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Title: Architecture - Gothic and Renaissance
Author: Smith, T. Roger (Thomas Roger), 1830-1903
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note

Illustration captions in {curly brackets} have been added by the
transcriber for the convenience of the reader.

A considerable number of the page references in the index are
incorrect; however, they have been preserved as printed.



            _ILLUSTRATED TEXT-BOOKS OF ART
                      EDUCATION_

         _EDITED BY EDWARD J. POYNTER, R.A._


                     ARCHITECTURE
                GOTHIC AND RENAISSANCE

            BY T. ROGER SMITH, F.R.I.B.A.



  [Illustration: P. 114
      THE CERTOSA, NEAR PAVIA. FROM THE CLOISTERS.
      BEGUN BY MARCO DI CAMPIONE, A.D. 1393.]



        _TEXT-BOOK OF ART EDUCATION, EDITED BY
               EDWARD J. POYNTER, R.A._


                     ARCHITECTURE
                GOTHIC AND RENAISSANCE

            BY T. ROGER SMITH, F.R.I.B.A.

         _Occasional Lecturer on Architecture
            at University College, London_


   [Illustration: {SAINT GEORGE. PANEL FROM THE TOMB
      OF CARDINAL AMBOISE IN ROUEN CATHEDRAL.}]


                       NEW YORK
                SCRIBNER AND WELFORD.

                        LONDON
      SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON
          CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET
                         1880



               (_All rights reserved._)


          LONDON: R. CLAY, SONS, AND TAYLOR,
               BREAD STREET HILL, E. C.



  [Illustration: {CRÊTE FROM NOTRE DAME, PARIS.}]

PREFACE.


The history, the features, and the most famous examples of European
architecture, during a period extending from the rise of the Gothic,
or pointed, style in the twelfth century to the general depression
which overtook the Renaissance style at the close of the eighteenth,
form the subject of this little volume. I have endeavoured to adopt as
free and simple a mode of treatment as is compatible with the accurate
statement of at least the outlines of so very technical a subject.

Though it is to be hoped that many professional students of
architecture will find this hand-book serviceable to them in their
elementary studies, it has been my principal endeavour to adapt it to
the requirements of those who are preparing for the professional
pursuit of the sister arts, and of that large and happily increasing
number of students who pursue the fine arts as a necessary part of a
complete liberal education, and who know that a solid and
comprehensive acquaintance with art, especially if joined to some
skill in the use of the pencil, the brush, the modelling tool, or the
etching needle, will open sources of pleasure and interest of the most
refined description.

The broad facts of all art history; the principles which underlie each
of the fine arts; and the most precious or most noteworthy examples of
each, ought to be familiar to every art student, whatever special
branch he may follow. Beyond these limits I have not attempted to
carry this account of Gothic and Renaissance architecture; within them
I have endeavoured to make the work as complete as the space at my
disposal permitted.

Some portions of the text formed part of two courses of lectures
delivered before the students of the School of Military Engineering at
Chatham, and are introduced here by the kind permission of Sir John
Stokes. Many of the descriptive and critical remarks are transcripts
of notes made by myself, almost under the shadow of the buildings to
which they refer. It would, however, have been impossible to give a
condensed view of so extended a subject had not every part of it been
treated at much greater length by previous writers. The number and
variety of the books consulted renders it impossible to make any other
acknowledgment here than this general recognition of my indebtedness
to their authors.

                                                    T. R. S.



  [Illustration: {STAINED GLASS FROM CHARTRES CATHEDRAL.}]

CONTENTS.


                                                                  PAGE

    ILLUSTRATED GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL WORDS.               xv to xxxix


    CHAPTER I.

      INTRODUCTION.                                                  1


    CHAPTER II.

      THE BUILDINGS OF THE MIDDLE AGES.                              6


    CHAPTER III.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.                                          21


    CHAPTER IV.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND.

          Analysis of Buildings. Plans. Walls. Towers and
            Spires. Gables. Piers and Columns                       28


    CHAPTER V.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND (_continued_).

          Analysis (_continued_). Openings. Roofs. Spires.
            Ornaments. Stained Glass. Sculpture                     45


    CHAPTER VI.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN WESTERN EUROPE.

          1. FRANCE. Chronological Sketch. Analysis of
            Buildings. Plans. Walls, Towers and Gables.
            Columns and Piers. Roofs and Vaults. Openings.
            Mouldings and Ornaments. Construction and Design        69

          2. BELGIUM and the NETHERLANDS                            87

          3. SCOTLAND, WALES, and IRELAND                           91


    CHAPTER VII.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE.

          1. GERMANY. Chronological Sketch. Analysis of
            Buildings. Plans. Walls, Towers and Gables.
            Roofs and Vaults. Openings. Ornaments.
            Construction and Design                                 93

          2. NORTHERN EUROPE                                       111


    CHAPTER VIII.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTHERN EUROPE.

          1. ITALY and SICILY. Topographical Sketch.
            NORTHERN ITALY. CENTRAL ITALY. SOUTHERN
            ITALY. Analysis of Buildings. Plans. Walls,
            Towers, and Columns. Openings and Arches.
            Roofs and Vaults. Mouldings and Ornaments.
            Construction and Design                                112

          2. SPAIN. Chronological Sketch                           137

          3. PORTUGAL                                              142


    CHAPTER IX.

      GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.

          Principles of Construction and Design. Materials
            and Construction                                       143


    CHAPTER X.

      RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE.

          GENERAL VIEW. Analysis of Buildings. Plans. Walls
            and Columns. Openings. Construction and Design         154


    CHAPTER XI.

      RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY.

          FLORENCE. ROME. VENICE, VICENZA, VERONA. MILAN,
            PAVIA. GENOA, TURIN, NAPLES. Country Villas            165


    CHAPTER XII.

      RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN FRANCE AND NORTHERN EUROPE.

          1. FRANCE. Chronological Sketch                          193

          2. BELGIUM and the NETHERLANDS                           206

          3. GERMANY                                               210


    CHAPTER XIII.

      RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN, SPAIN,
        AND PORTUGAL.

          1. ENGLAND. Chronological Sketch                         214

          2. SCOTLAND                                              227

          3. SPAIN and PORTUGAL                                    229



  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM RHEIMS CATHEDRAL.}]

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                  PAGE

    CERTOSA, THE, NEAR PAVIA. FROM THE CLOISTERS          Frontispiece

    SAINT GEORGE. PANEL FROM THE TOMB OF CARDINAL
        AMBOISE IN ROUEN CATHEDRAL                          Title Page

    GLOSSARY. FORTY ENGRAVINGS OF DETAILS                  xv to xxxix

    1. WEST ENTRANCE, LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. (1275.)                   5

    2. GROUND PLAN OF PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL. (1118 to 1193.)        6

    3. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE NAVE OF SALISBURY CATHEDRAL         7

    4. CHOIR OF WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. (BEGUN 1224.)                   9

    5. NAVE OF WELLS CATHEDRAL. (1206 to 1242.)                      9

    6. GROUND PLAN OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY                             11

    7. HOUSE OF JAQUES COEUR AT BOURGES. (BEGUN 1443.)              15

    8. PLAN OF WARWICK CASTLE. (14TH AND 15TH CENTURIES.)           16

    9. PALACES ON THE GRAND CANAL, VENICE. (14TH CENTURY.)          18

    10. WELL AT REGENSBURG. (15TH CENTURY.)                         20

    11. GOTHIC ORNAMENT. FROM SENS CATHEDRAL (HEADPIECE)            21

    12. LINCOLN CATHEDRAL. (MOSTLY EARLY ENGLISH.)                  35

    13. ST. PIERRE, CAEN, TOWER AND SPIRE. (SPIRE, 1302.)           37

    14. HOUSE AT CHESTER. (16TH CENTURY.)                           38

    15. HOUSES AT LISIEUX, FRANCE. (16TH CENTURY.)                  41

    16. LANCET WINDOW. (12TH CENTURY.)                              46

    17. TWO-LIGHT WINDOW. (13TH CENTURY.)                           47

    18. GEOMETRICAL TRACERY. (14TH CENTURY.)                        48

    19. TRIFORIUM ARCADE, WESTMINSTER ABBEY. (1269.)                49

    20. ROSE WINDOW FROM THE TRANSEPT OF LINCOLN CATHEDRAL          50

    21. PERPENDICULAR WINDOW                                        51

    22. ROOF OF HALL AT ELTHAM PALACE. (15TH CENTURY.)              53

    23. HENRY VII.'S CHAPEL. (1503-1512.)                           57

    24. SPIRE OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, WARBOYS, LINCOLNSHIRE          59

    25. DECORATED SPIRE. ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, OAKHAM                 60

    26. EARLY ARCH IN RECEDING PLANES                               62

    27. ARCH IN RECEDING PLANES MOULDED                             62

    28. DOORWAY, KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL, CAMBRIDGE. (15TH CENT.)     63

    29. STAINED GLASS WINDOW FROM CHARTRES CATHEDRAL                65

    30. SCULPTURE FROM CHAPTER HOUSE, WESTMINSTER ABBEY             67

    31. CHURCH AT FONTEVRAULT. (BEGUN 1125.)                        70

    32. DOORWAY AT LOCHES, FRANCE. (1180.)                          72

    33. NOTRE DAME, PARIS, WEST FRONT. (1214.)                      74

    34. PLAN OF AMIENS CATHEDRAL. (1220-1272.)                      76

    35. AMIENS CATHEDRAL, WEST FRONT. (1220-1272.)                  78

    36. PIERS AND SUPERSTRUCTURE, RHEIMS CATHEDRAL. (1211-1240.)    80

    37. CAPITAL FROM ST. NICHOLAS, BLOIS, FRANCE. (13TH CENTURY.)   84

    38. BEAUVAIS CATHEDRAL, INTERIOR. (1225-1537.)                  86

    39. THE TOWN HALL OF MIDDLEBURGH. (1518.)                       89

    40. TOWER AT GHENT. (BEGUN 1183.)                               90

    41. ABBEY CHURCH OF ARNSTEIN. (12TH AND 13TH CENTURIES.)        94

    42. CHURCH AT ANDERNACH. (EARLY 13TH CENTURY.)                  96

    43. CHURCH OF ST. BARBARA AT KUTTENBERG. EAST END.
        (1358-1548.)                                                99

    44. DOUBLE CHURCH AT SCHWARTZ-RHEINDORFF. SECTION. (1158.)     101

    45. DOUBLE CHURCH AT SCHWARTZ-RHEINDORFF. (1158.)              102

    46. COLOGNE CATHEDRAL. GROUND PLAN. (BEGUN 1248.)              104

    47. WESTERN DOORWAY OF CHURCH AT THANN. (14TH CENTURY.)        106

    48. CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE AT OPPENHEIM. (1262 TO 1439.)      107

    49. ST. SEBALD'S CHURCH AT NUREMBERG. THE BRIDE'S DOORWAY      109

    50. PALACE OF THE JURISCONSULTS AT CREMONA                     117

    51. CATHEDRAL AT FLORENCE. WITH GIOTTO'S CAMPANILE             121

    52. CATHEDRAL AT SIENA. WEST FRONT AND CAMPANILE               123

    53. CATHEDRAL AT ORVIETO. (BEGUN 1290; FAÇADE, 1310.)          125

    54. OGIVAL WINDOW-HEAD                                         129

    55. TRACERY IN WINDOW-HEAD, FROM VENICE                        130

    56. WINDOW FROM TIVOLI                                         134

    57. ITALIAN GOTHIC WINDOW, WITH TRACERY IN HEAD                136

    58. CATHEDRAL AT TOLEDO. INTERIOR. (BEGUN 1227.)               139

    59. THE GIRALDA AT SEVILLE. (BEGUN IN 1196; FINISHED
        IN 1568.)                                                  141

    60. DOORWAY FROM CHURCH AT BATALHA. (BEGUN 1385.)              151

    61. STROZZI PALACE AT FLORENCE. (BEGUN 1489.)                  169

    62. PART OF THE LOGGIA DEL CONSIGLIO AT VERONA                 171

    63. THE PANDOLFINI PALACE, FLORENCE. DESIGNED BY RAPHAEL       173

    64. ST. PETER'S AT ROME. INTERIOR. (1506-1661.)                177

    65. MONUMENT BY SANSOVINO, IN STA. MARIA DEL POPOLO, ROME      179

    66. PALAZZO GIRAUD, ROME. BY BRAMANTE. (1506.)                 180

    67. ITALIAN SHELL ORNAMENT                                     183

    68. THE CHURCH OF THE REDENTORE, VENICE. (1576.)               185

    69. CERTOSA NEAR PAVIA. PART OF WEST FRONT. (BEGUN 1473.)      188

    70. VILLA MEDICI--ON THE PINCIAN HILL NEAR ROME. BY
        ANNIBALE LIPPI (NOW THE _Académie Française_).
        (A.D. 1540.)                                               191

    70A. EARLY RENAISSANCE CORBEL                                  192

    71. WINDOW FROM A HOUSE AT ORLEANS. (EARLY 16TH CENTURY.)      195

    72. CAPITAL FROM THE HOUSE OF FRANCIS I., ORLEANS. (1540.)     197

    73. PAVILLON RICHELIEU OF THE LOUVRE, PARIS                    199

    74. PART OF THE TUILERIES, PARIS. (BEGUN 1564.)                201

    75. CAPITAL FROM DELORME'S WORK AT THE LOUVRE                  202

    76. HÔTEL DES INVALIDES, PARIS                                 204

    77. WINDOW FROM COLMAR. (1575.)                                208

    78. ZEUGHAUS, DANTZIC. (1605.)                                 209

    79. COUNCIL-HOUSE AT LEYDEN. (1599.)                           211

    80. QUADRANGLE OF THE CASTLE OF SCHALABURG                     213

    81. HOLLAND HOUSE, KENSINGTON. (1607.)                         216

    82. ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, LONDON. (1675-1710.)                 220

    83. HOUSES AT CHESTER. (16TH CENTURY.)                         225

    84. THE ALCAZAR AT TOLEDO. (BEGUN 1568.)                       231



  [Illustration: {STAINED GLASS FROM CHARTRES CATHEDRAL.}]

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL WORDS.


    ABACUS.--The upper portion of the capital of a column, upon
    which the weight to be carried rests.

    AISLE (Lat. _ala_).--The side subdivision in a church;
    occasionally all the subdivisions, including the nave, are
    called aisles.

    APSE.--A semicircular or polygonal termination to, or
    projection from, a church or other public building.

    ARCADE.--A range of arches, supported on piers or columns.

    ARCH.--A construction of wedge-shaped blocks of stone, or of
    bricks, of a curved outline, and spanning an open space. The
    principal forms of arch in use are Semicircular;
    Acutely-pointed, or Lancet; Equilateral, or Less
    Acutely-pointed; Four-centred, or Depressed Tudor;
    Three-centred, or Elliptic; Ogival; Segmental; and Stilted.
    (Figs. _A_ to _F_.)

    ARCHITRAVE.--(1) The stone which in Classic and Renaissance
    architecture is thrown from one column or pilaster to the
    next. (2) The moulding which in the same styles is used to
    ornament the margin of a door or window opening or arch.

    ASHLAR.--Finely-wrought masonry, employed for the facing of
    a wall of coarser masonry or brick.

    ATTIC (In Renaissance Architecture).--A low upper story,
    distinctly marked in the architecture of the building,
    usually surmounting an order; (2) in ordinary building, any
    story in a roof.


    BAILEY (from _vallum_).--The enclosure of the courtyard of a
    castle.

    BALL-FLOWER.--An ornament representing a globular bud,
    placed usually in a hollow moulding.

    BALUSTER.--A species of small column, generally of curved
    outline.

    BALUSTRADE.--A parapet or rail formed of balusters.

      [Illustration: FIG. _A_.--SEMICIRCULAR ARCH.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _B_.--STILTED ARCH.]

      The Semicircular and the Stilted Semicircular Arch were the
      only arches in use till the introduction of the Pointed
      Arch. Throughout the Early English, Decorated, and
      Perpendicular periods they occur as exceptional features,
      but they were practically superseded after the close of the
      12th cent.

      [Illustration: FIG. _C_.--EQUILATERAL ARCH.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _D_.--LANCET ARCH.]

      The Lancet Arch was characteristic of the Early English
      period, is never found earlier, and but rarely occurs later.
      The Equilateral Arch was the favourite arch of the
      architects of the geometrical Decorated, but is not
      unfrequently met with in the early part of the Perpendicular
      period.

      [Illustration: FIG. _E_.--OGIVAL ARCH.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _F_.--DEPRESSED TUDOR ARCH.]

      The Depressed (or Four-centred) Tudor Arch is characteristic
      of the Perpendicular period, and was then constantly
      employed. The Ogival Arch is occasionally employed late in
      that period, but was more used by French and Italian
      architects than by those of Great Britain.

    BAND.--A flat moulding or projecting strip of stone.

    BARREL-VAULTING.--See Waggon-head vaulting.

    BARGE-BOARD (OR VERGE-BOARD).--An inclined and pierced or
    ornamented board placed along the edge of a roof when it
    overhangs a gable wall.

    BASE.--(1) The foot of a column; (2) sometimes that of a
    buttress or wall.

      [Illustration: FIG. _G_.--BASE OF EARLY ENGLISH SHAFT.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _H_.--BASE OF PERPENDICULAR SHAFT.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _I_.--BASE OF DECORATED SHAFT.]

    BASILICA.--(1) A Roman public hall; (2) an early Christian
    church, similar to a Roman basilica in disposition.

    BASTION (in Fortification).--A bold projecting mass of
    building, or earthwork thrown out beyond the general line of
    a wall.

    BATTLEMENT.--A notched or indented parapet.

    BAY.--One of the compartments in a building which is made up
    of several repetitions of the same group of features;
    _e.g._, in a church the space from one column of the nave
    arcade to the next is a bay.

    BAY-WINDOW.--A window projecting outward from the wall. It
    may be rectangular or polygonal. It must be built up from
    the ground. If thrown out above the ground level, a
    projecting window is called an Oriel. (See Bow window.)

    BEAD.--A small moulding of circular profile.

    BELFRY.--A chamber fitted to receive a peal of bells.

    BELFRY STAGE.--The story of a tower where the belfry occurs.
    Usually marked by large open arches or windows, to let the
    sound escape.

    BELL (of a capital).--The body between the necking and the
    abacus (which see).

    BILLET MOULDING.--A moulding consisting of a group of small
    blocks separated by spaces about equal to their own length.

    BLIND STORY.--Triforium (which see).

    BOSS.--A projecting mass of carving placed to conceal the
    intersection of the ribs of a vault, or at the end of a
    string course which it is desired to stop, or in an
    analogous situation.

    BOW WINDOW.--Similar to a Bay-window (which see), but
    circular or segmental.

    BROACH-SPIRE.--A spire springing from a tower without a
    parapet and with pyramidal features at the feet of its four
    oblique sides (see Fig. 22) to connect them to the four
    angles of the tower.

    BROACHEAD (SPIRE).--Formed as above described.

    BUTTRESS.--A projection built up against a wall to create
    additional strength or furnish support (see Flying
    Buttress).

    BYZANTINE.--The round-arched Christian architecture of the
    Eastern Church, which had its origin in Byzantium
    (Constantinople).


    CANOPY.--(1) An ornamented projection over doors, windows,
    &c.; (2) a covering over niches, tombs, &c.

    CAMPANILE.--The Italian name for a bell-tower.

      [Illustration: FIG. _J_.--BUTTRESS.]

    CAPITAL.--The head of a column or pilaster (Figs. _L_ to
    _P_).

    CATHEDRAL.--A church which contains the seat of a bishop;
    usually a building of the first class.

    CERTOSA.--A monastery (or church) of Carthusian monks.

    CHAMFER.--A slight strip pared off from a sharp angle.

    CHANCEL.--The choir or eastern part of a church.

    CHANTRY CHAPEL.--A chapel connected with a monument or tomb
    in which masses were to be chanted. This was usually of
    small size and very rich.

    CHAPEL.--(1) A chamber attached to a church and opening out
    of it, or formed within it, and in which an altar was
    placed; (2) a small detached church.

    CHAPTER HOUSE.--The hall of assembly of the chapter (dean
    and canons) of a cathedral.

      [Illustration: FIG. _L_.--EARLY NORMAN CAPITAL.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _M_.--EARLY ENGLISH CAPITAL.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _N_.--LATER NORMAN CAPITAL.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _O_.--PERPENDICULAR CAPITAL.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _P_.--EARLY FRENCH CAPITAL.]

    CHÂTEAU.--The French name for a country mansion.

    CHEVRON.--A zig-zag ornament.

    CHEVET.--The French name for an apse when surrounded by
    chapels; see the plan of Westminster Abbey (Fig. 6).

    CHOIR.--The part of a church in which the services are
    celebrated; usually, but not always, the east end or
    chancel. In a Spanish church the choir is often at the
    crossing.

    CLERESTORY.--The upper story or row of windows lighting the
    nave of a Gothic church.

    CLOISTER.--A covered way round a quadrangle of a monastic
    building.

    CLUSTERED (SHAFTS).--Grouped so as to form a pier of some
    mass out of several small shafts.

    CORBEL.--A projecting stone (or timber) supporting, or
    seeming to support, a weight (Fig. _K_).

      [Illustration: FIG. _K_.--EARLY RENAISSANCE CORBEL.]

    CORBELLING.--A series of mouldings doing the same duty as a
    corbel; a row of corbels.

    CORBEL TABLE.--A row of corbels supporting an overhanging
    parapet or cornice.

    CORTILE (Italian).--The internal arcaded quadrangle of a
    palace, mansion, or public building.

    COLUMN.--A stone or marble post, divided usually into base,
    shaft, and capital; distinguished from a pier by the shaft
    being cylindrical or polygonal, and in one, or at most, in
    few pieces.

    CORNICE.--The projecting and crowning portion of an order
    (which see) or of a building, or of a stage or story of a
    building.

    COURSE.--A horizontal layer of stones in the masonry of a
    building.

    CROCKET.--A tuft of leaves arranged in a formal shape, used
    to decorate ornamental gables, the ribs of spires, &c.

      [Illustration: FIG. _Q_.--DECORATED CROCKET.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _R_.--PERPENDICULAR CROCKET.]

    CROSSING.--The intersection (which see) in a church or
    cathedral.

    CROSS VAULT.--A vault of which the arched surfaces intersect
    one another, forming a groin (which see).

    CRYPT.--The basement under a church or other building
    (almost invariably vaulted).

    CUSP.--The projecting point thrown out to form the
    leaf-shaped forms or foliations in the heads of Gothic
    windows, and in tracery and panels.


    DEC.       } The Gothic architecture of the fourteenth century
    DECORATED. }   in England. _Abbreviated_ Dec.

    DETAIL.--The minuter features of a design or building,
    especially its mouldings and carving.

    DIAPER (Gothic).--An uniform pattern of leaves or flowers
    carved or painted on the surface of a wall.

      [Illustration: FIG. _S_.--DIAPER IN SPANDREL, FROM
          WESTMINSTER ABBEY.]

    DOGTOOTH.--A sharply-pointed ornament in a hollow moulding
    which is peculiar to Early English Gothic. It somewhat
    resembles a blunt tooth.

    DORMER WINDOW.--A window pierced through a sloping roof and
    placed under a small gable or roof of its own.

    DOME.--A cupola or spherical convex roof, ordinarily
    circular on plan.

    DOMICAL VAULTING.--Vaulting in which a series of small domes
    are employed; in contradistinction to a waggon-head vault,
    or an intersecting vault.

    DOUBLE TRACERY.--Two layers of tracery one behind the other
    and with a clear space between.


    E. E.          } The Gothic architecture of England in the
    EARLY ENGLISH. } thirteenth century. _Abbreviated_ E. E.

    EAVES.--The verge or edge of a roof overhanging the wall.

    EAVES-COURSE.--A moulding carrying the eaves.

    ELEVATION.--(1) A geometrical drawing of part of the
    exterior or interior walls of a building; (2) the
    architectural treatment of the exterior or interior walls of
    a building.

    ELIZABETHAN.--The architecture of England in, and for some
    time after, the reign of Elizabeth.

    EMBATTLED.--Finished with battlements, or in imitation of
    battlements.

    ENRICHMENTS.--The carved (or coloured) decorations applied
    to the mouldings or other features of an architectural
    design. (See Mouldings.)

    ENTABLATURE (in Classic and Renaissance architecture).--The
    superstructure above the columns where an order is employed.
    It is divided into the architrave, which rests on the
    columns, the frieze and the cornice.


    FAÇADE.--The front of a building or of a principal part of a
    building.

    FAN VAULT.--The vaulting in use in England in the fifteenth
    century, in which a series of conoids bearing some
    resemblance to an open fan are employed.

    FILLET.--A small moulding of square flat section.

      [Illustration: FIG. _T_.--PERPENDICULAR FINIAL.]

    FINIAL.--A formally arranged bunch of foliage or other
    similar ornament forming the top of a pinnacle, gablet, or
    other ornamented feature of Gothic architecture.

    FLAMBOYANT STYLE.--The late Gothic architecture of France
    at the end of the fifteenth century, so called from the
    occurrence of flame-shaped forms in the tracery.

    FLÈCHE.--A name adapted from the French. A slender spire,
    mostly placed on a roof; not often so called if on a tower.

    FLYING BUTTRESS.--A buttress used to steady the upper and
    inner walls of a vaulted building, placed at some distance
    from the wall which it supports, and connected with it by an
    arch.

      [Illustration: FIG. _U_.--FLYING BUTTRESS.]

    FOIL.--A leaf-shaped form produced by adding cusps to the
    curved outline of a window head or piece of tracery.

    FOLIATION.--The decoration of an opening, or of tracery by
    means of foils and cusps.

    FOSSE.--The ditch of a fortress.

    FRANÇOIS I. STYLE.--The early Renaissance architecture of
    France during part of the sixteenth century.

    FRIEZE.--(1) The middle member of a Classic or Renaissance
    entablature; this was often sculptured and carved; (2) any
    band of sculptured ornament.


    GABLE.--The triangular-shaped wall carrying the end of a
    roof.

    GABLET.--A small gable (usually ornamental only).

    GALLERY.--(1) An apartment of great length in proportion to
    its width; (2) a raised floor or stage in a building.

    GARGOYLE.--A projecting waterspout, usually carved in stone,
    more rarely formed of metal.

    GEOMETRICAL.--The architecture of the earlier part of the
    decorated period in England.

    GRILLE.--A grating or ornamental railing of metal.

    GROIN.--The curved line which is made by the meeting of the
    surfaces of two vaults or portions of vaults which
    intersect.

    GROUP.--An assemblage of shafts or mouldings or other small
    features intended to produce a combined effect.

    GROUPING.--Combining architectural features as above.


    HALL.--(1) The largest room in an ancient English mansion,
    or a college, &c.; (2) any large and stately apartment.

    HALF TIMBERED CONSTRUCTION.--A mode of building in which a
    framework of timbers is displayed and the spaces between
    them are filled in with plaster or tiles.

    HAMMER BEAM ROOF.--A roof peculiar to English architecture
    of the fifteenth century, deriving its name from the use of
    a hammer beam (a large bracket projecting from the walls) to
    partly support the rafters.

    HEAD (of an arch or other opening).--The portion within the
    curve; whether filled in by masonry or left open, sometimes
    called a tympanum.

    HIP.--The external angle formed by the meeting of two
    sloping sides of a roof where there is no gable.

    HÔTEL (French).--A town mansion.


    IMPOST.--A moulding or other line marking the top of the
    jambs of an arched opening, and the starting point, or
    apparent starting point, of the arch.

    INLAY.--A mode of decoration in which coloured materials
    are laid into sinkings of ornamental shape, cut into the
    surface to be decorated.

    INTERSECTION (OR CROSSING).--The point in a church where the
    transepts cross the nave.

    INTERSECTING VAULTS.--Vaults of which the surfaces cut one
    another.

    INTERPENETRATION.--A German mode of treating mouldings, as
    though two or more sets of them existed in the same stone
    and they could pass through (interpenetrate) each other.


    JAMB.--The side of a door or window or arch, or other
    opening.

      [Illustration: FIG. _V_.--PLAN OF A JAMB AND CENTRAL
          PIER OF A GOTHIC DOORWAY.]


    KEEP.--The tower which formed the stronghold of a mediæval
    castle.

    KING POST.--The middle post in the framing of a timber roof.


    LANCET ARCH.--The sharply-pointed window-head and arch,
    characteristic of English Gothic in the thirteenth century.

    LANTERN.--A conspicuous feature rising above a roof or
    crowning a dome, and intended usually to light a Hall, but
    often introduced simply as an architectural finish to the
    whole building.

    LIERNE (rib).--A rib intermediate between the main ribs in
    Gothic vaulting.

    LIGHT.--One of the divisions of a window of which the entire
    width is divided by one or more mullions.

    LINTEL.--The stone or beam covering a doorway or other
    opening not spanned by an arch. Sometimes applied to the
    architrave of an order.

    LOGGIA (Italian).--An open arcade with a gallery behind.

    LOOP.--Short for loophole. A very narrow slit in the wall of
    a fortress, serving as a window, or to shoot through.

    LUCARNE.--A spire-light. A small window like a slender
    dormer window.


    MOAT (or Fosse).--The ditch round a fortress or
    semi-fortified house.

    MOSAIC.--An ornament for pavements, walls, and the surfaces
    of vaults, formed by cementing together small pieces of
    coloured material (stone, marble, tile, &c.) so as to
    produce a pattern or picture.

    MOULDING.--A term applied to all varieties of contour or
    outline given to the angles, projections, or recesses of the
    various parts of a building. The object being either to
    produce an outline satisfactory to the eye; or, more
    frequently, to obtain a play of light and shade, and to
    produce the appearance of a line or a series of lines, broad
    or narrow, and of varying intensity of lightness or shade in
    the building or some of its features.

    The contour which a moulding would present when cut across
    in a direction at right angles to its length is called its
    profile.

    The profile of mouldings varied with each style of
    architecture and at each period (Figs. _W_ to _Z_). When
    ornaments are carved out of some of the moulded surfaces the
    latter are technically termed enriched mouldings. The
    enrichments in use varied with each style and each period,
    as the mouldings themselves did.

    MULLION.--The upright bars of stone frequently employed
    (especially in Gothic architecture) to subdivide one window
    into two or more lights.


    NAVE.--(1) The central avenue of a church or cathedral; (2)
    the western part of a church as distinguished from the
    chancel or choir; (3) occasionally, any avenue in the
    interior of a building which is divided by one or more rows
    of columns running lengthways is called a nave.

    NECKING (of a column).--The point (usually marked by a
    fillet or other small projecting moulding) where the shaft
    ends and the capital begins.

    NEWEL POST.--The stout post at the foot of a staircase from
    which the balustrade or the handrail starts.

      [Illustration: FIG. _W_.--ARCH MOULDING. (Gothic, 12th
          Century.)]

      [Illustration: FIG. _Y_.--ARCH MOULDING. (Decorated, 14th
          Century.)]

      [Illustration: FIG. _Z_.--ARCH MOULDING. (Gothic, 13th
          Century.)]

    NICHE.--A recess in a wall for a statue, vase, or other
    upright ornament.

    NORMAN.--The architecture of England from the Norman
    Conquest till the latter part of the twelfth century.


    OGEE.--A moulding or line of part concave and part convex
    curvature (see Fig. _E_, showing an ogee-shaped arch).

    OGIVAL.--Ogee-shaped (see Fig. 54).

    OPEN TRACERY.--Tracery in which the spaces between the bars
    are neither closed by slabs of stone nor glazed.

    ORDER.--(1) In Classical and Renaissance architecture a
    single column or pilaster and its appropriate entablature or
    superstructure; (2) a series of columns or pilasters with
    their entablature; (3) an entire decorative system
    appropriate to the kind of column chosen. In Renaissance
    architecture there are five orders--the Tuscan, Doric,
    Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. Each has its own proper
    column, and its proper base, shaft, and capital; and its own
    entablature. The proportions and the degree of enrichment
    appropriate to each vary. The Tuscan being the sturdiest and
    plainest, the Composite the most slender and most small, and
    the others taking place in the succession in which they
    stand enumerated above. Where more than one order occurs in
    a building, as constantly happens in Classic and Renaissance
    buildings, the orders which are the plainest and most sturdy
    (and have been named first) if employed, are invariably
    placed below the more slender orders; _e.g._ the Doric is
    never placed _over_ the Corinthian or the Ionic, but if
    employed in combination with either of those orders it is
    always the lowest in position.

    ORIEL.--A window projecting like a bay or bow window, not
    resting on the ground but thrown out above the ground level
    and resting on a corbel.


    PALLADIAN.--A phase of fully developed Renaissance
    architecture introduced by the architect Palladio, and
    largely followed in England as well as in Italy.

    PANEL.--(1) The thinner portions of the framed woodwork of
    doors and other such joiner's work; (2) all sunk
    compartments in masonry, ceilings, &c.

    PANELLING.--(1) Woodwork formed of framework containing
    panels; (2) any decoration formed of a series of sunk
    compartments.

    PARAPET.--A breastwork or low wall used to protect the
    gutters and screen the roofs of buildings; also, perhaps
    primarily, to protect the ramparts of fortifications.

      [Illustration: FIG. _A A_.--OPEN PARAPET, LATE DECORATED.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _B B_.--BATTLEMENTED PARAPET,
          PERPENDICULAR.]

    PAVILION.--A strongly marked single block of building; most
    frequently applied to those blocks in French and other
    Renaissance buildings that are marked out by high roofs.

    PEDESTAL.--(1) A substructure sometimes placed under a
    column in Renaissance architecture; (2) a similar
    substructure intended to carry a statue, vase, or other
    ornament.

    PEDIMENT.--(1) The gable, where used in Renaissance
    buildings; (2) an ornamental gable sometimes placed over
    windows, doors, and other features in Gothic buildings.

    PERP.          } The Gothic architecture of the fifteenth century
    PERPENDICULAR. }   in England. _Abbreviated_ Perp.

    PIER.--(1) A mass of walling, either a detached portion of
    a wall or a distinct structure of masonry, taking the place
    of a column in the arcade of a church or elsewhere; (2) a
    group or cluster of shafts substituted for a column.

      [Illustration: FIG. _C C_.--EARLY ENGLISH PIERS.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _D D_.--LATE DECORATED AND PERPENDICULAR
          PIERS.]

    PILASTER.--A square column, usually attached to a wall;
    frequently used in Classic and Renaissance architecture in
    combination with columns.

    PINNACLE (in Gothic architecture).--A small turret, or
    ornament, usually with a pointed top, employed to mark the
    summit of gables, buttresses, and other tall features.

    PITCH.--The degree of slope given to a roof, gable, or
    pediment.

    PLAN.--(1) A map of the floor of a building, showing the
    piers, if any, and the walls which inclose and divide it,
    with the openings in them; (2) the actual arrangement and
    disposition of the floors, piers, and walls of the building
    itself.

    PLANE.--The imaginary surface within which a series of
    mouldings lies, and which coincides with the salient and
    important points of that series. Mouldings are said to be on
    an oblique plane when their plane forms an angle less than a
    right angle with the face of the wall; and in receding
    planes, when they can be divided into a series of groups of
    more or less stepped outline, each within and behind the
    other, and each partly bounded by a plane parallel with the
    face of the wall.

    PLASTER.--The plastic material, of which the groundwork is
    lime and sand, used to cover walls internally and to form
    ceilings. Sometimes employed as a covering to walls
    externally.

    PLINTH.--The base of a wall or of a column or range of
    columns.

    PORTAL.--A dignified and important entrance doorway.

    PORTICO.--A range of columns with their entablature (and
    usually covered by a pediment), marking the entrance to a
    Renaissance or Classic building.

    PRISMATIC RUSTICATION.--In Elizabethan architecture
    rusticated masonry with diamond-shaped projections worked on
    the face of each stone.

    PROFILE.--The contour or outline of mouldings as they would
    appear if sawn across at right angles to their length.

    PORCH.--A small external structure to protect and ornament
    the doorway to a building (rarely met with in Renaissance).


    QUATREFOIL.--A four-leaved ornament occupying a circle in
    tracery or a panel.


    RAFTERS.--The sloping beams of a roof upon which the
    covering of the roof rests.

    RAGSTONE.--A coarse stone found in parts of Kent and
    elsewhere, and used for walling.

    RECEDING PLANES.--(See Plane.)

    RECESS.--A sinking in a building deeper than a mere panel.

    RECESSING.--Forming one or more recesses. Throwing back some
    part of a building behind the general face.

    RENAISSANCE.--The art of the period of the Classic revival
    which began in the sixteenth century. In this volume used
    chiefly to denote the architecture of Europe in that and the
    succeeding centuries.

    RIB (in Gothic vaulting).--A bar of masonry or moulding
    projecting beyond the general surface of a vault, to mark
    its intersections or subdivide its surface, and to add
    strength.

    RIDGE.--(1) The straight line or ornament which marks the
    summit of a roof; (2) the line or rib, straight or curved,
    which marks the summit of a vault.

    ROLL.--A round moulding.

    ROSE WINDOW.--A wheel window (which see).

    RUBBLE.--Rough stonework forming the heart of a masonry
    wall; sometimes faced with ashlar (which see), sometimes
    shown.

    RUSTICATION (or RUSTICATED MASONRY).--The sort of ornamental
    ashlar masonry (chiefly Classic and Renaissance) in which
    each stone is distinguished by a broad channel all round it,
    marking the joints.

    RUSTICS.--The individual blocks of stone used in rustication
    (as described above).


    SCREEN.--An internal partition or inclosure cutting off part
    of a building. At the entrance to the choir of a church
    screens of beautiful workmanship were used.

    SCROLL MOULDING.--A round roll moulding showing a line along
    its face (distinctive of decorated Gothic).

    SCROLL WORK.--Ornament showing winding spiral lines like the
    edge of a scroll of paper (chiefly found in Elizabethan).

    SECTION.--(1) A drawing of a building as it would appear if
    cut through at some fixed plane. (2) That part of the
    construction of a building which would be displayed by such
    a drawing as described above. (3) The profile of a moulding.

    SET-OFF.--A small ledge formed by diminishing the thickness
    of a wall or pier.

    SEXPARTITE VAULTING.--Where each bay or compartment is
    divided by its main ribs into six portions.

    SGRAFFITO (Italian).--An ornament produced by scratching
    lines on the plastered face of a building so as to show a
    different colour filling up the lines or surfaces scratched
    away.

    SHAFT.--(1) The middle part of a column between its base and
    capital. (2) In Gothic, slender columns introduced for
    ornamental purposes, singly or in clusters.

    SHELL ORNAMENT.--A decoration frequently employed in Italian
    and French Renaissance, and resembling the interior of a
    shell.

    SKY-LINE.--The outline which a building will show against
    the sky.

    SPANDREL.--The triangular (or other shaped) space between
    the outside of an arch and the mouldings, or surfaces
    inclosing it or in contact with it. (See Fig. _S_, under
    Diaper.)

    SPIRE.--The steep and pointed roof of a tower (usually a
    church tower).

    SPIRE-LIGHT (or LUCARNE).--A dormer window (which see) in a
    spire.

    SPLAY.--A slope making with the face of a wall an angle less
    than a right angle.

    STAGE.--One division in the height of any building or
    portion of a building where horizontal divisions are
    distinctly marked, _e.g._, the belfry stage of a tower, the
    division in which the bells are hung.

    STEEPLE.--A tower and spire in combination. Sometimes
    applied to a tower or spire separately.

    STEPPED GABLE.--A gable in which, instead of a sloping line,
    the outline is formed by a series of steps.

    STILTED ARCH.--An arch of which the curve does not commence
    till above the level of the impost (which see).

    STORY.--(1) The portion of a building between one floor and
    the next; (2) any stage or decidedly marked horizontal
    compartment of a building, even if not corresponding to an
    actual story marked by a floor.

    STRAP-WORK (Elizabethan).--An ornament representing
    strap-like fillets interlaced.

    STRING-COURSE.--A projecting horizontal (or occasionally
    sloping) band or line of mouldings.


    TABERNACLE WORK.--The richly ornamented and carved work with
    which the smaller and more precious features of a church,
    _e.g._, the fittings of a choir, were adorned and made
    conspicuous.

    TERMINAL (or Finial).--The ornamental top of a pinnacle,
    gable, &c.

    TERRA-COTTA.--A fine kind of brick capable of being highly
    ornamented, and formed into blocks of some size.

    THRUST.--The pressure exercised laterally by an arch or
    vault, or by the timbers of a roof on the abutments or
    supports.

    TIE.--A beam of wood, bar of iron, or similar expedient
    employed to hold together the feet or sides of an arch,
    vault, or roof, and so counteract the thrust.

    TORUS.--A large convex moulding.

    TOWER.--A portion of a building rising conspicuously above
    the general mass, and obviously distinguished by its height
    from that mass. A detached building of which the height is
    great, relative to the width and breadth.

    TRACERY (Gothic).--The ornamental stonework formed by the
    curving and interlacing of bars of stone, and occupying the
    heads of windows, panels, and other situations where
    decoration and lightness have to be combined. The simplest
    and earliest tracery might be described as a combination of
    openings pierced through the stone head of an arch. Cusping
    and foliation (which see) are features of tracery. (See
    Figs. 18, 19, 55, and 57 in the text.)

      [Illustration: FIG. _E E_.--PERPENDICULAR WINDOW-HEAD.]

      [Illustration: FIG. _F F_.--LATE PERPENDICULAR WINDOW-HEAD.]

    TRANSEPT.--The arms of a church or cathedral which cross
    the line of the nave.

    TRANSITION.--The architecture of a period coming between and
    sharing the characteristics of two distinctly marked styles
    or phases of architecture, one of which succeeded the other.

    TRANSOM.--A horizontal bar (usually of stone) across a
    window or panel.

    TREFOIL.--A three-leaved or three-lobed form found
    constantly in the heads of windows and in other situations
    where tracery is employed.

    TRIFORIUM (or THOROUGH-FARE).--The story in a large church
    or cathedral intermediate between the arcade separating the
    nave and aisles, and the clerestory.

    TUDOR.--The architecture of England during the reigns of the
    Tudor kings. The use of the term is usually, however,
    restricted to a period which closes with the end of Henry
    VIII.'s reign, 1547.

    TURRET.--A small tower, sometimes rising from the ground,
    but often carried on corbels and commencing near the upper
    part of the building to which it is an appendage.

    TYMPANUM.--The filling in of the head of an arch, or
    occasionally of an ornamental gable.


    UNDERCUTTING.--A moulding or ornament of which the greater
    part stands out from the mouldings or surfaces which it
    adjoins, as though almost or quite detached from them, is
    said to be undercut.


    VAULT.--An arched ceiling to a building, or part of a
    building, executed in masonry or in some substitute for
    masonry.

    The vaults of the Norman period were simple barrel- or
    waggon-headed vaults, and semicircular arches only were used
    in their construction. With the Gothic period the use of
    intersecting, and as a result of pointed arches, was
    introduced into vaulting, and vaults went on increasing in
    complexity and elaboration till the Tudor period, when
    fan-vaulting was employed. Our illustrations show some of
    the steps in the development of Gothic vaults referred to in
    Chapter V. of the text. No. 1 represents a waggon-head vault
    with an intersecting vault occupying part of its length. No.
    2 represents one of the expedients adopted for vaulting an
    oblong compartment before the pointed arch was introduced.
    The narrower arch is stilted and the line of the groin is
    not true. No. 3 represents a similar compartment vaulted
    without any distortion or irregularity by the help of the
    pointed arch. No. 4 represents one lay of a sexpartite
    Gothic vault. No. 5 represents a vault with lierne ribs
    making a star-shaped pallom on plan, and No. 6 is a somewhat
    more intricate example of the same class of vault.

      [Illustration: FIG. _G G_.--VAULTS.]

    Vaults are met with in Renaissance buildings, but they are a
    less distinctive feature of such buildings than they were in
    the Gothic period; and in many cases where a vault or a
    series of vaults would have been employed by a Gothic
    architect, a Renaissance architect has preferred to make use
    of a dome or a series of domes. This is called domical
    vaulting. Examples of it occur occasionally in Gothic work.


    WAGGON-HEAD VAULTING, OR BARREL-VAULTING.--A simple form of
    tunnel-like vaulting, which gets its name from its
    resemblance to the tilt often seen over large waggons, or to
    the half of a barrel.

    WAINSCOT.--(1) The panelling often employed to line the
    walls of a room or building; (2) a finely marked variety of
    oak imported chiefly from Holland; probably so called
    because wainscot oak was at one time largely employed for
    such panelling.

    WEATHERING.--A sloping surface of stone employed to cover
    the set-off (which see) of a wall or buttress and protect it
    from the effects of weather.

    WHEEL WINDOW.--A circular window, and usually one in which
    mullions radiate from a centre towards the circumference
    like the spokes of a wheel; sometimes called a rose-window.

    WINDOW-HEAD.--For illustrations of the various forms and
    filling-in of Gothic window-heads, see the words Arch and
    Tracery.

  [Illustration: {ORNAMENTAL DOLPHIN PATTERN.}]



HEAD AND TAILPIECES.


                                                                  PAGE

    HEADPIECE.--CRÊTE FROM NOTRE DAME, PARIS                         1

        "       SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM RHEIMS CATHEDRAL            6

        "            "           "       SENS CATHEDRAL             21

        "            "           "       WESTMINSTER ABBEY          28

    TAILPIECE.--NORMAN CAPITALS                                     44

    HEADPIECE.--SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM WESTMINSTER ABBEY          45

    TAILPIECE.--MISERERE SEAT FROM WELLS CATHEDRAL                  68

    HEADPIECE.--STAINED GLASS FROM CHARTRES CATHEDRAL               69

    TAILPIECE.--MISERERE SEAT FROM WELLS CATHEDRAL                  92

        "       ORNAMENT FROM RHEIMS CATHEDRAL                     153

    HEADPIECE.--RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT FROM A FRIEZE                 154

        "       FROM A TERRA-COTTA FRIEZE AT LODI                  165

    TAILPIECE.--FROM A DOOR IN SANTA MARIA, VENICE                 192

    HEADPIECE.--ORNAMENT BY GIULIO ROMANO                          193

        "       FROM A FRIEZE AT VENICE                            235

THE END-PAPERS ARE FROM A TAPESTRY IN HARDWICK HALL.


  [Illustration: _The Lily of Florence._]



  [Illustration: {CRÊTE FROM NOTRE DAME, PARIS.}]

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.


The architecture generally known as Gothic, but often described as
Christian Pointed, prevailed throughout Europe to the exclusion of
every rival for upwards of three centuries; and it is to be met with,
more or less, during two others. Speaking broadly, it may be said that
its origin took place in the twelfth century, that the thirteenth was
the period of its development, the fourteenth that of its perfection,
and the fifteenth that of its decline; while many examples of its
employment occur in the sixteenth.

In the following chapters the principal changes in the features of
buildings which occurred during the progress of the style in England
will be described. Subsequently, the manner in which the different
stages of development were reached in different countries will be
given; for architecture passed through very nearly the same phases in
all European nations, though not quite simultaneously.

It must be understood that through the whole Gothic period, growth or
at least change was going on; the transitions from one stage to
another were only periods of more rapid change than usual. The whole
process may be illustrated by the progress of a language. If, for
instance, we compare round-arched architecture in the eleventh century
to the Anglo-Saxon form of speech of the time of Alfred the Great, and
the architecture of the twelfth century to the English of Chaucer,
that of the thirteenth will correspond to the richer language of
Shakespeare, that of the fourteenth to the highly polished language of
Addison and Pope, and that of the fifteenth to the English of our own
day. We can thus obtain an apt parallel to the gradual change and
growth which went on in architecture; and we shall find that the
oneness of the language in the former case, and of the architecture in
the latter, was maintained throughout.

For an account of the Christian round-arched architecture which
preceded Gothic, the reader is referred to the companion volume in
this series. Here it will be only necessary briefly to review the
circumstances which went before the appearance of the pointed styles.

The Roman empire had introduced into Europe some thing like a
universal architecture, so that the buildings of any Roman colony bore
a strong resemblance to those of every other colony and of the
metropolis; varying, of course, in extent and magnificence, but not
much in design. The architecture of the Dark Ages in Western Europe
exhibited, so far as is known, the same general similarity. Down to
the eleventh century the buildings erected (almost exclusively
churches and monastic buildings) were not large or rich, and were
heavy in appearance and simple in construction. Their arches were all
semicircular.

The first rays of light across the gloom of the Dark Ages seem to
have come from the energy and ability of Charlemagne in the eighth
century.

In the succeeding century, this activity received a check; an idea
became generally prevalent that the year one thousand was to see the
end of the world; men's minds were overshadowed with apprehension; and
buildings, in common with other undertakings of a permanent nature,
were but little attempted.

When the millennium came and passed, and left all as it had been, a
kind of revulsion of feeling was experienced; many important
undertakings were set on foot, such as during the preceding years it
had not been thought worth while to prosecute. The eleventh century
thus became a time of great religious activity; and if the First
Crusade, which took place 1095, may be taken as one outcome of that
pious zeal, another can certainly be found in the large and often
costly churches and monasteries which rose in every part of England,
France, Germany, Lombardy, and South Italy. Keen rivalry raged among
the builders of these churches; each one was built larger and finer
than the previous examples, and the details began to grow elaborate.
Construction and ornament were in fact advancing and improving, if not
from year to year, at any rate from decade to decade, so that by the
commencement of the twelfth century a remarkable development had taken
place. The ideas of the dimensions of churches then entertained were
really almost as liberal as during the best period of Gothic
architecture.

An illustration of this fact is furnished by the rebuilding of
Westminster Abbey under Edward the Confessor. He pulled down a small
church which he found standing on the site, in order to erect one
suitable in size and style to the ideas of the day. The style of his
cathedral (but not its dimensions) soon became so much out of date
that Henry III. pulled the buildings down in order to re-erect them of
the lofty proportions and with the pointed arches which we now see in
the choir and transepts of the Abbey; but the size remained nearly the
same, for there is evidence to show that the Confessor's buildings
must have occupied very nearly, if not quite, as much ground as those
which succeeded them.

At the beginning of the twelfth century many local peculiarities, some
of them due to accident, some to the nature and quality of the
building materials obtainable, some to differences of race, climate,
and habits, and some to other causes, had begun to make their
appearance in the buildings of various parts of Europe; and through
the whole Gothic period such peculiarities were to be met with. Still
the points of similarity were greater and more numerous than the
differences; so much so, that by going through the course which Gothic
architecture ran in one of the countries in which it flourished, it
will readily be possible to furnish a general outline of the subject
as a whole; it will then only be requisite to point out the principal
variations in the practice of other countries. On some grounds France
would be the most suitable country to select for this purpose, for
Gothic appeared earlier and flourished more brilliantly in that
country than in any other; the balance of advantage lies however, when
writing for English students, in the selection of Great Britain. The
various phases through which the art passed are well marked in this
country, they have been fully studied and described, and, what is of
the greatest importance, English examples are easily accessible to the
majority of students, while those which cannot be visited may be very
readily studied from engravings and photographs. English Gothic will
therefore be first considered; but as a preliminary a few words
remain to be said describing generally the buildings which have come
down to us from the Gothic period.

The word Gothic, which was in use in the eighteenth century, and
probably earlier, was invented at a time when a Goth was synonymous
with everything that was barbarous; and its use then implied a
reproach. It denotes, according to Mr. Fergusson, "all the styles
invented and used by the Western barbarians who overthrew the Roman
empire, and settled within its limits."

  [Illustration: FIG 1.--WEST ENTRANCE, LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL, (1275.)
      (_See Chapter V._)]



  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM RHEIMS CATHEDRAL.}]

CHAPTER II.

THE BUILDINGS OF THE MIDDLE AGES.


By far the most important specimens of Gothic architecture are the
cathedrals and large churches which were built during the prevalence
of the style. They were more numerous, larger, and more complete as
works of art than any other structures, and accordingly they are to be
considered on every account as the best examples of pointed
architecture.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--GROUND PLAN OF PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL. (1118
      to 1193.) A. Nave. B B. Transepts. C. Choir. D D. Aisles.
      E. Principal Entrance.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE NAVE OF SALISBURY
      CATHEDRAL. (A.D. 1217).]

The arrangement and construction of a Gothic cathedral were
customarily as follows:--(See Fig. 2.) The main axis of the building
was always east and west, the principal entrance being at the west
end, usually under a grand porch or portal, and the high altar stood
at the east end. The plan (or main floor) of the building almost
always displays the form of a cross. The stem of the cross is the part
from the west entrance to the crossing, and is called the nave. The
arms of the cross are called transepts, and point respectively north
and south. Their crossing with the nave is often called the
intersection. The remaining arm, which prolongs the stem eastwards, is
ordinarily called the choir, but sometimes the presbytery, and
sometimes the chancel. All these names really refer to the position of
the internal fittings of the church, and it is often more accurate
simply to employ the term eastern arm for this portion of a church.

The nave is flanked by two avenues running parallel to it, narrower
and lower than itself, called aisles. They are separated from it by
rows of columns or piers, connected together by arches. Thus the nave
has an arcade on each side of it, and each aisle has an arcade on one
side, and a main external wall on the other. The aisle walls are
usually pierced by windows. The arches of the arcade carry walls which
rise above the roofs of the aisles, and light the nave. These walls
are usually subdivided internally into two heights or stories; the
lower story consists of a series of small arches, to which the name of
triforium is given. This arcade usually opens into the dark space
above the ceiling or vault of the aisle, and hence it is sometimes
called the blind story. The upper story is the range of windows
already alluded to as lighting the nave, and is called the clerestory.
Thus a spectator standing in the nave, and looking towards the side
(Figs. 4 and 5), will see opposite him the main arcade, and over that
the triforium, and over that the clerestory, crowned by the nave vault
or roof; and looking through the arches of the nave arcade, he will
see the side windows of the aisle. Above the clerestory of the nave,
and the side windows of the aisles, come the vaults or roofs. In some
instances double aisles (two on each side) have been employed.

The transepts usually consist of well-marked limbs, divided like the
nave into a centre avenue and two side aisles, and these usually are
of the same width and height as the nave and its aisles. Sometimes
there are no transepts; sometimes they do not project beyond the line
of the walls, but still are marked by their rising above the lower
height of the nave aisles. Sometimes the transepts have no aisles, or
an aisle only on one side.[1] On the other hand, it is sometimes
customary, especially in English examples, to form two pairs of
transepts. This occurs in Lichfield Cathedral.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--CHOIR OF WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. (BEGUN 1224.)
      A. Nave Arcade. B. Triforium. C. Clerestory.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--NAVE OF WELLS CATHEDRAL. (1206 TO 1242.)
      A. Nave Arcade. B. Triforium. C. Clerestory.]

The eastern arm of the cathedral is the part to which most importance
was attached, and it is usual to mark that importance by greater
richness, and by a difference in the height of its roof or vault as
compared with the nave; its floor is always raised. It also has its
central passage and its aisles; and it has double aisles much more
frequently than the nave. The eastern termination of the cathedral is
sometimes semicircular, sometimes polygonal, and when it takes this
form it is called an apse or an apsidal east end; sometimes it is
square, the apse being most in use on the Continent, and the square
east end in England. Attached to some of the side walls of the church
it is usual to have a series of chapels; these are ordinarily chambers
partly shut off from the main structure, but opening into it by arched
openings; each chapel contains an altar. The finest chapel is usually
one placed on the axis of the cathedral, and east of the east end of
the main building; this is called, where it exists, the Lady Chapel,
and was customarily dedicated to the Virgin. Henry VII.'s Chapel at
Westminster (Fig. 6) furnishes a familiar instance of the lady chapel
of a great church. Next in importance rank the side chapels which open
out of the aisles of the apse, when there is one. Westminster Abbey
furnishes good examples of these also. The eastern wall of the
transept is a favourite position for chapels. They are less frequently
added to the nave aisles.

The floor of the eastern arm of the cathedral, as has been pointed
out, is always raised, so as to be approached by steps; it is inclosed
by screen work which shuts off the choir, or inclosure for the
performance of divine service, from the nave. The fittings of this
part of the building generally include stalls for the clergy and
choristers and a bishop's throne, and are usually beautiful works of
art. Tombs, and inclosures connected with them, called chantry
chapels, are constantly met with in various positions, but most
frequently in the eastern arm.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--GROUND PLAN OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY.]

Below the raised floor of the choir, and sometimes below other parts
of the building, there often exists a subterranean vaulted structure
known as the crypt.

Passing to the exterior of the cathedral, the principal doorway is in
the western front:[2] usually supplemented by entrances at the ends of
the transepts, and one or more side entrances to the nave. A porch on
the north side of the nave is a common feature. The walls are now seen
to be strengthened by stone piers, called buttresses. Frequently
arches are thrown from these buttresses to the higher walls of the
building. The whole arrangement of pier and arch is called a flying
buttress,[3] and, as will be explained later, is used to steady the
upper part of the building when a stone vault is employed (see Chap.
V.). The lofty gables in which the nave and transepts, and the eastern
arm when square terminate, form prominent features, and are often
occupied by great windows.

In a complete cathedral, the effect of the exterior is largely due to
the towers with which it was adorned. The most massive tower was
ordinarily one which stood, like the central one of Lichfield
Cathedral, at the crossing of the nave and transepts. Two towers were
usually intended at the western front of the building, and sometimes
one, or occasionally two, at the end of each transept. It is rare to
find a cathedral where the whole of these towers have been even begun,
much less completed. In many cases only one, in others three, have
been built. In some instances they have been erected, and have fallen.
In others they have never been carried up at all. During a large
portion of the Gothic period it was usual to add to each tower a
lofty pyramidal roof or spire, and these are still standing in some
instances, though many of them have disappeared. Occasionally a tower
was built quite detached from the church to which it belonged.

To cathedrals and abbey churches a group of monastic buildings was
appended. It will not be necessary to describe these in much detail.
They were grouped round an open square, surrounded by a vaulted and
arcaded passage, which is known as the cloister. This was usually
fitted into the warm and sheltered angle formed by the south side of
the nave and the south transept, though occasionally the cloister is
found on the north side of the nave. The most important building
opening out of the cloister is the chapter-house, frequently a lofty
and richly-ornamented room, often octagonal, and generally standing
south of the south transept. The usual arrangement of the monastic
buildings round and adjoining the cloister varied in details with the
requirements of the different monastic orders, and the circumstances
of each individual religious house, but, as in the case of churches,
the general principles of disposition were fixed early. They are
embodied in a manuscript plan, dating as far back as the ninth
century, and found at St. Gall in Switzerland, and never seem to have
been widely departed from. The monks' dormitory here occupies the
whole east side of the great cloister, there being no chapter-house.
It is usually met with as nearly in this position as the transept and
the chapter-house will permit. The refectory is on the south side of
the cloister, and has a connected kitchen. The west side of the
cloister in this instance was occupied by a great cellar. Frequently a
hospitum, or apartment for entertaining guests, stood here. The north
side of the cloister was formed by the church.

For the abbot a detached house was provided in the St. Gall plan to
stand on the north side of the church; and a second superior hospitum
for his guests. Eastward of the church are placed the infirmary with
its chapel, and an infirmarer's lodging. The infirmary was commonly
arranged with a nave and aisles, much like, a small parish church.
Other detached buildings gave a public school, a school for novices
with its chapel, and, more remotely placed, granaries, mills, a
bakehouse, and other offices. A garden and a cemetery formed part of
the scheme, which corresponds tolerably well with that of many
monastic buildings remaining in England, as _e.g._, those at
Fountains' Abbey, Furness Abbey, or Westminster Abbey, so far as they
can be traced.

Generally speaking the principal buildings in a monastery were long
and not very wide apartments, with windows on both sides. Frequently
they were vaulted, and they often had a row of columns down the
middle. Many are two stories high. Of the dependencies, the kitchen,
which was often a vaulted apartment with a chimney, and the barn,
which was often of great size, were the most prominent. They are often
fine buildings. At Glastonbury very good examples of a monastic barn
and kitchen can be seen.

Second only in importance to the churches and religious buildings come
the military and domestic buildings of the Gothic period (Fig. 7).

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--HOUSE OF JAQUES COEUR AT BOURGES.
      (BEGUN 1413.)]

Every dwelling-house of consequence was more or less fortified, at any
rate during the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries. A lofty
square tower, called a keep, built to stand a siege, and with a walled
inclosure at its feet, often protected by a wide ditch (fosse or
moat), formed the castle of the twelfth century, and in some cases
(_e.g._ the White Tower of London), this keep was of considerable
size. The first step in enlargement was to increase the number and
importance of the buildings which clustered round the keep, and to
form two inclosures for them, known as an inner and an outer bailey.
The outer buildings of the Tower of London, though much modernised,
will give a good idea of what a first class castle grew to be by
successive additions of this sort. In castles erected near the end of
the thirteenth century (_e.g._ Conway Castle in North Wales), and
later, the square form of the keep was abandoned, and many more
arrangements for the comfort and convenience of the occupants were
introduced; and the buildings and additions to buildings of the
fifteenth century took more the shape of a modern dwelling-house,
partly protected against violence, but by no means strong enough to
stand a siege. Penshurst may be cited as a good example of this class
of building.

It will be understood that, unlike the religious buildings which early
received the form and disposition from which they did not depart
widely, mediæval domestic buildings exhibit an amount of change in
which we can readily trace the effects of the gradual settlement of
this country, the abandonment of habits of petty warfare, the ultimate
cessation of civil wars, the introduction of gunpowder, the increase
in wealth and desire for comfort, and last, but not least, the
confiscation by Henry VIII. of the property of the monastic houses.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--PLAN OF WARWICK CASTLE. (14TH AND FOLLOWING
      CENTURIES.)]

Warwick Castle, of which we give a plan (Fig. 8), maybe cited as a
good example of an English castellated mansion of the time of Richard
II. Below the principal story there is a vaulted basement containing
the kitchens and many of the offices. On the main floor we find the
hall, entered as usual at the lower or servants' end, from a porch.
The upper end gives access to a sitting-room, built immediately
behind it, and beyond are a drawing-room and state bed-rooms, while
across a passage are placed the private chapel and a large dining-room
(a modern addition). Bed-rooms occupy the upper floors of the
buildings at both ends of the hall.

Perhaps even more interesting as a study than Warwick Castle is Haddon
Hall, the well-preserved residence of the Duke of Rutland, in
Derbyshire. The five or six successive enlargements and additions
which this building has received between the thirteenth and
seventeenth centuries show the growth of ideas of comfort and even
luxury in this country.

As it now stands, Haddon Hall contains two internal quadrangles,
separated from one another by the great hall with its dais, its
minstrels' gallery, its vast open fire-place, and its traceried
windows, and by the kitchens, butteries, &c., belonging to it.

The most important apartments are reached from the upper end of the
hall, and consist of the magnificent ball-room, and a dining-room in
the usual position, _i.e._ adjoining the hall and opening out of it;
with, on the upper floor, a drawing-room, and a suite of state
bed-rooms, occupying the south side of both quadrangles and the east
end of one. A large range of apartments, added at a late period, and
many of them finely panelled and lined with tapestry, occupies the
north side of this building and the northwestern tower. At the
south-western corner of the building stands a chapel of considerable
size, and which once seems to have served as a kind of parochial
church; and a very considerable number of rooms of small size, opening
out of both quadrangles, would afford shelter, if not comfortable
lodging, to retainers, servants, and others. The portions built in
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries are more or less
fortified. The ball-room, which is of Elizabethan architecture, opens
on to a terraced garden, accessible from without by no more violent
means than climbing over a not very formidable wall. Probably nowhere
in England, can the growth of domestic architecture be better studied,
whether we look to the alterations which took place in accommodation
and arrangement, or to the changes which occurred in the architectural
treatment of windows, battlements, doorways and other features, than
at Haddon Hall.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--PALACES ON THE GRAND CANAL, VENICE. (14TH
      CENTURY.)]

In towns and cities much beautiful domestic architecture is to be
found in the ordinary dwelling-houses, _e.g._ houses from Chester and
Lisieux (Figs. 14 and 15); but many specimens have of course perished,
especially as timber was freely used in their construction.
Dwelling-houses of a high order of excellence, and of large size, were
also built during this period. The Gothic palaces of Venice, of which
many stand on the Grand Canal (Fig. 9), are the best examples of
these, and the lordly Ducal Palace in that city is perhaps the finest
secular building which exists of Gothic architecture.

Municipal buildings of great size and beauty are to be found in North
Italy and Germany, but chiefly in Belgium, where the various
town-halls of Louvain, Bruges, Ypres, Ghent, Antwerp, Brussels, &c.,
vie with each other in magnificence and extent.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many secular buildings also remain to us of which the architecture is
Gothic. Among these we find public halls and large buildings for
public purposes--as Westminster Hall, or the Palace of Justice at
Rouen; hospitals, as that at Milan; or colleges, as King's College,
Cambridge, with its unrivalled chapel. Many charming minor works,
such as fountains, wells (Fig. 10), crosses, tombs, monuments, and the
fittings of the interior of churches, also remain to attest the
versatility, the power of design, and the cultivated taste of the
architects of the Gothic period.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--WELL AT REGENSBURG. (15TH CENTURY.)]

FOOTNOTES:

[1] As the north transept at Peterborough (Fig. 2).

[2] At E on the plan of Peterborough (Fig. 2).

[3] See Glossary.



  [Illustration: FIG. 11.{--SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM SENS CATHEDRAL.}]

CHAPTER III.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN.


English Gothic architecture has been usually subdivided into three
periods or stages of advancement, corresponding to those enumerated on
page 1; the early stage known as Early English, or sometimes as
Lancet, occupying the thirteenth century and something more; the
middle stage, known as Decorated, occupying most of the fourteenth
century; and the latest stage, known as Perpendicular, occupying the
fifteenth century and part of the sixteenth.

The duration of each of these coincides approximately with the
century, the transition from each phase to the next taking place
chiefly in the last quarter of the century. Adding the periods of the
English types of round arched Architecture, we obtain the following
table:--

           Up to 1066 or up to middle of 11th century, SAXON.
    A.D. 1066 to 1189 or up to end of    12th    "     NORMAN.
    A.D. 1189 to 1307 or up to end of    13th    "     EARLY ENGLISH.
    A.D. 1307 to 1377 or up to end of    14th    "     DECORATED.
    A.D. 1377 to 1546 or up to middle of 16th    "     PERPENDICULAR.

The term "Early English" (short for Early English Gothic) applied to
English thirteenth-century architecture explains itself.

The term "Lancet" sometimes applied to the Early English style, is
derived from the shape of the ordinary window-heads, which resemble
the point of a lancet in outline (Fig. 16). Whatever term be adopted,
it is necessary to remark that a wide difference exists between the
earlier and the late examples of this period. It will suffice for our
purposes if, when speaking of the fully-developed style of the late
examples, we refer to it as Advanced Early English.

The architecture of the fourteenth century is called "Decorated," from
the great increase of ornament, especially in window tracery and
carved enrichments.

The architecture of the fifteenth century is called "Perpendicular,"
from the free use made of perpendicular lines, both in general
features and in ornaments, especially in the tracery of the windows
and the panelling with which walls are ornamented.[4]

The following condensed list, partly from Morant,[5] of the most
striking peculiarities of each period, may be found useful for
reference, and is on that account placed here, notwithstanding that it
contains many technical words, for the meaning of which the student
must consult the Glossary which forms part of this volume.

    ANGLO-SAXON--(Prior to the Norman Conquest).--

    Rude work and rough material; walls mostly of rubble or
    ragstone with ashlar at the angles in long and short courses
    alternately; openings with round or triangular heads,
    sometimes divided by a rude baluster. Piers plain, square,
    and narrow. Windows splayed externally and internally. Rude
    square blocks of stone in place of capitals and bases.
    Mouldings generally semi-cylindrical and coarsely chiselled.
    Corners of buildings square without buttresses.


    NORMAN.  William I.  A.D. 1066.
             William II.  "   1087.
             Henry I.     "   1100.
             Stephen      "   1135.
             Henry II.    "   1154 to 1189.

    Arches semicircular, occasionally stilted; at first plain,
    afterwards enriched with chevron or other mouldings; and
    frequent repetition of same ornament on each stone. Piers
    low and massive, cylindrical, square, polygonal, or composed
    of clustered shafts, often ornamented with spiral bands and
    mouldings. Windows generally narrow and splayed internally
    only; sometimes double and divided by a shaft. Walls
    sometimes a series of arcades, a few pierced as windows, the
    rest left blank. Doorways deeply recessed and richly
    ornamented with bands of mouldings. Doors often square
    headed, but under arches the head of the arch filled with
    carving. Capitals carved in outline, often grotesquely
    sculptured with devices of animals and leaves. Abacus
    square, lower edge moulded. Bases much resembling the
    classic orders. The mouldings at first imperfectly formed.
    Pedestals of piers square. Buttresses plain, with broad
    faces and small projections. Parapets plain with projecting
    corbel table under.

    Plain mouldings consist of chamfers, round or pointed rolls
    at edges, divided from plain face by shallow channels.
    Enriched mouldings--the chevrons or zig-zag, the billet
    square or round, the cable, the lozenge, the chain, nail
    heads, and others. Niches with figures over doorways. Roofs
    of moderately high pitch, and open to the frame; timbers
    chiefly king-post trusses. Towers square and massive--those
    of late date richly adorned with arcades. Openings in towers
    often beautifully grouped. Vaulting waggon-headed, and
    simple intersecting vaults of semicircular outline.

    Towards the close of the style in reign of Henry II.,
    details of transitional character begin to appear. Pointed
    arch with Norman pier. Arcades of intersecting semicircular
    arches. Norman abacus blended with Early English foliage in
    capitals.


    EARLY ENGLISH.  Richard I. A.D. 1189 _Transition._
                    John        "   1199.
                    Henry III.  "   1216.
                    Edward I.   "   1272 to 1307.

    General proportions more slender, and height of walls,
    columns, &c., greater. Arches pointed, generally lancet;
    often richly moulded. Triforium arches and arcades open with
    trefoiled heads. Piers slender, composed of a central
    circular shaft surrounded by several smaller ones, almost or
    quite detached; generally with horizontal bands. In small
    buildings plain polygonal and circular piers are used.
    Capitals concave in outline, moulded, or carved with
    conventional foliage delicately executed and arranged
    vertically. The abacus always undercut. Detached shafts
    often of Purbeck marble. Base a deep hollow between two
    rounds. Windows at first long, narrow, and deeply splayed
    internally, the glass within a few inches of outer face of
    wall; later in the style less acute, divided by mullions,
    enriched with cusped circles in the head, often of three or
    more lights, the centre light being the highest. Doorways
    often deeply recessed and enriched with slender shafts and
    elaborate mouldings. Shafts detached. Buttresses about equal
    in projection to width, with but one set-off, or without
    any. Buttresses at angles always in pairs. Mouldings bold
    and deeply undercut, consisting chiefly of round mouldings
    sometimes pointed or with a fillett, separated by deep
    hollows. Great depth of moulded surface generally arranged
    on rectangular planes. Hollows of irregular curve sometimes
    filled with dogtooth ornament or with foliage. Roofs of
    high pitch, timbers plain, and where there is no vault open.

    Early in the style finials were plain bunches of leaves;
    towards the close beautifully carved finials and crockets
    with carved foliage of conventional character were
    introduced. Flat surfaces often richly diapered. Spires
    broached. Vaulting pointed with diagonal and main ribs only;
    ridge ribs not introduced till late in the style; bosses at
    intersection of ribs.


    DECORATED.  Edward II.  A.D. 1307.
                Edward III.  "   1377 to 1379.

    Proportions less lofty than in the previous style. Arches
    mostly inclosing an equilateral angle, the mouldings often
    continued down the pier. Windows large, and divided into two
    or more lights by mullions. Tracery in the head, at first
    composed geometrical forms, later of flowing character.
    Clerestory windows generally small. Diamond shaped piers
    with shafts engaged. Capitals with scroll moulding on under
    side of abacus, with elegant foliage arranged horizontally.
    Doors frequently without shafts, the arch moulding running
    down the jambs. Rich doorways and windows often surrounded
    with triangular and ogee-shaped canopies. Buttresses in
    stages variously ornamented. Parapet pierced with
    quatrefoils and flowing tracery. Niches panelled and with
    projecting canopies. Spires lofty; the broach rarely used,
    parapets and angle pinnacles take the place of it. Roofs of
    moderate pitch open to the framing. Mouldings bold and
    finely proportioned, generally in groups, the groups
    separated from each other by hollows, composed of segments
    of circles. Deep hollows, now generally confined to inner
    angles. Mouldings varying in size and kind, arranged on
    diagonal as well as rectangular planes, often ornamented
    with ball flower. Foliage chiefly of ivy, oak, and vine
    leaves; natural, also conventional. Rich crockets, finials,
    and pinnacles. Vaulting with intermediate ribs, ridge ribs,
    and late in the style lierne ribs, and bosses.


    PERPENDICULAR.  Richard II.  A.D. 1377. (_Transition._)
                    Henry IV.     "   1399.
                    Henry V.      "   1413.
                    Henry VI.     "   1422.
                    Edward IV.    "   1461.
                    Edward V.     "   1483.
                    Richard III.  "   1483.

    TUDOR.          Henry VII.    "   1485.
                    Henry VIII.   "   1509 to 1546.

    Arches at first inclosing an equilateral triangle,
    afterwards obtusely pointed and struck from four centres.
    Piers generally oblong; longitudinal direction north and
    south. Mouldings continued from base through arch. Capitals
    with mouldings large, angular, and few, with abacus and bell
    imperfectly defined. Foliage of conventional character,
    shallow, and square in outline. Bases polygonal. Windows
    where lofty divided into stories by transoms. The mullions
    often continued perpendicularly into the head. Canopies of
    ogee character enriched with crockets. Doors generally with
    square label over arch, the spandrels filled with ornament.
    Buttresses with bold projection often ending in finials.
    Flying buttresses pierced with tracery. Walls profusely
    ornamented with panelling. Parapets embattled and panelled.
    Open timber roofs of moderate pitch, of elaborate
    construction, often with hammer beams, richly ornamented
    with moulded timbers, carved figures of angels and with
    pierced tracery in spandrels. Roofs sometimes of very flat
    pitch. Lofty clerestories. Mouldings large, coarse, and with
    wide and shallow hollows and hard wiry edges, meagre in
    appearance and wanting in minute and delicate detail,
    generally arranged on diagonal planes. Early in the style
    the mouldings partake of decorated character.

    In the Tudor period depressed four-centered arch prevails;
    transoms of windows battlemented. Tudor flower, rose,
    portcullis, and fleur-de-lis common ornaments. Crockets and
    pinnacles much projected. Roofs of low pitch.

    Vaulting. Fan vaulting, with tracery and pendants
    elaborately carved.

Other modes of distinguishing the periods of English Gothic have been
proposed by writers of authority. The division given above is that of
Rickman, and is generally adopted. A more minute subdivision and a
different set of names were proposed by Sharpe as follows:--

    ROMANESQUE.  Saxon         A.D.      to 1066.
                 Norman         "   1066 to 1145.
    GOTHIC.      Transitional   "   1145 to 1190.
                 Lancet         "   1190 to 1245.
                 Geometrical    "   1245 to 1315.
                 Curvilinear    "   1315 to 1360.
                 Rectilinear    "   1360 to 1550.

Of the new names proposed by Mr. Sharpe "transitional" explains
itself; and "geometrical, curvilinear, and rectilinear" refer to the
characters of the window tracery at the different periods which they
denote.[6]

       *       *       *       *       *

The history of English Gothic proper may be said to begin with the
reign of Henry II., coinciding very nearly with the commencement of
the period named by Mr. Sharpe transitional (1145 to 1190), when
Norman architecture was changing into Gothic. This history we propose
now to consider somewhat in detail, dividing the buildings in the
simplest possible way, namely, into floors, walls, columns, roofs,
openings, and ornaments. After this we shall have to consider the mode
in which materials were used by the builders of the Gothic period,
_i.e._ the construction of the buildings; and the general artistic
principles which guided their architects, _i.e._ the design of the
buildings.

       *       *       *       *       *

It may be useful to students in and near London to give Sir G. Gilbert
Scott's list of striking London examples[7] of Gothic architecture
(with the omission of such examples as are more antiquarian than
architectural in their interest):--

    _Norman_ (temp. Conquest).--The Keep and Chapel of the Tower
    of London.

    _Advanced Norman._--Chapel of St. Catherine, Westminster
    Abbey; St. Bartholomew's Priory, Smithfield.

    _Transitional._--The round part of the Temple Church.

    _Early English._--Eastern part of the Temple Church; Choir
    and Lady Chapel of St. Mary Overy, Southwark; Chapel of
    Lambeth Palace.

    _Advanced Early English_ (passing to decorated).--Eastern
    part of Westminster Abbey generally and its Chapter House.

    _Early Decorated._--Choir of Westminster, (but this has been
    much influenced by the design of the earlier parts
    adjacent); Chapel of St. Etheldreda, Ely Place, Holborn.

    _Late Decorated._--The three bays of the Cloister at
    Westminster opposite the entrance to Chapter House; Crypt of
    St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster; Dutch Church, Austin
    Friars.

    _Early Perpendicular._--South and West walks of the
    Cloister, Westminster; Westminster Hall.

    _Advanced Perpendicular (Tudor period)._--Henry VII.'s
    Chapel; Double Cloister of St. Stephen's, Westminster.

FOOTNOTES:

[4] The abbreviations, E. E., Dec., and Perp., will be employed to
denote these three periods.

[5] _Notes on English Architecture, Costumes, Monuments, &c._
_Privately printed._ Quoted here with the author's permission.

[6] See examples in Chapter V. and in Glossary.

[7] Address to Conference of Architects, _Builder_, June 24, 1876.



  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM WESTMINSTER ABBEY.}]

CHAPTER IV.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.--ENGLAND.


ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS.--FLOOR, WALLS, TOWERS, GABLES, COLUMNS.

_Floor, or Plan._

The excellences or defects of a building are more due to the shape and
size of its floor and, incidentally, of the walls and columns or piers
which inclose and subdivide its floor than to anything else whatever.
A map of the floor and walls (usually showing also the position of the
doors and windows), is known as a plan, but by a pardonable figure of
speech the plan of a building is often understood to mean the shape
and size and arrangement of its floor and walls themselves, instead of
simply the drawing representing them. It is in this sense that the
word plan will be used in this volume.

The plan of a Gothic Cathedral has been described, and it has been
already remarked that before the Gothic period had commenced the
dimensions of great churches had been very much increased. The
generally received disposition of the parts of a church had indeed
been already settled or nearly so. There were consequently few
radical alterations in church plans during the Gothic period. One,
however, took place in England in the abandonment of the apse.

At first the apsidal east end, common in the Norman times, was
retained. For example, it is found at Canterbury, where the choir and
transept are transitional, having been begun soon after 1174 and
completed about 1184; but the eastern end of Chichester, which belongs
to the same period (the transition), displays the square east end, and
this termination was almost invariably preferred in our country after
the twelfth century.

A great amount of regularity marks the plans of those great churches
which had vaulted roofs, as will be readily understood when it is
remembered that the vaults were divided into equal and similar
compartments, and that the points of support had to be placed with
corresponding regularity. Where, however, some controlling cause of
this nature was not at work much picturesque irregularity prevailed in
the planning of English Gothic buildings of all periods. The plans of
our Cathedrals are noted for their great length in proportion to their
width, for the considerable length given to the transepts, and for the
occurrence in many cases (_e.g._ Salisbury, thirteenth century) of a
second transept. The principal alterations which took place in plan as
time went on originated in the desire to concentrate material as much
as possible on points of support, leaving the walls between them thin
and the openings wide, and in the use of flying buttresses, the feet
of which occupy a considerable space outside the main walls of the
church. The plans of piers and columns also underwent the alterations
which will be presently described.[8]

Buildings of a circular shape on plan are very rare, but octagonal
ones are not uncommon. The finest chapter-houses attached to our
Cathedrals are octagons, with a central pier to carry the vaulting. On
the whole, play of shape on plan was less cultivated in England than
in some continental countries.

The plans of domestic buildings are usually simple, but grew more
elaborate and extensive as time went on. The cloister with
dwelling-rooms and common-rooms entered from its walk, formed the
model on which colleges, hospitals, and alms-houses were planned. The
castle, already described, was the residence of the wealthy during the
earlier part of the Gothic period, and when, in the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, houses which were rather dwellings than
fortresses began to be erected, the hall, with a large bay window and
a raised floor or dais at one end and a mighty open fire-place, was
always the most conspicuous feature in the plan. Towards the close of
the Gothic period the plan of a great dwelling, such as Warwick Castle
(Fig. 8), began to show many of the features which distinguish a
mansion of the present day.

In various parts of the country remains of magnificent Gothic
dwelling-houses of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries exist, and
long before the close of the perpendicular period we had such mansions
as Penshurst and Hever, such palaces as Windsor and Wells, such
castellated dwellings as Warwick and Haddon, differing in many
respects but all agreeing in the possession of a great central hall.
Buildings for public purposes also often took the form of a great
hall. Westminster Hall may be cited as the finest example of such a
structure, not only in England but in Europe.

The student who desires to obtain anything beyond the most
superficial acquaintance with architecture must endeavour to obtain
enough familiarity with ground plans, to be able to sketch, measure,
and lay down a plan to scale and to _read_ one. The plan shows to the
experienced architect the nature, arrangement, and qualities of a
building better than any other drawing, and a better memorandum of a
building is preserved if a fairly correct sketch of its plan, or of
the plan of important parts of it, is preserved than if written notes
are alone relied upon.


_Walls._

The walls of Gothic buildings are generally of stone; brick being the
exception. They were in the transitional and Early English times
extremely thick, and became thinner afterwards. All sorts of
ornamental masonry were introduced into them, so that diapers,[9]
bands, arcades, mouldings, and inlaid patterns are all to be met with
occasionally, especially in districts where building materials of
varied colours, or easy to work, are plentiful. In the perpendicular
period the walls were systematically covered with panelling closely
resembling the tracery of the windows (_e.g._, Henry VII.'s Chapel at
Westminster).

The wall of a building ordinarily requires some kind of base and some
kind of top. The base or plinth in English Gothic buildings was
usually well marked and bold, especially in the perpendicular period,
and it is seldom absent. The eaves of the roof in some cases overhang
the walls, resting on a simple stone band, called an eaves-course, and
constitute the crowning feature. In many instances, however, the
eaves are concealed behind a parapet[10] which is often carried on a
moulded cornice or on corbels. This, in the E. E. period, was usually
very simple. In the Dec. it was panelled with ornamental panels, and
often made very beautiful. In the Perp. it was frequently battlemented
as well as panelled.

A distinguishing feature of Gothic walls is the buttress. It existed,
but only in the form of a flat pier of very slight projection in
Norman, as in almost all Romanesque buildings, but in the Gothic
period it became developed.

The buttress, like many of the peculiarities of Gothic architecture,
originated in the use of stone vaults and the need for strong piers at
these points, upon which the thrust and weight of those vaults were
concentrated. The use of very large openings, for wide windows full of
stained glass also made it increasingly necessary in the Dec. and
Perp. periods to fortify the walls at regular points.

A buttress[10] is, in fact, a piece of wall set athwart the main wall,
usually projecting considerably at the base and diminished by
successive reductions of its mass as it approaches the top, and so
placed as to counteract the thrust of some arch or vault inside. It
had great artistic value; in the feeble and level light of our
Northern climate it casts bold shadows and catches bright lights, and
so adds greatly to the architectural effect of the exterior. In the
E. E. the buttress was simple and ordinarily projected about its own
width. In the Dec. it obtained much more projection, was constructed
with several diminutions (technically called weatherings), and was
considerably ornamented. In the Perp. it was frequently enriched by
panelling. The buttresses in the Dec. period are often set diagonally
at the corner of a building or tower. In the E. E. period this was
never done.

The flying buttress[11] is one of the most conspicuous features of the
exterior of those Gothic buildings which possessed elaborate stone
vaults. It was a contrivance for providing an abutment to
counterbalance the outward pressure of the vault covering the highest
and central parts of the building in cases where that vault rested
upon and abutted against walls which themselves were carried by
arches, and were virtually internal walls, so that no buttress could
be carried up from the ground to steady them.

A pier of masonry, sometimes standing alone, sometimes thrown out from
the aisle wall opposite the point to be propped, formed the solid part
of this buttress; it was carried to the requisite height and a flying
arch spanning the whole width of the aisles was thrown across from it
to the wall at the point whence the vault sprung. The pier itself was
in many cases loaded by an enormous pinnacle, so that its weight might
combine with the pressure transmitted along the slope of the flying
arch to give a resultant which should fall within the base of the
buttress. The back of such an arch was generally used as a water
channel.

The forest of flying buttresses round many French cathedrals produces
an almost bewildering effect, as, for instance, at the east end of
Notre Dame;--our English specimens, at Westminster Abbey for example,
are comparatively simple.


_Towers._

The gable and the tower are developments of the walls of the building.
Gothic is _par excellence_ the style of towers. Many towers were
built detached from all other buildings, but no great Gothic building
is complete without one main tower and some subordinate ones.

In the E. E. style church towers were often crowned by low spires,
becoming more lofty as the style advanced. In the Dec. style lofty
spires were almost universal. In the Perp. the tower rarely has a
visible roof.[12]

The artistic value of towers in giving unity coupled with variety to a
group of buildings can hardly be exaggerated.

The positions which towers occupy are various. They produce the
greatest effect when central, _i.e._ placed over the crossing of the
nave and transepts. Lichfield, Chichester, and Salisbury may be
referred to as examples of cathedrals with towers in this position and
surmounted by spires. Canterbury, York, Lincoln, and Gloucester are
specimens of the effectiveness of the tower similarly placed, but
without a spire (Fig. 12). At Wells a fine central octagon occupies
the crossing, and is remarkable for the skill with which it is fitted
to the nave and aisles internally. Next to central towers rank a pair
of towers at the western end of the building. These exist at Lichfield
with their spires; they exist (square-topped) at Lincoln, and (though
carried up since the Gothic period) at Westminster.[13] Many churches
have a single tower in this position (Fig. 13).

The obvious purpose of a tower, beyond its serviceableness as a
feature of the building and as a landmark, is to lift up a belfry high
into the air: accordingly, almost without exception, church and
cathedral towers are designed with a large upper story, pierced by
openings of great size and height called the belfry stage; and the
whole artistic treatment of the tower is subordinate to this feature.
It is also very often the case that a turret to contain a spiral
staircase which may afford the means of access to the upper part of
the tower, forms a prominent feature of its whole height, especially
in the Dec. and Perp. periods.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--LINCOLN CATHEDRAL. (MOSTLY EARLY ENGLISH.)]

In domestic and monastic buildings, low towers were frequently
employed with excellent effect. Many castles retained the Norman keep,
or square strong tower, which had served as the nucleus round which
other buildings had afterwards clustered; but where during the Gothic
period a castle was built, or rebuilt, without such a keep, one or
more towers, often of great beauty, were always added. Examples
abound; good ones will be found in the Edwardian castles in Wales (end
of thirteenth century), as for example at Conway and Caernarvon.


_Gables._

The gable forms a distinctive Gothic feature. The gables crowned those
parts of a great church in which the skill of the architect was
directed to producing a regular composition, often called a front, or
a façade. The west fronts of Cathedrals were the most important
architectural designs of this sort, and with them we may include the
ends of the transepts and the east fronts.

The same parts of parish churches are often excellent compositions.
The gable of the nave always formed the central feature of the main
front. This was flanked by the gables, or half-gables, of the aisles
where there were no towers, or by the lower portions of the towers. As
a rule the centre and sides of the façade are separated by buttresses,
or some other mode of marking a vertical division, and the composition
is also divided by bands of mouldings or otherwise, horizontally into
storeys. Some of the horizontal divisions are often strongly marked,
especially in the lower part of the building, where in early examples
there is sometimes in addition to the plinth, or base of the wall, an
arcade or a band of sculpture running across the entire front (_e.g._
east front of Lincoln Cathedral). The central gable is always occupied
by a large window--or in early buildings a group of windows--sometimes
two storeys in height. A great side window usually occurs at the end
of each aisle. Below these great windows are introduced, at any rate
in west fronts, the doorways, which, even in the finest English
examples, are comparatively small. The gable also contains as a rule
one or more windows often circular which light the space above the
vaults.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--ST. PIERRE, CAEN, TOWER AND SPIRE. (SPIRE,
      1302.)]

Part of the art in arranging such a composition is to combine and yet
contrast its horizontal and vertical elements. The horizontal lines,
or features, are those which serve to bind the whole together, and the
vertical ones are those which give that upward tendency which is the
great charm and peculiar characteristic of Gothic architecture. It is
essential for the masses of solid masonry and the openings to be
properly contrasted and proportioned to each other, and here, as in
every part of a building, such ornaments and ornamental features as
are introduced must be designed to contribute to the enrichment of the
building as a whole, so that no part shall be conspicuous either by
inharmonious treatment, undue plainness, or excessive enrichment.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--HOUSE AT CHESTER. (16TH CENTURY.)]

During the transition the gable became steeper in pitch than the
comparatively moderate slope of Norman times. In the E. E. it was
acutely pointed, in the Dec. the usual slope was that of the two sides
of an equilateral triangle: in the Perp. it became extremely flat and
ceased to be so marked a feature as it had formerly been. In domestic
buildings the gable was employed in the most effective manner, and
town dwelling-houses were almost invariably built their gable ends to
the street (Fig. 14).

       *       *       *       *       *

A very effective form of wall was frequently made use of in
dwelling-houses. This consisted of a sturdy framework of stout timbers
exposed to view, with the spaces between them filled in with plaster.
Of this work, which is known as half-timbered work, many beautiful
specimens remain dating from the fifteenth and following centuries
(Figs. 14 and 15), and a few of earlier date. In those parts of
England where tiles are manufactured such framework was often covered
by tiles instead of being filled in with plastering. In half-timbered
houses, the fire-places and chimneys, and sometimes also the basement
storeys, are usually of brickwork or masonry; so are the side walls in
the case of houses in streets. It was usual in such buildings to cause
the upper storeys to overhang the lower ones.


_Columns and Piers._

The columns and piers of a building virtually form portions of its
walls, so far as aiding to support the weight of the roof is
concerned, and are appropriately considered in connection with them.
In Gothic architecture very little use is made of columns on the
outside of a building, and the porticoes and external rows of columns
proper to the classic styles are quite unknown. On the other hand the
series of piers, or columns, from which spring the arches which
separate the central avenues of nave, transepts and choir from the
aisles, are among the most prominent features in every church. These
piers varied in each century.[14]

The Norman piers had been frequently circular or polygonal, but
sometimes nearly square, and usually of enormous mass. Thus, at Durham
(Norman), oblong piers of about eleven feet in diameter occur
alternately with round ones of about seven feet. In transitional
examples columns of more slender proportions were employed either (as
in the choir of Canterbury) as single shafts or collected into groups.
Where grouping took place it was intended that each shaft of the group
should be seen to support some definite feature of the superincumbent
structure, as where a separate group of mouldings springs from each
shaft in a doorway, and this principle was very steadily adhered to
during the greater part of the Gothic period.[14]

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--HOUSES AT LISIEUX, FRANCE. (16TH CENTURY.)]

Through the E. E. period groups of shafts are generally employed; they
are often formed of detached shafts clustering round a central one,
and held together at intervals by bands or belts of masonry, and
generally the entire group is nearly circular on plan. In the
succeeding century (Dec. period) the piers also take the form of
groups of shafts, but they are generally carved out of one block of
stone, and the ordinary arrangement of the pier is on a lozenge-shaped
plan. In the Perp., the piers retain the same general character, but
are slenderer, and the shafts have often shrunk to nothing more than
reedy mouldings.

The column is often employed in Transitional and E. E. churches as a
substitute for piers carrying arches. In every period small columns
are freely used as ornamental features. They are constantly met with,
for example, in the jambs of doorways and of windows.

Every column is divided naturally into three parts, its base, or foot;
its shaft, which forms the main body; and its capital, or head. Each
of these went through a series of modifications. Part of the base
usually consisted of a flat stone larger than the diameter of the
column, sometimes called a plinth, and upon this stood the moulded
base which gradually diminished to the size of the shaft. This plain
stone was in E. E. often square, and in that case the corner spaces
which were not covered by the mouldings of the base were often
occupied by an elegantly carved leaf. In Dec. and Perp. buildings the
lower part of the base was often polygonal, and frequently moulded so
as to make it into a pedestal.[15]

The proportions of shafts varied extraordinarily; they were, as a
rule, extremely slender when their purpose was purely decorative, and
comparatively sturdy when they really served to carry a weight.

The capital of the column has been perhaps the most conspicuous
feature in the architecture of every age and every country, and it is
one of the features which a student may make use of as an indication
of date and style of buildings, very much as the botanist employs the
flower as an index to the genus and species of plants. The capital
almost invariably starts from a ring, called the neck of the column.
This serves to mark the end of the shaft and the commencement of the
capital. Above this follows what is commonly called the bell,--the
main portion of the capital, which is that part upon which the skill
of the carver and the taste of the designer can be most freely
expended, and on the top of the bell is placed the abacus, a flat
block of stone upon the upper surface of which is built the
superstructure or is laid the beam or block which the column has to
support. The shape and ornaments given to the abacus are often of
considerable importance as indications of the position in
architectural history which the building in which it occurs should
occupy.

The Norman capital differed to some extent from the Romanesque
capitals of other parts of Europe. It was commonly of a heavy,
strong-looking shape, and is often appropriately called the cushion
capital. In its simpler forms the cushion capital is nothing but a
cubical block of stone with its lower corners rounded off to make it
fit the circular shaft on which it is placed, and with a slab by way
of abacus placed upon it. In later Norman and transitional work the
faces of this block and the edges of the abacus are often richly
moulded. By degrees, however, as the transition to E. E. approached, a
new sort of capital[16] was introduced, having the outline of the bell
hollow instead of convex. The square faces of the Norman capital of
course disappeared, and the square abacus soon (at least in this
country) became circular, involving no small loss of vigour in the
appearance of the work. The bell of this capital was often decorated
with rich mouldings, and had finely-designed and characteristic
foliage, which almost always seemed to grow up the capital, and
represented a conventional kind of leaf easily recognised when once
seen.

In the Dec. period the capitals have, as a rule, fewer and less
elaborate mouldings; the foliage is often very beautifully carved in
imitation of natural leaves, and wreathed round the capital instead of
growing up it. In the Perp. this feature is in every way less ornate,
the mouldings are plainer, and the foliage, often absent, is, when it
occurs, conventional and stiff. Polygonal capitals are common in this
period.

  [Illustration: _Later Norman Capital._]

FOOTNOTES:

[8] For illustrations consult the Glossary under _Pier_.

[9] For illustration consult the Glossary.

[10] For illustrations consult the Glossary.

[11] For illustration consult the Glossary under _Flying buttress_.

[12] For remarks on Spires, see Chap. V.

[13] York, Lichfield, and Lincoln, are the cathedrals distinguished by
the possession of three towers.

[14] For illustrations consult the Glossary under _Pier_.

[15] For illustrations consult the Glossary under _Base_.

[16] For illustrations consult the Glossary.



  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM WESTMINSTER ABBEY.}]

CHAPTER V.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.--ENGLAND.


ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS (_continued_)--OPENINGS, ROOFS, SPIRES,
ORNAMENTS, STAINED GLASS, SCULPTURE.

_Openings and Arches._

The openings (_i.e._ doors and windows) in the walls of English Gothic
buildings are occasionally covered by flat heads or lintels, but this
is exceptional; ordinarily they have arched heads. The shape of the
arch varies at all periods. Architects always felt themselves free to
adopt any shape which best met the requirements of any special case;
but at each period there was one shape of arch which it was customary
to use.

In the first transitional period (end of twelfth century) semicircular
and pointed arches are both met with, and are often both employed in
the same part of the same building. The mouldings and enrichments
which are common in Norman work are usually still in use. In the E. E.
period the doorways are almost invariably rather acutely pointed, the
arched heads are enriched by a large mass of rich mouldings, and the
jambs[17] have usually a series of small columns, each of which is
intended to carry a portion of the entire group of mouldings. Large
doorways are often subdivided into two, and frequently approached by
porches. A most beautiful example occurs in the splendid west entrance
to Ely Cathedral. Other examples will be found at Lichfield (Fig. 1)
and Salisbury. It was not uncommon to cover doorways with a lintel,
the whole being under an archway; this left a space above the head of
the door which was occupied by carving often of great beauty.
Ornamental gables are often formed over the entrances of churches, and
are richly sculptured; but though beautiful, these features rarely
attained magnificence. The most remarkable entrance to an English
cathedral is the west portal of Peterborough--a composition of lofty
and richly moulded arches built in front of the original west wall. A
portal on a smaller scale, but added in the same manner adorns the
west front of Wells. As a less exceptional example we may refer to the
entrance to Westminster Abbey at the end of the north transept (now
under restoration), which must have been a noble example of an E. E.
portal when in its perfect state.

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--LANCET WINDOW. (12TH CENTURY.)]

The windows in this style were almost always long, narrow, and with a
pointed head resembling the blade of a lancet (Fig. 16). The glass is
generally near the outside face of the wall, and the sides of the
opening are splayed towards the inside. It was very customary to place
these lancet windows in groups. The best known group is the celebrated
one of "the five sisters," five lofty single lights, occupying the
eastern end of one of the transepts of York Minster. A common
arrangement in designing such a group was to make the central light
the highest, and to graduate the height of the others. It after a time
became customary to render the opening more ornamental by adding
pointed projections called cusps. By these the shape of the head of
the opening was turned into a form resembling a trefoil leaf.
Sometimes two cusps were added on each side. The head is, in the
former case, said to be trefoiled--in the latter, cinqfoiled.

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.--TWO-LIGHT WINDOW. (13TH CENTURY.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.--GEOMETRICAL TRACERY. (14TH CENTURY.)]

When two windows were placed close together it began to be customary
to include them under one outer arch, and after a time to pierce the
solid head between them with a circle, which frequently was cusped,
forming often a quatrefoil (Fig. 17). This completed the idea of a
group, and was rapidly followed by ornamental treatment. Three, four,
five, or more windows (which in such a position are often termed
lights) were often placed under one arch, the head of which was filled
by a more or less rich group of circles; mouldings were added, and
thus rose the system of decoration for window-heads known as tracery.
So long as the tracery preserves the simple character of piercings
through a flat stone, filling the space between the window heads, it
is known as plate tracery. The thinning down of the blank space to a
comparatively narrow surface went on, and by and by the use of
mouldings caused that plain surface to resemble bars of stone bent
into a circular form: this was called bar tracery, and it is in this
form that tracery is chiefly employed in England (Fig. 18).
Westminster Abbey is full of exquisite examples of E. E.
window-tracery (temp. Henry III.); as, for example, in the windows of
the choir, the great circular windows (technically termed
rose-windows) at the ends of the transepts, the windows of the
chapter-house. Last, but not least, the splendid arcade which forms
the triforium is filled with tracery similar in every respect to the
best window tracery of the period (Fig. 19).

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.--THE TRIFORIUM ARCADE, WESTMINSTER ABBEY.
      (1269.)]

In the decorated style of the fourteenth century tracery was developed
till it reached a great pitch of perfection and intricacy. In the
earlier half of the century none save regular geometrical forms, made
up of circles and segments of circles, occur; in other words, the
whole design of the most elaborate window could be drawn with the
compasses, and a curve of contrary flexure rarely occurred. In the
latest half of that period flowing lines are introduced into the
tracery, and very much alter its character (Fig. 20). The cusping
throughout is bolder than in the E. E. period.

  [Illustration: FIG. 20.--ROSE WINDOW FROM THE TRANSEPT OF LINCOLN
      CATHEDRAL. (1342-1347.)]

In perpendicular windows spaces of enormous size are occupied by the
mullions and tracery. Horizontal bars, called transoms, are now for
the first time introduced, and the upright bars or mullions form with
them a kind of stone grating; but below each transom a series of small
stone arches forms heads to the lights below that transom, and a minor
mullion often springs from the head of each of these arches, so that
as the window increases in height, the number of its lights increases.
The character of the cusping changed again, the cusps becoming
club-headed in their form (Fig. 21).

  [Illustration: FIG. 21.--PERPENDICULAR WINDOW.]

Arches in the great arcades of churches, or in the smaller arcades of
cloisters, or used as decorations to the surface of the walls, were
made acute, obtuse, or segmental, to suit the duty they had to
perform; but when there was nothing to dictate any special shape, the
arch of the E. E. period was by preference acute[18] and of lofty
proportions, and that of the Dec. less lofty, and its head equilateral
(_i.e._ described so that if the ends of the base of an equilateral
triangle touch the two points from which it springs, the apex of the
angle shall touch the point of the arch). In the Perp. period the four
centred depressed arch, sometimes called the Tudor arch, was
introduced, and though it did not entirely supersede the equilateral
arch, yet its employment became at last all but universal, and it is
one of the especially characteristic features of the Tudor period.


_Roofs and Vaults._

The external and the internal covering of a building are very often
not the same; the outer covering is then usually called a roof--the
other, a vault or ceiling. In not a few Gothic buildings, however,
they were the same; such buildings had what are known as open
roofs--_i.e._ roofs in which the whole of the timber framing of which
they are constructed is open to view from the interior right up to the
tiles or lead. Very few open roofs of E. E. character are now
remaining, but a good many parish churches retain roofs of the Dec.,
and more of the Perp. period. The roof of Westminster Hall (Perp.,
erected 1397) shows how fine an architectural object such a roof may
become. The roof of the hall of Eltham Palace (Fig. 22) is another
good example. Wooden ceilings, often very rich, are not uncommon,
especially in the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk, but greater
interest attaches to the stone vaults with which the majority of
Gothic buildings were erected, than to any other description of
covering to the interiors of buildings.

The vault was a feature rarely absent from important churches, and the
structural requirements of the Gothic vault were among the most
influential of the elements which determined both the plan and the
section of a mediæval church. There was a regular growth in Gothic
vaults. Those of the thirteenth century are comparatively simple;
those of the fourteenth are much richer and more elaborate, and often
involve very great structural difficulties. Those of the fifteenth are
more systematic, and consequently more simple in principle than the
ones which preceded them, but are such marvels of workmanship, and so
enriched by an infinity of parts, that they astonish the beholder,
and it appears, till the secret is known, impossible to imagine how
they can be made to stand.

  [Illustration: FIG. 22.--ROOF OF HALL AT ELTHAM PALACE. (15TH
      CENTURY.)]

It has been held by some very good authorities that the pointed arch
was first introduced into Gothic architecture to solve difficulties
which presented themselves in the vaulting. In all probability the
desire to give to everything, arches included, a more lofty appearance
and more slender proportions may have had as much to do with the
adoption of the pointed arch as any structural considerations, but
there can be no doubt that it was used for structural arches from the
very first, even when window heads and wall arcades were semicircular,
and that the introduction of it cleared the way for the use of stone
vaults of large span to a wonderful extent. It is not easy to explain
this without being more technical than is perhaps desirable in the
present volume, but the subject is one of too much importance for it
to be possible to avoid making the attempt.

Churches, it will be recollected, were commonly built with a wide nave
and narrower aisles, and it was in the Norman period customary to
vault the aisles and cover the nave with a ceiling. There was no
difficulty in so spacing the distances apart of the piers of the main
arcade that the compartments (usually termed bays) of the aisle should
be square on plan; and it was quite possible, without doing more than
the Romans had done, to vault each bay of the aisles with a
semicircular intersecting vault (_i.e._ one which has the appearance
of a semicircular or waggon-head vault, intersected by another vault
of the same outline and height). This produced a simple series of what
are called groined or cross vaults, which allowed height to be given
to the window heads of the aisle and to the arcades between the aisles
and nave.

After a time it was desired to vault the nave also, and to adopt for
it an intersecting vault, so that the heads of the windows of the
clerestory might be raised above the springing line of the vault, but
so long as the arches remained semicircular, this was very difficult
to accomplish.

The Romans would probably have contented themselves with employing a
barrel vault and piercing it to the extent required by short lateral
vaults, but the result would have been an irregular, weak, curved line
at each intersection with the main vault; and the aisle vaults having
made the pleasing effect of a perfectly regular intersection familiar,
this expedient does not seem to have found favour, at any rate in
England.

Other expedients were however tried, and with curious results. It was
for example attempted to vault the nave with a cross vault, embracing
two bays of the arcade to one of the vault, but the wall space so
gained was particularly ill suited to the clerestory windows, as may
be seen by examining the nave of St. Stephen's at Caen. In short, if
the vaulting compartment were as wide as the nave one way, but only as
wide as the aisle the other way, and semicircular arches alone were
employed, a satisfactory result seemed to be unattainable.

In the search for some means of so vaulting a bay of oblong plan that
the arches should spring all at one level, and the groins or lines of
intersection should cross one another in the centre of the ceiling,
the idea either arose or was suggested that the curve of the smaller
span should be a pointed instead of a semicircular arch.

The moment this was tried all difficulty vanished, and groined (_i.e._
intersecting) vaults, covering compartments of any proportions became
easy to design and simple to construct, for if the vault which spanned
the narrow way of the compartment were acutely pointed, and that
which spanned it the wide way were either semicircular or
flatly-pointed, it became easy to arrange that the startings of both
vaults should be at the same level, and that they should rise to the
same height, which is the condition essential to the production of a
satisfactory intersection.

Scott enumerates not fewer than fourteen varieties of mediæval
vaults[19] and points out that specimens of thirteen are to be found
at Westminster. Without such minute detail we may select some
well-known varieties:--(1) The plain waggon-head vault, as at the
Chapel of the Tower; (2) in advanced Norman works, cross-vaults formed
by two intersecting semicircular vaults, the diagonal line being
called a groin. (3) The earliest transitional and E. E. vaults,
pointed and with transverse and diagonal ribs, and bosses at the
intersection of ribs, _e.g._, in the aisles and the early part of the
cloisters at Westminster. (4) In the advanced part of the E. E.
period, the addition of a rib at the ridge, as seen in the presbytery
and transepts at Westminster. (5) At the time of the transition to
Dec. (_temp._ Ed. 1.) additional ribs began to be introduced between
the diagonal and the transverse ribs. (6) As the Dec. period advanced
other ribs, called _liernes_, were introduced, running in various
directions over the surface of the vault, making star-like figures on
the vault. (7) The vault of the early Perp., which is similar to the
last, but more complicated and approaching No. 8, _e.g._, Abbot
Islip's chapel. (8) Lastly, the distinctive vault of the advanced or
Tudor Perp., is the fan-tracery vault of which Henry VII.'s Chapel
roof is the climax. The vaulting surfaces in these are portions of
hollow conoids, and are covered by a net-work of fine ribs, connected
together by bands of cusping (Fig. 23).

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.--HENRY VII.'S CHAPEL. (1503-1512.)]

In Scott's enumeration the vaults of octagons and irregular
compartments, and such varieties as the one called sexpartite, find a
place; here they have been intentionally excluded. Many of them are
works of the greatest skill and beauty, especially the vaults of
octagonal chapter houses springing from one centre pier (_e.g._,
Chapter Houses at Worcester, Westminster, Wells, and Salisbury).

Externally, the roofs of buildings became very steep in the thirteenth
century; they were not quite so steep in the fourteenth, and in the
fifteenth they were frequently almost flat. They were always relied
upon to add to the effectiveness of a building, and were enriched
sometimes by variegated tiles or other covering, sometimes by the
introduction of small windows, known as dormer windows, each with its
own gablet and its little roof, and sometimes by the addition of a
steep sided roof in the shape of a lantern or a "flèche" on the ridge,
or a pyramidal covering to some projecting octagon or turret.

All these have their value in breaking up the sky-line of the
building, and adding interest and beauty to it. Still more striking,
however, in its effect on the sky-line was the spire, a feature to
which great attention was paid in English architecture.


_Spires._

The early square towers of Romanesque churches were sometimes
surmounted by pyramidal roofs of low pitch. We have probably none now
remaining, but we have some examples of large pinnacles, crowned with
pyramids, which show what the shape must have been. They were square
in plan and somewhat steep in slope.

The spire was developed early in the E. E. period. It was octagonal
in plan, and the four sides which coincided with the faces of the
tower rose direct from the walls above a slightly masked eaves course.
The four oblique sides are connected to the tower by a feature called
a broach, which may be described as part of a blunt pyramid. The
broach-spire (Fig. 24) is to be met with in many parts of England, but
especially in Northamptonshire. The chief ornaments of an E. E. spire
consist in small windows (called spire-lights or lucarnes) each
surmounted by its gablet.

  [Illustration: FIG. 24.--EARLY ENGLISH SPIRE. CHURCH OF ST. MARY
      MAGDALENE, WARBOYS, LINCOLNSHIRE.]

In the Dec. period it was common to finish the tower by a parapet, and
to start the spire behind the parapet, sometimes with a broach, often
without. Pinnacles were frequently added at the corners of the tower,
and an arch, like that of a flying buttress, was sometimes thrown
across from the pinnacle to the spire. Spire-lights occur as before,
and the surface of the spire is often enriched by bands of ornament at
intervals. The general proportions of the spire were more slender than
before, and the rib, which generally ran up each angle, was often
enriched by crockets, _i.e._ tufts of leaves arranged in a formal
shape (Fig. 25).

  [Illustration: FIG. 25.--DECORATED SPIRE. ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, OAKHAM,
      RUTLANDSHIRE.]

Towers were frequently intended to stand without spires in the Perp.
period, and are often finished by four effective angle-pinnacles and
a cornice with battlements. Where spires occur in this period they
resemble those of the Dec. period.

Spires end usually in a boss or finial, surmounted by a weathercock.
Ordinary roofs were usually finished by ornamental cresting, and their
summits were marked by finials,[20] frequently of exquisite
workmanship.


_Ornaments._

We now come to ornaments, including mouldings, carving, and colour,
and here we are landed upon a mass of details which it would be
impossible to pursue far. Mouldings play a prominent part in Gothic
architecture, and from the first to the last they varied so constantly
that their profiles and grouping may be constantly made use of as a
kind of architectural calendar, to point out the time, to within a few
years, when the building in which they occur was erected.

A moulding is the architect's means of drawing a line on his building.
If he desires to mark on the exterior the position of an internal
floor, or in any other way to suggest a division into storeys, a
moulded string-course is introduced. If he wishes to add richness and
play of light and shade to the sides of an important arch, he
introduces a series of mouldings, the profile of which has been
designed to form lights and shadows such as will answer his purpose.
If again he desires to throw out a projection and to give the idea of
its being properly supported, he places under his projection a corbel
of mouldings which are of strong as well as pleasing form, so as to
convey to the eye the notion of support. Mouldings, it can be
understood, differ in both size and profile, according to the purpose
which they are required to serve, the distance from the spectator at
which they are fixed, and the material out of which they are formed.
In the Gothic periods they also differed according to the date at
which they were executed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 26.--EARLY ARCH IN RECEDING PLANES.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 27.--ARCH IN RECEDING PLANES MOULDED.]

The first step towards the Gothic system of mouldings was taken by the
Romanesque architects when the idea of building arches in thick walls,
not only one within the others, but also in planes receding back from
the face of the wall one behind as well as within another, was formed
and carried out, and when a corresponding recessed arrangement of the
jamb of the arch was made (Fig. 26). The next step was the addition of
some simple moulding to the advancing angle of each rim of such a
series of arches either forming a bead (Fig. 27) or a chamfer.

In the transitional part of the twelfth century and the E. E. period
this process went on till at last, though the separate receding arches
still continued to exist, the mouldings[21] into which they were cut
became so numerous and elaborate as to render it often difficult to
detect the subordination or division into distinct planes which really
remained.

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.--DOORWAY, KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL, CAMBRIDGE.
      (15TH CENTURY.)]

This passion for elaborate mouldings, often extraordinarily undercut,
reached its climax in the thirteenth century, the E. E. period. In the
Dec. period, while almost everything else became more elaborate,
mouldings grew more simple, yet hardly less beautiful. In the Perp.
period they were not only further simplified, but often impoverished,
being usually shallow, formal, and stiff.[22]

Ornaments abounded, and included not only enrichments in the shape of
carved foliage and figures, statuary, mosaics, and so forth, but
ornamental features, such as canopies, pinnacles, arcades, and
recesses (Fig. 28).

In each period these are distinct in design from all that went before
or came after, and thus to catch the spirit of any one Gothic period
aright, it is not enough to fix the general shapes of the arches and
proportions of the piers but every feature, every moulding, and every
ornament must be wrought in the true spirit of the work, or the result
will be marred.


_Stained Glass._

Ornamental materials and every sort of decorative art, such as mosaic,
enamel, metal work and inlays, were freely employed to add beauty in
appropriate positions; but there was one ornament, the crowning
invention of the Gothic artists, which largely influenced the design
of the finest buildings, and which reflected a glory on them such as
nothing else can approach: this was stained glass.

So much of the old glass has perished, and so little modern glass is
even passable, that this praise may seem overcharged to those who have
never seen any of the best specimens still left. We have in the choir
at Canterbury a remnant of the finest sort of glass which England
possesses. Some good fragments remain at Westminster, though not very
many; but to judge of the effect of glass at its best, the student
should visit La Sainte Chapelle at Paris, or the Cathedrals of
Chartres, Le Mans, Bourges, or Rheims, and he will find in these
buildings effects in colour which are nothing less than gorgeous in
their brilliancy, richness, and harmony.

  [Illustration: FIG. 29.--STAINED GLASS WINDOW FROM CHARTRES
      CATHEDRAL.]

The peculiar excellence of stained glass as compared with every other
sort of decoration, is that it is luminous. To some extent
fresco-painting may claim a sort of brightness; mosaic when executed
in polished materials possesses brilliancy; but in stained glass the
light which comes streaming in through the window itself gives
radiance, while the quality of the glass determines the colour, and
thus we obtain a glowing, lustre of colour which can only be compared
to the beauty of gems. In order properly to fill their place as
decorations, stained-glass windows must be something quite different
from transparent pictures, and the scenes they represent must not
detach themselves too violently from the general ground. The most
perfect effect is produced by such windows as those at Canterbury or
Chartres (Fig. 29), which recall a cluster of jewels rather than a
picture.


_Coloured Decoration._

Colour was also freely introduced by the lavish employment of coloured
materials where they were to be had, and by painting the interiors
with bright pigments. We meet with traces of rich colour on many parts
of ancient buildings, where we should hardly dare to put it now, and
we cannot doubt that painted decoration was constantly made use of
with the happiest effect.


_Sculpture._

  [Illustration: FIG. 30.--SCULPTURE FROM THE ENTRANCE TO THE CHAPTER
      HOUSE, WESTMINSTER ABBEY. (1250.)]

The last, perhaps the noblest ornament, is sculpture. The Gothic
architects were alive to its value, and in all their best works
statues abounded; often conventional to the last degree; sometimes to
our eyes uncouth, but always the best which those who carved them
could do at the time; always sure to contribute to architectural
effect; never without a picturesque power, sometimes rising to grace
and even grandeur, and sometimes sinking to grotesque ugliness.
Whatever the quality of the sculpture was, it was always there, and
added life to the whole. Monsters gaped and grinned from the
water-spouts, little figures or strange animals twisted in and out of
the foliage at angles and bosses and corbels. Stately effigies
occupied dignified niches, in places of honour; and in the mouldings
and tympanum of the head of a doorway there was often carved a whole
host of figures representing heaven, earth, and hell, with a rude
force and a native eloquence that have not lost their power to the
present day.

In the positions where modest ornamentation was required, as for
example the capitals of shafts, the hollows of groups of mouldings,
and the bosses of vaulting, carving of the most finished execution and
masterly design constantly occurs. Speaking roughly, this was chiefly
conventional in the E. E. period, chiefly natural in the Dec. and
mixed, but with perhaps a preference for the conventional in the Perp.
Examples abound, but both for beauty and accessibility we can refer to
no better example than the carving which enriches the entrance to the
Chapter House of Westminster Abbey (Fig. 30).

  [Illustration: _Miserere Seat from Wells Cathedral._]

FOOTNOTES:

[17] For illustrations consult the Glossary under _Jamb_.

[18] For illustrations consult the Glossary under _Arch_.

[19] Address to the Conference of Architects. Reported in the
_Builder_ of 24th June, 1876. Outlines illustrating some of these
varieties of vault will be found in the Glossary under _Vault_.

[20] See Glossary.

[21] For illustrations consult the Glossary.

[22] For further illustrations see the Glossary.



  [Illustration: {STAINED GLASS FROM CHARTRES CATHEDRAL.}]

CHAPTER VI.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN WESTERN EUROPE.


FRANCE.--CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH.

The architecture of France during the Middle Ages throws much light
upon the history of the country. The features in which it differs from
the work done in England at the same period can, many of them, be
directly traced to differences in the social, political, or religious
situation of the two nations at the time. For example, we find England
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries in the hands of the Normans, a
newly-conquered country under uniform administration; and accordingly
few local variations occur in the architecture of our Norman period.
The twelfth-century work, at Durham or Peterborough for instance,
differs but little from that at Gloucester or Winchester. In France
the case is different. That country was divided into a series of
semi-independent provinces, whose inhabitants differed, not only in
the leaders whom they followed, but in speech, race, and customs. As
might be expected, the buildings of each province presented an aspect
different in many respects from those of every other; and we may as
well add that these peculiarities did not die out with the end of the
round-arched period of architecture, but lingered far into the pointed
period.

  [Illustration: FIG. 31.--CHURCH AT FONTEVRAULT. (BEGUN 1125.)]

The south of France was occupied by people speaking what are now known
as the Romance dialects, and some writers have adopted the name as
descriptive of the peculiarities of the architecture of these
districts. The Romance provinces clung tenaciously to their early
forms of art, so that pointed architecture was not established in the
south of France till half a century, and in some places nearly a whole
century, later than in the north.

On the other hand, the Frankish part of the country was the cradle of
Gothic. The transition from round to pointed architecture first took
place in the royal domain, of which Paris was the centre, and it may
be assumed that the new style was already existing when in 1140 Abbot
Suger laid the foundations of the choir of the church of St. Denis,
about forty years before the commencement of the eastern arm of our
own Canterbury.

De Caumont, who in his "Abécédaire" did for French architecture
somewhat the same work of analysis and scientific arrangement which
Rickman performed for English, has adopted the following
classification:--

                           { Primitive.          } 5th to 10th
                           { _Primordiale._      }  century.
                           {                     }
                           { Second.             } End of 10th to
  Romanesque Architecture. { _Secondaire._       }  commencement of
  _Architecture Romane._   {                     }  12th century.
                           {                     }
                           { Third or Transition }
                           { _Tertiaire ou de_   } 12th century.
                           { _Transition._       }

                           { First.              }
                           { _Primitive._        } 13th century.
                           {                     }
  Pointed Architecture.    { Second.             }
  _Architecture ogivale._  { _Secondaire._       } 14th century.
                           {                     }
                           { Third.              }
                           { _Tertiaire._        } 15th century.

  [Illustration: FIG. 32.--DOORWAY AT LOCHES, FRANCE. (1180.)]

The transitional architecture of France is no exception to the rule
that the art of a period of change is full of interest. Much of it has
disappeared, but examples remain in the eastern part of the cathedral
of St. Denis already referred to, in portions of the cathedrals of
Noyon and Sens, the west front of Chartres, the church of St.
Germain des Prés at Paris, and elsewhere. We here often find the
pointed arch employed for the most important parts of the structure,
while the round arch is still retained in the window and door-heads,
and in decorative arcades, as shown in our illustrations of a section
of the church at Fontevrault (Fig. 31), and of a doorway at Loches
(Fig. 32).

The first pointed architecture of the thirteenth century in France
differs considerably from the early English of this country. The
arches are usually less acute, and the windows not so tall in
proportion to their width. The mouldings employed are few and simple
compared with the many and intricate English ones. Large round columns
are much used in place of our complicated groups of small shafts for
the piers of the nave; and the abacus of the capital remains square.
An air of breadth and dignity prevails in the buildings of this date
to which the simple details, noble proportions, and great size largely
contribute. The western front of Notre Dame, Paris (Fig. 33), dates
from the early years of this century, the interior being much of it a
little earlier. The well-known cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims, Laon,
and later in the style, Amiens, and Beauvais, may be taken as grand
examples of French first pointed. To these may be added the very
graceful Sainte Chapelle of Paris, the choir and part of the nave of
the cathedral at Rouen, the church of St. Etienne at Caen, and the
cathedrals of Coutances, Lisieux, Le Mans, and Bourges. This list of
churches could be almost indefinitely extended, and many monastic
buildings, and not a few domestic and military ones, might be added.
Among the most conspicuous of these may be named the monastic fortress
at Mont St. Michel, probably the most picturesque structure in
France, the remarkable fortifications of Carcassonne, and the lordly
castle of Couçy.

  [Illustration: FIG. 33.--NOTRE DAME, PARIS, WEST FRONT. (1214.)]

The second pointed, or fourteenth century Gothic of France, bears more
resemblance to contemporary English Gothic than the work of the
centuries preceding or following. Large windows for stained glass,
with rich geometrical tracery prevailed, and much the same sort of
ornamental treatment as in England was adopted in richly decorated
buildings. Specimens of the work of this century occur everywhere in
the shape of additions to the great churches and cathedrals which had
been left unfinished from the previous century, and also of side
chapels which it became customary to add to the aisles of churches.
The great and well-known abbey of St. Ouen at Rouen is one of the few
first-class churches which can be named as begun and almost entirely
completed in this century. The tower and spire of the church of St.
Pierre at Caen (Fig. 13) are very well-known and beautiful specimens
of this period.

French fifteenth century architecture, or third pointed, is far from
being so dignified or so scientific as English perpendicular, and
differs from it considerably. Exuberant richness in decoration was the
rage, and shows itself both in sculpture, tracery, and general design.
Much of the later work of this period has received the name of
flamboyant, because of the flame-like shapes into which the tracery of
the heads of windows was thrown. In flamboyant buildings we often meet
with art which, though certainly over-florid, is brilliant, rich, and
full of true feeling for decoration.

In this century, secular and domestic buildings attained more
prominence than at any previous periods. Some of them are among the
best works which this period produced. Familiar examples will be found
in the noble Palais de Justice at Rouen, and the Hôtel de
Bourgtherould in the same city; in parts of the great château at
Blois, the splendid château of Pierrefonds, and the Hôtels de Ville of
Oudenarde and Caen.


FRANCE.--ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS.

_Plan._

  [Illustration: FIG. 34.--PLAN OF AMIENS CATHEDRAL. (1220-1272.)]

The plans of French cathedrals and other buildings conform in general
to the description of Gothic plans given in Chapter II., but they have
of course certain distinctive peculiarities (Fig. 34). The cathedrals
are as a rule much broader in proportion to their length than English
ones. Double aisles frequently occur, and not infrequently an added
range of side chapels fringes each of the main side walls, so that the
interior of one of these vast buildings presents, in addition to the
main vista along the nave, many delightful cross views of great
extent. The transepts are also much less strongly marked than our
English examples. There are even some great cathedrals (_e.g._,
Bourges) without transepts; and where they exist it is common to find
that, as in the case of Notre Dame de Paris, they do not project
beyond the line of the side walls, so that, although fairly
well-marked in the exterior and interior of the building, they add
nothing to its floor-space. The eastern end of a French cathedral (and
indeed of French churches generally, with very few exceptions) is
terminated in an apse. When, as is frequently the case, this apse is
encircled by a ring of chapels, with flying buttresses on several
stages rising from among them, the whole arrangement is called a
_chevet_, and very striking and busy is the appearance which it
presents.


_Walls, Towers, and Gables._

The walls are rarely built of any other material than stone, and much
splendid masonry is to be found in France. Low towers are often to be
met with, and so are projecting staircase turrets of polygonal or
circular forms. The façades of cathedrals, including ends of transepts
as well as west fronts, are most striking, and often magnificently
enriched. It is an interesting study to examine a series of these
fronts, each a little more advanced than the last, as for example
Notre Dame (Fig. 33), the transept at Rouen, Amiens (Fig. 35), and
Rheims, and to note how the horizontal bands and other level
features grow less and less conspicuous, while the vertical ones are
more and more strongly marked; showing an increasing desire, not only
to make the buildings lofty, but to suppress everything which might
interfere with their looking as high as possible.

  [Illustration: FIG. 35.--AMIENS CATHEDRAL, WEST FRONT. (1220-1272.)]


_Columns and Piers._

The column is a greater favourite than the pier in France, as has
already been said. Sometimes, where the supports of the main arcade
are really piers, they are built like circular shafts of large size;
and even when they have no capital (as was the case in third-pointed
examples), these piers still retain much of the air of solid strength
which belongs to the column, and which the French architects appear to
have valued highly. In cases where a series of mouldings has to be
carried--as for example when the main arcade of a building is richly
moulded--English architects would usually have provided a distinct
shaft for each little group (or as Willis named them order), into
which the whole can be subdivided. In France, at any rate during the
earlier periods, the whole series of mouldings would spring from the
square unbroken abacus of a single large column, to which perhaps one
shaft, or as in our illustration (Fig. 36) four shafts, would be
attached which would be carried up to the springing of the nave vault,
at which point the same treatment would be repeated, though on a
smaller scale, with the moulded ribs of that vault.

  [Illustration: FIG. 36.--PIERS AND SUPERSTRUCTURE, RHEIMS CATHEDRAL.
      (1211-1240.)
          _i._ Springing of main ribs of the vault.
          _h._ String-course below the clerestory.
          _a b._ Triforium arcade.
          _g._ String-course below the triform.
          B. Main arcade separating the nave from the aisles.
          A and N. Shafts attached to pier and supporting portions
            of the superstructure.]

A peculiarity of some districts of southern France is the suppression
of the external buttress; the buttresses are in fact built within the
church walls instead of outside, and masonry enough is added to make
each into a separating wall which divides side chapels. Some large
churches, _e.g._, the cathedral at Alby, in Southern France, consist
of a wide nave buttressed in this way, and having side chapels between
the buttresses, but without side aisles.

The plans of the secular, military, and domestic buildings of France
also present many interesting peculiarities, but not such as it is
possible to review within the narrow limits of this chapter.


_Roofs and Vaults._

The peculiarly English feature of an open roof is hardly ever met with
in any shape: yet though stone vaults are almost universal, they are
rarely equal in scientific skill to the best of those in our own
country. In transitional examples, many very singular instances of the
expedients employed before the pointed vault was fully developed can
be found. In some of the central and southern districts, domes, or at
least domical vaults, were employed. (See the section of Fontevrault,
Fig. 31). The dome came in from Byzantium. It was introduced in
Perigord, where the very curious and remarkable church of St. Front
(begun early in the eleventh century) was built. This is to all
intents a Byzantine church. It is an almost exact copy in plan and
construction of St. Mark's at Venice, a church designed and built by
Eastern architects, and it is roofed by a series of domes, a
peculiarity which is as distinctive of Byzantine (_i.e._, Eastern
early Christian), as the vaulted roof is of Romanesque (or Western
early Christian) architecture. Artists from Constantinople itself
probably visited France, and from this centre a not inconsiderable
influence extended itself in various directions, and led to the use of
many Byzantine features both of design and ornament.

As features in the exterior of their buildings, the roofs have been
in every period valued by the French architects; they are almost
always steep, striking, and ornamented. All appropriate modes of
giving prominence and adding ornament to a roof have been very fully
developed in French Gothic architecture, and the roofs of semicircular
and circular apses, staircase towers, &c., may be almost looked upon
as typical.[23]


_Openings._

The treatment of openings gives occasion for one of the most strongly
marked points of contrast between French and English Gothic
architecture. With us the great windows are unquestionably the
prominent features, but with the French the doors are most elaborated.
This result is reached not so much by any lowering of the quality of
the treatment bestowed upon the windows, but by the greatly increased
importance given to doorways.

The great portals of Notre Dame at Paris (Fig. 33), Rheims, or Amiens
(Fig. 35), and the grand porches of Chartres may be named as the
finest examples, and are probably the most magnificent single features
which Gothic Art produced in any age or any country; but in its degree
the western portal of every great church is usually an object upon
which the best resources of the architect have been freely lavished.
The wall is built very thick so that enormous jambs, carrying a vast
moulded arch, can be employed. The head of the door is filled with
sculpture, which is also lavishly used in the sides and arch, and over
the whole rises an ornamental gable, frequently profusely adorned with
tracery and sculpture, its sides being richly decorated by crockets
or similar ornaments, and crowned by a sculptured terminal or finial.

The windows in the earliest periods are simpler than in our E. E., as
well as of less slender proportions. In the second and third periods
they are full of rich tracery, and are made lofty and wide to receive
the magnificent stained glass with which it was intended to fill them,
and which many churches retain. Circular windows, sometimes called
wheel-windows, often occupy the gables, and are many of them very fine
compositions.


_Mouldings and Ornaments._

The mouldings of the French first pointed are usually larger than our
own. Compared with ours they are also fewer, simpler, and designed to
produce more breadth of effect. This may partly result from their
originating in a sunshiny country where effects of shade are easily
obtained. In the second and third periods they more nearly resemble
those in use in England at the corresponding times.

The carving is very characteristic and very beautiful. In the
transition and first pointed a cluster of stalks, ending in a tuft of
foliage or flowers, is constantly employed, especially in capitals.
The use of this in England is rare; and, on the other hand, foliage
like E. E. conventional foliage is rare in France. In the second
pointed, natural foliage is admirably rendered (Fig. 37). In the third
a somewhat conventional kind of foliage, very luxuriant in its
apparent growth, is constantly met with.

This carving is at every stage accompanied by figure-sculpture of the
finest character. Heads of animals, statues, groups of figures, and
has reliefs are freely employed, but always with the greatest
judgment, so that their introduction adds richness to the very point
in the whole composition where it is most needed. In every part of
France, and in every period of Gothic architecture, good specimens of
sculpture abound. Easily accessible illustrations will be found in the
west entrance and south transept front of Rouen Cathedral, the porches
and portals at Chartres, the choir inclosure of Notre Dame at Paris,
and the richly sculptured inclosure of the choir of Amiens Cathedral.

  [Illustration: FIG. 37.--CAPITAL FROM ST. NICHOLAS, BLOIS, FRANCE.
      (13TH CENTURY.)]

Stained glass has been more than once referred to. It is to be found
in its greatest perfection in France, as for example in La Sainte
Chapelle at Paris, and the cathedrals of Le Mans, Bourges, Chartres,
and Rheims. All that has been said in the introductory chapter on
this, the crowning ornament of Gothic architecture, and on its
influence upon window design, and through that, upon the whole
structure of the best churches, is to the full as applicable to French
examples. Coloured decoration was also frequently employed in the
interior of churches and other buildings, and is constantly to be met
with in French buildings, both secular and religious. In most cases,
however, it is less easy to appreciate this than the stained glass,
for, as it is now to be seen, the colours are either faded and
darkened by time and smoke, or else restored, not always with the
exactness that could be desired.


_Construction and Design._

The construction of the great buildings of the middle ages in France
is an interesting subject of study, but necessarily a thoroughly
technical one. Great sagacity in designing the masonry, carpentry,
joinery, and metal-work; and trained skill in the carrying out the
designs, have left their traces everywhere; and while the construction
of the earlier castles and of the simple churches shows a solidity but
little inferior to that of the Romans themselves, the most elaborate
works, such for example as the choir at Beauvais (Fig. 38), can hardly
be surpassed as specimens of skill and daring, careful forethought,
and bold execution.

  [Illustration: FIG. 38.--BEAUVAIS CATHEDRAL, INTERIOR. (1225-1537.)]

Design, in France, pursued the general principles of Gothic
architecture to their logical conclusions with the most uncompromising
consistency. Perhaps the most distinctive peculiarity in French
cathedrals is a love of abstract beauty, and a strong preference for
breadth, regularity, dignity, and symmetry wherever they come into
competition with picturesqueness and irregular grouping. There is, it
is true, plenty of the picturesque element in French mediæval art; but
if we take the finest buildings, and those in which the greatest
effort would be made to secure the qualities which were considered the
greatest and most desirable, we shall find very strong evidences of a
conviction that beauty was to be attained by regularity and order,
rather than by unsymmetrical and irregular treatment.


BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS.

Belgium is a country rich in remains of Gothic architecture. Its art
was influenced so largely by its neighbourhood to France, that it will
not be necessary to attempt anything like a chronological arrangement
of its buildings. Fine churches exist in its principal cities, but
they cannot be said to form a series differing widely from the
churches of France, with which they were contemporary, and where they
differ the advantage is generally on the side of the French originals.

The principal cathedral of the Low Countries, that at Antwerp, is a
building remarkable for its great width (having seven aisles), and for
the wonderful picturesqueness of its interior. The exterior, which is
unfinished, is also very effective, with its one lofty spire. The
other cathedrals of note include those of Tournay, Brussels, Mechlin,
Louvain, Liége, and Ghent. Belgium also possesses a great number of
large parochial churches.

When we turn to secular buildings we find the Belgian architecture of
the middle ages taking a leading position. The free cities of Belgium
acquired municipal privileges at an early date, and accumulated great
wealth. Accordingly we find town halls, trade halls, belfries,
warehouses, and excellent private dwelling-houses in abundance. The
cloth hall at Ypres has been repeatedly illustrated and referred to as
an example of a grand and effective building for trade purposes; it
is of thirteenth-century architecture and of great size, its centre
marked by a massive lofty tower; and its angles carrying slight
turrets; but in other respects it depends for its effectiveness solely
on its repetition of similar features. Examples of the same kind of
architecture exist at Louvain and Ghent.

The Town Halls of Brussels, Louvain, Bruges, Mechlin, Ghent,
Oudenarde, and Ypres, are all buildings claiming attention. They were
most of them in progress during the fifteenth century, and are fine,
but florid examples of late Gothic. Some one or two at least of the
town halls were begun and partly carried out in the fourteenth
century; on the other hand, the Hôtel de Ville at Oudenarde, was begun
as late as the beginning of the sixteenth; so were the Exchange at
Antwerp (destroyed by fire and rebuilt not long since) and some other
well-known structures: their architecture, though certainly Gothic, is
debased in style.

The general aspect of these famous buildings was noble and bold in
mass, and rich in ornament. Our illustration (Fig. 39) shows the Town
Hall of Middleburgh in Holland; one which is less famous and of
smaller dimensions than those enumerated above, but equally
characteristic.

The main building usually consisted of a long unbroken block
surmounted by a high-pitched roof, and usually occupied one side of a
public place. The side of the building presents several storeys,
filled by rows of fine windows, though in some cases the lowest storey
is occupied by an open arcade. The steep roof, usually crowded with
dormer windows, carries up the eye to a lofty ridge, and from the
centre of it rises the lofty tower which forms so conspicuous a
feature in most of these buildings. In the Town Hall at Bruges the
tower is comparatively simple, though of a mass and height that are
truly imposing; but in Brussels, Ypres, and other examples, it is a
richly ornamented composition on which every resource of the mason and
the carver has been lavished. Our illustration (Fig. 40) shows the
well-known tower at Ghent.

  [Illustration: FIG. 39.--THE TOWN HALL OF MIDDLEBURGH. (1518.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 40.--TOWER AT GHENT. (BEGUN 1183.)]

The gable ends of the great roof are often adorned by pinnacles and
other ornaments; but they rarely come prominently into view, as it is
invariably the long side of the building which is considered to be the
principal front.


SCOTLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND.

In Scotland good but simple examples of early work (transition from
Romanesque to E. E.) occur, as for example, at Jedburgh and Kelso,
Dryburgh and Leuchars abbey churches. A very interesting and in many
respects unique cathedral of the thirteenth century, with later
additions, exists at Glasgow. It is a building of much beauty, with
good tracery, and the crypt offers a perfect study of various and
often graceful modes of forming groined vaults. The Cathedral of Elgin
(thirteenth century), an admirable Edwardian building, now in ruins,
and the Abbey at Melrose, also ruined, of fourteenth century
architecture (begun 1322), are both excellent specimens of the art of
the periods to which they belong, and bear a close resemblance to what
was being done in England at the same time. The famous tower of St.
Giles's Cathedral, Edinburgh, and the Chapel at Roslyn, of the
fifteenth century, on the other hand, are of thoroughly un-English
character, resembling in this respect much of the Scotch architecture
of the succeeding centuries; Roslyn is ascribed by Mr. Fergusson to a
Spanish or Portuguese architect, with great probability.

Other abbey churches and remains of architectural work exist at
Dumblane, Arbroath, Dunkeld, and in many other localities; and
Holyrood Palace, still retains part of its elegant early
fourteenth-century chapel.

Of secular and domestic work Linlithgow is a fair specimen, but of
late date. Most of the castles and castellated mansions of Scotland
belong indeed to a later time than the Gothic period, though there is
a strong infusion of Gothic feeling in the very picturesque style in
which they are designed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Wales is distinguished for the splendid series of castles to which
allusion has been made in a previous chapter. They were erected at the
best time of English Gothic architecture (Edward I.) under English
direction, and are finely designed and solidly built. Wales can also
boast the interesting Cathedrals of Chester, Llandaff, St. David's,
and some smaller churches, but in every case there is little to
distinguish them from contemporary English work.

       *       *       *       *       *

Ireland is more remarkable for antiquities of a date anterior to the
beginning of the Gothic period than for works belonging to it. A
certain amount of graceful and simple domestic work, however, exists
there; and in addition to the cathedrals of Kildare, Cashel, and
Dublin, numerous monastic buildings, not as a rule large or ambitious,
but often graceful and picturesque, are scattered about.

  [Illustration: _Miserere Seat in Wells Cathedral._]

FOOTNOTES:

[23] For an example of these see the house of Jaques Coeur (Fig. 7).



  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM WESTMINSTER ABBEY.}]

CHAPTER VII.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE.


GERMANY.--CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH.

The architecture of Germany, from the twelfth to the sixteenth
centuries, can be divided into an early, a middle, and a late period,
with tolerable distinctness. Of these, the early period possesses the
greatest interest, and the peculiarities of its buildings are the most
marked and most beautiful. In the middle period, German Gothic bore a
very close general resemblance to the Gothic of the same time in
France; and, as a rule, such points of difference as exist are not in
favour of the German work. Late Gothic work in Germany is very
fantastic and unattractive.

  [Illustration: FIG. 41.--ABBEY CHURCH OF ARNSTEIN. (12TH AND 13TH
      CENTURIES.)]

Through the twelfth, and part of the thirteenth centuries, the
architects of Germany pursued a course parallel with that followed in
France and in England, but without adopting the pointed arch. They
developed the simple and rude Romanesque architecture which prevailed
throughout Europe in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and which they
learnt originally from Byzantine artists who fled from their own
country during the reign of the iconoclasts; and they not only carried
it to a point of elaboration which was abreast of the art of our best
Norman architecture, but went on further in the same course; for
while the French and ourselves were adopting lancet windows and
pointed arches, they continued to employ the round-headed window and
the semicircular arch in buildings which in their size, richness,
loftiness, and general style, correspond with early Gothic examples in
other countries. This early German architecture has been sometimes
called fully developed Romanesque, and sometimes round-arched Gothic,
and both terms may be applied to it without impropriety, for it
partakes of the qualities implied by each. The Church of the Holy
Apostles at Cologne, and those of St. Martin and St. Maria in
Capitolo, in the same city, may be referred to as among the best works
of this class. Each of these has an eastern apse, and also an apsidal
termination to each transept. The Apostles' church has a low octagon
at the crossing, and its sky-line is further broken up by western and
eastern towers, the latter of comparatively small size and octagonal;
and under the eaves of the roof occurs an arcade of small arches.

A view of the Abbey Church of Arnstein (Fig. 41) illustrates some of
the features of these transitional churches. It will be noticed that
though there is no transept, there are no less than four towers, two
octagonal, and two square, and that the apse is a strongly developed
feature.

In the church at Andernach, of which we give an illustration (Fig.
42), the same arrangement, namely, that of four towers, two to the
west, and two to the east, may be noticed; but there is not the same
degree of difference between the towers, and the result is less happy.
This example, like the last, has no central feature, and in both the
arcade under the eaves of the roof is conspicuous only by its absence.
It does, however, occur on the western towers at Andernach.

  [Illustration: FIG. 42.--CHURCH AT ANDERNACH. (EARLY 13TH CENTURY.)]

The pointed arch, when adopted in Germany, was in all probability
borrowed from France, as the general aspect of German churches of
pointed architecture seems to prove. The greatest Gothic cathedral of
Germany, Cologne Cathedral, was not commenced till about the year
1275, and its choir was probably completed during the first quarter of
the fourteenth century. This cathedral, one of the largest in Europe,
is also one of the grandest efforts of mediæval architecture, and it
closely resembles French examples of the same period, both in its
general treatment, and in the detail of its features. The plan of
Cologne Cathedral (Fig. 46) is one of the most regular and symmetrical
which has come down to us from the middle ages. The works were carried
on slowly after the choir was consecrated, but without any deviation
from the original plan, though some alteration in style and details
crept in. In our own day the works have been resumed and vigorously
pushed on towards completion; and, the original drawings having been
preserved, the two western towers, the front, and other portions have
been carried on in accordance with them. Cologne, accordingly,
presents the almost unique spectacle of a great Gothic church, erected
without deviation from its original plan, and completed in the style
in which it was begun. It is fair to add that though splendid in the
extreme, this cathedral has far less charm, and less of that peculiar
quality of mystery and vitality than many, we might say most, of the
great cathedrals of Europe.

The plan consists of a nave of eight bays, two of which form a kind of
vestibule, and five avenues, _i.e._ two aisles on each side; transepts
of four bays each, with single aisles; and a choir of four bays and an
apse, the double aisle of the nave being continued and carried down
the choir. That part of the outer aisle which sweeps round the apse
has been formed into a series of seven polygonal chapels, thus gaining
a complete _chevet_.[24] Over the crossing there is a comparatively
slender spire, and at the west end stand two massive towers terminated
by a pair of lofty and elaborate spires, of open tracery, and enriched
by crockets, finials, and much ornamentation. The cathedral is built
of stone, without much variation in colour; it is vaulted throughout,
and a forest of flying buttresses surrounds it on all sides. The
beauty of the tracery, the magnificent boldness of the scale of the
whole building, and its orderly regularity, are very imposing, and
give it a high rank among the greatest works of European architecture;
but it is almost too majestic to be lovely, and somewhat cold and
uninteresting from its uniform colour, and perhaps from its great
regularity.

Strasburg Cathedral--not so large as Cologne--has been built at
various times; the nave and west front are the work of the best Gothic
period. This building has a nave and single aisles, short transepts,
and a short apsidal choir. There is great richness in much of the
work; double tracery, _i.e._ a second layer, so to speak, of tracery,
is here employed in the windows, and extended beyond them, but the
effect is not happy. The front was designed to receive two open
tracery spires, but only one of them has been erected. It is amazingly
intricate and rich, the workmanship is very astonishing, but the
artistic effect is not half so good as that of many plain stone
spires.

Another important German church famous for an open spire is the
cathedral at Friburg. Here only one tower, standing at the middle of
the west front, was ever intended, and partly because the composition
is complete as proposed, and partly because the design of the tracery
in the spire itself is more telling, this building forms a more
effective object than Strasburg, though by no means so lofty or so
grandiose.

  [Illustration: FIG. 43.--CHURCH OF ST. BARBARA AT KUTTENBERG. EAST
      END. (1358-1548.)]

The Cathedral of St. Stephen at Vienna is a large and exceedingly rich
church. In this building the side aisles are carried to almost the
same height as the centre avenue--an arrangement not infrequent in
German churches having little save novelty to recommend it, and by
which the triforium, and, as a rule, the clerestory disappear, and the
church is lighted solely by large side windows. The three avenues are
covered by one wide roof, which makes a vast and rather clumsy display
externally. A lofty tower, surmounted by a fine and elaborate spire of
open tracery, stands on one side of the church--an unusual
position--and an unfinished companion tower is begun on the
corresponding side. Great churches and cathedrals are to be found in
many of the cities of Germany, but their salient points are, as a
rule, similar to those of the examples which have been already
described.

The incomplete Church of St. Barbara at Kuttenberg, in Bohemia, is one
of somewhat exceptional design. It has double aisles, but the side
walls for the greater part of the length of the church rest upon the
arcade dividing the two aisles, instead of that separating the centre
avenue from the side one; and a vault over the inner side aisle forms
in effect a kind of balcony or gallery in the nave. The illustration
(Fig. 43) which we give of the exterior does not of course indicate
this peculiarity, but it shows a very good example of a German
adaptation of the French _chevet_, and may be considered as a specimen
of German pointed architecture at its ripest stage. The church is
vaulted, as might be inferred from the forest of flying buttresses;
and the vaulting displays some resemblance to our English fan-vaulting
in general idea.

German churches include some specimens of unusual disposition or form,
as for example the Church of St. Gereon at Cologne, with an oval
choir, and one or two double churches, one of the most curious being
the one at Schwartz-Rheindorff, of which we give a section and view.
(Figs. 44, 45.)

In their doorways and porches the German architects are often very
happy. Our illustration (Fig. 47) of one of the portals of the church
at Thann may be taken as giving a good idea of the amount of rich
ornament often concentrated here: it displays a wealth of decorative
sculpture, which was one of the great merits of the German architects.

  [Illustration: FIG. 44.--DOUBLE CHURCH AT SCHWARTZ-RHEINDORFF.
      SECTION. (1158.)]

The latest development of Gothic in Germany, of which the Church of
St. Catherine at Oppenheim (Fig. 48) is a specimen, was marked (just
as late French was by flamboyant tracery, and late English by
fan-vaulting) by a peculiarity in the treatment of mouldings by which
they were robbed of almost all their grace and beauty, while the
execution of them became a kind of masonic puzzle. Two or more groups
of mouldings were supposed to coexist in the same stone, and sometimes
a part of one group, sometimes a part of the other group, became
visible at the surface. The name given to this eccentric development
is interpenetration.

  [Illustration: FIG. 45.--DOUBLE CHURCH AT SCHWARTZ-RHEINDORFF.
      (A.D. 1158.)]

Secular architecture in Germany, though not carried to such a pitch of
perfection as in Belgium, was by no means overlooked; but the examples
are not numerous. In some of the older cities, such as Prague,
Nuremberg, and Frankfort, much picturesque domestic architecture
abounds, most of it of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and even
later, and all full of piquancy and beauty. In North Germany, where
there is a large tract of country in which building stone is scarce, a
style of brick architecture was developed, which was applied to all
sorts of purposes with great success. The most remarkable of these
brick buildings are the large dwelling-houses, with façades ornamented
by brick tracery and panelling, to be found in Eastern Prussia,
together with some town halls and similar buildings.


GERMANY.--ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS.

_Plan._

The points of difference between German and French Gothic are not so
numerous as to render a very minute analysis of the Gothic of Germany
requisite in order to make them clear.

The plans of German churches usually show internal piers; and columns
occur but rarely. The churches have nave and aisles, transepts and
apsidal choir; but they are peculiar from the frequent use of apses at
the ends of the transepts, and also from the occurrence, in not a few
instances, of an apse at the west end of the nave as well as at the
east end of the choir. They are almost invariably vaulted.

As the style advanced, large churches were constantly planned with
double aisles, and the western apse disappeared. Some German church
plans, notably those of Cologne Cathedral (Fig. 46) and the great
church of St. Lawrence at Nuremberg, are fine specimens of regularity
of disposition, though full of many parts.

  [Illustration: FIG. 46.--COLOGNE CATHEDRAL. GROUND PLAN. (BEGUN
      1248.)]


_Walls, Towers, and Gables._

The German architects delighted in towers with pointed roofs, and in a
multiplicity of them. A highly characteristic feature is a tower of
great mass, but often extremely low, covering the crossing. The
Cathedral at Mayence shows a fine example of this feature, which was
often not more than a low octagon. Western towers, square on plan, are
common, and small towers, frequently octagonal, are often employed to
flank the choir or in combination with the transepts. These in early
examples, are always surmounted by high roofs; in late ones, by stone
spires, often of rich open tracery. A very characteristic feature of
the round arched Gothic churches is an arcade of small arches
immediately below the eaves of the roof and opening into the space
above the vaults (Fig. 45). This is rarely wanting in churches built
previous to the time when the French type was followed implicitly.

The gables are seldom such fine compositions as in France, or even in
Italy; but in domestic and secular buildings many striking gabled
fronts occur, the gable being often stepped in outline and full of
windows.


_Roofs and Vaults._

Vaults are universal in the great churches, and German vaulting has
some special peculiarities, but they are such as hardly come within
the scope of this hand-book. Roofs, however, are so conspicuous that
in any general account of German architecture attention must be paid
to them. They were from very early times steep in pitch and
picturesque in outline, and are evidently much relied upon as giving
play to the sky-line. Indeed, for variety of form and piquancy of
detail the German roofs are the most successful of the middle ages.
The spires, as will have been easily gathered from the descriptions of
those at Strasburg, Cologne, &c., became extremely elaborate, and were
constructed in many cases entirely of open tracery.

  [Illustration: FIG. 47.--WESTERN DOORWAY OF CHURCH AT THANN. (14TH
      CENTURY.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 48.--CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE AT OPPENHEIM. (1262
      TO 1439.)]


_Openings._

Openings are, on the whole, treated very much as the French treated
them. A good example is the western doorway at Thann (Fig. 47); but
the use of double tracery in the windows in late examples is
characteristic. Sometimes a partial screen of outside tracery is
employed in other features besides windows, as may be seen by the very
elegant doorway of St. Sebald's Church at Nuremberg, which we have
illustrated (Fig. 49).


_Ornaments._

The ornaments of German Gothic are often profuse, but rarely quite
happy. Sculpture, often of a high class, carving of every sort,
tracery, and panelling, are largely employed; but with a hardness and
a tendency to cover all surfaces with a profusion of weak imitations
of tracery that disfigures much of the masonry. The tracery became
towards the latter part of the time intricate and unmeaning, and the
interpenetrating mouldings already described, though of course
intended to be ornamental, are more perplexing and confusing than
pleasing: the carving exaggerates the natural markings of the foliage
represented, and being thin, and very boldly undercut, resembles
leaves beaten out in metal, rather than foliage happily and easily
imitated in stone, which is what good architectural carving should be.

The use of coloured building materials and of inlays and mosaics does
not prevail to any great extent in Germany, though stained glass is
often to be found and coloured wall decoration occasionally.

  [Illustration: FIG. 49.--ST. SEBALD'S CHURCH AT NUREMBERG. THE
      BRIDE'S DOORWAY. (1303-1377.)]


_Construction and Design._

The marked peculiarities of construction by which the German Gothic
buildings are most distinguished, are the prevalent high-pitched
roofs, the vaulting with aisle vaults carried to the same height as in
the centre, and the employment in certain districts of brick to the
exclusion of stone, all of which have been already referred to. In a
great part of that large portion of Europe, which is included under
the name of Germany, the materials and modes of construction adopted
during the middle ages, bear a close resemblance to those in general
use in France and England.

Some of the characteristics of German Gothic design have been already
alluded to. The German architects display an exuberant fancy, a great
love of the picturesque, and even the grotesque, and a strong
predilection for creating artificial difficulties in order to enjoy
the pleasure of surmounting them. Their work is full of unrest; they
attach small value to the artistic quality of breadth, and destroy the
value of the plain surfaces of their buildings as contrasts to the
openings, by cutting them up by mouldings and enrichments of various
sorts. The sculpture introduced is, as a rule, naturalistic rather
than conventional. The capitals of piers and columns are often fine
specimens of effective carving, while the delicate and ornamental
details of the tabernacle work with which church furniture is
enriched, are unsurpassed in elaboration, and often of rare beauty.
The churches of Nuremberg are specially distinguished for the richness
and number of their sculptured fittings. There is, moreover, in some
of the best German buildings a rugged grandeur which approaches the
sublime; and in the humbler ones a large amount of picturesque and
thoroughly successful architecture.

In the smaller objects upon which the art of the architect was often
employed the Germans were frequently happy. Public fountains, such for
example as the one illustrated in Chapter II. (Fig. 10), are to be met
within the streets of many towns, and rarely fail to please by their
simple, graceful, and often quaint design. Crosses, monuments, and
individual features in domestic buildings, such _e.g._ as bay windows,
frequently show a very skilful and picturesque treatment and happy
enrichment.


NORTHERN EUROPE.

Gothic architecture closely resembling German work may be found in
Switzerland, Norway and Sweden, and Denmark; but there are few very
conspicuous buildings, and not enough variety to form a distinct
style. In Norway and Sweden curious and picturesque buildings exist,
erected solely of timber, and both there and in Switzerland many of
the traditions of the Gothic period have been handed down to our own
day with comparatively little change, in the pleasing and often highly
enriched timber buildings which are to be met with in considerable
numbers in those countries.

FOOTNOTES:

[24] See p. 77 for an explanation of _chevet._



  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM SENS CATHEDRAL.}]

CHAPTER VIII.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTHERN EUROPE.


ITALY AND SICILY.--TOPOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

Gothic architecture in Italy may be considered as a foreign
importation. The Italians, it is true, displayed their natural taste
and artistic instinct in their use of the style, and a large number of
their works possess, as we shall see, strongly-marked characteristics
and much charm; but it is impossible to avoid the feeling that the
architects were working in a style not thoroughly congenial to their
instincts nor to the traditions they had inherited from classical
times; and not entirely in harmony with the requirements of the
climate and the nature of their building materials.

Italian Gothic may be conveniently considered geographically, dividing
the buildings into three groups, the first and most important
containing the architecture of Northern Italy (Lombardy, Venetia, and
the neighbourhood), the second that of Central Italy (Tuscany, &c.),
the third that of the south and of Sicily--a classification which will
suit the subject better than the chronological arrangement which has
been our guide in examining the art of other countries; for the
variations occasioned by development as time went on are less strongly
marked in Italy than elsewhere.


_Northern Italy._

Lombardy in the Romanesque period was thoroughly under German
influence, and the buildings remaining to us from the eleventh and
twelfth centuries bear a close resemblance to those erected north of
the Alps at the same date. The twelfth century Lombard churches again
are specimens of round-arched Gothic, just as truly as those on the
banks of the Rhine. Many of them are also peculiar as being erected
chiefly in brickwork; the great alluvial plain of Lombardy being
deficient in building-stone. St. Michele at Pavia, a well-known church
of this date, may be cited as a good example. This is a vaulted
church, with an apsidal east end and transepts. The round arch is
employed in this building, but the general proportions and treatment
are essentially Gothic. A striking campanile (bell tower) belongs to
the church, and is a good specimen of a feature very frequently met
with in Lombardy; the tower here (and usually) is square, and rises by
successive stages, but with only few and small openings or ornaments,
to a considerable height. There are no buttresses, no diminution of
bulk, no staircase turrets. At the summit is an open belfry-stage,
with large semicircular-headed arches, crowned by a cornice and a
low-pitched conical roof.[25]

In the same city a good example of an Italian Gothic church, erected
after the pointed arch had been introduced, may be found in the church
of Sta. Maria del Carmine. The west front of this church is but
clumsy in general design. Its width is divided into five compartments
by flat buttresses. The gables are crowned by a deep and heavy cornice
of moulded brick and the openings are grouped with but little skill.
Individually, however, the features of this front are very beautiful,
and the great wheel-window, full of tracery, and the two-light windows
flanking it, may be quoted as remarkable specimens of the ornamental
elaboration which can be accomplished in brickwork.

The campanile of this church, like the one just described, is a plain
square tower. It rises by successive stages, each taller than the
last, each stage being marked by a rich brick cornice. The
belfry-stage has on each face a three-light window, with a traceried
head, and above the cornice the square tower is finished by a tall
conical roof, circular on plan, an arrangement not unfrequently met
with.

The Certosa, the great Carthusian Church and Monastery near Pavia,[26]
best known by the elaborate marble front added in a different style
about a century after the erection of the main building, is a good
example of a highly-enriched church, with dependencies, built in
brickwork, and possessing most of the distinctive peculiarities of a
great Gothic church, except the general use of the pointed arch. It
was begun in 1396, and is consistent in its exterior architecture, the
front excepted, though it took a long time to build. Attached to it
are two cloisters, of which the arches are semicircular, and the
enrichments, of wonderful beauty, are modelled in terra-cotta.

This church resembles the great German round-arched Gothic churches on
the Rhine in many of its features. Its plan includes a nave, with
aisles and side chapels, transepts and a choir. The eastern arm and
the transepts are each ornamented by an apse, somewhat smaller than
would be met with in a German church; but as a compensation each of
these three arms has two side apses, as well as the one at the end.
The exterior possesses the German arcade of little arches immediately
under the eaves of the roof; it is marked by the same multiplicity of
small towers, each with its own steep roof; and it possesses the same
striking central feature, internally a small dome, externally a kind
of light pyramidal structure, ornamented by small arcades rising tier
above tier, and ending in a central pointed roof.

The finest Gothic cathedral in North Italy, if dimensions, general
effectiveness, and beauty of material be the test, is that of Milan.
This building is disfigured by a west front in a totally inappropriate
style, but apart from this it is virtually a German church of the
first class, erected entirely in white marble, and covered with a
profusion of decoration. Its dimensions show that, with the exception
of Seville, this was the largest of all the Gothic cathedrals of
Europe. It has double aisles, transepts, and a polygonal apse. At the
crossing of the nave and transepts a low dome rises, covered by a
conical roof, and surmounted by an elegant marble spire.

The structure is vaulted throughout, and each of the great piers which
carry the nave arcade is surmounted by a mass of niches and tabernacle
work, occupied by statues--a splendid substitute for ordinary
capitals. The interior effect of Milan Cathedral is grand and full of
beauty. The exterior, though much of its power is destroyed by the
weakly-designed ornament with which all the surfaces of the walls are
covered, is endowed with a wonderful charm. This building was
commenced in the year 1385, and consecrated in the year 1418. The
details of the window-tracery, pinnacles, &c. (but not the statues
which are of Italian character), correspond very closely to those of
German buildings erected at the same period (close of the fourteenth
century).

Milan possesses, among other examples of pointed architecture, one
secular building, the Great Hospital, well known for its Gothic
façade. This hospital was founded in 1456, and most of it is of later
date and of renaissance character; the street front of two storeys in
height, with pointed arches, is very rich. The church of Chiaravalle,
near Milan, which has been more than once illustrated and described,
ought not to be passed unnoticed, on account of the beauty of its
fully developed central dome. It was built in the early part of the
thirteenth century (1221).

Almost all the great cities of North Italy possess striking Gothic
buildings. Genoa, for instance, can boast of her cathedral, with a
front in alternate courses of black and white marble, dating from
about the year 1300, and full of beauty; the details bearing much
resemblance to the best Western Gothic work. Passing eastward, Verona
possesses a wealth of Gothic work in the well-known tombs of the
Scaligers, the churches of Sta. Anastasia, San Zenone, and several
minor churches and campaniles; and at Como, Bergamo, Vicenza, Padua,
Treviso, Cremona, Bologna, and many other cities and towns, good
churches of pointed architecture are to be found.

Our illustration (Fig. 50) of the ancient Palace of the Jurisconsults
at Cremona, is a good specimen of the secular architecture of North
Italy. Originally the lower storey was a loggia, or open arcaded
storey, but the arches have been built up. Telling, simple, and
graceful, this building owes its effect chiefly to its well-designed
openings and a characteristic brick cornice. It is entirely without
buttresses, has no spreading base, no gables, and no visible roof:
some of these features would have been present had it been designed
and erected north of the Alps.

  [Illustration: FIG. 50.--THE PALACE OF THE JURISCONSULTS AT
      CREMONA.]

Venice is the city in the whole of North Italy where Gothic
architecture has had freest scope and has achieved the greatest
success, not, however, in ecclesiastical, but in secular buildings.
The great Cathedral of St. Mark, perhaps the most wonderful church in
Europe, certainly the foremost in Italy, is a Byzantine building, and
though it has received some additions in Gothic times, does not fairly
come within the scope of this volume; and the Gothic churches of
Venice are not very numerous nor, with the exception of the fine brick
church of the Frari, extremely remarkable. On the banks of the Grand
Canal and its tributaries, however, stand not a few Gothic palaces of
noble design (see Fig. 9, p. 18), while the Ducal Palace itself alone
is sufficient to confer a reputation upon the city which it adorns.

The Ducal Palace at Venice is a large rectangular block of buildings
erected round a vast quadrangle. Of its exterior two sides only are
visible from a distance, one being the sea front looking over the
lagoon, and the other the land front directed towards the piazzetta.
Rather less than one half the height of each front is occupied by two
storeys of arcades; the lower storey bold, simple, and vigorous; the
upper storey lighter, and ending in a mass of bold tracery. Above this
open work, and resting upon it, rises the external wall of the palace,
faced with marble in alternate slabs of rose-colour and white, pierced
by a few large pointed windows and crowned by an open parapet. Few
buildings are so familiar, even to untravelled persons, as this fine
work, which owes its great charm to the extent, beauty, and mingled
solidity and grace of its arcades, and to the fine sculpture by which
the capitals from which they spring are enriched.

The Gothic palaces are almost invariably remarkable for the skill with
which the openings in their fronts are arranged and designed. It was
not necessary to render any other part of the exterior specially
architectural, as the palaces stand side by side like houses in a
modern street, as can be seen from our illustration (Fig. 9). In
almost all cases a large proportion of the openings are grouped
together in the centre of the front, and the sides are left
comparatively plain and strong-looking, the composition presenting a
centre and two wings. By this simple expedient each portion of the
composition is made to add emphasis to the other, and a powerful but
not inharmonious contrast between the open centre and the solid sides
is called into existence. The earliest Gothic buildings in point of
date are often the most delicate and graceful, and this rule holds
good in the Gothic palaces of Venice; yet one of the later palaces,
the Ca' d'Oro, must be at least named on account of the splendid
richness of its marble front--of which, however, only the centre and
one wing is built--and the beauty of the ornament lavishly employed
upon it.

The balconies, angle windows, and other minor features with which the
Venetian Gothic palaces abound, are among the most graceful features
of the architecture of Italy.


_Central Italy._

Those towns of Central Italy (by which is meant Tuscany and the former
States of the Church), in which the best Gothic buildings are to be
found, are Pisa, Lucca, Florence, Siena, Orvieto, and Perugia. As a
general rule the Gothic work in this district is more developed and
more lavishly enriched than that in Lombardy.

In Pisa, the Cathedral and the Campanile (the famous leaning tower)
belong to the late Romanesque style, but the Baptistry, an elegant
circular building, has a good deal of Gothic ornament in its upper
storeys, and may be fairly classed as a transitional building. The
most charming and thoroughly characteristic work of Gothic
architecture in Pisa is, however, a small gem of a chapel, the church
of Sta. Maria della Spina. It displays exquisite ornament, and,
notwithstanding much false construction, the beauty of its details, of
its sculpture, and of the marble of which it is built, invest it with
a great charm.

Pisan Gothic is remarkable as being associated with the name of a
family of highly gifted sculptors and architects, the Pisani, of whom
Nicola Pisano was the earliest and greatest artist; he was followed by
his descendants Giovanni, Nino, and Andrea. With the Pisani and Giotto
the series of the known names of architects of great buildings may be
said to begin.

Florence, the most important of the cities we have named, is
distinguished by a cathedral built in the early part of the fourteenth
century, and one of the grandest in Italy. It has very few columns,
and its walls and vaults are of great height. The walls are adorned
externally with inlays in coloured marble, and the windows have
stained glass--a rarity in Italy; but its lofty dome, added after the
completion of the rest of the building, is its chief feature. This was
always intended, but the pointed octagonal dome actually erected by
Brunelleschi, between the years 1420 and 1444, though it harmonises
fairly well with the general lines of the building, and forms, as can
be seen from our illustration (Fig. 51), a striking object in all
distant views of the city, is probably very different from what was
originally intended. Near the cathedral stand the Baptistry, famous
for the possession of the finest gates in the world, and the Campanile
of Giotto. This tower is built, or at least faced, entirely with
marble; and when it is stated that its height is not far short of that
of the Victoria Tower of our Houses of Parliament, though of slenderer
proportions, it will be seen that it is magnificently liberal in its
general scheme. The tower is covered with panels of variously coloured
marbles from base to summit, and enriched by fine sculpture. The
angles are strengthened by slightly projecting piers. The windows are
comparatively small till the highest or belfry stage is reached, and
here each face of the tower is pierced by a magnificent three-light
window. A deep and elaborate cornice now crowns the whole, but it was
originally designed to add a high-pitched roof or a spire as a
terminal.

  [Illustration: FIG. 51.--THE CATHEDRAL AT FLORENCE. WITH GIOTTO'S
      CAMPANILE. (BEGUN, 1298; DOME, 1420-1444; CAMPANILE BEGUN,
      1324.)]

Our illustration (Fig. 52) shows the west front and campanile of the
Cathedral at Siena, an exceedingly good specimen of the beauties and
peculiarities of the style. This building was commenced in 1243. The
plan is simple but singular, for the central feature is a six-sided
dome, at the crossing of the nave and transepts; and some ingenuity
has been spent in fitting this figure to the arches of the main
avenues of the building. The interior is rich and effective; the
exterior, as can be seen by the illustration, is covered with
ornament, and the front is the richest and probably the best designed
of all the cathedral fronts of Central Italy. The strongly-marked
horizontal lines of cornices, arcades, &c., the moulded gables, the
great wheel-window set in a square panel, and the use of marble of
various colours, are all points to note. So is the employment of the
semicircular arch for the doorways of this thoroughly Gothic building.
The campanile is a good example of that feature, except that instead
of the rich window which usually occupies the belfry stage, or highest
storey, two storeys of small lights have been formed. The
introduction of angle turrets is not very usual, and it here supplies
a deficiency which makes itself felt in other campaniles, where the
junction of tower and spire is not always happy.

  [Illustration: FIG. 52.--CATHEDRAL AT SIENA. WEST FRONT AND
      CAMPANILE. (FAÇADE BEGUN 1284.)]

Gothic churches of importance can be found in many of the cities and
towns of Central Italy. None are more remarkable than the singular
double church of St. Francis at Assisi, with its wealth of mural
paintings and stained glass, and the cathedral at Orvieto (Fig. 53)
with its splendid front.

In Rome, so rich in specimens of the architecture of many styles and
times, Gothic could find no footing; the one solitary church which can
be claimed as Gothic may be taken as an exception. And south of the
Capital there lies a considerable tract of country, containing few if
any examples of the style we are considering.


_Southern Italy._

Southern Italy is conveniently grouped with Sicily, but the mainland
is deficient in examples of Gothic buildings. The old towns of Apulia
indeed, such as Bari, Bitonto and Brindisi, possess an architecture
which the few who have had an opportunity of examining, declare to be
surpassingly rich in its decoration, but it is for the most part
Romanesque.

The Gothic work remaining in and about Naples is most of it extremely
florid, and often rich, but seldom possesses the grace and charm of
that which exists further north.

Sicily shows the picturesquely mixed results of a complication of
agencies which have not affected the mainland, and is accordingly an
interesting field for architectural study. The island was first under
Byzantine influence; was next occupied and held by the Saracens; and
was later seized and for some time retained by the Normans.

  [Illustration: FIG. 53.--THE CATHEDRAL AT ORVIETO. (BEGUN 1290;
      FAÇADE, 1310.)]

The most striking early Gothic building in Sicily is the richly
adorned cathedral of Monreale, commenced in the twelfth century. Here
very simple pointed arches are made use of, as the entire surface of
the interior is covered with mosaic pictures of Norman origin. The
small Capella Palatina in Palermo itself is of the same simple and
early architectural character, and adorned with equally magnificent
mosaics. In these buildings the splendour of the colouring is only
equalled by the vigorous and often pathetic power with which the
stories of sacred history are embodied in these mosaics. The cathedral
of Cefalu is a building bearing a general resemblance to that at
Monreale, but not enriched in the same manner.

Of the fourteenth century are the richly ornamented cathedral of
Palermo and that of Messina. The latter has been so much altered as to
have lost a good deal of its interest; but at Palermo there is much
that is striking and almost unique. This building has little in common
with the works of northern or central Italy, and not much more
alliance with the Gothic of North Europe. It is richly panelled and
decorated, but its most striking feature is its bold arcaded portal.


ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS.

_Plan._

The plans of Italian churches are simple, compared with those of the
northern and western architects. As a rule they are also moderate in
size, and they bear a close resemblance to those of the early basilica
churches from which they are directly descended. Though the apse is
all but universal, the French _chevet_, with its crown of clustering
chapels, was not adopted in Italy. There is very much in common
between the churches of Lombardy and those of Germany, but the German
western apse and the apsidal ends to the transept do not occur. The
spaces between the piers of the main arcade are greater than in French
or English examples, so that there are fewer piers, and the vaults are
of wider span. In the churches founded by the great preaching orders,
the division into nave and aisle does not take place, and the church
consists of nothing but a large hall for the congregation, with a
chancel for the choir.

In monastic, secular, and domestic building a general squareness and
simplicity of plan prevails, and where an internal arcaded quadrangle
can be made use of (_e.g._ in the cloister of a monastery), it is
almost always relied upon to add effect. The famous external arcade at
the Ducal Palace, Venice, was nowhere repeated, though simpler
external arcades occur frequently; but it is so splendid as to form,
itself alone a feature in Italian planning.

The arrangements of the mansions and palaces found in the great cities
were a good deal influenced by the circumstance that it was customary,
in order to secure as much cool air as possible, to devote one of the
upper floors to the purpose of a suite of reception rooms; to this was
given the name of _piano nobile_.


_Walls, Towers, Columns._

Walls are usually thick and stand unbuttressed, and rarely have such
slopes and diminutions of apparent thickness towards their upper part
as are not uncommon in England. Base mouldings are not universal. The
cornice, on the other hand, is far more cared for, and is made much
more conspicuous than with us. In the brick buildings especially it
attains great development. Above the cornice a kind of ornamental
parapet, bearing some resemblance to battlements, is common. The
strikingly peculiar use of materials of different colours in alternate
courses, or in panels, to decorate the wall surfaces, has already been
referred to. It is very characteristic of the style.

The campanile or bell-tower of an Italian church is a feature very
different from western towers. It is never placed over the crossing of
nave and aisles and rarely forms an essential part of the church,
often being quite detached and not seldom placed at an angle with the
walls of the main building. Such towers are not unfrequently appended
to palaces, and are sometimes (_e.g._ at Venice) erected alone. Some
of the Italian cities were also remarkable for strong towers erected
in the city itself as fortresses by the heads of influential families.
Many of these are still standing in Bologna. The smaller towers in
which northern architects took so much delight are almost unknown in
Italy, though on a few of the great churches of the north (_e.g._ the
Certosa at Pavia, and St. Antonio at Padua) they are to be found.

The use of constructive columns is general; piers are by no means
unknown, but fine shafts of marble meet the eye frequently in Italian
churches. The constant use of the column for decorative purposes is a
marked characteristic. Not only is it employed where French and
English architects used it, as in the jambs of doorways, but it
constantly replaces the mullion in traceried windows. It is employed
as an ornament at the angles of buildings to take off the harshness of
a sharp corner, and it is introduced in many unexpected and often
picturesque situations. Twisted, knotted, and otherwise carved and
ornamental shafts are not unfrequently made use of in columns that
serve purely decorative purposes.


_Openings and Arches._

The constructive arches in Italian Gothic buildings are, as a rule,
pointed, but it is remarkable that at every period round and pointed
arches are indiscriminately employed for doors and windows, both being
constantly met with in the same building.

The naves of Italian churches rarely show the division into three,
common in the north. The triforium is almost invariably absent, and
the clerestory is often reduced to a series of small round windows,
sufficient to admit the moderate light which, in a very bright
climate, is grateful in the interior of such a building as a church;
but they are far less effective features than our own well-marked
clerestory windows.

  [Illustration: FIG. 54.--OGIVAL WINDOW-HEAD.]

The doorways are often very beautiful, and are frequently sheltered by
projecting porches of extreme elegance and lightness. The window
openings are, as a rule, cusped. An ogee-shaped arch (Fig. 54) is
constantly in use in window-heads, especially at Venice, and much
graceful design is lavished on the arched openings of domestic and
secular buildings. A great deal of the tracery employed is plate
tracery.[27] The tracery in terra-cotta has already been referred to.
In the large windows of the principal apartments and other similar
positions of the palaces in Venice and Vicenza, a sort of tracery not
met with in other countries is freely employed. The openings are
square-headed, and are divided into separate lights by small columns;
the heads of these lights are ogee-shaped, and the spaces between them
and the horizontal lintel are filled in with circles, richly
quatrefoiled or otherwise cusped (Fig. 55). The upper arcade of the
Ducal Palace at Venice offers the best known and finest example of
this class of tracery.

  [Illustration: FIG. 55.--TRACERY, FROM VENICE.]


_Roofs and Vaults._

The vaulting of Italian churches is always simple, and the bays, as
has been pointed out, are usually wider than those of the northern
Gothic churches. Frequently there are no ribs of any sort to the
groins of the vaults. A characteristic feature of Italian Gothic is
the central dome. It is rarely very large or overpowering, and in the
one instance of a magnificent dome--the Cathedral at Florence, the
feature, though intended from the first, was added after the Gothic
period had closed. Still many churches have a modest dome, and it
frequently forms a striking feature in the interior, while in some
northern instances (_e.g._ at the Certosa at Pavia, or at Chiaravalle)
it is treated like a many storeyed pyramid and becomes an external
feature of importance. At Sant' Antonio at Padua there are five domes.

The churches of the preaching orders are some of them covered by
timber ceilings, not perfectly flat but having an outline made up of
hollow curves of rather flat sweep. The great halls at Padua and
Vicenza displayed a vast wooden curved ceiling resembling the hull of
a ship turned upside down.

The ordinary church roof is of flat pitch and frequently concealed
behind a parapet. Dormer windows, crestings, and other similar
features, by the use of which northern architects enriched their
roofs, are hardly ever employed by Italian architects.


_Mouldings and Ornaments._

Ornament is almost instinctively understood by the Italians, and their
mastery of it is well shown in their architecture. The carving of
spandrels, capitals, and other ornaments, and the sculpture of the
heads and statues introduced is full of power and beauty. The famous
capitals of the lower arcade of the Ducal Palace may be quoted as
illustrations.

The employment of coloured materials is carried so far as sometimes to
startle an eye trained to the sombreness of English architecture, but
a great deal of the beauty of this style is derived from colour, and
much of the comparative simplicity and scarcity of mouldings is due to
the desire to leave large unbroken surfaces for marble linings,
mosaics or fresco painting. Mouldings, where they are introduced,
differ from northern mouldings in being flatter and far less bold,
their enrichments are chiefly confined to dentils, notches, and small
and simple ornaments. Stained glass is not so often seen as in France,
but is to be met with, as, for example, in the fine church of San
Petronio at Bologna, and in Sta. Maria Novella, and in the Cathedral
at Florence. At Florence the stained glass has a character of its own
both in colour and style of treatment. It is not too much to say that
every kind of decoration which can be employed to add beauty to a
building may be found at its best in Italy. In the churches much of
the finest furniture, such as stall-work, screens, altar frontals,
will be found in profusion; and the church porches and the mural
monuments should be especially studied on account of the singular
elegance with which they are usually designed.


_Construction and Design._

The material employed for the external and internal face of the walls
in a very large proportion of the buildings mentioned in this chapter
is marble. This is sometimes used in blocks as stone is with us, but
more frequently in the form of thin slabs as a facing upon masonry or
brickwork. In Lombardy, where brick is the natural building material,
most of the walls are not only built but faced with brick; and the
ornamental features, including tracery, are often executed in
ornamental brickwork, or in what is known as terra-cotta (_i.e._
bricks or blocks of brick clay of fine quality, moulded or otherwise
ornamented and burnt like bricks). Stone was less commonly employed as
a building material in Italy during the Gothic period, than in other
countries of Europe. The surfaces of the vaults, and the surfaces of
the internal walls were often covered with mosaics, or with paintings
in fresco. Vaulting is frequently met with, but it is generally simple
in character, the flat external roof over it is commonly covered with
tiles or metal, while the apparent gable frequently rises more
sharply than the actual roof. The Italians seem never to have
cordially welcomed the Gothic principle of resisting the thrust of
vaults or arches by a counter-thrust, or by the weight of a buttress.
The buttress is almost unknown in Italian Gothic, and as a rule an
iron tie is introduced at the feet of such arches as would in France
or Germany have been buttressed. This expedient is, of course,
economical, but to northern eyes it appears strange and out of place.
The Italians, however, take no pains to conceal it, and many of their
lighter works, such as canopies over tombs, porches, &c., would fall
to pieces at once were the iron ties removed.

Open timber roofs in the English fashion are unknown; but the wooden
ceilings already alluded to are found in San Zeno at Verona, and the
Eremitani at Padua. A kind of open roof of large span, carried by
curved ribs and tied by iron ties, covers the great hall of the
Basilica at Vicenza, and the very similar hall at Padua. The ribs of
these roofs are built up of many thicknesses of material bolted
together.

The design of Italian Gothic buildings presents many peculiarities,
some of which are due to the materials made use of. For example, where
brick and terra-cotta are alone employed, wide moulded cornices of no
great projection, and broad masses of enriched moulding encircling
arches are easily executed, and they are accordingly constantly to be
found; but bold mouldings, with deep hollows, similar to those of
Early English arches, could not be constructed of these materials, and
are not attempted. These peculiarities will be found in the Town Hall
at Cremona, of which an illustration (Fig. 50) has already been given.

  [Illustration: FIG. 56.--WINDOW FROM TIVOLI.]

Where marble is used, the peculiar fineness of its surface, upon which
the bright Italian sun makes the smallest moulding effective,
combined with the fact that the material, being costly, is often used
in thin slabs, has given occasion to extreme flatness of treatment,
and to the use of modes of enrichment which do not require much depth
of material. Our illustration of a window from the Piazza S. Croce at
Tivoli, shows these peculiarities extremely well (Fig. 56), and also
illustrates the strong predilection which the Italian architects
retained throughout the Gothic period for squareness and for
horizontal lines. The whole ornamental treatment is here square; the
window rests on a strongly-moulded horizontal sill, and is surrounded
by flatly-carved enrichment, making a square panel of the entire
feature. Even in the richly-decorated window (Fig. 57), which is in
its pointed outline more truly Gothic than the Tivoli example, much of
the same quality can be traced. The arch and jamb are richly moulded,
but the whole mass of mouldings is flat, and the flat cuspings of the
tracery, elaborately carved though it be, more resemble the cusps of
early Western Gothic, executed at a time when tracery was beginning
its career, than work belonging to the period of full maturity to
which this feature, as a whole, undoubtedly belongs.

Where marbles were plentiful enough to be built into the fabric, the
national love of colour gave rise to the use of black and white--or
sometimes red and white--alternate courses, already mentioned. The
effect of this striped masonry may be partly judged of from the
illustration of the cathedral at Siena (Fig. 52), where it is employed
to a considerable extent. A finer method of surface decoration, less
simple, however, and perhaps less frequently practised, was open to
the Italian architect, in the use of panels of various coloured
marbles. A beautiful example of the employment of this expedient
exists in Giotto's campanile at Florence (Fig. 51).

  [Illustration: FIG. 57.--ITALIAN GOTHIC WINDOW, WITH TRACERY
      IN THE HEAD. (13TH CENTURY.)]

The flatness of the roofs, which the Italians never abandoned, was
always found difficult to reconcile with the Gothic tendency to height
and steepness. In many cases, the sharp pitched gables which the
buildings display, are only masks, and do not truly denote the pitch
of the roofs behind them. In other instances the walls finish with a
horizontal parapet, plain or ornamental, quite concealing the roof. In
the roofs of their campaniles, however, the Gothic architects of Italy
were usually happy; they almost always adopted a steep conical
terminal, with or without pinnacles, which is very telling against
the sky; even if its junction with the tower is at times clumsy.

The brightness of southern suns prevented the adoption of the great
windows, adapted to masses of stained glass, which were the ambition
of northern architects in the fourteenth century; and the tenacity
with which a love for squareness of effect and for strongly-marked
horizontal lines of various sorts retained its hold, tended to keep
Italian Gothic buildings essentially different from those of northern
nations; but the love of colour, the command of precious materials,
and of fine sculpture, the passion for beauty and for a decorative
richness, and the artistic taste of the Italians, display themselves
in these buildings in a hundred ways: all this lends to them a charm
such as few works of the middle ages existing elsewhere can surpass.


SPAIN.--CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH.

An early, middle, and late period can be distinguished in dealing with
Spanish Gothic. The first period reaches to the first quarter of the
thirteenth century, the second occupies the remainder of the
thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries, the third completes the
fifteenth and runs on into part of the sixteenth.

The early style is one of much purity and dignity, and is developed
directly from the Romanesque of the country. The cathedral of St. Iago
di Compostella, a fine cruciform church of round-arched Gothic, with a
magnificent western portal,[28] recalling the great lateral porches at
Chartres, is an early and fine example. Like other churches of the
type in Spain, it is far plainer inside than out, but it is vaulted
throughout.

The cathedral of Zamora, and those of Tarragona and Salamanca must
also be referred to. In each of these, the most thoroughly Spanish
feature is a dome, occupying the crossing of the nave and transepts,
and apparently better developed than those in early German churches or
in Italian ones. It is called in Spanish the _cimborio_. This feature
was constructed so as to consist of an inner dome, decorated by ribs
thrown over the central space, and carried by pendentives; having
above it a separate outer dome somewhat higher and often richly
decorated. This feature unfortunately disappeared when the French
designs of the thirteenth century began to be the rage. A peculiarity
of plan, however, which was retained throughout the whole Gothic
period in Spain, is to be found in the early churches; it consists of
an inclosure for the choir quite in the body of the church, and often
west of the transepts,--in such a position, in fact, as the choir at
Westminster Abbey occupies. A third peculiarity is the addition of an
outer aisle, not unlike the arcade of a cloister, to the side walls of
the churches, possibly with a view of protecting them from heat.

With the thirteenth century a strong passion for churches, closely
resembling those being erected in France at the same time, set in, as
has just been remarked. Accordingly the cathedrals of Toledo, Burgos,
and Leon, approach very closely to French types. Toledo is very large,
five aisled, and with a vast chevet. Its exterior is unfinished, but
the dignity of its fine interior may be well understood from the
illustration (Fig. 58) here given. Burgos is not so ambitious in size
as Toledo, but has a florid exterior of late architecture with two
lofty, open-traceried spires, like Strasburg and other German
examples. Leon is remarkable for its lofty clerestory. Spanish Gothic
may be said to have culminated in the vast cathedral at Seville
(begun 1401), claiming to be of greater extent than any Gothic
cathedral in the world, larger, therefore, than Milan or Cologne. It
stands on the site of a mosque, and has never been completed
externally. The interior is very imposing and rich, but when it is
stated that it was not completed till 1520, it may be readily
understood that many of the details are very late, and far from the
purity of earlier examples.

  [Illustration: FIG. 58.--THE CATHEDRAL AT TOLEDO. INTERIOR.
      (BEGUN 1227.)]

In the fourteenth century an innovation, of which French architects
immediately north of the Pyrenees were also availing themselves, found
favour in Barcelona. The great buttresses by which the thrust of the
vaults was met were brought inside the boundary walls of the church,
and were made to serve as division walls between a series of side
chapels. Both here and at Manresa and Gerona, cathedrals were built,
resembling in construction that at Alby, in Southern France; in these
this arrangement was carried a step further, and the side aisles were
suppressed, leaving the whole nave to consist of a very bold vaulted
hall, fringed by a series of side chapels, which were separated from
each other by the buttresses which supported the main vault. These
large vaults, however, when bare of decoration, as most of the Spanish
vaults are, appear bald and poor in effect, though they are grand
objects structurally.

The Gothic work of the latest period in Spain became extraordinarily
florid in its details, especially in the variety introduced into the
ribs of the vaulting and the enrichments generally. The great
cathedrals of Segovia and Salamanca were neither of them begun till
the sixteenth century had already well set in. They are the two
principal examples of this florid Gothic.

  [Illustration: FIG. 59.--THE GIRALDA AT SEVILLE. (BEGUN IN 1196.
      FINISHED IN 1538).]

It will not be forgotten that the country we are now considering was
fully occupied by the Moors, and that they left in Southern Spain
buildings of great merit. A certain number of Christian churches exist
built in a style which has been called Moresco, as being a kind of
fusion of Moorish and Gothic. The towers of these churches bear a
close resemblance to the Saracenic towers of which the beautiful
bell-tower, called the Giralda, at Seville (Fig. 59) is the type; with
this and similar examples in the country it is not surprising that at
Toledo, Saragoza, and other places, towers of the same character
should be erected as parts of churches in which the architecture
throughout is as much Saracenic as Christian.

To many of these great churches, cloisters, and monastic buildings,
which are often both extensive and of a high order of architectural
excellence, are attached. The secular buildings, of Spain in the
Gothic period are, on the other hand, neither numerous nor remarkable.


PORTUGAL.

The architecture of Portugal has been very little investigated. The
great church at Batalha[29] is probably the most important in the
country. This building, though interesting in plan, is more remarkable
for a lavish amount of florid ornament, of which our illustration
(Fig. 60) may furnish some idea, than for really fine architecture.
The conventual church at Belem, near Lisbon, a work of the beginning
of the sixteenth century, and equally florid, is another of the small
number of specimens of Portuguese Gothic of which descriptions or
illustrations have been published.

FOOTNOTES:

[25] An illustration of such a campanile will be found in that
belonging to the Cathedral of Siena (Fig. 52).

[26] See Frontispiece.

[27] For an explanation of this term, see _ante_, Chapter V., page 48.

[28] A cast of this portal is at the South Kensington Museum.

[29] See _Sculptures of the Monastery at Batalha_, published by the
Arundel Society.



  [Illustration: {CRÊTE FROM NOTRE DAME, PARIS.}]

CHAPTER IX.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.


PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN.

_Materials and Construction._

The Gothic architects adhered, at any rate till the fifteenth century,
to the use of very small stones in their masonry. In many buildings of
large size it is hard to find any stone heavier than two men can lift.
Bad roads and the absence of good mechanical means of hoisting and
moving big blocks led to this.

The mortar, though good, is not equal to the Roman. As a rule in each
period mortar joints are thick. They are finest in the fifteenth
century.

The masonry of all important features of the building is always good;
it is often a perfect marvel of dexterity and skill as well as of
beauty.

The arts of workers in other materials, such as carpenters, joiners,
smiths, and plumbers were carried to great perfection during the
Gothic period.

The appropriate ornamental treatment which each material is best
fitted to receive was invariably given to it, and forms appropriate
to one material were very rarely copied in others. For example,
whenever wrought iron, a material which can be beaten and welded, or
rivetted, was employed, those ornamental forms were selected into
which hot iron can with ease be beaten, and such groups of those forms
were designed as can be obtained by welding or by rivetting them
together.

Wood, on the other hand, cannot be bent with ease, but can be readily
cut, drilled with holes, notched and carved; accordingly, where wood
had to be treated ornamentally, we only find such forms as the drill,
the chisel, the saw, or the gouge readily and naturally leave behind
them.

Again, the mode into which wood can be best framed together was
carefully considered from a constructional point of view, and mediæval
joiners' work is always first so designed as to reduce the damage from
shrinkage to the smallest amount possible; and the pieces of which it
is composed are then appropriately ornamented, moulded, or carved.

Stone is now always, at least in this country, worked by being first
squared and then worked-down or "sunk" from the squared faces to the
mouldings required, and this procedure seems to have been common,
though not quite universal, in the Middle Ages. Consequently we
usually find the whole of the external mouldings with which the
doorways and arcades of important buildings were enriched, designed so
as to be easily formed out of stones having squared faces, or, to use
the technical phrase, to be "sunk" from the squared blocks.

The character of sculpture in wood differs from that in stone, the
material being harder, more capable of standing alone; so in stone we
find more breadth, in wood finer lines and more elaboration.

In a word, no material was employed in simulating another (or with
the rarest exceptions), and when any ornament was to be executed in
one place in one material and in another place in a different one,
such alterations were always made in the treatment as corresponded to
the different qualities of the two materials.

The arch was introduced whenever possible, and the structure of a
great Gothic building presents the strongest possible contrast to that
of a Greek building.

In the Greek temple there was no pressure that was not vertical and
met by a vertical support, wall, or column, and no support that was
not vastly in excess of the dimensions actually required to do the
work.

A great Gothic building attains stability through the balanced
counterpoise of a vast series of pressures, oblique, perpendicular, or
horizontal, so arranged as to counteract each other. The vault was
kept from spreading by the flying buttress, the thrust of the arcade
was resisted by massive walls, and so on throughout.

The equilibrium thus obtained was sometimes so ticklish that a storm
of wind, a trifling settlement, or a slight concussion sufficed to
occasion a disaster; and many of the daring feats of the masons of the
Middle Ages are lost to us, because they dared a little too much and
the entire structure collapsed. This happened more often in the middle
period of the style than in the earliest, but during the whole Gothic
period there is a constant uniform tendency in one direction: thinner
walls, wider arches, loftier vaults, slenderer buttresses, slighter
piers, confront us at every step, and we need only compare some Norman
structure (such as Durham), with a perpendicular (such as Henry VII.'s
Chapel), to see how vast a change took place in this respect.


_The Principles of Gothic Design._

All the germs of Gothic architecture exist in the Romanesque of the
eleventh and twelfth centuries, and became developed as the passion
for more slender proportions, greater lightness, and loftiness of
effect, and more delicate enrichment became marked. It is quite true
that the pointed arch is universally recognised as, so to speak, the
badge of Gothic, even to the extent of having suggested the title of
Christian pointed architecture, by which it is often called. But the
pointed arch must be regarded rather as a token that the series of
changes, which, starting from the heavy if majestic Romanesque of such
a cathedral as Peterborough, culminated in the gracefulness of
Salisbury or Lincoln, was far advanced towards completion, than as
really essential to their perfection. Many of the examples of the
transition period exhibit the round arch blended with the pointed
(_e.g._ the nave of St. David's Cathedral or the Choir of Canterbury),
and when we come to consider German architecture we shall find that
the adoption of the pointed arch was postponed till long after the
development of all, or almost all, the other features of the Gothic
style; so as to place beyond question the existence, in that country
at least, of "round arched Gothic." Some of the best authorities have
indeed proposed to employ this title as a designation for much, if not
all, the round arched architecture of the west of Europe, but Scott,
Sharpe, and other authorities class mediæval art down to the middle of
the twelfth century under the general head of Romanesque, a course
which has been adopted in this volume.

The proportions of Gothic buildings were well studied, their forms
were always lofty, their gables sharp, and their general composition
more or less pyramidal. Remarkable numerical relations between the
dimensions of the different parts of a great Gothic cathedral can be
discovered upon careful examination in most, if not all instances, and
there can be little doubt that a system of geometrical proportions ran
through the earlier design, and that much of the harmony and beauty
which the buildings present is traceable to this fact. Independent of
this the skill with which subordinate features and important ones are
fitted to their respective positions, both by their dimensions and by
their relative elaboration or plainness, forms a complete system of
proportion, making use of the word in its broadest sense; and the
results are extremely happy.

Apparent size was imparted to almost every Gothic building by the
smallness, great number, and variety of its features, and by the small
size of the stones employed. The effect of strength is generally,
though not perhaps so uniformly, also obtained, and dignity, beauty,
and harmony are rarely wanting.

Symmetry, though not altogether overlooked, has but a slender hold
upon Gothic architects. It is far more observed in the interior than
in the exterior of the buildings; but it must be remembered that
symmetry formed the basis of many designs which, owing to the
execution having been carried on through a long series of years and by
different hands, came to be varied from the original intentions. Thus,
for example, Chartres is a cathedral with two western towers. One of
these was carried up and its spire completed in the twelfth century.
The companion spire was not added till the end of the fifteenth, when
men's ideas as to the proportions, shape, ornaments, and details of a
spire had altered entirely;--the later architect did not value
symmetry enough to think himself bound to adhere either to the design
or to the height of the earlier spire, so we have in this great
façade two similar flanking towers but spires entirely unlike. What
happened at Chartres happened elsewhere. The original design of
buildings was in the main symmetrical, but it was never considered
that symmetry was a matter so important as to require that much
sacrifice should be made to preserve it.

On the other hand the subordination of a multitude of small features
to one dominant one enters largely into the design of every good
Gothic building; with the result that if the great governing feature
or mass has been carried out in its entirety, almost any feature, no
matter how irregular or unsymmetrical, may be safely introduced, and
will only add picturesqueness and piquancy to the design. This is more
or less a leading principle of Gothic design. A building with no
irregularities, none of those charming additions which add individual
character to Gothic churches, and none of the isolated features which
the principle of subordination permits the architect to employ, has
missed one of the chief qualities of the style. It is here that
unskilled architects mostly fail when they attempt Gothic designs;
they either hold on to symmetry as though they were designing a Greek
temple, and they are unaware that the spirit of the style in which
they are trying to work not only permits, but requires some irregular
features; or if they do not fall into this error they are overtaken by
the opposite one, and omit to make their irregular features
subordinate to the general effect of the whole, an error less serious
in its effects than the other, but still destructive of anything like
the highest qualities in a building.

Repetition, like symmetry, is recognised by Gothic architecture, but
not adhered to in a rigid way. No buildings gain more from the
repetition of parts than Gothic churches and cathedrals; the series of
pillars or piers and arches inside, the series of buttresses and
windows outside, add scale to the general effect. But so long as it
was in the main a series of features which broadly resembled one
another, the Gothic architect was satisfied, and did not feel bound to
exact repetition.

We are often, for example, surprised to find in the columns of a
church an octagonal one alternating with a circular one, and almost
invariably, if a series of capitals be examined, each will be
discovered to differ from the others to some extent. In one bay of a
church there may be a two-light window, and in the next a three-light
window, and so on.

This we find in buildings erected at one time and under one architect.
Where, however, a building begun at one period was continued at
another (and this, it must be remembered, was the rule, not the
exception, with all large Gothic buildings), the architect, while
usually repeating the same features, with the same general forms,
invariably followed his own predilections as to detail. There is a
very good example of this in Westminster Abbey, in the western bays of
the nave, which were built years later than the eastern bays. They
are, to a superficial observer, identical, being of the same height
and width and shape of arch, but nearly every detail differs.

Disclosure, rather than concealment, was a principle of Gothic design.
This was demonstrated long ago by Pugin, and many of his followers
pushed the doctrine to such extremes, that they held--and some of them
still hold--that no building is really Gothic in which any part,
either of its construction or arrangement, is not obviously visible
inside and out.

This is, however, carrying the principle too far. It is sufficient to
say that the interior disposition of every Gothic building was as
much as possible disclosed by the exterior. Thus, in a secular
building, where there is a large room, there usually was a large
window; when a lofty apartment occurs, its roof was generally
proportionately high; where a staircase rises, we usually can detect
it by a sloping row of little windows following the line of the stair,
or by a turret roof.

The mode in which the thrust of vaults is counterpoised is, as has
been shown, frankly displayed by the Gothic architects, and as a rule,
every portion of the structure is freely exhibited. It grows out of
this, that when an ornamental feature is desired, it is not
constructed purely for ornament, as the Romans added the columns and
cornices of the orders to the outside of their massive walls purely as
an architectural screen; but some requisite, of the building is taken
and ornamented, and in some cases elaborated. Thus the belfry grew
into the enormous bell tower; the tower roof grew into the spire; the
extra weight required on flying buttresses grew into the ornamental
pinnacle; and the window head grew into tracery.

There were, however, some exceptions. The walls were still constantly
faced with finer masonry than in the heart, and though some are
unwilling to admit the fact, were often plastered outside as well as
in; and what is more remarkable, no other sign of the vault appeared
outside the building than the buttresses required to sustain it.

The external gable conforms to the shape of the roof which covered the
vault, but the vault, perhaps the most remarkable and characteristic
feature of the whole building, does not betray its presence by any
external line or mark corresponding to its position and shape in the
interior of the building. Notwithstanding these and some other
exceptions, frank disclosure must be reckoned one of the main
principles of Gothic architecture.

  [Illustration: FIG. 60.--DOORWAY FROM CHURCH AT BATALHA.
      (BEGUN 1385.)]

Elaboration and simplicity were both so well known to the Gothic
architect that it is difficult to say that either of these qualities
belongs exclusively to his work. But he was rarely simple when he had
the opportunity of being elaborate, and simplicity was perhaps rather
forced upon him by the circumstances under which he worked, by rude
materials, scanty funds, and lack of skilled workmen, than freely
chosen. Many of the great works of the Gothic period are as elaborate
as they could be made (Fig. 60), and yet, when simplicity had to be
the order of the day, no architecture has lent it such a grace as
Gothic.

The last pair of qualities is similarity and contrast. What has been
said about repetition has anticipated the remarks called for by these
qualities, so far as to point out that even where the arrangement of
the building dictated the repetition of similar features, a general
resemblance, and not an exact similarity, was considered sufficient.
In the composition of masses of building, contrast and not similarity
was the ruling principle. Even in the interiors of great churches
which, as a rule, are far more regular than the exteriors, the
contrast between the comparative plainness of the nave and the
richness of the choir was an essential element of design.

External design in Gothic buildings depends almost entirely upon
contrast for its power of charming the eye, and it is this
circumstance which has left the successive generations of men who
toiled at our great Gothic cathedrals so free to follow the bent of
their own taste in their additions, rather than that of their
forerunners.

But setting aside the irregularities due to the caprice of various
builders, and the constant changes which took place in detail through
the Gothic period, it is to contrast that we must trace most of the
surprising effects attained by the architecture of the Middle Ages.
The rich tracery was made richer by contrast with plain walls, the
loftiest towers appeared higher from their contrast with the long
level lines of roofs and parapets.

It is, in truth, one of the principal marks of the decadence which
began in the fifteenth century that the principle of contrast was, to
a considerable extent, abandoned, at least in the details of the
buildings if not in their great masses. Walls were at that time
panelled in imitation of the tracery of the adjoining windows, and no
longer acted as a foil to them by their solid plainness; long rows of
pinnacles, all exactly alike, followed the line of the parapets, and a
repetition of absolutely identical features became the rule for the
first time in the history of Gothic art.

There can be no doubt that had this modification run its natural
course unchecked and undisturbed by the change in taste which abruptly
brought the Gothic period to a close, it must have resulted in the
deterioration of the art.

  [Illustration: {SCULPTURED ORNAMENT FROM RHEIMS CATHEDRAL.}]



  [Illustration: {RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT FROM A FRIEZE.}]

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE.



CHAPTER X.

GENERAL VIEW.


Gothic architecture had begun, before the close of the fifteenth
century, to show marks of decadence, and men's minds and tastes were
ripening for a change. The change, when it did take place, arose in
Italy, and was a direct consequence of that burst of modern
civilisation known as the revival of letters. All the characteristics
of the middle ages were rapidly thrown off. The strain of old Roman
blood in the modern Italians asserted itself, and almost at a bound,
literature and the arts sprang back, like a bow unstrung, into the
forms they had displayed fifteen hundred years before.

It became the rage to read the choice Greek and Latin authors, and to
write Latin with a pedantic purity. Can we wonder that in painting, in
sculpture, and in architecture, men reverted to the form, the style,
and the decorations of the antique compositions, statues, and
architectural remains? This was the more easy in Italy, as Gothic art
had never at any time taken so firm a hold upon Italians as it had
upon nations north of the Alps.

Though, however, the details and forms employed were all Roman, or
Græco-Roman, they were applied to buildings essentially modern, and
used with much freedom and spirit. This revival of classic taste in
art is commonly and appropriately called Renaissance. In Italy it took
place so rapidly that there was hardly any transition period.
Brunelleschi, the first great Renaissance architect, began his work as
early as the middle of the fifteenth century, and his buildings, in
which classic details of great severity and purity are employed,
struck, so to speak, a keynote which had been responded to all over
Italy before the close of the fifteenth century.

To other countries the change spread later, and it found them less
prepared to welcome it unreservedly. Accordingly, in France, in
England, and in many parts of Germany, we find a transition period,
during which buildings were designed in a mixed style. In England, the
transition lasted almost through the sixteenth century.

As the century went on, a most picturesque and telling style, the
earlier phases of which are known as Tudor and the later as
Elizabethan, sprang up in England. It betrays in its mixture of Gothic
and classic forms great incongruities and even monstrosities; but it
allows unrestrained play for the fancies, and the best mansions and
manors of the time, such as Hatfield, Hardwick, Burleigh, Bramshill,
and Audley End, are unsurpassed in their picturesqueness and romantic
charm.

The old red-brick, heavily chimneyed, and gabled buildings, with their
large windows divided by bold mullions and transoms, and their simple
noble outlines, are familiar to us all, and so are their
characteristic features. The great hall with its oriel or its bay,
the fine plastered ceiling, supported by heavy beams of timber; the
wide oak staircase, with its carved balusters, and ornamented newel
post, and heavy-moulded handrail; the old wainscoted parlour, with its
magnificent chimney-piece reaching to the ceiling; these are all
essentially English features, and are full of vigour and life, as
indeed the work of every period of transition must almost necessarily
prove.

The transitional period in France produced exquisite works more
refined and elegantly treated than ours, but not so vigorous. Its
manner is known as the François Premier (Francis I.) style. No modern
buildings are more profusely ornamented, and yet not spoilt.

In Germany, the Castle of Heidelberg may be named as a well-known
specimen of the transition period, a period over which however we must
not linger. Suffice it to say, that sooner or later the change was
fully accomplished in every European country, and Renaissance
architecture, modified as climate, materials, habits, or even caprice
suggested, yet the same in its essential characteristics, obtained a
firm footing: this it has succeeded in retaining, though not to the
exclusion of other styles, for now nearly three centuries.

In Italy, Renaissance churches, great and small--from St. Peter's
downwards--and magnificent secular buildings, some, like the Vatican
Palace or the Library of St. Mark at Venice, for public purposes, but
most for the occupation of the great wealthy and princely families,
abound in Naples, Rome, Florence, Genoa, Venice, Milan, and indeed
every great city.

In France, the transition period was succeeded by a time when vast
undertakings, _e.g._ the Hôtel de Ville, the Louvre, the Tuileries,
Versailles, were carried out in the revived style with the utmost
magnificence, and were imitated in every part of the country in the
structures greater or smaller which were then built.

In England, the works of Inigo Jones, and of Wren, are the most famous
works of the developed style, and to the last-named architect we owe a
cathedral second to none in Europe for its beauty of outline, and play
of light and shade. To Germany, and the countries of the north-east
Europe, and to Spain and Portugal on the south, the style also
extended with no very great modification, either of its general forms
or of its details.


ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS.

_Plan._

The plan of Renaissance buildings was uniform and symmetrical, and the
picturesqueness of the Gothic times was abandoned. The plans of
churches were not widely different from those in use in Italy before
the revival of classic art took place, but it will be remembered that
these were by no means so irregular or picturesque at any time as the
plans of French and English cathedral churches.

In secular architecture, the vast piles erected in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries by Italian, French, and Spanish architects are
to the last degree orderly in their disposition. They are adapted to a
great variety of purposes, and they display a varying degree of skill.
The palaces of Genoa are, on the one hand, among the cleverest
examples of planning existing; on the other hand, many of the palaces
in France are weak and poor to the last degree. As a rule the scale of
the plan is more considerable than in Gothic work. A very large
building is often not divided into more parts than a small one, or one
of moderate size. In St. Peter's, for example, there are only four
bays between the west front and the dome, everything being on a most
gigantic scale. As a contrast to this principle we may cite the nave
of the Gothic cathedral at Milan, which is not so long at St. Peter's,
but has at least thrice as many bays, and looks much larger in
consequence.

No style affords more room for skill in planning than the Renaissance,
and in no style is the exercise of such skill more repaid by results.


_Walls and Columns._

In the treatment of external walls, the mediæval use of small
materials, involving many joints for the exterior of walls has quite
disappeared, and they are universally faced with stone or plaster, and
are consequently uniformly smooth. Perhaps the principal feature to
note is the very great use made of that elaborate sort of masonry in
which the joints of the stones are very carefully channelled or
otherwise marked, and which is known by the singularly inappropriate
name of rustic work. The basements of most Italian and French palaces
are rusticated, and in many cases (as the Pitti Palace, Florence)
rustic work covers an entire façade.

The Gothic mouldings in receding planes disappear entirely, and the
classic architrave takes their place. The orders are again revived and
are used (as the Romans often used them) as purely decorative features
added for the mere sake of ornament to a wall sufficient without them,
and are freely piled one upon the other. Palladio (a very influential
Italian architect) reproduced the use of lofty pilasters running
through two or even more storeys of the building, and often combined
one tall order and two short ones in his treatment of the same part
of the building, a contrivance which in less clever hands than his has
given rise to the greatest confusion.

The Renaissance architects also revived the late Roman manner of
employing the column and entablature. They frequently carried on the
top of a column a little square pier divided up as the architrave and
frieze proper to the column would be divided, and they surmounted it
with a cornice which was carried quite round this pier, and from this
curious compound pedestal an arch will frequently spring. The classic
portico, with pediments, was constantly employed by them; and small
pediments over window heads were common. A peculiarity worth mention
is the introduction in many Italian palaces of a great crowning
cornice, proportioned not to the size of the columns and of the order
upon which it rests (if an order be employed), but to the height of
the whole building. Much fine effect is obtained by means of this
feature; it is, however, better fitted for sunny Italy than for gloomy
England, and it is not an unmixed success when repeated in our
climate.

Towers are less frequently employed than by the Gothic architects, and
indeed in Italy the sky-line was less thought of at this period than
it was in the middle ages. In churches, towers sometimes occur,
nowhere more picturesque than those designed by Sir Christopher Wren
for many of his London parish churches. The frequent use of the dome
takes the place of the tower both in churches and secular buildings.


_Openings._

Openings are both flat-headed and semicircular, occasionally
elliptical, but hardly ever pointed. Renaissance buildings may be to
some extent divided into those which depend for effect upon window
openings, and those which depend chiefly upon architectural features
such as cornices, pilasters, and orders. Among the buildings where
fenestration (or the treatment of windows) is relied upon the palaces
of Venice stand pre-eminent as compositions admirably designed for
effect and very successful. In them the openings are massed near the
centre of the façade, and strong piers are left near the angles, a
simple expedient when once known, and one inherited from the Gothic
palaces in that city, but giving remarkable individuality of character
to this group of buildings.

In roofs, including vaults and domes, we meet with a divergence of
practice between Italy and France. In Italy low-pitched roofs were the
rule: the parapet alone often formed the sky-line, and the dome and
pediment are usually the only telling features of the outline. France,
on the other hand, revived a most picturesque feature of Gothic days,
namely, the high-pitched roof, employing it in the shape commonly
known as the Mansard[30] roof. Nothing adds more to the effectiveness
of the great French Renaissance buildings than these lofty terminals.

The dome is, however, the glory of this style, as it had been of the
Roman. It is the one feature by which revived and original classic
architects retain a clear and defined advantage over Gothic
architects, who, strange to say, all but abandoned the dome. The
mouldings and other ornaments of the Renaissance are much the same as
those of the Roman style, which the Italians revived; their sculptures
and their mural decorations were all originally drawn from classic
sources. These, however, attained very great excellence, and it is
probable that such decorative paintings as Raphael and his scholars
executed in Rome, at Genoa, at Mantua, and elsewhere, far surpass
anything which the old Roman decorative artists ever executed.


_Construction and Design._

The earlier Renaissance buildings are remarkable for the great use
which their architects made of carpentry, as the most modern
structures are for the use of wrought and cast-iron construction. As
regards carpentry, it is of course true that all the woodwork of the
classic periods, and much of that done in the Gothic period, has
perished, either through decay or fire; but making every allowance for
this, we must still recognise a very great increase in the employment
of timber as an integral part of large structures. Vaulted roofs for
example are comparatively rare, and domes, even when the inner dome is
of brickwork or masonry, have their outer envelope of carpentry. A
disuse of brick and rough masonry, or rather a constant effort to
conceal them from view, is a distinctive mark of Renaissance work. The
Roman method of facing rough walls with fine stone was resorted to in
the best buildings. In humbler buildings plaster is employed.

Renaissance architects made very free use of plaster. Inside and out
this material is utilised, not merely to cover surfaces, but to form
architectural features. Cornices, panels, and enrichments of all kinds
modelled in plaster are constantly employed in the interior of rooms
and buildings. On the exterior we constantly find imitations of
similar architectural features proper to stone executed in plaster and
simulating stone; a short-sighted practice which cannot be commended,
and which has only cheapness and convenience in its favour. There can
be no question of the fact that the features thus executed never
equal those done in stone in their effectiveness, and are far more
liable to decay.

Design in Renaissance buildings may be said to be directed towards
producing a telling result by the effect of the buildings taken as a
whole, rather than by the intricacy or the beauty of individual parts;
and herein lies one of the great contrasts between Renaissance and
Gothic architecture. A Renaissance building which fails to produce an
impression as a whole is rarely felt to be successful. No better
example of this can be given than the straggling, unsatisfactory
Palace of Versailles, magnificent as it is in dimensions and rich in
treatment. To the production of a homogeneous impression the
arrangement of plan, the proportion of storeys, the contrasts of voids
and solids, and above all the outline of the entire building, should
be devoted.

The general arrangement of buildings is usually strictly symmetrical,
one half corresponding to the other, and with some well-defined
feature to mark the centre. Of course in very large buildings this
does not occur, nor in the nature of things can it often take place in
the sides of churches; but the individual features of such buildings,
and all those parts of them which permit of symmetry in their
arrangement, always display it.

Proportion plays an important part in the design of Renaissance
buildings. The actual shape of openings, the proportion which they
bear to voids, the proportion of storeys to one another; and, going
into details, the proportions which the different features--_e.g._,
cornice, and the columns supporting it--should bear to one another,
have to be carefully studied. It is to the possession of a keen sense
of what makes a pleasing proportion and one satisfactory to the eye,
that the great architects of Italy owed the greater part of their
success.

Renaissance architecture is so familiar in its general features, and
these have been so constantly repeated, that we may not easily
recognise the great need for skill and taste which exists if they are
to be designed so as to produce the most refined effect possible. Many
of the successful buildings of the style owe their excellence to the
great delicacy and elegance of the mode in which the details have been
studied, rather than to the vigour and boldness with which the masses
have been shaped and disposed; and though grandeur is the noblest
quality of which the style is capable, yet many more opportunities for
displaying grace and refinement than for attaining grandeur offer
themselves, and by nothing are the best works of the style so well
marked out as by the success with which those opportunities have been
grasped and turned to account.

The concealment both of construction and arrangement is largely
practised in Renaissance buildings. Behind an exterior wall filled by
windows of uniform size and equally spaced, rooms large and small,
corridors, staircases, and other features have to be provided for.
This is completely in contrast to the Gothic principle of displaying
frankly on the outside the arrangement of what is within; but it must
be remembered that art often works most happily and successfully when
limited by apparently strict and difficult conditions, and these rules
have not prevented the great architects of the Renaissance from
accomplishing works where both the exterior and the interior are
thoroughly successful, and are brought into such happy harmony that
the difficulties have clearly been no bar to success. There is no
canon of art violated by such a method, the simple fact being that
Gothic buildings are designed under one set of conditions and
Renaissance under another.

It is less easy to defend the use of pilasters and columns large
enough to appear as though they were the main support of the building,
for purely decorative purposes; yet here perhaps the fault lies rather
in the extent to which the practice has been carried, and above all
the scale upon which it is carried out, than in anything else. Small
columns are constantly employed in Gothic buildings in positions where
they serve the æsthetic purpose of conveying a sense of support, but
where it is impossible for them to carry any weight. The Renaissance
architects have done the same thing on a large scale, but it must not
be forgotten that they only revived a Roman practice as part of the
ancient style to which they reverted, and that they are not
responsible for originating it.

It will be understood therefore that symmetry, strict uniformity, not
mere similarity, in features intended to correspond, and constant
repetition, are leading principles in Renaissance architecture. These
qualities tend to breadth rather than picturesqueness of effect, and
to similarity rather than contrast. Simplicity and elaboration are
both compatible with Renaissance design; the former distinguishes the
earlier and purer examples of the style, the latter those more recent
and more grandiose.

It should be observed that in the transition styles, such as our own
Elizabethan, or the French style of Francis the First, these
principles of design are mixed up in a very miscellaneous way with
those followed in the Gothic period. The result is often puzzling and
inconsistent if we attempt to analyse it with exactness, but rarely
fails to charm by its picturesque and irregular vividness.

FOOTNOTES:

[30] Named after a French architect of the 17th century.



  [Illustration: {FROM A TERRA-COTTA FRIEZE AT LODI.}]

CHAPTER XI.

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY.


Renaissance architecture--the architecture of the classic revival--had
its origin in Italy, and should be first studied in the land of its
birth. There are more ways than one in which it may be attempted to
classify Italian Renaissance buildings. The names of conspicuous
architects are sometimes adopted for this purpose, for now, for the
first time, we meet with a complete record of the names and
performances of all architects of note: the men who raised the great
works of Gothic art are, with a few exceptions, absolutely unknown to
us. An approximate division into three stages can also be recognised.
There is an early, a developed, and a late Renaissance, but this is
very far indeed from being a completely marked series, and was more
interfered with by local circumstances and by the character and genius
of individual artists than in Gothic. For this reason a local division
will be of most service. The best examples exist in the great cities,
with a few exceptions, and it is almost more useful to group them--as
the paintings of the Renaissance are also often grouped--by locality
than in either of the other methods.


FLORENCE.

Renaissance architecture first sprang into existence in Florence. Here
chiefly the works of the early Renaissance are met with, and the names
of the great Florentine architects are Brunelleschi and Alberti.

Brunelleschi was a citizen of Florence, of very ardent temperament and
great energy, and a true artist. He was born in 1377, was originally
trained as a goldsmith and sculptor, but devoted himself to the study
of architecture, and early set his heart upon being appointed to
complete the dome of the then unfinished cathedral of Florence, of
which some account has already been given.

Florence in the fifteenth century was full of artistic life, and the
revival of learning and arts had then begun to take definite shape.
The first years of the century found Brunelleschi studying antiquities
at Rome, to fit himself for the work he desired to undertake. After
his return to his native city, he ultimately succeeded in the object
of his ambition; the cathedral was entrusted to him, and he erected
the large pointed dome with which it is crowned. He also erected two
large churches in Florence, which, as probably the first important
buildings designed and built in the new style, possess great interest.
Santo Spirito, one of these, shows a fully matured system of
architectural treatment, and though it is quite true that it was a
revived system, yet the application of it to a modern building,
different in its purpose and in its design from anything the Romans
had ever done, is little short of a work of genius.

Santo Spirito has a very simple and beautifully regular plan, and its
interior has a singular charm and grace: over the crossing is raised
a low dome. The columns of the arcade are Corinthian columns, and the
refinement of their detail and proportions strikes the eye at once on
entering the building. The influence of Brunelleschi, who died in
1440, was perpetuated by the works and writings of Alberti (born 1398)
an architect of literary cultivation who wrote a systematic treatise
which became extremely popular, and helped to form the taste and guide
the practice of his contemporaries. He lived till near the close of
the fifteenth century, and erected some buildings of great merit. To
Alberti we owe the design of the Ruccellai Palace in Florence, a
building begun in 1460, and which had been preceded by somewhat bolder
and simpler designs. This is a three storey building, but has
pilasters carried up the piers between the windows and a regular
entablature and cornice[31] at each storey. The building is elegant
and graceful, and though the employment of the orders[32] as its
decoration gives it a distinctive character, it bears a strong general
resemblance to the group of which the Strozzi Palace (Fig. 61) may be
taken as the type.

The earliest Florentine palaces are the Riccardi, which dates from
1430, and the Pitti of almost the same date; Brunelleschi is said to
have been consulted in the design of both, but Michelozzo was the
architect. The distinguishing characteristic of the early palaces in
this city is solidity, which rises from the fact that they were also
fortresses. The Pitti, well known for its picture gallery, is a
building of vast extent, built throughout in very boldly rusticated
masonry, the joints and projections of the stones being greatly
exaggerated. The Riccardi, a square block of building, bears a
considerable resemblance to the Strozzi, but is plainer. It is a most
dignified building in its effect.

The Strozzi Palace (Fig. 61) was the next great palatial pile erected.
It was designed by Cronaca, and begun in 1498. Like the Riccardi, it
is of three storeys, with a bold projecting cornice. The whole wall is
covered with rusticated masonry; the windows of the lower floor are
small and square; those of the two upper floors are larger and
semicircular headed, and with a shaft acting as a mullion, and
carrying arches which occupy the window head with something like
tracery. The entrance is by a semicircular headed archway. There is a
great height of unpierced wall in the lowest storey and above the
heads of the two upper ranges of windows; and to this and the bold
overhanging cornice, this building, and those like it, owe much of
their dignity and impressiveness. An elevation, such as our
illustration, may convey a fair idea of the good proportion and
ensemble of the front, but it is difficult without actually seeing the
buildings to appreciate the effect produced by such palaces as these,
seen foreshortened in the narrow streets, and with the shadows from
their bold cornices and well-defined openings intensified by the
effect of the Italian sun.

  [Illustration: FIG. 61.--STROZZI PALACE AT FLORENCE. (BEGUN 1489.)]

Many excellent palatial buildings belong to the end of the fifteenth
century. One among them is attributed to Bramante (who died 1513), a
Florentine, whom we shall meet with in Rome and elsewhere. The
Guadagni Palace has an upper storey entirely open, forming a sheltered
loggia, but it is mentioned here chiefly on account of the
decorations incised on its walls by the method known as Sgraffito.
Part of the plain wall is covered in this way with decorative designs,
which appear as though drawn with a bold line on their surface. An
example of this decoration will be found in our illustration (Fig.
62), representing a portion of the Loggia del Consiglio at Verona.

The series of great Florentine palaces closes with a charming example,
the Pandolfini, designed by the great Raphael, and commenced in
1520--in other words, in the first quarter of the sixteenth century.

This palace is only one of many instances to be found in Italy of the
skill in more walks of art than one, of some of the greatest artists.
Raphael, though best known as a painter, executed works of sculpture
of great merit, and designed some other buildings besides the one now
under notice. The Pandolfini Palace (Fig. 63) is small, the main
building having only four windows in the front and two storeys in
height, with a low one-storey side building. Its general design has
been very successfully copied in the Travellers' Club House, Pall
Mall. On comparing this with any of the previously named designs, it
will be seen that the semicircular headed windows have disappeared,
the rusticated masonry is only now retained at the angles, and to
emphasise the side entrance; and a small order with a little pediment
(_i.e._ gable) is employed to mark each opening, door or window. In
short this building belongs not only to another century, but to that
advanced school of art to which we have given the name of developed
Italian Renaissance.

  [Illustration: FIG. 62.--PART OF THE LOGGIA DEL CONSIGLIO AT VERONA.
      (16TH CENTURY.)
      Showing the incised decoration known as _Sgraffito_.]

In Florence some of the work of Michelangelo is to be met with. His
own house is here; so is the famous Medici chapel, a work in which we
find him displaying power at once as a sculptor and an architect.
This interior is very fine and very studied both in its proportions
and its details. The church of the Annunziata, remarkable for a fine
dome, carried on a drum resting directly on the ground, is the
foremost Renaissance church in Florence.

The contrast between early and matured Renaissance can indeed be
better recognised in Florence than in almost any other city. The early
work, that of Bramante, Brunelleschi, and the architects who drew
their inspirations from these masters, was delicate and refined. The
detail was always elegant, the ornament always unobtrusive, and often
most graceful. Features comparatively small in scale were employed,
and were set off by the use of plain wall-surface, which was
unhesitatingly displayed. The classic orders were used in a
restricted, unobtrusive way, and with pilasters in preference to
columns; and though probably the architects themselves would have
repudiated the idea that the Gothic art, which they had cast behind
them, influenced their practice of revived classic in the remotest
degree, it is nevertheless true that many of these peculiarities, and
still more the general quality of the designs, were to a large extent
those to which the practice of Gothic architecture had led them.

A change which was partly due to a natural desire for progress, was
helped on by the great attention paid by students of architecture to
the remains of ancient Roman buildings; but it was the influence
excited by the powerful genius of Michelangelo, and by the gigantic
scale and vigorous treatment of his masterpiece, St. Peter's, which was
the proximate occasion of a revolution in taste and practice, to which,
the labours, both literary and artistic, of Vignola, and the designs of
Palladio, gave form and consistency. In the fully-developed, or, as it
is sometimes called, pure Renaissance of Italy, great use is made of
the classic orders and pediment, and indeed of all the features which
the Romans had employed. Plain wall space almost disappears under the
various architectural features introduced, and all ornaments, details,
and mouldings become bolder and richer, but often less refined and
correct in design.

  [Illustration: FIG. 63.--THE PANDOLFINI PALACE, FLORENCE.
      DESIGNED BY RAPHAEL. (BEGUN 1520.)]


ROME.

Rome, the capital of the country, contains, as was fit, the central
building of the fully-developed Renaissance, St. Peter's. Bramante,
the Florentine, was the architect to whom the task of designing a
cathedral to surpass anything existing in Europe was committed by Pope
Julius II. at the opening of the sixteenth century. Some such project
had been entertained, and even begun, fifty years earlier, but the
enterprise was now started afresh, a new design was made, and the
first stone was laid by the Pope in 1506. Bramante died in some six or
seven years, and five or six architects in succession, one of whom was
Raphael, proceeded with the work, without advancing it rapidly, for
nearly half a century, during which time the design was modified again
and again. In 1546 the great Michelangelo was appointed architect, and
the last eighteen years of his life were spent in carrying on this
great work. He completed the magnificent dome in all its essential
parts, and left the church a Greek cross (_i.e._ one which has all its
four arms equal) on plan, with the dome at the crossing. The boast is
attributed to him that he would take the dome of the Pantheon and hang
it in the air; and this he has virtually accomplished in the dome of
St. Peter's--a work of the greatest beauty of design and boldness of
construction.

Unfortunately, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, Maderno
was employed to lengthen the nave. This transformed the plan of the
cathedral into a Latin cross. The existing portico was built at the
same time; and in 1661 Bernini added the vast forecourt, lined by
colonnades, which now forms the approach.

This cathedral, of which the history has been briefly sketched, is the
largest in the world. As we now see it, it consists of a vast
vestibule; a nave of four bays with side aisles; a vast square central
space over which hangs the great dome; transepts and a choir, each of
one bay and an apse. Outside the great central space, an aisle, not
quite like the ordinary aisle of a church, exists, and there are two
side chapels. It can be well understood that if the largest church in
Christendom is divided into so few parts, these must be themselves of
colossal dimensions, and the truth is that the piers are masses of
masonry which can be called nothing else than vast, while the spaces
spanned by the arches and vaults are prodigious. There is little sense
of mystery about the interior of the building (Fig. 64), the eye soon
grasps it as a whole, and hours must be spent in it before an idea of
its gigantic size is at all taken in. The beauty of the colouring adds
wonderfully to the effect of St. Peter's upon the spectator, for the
walls are rich with mosaics and coloured marbles; and the interior,
the dome especially, with the drum upon which it rests, are decorated
in colour throughout, with fine effect and in excellent taste. The
interior is amply lighted, and, though very rich, not over decorated;
its design is simple and noble in the extreme, and all its parts are
wonderful in their harmony. The connection between the dome and the
rest of the building is admirable, and there is a sense of vast space
when the spectator stands under that soaring vault which belongs to
no other building in the world.

The exterior is disappointing as long as the building is seen in
front, for the façade is so lofty and advances so far forward as to
cut off the view of the lower part of the dome. To have an idea of the
building as Michelangelo designed it, it is necessary to go round to
the back; and then, with the height of the drum fully seen and the
contour of the dome, with all its massy lines of living force,
carrying the eye with them right up to the elegant lantern that crowns
the summit, some conception of the hugeness and the symmetry of this
mountain of art seems to dawn on the mind. But even here it is with
the utmost difficulty that one can apply any scale to the mass, so
that the idea which the mind forms of its bulk is continually
fluctuating.

The history of this building extends over all the period of developed
Renaissance in Rome, and its list of architects includes all the best
known names. By the side of it every other church, even St. John
Lateran, appears insignificant; so that the secular buildings in Rome,
which are numerous, and some of them excellent, are more worth
attention than the churches, though not a few of the three hundred
churches and basilicas of the metropolis of Italy are good examples of
Renaissance.

  [Illustration: FIG. 64.--ST. PETER'S AT ROME. INTERIOR. (1506-1661.)]

The altars, tombs, and other architectural or semi-architectural works
which occur in many of the churches of Rome, are, however, finer works
of art as a rule than the buildings which they adorn. Such gems are
not confined to Rome, but are to be found throughout Italy: many of
them belong to the best period of art. Marble is generally the
material, and the light as a rule falls on these works in one
direction only. Under these circumstances the most subtle moulding
gives a play of light and shade, and the most delicate carving
produces a richness of effect which cannot be attained in exterior
architecture, executed for the most part in stone, exposed to the
weather, and seen by diffused and reflected light. Nothing of this
sort is finer than the monuments by Sansovino, erected in Sta. Maria
del Popolo at Rome, one of which we illustrate on a small scale (Fig.
65). The magnificent altar-piece in Sta. Coronale at Vicenza, in which
is framed Bellini's picture of the baptism of Christ, is another
example, on an unusually large scale--fine in style, and covered with
beautiful ornament.

No secular building exists in Rome so early or so simple as the severe
Florentine palaces; but Bramante, who belongs to the early period,
erected there the fine Cancelleria palace; and the Palazzo Giraud
(Fig. 66). These buildings resemble one another very closely; each
bears the impress of refined taste, but delicacy has been carried
almost to timidity. The pilasters and cornices which are employed have
the very slightest projection, but the large mass of the wall as
compared with the openings, secures an appearance of solidity, and
hence of dignity. The interior of the Cancelleria contains an arcaded
quadrangle (_cortile_) of great beauty. Smaller palaces belonging to
the same period and of the same refined, but somewhat weak, character
exist in Rome.

  [Illustration: FIG. 65.--MONUMENT, BY SANSOVINO, IN STA. MARIA DEL
      POPOLO, ROME. (15TH CENTURY.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 66.--PALAZZO GIRAUD (NOW TORLONIA), ROME. BY
      BRAMANTE. (1506.)]

The Vatican Palace is so vast that, like St. Peter's, it took more
than one generation to complete. To Bramante's time belongs the great
Belvedere, since much altered, but in its original state an admirable
work. This palace also can show some remarkable additions by Bernini,
a much later architect, with much that is not admirable or remarkable
by other hands. The finest Roman palace is the Farnese, begun by San
Gallo in 1530, continued by Michelangelo, and completed by Giacomo
della Porta, each architect having altered the design. This building,
notwithstanding its chequered history, is a dignified, impressive
mass. It has only three storeys and a scarcely marked basement, and is
nearly square, with a large quadrangle in its heart. It is very lofty,
and has a great height of unpierced wall over each storey of windows,
and is crowned by a bold and highly-enriched cornice--an unusual thing
for Rome. In this, and in many palaces built about the same time, the
windows are ornamented in the same manner as those of the Pandolfini
Palace at Florence; the use of pilasters instead of columns is
general; the openings are usually square-headed, circular heads being
usually confined to arcades and loggie; the angles are marked by
rustication, and the only cornice is the one that crowns the whole.
This general character will apply to most of the works of Baldassare
Peruzzi, Vignola, Sangallo, and Raphael, who were, with Michelangelo,
the foremost architects in Rome in the sixteenth century. But "the
works executed by Michelangelo are in a bolder and more pictorial
style, as are also many productions grafted on the earlier Italian
manner by a numerous class of succeeding architects. In these is to be
remarked a greater use of columns, engaged and isolated; stronger but
less studied details; and a greater use of colonnades, in which
however the combination with the semicircular arch is still unusual,
the antique in this respect being followed to a great disadvantage.
Still there is a nobility, a palatial look about these large mansions
which is very admirable, and is to be remarked in all the palaces,
even up to the time of Borromini, _circa_ 1640, by whom all the
principles and parts of Roman architecture were literally turned
topsy-turvey. Michelangelo's peculiar style was more thoroughly
carried out on ecclesiastical buildings, and as practised by his
successors, exhibits much that is fine, in large masses, boldly
projecting cornices, three-quarter columns, and noble domes; but it is
otherwise debased by great misconceptions as to the reasonable
application of architecture."--M. D. W.

In the seventeenth century a decline set in. The late Renaissance has
neither the severity of the early, nor the dignified richness of the
mature time, but is extravagant; though at Rome examples of its
extreme phase are not common. Maderno, who erected the west front of
St. Peter's, and Bernini, who added the outer forecourt and also built
the curiously designed state staircase (the _scala regia_) in the
Vatican, are the foremost architects. To these must be added
Borromini. The great Barberini Palace belongs to this century; but
perhaps its most characteristic works are the fountains, some of them
with elaborate architectural backgrounds, which ornament many of the
open places in Rome. Few of the buildings of the eighteenth century in
Rome, or indeed in Italy generally, claim attention as architectural
works of a high order of merit.

Before leaving central Italy for the north, it is necessary to mention
the masterpiece of Vignola--the great Farnese Palace at Caprarola; and
to add that in every city of importance examples more or less
admirable of the art of the time were erected.


VENICE, VICENZA, AND VERONA.

The next great group of Renaissance buildings is to be found at
Venice, where the style was adopted with some reluctance, and not
till far on in the sixteenth century. At first we meet with some
admixture of Gothic elements; as, for example, in the rebuilding of
the internal quadrangle of the Ducal Palace. Pointed arches are
partly employed in this work, which was completed about the middle of
the sixteenth century. In the earlier palaces--which, it will be
remembered, are comparatively narrow buildings standing side by side
on the banks of the canals--the storeys are well marked; the windows
are round headed with smaller arches within the main ones; the orders
when introduced are kept subordinate; the windows are grouped
together in the central portion of the front, as was the case with
those of the Gothic palaces, and very little use is made of
rusticated masonry. The Vendramini, Cornaro, and Trevisano Palaces
conform to this type. To the same period belong one or two fine
churches, the most famous being San Zacaria, a building with a very
delicately panelled front, and a semicircular pediment in lieu of a
gable; here, too, semicircular-headed openings are made use of. In
many of these churches and other buildings, a beautiful ornament,
which may be regarded as typical of early Venetian Renaissance, is to
be found. It is the shell ornament, so called from its resemblance to
a flat semicircular shell, ribbed from the centre to the
circumference (Fig. 67).

  [Illustration: FIG. 67.--ITALIAN SHELL ORNAMENT.]

As time went on the style was matured into one of great richness, not
to say ostentation, with which the names of Sansovino, Sanmichele,
Palladio, and Scamozzi are identified as the prominent architects of
the latter part of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In this
city of palaces Sansovino, also a very fine sculptor, built the
celebrated Library of St. Mark, facing the Ducal Palace, which has
been followed very closely in the design of the Carlton Club, Pall
Mall. Here, as in the splendid Cornaro Palace, the architect relied
chiefly upon the columns and entablatures of the orders, combined with
grand arcades enriched by sculpture, so arranged as to occupy the
spaces between the columns; almost the whole of the wall-space was so
taken up, and the basement only was covered with rustication, often
rough worked, as at the beautiful Palazzo Pompeii, Verona, and the
Grimani Palace, Venice.

"Sanmichele's works are characterised chiefly by their excellent
proportions, their carefully studied detail, their strength, and their
beauty (qualities so difficult to combine). We believe that the
buildings of this great architect and engineer at Verona are
pre-eminent in their peculiar style over those of any other artist of
the sixteenth century. In a different, but no less meritorious, manner
are the buildings designed by Sansovino; they are characterised by a
more sculptural and ornamental character; order over order with large
arched voids in the interspaces of the columns producing a pictorial
effect which might have led his less gifted followers into a false
style, but for the example of the celebrated Palladio."--M. D. W.

To the latest time of the Renaissance in Venice belongs the
picturesque domed church of St. Maria della Salute, conspicuous in
many views of the Grand Canal, a building which is a work of real
genius in spite of what is considered its false taste. It dates from
1632. The architect is Longhena.

  [Illustration: FIG. 68.--THE CHURCH OF THE REDENTORE, VENICE.
      (1576.)]

An almost endless series of palaces and houses can be found in Venice,
all of them rich, but few of great extent, for every foot of space had
to be won from the sea by laborious engineering. There are some
features which never fail to present themselves, and which are
consequences of the conditions under which the structures were
designed. All rise from the water, and require to admit of gondolas
coming under the walls; hence there is always a principal central
entrance with steps in front, but this entrance never has any sort of
projecting portico or porch, and is never very much larger than the
other openings in the front. As a straight frontage to the water had
to be preserved, we hardly ever meet with such a thing as a break or
projection of any sort; but the Venetian architects have found other
means of giving interest to their elevations, and it is to the very
restrictions imposed by circumstances that we owe the great
originality displayed in their earlier buildings. The churches do not
usually front directly on to the water; and though they are almost all
good of their kind, they are far more commonplace than the palaces.
The system of giving variety to the façade of the secular buildings by
massing openings near the centre, has been already referred to. Both
shadow and richness were also aimed at in the employment of projecting
balconies; in fact the two usually go together, for the great central
window or group of windows mostly has a large and rich balcony
belonging to it.

Not far from Venice is Vicenza, and here Palladio, whose best
buildings in Venice are churches, such, for example, as the Redentore
(Fig. 68), enjoyed an opportunity of erecting a whole group of
palaces, the fronts of which are extremely remarkable as designs;
though, being executed in brick and plastered, they are now falling to
ruin. There is much variety in them, and while some of them rely upon
his device of lofty pilasters to include two storeys of the building
under one storey of architectural treatment, others are handled
differently. In all a singularly fine feeling for proportion and for
the appropriate omission as well as introduction of ornament is to be
detected. The worst defect of these fronts is, however, that they
appear more like masks than the exteriors of buildings, for there is
little obvious connection between the features of the exterior and
anything which we may suppose to exist inside the building. The
finest architectural work left behind by Palladio in this city are,
however, the great arcades with which he surrounded the Basilica, a
vast building of the middle ages already alluded to. These arcades are
two storeys high, and are rich, yet vigorous; they ornament the great
structure, the roof of which may be seen rising behind, without
overpowering it.


MILAN AND PAVIA.

In Milan two buildings at least belong to the early Renaissance. These
are the sacristy of Sta. Maria presso San Satiro, and the eastern
portion of the church of Sta. Maria delle Grazie; Bramante was the
architect of both. The last-named work is an addition to an existing
Gothic church; it is executed in the terra-cotta and brick of
Lombardy, materials which the Renaissance architects seemed to shun in
later times, and is full of the most profuse and elegant ornaments.
The design consists of a dome, treated externally a little like some
of the Lombard domes of earlier date; and three apses forming choir
and transepts. It is divided into several stages, and abundantly
varied in its panelling and arcading, and is full of vigour. By
Bramante is also the very beautiful arcaded quadrangle of the great
hospital at Milan, the Gothic front of which has been already noticed.
There are many Renaissance buildings of later date in Milan, but none
very remarkable.

  [Illustration: FIG. 69.--THE CERTOSA NEAR PAVIA. PART OF THE WEST
      FRONT. (BEGUN BY BORGOGNONE 1473.)]

To the early period belongs the design of the façade of the Certosa
near Pavia, part of which is shown (Fig. 69). This was begun as early
as 1473, by Ambrogio Borgognone, and was long in hand. It proceeded on
the lines settled thus early, and is probably the richest façade
belonging to any church in Christendom; it is executed entirely in
marble. Sculpture is employed to adorn every part that is near the
eye, and especially the portal, which is flanked by pilasters with
their faces panelled and occupied by splendid _alti relievi_. The
upper part is enriched by inlays of costly marbles, but the two
systems of decoration do not thoroughly harmonise; for the upper half
looks coarse, which it in reality is not, in contrast with the
delicate richness of the carving near the eye. The great features,
such as the entrance, the windows, and the angle pinnacles are
thoroughly good, and an arcade of small arches is twice
introduced,--once running completely across the front at about half
its height, and again near the top of the central portion,--with
excellent effect (see Frontispiece).


GENOA, TURIN, AND NAPLES.

Turning now to Genoa we find, as we may in several great cities of
Italy, that very great success has been achieved by an artist whose
works are to be seen in no other city, and whose fame is
proportionally restricted. Just as the power of Luini as a painter can
only be fully understood at Milan, or that of Giulio Romano at Mantua,
so the genius of Alessio (1500 to 1572) as an architect can only be
understood at Genoa. From the designs of this architect were built a
series of well planned and imposing palaces. These buildings have most
of them the advantage of fine and roomy sites. The fronts are varied,
but as a rule consist of a very bold basement, with admirably-treated
vigorous mouldings, supporting a lighter superstructure, and in one or
two instances flanked by an open arcade at the wings. The entrance
gives access, through a vaulted hall, to the cortile, which is usually
planned and designed in the most effective manner; and in several
instances the state staircase is so combined with this feature that on
ascending the first flight the visitor comes to a point of sight for
which the whole may be said to have been designed, and from which a
splendid composition of columns and arches is seen. The rooms and
galleries in these palaces are very fine, and in several instances
have been beautifully decorated in fresco by Perino del Vaga.

Alessio was also the architect of a large domical church (il
Carignano) in the same city; but it is far inferior in merit to his
series of palaces. Genoa also possesses a famous church (the
Annunziata) of late Renaissance, attributed to Puget (1622-1694). It
is vaulted, and enriched with marbles, mosaics, and colour to such an
extent that it may fairly claim to be the most gaudy church in Italy,
which is unfortunate, as its original undecorated design is fine and
simple.

Turin in the north, and Naples in the south, are chiefly remarkable
for examples of the latest and more or less debased Renaissance, and
we therefore do not propose to illustrate or describe any of the
buildings in either city.


COUNTRY VILLAS.

  [Illustration: FIG. 70.--VILLA MEDICI--ON THE PINCIAN HILL NEAR
      ROME. BY ANNIBALE LIPPI (NOW THE _Académie Française_).
      (A.D. 1540.)]

As the ancient Roman patrician had his villa, which was his country
resort, the Italian of the revival followed his example, and, if he
was wealthy enough, built himself a pleasure house, which he called a
villa, either in the immediate suburbs of his city, or at some little
distance away in the country. These buildings occur throughout
Italy. Many of them are excellent examples of Renaissance
architecture of a more modest type than that of the palaces. The Villa
Papa Giulio, built from the designs of Vignola, and the Villa Medici,
designed by Annibale Lippi, but attributed, for some unknown reason,
to Michelangelo, may be mentioned as among the most thoroughly
architectural out of some twenty or more splendid villas in the
suburbs of Rome alone. Many of these buildings were erected late in
the Renaissance period, and are better worth attention for their fine
decorations and the many works of art collected within their walls
than as architectural studies--but this is not always the case; and as
they were mostly designed to serve the purpose of elegant museums
rather than that of country houses as we understand the term, they
usually possess noble interiors, and exhibit throughout elaborate
finish, choice materials, and lavish outlay.

  [Illustration: {EARLY RENAISSANCE CORBEL. FROM A DOOR IN SANTA MARIA,
      VENICE.}]

FOOTNOTES:

[31] An entablature is the superstructure which ordinarily is carried
by a column, and which it is usual to divide into architrave (or
beam), frieze, and cornice.

[32] An order consists of a column (or pilaster) with its distinctive
base and capital, its entablature, and the appropriate decorations.
There are five orders, differing in proportions, in the degree of
enrichment required, and in the design of the base and capital of the
column or pilaster, and of the entablature.



  [Illustration: {ORNAMENT BY GIULIO ROMANO.}]

CHAPTER XII.

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN FRANCE AND NORTH EUROPE.


CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH.

The revived classic architecture came direct from Italy, and did not
reach France till it had been well established in the land of its
origin. It was not however received with the same welcome which hailed
its appearance in Italy. Gothic architecture had a strong hold on
France, and accordingly, instead of a sudden change, we meet with a
period of transition, during which buildings were erected with
features partly Gothic and partly Renaissance, and on varied
principles of design.

French Renaissance underwent great fluctuations, and it is less easy
to divide it into broad periods than to refer, as most French writers
prefer to do, to the work of each prominent monarch's reign
separately.

Francis the First (1515-1547) made the architecture of Italy
fashionable in his kingdom, and his name is borne by the beautiful
transitional style of his day. This in most cases retains some Gothic
forms, and the principles of composition are in the main Gothic, but
the features are mostly of Italian origin, though handled with a
fineness of detail and a smallness of scale that is not often met
with, even in early Italian Renaissance. There are few buildings more
charming in the architecture of any age or country than the best
specimens of the style of Francis the First, and none that can bear so
much decoration and yet remain so little overladen by the ornaments
they carry. The finest example is the Château of Chambord, a large
building, nearly square on plan, with round corner towers, capped by
simple and very steep roofs, at the angles; and having as its central
feature, a large and lofty mass of towers, windows and arcades,
surmounted by steep roofs, ending in a kind of huge lantern. The
windows have mullions and transoms like Gothic windows, but pilasters
of elegant Renaissance design ornament the walls. The main cornice is
a kind of compromise between an Italian and a Gothic treatment. Dormer
windows, high and sharply pointed, but with little pilasters and
pediments as their ornaments, occur constantly; and the chimneys,
which are of immense mass and great height, are panelled profusely,
and almost ostentatiously displayed, especially on the central
portion. In the interior of the central building is a famous
staircase; but the main attractions are the bright and animated
appearance of the whole exterior, and the richness and gracefulness of
the details.

The same architecture is to be well seen in the north side of the
famous Château of Blois--a building parts of which were executed in
three different periods of French architecture. The exterior of the
_François premier_ part of Blois is irregular, and portions of the
design are wildly picturesque; on the side which fronts towards the
quadrangle, the architecture is more symmetrically designed, and
beauty rather than picturesque effect has been aimed at. An open
staircase is the part of the quadrangle upon which most care has been
lavished. Throughout the whole block of buildings the character of
each individual feature and of every combination of features is
graceful and _piquant_. The elegance and delicacy of some of the
carved decoration in the interior is unsurpassed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 71.--WINDOW FROM A HOUSE AT ORLEANS. (EARLY
      16TH CENTURY.)]

In the valley of the Loire there exist many noblemen's châteaux of
this date, corresponding in general character with Chambord and Blois,
though on a smaller scale. Of these Chénonceaux, fortunate alike in
its design and its situation, is the most elegant and the best known:
yet many others exist which approach it closely, such, for example, as
the Château de Gaillon--a fragment of which forms part of the École
des Beaux Arts at Paris--the Hôtel de Ville of Beaugency, the Châteaux
of Châteaudun, Azay-le-Rideau, La Cote, and Ussé; the Hôtel d'Anjou at
Angers, and the house of Agnes Sorel at Orleans.

In the streets of Orleans houses of this date (Fig. 71) are to be
found, showing the style cleverly adapted to the requirements of town
dwellings and shops. Several of them also possess courtyards with
arcades or other architectural features treated with great freedom and
beauty, for instance, the arcades in the house of _François Premier_
(Fig. 72). An arcade in the courtyard of the Gothic Hôtel de
Bourgtherould at Rouen, is one of the best known examples of the style
remaining, and instances of it may be met with as far apart as at Caen
(east end of church of St. Pierre) and Toulouse (parts of St. Sernin).

One Paris church, that of St. Eustache, belonging to this transitional
period claims mention, since for boldness and completeness it is one
of the best of any date in that city. St. Eustache is a five-aisled
church with an apse, transept, and lateral chapels outside the outer
aisle. It is vaulted throughout, and its plan and structure are those
of a Gothic church in all respects. Its details are however all
Renaissance, but not so good as those to be found at Blois, nor so
appropriately used, yet notwithstanding this it has a singularly
impressive interior.

  [Illustration: FIG. 72.--CAPITAL FROM THE HOUSE OF FRANCIS I.,
      ORLEANS. (1540.)]

Meantime, and alongside the buildings resulting from this fusion of
styles, others which were almost direct importations from Italy were
rising; in some cases, if not in all, under the direction of Italian
architects. Thus on Fontainebleau, which Francis I. erected, three or
four Italian architects, one of whom was Vignola, were engaged. It may
or may not have been this connection of the great architect with this
work which gave him influence in France, but certainly almost the
whole of the later French Renaissance, or at any rate its good time,
was marked by a conformity to the practice of Vignola, in whose
designs we usually find one order of columns or pilasters for each
storey, rather than to that of Palladio, whose use of tall columns
equalling in height two or more floors of the building has been
already noticed.

Designs for the Louvre, the rebuilding of which was commenced in the
reign of Francis the First (about A.D. 1544), were made by Serlio, an
Italian; and though Pierre Lescot was the architect of the portion
built in that reign, it is probable that the design obtained from
Serlio was in the main followed. The part then finished, which, to a
certain extent gave the keynote to the whole of this vast building,
was unquestionably a happy effort, and may be taken to mark the
establishment of a French version of matured Renaissance architecture.
The main building has two orders of pilasters with cornices, &c., and
above them a low attic storey, with short piers: at the angles a
taller pavilion was introduced, and next the quadrangle arcades are
introduced between the pilasters. The sculpture, some of it at least,
is from the chisel of Jean Goujon; it is good and well placed, and the
whole has an air of dignity and richness. The _Pavillon Richelieu_,
shewn in our engraving (Fig. 73), was not built till the next century.
The colossal figures are by Barye.

A little later in date than the early part of the Louvre was the Hôtel
de Ville, built from the designs of Pietro da Cortona, an Italian, and
said to have been begun in 1549. The building had been greatly
extended before its recent total destruction by fire, but the central
part, which was the original portion, was a fine vigorous composition,
having two lofty pavilions, with high roofs at the extremities, and
a remarkably rich stone lantern of great height for a central feature.

  [Illustration: FIG. 73.--PAVILLON RICHELIEU OF THE LOUVRE, PARIS.]

In the reign of Charles IX. the Palace of the Tuileries was commenced
(1564) for Catherine de Médicis, from the designs of Philibert
Delorme. Of this building, that part only which fronted the garden was
erected at the time. Our illustration (Fig. 74) shows the
architectural character of a portion of it, and it is easy to detect
that considerable alterations have by this time been introduced into
the treatment of the features of Renaissance architecture. The bands
of rustication passing round the pilasters as well as the walls, the
broken pediments on the upper storey, surmounted by figures, and
supported by long carved pilasters, and the shape of the dormer
windows are all of them quite foreign to Renaissance architecture as
practised in Italy, and may be looked upon as essentially French
features. Similar details were employed in the work executed at about
the same period, by the same and other architects, in other buildings,
as may be seen by our illustration (Fig. 75) of a portion of Delorme's
work at the Louvre. In these features, which may be found in the
Château d'Anet and other works of the same time, and in the style to
which they belong, may be seen the direct result of Michelangelo's
Medici Chapel at Florence, a work which had much more effect on French
than on Italian architecture. The full development of the architecture
of Michelangelo (or rather the ornamental portions of it) is to be
found in French Renaissance, rather than in the works of his own
successors in Italy.

Much of the late sixteenth century architecture of France was very
inferior, and the parts of the Louvre and Tuileries which date from
the reign of Henry IV. are the least satisfactory portions of those
vast piles.

  [Illustration: FIG. 74.--PART OF THE TUILERIES, PARIS. (BEGUN 1564.)]

Dating from the early part of the seventeenth century, we have the
Palais Royal built for Richelieu, and the Palace of the Luxembourg, a
building perhaps more correct and quiet than original or beautiful,
but against which the reproach of extravagant ornament cannot
certainly be brought.

  [Illustration: FIG. 75.--CAPITAL FROM DELORME'S WORK AT THE LOUVRE.
      (MIDDLE OF 16TH CENTURY.)]

With Louis the Fourteenth (1643 to 1715) came in a great building
period, of which the most striking memorial is the vast and
uninteresting Palace of Versailles. The architect was the younger
Mansard (1647 to 1768), and the vastness of the scale upon which he
worked only makes his failure to rise to his grand opportunity the
more conspicuous. The absence of features to diversify the sky-line is
one of the greatest defects of this building, a defect the less
excusable as the high-pitched roof of Gothic origin had never been
abandoned in France. This roof has been employed with great success in
many buildings of the French Renaissance. Apart from this fault, the
architectural features of Versailles are so monotonous, weak, and
uninteresting that the building, though its size may astonish the
spectator, seldom rouses admiration.

Far better is the eastern block of the Louvre (the portion facing the
Place du Louvre), though here also we find the absence of high roofs,
and the consequent monotony of the sky-line--a defect attaching to
hardly any other portion of the building. Bernini was invited from
Italy for this work, and there is a curious story in one of Sir
Christopher Wren's published letters of an interview he had with
Bernini while the latter was in Paris on this business, and of the
glimpse which he was allowed to enjoy of the design the Italian had
made. The building was, however, after all, designed and carried out
by Perrault, and, though somewhat severe, possesses great beauty and
much of that dignity in which Versailles is wanting.

The best French work of this epoch to be found in or out of Paris is
probably the Hôtel des Invalides (Fig. 76), with its fine central
feature. This is crowned by the most striking dome in Paris, one which
takes rank as second only in Europe to our own St. Paul's, for beauty
of form and appropriateness of treatment. The two domes are indeed
somewhat alike in general outline.

The reign of Louis XIV. witnessed a large amount of building
throughout France, as well as in the metropolis, and to the same
period we must refer an enormous amount of lavish decoration in the
interior of buildings, the taste of which is to our eyes painfully
extravagant. Purer taste on the whole prevailed, if not in the reign
of Louis XV. certainly in that of Louis XVI., to which period much
really good decorative work, and some successful architecture belongs.
The chief building of the latter part of the eighteenth century is the
Pantheon (Ste. Geneviève), the best domed church in France, and one
which must always take a high rank among Renaissance buildings of any
age or country. The architect was Soufflot, and his ambition, like
that of the old Gothic masons, was not only to produce a work of art,
but a feat of skill; his design accordingly provided a smaller area of
walls and piers compared with the total floor space than any other
Renaissance church, or indeed than any great church, except a few of
the very best specimens of late Gothic construction, such for example
as King's College Chapel. The result has been that the fabric has not
been quite stout enough to bear the weight of the dome, and that it
has required to be tied and propped and strengthened in various ways
from time to time. The plan of the Pantheon is a Greek cross, with a
short vestibule, and a noble portico at the west, and a choir
corresponding to the vestibule on the east. It has a fine central
dome, which is excellently seen from many points of view externally,
and forms the principal feature of the very effective interior. Each
arm of the building is covered by a flat domical vault; a single order
of pilasters and columns runs quite round the interior of the church
occupying the entire height of the walls; and the light is admitted in
a most successful manner by large semicircular windows at the upper
part of the church, starting above the cornice of the order.

  [Illustration: FIG. 76.--L'ÉGLISE DES INVALIDES, PARIS. BY J. H.
      MANSARD. (BEGUN A.D. 1645.)]

One other work of the eighteenth century challenges the admiration
of every visitor to Paris and must not be overlooked, because it is at
once a specimen of architecture and of that skilful if formal
arrangement of streets and public places in combination with buildings
which the French have carried so far in the present century. We allude
to the two blocks of buildings, occupied as government offices, which
front to the Place de la Concorde and stand at the corner of the Rue
Royale. They are the work of Gabriel (1710-1782), and are justly
admired as dignified if a little heavy and uninteresting. As specimens
of architecture these buildings, with the Pantheon, are enough to
establish a high character for French art at a time when in most other
European countries the standard of taste had fallen to a very low
level.

The hôtels (_i.e._ town mansions) and châteaux of the French nobility
furnish a series of examples, showing the successive styles of almost
every part of the Renaissance period. The phases of the style,
subsequent to that of Francis the First, can however, be so well
illustrated by public buildings in Paris, that it will be hardly
necessary to go through a list of private residences however
commanding; but the Château of Maisons, and the Royal Château of
Fontainebleau, may be named as specimens of a class of building which
shows the capacity of the Renaissance style when freely treated.

Renaissance buildings in France are distinguished by their large
extent and the ample space which has been in many instances secured in
connection with them. They are rarely of great height or imposing mass
like the early Italian palaces. For the most part they are a good deal
broken up, the surface of the walls is much covered by architectural
features, not usually on a large scale, so that the impression of
extent which really belongs to them is intensified by the treatment
which their architects have adopted.

Orders are frequently introduced and usually correspond with the
storeys of the building. However this may be the storeys are always
well marked. The sky-line also is generally picturesque and telling,
though Versailles and the work of Lescot at the Louvre form an
exception. Rustication is not much employed, and the vast but simple
crowning cornices of the Italian palaces are never made use of. Narrow
fronts like those at Venice, and open arcades or loggias like those of
Genoa, do not form features of French Renaissance buildings; but on
the other hand, much richness, and many varieties of treatment which
the Italians never attempted, were tried, and as a rule successfully,
in France.

Much good sculpture is employed in external enrichments, and a
cultivated if often luxuriant taste is always shown. Many of the
interiors are rich with carving, gilding, and mirrors, but harmonious
coloured decoration is rare, and the fine and costly mosaics of Italy
are almost unknown.


BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS.

These countries afford but few examples of Renaissance. The Town Hall
at Antwerp, an interesting building of the sixteenth century, and the
Church of St. Anne at Bruges, are the most conspicuous buildings; and
there are other churches in the style which are characteristic, and
parts of which are really fine. The interiors of some of the town
halls display fittings of Renaissance character, often rich and
fanciful in the extreme, and bearing a general resemblance to French
work of the same period.

  [Illustration: FIG. 77.--WINDOW FROM COLMAR. (1575.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 78.--ZEUGHAUS, DANTZIC. (1605.)]


GERMANY AND NORTHERN EUROPE.

Buildings of pure Renaissance architecture, anterior to the nineteenth
century, are scarce in Germany, or indeed in North-east Europe; but a
transitional style, resembling our own Elizabethan, grew up and long
held its ground, so that many picturesque buildings can be met with,
of which the design indicates a fusion of the ideas and features of
Gothic with those of classic art. This architectural style took so
strong a hold that examples of it may be found throughout the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in almost every northern town.

That part of the Castle of Heidelberg, which was built at the
beginning of the seventeenth century, may be cited as belonging to
this German transitional style. The front in this case is regularly
divided by pilasters of the classic orders, but very irregular in
their proportions and position. The windows are strongly marked, and
with carved mullions. Large dormer windows break into the high roof;
ornaments abound, and the whole presents a curiously blended mixture
of the regular and the picturesque. Rather earlier in date, and
perhaps rather more Gothic in their general treatment, are such
buildings as the great Council Hall at Rothenberg (1572), that at
Leipzig (1556), the Castle of Stuttgart (1553), with its picturesque
arcaded quadrangle, or the lofty and elaborate Cloth Hall at
Brunswick.

  [Illustration: FIG. 79.--COUNCIL-HOUSE AT LEYDEN. (1599.)]

Examples of similar character abound in the old inns of Germany and
Switzerland, and many charming features, such as the window from
Colmar (Fig. 77), dated 1575, which forms one of our illustrations
could be brought forward. Another development of the same mixed style
may be illustrated by the Zeug House at Dantzic (1605), of which we
give the rear elevation (Fig. 78). Not altogether dissimilar from
these in character is the finely-designed Castle of Fredericksberg at
Copenhagen, testifying to the wide spread of the phase of architecture
to which we are calling attention. The date of this building is 1610.
A richer example, but one little if at all nearer to Italian feeling,
is the Council House at Leyden, a portion of which we illustrate (Fig.
79). This building dates from 1599, and bears more resemblance to
English Elizabethan in its ornaments, than to the architecture of any
other country.

Simultaneously with these, some buildings made their appearance in
Germany, which, though still picturesque, showed the dawn of a wish to
adopt the features of pure Renaissance. The quadrangle of the Castle
of Schalaburg (Fig. 80), may be taken as a specimen of the adoption of
Renaissance ideas as well as forms. It is in effect an Italian
cortile, though more ornate than Italian architects would have made
it. It was built in the latter part of the sixteenth century, and
seems to point to a wish to make use of the new style with but little
admixture of northern ornament or treatment.

When architecture had quite passed through the transition period,
which fortunately lasted long, the buildings, not only of Germany, but
of the north generally, became uninteresting and tame; in fact, they
present so few distinguishing features, that it is not necessary to
describe or illustrate them. Russia, it is true, contains a few
striking buildings belonging to the eighteenth century, but most of
those which we might desire to refer to, were built subsequent to the
close of that century.

  [Illustration: FIG. 80.--QUADRANGLE OF THE CASTLE OF SCHALABURG.
      (LATE 16TH CENTURY.)]



  [Illustration: {ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE PATTERN.}]

CHAPTER XIII.

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN, SPAIN, AND PORTUGAL.


ENGLAND.--CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH.

In England, as in France and Germany, the introduction of the Italian
Renaissance was not accomplished without a period of transition. The
architecture of this period is known as Elizabethan, though it lasted
long after Elizabeth's reign. Sometimes it is called Tudor; but it is
more convenient and not unusual to limit the term Tudor to the latest
phase of English Gothic.

Probably the earliest introduction into any English building of a
feature derived from the newly-revived classic sources is in the tomb
of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey. The grille inclosing this is of
good, though late Gothic design; but when the tomb itself came to be
set up, for which a contract was made with Torregiano in 1512, it was
Italian in its details. The earliest examples of Renaissance features
actually built into a structure, so far as we are aware, is in the
terra-cotta ornamentation of Layer Marney House in Essex, which it is
certain was erected prior to 1525. It is however long--surprisingly
long--after this period before we come upon the traces of a general
use of Renaissance details. In fact, up to the accession of Elizabeth
(1558) they appear to have been little employed. It is however said
that early in her reign the treatises on Renaissance architecture of
Philibert de l'Orme and Lomazzo were translated from Italian into
English, and in 1563 John Shute published a book on Italian
architecture.

John of Padua, an Italian architect, was brought to this country by
Henry VIII. and practised here; and Theodore Havenius of Cleves was
employed as architect in the buildings of Caius College, Cambridge
(1565-1574). These two foreigners undoubtedly played an important part
in a change of taste which, though not general so early, certainly did
commence before Elizabeth's death in 1603.

At the two universities, and in many localities throughout England,
new buildings and enlargements of old ones were carried out during the
long and prosperous reign of Elizabeth; and the style in which they
were built will be found to have admitted of very great latitude.
Where the intention was to obtain an effect of dignity or state, the
classic principles of composition were more or less followed. The
buildings at Caius College, Cambridge, Longleat, built between 1567
and 1579 by John of Padua, Woollaton, built about 1580 by Smithson,
and Burleigh (built 1577), may be named as instances of this. On the
other hand where a manorial or only a domestic character was desired,
the main lines of the building are Gothic, but the details, in either
case, are partly Gothic and partly modified Renaissance. This
description will apply to such buildings as Knowle, Penshurst,
Hardwick, Hatfield, Bramshill, or Holland House (Fig. 81). In the
introductory chapter some account has been given, in general terms, of
the features familiar to most and endeared to many, which mark these
peculiarly English piles of buildings; those remarks may be
appropriately continued here.

  [Illustration: FIG. 81.--HOLLAND HOUSE AT KENSINGTON. (1607.)]

The hall of Gothic houses was still retained, but only as one of a
series of fine apartments. In many cases English mansions had no
internal quadrangle, and are built as large solid blocks with boldly
projecting wings. They are often of three storeys in height, the roofs
are frequently of flat pitch, and in that case are hidden behind a
parapet which is sometimes of fantastic design. Where the roofs are
steeper and not concealed the gables are frequently of broken outline.
Windows are usually very large, and with mullions and transoms, and it
is to these large openings that Elizabethan interiors owe their bright
and picturesque effects. Entrances are generally adorned with some
classic or semi-classic features, often, however, much altered from
their original model; here balustrades, ornamental recesses, stone
staircases, and similar formal surroundings are commonly found, and
are generally arranged with excellent judgment, though often quaint in
design.

"This style is characterised by a somewhat grotesque application of
the ancient orders and ornaments, by large and picturesquely-formed
masses, spacious staircases, broad terraces, galleries of great length
(at times 100 feet long), orders placed on orders, pyramidal gables
formed of scroll-work often pierced, large windows divided by mullions
and transoms, bay windows, pierced parapets, angle turrets, and a love
of arcades. The principal features in the ornament are pierced
scroll-work, strap-work, and prismatic rustication, combined with
boldly-carved foliage (usually conventional) and roughly-formed
figures."--M. D. W.

Interiors are bright and with ample space; very richly ornamented
plaster ceilings are common; the walls of main rooms are often lined
with wainscot panelling, and noble oak staircases are frequent.

In the reign of James I., our first Renaissance architect of mark,
Inigo Jones (1572-1652) became known. He was a man of taste and
genius, and had studied in Italy. He executed many works, the designs
for which were more or less in the style of Palladio. These include
the addition of a portico to the (then Gothic) cathedral of St.
Paul's, and a magnificent design for a palace which Charles I. desired
to build at Whitehall. A fragment of this building, now known as the
Chapel Royal Whitehall, was erected, and small though it be, has done
much by its conspicuous position and great beauty, to keep up a
respect for Inigo Jones's undoubted high attainments as an artist.

More fortunate than Inigo Jones, Christopher Wren (1632-1723) had just
attained a high position as a young man of science, skill, and
cultivation, and as the architect of the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford,
when in 1666 the great fire of London destroyed the Metropolitan
Cathedral, the parochial churches, the Royal Exchange, the Companies'
Halls, and an immense mass of private property in London, and created
an opportunity which made great demands upon the energy, skill, and
fertility of design of the architect who might attempt to grasp it.
Fortunately, Wren was equal to the occasion, and he has endowed London
with a Cathedral which takes rank among the very foremost Renaissance
buildings in Europe, as well as a magnificent series of parochial
churches, and other public buildings. It is not pretended that his
works are free from defects, but there can be no question that
admitting anything which can be truly said against them, they are
works of artistic genius, full of fresh and original design, and
exhibiting rare sagacity in their practical contrivance and
construction.

St. Paul's stands second only to St. Peter's as a great domical
cathedral of Renaissance architecture. It falls far short of its great
rival in actual size and internal effect, and is all but entirely
devoid of that decoration in which St. Peter's is so rich. On the
other hand, the exterior of St. Paul's (Fig. 82) is far finer, and as
the English cathedral had the good fortune to be erected entirely from
the plans and under the supervision of one architect, it is a building
consistent with itself throughout, which, as we have seen, is more
than can be said of St. Peter's.

The plan of St. Paul's is a Latin cross, with well marked transepts, a
large portico, and two towers at the western entrance; an apse of
small size forms the end of the eastern arm, and of each of the
transepts; a great dome covers the crossing; the cathedral has a crypt
raising the main floor considerably, and its side walls are carried
high above the aisle roofs so as to hide the clerestory windows from
sight.

The dome is very cleverly planted on eight piers instead of four at
the crossing, and is a triple structure; for between the dome seen
from within, and the much higher dome seen from without, a strong cone
of brickwork rises which bears the weight of the stone lantern and
ball and cross that surmount the whole. The skill with which the dome
is made the central feature of a pyramidal composition whatever be the
point of view, the great beauty of the circular colonnade immediately
below the dome, the elegant outline of the western towers, and the
unusual but successful distribution of the great portico, are among
the most noteworthy elements which go to make up the charm of this
very successful exterior.

  [Illustration: FIG. 82.--ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, LONDON. (1675-1710.)]

Wren may be said to have introduced to Renaissance architecture the
tower and spire, for though many examples occur in Spain, there is
reason to suppose that he was before the architects of that country in
his employment of that feature. He has enriched the City of London
with a large number of steeples, which are Gothic so far as their
general idea goes, but thoroughly classic in details, and all more or
less distinctive. The most famous of these is the one belonging to Bow
Church; others of note belong to St. Clement Danes and St. Bride,
Fleet Street.

The interiors of some of these churches, as for example St. Stephen,
Walbrook, St. Andrew, Holborn, and St. James, Piccadilly, are
excellent both for their good design and artistic treatment, and for
their being well contrived and arranged for the special purposes they
were intended to fill.

Wren's secular works were considerable. The Sheldonian Theatre at
Oxford, the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, and the theatre of
the College of Physicians London (long since disused), are a group of
special buildings each of which was undoubtedly a remarkable and
successful work. Chelsea and Greenwich hospitals are noteworthy as
among the first specimens of those great buildings for public purposes
in which England is now so rich, and which to a certain extent replace
the monastic establishments of the middle ages. At Chelsea the
building is simple and dignified. Without lavish outlay, or the use of
expensive materials, much ornament, or any extraneous features, an
artistic and telling effect has been produced, such as few hospitals
or asylums since built have equalled. Greenwich takes a higher level,
and though Wren's work had the disadvantage of having to be
accommodated to buildings already erected by another architect, this
building, with its twin domes, its rich outline, and its noble and
dignified masses, will always reflect honour upon its designer. The
view of Greenwich hospital from the river may fairly be said to be
unique for beauty and picturesqueness. At Greenwich, too, we meet with
some of that skill in associating buildings and open spaces together
which is so much more common in France than in this country, and by
the exercise of which the architecture of a good building can be in so
many ways set off.

Wren, like Inigo Jones, has left behind him a great unexecuted design
which in many respects is more noble than anything that he actually
built. This is his earlier design for St. Paul's Cathedral, which he
planned as a Greek cross, with an ampler dome than the present
cathedral possesses, but not so lofty. A large model of this design
exists. Had it been carried out the exterior of the building would
probably not have appeared so commanding, perhaps not so graceful, as
it actually is; but the interior would have surpassed all the churches
of the style in Europe, both by the grandeur of the vast arched space
under the dome and by the intricacy and beauty of the various vistas
and combinations of features, for which its admirably-designed plan
makes provision.

Wren had retired from practice before his death in 1723. His immediate
successors were Hawksmoor, whose works were heavy and uninteresting,
and Sir James Vanbrugh. Vanbrugh was a man of genius and has a style
of his own, "bold, original, and pictorial." His greatest and best
work is Blenheim, in Oxfordshire, built for the Duke of Marlborough.
This fine mansion, equal to any French château in extent and
magnificence, is planned with much dignity. The entrance front looks
towards a large space, inclosed right and left by low buildings,
which prolong the wings of the main block. The angles of the wings and
the centre are masked by two colonnades of quadrant shape, and the
central entrance with lofty columns which form a grand portico, is a
noble composition.

The three garden fronts of Blenheim are all fine, and there is a
magnificent entrance hall, but the most successful part of the
interior is the library, a long and lofty gallery, occupying the
entire flank of the house and treated with the most picturesque
variety both of plan and ornament.

Vanbrugh also built Castle Howard, Grimesthorpe, Wentworth, King's
Weston, as well as many other country mansions of more moderate size.

Campbell, Kent, and Gibbs are the best known names next in succession.
Of these Campbell is most famous as an author, but Gibbs (1674-1754)
is the architect of two prominent London churches--St. Martin's and
St. Mary le Strand, in which the general traditions of Wren's manner
are ably followed. He was the architect of the Radcliffe Library at
Oxford. Kent (1684-1748) was the architect of Holkham, the Treasury
Buildings, and the Horse Guards. He was associated with the Earl of
Burlington, who acquired a high reputation as an amateur architect,
which the design of Burlington House (now remodelled for the Royal
Academy), went far to justify. Probably the technical part of this and
other designs was supplied by Kent.

Sir William Chambers (1726-1796) was the architect of Somerset House,
a building of no small merit, notwithstanding that it is tame and very
bare of sculpture. This building is remarkable as one of the few in
London in which the Italian feature of an interior quadrangle is
attempted to be reproduced. Chambers wrote a treatise which has
become a general text-book of revived classical architecture for
English students. Contemporary with him were the brothers John and
Robert Adam, who built much, and began to introduce a severity of
treatment and a fineness of detail which correspond to some extent to
the French style of Louis XVI. The interior decorations in plaster by
these architects are of great elegance and often found in old houses
in London, as in Hanover Square, on the Adelphi Terrace, and
elsewhere. The list of the eighteenth century architects closes with
the names of Sir Robert Taylor and the two Dances, one of whom built
the Mansion House and the other Newgate; and Stuart, who built several
country mansions, but who is best known for the magnificent work on
the antiquities of Athens, which he and Revett published together in
1762, and which went far to create a revolution in public taste; for
before the close of the century there was a general cry for making
every building and every ornamental detail purely and solely Greek.

The architects above named, and others of less note were much employed
during the eighteenth century in the erection of large country houses
of Italian, usually Palladian design, many of them extremely
incongruous and unsatisfactory. Here and there a design better than
the average was obtained, but as a rule these stately but cold
buildings are very far inferior to the picturesque and home-like
manors and mansions built during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.

  [Illustration: FIG. 83.--HOUSES AT CHESTER. (16TH CENTURY.)]

It is worth notice that the picturesque element, inherited from the
Gothic architecture of the middle ages, which before the eighteenth
century had completely vanished from our public buildings, and the
mansions of the wealthy did not entirely die out of works executed in
remote places. In the half-timbered manors and farmhouses which
abound in Lancashire, Cheshire, Shropshire, and Staffordshire, and in
other minor works, we always find a tinge, sometimes a very full
colouring, of the picturesque and the irregular; the gables are sharp,
upper storeys overhang, and the treatment of the timbers is
thoroughly Gothic (Fig. 83); so are the mouldings, transoms and
mullions to the windows, and barge boards to the roofs. In the reign
of James I. a mode of enriching the exteriors of dwelling-houses, as
well as their ceilings, chimney-pieces, &c., with ornaments modelled
in plaster came in, and though the remaining specimens are from year
to year disappearing, yet in some old towns (_e.g._ in Ipswich)
examples of this sort of treatment (known as Jacobean) still linger.

In Queen Anne's reign a semi-Gothic version of Renaissance
architecture was practised, to which great attention has been directed
in the present day. The Queen Anne style is usually carried out in
brickwork, executed in red bricks and often most admirable in its
workmanship. Pilasters, cornices, and panels are executed in cut
bricks, and for arches, niches, and window heads very finely jointed
bricks are employed. The details are usually Renaissance, but of
debased character; a crowning cornice of considerable projection under
a high-pitched hipped roof (_i.e._ one sloping back every way like a
truncated pyramid) is commonly employed; so also are gables of broken
outline. Dormer windows rich and picturesque, and high brick chimneys
are also employed; so are bow windows, often carried on concave
corbels of a clumsy form. Prominence is given in this style to the
joiner's work; the windows, which are usually sash windows, are
heavily moulded and divided into small squares by wooded sash bars.
The doors have heavily moulded panels, and are often surmounted by
pediments carried by carved brackets or by pilasters; in the interiors
the woodwork of staircases such as the balusters, newel posts, and
handrails is treated in a very effective and well considered way, the
greater part of the work being turned on the lathe and enriched with
mouldings extremely well designed for execution in that manner. By
this style and the modifications of it which were more or less
practised till they finally died out, the traditional picturesqueness
of English architecture which it had inherited from the middle ages
was kept alive, so that it has been handed down, in certain localities
almost, if not quite, to the present century.


SCOTLAND.

The architecture of Scotland during the sixteenth and succeeding
centuries possesses exceptional interest. It was the case here, as it
had been in England, that the most important buildings of the time
were domestic; the erection of churches and monasteries had ceased.

The castles and semi-fortified houses of Scotland form a group apart,
possessing strongly-marked and well-defined character; they are
designed in a mixed style in which the Gothic elements predominated
over the classic ones. But the Scottish domestic Gothic, from which
the new style was partly derived, had borne little or no resemblance
to the florid Tudor of England. It was the severe and simple
architecture of strongholds built with stubborn materials, and on
rocky sites, where there was little inducement to indulge in
decoration. Dunstaffnage or Kilchurn Castles may be referred to as
examples of these plain, gloomy keeps with their stepped gables, small
loops for windows, and sometimes angle turrets.

The classic elements of the style were not drawn (as had been the case
in England) direct from Italy, but came from France. The Scotch,
during their long struggles with the English, became intimately allied
with the French, and it is therefore not surprising that Scottish
Baronial architecture should resemble the early Renaissance of French
châteaux very closely. The hardness of the stone in which the Scotch
masons wrought forbade their attempting the extremely delicate detail
of the François I. ornament, executed as it is in fine, easily-worked
stone of smooth texture; and the difference in the climate of the two
countries justified in Scotland a boldness which would have appeared
exaggerated and extreme in France. Accordingly the style in passing
from one country to the other has changed its details to no
inconsiderable extent.

Many castles were erected in the sixteenth and following centuries in
Scotland, or were enlarged and altered; the most characteristic
features in almost all of them are short round angle turrets, thrown
out upon bold corbellings near the upper part of towers and other
square masses. These are often capped by pointed roofs; and the
corbels which carry them, and which are always of bold, vigorous
character, are frequently enriched by a kind of cable ornament, which
is very distinctive. Towers of circular plan, like bastions, and
projecting from the general line of the walls, or at the angles,
constantly occur. They are frequently crowned by conical roofs, but
sometimes (as at Fyvie Castle) they are made square near the top by
means of a series of corbels, and finished with gables or otherwise.
Parapets are in general use, and are almost always battlemented.
Roofs, when visible, are of steep pitch, and their gables are almost
always of stepped outline, while dormer windows, frequently of
fantastic form, are not infrequent. Chimneys are prominent and lofty.
Windows are square-headed, and, as a rule, small; sometimes they
retain the Gothic mullions and transom, but in many cases these
features are absent. Doorways are generally arched, and not often
highly ornamented.

Cawdor Castle, Glamis Castle, Fyvie Castle, Castle Fraser, the old
portions of Dunrobin Castle, Tyninghame House, the extremely
picturesque palace at Falkland, and a considerable part of Stirling
Castle, may be all quoted as good specimens of this thoroughly
national style, but it would be easy to name two or three times as
many buildings nearly, if not quite, equal to these in architectural
merit.

Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh, may be quoted (with part of Holyrood
Palace) as showing the style of the seventeenth century. Heriot's
Hospital was built between the years 1628 and 1660. It is built round
a great quadrangle, and has square towers at the four corners, each
relieved by small corbelled angle turrets. The entrance displays
columns and an entablature of debased but not unpleasing Renaissance
architecture, and the building altogether resembles an English
Elizabethan or Jacobean building to a greater extent than most
Scottish designs.

When this picturesque style, which appears indeed to have retained its
hold for long, at last died out, very little of any artistic value was
substituted for it. Late in the eighteenth century, it is true, the
Brothers Adam erected public buildings in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and
carried out various works of importance in a classic style which has
certainly some claim to respect; but if correct it was tame and
uninteresting, and a poor exchange for the vigorous vitality which
breathes in the works of the architects of the early Renaissance in
Scotland.


SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

In the Spanish peninsula, Renaissance architecture ran through three
phases, very strongly distinguished from one another, each being
marked by peculiarities of more than ordinary prominence. The early
stage, to which the Spaniards give the name of Plateresco, exhibits
the same sort of fusion of Gothic with classic which we find in France
and Scotland. The masses are often simple, but the individual features
are overladen with an extravagant amount of ornament, and, as in
France, many things which are essentially Gothic, such as pinnacles,
gargoyles, and parapets, are retained. The Renaissance style was
introduced at the latter part of the fifteenth century, and a very
considerable number of buildings to which the description given above
will apply were erected prior to the middle of the sixteenth. Among
these may be enumerated the cathedral at Granada, the Hospital of
Santa Cruz at Toledo (1504-1514), the dome of Burgos Cathedral (1567),
the Cathedral of Malaga, San Juan della Penitencia at Toledo (1511),
the façade of the Alcazar at Toledo (1548), the Town Hall (1551), and
Casa Zaporta (1560) at Zarragoza, and the Town Hall of Seville (1559).

A great number of tombs, staircases, doorways, and other smaller
single features, executed during this period from the designs of good
artists, are to be found scattered through the country. "These
Renaissance monuments exhibit an extraordinary degree of variety in
their ornaments, which are of the most fantastic nature; an exuberant
fancy would seem to have sought a vent, especially in the sculptured
ornament of the style, which though at times crowded, overladen, and
we must add disfigured by the most grotesque ideas, is very striking
for its originality and excellent workmanship."--(M. D. W.)

  [Illustration: FIG. 84.--THE ALCAZAR AT TOLEDO. (BEGUN 1568.)]

The second phase of Spanish architecture was marked by a plain and
simple dignity, equally in contrast with the Plateresco which had
preceded it and with the extravagant style to which it at length gave
place. The earliest architect who introduced into Spain an
architectural style founded on the best examples of Italy, was Juan
Baptista de Toledo. He in the year 1563 commenced the Escurial
Palace--the Versailles of Spain; but the principal part of the
building was erected by his more celebrated pupil, Juan de Herrera,
who carried on the works during the years from 1567 to 1579. This
building, one of the most extensive palaces in Europe, is noble in its
external aspect from a distance, thanks to its great extent, its fine
central dome, and its many towers, but it is disappointing when
approached. Of the interior the most noteworthy feature is a
magnificently decorated church, of great size and unusual arrangement;
and this dignified central feature has raised the Escurial, in spite
of many faults, to the position of the most famous and probably most
deservedly admired among the great Renaissance palaces of Europe.

By the same architect numerous buildings were erected, among others
the beautiful, if somewhat cold, arcaded interior of the Alcazar of
Toledo (Fig. 84), which may be taken as a fair specimen of the noble
qualities to be found in his dignified and comparatively simple
designs. About the middle of the sixteenth century Charles V. erected
his palace at Granada; but here the architecture is strongly coloured
by Italian or French examples, and much of the building resembles
Perrault's work at the Louvre very closely. Herrera and his school
were probably too severe in taste to suit the fancy of their
countrymen, for Spanish architecture in the eighteenth century fell a
victim to debased forms and a fantastic and exaggerated style of
ornament. Churriguera was the architect who has the credit of having
introduced this unfortunate third manner, and has lent it his name.
For a time "Churriguerismo" found general acceptance, and the century
closed under its influence.

We must not pass over the excellent and varied Renaissance towers and
steeples of Spain in silence. They are not unlike Wren's spires in
general idea; they are to be met with in many parts of the country
attached to the churches, and their variety and picturesqueness
increase the claim of Spanish architecture to our respect.

       *       *       *       *       *

The one Renaissance building in Portugal which has been much
illustrated, and is spoken of in high terms, is the Convent at Mafra,
a building of the eighteenth century, of great extent and picturesque
effect. Great skill is shown in dealing with the unwieldy bulk of an
overgrown establishment which does not yield even to the Escurial in
point of extent. We are, however, up to the present time without the
means of forming an opinion upon the nature and value of the
architecture of Portugal as a whole.

  [Illustration: {ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE PATTERN.}]



  [Illustration: {FROM A FRIEZE AT VENICE.}]

INDEX.

_See also CONTENTS at beginning._


    Adam, John and Robert, 223.

    Alberti, _Architect_, 167.

    Amiens Cathedral, 76, 78.

    Andernach, Church at, 96.

    Anne, Queen, Style of, 225.

    Arnstein Abbey, 94.


    Baptista, _Architect_, 232.

    Batalha, Monastery at, 142, 153.

    Beauvais Cathedral, _Interior_, 86.

    Belgium and Netherlands, _Gothic_, 87.

    ---- _Renaissance_, 206.

    Bernini, _Architect_, 175, 181, 203.

    Blenheim, 221.

    Blois, Château of, 194.

    Blois, Capital from St. Nicholas, 84.

    Bourges, House of Jaques Coeur, 15.

    Bramante, _Architect_, 168, 174, 180.

    Brunelleschi, _Architect_, 120, 166.

    Buttresses, 32.


    Caen, Saint Pierre at, 37.

    Cambridge, King's College, 63.

    Campaniles in Italy, 128.

    Capitals, Gothic, 43.

    Certosa, near Pavia, _frontispiece_, 183.

    Chambers, _Architect_, 222.

    Chambord, Château of, 194.

    Chartres, Stained glass at, 65, 69.

    Chester, Old Houses at, 38, 224.

    Churriguera, _Architect_, 230.

    Colmar, Window at, 206.

    Cologne Cathedral, 97, 104.

    Columns and Piers, 40.

    Cortona, Pietro da, _Architect_, 198.

    Cremona, Palace at, 117.


    Dantzic, Zeughaus at, 203.

    De Caumont. _Abécédaire_, 71.

    Decorated style of Architecture, 24.

    Delorme, _Architect_, 200, 214.

    Domestic Buildings, _Gothic_, 14.


    Early English Architecture, 24.

    Eltham Palace, Roof of, 53.

    England, Gothic Architecture in, 21.

    ---- Renaissance in, 213.


    Florence, Cathedral at, 121.

    ---- Pandolfini Palace, 170, 173.

    ---- Riccardi Palace, 167.

    ---- Strozzi Palace, 169.

    Fontevrault, Church at, 70.

    France, Gothic Architecture in, 69.

    ---- Renaissance in, 193.

    Francis the First of France, 193.

    Friburg Cathedral, 98.


    Gables in Gothic Architecture, 36.

    Germany, Gothic Architecture in, 93.

    ---- Renaissance, 209.

    Ghent, Tower at, 90.

    Gibbs, _Architect_, 222.

    Giotto's Campanile at Florence, 120.

    Gothic, The word, 5.

    Goujon, Jean, _Sculptor_, 198.


    Haddon Hall, 17.

    Havenius of Cleves, _Architect_, 214.

    Hawksmoor, _Architect_, 221.

    Heidelberg, Castle of, 156, 209.

    Herrera, Juan de, _Architect_, 217.

    Holland House, 215.


    Italy, Gothic Architecture in, 112.

    ---- Renaissance in, 165.


    John of Padua, _Architect_, 214.

    Jones, Inigo, _Architect_, 217.


    Kent, _Architect_, 222.

    Kuttenberg, St. Barbara at, 99.


    Lescot, _Architect_, 198.

    Leyden, Council-house at, 210.

    Lichfield Cathedral, West Door, 5.

    Lincoln Cathedral, General view, 35.

    Lippi Annibale, _Architect_, 192.

    Lisieux, Old Houses at, 41.

    Loches, Doorway at, 72.

    London, St. Paul's Cathedral, 218.


    Maderno, _Architect_, 175, 181.

    Mafra, Convent at, 232.

    Mansard, _Architect_, 160.

    Michelangelo _as an Architect_, 170, 174.

    Michelozzo, _Architect_, 167.

    Middleburgh, Town Hall at, 89.

    Milan Cathedral, 115.

    Misereres in Wells Cathedral, 68, 92.

    Mouldings, Gothic, 62.


    Nuremberg, St. Sebald's at, 109.


    Oakham, Decorated Spire of, 60.

    Ogee-shaped arch, 129.

    Oppenheim, St. Catherine at, 107.

    Orleans, Capital from house at, 197.

    Orleans, Window at, 196.


    Pavia, Certosa, near, 114, 188.

    Palladio, _Architect_, 172, 184, 187.

    Paris, Cathedral of Notre Dame, 74.

    ---- Hôtel des Invalides at, 205.

    ---- Louvre, Capital from, 202.

    ---- Louvre, Pavillon Richelieu, 199.

    ---- Pantheon at, 204.

    ---- Tuileries, by Delorme, 200.

    Perpendicular Architecture, 25.

    Peruzzi, _Architect_, 181.

    Peterborough Cathedral, Plan, 6.

    Pisano, Nicola, _Sculptor_, 120.

    Plateresco, _Spanish_, 230.

    Principles of Gothic Design, 146.


    Raphael _as an Architect_, 170.

    Renaissance Architecture, 154.

    Regensburg (Ratisbon), Well at, 20.

    Rheims Cathedral, Piers, 80.

    Rome, Monument in Santa Maria del Popolo, 179.

    Rome, Palazzo Giraud, 178, 180.

    ---- St. Peter's, 174, 177.

    ---- Villa Medici, 191.


    Saint Gall Manuscript, The, 13.

    Salisbury Cathedral, Section, 7.

    Saint Iago di Compostella, 137.

    Sangallo, _Architect_, 181.

    Sansovino, _Architect_, 178, 184.

    Scamozzi, _Architect_, 184.

    Scotland, Cawdor Castle, 227.

    ---- Dunrobin Castle, 228.

    ---- Heriot's Hospital, 228.

    Schalaburg, Castle of, 212.

    Schwartz-Rheindorff, Church at, 101.

    Serlio, _Architect_, 198.

    Seville, The Giralda at, 140.

    Siena Cathedral, 123.

    Spain, Gothic Architecture in, 137.

    ---- Renaissance in, 228.

    Spires, 58.

    Stained Glass, 64.

    Strasburg Cathedral, 98.


    Thann, Doorway at, 106.

    Tivoli, Window from, 134.

    Toledo, Alcazar at, 232.

    ---- Cathedral, 138.

    Towers and Spires, 33.

    Tracery, Venetian, 130.

    Tudor Architecture, 25.


    Vanbrugh, _Architect_, 221.

    Venice, 182.

    Venice, Church of Redentore, 186.

    ---- Ducal Palace at, 118.

    ---- Palaces on Grand Canal, 18.

    Vienna, St. Stephen at, 98.

    Vignola, _Architect_, 172, 181, 182.


    Warboys, Early English Spire, 59.

    Warwick Castle, Plan, 16.

    Wells Cathedral, Nave, 9.

    Westminster Abbey, Plan, 11.

    Westminster Abbey, Carving, 67.

    ---- Henry VII.'s Chapel, 57.

    ---- Triforium, 49.

    Windows, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51.

    Window, Italian Gothic, 134, 136.

    Worcester Cathedral, Choir, 9.

    Wren, Sir C., _Architect_, 203, 217, 220.


LONDON: R. CLAY, SONS, AND TAYLOR.



_Now in course of Publication._

A NEW SERIES

OF

ILLUSTRATED TEXT-BOOKS

OF

ART EDUCATION,

EDITED BY EDWARD J. POYNTER, R.A.

Each volume contains numerous illustrations, and is strongly bound for
the use of students. Price 5_s._

_To be issued in the following Divisions:--_


_PAINTING._

* CLASSIC and ITALIAN. By EDWARD J. POYNTER, R.A., and PERCY R. HEAD,
Lincoln College, Oxford.

GERMAN, FLEMISH, and DUTCH. By H. WILMOT BUXTON, M.A.

FRENCH and SPANISH. By GERARD SMITH, Exeter College, Oxford.

ENGLISH and AMERICAN. By H. WILMOT BUXTON, M.A.


_ARCHITECTURE._

CLASSIC and EARLY CHRISTIAN. By T. ROGER SMITH, F.R.I.B.A.

* GOTHIC and RENAISSANCE. By T. ROGER SMITH, F.R.I.B.A.


_SCULPTURE._

ANTIQUE: EGYPTIAN and GREEK. By GEORGE REDFORD, F.R.C.S.

RENAISSANCE and MODERN. By GEORGE REDFORD, F.R.C.S.


_ORNAMENT._

DECORATION IN COLOUR. By GEORGE AITCHISON, M.A.

ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENT. With numerous Illustrations.

* _These Divisions are now ready._



Transcriber's Note

Minor punctuation errors have been repaired.

Hyphenation and accent usage has been made consistent.

Spelling was made consistent as follows:

    Page xxxvii--Transome amended to Transom--"TRANSOM.--A
    horizontal bar (usually of stone) ..."

    Page xl--Hardwicke amended to Hardwick--"THE END-PAPERS ARE
    FROM A TAPESTRY IN HARDWICK HALL."

    Page 198--di amended to da--"... built from the designs of
    Pietro da Cortona, ..."

    Page 217--transomes amended to transoms--"... and with
    mullions and transoms, ..."

    Page 217--transomes amended to transoms--"... large windows
    divided by mullions and transoms, ..."

    Page 224--Cotemporary amended to Contemporary--"Contemporary
    with him were the brothers John and Robert Adam, ..."

    Page 226--transomes amended to transoms--"... so are the
    mouldings, transoms and mullions to the windows, ..."

    Page 236--Middleburg amended to Middleburgh--"Middleburgh,
    Town Hall at, 89."

    Page 236--Nícolo amended to Nicola--"Pisano, Nicola,
    _Sculptor_, 120."

    Page 236--Strassburg amended to Strasburg--"Strasburg
    Cathedral, 98."

    Page 236--Van Brugh amended to Vanbrugh--"Vanbrugh,
    _Architect_, 221."

The following amendments have been made:

    Page x--omitted page number added--"3. SCOTLAND, WALES, and
    IRELAND 91"

    Page xxiv--frize amended to frieze--"... the architrave,
    which rests on the columns, the frieze and the cornice."

    Page xxiv--The entry for Entablature originally followed
    Embattled. It has been moved to the correct place in the
    glossary.

    Page xxv--Styl amended to Style--"FRANÇOIS I. STYLE.--The
    early Renaissance architecture of France during part of the
    sixteenth century."

    Page xxvii--Lintol amended to Lintel--"LINTEL.--The stone or
    beam covering a doorway ..."

    Page 12--arrangment amended to arrangement--"The whole
    arrangement of pier and arch ..."

    Page 25--ierced amended to pierced--"Parapet pierced with
    quatrefoils and flowing tracery."

    Page 30--repeated 'and' deleted--"... Gothic dwelling-houses
    of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries exist, ..."

    Page 36--constrast amended to contrast--"... is to combine
    and yet contrast its horizontal and vertical elements."

    Page 39--storys amended to storeys--"... and sometimes also
    the basement storeys, ..."

    Page 46--and amended to end--"... occupying the eastern end
    of one of the transepts ..."

    Page 82--semi-circula amended to semicircular--"... and the
    roofs of semicircular and circular apses, ..."

    Page 88--achitecture amended to architecture--"... their
    architecture, though certainly Gothic, is debased in style."

    Page 114--laboration amended to elaboration--"... remarkable
    specimens of the ornamental elaboration which can be
    accomplished in brickwork."

    Page 142--Ths amended to The--"The great church at Batalha
    ..."

    Page 159--omitted 'the' added before building--"... in his
    treatment of the same part of the building ..."

    Page 176--repeated 'is' deleted--"... as long as the
    building is seen in front ..."

    Page 186--builing amended to building--"... lofty pilasters
    to include two storeys of the building ..."

    Page 194--first amended to First--"...than the best
    specimens of the style of Francis the First ..."

    Page 226--82 amended to 83--"... the treatment of the timbers
    is thoroughly Gothic (Fig. 83); ..."

    Page 230--archiect amended to architect--"The earliest
    architect who introduced into Spain an architectural style
    ..."

    Page 233--picuresque amended to picturesque--"... a building
    of the eighteenth century, of great extent and picturesque
    effect."

    Page 235--page references put into numerical
    order--"Brunelleschi, _Architect_, 120, 166."

    Page 235--137 amended to 173--"Florence ... ---- Pandolfini
    Palace, 170, 173."

    Page 235--omitted 7 added--"Haddon Hall, 17."

Illustrations have been moved where necessary so that they are not in
the middle of a paragraph.

There was an error in the List of Illustrations. The original read:

    66. PALAZZO GIRAUD, ROME. BY BRAMANTE. (1506.) 180

    67. THE CHURCH OF ST. FRANCESCO, AT FERRARA. INTERIOR 183

    68. ITALIAN SHELL ORNAMENT 184

    69. THE CHURCH OF THE REDENTORE, VENICE. (1576.) 186

    70. CERTOSA NEAR PAVIA. PART OF WEST FRONT. (BEGUN 1473.)
    189

    70A. EARLY RENAISSANCE CORBEL 192

    71. WINDOW FROM A HOUSE AT ORLEANS. (EARLY 16TH CENTURY.)
    195

The listed Fig. 67 does not appear anywhere in the text. The List of
Illustrations has been amended to accurately list the figures in the
main body of the book, by removing the erroneous listing, renumbering
the figures as necessary, including a previously omitted figure, FIG.
70.--VILLA MEDICI--ON THE PINCIAN HILL NEAR ROME. BY ANNIBALE LIPPI
(NOW THE _Académie Française_). (A.D. 1540.), and amending the page
numbers.

The advertising material has been moved to the end of the book.





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