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Title: Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Exercise Book - with Inflections, Syntax, Selections for Reading, and Glossary
Author: Smith, C. Alphonso (Charles Alphonso), 1864-1924
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Note:

This e-text includes characters that require UTF-8 (Unicode) file
encoding:

  Āā Ēē Īī Ōō Ūū; ȳ Ǣǣ (vowels with macron or “long” mark)
  Ęę Ǫǫ (e and o with ogonek)

If any of these characters do not display properly--in particular, if
the diacritic does not appear directly above the letter--or if the
apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage,
make sure your text reader’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set
to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change the default font.
Depending on available fonts, some tables may not line up vertically.
As a last resort, use the Latin-1 version of the file instead.

See the Poetry section (between V and VI in Part III, Readings) for
potential problems specific to that section.

Italics are shown with _lines_. Boldface is shown with #hash marks#.
In the printed book, boldface was used for all Anglo-Saxon other than
exercises and reading passages; it has been omitted from the e-text
except when necessary for clarity.

In references to numbered Sections, “Note” may mean either an inset Note
or a footnote.

In the prose reading selections (pages 99-121), page numbers and line
breaks have been retained for use with the linenotes and Glossary. Page
numbers are shown in [[double brackets]]. In the verse selections, line
numbers in the notes have been replaced with line numbers from the
original texts, printed in brackets as shown. The distinction between
linenotes and numbered footnotes is in the original.

Single brackets [] and asterisks * are in the original, as are the
symbols + = < >. Text in [[double brackets]] was added by the
transcriber.]



              ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR

               AND EXERCISE BOOK


      With Inflections, Syntax, Selections
           for Reading, and Glossary


                       By

        C. ALPHONSO SMITH, Ph.D., LL.D.

        Late Professor of English in the
          United States Naval Academy



                ALLYN and BACON
          Boston   New York   Chicago
            Atlanta   San Francisco



  Copyright, 1896, by
  C. ALPHONSO SMITH.


  IAI


  Norwood Press
  J. S. Cushing & Co.--Berwick & Smith
  Norwood Mass. U.S.A.



PREFACE.


The scope of this book is indicated in § 5. It is intended for
beginners, and in writing it, these words of Sir Thomas Elyot have not
been forgotten: “Grammer, beinge but an introduction to the
understandinge of autors, if it be made to longe or exquisite to the
lerner, it in a maner mortifieth his corage: And by that time he cometh
to the most swete and pleasant redinge of olde autors, the sparkes of
fervent desire of lernynge are extincte with the burdone of grammer,
lyke as a lyttell fyre is sone quenched with a great heape of small
stickes.” --_The Governour_, Cap. X.

Only the essentials, therefore, are treated in this work, which is
planned more as a foundation for the study of Modern English grammar, of
historical English grammar, and of the principles of English etymology,
than as a general introduction to Germanic philology.

The Exercises in translation will, it is believed, furnish all the drill
necessary to enable the student to retain the forms and constructions
given in the various chapters.

The Selections for Reading relate to the history and literature of King
Alfred’s day, and are sufficient to give the student a first-hand,
though brief, acquaintance with the native style and idiom of Early West
Saxon prose in its golden age. Most of the words and constructions
contained in them will be already familiar to the student through their
intentional employment in the Exercises.

For the inflectional portion of this grammar, recourse has been had
chiefly to Sievers’ _Abriss der angelsächsischen Grammatik_ (1895).
Constant reference has been made also to the same author’s earlier and
larger _Angelsächsishe Grammatik_, translated by Cook. A more sparing
use has been made of Cosijn’s _Altwestsächsische Grammatik_.

For syntax and illustrative sentences, Dr. J. E. Wülfing’s _Syntax in
den Werken Alfreds des Grossen, Part I._ (Bonn, 1894) has proved
indispensable. Advance sheets of the second part of this great work lead
one to believe that when completed the three parts will constitute the
most important contribution to the study of English syntax that has yet
been made. Old English sentences have also been cited from Sweet’s
_Anglo-Saxon Reader_, Bright’s _Anglo-Saxon Reader_, and Cook’s _First
Book in Old English_.

The short chapter on the Order of Words has been condensed from my
_Order of Words in Anglo-Saxon Prose_ (Publications of the Modern
Language Association of America, New Series, Vol. I, No. 2).

Though assuming sole responsibility for everything contained in this
book, I take pleasure in acknowledging the kind and efficient assistance
that has been so generously given me in its preparation. To none do I
owe more than to Dr. J. E. Wülfing, of the University of Bonn; Prof.
James A. Harrison, of the University of Virginia; Prof. W. S. Currell,
of Washington and Lee University; Prof. J. Douglas Bruce, of Bryn Mawr
College; and Prof. L. M. Harris, of the University of Indiana. They have
each rendered material aid, not only in the tedious task of detecting
typographical errors in the proof-sheets, but by the valuable criticisms
and suggestions which they have made as this work was passing through
the press.

    C. ALPHONSO SMITH.

  Louisiana State University,
  Baton Rouge, September, 1896.



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


In preparing this enlarged edition, a few minor errors in the first
edition have been corrected and a few sentences added. The chief
difference between the two editions, however, consists in the
introduction of more reading matter and the consequent exposition of Old
English meter. Both changes have been made at the persistent request of
teachers and students of Old English.

Uniformity of treatment has been studiously preserved in the new
material and the old, the emphasis in both being placed on syntax and
upon the affinities that Old English shares with Modern English.

Many obligations have been incurred in preparing this augmented edition.
I have again to thank Dr. J. E. Wülfing, Prof. James A. Harrison, Prof.
W. S. Currell, and Prof. J. Douglas Bruce. To the scholarly criticisms
also of Prof. J. M. Hart, of Cornell; Prof. Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., of
Williams College; and Prof. Frederick Tupper, Jr., of the University of
Vermont, I am indebted for aid as generously given as it is genuinely
appreciated.

    C. ALPHONSO SMITH.

  August, 1898.



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.


Among those who have kindly aided in making this edition free from
error, I wish to thank especially my friend Dr. John M. McBryde, Jr., of
Hollins Institute, Virginia.

    C. ALPHONSO SMITH.

  University of North Carolina,
  Chapel Hill, February, 1903.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PART I.--INTRODUCTION.

Chapters                                                       Pages

      I. History (§ 1-5)                                           1
     II. Sounds (§ 6-11)                                           4
    III. Inflections (§ 12-19)                                    10
     IV. Order of Words (§ 20-21)                                 18
      V. Practical Suggestions (§ 22-24)                          21

PART II.--ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

     VI. The a-Declension: Masculine a-Stems (§ 25-30)            27
    VII. Neuter a-Stems (§ 31-36)                                 30
   VIII. The ō-Declension (§ 37-42)                               33
     IX. The i-Declension and the u-Declension (§ 43-55)          35
      X. Present Indicative Endings of Strong Verbs (§ 56-62)     39
     XI. The Weak or n-Declension (§ 63-66)                       44
    XII. Remnants of Other Consonant Declensions (§ 67-71)        47
   XIII. Pronouns (§ 72-77)                                       50
    XIV. Adjectives, Strong and Weak (§ 78-87)                    53
     XV. Numerals (§ 88-92)                                       57
    XVI. Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions (§ 93-95)        60
   XVII. Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs (§ 96-100)          64
  XVIII. Strong Verbs: Class I, Syntax of Moods (§ 101-108)       68
    XIX. Classes II and III (§ 109-113)                           74
     XX. Classes IV, V, VI, and VII; Contract Verbs (§ 114-121)   78
    XXI. Weak Verbs (§ 122-133)                                   82
   XXII. Remaining Verbs; Verb Phrases with #habban#, #bēon#,
           and #weorðan# (§ 134-143)                              90

PART III.--SELECTIONS FOR READING.

         PROSE.

         Introductory                                             98
      I. The Battle of Ashdown                                    99
     II. A Prayer of King Alfred                                 101
    III. The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan                     102
         Ohthere’s First Voyage                                  103
         Ohthere’s Second Voyage                                 106
         Wulfstan’s Voyage                                       107
     IV. The Story of Cædmon                                     111
      V. Alfred’s Preface to the Pastoral Care                   116

         POETRY.

         Introductory                                            122
     VI. Extracts from Beowulf                                   136
    VII. The Wanderer                                            148

GLOSSARIES.

      I. Old English--Modern English                             155
     II. Modern English--Old English                             190


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *

                  OLD ENGLISH

             GRAMMAR AND EXERCISES

           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE BOOK.



PART I.

INTRODUCTION.



CHAPTER I.

HISTORY.


1. The history of the English language falls naturally into three
periods; but these periods blend into one another so gradually that too
much significance must not be attached to the exact dates which
scholars, chiefly for convenience of treatment, have assigned as their
limits. Our language, it is true, has undergone many and great changes;
but its continuity has never been broken, and its individuality has
never been lost.


2. The first of these periods is that of OLD ENGLISH, or ANGLO-SAXON,[1]
commonly known as the period of _full inflections_. _E.g._ #stān-as#,
_stones_; #car-u#, _care_; #will-a#, _will_; #bind-an#, _to bind_;
#help-að# (= #ath#), _they help_.

It extends from the arrival of the English in Great Britain to about one
hundred years after the Norman Conquest,--from A.D. 449 to 1150; but
there are no literary remains of the earlier centuries of this period.
There were four[2] distinct dialects spoken at this time. These were the
Northumbrian, spoken north of the river Humber; the Mercian, spoken in
the midland region between the Humber and the Thames; the West Saxon,
spoken south and west of the Thames; and the Kentish, spoken in the
neighborhood of Canterbury. Of these dialects, Modern English is most
nearly akin to the Mercian; but the best known of them is the West
Saxon. It was in the West Saxon dialect that King Alfred (849-901) wrote
and spoke. His writings belong to the period of Early West Saxon as
distinguished from the period of Late West Saxon, the latter being best
represented in the writings of Abbot Ælfric (955?-1025?).

    [Footnote 1: This unfortunate nomenclature is due to the term
    _Angli Saxones_, which Latin writers used as a designation for
    the English Saxons as distinguished from the continental or Old
    Saxons. But Alfred and Ælfric both use the term _Englisc_, not
    Anglo-Saxon. The Angles spread over Northumbria and Mercia, far
    outnumbering the other tribes. Thus _Englisc_ (= _Angel_ +
    _isc_) became the general name for the language spoken.]

    [Footnote 2: As small as England is, there are six distinct
    dialects spoken in her borders to-day. Of these the Yorkshire
    dialect is, perhaps, the most peculiar. It preserves many
    Northumbrian survivals. See Tennyson’s _Northern Farmer_.]


3. The second period is that of MIDDLE ENGLISH, or the period of
_leveled inflections_, the dominant vowel of the inflections being e.
_E.g._ #ston-es#, #car-e#, #will-e#, #bind-en# (or #bind-e#),
#help-eth#, each being, as in the earlier period, a dissyllable.

The Middle English period extends from A.D. 1150 to 1500. Its greatest
representatives are Chaucer (1340-1400) in poetry and Wiclif (1324-1384)
in prose. There were three prominent dialects during this period: the
Northern, corresponding to the older Northumbrian; the Midland (divided
into East Midland and West Midland), corresponding to the Mercian; and
the Southern, corresponding to the West Saxon and Kentish. London,
situated in East Midland territory, had become the dominant speech
center; and it was this East Midland dialect that both Chaucer and
Wiclif employed.

  NOTE.--It is a great mistake to think that Chaucer shaped our
  language from crude materials. His influence was conservative, not
  plastic. The popularity of his works tended to crystalize and thus
  to perpetuate the forms of the East Midland dialect, but that
  dialect was ready to his hand before he began to write. The speech
  of London was, in Chaucer’s time, a mixture of Southern and
  Midland forms, but the Southern forms (survivals of the West Saxon
  dialect) had already begun to fall away; and this they continued
  to do, so that “Chaucer’s language,” as Dr. Murray says, “is more
  Southern than standard English eventually became.” See also
  Morsbach, _Ueber den Ursprung der neuenglischen Schriftsprache_
  (1888).


4. The last period is that of MODERN ENGLISH, or the period of _lost
inflections_. _E.g._ _stones_, _care_, _will_, _bind_, _help_, each
being a monosyllable. Modern English extends from A.D. 1500 to the
present time. It has witnessed comparatively few grammatical changes,
but the vocabulary of our language has been vastly increased by
additions from the classical languages. Vowels, too, have shifted their
values.


5. It is the object of this book to give an elementary knowledge of
Early West Saxon, that is, the language of King Alfred. With this
knowledge, it will not be difficult for the student to read Late West
Saxon, or any other dialect of the Old English period. Such knowledge
will also serve as the best introduction to the structure both of Middle
English and of Modern English, besides laying a secure foundation for
the scientific study of any other Germanic tongue.

  NOTE.--The Germanic, or Teutonic, languages constitute a branch of
  the great Aryan, or Indo-Germanic (known also as the
  Indo-European) group. They are subdivided as follows:

            { North Germanic: Scandinavian, or Norse.
            {
            {                               { Old High German,
  Germanic  { East Germanic: Gothic.        { (to A.D. 1100,)
            {                               {
            {                 { High German { Middle High German,
            {                 {             { (A.D. 1100-1500,)
            {                 {             {
            { West Germanic   {             { New High German.
                              {             { (A.D. 1500-.)
                              {
                              { Low German  { Dutch,
                                            { Old Saxon,
                                            { Frisian,
                                            { English.



CHAPTER II.

SOUNDS.


#Vowels and Diphthongs.#

6. The long vowels and diphthongs will in this book be designated by the
macron (–). Vowel length should in every case be associated by the
student with each word learned: quantity alone sometimes distinguishes
words meaning wholly different things: #fōr#, _he went_, #for#, _for_;
#gōd#, _good_, #God#, _God_; #mān#, _crime_, #man#, _man_.

Long vowels and diphthongs:

  ā as in f_a_ther: #stān#, _a stone_.
  ǣ as in m_a_n (prolonged): #slǣpan#, _to sleep_.
  ē as in th_e_y: #hēr#, _here_.
  ī as in mach_i_ne: #mīn#, _mine_.
  ō as in n_o_te (pure, not diphthongal): #bōc#, _book_.
  ū as in r_u_le: #tūn#, _town_.
  ȳ as in German gr_ü_n, or English gr_ee_n (with lips rounded):[1]
      #brȳd#, _bride_.

The diphthongs, long and short, have the stress upon the first vowel.
The second vowel is obscured, and represents approximately the sound of
_er_ in _sooner_, _faster_ (= _soon-uh_, _fast-uh_). The long diphthongs
(ǣ is not a diphthong proper) are ēo, īe, and ēa. The sound of ēo is
approximately reproduced in _mayor_ (= _mā-uh_); that of īe in the
dissyllabic pronunciation of _fear_ (= _fē-uh_). But ēa = _ǣ-uh_. This
diphthong is hardly to be distinguished from _ea_ in _pear_, _bear_,
etc., as pronounced in the southern section of the United States
(= _bæ-uh_, _pæ-uh_).


7. The short sounds are nothing more than the long vowels and diphthongs
shortened; but the student must at once rid himself of the idea that
Modern English _red_, for example, is the shortened form of _reed_, or
that _mat_ is the shortened form of _mate_. Pronounce these long sounds
with increasing rapidity, and _reed_ will approach _rid_, while _mate_
will approach _met_. The Old English short vowel sounds are:

  a as in _a_rtistic: #habban#, _to have_.
  æ as in m_a_nkind: #dæg#, _day_.
  e, ę as in l_e_t: #stelan#, _to steal_, #sęttan#, _to set_.
  i as in s_i_t: #hit#, _it_.
  o as in br_oa_d (but shorter): #God#, _God_.
  ǫ as in n_o_t: #lǫmb#, _lamb_.
  u as in f_u_ll: #sunu#, _son_.
  y as in m_i_ller (with lips rounded)[1]: #gylden#, _golden_.

  NOTE.--The symbol ę is known as _umlaut_-e (§ 58). It stands for
  Germanic _a_, while e (without the cedilla) represents Germanic
  _e_. The symbol ǫ is employed only before m and n. It, too,
  represents Germanic _a_. But Alfred writes #manig# or #monig#,
  _many_; #lamb# or #lomb#, _lamb_; #hand# or #hond#, _hand_, etc.
  The cedilla is an etymological sign added by modern grammarians.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The letters ę and ǫ were printed as shown in this e-text. The
  diacritic is not a cedilla (open to the left) but an ogonek (open
  to the right).]

    [Footnote 1: Vowels are said to be round, or rounded, when the
    lip-opening is rounded; that is, when the lips are thrust out
    and puckered as if preparing to pronounce _w_. Thus _o_ and _u_
    are round vowels: add _-ing_ to each, and phonetically you have
    added _-wing_. _E.g. go^{w}ing_, _su^{w}ing_.]


#Consonants.#

8. There is little difference between the values of Old English
consonants and those of Modern English. The following distinctions,
however, require notice:

The digraph #th# is represented in Old English texts by ð and þ, no
consistent distinction being made between them. In the works of Alfred,
ð (capital, Ð) is the more common: #ðās#, _those_; #ðæt#, _that_;
#bindeð#, _he binds_.

The consonant #c# had the hard sound of _k_, the latter symbol being
rare in West Saxon: #cyning#, _king_; #cwēn#, _queen_; #cūð#, _known_.
When followed by a palatal vowel sound,--_e_, _i_, _æ_, _ea_, _eo_,
long or short,--a vanishing _y_ sound was doubtless interposed (_cf._
dialectic _k^{y}ind_ for _kind_). In Modern English the combination
has passed into _ch_: #cealc#, _chalk_; #cīdan#, _to chide_; #lǣce#,
_leech_; #cild#, _child_; #cēowan#, _to chew_. This change (_c_ > _ch_)
is known as Palatalization. The letter g, pronounced as in Modern
English _gun_, has also a palatal value before the palatal vowels
(_cf._ dialectic _g^{y}irl_ for _girl_).

The combination #cg#, which frequently stands for #gg#, had probably the
sound of _dge_ in Modern English _edge_: #ęcg#, _edge_; #sęcgan#, _to
say_; #brycg#, _bridge_. Initial #h# is sounded as in Modern English:
#habban#, _to have_; #hālga#, _saint_. When closing a syllable it has
the sound of German _ch_: #slōh#, _he slew_; #hēah#, _high_; #ðurh#,
_through_.


9. An important distinction is that between voiced (or sonant) and
voiceless (or surd) consonants.[2] In Old English they are as follows:

  VOICED.                    VOICELESS.

    g                          h, c
    d                          t
    ð, þ (as in _th_ough)      ð, þ (as in _th_in)
    b                          p
    f (= v)                    f
    s (= z)                    s

It is evident, therefore, that ð (þ), f, and s have double values in Old
English. If voiced, they are equivalent to _th_ (in _th_ough), _v_, and
_z_. Otherwise, they are pronounced as _th_ (in _th_in), _f_ (in _f_in),
and _s_ (in _s_in). The syllabic environment will usually compel the
student to give these letters their proper values. When occurring
between vowels, they are always voiced: #ōðer#, _other_; #ofer#, _over_;
#rīsan#, _to rise_.

  NOTE.--The general rule in Old English, as in Modern English, is,
  that voiced consonants have a special affinity for other voiced
  consonants, and voiceless for voiceless. This is the law of
  Assimilation. Thus when _de_ is added to form the preterit of a
  verb whose stem ends in a voiceless consonant, the d is unvoiced,
  or assimilated, to t: #sęttan#, _to set_, #sętte# (but #tręddan#,
  _to tread_, has #trędde#); #slǣpan#, _to sleep_, #slǣpte#;
  #dręncan#, _to drench_, #dręncte#; #cyssan#, _to kiss_, #cyste#.
  See § 126, Note 1.

    [Footnote 2: A little practice will enable the student to see
    the appropriateness of calling these consonants voiced and
    voiceless. Try to pronounce a voiced consonant,--_d_ in _den_,
    for example, but without the assistance of _en_,--and there will
    be heard a gurgle, or _vocal_ murmur. But in _t_, of _ten_,
    there is no sound at all, but only a feeling of tension in the
    organs.]


#Syllables.#

10. A syllable is usually a vowel, either alone or in combination with
consonants, uttered with a single impulse of stress; but certain
consonants may form syllables: _oven_ (= _ov-n_), _battle_ (= _bæt-l_);
(_cf._ also the vulgar pronunciation of _elm_).

A syllable may be (1) weak or strong, (2) open or closed, (3) long or
short.

(1) A weak syllable receives a light stress. Its vowel sound is often
different from that of the corresponding strong, or stressed, syllable.
_Cf._ weak and strong _my_ in “I want my lárge hat” and “I want mý hat.”

(2) An open syllable ends in a vowel or diphthong: #dē-man#, _to deem_;
#ðū#, _thou_; #sca-can#, _to shake_; #dæ-ges#, _by day_. A closed
syllable ends in one or more consonants: #ðing#, _thing_; #gōd#, _good_;
#glæd#, _glad_.

(3) A syllable is long (_a_) if it contains a long vowel or a long
diphthong: #drī-fan#, _to drive_; #lū-can#, _to lock_; #slǣ-pan#, _to
sleep_; #cēo-san#, _to choose_; (_b_) if its vowel or diphthong is
followed by more than one consonant:[3] #cræft#, _strength_; #heard#,
_hard_; #lib-ban#, _to live_; #feal-lan#, _to fall_. Otherwise, the
syllable is short: #ðe#, _which_; #be-ran#, _to bear_; #ðæt#, _that_;
#gie-fan#, _to give_.

  NOTE 1.--A single consonant belongs to the following syllable:
  #hā-lig#, _holy_ (not #hāl-ig#); #wrī-tan#, _to write_; #fæ-der#,
  _father_.

  NOTE 2.--The student will notice that the syllable may be long and
  the vowel short; but the vowel cannot be long and the syllable
  short.

  NOTE 3.--Old English short vowels, occurring in open syllables,
  have regularly become long in Modern English: #we-fan#, _to
  weave_; #e-tan#, _to eat_; #ma-cian#, _to make_; #na-cod#,
  _naked_; #a-can#, _to ache_; #o-fer#, _over_. And Old English long
  vowels, preceding two or more consonants, have generally been
  shortened: #brēost#, _breast_; #hǣlð#, _health_; #slǣpte#,
  _slept_; #lǣdde#, _led_.

    [Footnote 3: Taken separately, every syllable ending in a single
    consonant is long. It may be said, therefore, that all closed
    syllables are long; but in the natural flow of language, the
    single final consonant of a syllable so often blends with a
    following initial vowel, the syllable thus becoming open and
    short, that such syllables are not recognized as prevailingly
    long. _Cf._ Modern English _at all_ (= _a-tall_).]


#Accentuation.#

11. The accent in Old English falls usually on the radical syllable,
never on the inflectional ending: #bríngan#, _to bring_; #stā́nas#,
_stones_; #bérende#, _bearing_; #ī́delnes#, _idleness_; #frḗondscipe#,
_friendship_.

But in the case of compound nouns, adjectives, and adverbs the first
member of the compound (unless it be ge- or be-) receives the stronger
stress: #héofon-rīce#, _heaven-kingdom_; #ǫ́nd-giet#, _intelligence_;
#sṓð-fæst#, _truthful_; #gód-cund#, _divine_; #éall-unga#, _entirely_;
#blī́ðe-līce#, _blithely_. But #be-hā́t#, _promise_; #ge-béd#, _prayer_;
#ge-fḗalīc#, _joyous_; #be-sǫ́ne#, _immediately_.

Compound verbs, however, have the stress on the radical syllable:
#for-gíefan#, _to forgive_; #of-línnan#, _to cease_; #ā-cnā́wan#, _to
know_; #wið-stǫ́ndan#, _to withstand_; #on-sácan#, _to resist_.

  NOTE.--The tendency of nouns to take the stress on the prefix,
  while verbs retain it on the root, is exemplified in many Modern
  English words: _préference_, _prefér_; _cóntract_ (noun),
  _contráct_ (verb); _ábstinence_, _abstaín_; _pérfume_ (noun),
  _perfúme_ (verb).



CHAPTER III.

INFLECTIONS.


#Cases.#

12. There are five cases in Old English: the nominative, the genitive,
the dative, the accusative, and the instrumental.[1] Each of them,
except the nominative, may be governed by prepositions. When used
without prepositions, they have, in general, the following functions:

(_a_) The nominative, as in Modern English, is the case of the subject
of a finite verb.

(_b_) The genitive (the possessive case of Modern English) is the case
of the possessor or source. It may be called the _of_ case.

(_c_) The dative is the case of the indirect object. It may be called
the _to_ or _for_ case.

(_d_) The accusative (the objective case of Modern English) is the case
of the direct object.

(_e_) The instrumental, which rarely differs from the dative in form, is
the case of the means or the method. It may be called the _with_ or _by_
case.

The following paradigm of #mūð#, _the mouth_, illustrates the several
cases (the article being, for the present, gratuitously added in the
Modern English equivalents):

       _Singular._                  _Plural._

  _N._ mūð = _the mouth._           mūð-as = _the mouths._

  _G._ mūð-es[2] = _of the mouth_   mūð-a = _of the mouths_
         (= _the mouth’s_).           (= _the mouths’_).

  _D._ mūð-e = _to_ or _for the     mūð-um = _to_ or _for the mouths._
         mouth._

  _A._ mūð = _the mouth._           mūð-as = _the mouths._

  _I._ mūðe = _with_ or _by means   mūð-um = _with_ or _by means
         of the mouth._               of the mouths._

    [Footnote 1: Most grammars add a sixth case, the vocative. But
    it seems best to consider the vocative as only a _function_ of
    the nominative _form_.]

    [Footnote 2: Of course our “apostrophe and _s_” (= _’s_) comes
    from the Old English genitive ending -es. The _e_ is preserved
    in _Wednesday_ (= Old English #Wōdnes dæg#). But at a very early
    period it was thought that _John’s book_, for example, was a
    shortened form of _John his book_. Thus Addison (_Spectator_,
    No. 135) declares _’s_ a survival of _his_. How, then, would he
    explain the _s_ of _his_? And how would he dispose of _Mary’s
    book_?]


#Gender.#

13. The gender of Old English nouns, unlike that of Modern English,
depends partly on meaning and partly on form, or ending. Thus #mūð#,
_mouth_, is masculine; #tunge#, _tongue_, feminine; #ēage#, _eye_,
neuter.

No very comprehensive rules, therefore, can be given; but the gender of
every noun should be learned with its meaning. Gender will be indicated
in the vocabularies by the different gender forms of the definite
article, #sē# for the masculine, #sēo# for the feminine, and #ðæt# for
the neuter: #sē mūð#, #sēo tunge#, #ðæt ēage# = _the mouth_, _the
tongue_, _the eye_.

All nouns ending in #-dōm#, #-hād#, #-scipe#, or #-ere# are masculine
(_cf._ Modern English wis_dom_, child_hood_, friend_ship_, work_er_).
Masculine, also, are nouns ending in -a.

Those ending in #-nes# or #-ung# are feminine (_cf._ Modern English
good_ness_, and gerundial forms in _-ing_: see_ing_ is believ_ing_).

Thus #sē wīsdōm#, _wisdom_; #sē cildhād#, _childhood_; #sē frēondscipe#,
_friendship_; #sē fiscere#, _fisher(man)_; #sē hunta#, _hunter_; #sēo
gelīcnes#, _likeness_; #sēo leornung#, _learning_.


#Declensions.#

14. There are two great systems of declension in Old English, the Vowel
Declension and the Consonant Declension. A noun is said to belong to the
Vowel Declension when the final letter of its stem is a vowel, this
vowel being then known as the _stem-characteristic_; but if the
stem-characteristic is a consonant, the noun belongs to the Consonant
Declension. There might have been, therefore, as many subdivisions of
the Vowel Declension in Old English as there were vowels, and as many
subdivisions of the Consonant Declension as there were consonants. All
Old English nouns, however, belonging to the Vowel Declension, ended
their stems originally in a, ō, i, or u. Hence there are but four
subdivisions of the Vowel Declension: a-stems, ō-stems, i-stems, and
u-stems.

The Vowel Declension is commonly called the Strong Declension, and its
nouns Strong Nouns.

  NOTE.--The terms Strong and Weak were first used by Jacob Grimm
  (1785-1863) in the terminology of verbs, and thence transferred to
  nouns and adjectives. By a Strong Verb, Grimm meant one that could
  form its preterit out of its own resources; that is, without
  calling in the aid of an additional syllable: Modern English
  _run_, _ran_; _find_, _found_; but verbs of the Weak Conjugation
  had to borrow, as it were, an inflectional syllable: _gain_,
  _gained_; _help_, _helped_.


15. The stems of nouns belonging to the Consonant Declension ended,
with but few exceptions, in the letter n (_cf._ Latin _homin-em_,
_ration-em_, Greek ποιμέν-α). They are called, therefore, n-stems,
the Declension itself being known as the n-Declension, or the Weak
Declension. The nouns, also, are called Weak Nouns.


16. If every Old English noun had preserved the original Germanic
stem-characteristic (or final letter of the stem), there would be no
difficulty in deciding at once whether any given noun is an a-stem,
ō-stem, i-stem, u-stem, or n-stem; but these final letters had, for the
most part, either been dropped, or fused with the case-endings, long
before the period of historic Old English. It is only, therefore, by a
rigid comparison of the Germanic languages with one another, and with
the other Aryan languages, that scholars are able to reconstruct a
single Germanic language, in which the original stem-characteristics may
be seen far better than in any one historic branch of the Germanic group
(§ 5, Note).

This hypothetical language, which bears the same ancestral relation to
the historic Germanic dialects that Latin bears to the Romance tongues,
is known simply as _Germanic_ (Gmc.), or as _Primitive Germanic_.
Ability to reconstruct Germanic forms is not expected of the students of
this book, but the following table should be examined as illustrating
the basis of distinction among the several Old English declensions (O.E.
= Old English, Mn.E. = Modern English):

                     {            {Gmc. _staina-z_,
                     {(1) a-stems {O.E. #stān#,
                     {            {Mn.E. _stone_.
                     {
                     {            {Gmc. _hallō_,
                     {(2) ō-stems {O.E. #heall#,
  I. Strong or Vowel {            {Mn.E. _hall_.
     Declensions     {
                     {            {Gmc. _bōni-z_,
                     {(3) i-stems {O.E. #bēn#,
                     {            {Mn.E. _boon_.
                     {
                     {            {Gmc. _sunu-z_,
                     {(4) u-stems {O.E. #sunu#,
                     {            {Mn.E. _son_.

                     {(1) n-stems            {Gmc. _tungōn-iz_,
                     {    (Weak              {O.E. #tung-an#,
                     {    Declension)        {Mn.E. _tongue-s_.
                     {
                     {                {      {Gmc. _fōt-iz_,
                     {                {(_a_) {O.E. #fēt#,
  II. Consonant      {(2) Remnants    {      {Mn.E. _feet_.
      Declensions    {    of other    {
                     {    Consonant   {      {Gmc. _frijōnd-iz_,
                     {    Declensions {(_b_) {O.E. #frīend#,
                     {                {      {Mn.E. _friend-s_.
                     {                {
                     {                {      {Gmc. _brōðr-iz_,
                     {                {(_c_) {O.E. #brōðor#,
                     {                {      {Mn.E. _brother-s_.


  NOTE.--“It will be seen that if Old English #ēage#, _eye_, is said
  to be an n-stem, what is meant is this, that at some former period
  the kernel of the word ended in -n, while, as far as the Old
  English language proper is concerned, all that is implied is that
  the word is inflected in a certain manner.” (Jespersen, _Progress
  in Language_, § 109).

  This is true of all Old English stems, whether Vowel or Consonant.
  The division, therefore, into a-stems, ō-stems, etc., is made in
  the interests of grammar as well as of philology.


#Conjugations.#

17. There are, likewise, two systems of conjugation in Old English: the
Strong or Old Conjugation, and the Weak or New Conjugation.

The verbs of the Strong Conjugation (the so-called Irregular Verbs of
Modern English) number about three hundred, of which not one hundred
remain in Modern English (§ 101, Note). They form their preterit and
frequently their past participle by changing the radical vowel of the
present stem. This vowel change or modification is called _ablaut_
(pronounced _áhp-lowt_): Modern English _sing, sang, sung_; _rise, rose,
risen_. As the radical vowel of the preterit plural is often different
from that of the preterit singular, there are four _principal parts_ or
_tense stems_ in an Old English strong verb, instead of the three of
Modern English. The four principal parts in the conjugation of a strong
verb are (1) the present indicative, (2) the preterit indicative
singular, (3) the preterit indicative plural, and (4) the past
participle.

Strong verbs fall into seven groups, illustrated in the following table:

  PRESENT.
    PRET. SING.
      PRET. PLUR.
        PAST PARTICIPLE.

  I. Bītan, _to bite_:

  Ic bīt-e, _I bite_ or _shall bite_.[3]
    Ic bāt, _I bit_.
      Wē bit-on, _we bit_.
        Ic hæbbe ge[4]-biten, _I have bitten_.

  II. Bēodan, _to bid_:

  Ic bēod-e, _I bid_ or _shall bid_.
    Ic bēad, _I bade_.
      Wē bud-on, _we bade_.
        Ic hæbbe ge-boden, _I have bidden_.

  III. Bindan, _to bind_:

  Ic bind-e, _I bind_ or _shall bind_.
    Ic bǫnd, _I bound_.
      Wē bund-on, _we bound_.
        Ic hæbbe ge-bund-en, _I have bound_.

  IV. Beran, _to bear_:

  Ic ber-e, _I bear_ or _shall bear_.
    Ic bær, _I bore_.
      Wē bǣr-on, _we bore_.
        Ic hæbbe ge-bor-en, _I have borne_.

  V. Metan, _to measure_:

  Ic met-e, _I measure_ or _shall measure_.
    Ic mæt, _I measured_.
      Wē mǣt-on, _we measured_.
        Ic hæbbe ge-met-en, _I have measured_.

  VI. Faran, _to go_:

  Ic far-e, _I go_ or _shall go_.
    Ic fōr, _I went_.
      Wē fōr-on, _we went_.
        Ic eom[5] ge-far-en, _I have (am) gone_.

  VII. Feallan, _to fall_:

  Ic feall-e, _I fall_ or _shall fall_.
    Ic fēoll, _I fell_.
      Wē fēoll-on, _we fell_.
        Ic eom[5] ge-feall-en, _I have (am) fallen_.

    [Footnote 3: Early West Saxon had no distinctive form for the
    future. The present was used both as present proper and as
    future. _Cf._ Modern English “I go home tomorrow,” or “I am
    going home tomorrow” for “I shall go home tomorrow.”]

    [Footnote 4: The prefix ge- (Middle English _y-_), cognate with
    Latin _co_ (_con_) and implying completeness of action, was not
    always used. It never occurs in the past participles of compound
    verbs: #oþ-feallan#, _to fall off_, past participle #oþ-feallen#
    (not #oþ-gefeallen#). Milton errs in prefixing it to a present
    participle:

      “What needs my Shakespeare, for his honour’d bones,
      The labour of an age in piled stones?
      Or that his hallow’d reliques should be hid
      Under a star-_ypointing_ pyramid.”
        --_Epitaph on William Shakespeare_.

    And Shakespeare misuses it in “Y-ravished,” a preterit
    (_Pericles_ III, _Prologue_ l. 35).

    It survives in the archaic _y-clept_ (Old English #ge-clypod#,
    called). It appears as _a_ in _aware_ (Old English #ge-wær#),
    as _e_ in _enough_ (Old English #ge-nōh#), and as _i_ in
    _handiwork_ (Old English #hand-ge-weorc#).]

    [Footnote 5: With intransitive verbs denoting _change of
    condition_, the Old English auxiliary is usually some form of
    _to be_ rather than _to have_. See § 139.]


18. The verbs of the Weak Conjugation (the so-called Regular Verbs of
Modern English) form their preterit and past participle by adding to the
present stem a suffix[6] with _d_ or _t_: Modern English _love_,
_loved_; _sleep_, _slept_.

The stem of the preterit plural is never different from the stem of the
preterit singular; hence these verbs have only three distinctive
tense-stems, or principal parts: _viz._, (1) the present indicative,
(2) the preterit indicative, and (3) the past participle.

Weak verbs fall into three groups, illustrated in the following table:

  PRESENT.
    PRETERIT.
      PAST PARTICIPLE.

  I. Fręmman, _to perform_:

  Ic fręmm-e, _I perform_ or _shall perform_.
    Ic fręm-ede, _I performed_.
      Ic hæbbe ge-fręm-ed, _I have performed_.

  II. Bodian, _to proclaim_:

  Ic bodi-e, _I proclaim_ or _shall proclaim_.
    Ic bod-ode, _I proclaimed_.
      Ic hæbbe ge-bod-od, _I have proclaimed_.

  III. Habban, _to have_:

  Ic hæbbe, _I have_ or _shall have_.
    Ic hæf-de, _I had_.
      Ic hæbbe ge-hæf-d, _I have had_.

    [Footnote 6: The theory that _loved_, for example, is a fused
    form of _love-did_ has been generally given up. The dental
    ending was doubtless an Indo-Germanic suffix, which became
    completely specialized only in the Teutonic languages.]


19. There remain a few verbs (chiefly the Auxiliary Verbs of Modern
English) that do not belong entirely to either of the two conjugations
mentioned. The most important of them are, #Ic mæg# _I may_, #Ic mihte#
_I might_; #Ic cǫn# _I can_, #Ic cūðe# _I could_; #Ic mōt# _I must_, #Ic
mōste# _I must_; #Ic sceal# _I shall_, #Ic sceolde# _I should_; #Ic eom#
_I am_, #Ic wæs# _I was_; #Ic wille# _I will_, #Ic wolde# _I would_; #Ic
dō# _I do_, #Ic dyde# _I did_; #Ic gā# _I go_, #Ic ēode# _I went_.

All but the last four of these are known as Preterit-Present Verbs. The
present tense of each of them is _in origin_ a preterit, _in function_ a
present. _Cf._ Modern English _ought_ (= _owed_).



CHAPTER IV.

ORDER OF WORDS.


20. The order of words in Old English is more like that of Modern German
than of Modern English. Yet it is only the Transposed order that the
student will feel to be at all un-English; and the Transposed order,
even before the period of the Norman Conquest, was fast yielding place
to the Normal order.

The three divisions of order are (1) Normal, (2) Inverted, and
(3) Transposed.

(1) Normal order = subject + predicate. In Old English, the Normal order
is found chiefly in independent clauses. The predicate is followed by
its modifiers: #Sē hwæl bið micle lǣssa þonne ōðre hwalas#, _That whale
is much smaller than other whales_; #Ǫnd hē geseah twā scipu#, _And he
saw two ships_.

(2) Inverted order = predicate + subject. This order occurs also in
independent clauses, and is employed (_a_) when some modifier of the
predicate precedes the predicate, the subject being thrown behind. The
words most frequently causing Inversion in Old English prose are #þā#
_then_, #þonne# _then_, and #þǣr# _there_: #Ðā fōr hē#, _Then went he_;
#Ðonne ærnað hȳ ealle tōweard þǣm fēo#, _Then gallop they all toward the
property_; #ac þǣr bið medo genōh#, _but there is mead enough_.

Inversion is employed (_b_) in interrogative sentences: #Lufast ðū mē?#
_Lovest thou me?_ and (_c_) in imperative sentences: #Cume ðīn rīce#,
_Thy kingdom come_.

(3) Transposed order = subject ... predicate. That is, the predicate
comes last in the sentence, being preceded by its modifiers. This is the
order observed in dependent clauses:[1] #Ðonne cymeð sē man sē þæt
swiftoste hors hafað#, _Then comes the man that has the swiftest horse_
(literally, _that the swiftest horse has_); #Ne mētte hē ǣr nān gebūn
land, siþþan hē frǫm his āgnum hām fōr#, _Nor did he before find any
cultivated land, after he went from his own home_ (literally, _after he
from his own home went_).

    [Footnote 1: But in the _Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan_, in
    which the style is apparently more that of oral than of written
    discourse, the Normal is more frequent than the Transposed order
    in dependent clauses. In his other writings Alfred manifests a
    partiality for the Transposed order in dependent clauses, except
    in the case of substantival clauses introduced by #þæt#. Such
    clauses show a marked tendency to revert to their Normal _oratio
    recta_ order. The norm thus set by the indirect affirmative
    clause seems to have proved an important factor in the ultimate
    disappearance of Transposition from dependent clauses. The
    influence of Norman French helped only to consummate forces that
    were already busily at work.]


21. Two other peculiarities in the order of words require a brief
notice.

(1) Pronominal datives and accusatives usually precede the predicate:
#Hē hine oferwann#, _He overcame him_ (literally, _He him overcame_);
#Dryhten him andwyrde#, _The Lord answered him_. But substantival
datives and accusatives, as in Modern English, follow the predicate. The
following sentence illustrates both orders: #Hȳ genāmon Ioseph, ǫnd hine
gesealdon cīpemǫnnum, ǫnd hȳ hine gesealdon in Ēgypta lǫnd#, _They took
Joseph, and sold him to merchants, and they sold him into Egypt_
(literally, _They took Joseph, and him sold to merchants, and they him
sold into Egyptians’ land_).

  NOTE.--The same order prevails in the case of pronominal
  nominatives used as predicate nouns: #Ic hit eom#, _It is I_
  (literally, _I it am_); #Ðū hit eart#, _It is thou_ (literally,
  _Thou it art_).

(2) The attributive genitive, whatever relationship it expresses,
usually precedes the noun which it qualifies: #Breoton is gārsecges
īgland#, _Britain is an island of the ocean_ (literally, _ocean’s
island_); #Swilce hit is ēac berende on węcga ōrum#, _Likewise it is
also rich in ores of metals_ (literally, _metals’ ores_); #Cyninga
cyning#, _King of kings_ (literally, _Kings’ king_); #Gē witon Godes
rīces gerȳne#, _Ye know the mystery of the kingdom of God_ (literally,
_Ye know God’s kingdom’s mystery_).

A preposition governing the word modified by the genitive, precedes the
genitive:[2] #On ealdra manna sægenum#, _In old men’s sayings_; #Æt ðǣra
strǣta ęndum#, _At the ends of the streets_ (literally, _At the streets’
ends_); #For ealra ðīnra hālgena lufan#, _For all thy saints’ love_.
See, also, § 94, (5).

    [Footnote 2: The positions of the genitive are various. It
    frequently follows its noun: #þā bearn þāra Aðeniensa#, _The
    children of the Athenians_. It may separate an adjective and a
    noun: #Ān lȳtel sǣs earm#, _A little arm of (the) sea_. The
    genitive may here be construed as an adjective, or part of a
    compound = _A little sea-arm_; #Mid mǫnegum Godes gifum#, _With
    many God-gifts_ = _many divine gifts_.]



CHAPTER V.

PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS.


22. In the study of Old English, the student must remember that he is
dealing not with a foreign or isolated language but with the earlier
forms of his own mother tongue. The study will prove profitable and
stimulating in proportion as close and constant comparison is made of
the old with the new. The guiding principles in such a comparison are
reducible chiefly to two. These are (1) the regular operation of
phonetic laws, resulting especially in certain Vowel Shiftings, and
(2) the alterations in form and syntax that are produced by Analogy.

(1) “The former of these is of physiological or _natural_ origin, and is
perfectly and inflexibly regular throughout the same period of the same
language; and even though different languages show different phonetic
habits and predilections, there is a strong general resemblance between
the changes induced in one language and in another; many of the
particular laws are true for many languages.

(2) “The other principle is psychical, or mental, or _artificial_,
introducing various more or less capricious changes that are supposed to
be emendations; and its operation is, to some extent, uncertain and
fitful.”[1]

    [Footnote 1: Skeat, _Principles of English Etymology_, Second
    Series, § 342. But Jespersen, with Collitz and others, stoutly
    contests “the theory of sound laws and analogy sufficing between
    them to explain everything in linguistic development.”]


(1) #Vowel-Shiftings.#

23. It will prove an aid to the student in acquiring the inflections and
vocabulary of Old English to note carefully the following shiftings that
have taken place in the gradual growth of the Old English vowel system
into that of Modern English.

(1) As stated in § 3, the Old English inflectional vowels, which were
all short and unaccented, weakened in early Middle English to _e_. This
_e_ in Modern English is frequently dropped:

  OLD ENGLISH.      MIDDLE ENGLISH.     MODERN ENGLISH.
    stān-as           ston-es             stones
    sun-u             sun-e               son
    sun-a             sun-e               sons
    ox-an             ox-en               oxen
    swift-ra          swift-er            swifter
    swift-ost         swift-est           swiftest
    lōc-ode           lok-ede             looked

(2) The Old English long vowels have shifted their phonetic values with
such uniform regularity that it is possible in almost every case to
infer the Modern English sound; but our spelling is so chaotic that
while the student may infer the modern sound, he cannot always infer the
modern symbol representing the sound.

  OLD         MODERN ENGLISH.
  ENGLISH.

  ā       _o_[2]           { nā = _no_; stān = _stone_; bān = _bone_;
           (as in _no_)    {   rād = _road_; āc = _oak_; hāl = _whole_;
                           {   hām = _home_; sāwan = _to sow_; gāst =
                           {   _ghost_.

  ē       _e_             { hē = _he_; wē = _we_; ðē = _thee_; mē =
           (as in _he_)   {   _me_; gē = _ye_; hēl = _heel_; wērig =
                          {   _weary_; gelēfan = _to believe_; gēs =
                          {   _geese_.

  ī (ȳ)   _i_ (_y_)       { mīn = _mine_; ðīn = _thine_; wīr = _wire_;
           (as in _mine_) {   mȳs = _mice_; rīm = _rime_ (wrongly spelt
                          {   _rhyme_); lȳs = _lice_; bī = _by_;
                          {   scīnan = _to shine_; stig-rāp = _sty-rope_
                          {   (shortened to _stirrup_, stīgan meaning
                          {   _to mount_).

  ō       _o_             { dō = _I do_; tō = _too, to_; gōs = _goose_;
            (as in _do_)  {   tōð = _tooth_; mōna = _moon_; ðōm =
                          {   _doom_; mōd = _mood_; wōgian = _to woo_;
                          {   slōh = _I slew_.

  ū       _ou_ (_ow_)     { ðū = _thou_; fūl = _foul_; hūs = _house_;
           (as in _thou_) {   nū = _now_; hū = _how_; tūn = _town_;
                          {   ūre = our; ūt = _out_; hlūd = _loud_;
                          {   ðūsend = _thousand_.


  ǣ,      _ea_            { ǣ: sǣ = _sea_; mǣl = _meal_; dǣlan =
   ēa,     (as in _sea_)  {   _to deal_; clǣne = _clean_; grǣdig =
   ēo                     {   _greedy_.
                          {
                          { ēa: ēare = _ear_; ēast = _east_; drēam =
                          {   _dream_; gēar = _year_; bēatan =
                          {   _to beat_.
                          {
                          { ēo: ðrēo = _three_; drēorig = _dreary_;
                          {   sēo = _she_, hrēod = _reed_; dēop =
                          {   _deep_.

    [Footnote 2: But Old English ā preceded by w sometimes gives
    Modern English _o_ as in _two_: #twā# = _two_; #hwā# = _who_;
    #hwām# = _whom_.]


(2) #Analogy.#

24. But more important than vowel shifting is the great law of Analogy,
for Analogy shapes not only words but constructions. It belongs,
therefore, to Etymology and to Syntax, since it influences both form and
function. By this law, minorities tend to pass over to the side of the
majorities. “The greater mass of cases exerts an assimilative influence
upon the smaller.”[3] The effect of Analogy is to simplify and to
regularize. “The main factor in getting rid of irregularities is
group-influence, or Analogy--the influence exercised by the members of
an association-group on one another.... Irregularity consists in partial
isolation from an association-group through some formal difference.”[4]

Under the influence of Analogy, entire declensions and conjugations have
been swept away, leaving in Modern English not a trace of their former
existence. There are in Old English, for example, five plural endings
for nouns, -as, -a, -e, -u, and -an. No one could well have predicted[5]
that -as (Middle English _-es_) would soon take the lead, and become the
norm to which the other endings would eventually conform, for there were
more an-plurals than as-plurals; but the as-plurals were doubtless more
often employed in everyday speech. _Oxen_ (Old English #oxan#) is the
sole pure survival of the hundreds of Old English an-plurals. No group
of feminine nouns in Old English had -es as the genitive singular
ending; but by the close of the Middle English period all feminines
formed their genitive singular in _-es_ (or _-s_, Modern English _’s_)
after the analogy of the Old English masculine and neuter nouns with
es-genitives. The weak preterits in -ode have all been leveled under the
ed-forms, and of the three hundred strong verbs in Old English more than
two hundred have become weak.

These are not cases of derivation (as are the shifted vowels): Modern
English _-s_ in _sons_, for example, could not possibly be derived from
Old English -a in #suna#, or Middle English _-e_ in _sune_ (§ 23, (1)).
They are cases of replacement by Analogy.

A few minor examples will quicken the student’s appreciation of the
nature of the influence exercised by Analogy:

(_a_) The intrusive _l_ in _could_ (Chaucer always wrote _coud_ or
_coude_) is due to association with _would_ and _should_, in each of
which _l_ belongs by etymological right.

(_b_) _He need not_ (for _He needs not_) is due to the assimilative
influence of the auxiliaries _may_, _can_, etc., which have never added
_-s_ for their third person singular (§ 137).

(_c_) _I am friends with him_, in which _friends_ is a crystalized form
for _on good terms_, may be traced to the influence of such expressions
as _He and I are friends_, _They are friends_, etc.

(_d_) Such errors as are seen in _runned_, _seed_, _gooses_, _badder_,
_hisself_, _says I_ (usually coupled with _says he_) are all analogical
formations. Though not sanctioned by good usage, it is hardly right to
call these forms the products of “false analogy.” The grammar involved
is false, because unsupported by literary usages and traditions; but the
analogy on which these forms are built is no more false than the law of
gravitation is false when it makes a dress sit unconventionally.

    [Footnote 3: Whitney, _Life and Growth of Language_, Chap. IV.]

    [Footnote 4: Sweet, _A New English Grammar_, Part I., § 535.]

    [Footnote 5: As Skeat says (§ 22, (2)), Analogy is “fitful.” It
    enables us to explain many linguistic phenomena, but not to
    anticipate them. The multiplication of books tends to check its
    influence by perpetuating the forms already in use. Thus Chaucer
    employed nine _en-_plurals, and his influence served for a time
    to check the further encroachment of the _es-_plurals. As soon
    as there is an acknowledged standard in any language, the
    operation of Analogy is fettered.]



PART II.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.



THE STRONG OR VOWEL DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS.

THE a-DECLENSION.

CHAPTER VI.


(_a_) #Masculine _a_-Stems.#

[O.E., M.E., and Mn.E. will henceforth be used for Old English, Middle
English, and Modern English. Other abbreviations employed are
self-explaining.]

25. The a-Declension, corresponding to the Second or _o_-Declension of
Latin and Greek, contains only (_a_) masculine and (_b_) neuter nouns.
To this declension belong most of the O.E. masculine and neuter nouns of
the Strong Declension. At a very early period, many of the nouns
belonging properly to the i- and u-Declensions began to pass over to the
a-Declension. This declension may therefore be considered the _normal
declension_ for all masculine and neuter nouns belonging to the Strong
Declension.


26. Paradigms of #sē mūð#, _mouth_; #sē fiscere#, _fisherman_; #sē
hwæl#, _whale_; #sē mearh#, _horse_; #sē finger#, _finger_:

  _Sing. N.A._  mūð     fiscer-e   hwæl     mearh    finger
          _G._  mūð-es  fiscer-es  hwæl-es  mēar-es  fingr-es
        _D.I._  mūð-e   fiscer-e   hwæl-e   mēar-e   fingr-e

  _Plur. N.A._  mūð-as  fiscer-as  hwal-as  mēar-as  fingr-as
          _G._  mūð-a   fiscer-a   hwal-a   mēar-a   fingr-a
        _D.I._  mūð-um  fiscer-um  hwal-um  mēar-um  fingr-um

  NOTE.--For meanings of the cases, see § 12. The dative and
  instrumental are alike in all nouns.


27. The student will observe (1) that nouns whose nominative ends in -e
(#fiscere#) drop this letter before adding the case endings; (2) that æ
before a consonant (#hwæl#) changes to a in the plural;[1] (3) that h,
preceded by r (#mearh#) or l (#seolh#, _seal_), is dropped before an
inflectional vowel, the stem diphthong being then lengthened by way of
compensation; (4) that dissyllables (#finger#) having the first syllable
long, usually syncopate the vowel of the second syllable before adding
the case endings.[2]

    [Footnote 1: Adjectives usually retain æ in closed syllables,
    changing it to a in open syllables: #hwæt# (_active_), #glæd#
    (_glad_), #wær# (_wary_) have G. #hwates#, #glades#, #wares#; D.
    #hwatum#, #gladum#, #warum#; but A. #hwætne#, #glædne#, #wærne#.
    Nouns, however, change to a only in open syllables followed by a
    guttural vowel, a or u. The æ in the open syllables of the
    singular is doubtless due to the analogy of the N.A. singular,
    both being closed syllables.]

    [Footnote 2: _Cf._ Mn.E. _drizz’ling_, _rememb’ring_, _abysmal_
    (_abysm_ = _abiz^{u}m_), _sick’ning_, in which the principle of
    syncopation is precisely the same.]


28. Paradigm of the Definite Article[3] #sē#, #sēo#, #ðæt# = _the_:

               _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._

  _Sing. N._     sē (se)       sēo          ðæt
        _G._     ðæs           ðǣre         ðæs
        _D._     ðǣm (ðām)     ðǣre         ðǣm (ðām)
        _A._     ðone          ðā           ðæt
        _I._     ðȳ, ðon       ----         ðȳ, ðon

                             _All Genders._

  _Plur. N.A._                 ðā
        _G._                   ðāra
        _D._                   ðǣm (ðām)

    [Footnote 3: This may mean four things: (1) _The_, (2) _That_
    (demonstrative), (3) _He_, _she_, _it_, (4) _Who_, _which_,
    _that_ (relative pronoun). Mn.E. demonstrative _that_ is, of
    course, the survival of O.E. neuter #ðæt# in its demonstrative
    sense. Professor Victor Henry (_Comparative Grammar of English
    and German_, § 160, 3) sees a survival of dative plural
    demonstrative #ðǣm# in such an expression as _in them days_. It
    seems more probable, however, that _them_ so used has followed
    the lead of _this_ and _these_, _that_ and _those_, in their
    double function of pronoun and adjective. There was doubtless
    some such evolution as, _I saw them. Them what? Them boys._

    An unquestioned survival of the dative singular feminine of the
    article is seen in the _-ter_ of _Atterbury_ (= #æt ðǣre byrig#,
    _at the town_); and #ðǣm# survives in the _-ten_ of
    _Attenborough_, the word _borough_ having become an uninflected
    neuter. Skeat, _Principles_, First Series, § 185.]


29. VOCABULARY.[4]

  sē bōcere, _scribe_ [bōc].
  sē cyning, _king_.
  sē dæg, _day_.
  sē ęnde, _end_.
  sē ęngel, _angel_ [angelus].
  sē frēodōm, _freedom_.
  sē fugol (G. sometimes #fugles#), _bird_ [fowl].
  sē gār, _spear_ [gore, gar-fish].
  sē heofon, _heaven_.
  sē hierde, _herdsman_ [shep-herd].
  ǫnd (and), _and_.
  sē sęcg, _man, warrior_.
  sē seolh, _seal_.
  sē stān, _stone_.
  sē wealh, _foreigner, Welshman_ [wal-nut].
  sē weall, _wall_.
  sē wīsdōm, _wisdom_.
  sē wulf, _wolf_.

    [Footnote 4: The brackets contain etymological hints that may
    help the student to discern relationships otherwise overlooked.
    The genitive is given only when not perfectly regular.]


30. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Ðāra wulfa mūðas. 2. Ðæs fisceres fingras. 3. Ðāra Wēala cyninge.
4. Ðǣm ęnglum ǫnd ðǣm hierdum. 5. Ðāra daga ęnde. 6. Ðǣm bōcerum ǫnd ðǣm
sęcgum ðæs cyninges. 7. Ðǣm sēole ǫnd ðǣm fuglum. 8. Ðā stānas ǫnd ðā
gāras. 9. Hwala ǫnd mēara. 10. Ðāra ęngla wīsdōm. 11. Ðæs cyninges
bōceres frēodōm. 12. Ðāra hierda fuglum. 13. Ðȳ stāne. 14. Ðǣm wealle.

II. 1. For the horses and the seals. 2. For the Welshmen’s freedom.
3. Of the king’s birds. 4. By the wisdom of men and angels. 5. With the
spear and the stone. 6. The herdsman’s seal and the warriors’ spears.
7. To the king of heaven. 8. By means of the scribe’s wisdom. 9. The
whale’s mouth and the foreigner’s spear. 10. For the bird belonging to
(= of) the king’s scribe. 11. Of that finger.



CHAPTER VII.

(_b_) #Neuter _a-_Stems.#


31. The neuter nouns of the a-Declension differ from the masculines only
in the N.A. plural.


32. Paradigms of #ðæt hof#, _court, dwelling_; #ðaet bearn#, _child_;
#ðæt bān#, _bone_; #ðæt rīce#, _kingdom_; #ðæt spere#, _spear_; #ðæt
werod#, _band of men_; #ðæt tungol#, _star_:

  _Sing. N.A._    hof       bearn       bān       rīc-e
          _G._    hof-es    bearn-es    bān-es    rīc-es
        _D.I._    hof-e     bearn-e     bān-e     rīc-e

  _Plur. N.A._    hof-u     bearn       bān       rīc-u
          _G._    hof-a     bearn-a     bān-a     rīc-a
        _D.I._    hof-um    bearn-um    bān-um    rīc-um

  _Sing. N.A._    sper-e     werod       tungol
          _G._    sper-es    werod-es    tungl-es
        _D.I._    sper-e     werod-e     tungl-e

  _Plur. N.A._    sper-u     werod       tungl-u
          _G._    sper-a     werod-a     tungl-a
        _D.I._    sper-um    werod-um    tungl-um


33. The paradigms show (1) that monosyllables with short stems (#hof#)
take -u in the N.A. plural; (2) that monosyllables with long stems
(#bearn#, #bān#) do not distinguish the N.A. plural from the N.A.
singular;[1] (3) that dissyllables in -e, whether the stem be long or
short (#rīce#, #spere#), have -u in the N.A. plural; (4) that
dissyllables ending in a consonant and having the first syllable
short[2] (#werod#) do not usually distinguish the N.A. plural from the
N.A. singular; (5) that dissyllables ending in a consonant and having
the first syllable long (#tungol#) more frequently take -u in the N.A.
plural.

  NOTE.--Syncopation occurs as in the masculine a-stems. See
  § 27, (4).

    [Footnote 1: Note the many nouns in Mn.E. that are unchanged in
    the plural. These are either survivals of O.E. long stems,
    _swine_, _sheep_, _deer_, _folk_, or analogical forms, _fish_,
    _trout_, _mackerel_, _salmon_, etc.]

    [Footnote 2: Dissyllables whose first syllable is a prefix are,
    of course, excluded. They follow the declension of their last
    member: #gebed#, _prayer_, #gebedu#, _prayers_; #gefeoht#,
    _battle_, #gefeoht#, _battles_.]


34. Present and Preterit Indicative of #habban#, _to have_:

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic hæbbe, _I have_, or _shall have_.[3]
          2. ðū hæfst (hafast), _thou hast_, or _wilt have_.
          3. hē, hēo, hit hæfð (hafað),
               _he, she, it has_, or _will have_.

  _Plur._ 1. wē habbað, _we have_, or _shall have_.
          2. gē habbað, _ye have_, or _will have_.
          3. hīe habbað, _they have_, or _will have_.

          PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic hæfde _I had_.
          2. ðū hæfdest, _thou hadst_.
          3. hē, hēo, hit hæfde, _he, she, it had_.

  _Plur._ 1. wē hæfdon, _we had_.
          2. gē hæfdon, _ye had_.
          3. hīe hæfdon, _they had_.

  NOTE.--The negative #ne#, _not_, which always precedes its verb,
  contracts with all the forms of #habban#. The negative loses its
  e, #habban# its h. #Ne# + #habban# = #nabban#; #Ic ne hæbbe = Ic
  næbbe#; #Ic ne hæfde = Ic næfde#, etc. The negative forms may be
  got, therefore, by simply substituting in each case n for h.

    [Footnote 3: See § 17, Note 1. Note that (as in #hwæl#, § 27,
    (2)) æ changes to a when the following syllable contains a:
    #hæbbe#, but #hafast#.]


35. VOCABULARY.

  ðæt dæl, _dale_.
  ðæt dēor, _animal_ [deer[4]].
  ðæt dor, _door_.
  ðæt fæt, _vessel_ [vat].
  ðæt fȳr, _fire_.
  ðæt gēar, _year_.
  ðæt geoc, _yoke_.
  ðæt geset, _habitation_ [settlement].
  ðæt hēafod, _head_.
  ðæt hūs, _house_.
  ðæt līc, _body_ [lich-gate].
  ðæt lim, _limb_.
  on (with dat.) _in_.
  ðæt spor, _track_.
  ðæt wǣpen, _weapon_.
  ðæt wīf, _wife, woman_.
  ðæt wīte, _punishment_.
  ðæt word, _word_.

    [Footnote 4: The old meaning survives in Shakespeare’s “Rats and
    mice and such small deer,” _King Lear_, III, iv, 144.]


36. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Hē hafað ðæs cyninges bearn. 2. Ðā Wēalas habbað ðā speru. 3. Ðā
wīf habbað ðāra sęcga wǣpnu. 4. Ðū hæfst ðone fugol ǫnd ðæt hūs ðæs
hierdes. 5. Hæfð[5] hēo ðā fatu[6]? 6. Hæfde hē ðæs wīfes līc on ðǣm
hofe? 7. Hē næfde ðæs wīfes līc; hē hæfde ðæs dēores hēafod. 8. Hæfð sē
cyning gesetu on ðǣm dæle? 9. Sē bōcere hæfð ðā sēolas on ðǣm hūse.
10. Gē habbað frēodōm.

II. 1. They have yokes and spears. 2. We have not the vessels in the
house. 3. He had fire in the vessel. 4. Did the woman have (= Had the
woman) the children? 5. The animal has the body of the woman’s child.
6. I shall have the heads of the wolves. 7. He and she have the king’s
houses. 8. Have not (= #Nabbað#) the children the warrior’s weapons?

    [Footnote 5: See § 20, (2), (b).]

    [Footnote 6: See § 27, (2).]



CHAPTER VIII.

THE ō-DECLENSION.


37. The ō-Declension, corresponding to the First or _ā-_Declension of
Latin and Greek, contains only feminine nouns. Many feminine i-stems and
u-stems soon passed over to this Declension. The ō-Declension may,
therefore, be considered the _normal declension_ for all strong feminine
nouns.


38. Paradigms of #sēo giefu#, _gift_; #sēo wund#, _wound_; #sēo rōd#,
_cross_; #sēo leornung#, _learning_; #sēo sāwol#, _soul_:

    _Sing. N._  gief-u   wund     rōd     leornung        sāwol
          _G._  gief-e   wund-e   rōd-e   leornung-a (e)  sāwl-e
        _D.I._  gief-e   wund-e   rōd-e   leornung-a (e)  sāwl-e
          _A._  gief-e   wund-e   rōd-e   leornung-a (e)  sāwl-e

  _Plur. N.A._  gief-a   wund-a   rōd-a   leornung-a      sāwl-a
          _G._  gief-a   wund-a   rōd-a   leornung-a      sāwl-a
        _D.I._  gief-um  wund-um  rōd-um  leornung-um     sāwl-um


39. Note (1) that monosyllables with short stems (#giefu#) take u in the
nominative singular; (2) that monosyllables with long stems (#wund#,
#rōd#) present the unchanged stem in the nominative singular; (3) that
dissyllables are declined as monosyllables, except that abstract nouns
in -ung prefer a to e in the singular.

  NOTE.--Syncopation occurs as in masculine and neuter a-stems. See
  § 27, (4).


40. Present and Preterit Indicative of #bēon# (#wesan#) _to be_:

          PRESENT (first form).    PRESENT         PRETERIT.
                                   (second form).

  _Sing._ 1. Ic eom                1. Ic bēom      1. Ic wæs
          2. ðū eart               2. ðū bist      2. ðū wǣre
          3. hē is                 3. hē bið       3. hē wæs

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                 1. wē  }        1. wē  }
          2. gē  } sind(on), sint  2. gē  } bēoð   2. gē  } wǣron
          3. hīe }                 3. hīe }        3. hīe }

  NOTE 1.--The forms #bēom#, #bist#, etc. are used chiefly as future
  tenses in O.E. They survive to-day only in dialects and in poetry.
  Farmer Dobson, for example, in Tennyson’s _Promise of May_, uses
  _be_ for all persons of the present indicative, both singular and
  plural; and _there be_ is frequent in Shakespeare for _there are_.
  The Northern dialect employed #aron# as well as #sindon# and
  #sind# for the present plural; hence Mn.E. _are_.

  NOTE 2.--Fusion with #ne# gives #neom#, #neart#, #nis# for the
  present; #næs#, #nǣre#, #nǣron# for the preterit.

  NOTE 3.--The verb _to be_ is followed by the nominative case, as
  in Mn.E.; but when the predicate noun is plural, and the subject a
  neuter pronoun in the singular, the verb agrees in number with the
  predicate noun. The neuter singular #ðæt# is frequently employed
  in this construction: #Ðaet wǣron eall Finnas#, _They were all
  Fins_; #Ðæt sind ęnglas#, _They are angels_; #Ðǣt wǣron ęngla
  gāstas#, _They were angels’ spirits_.

  Notice, too, that O.E. writers do not say _It is I_, _It is thou_,
  but _I it am_, _Thou it art_: #Ic hit eom#, #ðū hit eart#. See
  § 21, (1), Note 1.


41. VOCABULARY.

  sēo brycg, _bridge_.
  sēo costnung, _temptation_.
  sēo cwalu, _death_ [quail, quell].
  sēo fōr, _journey_ [faran].
  sēo frōfor, _consolation, comfort_.
  sēo geoguð, _youth_.
  sēo glōf, _glove_.
  sēo hālignes[1], _holiness_.
  sēo heall, _hall_.
  hēr, _here_.
  hwā, _who_?
  hwǣr, _where_?
  sēo lufu, _love_.
  sēo mearc, _boundary_ [mark, marches[2]].
  sēo mēd, _meed, reward_.
  sēo mildheortnes, _mild-heartedness, mercy_.
  sēo stōw, _place_ [stow away].
  ðǣr, _there_.
  sēo ðearf, _need_.
  sēo wylf, _she wolf_.

    [Footnote 1: All words ending in -nes double the -s before
    adding the case endings.]

    [Footnote 2: As in _warden of the marches_.]


42. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Hwǣr is ðǣre brycge ęnde? 2. Hēr sind ðāra rīca mearca. 3. Hwā
hæfð þā glōfa? 4. Ðǣr bið ðǣm cyninge frōfre ðearf. 5. Sēo wund is on
ðǣre wylfe hēafde. 6. Wē habbað costnunga. 7. Hīe nǣron on ðǣre healle.
8. Ic hit neom. 9. Ðæt wǣron Wēalas. 10. Ðæt sind ðæs wīfes bearn.

II. 1. We shall have the women’s gloves. 2. Where is the place? 3. He
will be in the hall. 4. Those (#Ðæt#) were not the boundaries of the
kingdom. 5. It was not I. 6. Ye are not the king’s scribes. 7. The
shepherd’s words are full (#full# + gen.) of wisdom and comfort.
8. Where are the bodies of the children? 9. The gifts are not here.
10. Who has the seals and the birds?



CHAPTER IX.

THE i-DECLENSION AND THE u-DECLENSION.


#The _i-_Declension.# (See § 58.)

43. The i-Declension, corresponding to the group of _i-_stems in the
classical Third Declension, contains chiefly (_a_) masculine and (_b_)
feminine nouns. The N.A. plural of these nouns ended originally in -e
(from older i).


(_a_) #Masculine _i-_Stems.#

44. These stems have almost completely gone over to the a-Declension, so
that -as is more common than -e as the N.A. plural ending, whether the
stem is long or short. The short stems all have -e in the N.A. singular.


45. Paradigms of #sē wyrm#, _worm_; #sē wine#, _friend_.

  _Sing. N.A._  wyrm        win-e
          _G._  wyrm-es     win-es
        _D.I._  wyrm-e      win-e

  _Plur. N.A._  wyrm-as     win-as (e)
          _G._  wyrm-a      win-a
        _D.I._  wyrm-um     win-um


#Names of Peoples.#

46. The only i-stems that regularly retain -e of the N.A. plural are
certain names of tribes or peoples used only in the plural.


47. Paradigms of #ðā Ęngle#, _Angles_; #ðā Norðymbre#, _Northumbrians_;
#ðā lēode#, _people_:

  _Plur. N.A._  Ęngle     Norðymbre     lēode
          _G._  Ęngla     Norðymbra     lēoda
        _D.I._  Ęnglum    Norðymbrum    lēodum


(_b_) #Feminine _i-_Stems.#

48. The short stems (#fręm-u#) conform entirely to the declension of
short ō-stems; long stems (#cwēn#, #wyrt#) differ from long ō-stems in
having no ending for the A. singular. They show, also, a preference for
-e rather than -a in the N.A. plural.


49. Paradigms of #sēo fręm-u#, _benefit_; #sēo cwēn#, _woman, queen_
[quean]; #sēo wyrt#, _root_ [wort]:

    _Sing. N._ fręm-u     cwēn          wyrt
          _G._ fręm-e     cwēn-e        wyrt-e
        _D.I._ fręm-e     cwēn-e        wyrt-e
          _A._ fręm-e     cwēn          wyrt

  _Plur. N.A._ fręm-a     cwēn-e (a)    wyrt-e (a)
          _G._ fręm-a     cwēn-a        wyrt-a
        _D.I._ fręm-um    cwēn-um       wyrt-um


#The _u-_Declension.#

50. The u-Declension, corresponding to the group of u-stems in the
classical Third Declension, contains no neuters, and but few (_a_)
masculines and (_b_) feminines. The short-stemmed nouns of both genders
(#sun-u#, #dur-u#) retain the final u of the N.A. singular, while the
long stems (#feld#, #hǫnd#) drop it. The influence of the masculine
a-stems is most clearly seen in the long-stemmed masculines of the
u-Declension (#feld#, #feld-es#, etc.).

  NOTE.--Note the general aversion of all O.E. long stems to final
  -u: _cf._ N.A. plural #hof-u#, but #bearn#, #bān#; N. singular
  #gief-u#, but #wund#, #rōd#; N. singular #fręm-u#, but #cwēn#,
  #wyrt#; N.A. singular #sun-u#, #dur-u#, but #feld#, #hǫnd#.


(_a_) #Masculine _u-_Stems.#

51. Paradigms of #sē sun-u#, _son_; #sē feld#, _field_:

  _Sing. N.A._  sun-u     feld
          _G._  sun-a     feld-a (es)
        _D.I._  sun-a     feld-a (e)

  _Plur. N.A._  sun-a     feld-a (as)
          _G._  sun-a     feld-a
        _D.I._  sun-um    feld-um


(b) #Feminine _u-_Stems.#

52. Paradigms of #sēo dur-u#, _door_; #sēo hǫnd#, _hand_:

  _Sing. N.A._  dur-u     hǫnd
          _G._  dur-a     hǫnd-a
        _D.I._  dur-a     hǫnd-a

  _Plur. N.A._  dur-a     hǫnd-a
          _G._  dur-a     hǫnd-a
        _D.I._  dur-um    hǫnd-um


53. Paradigm of the Third Personal Pronoun, #hē#, #hēo#, #hit# = _he_,
_she_, _it_:

            _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._
  _Sing. N._  hē            hēo          hit
        _G._  his           hiere        his
        _D._  him           hiere        him
        _A._  hine, hiene   hīe          hit

                      _All Genders._
  _Plur. N.A._              hīe
          _G._              hiera
          _D._              him


54. VOCABULARY.

  (i-STEMS.)

  sē cierr, _turn, time_ [char, chare, chore].
  sēo dǣd, _deed_.
  sē dǣl, _part_ [a great deal].
  ðā Dęne, _Danes_.
  sē frēondscipe, _friendship_.
  sēo hȳd, _skin, hide_.
  ðā lǫndlēode, _natives_.
  ðā Mierce, _Mercians_.
  ðā Rōmware, _Romans_.
  ðā Seaxe, _Saxons_.
  sē stęde, _place_ [in-stead of].

  (u-STEMS.)

  sēo flōr, _floor_.
  sēo nosu, _nose_.
  sē sumor (_G._ sumeres, _D._ sumera), _summer_.
  sē winter (_G._ wintres, _D._ wintra), _winter_.
  sē wudu, _wood, forest_.

  NOTE.--The numerous masculine nouns ending in -hād,--#cildhād#
  (_childhood_), #wīfhād# (_womanhood_),--belong to the u-stems
  historically; but they have all passed over to the a-Declension.


55. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Ðā Seaxe habbað ðæs dēores hȳd on ðǣm wuda. 2. Hwā hæfð ðā giefa?
3. Ðā Mierce hīe[1] habbað. 4. Hwǣr is ðæs Wēales fugol? 5. Ðā Dęne
hiene habbað. 6. Hwǣr sindon hiera winas? 7. Hīe sindon on ðæs cyninges
wuda. 8. Ðā Rōmware ǫnd ðā Seaxe hæfdon ðā gāras ǫnd ðā geocu. 9. Hēo is
on ðǣm hūse on wintra, ǫnd on ðǣm feldum on sumera. 10. Hwǣr is ðæs
hofes duru?  11. Hēo[2] (= sēo duru) nis hēr.

II. 1. His friends have the bones of the seals and the bodies of the
Danes. 2. Art thou the king’s son? 3. Has she her[3] gifts in her[3]
hands? 4. Here are the fields of the natives. 5. Who had the bird?
6. I had it.[2] 7. The child had the worm in his[3] fingers. 8. The
Mercians were here during (the) summer (#on# + dat.).

    [Footnote 1: See § 21, (1).]

    [Footnote 2: Pronouns agree in gender with the nouns for which
    they stand. #Hit#, however, sometimes stands for inanimate
    things of both masculine and feminine genders. See Wülfing
    (_l.c._) I, § 238.]

    [Footnote 3: See § 76 (last sentence).]



CHAPTER X.

PRESENT INDICATIVE ENDINGS OF STRONG VERBS.


56. The unchanged stem of the present indicative may always be found by
dropping -an of the infinitive: #feall-an#, _to fall_; #cēos-an#, _to
choose_; #bīd-an#, _to abide_.


57. The personal endings are:

  _Sing._ 1. -e    _Plur._ 1. }
          2. -est          2. } -að
          3. -eð           3. }


#_i-_Umlaut.#

58. The 2d and 3d singular endings were originally not -est and -eð, but
-is and -ið; and the i of these older endings has left its traces upon
almost every page of Early West Saxon literature. This i, though
unaccented and soon displaced, exerted a powerful back influence upon
the vowel of the preceding accented syllable. This influence, a form of
regressive assimilation, is known as i-umlaut (pronounced _oóm-lowt_).
The vowel i or j (= _y_), being itself a palatal, succeeded in
palatalizing every guttural vowel that preceded it, and in imposing
still more of the i-quality upon diphthongs that were already
palatal.[1] The changes produced were these:

  a became ę (æ): męnn (< *mann-iz), _men_.
  ā    “   ǣ      ǣnig (< *ān-ig), _any_.
  u    “   y      wyllen (< *wull-in), _woollen_.
  ū    “   ȳ      mȳs (< *mūs-iz), _mice_.
  o    “   ę      dęhter (< *dohtr-i), _to_ or _for the daughter_.
  ō    “   ē      fēt (< *fōt-iz), _feet_.
  ea   “   ie     wiexð (< *weax-ið), _he grows_ (weaxan = _to grow_).
  ēa   “   īe     hīewð (< *hēaw-ið), _he hews_ (hēawan = to _hew_).
  eo   “   ie     wiercan (< *weorc-jan), _to work_.
  ēo   “   īe     līehtan (< *lēoht-jan), _to light_.

    [Footnote 1: The _palatal_ vowels and diphthongs were long or
    short æ, e, i, (ie), y, ea, eo; the _guttural_ vowels were long
    or short a, o, u.]


#The Unchanged Present Indicative.#

59. In the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects, as well as in the dialect
of Late West Saxon, the 2d and 3d singular endings were usually joined
to the present stem without modification either of the stem itself or of
the personal endings. The complete absence of umlauted forms in the
present indicative of Mn.E. is thus accounted for.

In Early West Saxon, however, such forms as the following are
comparatively rare in the 2d and 3d singular:

  _Sing._ 1. Ic feall-e      cēos-e          bīd-e
               (_I fall_)      (_I choose_)    (_I abide_)
          2. ðū feall-est    cēos-est        bīd-est
          3. hē feall-eð     cēos-eð         bīd-eð

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } feall-að  cēos-að         bīd-að
          3. hīe }


#The Present Indicative with i-Umlaut and Contraction.#

60. The 2d and 3d persons singular are distinguished from the other
forms of the present indicative in Early West Saxon by (1) i-umlaut of
the vowel of the stem, (2) syncope of the vowel of the ending, giving
-st and -ð for -est and -eð, and (3) contraction of -st and -ð with the
final consonant or consonants of the stem.


#Contraction.#

61. The changes produced by i-umlaut have been already discussed. By
these changes, therefore, the stems of the 2d and 3d singular indicative
of such verbs as (1) #stǫndan# (= #standan#), _to stand_, (2) #cuman#,
_to come_, (3) #grōwan#, _to grow_, (4) #brūcan#, _to enjoy_,
(5) #blāwan#, _to blow_, (6) #feallan#, _to fall_, (7) #hēawan#, _to
hew_, (8) #weorpan#, _to throw_, and (9) #cēosan#, _to choose_, become
respectively (1) #stęnd-#,[2] (2) #cym-#, (3) #grēw-#, (4) #brȳc-#,
(5) #blǣw-#, (6) #fiell-#, (7) #hīew-#, (8) #wierp-#, and (9) #cīes-#.

If the unchanged stem contains the vowel e, this is changed in the 2d
and 3d singular to i (ie): #cweðan# _to say_, stem #cwið-#; #beran# _to
bear_, stem #bier-#. But this mutation[3] had taken place long before
the period of O.E., and belongs to the Germanic languages in general. It
is best, however, to class the change of e to i or ie with the changes
due to umlaut, since it occurs consistently in the 2d and 3d singular
stems of Early West Saxon, and outlasted almost all of the umlaut forms
proper.

If, now, the syncopated endings -st and -ð are added directly to the
umlauted stem, there will frequently result such a massing of consonants
as almost to defy pronunciation: #cwið-st#, _thou sayest_; #stęnd-st#,
_thou standest_, etc. Some sort of contraction, therefore, is demanded
for the sake of euphony. The ear and eye will, by a little practice,
become a sure guide in these contractions. The following rules, however,
must be observed. They apply only to the 2d and 3d singular of the
present indicative:

(1) If the stem ends in a double consonant, one of the consonants is
dropped:

  1. feall-e (_I fall_)  1. winn-e (_I fight_)  1. swimm-e (_I swim_)
  2. fiel-st             2. win-st              2. swim-st
  3. fiel-ð              3. win-ð               3. swim-ð

(2) If the stem ends in -ð, this is dropped:

  1. cweð-e (_I say_)  1. weorð-e (_I become_)
  2. cwi-st            2. wier-st
  3. cwi-ð             3. wier-ð

(3) If the stem ends in -d, this is changed to -t. The -ð of the ending
is then also changed to -t, and usually absorbed. Thus the stem of the
2d singular serves as stem and ending for the 3d singular:

  1. stǫnd-e (= stand-e) (_I stand_)  1. bind-e (_I bind_)
  2. stęnt-st                         2. bint-st
  3. stęnt                            3. bint

  1. bīd-e (_I abide_)                1. rīd-e (_I ride_)
  2. bīt-st                           2. rīt-st
  3. bīt (-t)                         3. rīt (-t)

(4) If the stem ends already in -t, the endings are added as in (3), -ð
being again changed to -t and absorbed:

  1. brēot-e (_I break_)  1. feoht-e (_I fight_)  1. bīt-e (_I bite_)
  2. brīet-st             2. fieht-st             2. bīt-st
  3. brīet (-t)           3. fieht                3. bīt (-t)

(5) If the stem ends in -s, this is dropped before -st (to avoid -sst),
but is retained before -ð, the latter being changed to -t. Thus the 2d
and 3d singulars are identical:[4]

  1. cēos-e (_I choose_)  1. rīs-e (_I rise_)
  2. cīe-st               2. rī-st
  3. cīes-t               3. rīs-t

    [Footnote 2: The more common form for stems with a is æ rather
    than ę: #faran#, _to go_, 2d and 3d singular stem #fær-#;
    #sacan#, _to contend_, stem #sæc-#. Indeed, a changes to ę _via_
    æ (Cosijn, _Altwestsächsische Grammatik_, I, § 32).]

    [Footnote 3: Umlaut is frequently called Mutation. Metaphony is
    still another name for the same phenomenon. The term Metaphony
    has the advantage of easy adjectival formation (metaphonic). It
    was proposed by Professor Victor Henry (_Comparative Grammar of
    English and German_, Paris, 1894), but has not been
    naturalized.]

    [Footnote 4: This happens also when the infinitive stem ends
    in #st#:

      1. berst-e (_I burst_)
      2. bier-st
      3. bierst.]


62. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Sē cyning fielð. 2. Ðā wīf cēosað ðā giefa. 3. Ðū stęntst on ðǣm
hūse. 4. Hē wierpð ðæt wǣpen. 5. Sē sęcg hīewð ðā līc. 6. Ðæt sǣd grēwð
ǫnd wiexð (_Mark_ iv. 27). 7. Ic stǫnde hēr, ǫnd ðū stęntst ðǣr. 8. “Ic
hit eom,” cwið hē. 9. Hīe berað ðæs wulfes bān. 10. Hē hīe bint, ǫnd ic
hine binde. 11. Ne rītst ðū?

II. 1. We shall bind him. 2. Who chooses the child’s gifts? 3. “He was
not here,” says she. 4. Wilt thou remain in the hall? 5. The wolves are
biting (= bite) the fishermen. 6. He enjoys[5] the love of his children.
7. Do you enjoy (= Enjoyest thou) the consolation and friendship of the
scribe? 8. Will he come? 9. I shall throw the spear, and thou wilt bear
the weapons. 10. The king’s son will become king. 11. The army (#werod#)
is breaking the doors and walls of the house.

    [Footnote 5: #Brūcan#, _to enjoy_, usually takes the genitive
    case, not the accusative. It means “to have joy of any thing.”]



CHAPTER XI.

THE CONSONANT DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS.


#The Weak or _n-_Declension.#

63. The n-Declension contains almost all of the O.E. nouns belonging to
the Consonant Declensions. The stem characteristic n has been preserved
in the oblique cases, so that there is no difficulty in distinguishing
n-stems from the preceding vowel stems.

The n-Declension includes (_a_) masculines, (_b_) feminines, and (_c_)
neuters. The masculines far outnumber the feminines, and the neuters
contain only #ēage#, _eye_ and #ēare#, _ear_. The masculines end in -a,
the feminines and neuters in -e.


64. Paradigms of (_a_) #sē hunta#, _hunter_; (_b_) #sēo tunge#,
_tongue_; (_c_) #ðæt ēage#, _eye_:

    _Sing. N._  hunt-a      tung-e      ēag-e
      _G.D.I._  hunt-an     tung-an     ēag-an
          _A._  hunt-an     tung-an     ēag-e

  _Plur. N.A._  hunt-an     tung-an     ēag-an
          _G._  hunt-ena    tung-ena    ēag-ena
        _D.I._  hunt-um     tung-um     ēag-um


65. VOCABULARY.

  sē adesa, _hatchet, adze_.
  sē ǣmetta, _leisure_ [empt-iness].
  sē bǫna (bana), _murderer_ [bane].
  sēo cirice, _church_ [Scotch kirk].
  sē cnapa (later, #cnafa#), _boy_ [knave].
  sē cuma, _stranger_ [comer].
  ðæt ēare, _ear_.
  sēo eorðe, _earth_.
  sē gefēra, _companion_ [co-farer].
  sē guma, _man_ [bride-groom[1]].
  sēo heorte, _heart_.
  sē mōna, _moon_.
  sēo nǣdre, _adder_ [a nadder > an adder[2]].
  sē oxa, _ox_.
  sē scēowyrhta, _shoe-maker_ [shoe-wright].
  sēo sunne, _sun_.
  sē tēona, _injury_ [teen].
  biddan (with dat. of person and gen. of thing[3]), _to request, ask
for_.
  cwelan, _to die_ [quail].
  gescieppan, _to create_ [shape, land-scape, friend-ship].
  giefan (with dat. of indirect object), _to give_.
  healdan, _to hold_.
  helpan (with dat.), _to help_.
  scęððan[4] (with dat.), _to injure_ [scathe].
  wiðstǫndan (-standan) (with dat.), _to withstand_.
  wrītan, _to write_.

    [Footnote 1: The _r_ is intrusive in _-groom_, as it is in
    _cart-r-idge_, _part-r-idge_, _vag-r-ant_, and _hoa-r-se_.]

    [Footnote 2: The _n_ has been appropriated by the article. Cf.
    _an apron_ (< _a napron_), _an auger_ (< _a nauger_), _an
    orange_ (< _a norange_), _an umpire_ (< _a numpire_).]

    [Footnote 3: In Mn.E. we say “I request a favor of you”; but in
    O.E. it was “I request you (dative) of a favor” (genitive). Cf.
    _Cymbeline_, III, vi, 92: “We’ll mannerly demand thee of thy
    story.” See Franz’s _Shakespeare-Grammatik_, § 361 (1900).]

    [Footnote 4: #Scęððan# is conjugated through the present
    indicative like #fręmman#. See § 129.]


66. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Sē scēowyrhta brȳcð his ǣmettan. 2. Ðā guman biddað ðǣm cnapan ðæs
adesan. 3. Hwā is sē cuma? 4. Hielpst ðū ðǣm bǫnan? 5. Ic him ne helpe.
6. Ðā bearn scęððað ðæs bǫnan ēagum ǫnd ēarum. 7. Sē cuma cwielð on ðǣre
cirican. 8. Sē hunta wiðstęnt ðǣm wulfum. 9. Ðā oxan berað ðæs cnapan
gefēran. 10. Sē mōna ǫnd ðā tunglu sind on ðǣm heofonum. 11. Ðā huntan
healdað ðǣre nǣdran tungan. 12. Hē hiere giefð ðā giefa. 13. Ðā werod
scęððað ðæs cyninges feldum.

II. 1. Who will bind the mouths of the oxen? 2. Who gives him the
gifts? 3. Thou art helping him, and I am injuring him. 4. The boy’s
companion is dying. 5. His nephew does not enjoy his leisure. 6. The
adder’s tongue injures the king’s companion. 7. The sun is the day’s
eye. 8. She asks the strangers for the spears. 9. The men’s bodies are
not here. 10. Is he not (#Nis hē#) the child’s murderer? 11. Who creates
the bodies and the souls of men? 12. Thou withstandest her. 13. He is
not writing.



CHAPTER XII.


#Remnants of Other Consonant Declensions.#

67. The nouns belonging here are chiefly masculines and feminines. Their
stem ended in a consonant other than n. The most important of them may
be divided as follows: (1) The _foot_ Declension, (2) r-Stems, and
(3) nd-Stems. These declensions are all characterized by the prevalence,
wherever possible, of i-umlaut in certain cases, the case ending being
then dropped.


68. (1) The nouns belonging to the _foot_ Declension exhibit umlaut most
consistently in the N.A. plural.

  _Sing. N.A._  sē fōt     sē mǫn    sē tōð      sēo cū
  _Sing. N.A._   (_foot_)   (_man_)   (_tooth_)    (_cow_)
  _Plur. N.A._  fēt        męn       tēð         cȳ

  NOTE.--The dative singular usually has the same form as the N.A.
  plural. Here belong also #sēo bōc# (_book_), #sēo burg#
  (_borough_), #sēo gōs# (_goose_), #sēo lūs# (_louse_), and #sēo
  mūs# (_mouse_), all with umlauted plurals. Mn.E. preserves only
  six of the _foot_ Declension plurals: _feet_, _men_, _teeth_,
  _geese_, _lice_, and _mice_. The _c_ in the last two is an
  artificial spelling, intended to preserve the sound of voiceless
  _s_. Mn.E. _kine_ (= _cy-en_) is a double plural formed after the
  analogy of weak stems; Burns in _The Twa Dogs_ uses _kye_.

  No umlaut is possible in #sēo niht# (_night_) and #sē mōnað#
  (_month_), plural #niht# and #mōnað# (preserved in Mn.E.
  _twelvemonth_ and _fortnight_).

(2) The r-Stems contain nouns expressing kinship, and exhibit umlaut of
the dative singular.

  _Sing. N.A._  sē fæder     sē brōðor    sēo mōdor
                 (_father_)   (_brother_)   (_mother_)
          _D._     fæder        brēðer        mēder

  _Sing. N.A._  sēo dohtor (_daughter_)  sēo swuster (_sister_)
          _D._      dęhter                   swyster

  NOTE.--The N.A. plural is usually the same as the N.A. singular.
  These umlaut datives are all due to the presence of a former i.
  Cf. Lat. dative singular _patri_, _frātri_, _mātri_, _sorori_
  (< _*sosori_), and Greek θυγατρί.

(3) The nd-Stems show umlaut both in the N.A. plural and in the dative
singular:

  _Sing. N.A._  sē frēond (_friend_)  sē fēond (_enemy_)
          _D._     frīend                fīend

  _Plur. N.A._     frīend             fīend

  NOTE.--Mn.E. _friend_ and _fiend_ are interesting analogical
  spellings. When s had been added by analogy to the O.E. plurals
  #frīend# and #fīend#, thus giving the double plurals _friends_ and
  _fiends_, a second singular was formed by dropping the s. Thus
  _friend_ and _fiend_ displaced the old singulars _frend_ and
  _fend_, both of which occur in the M.E. _Ormulum_, written about
  the year 1200.


#Summary of O.E. Declensions.#

69. A brief, working summary of the O.E. system of declensions may now
be made on the basis of gender.

All O.E. nouns are (1) masculine, (2) feminine, or (3) neuter.

(1) The masculines follow the declension of #mūð# (§ 26), except those
ending in -a, which are declined like #hunta# (§ 64):

  _Sing. N.A._  mūð        _N._  hunta
          _G._  mūðes  _G.D.A._  huntan
        _D.I._  mūðe       _I._  huntan

  _Plur. N.A._  mūðas          huntan
          _G._  mūða           huntena
        _D.I._  mūðum          huntum

(2) The short-stemmed neuters follow the declension of #hof# (§ 32); the
long-stemmed, that of #bearn# (§ 32):

  _Sing. N.A._  hof      bearn
          _G._  hofes    bearnes
        _D.I._  hofe     bearne

  _Plur. N.A._  hofu     bearn
          _G._  hofa     bearna
        _D.I._  hofum    bearnum

(3) The feminines follow the declensions of #giefu# and #wund# (§ 38)
(the only difference being in the N. singular), except those ending in
-e, which follow the declension of #tunge# (§ 64):

    _Sing. N._  giefu     wund      tunge
          _G._  giefe     wunde     tungan
        _D.I._  giefe     wunde     tungan
          _A._  giefe     wunde     tungan

  _Plur. N.A._  giefa     wunda     tungan
          _G._  giefa     wunda     tungena
        _D.I._  giefum    wundum    tungum


70. VOCABULARY.

  ac, _but_.
  būtan (with dat.), _except, but, without_.
  sē Crīst, _Christ_.
  sē eorl, _earl, alderman, warrior_.
  ðæt Ęnglalǫnd, _England_ [Angles’ land].
  faran, _to go_ [fare].
  findan, _to find_.
  sē God, _God_.
  hātan, _to call, name_.
  sē hlāford, _lord_ [#hlāf-weard#].
  mid (with dat.), _with_.
  on (with acc.), _on, against, into_.
  tō (with dat.), _to_.
  uton (with infin.), _let us_.

  NOTE.--O.E. #mǫn# (#man#) is frequently used in an indefinite sense
  for _one_, _people_, _they_. It thus takes the place of a passive
  construction proper: #And man nam þā gebrotu þe þār belifon, twęlf
  cȳpan fulle#, _And there were taken up of fragments that remained
  there twelve baskets full_; but more literally, _And one_ (or
  _they_) _took the fragments_, etc.; #Ǫnd Hæstenes wīf ǫnd hīs suna
  twēgen mǫn brōhte tō ðǣm cyninge#, _And Hæsten’s wife and his two
  sons were brought to the king_.


71. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Mōn hine hǣt Ælfred. 2. Uton faran on ðæt scip. 3. God is cyninga
cyning ǫnd hlāforda hlāford. 4. Sē eorl ne giefð giefa his fīend. 5. Ic
næs mid his frīend. 6. Sēo mōdor færð mid hiere dęhter on ðā burg.
7. Fintst ðū ðæs bōceres bēc? 8. Hē bint ealle (all) ðā dēor būtan ðǣm
wulfum. 9. Ðū eart Crīst, Godes sunu. 10. “Uton bindan ðæs bǫnan fēt,”
cwið hē.

II. 1. Christ is the son of God. 2. Let us call him Cædmon. 3. He throws
his spear against the door. 4. Thou art not the earl’s brother. 5. He
will go with his father to England, but I shall remain (abide) here.
6. Gifts are not given to murderers. 7. Who will find the tracks of the
animals? 8. They ask their lord for his weapons (§ 65, Note 3).



CHAPTER XIII.

PRONOUNS.


(1) #Personal Pronouns.#

72. Paradigms of #ic#, _I_; #ðū#, _thou_. For #hē#, #hēo#, #hit#, see
§ 53.

  _Sing. N._  ic                          ðū
        _G._  mīn                         ðīn
        _D._  mē                          ðē
        _A._  mē (mec)                    ðē (ðec)

   _Dual N._  wit (_we two_)              git (_ye two_)
        _G._  uncer (_of us two_)         incer (_of you two_)
        _D._  unc (_to_ or _for us two_)  inc (_to_ or _for you two_)
        _A._  unc (_us two_)              inc (_you two_)

  _Plur. N._  wē                          gē
        _G._  ūser (ūre)                  ēower
        _D._  ūs                          ēow
        _A._  ūs (ūsic)                   ēow (ēowic)

  NOTE 1.--The dual number was soon absorbed by the plural. No relic
  of it now remains. But when two and only two are referred to, the
  dual is consistently used in O.E. An example occurs in the case of
  the two blind men (_Matthew_ ix. 27-31): #Gemiltsa unc, Davīdes
  sunu!# _Pity us, (thou) Son of David!_ #Sīe inc æfter incrum
  gelēafan#, _Be it unto you according to your faith._

  NOTE 2.--Mn.E. _ye_ (< gē), the nominative proper, is fast being
  displaced by _you_ (< #ēow#), the old objective. The distinction
  is preserved in the King James’s version of the Bible: _Ye in me,
  and I in you_ (_John_ xiv. 20); but not in Shakespeare and later
  writers.


(2) #Demonstrative Pronouns.#

73. Paradigm of #ðēs#, #ðēos#, #ðis#, _this_. For the Definite Article
as a demonstrative, meaning _that_, see § 28, Note 3.

               _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._
    _Sing. N._  ðēs           ðēos         ðis
          _G._  ðisses        ðisse        ðisses
          _D._  ðissum        ðisse        ðissum
          _A._  ðisne         ðās          ðis
          _I._  ðȳs           ----         ðȳs

                             _All Genders._
  _Plur. N.A._                ðās
          _G._                ðissa
          _D._                ðissum


(3) #The Interrogative Pronoun.#

74. Paradigm of #hwā#, #hwæt#, _who_, _what?_

             _Masculine._  _Neuter._
  _Sing. N._  hwā           hwæt
        _G._  hwæs          hwæs
        _D._  hwǣm          hwǣm
        _A._  hwone         hwæt
        _I._  ----          hwȳ

  NOTE 1.--The derivative interrogatives, #hwæðer# (< #*hwā-ðer#),
  _which of two?_ and #hwilc# (< #*hwā-līc#), _which?_ are declined
  as strong adjectives (§§ 79-82).

  NOTE 2.--The instrumental case of #hwā# survives in Mn.E. _why_ =
  _on what account_; the instrumental of the definite article is
  seen in the adverbial _the: The sooner, the better = by how much
  sooner, by so much better._

  NOTE 3.--How were the Mn.E. relative pronouns, _who_ and _which_,
  evolved from the O.E. interrogatives? The change began in early
  West Saxon with #hwæt# used in indirect questions (Wülfing, _l.c._
  § 310, β): #Nū ic wāt eall hwæt ðū woldest#, _Now I know all that
  thou desiredst_. The direct question was, #Hwæt woldest ðū?# But
  the presence of #eall# shows that in Alfred’s mind #hwæt# was, in
  the indirect form, more relative than interrogative.


(4) #Relative Pronouns.#

75. O.E. had no relative pronoun proper. It used instead (1) the
Indeclinable Particle #ðe#, _who_, _whom_, _which_, _that_, (2) the
Definite Article (§ 28), (3) the Definite Article with the Indeclinable
Particle, (4) the Indeclinable Particle with a Personal Pronoun.

The Definite Article agrees in gender and number with the antecedent.
The case depends upon the construction. _The bird which I have_ may,
therefore, be:--

  (1) #Sē fugol ðe ic hæbbe#;
  (2) #Sē fugol ðone ic hæbbe#;
  (3) #Sē fugol ðone ðe# (= _the which_) #ic hæbbe#;
  (4) #Sē fugol ðe hine ic hæbbe#.

  NOTE.--O.E. #ðe# agrees closely in construction with Mn.E.
  relative _that_: (1) Both are indeclinable. (2) Both refer to
  animate or inanimate objects. (3) Both may be used with phrasal
  value: #ðȳ ylcan dæge ðe hī hine tō ðǣm āde beran wyllað#, _On the
  same day that_ (= _on which_) _they intend to bear him to the
  funeral pile_. (4) Neither can be preceded by a preposition.


(5) #Possessive Pronouns.#

76. The Possessive Pronouns are #mīn#, _mine_; #ðīn#, _thine_; #ūre#,
_our_; #ēower#, _your_; [#sīn#, _his_, _her_, _its_]; #uncer#,
_belonging to us two_; #incer#, _belonging to you two_. They are
declined as strong adjectives. The genitives of the Third Personal
Pronoun, #his#, _his_, #hiere#, _her_, #hiera#, _their_, are
indeclinable.


(6) #Indefinite Pronouns.#

77. These are #ǣlc#, _each_, _every_; #ān#, _a_, _an_, _one_; #ǣnig# (<
#ān-ig#), _any_; #nǣnig# (< #ne-ǣnig#), _none_; #ōðer#, _other_; #sum#,
_one_, _a certain one_; #swilc#, _such_. They are declined as strong
adjectives.

  NOTE.--O.E. had three established methods of converting an
  interrogative pronoun into an indefinite: (1) By prefixing #ge#,
  (2) by prefixing #ǣg#, (3) by interposing the interrogative
  between #swā ... swā#: (1) #gehwā#, _each_; #gehwæðer#, _either_;
  #gehwilc#, _each_; (2) #ǣghwā#, _each_; #ǣghwæðer#, _each_;
  #ǣghwilc#, _each_; (3) #swā hwā swā#, _whosoever_; #swā hwæðer
  swā#, _whichsoever of two_; #swā hwilc swā#, _whosoever_.



CHAPTER XIV.

ADJECTIVES, STRONG AND WEAK.


78. The declension of adjectives conforms in general to the declension
of nouns, though a few pronominal inflections have influenced certain
cases. Adjectives belong either to (1) the Strong Declension or to
(2) the Weak Declension. The Weak Declension is employed when the
adjective is preceded by #sē# or #ðēs#, _the_, _that_, or _this_;
otherwise, the Strong Declension is employed: #ðā gōdan cyningas#, _the
good kings_; #ðēs gōda cyning#, _this good king_; but #gōde cyningas#,
_good kings_.

  NOTE.--The Weak Declension is also frequently used when the
  adjective is employed in direct address, or preceded by a
  possessive pronoun: #Dryhten, ælmihtiga God ... ic bidde ðē for
  ðīnre miclan mildheortnesse#, _Lord, almighty God, I pray thee,
  for thy great mercy_.


(1) #Strong Declension of Adjectives.#

(a) _Monosyllables._

79. The strong adjectives are chiefly monosyllabic with long stems:
#gōd#, _good_; #eald#, _old_; #lǫng#, _long_; #swift#, _swift_. They are
declined as follows.


80. Paradigm of #gōd#, _good_:

               _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._

    _Sing. N._  gōd           gōd          gōd
          _G._  gōdes         gōdre        gōdes
          _D._  gōdum         gōdre        gōdum
          _A._  gōdne         gōde         gōd
          _I._  gōde          ----         gōde

  _Plur. N.A._  gōde          gōda         gōd
          _G._  gōdra         gōdra        gōdra
        _D.I._  gōdum         gōdum        gōdum


81. If the stem is short, -u is retained as in #giefu# (§ 39, (1)) and
#hofu# (§ 33, (1)). Thus #glæd# (§ 27, Note 1), _glad_, and #til#,
_useful_, are inflected:

                _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._
    _Sing. N._ { glæd          gladu        glæd
               { til           tilu         til

  _Plur. N.A._ { glade         glada        gladu
               { tile          tila         tilu


(b) _Polysyllables._

82. Polysyllables follow the declension of short monosyllables. The most
common terminations are #-en#, _-en_; #-fæst#, _-fast_; #-full#, _-ful_;
#-lēas#, _-less_; #-līc#, _-ly_; #-ig#, _-y_: #hǣð-en# (#hǣð# =
_heath_), _heathen_; #stęde-fæst# (#stęde# = _place_), _steadfast_;
#sorg-full# (#sorg# = _sorrow_), _sorrowful_; #cyst-lēas# (#cyst# =
_worth_), _worthless_; #eorð-līc# (#eorðe# = _earth_), _earthly_;
#blōd-ig# (#blōd# = _blood_), _bloody_. The present and past
participles, when inflected and not as weak adjectives, may be classed
with the polysyllabic adjectives, their inflection being the same.

Syncopation occurs as in a-stems (§ 27, (4)). Thus #hālig#, _holy_,
#blīðe#, _blithe_, #berende#, _bearing_, #geboren#, _born_, are thus
inflected:

                _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._
    _Sing. N._ { hālig         hālgu        hālig
               { blīðe         blīðu        blīðe
               { berende       berendu      berende
               { geboren       geborenu     geboren

  _Plur. N.A._ { hālge         hālga        hālgu
               { blīðe         blīða        blīðu
               { berende       berenda      berendu
               { geborene      geborena     geborenu


(2) #Weak Declension of Adjectives.#

83. The Weak Declension of adjectives, whether monosyllabic or
polysyllabic, does not differ from the Weak Declension of nouns, except
that -ena of the genitive plural is usually replaced by -ra of the
strong adjectives.


                _Masculine._  _Feminine._  _Neuter._
84.  _Sing. N._  gōda          gōde         gōde
           _G._  gōdan         gōdan        gōdan
         _D.I._  gōdan         gōdan        gōdan
           _A._  gōdan         gōdan        gōde

                          _All Genders._
                 _Plur. N.A._  gōdan
                         _G._  gōdra (gōdena)
                       _D.I._  gōdum


85. RULE OF SYNTAX.

_Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case; but
participles, when used predicatively, may remain uninflected_ (§ 139,
§ 140).


86. VOCABULARY.

  dēad, _dead_.
  eall, _all_.
  hāl,[1] _whole, hale_.
  heard, _hard_.
  ðæt hors, _horse_.
  lēof, _dear_ [as lief].
  lȳtel, _little_.
  micel, _great, large_.
  mǫnig, _many_.
  niman, _to take_ [nimble, numb].
  nīwe, _new_.
  rīce, _rich, powerful_.
  sōð, _true_ [sooth-sayer].
  stælwierðe,[2] _serviceable_ [stalwart].
  swīðe, _very_.
  sē tūn, _town, village_.
  sē ðegn, _servant, thane, warrior_.
  ðæt ðing, _thing_.
  sē weg, _way_.
  wīs, _wise_.
  wið (with acc.), _against_, in a hostile sense [with-stand].
  sē ilca, _the same_ [of that ilk].

    [Footnote 1: #Hālig#, _holy_, contains, of course, the same
    root. “I find,” says Carlyle, “that you could not get any better
    definition of what ‘holy’ really is than ‘healthy--completely
    healthy.’”]

    [Footnote 2: This word has been much discussed. The older
    etymologists explained it as meaning _worth stealing_. A more
    improbable conjecture is that it means _worth a stall_ or
    _place_. It is used of ships in the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_. As
    applied to men, Skeat thinks it meant _good_ or _worthy at
    stealing_; but the etymology is still unsettled.]


87. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Ðās scipu ne sind swīðe swift, ac hīe sind swīðe stælwierðu.
2. Sēo gōde cwēn giefð ǣlcum ðegne mǫniga giefa. 3. Ðēs wīsa cyning hæfð
mǫnige micele tūnas on his rīce. 4. Nǣnig mǫn is wīs on eallum ðingum.
5. Ðȳ ilcan dæge (§ 98, (2)) mǫn fǫnd (found) ðone ðegn ðe mīnes wines
bēc hæfde. 6. Ealle ðā sęcgas ðā ðe swift hors habbað rīdað wið ðone
bǫnan. 7. Ðīne fīend sind mīne frīend. 8. Sē micela stān ðone ðe ic on
mīnum hǫndum hæbbe is swīðe heard. 9. Hīe scęððað ðǣm ealdum horsum.
10. Uton niman ðās tilan giefa ǫnd hīe beran tō ūrum lēofum bearnum.

II. 1. These holy men are wise and good. 2. Are the little children very
dear to the servants (dat. without #tō#)? 3. Gifts are not given (§ 70,
Note 1) to rich men. 4. All the horses that are in the king’s fields are
swift. 5. These stones are very large and hard. 6. He takes the dead
man’s spear and fights against the large army. 7. This new house has
many doors. 8. My ways are not your ways. 9. Whosoever chooses me, him I
also (#ēac#) choose. 10. Every man has many friends that are not wise.



CHAPTER XV.

NUMERALS.


88. Numerals are either (_a_) Cardinal, expressing pure number, _one_,
_two_, _three_; or (_b_) Ordinal, expressing rank or succession,
_first_, _second_, _third_.


(_a_) #Cardinals.#

89. The Cardinals fall into the three following syntactic groups:

  GROUP I.

  1. ān
  2. twēgen [twain]
  3. ðrīe

These numerals are inflected adjectives. #Ān#, _one_, _an_, _a_, being a
long stemmed monosyllable, is declined like #gōd# (§ 80). The weak form,
#āna#, means _alone_.

#Twēgen# and #ðrīe#, which have no singular, are thus declined:

                _Masc._  _Fem._  _Neut._     _Masc._  _Fem._  _Neut._
  _Plur. N.A._   twēgen   twā     twā (tū)    ðrīe    ðrēo    ðrēo
          _G._   twēgra   twēgra  twēgra      ðrēora  ðrēora  ðrēora
          _D._ { twǣm     twǣm    twǣm        ðrīm    ðrīm    ðrīm
               { (twām)   (twām)  (twām)


90. GROUP II.

   4. fēower
   5. fīf
   6. siex
   7. seofon
   8. eahta
   9. nigon
  10. tīen
  11. ęndlefan
  12. twęlf
  13. ðrēotīene
  14. fēowertīene
  15. fīftīene
  16. siextīene
  17. seofontīene
  18. eahtatīene
  19. nigontīene

These words are used chiefly as uninflected adjectives: #on gewitscipe
ðrēora oþþe fēower bisceopa#, _on testimony of three or four bishops_;
#on siex dagum#, _in six days_; #ān nǣdre ðe hæfde nigon hēafdu#, _a
serpent which had nine heads_; #æðeling eahtatīene wintra#, _a prince of
eighteen winters_.


91. GROUP III.

    20. twēntig
    21. ān ǫnd twēntig
    30. ðrītig
    40. fēowertig
    50. fīftig
    60. siextig
    70. hundseofontig
    80. hundeahtatig
    90. hundnigontig
   100. hund
   200. twā hund
  1000. ðūsend
  2000. twā ðūsend

All these numbers are employed as neuter singular nouns, and are
followed by the genitive plural: #Næfde hē þēah mā ðonne twēntig
hrȳðera, and twēntig scēapa, and twēntig swȳna#, _He did not have,
however, more than twenty (of) cattle, and twenty (of) sheep, and twenty
(of) swine_; #Hīe hæfdon hundeahtatig scipa#, _They had eighty ships_;
#twā hund mīla brād#, _two hundred miles broad_; #ðǣr wǣron seofon hund
gūðfanena genumen#, _there were seven hundred standards captured_; #ān
ðūsend mǫnna#, _a thousand men_; #Hannibales folces wæs twā ðūsend
ofslagen#, _Of Hannibal’s men there were two thousand slain_; #Hīe
ācuron ęndlefan ðūsend mǫnna#, _They chose eleven thousand men_.

  NOTE 1.--Group III is rarely inflected. Almost the only
  inflectional endings that are added are (1) -es, a genitive
  singular termination for the numerals in #-tig#, and (2) -e, a
  dative singular for #hund#. (1) The first is confined to
  adjectives expressing extent of space or time, as, #eald#, _old_;
  #brād#, _broad_; #hēah#, _high_; and #lǫng#, _long_: #ðæt is
  ðrītiges mīla lǫng#, _that is thirty miles long_; #Hē wæs ðrītiges
  gēara eald#, _He was thirty years old_. (2) The second is employed
  after #mid#: #mid twǣm hunde scipa#, _with two hundred ships_;
  #mid ðrīm hunde mǫnna#, _with three hundred men_; #Ðǣr wearð ...
  Regulus gefangen mid V hunde mǫnna#, _There was Regulus captured
  with five hundred men_.

  The statement made in nearly all the grammars that #hunde# occurs
  as a nominative and accusative plural is without foundation.

  NOTE 2.--Many numerals, otherwise indeclinable, are used in the
  genitive plural with the indefinite pronoun #sum#, which then
  means _one of_ a certain number. In this peculiar construction,
  the numeral always precedes #sum#: #fēowera sum#, _one of four_ (=
  _with three others_); #Hē sǣde þæt hē syxa sum ofslōge syxtig#,
  _He said that he, with five others, slew sixty_ (_whales_); #Hē
  wæs fēowertigra sum#, _He was one of forty_.

  NOTE 3.--These are the most common constructions with the
  Cardinals. The forms in #-tig# have only recently been
  investigated. A study of Wülfing’s citations shows that Alfred
  occasionally uses the forms in #-tig# (1) as adjectives with
  plural inflections: #mid XXXgum cyningum#, _with thirty kings_;
  and (2) as nouns with plural inflections: #æfter siextigum daga#,
  _after sixty days_. But both constructions are rare.


(b) #Ordinals.#

92. The Ordinals, except the first two, are formed from the Cardinals.
They are:

   1. forma, ǣresta, fyrsta
   2. ōðer, æfterra
   3. ðridda
   4. fēorða
   5. fīfta
   6. siexta
   7. seofoða
   8. eahtoða
   9. nigoða
  10. tēoða
  11. ęndlefta
  12. twęlfta
  13. ðrēotēoða
  14. fēowertēoða
  15. fīftēoða
        etc.
  20. twēntigoða
  21. ān ǫnd twēntigoða
  30. ðrītigoða
        etc.

  NOTE.--There are no Ordinals corresponding to #hund# and #ðūsend#.

With the exception of #ōðer# (§ 77), all the Ordinals are declined as
Weak Adjectives; the article, however, as in Mn.E., is frequently
omitted: #Brūtus wæs sē forma consul#, _Brutus was the first consul_;
#Hēr ęndað sēo ǣreste bōc, ǫnd onginneð sēo ōðer#, _Here the first book
ends, and the second begins_; #ðȳ fīftan dæge#, _on the fifth day_; #on
ðǣm tēoðan gēare hiera gewinnes#, _in the tenth year of their strife_;
#Hēo wæs twęlfte#, _She was twelfth_; #Sē wæs fēorða frǫm Agusto#, _He
was fourth from Augustus_.



CHAPTER XVI.

ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.


#Adverbs.#

93. (1) Adverbs are formed by adding -e or #-līce# to the corresponding
adjectives: #sōð#, _true_; #sōðe# or #sōðlīce#, _truly_; #earmlīc#,
_wretched_; #earmlīce#, _wretchedly_; #wīd#, _wide_; #wīde#, _widely_;
#micel#, _great_; #micle# (#micele#), _greatly, much_.

(2) The terminations -e and #-līce# are replaced in some adverbs by
#-(l)unga# or #-(l)inga#: #eallunga#, _entirely_; #fǣringa#, _suddenly_;
#grundlunga#, _from the ground, completely_.

  NOTE 1.--In Mn.E. _headlong_, _darkling_, and _groveling_,
  originally adverbs, we have survivals of these endings.

(3) The genitive case is frequently used adverbially: #sūðeweardes#,
_southwards_; #ealles#, _altogether, entirely_; #dæges#, _by day_;
#nihtes#, _by night_; #ðæs#, _from that time, afterwards_. _Cf._ #hys#
(= #his#) #weges# in #Ðonne rīdeð ǣlc hys weges#, _Then rides each his
way_.

  NOTE 2.--The adverbial genitive is abundantly preserved in Mn.E.
  _Always_, _crossways_, _sideways_, _needs_ (= _necessarily_),
  _sometimes_, etc., are not plurals, but old genitive singulars.
  The same construction is seen in _of course_, _of a truth_, _of an
  evening_, _of old_, _of late_, and similar phrases.

(4) Dative and instrumental plurals may be used as adverbs: #hwīlum#,
_at times, sometimes_ [whilom]; #stundum# (#stund# = _period_), _from
time to time_; #miclum#, _greatly_. Especially common is the suffix
#-mǣlum# (#mǣl# = _time_, #measure# [meal]), preserved adverbially in
Mn.E. _piecemeal_: #dropmǣlum#, _drop by drop_; #styccemǣlum# (#stycce#
= _piece_), _piecemeal, here and there_.

(5) The suffix -an usually denotes motion from:

  hēr, _here_.      hider, _hither_.      heonan, _hence_.
  ðǣr, _there_.     ðider, _thither_.     ðǫnan, _thence_.
  hwǣr, _where?_    hwider, _whither?_    hwǫnan, _whence?_
                                          norðan, _from the north_.
                                          ēastan, _from the east_.
                                          hindan, _from behind_.
                                          feorran, _from far_.
                                          ūtan, _from without_.

(6) The adverb #rihte# (#riht# = _right, straight_) denotes _motion
toward_ in #norðrihte#, _northward, due north_; #ēastrihte#, _due east_;
#sūðrihte#, _due south_; #westrihte#, _due west_.


#Prepositions.#

94. The nominative is the only case in O.E. that is never governed by a
preposition. Of the other cases, the dative and accusative occur most
frequently with prepositions.

(1) The prepositions that are most frequently found with the dative are:

  æfter, _after_.
  ǣt, _at_.
  be (bī), _by, near, about_.
  betwēonan (betuh), _between_.
  būtan (būton), _except_.
  for, _for_.
  frǫm (fram), _from, by_.
  mid, _with_.
  of, _of, from_.
  tō, _to_.
  tōforan, _before_.
  tōweard, _toward_.

(2) The following prepositions require the accusative:

  geond, _throughout_ [be-yond].
  ofer, _over, upon_.
  oð, _until, up to_.
  ðurh, _through_.
  ymbe, _about, around_ [um-while, ember-days].

(3) The preposition #on# (rarely #in#), meaning _into_, is usually
followed by the accusative; but meaning _in_, _on_, or _during_, it
takes the dative or instrumental. The preposition #wið#, meaning
_toward_, may be followed by the genitive, dative, or accusative; but
meaning _against_, and implying _motion_ or _hostility_, the accusative
is more common.

(4) The following phrases are used prepositionally with the dative:

  be norðan, _north of_.
  be ēastan, _east of_.
  be sūðan, _south of._
  be westan, _west of_.
  tō ēacan, _in addition to_.
  on emnlange (efn-lang = _evenly long_), _along_.
  tō emnes, _along_.

(5) Prepositions regularly precede the noun or pronoun that they
introduce; but by their adverbial nature they are sometimes drawn in
front of the verb: #And him wæs mycel męnegu tō gegaderod#, _And there
was gathered unto him a great multitude_. In relative clauses introduced
by #ðe#, the preceding position is very common: #sēo scīr ... ðe hē on
būde#, _the district, ... which he dwelt in_ (= _which he in-habited_);
#Hē wæs swȳðe spēdig man on ðǣm ǣhtum ðe hiera spēda on bēoð#, _He was a
very rich man in those possessions which their riches consist in_;
#nȳhst ðǣm tūne ðe sē dēada man on līð#, _nearest the town that the dead
man lies in_.


#Conjunctions.#

95. (1) The most frequently occurring conjunctions are:

  #ac, _but_.
  ǣr, _before, ere_.
  būtan (būton), _except that, unless_.
  ēac, _also_ [eke].
  for ðǣm,    }
  for ðǣm ðe, }  _because_.
  for ðon,    }
  for ðon ðe, }
  for ðȳ, _therefore_.
  gif, _if_.
  hwæðer, _whether_.
  ǫnd (and), _and_.
  oððe, _or_.
  ðæt, _that, so that_.
  ðēah, _though, however_.

(2) The correlative conjunctions are:

  ǣgðer ge ... ge,      _both ...... and_.
  ǣgðer ...... ōðer }   _either .... or_.
  oððe ....... oððe }
  nē ......... nē,      _neither ... nor_.
  sam ........ sam,     _whether ... or_.
  swā ........ swā    { _the ....... the_.
                      { _as ........ as_.
  ðā ......... ðā    }  _when ...... then_.
  ðonne ...... ðonne }



CHAPTER XVII.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.


#Adjectives#.

96. (1) Adjectives are regularly compared by adding -ra for the
comparative, and -ost (rarely -est) for the superlative:

  _Positive._       _Comparative._     _Superlative._
  earm, _poor_      earmra             earmost
  rīce, _rich_      rīcra              rīcost
  smæl, _narrow_    smælra             smalost
  brād, _broad_     brādra (brǣdra)    brādost
  swift, _swift_    swiftra            swiftost

(2) Forms with i-umlaut usually have superlative in -est:

  _Positive._         _Comparative._  _Superlative._
  eald, _old_         ieldra          ieldest
  lǫng, _long_        lęngra          lęngest
  strǫng, _strong_    stręngra        stręngest
  geong, _young_      giengra         giengest
  hēah, _high_        hīerra          hīehst

(3) The following adjectives are compared irregularly:

  _Positive._               _Comparative._  _Superlative._
  gōd, _good_               bętra           bętst
  lȳtel, _little, small_    lǣssa           lǣst
  micel, _great, much_      māra            mǣst
  yfel, _bad_               wiersa          wierst

(4) The positive is sometimes supplied by an adverb:

  _Positive._     _Comparative._    _Superlative._
  feor, _far_     fierra            fierrest
  nēah, _near_    nēarra            nīehst
  ǣr, _before_    ǣrra, _former_    ǣrest, _first_

(5) The comparatives all follow the Weak Declension. The superlatives,
when preceded by the definite article, are weak; but when used
predicatively they are frequently strong: #sē lǣsta dǣl#, _the least
part_; #Ðonne cymeð sē man sē ðæt swiftoste hors hafað tō ðǣm ǣrestan
dǣle and tō ðǣm mǣstan#, _Then comes the man that has the swiftest horse
to the first part and to the largest_. But, #ðæt bȳne land is ēasteweard
brādost# (not #brādoste#), _the cultivated land is broadest eastward_;
#and# (#hit#) #bið ealra wyrta mǣst#, _and it is largest of all herbs_;
#Ac hyra# (= #hiera#) #ār is mǣst on ðǣm gafole ðe ðā Finnas him
gyldað#, _But their income is greatest in the tribute that the Fins pay
them_.

(6) The comparative is usually followed by #ðonne# and the nominative
case: #Sē hwæl bið micle lǣssa ðonne ōðre hwalas#, _That whale is much
smaller than other whales_; #Ðā wunda ðæs mōdes bēoð dīgelran ðonne ðā
wunda ðæs līchaman#. _The wounds of the mind are more secret than the
wounds of the body_.

But when #ðonne# is omitted, the comparative is followed by the dative:
#Ūre Ālīesend, ðe māra is ǫnd mǣrra eallum gesceaftum#, _Our Redeemer,
who is greater and more glorious than all created things_; #nē ongeat hē
nō hiene selfne bętran ōðrum gōdum mǫnnum#, _nor did he consider himself
better than other good men_.


#Adverbs.#

97. (1) Adverbs are regularly compared by adding -or for the comparative
and -ost (rarely -est) for the superlative:

  _Positive._          _Comparative._    _Superlative._
  georne, _willingly_  geornor           geornost
  swīðe, _very,        swīðor, _more_    swīðost, _most, chiefly_
      severely_
  ǣr, _before_         ǣror, _formerly_  ǣrest, _first_
  norð, _northwards_   norðor            norðmest[1]

(2) The comparatives of a few adverbs may be found by dropping -ra of
the corresponding adjective form:

  _Positive._      _Comparative._  _Superlative._
  lǫnge, _long_    lęng            lęngest
  micle, _much_    mā              mǣst
  wel, _well_      bęt             bętst

    [Footnote 1: This is really a double superlative, m being itself
    an old superlative suffix. _Cf._ Latin _opti-m-us_. In Mn.E.
    _northmost_ and _hindmost_, _-m-est_ has been confused with
    _-most_, with which etymologically it has nothing to do.]


#Expressions of Time.#

98. (1) Duration of time and extent of space are usually expressed by
the accusative case: #Ealle ðā hwīle ðe ðæt līc bið inne#, _All the time
that the body is within_; #twēgen dagas#, _for two days_; #ealne weg#,
_all the way, always_.

(2) Time when is more often expressed by the instrumental case when no
preposition is used: #ðȳ ilcan dæge#, _the same day_; #ǣlce gēare#,
_each year_; #ðȳ gēare#, _that year_; #ǣlce dæge#, _each day_.

(3) Time or space within which is expressed by #on# and the dative: #on
sumera#, _in summer_; #on wintra#, _in winter_; #on fīf dagum#, _in five
days_; #on fīf mīlum#, _in five miles_; #on ðissum gēare#, _in this
year_; #on ðǣm tīman#, _in those times_. Sometimes by the genitive
without a preceding preposition: #ðǣs gēares#, _in that year_.


99. VOCABULARY.

  ðæt gefylce [folc], _troop, division_.
  ðæt lǫnd (land), _land_.
  sēo mīl, _mile_.
  ōðer ... ōðer, _the one ... the other_; _the former ... the latter_.
  sē sige, _victory_.
  sige[2] habban, _to win (the) victory_.
  sprecan, _to speak_.
  ðæt swīn (swȳn), _swine, hog_.
  wēste, _waste_.

    [Footnote 2: #Sige# usually, but not invariably, precedes
    #habban#.]


100. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Hē hæfð ðrēo swīðe swift hors. 2. Ic hæbbe nigontīene scēap ǫnd mā
ðonne twēntig swīna. 3. Sēo gōde cwēn cīest twā hund mǫnna. 4. Uton
feohtan wið ðā Dęne mid ðrīm hunde scipa. 5. Ǫnd hīe wǣron on twǣm
gefylcum: on ōðrum wæs[3] Bāchsęcg ǫnd Halfdęne ðā hǣðnan cyningas, ǫnd
on ōðrum wǣron ðā eorlas. 6. Ðū spricst sōðlīce. 7. Ðonne rīt ǣlc mǫn
his weges. 8. Æfter mǫnigum dagum, hæfde Ælfred cyning[4] sige. 9. Ðis
lǫnd is wēste styccemǣlum. 10. Ðēs feld is fīftiges mīla brād.
11. Ælfred cyning hæfde mǫnige frīend, for ðǣm ðe hē wæs ǣgðer ge wīs ge
gōd. 12. Ðā hwalas, ðe ðū ymbe spricst, sind micle lǣssan ōðrum hwalum.
13. Hēo is ieldre ðonne hiere swuster, ac mīn brōðor is ieldra ðonne
hēo. 14. Wē cumað tō ðǣm tūne ǣlce gēare. 15. Ðā męn ðe ðā swiftostan
hors hǣfdon wǣron mid ðǣm Dęnum fēower dagas.

II. 1. Our army (#werod#) was in two divisions: one was large, the other
was small. 2. The richest men in the kingdom have more (#mā#) than
thirty ships. 3. He was much wiser than his brother. 4. He fights
against the Northumbrians with two ships. 5. After three years King
Alfred gained the victory. 6. Whosoever chooses these gifts, chooses
well. 7. This man’s son is both wiser and better than his father.
8. When the king rides, then ride his thanes also. 9. The richest men
are not always (ā) the wisest men.

    [Footnote 3: See p. 100, note on #gefeaht#.]  [[Linenote 100.8]]

    [Footnote 4: The proper noun comes first in appositive
    expressions: #Ælfred cyning#, #Sidroc eorl#, #Hēahmund
    bisceop#.]



CHAPTER XVIII.

STRONG VERBS: CLASS I. (See § 17.)


#Syntax of Moods.#

101. Of the three hundred simple verbs belonging to the O.E. Strong
Conjugation, it is estimated[1] that seventy-eight have preserved their
strong inflections in Mn.E., that eighty-eight have become weak, and
that the remaining one hundred and thirty-four have entirely
disappeared, their places being taken in most cases by verbs of Latin
origin introduced through the Norman-French.

  NOTE.--Only the simple or primitive verbs, not the compound forms,
  are here taken into consideration. The proportionate loss,
  therefore, is really much greater. O.E. abounded in formative
  prefixes. “Thus from the Anglo-Saxon #flōwan#, _to flow_, ten new
  compounds were formed by the addition of various prefixes, of
  which ten, only one, #oferflōwan#, _to overflow_, survives with
  us. In a similar manner, from the verb #sittan#, _to sit_,
  thirteen new verbs were formed, of which not a single one is to be
  found to-day.” Lounsbury, _ib._ Part I, p. 107.

    [Footnote 1: Lounsbury, _English Language_, Part II, § 241.]


102. #Class I: The “Drive” Conjugation.#

  Vowel Succession: ī, ā, i, i.

  INFINITIVE.  PRETERIT SING.  PRETERIT PLUR.  PAST PART.

  Drīf-an      drāf            drif-on         gedrif-en, _to drive_.

         #Indicative.#                     #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.                          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic drīf-e              _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū drīf-st (drīf-est)          2. ðū  } drīf-e
          3. hē drīf-ð (drīf-eð)            3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } (drīf-að)                2. gē  } drīf-en
          3. hīe }                          3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.                         PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic drāf                _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū drif-e                      2. ðū  } drif-e
          3. hē drāf                        3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } drif-on                  2. gē  } drif-en
          3. hīe }                          3. hīe }

          #Imperative.#    #Infinitive.#  #Present Participle.#

  _Sing._ 2. drīf          drīf-an        drīf-ende
  _Plur._ 1. drīf-an
          2. drīf-að

                    #Gerund.#             #Past Participle.#

                    tō drīf-anne (-enne)  gedrif-en


#Tense Formation of Strong Verbs.#

103. (1) It will be seen from the conjugation of #drīfan# that the
_present stem_ in all strong verbs is used throughout the present
indicative, the present subjunctive, the imperative, the infinitive, the
gerund, and the present participle. More than half of the endings,
therefore, of the Strong Conjugation are added directly to the present
stem.

(2) That the _preterit singular stem_ is used in only two forms of the
verb, the 1st and 3d persons singular of the preterit indicative: #Ic
drāf#, #hē drāf#.

(3) That the _preterit plural stem_ is used in the preterit plural
indicative, in the second person of the preterit singular indicative,
and in the singular and plural of the preterit subjunctive.

(4) That the _stem of the past participle_ (#gedrif-#) is used for no
other form.


#Syntax of the Verb.#

104. The Indicative Mood[2] represents the predicate _as a reality_. It
is used both in independent and in dependent clauses, its function in
O.E. corresponding with its function in Mn.E.

    [Footnote 2: Usage sanctions _mood_, but the better spelling
    would be _mode_. It is from the Lat. _modus_, whereas _mood_ (=
    _temper_) is O.E. _mōd_.]


105. The Subjunctive Mood represents the predicate _as an idea_.[3] It
is of far more frequent occurrence in O.E. than in Mn.E.

1. When used in independent clauses it denotes desire, command, or
entreaty, and usually precedes its subject: #Sīe ðīn nama gehālgod#,
_Hallowed be Thy name_; #Ne swęrigen gē#, _Do not swear_.

2. In dependent clauses it denotes uncertainty, possibility, or mere
futurity.[4] (_a_) Concessive clauses (introduced by #ðēah#, _though_)
and (_b_) temporal clauses (introduced by #ǣr#, #ǣr ðǣm ðe#, _before_)
are rarely found with any other mood than the subjunctive. The
subjunctive is also regularly used in Alfredian prose (_c_) after verbs
of saying, even when no suggestion of doubt or discredit attaches to the
narration.[5] “Whether the statement refer to a fact or not, whether the
subject-matter be vouched for by the reporter, as regards its objective
reality and truth, the subjunctive does not tell. It simply represents a
statement as reported”[6]: #ðēah man āsętte twēgen fǣtels full ealað
oððe wæteres#, _though one set two vessels full of ale or water_; #ǣr
ðǣm ðe hit eall forhęrgod wǣre#, _before it was all ravaged_; #Hē sǣde
ðæt Norðmanna land wǣre swȳðe lang and swȳðe smæl#, _He said that the
Norwegians’ land was very long and very narrow_.

    [Footnote 3: Gildersleeve’s _Latin Grammar_, § 255.]

    [Footnote 4: Thus when Alfred writes that an event took place
    _before_ the founding of Rome, he uses the subjunctive: #ǣr ðǣm
    ðe Rōmeburh getimbrod wǣre# = _before Rome were founded_; but,
    #æfter ðǣm ðe Rōmeburh getimbrod wæs# = _after Rome was
    founded_.]

    [Footnote 5: “By the time of Ælfric, however, the levelling
    influence of the indicative [after verbs of saying] has made
    considerable progress.”--Gorrell, _Indirect Discourse in
    Anglo-Saxon_ (Dissertation, 1895), p. 101.]

    [Footnote 6: Hotz, _On the Use of the Subjunctive Mood in
    Anglo-Saxon_ (Zürich, 1882).]


106. The Imperative is the mood of command or intercession: #Iōhannes,
cum tō mē#, _John, come to me_; #And forgyf ūs ūre gyltas#, _And forgive
us our trespasses_; #Ne drīf ūs fram ðē#, _Do not drive us from thee_.


107. (1) The Infinitive and Participles are used chiefly in verb-phrases
(§§ 138-141); but apart from this function, the Infinitive, being a
neuter noun, may serve as the subject or direct object of a verb.
#Hātan# (_to command, bid_), #lǣtan# (_to let, permit_), and onginnan
(_to begin_) are regularly followed by the Infinitive: #Hine rīdan
lyste#, _To ride pleased him_; #Hēt ðā bǣre sęttan#, _He bade set down
the bier_;[7] #Lǣtað ðā lȳtlingas tō mē cuman#, _Let the little ones
come to me_; #ðā ongann hē sprecan#, _then began he to speak_.

(2) The Participles may be used independently in the dative absolute
construction (an imitation of the Latin ablative absolute), usually for
the expression of time:[8] #Him ðā gȳt sprecendum#, _While he was yet
speaking_; #gefylledum dagum#, _the days having been fulfilled_.

    [Footnote 7: Not, _He commanded the bier to be set down._ The
    Mn.E. passive in such sentences is a loss both in force and
    directness.]

    [Footnote 8: Callaway, _The Absolute Participle in Anglo-Saxon_
    (Dissertation, 1889), p. 19.]


108. The Gerund, or Gerundial Infinitive, is used:

(1) To express purpose: #Ūt ēode sē sāwere his sǣd tō sāwenne#, _Out
went the sower his seed to sow_.

(2) To expand or determine the meaning of a noun or adjective: #Sȳmōn,
ic hæbbe ðē tō sęcgenne sum ðing#, _Simon, I have something to say to
thee_; #Hit is scǫndlīc ymb swelc tō sprecanne#, _It is shameful to
speak about such things_.

(3) After #bēon# (#wesan#) to denote duty or necessity: #Hwæt is nū mā
ymbe ðis tō sprecanne#, _What more is there now to say about this_?
#ðonne is tō geðęncenne hwaet Crīst self cwæð#, _then it behooves to
bethink what Christ himself said_.

  NOTE.--The Gerund is simply the dative case of the Infinitive
  after #tō#. It began very early to supplant the simple Infinitive;
  hence the use of _to_ with the Infinitive in Mn.E. As late as the
  Elizabethan age the Gerund sometimes replaced the Infinitive even
  after the auxiliary verbs:

          “Some pagan shore,
  Where these two Christian armies _might combine_
  The blood of malice in a vein of league,
  And not _to spend_ it so unneighbourly.”
                                _--King John_, V, ii, 39.

  When _to_ lost the meaning of purpose and came to be considered as
  a merely formal prefix, _for_ was used to supplement the purpose
  element: _What went ye out for to see_?[9]

    [Footnote 9: This is not the place to discuss the Gerund in
    Mn.E., the so-called “infinitive in _-ing_.” The whole subject
    has been befogged for the lack of an accepted nomenclature, one
    that shall do violence neither to grammar nor to history.]



CHAPTER XIX.

STRONG VERBS: CLASSES II AND III.


109. #Class II: The “Choose” Conjugation.#

  Vowel Succession: ēo, ēa, u, o.

  INFINITIVE.[1]  PRET. SING.  PRET. PLUR.[2]  PAST PART.[2]

  cēos-an,        cēas,        cur-on          gecor-en, _to choose_.

         #Indicative.#           #Subjunctive#.

          PRESENT.                        PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic cēos-e            _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū cīest (cēos-est)          2. ðū  } cēos-e
          3. hē cīest (cēos-eð)           3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } cēos-að                2. gē  } cēos-en
          3. hīe }                        3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.                       PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic cēas              _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū cur-e                     2. ðū  } cur-e
          3. hē cēas                      3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } cur-on                 2. gē  } cur-en
          3. hīe }                        3. hīe }

          #Imperative.#    #Infinitive.#  #Present Participle.#

  _Sing._ 2. cēos          cēos-an        cēos-ende
  _Plur._ 1. cēos-an
          2. cēos-að

                    #Gerund.#             #Past Participle.#

                    tō cēos-anne (-enne)  gecor-en

    [Footnote 1: A few verbs of Class II have ū instead of ēo in the
    infinitive:

      brūcan, brēac, brucon, gebrocen, _to enjoy_ [brook].
      būgan, bēag, bugon, gebogen, _to bend, bow_.]

    [Footnote 2: By a law known as Grammatical Change, final ð, s,
    and h of strong verbs generally become d, r, and g,
    respectively, in the preterit plural and past participle.]


110. #Class III: The “Bind” Conjugation.#

  Vowel Succession: {i,e}, a, u, {u,o}.

The present stem ends in m, n, l, r, or h, + one or more consonants:

  m: belimp-an, { belǫmp }, belump-on, belump-en, _to belong_.
                { belamp }

  n:  bind-an,  { bǫnd },   bund-on,   gebund-en, _to bind_.
                { band }

  l:  help-an,    healp,    hulp-on,   geholp-en, _to help_.

  r:  weorð-an,   wearð,    wurd-on,   geword-en, _to become_.

  h:  gefeoht-an, gefeaht,  gefuht-on, gefoht-en, _to fight_.

  NOTE 1.--If the present stem ends in a nasal (m, n) + a consonant,
  the past participle retains the u of the pret. plur.; but if the
  present stem ends in a liquid (l, r) or h, + a consonant, the past
  participle has o instead of u.

  NOTE 2.--Why do we not find #*halp#, #*warð#, and #*faht# in the
  pret. sing.? Because a before l, r, or h, + a consonant, underwent
  “breaking” to ea. Breaking also changes every e followed by r or
  h, + a consonant, to eo: #weorðan# (< #*werðan#), feohtan
  (< #*fehtan#).


111.     #Indicative.#            #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.                         PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic bind-e             _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū bintst (bind-est)          2. ðū  } bind-e
          3. hē bint (bind-eð)             3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                 _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  }  bind-að                2. gē  } bind-en
          3. hīe }                         3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.                        PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic bǫnd               _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū bund-e                     2. ðū  } bund-e
          3. hē bǫnd                       3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                 _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } bund-on                 2. gē  } bund-en
          3. hīe }                         3. hīe }

          #Imperative.#    #Infinitive.#  #Present Participle.#

  _Sing._ 2. bind          bind-an        bind-ende
  _Plur._ 1. bind-an
          2. bind-að

                    #Gerund.#             #Past Participle.#

                    tō bind-anne (-enne)  gebund-en


112. VOCABULARY.

  ðæt gefeoht, _fight, battle_.
  sēo geręcednes, _narration_ [#ręccan#].
  ðæt gesceap, _creation_ [#scieppan#].
  sēo hęrgung (§ 39, (3)), _harrying, plundering_ [#hęrgian#].
  sē medu (medo) (§ 51), _mead_.
  sēo meolc, _milk_.
  sē middangeard, _world_ [middle-yard].
  sē munuc, _monk_ [monachus].
  sēo mȳre, mare [#mearh#].
  hē sǣde, _he said_.
  hīe sǣdon, _they said_.
  sēo spēd, _riches_ [speed].
  spēdig, _rich, prosperous_ [speedy].
  sēo tīd, _time_ [tide].
  unspēdig, _poor_.
  sē westanwind, _west-wind_.
  ðæt wīn, _wine_.

  ārīsan,         ārās,    ārison,    ārisen,     _to arise_.
  bīdan,          bād,     bidon,     gebiden,    _to remain, expect_
                                                    (with gen.)
  drēogan,[3]     drēag,   drugon,    gedrogen,   _to endure, suffer_.
  drincan,        drǫnc,   druncon,   gedruncen,  _to drink_.
  findan,         fǫnd,    fundon,    gefunden,   _to find_.
  geswīcan        geswāc,  geswicon,  geswicen,   _to cease, cease from_
                                                    (with gen.)
  iernan (yrnan), ǫrn,     urnon,     geurnen,    _to run_.
  onginnan,       ongǫnn,  ongunnon,  ongunnen,   _to begin_.
  rīdan,          rād,     ridon,     geriden,    _to ride_.
  singan,         sǫng,    sungon,    gesungen,   _to sing_.
  wrītan,         wrāt,    writon,    gewriten,   _to write_.

    [Footnote 3: _Cf._ the Scotch “to _dree_ one’s weird” = _to
    endure one’s fate_.]


113. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Æfter ðissum wordum, sē munuc wrāt ealle ðā geręcednesse on ānre
bēc. 2. Ðā eorlas ridon ūp ǣr ðǣm ðe ðā Dęne ðæs gefeohtes geswicen.
3. Cædmon sǫng ǣrest be middangeardes gesceape. 4. Sē cyning ǫnd ðā
rīcostan męn drincað mȳran meolc, ǫnd ðā unspēdigan drincað medu. 5. Ǫnd
hē ārās ǫnd sē wind geswāc. 6. Hīe sǣdon ðæt hīe ðǣr westwindes biden.
7. Hwæt is nū mā ymbe ðās ðing tō sprecanne? 8. Ðā sęcgas ongunnon
geswīcan ðǣre hęrgunga. 9. Ðā bēag ðæt lǫnd ðǣr ēastryhte, oððe sēo sǣ
in on ðæt lǫnd. 10. Ðās lǫnd belimpað tō, ðǣm Ęnglum. 11. Ðēah ðā Dęne
ealne dæg gefuhten, gīet hæfde Ælfred cyning sige. 12. Ǫnd ðæs
(afterwards) ymbe ānne mōnað gefeaht Ælfred cyning wið ealne ðone hęre
æt Wiltūne.

II. 1. The most prosperous men drank mare’s milk and wine, but the poor
men drank mead. 2. I suffered many things before you began to help me
(dat.). 3. About two days afterwards (#Ðæs ymbe twēgen dagas#), the
plundering ceased. 4. The king said that he fought against all the army
(#hęre#). 5. Although the Danes remained one month (§ 98, (1)), they did
not begin to fight. 6. These gifts belonged to my brother. 7. The earls
were glad because their lord was (indicative) with them. 8. What did you
find? 9. Then wrote he about (#be#) the wise man’s deeds. 10. What more
is there to endure?



CHAPTER XX.

STRONG VERBS: CLASSES IV, V, VI, AND VII.

CONTRACT VERBS.

[The student can now complete the conjugation for himself (§ 103). Only
the principal parts will be given.]


114. #Class IV: The “Bear” Conjugation.#

  Vowel Succession: e, æ, ǣ, o.

The present stem ends in l, r, or m, no consonant following:

  l:   hel-an, hæl,       hǣl-on,          gehol-en, _to conceal_.
  r:   ber-an, bær,       bǣr-on,          gebor-en, _to bear_.

The two following verbs are slightly irregular:

  m: { nim-an, nōm (nam), nōm-on (nām-on), genum-en, _to take_.
     { cum-an, c(w)ōm,    c(w)ōm-on,       gecum-en, _to come_.


115. #Class V: The “Give” Conjugation.#

  Succession of Vowels: e (ie), æ, ǣ, e.

The present stem ends in a single consonant, never a liquid or nasal:

  met-an,  mæt,  mǣton,   gemet-en,  _to measure, mete_.
  gief-an, geaf, gēaf-on, gegief-en, _to give_.

  NOTE 1.--The palatal consonants, g, c, and sc, convert a following
  e into ie, æ into ea, and ǣ into ēa. Hence #giefan# (< #*gefan#),
  #geaf# (< #*gæf#), #gēafon# (< #*gǣfon#), #gegiefen# (< #*gegefen#).
  This change is known as Palatalization. See § 8.

  NOTE 2.--The infinitives of the following important verbs are only
  apparently exceptional:

  biddan,  bæd,  bǣd-on,  gebed-en, _to ask for_ [bid].
  licgan,  læg,  lǣg-on,  geleg-en, _to lie, extend_.
  sittan,  sæt,  sǣt-on,  geset-en, _to sit_.

The original e reappears in the participial stems. It was changed to i
in the present stems on account of a former -jan in the infinitive
(#bid-jan#, etc.). See § 61. To the same cause is due the doubling of
consonants in the infinitive. All simple consonants in O.E., with the
exception of r, were doubled after a short vowel, when an original j
followed.


116. #Class VI: The “Shake” Conjugation.#

  Succession of Vowels: a, ō, ō, a.

  scac-an,  scōc,  scōc-on,  gescac-en,  _to shake_.
  far-an,   fōr,   fōr-on,   gefar-en,   _to go_ [fare].


117. #Class VII: The “Fall” Conjugation.#

  Vowel Succession: {ā,ǣ}, ē, ē, {ā,ǣ};
  or {ea,ēa,ō}, ēo, ēo, {ea,ēa,ō}.


  (1)  hāt-an,    hēt,    hēt-on,    gehāt-en,    _to call, name,
                                                    command_.
       lǣt-an,    lēt,    lēt-on,    gelǣt-en,    _to let_.

  (2)  feall-an,  fēoll,  fēoll-on,  gefeall-en,  _to fall_.
       heald-an,  hēold,  hēold-on,  geheald-en,  _to hold_.
       hēaw-an,   hēow,   hēow-on,   gehēaw-en,   _to hew_.
       grōw-an,   grēow,  grēow-on,  gegrōw-en,   _to grow_.

  NOTE 1.--This class consists of the Reduplicating Verbs; that is,
  those verbs that originally formed their preterits not by internal
  vowel change (ablaut), but by prefixing to the present stem the
  initial consonant + e (_cf._ Gk. λέ-λοιπα and Lat. _dĕ-di_).
  Contraction then took place between the syllabic prefix and the
  root, the fusion resulting in ē or ēo: #*he-hat# > #heht# > #hēt#.

  NOTE 2.--A peculiar interest attaches to #hātan#: the forms
  #hātte# and #hātton# are the sole remains in O.E. of the original
  Germanic passive. They are used both as presents and as preterits:
  #hātte# = _I am_ or _was called_, _he is_ or _was called_. No
  other verb in O.E. could have a passive sense without calling in
  the aid of the verb _to be_ (§ 141).


#Contract Verbs.#

118. The few Contract Verbs found in O.E. do not constitute a new class;
they fall under Classes I, II, V, VI, and VII, already treated. The
present stem ended originally in h. This was lost before -an of the
infinitive, contraction and compensatory lengthening being the result.
The following are the most important of these verbs:

  Classes.

    I. ðēon  (< *ðīhan),  ðāh,  ðig-on, { geðig-en  }, _to thrive_.
                                        { geðung-en }
   II. tēon  (< *tēohan), tēah, tug-on,   getog-en,    _to draw, go_
                                                         [tug].
    V. sēon  (< *sehwan), seah, sāw-on,   gesew-en,    _to see_.
   VI. slēan (< *slahan), slōh, slōg-on,  geslæg-en,   _to slay_.
  VII. fōn   (< *fōhan),  fēng, fēng-on,  gefǫng-en,   _to seize_
                                                         [fang].


119. The Present Indicative of these verbs runs as follows (see rules of
i-umlaut, § 58):

  _Sing._ 1. Ic ðēo      tēo     sēo     slēa     fō
          2. ðū ðīhst    tīehst  siehst  sliehst  fēhst
          3. hē ðīhð     tīehð   siehð   sliehð   fēhð

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } ðēoð  tēoð    sēoð    slēað    fōð
          3. hīe }

The other tenses and moods are regularly formed from the given stems.


120. VOCABULARY.

  sēo ǣht, _property, possession_ [#āgan#].
  aweg, _away_ [#on weg#].
  sēo fierd, _English army_ [#faran#].
  sē hęre, _Danish army_ [#hęrgian#].
  on gehwæðre hǫnd, _on both sides_.
  sige niman (= sige habban), _to win (the) victory_.
  sēo sprǣc, _speech, language_.
  tō rīce fōn, _to come to the throne_.[1]
  ðæt wæl [Val-halla] } _slaughter, carnage_.
  sē wælsliht,        }
  sē weall, _wall, rampart_.
  ðæt wildor, _wild beast, reindeer_.
  sē wīngeard, _vineyard_.

  ābrecan,[2] ābræc,   ābrǣcon,   ābrocen,   _to break down_.
  cweðan,     cwæð,    cwǣdon,    gecweden,  _to say_ [quoth].
  gesēon,     geseah,  gesāwon,   gesewen,   _to see_.
  grōwan,     grēow,   grēowon,   gegrōwen,  _to grow_.
  ofslēan,    ofslōh,  ofslōgon,  ofslægen,  _to slay_.
  sprecan,    spræc,   sprǣcon,   gesprecen, _to speak_.
  stelan,     stæl,    stǣlon,    gestolen,  _to steal_.
  stǫndan,    stōd,    stōdon,    gestǫnden, _to stand_.
  weaxan,     wēox,    wēoxon,    geweaxen,  _to grow, increase_ [wax].

    [Footnote 1: Literally, _to take to (the) kingdom_. _Cf._
    “Have you anything to take to?” (_Two Gentlemen of Verona_,
    IV, i, 42).]

    [Footnote 2: #Brecan# belongs properly in Class V, but it has
    been drawn into Class IV possibly through the influence of the r
    in the root.]


121. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Æfter ðǣm sōðlīce (indeed) ealle męn sprǣcon āne (one) sprǣce.
2. Ǫnd hē cwæð: “Ðis is ān folc, ǫnd ealle hīe sprecað āne sprǣce.”
3. On sumum stōwum wīngeardas grōwað. 4. Hē hēt ðā nǣdran ofslēan. 5. Ðā
Ęngle ābrǣcon ðone lǫngan weall, ǫnd sige nōmon. 6. Ǫnd ðæt sǣd grēow
ǫnd wēox. 7. Ic ne geseah ðone mǫn sē ðe ðæs cnapan adesan stæl. 8. Hē
wæs swȳðe spēdig man on ðǣm ǣhtum ðe hiera spēda on[3] bēoð, ðæt is, on
wildrum. 9. Ǫnd ðǣr wearð (was) micel wælsliht on gehwæðre hǫnd. 10. Ǫnd
æfter ðissum gefeohte cōm Ælfred cyning mid his fierde, ǫnd gefeaht wið
ealne ðone hęre, ǫnd sige nōm. 11. Ðēos burg hātte[4] Æscesdūn
(Ashdown). 12. Ðǣre cwēne līc læg on ðǣm hūse. 13. Ǫnd sē dǣl ðe ðǣr
aweg cōm wæs swȳðe lȳtel. 14. Ǫnd ðæs ðrēotīene dagas Æðered tō rīce
fēng.

II. 1. The men stood in the ships and fought against the Danes.
2. Before the thanes came, the king rode away. 3. They said (#sǣdon#)
that all the men spoke one language. 4. They bore the queen’s body to
Wilton. 5. Alfred gave many gifts to his army (dat. without #tō#) before
he went away. 6. These men are called earls. 7. God sees all things.
8. The boy held the reindeer with (#mid#) his hands. 9. About six months
afterwards, Alfred gained the victory, and came to the throne. 10. He
said that there was very great slaughter on both sides.

    [Footnote 3: See § 94, (5).]

    [Footnote 4: See § 117, Note 2.]



CHAPTER XXI.

WEAK VERBS (§ 18).


122. The verbs belonging to the Weak Conjugation are generally of more
recent origin than the strong verbs, being frequently formed from the
roots of strong verbs. The Weak Conjugation was the growing conjugation
in O.E. as it is in Mn.E. We instinctively put our newly coined or
borrowed words into this conjugation (_telegraphed_, _boycotted_); and
children, by the analogy of weak verbs, say _runned_ for _ran_, _seed_
for _saw_, _teared_ for _tore_, _drawed_ for _drew_, and _growed_ for
_grew_. So, for example, when Latin _dictāre_ and _breviāre_ came into
O.E., they came as weak verbs, #dihtian# and #brēfian#.


#The Three Classes of Weak Verbs.#

123. There is no difficulty in telling, from the infinitive alone, to
which of the three classes a weak verb belongs. Class III has been so
invaded by Class II that but three important verbs remain to it:
#habban#, _to have_; #libban#, _to live_; and #sęcgan#, _to say_.
Distinction is to be made, therefore, only between Classes II and I.
Class II contains the verbs with infinitive in -ian not preceded
by r. Class I contains the remaining weak verbs; that is, those with
infinitive in #-r-ian# and those with infinitive in -an (not -ian).


#Class I.#

124. The preterit singular and past participle of Class I end in -ede
and -ed, or -de and -ed respectively.

  NOTE.--The infinitives of this class ended originally in -jan (=
  -ian). This accounts for the prevalence of i-umlaut in these
  verbs, and also for the large number of short-voweled stems ending
  in a double consonant (§ 115, Note 2). The weak verb is frequently
  the causative of the corresponding strong verb. In such cases, the
  root of the weak verb corresponds in form to the preterit singular
  of the strong verb: Mn.E. _drench_ (= _to make drink_), _lay_ (=
  _to make lie_), _rear_ (= _to make rise_), and _set_ (= _to make
  sit_), are the umlauted forms of #drǫnc# (preterit singular of
  #drincan#), #læg# (preterit singular of #licgan#), #rās# (preterit
  singular of #rīsan#), and #sæt# (preterit singular of #sittan#).


#Preterit and Past Participle in _-ede_ and _-ed_.#

125. Verbs with infinitive in -an preceded by ri- or the double
consonants mm, nn, ss, bb, cg (= gg), add -ede for the preterit, and -ed
for the past participle, the double consonant being always made single:

  ri:  nęri-an,   nęr-ede,   genęr-ed,   _to save_.
  mm:  fręmm-an,  fręm-ede,  gefręm-ed,  _to perform_ [frame].
  nn:  ðęnn-an,   ðęn-ede,   geðęn-ed,   _to extend_.
  ss:  cnyss-an,  cnys-ede,  gecnys-ed,  _to beat_.
  bb:  swębb-an,  swęf-ede,  geswęf-ed,  _to put to sleep_.
  cg:  węcg-an,   węg-ede,   gewęg-ed,   _to agitate_.

  NOTE.--#Lęcgan#, _to lay_, is the only one of these verbs that
  syncopates the e: #lęcgan#, #lęgde# (#lēde#), #gelęgd# (#gelēd#),
  instead of #lęgede#, #gelęged#.


#Preterit and Past Participle in _-de_ and _-ed_.#

126. All the other verbs belonging to Class I. add -de for the preterit
and -ed for the past participle. This division includes, therefore, all
stems long by nature (§ 10, (3), (_a_)):

  dǣl-an,   dǣl-de,   gedǣl-ed,   _to deal out, divide_ [dǣl].
  dēm-an,   dēm-de,   gedēm-ed,   _to judge_ [dōm].
  grēt-an,  grēt-te,  gegrēt-ed,  _to greet_.
  hīer-an,  hīer-de,  gehīer-ed,  _to hear_.
  lǣd-an,   lǣd-de,   gelǣd-ed,   _to lead_.

  NOTE 1.--A preceding voiceless consonant (§ 9, Note) changes -de
  into -te: #*grēt-de# > #grēt-te#; #*mēt-de# > #mēt-te#; #*īec-de#
  > #īec-te#. Syncope and contraction are also frequent in the
  participles: #gegrēt-ed# > #*gegrēt-d# > #gegrēt(t)#; #gelǣd-ed# >
  #gelǣd(d)#.

  NOTE 2.--#Būan#, _to dwell, cultivate_, has an admixture of
  strong forms in the past participle: #būan#, #būde#, #gebūd#
  (#bȳn#, #gebūn#). The present participle survives in Mn.E.
  _husband_ = _house-dweller_.


127. It includes, also, all stems long by position (§ 10, (3), (_b_))
except those in mm, nn, ss, bb, and cg (§ 125):

  sęnd-an,   sęnd-e,   gesęnd-ed,   _to send_.
  sętt-an,   sęt-te,   gesęt-ed,    _to set_ [sittan].
  sigl-an,   sigl-de,  gesigl-ed,   _to sail_.
  spęnd-an,  spęnd-e,  gespęnd-ed,  _to spend_.
  trędd-an,  tręd-de,  getręd-ed,   _to tread_.

  NOTE.--The participles frequently undergo syncope and contraction:
  #gesęnded# > #gesęnd#; #gesęted# > #gesęt(t)#; #gespęnded# >
  #gespęnd#; #getręded# > #getręd(d)#.


#Irregular Verbs of Class I.#

128. There are about twenty verbs belonging to Class I that are
irregular in having no umlaut in the preterit and past participle. The
preterit ends in -de, the past participle in -d; but, through the
influence of a preceding voiceless consonant (§ 9, Note), -ed is
generally unvoiced to -te, and -d to -t. The most important of these
verbs are as follows:

  bring-an,  brōh-te,  gebrōh-t,  _to bring_.
  byc-gan,   boh-te,   geboh-t,   _to buy_.
  sēc-an,    sōh-te,   gesōh-t,   _to seek_.
  sęll-an,   seal-de,  geseal-d,  _to give, sell_ [hand-sel].
  tǣc-an,    tǣh-te,   getǣh-t,   _to teach_.
  tęll-an,   teal-de,  geteal-d,  _to count_ [tell].
  ðęnc-an,   ðōh-te,   geðōh-t,   _to think_.
  ðync-an,   ðūh-te,   geðūh-t,   _to seem_ [methinks].
  wyrc-an,   worh-te,  geworh-t,  _to work_.

  NOTE.--Such of these verbs as have stems in c or g are frequently
  written with an inserted e: #bycgean#, #sēcean#, #tǣcean#, etc.
  This e indicates that c and g have palatal value; that is, are to
  be followed with a vanishing y-sound. In such cases, O.E. c
  usually passes into Mn.E. _ch_: #tǣc(e)an# > _to teach_;
  #rǣc(e)an# > _to reach_; #stręcc(e)an# > _to stretch_. #Sēc(e)an#
  gives _beseech_ as well as _seek_. See § 8.


#Conjugation of Class I.#

129. Paradigms of #nęrian#, _to save_; #fręmman#, _to perform_; #dǣlan#,
_to divide_:

        #Indicative.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic nęrie       fręmme     dǣle
          2. ðū nęrest      fręmest    dǣlst
          3. hē nęreð       fręmeð     dǣlð

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } nęriað   fręmmað    dǣlað
          3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic nęrede      fręmede    dǣlde
          2. ðū nęredest    fręmedest  dǣldest
          3. hē nęrede      fręmede    dǣlde

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } nęredon  fręmedon   dǣldon
          3. hīe }

         #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } nęrie    fręmme     dǣle
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  }  nęrien  fręmmen    dǣlen
          3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } nęrede   fręmede    dǣlde
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } nęreden  fręmeden   dǣlden
          3. hīe }

         #Imperative.#

  _Sing._ 2. nęre           fręme      dǣl

  _Plur._ 1. nęrian         fręmman    dǣlan
          2. nęriað         fręmmað    dǣlað

         #Infinitive.#

             nęrian         fręmman    dǣlan

  #Gerund.#

  tō nęrianne (-enne)    tō fręmmanne (-enne)    tō dǣlanne (-enne)

  #Present Participle.#

             nęriende       fręmmende   dǣlende

  #Past Participle.#

             genęred        gefręmed    gedǣled

  NOTE.--The endings of the preterit present no difficulties; in the
  2d and 3d singular present, however, the student will observe
  (_a_) that double consonants in the stem are made single:
  #fręmest#, #fręmeð# (not #*freęmmest#, #*freęmmeð#); #ðęnest#,
  #ðęneð#; #sętest# (#sętst#), #seęteð# (#sętt#); #fylst#, #fylð#,
  from #fyllan#, _to fill_; (_b_) that syncope is the rule in stems
  long by nature: #dǣlst# (< #dǣlest#), #dǣlð# (< #dǣleð#); #dēmst#
  (< #dēmest#), #dēmð# (< #dēmeð#); #hīerst# (< #hīerest#), #hīerð#
  (< #hīereð#). Double consonants are also made single in the
  imperative 2d singular and in the past participle. Stems long by
  nature take no final -e in the imperative: #dǣl#, #hīer#, #dēm#.


#Class II.#

130. The infinitive of verbs belonging to this class ends in -ian (not
#-r-ian#), the preterit singular in -ode, the past participle in -od.
The preterit plural usually has #-edon#, however, instead of #-odon#:

  eard-ian,   eard-ode,   geeard-od,   _to dwell_ [eorðe].
  luf-ian,    luf-ode,    geluf-od,    _to love_ [lufu].
  rīcs-ian,   rīcs-ode,   gerīcs-od,   _to rule_ [rīce].
  sealf-ian,  sealf-ode,  gesealf-od,  _to anoint_ [salve].
  segl-ian,   segl-ode,   gesegl-od,   _to sail_ [segel].

  NOTE.--These verbs have no trace of original umlaut, since their
  -ian was once #-ōjan#. Hence, the vowel of the stem was shielded
  from the influence of the j (= i) by the interposition of ō.


#Conjugation of Class II.#

131. Paradigm of #lufian#, _to love_:

          #Indicative.#                     #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.                          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic lufie               _Sing._ 1. Ic     }
          2. ðu lufast                      2. ðū  } lufie
          3. hē lufað                       3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } lufiað                   2. gē  } lufien
          3. hīe }                          3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.                         PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic lufode              _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū lufodest                    2. ðū  } lufode
          3. hē lufode                      3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } lufedon (-odon)          2. gē  } lufeden (-oden)
          3. hīe }                          3. hīe }

          #Imperative.#    #Infinitive.#  #Present Participle.#

  _Sing._ 2. lufa          lufian         lufiende
  _Plur._ 1. lufian
          2. lufiað

                   #Gerund.#              #Past Participle.#

                   tō lufianne (-enne)    gelufod

  NOTE 1.--The -ie (-ien) occurring in the present must be
  pronounced as a dissyllable. The y-sound thus interposed between
  the i and e is frequently indicated by the letter g: #lufie#, or
  #lufige#; #lufien#, or #lufigen#. So also for ia: #lufiað#, or
  #lufigað#; #lufian#, or #lufig(e)an#.

  NOTE 2.--In the preterit singular, -ade, -ude, and -ede are not
  infrequent for -ode.


#Class III.#

132. The few verbs belonging here show a blending of Classes I and II.
Like certain verbs of Class I (§ 128), the preterit and past participle
are formed by adding -de and -d; like Class II, the 2d and 3d present
indicative singular end in -ast and -að, the imperative 2d singular in
-a:

  habb-an,  hæf-de,          gehæf-d,          _to have_.
  libb-an,  lif-de,          gelif-d,          _to live_.
  sęcg-an,  sǣd-e (sæg-de),  gesǣd (gesæg-d),  _to say_.


#Conjugation of Class III.#

133. Paradigms of #habban#, _to have_; #libban#, _to live_; #sęcgan#,
_to say_.

        #Indicative.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic hæbbe           libbe      sęcge
          2. ðū hæfst (hafast)  lifast     sægst (sagast)
          3. hē hæfð (hafað)    lifað      sægð (sagað)

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } habbað       libbað     sęcgað
          3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic hæfde           lifde      sǣde
          2. ðū hæfdest         lifdest    sǣdest
          3. hē hæfde           lifde      sǣde

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } hæfdon       lifdon     sǣdon
          3. hīe }

         #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } hæbbe        libbe      sęcge
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } hæbben       libben     sęcgen
          3. hīe }

          PRETERIT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } hæfde        lifde      sǣde
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } hæfden       lifden     sǣden
          3. hīe }

         #Imperative.#

  _Sing._ 2. hafa               lifa       saga
  _Plur._ 1. habban             libban     sęcgan
          2. habbað             libbað     sęcgað

  #Infinitive.#

             habban             libban     sęcgan

  #Gerund.#

  tō habbanne (-enne)    tō libbanne (-enne)    tō sęcganne (-enne)

  #Present Participle.#

             hæbbende           libbende   sęcgende

  #Past Participle.#

             gehæfd             gelifd     gesǣd



CHAPTER XXII.

REMAINING VERBS; VERB-PHRASES WITH #habban#, #bēon#, AND #weorðan#.


#Anomalous Verbs.# (See § 19.)

134. These are:

  bēon (wesan),  wæs,    wǣron,   ----,   _to be_.
  willan,        wolde,  woldon,  ----,   _to will, intend_.
  dōn,           dyde,   dydon,   gedōn,  _to do, cause_.
  gān,           ēode,   ēodon,   gegān,  _to go_.

  NOTE.--In the original Indo-Germanic language, the first person
  of the present indicative singular ended in (1) ō or (2) mi.
  _Cf._ Gk. λύ-ω, εἰ-μί, Lat. _am-ō_, _su-m_. The Strong and Weak
  Conjugations of O.E. are survivals of the ō-class. The four
  Anomalous Verbs mentioned above are the sole remains in O.E. of
  the mi-class. Note the surviving m in #eom# _I am_, and #dōm# _I
  do_ (Northumbrian form). These mi-verbs are sometimes called
  non-Thematic to distinguish them from the Thematic or ō-verbs.


#Conjugation of Anomalous Verbs.#

135. Only the present indicative and subjunctive are at all irregular:

         #Indicative.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic eom (bēom)     wille     dō      gā
          2. ðū eart (bist)    wilt      dēst    gǣst
          3. hē is (bið)       wille     dēð     gǣð

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } sind(on)    willað    dōð     gāð
          3. hīe }

         #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } sīe         wille     dō      gā
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } sīen        willen    dōn     gān
          3. hīe }

  NOTE.--The preterit subjunctive of #bēon# is formed, of course,
  not from #wæs#, but from #wǣron#. See § 103, (3).


#Preterit-Present Verbs.# (See § 19.)

136. These verbs are called Preterit-Present because the present tense
(indicative and subjunctive) of each of them is, in form, a strong
preterit, the old present having been displaced by the new. They all
have weak preterits. Most of the Mn.E. Auxiliary Verbs belong to this
class.

  witan,  { wiste, }  wiston,     gewiten,       _to know_
          { wisse, }                               [to wit, wot].
  āgan,     āhte,     āhton,      āgen (adj.),   _to possess_ [owe].
  cunnan,   cūðe,     cūðon,    { gecunnen,   }  _to know_, _can_
                                { cūð (adj.), }    [uncouth, cunning].
  durran,   dorste,   dorston,    ----           _to dare_.
  sculan,   sceolde,  sceoldon,   ----           _shall_.
  magan,  { meahte,   meahton, }  ----           _to be able_, _may_.
          { mihte,    mihton,  }
  mōtan,    mōste,    mōston,     ----           _may_, _must_.

  NOTE.--The change in meaning from preterit to present, with
  retention of the preterit form, is not uncommon in other
  languages. Several examples are found in Latin and Greek
  (cf. _nōvi_ and οἶδα, _I know_). Mn.E. has gone further still:
  #āhte# and #mōste#, which had already suffered the loss of their
  old preterits (#āh#, #mōt#), have been forced back again into the
  present (_ought_, _must_). Having exhausted, therefore, the only
  means of preterit formation known to Germanic, the strong and the
  weak, it is not likely that either _ought_ or _must_ will ever
  develop distinct preterit forms.


#Conjugation of Preterit-Present Verbs.#

137. The irregularities occur in the present indicative and subjunctive:

         #Indicative.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic wāt       āh    cǫn (can)
          2. ðū wāst      āhst  cǫnst (canst)
          3. hē wāt       āh    cǫn (can)

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } witon  āgon  cunnon
          3. hīe }

  _Sing._ 1. Ic dear    sceal   mæg    mōt
          2. ðū dearst  scealt  meaht  mōst
          3. hē dear    sceal   mæg    mōt

  _Plur._ 1. wē
          2. gē durron  sculon  magon  mōton
          3. hīe

         #Subjunctive.#

          PRESENT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } wite   āge   cunne
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } witen  āgen  cunnen
          3. hīe }

  _Sing._ 1. Ic  }
          2. ðū  } durre   scule (scyle)    mæge   mōte
          3. hē  }

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } durren  sculen (scylen)  mægen  mōten
          3. hīe }

  NOTE 1.--#Willan# and #sculan# do not often connote simple
  futurity in Early West Saxon, yet they were fast drifting that
  way. The Mn.E. use of _shall_ only with the 1st person and _will_
  only with the 2d and 3d, to express simple futurity, was wholly
  unknown even in Shakespeare’s day. The elaborate distinctions
  drawn between these words by modern grammarians are not only
  cumbersome and foreign to the genius of English, but equally
  lacking in psychological basis.

  NOTE 2.--#Sculan# originally implied the idea of (1) _duty_, or
  _compulsion_ (= _ought to_, or _must_), and this conception lurks
  with more or less prominence in almost every function of #sculan#
  in O.E.: #Dryhten bebēad Moyse hū hē sceolde beran ðā earce#, _The
  Lord instructed Moses how he ought to bear the ark_; #Ǣlc mann
  sceal be his andgietes mǣðe ... sprecan ðæt he spricð, and dōn ðæt
  ðæt hē dēð#, _Every man must, according to the measure of his
  intelligence, speak what he speaks, and do what he does_. Its next
  most frequent use is to express (2) _custom_, the transition from
  the obligatory to the customary being an easy one: #Sē byrdesta
  sceall gyldan fīftȳne mearðes fell#, _The man of highest rank pays
  fifteen marten skins_.

  NOTE 3.--#Willan# expressed originally (1) _pure volition_, and
  this is its most frequent use in O.E. It may occur without the
  infinitive: #Nylle ic ðæs synfullan dēað, ac ic wille ðæt hē
  gecyrre and lybbe#, _I do not desire the sinner’s death, but I
  desire that he return and live_. The wish being father to the
  intention, #willan# soon came to express (2) _purpose_: #Hē sǣde
  ðæt hē at sumum cirre wolde fandian hū longe ðæt land norðryhte
  lǣge#, _He said that he intended, at some time, to investigate how
  far that land extended northward_.


#Verb-Phrases with _habban_, _bēon_ (_wesan_), and _weorðan_.#

_Verb-Phrases in the Active Voice._

138. The present and preterit of #habban#, combined with a past
participle, are used in O.E., as in Mn.E., to form the present perfect
and past perfect tenses:

          PRESENT PERFECT.                  PAST PERFECT.

  _Sing._ 1. Ic hæbbe gedrifen      _Sing._ 1. Ic hæfde gedrifen
          2. ðū hæfst gedrifen              2. ðū hæfdest gedrifen
          3. hē hæfð gedrifen               3. hē hæfde gedrifen

          PRESENT PERFECT.                  PAST PERFECT.

  _Plur._ 1. wē  }                  _Plur._ 1. wē  }
          2. gē  } habbað gedrifen          2. gē  } hæfdon gedrifen
          3. hīe }                          3. hīe }

The past participle is not usually inflected to agree with the direct
object: #Norðymbre ǫnd Ēastęngle hæfdon Ælfrede cyninge āðas geseald#
(not #gesealde#, § 82), _The Northumbrians and East Anglians had given
king Alfred oaths_; #ǫnd hæfdon miclne dǣl ðāra horsa freten# (not
#fretenne#), _and (they) had devoured a large part of the horses_.

  NOTE.--Many sentences might be quoted in which the participle does
  agree with the direct object, but there seems to be no clear line
  of demarcation between them and the sentences just cited.
  Originally, the participle expressed a _resultant state_, and
  belonged in sense more to the object than to #habban#; but in
  Early West Saxon #habban# had already, in the majority of cases,
  become a pure auxiliary when used with the past participle. This
  is conclusively proved by the use of #habban# with intransitive
  verbs. In such a clause, therefore, as #oð ðæt hīe hine ofslægenne
  hæfdon#, there is no occasion to translate _until they had him
  slain_ (= _resultant state_); the agreement here is more probably
  due to the proximity of #ofslægenne# to #hine#. So also #ac hī
  hæfdon þā hiera stemn gesętenne#, _but they had already served
  out_ (_sat out_) _their military term_.


139. If the verb is intransitive, and denotes _a change of condition_,
_a departure or arrival_, #bēon# (#wesan#) usually replaces #habban#.
The past participle, in such cases, partakes of the nature of an
adjective, and generally agrees with the subject: #Mīne welan þe ic īo
hæfde syndon ealle gewitene ǫnd gedrorene#, _My possessions which I once
had are all departed and fallen away_; #wǣron þā męn uppe on lǫnde of
āgāne#, _the men had gone up ashore_; #ǫnd þā ōþre wǣron hungre
ācwolen#, _and the others had perished of hunger_; #ǫnd ēac sē micla
hęre wæs þā þǣr tō cumen#, _and also the large army had then arrived
there_.


140. A progressive present and preterit (not always, however, with
distinctively progressive meanings) are formed by combining a present
participle with the present and preterit of #bēon# (#wesan#). The
participle remains uninflected: #ǫnd hīe alle on ðone cyning wǣrun
feohtende#, _and they all were fighting against the king_; #Symle hē bið
lōciende, nē slǣpð hē nǣfre#, _He is always looking, nor does He ever
sleep_.

  NOTE.--In most sentences of this sort, the subject is masculine
  (singular or plural); hence no inference can be made as to
  agreement, since -e is the participial ending for both numbers of
  the nominative masculine (§ 82). By analogy, therefore, the other
  genders usually conform in inflection to the masculine: #wǣron þā
  ealle þā dēoflu clypigende ānre stefne#, _then were all the devils
  crying with one voice_.


_Verb-Phrases in the Passive Voice._

141. Passive constructions are formed by combining #bēon# (#wesan#) or
#weorðan# with a past participle. The participle agrees regularly with
the subject: #hīe wǣron benumene ǣgðer ge þæs cēapes ge þæs cornes#,
_they were deprived both of the cattle and the corn_; #hī bēoð āblęnde
mid ðǣm þīostrum heora scylda#, _they are blinded with the darkness of
their sins_; #and sē wælhrēowa Domiciānus on ðām ylcan gēare wearð
ācweald#, _and the murderous Domitian was killed in the same year_; #ǫnd
Æþelwulf aldormǫn wearð ofslægen#, _and Æthelwulf, alderman, was slain_.

  NOTE 1.--To express agency, Mn.E. employs _by_, rarely _of_; M.E.
  _of_, rarely _by_; O.E. #frǫm# (#fram#), rarely #of#: #Sē ðe Godes
  bebodu ne gecnǣwð, ne bið hē oncnāwen frǫm Gode#, _He who does not
  recognise God’s commands, will not be recognized by God_; #Betwux
  þǣm wearð ofslagen Ēadwine ... fram Brytta cyninge#, _Meanwhile,
  Edwin was slain by the king of the Britons_.

  NOTE 2.--O.E. had no progressive forms for the passive, and could
  not, therefore, distinguish between _He is being wounded_ and _He
  is wounded_. It was not until more than a hundred years after
  Shakespeare’s death that _being_ assumed this function. #Weorðan#,
  which originally denoted _a passage from one state to another_,
  was ultimately driven out by #bēon# (#wesan#), and survives now
  only in _Woe worth_ (= _be to_).


142. VOCABULARY.

  ðā Beormas, _Permians_.
  ðā Dęeniscan, _the Danish (men), Danes_.
  ðā Finnas, _Fins_.
  ðæt gewald, _control_ [#wealdan#].
  sēo sǣ, _sea_.
  sēo scīr, _shire, district_.
  sēo wælstōw, _battle-field_.
  āgan wælstōwe gewald, _to maintain possession of the battle-field_.
  sē wealdend, _ruler, wielder_.

  geflīeman,    geflīemde,    geflīemed,   _to put to flight_.
  gestaðelian,  gestaðelode,  gestaðelod,  _to establish, restore_.
  gewissian,    gewissode,    gewissod,    _to guide, direct_.
  wīcian,       wīcode,       gewīcod,     _to dwell_ [wīc = village].


143. EXERCISES.

I. 1. Ǫnd ðær wæs micel wæl geslægen on gehwæþre hǫnd, ǫnd Æþelwulf
ealdormǫn wearþ ofslægen; ǫnd þā Dęniscan āhton wælstōwe gewald. 2. Ǫnd
þæs ymb ānne mōnaþ gefeaht Ælfred cyning wiþ ealne þone hęre ond hine
geflīemde. 3. Hē sǣde þēah þæt þæt land sīe swīþe lang norþ þǫnan. 4. Þā
Beormas hæfdon swīþe wel gebūd (§ 126, Note 2) hiera land. 5. Ohthęre
sǣde þæt sēo scīr hātte (§ 117, Note 2) Hālgoland, þe hē on (§ 94, (5))
būde. 6. Þā Finnas wīcedon be þǣre sǣ. 7. Dryhten, ælmihtiga (§ 78,
Note) God, Wyrhta and Wealdend ealra gesceafta, ic bidde ðē for ðīnre
miclan mildheortnesse ðæt ðū mē gewissie tō ðīnum willan; and gestaðela
mīn mōd tō ðīnum willan and tō mīnre sāwle ðearfe. 8. Þā sceolde hē ðǣr
bīdan ryhtnorþanwindes, for ðǣm þæt land bēag þǣr sūðryhte, oþþe sēo sǣ
in on ðæt land, hē nysse hwæðer. 9. For ðȳ, mē ðyncð bętre, gif ēow swā
ðyncð, ðæt wē ēac ðās bēc on ðæt geðēode węnden ðe wē ealle gecnāwan
mægen.

II. 1. When the king heard that, he went (= then went he) westward with
his army to Ashdown. 2. Lovest thou me more than these? 3. The men said
that the shire which they lived in was called Halgoland. 4. All things
were made (#wyrcan#) by God. 5. They were fighting for two days with
(= against) the Danes. 6. King Alfred fought with the Danes, and gained
the victory; but the Danes retained possession of the battle-field.
7. These men dwelt in England before they came hither. 8. I have not
seen the book of (#ymbe#) which you speak (#sprecan#).



PART III.


SELECTIONS FOR READING.



PROSE.

INTRODUCTORY.


I. #The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.#

This famous work, a series of progressive annals by unknown hands,
embraces a period extending from Cæsar’s invasion of England to 1154. It
is not known when or where these annals began to be recorded in
English.

“The annals from the year 866--that of Ethelred’s ascent of the
throne--to the year 887 seem to be the work of one mind. Not a single
year is passed over, and to several is granted considerable space,
especially to the years 871, 878, and 885. The whole has gained a
certain roundness and fulness, because the events--nearly all of them
episodes in the ever-recurring conflict with the Danes--are taken in
their connection, and the thread dropped in one year is resumed in the
next. Not only is the style in itself concise; it has a sort of nervous
severity and pithy rigor. The construction is often antiquated, and
suggests at times the freedom of poetry; though this purely historical
prose is far removed from poetry in profusion of language.” (Ten Brink,
_Early Eng. Lit._, I.)


II. #The Translations of Alfred.#

Alfred’s reign (871-901) may be divided into four periods. The _first_,
the period of Danish invasion, extends from 871 to 881; the _second_,
the period of comparative quiet, from 881 to 893; the _third_, the
period of renewed strife (beginning with the incursions of Hasting),
from 893 to 897; the _fourth_, the period of peace, from 897 to 901. His
literary work probably falls in the second period.[A]

The works translated by Alfred from Latin into the vernacular were
(1) _Consolation of Philosophy_ (_De Consolatione Philosophiae_) by
Boëthius (475-525), (2) _Compendious History of the World_ (_Historiarum
Libri VII_) by Orosius (c. 418), (3) _Ecclesiastical History of the
English_ (_Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum_) by Bede (672-735),
and (4) _Pastoral Care_ (_De Cura Pastorali_) by Pope Gregory the Great
(540-604).

  The chronological sequence of these works is wholly unknown. That
  given is supported by Turner, Arend, Morley, Grein, and Pauli.
  Wülker argues for an exact reversal of this order. According to
  Ten Brink, the order was more probably (1) _Orosius_, (2) _Bede_,
  (3) _Boëthius_, and (4) _Pastoral Care_. The most recent
  contribution to the subject is from Wülfing, who contends for
  (1) _Bede_, (2) _Orosius_, (3) _Pastoral Care_, and (4) _Boëthius_.

    [Footnote A: There is something inexpressibly touching in this
    clause from the great king’s pen: gif wē ðā stilnesse habbað. He
    is speaking of how much he hopes to do, by his translations, for
    the enlightenment of his people.]


I. THE BATTLE OF ASHDOWN.

  [From the _Chronicle_, Parker MS. The event and date are
  significant. The Danes had for the first time invaded Wessex.
  Alfred’s older brother, Ethelred, was king; but to Alfred belongs
  the glory of the victory at Ashdown (Berkshire). Asser (_Life of
  Alfred_) tells us that for a long time Ethelred remained praying
  in his tent, while Alfred and his followers went forth “like a
  wild boar against the hounds.”]

[[page 99]]

   1   871. Hēr cuōm[1] sē hęre tō Rēadingum on Westseaxe,
   2 ǫnd þæs ymb iii niht ridon ii eorlas ūp. Þa gemētte hīe

[[page 100]]

   1 Æþelwulf aldorman[2] on Ęnglafelda, ǫnd him þǣr wiþ gefeaht,
   2 ǫnd sige nam. Þæs ymb iiii niht Æþered cyning
   3 ǫnd Ælfred his brōþur[3] þǣr micle fierd tō Rēadingum
   4 gelǣddon, ǫnd wiþ þone hęre gefuhton; ǫnd þǣr wæs
   5 micel wæl geslægen on gehwæþre hǫnd, ǫnd Æþelwulf
   6 aldormǫn wearþ ofslægen; ǫnd þa Dęniscan āhton wælstōwe
   7 gewald.

   8   Ǫnd þæs ymb iiii niht gefeaht Æþered cyning ǫnd
   9 Ælfred his brōþur wiþ alne[4] þone hęre on Æscesdūne.
  10 Ǫnd hīe wǣrun[5] on twǣm gefylcum: on ōþrum wæs
  11 Bāchsęcg ǫnd Halfdęne þā hǣþnan cyningas, ǫnd on
  12 ōþrum wǣron þā eorlas. Ǫnd þā gefeaht sē cyning
  13 Æþered wiþ þāra cyninga getruman, ǫnd þǣr wearþ sē
  14 cyning Bāgsęcg ofslægen; ǫnd Ælfred his brōþur wiþ
  15 þāra eorla getruman, ǫnd þǣr wearþ Sidroc eorl ofslægen
  16 sē alda,[6] ǫnd Sidroc eorl sē gioncga,[7] ǫnd Ōsbearn eorl,
  17 ǫnd Frǣna eorl, ǫnd Hareld eorl; ǫnd þā hęrgas[8] bēgen
  18 geflīemde, ǫnd fela þūsenda ofslægenra, ǫnd onfeohtende
  19 wǣron oþ niht.

  20   Ǫnd þæs ymb xiiii niht gefeaht Æþered cyning ǫnd
  21 Ælfred his brōður wiþ þone hęre æt Basengum, ǫnd þǣr
  22 þa Dęniscan sige nāmon.

  23   Ǫnd þæs ymb ii mōnaþ gefeaht Æþered cyning ǫnd
  24 Ælfred his brōþur wiþ þone hęre æt Męretūne, ǫnd hīe
  25 wǣrun on tuǣm[9] gefylcium, ǫnd hīe būtū geflīemdon, ǫnd
  26 lǫnge on dæg sige āhton; ǫnd þǣr wearþ micel wælsliht
  27 on gehwæþere hǫnd; ǫnd þā Dęniscan āhton wælstōwe

[[page 101]]

   1 gewald; ǫnd þær wearþ Hēahmund bisceop ofslægen,
   2 ǫnd fela gōdra mǫnna. Ǫnd æfter þissum gefeohte cuōm[1]
   3 micel sumorlida.

   4   Ǫnd þæs ofer Ēastron gefōr Æþered cyning; ǫnd hē
   5 rīcsode v gēar; ǫnd his līc līþ æt Wīnburnan.

   6   Þā fēng Ælfred Æþelwulfing his brōþur tō Wesseaxna
   7 rīce. Ǫnd þæs ymb ānne mōnaþ gefeaht Ælfred cyning
   8 wiþ alne[4] þone hęre lȳtle werede[10] æt Wiltūne, ǫnd hine
   9 lǫnge on dæg geflīemde, ǫnd þā Dęniscan āhton wælstōwe
  10 gewald.

  11   Ǫnd þæs gēares wurdon viiii folcgefeoht gefohten wiþ
  12 þone hęre on þȳ cynerīce be sūþan Tęmese, būtan þām þe
  13 him Ælfred þæs cyninges brōþur ǫnd ānlīpig aldormǫn[2] ǫnd
  14 cyninges þegnas oft rāde onridon þe mǫn nā ne rīmde;
  15 ǫnd þæs gēares wǣrun[5] ofslægene viiii eorlas ǫnd ān cyning.
  16 Ǫnd þȳ gēare nāmon Westseaxe friþ wiþ þone hęre.

CONSULT GLOSSARY AND PARADIGMS UNDER FORMS GIVEN BELOW.

No note is made of such variants as y (ȳ) or i (ī) for ie (īe). See
Glossary under ie (īe); occurrences, also, of #and# for #ǫnd#, #land#
for #lǫnd#, are found on almost every page of Early West Saxon. Such
words should be sought for under the more common forms, #ǫnd#, #lǫnd#.

    [1] = cwōm.
    [2] = ealdormǫn.
    [3] = brōþor.
    [4] = ealne.
    [5] = wǣron.
    [6] = ealda.
    [7] = geonga.
    [8] = hęras.
    [9] = twǣm.
    [10] = werode.

    [Linenotes:

    100.8. #gefeaht#. Notice that the singular is used. This is the
    more common construction in O.E. when a compound subject,
    composed of singular members, follows its predicate. Cf. _For
    thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory_. See also
    p. 107, note on #wæs#.]  [[Linenote 107.14-15]]

    100.18. #ǫnd fela þūsenda ofslægenra#, _and there were many
    thousands of slain_ (§ 91).

    101.12: #būtan þām þe#, etc., _besides which, Alfred ... made
    raids against them_ (#him#), _which were not counted_. See § 70,
    Note.]


II. A PRAYER OF KING ALFRED.

  [With this characteristic prayer, Alfred concludes his translation
  of Boëthius’s _Consolation of Philosophy_. Unfortunately, the only
  extant MS. (Bodleian 180) is Late West Saxon. I follow, therefore,
  Prof. A. S. Cook’s normalization on an Early West Saxon basis. See
  Cook’s _First Book in Old English_, p. 163.]

[[page 102]]

   1   Dryhten, ælmihtiga God, Wyrhta and Wealdend ealra
   2 gesceafta, ic bidde ðē for ðīnre miclan mildheortnesse,
   3 and for ðǣre hālgan rōde tācne, and for Sanctæ Marian
   4 mægðhāde, and for Sancti Michaeles gehīersumnesse, and
   5 for ealra ðīnra hālgena lufan and hīera earnungum, ðæt
   6 ðū mē gewissie bęt ðonne ic āworhte tō ðē; and gewissa
   7 mē tō ðīnum willan, and tō mīnre sāwle ðearfe, bęt ðonne
   8 ic self cunne; and gestaðela mīn mōd tō ðinum willan and
   9 tō mīnre sāwle ðearfe; and gestranga mē wið ðæs dēofles
  10 costnungum; and āfierr fram mē ðā fūlan gālnesse and
  11 ǣlce unrihtwīsnesse; and gescield mē wið mīnum wiðerwinnum,
  12 gesewenlīcum and ungesewenlīcum; and tǣc mē
  13 ðīnne willan tō wyrceanne; ðæt ic mæge ðē inweardlīce
  14 lufian tōforan eallum ðingum, mid clǣnum geðance and
  15 mid clǣnum līchaman. For ðon ðe ðū eart mīn Scieppend,
  16 and mīn Alīesend, mīn Fultum, mīn Frōfor, mīn Trēownes,
  17 and mīn Tōhopa. Sīe ðē lof and wuldor nū and
  18 ā ā ā, tō worulde būtan ǣghwilcum ęnde. Amen.

    [Linenotes:

    3-4: #Marian ... Michaeles#. O.E. is inconsistent in the
    treatment of foreign names. They are sometimes naturalized, and
    sometimes retain in part their original inflections. #Marian#,
    an original accusative, is here used as a genitive; while
    #Michaeles# has the O.E. genitive ending.

    17: #Sīe ðē lof#. See § 105, 1.]


III. THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN.

  [Lauderdale and Cottonian MSS. These voyages are an original
  insertion by Alfred into his translation of Orosius’s _Compendious
  History of the World_.

  “They consist,” says Ten Brink, “of a complete description of all
  the countries in which the Teutonic tongue prevailed at Alfred’s
  time, and a full narrative of the travels of two voyagers, which
  the king wrote down from their own lips. One of these, a Norwegian
  named Ohthere, had quite circumnavigated the coast of Scandinavia
  in his travels, and had even penetrated to the White Sea; the
  other, named Wulfstan, had sailed from Schleswig to Frische Haff.
  The geographical and ethnographical details of both accounts are
  exceedingly interesting, and their style is attractive, clear, and
  concrete.”

  Ohthere made two voyages. Sailing first northward along the
  western coast of Norway, he rounded the North Cape, passed into
  the White Sea, and entered the Dwina River (#ān micel ēa#). On his
  second voyage he sailed southward along the western coast of
  Norway, entered the Skager Rack (#wīdsǣ#), passed through the
  Cattegat, and anchored at the Danish port of Haddeby (#æt Hǣþum#),
  modern Schleswig.

  Wulfstan sailed only in the Baltic Sea. His voyage of seven days
  from Schleswig brought him to Drausen (#Trūsō#) on the shore of
  the Drausensea.]


[[page 103]]

#Ohthere’s First Voyage.#

   1   Ōthęre sǣde his hlāforde, Ælfrede cyninge, þæt hē
   2 ealra Norðmǫnna norþmest būde. Hē cwæð þæt hē būde
   3 on þǣm lande norþweardum wiþ þā Westsæ. Hē sǣde
   4 þēah þæt þæt land sīe swīþe lang norþ þonan; ac hit is
   5 eal wēste, būton on fēawum stōwum styccemælum wīciað
   6 Finnas, on huntoðe on wintra, ǫnd on sumera on fiscaþe
   7 be þǣre sǣ. Hē sǣde þæt hē æt sumum cirre wolde
   8 fandian hū lǫnge þæt land norþryhte lǣge, oþþe hwæðer
   9 ǣnig mǫn be norðan þǣm wēstenne būde. Þā fōr hē
  10 norþryhte be þǣm lande: lēt him ealne weg þæt wēste
  11 land on ðæt stēorbord, ǫnd þā wīdsǣ on ðæt bæcbord þrīe
  12 dagas. Þā wæs hē swā feor norþ swā þā hwælhuntan
  13 firrest faraþ. Þā fōr hē þā gīet norþryhte swā feor swā
  14 hē meahte on þǣm ōþrum þrīm dagum gesiglan. Þā bēag
  15 þæt land þǣr ēastryhte, oþþe sēo sǣ in on ðæt lǫnd, hē
  16 nysse hwæðer, būton hē wisse ðæt hē ðǣr bād westanwindes
  17 ǫnd hwōn norþan, ǫnd siglde ðā ēast be lande
  18 swā swā hē meahte on fēower dagum gesiglan. Þā
  19 sceolde hē ðǣr bīdan ryhtnorþanwindes, for ðǣm þæt
  20 land bēag þǣr sūþryhte, oþþe sēo sǣ in on ðæt land, hē
  21 nysse hwæþer. Þā siglde hē þǫnan sūðryhte be lande

[[page 104]]

   1 swā swā hē męhte[1] on fīf dagum gesiglan. Ðā læg þǣr
   2 ān micel ēa ūp in on þæt land. Þā cirdon hīe ūp in on
   3 ðā ēa, for þǣm hīe ne dorston forþ bī þǣre ēa siglan for
   4 unfriþe; for þǣm ðæt land wæs eall gebūn on ōþre healfe
   5 þǣre ēas. Ne mētte hē ǣr nān gebūn land, siþþan hē
   6 frǫm his āgnum hām fōr; ac him wæs ealne weg wēste
   7 land on þæt stēorbord, būtan fiscerum ǫnd fugelerum ōnd
   8 huntum, ǫnd þæt wǣron eall Finnas; ǫnd him wæs ā
   9 wīdsǣ on ðæt bæcbord. Þā Beormas hæfdon swīþe wel
  10 gebūd hira land: ac hīe ne dorston þǣr on cuman. Ac
  11 þāra Terfinna land wæs eal wēste, būton ðǣr huntan
  12 gewīcodon, oþþe fisceras, oþþe fugeleras.

    [1] = meahte, mihte.

    [Linenotes:

    104.6: #frǫm his āgnum hām#. An adverbial dative singular
    without an inflectional ending is found with #hām#, #dæg#,
    #morgen#, and #ǣfen#.

    104.8: #ǫnd þæt wǣron#. See § 40, Note 3.]

  13   Fela spella him sǣdon þā Beormas ǣgþer ge of hiera
  14 āgnum lande ge of þǣm landum þe ymb hīe ūtan wǣron;
  15 ac hē nyste hwæt þæs sōþes wæs, for þǣm hē hit self ne
  16 geseah. Þā Finnas, him þūhte, ǫnd þā Beormas sprǣcon
  17 nēah ān geþēode. Swīþost hē fōr ðider, tō ēacan þæs
  18 landes scēawunge, for þǣm horshwælum, for ðǣm hīe
  19 habbað swīþe æþele bān on hiora[2] tōþum--þā tēð hīe brōhton
  20 sume þǣm cyninge--ǫnd hiora hȳd bið swīðe gōd tō
  21 sciprāpum. Sē hwæl bið micle lǣssa þonne ōðre hwalas:
  22 ne bið hē lęngra ðonne syfan[3] ęlna lang; ac on his āgnum
  23 lande is sē bętsta hwælhuntað: þā bēoð eahta and fēowertiges
  24 ęlna lange, and þā mǣstan fīftiges ęlna lange;
  25 þāra hē sǣde þæt hē syxa sum ofslōge syxtig on twām
  26 dagum.

    [2] = hiera.
    [3] = seofon.

    [Linenotes:

    104.15: #hwæt þæs sōþes wæs#. Sweet errs in explaining #sōþes#
    as attracted into the genitive by #þæs#. It is not a predicate
    adjective, but a partitive genitive after #hwæt#.

    104.25: #syxa sum#. See § 91, Note 2.]

[[page 105]]

   1   Hē wæs swȳðe spēdig man on þǣm ǣhtum þe heora[2]
   2 spēda on bēoð, þæt is, on wildrum. Hē hæfde þā gȳt, ðā
   3 hē þone cyningc[5] sōhte, tamra dēora unbebohtra syx hund.
   4 Þā dēor hī hātað ‘hrānas’; þāra wǣron syx stælhrānas;
   5 ðā bēoð swȳðe dȳre mid Finnum, for ðǣm hȳ fōð þā
   6 wildan hrānas mid. Hē wæs mid þǣm fyrstum mannum
   7 on þǣm lande: næfde hē þēah mā ðonne twēntig hrȳðera,
   8 and twēntig scēapa, and twēntig swȳna; and þæt lȳtle
   9 þæt hē ęrede, hē ęrede mid horsan.[4] Ac hyra ār is mǣst
  10 on þǣm gafole þe ðā Finnas him gyldað. Þæt gafol bið
  11 on dēora fellum, and on fugela feðerum, and hwales bāne,
  12 and on þǣm sciprāpum þe bēoð of hwæles hȳde geworht
  13 and of sēoles. Ǣghwilc gylt be hys gebyrdum. Sē byrdesta
  14 sceall gyldan fīftȳne mearðes fell, and fīf hrānes,
  15 and ān beren fel, and tȳn ambra feðra, and berenne kyrtel
  16 oððe yterenne, and twēgen sciprāpas; ǣgþer sȳ syxtig
  17 ęlna lang, ōþer sȳ of hwæles hȳde geworht, ōþer of sīoles.[6]

    [2] = hiera.
    [4] = horsum.
    [5] = cyning.
    [6] = sēoles.

    [Linenote:

    105.2: #on bēoð#. See § 94, (5).]

  18   Hē sǣde ðæt Norðmanna land wǣre swȳþe lang and
  19 swȳðe smæl. Eal þæt his man āðer oððe ęttan oððe ęrian
  20 mæg, þæt līð wið ðā sǣ; and þæt is þēah on sumum
  21 stōwum swȳðe clūdig; and licgað wilde mōras wið ēastan
  22 and wið ūpp on emnlange þǣm bȳnum lande. On þǣm
  23 mōrum eardiað Finnas. And þæt bȳne land is ēasteweard
  24 brādost, and symle swā norðor swā smælre. Ēastewęrd[7]
  25 hit mæg bīon[8] syxtig mīla brād, oþþe hwēne brǣdre;
  26 and middeweard þrītig oððe brādre; and norðeweard hē
  27 cwæð, þǣr hit smalost wǣre, þæt hit mihte bēon þrēora
  28 mīla brād tō þǣm mōre; and sē mōr syðþan,[9] on sumum

[[page 106]]

   1 stōwum, swā brād swā man mæg on twām wucum oferfēran;
   2 and on sumum stōwum swā brād swā man mæg
   3 on syx dagum oferfēran.

    [7] = -weard.
    [8] = bēon.
    [9] = siððan.

    [Linenote:

    105.19: #Eal þæt his man#. Pronominal genitives are not always
    possessive in O.E.; #his# is here the partitive genitive of
    #hit#, the succeeding relative pronoun being omitted: _All that
    (portion) of it that may, either-of-the-two, either be grazed or
    plowed_, etc. (§ 70, Note).]

   4   Ðonne is tōemnes þǣm lande sūðeweardum, on ōðre
   5 healfe þæs mōres, Swēoland, oþ þæt land norðeweard;
   6 and tōemnes þǣm lande norðeweardum, Cwēna land. Þā
   7 Cwēnas hęrgiað hwīlum on ðā Norðmęn ofer ðone mōr,
   8 hwīlum þā Norðmęn on hȳ. And þǣr sint swīðe micle
   9 męras fersce geond þā mōras; and berað þā Cwēnas hyra
  10 scypu ofer land on ðā męras, and þanon hęrgiað on ðā
  11 Norðmęn; hȳ habbað swȳðe lȳtle scypa and swȳðe
  12 leohte.

    [Linenote:

    106.11-12: #scypa ... leohte#. These words exhibit inflections
    more frequent in Late than in Early West Saxon. The normal forms
    would be #scypu#, #leoht#; but in Late West Saxon the -u of
    short-stemmed neuters is generally replaced by -a; and the
    nominative accusative plural neuter of adjectives takes, by
    analogy, the masculine endings; #hwate#, #gōde#, #hālge#,
    instead of #hwatu#, #gōd#, #hālgu#.]


#Ohthere’s Second Voyage.#

  13   Ōhthęre sǣde þæt sīo[1] scīr hātte Hālgoland, þe hē on
  14 būde. Hē cwæð þæt nān man ne būde be norðan him.
  15 Þonne is ān port on sūðeweardum þǣm lande, þone man
  16 hǣt Sciringeshēal. Þyder hē cwæð þæt man ne mihte
  17 geseglian on ānum mōnðe, gyf man on niht wīcode, and
  18 ǣlce dæge hæfde ambyrne wind; and ealle ðā hwīle hē
  19 sceal seglian be lande. And on þæt stēorbord him bið
  20 ǣrest Īraland, and þonne ðā īgland þe synd betux Īralande
  21 and þissum lande. Þonne is þis land, oð hē cymð
  22 tō Scirincgeshēale, and ealne weg on þæt bæcbord Norðweg.

[[page 107]]

   1 Wið sūðan þone Sciringeshēal fylð swȳðe mycel
   2 sǣ ūp in on ðæt land; sēo is brādre þonne ǣnig man ofer
   3 sēon mæge. And is Gotland on ōðre healfe ongēan, and
   4 siððan Sillęnde. Sēo sǣ līð mænig[2] hund mīla ūp in on
   5 þæt land.

    [1] = sēo.
    [2] = mǫnig.

   6   And of Sciringeshēale hē cwæð ðæt hē seglode on fīf
   7 dagan[3] tō þǣm porte þe mǫn hǣt æt Hǣþum; sē stęnt
   8 betuh Winedum, and Seaxum, and Angle, and hȳrð in
   9 on Dęne. Ðā hē þiderweard seglode fram Sciringeshēale,
  10 þā wæs him on þæt bæcbord Dęnamearc and on
  11 þæt stēorbord wīdsǣ þrȳ dagas; and þā, twēgen dagas ǣr
  12 hē tō Hǣþum cōme, him wæs on þæt stēorbord Gotland,
  13 and Sillęnde, and īglanda fela. On þǣm landum eardodon
  14 Ęngle, ǣr hī hider on land cōman.[4] And hym wæs
  15 ðā twēgen dagas on ðæt bæcbord þā īgland þe in on
  16 Dęnemearce hȳrað.

    [3] = dagum.
    [4] = cōmen.

    [Linenotes:

    107.7: #æt Hǣþum#. “This pleonastic use of _æt_ with names of
    places occurs elsewhere in the older writings, as in the
    Chronicle (552), ‘in þǣre stōwe þe is genęmned æt Searobyrg,’
    where the _æt_ has been erased by some later hand, showing that
    the idiom had become obsolete. _Cp._ the German ‘Gasthaus zur
    Krone,’ Stamboul = _es tān pólin_.” (Sweet.) See, also,
    _Atterbury_, § 28, Note 3.

    107.14-15: #wæs ... þā īgland#. The singular predicate is due
    again to inversion (p. 100, note on #gefeaht# [[linenote
    100.8]]). The construction is comparatively rare in O.E., but
    frequent in Shakespeare and in the popular speech of to-day. Cf.
    _There is_, _Here is_, _There has been_, etc., with a (single)
    plural subject following.]


#Wulfstan’s Voyage.#

  17   Wulfstān sǣde þæt hē gefōre of Hǣðum, þæt hē wǣre
  18 on Trūsō on syfan dagum and nihtum, þæt þæt scip wæs
  19 ealne weg yrnende under segle. Weonoðland him wæs

[[page 108]]

   1 on stēorbord, and on bæcbord him wæs Langaland, and
   2 Lǣland, and Falster, and Scōnēg; and þās land eall
   3 hȳrað tō Dęnemearcan. And þonne Burgenda land wæs
   4 ūs on bæcbord, and þā habbað him sylfe[1] cyning. Þonne
   5 æfter Burgenda lande wǣron ūs þās land, þā synd hātene
   6 ǣrest Blēcinga-ēg, and Mēore, and Ēowland, and Gotland
   7 on bæcbord; and þās land hȳrað tō Swēom. And Weonodland
   8 wæs ūs ealne weg on stēorbord oð Wīslemūðan.
   9 Sēo Wīsle is swȳðe mycel ēa, and hīo[2] tōlīð Wītland and
  10 Weonodland; and þæt Wītland belimpeð tō Estum; and
  11 sēo Wīsle līð ūt of Weonodlande, and līð in Estmęre;
  12 and sē Estmęre is hūru fīftēne[3] mīla brād. Þonne cymeð
  13 Ilfing ēastan in Estmęre of ðām męre, ðe Trūsō standeð
  14 in stæðe; and cumað ūt samod in Estmęre, Ilfing ēastan
  15 of Estlande, and Wīsle sūðan of Winodlande. And
  16 þonne benimð Wīsle Ilfing hire naman, and ligeð of þǣm
  17 męre west and norð on sǣ; for ðȳ hit man hǣt
  18 Wīslemūða.

    [1] = selfe.
    [2] = hēo.
    [3] = fīftīene.

    [Linenote:

    108.1-4: #him ... ūs#. Note the characteristic change of person,
    the transition from _indirect_ to _direct discourse_.]

  19   Þæt Estland is swȳðe mycel, and þǣr bið swȳðe manig
  20 burh, and on ǣlcere byrig bið cyning. And þǣr bið
  21 swȳðe mycel hunig, and fiscnað; and sē cyning and þā
  22 rīcostan męn drincað mȳran meolc, and þā unspēdigan
  23 and þā þēowan drincað medo.[4] Þǣr bið swȳðe mycel
  24 gewinn betwēonan him. And ne bið ðǣr nǣnig ealo[5]
  25 gebrowen mid Estum, ac þǣr bið medo genōh. And þǣr
  26 is mid Estum ðēaw, þonne þǣr bið man dēad, þæt hē līð
  27 inne unforbærned mid his māgum and frēondum mōnað,
  28 ge hwīlum twēgen; and þā cyningas, and þā ōðre hēahðungene
  29 męn, swā micle lęncg[6] swā hī māran spēda
  30 habbað, hwīlum healf gēar þæt hī bēoð unforbærned, and

[[page 109]]

   1 licgað bufan eorðan on hyra hūsum. And ealle þā hwīle
   2 þe þæt līc bið inne, þǣr sceal bēon gedrync and plega,
   3 oð ðone dæg þe hī hine forbærnað. Þonne þȳ ylcan dæge
   4 þe hī hine tō pǣm āde beran wyllað, þonne tōdǣlað hī
   5 his feoh, þæt þǣr tō lāfe bið æfter þǣm gedrynce and þǣm
   6 plegan, on fīf oððe syx, hwȳlum on mā, swā swā þæs fēos
   7 andēfn bið. Ālęcgað hit ðonne forhwæga on ānre mīle
   8 þone mǣstan dǣl fram þǣm tūne, þonne ōðerne, ðonne
   9 þone þriddan, oþ þe hyt eall ālēd bið on þǣre ānre mīle;
  10 and sceall bēon sē lǣsta dǣl nȳhst þǣm tūne ðe sē dēada
  11 man on lið. Ðonne sceolon[7] bēon gesamnode ealle ðā
  12 męnn ðe swyftoste hors habbað on þǣm lande, forhwæga
  13 on fīf mīlum oððe on syx mīlum fram þǣm fēo. Þonne
  14 ærnað hȳ ealle tōweard þǣm fēo: ðonne cymeð sē man
  15 sē þæt swiftoste hors hafað tō þǣm ǣrestan dǣle and tō
  16 þǣm mǣstan, and swā ǣlc æfter ōðrum, oþ hit bið eall
  17 genumen; and sē nimð þone lǣstan dǣl sē nȳhst þǣm
  18 tūne þæt feoh geærneð. And þonne rīdeð ǣlc hys weges
  19 mid ðǣm fēo, and hyt mōtan[8] habban eall; and for ðȳ
  20 þǣr bēoð þā swiftan hors ungefōge dȳre. And þonne his
  21 gestrēon bēoð þus eall āspęnded, þonne byrð man hine ūt,
  22 and forbærneð mid his wǣpnum and hrægle; and swīðost

[[page 110]]

   1 ealle hys spēda hȳ forspęndað mid þǣm langan legere
   2 þæs dēadan mannes inne, and þæs þe hȳ be þǣm wegum
   3 ālęcgað, þe ðā fręmdan tō ærnað, and nimað. And þæt
   4 is mid Estum þēaw þæt þǣr sceal ǣlces geðēodes man
   5 bēon forbærned; and gyf þār[9] man ān bān findeð unforbærned,
   6 hī hit sceolan[7] miclum gebētan. And þǣr is mid
   7 Estum ān mǣgð þæt hī magon cyle gewyrcan; and þȳ
   8 þǣr licgað þā dēadan męn swā lange, and ne fūliað, þæt
   9 hȳ wyrcað þone cyle him on. And þēah man āsętte
  10 twēgen fǣtels full ealað oððe wæteres, hȳ gedōð þæt
  11 ǣgþer bið oferfroren, sam hit sȳ sumor sam winter.

    [4] = medu.
    [5] = ealu.
    [6] = lęng.
    [7] = sculon.
    [8] = mōton.
    [9] = ðǣr.

    [Linenotes:

    109.2: #sceal#. See § 137, Note 2 (2).

    109.7: #Ālęcgað hit#. Bosworth illustrates thus:

    vi    v     iv   iii    ii    i      1     2    3    4   5   6
    |     |     |     |     |     |      X
    |     |     |     |     |     |      XX    X    X
    |     |     |     |     |     |      XXX   XX   XX   X   X
    -------------------------------      XXXX  XXX  XXX  XX  XX  X
    _e_  _d_                             _c_   _b_              _a_
    Where the horsemen                 The six parts of the property
      assemble.                          placed within one mile.

    “The horsemen assemble five or six miles from the property, at
    _d_ or _e_, and run towards _c_; the man who has the swiftest
    horse, coming first to 1 or _c_, takes the first and largest
    part. The man who has the horse coming second takes part 2 or
    _b_, and so, in succession, till the least part, 6 or _a_, is
    taken.”

    110.5-6: #man ... hī#. Here the plural #hī# refers to the
    singular #man#. _Cf._ p. 109, ll. 18-19, #ǣlc ... mōtan#. In
    _Exodus_ xxxii, 24, we find “_Whosoever_ hath any gold, let
    _them_ break it off”; and Addison writes, “I do not mean that I
    think _anyone_ to blame for taking due care of _their_ health.”
    The construction, though outlawed now, has been common in all
    periods of our language. Paul remarks (_Prinzipien der
    Sprachgeschichte_, 3d ed., § 186) that “When a word is used as
    an indefinite [one, man, somebody, etc.] it is, strictly
    speaking, incapable of any distinction of number. Since,
    however, in respect of the external form, a particular number
    has to be chosen, it is a matter of indifference which this
    is.... Hence a change of numbers is common in the different
    languages.” Paul fails to observe that the change is always from
    singular to plural, not from plural to singular. See _Note on
    the Concord of Collectives and Indefinites_ (Anglia XI, 1901).
    See p. 119, note on ll. 19-21.]


IV. THE STORY OF CÆDMON.

  [From the so-called Alfredian version of Bede’s _Ecclesiastical
  History_. The text generally followed is that of MS. Bodley,
  Tanner 10. Miller (_Early English Text Society_, No. 95,
  _Introd._) argues, chiefly from the use of the prepositions, that
  the original O.E. MS. was Mercian, composed possibly in Lichfield
  (Staffordshire). At any rate, O.E. idiom is frequently sacrificed
  to the Latin original.

  “Cædmon, as he is called, is the first Englishman whose name we
  know who wrote poetry in our island of England; and the first to
  embody in verse the new passions and ideas which Christianity had
  brought into England.... Undisturbed by any previous making of
  lighter poetry, he came fresh to the work of Christianising
  English song. It was a great step to make. He built the chariot in
  which all the new religious emotions of England could now drive
  along.” (Brooke, _The History of Early English Literature_,
  cap. XV.) There is no reason to doubt the historical existence of
  Cædmon; for Bede, who relates the story, lived near Whitby, and
  was seven years old when Cædmon died (A.D. 680)].

[[page 111]]

   1   In ðysse abbudissan mynstre wæs sum brōðor syndriglīce
   2 mid godcundre gife gemǣred ǫnd geweorðad, for þon
   3 he gewunade gerisenlīce lēoð wyrcan, þā ðe tō ǣfęstnisse[1]
   4 ǫnd tō ārfæstnisse belumpon; swā ðætte swā hwæt swā
   5 hē of godcundum stafum þurh bōceras geleornode, þæt hē
   6 æfter medmiclum fæce in scopgereorde mid þā mǣstan
   7 swētnisse ǫnd inbryrdnisse geglęngde, ǫnd in Ęngliscgereorde
   8 wel geworht forþ brōhte. Ǫnd for his lēoþsǫngum

[[page 112]]

   1 mǫnigra mǫnna mōd oft to worulde forhogdnisse ǫnd tō
   2 geþēodnisse þæs heofonlīcan līfes onbærnde wǣron. Ǫnd
   3 ēac swelce[2] mǫnige ōðre æfter him in Ǫngelþēode ongunnon
   4 ǣfęste lēoð wyrcan, ac nǣnig hwæðre him þæt gelīce
   5 dōn ne meahte; for þon hē nālæs frǫm mǫnnum nē ðurh
   6 mǫn gelǣred wæs þæt hē ðone lēoðcræft leornade, ac hē
   7 wæs godcundlīce gefultumod, ǫnd þurh Godes gife þone
   8 sǫngcræft onfēng; ǫnd hē for ðon nǣfre nōht lēasunge,
   9 nē īdles lēoþes wyrcan ne meahte, ac efne þā ān ðā ðē tō
  10 ǣfęstnisse[1] belumpon ǫnd his þā ǣfęstan tungan gedafenode
  11 singan.

    [1] = ǣfæstnesse.
    [2] = swilce.

    [Linenotes:

    111.1: #ðysse abbudissan.# The abbess referred to is the famous
    Hild, or Hilda, then living in the monastery at Streones-halh,
    which, according to Bede, means “Bay of the Beacon.” The Danes
    afterward gave it the name Whitby, or “White Town.” The
    surroundings were eminently fitted to nurture England’s first
    poet. “The natural scenery which surrounded him, the valley of
    the Esk, on whose sides he probably lived, the great cliffs, the
    billowy sea, the vast sky seen from the heights over the ocean,
    played incessantly upon him.” (Brooke.)

    Note, also, in this connection, the numerous Latin words that
    the introduction of Christianity (A.D. 597) brought into the
    vocabulary of O.E.: #abbudisse#, #mynster#, #bisceop#, #Lǣden#,
    #prēost#, #æstel#, #mancus#.

    112.4-5: The more usual order of words would be #ac nǣnig,
    hwæðre, ne meahte ðæt dōn gelīce him#.

    112.10-11: #ǫnd his ... singan#, _and which it became his (the)
    pious tongue to sing_.]

  12   Wæs hē, sē mǫn, in weoruldhāde[3] gesęted oð þā tīde þe
  13 hē wæs gelȳfdre ylde, ǫnd nǣfre nǣnig lēoð geleornade.
  14 Ǫnd hē for þon oft in gebēorscipe, þonne þǣr wæs blisse
  15 intinga gedēmed, þæt hēo[4] ealle sceolden þurh ęndebyrdnesse
  16 be hearpan singan, þonne hē geseah þā hearpan him
  17 nēalēcan, þonne ārās hē for scǫme frǫm þǣm symble,
  18 ǫnd hām ēode tō his hūse. Þā hē þæt þā sumre tīde
  19 dyde, þæt hē forlēt þæt hūs þæs gebēorscipes, ǫnd ūt wæs

[[page 113]]

   1 gǫngende tō nēata scipene, þāra heord him wæs þǣre
   2 nihte beboden; þā hē ðā þǣr on gelimplīcre tīde his
   3 leomu[5] on ręste gesętte ǫnd onslēpte, þa stōd him sum
   4 mǫn æt þurh swefn, ǫnd hine hālette ǫnd grētte, ǫnd hine
   5 be his nǫman nęmnde: “Cædmǫn, sing mē hwæthwugu.”
   6 Þā ǫndswarede hē, ǫnd cwæð: “Ne cǫn ic nōht singan;
   7 ǫnd ic for þon of þyssum gebēorscipe ūt ēode ǫnd hider
   8 gewāt, for þon ic nāht singan ne cūðe.” Eft hē cwæð sē ðe
   9 wið hine sprecende wæs: “Hwæðre þū meaht mē singan.”
  10 Þā cwæð hē: “Hwæt sceal ic singan?” Cwæð hē: “Sing
  11 mē frumsceaft.” Þā hē ðā þās andsware onfēng, þā
  12 ongǫn hē sōna singan, in hęrenesse Godes Scyppendes,
  13 þā fers ǫnd þā word þe hē nǣfre ne gehȳrde, þāra ęndebyrdnes
  14 þis is:

    [3] = woruldhāde.
    [4] = hīe.
    [5] = limu.

    [Linenotes:

    112.14-15: #blisse intinga#, _for the sake of joy_; but the
    translator has confused _laetitiae causā_ (ablative) and
    _laetitiae causa_ (nominative). The proper form would be #for
    blisse# with omission of #intingan#, just as _for my sake_ is
    usually #for mē#; _for his_ (_or their_) _sake_, #for him#. _Cf.
    Mark_ vi, 26: “Yet _for his oath’s sake, and for their sakes
    which sat with him_, he would not reject her,” #for ðǣm āðe, ǫnd
    for ðǣm þe him mid sǣton#. _For his sake_ is frequently #for his
    ðingon# (#ðingum#), rarely #for his intingan#. #Þingon# is
    regularly used when the preceding genitive is a noun denoting a
    person: _for my wife’s sake_, #for mīnes wīfes ðingon#
    (_Genesis_ xx, 11), etc.

    112.18-19: #þæt ... þæt hē forlēt#. The substantival clause
    introduced by the second #þæt# amplifies by apposition the first
    #þæt#: _When he then, at a certain time_ (instrumental case,
    § 98, (2)), _did that, namely, when he left the house_. The
    better Mn.E. would be _this ... that_: “Added yet _this_ above
    all, _that_ he shut up John in prison” (_Luke_ iv, 20).

    113.1-2: #þāra ... beboden#. This does not mean that Cædmon was
    a herdsman, but that he served in turn as did the other secular
    attendants at the monastery.

    113.13-14: #þāra ęndebyrdnes þis is#. Bede writes _Hic est
    sensus, non autem ordo ipse verborum_, and gives in Latin prose
    a translation of the hymn from the Northumbrian dialect, in
    which Cædmon wrote. The O.E. version given above is, of course,
    not the Northumbrian original (which, however, with some
    variations is preserved in several of the Latin MSS. of Bede’s
    _History_), but a West Saxon version made also from the
    Northumbrian, not from the Latin.]

  15    Nū sculon hęrigean[6]   heofonrīces Weard,
  16    Metodes meahte   ǫnd his mōdgeþanc,
  17    weorc Wuldorfæder,   swā hē wundra gehwæs,
  18    ēce Drihten   ōr onstealde.

[[page 114]]

   1    Hē ǣrest scēop   eorðan bearnum
   2    heofon tō hrōfe,   hālig Scyppend;
   3    þā middangeard   mǫnncynnes Weard,
   4    ēce Drihten,   æfter tēode
   5    fīrum foldan,   Frēa ælmihtig.

    [6] = hęrian.

    [Linenotes:

    113.15: #Nū sculon hęrigean#, _Now ought we to praise_. The
    subject #wē# is omitted in the best MSS. Note the characteristic
    use of synonyms, or epithets, in this bit of O.E. poetry.
    Observe that it is not the _thought_ that is repeated, but
    rather the _idea_, the _concept_, God. See p. 124.
    [[Poetry: Structure]]

    113.17: #wundra gehwæs#. See p. 140, note on #cēnra gehwylcum#
    [[_Beowulf_ 769]].]

   6   Þā ārās hē frǫm þǣm slǣpe, ǫnd eal þā þe hē slǣpende
   7 sǫng fæste in gemynde hæfde; ǫnd þǣm wordum sōna
   8 mǫnig word in þæt ilce gemet Gode wyrðes sǫnges
   9 tōgeþēodde. Þā cōm hē on morgenne tō þǣm tūngerēfan,
  10 sē þe his ealdormǫn wæs: sægde him hwylce gife hē
  11 onfēng; ǫnd hē hine sōna tō þǣre abbudissan gelǣdde,
  12 ǫnd hire þæt cȳðde ǫnd sægde. Þā heht hēo gesǫmnian
  13 ealle þā gelǣredestan męn ǫnd þā leorneras, ǫnd him
  14 ǫndweardum hēt sęcgan þæt swefn, ǫnd þæt lēoð singan,
  15 þæt ealra heora[7] dōme gecoren wǣre, hwæt oððe hwǫnan
  16 þæt cumen wǣre. Þā wæs him eallum gesewen, swā swā
  17 hit wæs, þæt him wǣre frǫm Drihtne sylfum heofonlīc

[[page 115]]

   1 gifu forgifen. Þā ręhton hęo[4] him ǫnd sægdon sum hālig
   2 spell ǫnd godcundre lāre word: bebudon him þā, gif hē
   3  meahte, þæt hē in swīnsunge lēoþsǫnges þæt gehwyrfde.
   4 Þā hē ðā hæfde þā wīsan onfǫngne, þā ēode hē hām tō
   5  his hūse, ǫnd cwōm eft on morgenne, ǫnd þȳ bętstan
   6 lēoðe geglęnged him āsǫng ǫnd āgeaf þæt him beboden
   7 wæs.

    [4] = hīe.
    [7] = hiera.

    [Linenotes:

    114.7-9: #ǫnd þǣm wordum ... tōgeþēodde#, _and to those words he
    soon joined, in the same meter, many (other) words of song
    worthy of God_. But the translator has not only blundered over
    Bede’s Latin (_eis mox plura in eundem modum verba Deo digna
    carminis adjunxit_), but sacrificed still more the idiom of
    O.E. The predicate should not come at the end; #in# should be
    followed by the dative; and for #Gode wyrðes sǫnges# the better
    O.E. would be #sǫnges Godes wyrðes#. When used with the dative
    #wyrð# (#weorð#) usually means _dear_ (= _of worth_) _to_.

    114.16: #þā ... gesewen#. We should expect #frǫm him eallum#;
    but the translator has again closely followed the Latin
    (_visumque est omnibus_), as later (in the _Conversion of
    Edwin_) he renders _Talis mihi videtur_ by #þyslīc mē is
    gesewen#. _Talis_ (#þyslīc#) agreeing with a following _vita_
    (#līf#). Ælfric, however, with no Latin before him, writes that
    John #wearð ðā him# [= #frǫm Drihtene#] #inweardlīce gelufod#.
    It would seem that in proportion as a past participle has the
    force of an adjective, the _to_ relation may supplant the _by_
    relation; just as we say _unknown to_ instead of _unknown by_,
    _unknown_ being more adjectival than participial. #Gesewen#,
    therefore, may here be translated _visible_, _evident_, _patent_
    (= #gesynelīc#, #sweotol#); and #gelufod#, _dear_ (= #weorð#,
    #lēof#).

    A survival of adjectival #gesewen# is found in Wycliffe’s _New
    Testament_ (1 _Cor._ xv, 5-8): “He was _seyn to_ Cephas, and
    aftir these thingis _to_ enleuene; aftirward he was _seyn to_ mo
    than fyue hundrid britheren togidere ... aftirward he was _seyn
    to_ James, and aftirward _to_ alle the apostlis. And last of
    alle he was _seyn to_ me, as _to_ a deed borun child.” The
    construction is frequent in Chaucer.]

   8   Ðā ongan sēo abbudisse clyppan ǫnd lufigean[8] þā Godes
   9 gife in þǣm męn, ǫnd hēo hine þā mǫnade ǫnd lǣrde
  10 þæt hē woruldhād forlēte ǫnd munuchād onfēnge: ǫnd
  11 hē þæt wel þafode. Ǫnd hēo hine in þæt mynster onfēng
  12 mid his gōdum, ǫnd hine geþēodde tō gesǫmnunge þāra
  13 Godes þēowa, ǫnd heht hine lǣran þæt getæl þæs hālgan
  14 stǣres ǫnd spelles. Ǫnd hē eal þā hē in gehȳrnesse
  15 geleornian meahte, mid hine gemyndgade, ǫnd swā swā
  16 clǣne nēten[9] eodorcende in þæt swēteste lēoð gehwyrfde.
  17 Ǫnd his sǫng ǫnd his lēoð wǣron swā wynsumu tō gehȳranne,
  18 þætte þā seolfan[10] his lārēowas æt his mūðe writon
  19 ǫnd leornodon. Sǫng hē ǣrest be middangeardes gesceape,
  20 ǫnd bī fruman mǫncynnes, ǫnd eal þæt stǣr Genesis (þæt
  21 is sēo ǣreste Moyses bōc); ǫnd eft bī ūtgǫnge Israhēla
  22 folces of Ǣgypta lǫnde, ǫnd bī ingǫnge þæs gehātlandes;
  23 ǫnd bī ōðrum mǫnegum spellum þæs hālgan gewrites

[[page 116]]

   1 canōnes bōca; ǫnd bī Crīstes męnniscnesse, ǫnd bī his
   2 þrōwunge, ǫnd bī his ūpāstīgnesse in heofonas; ǫnd bī
   3 þæs Hālgan Gāstes cyme, ǫnd þāra apostola lāre; ǫnd eft
   4 bī þǣm dæge þæs tōweardan dōmes, ǫnd bī fyrhtu þæs
   5 tintreglīcan wītes, ǫnd bī swētnesse þæs heofonlīcan rīces,
   6 hē monig lēoð geworhte; ǫnd swelce[2] ēac ōðer mǫnig be
   7 þǣm godcundan fręmsumnessum ǫnd dōmum hē geworhte.
   8 In eallum þǣm hē geornlīce gēmde[11] þæt hē męn ātuge
   9 frǫm synna lufan ǫnd māndǣda, ǫnd tō lufan ǫnd tō
  10 geornfulnesse āwęhte gōdra dǣda, for þon hē wæs, sē
  11 mǫn, swīþe ǣfęst ǫnd regollīcum þēodscipum ēaðmōdlīce
  12 underþēoded; ǫnd wið þǣm þā ðe in ōðre wīsan dōn woldon,
  13 hē wæs mid welme[12] micelre ęllenwōdnisse onbærned.
  14 Ǫnd hē for ðon fægre ęnde his līf betȳnde ǫnd geęndade.

    [2] = swilce.
    [8] = lufian.
    [9] = nīeten.
    [10] = selfan.
    [11] = gīemde.
    [12] = wielme.

    [Linenotes:

    115.9-10: #ǫnd hēo hine þā mǫnade ... munuchād onfēnge#. Hild’s
    advice has in it the suggestion of a personal experience, for
    she herself had lived half of her life (thirty-three years)
    “before,” says Bede, “she dedicated the remaining half to our
    Lord in a monastic life.”

    116.6: #hē mǫnig lēoð geworhte#. The opinion is now gaining
    ground that of these “many poems” only the short hymn, already
    given, has come down to us. Of other poems claimed for Cædmon,
    the strongest arguments are advanced in favor of a part of the
    fragmentary poetical paraphrase of _Genesis_.]


V. ALFRED’S PREFACE TO THE PASTORAL CARE.

  [Based on the Hatton MS. Of the year 597, the _Chronicle_ says:
  “In this year, Gregory the Pope sent into Britain Augustine with
  very many monks, who gospelled [preached] God’s word to the
  English folk.” Gregory I, surnamed “The Great,” has ever since
  been considered the apostle of English Christianity, and his
  _Pastoral Care_, which contains instruction in conduct and
  doctrine for all bishops, was a work that Alfred could not afford
  to leave untranslated. For this translation Alfred wrote a
  _Preface_, the historical value of which it would be hard to
  overrate. In it he describes vividly the intellectual ruin that
  the Danes had wrought, and develops at the same time his plan for
  repairing that ruin.

  This _Preface_ and the _Battle of Ashdown_ (p. 99) show the great
  king in his twofold character of warrior and statesman, and
  justify the inscription on the base of the statue erected to him
  in 1877, at Wantage (Berkshire), his birth-place: “Ælfred found
  Learning dead, and he restored it; Education neglected, and he
  revived it; the laws powerless, and he gave them force; the Church
  debased, and he raised it; the Land ravaged by a fearful Enemy,
  from which he delivered it. Ælfred’s name will live as long as
  mankind shall respect the Past.”]

[[page 117]]

   1   Ælfred kyning hāteð grētan Wærferð biscep[1] his wordum
   2 luflīce ǫnd frēondlīce; ǫnd ðē cȳðan hāte ðæt mē cōm
   3 swīðe oft on gemynd, hwelce[2] witan īu[3] wǣron giond[4]
   4 Angelcynn, ǣgðer ge godcundra hāda ge woruldcundra;
   5 ǫnd hū gesǣliglīca tīda ðā wǣron giond Angelcynn; ǫnd
   6 hū ðā kyningas ðe ðone onwald hæfdon ðæs folces on
   7 ðām dagum Gode ǫnd his ǣrendwrecum hērsumedon[5];
   8 ǫnd hū hīe ǣgðer ge hiora sibbe ge hiora siodo[6] ge hiora
   9 onweald innanbordes gehīoldon,[4] ǫnd ēac ūt hiora ēðel
  10 gerȳmdon; ǫnd hū him ðā spēow ǣgðer ge mid wīge ge
  11 mid wīsdōme; ǫnd ēac ða godcundan hādas hū giorne
  12 hīe wǣron ǣgðer ge ymb lāre ge ymb liornunga, ge ymb
  13 ealle ðā ðīowotdōmas ðe hīe Gode dōn scoldon; ǫnd hū
  14 man ūtanbordes wīsdōm ǫnd lāre hieder on lǫnd sōhte,
  15 ǫnd hū wē hīe nū sceoldon ūte begietan, gif wē hīe habban
  16 sceoldon. Swǣ[7] clǣne hīo wæs oðfeallenu on Angelcynne
  17 ðæt swīðe fēawa wǣron behionan Humbre ðe hiora ðēninga
  18 cūðen understǫndan on Ęnglisc oððe furðum ān ǣrendgewrit
  19 of Lǣdene on Ęnglisc āręccean; ǫnd ic wēne ðætte
  20 nōht mǫnige begiondan Humbre nǣren. Swǣ[7] fēawa
  21 hiora wǣron ðæt ic furðum ānne ānlēpne[8] ne mæg geðencean

[[page 118]]

   1 be sūðan Tęmese, ðā ðā ic tō rīce fēng. Gode ælmihtegum
   2 sīe ðǫnc ðætte wē nū ǣnigne onstāl habbað
   3 lārēowa. Ǫnd for ðon ic ðē bebīode ðæt ðū dō swǣ[7] ic
   4 gelīefe ðæt ðū wille, ðæt ðū ðē ðissa woruldðinga tō ðǣm
   5  geǣmetige, swǣ ðū oftost mæge, ðæt ðū ðone wīsdōm ðe
   6 ðē God sealde ðǣr ðǣr ðū hiene befæstan mæge, befæste.
   7 Geðęnc hwelc[9] wītu ūs ðā becōmon for ðisse worulde, ðā
   8 ðā wē hit nōhwæðer nē selfe ne lufodon, nē ēac ōðrum
   9 mǫnnum ne lēfdon[10]: ðone naman ānne wē lufodon ðætte
  10 wē Crīstne wǣren, ǫnd swīðe fēawe ðā ðēawas.

    [1] = bisceop.
    [2] = hwilce.
    [3] = gīu.
    [4] = For all words with _io_ (_īo_), consult Glossary under
          _eo_ (_ēo_).
    [5] = hīersumedon.
    [6] = sidu (siodu).
    [7] = swā.
    [8] = ānlīpigne.
    [9] = hwilc.
    [10] = līefdon.

    [Linenotes:

    117.1-2: #Ælfred kyning hāteð ... hāte#. Note the change from
    the formal and official third person (#hāteð#) to the more
    familiar first person (#hāte#). So Ælfric, in his _Preface to
    Genesis_, writes #Ælfric munuc grēt Æðelwærd ealdormann
    ēadmōdlīce. Þū bǣde mē, lēof, þæt ic#, etc.: _Ælfric, monk,
    greets Æthelweard, alderman, humbly. Thou, beloved, didst bid me
    that I_, etc.

    118.5: Notice that #mæge# (l. 5) and #mæge# (l. 6) are not in
    the subjunctive because the sense requires it, but because they
    have been attracted by #gǣmetige# and #befæste#. #Sīen# (p. 119,
    l. 15) and #hæbben# (p. 119, l. 20) illustrate the same
    construction.

    118.9-10: _We liked only the reputation of being Christians,
    very few_ (_of us_) _the Christian virtues_.]

  11   Ðā ic ðā ðis eall gemunde, ðā gemunde ic ēac hū ic
  12 geseah, ǣr ðǣm ðe hit eall forhęrgod wǣre ǫnd forbærned,
  13 hū ðā ciricean giond eall Angelcynn stōdon
  14 māðma ǫnd bōca gefylda, ǫnd ēac micel męnigeo[11] Godes
  15 ðīowa; ǫnd ðā swīðe lȳtle fiorme ðāra bōca wiston, for
  16 ðǣm ðe hīe hiora nānwuht[12] ongietan ne meahton, for
  17 ðǣm ðe hīe nǣron on hiora āgen geðīode awritene.
  18 Swelce[13] hīe cwǣden: “Ure ieldran, ðā ðe ðās stōwa ǣr
  19 hīoldon, hīe lufodon wīsdōm, ǫnd ðurh ðone hīe begēaton
  20 welan, ǫnd ūs lǣfdon. Hēr mǫn mæg gīet gesīon hiora
  21 swæð, ac wē him ne cunnon æfter spyrigean,[14] ǫnd for
  22 ðǣm wē habbað nū ǣgðer forlǣten ge ðone welan ge ðone
  23 wīsdōm, for ðǣm ðe wē noldon tō ðǣm spore mid ūre
  24 mōde onlūtan.”

    [11] = męnigu.
    [12] = nānwiht.
    [13] = swilce.
    [14] = spyrian.

  25   Ðā ic ðā ðis eall gemunde, ðā wundrade ic swīðe swīðe
  26 ðāra gōdena wiotona[15] ðe gīu wǣron giond Angelcynn, ǫnd
  27 ðā bēc ealla be fullan geliornod hæfdon, ðæt hīe hiora ðā

[[page 119]]

   1 nǣnne dǣl noldon on hiora āgen geðīode węndan. Ac
   2 ic ðā sōna eft mē selfum andwyrde, ǫnd cwæð: “Hīe ne
   3 wēndon þætte ǣfre męnn sceolden swǣ[7] reccelēase weorðan,
   4 ǫnd sīo lār swǣ oðfeallan; for ðǣre wilnunga hīe
   5 hit forlēton, ǫnd woldon ðæt hēr ðȳ māra wīsdōm on
   6 lǫnde wǣre ðȳ wē mā geðēoda cūðon.”

    [7] = swā.
    [15] = witena.

   7   Ðā gemunde ic hū sīo ǣ wæs ǣrest on Ebrēisc geðīode
   8 funden, ǫnd eft, ðā hīe Crēacas geliornodon, ðā węndon
   9 hīe hīe on hiora āgen geðīode ealle, ǫnd ēac ealle ōðre
  10 bēc. Ǫnd eft Lǣdenware swǣ same, siððan hīe hīe geliornodon,
  11 hīe hīe węndon ealla ðurh wīse wealhstōdas
  12 on hiora āgen geðīode. Ǫnd ēac ealla ōðra Crīstena
  13 ðīoda sumne dǣl hiora on hiora āgen geðīode węndon.
  14 For ðȳ mē ðyncð bętre, gif īow swǣ ðyncð, ðæt wē ēac
  15 suma bēc, ðā ðe nīedbeðearfosta sīen eallum mǫnnum
  16 tō wiotonne,[16] ðæt wē ðā on ðæt geðīode węnden ðe wē
  17 ealle gecnāwan mægen, ǫnd gedōn swǣ wē swīðe ēaðe
  18 magon mid Godes fultume, gif wē ðā stilnesse habbað,
  19 ðætte eall sīo gioguð ðe nū is on Angelcynne friora
  20 mǫnna, ðāra ðe ðā spēda hæbben ðæt hīe ðǣm befēolan
  21 mægen, sīen tō liornunga oðfæste, ðā hwīle ðe hīe tō

[[page 120]]

   1 nānre ōðerre note ne mægen, oð ðone first ðe hīe wel
   2 cunnen Ęnglisc gewrit ārǣdan: lǣre mǫn siððan furður
   3 on Lǣdengeðīode ðā ðe mǫn furðor lǣran wille, ǫnd tō
   4 hīerran hāde dōn wille. Ðā ic ðā gemunde hū sīo lār
   5 Lǣdengeðīodes ǣr ðissum āfeallen wæs giond Angelcynn,
   6 ǫnd ðeah mǫnige cūðon Ęnglisc gewrit ārǣdan, ðā
   7 ongan ic ongemang oðrum mislīcum ǫnd manigfealdum
   8 bisgum ðisses kynerīces ðā bōc węndan on Ęnglisc ðe is
   9 genęmned on Lǣden “Pastoralis,” ǫnd on Ęnglisc “Hierdebōc,”
  10 hwīlum word be worde, hwīlum andgit of andgiete,
  11 swǣ swǣ ic hīe geliornode æt Plegmunde mīnum
  12 ærcebiscepe, ǫnd æt Assere mīnum biscepe, ǫnd æt Grimbolde
  13 mīnum mæsseprīoste, ǫnd æt Iōhanne mīnum mæsseprēoste.
  14 Siððan ic hīe ðā geliornod hæfde, swǣ swǣ
  15 ic hīe forstōd, ǫnd swǣ ic hīe andgitfullīcost āręccean
  16 meahte, ic hīe on Ęnglisc āwęnde; ǫnd tō ǣlcum biscepstōle
  17 on mīnum rīce wille āne onsęndan; ǫnd on ǣlcre
  18 bið ān æstel, sē bið on fīftegum mancessa. Ǫnd ic bebīode
  19 on Godes naman ðæt nān mǫn ðone æstel frǫm
  20 ðǣre bēc ne dō, nē ðā bōc frǫm ðǣm mynstre; uncūð hū
  21 lǫnge ðǣr swǣ gelǣrede biscepas sīen, swǣ swǣ nū, Gode
  22 ðonc, wel hwǣr siendon. For ðȳ ic wolde ðætte hīe ealneg

[[page 121]]

  1 æt ðǣre stōwe wǣren, būton sē biscep hīe mid him
  2 habban wille, oððe hīo hwǣr tō lǣne sīe, oððe hwā ōðre
  3 bī wrīte.

    [16] = witanne.

    [Linenotes:

    119.14: Alfred is here addressing the bishops collectively, and
    hence uses the plural #īow# (= #ēow#), not #þē#.

    119.16: #ðæt wē ðā#. These three words are not necessary to the
    sense. They constitute the figure known as epanalepsis, in which
    “the same word or phrase is repeated after one or more
    intervening words.” #Þā# is the pronominal substitute for #suma
    bēc#.

    119.17: #Gedōn# is the first person plural subjunctive (from
    infinitive #gedōn#). It and #węnden# are in the same
    construction. Two things seem “better” to Alfred: (1) _that we
    translate_, etc., (2) _that we cause_, etc.

    119.19-21: #sīo gioguð ... is ... hīe ... sīen#. Notice how the
    collective noun, #gioguð#, singular at first both in form and
    function, gradually loses its oneness before the close of the
    sentence is reached, and becomes plural. The construction is
    entirely legitimate in Mn.E. Spanish is the only modern language
    known to me that condemns such an idiom: “Spanish ideas of
    congruity do not permit a collective noun, though denoting a
    plurality, to be accompanied by a plural verb or adjective in
    the same clause” (Ramsey, _Text-Book of Modern Spanish_,
    § 1452).

    120.2: #lǣre mǫn#. See § 105, 1.

    120.11-13: That none of these advisers of the king, except
    Plegmond, a Mercian, were natives, bears out what Alfred says
    about the scarcity of learned men in England when he began to
    reign. Asser, to whose Latin _Life of Alfred_, in spite of its
    mutilations, we owe almost all of our knowledge of the king,
    came from St. David’s (in Wales), and was made Bishop of
    Sherborne.

    121.1: Translate #ǣt ðǣre stōwe# by _each in its place_. The
    change from plural #hīe# (in #hīe ... wǣren#) to singular #hīe#
    (in the clauses that follow) will thus be prepared for.

    121.2-3: #oððe hwā ōðre bī wrīte#, _or unless some one wish to
    copy a new one_ (_write thereby another_).]



POETRY.

INTRODUCTORY.

[Transcriber’s Note:

In Section II., Structure, the stress markers ´ and ` are intended to
display above the macron – or breve ˘:

  –́ × –̀

Some computers will instead show them after (to the right of) the
macron. “Resolved stress” (two short syllables acting as one long) is
shown with a double breve below the syllables:

  ˘́͜×

If your computer does not have this character, it will probably
display a box or question mark between the two syllables.]


I. HISTORY.

(a) #Old English Poetry as a Whole.#

Northumbria was the home of Old English poetry. Beginning with Cædmon
and his school A.D. 670, Northumbria maintained her poetical supremacy
till A.D. 800, seven years before which date the ravages of the Danes
had begun. When Alfred ascended the throne of Wessex (871), the Danes
had destroyed the seats of learning throughout the whole of Northumbria.
As Whitby had been “the cradle of English poetry,” Winchester (Alfred’s
capital) became now the cradle of English prose; and the older poems
that had survived the fire and sword of the Vikings were translated from
the original Northumbrian dialect into the West Saxon dialect. It is,
therefore, in the West Saxon dialect that these poems[1] have come down
to us.

Old English poetry contains in all only about thirty thousand lines; but
it includes epic, lyric, didactic, elegiac, and allegorical poems,
together with war-ballads, paraphrases, riddles, and charms. Of the five
elegiac poems (_Wanderer_, _Seafarer_, _Ruin_, _Wife’s Complaint_, and
_Husband’s Message_), the _Wanderer_ is the most artistic, and best
portrays the gloomy contrast between past happiness and present grief so
characteristic of the Old English lyric.

Old English literature has no love poems. The central themes of its
poets are battle and bereavement, with a certain grim resignation on the
part of the hero to the issues of either. The movement of the thought is
usually abrupt, there being a noticeable poverty of transitional
particles, or connectives, “which,” says Ten Brink, “are the cement of
sentence-structure.”


(b) #Beowulf.#

The greatest of all Old English poems is the epic, _Beowulf_.[2] It
consists of more than three thousand lines, and probably assumed
approximately its present form in Northumbria about A.D. 700. It is a
crystallization of continental myths; and, though nothing is said of
England, the story is an invaluable index to the social, political, and
ethical ideals of our Germanic ancestors before and after they settled
along the English coast. It is most poetical, and its testimony is
historically most valuable, in the character-portraits that it contains.
The fatalism that runs through it, instead of making the characters weak
and less human, serves at times rather to dignify and elevate them.
“Fate,” says Beowulf (l. 572), recounting his battle with the
sea-monsters, “often saves an undoomed man _if his courage hold out_.”

“The ethical essence of this poetry,” says Ten Brink, “lies principally
in the conception of manly virtue, undismayed courage, the stoical
encounter with death, silent submission to fate, in the readiness to
help others, in the clemency and liberality of the prince toward his
thanes, and the self-sacrificing loyalty with which they reward him.”

  NOTE 1.--Many different interpretations have been put upon the
  story of _Beowulf_ (for argument of story, see texts). Thus
  Müllenhoff sees in Grendel the giant-god of the storm-tossed
  equinoctial sea, while Beowulf is the Scandinavian god Freyr, who
  in the spring drives back the sea and restores the land. Laistner
  finds the prototype of Grendel in the noxious exhalations that
  rise from the Frisian coast-marshes during the summer months;
  Beowulf is the wind-hero, the autumnal storm-god, who dissipates
  the effluvia.

    [Footnote 1: This does not, of course, include the few short
    poems in the _Chronicle_, or that portion of _Genesis_
    (_Genesis B_) supposed to have been put directly into West Saxon
    from an Old Saxon original. There still remain in Northumbrian
    the version of _Cædmon’s Hymn_, fragments of the _Ruthwell
    Cross_, _Bede’s Death-Song_, and the _Leiden Riddle_.]

    [Footnote 2: The word _bēowulf_, says Grimm, meant originally
    _bee-wolf_, or _bee-enemy_, one of the names of the woodpecker.
    Sweet thinks the bear was meant. But the word is almost
    certainly a compound of _Bēow_ (cf. O.E. #bēow# = grain),
    a Danish demigod, and _wulf_ used as a mere suffix.]


II. STRUCTURE.

(a) #Style.#

In the structure of Old English poetry the most characteristic feature
is the constant repetition of the idea (sometimes of the thought) with a
corresponding variation of phrase, or epithet. When, for example, the
Queen passes into the banquet hall in _Beowulf_, she is designated at
first by her name, #Wealhþēow#; she is then described in turn as #cwēn
Hrōðgāres# (_Hrothgar’s queen_), #gold-hroden# (_the gold-adorned_),
#frēolīc wīf# (_the noble woman_), #ides Helminga# (_the Helmings’
lady_), #bēag-hroden cwēn# (_the ring-adorned queen_), #mōde geþungen#
(_the high-spirited_), and #gold-hroden frēolīcu folc-cwēn# (_the
gold-adorned, noble folk-queen_).

And whenever the sea enters largely into the poet’s verse, not content
with simple (uncompounded) words (such as #sǣ#, #lagu#, #holm#,
#strēam#, #męre#, etc.), he will use numerous other equivalents (phrases
or compounds), such as #waþema gebind# (_the commingling of waves_),
#lagu-flōd# (_the sea-flood_), #lagu-strǣt# (_the sea-street_),
#swan-rād# (_the swan-road_), etc. These compounds are usually nouns, or
adjectives and participles used in a sense more appositive than
attributive.

It is evident, therefore, that this abundant use of compounds, or
periphrastic synonyms, grows out of the desire to repeat the idea in
varying language. It is to be observed, also, that the Old English poets
rarely make any studied attempt to balance phrase against phrase or
clause against clause. Theirs is a repetition of idea, rather than a
parallelism of structure.

  NOTE 1.--It is impossible to tell how many of these synonymous
  expressions had already become stereotyped, and were used, like
  many of the epithets in the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_, purely as
  padding. When, for example, the poet tells us that at the most
  critical moment Beowulf’s sword failed him, adding in the same
  breath, #īren ǣr-gōd# (_matchless blade_), we conclude that the
  bard is either nodding or parroting.


(b) #Meter.#

[Re-read § 10, (3).]

_Primary Stress._

Old English poetry is composed of certain rhythmically ordered
combinations of accented and unaccented syllables. The accented syllable
(the arsis) is usually long, and will be indicated by the macron with
the acute accent over it (–́); when short, by the breve with the same
accent (˘́). The unaccented syllable or syllables (the thesis) may be
long or short, and will be indicated by the oblique cross (×).

_Secondary Stress._

A secondary accent, or stress, is usually put upon the second member of
compound and derivative nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. This will be
indicated by the macron with the grave accent, if the secondary stress
falls on a long syllable (–̀); by the breve with the same accent, if the
secondary stress falls on a short syllable (˘̀).

Nouns:

  Hrōðgāres (–́–̀×), fēondgrāpum (–́–̀×), frēomǣgum (–́–̀×), Ēast-Dęna (–́˘̀×),
  Helminga (–́–̀×), Scyldinga (–́–̀×), ānhaga (–́˘̀×), Ecgþēowes (–́–̀×),
  sinc-fato (–́˘̀×).

Adjectives:[1]

  ǣghwylcne (–́–̀×), þrīsthȳdig (–́–̀×), gold-hroden (–́˘̀×), drēorigne (–́–̀×),
  gyldenne (–́–̀×), ōðerne (–́–̀×), gǣstlīcum (–́–̀×), wynsume (–́˘̀×),
  ǣnigne (–́–̀×).

Adverbs:[2]

  unsōfte (–́–̀×), heardlīce (–́–̀×), sęmninga (–́–̀×).

The Old English poets place also a secondary accent upon the ending of
present participles (#-ende#), and upon the penultimate of weak verbs of
the second class (§ 130), provided the root-syllable is long.[3]

Present participles:

  slǣpendne (–́–̀×), wīs-hycgende (–́–́–̀×), flēotendra (–́–̀×),
  hrēosende (–́–̀×).

Weak verbs:

  swynsode (–́˘̀×), þancode (–́˘̀×), wānigean (–́˘̀×), scēawian (–́˘̀×),
  scēawige (–́˘̀×), hlīfian (–́˘̀×).

    [Footnote 1: It will be seen that the adjectives are chiefly
    derivatives in -ig, -en, -er, -līc, and -sum.]

    [Footnote 2: Most of the adverbs belonging here end in #-līce#,
    #-unga#, and #-inga#, § 93, (1), (2): such words as #æt-gǽdere#,
    #on-gḗan#, #on-wég#, #tō-gḗanes#, #tō-míddes#, etc., are
    invariably accented as here indicated.]

    [Footnote 3: It will save the student some trouble to remember
    that this means long by nature (#līcodon#), or long by position
    (#swynsode#), or long by resolution of stress (#maðelode#),--see
    next paragraph.]


_Resolved Stress._

A short accented syllable followed in the same word by an unaccented
syllable (usually short also) is equivalent to one long accented
syllable (˘́× = –́). This is known as a resolved stress, and will be
indicated thus, ˘́͜×;

  hæleða (˘́͜͜××), guman (˘́͜×), Gode (˘́͜×), sęle-ful (˘́͜××), ides (˘́͜×),
  fyrena (˘́͜××), maðelode (˘́͜ע̀×), hogode (˘́͜××), mægen-ęllen (˘́͜×–̀×),
  hige-þihtigne (˘́͜×–́–̀×), Metudes (˘́͜××), lagulāde (˘́͜×–̀×),
  unlyfigendes (–́˘́͜×–̀×), biforan (ע́͜×), forþolian (ע́͜××), baðian (˘́͜××),
  worolde (˘́͜–×).

Resolution of stress may also attend secondary stresses:

  sinc-fato (–́˘̀͜×), dryht-sęle (–́˘̀͜×), ferðloca (–́˘̀͜×), forðwege (–́˘̀͜×).


_The Normal Line._

Every normal line of Old English poetry has four primary accents, two in
the first half-line and two in the second half-line. These half-lines
are separated by the cesura and united by alliteration, the alliterative
letter being found in the first stressed syllable of the second
half-line. This syllable, therefore, gives the cue to the scansion of
the whole line. It is also the only alliterating syllable in the second
half-line. The first half-line, however, usually has two alliterating
syllables, but frequently only one (the ratio being about three to two
in the following selections). When the first half-line contains but one
alliterating syllable, that syllable marks the first stress, rarely the
second. The following lines are given in the order of their frequency:

  (1) þǣr wæs _h_ǽleða _h_léahtor; _h_lýn swýnsode.
  (2) _m_ṓde geþúngen, _m_édo-ful ætbǽr.
  (3) sṓna þæt on_f_únde _f_ýrena hýrde.

Any initial vowel or diphthong may alliterate with any other initial
vowel or diphthong; but a consonant requires the same consonant, except
st, sp, and sc, each of which alliterates only with itself.

Remembering, now, that either half-line (especially the second) may
begin with several unaccented syllables (these syllables being known in
types A, D, and E as the _anacrusis_), but that neither half-line can
end with more than one unaccented syllable, the student may begin at
once to read and properly accentuate Old English poetry. It will be
found that the alliterative principle does not operate mechanically, but
that the poet employs it for the purpose of emphasizing the words that
are really most important. Sound is made subservient to sense.

When, from the lack of alliteration, the student is in doubt as to what
word to stress, let him first get the exact meaning of the line, and
then put the emphasis on the word or words that seem to bear the chief
burden of the poet’s thought.

  NOTE 1.--A few lines, rare or abnormal in their alliteration or
  lack of alliteration, may here be noted. In the texts to be read,
  there is one line with no alliteration: _Wanderer_ 58; three of
  the type _a ··· b_ | _a ··· b_: _Beowulf_ 654, 830, 2746; one of
  the type _a ··· a_ | _b ··· a_: _Beowulf_ 2744; one of the type _a
  ··· a_ | _b ··· c_: _Beowulf_ 2718; and one of the type _a ··· b_
  | _c ··· a_: _Beowulf_ 2738.


_The Five Types._

By an exhaustive comparative study of the metrical unit in Old English
verse, the half-line, Professor Eduard Sievers,[4] of the University of
Leipzig, has shown that there are only five types, or varieties,
employed. These he classifies as follows, the perpendicular line serving
to separate the so-called feet, or measures:

  1.  A  –́ × | –́ ×

  2.  B  × –́ | × –́

  3.  C  × –́ | –́ ×

  4.  D { D^1  –́ | –́ –̀ ×
        { D^2  –́ | –́ × –̀

  5.  E { E^1  –́ –̀ × | –́
        { E^2  –́ × –̀ | –́

It will be seen (1) that each half-line contains two, and only two,
feet; (2) that each foot contains one, and only one, primary stress;
(3) that A is trochaic, B iambic; (4) that C is iambic-trochaic;
(5) that D and E consist of the same feet but in inverse order.

    [Footnote 4: Sievers’ two articles appeared in the _Beiträge zur
    Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur_, Vols. X (1885)
    and XII (1887). A brief summary, with slight modifications, is
    found in the same author’s _Altgermanische Metrik_, pp. 120-144
    (1893).

    Before attempting to employ Sievers’ types, the student would do
    well to read several pages of Old English poetry, taking care to
    accentuate according to the principles already laid down. In
    this way his ear will become accustomed to the rhythm of the
    line, and he will see more clearly that Sievers’ work was one
    primarily of systematization. Sievers himself says: “I had read
    Old English poetry for years exactly as I now scan it, and long
    before I had the slightest idea that what I did instinctively
    could be formulated into a system of set rules.”
    (_Altgermanische Metrik_, _Vorwort_, p. 10.)]


_The Five Types Illustrated._

  [[Transcriber’s Note: In the printed book, all examples line up
  vertically at the main |.]]

  [All the illustrations, as hitherto, are taken from the texts to
  be read. The figures prefixed indicate whether first or second
  half-line is cited. B = _Beowulf_; W = _Wanderer_.]

1. TYPE A, –́ × | –́ ×

Two or more unaccented syllables (instead of one) may intervene between
the two stresses, but only one may follow the last stress. If the thesis
in either foot is the second part of a compound it receives, of course,
a secondary stress.

  (2) ful gesealde, B. 616,                      –́ × | –́ ×
  (1) wīdre gewindan, B. 764,                  –́ × × | –́ ×
  (1)[5] Gemunde þā sē gōda, B. 759      × | –́ × × × | –́ ×
  (1)[5] swylce hē on ealder-dagum, B. 758,  × × × × | –́ × | ˘́ ×
  (1) ȳþde swā þisne eardgeard, W. 85,     –́ × × × × | –́ –̀
  (1) wīs-fæst wordum, B. 627,                   –́ –̀ | –́ ×
  (1) gryre-lēoð galan, B. 787,                 ˘́͜× –̀ | ˘́ ×
  (2) sǫmod ætgædre, W. 39,                     ˘́͜× × | –́ ×
  (1) duguðe ǫnd geogoðe, B. 622,            ˘́͜× × × | ˘́͜× ×
  (1) fǣger fold-bold, B. 774,                   –́ × | –́ –̀
  (1) atelīc ęgesa, B. 785,                     ˘́͜× –̀ | ˘́͜× ×
  (2) goldwine mīnne, W. 22,                    –́ ˘̀͜× | –́ ×
  (1) ęgesan þēon [> *þīhan: § 118], B. 2737,   ˘́͜× × | –́ ×

  NOTE.--Rare forms of A are –́ –̀ × | –́ × (does not occur in
  texts), –́ –̀ × | –́ –̀ (occurs once, B. 781 (1)), and –́ × –̀ |
  –́ × (once, B. 2743 (1)).

    [Footnote 5: The first perpendicular marks the limit of the
    anacrusis.]

2. TYPE B, × –́ | × –́

Two, but not more than two, unaccented syllables may intervene between
the stresses. The type of B most frequently occurring is × × –́ | × –́.

  (1) ǫnd þā frēolīc wīf, B. 616,                  × × –́ | × –́
  (2) hē on lust geþeah, B. 619,                   × × –́ | × –́
  (2) þā se æðeling gīong, B. 2716,              × × ˘́͜× | × –́
  (2) seah on ęnta geweorc, B. 2718,               × × –́ | × × –́
  (1) ofer flōda genipu, B. 2809,                  × × –́ | × × ˘́͜×
  (1) forþam mē wītan ne þearf, B. 2742,         × × × –́ | × × –́
  (2) þaes þe hire se willa gelamp, B. 627,  × × × × × –́ | × × –́
  (1) forþon ne mæg weorþan wīs, W. 64,        × × × × –́ | × –́
  (1) Nǣfre ic ǣnegum [= ǣn’gum] męn, B. 656,    × × × –́ | × –́

  NOTE.--In the last half-line Sievers substitutes the older form
  #ǣngum#, and supposes elision of the e in #Nǣfre# (= #Nǣfr-ic#:
  ××–́ | ×–́).

3. TYPE C, × –́ | –́ ×

The conditions of this type are usually satisfied by compound and
derivative words, and the second stress (not so strong as the first) is
frequently on a short syllable. The two arses rarely alliterate. As in
B, two unaccented syllables in the first thesis are more common than
one.

  (1) þæt hēo on ǣnigne, B. 628,        × × × –́ | –́ ×
  (1) þæt ic ānunga, B. 635,              × × –́ | –́ ×
  (2) ēode gold-hroden, B. 641,           × × –́ | ˘́ ×
  (1) gemyne mǣrðo, B. 660,               × ˘́͜× | –́ ×
  (1) on þisse meodu-healle, B. 639,  × × × ˘́͜× | –́ ×
  (2) æt brimes nosan, B. 2804,           × ˘́͜× | ˘́ ×
  (2) æt Wealhþéon [= -þēowan], B. 630,     × –́ | –́ ×
  (1) geond lagulāde, W. 3,               × ˘́͜× | –́ ×
  (1) Swā cwæð eardstapa, W. 6,           × × –́ | ˘́ ×
  (2) ēalā byrnwiga, W. 94,               × × –́ | ˘́ ×
  (2) nō þǣr fela bringeð, W. 54,       × × ˘́͜× | –́ ×

4. TYPE D, { D^1 –́ | –́ –̀ ×
           { D^2 –́ | –́ × –̀

Both types of D may take one unaccented syllable between the two primary
stresses (–́ × | –́ –̀ ×, –́ × | –́ × –̀). The secondary stress in D^1
falls usually on the second syllable of a compound or derivative word,
and this syllable (as in C) is frequently short.

(a) D^1 –́ | –́ –̀ ×

  (1) cwēn Hrōðgāres, B. 614,                    –́ | –́ –̀ ×
  (2) dǣl ǣghwylcne, B. 622,                     –́ | –́ –̀ ×
  (1) Bēowulf maðelode, B. 632,                –́ × | ˘́͜× ˘̀ ×
  (2) slāt unwearnum, B. 742,                    –́ | –́ –̀ ×
  (1) wrāþra wælsleahta, W. 7,                 –́ × | –́ –̀ ×
  (1) wōd wintercearig [= wint’rcearig], W. 24,  –́ | –́ ˘̀ ×
  (1) sōhte sęle drēorig, W. 25,               –́ × | ˘́͜× –̀ ×
  (1) ne sōhte searo-nīðas, B. 2739,       × | –́ × | ˘́͜× –̀ ×

  NOTE.--There is one instance in the texts (B. 613, (1)) of
  apparent –́ × × | –́ ˘̀ ×: #word wǣron wynsume#. (The triple
  alliteration has no significance. The sense, besides, precludes
  our stressing #wǣron#.) The difficulty is avoided by bringing the
  line under the A type: –́ × × | –́ ˘́͜×.

(b) D^2 –́ | –́ × –̀

  (2) Forð nēar ætstōp, B. 746,        –́ | –́ × –̀
  (2) eorl furður stōp, B. 762,        –́ | –́ × –̀
  (2) Dęnum eallum wearð, B. 768,    ˘́͜× | –́ × –̀
  (1) grētte Gēata lēod, B. 626,     –́ × | –́ × –̀
  (1) ǣnig yrfe-weard, B. 2732,      –́ × | –́ × –̀
  (1) hrēosan hrīm and snāw, W. 48,  –́ × | –́ × –̀
  (2) swimmað eft on weg, W. 53,     –́ × | –́ × –̀

Very rarely is the thesis in the second foot expanded.

  (2) þegn ungemete till, B. 2722,      –́ | –́ × × × –̀
  (1) hrūsan heolster biwrāh, W. 23,  –́ × | –́ × × –̀

5. TYPE E, {E^1 –́ –̀ × | –́
           {E^2 –́ × –̀ | –́

The secondary stress in E^1 falls frequently on a short syllable, as in
D^1.

(a) E^1 –́ –̀ × | –́

  (1) wyrmlīcum fāh, W. 98,       –́ –̀ × | –́
  (2) medo-ful ætbær, B. 625,   ˘́͜× ˘̀ × | –́
  (1) sǣ-bāt gesæt, B. 634,       –́ –̀ × | –́
  (1) sige-folca swēg, B. 645,  ˘́͜× –̀ × | –́
  (2) Norð-Dęnum stōd, B. 784,   –́ ˘̀ × | –́
  (1) fēond-grāpum fæst, B. 637,  –́ –̀ × | –́
  (2) wyn eal gedrēas, W. 36,     –́ –̀ × | –́
  (2) feor oft gemǫn, W. 90,      –́ –̀ × | –́

As in D^2, the thesis in the first foot is very rarely expanded.

  (1) wīn-ærnes geweald, B. 655,        –́ –̀ × × | –́
  (1) Hafa nū ǫnd geheald, B. 659,    ˘́͜× –̀ × × | –́
  (1) searo-þǫncum besmiðod, B. 776,  ˘́͜× –̀ × × | ˘́͜×

  NOTE.--Our ignorance of Old English sentence-stress makes it
  impossible for us to draw a hard-and-fast line in all cases
  between D^2 and E^1. For example, in these half-lines (already
  cited),

    wyn eal gedrēas
    feor oft gemǫn
    Forð nēar ætstōp

  if we throw a strong stress on the adverbs that precede their
  verbs, the type is D^2. Lessen the stress on the adverbs and
  increase it on the verbs, and we have E^1. The position of the
  adverbs furnishes no clue; for the order of words in Old English
  was governed not only by considerations of relative emphasis, but
  by syntactic and euphonic considerations as well.

(_b_) E^2 –́ × –̀ | –́

This is the rarest of all types. It does not occur in the texts, there
being but one instance of this type (l. 2437 (2)), and that doubtful, in
the whole of _Beowulf_.

_Abnormal Lines._

The lines that fall under none of the five types enumerated are
comparatively few. They may be divided into two classes,
(1) hypermetrical lines, and (2) defective lines.

(1) HYPERMETRICAL LINES.

Each hypermetrical half-line has usually three stresses, thus giving six
stresses to the whole line instead of two. These lines occur chiefly in
groups, and mark increased range and dignity in the thought. Whether the
half-line be first or second, it is usually of the A type without
anacrusis. To this type belong the last five lines of the _Wanderer_.
Lines 92 and 93 are also unusually long, but not hypermetrical. The
first half-line of 65 is hypermetrical, a fusion of A and C, consisting
of (–́××ע́͜– | –́×).

(2) DEFECTIVE LINES.

The only defective lines in the texts are B. 748 and 2715 (the second
half-line in each). As they stand, these half-lines would have to be
scanned thus:

  rǣhte ongēan      –́ × | × –́
  bealo-nīð wēoll  ˘́͜× –̀ | –́

Sievers emends as follows:

  rǣhte tōgēanes     –́ × × | –́ ×  = A
  bealo-nīðe wēoll  ˘́͜× –́ × | –́    = E^1

These defective half-lines are made up of syntactic combinations found
on almost every page of Old English prose. That they occur so rarely in
poetry is strong presumptive evidence, if further evidence were needed,
in favor of the adequacy of Sievers’ five-fold classification.

  NOTE.--All the lines that could possibly occasion any difficulty
  to the student have been purposely cited as illustrations under
  the different types. If these are mastered, the student will find
  it an easy matter to scan the lines that remain.



SELECTIONS FOR READING.


VI. EXTRACTS FROM BEOWULF.

THE BANQUET IN HEOROT. [Lines 612-662.]

  [The Heyne-Socin text has been closely followed. I have attempted
  no original emendations, but have deviated from the Heyne-Socin
  edition in a few cases where the Grein-Wülker text seemed to give
  the better reading.

  The argument preceding the first selection is as follows:
  Hrothgar, king of the Danes, or Scyldings, elated by prosperity,
  builds a magnificent hall in which to feast his retainers; but a
  monster, Grendel by name, issues from his fen-haunts, and night
  after night carries off thane after thane from the banqueting
  hall. For twelve years these ravages continue. At last Beowulf,
  nephew of Hygelac, king of the Geats (a people of South Sweden),
  sails with fourteen chosen companions to Dane-land, and offers his
  services to the aged Hrothgar. “Leave me alone in the hall
  to-night,” says Beowulf. Hrothgar accepts Beowulf’s proffered aid,
  and before the dread hour of visitation comes, the time is spent
  in wassail. The banquet scene follows.]


  Þǣr wæs hæleþa hleahtor,   hlyn swynsode,
  word wǣron wynsume.   Ēode Wealhþēow forð,
  cwēn Hrōðgāres,   cynna gemyndig;
  grētte gold-hroden   guman on healle,                        [615]
  ǫnd þā frēolīc wīf   ful gesealde
  ǣrest Ēast-Dęna   ēþel-wearde,
  bæd hine blīðne   æt þǣre bēor-þęge,
  lēodum lēofne;   hē on lust geþeah
  symbel ǫnd sęle-ful,   sige-rōf kyning.                      [620]
  Ymb-ēode þā   ides Helminga
  duguðe ǫnd geogoðe   dǣl ǣghwylcne,
  sinc-fato sealde,   oð þæt sǣl ālamp
  þæt hīo[1] Bēowulfe,   bēag-hroden cwēn,
  mōde geþungen,   medo[2]-ful ætbær;                          [625]
  grētte Gēata lēod,   Gode þancode
  wīs-fæst wordum,   þæs þe hire se willa gelamp,
  þæt hēo on ǣnigne   eorl gelȳfde
  fyrena frōfre.   Hē þæt ful geþeah,
  wæl-rēow wiga,   æt Wealhþēon,                               [630]
  ǫnd þā gyddode   gūðe gefȳsed;
  Bēowulf maðelode,   bearn Ecgþēowes:
  “Ic þæt hogode,   þā ic on holm gestāh,
  sǣ-bāt gesæt   mid mīnra sęcga gedriht,
  þæt ic ānunga   ēowra lēoda                                  [635]
  willan geworhte,   oððe on wæl crunge
  fēond-grāpum fæst.   Ic gefręmman sceal
  eorlīc ęllen,   oððe ęnde-dæg
  on þisse meodu[2]-healle   mīnne gebīdan.”
  Þām wīfe þā word   wel līcodon,                              [640]
  gilp-cwide Gēates;   ēode gold-hroden
  frēolicu folc-cwēn   tō hire frēan sittan.
  Þā wæs eft swā ǣr   inne on healle
  þrȳð-word sprecen,[3]   þēod on sǣlum,
  sige-folca swēg,    oþ þæt sęmninga                          [645]
  sunu Healfdęnes   sēcean wolde
  ǣfen-ræste;   wiste þǣm āhlǣcan[4]
  tō þǣm hēah-sęle   hilde geþinged,
  siððan hīe sunnan lēoht   gesēon _ne_ meahton
  oððe nīpende   niht ofer ealle,                              [650]
  scadu-helma gesceapu   scrīðan cwōman,[5]
  wan under wolcnum.   Werod eall ārās;
  grētte þā _giddum_   guma ōðerne
  Hrōðgār Bēowulf,   ǫnd him hǣl ābēad,
  wīn-ærnes geweald,   ǫnd þæt word ācwæð:                     [655]
  “Nǣfre ic ǣnegum[6] męn   ǣr ālȳfde,
  siððan ic hǫnd ǫnd rǫnd   hębban mihte,
  ðrȳþ-ærn Dęna   būton þē nū þā.
  Hafa nū ǫnd geheald   hūsa sēlest,
  gemyne mǣrþo,[7]   mægen-ęllen cȳð,                          [660]
  waca wið wrāðum.   Ne bið þē wilna gād,
  gif þū þæt ęllen-weorc   aldre[8] gedīgest.”

    [1] = hēo.
    [2] = medu-.
    [3] = gesprecen.
    [4] = āglǣcan.
    [5] = cwōmon.
    [6] = ǣnigum.
    [7] = mǣrþe (acc. sing.).
    [8] = ealdre (instr. sing.).

    [Linenotes:

    623: #sinc-fato sealde#. Banning (_Die epischen Formeln im
    Beowulf_) shows that the usual translation, _gave costly gifts_,
    must be given up; or, at least, that the _costly gifts_ are
    nothing more than _beakers of mead_. The expression is an epic
    formula for _passing the cup_.

    638-39: #ęnde-ðæg ... mīnne#. This unnatural separation of
    noun and possessive is frequent in O.E. poetry, but almost
    unknown in prose.

    641-42: #ēode ... sittan#. The poet might have employed #tō
    sittanne# (§ 108, (1)); but in poetry the infinitive is often
    used for the gerund. Alfred himself uses the infinitive or the
    gerund to express purpose after #gān#, #gǫngan#, #cuman#, and
    #sęndan#.

    647-51: #wiste ... cwōman#. A difficult passage, even with
    Thorpe’s inserted #ne#; but there is no need of putting a period
    after #geþinged#, or of translating #oððe# by _and_: _He
    (Hrothgar) knew that battle was in store_ (#geþinged#) _for the
    monster in the high hall, after_ [= _as soon as_] _they could no
    longer see the sun’s light, or_ [= _that is_] _after night came
    darkening over all, and shadowy figures stalking_. The subject
    of #cwōman# [= #cwōmon#] is #niht# and #gesceapu#.

    The student will note that the infinitive (#scrīðan#) is here
    employed as a present participle after a verb of motion
    (#cwōman#). This construction with #cuman# is frequent in prose
    and poetry. The infinitive expresses the kind of motion: #ic cōm
    drīfan# = _I came driving_.]


THE FIGHT BETWEEN BEOWULF AND GRENDEL. [Lines 740-837.]

  [The warriors all retire to rest except Beowulf. Grendel
  stealthily enters the hall. From his eyes gleams “a luster
  unlovely, likest to fire.” The combat begins at once.]

  Ne þæt se āglǣca   yldan þōhte,                              [740]
  ac hē gefēng hraðe   forman sīðe
  slǣpendne rinc,   slāt unwearnum,
  bāt bān-locan,   blōd ēdrum dranc,
  syn-snǣdum swealh;   sōna hæfde
  unlyfigendes   eal gefeormod                                 [745]
  fēt ǫnd folma.   Forð nēar ætstōp,
  nam þā mid handa   hige-þihtigne
  rinc on ræste;   rǣhte ongēan
  fēond mid folme;   hē onfēng hraþe
  inwit-þancum   ǫnd wið earm gesæt.                           [750]
  Sōna þæt onfunde   fyrena hyrde,
  þæt hē ne mētte   middan-geardes,
  eorðan scēatta,   on ęlran męn
  mund-gripe māran;   hē on mōde wearð
  forht, on ferhðe;   nō þȳ ǣr fram meahte.                    [755]
  Hyge wæs him hin-fūs,   wolde on heolster flēon,
  sēcan dēofla gedræg;   ne wæs his drohtoð þǣr,
  swylce hē on ealder[1]-dagum   ǣr gemētte.
  Gemunde þā se gōda   mǣg Higelāces
  ǣfen-sprǣce,   ūp-lang āstōd                                 [760]
  ǫnd him fæste wiðfēng;   fingras burston;
  eoten wæs ūt-weard;   eorl furþur stōp.
  Mynte se mǣra,   hwǣr hē meahte swā,
  wīdre gewindan   ǫnd on weg þanon
  flēon on fęn-hopu;   wiste his fingra geweald                [765]
  on grames grāpum.   Þæt wæs gēocor sīð,
  þæt se hearm-scaþa   tō Heorute[2] ātēah.
  Dryht-sęle dynede;   Dęnum eallum wearð
  ceaster-būendum,   cēnra gehwylcum,
  eorlum ealu-scerwen.   Yrre wǣron bēgen                      [770]
  rēþe rēn-weardas.   Ręced hlynsode;
  þā wæs wundor micel,   þæt se wīn-sęle
  wiðhæfde heaþo-dēorum,   þæt hē on hrūsan ne fēol,
  fǣger fold-bold;   ac hē þæs fæste wæs
  innan ǫnd ūtan   īren-bęndum                                 [775]
  searo-þǫncum besmiðod.   Þǣr fram sylle ābēag
  medu-bęnc mǫnig,   mīne gefrǣge,
  golde geregnad,   þǣr þā graman wunnon;
  þæs ne wēndon ǣr   witan Scyldinga,
  þæt hit ā mid gemete   manna ǣnig,                           [780]
  betlīc ǫnd bān-fāg,   tōbrecan meahte,
  listum tōlūcan,   nymþe līges fæðm
  swulge on swaþule.   Swēg ūp āstāg
  nīwe geneahhe;   Norð-Dęnum stōd
  atelīc ęgesa,   ānra gehwylcum,                              [785]
  þāra þe of wealle   wōp gehȳrdon,
  gryre-lēoð galan   Godes ǫndsacan,
  sige-lēasne sang,   sār wānigean
  hęlle hæfton.[3]   Hēold hine fæste,
  sē þe manna wæs   mægene stręngest                           [790]
  on þǣm dæge   þysses līfes.
  Nolde eorla hlēo   ǣnige þinga
  þone cwealm-cuman   cwicne forlǣtan,
  nē his līf-dagas   lēoda ǣnigum
  nytte tealde.   Þǣr genehost brǣgd                           [795]
  eorl Bēowulfes   ealde lāfe,
  wolde frēa-drihtnes   feorh ealgian,
  mǣres þēodnes,   ðǣr hīe meahton swā.
  Hīe ðæt ne wiston,   þā hīe gewin drugon,
  heard-hicgende   hilde-męcgas,                               [800]
  ǫnd on healfa gehwone   hēawan þōhton,
  sāwle sēcan:   þone syn-scaðan
  ǣnig ofer eorðan   īrenna cyst,
  gūþ-billa nān,   grētan nolde;
  ac hē sige-wǣpnum   forsworen hæfde,                         [805]
  ęcga gehwylcre.   Scolde his aldor[4]-gedāl
  on ðǣm dæge   þysses līfes
  earmlīc wurðan[5]   ǫnd se ęllor-gāst
  on fēonda geweald   feor sīðian.
  Þā þæt onfunde,   sē þe fela ǣror                            [810]
  mōdes myrðe   manna cynne
  fyrene gefręmede   (hē _wǣs_ fāg wið God),
  þæt him se līc-hǫma   lǣstan nolde,
  ac hine se mōdega[6]   mǣg Hygelāces
  hæfde be hǫnda;   wæs gehwæþer ōðrum                         [815]
  lifigende lāð.   Līc-sār gebād
  atol ǣglǣca[7];   him on eaxle wearð
  syn-dolh sweotol;   seonowe onsprungon;
  burston bān-locan.   Bēowulfe wearð
  gūð-hrēð gyfeðe.   Scolde Gręndel þǫnan                      [820]
  feorh-sēoc flēon   under fęn-hleoðu,[8]
  sēcean wyn-lēas wīc;   wiste þē geornor,
  þæt his aldres[9] wæs   ęnde gegǫngen,
  dōgera dæg-rīm.   Dęnum eallum wearð
  æfter þām wæl-rǣse   willa gelumpen.                         [825]
  Hæfde þā gefǣlsod,   sē þe ǣr feorran cōm,
  snotor ǫnd swȳð-ferhð,   sęle Hrōðgāres,
  genęred wið nīðe.   Niht-weorce gefeh,
  ęllen-mǣrþum;   hæfde Ēast-Dęnum
  Gēat-męcga lēod   gilp gelǣsted;                             [830]
  swylce oncȳððe   ealle gebētte,
  inwid-sorge,   þe hīe ǣr drugon
  ǫnd for þrēa-nȳdum   þolian scoldon,
  torn unlȳtel.   Þæt wæs tācen sweotol,
  syððan hilde-dēor   hǫnd ālęgde,                             [835]
  earm ǫnd eaxle   (þǣr wæs eal geador
  Gręndles grāpe)   under gēapne hrōf.

    [1] = ealdor-.
    [2] = Heorote.
    [3] = hæftan.
    [4] = ealdor-.
    [5] = weorðan.
    [6] = mōdiga.
    [7] = āglǣca.
    [8] = -hliðu.
    [9] = ealdres.

    [Linenotes:

    740: #þæt#, the direct object of #yldan#, refers to the
    contest about to ensue. Beowulf, in the preceding lines, was
    wondering how it would result.

    746: #ætstōp#. The subject of this verb and of #nam# is
    Grendel; the subject of the three succeeding verbs (#rǣhte#,
    #onfēng#, #gesæt#) is Beowulf.

    751-52: The O.E. poets are fond of securing emphasis or of
    stimulating interest by indirect methods of statement, by
    suggesting more than they affirm. This device often appears in
    their use of negatives (#ne#, l. 13; p. 140, l. 3; #nō#, p. 140,
    l. 1 [[lines 752, 757, 755]]), and in the unexpected prominence
    that they give to some minor detail usually suppressed because
    understood; as where the narrator, wishing to describe the
    terror produced by Grendel’s midnight visits to Heorot, says
    (ll. 138-139), “Then was it easy to find one who elsewhere, more
    commodiously, sought rest for himself.” It is hard to believe
    that the poet saw nothing humorous in this point of view.

    755: #nō ... meahte#, _none the sooner could he away_. The
    omission of a verb of motion after the auxiliaries #magan,
    mōtan, sculan#, and #willan# is very frequent. _Cf._ Beowulf’s
    last utterance, p. 147, l. 17 [[line 2817]].

    768: The lines that immediately follow constitute a fine bit
    of description by indication of effects. The two contestants are
    withdrawn from our sight; but we hear the sound of the fray
    crashing through the massive old hall, which trembles as in a
    blast; we see the terror depicted on the faces of the Danes as
    they listen to the strange sounds that issue from their former
    banqueting hall; by these sounds we, too, measure the progress
    and alternations of the combat. At last we hear only the
    “terror-lay” of Grendel, “lay of the beaten,” and know that
    Beowulf has made good his promise at the banquet (#gilp
    gelǣsted#).

    769: #cēnra gehwylcum#. The indefinite pronouns (§ 77) may be
    used as adjectives, agreeing in case with their nouns; but they
    frequently, as here, take a partitive genitive: #ānra
    gehwylcum#, _to each one_ (= _to each of ones_); #ǣnige#
    (instrumental) #þinga#, _for any thing_ (= _for any of things_);
    #on healfa gehwone#, _into halves_ (= _into each of halves_);
    #ealra dōgra gehwām#, _every day_ (= _on each of all days_);
    #ūhtna gehwylce#, _every morning_ (= _on each of mornings_).

    780: Notice that #hit#, the object of #tōbrecan#, stands for
    #wīn-sęle#, which is masculine. See p. 39, Note 2 [[§ 55, 2]].
    #Manna# is genitive after #gemete#, not after #ǣnig#.

    787-89: #gryre-lēoð ... hæfton# [= #hæftan#]. Note that verbs
    of hearing and seeing, as in Mn.E., may be followed by the
    infinitive. They heard _God’s adversary sing_ (#galan#) ...
    _hell’s captive bewail_ (#wānigean#). Had the present participle
    been used, the effect would have been, as in Mn.E., to emphasize
    the agent (the subject of the infinitive) rather than the action
    (the infinitive itself).

    795-96: #þǣr ... lāfe#. Beowulf’s followers now seem to have
    seized their swords and come to his aid, not knowing that
    Grendel, having forsworn war-weapons himself, is proof against
    the best of swords. _Then many an earl of Beowulf’s_ (= _an earl
    of B. very often_) _brandished his sword._ That no definite earl
    is meant is shown by the succeeding #hīe meahton# instead of #hē
    meahte#. See p. 110, Note.  [[Linenote 110.5-6]

    799: _They did not know this_ (#ðæt#), _while they were
    fighting_; but the first #Hīe# refers to the warriors who
    proffered help; the second #hīe#, to the combatants, Beowulf and
    Grendel. In apposition with #ðǣt#, stands the whole clause,
    #þone synscaðan# (object of #grētan#) #... nolde#. The second,
    or conjunctional, #ðæt# is here omitted before #þone#. See
    p. 112, note on ll. 18-19.

    837: #grāpe# = genitive singular, feminine, after #eal#.]


BEOWULF FATALLY WOUNDED. [Lines 2712-2752.]

  [Hrothgar, in his gratitude for the great victory, lavishes gifts
  upon Beowulf; but Grendel’s mother must be reckoned with. Beowulf
  finds her at the sea-bottom, and after a desperate struggle slays
  her. Hrothgar again pours treasures into Beowulf’s lap. Beowulf,
  having now accomplished his mission, returns to Sweden. After a
  reign of fifty years, he goes forth to meet a fire-spewing dragon
  that is ravaging his kingdom. In the struggle Beowulf is fatally
  wounded. Wiglaf, a loyal thane, is with him.]

                    Þā sīo[1] wund ongǫn,
  þe him se eorð-draca   ǣr geworhte,
  swēlan ǫnd swellan.   Hē þǣt sōna onfand,
  þǣt him on brēostum   bealo-nīð wēoll                       [2715]
  āttor on innan.   Þā se æðeling gīong,[2]
  þæt hē bī wealle,   wīs-hycgende,
  gesæt on sesse;   seah on ęnta geweorc,
  hū þā stān-bogan   stapulum fæste
  ēce eorð-ręced   innan healde.                              [2720]
  Hyne þā mid handa   heoro-drēorigne,
  þēoden mǣrne,   þegn ungemete till,
  wine-dryhten his   wætere gelafede,
  hilde-sædne,   ǫnd his helm onspēon.
  Bīowulf[3] maðelode;   hē ofer bęnne spræc,                 [2725]
  wunde wæl-blēate;   wisse hē gearwe,
  þæt hē dæg-hwīla   gedrogen hæfde
  eorðan wynne;   þā wæs eall sceacen
  dōgor-gerīmes,   dēað ungemete nēah:
  “Nū ic suna mīnum   syllan wolde                            [2730]
  gūð-gewǣdu,   þǣr mē gifeðe swā
  ǣnig yrfe-weard   æfter wurde
  līce gelęnge.   Ic ðās lēode hēold
  fīftig wintra;   næs se folc-cyning
  ymbe-sittendra   ænig þāra,                                 [2735]
  þe mec gūð-winum   grētan dorste,
  ęgesan ðēon.   Ic on earde bād
  mǣl-gesceafta,   hēold mīn tela,
  nē sōhte searo-nīðas,   nē mē swōr fela
  āða on unriht.   Ic ðæs ealles mæg,                         [2740]
  feorh-bęnnum sēoc,   gefēan habban;
  for-þām mē wītan ne ðearf   Waldend[4] fīra
  morðor-bealo[5] māga,   þonne mīn sceaceð
  līf of līce.   Nū ðū lungre geong[6]
  hord scēawian   under hārne stān,                           [2745]
  Wīglāf lēofa,   nū se wyrm ligeð,
  swefeð sāre wund,   since berēafod.
  Bīo[7] nū on ofoste,   þæt ic ǣr-welan,
  gold-ǣht ongite,   gearo scēawige
  swegle searo-gimmas,   þæt ic ðȳ sēft mæge                  [2750]
  æfter māððum-welan   mīn ālǣtan
  līf ǫnd lēod-scipe,   þone ic lǫnge hēold.”

    [Linenotes:

    2716: #se æðeling# is Beowulf.

    2718: #ęnta geweorc# is a stereotyped phrase for anything that
    occasions wonder by its size or strangeness.

    2720: #healde#. Heyne, following Ettmüller, reads #hēoldon#,
    thus arbitrarily changing mood, tense, and number of the
    original. Either mood, indicative or subjunctive, would be
    legitimate. As to the tense, the narrator is identifying himself
    in time with the hero, whose wonder was “how the stone-arches
    ... _sustain_ the ever-during earth-hall”: the construction is a
    form of _oratio recta_, a sort of _miratio recta_. The singular
    #healde#, instead of #healden#, has many parallels in the
    dependent clauses of _Beowulf_, most of these being relative
    clauses introduced by #þāra þe# (= _of those that ..._ + a
    singular predicate). In the present instance, the predicate has
    doubtless been influenced by the proximity of #eorð-ręced#, a
    _quasi_-subject; and we have no more right to alter to #healden#
    or #hēoldon# than we have to change Shakespeare’s _gives_ to
    _give_ in

        “Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath _gives_.”
          (_Macbeth_, II, i, 61.)

    2722: The #þegn ungemete till# is Wiglaf, the bravest of
    Beowulf’s retainers.

    2725: #hē ofer bęnne spræc#. The editors and translators of
    _Beowulf_ invariably render #ofer# in this passage by _about_;
    but Beowulf says not a word about his wound. The context seems
    to me to show plainly that #ofer# (cf. Latin _supra_) denotes
    here opposition = _in spite of_. We read in _Genesis_, l. 594,
    that Eve took the forbidden fruit #ofer Drihtenes word#. Beowulf
    fears (l. 2331) that he may have ruled unjustly = #ofer ealde
    riht#; and he goes forth (l. 2409) #ofer willan# to confront the
    dragon.

    2731-33: #þǣr mē ... gelęnge#, _if so be that_ (#þǣr ... swā#)
    _any heir had afterwards been given me_ (#mē gifeðe ... æfter
    wurde#) _belonging to my body_.

    2744-45: #geong# [= #gǫng#] #... scēawian#. See note on #ēode
    ... sittan#, p. 137, ll. 19-20 [[lines 641-42]]. In Mn.E. _Go
    see, Go fetch_, etc., is the second verb imperative (coördinate
    with the first), or subjunctive (_that you may see_), or
    infinitive without _to_?

    2751-52: #mīn ... līf#. See note on #ęnde-dæg ... mīnne#,
    p. 137, ll. 16-17 [[lines 638-39]].]

    [1] = sēo.
    [2] = gēong.
    [3] = Bēowulf.
    [4] = Wealdend.
    [5] = morðor-bealu.
    [6] = gǫng (gang).
    [7] = Bēo.


BEOWULF’S LAST WORDS. [Lines 2793-2821.]

  [Wiglaf brings the jewels, the tokens of Beowulf’s triumph.
  Beowulf, rejoicing to see them, reviews his career, and gives
  advice and final directions to Wiglaf.]

                _Bīowulf[1] maðelode_,
  gǫmel on giohðe   (gold scēawode):
  “Ic þāra frætwa   Frēan ealles ðanc,                        [2795]
  Wuldur-cyninge,   wordum sęcge
  ęcum Dryhtne,   þe ic hēr on starie,
  þæs þe ic mōste   mīnum lēodum
  ǣr swylt-dæge   swylc gestrȳnan.
  Nū ic on māðma hord   mīne bebohte                          [2800]
  frōde feorh-lęge,   fręmmað gē nū
  lēoda þearfe;   ne mæg ic hēr lęng wesan.
  Hātað heaðo-mǣre   hlǣw gewyrcean,
  beorhtne æfter bǣle   æt brimes nosan;
  sē scel[2] tō gemyndum   mīnum lēodum                       [2805]
  hēah hlīfian   on Hrǫnes næsse,
  þæt hit sǣ-līðend   syððan hātan[3]
  Bīowulfes[1] biorh[1]   þā þe brentingas
  ofer flōda genipu   feorran drīfað.”
  Dyde him of healse   hring gyldenne                         [2810]
  þīoden[1] þrīst-hȳdig;   þegne gesealde,
  geongum gār-wigan,   gold-fāhne helm,
  bēah ǫnd byrnan,   hēt hyne brūcan well.
  “Þū eart ęnde-lāf   ūsses cynnes,
  Wǣgmundinga;   ealle wyrd forswēop                          [2815]
  mīne māgas   tō metod-sceafte,
  eorlas on ęlne;   ic him æfter sceal.”
  Þæt wæs þām gǫmelan   gingeste word
  brēost-gehygdum,   ǣr hē bǣl cure,
  hāte heaðo-wylmas;   him of hreðre gewāt                    [2820]
  sāwol sēcean   sōð-fæstra dōm.

  [1] īo, io = ēo, eo.
  [2] = sceal.
  [3] = hāten.

    [Linenotes:

    2795-99: The expression #sęcgan þanc# takes the same
    construction as #þancian#; i.e., the dative of the person
    (#Frēan#) and the genitive (a genitive of cause) of the thing
    (#þāra frætwa#). Cf. note on #biddan#, p. 45 [[§ 65, 3]]. The
    antecedent of #þe# is #frætwa#. For the position of #on#, see
    § 94, (5). The clause introduced by #þæs þe# (_because_) is
    parallel in construction with #frætwa#, both being causal
    modifiers of #sęcge þanc#. The Christian coloring in these lines
    betrays the influence of priestly transcribers.

    2800: _Now that I, in exchange for_ (#on#) _a hoard of
    treasures, have bartered_ (#bebohte#) _the laying down_ (#-lęge#
    > #licgan#) _of my old life._ The ethical codes of the early
    Germanic races make frequent mention of blood-payments, or
    life-barters. There seems to be here a suggestion of the
    “wergild.”

    2801: #fręmmað gē#. The plural imperative (as also in #Hātað#)
    shows that Beowulf is here speaking not so much to Wiglaf in
    particular as, through Wiglaf, to his retainers in general,--to
    his _comitatus_.

    2806: The desire for conspicuous burial places finds frequent
    expression in early literatures. The tomb of Achilles was
    situated “high on a jutting headland over wide Hellespont that
    it might be seen from off the sea.” Elpenor asks Ulysses to bury
    him in the same way. Æneas places the ashes of Misenus beneath a
    high mound on a headland of the sea.

    2807: #hit = hlǣw#, which is masculine. See p. 39, Note 2
    [[§ 55, 2]].

    2810-11: #him ... þīoden#. The reference in both cases is to
    Beowulf, who is disarming himself (#do-of# > _doff_) for the
    last time; #þegne# = _to Wiglaf_.

    Note, where the personal element is strong, the use of the
    dative instead of the more colorless possessive; #him of
    healse#, not #of his healse#.

    2817: #ic ... sceal#. See note on #nō ... meahte#, p. 140,
    l. 1 [[line 755]].

    2820: #him of hreðre#. Cf. note on #him ... þīoden#, p. 147,
    ll. 10-11 [[lines 2810-11]].

    2820-21: For construction of #gewāt ... sēcean#, see note on
    #ēode ... sittan#, p. 137, ll. 19-20 [[lines 641-42]].]


VII. THE WANDERER.

  [Exeter MS. “The epic character of the ancient lyric appears
  especially in this: that the song is less the utterance of a
  momentary feeling than the portrayal of a lasting state, perhaps
  the reflection of an entire life, generally that of one isolated,
  or bereft by death or exile of protectors and friends.” (Ten
  Brink, _Early Eng. Lit._, I.) I adopt Brooke’s threefold division
  (_Early Eng. Lit._, p. 356): “It opens with a Christian prologue,
  and closes with a Christian epilogue, but the whole body of the
  poem was written, it seems to me, by a person who thought more of
  the goddess Wyrd than of God, whose life and way of thinking were
  uninfluenced by any distinctive Christian doctrine.”

  The author is unknown.]


PROLOGUE.

  Oft him ānhaga   āre gebīdeð,
  Metudes[1] miltse,   þēah þe hē mōdcearig
  geond lagulāde   lǫnge sceolde
  hrēran mid hǫndum   hrīmcealde sǣ,
  wadan wræclǣstas:   wyrd bið ful ārǣd!                         [5]
  Swā cwæð eardstapa   earfeþa[2] gemyndig,
  wrāþra wælsleahta,   winemǣga hryres:

PLAINT OF THE WANDERER.

  “Oft ic sceolde āna   ūhtna gehwylce
  mīne ceare cwīþan;   nis nū cwicra nān,
  þe ic him mōdsefan   mīnne durre                              [10]
  sweotule[3] āsęcgan.   Ic tō sōþe wāt
  þæt biþ in eorle   indryhten þēaw,
  þæt hē his ferðlocan   fæste binde,
  healde his hordcofan,   hycge swā hē wille;
  ne mæg wērig mōd   wyrde wiðstǫndan                           [15]
  nē sē hrēo hyge   helpe gefręmman:
  for ðon dōmgeorne   drēorigne oft
  in hyra brēostcofan   bindað fæste.
  Swā ic mōdsefan   mīnne sceolde
  oft earmcearig   ēðle bidǣled,                                [20]
  frēomǣgum feor   feterum sǣlan,
  siþþan gēara iū   goldwine mīnne
  hrūsan heolster biwrāh,   and ic hēan þǫnan
  wōd wintercearig   ofer waþema gebind,
  sōhte sęle drēorig   sinces bryttan,                          [25]
  hwǣr ic feor oþþe nēah   findan meahte
  þone þe in meoduhealle[4]   miltse wisse
  oþþe mec frēondlēasne   frēfran wolde,
  węnian mid wynnum.   Wāt sē þe cunnað
  hū slīþen bið   sorg tō gefēran                               [30]
  þām þe him lȳt hafað   lēofra geholena:
  warað hine wræclāst,   nāles wunden gold,
  ferðloca frēorig,   nālæs foldan blǣd;
  gemǫn hē sęlesęcgas   and sincþęge,
  hū hine on geoguðe   his goldwine                             [35]
  węnede tō wiste:   wyn eal gedrēas!
  For þon wāt sē þe sceal   his winedryhtnes
  lēofes lārcwidum   lǫnge forþolian,
  ðonne sorg and slǣp   sǫmod ætgædre
  earmne ānhagan   oft gebindað:                                [40]
  þinceð him on mōde   þæt hē his mǫndryhten
  clyppe and cysse,   and on cnēo lęcge
  hǫnda and hēafod,   swā hē hwīlum ǣr
  in gēardagum   giefstōles brēac;
  ðonne onwæcneð eft   winelēas guma,                           [45]
  gesihð him biforan   fealwe wǣgas,
  baþian brimfuglas,   brǣdan feþra,
  hrēosan hrīm and snāw   hagle gemęnged.
  Þonne bēoð þȳ hęfigran   heortan bęnne,
  sāre æfter swǣsne;   sorg bið genīwad;                        [50]
  þonne māga gemynd   mōd geondhweorfeð,
  grēteð glīwstafum,   georne geondscēawað.
  Sęcga geseldan   swimmað eft on weg;
  flēotendra ferð[5]   nō þǣr fela bringeð
  cūðra cwidegiedda;   cearo[6] bið genīwad                     [55]
  þām þe sęndan sceal   swīþe geneahhe
  ofer waþema gebind   wērigne sefan.
  For þon ic geþęncan ne mæg   geond þās woruld
  for hwan mōdsefa   mīn ne gesweorce,
  þonne ic eorla līf   eal geondþęnce,                          [60]
  hū hī fǣrlīce   flęt ofgēafon,
  mōdge maguþegnas.   Swā þēs middangeard
  ealra dōgra gehwām   drēoseð and fealleþ;
  for þon ne mæg weorþan wīs   wer, ǣr hē āge
  wintra dǣl in woruldrīce.   Wita sceal geþyldig,              [65]
  ne sceal nō tō hātheort   nē tō hrædwyrde,
  nē tō wāc wiga   nē tō wanhȳdig,
  nē tō forht nē tō fægen   nē tō feohgīfre,
  nē nǣfre gielpes tō georn,   ǣr hē geare cunne.
  Beorn sceal gebīdan,   þonne hē bēot spriceð,                 [70]
  oþ þæt collenferð   cunne gearwe
  hwider hreþra gehygd   hweorfan wille.
  Ongietan sceal glēaw hæle   hū gǣstlīc bið,
  þonne eall þisse worulde wela   wēste stǫndeð,
  swā nū missenlīce   geond þisne middangeard                   [75]
  winde biwāune[7]   weallas stǫndaþ,
  hrīme bihrorene,[8]   hryðge þā ederas.
  Wōriað þā wīnsalo,[9]   waldend licgað
  drēame bidrorene[10];   duguð eal gecrǫng
  wlǫnc bī wealle:   sume wīg fornōm,                           [80]
  fęrede in forðwege;   sumne fugel[11] oþbær
  ofer hēanne holm;   sumne sē hāra wulf
  dēaðe gedǣlde;   sumne drēorighlēor
  in eorðscræfe   eorl gehȳdde:
  ȳþde swā þisne eardgeard   ælda Scyppend,                     [85]
  oþ þæt burgwara   breahtma lēase
  eald ęnta geweorc   īdlu stōdon.
  Sē þonne þisne wealsteal   wīse geþōhte,
  and þis deorce līf   dēope geondþęnceð,
  frōd in ferðe[12]   feor oft gemǫn                            [90]
  wælsleahta worn,   and þās word ācwið:
  ‘Hwǣr cwōm mearg? hwǣr cwōm mago[13]? hwǣr cwōm māþþumgyfa?
  hwǣr cwōm symbla gesetu?    hwǣr sindon sęledrēamas?
  Ēalā beorht bune!   ēalā byrnwiga!
  ēalā þēodnes þrym!   hū sēo þrāg gewāt,                       [95]
  genāp under nihthelm,   swā hēo nō wǣre!
  Stǫndeð nū on lāste   lēofre duguþe
  weal wundrum hēah,   wyrmlīcum fāh:
  eorlas fornōmon   asca þrȳþe,
  wǣpen wælgīfru,   wyrd sēo mǣre;                             [100]
  and þās stānhleoþu[14]   stormas cnyssað;
  hrīð hrēosende   hrūsan bindeð,
  wintres wōma,   þonne wǫn cymeð,
  nīpeð nihtscūa,   norþan onsęndeð
  hrēo hæglfare   hæleþum on andan.                            [105]
  Eall is earfoðlīc   eorþan rīce,
  onwęndeð wyrda gesceaft   weoruld under heofonum:
  hēr bið feoh lǣne,   hēr bið frēond lǣne,
  hēr bið mǫn lǣne,   hēr bið mǣg lǣne;
  eal þis eorþan gesteal   īdel weorþeð!’”                     [110]

EPILOGUE.

  Swā cwæð snottor on mōde,   gesæt him sundor æt rune.
  Til biþ sē þe his trēowe gehealdeð;
        ne sceal nǣfre his torn tō rycene
  beorn of his brēostum ācȳþan,   nemþe hē ǣr þā bōte cunne;
  eorl mid ęlne gefręmman.   Wel bið þām þe him āre sēceð,
  frōfre tō Fæder on heofonum,
        þǣr ūs eal sēo fæstnung stǫndeð.                       [115]

    [1] = Metodes.
    [2] = earfoþa.
    [3] = sweotole.
    [4] = medu-.
    [5] = ferhð.
    [6] = cearu.
    [7] See bewāwan.
    [8] See behrēosan.
    [9] = wīnsalu.
    [10] See bedrēosan.
    [11] = fugol.
    [12] = ferhðe.
    [13] = magu.
    [14] = -hliðu.

    [Linenotes:

    7: The MS. reading is #hryre# (nominative), which is
    meaningless.

    8: For #ūhtna gehwylce#, see note on #cēnra gehwylcum#,
    p. 140 [[_Beowulf_ 769]].

    10: #þe ... him#. See § 75 (4). Cf. _Merchant of Venice_,
    II, v, 50-51.

    27: For #mine# (MS. #in#), which does not satisfy metrical
    requirements, I adopt Kluge’s plausible substitution of
    #miltse#; #miltse witan# = _to show_ (_know, feel_), _pity_. The
    #myne wisse# of _Beowulf_ (l. 169) is metrically admissible.

    37: The object of #wāt# is #þinceð him on mōde#; but the
    construction is unusual, inasmuch as both #þæt’s# (#þæt#
    pronominal before #wāt# and #þæt# conjunctional before #þinceð#)
    are omitted. See p. 112, ll. 18-19.

    41: #þinceð him on mōde# (see note on #him ... þīoden#, p. 147
    [[_Beowulf_ 2810-11]]). “No more sympathetic picture has
    been drawn by an Anglo-Saxon poet than where the wanderer in
    exile falls asleep at his oar and dreams again of his dead lord
    and the old hall and revelry and joy and gifts,--then wakes to
    look once more upon the waste of ocean, snow and hail falling
    all around him, and sea-birds dipping in the spray.” (Gummere,
    _Germanic Origins_, p. 221.)

    53-55: #Sęcga ... cwidegiedda# = _But these comrades of
    warriors_ [= those seen in vision] _again swim away_ [= _fade
    away_]; _the ghost of these fleeting ones brings not there many
    familiar words_; i.e. he sees in dream and vision the old
    familiar faces, but no voice is heard: they bring neither
    greetings to him nor tidings of themselves.

    65: #Wita sceal geþyldig#. Either #bēon# (#wesan#) is here
    to be understood after #sceal#, or #sceal# alone means _ought to
    be_. Neither construction is to be found in Alfredian prose,
    though the omission of a verb of motion after #sculan# is common
    in all periods of Old English. See note on #nō ... meahte#,
    p. 140 [[_Beowulf_ 755]].

    75: #swā nū#. “The Old English lyrical feeling,” says Ten
    Brink, citing the lines that immediately follow #swā nū#, “is
    fond of the image of physical destruction”; but I do not think
    these lines have a merely figurative import. The reference is to
    a period of real devastation, antedating the Danish incursions.
    “We might fairly find such a time in that parenthesis of bad
    government and of national tumult which filled the years between
    the death of Aldfrith in 705 and the renewed peace of
    Northumbria under Ceolwulf in the years that followed 729.”
    (Brooke, _Early Eng. Lit._, p. 355.)

    93: #cwōm ... gesetu#. Ettmüller reads #cwōmon#; but see
    p. 107, note on #wæs ... þā īgland# [[linenote 107.14-15]]. The
    occurrence of #hwǣr cwōm# three times in the preceding line
    tends also to hold #cwōm# in the singular when its plural
    subject follows. Note the influence of a somewhat similar
    structural parallelism in _seas hides_ of these lines (_Winter’s
    Tale_, IV, iv, 500-502):

      “Not for ... all the _sun sees_ or
      The close _earth wombs_ or the profound _seas hides_
      In unknown fathoms, will I break my oath.”

    111: #gesæt ... rūne#, _sat apart to himself in silent
    meditation_.

    114: #eorl ... gefręmman#. Supply #sceal# after #eorl#.]



I. GLOSSARY.

OLD ENGLISH--MODERN ENGLISH.


[The order of words is strictly alphabetical, except that ð follows t.
The combination æ follows ad.

Gender is indicated by the abbreviations, m. (= masculine), f.
(= feminine), n. (= neuter). The usual abbreviations are employed for
the cases, nom., gen., dat., acc., and instr. Other abbreviations are
sing. (= singular), pl. (= plural), ind. (= indicative mood), sub.
(= subjunctive mood), pres. (= present tense), pret. (= preterit tense),
prep. (= preposition), adj. (= adjective), adv. (= adverb), part.
(= participle), conj. (= conjunction), pron. (= pronoun), intrans.
(= intransitive), trans. (= transitive).

Figures not preceded by § refer to page and line of the texts.]

  [[Transcriber’s Note:
  References to verse selections (pages 136-153) are followed by the
  actual line number in [[double brackets]].]


#A.#

  ā, _ever, always, aye_.
  abbudisse, f., _abbess_ [Lat. abbatissa].
  ābēodan (§ 109), _bid, offer_;
    him hǣl ābēad 138, 9 [[_Beowulf_ 654]] = _bade him hail, wished him
      health_.
  ābrecan (§ 120, Note 2), _break down, destroy_.
  ābūgan (§ 109, Note 1), _give way, start_ [bow away].
  ac, conj., _but_.
  ācweðan (§ 115), _say, speak_.
  ācȳðan (§ 126), _reveal, proclaim_ [cūð].
  ād, m., _funeral pile_.
  adesa, m., _adze, hatchet_.
  ǣ (ǣw), f., _law_.
  ǣdre (ēdre), f., _stream, canal, vein_;
    blōd ēdrum dranc 139, 4 [[_Beowulf_ 743]] = _drank blood in streams_
      (instr.).
  ǣfæstnis, f., _piety_.
  ǣfen-ræst, f., _evening rest_.
  ǣfen-sprǣc, f., _evening speech_.
  ǣfęst (ǣwfęst), _law-abiding, pious_.
  ǣfęstnis, see ǣfæstnis.
  ǣfre, _ever, always_.
  ǣfter, prep. (§ 94, (1)), _after_;
    ǣfter ðǣm, _after that, thereafter_;
    æfter ðǣm ðe, conj., _after_.
  æfter, adv., _after, afterwards_.
  ǣghwā (§ 77, Note), _each, every_.
  ǣghwilc (§ 77, Note), _each, any_.
  ǣglǣca, see āglǣca.
  ǣgðer (ǣghwæðer, āðer) (§ 77, Note), _each, either_;
    ǣgðer ... ōðer ... ōðer, _either ... or ... or_;
    ǣgðer ge ... ge (§ 95, (2)), _both ... and_;
    ǣgðer ge ... ge ... ge, _both ... and ... and_.
  ǣht, f., _property, possession_ [āgan].
  ǣlc (§ 77), _each_.
  ælde (ielde) (§ 47), m. pl., _men_; gen. pl., ælda.
  ælmihtig, _almighty_.
  ǣmetta, m., _leisure_ [_empti_-ness].
  ǣnig (§ 77), _any_;
    ǣnige ðinga 141, 22 [[_Beowulf_ 792]] = _for anything_.
    (See 140, 15 [[_Beowulf_ 769]], Note.)
  ǣr, adv., _before, formerly, sooner_;
    nō þȳ ǣr 140, 1 [[_Beowulf_ 755]] = _none the sooner_;
    ǣror, comparative, _before, formerly_;
    ǣrest, superlative, _first_.
  ǣr, conj. (§ 105, 2), _ere, before_ = ǣr ðǣm ðe.
  ǣr, prep, with dat., _before_ (time);
    ǣr ðǣm ðe, conj. (§ 105, 2), _before_.
  ærcebisceop, m., _archbishop_ [Lat. archiepiscopus].
  ǣrendgewrit, n., _message, letter_.
  ǣrendwreca (-raca), m., _messenger_.
  ǣrest, adj. (§ 96, (4)), _first_.
  ærnan (§ 127), _ride, gallop_ [iernan].
  ǣrra, adj. (§ 96, (4)), _former_.
  ǣrwela, m., _ancient wealth_.
  æsc, m., _ash, spear_; gen. pl., asca.
  Æscesdūn, f., _Ashdown_ (in Berkshire).
  æstel, m., _book-mark_ [Lat. hastula].
  æt (§ 94, (1)), _at, in_;
    with leornian, _to learn_, geðicgan, _to receive_, and other verbs
      of similar import,
    æt = _from_: 115, 18; 137, 8 [[_Beowulf_ 630]], etc.
  ætberan (§ 114), _bear to, hand_.
  ætgæd(e)re, adv., _together_.
  ætsteppan (§ 116), _step up, advance_; pret. sing., ætstōp.
  æðele, _noble, excellent_.
  æðeling, m., _a noble, prince_.
  Æðelwulfing, m., _son of Ethelwulf_.
  Æðered, m., _Ethelred_.
  āfeallan (§ 117), _fall_.
  āfierran (§ 127), _remove_ [feor].
  āgan (§ 136), _to own, possess_.
  āgen, adj.-part., _own_; dat. sing., āgnum [āgan].
  āgiefan (§ 115), _give back_.
  āglǣca (ǣglǣca), m., _monster, champion_.
  āhton, see āgan.
  ālǣtan (§ 117), _let go, leave_.
  aldor, see ealdor.
  ālęcgan (§ 125, Note), _lay down_ [licgan]; past part., ālēd.
  Ālīesend, m., _Redeemer_ [ālīesan = _release, ransom_].
  ālimpan (§ 110), _befall, occur_.
  ālȳfan (§ 126), _entrust, permit_.
  ambor, m., _measure_; gen. pl., ambra (§ 27, (4)).
  ambyre, _favorable_.
  ān (§ 89), _one_;
    āna, _alone, only_;
    ānra gehwylcum 141, 15 [[_Beowulf_ 785]] = _to each one_.
    (See 140, 15, Note. [[_Beowulf_ 769]])
  anda, m., _zeal, injury, indignation_;
    hæleðum on andan 153, 6 [[_Wanderer_ 105]] = _harmful to men_.
  andēfn, f., _proportion, amount_.
  andgiet (-git), n., _sense, meaning_.
  andgitfullīce, _intelligibly_;
    -gitfullīcost, _superlative_.
  andswaru, f., _answer_.
  andwyrdan (§ 127), _to answer_; pret., andwyrde.
  Angel, n., _Anglen_ (in Denmark); dat. sing., Angle (§ 27 (4)).
  Angelcynn, n., _English kin, English people, England_.
  ānhaga (-hoga), m., _a solitary, wanderer_ [ān + hogian,
      _to meditate_].
  ānlīpig, _single, individual_.
  ānunga (§ 93, (2)), _once for all_ [ān].
  apostol, m., _apostle_ [Gr. ἀπόστολος].
  ār, f., _honor, property, favor_;
    āre gebīdeð 148, 3 [[_Wanderer_ 1]] = _waits for divine favor_
      (gen.).
  ārǣd, adj., _inexorable_.
  ārǣdan (§ 126), _read_.
  āręcc(e)an (§ 128), _translate, expound_.
  ārfæstnis, f., _virtue_.
  ārīsan (§ 102), _arise_.
  asca, see aesc.
  āsęcgan (§ 132), _say, relate_.
  āsęttan (§ 127), _set, place_.
  āsingan (§ 110), _sing_.
  āspęndan (§ 127), _spend, expend_.
  āstīgan (§ 102), _ascend, arise_.
  āstǫndan (§ 116), _stand up_.
  ātēah, see ātēon.
  atelīc, _horrible, dire_.
  ātēon (§ 118), _draw, draw away, take_ (as a journey).
  atol, _horrible, dire_.
  āttor, n., _poison_.
  ātuge, see ātēon.
  āð, m., _oath_.
  āðer, see ǣgðer.
  āwęccan (§ 128), _awake, arouse_; pret. sing., āweahte, āwęhte.
  aweg, _away_.
  āwęndan (§ 127), _turn, translate_.
  āwrītan (§ 102), _write, compose_.
  āwyrcan (§ 128), _work, do, perform_.


#B.#

  Bāchsęcg, m., _Bagsac_.
  bæcbord, n., _larboard, left side of a ship_.
  bǣl, n., _funeral fire, funeral pile_.
  bān, n., _bone_.
  bān-fāg, _adorned with bones_ or _antlers_.
  bān-loca, m., _flesh_ [bone-locker].
  Basengas, m. pl., _Basing_ (in Hantshire).
  be (bī) (§ 94, (1)), _by, about, concerning, near, along,
      according to_;
    be norðan þǣm wēstenne (§ 94, (4)), _north of the waste (desert)_;
    be fullan, _fully, perfectly_.
  bēag, see būgan.
  bēag-hroden, _ring-adorned_.
  bēah (bēag), m., _ring, bracelet, collar_ [būgan].
  bealo-nīð, m., _dire hatred, poison, venom_.
  bearn, n., _child, son_ [bairn].
  bebēodan (§ 109), _command, bid, entrust_ (with dat.).
  bebīo-, see bebēo-.
  bebohte, see bebycgan.
  bebycgan (§ 128), _sell_.
  bēc, see bōc.
  becuman (§ 114), _come, arrive, befall_.
  bedǣlan (§ 126), _separate, deprive_.
  bedrēosan (§ 109), _deprive_; past part. pl., bedrorene (bidrorene)
      [dross, dreary].
  befǣstan (§ 127), _fasten, implant_.
  befēolan (§ 110), _apply one’s self_;
    ðāra ðe ðā spēda hæbben ðǣt hīe ðǣm befēolan mægen 119, 20 =
      _of those who have the means by which they may apply themselves
      to it_.
  beforan, prep. with dat., _before_.
  bēgen (declined like twēgen, § 89), _both_.
  begeondan (begiondan), prep. with dat., _beyond_.
  begietan (§ 115), _get, obtain, find_.
  beginnan (§ 110), _begin_.
  beheonan (behionan), prep. with dat., _on this side of_.
  behreōsan (§ 109), _fall upon, cover_; past part. pl., behrorene
      (bihrorene).
  belimpan (§ 110), _pertain, belong_.
  beniman (§ 114), _take, derive_.
  bęnn, f., _wound_ [bana = _murderer_].
  bēon (bīon) (§ 134), _be, consist_.
  beorh (beorg, biorh), m., _mound_ [barrow].
  beorht, _bright, glorious_.
  Beormas, m. pl., _Permians_.
  beorn, m., _man, hero, chief_.
  bēor-þęgu, f., _beer-drinking_ [þicgan = _receive_].
  bēot, n., _boast_.
  beran (§ 114), _bear_.
  berēafian (§ 130), _bereave_;
    since berēafod 145, 22 [[_Beowulf_ 2747]] = _bereft of treasure_.
  beren, adj., _of a bear, bear_.
  berstan (§ 110), _burst, crack_.
  besmiðian (§ 130), _make hard_ (as at the forge of a smith).
  bęt, see wel (§ 97, (2)).
  bētan (§ 126), _make good, requite_; past part. pl., gebētte.
  bętera (bętra), see gōd (§ 96, (3)).
  betlīc, _excellent_.
  bętsta, see gōd (§ 96, (3)).
  betuh (betux) (§ 94, (1)), _between_.
  betwēonan (§ 94, (1)), _between_.
  betȳnan (§ 126), _close, end_ [tūn = _enclosure_].
  bewāwan (§ 117), _blow upon_; past part. pl., bewāune (biwāune,
      bewāwene).
  bewrēon (§ 118, 1), _enwrap_; pret. 3d sing., bewrāh (biwrāh).
  bī, see be.
  bi-, see be-.
  bīdan (§ 102), _bide, await, expect, endure_ (with gen.).
  biddan (§ 115, Note 2), _bid, pray, request_ (§ 65, Note 3);
    bæd hine blīðne 136, 7 [[_Beowulf_ 618]] = _bade him be blithe_.
  bindan (§ 110), _bind_.
  bīo, see bēo (imperative sing.).
  bisceop (biscep), m., _bishop_ [Lat. episcopus].
  bisceop-stōl, m., _episcopal seat, bishopric_.
  bisigu, f., _business, occupation_; dat. pl., bisgum.
  bītan (§ 102), _bite, cut_.
  biwrāh, see bewrēon.
  blǣd, m., _glory, prosperity_ [blāwan = _blow, inflate_].
  Blēcinga-ēg, f., _Blekingen_.
  bliss, f., _bliss_ [blīðe].
  blīðe, _blithe, happy_.
  blōd, n., _blood_.
  bōc (§ 68, (1), Note 1), f., _book_.
  bōcere, m., _scribe_ [bōc].
  bǫna (bana), m., _murderer_ [bane].
  bōt, f., _boot, remedy, help, compensation_.
  brād (§ 96, (1)), _broad_.
  brǣdan (§ 126), _extend, spread_ [brād].
  brǣdra, see brād.
  brægd, see bregdan.
  brēac, see brūcan.
  breahtm, m., _noise, revelry_;
    burgwara breahtma lēase 152, 10 [[_Wanderer_ 86]] = _bereft of the
      revelries of citizens_.
  bregdan (§ 110), _brandish, draw_ [braid]; pret. ind. 3d sing., brægd.
  brenting, m., _high ship_.
  brēost, n., _breast_ (the pl. has the same meaning as the sing.).
  brēost-cofa, m., _breast-chamber, heart, mind_.
  brēost-gehygd, n., _breast-thought, thought of the heart, emotion_.
  brim, n., _sea, ocean_.
  brimfugol, m., _sea-fowl_.
  bringan (§ 128), _bring_.
  brōhte, brōhton, see bringan.
  brōðor (brōður) (§ 68, (2)), m., _brother_.
  brūcan (§ 109, Note 1), _use, enjoy_ (§ 62, Note 1; but Alfred
      frequently employs the acc. with brūcan).
  brycg, f., _bridge_.
  brȳcð, see brūcan.
  brytta, m., _distributor, dispenser_ [brēotan = _break in pieces_].
  būan (§ 126, Note 2), _dwell, cultivate_ [bower].
  būde, see būan.
  bufan, prep. with dat. and acc., _above_.
  būgan (§ 109, Note 1), _bow, bend, turn_.
  bune, f., _cup_.
  burg (burh) (§ 68, (1), Note), f., _city, borough_; dat. sing., byrig.
  Burgenda, m. gen. pl., _of the Burgundians_;
    Burgenda land, _Bornholm_.
  burgware (§ 47), m. pl., _burghers, citizens_.
  burh, see burg.
  būtan (būton), prep. (§ 94, (1)), _without, except, except for, but_.
  būtan (būton), conj., _except that, unless_.
  būtū, _both_ (= _both_--_two_.
    The word is compounded of the combined neuters of bēgen and twēgen,
      but is m. and f. as well as n.).
  bȳn (§ 126, Note 2), _cultivated_.
  byrde, adj., _of high rank, aristocratic_.
  byrig, see burg.
  byrne, f., _byrnie, corselet, coat of mail_.
  byrnwiga, m., _byrnie-warrior, mailed soldier_.
  byrð, see beran.


#C.#

  canōn, m., _sacred canon, Bible_ [Lat. canon, Gr. κανών].
  cearu (cearo), f., _care_.
  ceaster-būend, m., _castle-dweller_.
  cēne, _keen, bold, brave_.
  cēosan (§ 109), _choose, accept, encounter_.
  cild, n., _child_.
  cirice, f., _church_; nom. pl., ciricean.
  cirr (cierr), m., _turn, time, occasion_ [char, chore, ajar = on
      char, on the turn].
  cirran (§ 127), _turn_.
  clǣne, _clean, pure_.
  clǣne, adv., _entirely _ [“clean out of the way,” Shaks.].
  clūdig, _rocky_ [having boulders or masses like _clouds_].
  clyppan (§ 127), _embrace, accept_ [clip = clasp for letters, papers,
      etc.].
  cnapa, m., _boy_ [knave].
  cnēo (cnēow), n., _knee_; acc. pl., cnēo.
  cniht, m., _knight, warrior_.
  cnyssan (§ 125), _beat_.
  collenferð (-ferhð), _proud-minded, fierce_.
  costnung, f., _temptation_.
  Crēcas (Crēacas), m. pl., _Greeks_.
  cringan (§ 110), _cringe, fall_.
  Crīst, m., _Christ_.
  Crīsten, _Christian_; nom. pl. m., Crīstene, Crīstne.
  cuma, m., _new-comer, stranger_.
  cuman (§ 114), _come_. (See p. 138, Note on ll. 2-6.)
  cunnan (§ 137), _know, can, understand_.
  cunnian (§ 130), _make trial of, experience_ [cunnan].
  cure, see cēosan.
  cūð, _well-known, familiar_ [past part. of cunnan: cf. uncouth].
  cūðe, cūðen, cūðon, see cunnan.
  cwǣden, cwǣdon, see cweðan.
  cwalu, f., _death, murder_ [cwelan].
  cwealm-cuma, m., _murderous comer_.
  cwelan (§ 114), _die_ [to quail].
  cwēn, f., _queen_.
  Cwēnas, m. pl., _a Finnish tribe_.
  cweðan (§ 115), _say, speak_ [quoth, bequeath].
  cwic, _living, alive_ [quicksilver; the quick and the dead].
  cwidegiedd, n., _word, utterance_ [cweðan and gieddian, both meaning
      _to speak_].
  cwīðan (§ 126), _bewail_ (trans.).
  cwōm, see cuman.
  cyle (ciele), m., _cold_ [chill];
    cyle gewyrcan 110, 7 = _produce cold, freeze_.
  cyme, m., _coming_ [cuman].
  cyn(n), n., _kin, race_.
  cyn(n), adj. (used only in pl.), _fitting things, etiquette,
      proprieties, courtesies_;
    cynna gemyndig 136, 3 [[_Beowulf_ 614]] = _mindful of courtesies_.
  cynerīce, n., _kingdom_.
  cyning, m., _king_.
  cyssan (§ 125), _kiss_.
  cyst, f., _the choice, the pick, the best_ [cēosan].
  cȳðan (§ 126), _make known, display_, [cūð];
    2d sing. imperative, cȳð.


#D.#

  dǣd, f., _deed_.
  dæg, m., _day_.
  dæg-hwīl, f., _day-while, day_;
    hē dæg-hwīla gedrogen hæfde eorðan wynne 145, 2 [[_Beowulf_ 2727]] =
      _he had spent his days of earth’s joy_.
  dæg-rīm, n., number of days [day-rime];
    dōgera daeg-rīm 143, 7 [[_Beowulf_ 824]] = _the number of his days_.
  dæl, n., _dale_.
  dǣl, m., _part, deal, division_.
  dēad, _dead_.
  dēað, m., _death_.
  dēman (§ 126), _deem, judge_.
  Dęnamearc, see Dęnemearc.
  Dęne (§ 47), m. pl., _Danes_.
  Dęnemearc (Dęnemearce), f., _Denmark_; dat. sing., Dęnemearce
      (strong), Dęnemearcan (weak).
  Dęnisc, _Danish_;
    ðā Dęniscan, _the Danes_.
  dēofol, m., n., _devil_; gen. sing., dēofles (§ 27, (4)).
  dēope, _deeply, profoundly_ [dēop].
  dēor, n., _wild animal_ [deer].
  deorc, _dark, gloomy_.
  dōgor, n., _day_; gen. pl., dōgora, dōgera, dōgra.
  dōgor-gerīm, n., _number of days, lifetime_.
  dōm, m., _doom, judgment, glory_.
  dōmgeorn, adj., _eager for glory_ [_doom-yearning_].
  dōn (§ 135), _do, cause, place, promote, remove_.
  dorste, dorston, see durran.
  drēam, m., _joy, mirth_ [dream].
  drēogan (§ 109), _endure, enjoy, spend_ [Scotch dree].
  drēorig, _dreary, sad_.
  drēorighlēor, adj., _with sad face_ [hlēor = _cheek, face, leer_].
  drēosan (§ 109), _fall, perish_ [dross].
  drīfan (§ 102), _drive_.
  drihten, see dryhten.
  drincan (§ 110), _drink_.
  drohtoð (-að), m., _mode of living, occupation_ [drēogan].
  drugon, see drēogan.
  dryhten (drihten), m., _lord, Lord_; dat. sing., dryhtne.
  dryht-sęle, m., _lordly hall_.
  duguð, f., _warrior-band, host, retainers_ [doughtiness].
    In duguð and geogoð, the higher (older) and lower (younger) ranks
      are represented, the distinction corresponding roughly to the
      mediæval distinction between knights and squires.
  durran (§ 137), _dare_.
  duru, f., _door_.
  dyde, see dōn.
  dynnan (§ 125), resound [din].
  dȳre (dīere, dēore, dīore), _dear, costly_.


#E.#

  ēa, f., _river_; gen. sing., ēas; dat. and acc. sing., ēa.
  ēac, _also, likewise_ [a nickname = an eek-name. See § 65, Note 2];
    ēac swilce (swelce) 112, 3 = _also_.
  ēaca, m., _addition_ [ēac];
    tō ēacan = _in addition to_ (§ 94, (4)).
  ēage, n., _eye_.
  eahta, _eight_.
  ēalā, _oh!_ _alas!_
  ealað, see ealu.
  eald (§ 96, (2)), _old_.
  ealdor (aldor), n., _life_;
    gif ðū ðæt ęllenweorc aldre gedīgest 138, 17 [[_Beowulf_ 662]] = _if
      thou survivest that feat with thy life_ (instr.).
  ealdor-dæg (aldor-, ealder-), m., _day of life_.
  ealdor-gedāl (aldor-), n., _death_ [life-deal].
  ealdormǫn, m., _alderman, chief, magistrate_.
  ealgian, (§ 130), _protect, defend_.
  eall (eal), _all_;
    ealne weg, _all the way_ (§ 98, (1));
    ealneg (< ealne weg), _always_;
    ealles (§ 98, (3)), adv., _altogether, entirely_.
    Eall (eal) is frequently used with partitive gen. = _all of_:
      143, 19 [[_Beowulf_ 836]]; 145, 3 [[_Beowulf_ 2728]].
  ealu (ealo) (§ 68), n., _ale_; gen. sing., ealað.
  ealu-scerwen, f., _mortal panic_ [ale-spilling].
  eard, m., _country, home_ [eorðe].
  eardgeard, m. _earth_ [earth-yard].
  eardian (§ 130), _dwell_ [eard].
  eardstapa, m., _wanderer_ [earth-stepper].
  ēare, n., _ear_.
  earfoð (earfeð), n. _hardship, toil_; gen. pl., earfeða.
  earfoðlīc, adj., _full of hardship, arduous_.
  earm, m., _arm_.
  earm, adj., _poor, wretched_.
  earmcearig, _wretched, miserable_.
  earmlīc, _wretched, miserable_.
  earnung, f., _merit_ [earning].
  ēast, _east_.
  ēastan (§ 93, (5)), _from the east_.
  Ēast-Dęne (§ 47), _East-Danes_.
  ēasteweard, _eastward_.
  ēastrihte (ēastryhte) (§ 93, (6)), _eastward_.
  Ēastron, pl., _Easter_.
  ēaðe, _easily_.
  ēaðmōdlīce, _humbly_.
  eaxl, f., _shoulder_ [axle].
  Ebrēisc, adj., _Hebrew_.
  ēce, _eternal, everlasting_.
  ęcg, f., _sword_ [edge].
  edor, m., _enclosure, dwelling_; nom. pl., ederas.
  ēdrum, see ǣdre.
  efne, adv., _just, only_ [evenly].
  eft, adv., _again, afterwards_ [aft].
  ęgesa, m., _fear, terror_ [awe].
  ęllen, n., _strength, courage_;
    mid ęlne = _boldly_;
    on ęlne 147, 17 [[_Beowulf_ 2817]] = _mightily, suddenly_, or _in
      their (earls’) strength (prime)_.
  ęllen-mǣrðu, f. _fame for strength, feat of strength_.
  ęllen-weorc, n., _feat of strength_.
  ęllenwōdnis, f., _zeal, fervor_.
  ęllor-gāst, m., _inhuman monster_ [alien ghost].
  ęln, f., _ell_ [el-bow].
  ęlne, _see_ ęllen.
  ęlra, adj. comparative, _another_ [*ęle cognate with Lat. alius];
    on ęlran męn 139, 14 [[_Beowulf_ 753]] = _in another man_.
  emnlong (-lang), _equally long_;
    on emnlange = _along_ (§ 94, (4)).
  ęnde, m., _end_.
  ęndebyrdnes, f., _order_.
  ęnde-dæg, m., _end-day, day of death_.
  ęnde-lāf, f., _last remnant_ [end-leaving].
  ęngel, m., _angel_ [Lat. angelus].
  Ęnglafeld (§ 51), m., _Englefield_ (in Berkshire).
  Ęngle (§ 47), m. pl., _Angles_.
  Ęnglisc, adj., _English_;
    on Ęnglisc 117, 18 and 19 = _in English, into English_.
  Ęngliscgereord, n., _English language_.
  ęnt, m., _giant_.
  ēode, see gān.
  eodorcan (§ 130), _ruminate_.
  eorl, m., _earl, warrior, chieftain_.
  eorlīc, _earl-like, noble_.
  eorð-draca, m., dragon [earth-drake].
  eorðe, f., _earth_.
  eorð-ręced, n., _earth-hall_.
  eorðscræf, n., _earth-cave, grave_.
  eoten, m., _giant, monster_.
  ēow, see ðū.
  Ēowland, n., _Öland_ (an island in the Baltic Sea).
  ęrian (§ 125), _plow_ [to ear].
  Estland, n., _land of the Estas_ (on the eastern coast of the Baltic
      Sea).
  Estmęre, m., _Frische Haff_.
  Estum, dat. pl., _the Estas_.
  etan (§ 115), _eat_ [ort].
  ęttan (§ 127), _graze_ [etan].
  ēðel, m., _territory, native land_ [allodial].
  ēðel-weard, m., _guardian of his country_.


#F.#

  fæc, n., _interval, space_.
  fæder (§ 68, (2)), m., _father_.
  fægen, _fain, glad, exultant_.
  fæger (fǣger), _fair, beautiful_.
  fǣlsian (§ 130), _cleanse_.
  fǣrlīce, _suddenly_ [fǣr = _fear_].
  fæst, _fast, held fast_.
  fæste, adv., _fast, firmly_.
  fæstnung, f., _security, safety_.
  fæt, n., _vessel_ [wine-fat, vat].
  fǣtels, m., _vessel_; acc. pl., fǣtels.
  fæðm, m., _embrace, bosom_ [fathom = the space _embraced_ by the
      extended arms].
  fāg (fāh), _hostile_;
    hē wæs fāg wið God 142, 18 [[_Beowulf_ 812]] = _he was hostile to
      God_.
  fāh (fāg), _variegated, ornamented_.
  Falster, _Falster_ (island in the Baltic Sea).
  fandian (§ 130), _try, investigate_ [findan].
  faran (§ 116), _go_ [fare].
  feallan (§ 117), _fall, flow_.
  fealu, _fallow, pale, dark_; nom. pl. m., fealwe.
  fēawe (fēa, fēawa), pl., _few_.
  fela (indeclinable), _much, many_ (with gen.).
  feld (§ 51), m., _field_.
  fell (fel), n., _fell, skin, hide_.
  fēng, see fōn.
  fęn-hlið, n., _fen-slope_.
  fęn-hop, n., _fen-retreat_.
  feoh, n., _cattle, property_ [fee]; gen. and dat. sing., fēos, fēo.
  feohgīfre, _greedy of property, avaricious_.
  feohtan (§ 110), _fight_.
  fēol, see feallan.
  fēond (§ 68, (3)), m., _enemy, fiend_.
  fēond-grāp, f., _fiend-grip_.
  feor (§ 96, (4)), adj., _far, far from_ (with dat.).
  feor, adv., _far, far back_ (time).
  feorh, m., n., _life_.
  feorh-bęnn, f., _life-wound, mortal wound_.
  feorh-lęgu, f., _laying down of life_. (See p. 146, Note on l. 13.
      [[_Beowulf_ 2800]])
  feorh-sēoc, _life-sick, mortally wounded_.
  feorm (fiorm), f., _use, benefit_ (_food, provisions_) [farm].
  feormian (§ 130), _eat, devour_.
  feorran, _from afar_.
  fēowertig, _forty_; gen., fēowertiges (§ 91, Note 1).
  ferhð (ferð), m., _heart, mind, spirit_.
  fęrian (§ 125), _carry, transport_ [to ferry];
    fęrede in forðwege 152, 5 [[_Wanderer_ 81]] = _carried away_.
  fers, n., _verse_ [Lat. versus].
  fersc, _fresh_.
  ferðloca (ferhð-), m., _heart, mind, spirit_ [heart-locker].
  fēt, see fōt.
  fetor, f., _fetter_ [fōt]; instr. pl., feterum.
  feðer, f., _feather_; acc. pl., feðra.
  fierd, f., _English army_ [faran].
  fīf, _five_.
  fīftīene, _fifteen_.
  fīftig, _fifty_; gen. sing., fīftiges (§ 91, Note 1); dat. pl.,
      fīftegum (§ 91, Note 3).
  findan (§ 110), _find_.
  finger, m., _finger_.
  Finnas, m. pl., _Fins_.
  fiorm, see feorm.
  fīras, m. pl., _men_ [feorh]; gen. pl., fīra; dat. pl., fīrum.
  firrest (fierrest), see feor (§ 96, (4)).
  first, m., _time, period_.
  fiscað (fiscnað), m., _fishing_.
  fiscere, m., _fisherman_.
  fiscnað, see fiscað.
  flēon (§ 118, II.), _flee_.
  flēotan (§ 109), _float_.
  flęt, n., _floor of the hall_.
  flōd, m., _flood, wave_.
  folc, n., _folk, people_.
  folc-cwēn, f., _folk-queen_.
  folc-cyning, m., _folk-king_.
  folcgefeoht, n., _folk-fight, battle, general engagement_.
  fold-bold, n., _earth-building, hall_.
  folde, f., _earth, land, country_ [feld].
  folm, f., _hand_ [fēlan = _feel_].
  fōn (§ 118), _seize, capture, take_ [fang];
    tō rīce fōn = _come to (ascend) the throne_.
  for (§ 94, (1)), _for, on account of_;
    for ðǣm (ðe), for ðon (ðe), _because_;
    for ðon, for ðȳ, for ðǣm (for-ðām), _therefore_.
  fōr, see faran.
  forbærnan (§ 127), _burn thoroughly_ [for is intensive, like Lat.
      per].
  forgiefan (-gifan) (§ 115), _give, grant_.
  forhęrgian (§ 130), _harry, lay waste_.
  forhogdnis, f., _contempt_.
  forht, _fearful, afraid_.
  forhwæga, _about, at least_.
  forlǣtan (§ 117), _abandon, leave_.
  forlēt, forlēton, see forlǣtan.
  forma, _first_;
    forman sīðe, _the first time_ (instr.).
  forniman (§ 114), _take off, destroy_.
  forspęndan (§ 127), _spend, squander_.
  forstǫndan (-standan) (§ 116), _understand_.
  forswāpan (§ 117), _sweep away_; pret. 3d sing. indic., forswēop.
  forswęrian (§ 116), _forswear_ (with dat.); past part., forsworen.
  forð, _forth, forward_.
  forðolian (§ 130), _miss, go without_ (with dat.) [not to _thole_
      or experience].
  forðweg, m., _way forth_;
    in forðwege, _away_.
  fōt (§ 68, (1)), m. _foot_.
  Frǣna, m., _Frene_.
  frætwe, f. pl., _fretted armor, jewels_ [fret].
  fram, see frǫm.
  frēa, m., _lord, Lord_.
  frēa-drihten, m., _lord, master_.
  frēfran (§ 130), _console, cheer_ [frōfor].
  fręmde, _strange, foreign_;
    ðā fręmdan, _the strangers_.
  fręmman (§ 125), _accomplish, perform, support_ [to frame].
  fręmsumnes (-nis), f., _kindness, benefit_.
  frēo (frīo), _free_; gen. pl., frēora (frīora).
  frēodōm, m., _freedom_.
  frēolīc, _noble_ [free-like].
  frēomǣg, m., _free kinsman_.
  frēond (§ 68, (3)), m., _friend_.
  frēondlēas, _friendless_.
  frēondlīce, _in a friendly manner_.
  frēorig, _cold, chill_ [frēoran].
  frīora, see frēo.
  frið, m., n., _peace, security_ [bel-_fry_].
  frōd, _old, sage, prudent_.
  frōfor, f., _comfort, consolation, alleviation_;
    fyrena frōfre 137, 7 [[_Beowulf_ 629]] = _as an alleviation of
      outrages_ (dat.).
  frǫm (fram) (§ 94, (1)), _from, by_.
  frǫm, adv., _away, forth_.
  fruma, m., _origin, beginning_ [frǫm].
  frumsceaft, f., _creation_.
  fugela, see fugol.
  fugelere, m., _fowler_.
  fugol (fugel), m., _fowl, bird_; gen. pl., fugela.
  ful, n., _cup, beaker_.
  fūl, _foul_.
  fūlian (§ 130), _grow foul, decompose_.
  full (ful), adj., _full_ (with gen.);
    be fullan, _fully, perfectly_.
  full (ful) adv., _fully, very_.
  fultum, m., _help_.
  furðor (furður), adv., _further_.
  furðum, adv., _even_.
  fylð, see feallan.
  fyren (firen), f., _crime, violence, outrage_.
  fyrhtu, f., _fright, terror_; dat. sing., fyrhtu.
  fyrst, adj., superlative, _first, chief_.
  fȳsan (§ 126), _make ready, prepare_ [fūs = _ready_];
    gūðe gefȳsed 137, 9 [[_Beowulf_ 631]] = _ready for battle_.


#G.#

  gād, n., _lack_.
  gǣst, see gāst.
  gafol, n., _tax, tribute_.
  galan (§ 116), _sing_ [nightingale].
  gālnes, f., _lust, impurity_.
  gān (§ 134), _go_.
  gār, m., _spear_ [gore, gar-fish].
  gār-wiga, m., _spear-warrior_.
  gāst (gǣst), m., _spirit, ghost_.
  gāstlīc (gǣstlīc), _ghastly, terrible_.
  ge, _and_; see ǣgðer.
  gē, _ye_; see ðū.
  geador, _together_.
  geǣmetigian (§ 130), _disengage from_ (with acc. of person and gen.
      of thing) [empty].
  geærnan (§ 127), _gain by running_ [iernan].
  gēap, _spacious_.
  gēar, n., _year_; gen. pl., gēara, is used adverbially = _of yore,
      formerly_.
  gēardæg, m., _day of yore_.
  geare (gearo, gearwe), _readily, well, clearly_ [yarely].
  Gēat, m., _a Geat, the Geat_ (i.e. Beowulf).
  Gēatas, m. pl., _the Geats_ (a people of South Sweden).
  Gēat-mecgas, m. pl., _Geat men_ (= the fourteen who accompanied
      Beowulf to Heorot).
  gebēorscipe, m., _banquet, entertainment_.
  gebētan (§ 126), _make amends for_ [bōt].
  gebīdan (§ 102), _wait, bide one’s time_ (intrans.); _endure,
      experience_ (trans., with acc.).
  gebind, n., _commingling_.
  gebindan (§ 110), _bind_.
  gebrēowan (§ 109), _brew_.
  gebrowen, see gebrēowan.
  gebūd, gebūn, see būan (§ 126, Note 2).
  gebyrd, n., _rank, social distinction_.
  gecēosan (§ 109), _choose, decide_.
  gecnāwan (§ 117), _know, understand_.
  gecoren, see gecēosan.
  gecringan (§ 110), _fall, die_ [cringe].
  gedǣlan (§ 126), _deal out, give_;
    dēaðe gedǣlde 152, 7 [[_Wanderer_ 83]] = _apportioned to death_
      (dat.), or, _tore (?) in death_ (instr.).
  gedafenian (§ 130), _become, befit, suit_ (impersonal, usually with
      dat., but with acc. 112, 10).
  gedīgan (§ 126), _endure, survive_.
  gedōn (§ 135), _do, cause, effect_.
  gedræg, n., _company_.
  gedrēosan (§ 109), _fall, fail_.
  gedriht (gedryht), n., _band, troop_.
  gedrogen, see drēogan.
  gedrync, n., _drinking_.
  geęndian (§ 130), _end, finish_.
  gefaran (§ 116), _go, die_.
  gefēa, m., joy.
  gefeaht, see gefeohtan.
  gefeh, see gefēon.
  gefēng, see gefōn.
  gefeoht, n., _fight, battle_.
  gefeohtan (§ 110), _fight_.
  gefēon (§ 118, v.), _rejoice at_ (with dat.); pret. 3d sing., gefeah,
      gefeh.
  gefēra, m., _companion, comrade_ [co-farer].
  geflīeman (§ 126), _put to flight_ [flēon].
  gefohten, see gefeohtan.
  gefōn (§ 118, vii.), _seize_.
  gefōr, see gefaran.
  gefrǣge, n., _hearsay, report_;
    mīne gefrǣge (instr.) 141, 7 [[_Beowulf_ 777]] = _as I have heard
      say, according to my information_.
  gefręmman (§ 125), _perform, accomplish, effect_.
  gefultumian (§ 130), _help_ [fultum].
  gefylce, n., _troop, division_ [folc]; dat. pl., gefylcum, gefylcium.
  gefyllan (§ 127), _fill_ (with gen.); past part. pl., f., gefylda.
  geglęngan (§ 127), _adorn_.
  gehātland, n., _promised land_ [gehātan = _to promise_].
  gehealdan (§ 117), _hold, maintain_.
  gehīeran (gehȳran) (§ 126), _hear_.
  gehīersumnes, f., _obedience_.
  gehola, m., _protector_ [helan].
  gehwā (§ 77, Note), _each_;
    on healfa gehwone 142, 7 [[_Beowulf_ 801]] (see Note 140, 15
      [[_Beowulf_ 769]]. Observe that the pron. may, as here, be masc.
      and the gen. fem.).
  gehwæðer (§ 77, Note), _each, either, both_.
  gehwylc (gehwilc) (§ 77, Note), _each_ (with gen. pl. See Note
      140, 15 [[_Beowulf_ 769]]).
  gehwyrfan (§ 127), _convert, change_.
  gehȳdan (§ 126), _hide, conceal, consign_.
  gehygd, f., n., _thought, purpose_.
  gehȳran, see gehīeran.
  gehȳrnes, f., _hearing_;
    eal ðā hē in gehȳrnesse geleornian meahte 115, 14 = _all things
      that he could learn by hearing_.
  gelǣdan (§ 126), _lead_.
  gelǣred, part.-adj., _learned_; superlative, gelǣredest.
  gelafian (§ 130), _lave_.
  gelęnge, _along of, belonging to_ (with dat.).
  geleornian (-liornian) (§ 130), _learn_.
  gelīce, _likewise_; _in like manner to_ (with dat.).
  gelīefan (gelȳfan) (§ 126), _believe_;
    ðæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl gelȳfde 137, 6 [[_Beowulf_ 628]] = _that she
      believed in any earl_.
  gelimpan (§ 110), _happen, be fulfilled_.
  gelimplīc, _proper, fitting_.
  gelȳfan, see gelīefan.
  gelȳfed, _weak, infirm_ [left (hand)].
  gēmde, see gīeman.
  gemet, n., _meter, measure, ability_.
  gemētan (§ 126), _meet_.
  gemǫn, see gemunan.
  gemunan (§ 136), _remember_; indic. pres. 1st and 3d sing., gemǫn;
      pret. sing., gemunde.
  gemynd, n., _memory, memorial_;
    tō gemyndum 147, 5 [[_Beowulf_ 2805]] = _as a memorial_.
  gemyndgian (-mynian) (§ 130), _remember_;
    mid hine gemyndgade 115, 15 = _he treasured in his memory_;
    gemyne mǣrðo 138, 15 [[_Beowulf_ 660]] = _be mindful of glory_
      (imperative 2d sing.).
  gemyndig, _mindful of_ (with gen.).
  genāp, see genīpan.
  geneahhe, _enough, often_;
    genehost, superlative, _very often_.
  genip, n., _mist, darkness_.
  genīpan (§ 102), _grow dark_.
  genīwian (§ 130), _renew_.
  genōh, _enough_.
  genumen, see niman.
  geoc, n., _yoke_.
  gēocor, _dire, sad_.
  geogoð, f., _youth, young people, young warriors_. (See duguð.)
  geond (giond) (§ 94, (2)), _throughout_ [yond].
  geondhweorfan (§ 110), _pass over, traverse, recall_;
    ðonne māga gemynd mōd geondhweorfeð 150, 15 [[_Wanderer_ 51]] =
      _then his mind recalls the memory of kinsmen_.
  geondscēawian (§ 130), survey, review;
    georne geondscēawað 150, 16 [[_Wanderer_ 52]] = _eagerly surveys
      them_.
  geondðęnc(e)an (§ 128), _think over, consider_.
  geong (§ 96, (2)), _young_;
    giengest, (gingest), superlative, _youngest, latest, last_.
  geong = gǫng, see gǫngan (imperative 2d sing.).
  gēong (gīong), see gǫngan (pret. 3d sing.).
  georn (giorn), _eager, desirous, zealous, sure_ [yearn].
  georne, _eagerly, certainly_;
    wiste ðē geornor 143, 5 [[_Beowulf_ 822]] = _knew the more
      certainly_.
  geornfulnes, f., _eagerness, zeal_.
  geornlīce, _eagerly, attentively_.
  geornor, see georne.
  geręcednes, f., _narration_ [ręccan].
  gerisenlīc, _suitable, becoming_.
  gerȳman (§ 126), _extend_, (trans.) [rūm].
  gesǣliglīc, _happy, blessed_ [silly].
  gesamnode, see gesǫmnian.
  gesceaft, f., _creature, creation, destiny_ [scieppan].
  gesceap, n., _shape, creation, destiny_ [scieppan].
  gescieldan (§ 127), _shield, defend_.
  gesealde, see gesęllan.
  geseglian (§ 130), _sail_.
  geselda, m., _comrade_.
  gesęllan (§ 128), _give_.
  gesēon (gesīon) (§ 118), _see_, observe; pres. indic. 3d sing.,
      gesihð.
  geset, n., _habitation, seat_.
  gesęttan (§ 127), _set, place, establish_.
  gesewen, see sēon, gesēon (past part.).
  gesewenlīc, _seen, visible_ [seen-like].
  gesiglan (§ 127), _sail_.
  gesihð, see gesēon.
  gesittan (§ 115, Note 2), _sit_ (trans., as _to sit a horse, to sit
      a boat_, etc.); _sit, sit down_ (intrans.).
  geslægen, see slēan (§ 118).
  gesǫmnian (§ 130), _assemble, collect_.
  gesǫmnung, f., _collection, assembly_.
  gestāh, see gestīgan.
  gestaðelian (§ 130), _establish, restore_ [standan].
  gesteal, n., _establishment, foundation_ [stall].
  gestīgan (§ 102), _ascend, go_ [stile, stirrup, sty (= a _rising_
      on the eye)].
  gestrangian (§ 130), _strengthen_.
  gestrēon, n., _property_.
  gestrȳnan (§ 126), _obtain, acquire_ [gestrēon].
  gesweorcan (§ 110), _grow dark, become sad_;
    For ðon ic geðęncan ne mæg geond ðās woruld for hwan mōdsefa mīn
      ne gesweorce 151, 3-4 [[lines 58-59]] = _Therefore in this world
      I may not understand wherefore my mind does not grow “black as
      night.”_ (Brooke.)
  geswīcan (§ 102), _cease, cease from_ (with gen.).
  getæl, n., _something told, narrative_.
  getruma, m., _troop, division_.
  geðanc, m., n., _thought_.
  geðeah, see geðicgan.
  geðęnc(e)an (§ 128), _think, remember, understand, consider_.
  geðēodan (§ 126), _join_.
  geðēode (-ðīode), n., _language, tribe_.
  geðēodnis, f., _association_;
    but in 112, 2 this word is used to render the Lat. _appetitus_ =
      _desire_.
  geðicg(e)an (§ 115, Note 2), _take, receive_; pret. indic. 3d sing.,
      geðeah.
  geðungen, part.-adj., _distinguished, excellent_ [ðēon, _to thrive_].
  geðyldig, _patient_ [ðolian].
  geweald (gewald), n., _control, possession, power_ [wield].
  geweorc, n., _work, labor_.
  geweorðian (§ 130), _honor_ [to attribute _worth_ to].
  gewīcian (§ 130), _dwell_.
  gewin(n), n., _strife, struggle_.
  gewindan (§ 110), _flee_ [wend].
  gewissian (§ 130), _guide, direct_.
  gewītan (§ 102), _go, depart_.
  geworht, see gewyrcan.
  gewrit, n., _writing, Scripture_.
  gewunian (§ 130), _be accustomed, be wont_.
  gewyrc(e)an (§ 128), _work, create, make, produce_.
  gid(d), n., _word, speech_.
  giefan (§ 115), _give_.
  giefstōl, m., _gift-stool, throne_.
  giefu (gifu), f., _gift_.
  gielp (gilp), m., n., _boast_ [yelp].
  gīeman (gēman) (§ 126), _endeavor, strive_.
  gīet (gīt, gȳt), _yet, still_.
  gif (gyf), _if_ [not related to _give_].
  gifeðe (gyfeðe), _given, granted_.
  gilp, see gielp.
  gilp-cwide, m., _boasting speech_ [_yelp_-speech].
  gingest, see geong (adj.).
  giohðo (gehðu), f., _care, sorrow, grief_.
  giū (iū), _formerly, of old_.
  glæd (glǣd), _glad_.
  glēaw, _wise, prudent_.
  glīwstæf, m., _glee, joy_; instr. pl. (used adverbially),
      glīwstafum 150, 16 [[_Wanderer_ 52]] = _joyfully_.
  God, m., _God_.
  gōd (§ 96, (3)), _good_;
    mid his gōdum 115, 12 = _with his possessions (goods)_.
  godcund, _divine_ [God].
  godcundlīce, _divinely_.
  gold, n., _gold_.
  gold-ǣht, f., _gold treasure_.
  gold-fāh, _gold-adorned_.
  gold-hroden, part.-adj., _gold-adorned_.
  goldwine, m., _prince, giver of gold, lord_ [gold-friend].
  gomel (gomol), _old, old man_.
  gǫngan (gangan) (§ 117), _go_ [gang]; imperative 2d sing., geong;
      pret. sing., gēong, gīong, gēng; past part., gegǫngen, gegangen.
    The most commonly used pret. is ēode, which belongs to gān (§ 134).
  Gotland, n., _Jutland_ (in _Ohthere’s Second Voyage_), _Gothland_
      (in _Wulfstan’s Voyage_).
  gram, _grim, angry, fierce, the angry one_.
  grāp, f., _grasp, clutch, claw_.
  grētan (§ 126), _greet, attack, touch_.
  grōwan (§ 117, (2)), _grow_.
  gryre-lēoð, n., _terrible song_ [grisly lay].
  guma, m., _man, hero_ [groom; see § 65, Note 1].
  gūð, f., _war, battle_.
  gūð-bill, n., _sword_ [war-bill].
  gūð-gewǣde, n., _armor_ [war-weeds].
  gūð-hrēð, f., _war-fame_.
  gūð-wine, m., _sword_ [war-friend].
  gyddian (§ 130), _speak formally_, chant [giddy; the original meaning
      of _giddy_ was _mirthful_, as when one sings].
  gyf, see gif.
  gyfeðe, see gifeðe.
  gyldan (gieldan) (§ 110), _pay_; indic. 3d sing., gylt.
  gylden, _golden_ [gold].


#H.#

  habban (§ 133), _have_.
  hād, m., _order, rank, office, degree_ [-hood, -head].
  hæfta, m., _captive_.
  hægel (hagol), m., _hail_; instr. sing., hagle.
  hæglfaru, f., _hail-storm_ [hail-faring].
  hæle, see hæleð.
  hǣl, f., _hail, health, good luck_.
  hæleð (hæle), m., _hero, warrior_.
  hǣt, see hātan.
  hǣðen, _heathen_.
  Hǣðum (æt Hǣðum), _Haddeby_ (= _Schleswig_).
  hāl, _hale, whole_.
  hālettan (§ 127), _greet, salute_ [to hail].
  Halfdęne, _Halfdane_ (proper name).
  hālga, m., _saint_.
  Hālgoland, _Halgoland_ (in ancient Norway).
  hālig, _holy_.
  hālignes, f., _holiness_.
  hām, m., _home_; dat. sing., hāme, hām (p. 104, Note);
    used adverbially in hām ēode 112, 18 = _went home_.
  hand, see hǫnd.
  hār, _hoary, gray_.
  hāt, _hot_.
  hātan (§ 117, Note 2), _call, name, command_; pret. sing., heht, hēt.
  hātheort, _hot-hearted_.
  hātte, see hātan.
  hē, hēo, hit (§ 53), _he, she, it_.
  hēafod, n., _head_.
  hēah (§ 96, (2)), _high_; acc. sing, m., hēanne.
  hēah-sęle, m., _high hall_.
  hēahðungen, _highly prosperous, aristocratic_ [hēah + past part. of
      ðēon (§ 118)].
  healdan (§ 117), _hold, govern, possess_;
    144, 9 [[_Beowulf_ 2720]] = _hold up, sustain_.
  healf, adj., _half_.
  healf, f., _half, side, shore_.
  heall, f., _hall_.
  heals, m., _neck_.
  hēan, _abject, miserable_.
  hēanne, see hēah.
  heard, _hard_.
  heard-hicgende, _brave-minded_ [hard-thinking].
  hearm-scaða, m., _harmful foe_ [harm-scather].
  hearpe, f., _harp_.
  heaðo-dēor, _battle-brave_.
  heaðo-mǣre, _famous in battle_.
  heaðo-wylm, m., _flame-surge, surging of fire_ [battle-welling].
  hēawan (§ 117), _hew, cut_.
  hębban, hōf, hōfon, gehafen (§ 117), _heave, lift, raise_.
  hęfig, _heavy, oppressive_.
  heht, see hātan.
  helan (§ 114), _conceal_.
  hęll, f., _hell_.
  helm, m., _helmet_.
  Helmingas, m. pl., _Helmings_ (Wealtheow, Hrothgar’s queen, is a
      Helming).
  help, f., _help_.
  helpan (§ 110), _help_ (with dat.).
  heofon, m., _heaven_.
  heofonlīc, _heavenly_.
  heofonrīce, n., _kingdom of heaven_.
  hēold, see healdan.
  heolstor (-ster), n., _darkness, concealment, cover_ [holster].
  heora (hiera), see hē.
  heord, f., care, guardianship [hoard].
  heoro-drēorig, _bloody_ [sword-dreary].
  Heorot, _Heorot, Hart_ (the famous hall which Hrothgar built).
  heorte, f., _heart_.
  hēr, _here, hither_;
    in the _Chronicle_ the meaning frequently is _at this date, in this
      year_: 99, 1.
  hęre, m., _Danish army_.
  hęrenis, f., _praise_.
  hęrgian (§ 130), _raid, harry, ravage_ [hęre].
  hęrgung, f., _harrying, plundering_.
  hęrian (hęrigean) (§ 125), _praise_.
  hērsumedon, see hīersumian.
  hēt, see hātan.
  hider (hieder), _hither_.
  hiera, see hē.
  hīeran (hȳran) (§ 126), _hear, belong_.
  hierde, m., _shepherd, instigator_ [keeper of a _herd_].
  hierdebōc, f., _pastoral treatise_ [shepherd-book, a translation of
      Lat. _Cura Pastoralis_].
  hīerra, see hēah.
  hīersumian (hȳr-, hēr-) (§ 130), _obey_ (with dat.).
  hige (hyge), m., _mind, heart_.
  hige-ðihtig, _bold-hearted_.
  hild, f., _battle_.
  hilde-dēor, _battle-brave_.
  hilde-mecg, m., _warrior_.
  hilde-sæd, _battle-sated_.
  hin-fūs, _eager to be gone_ [hence-ready].
  hira, see hē.
  hlǣw (hlāw), m., _mound, burial mound_ [Lud_low_ and other
      place-names, _low_ meaning _hill_].
  hlāford, m., _lord, master_ [loaf-ward?].
  hleahtor, m., _laughter_.
  hlēo, m., _refuge, protector_ [lee].
  hlīfian (§ 130), _rise, tower_.
  hlyn, m., _din, noise_.
  hlynsian (§ 130), _resound_.
  hof, n., _court, abode_.
  hogode, see hycgan.
  holm, m., _sea, ocean_.
  hǫnd (hand), f., _hand_;
    on gehwæðre hǫnd, _on both sides_.
  hord, m., n., _hoard, treasure_.
  hordcofa, m., _breast, heart_ [hoard-chamber]
  hors, n., _horse_.
  horshwæl, m., _walrus_.
  hrædwyrde, _hasty of speech_ [hræd = _quick_].
  hrægel, n., _garment_; dat. sing., hrægle.
  hrān, m., _reindeer_.
  hraðe, _quickly, soon_ [_rath_-er].
  hrēo (hrēoh), _rough, cruel, sad_.
  hrēosan (§ 109), _fall_.
  hrēran (§ 126), _stir_.
  hreðer, m., n., _breast, purpose_; dat. sing., hreðre.
  hrīm, m., _rime, hoarfrost_.
  hrīmceald, _rime-cold_.
  hring, m., _ring, ring-mail_.
  hrīð, f. (?), _snow-storm_.
  hrōf, m., _roof_.
  Hrones næss, literally _Whale’s Ness, whale’s promontory_;
    see næss.
  hrūse, f., _earth_ [hrēosan: deposit].
  hryre, m., _fall, death_ [hrēosan].
  hrȳðer, n., _cattle_ [rinder-pest].
  hryðig, _ruined_ (?), _storm-beaten_; nom. pl. m., hryðge.
  hū, _how_.
  Humbre, f., _river Humber_.
  hund, _hundred_.
  hunig, n., _honey_.
  hunta, m., _hunter_.
  huntoð (-tað), m., _hunting_.
  hūru, adv., _about_.
  hūs, n., _house_.
  hwā, hwæt (§ 74), _who?_ _what?_ swā hwæt swā (§ 77, Note),
      _whatsoever_;
    indefinite, _any one, anything_;
    for hwan (instr.), _wherefore_.
  hwæl, m., _whale_.
  hwælhunta, m., _whale-hunter_.
  hwælhuntað, m., _whale-fishing_.
  hwǣr, _where?_ hwǣr ... swā, _wheresoever_;
    wel hwǣr, _nearly everywhere_.
  hwæthwugu, _something_.
  hwæðer, _whether, which of two?_
  hwæðre, _however, nevertheless_.
  hwēne, see hwōn.
  hweorfan (§ 110), _turn, go_.
  hwider, _whither_.
  hwīl, f., _while, time_;
    ealle ðā hwīle ðe, _all the while that_;
    hwīlum (instr. pl.), _sometimes_.
  hwilc (hwylc, hwelc) (§ 74, Note 1), _which?_ _what?_
  hwōn, n., _a trifle_;
    hwēne (instr. sing.), _somewhat, a little_.
  hwǫnan, _when_.
  hȳ, see hīe.
  hycgan (§ 132), _think, resolve_; pret. 3d sing., hogode.
  hȳd, f., _hide, skin_.
  hyge, see hige.
  hyra (hiera), see hē.
  hȳran, see hīeran.
  hyrde, see hierde.
  hys (his), see hē.
  hyt (hit), see hē.


#I.#

  ic (§ 72), _I_.
  īdel, _idle, useless, desolate_.
  ides, f., _woman, lady_.
  ieldra, adj., see eald.
  ieldra, m., _an elder, parent, ancestor_.
  iernan (yrnan) (§ 112), _run_.
  īglǫnd (īgland), n., _island_.
  ilca (ylca), _the same_ [of that ilk].
  Ilfing, _the Elbing_.
  in, _in, into_ (with dat. and acc.);
    in on, _in on, to, toward_.
  inbryrdnis (-nes), f., _inspiration, ardor_.
  indryhten, _very noble_.
  ingǫng, m., _entrance_.
  innan, adv., _within, inside_;
    on innan, _within_.
  innanbordes, adv.-gen., _within borders, at home_.
  inne, adv., _within, inside_.
  intinga, m., _cause, sake_.
  inweardlīce, _inwardly, fervently_.
  inwid-sorg (inwit-sorh), f., _sorrow caused by an enemy_.
  inwit-ðanc, m., _hostile intent_.
  Īraland, n., _Ireland_ (but in _Ohthere’s Second Voyage, Iceland_ is
      probably meant).
  īren, n., _iron, sword_; gen. pl., īrenna, īrena.
  īren-bęnd, m., f., _iron-band_.
  īu, see gīu.


#K.#

  kynerīce, see cynerīce.
  kyning, see cyning.
  kyrtel, m., _kirtle, coat_.


#L.#

  Lǣden, _Latin_.
  Lǣdengeðēode (-ðīode), n., _Latin language_.
  Lǣdenware (§ 47), m. pl., _Latin people, Romans_.
  lǣfan (§ 126), _leave_.
  lǣge, see licgan.
  Lǣland, n., _Laaland_ (in Denmark).
  lǣn, n., _loan_;
    tō lǣne 121, 2 = _as a loan_.
  lǣne, adj., _as a loan, transitory, perishable_.
  lǣran (§ 126), _teach, advise, exhort_ [lār].
  lǣssa, lǣsta, see lȳtel.
  lǣstan (§ 127), _last, hold out_ (intrans.); _perform, achieve_
      (trans.).
  lǣtan (§ 117), _let, leave_.
  lāf, f., _something left, remnant, heirloom_ (often a _sword_);
    tō lāfe, _as a remnant, remaining_.
  lagulād, f., _sea_ [lake-way, lād = _leading, direction, way_].
  land, see lǫnd.
  lang, see lǫng.
  Langaland, n., _Langeland_ (in Denmark).
  lār, f., _lore, teaching_.
  lārcwide, m., _precept, instruction_, [cwide < cweðan].
  lārēow, m., _teacher_ [lār + ðēow].
  lāst, m., _track, footprint_ [shoemaker’s last];
    on lāst(e), _in the track of, behind_ (with dat.).
  lāð, _loathsome, hateful_.
  lēas, _loose, free from, bereft of_ (with gen.).
  lēasung, f., _leasing, deception, falsehood_.
  lęcgan (§ 125, Note), _lay_.
  lēfdon, see līefan.
  leger, n., _lying in, illness_ [licgan].
  lęng, see lǫnge.
  lęngra, see lǫng.
  lēod, m., _prince, chief_.
  lēod, f., _people, nation_ (the plural has the same meaning).
  lēod-scipe, m., _nation_ [people-ship].
  lēof, _dear_ [lief].
  leoht, adj., _light_.
  lēoht, n., _light, brightness_.
  leornere, m., _learner, disciple_.
  leornian (§ 130), _learn_.
  leornung (liornung), f., _learning_.
  lēoð, n., _song_ [lay?].
  lēoðcræft, m., _poetic skill_ [lay-craft].
  lēoðsǫng, n., _song, poem_.
  lēt, see lǣtan.
  libban (§ 133), _live_; pres. part., lifigende, _living, alive_.
  līc, n., _body, corpse_ [lich-gate, Lichfield].
  licgan (§ 115, Note 2), _lie, extend, flow, lie dead_; 3d sing.
      indic. pres., ligeð, līð.
  līchama (-hǫma), m., _body_ [body-covering].
  līcian (§ 130), _please_ (with dat.) [like].
  līc-sār, n., _body-sore, wound in the body_.
  līefan (lēfan) (§ 126), _permit, allow_ (with dat.) [grant _leave_
      to].
  līf, n., _life_.
  līf-dagas, m. pl., _life-days_.
  lifigende, see libban.
  līg, m., _flame, fire_.
  ligeð, see licgan.
  lim, n., _limb_.
  list, f., _cunning_;
    dat. pl., listum, is used adverbially = _cunningly_.
  līð, see licgan.
  lof, m., _praise, glory_.
  lǫnd (land), n., _land, country_.
  lǫng (lang) (§ 96, (2)), _long_.
  lǫnge (lange) (§ 97, (2)), _long_;
    lǫnge on dæg, _late in the day_.
  lufan, see lufu.
  lufian (lufigean) (§ 131), _love_.
  luflīce, _lovingly_.
  lufu, f., _love_; dat. sing. (weak), lufan.
  lungre, _quickly_.
  lust, m., _joy_ [lust];
    on lust, _joyfully_.
  lȳt, indeclinable, _little, few_ (with partitive gen.).
  lȳtel (lītel) (§ 96, (2)), _little, small_.


#M.#

  mā, see micle (§ 97, (2)).
  mæg, see magan.
  mǣg, m., _kinsman_; nom. pl., māgas (§ 27, (2)).
  mægen n., _strength, power_ [might and _main_].
  mægen-ęllen, n., _main strength, mighty courage_.
  mǣgð, f., _tribe_.
  mægðhād, m., _maidenhood, virginity_.
  mǣl-gesceaft, f., _appointed time_ [mǣl = _meal, time_].
  mǣran (§ 126), _make famous, honor_.
  mǣre, _famous, glorious, notorious_.
  mǣrðo (mǣrðo, mǣrð), f., _glory, fame_.
  mæsseprēost, m., _mass-priest_.
  mǣst, see micel.
  magan (§ 137), _be able, may_.
  māgas, see mǣg.
  magu (mago), m., _son, man_.
  maguðegn, m., _vassal, retainer_.
  man(n), see mǫn(n).
  mancus, m., _mancus, half-crown_; gen. pl., mancessa.
  māndǣd, f., _evil deed_.
  manig, see mǫnig.
  manigfeald, see mǫnigfeald.
  māra, see micel.
  maðelian (§ 130), _harangue, speak_.
  māðum (māððum), m., _gift, treasure, jewel_; gen. pl., māðma.
  māððumgyfa, m., _treasure-giver, lord_.
  māððum-wela, m., _wealth of treasure_.
  mē, see ic.
  meaht, f., _might, power_.
  meahte, see magan.
  mearc, f., _boundary, limit_ [mark, march].
  mearg (mearh), m., _horse_; nom. pl., mēaras.
  mearð, m., _marten_.
  mec, see ic.
  medmicel, _moderately large, short, brief_.
  medu (medo), m., _mead_.
  medu-bęnc, f., _mead-bench_.
  medu-ful, n., _mead-cup_.
  medu-heall, f., _mead-hall_.
  męn, see mǫn(n).
  męngan (§ 127), _mingle, mix_.
  męnigu (męnigeo), f., _multitude_ [many].
  męnniscnes, f., _humanity, incarnation_ [man].
  meolc, f., _milk_.
  Mēore, _Möre_ (in Sweden).
  męre, m., _lake, mere, sea_ [mermaid].
  Meretūn, m., _Merton_ (in Surrey).
  mētan (§ 126), _meet, find_.
  Metod (Meotod, Metud), m., _Creator, God_.
  metod-sceaft, f., _appointed doom, eternity_.
  micel (§ 96, (3)), _great, mighty, strong, large_ [mickle];
    māra, _more, stronger, larger_.
  micle (micele), _greatly, much_.
  miclum, (§ 93, (4)), _greatly_.
  mid, _with, amid, among_ (with dat. and acc.).
  middangeard, m., _earth, world_ [middle-yard].
  middeweard, _midward, toward the middle_.
  Mierce, m. pl., _Mercians_.
  mihte, see _magan_.
  mīl, f., _mile_ [Lat. mille].
  mildheortnes, f., _mild-heartedness, mercy_.
  milts, f., _mildness, mercy_.
  mīn (§ 76), _my, mine_.
  mislīc, _various_.
  missenlīc, _various_.
  mōd, n., _mood, mind, courage_.
  mōdcearig, _sorrowful of mind_.
  mōdega, mōdga, see mōdig.
  mōdgeðanc, m., _purpose of mind_.
  mōdig, _moody, brave, proud_.
  mōdor, f., _mother_.
  mōdsefa, m., _mind, heart_.
  mǫn(n) (man, mann) (§ 68; § 70, Note), m., _man, one, person, they_.
  mōna, m., _moon_.
  mōnað (§ 68, (1), Note), m., _month_ [mōna]; dat. sing., mōnðe.
  mǫn(n)cynn, n., _mankind_.
  mǫndryhten, m., _liege lord_.
  mǫnian (manian) (§ 130), _admonish_.
  mǫnig (manig, mǫneg, mænig), _many_.
  mǫnigfeald (manig-), _manifold, various_.
  mōnðe, see mōnað.
  mōr, m., _moor_.
  morgen, m., _morning_; dat. sing., morgen(n)e.
  morðor-bealu (-bealo), n., _murder_ [murder-bale];
    see ðurfan.
  mōste, see mōtan.
  mōtan (§ 137), _may, be permitted, must_.
  mund-gripe, m., _hand-grip_.
  munuc, m., _monk_ [Lat. monachus].
  munuchād, m., _monkhood, monastic rank_.
  mūð, m., _mouth_.
  myntan (§ 127), _be minded, intend_; pret. indic. 3d sing., mynte.
  mynster, n., _monastery_ [Lat. monasterium]; dat. sing., mynstre.
  mȳre, f., _mare_ [mearh].
  myrð, f., _joy, mirth_;
    mōdes myrðe 142, 17 [[_Beowulf_ 811]] = _with joy of heart_.


#N.#

  nā (nō), _not_ [ne ā = _n-ever_];
    nā ne, _not, not at all_.
  nabban (p. 32, Note), _not to have_.
  nǣdre, f., _serpent, adder_.
  næfde, see nabban.
  nǣfre, _never_.
  nǣnig (§ 77), _no one, no, none_.
  nǣre, nǣren, nǣron, see § 40, Note 2.
  næs = ne wæs, see § 40, Note 2.
  næss, m., _ness, headland_.
  nāht, see nōht.
  nālæs (nāles), _not at all_ [nā ealles].
  nam, see niman.
  nama, see nǫma.
  nāmon, see niman.
  nān, _not one, no, none_ [ne ān].
  nānwuht, n., _nothing_ [no whit].
  ne, _not_.
  nē, _nor_;
    nē ... nē, _neither ... nor_.
  nēah (§ 96, (4)), _near_.
  nēah, adv., _nigh, near, nearly, almost_; comparative, nēar, _nearer_.
  neaht, see niht.
  nēalēcan (-lǣcan) (§ 126), _draw near to, approach_ (with dat.).
  nēar, see nēah, adv.
  nēat, n., _neat, cattle_.
  nęmnan (§ 127), _name_.
  nemðe, (nymðe), _except, unless_.
  nęrian (§ 125), _save, preserve_.
  nēten, see nīeten.
  nīedbeðearf, _needful, necessary_.
  nīehst, see nēah (§ 96, (4)).
  nīeten (nēten), n., _neat, beast, cattle_.
  nigontīene, _nineteen_.
  niht (neaht) (§ 68, (1), Note), _night_.
  nihthelm, m., _night-helm, shade of night_.
  nihtscūa, m., _shadow of night_.
  niht-weorc, n., _night-work_.
  niman (§ 114), _take, gain_ [nimble, numb].
  nīpan (§ 102), _grow dark, darken_.
  nis, see § 40, Note 2.
  nīð, m., _malice, violence_.
  nīwe, _new, novel, startling_.
  nō, see nā.
  nōht (nāht, nā-wiht), n., _not a whit, naught, nothing_; _not, not
      at all_.
  nōhwæðer (nāhwæðer), _neither_;
    nōhwæðer nē ... ne ... nē ... ne 118, 8 = _neither ... nor_.
  nolde, noldon = ne wolde, ne woldon, see willan.
  nǫma (nama), m., _name_.
  norð (§ 97, (1)), _north, in the north, northwards_.
  norðan (§ 93, (5)), _from the north_;
    be norðan, see § 94, (4).
  Norð-Dęne, m. pl., _North-Danes_.
  norðeweard, _northward_.
  Norðhymbre, m. pl., _Northumbrians_.
  Norðmanna, see Norðmǫn.
  Norðmęn, see Norðmǫn.
  norðmest, see norð.
  Norðmǫn (-man) (§ 68, (1)), _Norwegian_.
  norðor, see norð.
  norðryhte, _northward_.
  norðweard, _northward_.
  Norðweg, _Norway_.
  nose, f., _cape, naze_ [ness, nose].
  notu, f., _office, employment_.
  nū, _now_; _now that, seeing that_;
    nū ðā 138, 13 [[_Beowulf_ 658]] = _now then_.
  nȳhst (nīehst), see nēah.
  nymðe, see nemðe.
  nysse, see nytan.
  nyste, see nytan.
  nyt(t), _useful, profitable_.
  nytan (nitan < ne witan, § 136), _not to know_; 3d sing. pret.,
      nysse, nyste.


#O.#

  of (§ 94, (1)), _of, from, concerning_.
  ofer (§ 94, (2)), _over, across, after, in spite of_ (see 144, 14
      [[_Beowulf_ 2725]]);
    ofer eorðan 142, 9 [[_Beowulf_ 803]] = _on earth_.
  ofer, adv., _over, across_.
  oferfēran (§ 126), _go over, traverse_.
  oferfrēosan (§ 109), _freeze over_.
  oferfroren, see oferfrēosan.
  ofgiefan (§ 115), _give up, relinquish_.
  ofost, f., _haste_.
  ofslægen, see ofslēan.
  ofslēan (§ 118), _slay off, slay_.
  ofslōge, see ofslēan.
  oft, _oft, often_; superlative, oftost.
  on (§ 94, (3)), _in, into, on, against, to, among, during_;
    on fīf oððe syx 109, 6 = _into five or six parts_;
    on weg 140, 10 [[_Beowulf_ 764]] = _away_;
    on innan 144, 5 [[_Beowulf_ 2716]] = _within_;
    on unriht 145, 15 [[_Beowulf_ 2740]] = _falsely_.
  onbærnan (§ 126), _kindle, inspire_.
  oncȳðð, f., _distress, suffering_.
  ǫnd (and), _and_.
  ǫndsaca, m., _adversary_.
  ǫndswarian (§ 130), _answer_.
  ǫndweard, adj., _present_.
  onfēng, see onfōn.
  onfeohtan (§ 110), _fight_.
  onfindan (§ 110), _find out, discover_; pret. indic. 3d sing.,
      onfunde.
  onfōn (§ 118), _receive, seize violently_.
  onfunde, see onfindan.
  ongēan, prep., _against, towards_ (with dat. and acc.).
  ongēan, adv., _just across, opposite_.
  Ǫngelcynn (Angel-), n., _Angle kin, English people, England_.
  Ǫngelðēod (Angel-), f., _the English people or nation_.
  ongemang (-mǫng), _among_ (with dat.).
  ongietan (-gitan) (§ 115), _perceive, see, understand_.
  onginnan (§ 110), _begin, attempt_.
  onlūtan (§ 109), _bow, incline_ (intrans.) [lout = a stooper].
  onrīdan (§ 102), _ride against, make a raid on_.
  onsęndan (§ 127), _send_.
  onslǣpan (onslēpan) (§ 126), _fall asleep, sleep_.
  onspǫnnan (§ 117), _loosen_ [unspan]; pret. 3d sing. indic., onspēon.
  onspringan (§ 110), _spring apart, unspring_.
  onstāl, m., _institution, supply_.
  onstęllan (§ 128), _establish_; pret. 3d sing. indic., onstealde.
  onwæcnan (§ 127), _awake_ (intrans.).
  onweald (-wald), m., _power, authority_ [wield].
  onwęndan (§ 127), _change, overturn_ [to wind].
  ōr, n., _beginning_.
  oð (§ 94, (2)), _until, as far as_ (of time and place);
    oð ðæt, oð ðe, _until_.
  oðberan (§ 114), _bear away_.
  ōðer, _other, second_;
    ōðer ... ōðer, _the one ... the other_.
  oðfæstan (§ 127), _set to_ (a task).
  oðfeallan (§ 117) _fall off, decline_.
  oððe, _or_;
    oððe ... oððe, _either ... or_.


#P.#

  plega, m., _play, festivity_.
  port, m., _port_ [Lat. portus].


#R.#

  rād, f., _raid_.
  rǣcan (§ 126), _reach_; pret. 3d sing., rǣhte.
  ræst, see ręst.
  Rēadingas, m. pl., _Reading_ (in Berkshire).
  ręccan (§ 128), _narrate, tell_; pret. pl. indic., ręhton, reahton.
  ręccelēas, _reckless, careless_.
  ręced, n., _house, hall_.
  regnian (rēnian) (§ 130), _adorn, prepare_; past part., geregnad.
  regollīc (-lec), _according to rule, regular_.
  rēn-weard, m., _mighty warden, guard, champion_.
  ręst (ræst), f., _rest, resting-place, bed_.
  rēðe, _fierce, furious_.
  rīce, _rich, powerful, aristocratic_.
  rīce, n., _realm, kingdom_ [bishopric].
  rīcsian (§ 130), _rule_.
  rīdan (§ 102), _ride_.
  rīman (§ 126), _count_ [rime].
  rinc, m., _man, warrior_.
  rōd, f., _rood, cross_;
    rōde tācen, _sign of the cross_.
  Rōmware, m. pl., _Romans_.
  rǫnd (rand), m., _shield_.
  rūn, f., _rune, secret meditation_ [to round = to whisper].
  rycene (ricene), _quickly, rashly_.
  ryhtnorðanwind, m., _straight north-wind_.


#S.#

  sǣ, f., _sea_.
  sǣ-bāt, m., _sea-boat_.
  sǣd, n., _seed_.
  sǣde, see sęcgan.
  sǣl, m., f., _time, happiness_ [sil-ly];
    on sǣlum 137, 22 [[_Beowulf_ 644]] = _joyous, merry_.
  sǣlan (§ 126), _bind_.
  sǣ-līðend (§ 68, (3)), m., _seafarer_ (nom. and acc. pl. same as
      nom. and acc. sing.).
  sam ... sam, _whether ... or_.
  same, _similarly_;
    swā same, _just the same, in like manner_.
  samod, see sǫmod.
  sanct, m., f., _saint_ [Lat. sanctus]; gen. sing., sanctæ, f.,
      sancti, m.
  sang, see sǫng.
  sār, f., n., _sore, pain, wound_.
  sār, adj., _sore, grievous_.
  sāre, _sorely_.
  sāwan (§ 117,) _sow_.
  sāwol, f., _soul_; oblique cases, sing., sāwle (§ 39, Note).
  scacan (sceacan) (§ 116), _shake, go, depart_; past part., scacen,
      sceacen.
  scadu-helm, m., _cover of night, shadow-covering_ [shadow-helm];
    scadu-helma gesceapu, see Note on 138, 2-6 [[lines 647-51]].
  sceal, see sculan.
  scēap, n., _sheep_.
  scēat, m., _corner, region, quarter_ [sheet];
    eorðan scēatta 139, 14 [[_Beowulf_ 753]] = _in the regions of earth_
      (gen. used as locative).
  scēawi(g)an (§ 130), _view, see_ [shew].
  scēawung, f., _seeing_.
  sceolde, see sculan.
  scēop (scōp), see scieppan.
  scēowyrhta, m., _shoe-maker_.
  scęððan (§ 116), _injure, scathe_ (with dat.).
  scieppan (§ 116), _create_.
  Scieppend, m., _Creator_.
  scīnan (§ 102), _shine_.
  scip (scyp), n., _ship_.
  scipen, n., _stall_.
  sciprāp, m., _ship-rope, cable_.
  scīr, f., _shire, district_.
  Sciringeshēal, m., _Sciringesheal_ (in Norway).
  scolde, see sculan.
  scǫmu, f., _shame, dishonor_.
  Scōnēg, f., _Skaane_ (southern district of the Scandinavian
      peninsula).
  scopgereord, n., _poetic language_.
  scrīðan (§ 102), _stride, stalk_.
  sculan (§ 136; § 137, Note 2), _shall, have to, ought_.
  Scyldingas, m. pl., _Scyldings, Danes_.
  scyp, see scip.
  Scyppend, see Scieppend.
  sē, sēo, ðæt (§ 28; § 28, Note 3), _the_; _that_; _he, she, it_;
      _who, which, that_;
    ðæs, _from then, afterwards, therefore_;
    ðæs ðe (p. 110, l. 2), _with what_;
    ðȳ ... ðæt (p. 110, ll. 7-8), _for this reason ... because_;
    tō ðǣm ... swā, _to such an extent ... as_;
    ðy (ðē), _the_ (adverbial, with comparatives);
    ðȳ ... ðȳ, _the ... the_.
  seah, see sēon.
  sealde, see sęllan.
  searo-gimm, m., _artistic gem, jewel_.
  searo-nīð, m., _cunning hatred, plot_.
  searo-ðǫnc, m., _cunning thought, device_.
  Seaxe, m. pl., _Saxons, Saxony_.
  sēc(e)an (§ 128), _to seek, visit, meet_.
  sęcg, m., _man, warrior_.
  sęcgan (§ 132), _say, tell_.
  sefa, m., _mind, spirit_.
  sēfte, _more easily_ (comparative of sōfte).
  segel, m., n., _sail_; dat. sing. = segle.
  seglian (§ 130), _sail_.
  sęle, m., _hall_.
  sęledrēam, m., _hall joy, festivity_.
  sęle-ful, n., _hall cup_.
  sęlesęcg, m., _hall warrior, retainer_.
  sēlest, _best_ (no positive).
  self (sylf), _self, himself_ (declined as strong or weak adjective).
  sęllan (syllan) (§ 128), _give_ [sell, han(d)sel].
  sęmninga, _forthwith, straightway_.
  sęndan (§ 127), _send_.
  sēo, see sē.
  sēoc, _sick_.
  seofon (syfan), _seven_.
  seolh, m., _seal_; gen. sing. = sēoles (§ 27, (3)).
  sēon (§ 118), _see, look_.
  seonu, f., _sinew_; nom. pl., seonowe.
  sess, m., _seat_.
  sibb, f., _friendship, peace_ [gos_sip_].
  sidu (siodu), m., _custom, morality, good conduct_.
  sīe, see bēon.
  siex, _six_;
    syxa (siexa) sum, see sum.
  siextig, _sixty_.
  sige, m., _victory_.
  sige-folc, n., _victorious people_.
  sige-lēas, _victory-less, of defeat_.
  sige-rōf, victory-famed, _victorious_.
  sige-wǣpen, n., _victory-weapon_.
  siglan (§ 127), _sail_.
  Sillende, _Zealand_.
  sinc, n., _treasure, prize_.
  sinc-fǣt, n., see 137, 1 [[_Beowulf_ 623]] [treasure-vat].
  sinc-ðęgu, f., _receiving of treasure_ [ðicgan].
  sind, sint, sindon, see bēon.
  singan (§ 110), _sing_.
  sittan (§ 115, Note 2), _sit, take position_.
  sīð, m., _journey, time_;
    forman sīðe 139, 2 [[_Beowulf_ 741]] = _the first time_ (instr.
      sing.).
  sīðian (§ 130), _journey_.
  siððan, _after that, afterwards, after_.
  slǣp, m., _sleep_.
  slǣpan (§ 117), _sleep_.
  slēan (§ 118), _slay_ [slow-worm].
  slītan (§ 102), _slit, tear to pieces_.
  slīðen, _savage, perilous_.
  smæl, _narrow_.
  smalost, see smæl.
  snāw, m., _snow_.
  snot(t)or, _wise, prudent_.
  sōhte, see sēcan.
  sǫmod (samod), _together_.
  sōna, _soon_.
  sǫng, m., n., _song, poem_.
  sǫngcræft, m., _art of song and poetry_.
  sorg (sorh), f., _sorrow_.
  sōð, _true_.
  sōð, n., _truth_;
    tō sōðe, _for a truth, truly, verily_.
  sōð-fæst, _truthful, just_.
  sōðlīce, _truly_.
  spēd, f., _possessions, success, riches_ [speed].
  spēdig, _rich, prosperous_.
  spell, n., _story, tale_ [gospel].
  spēow, see spōwan.
  spere, n., _spear_.
  spor, n., _track, footprint_.
  spōwan (§ 117), _succeed_ (impersonal with dat.).
  sprǣc, f., _speech, language_.
  sprecan (§ 115), _speak_.
  spyrian (spyrigean) (§ 130), _follow_ (intrans.) [spor].
  stæf, _staff, rod_; pl. = _literature, learning_.
  stælhrān, m., _decoy-reindeer_.
  stælwierðe, _serviceable_ (see p. 56, Note 2).
  stǣr, n., _story, narrative_ [Lat. historia].
  stæð, n., _shore_.
  stān, m., _stone, rock_.
  stān-boga, m., _stone-arch_ [stone-bow].
  standan, see stǫndan.
  stānhlið (-hleoð), n., _stone-cliff_.
  stapol, m., _column_ [staple].
  starian (§ 125), _stare, gaze_.
  stęde, m., _place_.
  stelan (§ 114), _steal_.
  stęnt, see stǫndan.
  stēorbord, n., _starboard, right side of a ship_.
  stęppan (§ 116), _step, advance_; pret. indic. 3d sing., stōp.
  stilnes, f., _stillness, quiet_.
  stǫndan (§ 116), _stand_.
  stōp, see stęppan.
  storm, m., _storm_.
  stōw, f., _place_ [stow, and in names of places].
  strang, see strǫng.
  stręngest, see strǫng.
  strǫng (§ 96, (2)), _strong_.
  styccemǣlum, _here and there_.
  sum (§ 91, Note 2), _some, certain, a certain one_;
    hē syxa sum 104, 25 = _he with five others_.
  sumera, see sumor.
  sumor, m., _summer_; dat. sing. = sumera.
  sumorlida, m., _summer-army_.
  sundor, _apart_.
  sunne, f., _sun_.
  sunu, m., _son_.
  sūð, _south, southwards_.
  sūðan (§ 93, (5)), _from the south_;
    be sūðan, _south of_ (§ 94, (4)).
  sūðeweard, _southward_.
  sūðryhte, _southward_.
  swā (swǣ), _so, as, how, as if_;
    swā swā, _just as, as far as_;
    swā ... swā, _the ... the, as ... as_;
    swā hwæt swā, _whatsoever_ (§ 77, Note).
  swǣs, _beloved, own_.
  swæð, n., _track, footprint_ [swath].
  swaðul, m.? n.?, _smoke_.
  swealh, see swelgan.
  swefan (§ 115), _sleep, sleep the sleep of death_.
  swefn, n., _sleep, dream_.
  swēg, m., _sound, noise_.
  swegle, _bright, clear_.
  swēlan (§ 126), _burn_ [sweal].
  swelgan (§ 110), _swallow_; pret. indic. 3d sing., swealh; subj.,
      swulge.
  swellan (§ 110), _swell_.
  Swēoland, n., _Sweden_.
  Swēom, m., dat. pl., _the Swedes_.
  sweotol, _clear_.
  sweotole, _clearly_.
  swęrian (§ 116), _swear_.
  swēte, _sweet_.
  swētnes (-nis), f., _sweetness_.
  swift (swyft), _swift_.
  swilc (swylc) (§ 77), _such_.
  swilce, _in such manner, as, likewise_; _as if, as though_ (with
      subj.).
  swimman (§ 110), _swim_.
  swīn (swȳn), n., _swine, hog_.
  swīnsung, f., _melody, harmony_.
  swīðe (swȳðe), _very, exceedingly, greatly_.
  swīðost, _chiefly, almost_.
  swōr, see swęrian.
  swulge, see swelgan.
  swuster (§ 68, (2)), f., _sister_.
  swylce (swelce), see swilce.
  swȳn, see swīn.
  swynsian (§ 130), _resound_.
  swȳðe, see swīðe.
  swȳð-ferhð, _strong-souled_.
  sylf, see self.
  syll, f., _sill, floor_.
  syllan, see sęllan.
  symbel, n., _feast, banquet_.
  symle, _always_.
  synd, see bēon.
  syn-dolh, n., _ceaseless wound, incurable wound_.
  syndriglīce, _specially_.
  synn, f., _sin_.
  syn-scaða, m., _ceaseless scather, perpetual foe_.
  syn-snǣd, f., _huge bit_ [ceaseless bit].
  syððan, see siððan.
  syx, see siex.
  syxtig, see siextig.


#T.#

  tācen, n., _sign, token_; dat. sing., tācne (§ 33, Note).
  tǣcan (§ 128), _teach_.
  tam, _tame_.
  tela, _properly, well_ [til].
  tęllan (§ 128), _count, deem_ [tell]; pret. 3d sing., tealde.
  Tęmes, f., _the Thames_.
  tēon, _arrange, create_; pret. sing., tēode.
  Terfinna, m., gen. pl., _the Terfins_.
  tēð, see tōð.
  tīd, f., _tide, time, hour_.
  tīen (tȳn), _ten_.
  til(l), _good_.
  tīma, m., _time_.
  tintreglīc, _full of torment_.
  tō (§ 94, (1)), _to, for, according to, as_;
    tō hrōfe 114, 2 = _for (as) a roof_ [cf. Biblical _to wife_,
      modern _to boot_].
  tō, adv., _too_.
  tōbrecan (p. 81, Note 2), _break to pieces, knock about_.
  tōdǣlan (§ 126), _divide_.
  tōemnes (tō emnes) (§ 94, (4)), _along, alongside_.
  tōforan (§ 94, (1)), _before_.
  tōgeðēodan (§ 126), _join_.
  tōhopa, m., _hope_.
  tōlicgan (§ 115, Note 2), _separate, lie between_; 3d sing, indic.
      = tōlīð.
  tōlīð, see tōlicgan.
  tolūcan (§ 109, Note 1), _destroy_ [the prefix tō reverses the
      meaning of lūcan, _to lock_].
  torn, m., _anger, insult_.
  tōð (§ 68, (1)), m., _tooth_.
  tōweard (§ 94, (1)), _toward_.
  tōweard, adj., _approaching, future_.
  trēow, f., _pledge, troth_.
  trēownes, f., _trust_.
  Trūsō, _Drausen_ (a city on the Drausensea).
  tūn, m., _town, village_.
  tunge, f., _tongue_.
  tūngerēfa, m., _bailiff_ [town-reeve; so sheriff = shire-reeve].
  tungol, n., _star_.
  twā, see twēgen.
  twēgen, (§ 89), _two, twain_.
  twēntig, _twenty_.
  tȳn, see tīen.


#Ð.#

  ðā, _then, when_;
    ðā ... ðā, _when ... then_;
    ðā ðā, _then when_ = _when_.
  ðā, see sē.
  ðǣr, _there, where_;
    ðǣr ðǣr, _there where_ = _where_;
    ðǣr ... swā 142, 4 [[_Beowulf_ 798]] = _wheresoever_; 145, 6
      [[_Beowulf_ 2731]] = _if so be that_.
  ðæs, _afterwards, therefore, thus, because_;
    see sē.
  ðæt (ðætte = ðæt ðe), _that, so that_.
  ðafian (§ 130), _consent to_.
  ðanc, see ðǫnc.
  ðancian (ðǫncian) (§ 130), _thank_.
  ðanon, see ðǫnan.
  ðās, see ðēs.
  ðē, see sē (instr. sing.) and ðū.
  ðe (§ 75), _who, whom, which, that_.
  ðēah, _though, although_;
    ðēah ðe, _though, although_.
  ðearf, see ðurfan.
  ðearf, f., _need, benefit_.
  ðēaw, m., _habit, custom_ [thews].
  ðegn (ðegen), m., _servant, thane, warrior_.
  ðęnc(e)an (§ 128), _think, intend_.
  ðening (-ung), f., _service_;
    the pl. may mean _book of service_ (117, 17).
  ðēod, f., _people, nation_.
  ðēoden, m., _prince, lord_.
  ðēodscipe, m., _discipline_.
  ðēon (ðȳwan) (§ 126), _oppress_ [ðēow].
  ðēow, m., _servant_.
  ðēowa, m., _servant_.
  ðēowotdōm (ðīowot-), m., _service_.
  ðēs (§ 73), _this_.
  ðider, _thither_.
  ðiderweard, _thitherward_.
  ðīn (§ 76), _thine_.
  ðing, n., _thing_;
    ǣnige ðinga, see 140, 15 [[_Beowulf_ 769]], Note.
  ðingan (§ 127), _arrange, appoint_.
  ðis, see ðēs.
  ðissum, see ðēs.
  ðōhte, ðōhton, see ðęncean.
  ðolian (§ 130), _endure_ [thole].
  ðǫnan, _thence_.
  ðǫnc, m., _thanks_.
  ðone, see sē.
  ðonne, _than, then, when_;
    ðonne ... ðonne, _when ... then_.
  ðrāg, f., _time_.
  ðrēa-nȳd, f., _compulsion, oppression, misery_ [throe-need].
  ðrēora, see ðrīe.
  ðridda, _third_.
  ðrie (ðrȳ) (§ 89), _three_.
  ðrīm, see ðrīe.
  ðrīst-hȳdig, _bold-minded_.
  ðrītig, _thirty_.
  ðrōwung, f., _suffering_.
  ðrȳ, see ðrīe.
  ðrym(m), m., _renown, glory, strength_.
  ðrȳð, f., _power, multitude_ (pl. used in sense of sing.);
    asca ðrȳðe 152, 23 [[_Wanderer_ 99]] = _the might of spears_.
  ðrȳð-ærn, n., _mighty house, noble hall_.
  ðrȳð-word, n., _mighty word, excellent discourse_.
  ðū (§ 72), _thou_.
  ðūhte, see ðyncan.
  ðurfan (§ 136), _need_; pres. indic. 3d sing., ðearf; pret. 3d sing.,
      ðorfte;
    for-ðām mē wītan ne ðearf Waldend fīra morðor-bealo māga 145, 17
      [[_Beowulf_ 2742]] = _therefore the Ruler of men need not charge
      me with the murder of kinsmen_.
  ðurh (§ 94, (2)), _through_.
  ðus, _thus_.
  ðūsend, _thousand_.
  ðȳ, see sē.
  ðyder, see ðider.
  ðyncan (§ 128), _seem, appear_ (impersonal);
    mē ðyncð, _methinks, it seems to me_;
    him ðūhte, _it seemed to him_.


#U.#

  ūhta, m., _dawn_; gen. pl., ūhtna.
  unbeboht, _unsold_ [bebycgan = _to sell_].
  uncūð, _unknown, uncertain_ [uncouth].
  under, _under_ (with dat. and acc.).
  understǫndan (§ 116), _understand_.
  underðēodan (-ðīedan) (§ 126), _subject to_;
    past part. underðēoded = _subjected to, obedient to_ (with dat.).
  unforbærned, _unburned_.
  unfrið, m., _hostility_.
  ungefōge, _excessively_.
  ungemete, _immeasurably, very_.
  ungesewenlīc, _invisible_ [past part. of sēon + līc].
  unlyfigend, _dead, dead man_ [unliving].
  unlȳtel, _no little, great_.
  unriht, n., _wrong_;
    on unriht, see on.
  unrihtwīsnes, f., _unrighteousness_.
  unspēdig, _poor_.
  unwearnum, _unawares_.
  ūp (ūpp), _up_.
  ūpāstīgnes, f., _ascension_ [stīgan].
  ūp-lang, _upright_.
  ūre (§ 76), _our_.
  usses = gen. sing. neut. of ūser, see ic.
  ūt, _out, outside_.
  ūtan, _from without, outside_.
  ūtanbordes, _abroad_.
  ūtgǫng, m., _exodus_.
  uton, _let us_ (with infin.) [literally _let us go_ with infin. of
      purpose (see 137, 19-20, Note [[lines 641-42]]); uton = wuton,
      corrupted form of 1st pl. subj. of wītan, _to go_].
  ūt-weard, _outward bound, moving outwards_.


#W.#

  wāc, _weak, insignificant_.
  wacian (§ 130), _watch, be on guard_; imperative sing., waca.
  wadan (§ 116), _go, tread_ [wade].
  wǣg, m., _wave_.
  Wǣgmundigas, m. _Wægmundings_ (family to which Beowulf and Wiglaf
      belonged).
  wæl, n., _slaughter, the slain_.
  wæl-blēat, _deadly_ [slaughter-pitiful].
  wælgīfre, _greedy for slaughter_.
  wæl-rǣs, m., _mortal combat_ [slaughter-race].
  wæl-rēow, _fierce in strife_.
  wælsliht (-sleaht), m., _slaughter_.
  wælstōw, f., _battle-field_ [slaughter-place];
    wælstōwe gewald, _possession of the battle-field_.
  wǣpen, n., _weapon_.
  wǣre, see bēon.
  wæs, see bēon.
  wæter, n., _water_.
  waldend, see _wealdend_.
  wan (wǫn), _wan, dark_.
  wanhȳdig, _heedless, rash_.
  wānigean (wānian) (§ 130), _bewail, lament_ (trans.) [whine].
  warian (§ 130), _attend, accompany_.
  wāt, see witan.
  waðum, m., _wave_; gen. pl., waðema.
  weal(l), m., _wall, rampart_.
  wealdend (§ 68, (3)), _wielder, ruler, lord_.
  wealh, m., _foreigner, Welshman_.
  wealhstōd, m., _interpreter, translator_.
  weallan (§ 117), _well up, boil, be agitated_; pret. 3d. sing.
      indic., wēoll.
  wealsteal(l), m., _wall-place, foundation_.
  weard, m., _ward, keeper_.
  wearð, see weorðan.
  weaxan (§ 117), _wax, grow_.
  weg, m., _way_;
    hys weges, see § 93, (3);
    on weg, see on.
  wel(l), _well, readily_.
  wela, m., _weal, prosperity, riches_.
  welm, see wielm.
  wēnan (§ 126), _ween, think, expect_.
  węndan (§ 127), _change, translate_ [wend, windan].
  węnian (§ 130), _entertain_;
    węnian mid wynnum 149, 20 [[_Wanderer_ 29]] = _entertain joyfully_;
    węnede tō wiste 149, 27 [[_Wanderer_ 36]] = _feasted_ (trans.).
  Weonodland (Weonoðland), n., _Wendland_.
  weorc, n., _work, deed_.
  weorold (weoruld), see woruld.
  weorpan (§ 110), _throw_.
  weorðan (§ 110), _be, become_.
  wer, m., _man_ [werwulf].
  wērig, _weary, dejected_.
  werod, n., _army, band_.
  wesan, see bēon.
  Wesseaxe, m. pl., _West Saxons_; gen. pl. = Wesseaxna.
  west, _west, westward_.
  westanwind, m., _west wind_.
  wēste, _waste_.
  wēsten, n., _waste, desert_.
  Westsǣ, f., _West Sea_ (west of Norway).
  Westseaxe, m. pl., _West Saxons, Wessex_.
  wīc, n., _dwelling_ [bailiwick].
  wīcian (§ 130), _stop, lodge, sojourn_ [wīc].
  wīdre, adv., _farther, more widely_ (comparative of wīde).
  wīdsǣ, f., _open sea_.
  wielm (welm), m., _welling, surging flood_ [weallan].
  wīf, n., _wife, woman_.
  wīg, m., n., _war, battle_.
  wiga, m., _warrior_.
  wild, _wild_.
  wildor, n., _wild beast, reindeer_; dat. pl. = wildrum (§ 33, Note).
  willa, m., _will, pleasure_; gen. pl., wilna (138, 16 [[_Beowulf_
      661]]).
  willan (§ 134; § 137, Note 3), _will, intend, desire_.
  wilnung, f., _wish, desire_;
    for ðǣre wilnunga 119, 4 = _purposely_.
  Wiltūn, m., _Wilton_ (in Wiltshire).
  wīn, n., _wine_.
  wīn-ærn, n., _wine-hall_.
  Wīnburne, f., _Wimborne_ (in Dorsetshire).
  wind, m., _wind_.
  wine, m., _friend_.
  Winedas, m. pl., _the Wends, the Wend country_.
  wine-dryhten, m., _friendly lord_.
  winelēas, _friendless_.
  winemǣg, m., _friendly kinsman_.
  wīngeard, m., _vineyard_.
  winnan (§ 110), _strive, fight_ [win].
  wīnsæl, n., _wine-hall_.
  wīn-sęle, m., _wine-hall_.
  winter, m., _winter_; dat. sing. = wintra.
  wintercearig, _winter-sad, winter-worn_.
  wīs, _wise_.
  wīsdōm, m., _wisdom_.
  wīse, _wisely_.
  wīse, f., _manner, matter, affair_ [in this wise].
  wīs-fæst, _wise_ [wise-fast; cf. shame-faced = shamefast].
  wīs-hycgende, _wise-thinking_.
  Wīsle, f., _the Vistula_.
  Wīslemūða, m., _the mouth of the Vistula_.
  wisse, see witan.
  wist, f., _food, feast_.
  wita, m., _wise man, councillor_.
  witan (§ 136), _know, show, experience_.
  wītan (§ 102), _reproach, blame_ (with acc. of thing, dat. of person).
  wīte, n., _punishment_.
  Wītland, n., _Witland_ (in Prussia).
  wið (§ 94, (3)), _against, toward, with_;
    wið ēastan and wið ūpp on emnlange ðǣm bȳnum lande, _toward the
      east, and upwards along the cultivated land_;
    wið earm gesæt 139, 11 [[_Beowulf_ 750]] = _supported himself on his
      arm_;
    genęred wið nīðe (dat.) 143, 11 [[_Beowulf_ 828]] = _had preserved
      it from (against) violence_.
  wiðerwinna, m., _adversary_.
  wiðfōn (§ 118), _grapple with_ (with dat.).
  wiðhabban (§ 133), _withstand, resist_ (with dat.).
  wiðstǫndan (§ 116), _withstand, resist_ (with dat.).
  wlǫnc, _proud_.
  wōd, see wadan.
  wolcen, n., _cloud_ [welkin]; dat. pl., wolcnum.
  wolde, see willan.
  wōma, m., _noise, alarm, terror_.
  wǫn, see wan.
  wōp, n., _weeping_.
  word, n., _word_.
  wōrian (§ 130), _totter, crumble_.
  worn, m., _large number, multitude_.
  woruld, f., _world_;
    tō worulde būtan ǣghwilcum ęnde 102, 18 = _world without end_.
  woruldcund, _worldly, secular_.
  woruldhād, m., _secular life_ [world-hood].
  woruldrīce, n., _world-kingdom, world_.
  woruldðing, n., _worldly affair_.
  wræclāst, m., _track or path of an exile_.
  wrāð, _wroth, angry_; _foe, enemy_.
  wrītan (§ 102), _write_.
  wucu, f., _week_.
  wudu, m., _wood, forest_.
  wuldor, n., _glory_.
  Wuldorfæder (§ 68, (2)), m., _Father of glory_; gen. sing.,
      Wuldorfæder.
  Wuldur-cyning, m., _King of glory_.
  wulf, m., _wolf_.
  wund, f., _wound_.
  wund, _wounded_.
  wunden, _twisted, woven, convolute_ (past part. of windan).
  wundor, n., _wonder, marvel_.
  wundrian (§ 130), _wonder at_ (with gen.).
  wurdon, see weorðan.
  wurðan, see weorðan.
  wylf, f., _she wolf_.
  wyllað, see willan.
  wyn-lēas, _joyless_.
  wynn, f., _joy, delight_.
  wynsum, _winsome, delightful_.
  wyrc(e)an (§ 128), _work, make, compose_.
  wyrd, f., _weird, fate, destiny_.
  wyrhta, m., _worker, creator_ [-wright].
  wyrm, m., _worm, dragon, serpent_.
  wyrmlīca, m., _serpentine ornamentation_.
  wyrð (weorð), _worthy_; see 114, 7-9, Note.

#Y.#

  ylca, see ilca.
  yldan (§ 127), _delay, postpone_ [eald].
  yldu, f., _age_ [eld].
  ymbe (ymb) (§ 94, (2)), _about, around, concerning_ [_um_while];
    ðæs ymb iii niht 99, 2 = _about three nights afterwards_.
  ymb-ēode, see ymb-gān.
  ymbe-sittend, _one who sits (dwells) round about another, neighbor_.
  ymb-gān (§ 134), _go about, go around, circle_ (with acc.).
  yrfe-weard, m., _heir_.
  yrnan, see iernan.
  yrre, _ireful, angry_.
  yteren, _of an otter_ [_otor_].
  ȳðan (§ 126), _lay waste_ (as by a deluge) [ȳð = _wave_].


II. GLOSSARY.

MODERN ENGLISH--OLD ENGLISH.


#A.#

  a, _ān_ (§ 77).
  abide, _bīdan_ (§ 102), _ābīdan_.
  about, _be_ (§ 94, (1)), _ymbe_ (§ 94, (2));
    to write about, _wrītan be_;
    to speak about (= of), _sprecan ymbe_;
    about two days afterwards, _ðæs ymbe twēgen dagas_.
  adder, _nǣdre_ (§ 64).
  afterwards, _ðæs_ (§ 93, (3)).
  against, _wið_ (§ 94, (3)), _on_ (§ 94, (3)).
  Alfred, _Ælfred_ (§ 26).
  all, _eall_ (§ 80).
  also, _ēac_.
  although, _ðēah_ (§ 105, 2).
  always, _ā_; _ealne weg_ (§ 98, (1)).
  am, _eom_ (§ 40).
  an, see a.
  and, _ǫnd_ (_and_).
  angel, ęngel (§ 26).
  animal, _dēor_ (§ 32).
  are, _sind, sint, sindon_ (§ 40).
  army, _werod_ (§ 32);
    Danish army, _hęre_ (§ 26);
    English army, _fierd_ (§ 38).
  art, _eart_ (§ 40).
  Ashdown, _Æscesdūn_ (§ 38).
  ask, _biddan_ (§ 65, Note 3; § 115, Note 2).
  away, _aweg_.


#B.#

  battle-field, _wælstōw_ (§ 38).
  be, _bēon_ (§ 40);
    not to be, see § 40, Note 2.
  bear, _beran_ (§ 114).
  because, _for ðǣm (ðe), for ðon (ðe)_.
  become, _weorðan_ (§ 110).
  before (temporal conjunction), _ǣr, ǣr ðǣm ðe_ (§ 105, 2).
  begin, _onginnan_ (§ 107, (1); § 110).
  belong to, _belimpan tō_ + dative (§ 110).
  best, see good.
  better, see good.
  bind, _bindan_ (§ 110).
  bird, _fugol_ (§ 26).
  bite, _bītan_ (§ 102).
  body, _līc_ (§ 32).
  bone, _bān_ (§ 32).
  book, _bōc_ (§ 68).
  both ... and, _ǣgðer ge ... ge_.
  boundary, _mearc_ (§ 38).
  boy, _cnapa_ (§ 64).
  break, _brēotan_ (§ 109), _brecan, ābrecan_ (§ 114).
  brother, _brōðor_ (§ 68, (2)).
  but, _ac_.
  by, _frǫm_ (_fram_) (§ 94, (1); § 141, Note 1).


#C.#

  Cædmon, _Cædmǫn_ (§ 68, (1)).
  call, _hātan_ (§ 117, (1)).
  cease, cease from, _geswīcan_ (§ 102).
  child, _bearn_ (§ 32).
  choose, _cēosan_ (§ 109).
  Christ, _Crīst_ (§ 26).
  church, _cirice_ (§ 64).
  come, _cuman_ (§ 114).
  comfort, _frōfor_ (§ 38).
  companion, _gefēra_ (§ 64).
  consolation, _frōfor_ (§ 38).
  create, _gescieppan_ (§ 116).


#D.#

  Danes, _Dęne_ (§ 47).
  day, _dæg_ (§ 26).
  dead, _dēad_ (§ 80).
  dear (= beloved), _lēof_ (§ 80).
  deed, _dǣd_ (§ 38).
  die, _cwelan_ (§ 114).
  division (of troops), _gefylce_ (§ 32), _getruma_ (§ 64).
  do, _dōn_ (§ 134).
  door, _dor_ (§ 32), _duru_ (§ 52).
  drink, _drincan_ (§ 110).
  during, _on_ (§ 94, (3)). See also § 98.
  dwell in, _būan on_ (§ 126, Note 2).

#E.#

  earl, _eorl_ (§ 26).
  endure, _drēogan_ (§ 109).
  England, _Ęnglalǫnd_ (§ 32).
  enjoy, _brūcan_ (§ 62, Note 1; § 109, Note 1).
  every, _ǣlc_ (§ 77).
  eye, _ēage_ (§ 64).


#F.#

  father, _fæder_ (§ 68, (2)).
  field, _feld_ (§ 51).
  fight, _feohtan, gefeohtan_ (§ 110).
  find, _findan_ (§ 110).
  finger, _finger_ (§ 26).
  fire, _fȳr_ (§ 32).
  fisherman, _fiscere_ (§ 26).
  foreigner, _wealh_ (§ 26).
  freedom, _frēodōm_ (§ 26).
  friend, _wine_ (§ 45), _frēond_ (§ 68, (3)).
  friendship, _frēondscipe_ (§ 45).
  full, _full_ (with genitive) (§ 80).


#G.#

  gain the victory, _sige habban, sige niman_.
  gift, _giefu_ (§ 38).
  give, _giefan_ (with dative of indirect object) (§ 115).
  glad, _glæd_ (§ 81).
  glove, _glōf_ (§ 38).
  go, _gān_ (§ 134), _faran_ (§ 116).
  God, _God_ (§ 26).
  good, _gōd_ (§ 80).


#H.#

  Halgoland, _Hālgoland_ (§ 32).
  hall, _heall_ (§ 38).
  hand, _hǫnd_ (§ 52).
  hard, _heard_ (§ 80).
  have, _habban_ (§ 34);
    not to have, _nabban_ (p. 32, Note).
  he, _hē_ (§ 53).
  head, _hēafod_ (§ 32).
  hear, _hīeran_ (§ 126).
  heaven, _heofon_ (§ 26).
  help, _helpan_ (with dative) (§ 110).
  herdsman, _hierde_ (§ 26).
  here, _hēr_.
  hither, _hider_.
  hold, _healdan_ (§ 117, (2)).
  holy, _hālig_ (§ 82).
  horse, _mearh_ (§ 26), _hors_ (§ 32).
  house, _hūs_ (§ 32).


#I.#

  I, _ic_ (§ 72).
  in, _on_ (§ 94, (3)).
  indeed, _sōðlīce_.
  injure, _scęððan_ (with dative) (§ 116).
  it, _hit_ (§ 53).


#K.#

  king, _cyning_ (§ 26).
  kingdom, _rīce_ (§ 32), _cynerīce_ (§ 32).


#L.#

  land, _lǫnd_ (§ 32).
  language, _sprǣc_ (§ 38), _geðēode_ (§ 32).
  large, _micel_ (§ 82).
  leisure, _ǣmetta_ (§ 64).
  let us, _uton_ (with infinitive).
  limb, _lim_ (§ 32).
  little, _lytel_ (§ 82).
  live in, _būan on_ (§ 126, Note 2).
  lord, _hlāford_ (§ 26).
  love, _lufian_ (§ 131).
  love (noun), _lufu_ (§ 38).


#M.#

  make, _wyrcan_ (§ 128).
  man, _sęcg_ (§ 26), _mǫn_ (§ 68, (1)).
  many, _mǫnig_ (§ 82).
  mare, _mȳre_ (§ 64).
  mead, _medu_ (§ 51).
  Mercians, _Mierce_ (§ 47).
  milk, _meolc_ (§ 38).
  month, _mōnað_ (§ 68, (1), Note 1).
  mouth, _mūð_ (§ 26).
  much, _micel_ (§ 96, (3)), _micle_ (§ 97, (2)).
  murderer, _bǫna_ (§ 64).
  my, _mīn_ (§ 76).


#N.#

  natives, _lǫndlēode_ (§ 47).
  nephew, _nefa_ (§ 64).
  new, _nīwe_ (§ 82).
  Northumbrians, _Norðymbre_ (§ 47).
  not, _ne_.


#O.#

  of, see about.
  on, _on_ (§ 94, (3)), _ofer_ (§ 94, (2)).
  one, _ān_ (§ 89);
    the one ... the other, _ōðer ... ōðer_.
  other, _ōðer_ (§ 77).
  our, _ūre_ (§ 76).
  ox, _oxa_ (§ 64).


#P.#

  place, _stōw_ (§ 38).
  plundering, _hęrgung_ (§ 38).
  poor, _earm_ (§ 80), _unspēdig_ (§ 82).
  prosperous, _spēdig_ (§ 82).


#Q.#

  queen, _cwēn_ (§ 49).


#R.#

  reindeer, _hrān_ (§ 26).
  remain, _bīdan_ (§ 102), _ābīdan_.
  retain possession of the battle-field, _āgan wælstōwe gewald_.
  rich, _rīce_ (§ 82), _spēdig_ (§ 82).
  ride, _rīdan_ (§ 102).


#S.#

  say, _cweðan_ (§ 115), _sęcgan_ (§ 133).
  scribe, _bōcere_ (§ 26).
  seal, _seolh_ (§ 26).
  see, _sēon_ (§ 118), _gesēon_.
  serpent, _nǣdre_ (§ 64).
  servant, _ðēowa_ (§ 64), _ðegn_ (§ 26).
  shall, _sculan_ (§ 136; § 137, Note 2).
  she, _hēo_ (§ 53).
  shepherd, _hierde_ (§ 26).
  ship, _scip_ (§ 32).
  shire, _scīr_ (§ 38).
  shoemaker, _scēowyrhta_ (§ 64).
  side, on both sides, _on gehwæðre hǫnd_.
  six, _siex_ (§ 90).
  slaughter, _wæl_ (§ 32), _wælsliht_ (§ 45).
  small, _lȳtel_ (§ 82).
  son, _sunu_ (§ 51).
  soul, _sāwol_ (§ 38).
  speak, _sprecan_ (§ 115).
  spear, _gār_ (§ 26), _spere_ (§ 32).
  stand, _stǫndan_ (§ 116).
  stone, _stān_ (§ 26).
  stranger, _wealh_ (§ 26), _cuma_ (§ 64).
  suffer, _drēogan_ (§ 109).
  sun, _sunne_ (§ 64).
  swift, _swift_ (§ 80).


#T.#

  take, _niman_ (§ 110).
  than, _ðonne_ (§ 96, (6)).
  thane, _ðegn_ (§ 26).
  that (conjunction), _ðæt_.
  that (demonstrative), _sē, sēo, ðæt_ (§ 28).
  that (relative), _ðe_ (§ 75).
  the, _se, sēo, ðæt_ (§ 28).
  then, _ðā, ðonne_.
  these, see this.
  they, _hīe_ (§ 53).
  thing, _ðing_ (§ 32).
  thirty, _ðrītig_.
  this, _ðēs, ðēos, ðis_ (§ 73).
  those, see that (demonstrative).
  thou, _ðū_ (§ 72).
  though, _ðēah_ (§ 105, 2).
  three, _ðrīe_ (§ 89).
  throne, ascend the throne, _tō rīce fōn_.
  throw, _weorpan_ (§ 110).
  to, _tō_ (§ 94, (1)).
  tongue, _tunge_ (§ 64).
  track, _spor_ (§ 32).
  true, _sōð_ (§ 80).
  truly, _sōðlīce_.
  two, _twēgen_ (§ 89).


#V.#

  very, _swīðe_.
  vessel, _fæt_ (§ 32).
  victory, _sige_ (§ 45).

#W.#

  wall, _weall_ (§ 26).
  warrior, _sęcg_ (§ 26), _eorl_ (§ 26).
  way, _weg_ (§ 26).
  weapon, _wǣpen_ (§ 32).
  well, _wel_ (§ 97, (2)).
  Welshman, _Wealh_ (§ 26).
  went, see go.
  westward, _west, westrihte_.
  whale, _hwæl_ (§ 26).
  what? _hwæt_ (§ 74).
  when, _ðā, ðonne_.
  where? _hwǣr_.
  which, _ðe_ (§ 75).
  who? _hwā_ (§ 74).
  who (relative), _ðe_ (§ 75).
  whosoever, _swā hwā swā_ (§ 77, Note).
  will, _willan_ (§ 134; § 137, Note 3).
  Wilton, _Wiltūn_ (§ 26).
  win, see gain.
  wine, _wīn_ (§ 32).
  wisdom, _wīsdōm_ (§ 26).
  wise, _wīs_ (§ 80).
  with, _mid_ (§ 94, (1));
    to fight with (= against), _gefeohtan wið_ (§ 94, (3)).
  withstand, _wiðstǫndan_ (with dative) (§ 116).
  wolf, _wulf_ (§ 26), _wylf_ (§ 38).
  woman, _wīf_ (§ 32).
  word, _word_ (§ 32).
  worm, _wyrm_ (§ 45).


#Y.#

  ye, _gē_ (§ 72).
  year, _gēar_ (§ 32).
  yoke, _geoc_ (§ 32).
  you, _ðū_ (singular), _gē_ (plural) (§ 72).
  your, _ðīn_ (singular), _ēower_ (plural) (§ 76).

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Errata

The spelling “Fins” (translating “ðā Finnas”) is used consistently.
Errors were trivial, generally missing punctuation. Shakespeare
citations have been silently regularized to “I, ii, 3” form. The Old
English text was not checked for misprints.


Numbered Sections:

  9 Note
    to t.: #sęttan#, _to set_  [to t.]
  39
    NOTE.--Syncopation occurs as in masculine and neuter a-stems.
      [_final . missing_]
  41
    sēo hālignes[1], _holiness_.  [_comma missing_]
  95
    for ðǣm, }  [_comma missing_]
  104
    corresponding with its function in Mn.E. [_final . missing_]
  130
    eard-ian, eard-ode ...  [_first comma missing_]
  131
    NOTE 1.  [NOTE. 1.]
  132
    hæf-de, lif-de, sęcg-an,  [_all commas missing_]

Readings:

  Poetry: Structure: Meter: Type B:
    The type of B most frequently occurring is × × –́ | × –́.
      [_final . missing_]

  Beowulf: The Banquet in Heorot (page 138).
    [8] = ealdre (instr. sing.).  [_final . missing_]

Glossary:

  ābūgan (§ 109, Note 1)  [Note, 1]
  dēofol, m., n., _devil_;  [m. n.,]
  intinga, m., _cause, sake_.  [intinga.]
  lagulād, f., _sea_ [lake-way, lād = _leading, direction, way_].
    [_closing bracket printed as parenthesis_]
  norðan (§ 93, (5)), _from the north_;
    [_second closing parenthesis missing_]
  sǣl, m., f., _time, happiness_ [sil-ly];  [m. f.,]
  sēfte, _more easily_ (comparative of sōfte).
    [_closing parenthesis missing_]
  Swēom, m., dat. pl., _the Swedes_.  [_final . missing_]
  tolūcan (§ 109, Note 1), _destroy_ ...  [_section mark § missing_]
  wið (§ 94, (3)), ...  [_section mark § missing_]





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