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Title: A Treatise of Schemes and Tropes
Author: Sherry, Richard, 1506?-1555?
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Superscripts are shown with carets: w^t, y^e. All pilcrows ¶ in the
body text were added by the transcriber (see endnotes).

The book was originally (1550) printed together with Erasmus’s _The
Education of Children_. The introduction (1961) mentions Erasmus
briefly; the Index refers only to Sherry’s _Treatise_. Since the
two texts have no connection except that Sherry is assumed to be the
translator of the Erasmus essay, they have been made into separate
e-texts.]



A TREATISE OF SCHEMES AND TROPES



  A TREATISE
  OF SCHEMES AND TROPES
  (1550)
  by
  RICHARD SHERRY

  and his translation of

  THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
  by
  DESIDERIUS ERASMUS


  A facsimile reproduction
  with an introduction and index
  by
  HERBERT W. HILDEBRANDT
  _The University of Michigan_


  Gainesville, Florida
  SCHOLARS’ FACSIMILES & REPRINTS
  1961



  SCHOLARS’ FACSIMILES & REPRINTS
  118 N.W. 26th Street
  Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
  Harry R. Warfel, General Editor


  Reproduced from a copy in
  and with the permission of
  BODLEIAN LIBRARY
  _Oxford_

  L.C. Catalog Card Number: 61-5030


  Manufactured in the U.S.A.
  Letterpress by J. N. Anzel, Inc.
  Photolithography by Edwards Brothers
  Binding by Universal-Dixie Bindery



INTRODUCTION


Richard Sherry’s _A Treatise of Schemes and Tropes_ (1550), a familiar
work of the Renaissance, is primarily thought of as a sixteenth-century
English textbook on the figures. Yet it is also a mirror of one
variation of rhetoric which came to be called the rhetoric of style. As
a representative of this stylistic school, it offers little that is new
to the third part of classical rhetoric. Instead, it carries forward the
medieval concept that ornateness in communication is desirable; it
suggests that figures are tools for achieving this ornateness; it
supplies examples of ornateness to be imitated in writing and speaking;
it supports knowing the figures in order to understand both secular and
religious writings; it proposes that clarity is found in the figures. In
short, the work assisted Englishmen to understand eloquence as well as
to create it.

Four-fifths of ancient rhetoric is omitted in the _Treatise_. The nod is
given to elocution. Invention is discussed, but only as a tool to assist
the communicator in amplifying his ideas, as a means to spin out his
thoughts to extreme lengths. Arrangement, memory, and delivery are
overlooked. Accordingly, the _Treatise_ neatly fits into the category of
a Renaissance rhetoric on style. It is this school which recognized the
traditional five Ciceronian parts of rhetoric, but considered style to
be the most significant precept. The _Treatise_ is not the first to
support an emphasis wholly on style, nor the foremost. We know that
Aristotle’s _Rhetoric_, Cicero’s works on rhetoric, and Quintilian’s
_Institutes_ discussed the significance of style, but they had a broad
view. However, in England, about the time of Bede, arose a limited
concept that rhetoric is mainly style, particularly that of the figures.
It is this latter truncated version of rhetoric that the _Treatise_
continues in the Renaissance. Rhetoric in Sherry’s work has lost its
ancient meaning.

The _Treatise_ is highly prescriptive. It was born in an age of rules.
So much so, that the rhetorician who named his rules and tools was not
out of rapport with the period. This accounts for the rigidity, the love
of classification, and the schematic presentation of the work. It is
nothing more than a highly organized dictionary of ancient, medieval,
and Renaissance schemes and tropes. In fact, the major variation from
previous Latin compilers is to be found in the headnotes relative to the
various kinds of figures. Nor is it as thorough in handling the figures
as its predecessors. It utilizes, however, the customary Greek and Latin
terms and supplies a definition, but here the similarity with
contemporaries and ancients ends. It is weak in amplification of
examples during an age when amplification was practiced. Sherry
economizes by selecting usually one example in support of a figure while
contemporary cataloguers, and ancients for that matter, are more
definitive.

Whether the work was ever popular within the schools or without is
unclear. Probably it did not have extensive success because only one
issue of the work appeared and a revised edition was brought out in
1555. By contrast, during the sixteenth century, Erasmus’ _De Copia_
(1512) had at least eleven printings, Mosellanus’ _Table_ (c. 1529) had
at least eight editions, Susenbrotus’ _Epitome_ (1541) had at least
twenty printings, Peacham’s _Garden_ (1577) had two editions, and Day’s
_Secretorie_ (1586) underwent at least five editions. Some of these
works had new editions printed in the seventeenth century and would seem
to reflect a greater public acceptance than the _Treatise_. Some were
also written in Latin while Sherry moves in the vernacular. It still was
an age of Latin, and Sherry in part recognized this by his alternate
Latin and English movement in his second rhetoric on style published in
1555. Moreover, people seemed content to remain with the giants of the
Renaissance, notably Erasmus and his _De Copia_ instead of turning to a
lesser light such as Sherry.

The _Treatise_ does have merit. The work cannot be judged entirely by
tallying its meager number of editions, its lack of thoroughness, or its
artificial divisions. Its signal contribution rests upon the fact that
it is a pioneering effort at permitting the figures to march, for the
first time, in English. Here Sherry had an opportunity to provide the
English reader with additional words, ideas, and material to be employed
in vernacular communication. His efforts in his works on rhetoric,
the two editions of the _Treatise_, provided the sixteenth century
Englishman with the identical schemes and tropes which had been a
heritage of the Latin language since antiquity. Hence the work can be
called a complicated ordering of the figures, but it is also a sincere
attempt to provide in English those figures which would lend ornateness
to the expression of an idea.

To indicate that the _Treatise_ was part of a continuing school of
rhetoric, we must consider a few rhetoricians subsequent to Sherry’s
work. Indeed, one notices the continuance of dictionaries of figures
which carry the admonition that the usual manner of utterance was to be
despised. Thomas Wilson’s _The Arte of Rhetorique_ (1553), although
preserving the classical idea of rhetoric, also felt the definition of a
figure employed in communication involved the uncommon. Twenty-seven
years subsequent to Sherry, England again has a pure catalogue of the
figures; this is Peacham’s _Garden of Eloquence_. More elaborate than
the _Treatise_, it too suggests that rhetoric is decoration. Continued
interest in the stylistic tools is also seen in Puttenham’s The _Arte of
English Poesie_ (1589). When we move to the latter part of the sixteenth
century and then change the genre as exemplified in Day’s _The English
Secretorie_, we see a stylistic extension to the art of letter writing
which borrowed rhetorical terms and rules and applied them to written
correspondence. The emphasis in these rhetorics on style is the same:
ornateness in communication is achieved through using the figures.

When we look in the opposite direction, to works which preceded Sherry,
the figures, definitions, and examples in the _Treatise_ derive more
from contemporaries than from the ancients. It relies extensively upon
intermediaries. Sherry explains that Erasmus and Mosellanus will be
major sources. Hence the _De Copia_, the _Ecclesiastae_, and the
_Tabulae de schematibus et tropis_ are used with regularity. Although
further removed in time, the _Rhetorica ad Herennium_ is the primary
ancient source. But beyond this first-hand reliance on the ancients,
examples from Vergil, Cicero, and Terence, to mention several, as well
as definitions of the figures, depend heavily upon neo-classical
intermediaries.

Appended to the text on the figures of rhetoric is a seemingly
gratuitous section entitled “That chyldren oughte to be taught and
brought vp gently in vertue and learnynge, and that euen forthwyth from
theyr natiuitie: a declamacion of a briefe theme, by Erasmus of
Roterodame.” This essay occupies almost two-thirds of the _Treatise_ and
receives its first English translation from the Latin at the hands of
Sherry. William Woodward in his _Desiderius Erasmus Concerning the Aim
and Method of Education_ gave us another English translation in 1904.
One other translation, in German, by August Israel, is entitled “Vortrag
über die Nothwendigkeit, die Knaben gleich von der Geburt an in einer
für Freigeborne würdigen Weise sittlich und wissenschaftlich ausbilden
zu lassen.”

The reason for the inclusion of the Erasmian essay is never clearly
stated in the other sections of the _Treatise_. Nor do the other
translators suppose a reason. From the internal evidence of the essay
and from headnotes preceding it, we may assume that the purpose is one
of supplying readers with an example of amplification of a brief theme,
first illustrated in miniature, and then full blown into a long
declamation. The essay does not appear to be illustrating the numerous
figures discussed in the initial section of the work.

Of Sherry we know little. Beyond the dates in the DNB, we infer from his
works that he had an intense interest in English and had a desire for
his countrymen to communicate well in the vernacular. He was interested
in religion, was most likely a Protestant, and hoped to continue an
interest in religion which he developed in his youth. He was also a
teacher. And although Latin was still a living language, the task of
inculcating a new tongue in the students fell to the schoolmaster;
Sherry was active in this capacity. This does not weaken an acclamation
we possess of the man: “He was a Person elegantly learned.”

  HERBERT W. HILDEBRANDT

  _The University of Michigan
  February 25, 1960_



TABLE OF CONTENTS


  A TREATISE OF SCHEMES AND TROPES
  by _Richard Sherry_                      1

    Introduction                           2
    Eloquucion                            17
    Of Evidence and Plainness             19
    Of the Three Kyndes of Style          21
    Scheme and Figure                     25
    Faute                                 32
    Garnyshyng and His Kyndes             38
    Figures of Sentence                   62
    Proves                                78

  THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
  by _Desiderius Erasmus_                 97



  ¶ A treatise
  of Schemes & Tropes
  very profytable
  for the better vnderstanding of good
  authors, gathered out of the best
  Grammarians & Oratours
  by Rychard Sherry Lon
  doner.

  Whervnto is added a declamacion,
  That chyldren euen strayt frõ their
  infancie should be well and gent-
  ly broughte vp in learnynge.
  Written fyrst in Latin
  by the most excel-
  lent and
  famous Clearke, Erasmus
  of Rotero-
  dame.



  To the ryght worshyp
  ful Master Thomas Brooke
  Esquire, Rychard Shyrrey
  wysheth health euer-
  lastynge.


[Sidenote: The tytle of thys worcke straunge.] I doubt
not but that the title of this treatise all straunge
vnto our Englyshe eares, wil cause some men at the
fyrst syghte to maruayle what the matter of it should
meane: yea, and peraduenture if they be rashe of
iudgement, to cal it some newe fangle, and so casting
it hastily from thẽ, wil not once vouchsafe to reade
it: and if they do, yet perceiuynge nothing to be
therin that pleaseth their phansy, wyl count it but a
tryfle, & a tale of Robynhoode. But of thys sorte as I
doubte not to fynde manye, so perhaps there wyll be
other, whiche moued with the noueltye thereof, wyll
thynke it worthye to be looked vpon, and se what is
contained therin. [Sidenote: Sheme and Trope.] These
words, _Scheme_ and _Trope_, are not vsed in our
Englishe tongue, neither bene they Englyshe wordes.
[Sidenote: Vse maketh straũge thinges familier.] No
more be manye whiche nowe in oure tyme be made by
continual vse, very familier to most men, and come so
often in speakyng, that aswel is knowen amongest vs
the meanyng of them, as if they had bene of oure owne
natiue broode. Who hath not in hys mouthe nowe thys
worde Paraphrasis, homelies, vsurped, abolyshed, wyth
manye other lyke? And what maruail is it if these
words haue not bene vsed heretofore, seynge there was
no suche thynge in oure Englishe tõgue where vnto they
shuld be applyed? Good cause haue we therefore to gyue
thankes vnto certayne godlye and well learned men,
whych by their greate studye enrychynge our tongue
both wyth matter and wordes, haue endeuoured to make
it so copyous and plentyfull that therein it maye
compare wyth anye other whiche so euer is the best.
[Sidenote: Oure language falsely accused of
barbarousnes.] It is not vnknowen that oure language
for the barbarousnes and lacke of eloquence hathe bene
complayned of, and yet not trewely, for anye defaut in
the toungue it selfe, but rather for slackenes of our
coũtrimen, whiche haue alwayes set lyght by searchyng
out the elegance and proper speaches that be ful many
in it: as plainly doth appere not only by the most
excellent monumentes of our aũciẽt forewriters,
[Sidenote: Gower. Chawcer. Lidgate.] Gower, Chawcer
and Lydgate, but also by the famous workes of many
other later: [Sidenote: Syr Thomas Elyot.] inespeciall
of y^e ryght worshipful knyght syr Thomas Eliot, which
first in hys dictionarye as it were generallye
searchinge oute the copye of oure language in all
kynde of wordes and phrases, after that setting abrode
goodlye monumentes of hys wytte, lernynge and
industrye, aswell in historycall knowledge, as of
eyther the Philosophies, hathe herebi declared the
plentyfulnes of our mother toũge, loue toward hys
country, hys tyme not spent in vanitye and tryfles.
What shuld I speake of that ornamente Syr Thomas Wyat?
which beside most excellente gyftes bothe of fortune
and bodye, so flouryshed in the eloquence of hys
natiue tongue, that as he passed therin those wyth
whome he lyued, so was he lykelye to haue bene equal
wyth anye other before hym, had not enuious death to
hastely beriued vs of thys iewel: teachyng al men
verely, no filicitie in thys worlde to be so suer and
stable, but that quicklye it may be ouerthrowen and
broughte to the grounde. Manye other there be yet
lyuynge whose excellente wrytynges do testifye wyth vs
to be wordes apte and mete elogantly to declare oure
myndes in al kindes of Sciences: and that, what
sentence soeuer we conceiue, the same to haue Englyshe
oracion natural, and holpẽ by art, wherby it may most
eloquẽtly be vttered. [Sidenote: The occasion of thys
treatise.] Of the whych thynge as I fortuned to talke
wyth you, Master Brooke, among other matters this
present argument of Schemes and Tropes came in place,
and offered it selfe, demed to be bothe profitable and
pleasaunte if they were gathered together, and
handsomelye set in a playne ordre, and wyth theire
descriptions hansomely put into our Englishe tongue.
And bicause longe ago, I was well acquaynted with
them, when I red them to other in y^e Latin, and that
they holpe me verye muche in the exposicion of goode
authores, I was so muche the more ready to make them
speak English, partli to renew the pleasure of mine
old studies, and partelye to satysfy your request.

¶ [Sidenote: Rodulphus Agricola.] Beside this, I was
moued also wyth the authorytye of that famous clarke
Rodulphus Agricola, whyche in a certeine epistle
wryten vnto a frynde of hys, exhorteth mẽ what soeuer
they reade in straunge tongues, diligently to
translate the same into their owne language: because
that in it we sonar perceiue if there be any faute in
our speaking, and howe euerye thynge eyther rightly
hangeth together or is darkely, ruggishly, and
superfluously wryttẽ. No lerned nacion hath there
bene but y^e learned in it haue written of schemes &
fygures, which thei wold not haue don, except thei had
perceyued the valewe.

¶ Wherefore after theyr example obtaynyng a lytle
lesure, I red ouer sundrye treatises, as wel of those
which wrot long ago, as of other now in our daies:
fyndynge amonge them some to haue wrytten ouer
brieflye, some confuselye, and falselye some.
[Sidenote: Mosellain.] Mosellane hathe in hys tables
shewed a fewe fygures of grammer, and so hathe
confoũded them together, that his second order called
of Loquucion pertayneth rather to the rhetoricians
then to hys purpose. [Sidenote: Quintilian.]
Quintilian briefly hathe wrytten bothe of the
Gramatical and rhetorical Shemes, but so that you may
soone perceyue he did it by the waye, as muche as
serued hys purpose. [Sidenote: Cicero.] Cicero in hys
boke of an oratour with hys incompetable eloquence
hathe so hid the preceptes, that scarselye they may be
tryed oute by theyr names, or by theyr exãples.
[Sidenote: Erasmus.] Erasmus in hys double copye of
words and thynges, hath made as y^e tytle declareth
but a comentarye of them bothe, and as it wer a litle
bil of remembraũce. Wherefore to make these thinges
more playne to y^e students that lyst to reade them in
oure tongue, I haue taken a lytle payne, more
thorowelye to try the definicions, to apply the
examples more aptly, & to make things defused more
plaine, as in dede it shal ryght wel apere to the
dylygente. I haue not translated them orderly out of
anye one author, but runninge as I sayde thorowe many,
and vsyng myne owne iudgement, haue broughte them into
this body as you se, and set them in so playne an
order, that redelye maye be founde the figure, and the
vse wherevnto it serueth. Thoughe vnto greate wittes
occupyed with weightye matters, they do not greatelye
pertayne, yet to such as perchaũce shal not haue
perfecte instructoures, they may be commodious to
helpe them selues for y^e better vnderstandynge of
such good authors as they reade. ¶ For thys darre I
saye, no eloquente wryter maye be perceiued as he
shulde be, wythoute the knowledge of them: for asmuche
as al togethers they belonge to Eloquucion, whyche is
the thyrde and pryncipall parte of rhetorique. The
common scholemasters be wont in readynge, to saye vnto
their scholers: _Hic est figura_: and sometyme to axe
them, _Per quam figuram?_ But what profit is herein if
they go no further? In speakynge and wrytynge nothyng
is more folyshe than to affecte or fondly to laboure
to speake darkelye for the nonce, sithe the proper vse
of speach is to vtter the meaning of our mynd with as
playne wordes as maye be. [Sidenote: A figure not to
be vsed but for a cause.] But syth it so chaunseth y^t
somtyme ether of necessitie, or to set out the matter
more plaĩly we be compelled to speake otherwyse then
after common facion, onles we wil be ignorante in the
sence or meaninge of the mater that excellente authors
do wryghte of, we muste nedes runne to the helpe of
schemes & fygures: which verely come no sildomer in
the writing and speaking of eloquente english men,
then either of Grecians or Latins. Many thinges might
I brynge in to proue not onely a great profyt to be in
them but that they are to be learned euen of
necessitie, for as muche as not only prophane authors
wythout them may not be wel vnderstand, but that also
they greatelye profit vs in the readinge of holye
scripture, where if you be ignoraunte in the
fyguratiue speches and Tropes, you are lyke in manye
greate doubtes to make but a slender solucion:
[Sidenote: Westimerus] as ryght wyll do testefy
_Castelio Vestimerus_ and [Sidenote: Augustinus] y^t
noble doctor saint Augustine. I confesse I haue not
made the matter here so perfecte as my wyll and desyer
is it shoulde haue ben, and that I haue but brieflye
touched, and as it were with my litle fynger poynted
to these thinges, which require a lẽger declaracion.
For what can be hasted, and absolute to? But if God
spare me lyfe, I truste hereafter to make it an
introducciõ, wherbi our youth not onlye shall saue
that moste precious Iewell, Time, whyle they wander by
them selues, readynge at all aduentures sundry and
varyous authors: but that also thei shalbe able better
to vnderstande and iudge of the goodlye gyftes and
ornamentes in mooste famous and eloquente oratoures.
[Sidenote: And apte similitude.] For as lyke plesure
is not to him whiche gooeth into a goodlye garden
garnyshed wyth dyuers kindes of herbes and flowers,
and that there doeth no more but beholde them, of
whome it maye be sayde that he wente in for nothynge
but that he wold come out, and to hym which besyde the
corporall eie pleasure, knoeth of eueri one the name &
propertye: so verelye much difference is there in
readynge good authors, and in sundrye sortes of menne
that do it: and muche more pleasure, and profit hathe
he whiche vseth arte and iudgement, then the other,
whiche wyth greate studye in dede turneth them ouer
but for lacke of the knowledge of preceptes wanteth
also the fruite and delectacyon that he more amplye
myghte obtayne. The lyuynge God from whome all good
giftes do procede, gyue vs grace so to order all oure
words and speache, that it may be to his honour and
glory for euer and euer. Amen.

  ¶ Geuen at London the.
  xiii. day of Decembre.
  Anno .M.D.L.



  ¶ A briefe note of eloquciõ, the third
  parte of Rhetoricke, wherunto
  all Figures and Tropes be
  referred.


[Sidenote: Eloquucion] _Eloquucion_, which the Greekes
call Phrase, whereof also the name of eloquence dothe
ryse, as of al partes it is the goodlyest, so also is
it the most profitable and hardeste: in the whyche is
seene that diuine myghte and vertue of an oratoure,
whych as Cicero in hys oratorie particions defineth,
is nothyng else but wisedom speakyng eloquently. For
vnto the maruelous greate inuencion of all thynges,
bothe it addeth a fulnes, and varietie: it setteth
oute & garnysheth wyth lyghtes of eloquent speche,
the thinges that be spoken of and also wyth very graue
sentences, choyse wordes, proper, aptly translated,
and wel soundyng, it bryngeth that greate fludde of
eloquence vnto a certein kynd of stile and indyghtyng.
And oute of thys greate streame of eloquucion, not
only must we chose apte, and mete wordes, but also
take hede of placinge, and settinge them in order.
For the myghte and power of eloquucion consisteth in
wordes considered by them selues, and when they be
ioyned together. Apt wordes by searchyng muste be
founde oute, and after by diligence conueniently
coupled. For there is a garnyshynge, euen when they be
pure and fyne by them selues, and an other, whẽ they
be ioyned together. To chose thẽ oute finely, and
handsomlye to bestow them in their places, after the
mynde of Cicero and Quintilian, is no easy thynge. So
Marcus Antonius was wonte to say, that he had knowen
many wel spoken men, but none eloquente. ¶ Tullye and
Quintilian thoughte that inuencion and disposiciõ were
the partes of a wytty and prudent man, but eloquence
of an oratour. For howe to finde out matter, and set
it in order, may be comen to all men, whyche eyther
make abridgementes of the excellent workes of
aunciente wryters, and put histories in remẽbraunce,
or that speake of anye matter them selues: but to
vtter the mynde aptely, distinctly, and ornately, is a
gyft geuen to very fewe. And because we haue deuided
eloquucion into two partes, that is, wordes symple,
or considered by them selues, and compound or ioyned
together in speache, accordyng to thys we saye, that
euerye eloquente oracion must haue in it thre poyntes:
euidence, which belongeth to the fyrst parte of
eloquucion, composicion & dignitie, which belongeth to
the other.


Of Euidence and plainenes.

Of these thynges that we put in eloquucion, lette thys
be the fyrste care, to speake euidentlye after the
dignitye and nature of thynges, and to vtter suche
wordes, whych as Cicero sayth in hys oratour, no man
may iustely reprehende. The playne and euident speche
is learned of Gramarians, and it keepeth the oracion
pure, and without all faute, and maketh that euerye
thyng may seme to be spoken purelye apertlye, and
clerelye. Euerye speche standeth by vsuall wordes that
be in vse of daylye talke, and proper wordes that
belonge to the thinge, of the which we shal speke.
Neyther be properties to be referred onely to the name
of the thing, but much more to the strength and power
of the significacion: & must be considered not by
hearyng, but by vnderstandyng. So translacion in the
whych comonly is the greatest vse of eloquuciõ,
applieth wordes not the selfe proper thinges. But yet
an vnvsed worde or poetical, hath also somtyme in the
oracion hys dignitie, and beyng put in place (as
Cicero sayeth) oftentymes the oracion may seme
greater, and of more antiquitie, for that Poetes do
speake in a maner as it were in another tonge, it is
righte sone perceiued. Finally two fautes are cõmitted
in euerye language, whereby it is not pure:
Barbarisme, and Solecisme. Of the whych, that on is
committed, when anye worde is fautely spoken or
writen: that other, when in many wordes ioyned
together, the worde that foloweth is not wel applyed
to that that goeth before. Of composicion and
dygnitye, we wyll speake here after, when we come to
the figures of rethoryque.


Of the three kyndes of style or endyghtynge.

Before we come to the precepts of garnishing an
oraciõ, we thinke good, bryeflye, to shewe you of the
thre kyndes of stile or endyghting, in the whych all
the eloquucion of an oratoure is occupied. For that
there be thre sundry kyndes, called of the Grekes
characters, of vs figures, I trowe there is no man,
though he be meanlye learned, but he knoweth, namely
when we se so manye wryters of sciences, bothe Greke
and latine, whych haue ben before tyme, to haue
folowed for the mooste parte sundrye sortes of
wrytyng, the one vnlyke to the other. And there hath
bene marked inespecially thre kyndes of endightynge:
The greate, the small, the meane.


The greate kynde.

The greate, the noble, the mightye, and the full kynde
of endyghtynge, wyth an incredible, & a certen diuine
power of oracion, is vsed in wayghty causes: for it
hathe wyth an ample maiestye verye garnyshed wordes,
proper, translated, & graue sentences, whych ar
handled in amplificacion, and commiseracion, and it
hathe exornations bothe of woordes and sentences,
wherunto in oracions they ascribe verye great strength
and grauitie. And they that vse thys kynde, bee
vehement, various, copious, graue, appoynted and
readye thorowlye to moue and turne mens myndes.
Thys kynd dyd Cicero vse in the oracion for Aulus
Cluencius, for Sylla, for Titus Annius Milo, for Caius
Rabirius: agaynste Catiline, agaynste Verres, agaynste
Piso. But they that can not skyll of it oftentimes
fall into fautes, when vnto them that seemeth a graue
oracion, whych swelleth, and is puffed vp, whych vseth
straunge wordes hardelye translated, or to olde, and
that be nowe longe sythens lefte of from vse of daylye
talke, or more graue then the thing requyreth.


The small kynde.

The small kynde of indighting, is in a subtile,
pressed, and fyled oracion, meete for causes that be a
lytel sharper then are in the comon vse of speakynge.
For it is a kynde of oracion that is lette downe euen
to the mooste vsed custume of pure and clere speakyng.
It hathe fyne sentences, subtile, sharpe, teachyng all
thynges, and makynge them more playne, not more ample.
¶ And in the same kynde (as Cicero sayeth in hys
oratoure) some bee craftye, but vnpolyshed, and of
purpose lyke the rude and vnskylfull: Other in that
leaues are trymme, that is somwhat floryshynge also
and garnyshed. Cicero vsed thys kynde in hys
philosophicall disputacions, in the oraciõ for
Quincius for Roscius y^e Comedy plaier, & Terẽce,
& Plautus in their Comedies. Such as cã not hãdsomly
vse them selues in that mery conceyted slendernes of
wordes, fall into a drye and feble kynde of oracion.


The meane kynde.

The mean and temperate kynd of indyghting standeth of
the lower, and yet not of the loweste, and moste comen
wordes and sentẽces. And it is ryghtyly called the
temperate kynde of speakyng, because it is very nygh
vnto the small, and to the greate kynde, folowyng a
moderacion and temper betwyxt thẽ. And it foloweth as
we saye in one tenour, distinguyshyng all the oracion
wyth small ornamentes both of wordes, and sentences.
Cicero vseth thys for the lawe of Manilius, for Aulus
Cecinna, for Marcus Marcellus, and moste of all in hys
bookes of offices. In this it is fautye to come to the
kynd that is nye vnto it, whyche is called dissolute,
because it waueth hyther and thyther, as it were
wythout senowes and ioyntes, standyng surely in no
poynte. And suche an oracion can not cause the hearer
to take anye heede, when it goeth so in and out, and
comprehendeth not any thyng wyth perfecte wordes.


Of Schemes and Tropes.

[Sidenote: Scheme] Scheme is a Greke worde, and
signifyeth properlye the maner of gesture that
daunsers vse to make, whẽ they haue won the best game,
but by translacion is taken for the fourme, fashion,
and shape of anye thynge expressed in wrytynge or
payntinge: and is taken here now of vs for the fashion
of a word, sayynge, or sentence, otherwyse wrytten or
spoken then after the vulgar and comen vsage, and that
thre sũdry waies: by figure, faute, vertue.


Figure.

Fygure, of Scheme y^e fyrst part, is a behaueoure,
maner, or fashion eyther of sentence, oracion, or
wordes after some new wyse, other thẽ men do commenlye
vse to wryte or speake: and is of two sortes.
Dianoias, that is of sentence, and Lexeos of worde.

Figure of Dianoias, or sentence, because it properlye
belongeth to oratoures, we wyll speake of it hereafter
in place conuenient, now wyll we entrete of the figure
Lexeos, or of worde, as it perteyneth to the
Gramarians.


Figure of worde.

Figure Lexeos, or of worde, is when in speakyng or
wrytyng any thynge touchynge the wordes is made newe
or straunge, otherwyse then after y^e comen custume:
& is of .ii. kyndes; diccion, & construccion.


Figure of Diccion.

Figure of diccion is the transformacion of one word,
either written or pronoũced: & hath these partes.

[Sidenote: Prosthesis.] _Appositio_, apposiciõ,
the putting to, eyther of letter or sillable at the
begynnyng of a worde, as: He all to bewretched hym.

[Sidenote: Apheresis] _Ablatio_, the takynge awaye of
a letter or sillable from the begynnynge of a worde,
of a letter, when we say: The pẽthesis of thys house
is to low, for the epenthesis. Wher note this y^e word
pẽthesis is a greke worde, & yet is vsed as an
englishe, as many mo be, and is called a pentis by
these figures, Sincope and Apheresis, the whole word
beynge as is before, epenthesis, so called because it
is betwyxt y^e lyght & vs, as in al occupiers shops
cõmenli it is.

[Sidenote: Epenthesis.] _Interpositio_, when a letter
is added betwene the fyrste sillable of a word and the
laste, as: Relligiõ for religion, relliques for
reliques.

[Sidenote: Syncope.] _Consicio_, contrary to
Epenthesis, is when somewhat is cutte of from the
myddeste of the worde, as: Idolatry for Idololatry.

[Sidenote: Proparalepsis.] _Preassumpcio_, when a
sillable is added to a word, the significacion of the
worde therby nothyng altered, as: He vseth to slacken
his matters, for to slacke his matters.

[Sidenote: Apocope.] _Absissio_, y^e cuttyng away of a
letter or sillable frõ the end of a word, as: She is a
wel fayr may, for maid.

[Sidenote: Ectasis.] _Extensio_, the making lõg of a
sillable whych by nature is short, as: This was
ordeined by acte, for ordined.

[Sidenote: Systole.] _Contractio_, the makynge short
of a sillable which bi nature is lõg, as He is a man
of good perseueraũce: wher some men cõmit .ii. fautes
at once, one y^t they take perseueraũce for
knoweledge, which signifieth alwais cõtinuance, an
other y^t they make this sillable (ue) short, where it
is euer longe: and so do they erre in thys worde,
adherentes, also, makyng (he) short, when it is
alwayes longe, as when they saye: I defye hym, and all
his adherentes.

[Sidenote: Synolephe.] _Delecio_, puttynge oute, when
.ii. vowels comyng together, the first is as it were
put out: as thone and thother, for the one and the
other.

[Sidenote: Antisthecon.] _Littera pro littera._ One
letter for an other, as akecorne for okecorne.

_Transposicio._ Transposing of letters in wrytynge,
as chambre, for chamber.


Figure of construccion.

Figure of construccion is when the order of
construccion is otherwyse then after the comen maner.
And the kyndes be these.

[Sidenote: Prolepsis.] _Presumpcio_, a takynge before,
or generall speakynge of those thynges whych
afterwardes be declared more perticulerlye: as, in the
meane seasõ that kyng Henry rode royally to Calais on
a sumpteous courser, Lewes in a gorgeous chariot was
caried to Boloygne.

[Sidenote: Zeugma.] _Iunctio_, ioynyng, as Linacer
sayeth, is when in lyke sentences a certen comen thyng
that is put in the one, and not chaunged in the other
is not expressed, but lefte out: as in Vyrgyll. Before
I forget Cesar, eyther the Parthian shall drynke of
the flud Araris, or Germany of Tigris: here is left
out, shall drynke. Or to define it more playnelye.
¶ _Iniunctio_, is when the verbe in diuerse lyke
sentences is referred to one: and that thre maner of
waies.

[Sidenote: Presozeugma.] Fyrste when it is set before,
and is called _preiunctio_, as: There dyd ouercome in
hym, lechery, his chastitie, saucines his feare,
madnesse hys reason.

[Sidenote: Mesozeugma.] Secondlye when it is set in
the middes, & is called, _Media iunctio_, as bewtye,
eyther by age decaieth, or by syckenes.

[Sidenote: Hypozeugma.] Thyrdly whẽ it is put in the
end and is called _Postiunctio_, as bewtie by
syckenes, by sorowe, or by age decayeth.

[Sidenote: Diazeugma.] _Disiunctio_, disiunccion, when
of those thynges of whych we speake, eyther both, or
eche one of them is concluded with their certen verbe,
thus: The people of Rome destroyed Numance, ouerthrew
Cartage, cast downe Corinth, and raced Fregels.
Couetousnes hurteth the bodye, and corrupteth the
mynd.

[Sidenote: Silepsis.] _Concepcio_, when in vnlike
clauses a certeyn cõmon thynge that is put in one of
thẽ, can not agre with the other, excepte it be
chaunged. But thys is more playne in the latine
because of the concordes, albeit in englyshe for the
verbe we may vse this example. The Nobles and the
Kynge was taken. Hys head and hys handes were cutte
of: In the whyche sentences the verbe agreeth wyth the
nexte.

[Sidenote: Epergesis.] _Appositio_, when two
substãtiues are put together immediatly withoute any
verbe betwyxt, the one to declare the other, as in
Vyrgyll. ¶ Coridõ loued faire Alexis his masters
darlynge.

[Sidenote: Hyperbaton] _Transgressio_, when the
ryghte order of wordes is troubled, & hath these
kyndes.

[Sidenote: Anastrophe.] _Reuersio_, a preposterous
order of the woordes contrarye to the good order of
speakyng, as: He fell from of the wall, for he fel of
from the walle.

[Sidenote: Hysterologia.] _Prepostera loquutio_, when
y^t that is done afterwardes, is set in speaking in
the former place, as: plucke of my bootes and spurres.

[Sidenote: Tmesis] _Dissectio_, a cutting, when the
ioynyng of a compound worde is losed by putting
somewhat betwixt, as: Hys saying was true, as here
shal appere after, for hereafter. He shal by punyshed
what man so euer offẽdeth, for whatsoeuer man.

[Sidenote: Parenthesis] _Interpositio_, Interposicion,
is a dissoluciõ of the order of the words by putting a
sentence betwixt, as: The man (I speke it for no
harme) wyl somtime haue his owne wyll.

[Sidenote: Eclipsis.] _Defectus_, when somewhat
lacketh in speakyng, but cõmenlye vsed to be
vnderstand, as: Good morowe, good nyght.

[Sidenote: Antiptosis.] _Casus pro casu_, when one
case is putte for another, as me thynke it is so.


Faute.

Of Scheme, the second parte is in speach as it were a
faute, which though it be pardoned in Poetes, yet in
prose it is not to be suffered. The kyndes bee these:
obscure, inordinate, barbarous.


Obscure and hys partes.

Obscure is, when ther is a darknes thorow faut, eyther
of the wordes, or of the settynge of them, and these
ben the partes.

[Sidenote: Acyrologia.] _Improprietas_, when a worde
nothynge at all in hys proper significacion is
broughte into a sentence as a cloude: as you shall
haue syxe strypes you longe for.

[Sidenote: Pleonasmus.] _Superabundancia_, when y^e
sentence is laden with superfluous wordes, as, he
spake it wyth his mouthe, he sawe it wyth hys eyes.

[Sidenote: Perissologia.] _Sermo superfluus_, when a
sentẽce is added, y^e matter therby made neuer the
waightyer, as y^e Embassadours obteining no peace,
returned backe home, frõ whẽce they came.

[Sidenote: Tautologia.] _Inutilis repeticio eiusdem_,
is a vayne repeting agayn of one word or moe in all
one sentence, whyche faute by takyng lytle heede,
Cicero also fell into, as in the oracion for Aulus
Cluencius. Therefore that iudgemẽt was not lyke a
iudgemẽt O Iudges.

[Sidenote: Homiologia.] _Sermo ubique sui similis_,
a greater faute then the other, is when the whole
matter is all alyke, and hath no varietie to auoyde
tediousnes, as: He came thither to y^e bath, yet he
saide afterwardes. Here one seruaunt bet me.
Afterwardes he sayde vnto hym: I wyll consider.
Afterwardes he chyd wyth hym, & cryed more and more
when manye were presente. Suche a folyshe tellyng of a
tale shall you heare in many simple & halfe folyshe
persons.

[Sidenote: Amphibologia.] _Ambiguitas_, when thorow
faute of ioynyng the wordes, it is doutefull to whych
the verbe belongeth, as: Hys father loueth hym better
then hys mother.

[Sidenote: Periergia.] _Sedulitas superflua_, when
ther is in speakyng to much diligence and curiositye,
and the sentence ouerladen with superfluous wordes,
whiche faute is the same, or verye lyke to that,
[Sidenote: Macrologia] that is called _Macrologia_,
whych is when the sentence vpon desyre to seme fyne
and eloquent, is longer then it shulde be.


Inordinate and his partes.

Inordinate is, when eyther order or dignitie lacketh
in the wordes: and the kyndes ben these:

[Sidenote: Tapinosis.] _Humiliatio_, when the dygnitye
of the thyng is diminyshed by basenes of the worde: as
if we shuld say to a greate prynce or a kynge: If it
please your mastershyp.

[Sidenote: Aschrologia.] _Turpis loquutio_, when the
words be spoken, or ioyned together, that they may be
wronge into a fylthye sence. Of thys it nedeth not to
put any example, when lewde wanton persons wyl soone
fynde inowe.

[Sidenote: Cacozelia.] _Mala affectatio_, euyll
affectaciõ or leude folowyng, when the wytte lacketh
iudgement, and fondlye folowyng a good maner of
speaking, runne into a faute, as when affectyng copy,
we fall into a vaine bablynge, or laboryng to be
brief, wax bare & drye. Also if we shuld saye:
a phrase of building, or an audiẽce of shepe, as a
certẽ homely felow dyd.

[Sidenote: Aschematistõ] _Male figuratum_, when the
oracion is all playne and symple, & lacketh his
figures, wherby as it wer wyth starres it might shyne:
which faute is counted of wryters, not amonge the
leaste.

[Sidenote: Cacosintheton.] _Male collocatum_, when
wordes be naughtelye ioyned together, or set in a
place wher thei shuld not be.

[Sidenote: Soraismus.] _Cumulatio_, a mynglyng and
heapyng together of wordes of diuerse languages into
one speche: as of Frenche, welche, spanyshe, into
englyshe: and an vsynge of wordes be they pure or
barbarous. And although great authors somtyme in long
workes vse some of these fautes, yet must not their
examples be folowed, nor brought into a cõmon vsage of
speakyng.


Barbarie and hys partes.

Barbarie is a faute, whych turneth the speche frõ his
purenes, and maketh it foule and rude, and the partes
be these.

[Sidenote: Barbarismus.] Barbarismus is, when a worde
is either naughtely wrytten or pronoũced cõtrary to
the ryght law & maner of speakynge. And it is done by
addicion, detracciõ, chaunging, transposynge, eyther
of a letter, a syllable, tyme, accent or aspiraciõ.
Hereof we haue shewed exampels partly wher they be
called figures, and partly, doute ye not, but both the
speakynge and wrytyng of barbarouse men wyll gyue you
inow. Hytherto be referred the fautes of euil
pronouncing certein letters, & of to much gapyng,
or contrarye of speakyng in the mouth.

[Sidenote: Solecismus.] _Inconueniens structura_,
is an vnmete and vnconuenient ioynynge together the
partes of spech in construccion, whych is marked by
all thynges that belong to the partes of speche: as
when one parte is put for another, when gender for
gender, case for case, tyme for tyme, mode for mode,
number for number, aduerbe for aduerbe, preposicion
for preposiciõ, whych because it is vsed of famous
authores, instede of fautes, be called figures.


Vertue.

Vertue, or as we saye, a grace & dygnitye in
speakynge, the thyrde kynde of Scheme, is when the
sentence is bewtyfied and lyfte vp aboue the comen
maner of speaking of the people. Of it be two kyndes:
Proprietie and garnyshyng.


Proprietie and his partes.

Proprietie is when in wryting and pronunciacion ther
be no fautes committed, but thynges done as they
shulde be. The partes bee proposicion, and accenting.

[Sidenote: Analogia.] _Proportio_, proporcion is,
whereby the maner of true wrytynge is conserued. By
thys the barbarous tonge is seperated from the verye
true and naturall speche, as be the fyne metals from
the grosser. To speke is no faute, but an obseruacion
or markyng, not leanyng vpõ cause, but vpon example.
For in eloquence, the iudgement of excellẽt men
standeth for reason, as saythe Quintilian in hys fyrst
boke.

[Sidenote: Tasis.] _Extensio_, is that wherby a swete
and pleasaunt modulacion or tunablenes of wordes is
kepte, because some are spoken wyth a sharpe tenure or
accent, some wyth a flatte, some strayned out. This
grace specially perteineth to a turnyng of y^e voyce
in pleasaunte pronunciation.


Garnyshyng and his kyndes.

Garnishyng as the word it selfe declareth, is whẽ the
oraciõ is gaylye set oute and floryshed w^t diuerse
goodly figures, causyng much pleasauntnes and
delectaciõ to the hearer: and hath two kyndes,
composicion, and exornacion.

[Sidenote: Sinthesis.] Composicion is an apte settinge
together of wordes, whych causeth all the partes of an
oracion to bee trymmed al alyke. And in it muste be
considered that we so order our wordes, that the
sentence decrease not by puttynge a weaker word after
a stronger, but that it styl go vpwarde and increase.
There is also a naturall order, as to saye: men &
women, daye and nyght, easte, and weste, rather then
backewardes. In thys muste be auoyded also to often
comyng together of vowels, which make the oracion wyde
and gapyng. To muche repetyng of all one letter in the
beginning of wordes, to much repeting of one word,
and that they ende not to much all alyke, that the
sentence be not held on to longe, which werieth the
hearer, and the speaker: nor that manye consonãtes run
not to harshely together, wyth many other, which
Cicero speaketh of in hys thyrde booke of hys oratour,
and Quintilian in hys nynth, wherof here to put
examples were to longe.

Exornacion is a fyne polyshinge of wordes and
sentences by disseueryng thẽ w^t diuerse goodly
colours and tropes or chaũgings of speach.


Tropes.

Emonge authors manye tymes vnder the name of figures,
Tropes also be comprehended: Neuerthelesse ther
is a notable difference betwixt thẽ. In figure
is no alteracion in the wordes frõ their proper
significacions, but only is the oracion & sẽtence made
by thẽ more plesaũt, sharpe & vehemẽt, after y^e
affecciõ of him that speketh or writeth: to y^e which
vse although tropes also do serue, yet properlye be
they so called, because in them for necessitye or
garnyshynge, there is a mouynge and chaungynge of a
worde and sentence, from theyr owne significaciõ into
another, whych may agre wyth it by a similitude.
The former partes ben these.

[Sidenote: Metaphora.] _Translatio_, translacion, that
is a worde translated from the thynge that it
properlye signifieth, vnto another whych may agre
with it by a similitude. And amonge all vertues
of speche, this is the chyefe. ¶ None perswadeth more
effecteouslye, none sheweth the thyng before oure eyes
more euidently, none moueth more mightily the
affeccions, none maketh the oraciõ more goodlye,
pleasaunt, nor copious.


Translacions be diuerse.

[Sidenote: i.] Some frõ the body to the mynd, as:
I haue but lately tasted the Hebrue tonge, for newely
begunne it. Also I smell where aboute you go, for I
perceyue.

[Sidenote: ii.] From the reasonable to the
vnresonable, as Vyrgyll in hys Georgexe applyed the
counselles and fashion of warres belongynge to men;
to bees.

[Sidenote: iii.] From the vnreasonable to the
resonable. What whinest thou, what chatterest thou?
That one taken of a wolfe, that other of a pye.

[Sidenote: iiii.] From the liuinge to the not liuyng.
The mouthe of the well, the fatnes of the earth. The
lande wyl spewe them oute.

[Sidenote: v.] From the not lyuynge to the liuyng.
Cicero florisheth in eloquẽce.

[Sidenote: vi.] From the liuyng, to the liuynge.
The iews winched against Moses.

[Sidenote: vii.] From the not liuinge to the not
liuynge. The wordes flewe oute of hys mouth. He is
good for a greue wounde.

[Sidenote: Catachresis.] _Abusio_, when for a certeyne
and proper worde, we abuse a lyke, or that is nie vnto
it, as when we say: longe counsel, lytle talke, smal
matter. Here maye we soone perceyue that by abusion
wee take wordes that be somwhat nye, whych property do
belong to vnlyke thinges.

[Sidenote: Metalepsis.] _Transsumptio_, Transsũpcion,
is when by degrees we go to y^t that is shewed as:
he hyd hym selfe in the blacke dennes. By blacke is
vnderstand ful of darkenes & consequently stepe downe
and verye depe.

[Sidenote: Metonomia.] _Metonomya_, Transnominacion,
when a worde that hathe a proper significacion of hys
owne, beynge referred to another thing, hath another:
& this is done diuerse waies.

[Sidenote: i.] When the chiefe master or doar of a
thyng is put for y^e thing it self, as: Put vpon you
the Lorde Iesus Christ. Also: you play Iudas w^t me.

[Sidenote: ii.] When the place, or that that
cõteineth, is put for the thyng that is in it, as: All
the round earthe prayseth God. Oxforth (some say) hath
not forsaken all popery, for the studentes therin.

[Sidenote: iii.] When that that is conteyned is put
for that that doth conteine, as: The fryer Austens is
goodly buylded, for y^e house wher y^e fryers wer.

[Sidenote: iiii.] When the doer is put for that y^t is
done, as: God brought the Israelites out of Egypte
wyth a stretched out arme, and stronge hande. Also:
Is gods hand drawen in? for power and strength.

[Sidenote: v.] When y^t is done is put for y^e doer.

[Sidenote: Synecdoche.] _Intellectio_, Intelleccion
whẽ one thyng is vnderstand by another y^t is of the
same maner and kynd, and this is done many wayes.

[Sidenote: i.] When of the whole is vnderstãd a parte,
as: Abraham set a calfe before them, for calues
fleshe.

[Sidenote: ii.] By a parte the whole, as: He receyued
the straũgers vnder the succour of hys house rofe, for
into hys house.

[Sidenote: iii.] By one many, as: The Frenchemã in y^e
batail had the ouerthrow.

[Sidenote: iiii.] By a kynd y^e general, as: If thou
se thyne enemies Asse fal vnder his burden, for
cattell.

[Sidenote: v.] By the general the kynd: Eue the mother
of al liuing things, for of al mẽ: Preach to al
creaturs, to al mẽ

[Sidenote: vi.] By that goeth before, the thynge that
foloweth, as: He set hys spurres to hys horse, for he
rode a pace, or fled faste awaye.

[Sidenote: vii.] By that y^t foloweth, the thinge
wente before, as: I got it wyth the swete of my face,
for w^t my labour.

[Sidenote: viii.] By the matter, y^e thynge that is
made of it, as: Fleshe and bloude shewed the not it.

¶ [Sidenote: ix.] By the signe, y^e thyng y^t is
signified as: Lo, naw the toppe of the chymneyes in
the villages smoke a farre of: wherby Vyrgyl
signifieth night to be at hande.

[Sidenote: Pronominacio.] _Antonomasia_ is, whych for
y^e proper name putteth some other word: As: the
Archebyshop confuted the errour, for Cranmer. The
Philosopher lyed that the worlde was eternall, for
Aristotle. The Apostle sayeth wee be iustified by
faythe, for Paule.

[Sidenote: Periphrasis.] _Circuicio_, is a larger
descripcion eyther to garnyshe it, or if it bee foule
to hyde it, or if it be bryefe to make it more playn:
by etimology, by sygnes, by definicion. ¶ Example of
the fyrste: The prouidẽce of Scipio ouerthrew y^e
might of Carthage. Here saue onlye for garnyshyng
sake he myghte haue sayde playnlye: Scipio ouerthrew
Carthage. Of the nexte: When Saule was doyng his
busines, Dauid might haue killed hym. Doyng hys
busines, ye wot what it meaneth. Of y^e thyrd, you
haue the larger exposicions vpon the Gospels called by
the name of thys figure.

By Etymologie or shewyng the reasõ of the name. Well
maye he be called a parasite, for a parasite is y^t
loueth other because of his meat.

By sygnes, as when by certeine notes, we describe anye
thynge, as if a man vnderstãdyng anger wyll saye that
it is the boylynge of the mynde, or color whych
bryngeth in palenes into the coũtenaũce, fiersenes
of the eies, and trẽblyng in the members.

By destincion. The arte of well indyghting, for
Rethorique.


The second parte of Trope.

_Allegoria_, the seconde parte of Trope is an
inuersion of wordes, where it is one in wordes,
and another in sentence or meanynge.

[Sidenote: Aenigma.] _Sermo obscurus_, a riddle or
darke allegorie, as: The halfe is more thẽ the hole.

[Sidenote: Paremia.] _Adagium_, a sayinge muche vsed
and notable for some noueltye, as: The wolfe is in our
tale.

[Sidenote: Ironia.] _Dissimulatio_, is a mockyng
whiche is not perceiued by the wordes but eyther by
the pronũciacion, or by the behaueour of the person or
by the nature of the thyng, as You are an honest man
in deede.

[Sidenote: Sarcasmus.] _Amara irrisio_, is a bitter
sporting & mocke of our enemye, of a maner of iestyng
or scoffinge bytynglye, a nyppyng tawnte, as: The
Iewes saide to Christ, he saued other, but he could
not saue hym selfe.

[Sidenote: Astysmus.] _Festiua urbanitas_, is a certen
mery conceyted speakyng, as on a tyme a mery felow
metynge w^t one that had a very whyte head, axed him
if he had lyen in the snowe al nyght.

[Sidenote: Mycterismus.] _Subsannatio_, a skornyng by
some iesture of the face, as by wrythinge the nose,
putting out the tonge, pottyng, or suche lyke.

[Sidenote: Antiphrasis.] _Dictio cõtrariũ
significans_, when the mock is in a worde by a
contrarye sence, as when we call a fustilugges,
a minion.

[Sidenote: Charientismus.] _Graciosa nugatio_, when
wordes roughly spokẽ be molified by pleasaunt wordes:
as when we saye to hym that threatneth vs: I praye you
be good master to me.


The fyrst order of the figures Rethoricall.

[Sidenote: Epanaphora] _Repeticio_, repeticion, when
in lyke and diuerse thynges, we take our begynnyng
cõtinually at one & the selfe same word, thus: To you
this thyng is to be ascribed, to you thanke is to be
geuen, to you thys thynge shal be honour. In this
exornacion is much plesantnes, grauitie, and sharpnes,
& it is much vsed of al oratours, & notably setteth
oute, and garnysheth the oracion.

[Sidenote: Antistrophe.] _Conuersio_, conuersion is
whych taketh not hys begynnynges at al one and the
same worde, but w^t all one worde styll closeth vp the
sentence, & it is contrary to that other before, as:
Sence the time y^e cõcord was takẽ awaye from the
citie, lyberty was takẽ awai: fidelity was takẽ away:
frẽship was takẽ away.

[Sidenote: Symploce.] _Cõplexio_, complexion cõpriseth
both two exornacions, both this, & that whych we
declared before, y^t both all one fyrste worde shulde
be oftẽ repeted, & we shuld turne often to all one
laste word, as: Who toke Sedechias prisoner, & put out
both hys eyes? Nabuchodonozer. Who put Daniell and hys
felowes into the burnyng furnace? Nabuchodonozer. Who
was transformed frõ a man into a beast, & eate haye
wyth oxen? Nabuchodonozer.

[Sidenote: Anadiplosis.] _Reduplicatio_, is a
continent rehearsyng agayne of all one worde, or
wordes, for the more vehemence, and some affect of the
mynde. Cicero agaynst Catiline. Yet he liueth, liueth:
yea commeth also into the counsel house. It is thou,
it is thou that troublest all the houshold. ¶ Also,
dareste thou nowe come into our syght, y^e traitour of
thy cõtrei? Thou traitour I say of thy contrei, darest
thou come into oure syght?

[Sidenote: Epanodus.] _Traduccio_, Traduccion is,
whyche maketh that whẽ all one word is oftentymes
vsed, that yet it doth not onlye not displease the
mynde, but also make y^e oracion more trim in this
wyse: Suffer ryches to belonge to riche men, but
prefer thou vertue before ryches. For if y^u wylt
compare ryches wyth vertue, thou shalte scarse thynke
them meete to be called ryches, whych ar but
hãdmaydens to vertue. Also, we are vnto God the swete
sauour of Christ. To the one part are we the sauour of
death vnto deathe, and vnto the other part are we the
sauour of lyfe vnto lyfe .ii.Cor.ii.

[Sidenote: Sinonimia] _Nominis cõmunio_, cõmunion of
the word, when we renewe not the selfe same worde by
rehearsyng agayn, but chaunge that that is put wyth an
other word of the same valewe, thus: Thou hast
ouerthrowen the comon wealth euen from the foundacion,
and cast downe the citye, euen from the roote. The
iuste man shall floryshe as the palme tre, and
shall be multiplyed as the Ceder tre. Cicero for
.Q. Ligarius. ¶ Whose syde wolde that poynte of thy
swerd haue pricked? what meaned thy weapons? what was
thy mynde? what meante thyne eyes? handes, that
burning of thy mynd? what desiredst y^u? what
wyshedste thou? Lytle differeth thys figure from the
other before, only because the wordes be chaũged, the
sentẽce remayning.

[Sidenote: Sinathrismus.] _Frequentacio_,
frequentacion is, when the thynges that be dispersed
thorowout all the cause, are gathered together into
one place that y^e oracion shulde be the wayghtier,
& rebukefuller, thus: What faute is he without? why
shuld you O Iudges be mynded to deliuer hym? He is an
harlot of hys owne bodye, he lyeth in wayte for
others, gredy, intemperate, wanton, proud, vnnatural
to his parentes, vnkynd to hys frindes, troubleous to
hys kynsefolke, stubborn to hys betters, dysdaynful to
his equals, cruel to hys inferiours, finally,
intollerable to all men.

[Sidenote: Epiphonesis.] _Exclamacio_, exclamaciõ is,
whiche sheweth the signification of sorowe, or of
anger, by callyng vpon eyther a man, a place, or a
thynge? Cicero in hys oratour: O deceitful hope of
men, and frayle fortune: & our vayne contencions,
whych oftẽ tymes are broken in the myd way, rushe
downe, and in the fal ar quite ouerthrowen before they
can se the hauen. Hereunto belõgeth expectaciõ,
obtestaciõ, wishyng, rebuking.

[Sidenote: Areia.] _Execracio_, execracion: O fye vpon
Idolatry, that taketh away the honoure due vnto God
alone, and geueth it to synfull creatures, and Images
made by mans hand.

[Sidenote: Deesis.] _Obtestacio_, obtestacion, whẽ for
God, or for mannes sake we vehemently desyre to haue
any thynge. As Cicero for Publius Sestius: O I praye
you, & for the Gods sakes most herteli besech you, y^t
as it was your wylles to saue me, so you wyl vouchsaf
to saue thẽ thorew whose helpe you receiued me agayne.

[Sidenote: Euche.] _Votum_, wyshynge: O wolde God that
the adulterer had bene drowned in the ragyng sea, whan
wyth hys nauye of shyppes he sayled to Lacedemonia.

[Sidenote: Epiplexis] _Increpacio_, Cicero agaynst
Catiline: Thynkest thou that thy counselles are not
knowen? and that we knowe not what thou dyddest the
laste nyghte? and what the nyghte before?

[Sidenote: Erotesis.] _Interrogacio_, Euerye
interrogaciõ is not of grauity, neither yet a Scheme,
but thys whyche when those thinges be rehearsed vp
whiche hurte oure aduersaryes cause, strengthneth that
thynge that is gone before, thus seynge then that he
spake all these wordes, and dyd all these thynges,
whether dyd he put away our felowes myndes frõ the
cõmon wealthe or not?

[Sidenote: Erotema.] _Raciocinatio_, raciocinacion is,
by the whych we our selues axe a reason of oure selfe,
wherefore euerye thynge shulde be spoken, & that
oftentymes we demaund of our selues a declaracion of
euery proposicion after thys maner: Thys was well
ordeined of oure elders to depryue no kynge of hys
lyfe whome they had taken in batayl. Why so? for the
power whyche fortune had geuen vs, it to consume in
the punyshement of them whom the same fortune a lytle
before had set in hyeste degree, were agaynste reason.
Yea but he brought a greate army agaynst you? I wyl
not remember it. Why so? For it is the poynte of a
valiaunte man, suche as contend for the vyctorye, them
to count enemyes: suche as be ouercome, those to count
mẽ: so that fortitude maye diminishe war, humanitie
increase peace. But he if he had ouercome, wolde he
haue done so? Verelye he wolde not haue bene so wyse.
Why shulde ye spare hym then? because such foly I am
wont to despise, not to folowe.

[Sidenote: Prosapodosis.] _Subiectio_, when we axe of
oure selfe what can be saide agaynst vs, and answere
to our selues thus: ¶ Shall we tary in synne? God
forbyd. Or compell our aduersarye to answer thus:
O Iewes, what can you say for denyall of Christe. Wyl
you saye that you haue not youre Messias? but your
prophets say the contrarye. Your Types are confoũded.
Whom wyl you be iudged by? by Hystories? Oures declare
that you be out of the way, & shall come agayne to
Christ.

[Sidenote: Antiphora.] _Tacite obiectioni responsio._
whẽ we make answere to a thynge that myght priuely be
obiected agaynst vs, as in the fyrst epystle of Ouide,
Penelope wylling her husband Vlysses to come home
hymselfe, and wryte nothyng vnto her. Wher he myght
haue layed for hys tarying the warres, she priuely
toke away y^t excuse, saying: Troy is destroied.

[Sidenote: Aporia.] _Dubitatio_, Dubitacion; when wee
doute of two thynges, or of many, which we shuld
inespecially speke of. Much hurted the cõmonwealth at
that tyme, whether I shuld saye the folyshenesse of
the consolles, or the malyce, or bothe, I can not
tell.

[Sidenote: Apophasis.] _Expeditio_, expedicion, when
many reasons rehearsed vp, wherby a thynge myghte be
done or not, the other are taken away, and one left
that we entende, thus: It muste needes bee that thys
controuersie touching the sacrament must stand eyther
vpon the much pressyng and rigour of the wordes; or
vpon the meanynge and vnderstandynge of them. The
wordes as they stande, brynge wyth them greate
inconuenience, to wytte, to expositoures, and the
other textes. The meaning doth not so but auoydeth al
these incõueniences, & satisfieth reason, expositours,
& texts of the scripture, wherfore wyt, expositour,
& scripture thinketh it better to take the sentence,
then the worde.

[Sidenote: Epilogus.] _Conclusio_, conclusiõ is, which
by a brief argumẽtacion of these thinges that be
spoken before or done, inferreth that thynge that
necessarilye shulde folowe, thus: And if a reuelacion
wer geuen to the Troianes, y^t Troy myght not be taken
without y^e arowes of Philectetes, and thei did
nothing else but strike Alexander to kyl him that in
dede was Troy to be taken.

[Sidenote: Epitrope.] _Permissio_, permission, when we
shew y^t we geue & graũt any thyng altogether to a
mans wyll, thus: ¶ Because al thynges takẽ away, only
is left vnto me my body & mynd, these thynges, whych
only ar lefte vnto me of many, I graunte thẽ to you
and to your power.

[Sidenote: Anacinosis.] _Cõmunicacio_, cõmunicacion
is, when we leaue sumwhat to y^e Iudges to be estemed,
thus: I leaue vnto you o iudges to be thought what
hurt y^e cõmõ welth shal take hereof _Diuisio_,
[Sidenote: Dialisis.] diuision is which diuiding one
thyng frõ another, endeth thẽ both by shewing a reasõ,
thus: why shuld I lay ani thing to thi charge? if y^u
bee good, y^u haste not deserued it, if thou be
naught, thou carest not for it. Also, what shuld I
speake of myne owne good turnes towarde the. If thou
do remember them, I shuld but trouble you: If you haue
forgotten them, when by deede I haue profited nothyng,
what good can I do in wordes?

[Sidenote: Antitheton.] _Contentio_, contencion, when
the reason stãdeth by contrary wordes or contraries be
rehearsed by cõparison, thus: Flattery hath pleasaũt
begynnynges, but the same hathe verye bytter endynges.
Cicero agaynst Catiline: when they coulde not lyue
honestlye, they had rather dye shamefully. They that
be after the fleshe, care for these thynges y^t be of
the fleshe. They that be after the spirite, care for
the thynges of the spirite.

[Sidenote: Antithesis.] _Contrarium_, contrary is,
that of two diuerse thynges confirmeth y^e one
bryefely and easelye, thus: For he that alwayes wyll
be an enemy to hys owne rekenyngs, how shuld a man
trust that he wold be a frind to other mens matters?
He that in familiare cõmunicacion and company of hys
friendes wyl neuer say truth, thinkest thẽ y^t he wil
absteine from a lye in a cõmon audience.

[Sidenote: Colon.] _Membrum oracionis_, a mẽber of the
reasõ is so called when a thinge is shewed perfitely
in fewe wordes the whole sentence not shewed, but
receyued agayne w^t an other parte, thus: Thou dyddest
bothe profite thyne enemie, and hurte thy frynd. Thys
exornacion may be made of two partes only, but the
perfiteste is made of thre, thus: Thou diddest profite
thine enemy, hurt thi frind, and dydst no good to thy
selfe.

[Sidenote: Dialyton.] _Articulus_, article is, when
eche word is set asunder by cutting the oracion thus.
By sharpnes, voyce, countenaunce, thou madeste thyne
enemyes afrayd. Thou destroyedst thyne enemyes wyth
enuye, wronges, power, falsehead.

[Sidenote: Isocolon.] _Compar_, euen or equall, is
when the oracion hath in it the partes of the whyche
we spake before, & that they be made of euen number of
sillables: but thys equalitie must not stand by
numbrynge of them, but by perceyuyng of it in y^e
mynd. Christe afore the Iudge was led, & on hys head a
croune of thorne was putte, in token that in dede, the
kynge of Iews he was borne. Here be some mo wordes in
on mẽber then in an other, yet sound they to the eare
of lyke lengthe.

[Sidenote: Homioptotõ] _Similiter cadens_, fallyng al
alike is, when in the same construccion of wordes ther
be two wordes or mo which be spoken alyke in the selfe
same cases, thus: Thou praysest a man nedye of vertue,
plenteful of money. Cicero for Flaccus: There is in
thẽ no varietie of opinion, none of wyll, none of
talke.

[Sidenote: Homoteleto.] _Similiter desinens_, endynge
al alyke, when words or sentẽces haue alyke endyng,
as: Thou dareste do fylthely, and studiest to speke
baudely. Content thy selfe w^t thy state, in thy herte
do no man hate, be not the cause of stryfe and bate.

[Sidenote: Climax.] _Gradacio_, is, when we rehearse
again the word y^t goth next before, & descẽd to other
thinges by degrees thus: To Affrican industry gat
vertue, vertue glory, glory hatered. [Sidenote:
Orismus.] _Definicio_, definiciõ, wher by y^e proper
effect of any thynge is declared briefely & absolutely
in this wyse: This is not diligẽce but couetousnes,
because y^t diligẽce is a nedy sauing of thine own:
couetousnes is a wrongful desyre of other mens.
¶ [Sidenote: Metabasis.] _Transicio_, transiciõ is,
wherby briefly we monyshe what hath ben spoken, & what
may folowe, as: What he hath ben to hys contrey I haue
told, now ye shal hear how he hath shewed him self to
hys parẽtes. Also Cicero for the law of Manilius:
Because we haue spoken of y^e kind of the warre, now
wyll we shewe a fewe thynges of the greatnes of it.
¶ [Sidenote: Paralepsis.] _Occupatia_, occupacion is,
when we make as though we do not knowe, or wyl not
know of y^e thyng y^t wee speke of most of al, in this
wyse: I wyl not say that y^u tokest money of our
felowes, I wyl not stand much in thys that y^u
robbedst kingdoms, cityes, and al mens houses: I passe
ouer thy theftes, & al thy rauyns. ¶ [Sidenote:
Asindeton.] _Dissolutio_, when the oracion lacketh
coniũccions, thus: Obey thy parẽtes, be ruled by thi
kinsfolke, folow thy fryndes, obey the lawes.

[Sidenote: Apostrophe.] _Auersio_, auersion, when we
turne our speche from them to whom we dyd speake to
another personne, eyther present or absent, or to a
thing to the whych we fayne a person, as a precher,
speaking of priestes, that feede not the flocke, may
fytly turn hys speche vnto Peter, sayinge: O Peter,
I wold thou liuedst, & sawest what thy brethren do,
howe far they be gone frõ that thou prescribedst them
to do. Againe: O world, howe pleasant be the thynges
that thou dost promyse, how bytter ben they that thou
geuest.

[Sidenote: Anangeon.] _Necessum_, necessitie, when we
cõfesse the thynge to be done, but excuse it by
necessitye, eyther of y^e person or tyme, thus:
I confesse that thys I dyd. But the woman that thou
gauest me, dyd deceyue me. Also, somtyme I was in that
opinion, but the tyme so required.

[Sidenote: Anaclasis.] _Refractio_, that is the
turninge backe agayne of a worde into a cõtrary
significacion, thus: I knowe kynge Ezechias that all
thys lyfe is but bitternes, but I praye thee, gyue me
suche bytternes.

[Sidenote: Bomphiologia.] _Verborum bombus_, when
small & triflyng thynges are set out wyth great gasyng
wordes. Example of this haue you in Terrence of the
boasting souldiar, & creping smel feast.

[Sidenote: Miosis.] _Diminutio_, when greate matters
are made lyghte of by wordes, as when he was wel beatẽ
bi a knaue, that knaue wyll saye he dyd but a lytle
stryke hym.

[Sidenote: Liptote.] _Extenuatio_, the makyng lesse of
a thynge to auoyde arrogance, thus: If I haue any wit
O Iudges, if any exercyse of endyghtyng, al may I
thanke Archias the Poete of. ¶ Cicero for Archias.

[Sidenote: Diasirmus.] _Eleuacio_, when we make lyghte
of, and dyspyse great argumentes brought agaynst vs,
whych to aunswer vnto it is labour, and we saye they
perteyne not to the purpose, or that they are vnworthy
to be answered vnto, or that we kepe them tyll another
tyme: Of thys ther nedeth none example.



As oute of lytle springs ariseth greate fluddes:
so now these preceptes of grammer finyshed, and the
fyrste order of the Rethorical figures: We nowe come
vnto that greate declaracion of eloquence, called of
Quintilian & Cicero, the ornametẽs of sentence.


Figures of sentence.

[Sidenote: Particio.] Particion called also diuision &
distribucion rethoricall, is when a thing that mai be
generally spokẽ, is more largely declared, and diuided
into partes. Example: He is perfitely seene in all the
sciences. ¶ This sẽtence spoken as it were in a sũme,
may be enlarged, if seuerally you reherse vp al the
kindes of learning. There is no kynd of doctrine at al
but he is exquisitely sene in it. There is no science,
but he hathe learned it thorowly, and so learned it,
that you wolde thynke he had labored onely in it.
So maruelouslye he knoweth all the fables of al the
Poetes, he so aboundeth in the floures of the
Rethoricians: He hath so boulted oute the paynefull
rules of the gramarians. So perfitely knoweth he the
subtilnesse of the Logicians, and hath so soughte oute
the priuities of natural thynges, and ouercome the
harde poyntes of supernaturall wisedome: he hathe
passed thorowe the secretes of the diuines, and hath
thorowlie perceyued the mathematical demõstracions. He
so knoweth the mocions of the starres, the reasons of
numbers, the measurynges of the earth, the situacions,
names & spaces of cities, mountaynes, fluddes, and
fountaynes, he so knoweth the difference and harmonies
of tunes: He so remẽbreth all hystoryes olde and late:
So knoweth all good authors, all antiquities &
nouelties, and also is perfitelye well seene as wel in
Greke as latyne. Finallye whatsoeuer learnynge hathe
bene found and taught of good authors, al that
thorowlye hath he perceyued, knowen and remẽbred. Here
these wordes, he is perfitelye seene in all the
sciences, bee declared in theyr partes.

[Sidenote: Enumeracio.] Enumeracion is much lyke vnto
thys, when not beynge contente at once to declare the
ende of the matter, we rehearse vp all y^t went before
it was done. [Sidenote: Enumeraciõ of thynges that go
before] Example: Cicero oppressed the mischeuous
purposes of Catiline. Thus maye you set it forth: The
myscheuous enterpryses of Catiline by most vngracious
yonge men, whych went about the destruccion of the
citie of Rome, M Tullius the consull dyd quickelye
smell out by hys foresyghte, and by hys singuler
vigilancye sought thẽ oute, by his hyghe prudence
espyed them, by his incredible eloquence conuinced
them, and by hys graue authoritie repressed thẽ, by
force of armes subdued them, & with great happines
toke them quyte awaye.

[Sidenote: Enumeraciõ of the causes.] Hitherto also
apperteineth, whẽ we expoũd a thyng not barely, but
repete the causes also sumwhat before, and of what
begynnynges it came of. As if not contente to haue
sayd, that the Frenchmen made bataile with the
Neapolitans, we rehearse also what wer the causes of
theyr stryfe, who was the setter forward, and what was
the occasion of the warre, what hope and truste eyther
of them had to the victorye. Of these ar many examples
in Saluste & Liuie. [Sidenote: Enumeraciõ of effectes,
& consequẽtes.] From thys differeth not when we do not
simplye shewe forthe the matter, but reherse also
those thynges that eyther go with it, or folowe it,
as thus: We thanke the of thys warre. Thus maye you
dilate the matter. The treasure spente vpon the
Barbariens, the youthe broken wyth laboures, the corne
troden downe, the catel driuen awaye, stretes and
vyllages euery where set on fyre, fieldes lefte
desolate, walles ouerthrowen, houses robbed, temples
spoyled, so many olde men chylderles, so manye
orphanes, so manye wyddowes, so many virgins
shamefully defiled, y^e maners of so many yong mẽ made
worse by leude liberty, so many mẽ slayne, so great
mourning, so many good artes loste, lawes oppressed,
religion blotted, al thynges of god and man
confounded, all good order of the citie corrupted:
I say all this heape of myschiefs that riseth of war,
we mai thãke the only of it, which wast y^e beginner
of this war

[Sidenote: Energia.] _Enargia_, euidence or
perspicuitie called also descripcion rethoricall, is
when a thynge is so described that it semeth to the
reader or hearer y^t he beholdeth it as it were in
doyng. Of thys figure ben many kyndes.

The fyrste, called effiguracion or descripcion of a
thynge, whereby the figure and forme of it is set out:
as of the vniuersall flud.

The seconde, the descripcion of a personne, when a man
is described, as are the noble menne in Plutarch,
and the Emperours in Suetonius. Howe be it the
rethoricianes vse thys worde _Prosopopeia_, that is
descripcion of a personne to comprehende the sixe
kyndes folowinge.

[Sidenote: Charactirismus.] The thyrde kinde is called
_Charactirismus_, that is the efficcion or pycture of
the bodye or mynde, as Dauus describeth Crito, & Mitio
describeth Demea.

[Sidenote: Prosopographia.] The .iiii. is the fainyng
of a persõ called _Prosopographia_, and is of .ii.
sorts. Fyrst y^e descripciõ of a fained person, as
Vyrgyl in the syxt of Eneid, faineth Sibil to be mad,
& fayneth the persons in hell. An other forme is whẽ
we fayne persõ, cõmunicacion, or affecte of a man or
of a beaste, to a dumme thynge, or that hath no bodye,
or to a dead man: as to the Harpies, furies, deuils,
slepe hongar, enuie, fame, vertue, iustice, and suche
lyke, the poetes fayne a person, and communicacion.
This seconde fashion the Poetes do call _Prosopopey_.
[Sidenote: Aetopeia.] The fyrst kind is called
_AEtopeia_, that is an expressiõ of maners or mylde
affeccions, and hath thre kyndes: of the whych the
fyrst is a significacion or expression of maners
somewhat longer, as of wittes, artes, vertues, vices.
Thus we expresse Thraso a boaster, and Demea a sowre
felowe.

The seconde forme, is an expression of naturall
propensitie, and inclinacions to naturall affeccions,
as of the fathers loue toward the chyldren .&c. of
fryendshyppe, neyghbourhod & cetr. as you maye se in
hystoryes.

¶ The thyrd kynde is the expression of lighter
affeccions, as when wee go about by fayre meanes to
gette the mery affeccions of menne to vs ward or to
other, & when the mynd is lyft vp into hope, myrth,
& laughter, and as be louyng salutations, promises,
& cõmunynges together in familiar epistles and
dialogues, and the getting of loue and fauour in the
begynnynges, and finallye thys figure doth teach, that
Rethorique is a part of flattery. [Sidenote:
Pathopeia.] The sixt kynde of rethoricall descripcion
is _Pathopeia_, that is expressyng of vehement
affeccions and perturbacions, of y^e whych ther be two
sortes. The fyrste called _Donysis_, or intencion, and
some call it imaginacion, wherby feare, anger, madnes,
hatered, enuye, and lyke other perturbacions of mynde
is shewed and described, as in Ciceros inuectiues.
Another forme is called _Oictros_, or cõmiseracion,
wherby teares be pyked out, or pyty is moued, or
forgeuenes, as in Ciceros peroraciõs, and complaintes
in Poets: And to be shorte ther is gotten no greater
admiracion or commendacion of eloquence then of these
two, _AEtopeia_, and _Pathopeia_, if they be vsed in
place. [Sidenote: dialogismus] The .vii. kind is
_Dialogismus_ whych is how often a short or long
communicacion is fayned to a person, accordyng to the
comelines of it. Such be the concious in Liuie, &
other historians. [Sidenote: Mimisis.] The .viii. kynd
is called _Mimisis_, that is folowing eyther of the
wordes or manoures whereby we expresse not onlye the
wordes of the person, but also the gesture: and these
foresayd sixe kindes Quintiliane dothe put vnder
_Prosopopeia_. The .ix. kynde is the descripcion of a
place, as of Carthage in the fyrst of Eneid. Referre
hither Cosmographie and Geographie. The .x. kynd is
called _Topotesia_, that is ficcion of a place, when
a place is described such one peraduenture as is not,
as of the fieldes called Elisii in Virgil: refer
hither _Astrothesiam_, that is the descripciõ of
starres. The .xi. kinde is _Chronographia_, that is
the descripcion of the tyme, as of nyght, daye, and
the foure tymes of the yere.

[Sidenote: Amplificacio] A greate parte of eloquence
is set in increasing and diminyshing, and serueth for
thys purpose, that the thyng shulde seme as great as
it is in dede, lesser or greater then it seemeth
to manye. For the rude people haue commonly a
preposterous iudgemẽt, and take the worst thynges
for the beste, and the beste for the worst. Al
amplificacion and diminucion is taken eyther of
thinges, or of wordes. Of thynges ryse effeccions, of
words those fashions that nowe I wyll shewe. The first
waye of increasyng or diminishing is by chaungynge the
worde of the thynge, when in encreasynge we vse a more
cruell worde, and a softer in diminyshynge, as when we
call an euyll man a thiefe, and saye he hathe kylled
vs, when he hathe beaten vs. And it is more vehemẽte
if by correccion we compare greater wordes wyth those
that we put before: As thou haste broughte not a
thyefe, but an extorcioner, not an adulterer, but a
rauysher. &c. ¶ Lyke vnto this is _Hyperbole_, whyche
say the more then the truthe is in deede, as when we
saye: The crye was hearde to heauen, meanyng it was a
greate crye. An other kynde is by increase, whyche is
when the thynges goyng before beynge exaggerate,
we come from them to the hyeste: As agaynste Verres.
It is a myscheuous deede to bynde a Citizen of Rome,
haynous to beate hym, what? shall I saye to hange hym?
An other waye of increase is, when wythoute
distinccion in the context and course of the oracion,
the circumstaunces sette in order, somewhat alwayes is
added bygger then the fyrste, and that we come to the
hyest by a swyfte pace. As he was not ashamed to playe
at dyce wyth iesters in the common cokerye, beynge a
prieste, a Person, a Diuine, and a Monke. There is
another kynde of amplyfienge that is by comparison
contrary to increase. For as in increase the thynges
that go before beyng exaggerat, we go from them to the
hyest, so comparison taketh increase of the lesser,
whych if they be greater in all mens opinions, that
must nedes appeare verie greate that we wyll haue
amplified: And comparison is made by ficcion, & by
puttynge to an example. By ficcion, eyther in one
degree, or in many. As in the fyrst part of the
amplifiyng of Antonies vomite, for he fayneth it had
happened vnto hym at supper beyng but a priuate
person. If at supper in these great bowles of thine
thys happened vnto thee, who wolde not haue counted it
a shame: But now in y^e syght of the people of Rome
beynge a cõmon officer, master of the horse, to whom
it was shame once to belch, he wyth hys gobbets of
meat that stanke al of wyne, fylled al his lap, and
the iudgement seate. Here amplificacion is taken of
smaller thinges, and is made by one degree of many
degrees, this maye be an example. If a mã gaue the
euery yere .xl. poũd, woldest y^u not thanke him? If a
friend had redemed the out of prison w^t hys money,
woldest thou not loue hym? If eyther in battell or
shypwracke a man by hys valiantnes had saued the,
woldest thou not worshyp hym as God, and saye thou
were neuer able to make hym amendes? What ingratitude
is it then that Christ God & man, which hathe made
the, to whom thou dost owe al that thou hast, &c. so
to dispyse hym, so wyth dayely fautes to anger him,
& for so great beniuolẽce to geue hym agayn so great
contumelye and despyte? Neyther skylleth it that we
haue rehearsed ficcion and comparicion amonge
argumentes, for there is no cause why that
amplificacion and oruacion shuld not be taken out of
the same places from whence ther commeth probacion.
Nor it is no newes the selfe same thynges to be
applyed to diuerse vses. As of all circumstaunces both
of the thyng, and of the person are taken argumentes,
but euen oute of the selfe same are set affeccions and
exaggeracions, whych is manifest in the kynde
demonstratiue: As when we prayse chastitie in a yonge
man, we go not aboute to perswade that he was chaste,
but that that vertue shulde appeare greater in
floryshyng age. To lyke vse serue examples and
similitudes, as in Esaye: The Oxe knewe hys owner, and
the Asse the maunger of hys master, but Israel hathe
not knowen me. The example of the Oxe & the Asse is
not vsed for this to proue that the Hebrewes dyd not
knowe their God, but that the impietie and folishnes
of that nacion shulde be amplified. The same may be
applied to profe after thys maner. If the Oxe and Asse
knowledge theyr masters, of whõ they are norished and
do serue them, how much more conueniente is it, that
mã shuld knowledge hys maker and norisher, and serue
him bothe in bodye and mynd. Contrarye, when Paul
sayth: no man serueth in warre on his owne wages, he
proueth by similitudes, that it is not comelye, that
they that war vnder the gospell, shulde be compelled
to be carefull for their liuynge. He shuld haue
applied it to amplifiyng, if he had propouned it thus.
They that serue vnder a capteine be not careful for
their liuyng, but lokinge for the sustenaunce of their
capteine, only studye for thys to do hym faythful
seruice, howe muche more shame is it that some menne
that haue promised to fyght vnder Christ in the
gospel, to distrust such a capteyne, and studye all
they can to gather riches. Cõparison by puttyng to
example is, whẽ by setting out as it were a lyke
example, wee brynge to passe that that we exaggerate
may be thought either very lyke, eyther equal, either
bygger. ¶ And in this kynd both the whole is cõpared
to the whole, & the partes to partes: as in the
oracion of Cicero for Milo. Did I pray you y^t noble
mã Scipio being a priuat persõ kil Tiberius Gracchus
whych shaked the cõmõ wealthe but a lytle, & shall wee
beynge consulles suffer Catiline, that gothe aboute to
wast the whole worlde wyth murther and fyre? Here both
Catiline is compared to Gracchus, and the estate of
the common wealthe to the whole world, & a lytle
shakyng to slaughter, fyer and wastyng, and a priuate
person to the consuls. ¶ Ther is an amplificacion also
whẽ contraries be set together, wherby bothe the
partes seme bygger, and more euidente. As when
exhorting men to liberalitie, we shewe howe foule a
faute couetousenes is, that the foulnes of the faute
being exaggerate, the goodlines of the vertue shulde
be more encreased. There is another kynd of amplifiyng
called reasonynge, when of those thinges that eyther
folowe or go before, the hearer doth gather how great
that thynge is that we wolde to be amplified. By
thynges that go before, as when Homer armeth Achylles,
or Hector to batayle, by the greate preparacion, we
gather how sore y^e sight shal be. Of thinges y^t
folowe: How much wyne Antony dranke, when y^t hauyng
such a strong body he was not able to digeste it, but
spewed it vp the nexte daye after. Of thynges ioyned
to: as whẽ Maro sayeth to Poliphemus: He had the bodye
of a pineapple tree for a staffe in hys hande. Manye
other kyndes ben there of amplifiynge, which who so
wyl se more at large, may read that right excellent
boke of the famouse doctor Erasmus, whych he intituled
the preacher.

The inuencion of many proposicions is, when the chyefe
state or principal proposion of the cause is declared
and proued by manye other proposicions and argumẽtes,
so set in iuste order that there be no confusion of
proposions. And proposicions be taken partely of those
that be cõmon, and partly of those thynges that
belonge properlye to the cause: As if a man wolde
counsell Tullye not to take the condicion offered of
Antony, that is, that by burnynge of hys bookes called
philippia, he shulde haue hys lyfe, hy myght vse
commonly these proposicions. Fyrste y^t no man oughte
to by his life so dere, that therby he shulde lose hys
immortall name. ¶ To thys generall may serue a
perticuler taken oute of circumstaunces, that it
oughte not to be done, inespecialy of Cicero, whych by
so many laboures hathe gotten vnto hym selfe an
excellente and euerlastyng name, and that hath shewed
moste eloquently by putting out so manye noble workes
that deathe ought to be despised, inespeciallye seynge
that now he hath not much tyme to lyue beynge an olde
man. ¶ Agayn, another principall proposicion shall be
taken of the circũstaũces. That nothynge is worse,
then that Cicero beyng a very good mã shulde owe his
lyfe to Antonye the worst man of the world. The third
proposicion shal be cõiectural: how that Antony
craftely goeth about that the bookes beynge burned,
in the whych he perceiueth bothe hys owne immortal
infamye to be, and the immortal glory of Cicero, whẽ
he hath afterwardes taken awaye hys lyfe, he maye
vtterlye extinguyshe Cicero.


¶ A copious heaping of probacions.

[Sidenote: Proues.] So when proposicions be found,
remaineth argumẽtaciõ or proues, called in Greke
_Pistis_, because they make suretye of a doutefull
thyng. [Sidenote: Two sortes of proues.] Of proues
some be artificiall, some vnartificial. Vnartificial
be, foreiudgementes, rumoures, tormentes, tabelles,
othe, wytnesses, diuinacion, oracles. [Sidenote:
Signes be referred to proues vnartificial, & why?] To
these be referred whych the Greekes cal _Symeia_ or
sygnes: For they also commonlye are not set by the
wytte of hym that disputeth, but are ministred
otherwyse. [Sidenote: Signes wherfore.] They be called
signes properlye, whyche rysynge of the thynge it
selfe that is in question come vnder the sences of
menne, [Sidenote: Signes be referred to tyme.] as
threatninges, whych be of the time that is paste,
cryinge herde oute of a place, whyche is of the tyme
presente, palenesse of hym whyche is axed of the
murther, whyche is of the tyme folowynge, or that
bloud leapte oute of the bodye latelye slayne, when he
came that dyd the murther. [Sidenote: Two maner of
signes.] Also of signes some bee necessary, as that he
liueth whiche dothe breathe, and some probable, as
bloude in the garmente, whych myghte also come oute of
the nose, or otherwyse. [Sidenote: Proues takẽ oute of
circũstauces.] Also proues and argumentes are taken
oute of circũstaunces, partly of the person, partlye
of the cause or thyng it self, and be called also of
the Rethoricians places, neyther cleane contrarie to
those that Aristotle hath taughte, neyther the very
same: for some agree wyth them, some be all one, and
some diuerse. [Sidenote: How proues of circũstaũces
differ frõ Aristotels places.] Onlye differeth the
manour of teachynge, because the Rethoricianes do
teache a patrone, the philosopher generally helpeth
iudgement. [Sidenote: Circũstãces of person.]
Circumstaunces of the person ben these. Kinred,
nacion, contrey, kynde, age, bryngynge vp, or
discipline, hauioure of the body, fortune, condicion,
nature of the mynde, studies, affectacion, wordes
forespoken, & deedes done before, commocion, counsell,
name. [Sidenote: Kynred.] Kynred monisheth vs to
cõsider of what progeny a man dothe come. For it is
semely, and happeneth cõmonlye that the sonnes be lyke
the forefathers, and thereof procedeth causes to lyue
well or euyll: [Sidenote: Nacion] Naciõ sheweth what
disposicion and maners euery nacion hath peculiarly of
theyr owne. [Sidenote: Kynd.] The difference of kynde
is knowen to euerye man: [Sidenote: Age.] To diuerse
ages diuerse thyngs be conueniente. [Sidenote:
Educacion.] It skylleth more by whom, and by what
wayes men be brought vp, then of whom they be
begotten. [Sidenote: Hauiour of the bodie.] The
hauioure of the bodye comprehendeth fayrnes or
foulnes, strength or weaknes: For more credible is the
accusacion of lecherye in a fayre body then in a
foule, and violence more probable in the strong, then
in the weake. [Sidenote: Fortune] Fortune perteineth
to ryches, kynred, friendes, seruitures, dignities,
honours. [Sidenote: Condicion.] Condicion
comprehendeth manye thynges: as whether he be noble or
not noble, an officer, or a priuate person, a father
or a sonne, a citizen or a straunger, a fre man, or a
seruaunt, a maried manne, or a single man, a father or
none, hauinge had but one wyfe, or two. [Sidenote:
The nature of the mynd] The nature of the mynde hath
manifold varieties in men. Some be fearful, some
strong, some gentle, some vehemẽt, chaste, lecherous,
glorious, modeste &c. [Sidenote: Studies] Studies,
for other be the maners of the rustical, then of the
lawyer, of the marchaunte, then of the Soldier,
of the shipman then of the phisicion. [Sidenote:
Affectacion.] To these they adde affectacion: For it
skylleth muche what maner man euerye one wolde seme
to be, whether he be y^e same or not: as ryche, or
eloquent, iuste or mightie, mery or sad, a fauorer of
the people, or of the great men. [Sidenote: Wordes
spoken, & deedes done before] Both wordes that be
spoken before time, and dedes that be done, be also
considered. For of thynges that be paste, the present
be estemed, & also thinges that be to come. [Sidenote:
Commocion] Cõmocion in thys differeth from the nature
of the mynde, because that one is perpetuall, that
other for a whyle: as anger is commocion, rancour
the nature of the mynde, and feare a cõmocion,
fearefulnesse nature.

¶ [Sidenote: Name.] To these they adde the name of the
person, of whence many tymes an argument is takẽ: as
Cicero iesteth muche vpon Verres, or sweepers name,
because beyng a strong thief, he swepte altogether.
Thus haue we shewed that much matter may be taken of
thynges belongyng to a personne, so maye be also of
those that belonge to a thynge or cause, whiche places
bee so handeled of Quintiliane, that he myngleth thẽ
wyth the places whyche Aristotle hathe comprehended
in hys eyghte bookes of Topyckes. [Sidenote:
Circũstaunces of things be these.] Circumstances of
the thynges be these: Cause, place, tyme, chaunce,
facultie, instrumente, manour. And fyrste of euerye
thinge there be foure causes, efficient, materiall,
formall and finall. Matter is the receptacle of al
formes. The forme causeth it to be thys, and not
another thynge: as the reasonable soule geueth to the
body that it is a man, and the soule because it is a
substaunce hathe her vnnamed forme, whereby she is a
soule, and not an aungel. [Sidenote: Fine or ende.]
And what soeuer is made, is made to a certen ende, and
one thynge maye haue diuerse endes: as nature hathe
geuen brestes vnto women to geue milke, and also for
comlynesse of theyr bodies, neyther doth any man that
is of a sounde mynde take vpon hym anye businesse, but
for that he desyreth to haue some thynge: nor there is
nothynge desyred, but vnder the consideracion of good
or profite. ¶ So the ende whyche is laste in effecte,
and fyrste in intencion, loketh vpon the gettinge of
profites, increase, and cõfirmacion of them, and also
vpon them, eschuynge of disprofites, diminyshynge,
or puttyng them awaye. But in chosyng them, false
perswacion deceyueth manye, whylest by errour they
beleue that to be good y^t is naughte. ¶ This place
therfore serueth for many thynges, to make more or
lesse. ¶ Greatly happy shulde men be, if euerye man
wolde looke vpon the marke, not the whych desyre hathe
sette before hym, but whyche God and honest reason
hath prefixed. ¶ And of such strengthe is the ende,
that hereof is taken the felicitie of euery thyng. To
fast that the body maye obeye the mynde, to do good
workes is an holy deede. To fast to be counted holye,
is hypocrisie. To faste to encrease thy good, is
couetousenesse. To faste to be whole in thy bodie is
phisycke, and so of praiynge, almose, and other
laudable workes. After lyke maner must be wayed the
secondarie endes. [Sidenote: Place.] An other
circumstaunce of a thynge, is the place, whose
qualitie oftentimes maketh the faute either greter or
lesser: as to steale an holye thing out of an holy
place, is worse then some other kynde of theft.
[Sidenote: Tyme.] No lesse matter of argumentacion
ministreth the qualitie of time, which signifieth two
thynges. [Sidenote: Time hathe two significacions.]
Fyrst it is taken playnly for the time present, past,
or to come: Seconde it signifieth oportunitie to do a
thynge, and so when a man cometh as we wold haue it,
we saye he cometh in time. And in the seuenth of Ihon,
when Christ sayth: My tyme is not yet come, tyme is
taken for oportunitie of tyme. And lykewyse in the
syxt to the Galat. Therfore whyle we haue tyme. &c.
[Sidenote: Chaunce.] The Rethoricianes put chaunce
vnder tyme, because the ende of a thynge perteyneth to
the time that foloweth: but of thys wyll we speke in
the place called Euent. Facultie is a power to do the
thynge that is taken in hand: and in coniectures two
thinges speciallye be considered: whether he could or
wold. Wyll is gathered of hope to performe it, and is
made more probable whẽ the nature of the mynde is
ioyned to it: as it is not like he wyl abide in his
glorye, because he is enuious and ambicious. Also when
we counsell one to leaue of vayne mournynge, when it
is not in his power to get agayne that is gone.

[Sidenote: Instrument.] Instrument semeth to be a part
of facultie: for instrumentes sometyme are cause of
oure hablenes to do a thinge: and it is a more
mischeuous deede to kyl with venome thẽ with swearde.
And to instrumẽt so nie is the manour of doyng, that
almoste it is all one. But more properlye perteyne to
the manour or fashion, those thynges that be eyther
excused, or made greater by wyl: As lesse faute is it
to fall into a vice by ignorance or frailtie, then of
a purpose and full deliberacion. The vse of
circũstances profiteth to amplifie, to extenuate,
to euidence, to confirmacion, and probabilitie. And
hytherto be referred also the common places that
indifferentlye apperteyne to all kyndes and partes
of causes, of the whyche Rodulphe entreateth, and
Aristotle in his Topyckes. But before we speake of
them, it is to be noted, that thys woorde place, is
taken foure maner of wayes. They are called common
places, because thei be entreated of, of bothe partes,
althoughe not in all one cause: as he that is sore
spoken agaynste by witnesses, swadeth that we shulde
not geue credite to witnesses. Contrarye, he that is
holpen by them speaketh in defence of wytnesses, and
so of other that we spake of before, when we entreated
of vnartificial argumentes. Lyke to thys sorte be
sentences, whyche wee exaggerate as it were wythoute
the cause, but so that they serue to the cause whiche
wee haue in hande: as bee the amplificacions of
vertues, and the exaggeracions of vices. As when wee
accuse anye manne that by euyll companions he was
broughte to do also the mischeuouse deede. ¶ A common
place shall bee, wyth wordes to exaggerate howe much
it profiteth to keepe goodnesse, to bee in companye
wyth good men, and contrarye howe greate myschyefe the
companye of euyll men dothe cause.

¶ In the third sence places be called seates of
argumentes, whyche the Rethoricianes do applie to eche
kyndes of causes: As in the kynde suasorie, honest,
profitable, pleasaũt easye, necessarie. &c. In
demonstratiue kynde, kynred, contrey, goodes of the
bodye and of the mynde. In the Iudiciall kynde,
inespecial deniall, those that we spake of euen nowe.
The fourth places be general, whych declare what
belongeth to euerye thynge, and howe oute of eche of
them there be taken argumentes, partly necessary, and
partlye probable. These be commen to the Oratours with
the Logicians, albeit Aristotle hathe seperatelye
written of them in hys Topickes; and in his
Rethorickes hathe not touched thẽ, and they profite
much both to iudgement, and to endightynge, but the
varietie of authors hath made the handlynge of them
sumwhat darke, because amonge them selues they can not
wel agre, neyther of the names, neyther of the number,
neyther of the order.

[Sidenote: Examples.] An example is a rehearsall of a
thynge that is done, and an applyynge of it vnto our
cause, eyther for similitude or dissimilitude,
profitable to perswade, garnyshe, and delyght.
Examples, some be taken out of hystories, some of
tales, some of fayned argumẽtes, in comedies; and
bothe sortes be dilated by parable and comparacion.
Comparacion sheweth it equall, lesse, or bygger.
Parable is a feete similitude, whych sheweth y^e
example that is brought, either like, vnlyke or
cõtrarye. Lyke as Camillus restored the common wealth
of the Romaines that was oppressed by the Frenchmen,
and when it was brought into extreme losse, by theyr
valiauntnesse expelled the Barbariens: So Valla, whan
thorowe the ignorãce of y^e Barbarians, learnyng was
destroyed, restored it agayn, as it wer from death
into hys former brightnes. Vnlike. As not lyke thanke
is done to Laurence and Camillus, because that the one
moued by vertue wyth the ieopardie of hys lyfe
deliuered his contrey from the vngracious, that other
styrred vp by desyre of fame, or rather wyth an euyll
luste to checke manye, not restored agayn the lattẽ
tong oppressed, but brought it as it were into certen
rules. Cõtrary, Brutus kylled hys chyldren goyng about
treason, Manlius punished by death the valiauntnes of
hys sonne. Comparacion sheweth y^e thing y^t is
brought, eyther equall, lesse, or bigger: Lesse, as
our elders haue warred oftentymes, because theyr
marchaũtes and mariners wer euyl entreated. What mynd
ought you to be in, so many thousande citizens of Rome
slaine at one message, and one time? Equall, as in the
same Cicero. ¶ For it happed vnto me to stand for an
offyce wyth two gentlemenne, that one very naughte,
that other very gentle, yet ouercame I Catiline by
dignitie, and Galba by fauoure. Bygger: As for Milo,
they saye he shulde not lyue that confesseth he hathe
kylled a man, when M. Horacius was quitte, whyche
kylled hys owne syster.

[Sidenote: Parable.] Parable, which some call
similitude, some cõparacion, is a comparyng of a thyng
y^t hath no life, or no bodye to our cause and
purpose, for some thyng that is lyke or vnlyke. And as
example is taken of y^e dede of a man, and the person
of an hystorye, or that is fabulous and fayned, so is
comparison taken of thinges that be done, or that be
ioyned to them by nature, or by chaunce. ¶ As Attilius
retournyng agayne to hys enemies is an example of
kepynge faythe and promise: But a shyp in the whych
the sayles be hoysed vp, or takẽ down after the
blowyng of the winde, is a parable whiche teacheth a
wyse man to geue place to tyme, and applye hymselfe to
the world that is presente. And lyke fashion is of
dilatyng a parable, as we haue shewed in example.
For sometime it is noted in a word as: Doest thou not
vnderstand that the sayles muste be turned? Sometyme
it is more largelye declared, as in the oracion for
Murena. And if vnto menne that sayle out of the hauen.
&c. Analogie.

_Icon_, called of the latines _Imago_, an Image in
Englyshe, is muche lyke to a similitude, and if you
declare it is a similitude: as if you saye: As an Asse
wyll not be driuen from her meat, no not with a club,
vntyl she be full: no more wil a warriour reste from
murther vntyll he hath fylled his mynd with it. This
is a similitude: but if you saye that a man flewe vpon
his enemies like a dragon, or lyke a lyon, it is an
Image. Howbeit an Image serueth rather to euidence or
grauitie, or iocunditie, then to a profe. There is
also a general comparacion, speciallye in the kynde
demonstratiue, person wyth person, and one thing with
an other, for praise or dispraise

[Sidenote: Indicacio.] _Indicacio_, or authoritie,
is the cõparing of an other mans saying or sentence
vnto our cause: of the whiche ther be seuen principal
kyndes. The fyrst a comon morall sentence, as a common
principle perteyning to maners: as continuall laboure
ouercommeth all thynges, and as be the sentences of
Salomon and Cato: and all morall philosophy is ful of
suche sentences. The seconde are common rules, whych
be called dignities in euery science. The .iii.
a prouerb. The fourth called _Chria_, which is a very
short exposicion of any dede or worde wyth the name of
the author recited. The fyfte an _Enthimeme_, whyche
is a sentence of contraries: as if it be a great
praise to please good men, surely to please euyl men
it is a greate shame. The syxte called _AEnos_, that
is a saying or a sentence, taken out of a tale, as be
the interpretacions of fables, and theyr allegories.
The seuen is any answere takẽ out of the mouth of God,
or taken out of the cõmaundement of God.

[Sidenote: Exergasia.] Expolicion is, when we tarye in
one thynge, speakynge the same in diuerse wordes and
fashions, as though it were not one matter but
diuerse. A goodlye example of the moste largest
expolicion is rehearsed in Erasmus, whych, because it
is very profitable, I wyll wholye rehearse it. A wyse
man for the cõmon wealth sake shall eschue no peryll:
euen for thys cause that it happeneth oftẽ, that wher
he wold not dye for the common wealth, he perysheth
yet of necessitie wyth the cõmon wealth. And because
all the commodities we haue be taken of our contrey,
ther ought no incõmoditie to be counted paynfull,
taken for our contrey. They therfore that flye that
peryll which must be takẽ for the cõmon wealth, do
folyshely: for neither can they auoyde it, and they be
found vngrate to the citie. But they that by their
owne peril put away the perils of their cõtrei, they
are to be counted wyse, seyng that bothe they geue to
the cõmon wealth that honour y^t they shulde geue, and
had rather dye for many, thẽ w^t many. For it is much
against reason that receiuing thy naturall lyfe by thy
contrey, to deliuer it agayne to nature when she
compelleth the, and not to geue it to thy cõtrey when
she desyreth the. And where y^u mayst wyth hye
valiauntnes & honour die for thy contrei, to haue
rather lyke a cowarde to liue in shame. And for thy
fryndes and parentes, and other acquayntance to put
thy selfe in peryll: for the cõmon wealth in the
whyche both it & that most reuerende name of the
contrey is conteyned, not to be willynge to come in
ieopardye. Wherfore as he is to be dyspised whyche
being vpon the sea had rather haue hym selfe safe,
then the ship: so is he to be rebuked, whych in
ieopardye of the commen wealthe, prouideth more for
his own then for y^e cõmon wealthe. When the shyppe
hathe ben broken, many haue ben saued: But after the
shypwrake of the cõtrey no man can escape. Whyche
thynge me thynketh Decius dyd wel perceiue, whych
reported wholy to haue bestowed hym selfe, and for the
sauegard of his men of war to haue run amonge the
myddest of hys enemyes. Wherfore he loste not hys
lyfe, but let it go: for he redemed for a thynge of
verye small pryce, a ryght dere thyng. He gaue his
life, but he receiued his contrei. He loste his life,
but he inioyed glorye, whyche written to his greate
prayse, shyneth euerye daye more and more. Wherefore
if we haue proued both by reason & by exãple, that we
be bounde to put oure selfe in peryll for the common
wealthe, they are to be counted wyse men, whych for
the sauegarde of the contrey auoyde no peryll. It
wolde be meete to exercyse chyldren in suche themes,
wherby shal be gottẽ bothe wysedome and eloquence.
And here me thynketh I maye ryghte well ende these
Rethoricall preceptes, although I be not ignoraunt
that much helpeth bothe to persuasions and copye, the
proper handlyng of tales taken oute of the nature of
beastes, dreames, fayned narracions, sumwhat lyke vnto
the truth, w^t allegories much vsed of diuines. But
because they requyre a longer treatie, for this tyme I
leaue them of, addynge vnto these before written rules
of oratory, a declamacion
  bothe profitable and verye elo-
    quente, wrytten by Erasmus
     vnto the moste noble Duke
      of Cleue, as here appe-
            reth after.



  ¶ Impryn-
  ted at London by Iohn Day,
  dwellinge ouer Aldersgate, beneth
  saint Martyns. And are to be sold
  at his shop by the litle conduit
  in Chepesyde at the sygne
  of the Resurrec-
  tion.

  _Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum
  solum. Per septennium._



INDEX TO AUTHORS AND ORATORS


  Afer, Publius Terentius, 23, 61
  Africanus, Julius, 58
  Agricola, Rodolphus, 8, 86
  Antonius, Marcus (143-87 B.C.), 18
  Archias, Aulus, 61
  Aristotle, 80, 82, 86, 88
  Augustine, Saint, 14
  Brooke, Thomas, 2, 7
  Caecina, Aulus, 24
  Calpurnius, Lucius (Piso), 22
  Castellio, Sebastianus, 14
  Catiline, Lucius, 22, 48, 51, 56, 64, 75, 90
  Chaucer, Geoffrey, 5
  Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 10, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 33, 39, 41,
    48, 49, 50, 51, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 68, 75, 77, 78, 82, 90
  Cluencius, Aulus, 22, 33
  Elyot, Thomas, 5
  Erasmus, Desiderius, 1, 10, 77, 93, 96, 97
  Flaccus, Lucius, 58
  Gower, John, 5
  Homer, 76
  Ligarius, Quintus, 49
  Linacre, Thomas, 29
  Livy, Titus, 65, 69
  Lydgate, John, 5
  Manilius, Gaius, 24, 59
  Marcellus, Marcus Claudius, 24
  Milo, Titus Annius, 22, 75, 90
  Mosellanus, Petrus (Peter Schade), 9
  Murena, Lucius, 91
  Ovid, 53
  Plautus, Titus, 23
  Plutarch, 86
  Quintilian, 10, 18, 37, 39, 62, 69, 82
  Quintus, Caius, 23
  Rabirius, Gaius, 22
  Roscius, Quintus, 23
  Sallust, Gaius, 65
  Sestius, Publius, 51
  Sulla, Lucius, 22
  Suetonius, Gaius, 66
  Vergil, 29, 30, 40, 44, 67, 69
  Verres, Gaius, 22, 71, 82
  Westimerus, Bartholomew (Westheimer), 14
  Wyatt, Thomas, 6



INDEX OF FIGURES

[Transcriber’s Note: Spelling in the Index generally corresponds to
spelling in the body text. When the spelling in the body text is
different, it is shown here in {braces}.]


  Ablatio, 26
  Absissio, 27
  Abusio, 41
  Acyrologia, 32
  Adagium, 45
  Aenigma, 45
  Aenos, 93
  Aetopeia, 67, 69
  Allegoria, 45
  Amara irrisio, 46
  Ambiguitas, 33
  Amphibologia, 33
  Amplificacio, 70, 76
  Anacinosis, 55
  Anaclasis, 60
  Anadiplosis, 48
  Analogia, 37, 91
  Anangeon, 60
  Anastrophe, 31
  Antiphora, 53
  Antiphrasis, 46
  Antiptosis, 31
  Antisthecon, 28
  Antithesis, 56
  Antitheton, 56
  Antistrophe, 47
  Antonomasia, 44
  Apheresis, 26
  Apocope, 27
  Apophasis, 54
  Aporia, 54
  Apostrophe, 60
  Appositio, 26, 30
  Areia, 51
  Articulus, 57
  Aschematiston, 35  {Aschematistõ}
  Aschrologia, 34
  Asindeton, 59
  Astrothesiam, 69
  Astysmus, 46
  Auersio, 60

  Barbarie, 35
  Barbarismus, 36
  Bomphiologia, 61

  Cacosintheton, 35
  Cacozelia, 34
  Casus pro casu, 31
  Catachresis, 41
  Charactirismus, 66
  Charientismus, 46
  Chria, 93
  Chronographia, 69
  Circuicio, 44
  Circumstances of thynges, 83
  Climax, 58
  Colon, 57
  Commonplaces, 86  {Common places}
  Common rules, 92
  Communicacio, 55  {Cõmunicacio}
  Compar, 57
  Comparison, 71, 75, 90  {75 Cõparison}
  Complexio, 47  {Cõplexio}
  Composicion, 38
  Concepcio, 30
  Conclusio, 55
  Consicio, 27
  Construccion, 28
  Contentio, 56
  Contractio, 27
  Contraries, 76
  Contrarium, 56
  Conuersio, 47
  Correction, 70  {Correccion}
  Cosmographie, 69
  Cumulatio, 35

  Deesis, 51
  Defectus, 31
  Definicio, 58
  Definicion, 45
  Delecio, 28
  Description, 66, 69  {Descripcion}
  Dialisis, 55
  Dialogismus, 69
  Dialyton, 57
  Dianoias, 25
  Diasirmus, 61
  Diazeugma, 30
  Diccion, 26
  Dictio contrarium significans, 46  {Dictio cõtrariũ significans}
  Diminutio, 61
  Disiunctio, 30
  Dissectio, 31
  Dissimulatio, 45
  Dissolutio, 59
  Distribucion, 62
  Diuisio, 55
  Donysis, 68
  Dubitatio, 54

  Eclipsis, 31
  Ectasis, 27
  Effiguracion, 66
  Eleuacio, 61
  Eloquucion, 17
  Energia, 66
  Enthimeme, 93
  Enumeracio, 63
  Epanaphora, 47
  Epanodus, 48
  Epenthesis, 27
  Epergesis, 30
  Epilogus, 55
  Epiphonesis, 50
  Epiplexis, 51
  Epitrope, 55
  Erotema, 52
  Erotesis, 51
  Etymologie, 45
  Euche, 51
  Exaggeration, 71  {exaggerate}
  Example, 74, 75, 88
  Exclamacio, 50
  Execracio, 51
  Exergasia, 93
  Exornacion, 39
  Expeditio, 54
  Expolicion, 93
  Extensio, 27, 37
  Extenuatio, 61

  Faute (fault), 32;
    obscure, 32;
    inordinate, 34;
    barbarous, 35
  Festiua urbanitas, 46
  Ficcion, 72
  Frequentacio, 50
  Fygure, of scheme, 25;
    of diccion, 26;
    of words, 26;
    of construction, 28;
    rethoricall, 47;
    of sentences, 62

  Garnyshyng, 38
  Geographie, 69
  Graciosa nugatio, 46
  Gradacio, 58

  Homiologia, 33
  Homioptoton, 58  {Homioptotõ}
  Homotelento, 58  {Homotelẽto}
  Humiliatio, 34
  Hyperbaton, 30 (last line)
  Hyperbole, 71
  Hypozeugma, 29
  Hysterologia, 31

  Icon, 91
  Image, 91
  Improprietas, 32
  Inconueniens structura, 36
  Increase, 71
  Increpacio, 51
  Indicacio, 92
  Iniunctio, 29
  Inordinate, 34
  Intellectio, 42
  Interpositio, 27, 31
  Interrogacio, 51
  Inuencion, 77;
    proposicions, 77;
    artificial proues, 78;
    unartificial proues, 79, 80;  {Vnartificial}
    circumstances of thynges, 83;
    commonplaces, 86  {Common places}
  Ironia, 45
  Isocolon, 57
  Iunctio, 29

  Lexeos, 25, 26
  Liptote, 61
  Littera pro littera, 28

  Macrologia, 34
  Mala affectatio, 34
  Male collocatum, 35
  Male figuratum, 35
  Media iunctio, 29
  Membrum oracionis, 57
  Mesezeugma, 29
  Metabasis, 59
  Metalepsis, 41
  Metaphora, 40
  Metonomia, 42
  Mimisis, 69
  Miosis, 61
  Morall sentence, 92
  Mouth of God, 93
  Mycterismus, 46

  Necessum, 60
  Nominis communio, 49  {Nominis cõmunio}

  Obscure, 32
  Obtestacio, 51
  Occupatia, 59
  Oictros, 68
  Orismus, 58

  Parable, 90
  Paralepsis, 59
  Paremia, 45
  Parenthesis, 31
  Particio, 62
  Pathopeia, 68, 69
  Periergia, 33
  Periphrasis, 44
  Perissologia, 32
  Permissio, 55
  Pistis, 78
  Pleonasmus, 32
  Postiunctio, 29
  Preassumpcio, 27
  Preiunctio, 29
  Prepostera loquutio, 31
  Presozeugma, 29
  Presumpcio, 28
  Probacions, 78
  Prolepsis, 28
  Pronominacio, 44
  Proparalepsis, 27
  Proportio, 37
  Proposicions, 77
  Proprietie, 37
  Prosapodosis, 53
  Prosopographia, 66
  Prosopopeia, 66, 67, 69  {67 Prosopopey}
  Prosthesis, 26
  Prouerb, 93
  Proues (proof), 78-90

  Raciocinatio, 52
  Reasonynge, 76
  Reduplicatio, 48
  Refractio, 60
  Repeticio, 47;
    inutilis, 33
  Rethoricall, figures, 47;
    diuision, 62
  Reuersio, 31

  Sarcasmus, 46
  Scheme, 3, 25;
    faute of, 32;
    vertue of, 37
  Sedulitas superflua, 33
  Sentence, figures of, 62
  Sermo, superfluus, 32;
    ubique sui similis, 33;
    obscurus, 45
  Silepsis, 30
  Similiter cadens, 58;
    desinens, 58
  Similitudes, 74
  Sinathrismus, 50
  Sinonimia, 49
  Sinthesis, 38
  Solecismus, 36
  Soraismus, 35
  Style, kinds, 21;
    greate, 22;
    small, 23;
    meane, 24
  Subsannatio, 46
  Subiectio, 53
  Superabundancia, 32
  Sygnes, 45, 79
  Symeia, 79
  Symploce, 47
  Syncope, 27
  Synecdoche, 42
  Synolephe, 28
  Systole, 27

  Tapinosis, 34
  Tacite objectioni responsio, 53  {obiectioni}
  Tasis, 37
  Tautologia, 33
  Tmesis, 31
  Topotesia, 69
  Traduccio, 48
  Transgressio, 30
  Transicio, 59
  Translatio, 40
  Transposicio, 28
  Transsumptio, 41
  Tropes, 3, 39-46
  Turpis loquutio, 34

  Verborum bombus, 61
  Votum, 51

  Worde, 26;
    compound, 19;
    simple, 19  {symple}

  Zeugma, 29

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

_Paragraphs_

Some paragraph breaks in this e-text are conjectural. The printed book
had the following kinds of breaks:

  --conventional paragraph with indented first line
  --unambiguous paragraph with non-indented first line
  --ambiguous paragraph: previous line ends with blank space, but the
    space is not large enough to contain the first syllable of the
    following line
  --sentence break corresponds to line break: this happens randomly in
    any printed book, and only becomes ambiguous when the book also has
    non-indented paragraphs

In this e-text, the second type of paragraph is marked with a pilcrow ¶.
The third type has a pilcrow ¶ but no paragraph break. The fourth type
is not marked.


_Errors and Inconsistencies_ (Noted by Transcriber)

Unless otherwise noted, spelling and punctuation are unchanged.

_Note on “homotele(n)to”_

In the facsimile edition, the body text has _homoteleto_ but the Index
has _homotelento_. In the other available text, the body text has
_homotelẽto_ with clear overline. The correct form is “homeoteleuton”
(in this book’s spelling, probably “homioteleuton”).

Spelling:

  The pattern of initial “v”, non-initial “u” is followed consistently.
  The spelling “they” is more common than “thei”.
  The form “then” is normally used for both “then” and “than”;
    “than” is rare.
  The most common spelling is “wyll”, but “wyl”, “wil” and “will”
    also occur.

Word Division:

Line-end hyphens were completely arbitrary; words split at line break
were hyphenated about two-thirds of the time. The presence or absence
of a hyphen has not been noted. Hyphenless words at line-end were joined
or separated depending on behavior elsewhere in the text:

  Always one word (re-joined at line break):
    som(e)what, without, afterward(e)s
  Usually one word: often()times, what()so()euer
  One or two words: an()other
  Usually two words: it/him/my...()self/selues; shal()be;
    straight()way
  Always two words: here to

Roman Numerals:

Numbers were printed with leading and following .period. When the number
came at the beginning or end of a line, the “outer” period was sometimes
omitted. These have been silently supplied for consistency.

Contents:

  Faute  32  [33]

Text:

  because that in it we sonar perceiue
    [_text unchanged: “sooner”_]
  to make things defused more plaine
    [_text unchanged: variant of “diffused”?_]
  [Sidenote: And apte similitude.]  [_text unchanged: error for “An”_]
  wordes not the selfe proper thinges
    [_text unchanged: error for “thẽ selfe”?_]
  Idolatry for Idololatry.  [Idololatty]
  [Sidenote: Presozeugma.]
    [_text unchanged: usual form is “Prozeugma”_]
  [Sidenote: Hyperbaton]  [“Hyperbation”]
  _Antonomasia_  [Antonomasias]
  _Occupatia_, occupacion
    [_text unchanged: correct form is “Occupatio”_]
  [Sidenote: Energia.]  [_text reads “Euergia”: intended form may be
    “Enargia” as in Latin_]
  [Sidenote: Charactirismus.]
    [_text unchanged: usual form is “Characterismus”_]
  and these foresayd sixe kindes
    [_text unchanged: eight items have been listed_]
  The inuencion of many proposicions is, when the chyefe state or
  principal proposion of the cause is declared and proued by manye
  other proposicions and argumẽtes, so set in iuste order that there
  be no confusion of proposions.
    [_text unchanged: “proposion” (twice) may be errors for
    “proposicion”_]
  Kynred monisheth vs to cõsider  [Rynred]

Punctuation and mechanical errors:

  [Sidenote: The occasion of thys treatise.]
    [_“trea/ ise” at line break with invisible t_]
  to al mẽ  [. missing]
  by etimology, by sygnes, by definicion.  [. missing]
  Cicero for .Q. Ligarius.  [_punctuation as shown_]
  by callyng vpon eyther a man, a place, or a thynge?
    [? in original]
  I graunte thẽ to you and to your power
    [_“to / to” at line break_]
  y^e beginner of this war  [. missing]
  the fyrst is a significacion or expression of maners
    [_“of / of” at line break_]
  he was broughte to do also the mischeuouse deede.  [, for .]
  for praise or dispraise  [. missing]

Index:

  Cicero ... 90  [90,]
  Vergil, 29, 30, 40, 44, 67, 69  [67 69]

  Charientismus  [Charietismus]
  Execracio  [Excracio]
  Media iunctio  [iniunctio]
  Mesozeugma  [Mesezeugma]





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