiar to most gardeners to need
description. Briefly, the planting over the large space is all balanced
in predominating colors of rose, lavender, white, and palest yellow.
Gray foliage and white flowers are freely used, and through the entire
summer there is not one week when the whole garden is not gay with
flowers from June until frost.

To the northeast of Alma is the lovely garden at Garra-tigh, where
Daffodils bloom, as in Alma, three weeks later than near the city of New
York. Bay City is in the latitude of Portland, Maine, and central
Oregon. This attractive garden shows the effective combination of
flowers and trees so well arranged that the trees are not detrimental to
the vigor of the plants, and the sunny garden space is doubly radiant by
contrast, lying within the trees' encircling shadows. Garra-tigh is the
Gaelic for House with the Garden.

Near Detroit, at Fairlawn, Grosse Pointe Shores, on Lake St. Clair,
where the country is flat and fertile, there is another delightful place
of interest noted for the abundance of flowers covering several acres of
land. The accompanying photograph was made in early September, when the
best of the bloom had passed. In June and July the place is a glory with
Lilies, Columbine, and Delphinium that are counted in hundreds, and
earlier there are Tulips and Daffodils by the thousands. Behind the
broad borders that edge the walks vegetables grow in great quantities.
Early Tulips come the first week of May, late Tulips about May 20.
Climate and soil combine to simplify the gardening tasks in this
productive country.

The House in the Woods, on Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, has a beautiful
garden so well planned that it seems like an outdoor room to this
charming villa. The planting scheme is moderate, easily maintained, and
yet with beds broad enough to include without difficulty the plants for
a long, continuous bloom. Opposite the house the picturesque studio,
standing out against the wooded background, borders the garden on this
side so that it lies within an enclosed court.

[Illustration: PLATE 137
"Orchard House," Alma, Mich. Mrs. Francis King]

[Illustration: PLATE 138
"Garra-tigh," Bay City, Mich. Mrs. William L. Clements]

[Illustration: PLATE 139
"Fairlawn," Grosse Pointe Shores, Mich. Mrs. Benjamin S. Warren]

[Illustration: PLATE 140
Studio from main house]

[Illustration: PLATE 141
Court from studio terrace
"House-in-the-Woods," Lake Geneva, Wis. Frederic Clay Bartlett, Esq.]



The mountainous States of the West, from Montana to New Mexico, from
Colorado almost to the Pacific, have a climate of their own, varying
naturally according to latitude. A resident of Las Cruces, New Mexico,
writes: "The first killing frost is usually to be expected from the 7th
to the 25th of October, very often it is much later, and we have had
tomatoes till December with the slightest possible protection. Many
flowers in a sheltered position bloom in winter, such as Calendula,
Violets, Wallflowers, and Pansies. The highest ordinary summer
thermometer is ninety-two to ninety-eight degrees. The lowest usually in
winter is fifteen degrees--occasionally it has gone down to fifteen or
twenty degrees below zero, but that is most exceptional. The climate is
extremely dry. Most of New Mexico is at a high altitude--we are about
three thousand eight hundred feet above sea-level here.

"As some plants blossom through the winter, it is hard to say when the
garden begins to bloom. But about the middle of March we have Crocuses,
followed the 1st of April by Jonquils, Narcissus, Tulips, and other
bulbs, also German Iris, Lilac, Periwinkles, Cornflower, Mignonette. In
the mountains near-by the California Poppies bloom at the same time.
Then about mid-April come Tea Roses--and at the end of April or soon
after the Peonies and Sweet Peas. The 1st of May or a little later
Honeysuckles, Phlox, Snapdragon, Zinnias, and annual Larkspurs appear.
Almost everything that is not extremely tender can be wintered in open
ground without protection. Tender annuals should be planted out about
the end of March. I transplanted some things last year the end of April,
and the noonday sun was too much for them, though I shaded them for some
time. We plant seeds of Pansies, Asters, Sweet Peas, etc., in the fall
for best results."

The garden at Mr. Barker's mountain home is delightfully fitted to its
surroundings, where nature is supreme and all else studied simplicity.
Flowers revel in their freedom without the restriction of conventional
beds. Flowers, nature, and the simple life of the Southern hills is the
message from this distant home.

[Illustration: PLATE 142
Las Cruces, N. M. Percy W. Barker, Esq.]



The garden section of this State extends the length of its coast, and
possibly fifty miles inland, and much is conveyed in a few words when it
is described as one garden throughout this whole region. In the hill
country mountains are admirable settings to tropical gardens, and from
there to the sandy shores a delectable climate with prevailing westerly
sea-winds encourages phenomenal growth of the choicest plants.

Southern California is particularly blessed with a clear, dry, and balmy
climate. Quoting an authority in Santa Barbara: "There is practically no
frost in southern California; in the north there is some. There are
flowers in our gardens at all times of the year. Tulips bloom in
February and March; Daffodils, German Iris, and other hardies from
February to May; also Lilies-of-the-Valley, which latter are more scarce
on account of the dryness of the atmosphere. From March till autumn
there is bloom from Sweet William, Phlox, and many others of their kind,
while Geranium, the common Marguerite, and Heliotrope grow all the year
around and become large bushes. Roses cover the tops of some villas;
Cosmos, California Poppy, Zinnia, Nasturtium, and Stock are among the
favorite annuals; and all, whether hardy or tender, may be planted out
in March when the winter rains are over. Some of the favorite exotic
shrubs used for their bloom are the Acacias, Genista, etc., Solanums,
and Choisia Ternata." Quite common are the great Poinsetta plants and
the soft, trailing Bougainvillea, with its exquisite red matching in
tone the color of our autumn leaves. Boxwood is little used in this
climate. Toward San Francisco and northward it is found in greater
quantity. To the south it is replaced by Myrtus communis nanus, Myrtus
microphylla, Veronica Andersonii for low hedges; Monterey Cypress,
Eugenia myrtifolia, different species of Ligustrum (Privet), which are
all evergreen here, Duranta Plumerii, and others.

The highest temperature in Santa Barbara for a few days in fall is about
eighty-six degrees Fahrenheit and the lowest in winter is forty degrees
for a few days. The summers are very cool. The climate of Santa Barbara
is quite similar to Sorrento, Italy, only better. The farther north on
the coast the more rain. In Santa Barbara there is sunshine continually,
except for the brief period of rain in winter. The warmest months are
August, September, and October. From May to August there are fogs at
night along the coast which keep the temperature down during the day.

In this paradise of sunshine and flowers are found a bewildering number
of wonderful subjects for photography, some of which must give an idea
of the favored vegetation of California.

At Kimberly Crest, as in the other views, most conspicuous is the
brilliant clearness of the atmosphere. This beautiful country-seat is a
sample of many which are built more or less on a similar plan, and
especially noted for their profusion of choicest shrubs, trees, and
flowering plants.

At Glendessary is found one of California's favorite gardens, where the
strong sunshine is moderated by the plentiful use of trees so carefully
arranged that the shadows do not disturb the growths of flowers, which
bloom abundantly throughout this lovely place.

The flower garden at Piranhurst, named for Saint Piran, an Irish saint,
is exceedingly picturesque. The wonderful Greek Theatre, with its wings
of tall, clipped Cypress, is without a rival in this country. The design
was modelled after one at the Villa Gori, in Italy. This remarkable
planting, together with the Roses and other flora in the adjoining
garden, combine to make it one of the most famous places on the coast.
The owner of Piranhurst is also possessor of the garden at Ross, partly
shown in the view of a fountain, with its hill background covered with
massively grouped Hydrangeas and Rose vines.

Perfectly complete in every detail is the lovely pool in Doctor
Schiffman's garden. It seems more a product of the Old World across the
sea, while fitting so happily into the tropical atmosphere of Pasadena.

The marvellous growth of Banksia and Cherokee Roses, the field of
Marguerites, and the background of snow-peaked mountains, all so
characteristic of California, belong to Cañon Crest Park, an estate well
known to many travellers. Wonderful, too, are the Palms that overarch
the driveway, and beautiful the gardens and panorama beyond.

The Cactus planting of a San Diego garden is an interesting study in the
horticulture of California--this most favored State of the great Union.

[Illustration: PLATE 143
"Kimberly Crest"]

[Illustration: PLATE 144
"Kimberly Crest," Redlands, Cal. Mrs. J. A. Kimberly]

[Illustration: PLATE 145
"Glendessary," Santa Barbara, Cal. Mrs. R. C. Rogers
_From a photograph by Brock-Higgins_]

[Illustration: PLATE 146
The Greek Theatre--the stage]

[Illustration: PLATE 147
The Greek Theatre--the boxes
"Piranhurst," Santa Barbara, Cal. Mrs. Henry Bothin]

[Illustration: PLATE 148
"Piranhurst," Santa Barbara, Cal. Mrs. Henry Bothin]

[Illustration: PLATE 149
Ross, Cal. Mrs. Henry Bothin]

[Illustration: PLATE 150
Pasadena, Cal. Rev. Mr. Schiffman
_From a photograph, copyright, by Detroit Publishing Co._]

[Illustration: PLATE 151
"Cañon Crest Park"]

[Illustration: PLATE 152
"Cañon Crest Park," Redlands, Cal. Mrs. Daniel Smiley]

[Illustration: PLATE 153
"Cañon Crest Park"]

[Illustration: PLATE 154
"Cañon Crest Park," Redlands, Cal. Mrs. Daniel Smiley]

[Illustration: PLATE 155
A Cactus garden, Riverside, Cal.
Typical growth in California
_From a photograph by Brown Brothers_]



In this coast region of the Northwest, shrubs, trees, and vines develop
rapidly and give sooner to the garden the appearance of completeness
than is the case in the drier climates. An authority from Portland says:
"The growing season is long, lasting from March 1 to November 1, and in
the places where lawns are well kept they are green throughout the
entire winter. At this period, however, the grass does not grow enough
to require clipping. Several shrubs, such as the Laurestinus, remain in
foliage throughout the entire winter. Usually a few belated Roses are
found on the bushes as late as Christmas, not the perfect blooms of
summer, by any means, but sufficiently good-looking to adorn a vase in
the drawing-room. The freezing weather would ordinarily come in January
and be very limited in duration." In February the spring bulbs,
Daffodils and Forsythia, appear.

At Tacoma and throughout the coast section of Washington the climate
differs but slightly from that of Portland, Oregon, the latter having
probably less rain and mist, but the whole coast is ideal for flowers.
The summer is the dryest season, when gardens will require some
sprinkling but not to the extent necessary in most portions of the
country. Another authority states that in this northwest coast district
it is clear 43 per cent of the year between sunrise and sunset. On an
average, 80 clear days, 122 partly clear days, 163 cloudy days. A day
which is up to three-tenths cloudy is classed as clear. A day
four-tenths to seven-tenths cloudy is classed as partly clear. Days in
excess of four-tenths cloudy classed as cloudy.

Near Tacoma, among majestic surroundings of forest and lake, with Mount
Tacoma as a background, are the famous gardens of Thornewood, rich in
flowers and shrubs and splendid garden architecture. Trees and hedges
will wither and die, but the "everlasting hills" and the silver waters
of American Lake will form a perpetual background to this beautiful
place, built in 1880 and standing as the pioneer great garden of the

Gardens even in the cities are becoming numerous, and attached to many
fine residences the planting, though now in its youth, promises to add
great adornment in the near future to these municipalities of the
Northwest. Mr. Merrill's spacious place in Seattle, partly shown in two
small views, illustrates the delightful possibilities of a town garden.

The Rose hedge and lovely Rose garden at Rose Crest are typical of
hundreds of others in Portland. The hedges are usually made up of Madame
Caroline Testout Roses, the most popular sort there; in fact, Portland's
official emblem. By June 1, along the curbing of the avenues, there are
miles of Roses in bloom, and, as may be imagined, the effect is very
pleasing. The climate of western Oregon is quite similar to favored
portions of England, but has the advantage of more sunshine. The variety
of vegetation is almost endless. Plants native to England will grow here
that will not thrive in other parts of the United States, and the
gardening tasks are simple in comparison to the toil necessary where
gardens are subject to greater extremes of heat, cold, drought, and
similar problems.

Cliff Cottage and High Hatch, both about six miles south of Portland, on
the Willamette River, possess gardens in their beginning, both
interestingly planned and already known to garden lovers even beyond the
limits of that State. The Cliff Cottage garden is designed in four
terraces, with a rich background of primeval trees. Dwarf fruit trees
and vegetables fill the beds that are all bordered with flowers. The
stone stairway leading to the several terraces is in keeping with the
natural surroundings of a wooded hillside. Rock planting is also a
feature. The landscape in the distance is a beautiful outlook.

High Hatch has a combination of upper and lower garden, partly in a rock
garden, spread out over considerable undulating land with winding gravel
paths and stone stairs connecting the various parts. A wide white stone
balustrade divides the broad lawn from the gardens below, and a fine
growth of aged pines completes the adornment of the place.

[Illustration: PLATE 156
"Thornewood," Tacoma, Wash. Mrs. Chester Thorne]

[Illustration: PLATE 157

[Illustration: PLATE 158
"Thornewood," Tacoma, Wash. Chester Thorne, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 159
Seattle, Wash. Robert Merrill, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 160
Seattle, Wash. Robert Merrill, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 161
Section of a Rose hedge bordering an avenue in Portland, Ore.]

[Illustration: PLATE 162
"Rosecrest," Portland Heights, Portland, Ore. Mrs. F. I. Fuller]

[Illustration: PLATE 163
A garden in three terraces
"Cliff Cottage," Elk Rock, Portland, Ore. Peter Kerr, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 164
A rock garden leading to formal garden
"High Hatch," Riverwood, Portland, Ore. Thomas Kerr, Esq.]



_Last_, but not least, comes Alaska; even if last to arrive on the map
of the Union, yet not least in size of territory or in flowers, and with
still another condition of climate to be considered. Alaskan gardens are
as yet but tiny modest plots against the gray log cabins, suggesting the
homes of our Pilgrim fathers on the milder New England coast so long
ago, and as we think of the stone and marble pergolas in modern New
England, there comes the suggestion: "Then why not Alaska likewise some

To those who think of Alaska only as a land of snow and ice,
descriptions of its flower-surrounded log cabins seem like impossible
dreams. Quoting from Reverend Mr. Lumpkin's paper:

"In coming into Alaska, you first awake to the beautiful reality in
Skagway. This is the point where the White Pass road is taken to make
connection with the river boats for the interior. Your eyes rest upon
the wonderful fulfilment of the flowers and your crag-weary soul is

"Every growing thing in Alaska seems to exemplify the Alaskan spirit,
and that is to make the very best of bad conditions, and to make the
very most of the many good ones. With the dark winters and short
summers, every ray of sunshine has to be used, and when in the summer
the sun shines all day and nearly all night for three months, there is
no time for loafing in flower land.

"Just take a walk down through Fairbanks in July and you will begin to
think that wonders will never cease. You will see flowers, that at home
you had to coax and nurse into growth, here in radiant, luxuriant
masses. The Pansies are unusually large, whole borders of them, and
paths bordered with beds a foot wide, filled to the edges with
changeable velvet. Sweet Peas grow up to the tops of the fences, and
then, if no further support is given them, over they go, back to the
ground again. All summer the Nasturtiums climb nearer and nearer the
roofs of the cabins, and bloom and bloom in sheer delight. Some paths
are bordered with Poppies, big stately red and white, and white and pink
ones, or the golden California beauties. These natives of warmer climes
seem perfectly at home in the Northland. Asters scorn hothouses and grow
in profusion wherever they are planted, and wherever they are they are
beautiful. They are as large as the Chrysanthemums the Easterner
delights in, and of all the various changes of colors. By them, perhaps,
will be Dahlias as large and rich as any you have ever seen. The more
beauty-loving and flower-loving the owner of the garden, the longer you
will stay to look and wonder. Candytuft, Sweet Alyssum, and Mignonette
will greet you from their accustomed places on the borders of beds of
flowers, and you will almost smile at them as at some old-time friend.
Then you will see where some daring gardener has bordered the beds with
Phlox or Snapdragon, and you will feel compelled to admire the result.

"Never have I seen such Begonias. The flowers are like Camellias, and
the colors exquisite. Shades of pale yellow to deep yellow, pale pink to
deep pink, and the pure white. The Geraniums, too, grow to giant size,
and seem to be ever-blooming. One really is tempted to feel the stalks
of some of them before it can be believed that they are not two plants
tied together. There was a Geranium in one of the small towns which
filled the window of a store.

"Many cabins have five or more baskets hanging from the eaves. Imagine
gray log cabins with birch baskets filled with blue Lobelias;
flame-colored Nasturtiums climbing to the roof, beds of velvet Pansies,
borders of crimson Poppies leading to the gate, where golden California
Poppies make way for you to pass, and beyond, the distant Alaskan
mountains, snow-covered and glistening in the sun. Imagine one cabin,
and then think of streets of them; change your flower colors as you
will, as a child changes his kaleidoscope, and you will have some idea
of Alaska flower land."[5]


[5] From _The Alaskan Churchman_.



The lure of the far-famed gardens of the island so close to our shores
is enticing enough to make a happy excuse for giving the space of a page
to one of its smaller gardens.

In the heart of this fair garden, in the country of the Englishman, at
the end of this book on American gardens, the author, though a proud
American, unhesitatingly admits that usually it is the Englishman who
has inspired us to make gardens as nearly as possible like those of the
mother country. Is it the old blood that is stirring within us, the
common bond of past associations and brotherhood so often expressed in
our physical resemblances as well as in many of our ideals? The garden
in the accompanying illustrations shows a beautiful combination of
flowers with picturesque old trees.

The climate of this favored place is even more delightful and balmy than
that of the mainland, and the charm of the great Pacific is doubly felt
along these quiet shores. The untravelled may picture it as isolated and
forsaken, but rather is it just enough retired to be apart without
loneliness; and, except, in a few cities, excluding the turmoil of the
world, yet hospitably open to the friendly passer-by.

There is more sunshine here than in England, although the climates are
very similar. On Vancouver Island there are the four distinct,
well-defined seasons; the temperature is more like that of Portland than
of Tacoma. The island is generously covered with vegetation, and when
its native wild flowers are considered, in addition to the gardens in
rich cultivation, it may well be called a garden island.

[Illustration: PLATE 165
Victoria City, Vancouver Island, B. C.]

[Illustration: PLATE 169
Victoria City, Vancouver Island, B. C.]


[Illustration: PLATE 167
Longview, Tenn. Mrs. James E. Caldwell
_From a photograph by G. C. Dury & Co. Reproduced by permission of the
author of "Your Garden and Mine"_]

[Illustration: PLATE 168
"Knock-Mae-Cree," Westport, Conn. Mrs. William Curtis Gibson
_From a photograph by Brown Brothers_]

[Illustration: PLATE 169]

[Illustration: PLATE 170
"Hamilton House," South Berwick, Maine. Mrs. George S. Tyson]

[Illustration: PLATE 171]

[Illustration: PLATE 172
"Glen Alpine," Morristown, N. J. Charles W. McAlpin, Esq.]

[Illustration: PLATE 173
East Hampton, L. I. Mrs. Theron G. Strong]

[Illustration: PLATE 174
"Glendessary," Santa Barbara, Cal. Mrs. R. C. Rogers]

[Illustration: PLATE 175
"Clifton," Cincinnati, Ohio. Mrs. Samuel H. Taft]

[Illustration: PLATE 176
"Thornewood," Tacoma, Wash. Chester Thorne, Esq.]

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