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Title: How the Black St. Domingo Legion Saved the Patriot Army in the Siege of Savannah, 1779 - The American Negro Academy. Occasional Papers No. 5
Author: Steward, T. G. (Theophilus Gould), 1843-1924
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  The American Negro Academy,


  Black St. Domingo Legion
  Siege of Savannah, 1779,

  BY T. G. STEWARD, U. S. A.

  Price, Fifteen Cents.

  Published by the Academy.

How the Black St. Domingo Legion Saved the Patriot Army in the Siege of
Savannah, 1779.

The siege and attempted reduction of Savannah by the combined French and
American forces is one of the events of our revolutionary war, upon
which our historians care little to dwell. Because it reflects but
little glory upon the American arms, and resulted so disastrously to the
American cause, its important historic character and connections have
been allowed to fade from general sight; and it stands in the ordinary
school text-books, much as an affair of shame. The following, quoted
from Barnes' History, is a fair sample of the way in which it is

"French-American Attack on Savannah.--In September, D'Estaing joined
Lincoln in besieging that city. After a severe bombardment, an
unsuccessful assault was made, in which a thousand lives were lost.
Count Pulaski was mortally wounded. The simple-hearted Sergeant Jasper
died grasping the banner[1] presented to his regiment at Fort Moultrie.
D'Estaing refused to give further aid; thus again deserting the
Americans when help was most needed."

From this brief sketch the reader is at liberty to infer that the attack
was unwise if not fool-hardy; that the battle was unimportant; and that
the conduct of Count D'Estaing immediately after the battle was unkind
if not unjust, to the Americans. While the paragraph does not pretend to
tell the whole truth, what it does tell ought to be the truth; and this
ought to be told in such a way as to give correct impressions. The
attack upon Savannah was well-planned and thoroughly well considered;
and it failed only because the works were so ably defended, chiefly by
British regulars, under brave and skillful officers. In a remote way,
which it is the purpose of this paper to trace, that sanguinary struggle
had a wider bearing upon the progress of liberty in the Western World
than any other one battle fought during the Revolution.

But first let us listen to the story of the battle itself. Colonel
Campbell with a force of three thousand men, captured Savannah in
December 1778; and in the January following, General Prevost arrived,
and by March had established a sort of civil government in Georgia,
Savannah being the capital. In April, the American general, Lincoln,
feeble in more senses than one, perhaps, began a movement against
Savannah by way of Augusta; but Prevost, aware of his purpose, crossed
into South Carolina and attempted an attack upon Charleston. Finding the
city too well defended, he contented himself with ravaging the
plantations over a wide extent of adjacent country, and returned to
Savannah laden with rich spoils, among which were included three
thousand slaves, of whose labor he made good use later.

The patriots of the South now awaited in hope the coming of the French
fleet; and on the first of September, Count D'Estaing appeared suddenly
on the coast of Georgia with thirty-three sail, surprised and captured
four British war-ships, and, announced to the government of South
Carolina his readiness to assist in the recapture of Savannah. He urged
as a condition, however, that his ships should not be detained long off
so dangerous a coast, as it was now the hurricane season, and there was
neither harbor, road, nor offing for their protection.

By means of small vessels sent from Charleston he effected a landing in
ten days, and four days thereafter, on the 16th, he summoned the
garrison to surrender to the arms of France. Although this demand was
made in the name of France for the plain reason that the American army
was not yet upon the spot, the loyalists did not fail to make it a
pretext for the accusation that the French were desirous of making
conquests in the war on their own account. In the meantime Lincoln with
the regular troops, was hurrying toward Savannah, and had issued orders
for the militia to rendezvous at the same place; and the militia full of
hope of a speedy, if not of a bloodless conquest, were entering upon
this campaign with more than ordinary enthusiasm.

During the time that the fleet had been off the coast, and especially
since the landing, the British had been very busy in putting the city in
a high state of defence, and in making efforts to strengthen the
garrison. Lieutenant-colonel Cruger, who had a small force at Sunbury,
the last place in Georgia that had been captured by the British, and
Lieutenant-colonel Maitland who was commanding a considerable force at
Beaufort, were ordered to report in haste with their commands at
Savannah. On the 16th, when the summons to surrender was received by
Prevost, Maitland had not arrived, but was hourly expected. Prevost
asked for a delay of twenty-four hours to consider the proposal, which
delay was granted; and on that very evening, Maitland with his force
arrived at Dawfuskie. Finding the river in the possession of the French,
his course for a time seemed effectually cut off. By the merest chance
he fell in with some Negro fishermen who informed him of a passage known
as Wall's cut, through Scull's creek, navigable for small boats. A
favoring tide and a dense fog enabled him to conduct his command
unperceived by the French, through this route, and thus arrive in
Savannah on the afternoon of the 17th, before the expiration of the
twenty-four hours. General Prevost had gained his point; and now
believing himself able to resist an assault, declined the summons to
surrender. Two armed ships and four transports were sunk in the channel
of the river below the city, and a boom in the same place laid entirely
across the river; while several small boats were sunk above the town,
thus rendering it impossible for the city to be approached by water.



On the day of the summons to surrender, although the works were
otherwise well advanced, there were not ten cannon mounted in the lines
of Savannah; but from that time until the day of assault, the men of the
garrison, with the slaves they had captured, worked day and night to get
the defences of the city in the highest state of excellence. Major
Moncrief, chief of the engineers, is credited with placing in position
more than eighty cannons in a short time after the call to surrender had
been received.

The city itself at this time was but a mere village of frame buildings
and unpaved streets. Viewed as facing its assailants, it was protected
in its rear, or upon its north side, by the Savannah river; and on its
west side by a thick swamp or morass, which communicated with the river
above the city. The exposed sides were those of the east and south.
These faced an open country which for several miles was entirely clear
of woods. This exposed portion of the city was well protected by an
unbroken line of defences extending from the river back to the swamp,
the right and left extremes of the line consisting of strong redoubts,
while the centre was made up of seamen's batteries in front, with
impalements and traverses thrown up to protect the troops from the fire
of the besiegers. The whole extent of the works was faced with an ample

To be still more particular: there were three redoubts on the right of
the line, and on the right of them quite near the swamp, was a sailor's
battery of nine pounders, covered by a company of the British legion.
The left redoubt of these three, was known as the Springhill redoubt;
and proved to be the objective of the final assault. Between it and the
centre, was another sailor's battery behind which were posted the
grenadiers of the 60th regiment, with the marines which had been landed
from the warships. On the left of the line near the river were two
redoubts, strongly constructed, with a massy frame of green spongy wood,
filled in with sand, and mounted with heavy cannon. The centre, or space
between these groups of redoubts, was composed, as has been said, of
lighter but nevertheless very effective works, and was strongly

Having thus scanned the works, let us now take a glance at the men who
are to defend them. As all of the assaulting forces are not made up of
Americans, so all of the defenders are not foreigners. The centre
redoubt of the triplet on the right, was garrisoned by two companies of
militia, with the North Carolina regiment to support them; Captains
Roworth and Wylie, with the provincial corps of King's Rangers, were
posted in the redoubt on the right; and Captain Tawse with his corps of
provincial dragoons, dismounted, in the left or Springhill redoubt,
supported by the South Carolina regiment. The whole of this force on the
right of the line, was under the command of the gallant Lieutenant-colonel
Maitland; and it was this force that made the charge that barely failed
of annihilating the American army. On the left of the line, the Georgia
loyalists garrisoned one of those massy wooden sand-filled redoubts;
while in the centre, cheek by jowl so to speak, with two battalions of
the seventy-first regiment, and two regiments of hessians, stood the New
York Volunteers. All of these corps were ready to act as circumstances
should require and to support any part of the line that might be
attacked. The Negroes who worked on these defences were under the
direction of Major Moncrief.

The French troops had landed below the city and were formed facing the
British lines, with the river on their right. On their left, later,
assembled the American troops. The final dispositions were concluded by
September 22nd, and were as follows: The American troops under Lincoln
formed the left of the line, their left resting upon the swamp and the
entire division facing the Springhill redoubt and her two sister
defences; then came the division of M. de Noailles, composed of nine
hundred men. D'Estaing's division of one thousand men beside the
artillery, came next, and formed the centre of the French army. On
D'Estaing's right was Count Dillon's division of nine hundred men; on
the right of Dillon were the powder magazine, cattle depot, and a small
field hospital; on the right of the depot and a little in advance, were
Dejean's dragoons, numbering fifty men; upon the same alignment and to
the right of the dragoons were Rouvrais' Volunteer Chasseurs, numbering
seven hundred and fifty men; still further on to the right and two
hundred yards in advance of Rouvrais, was Framais, commanding the
Grenadier Volunteers, and two hundred men besides, his right resting
upon the swampy wood that bordered the river, thus completely closing in
the city on the land side. The frigate, La Truite, and two galleys, lay
within cannon shot of the town, and with the aid of the armed store
ship, La Bricole, and the frigate, La Chimere, effectually cut off all
communication by water.

On the 23rd, both the French and the Americans opened their trenches;
and on the 24th, a small detachment of the besieged made a sortie
against the French. The attack was easily repulsed, but the French
pursuing, approached so near the entrenchments of the enemy that they
were fired upon and several were killed. On the night of the 27th
another sortie was made which threw the besiegers into some confusion
and caused the French and Americans to fire upon each other. Cannonading
continued with but little result until October 8th.

The engineers were now of the opinion that a speedy reduction of the
city could not be accomplished by regular approaches; and the naval
officers were very anxious about the fleet, both because of the dangers
to which it was exposed from the sea, and also because, with so many men
ashore it was in especial danger of being attacked and captured by
British men-of-war. These representations agreeing altogether with
D'Estaing's previously expressed wishes to leave the coast as soon as
possible, induced that officer and General Lincoln to decide upon an
attempt to storm the British works at once. It is quite probable that
this had been the purpose as a last resort from the first. The
preservation of the fleet was, however, the powerful factor in
determining the time and character of the assault upon Savannah.

On the night of the eighth, Major L'Enfant, with a detachment attempted
to set fire to the abattis in order to clear the way for the assault,
but failed through the dampness of the wood. The plan of the assault may
be quite accurately obtained from the orders given to the American
troops on the evening of the 8th by General Lincoln and from the
inferences to be drawn from the events of the morning of the 9th as they
are recorded in history. At least two of the historians who have left us
accounts of the seige, Ramsey and McCall, were present at the time, and
their accounts may be regarded as original authority. General Lincoln's
orders were as follows:

"Evening Orders. By General Lincoln.


"The soldiers will be immediately supplied with 40 rounds of cartridges,
a spare flint, and have their arms in good order. The infantry destined
for the attack of Savannah will be divided into two bodies; first
composed of the light troops under the command of Colonel Laurens; the
second, of the continental battalions and the first battalion of the
Charleston militia, except the grenadiers, who are to join the light
troops. The whole will parade at 1 o'clock, near the left of the line,
and march by platoons. The guards of the camp will be formed of the
invalids, and be charged to keep the fires as usual, in camp.

"The cavalry under the command of Count Pulaski, will parade at the same
time with the infantry and follow the left column of the French troops,
precede the column of the American light troops; they will endeavor to
penetrate the enemy's lines between the battery on the left of
Springhill redoubt, and the next towards the river; having effected
this, will pass to the left towards Yamacraw and secure such parties of
the enemy as may be lodged in that quarter.

"The artillery will parade at the same time, follow the French
artillery, and remain with the _corps de reserve_ until they receive
further orders.

"The whole will be ready by the time appointed, with the utmost silence
and punctuality; and be ready to march the instant Count Dillon and
General Lincoln shall order.

"The light troops who are to follow the cavalry, will attempt to enter
the redoubt on the left of the Springhill, by escalade if possible; if
not by entrance into it, they are to be supported if necessary by the
first South Carolina regiment; in the meantime the column will proceed
with the lines to the left of the Springhill battery.

"The light troops having succeeded against the redoubt will proceed to
the left and attempt the several works between that and the river.

"The column will move to the left of the French troops, taking care not
to interfere with them.

"The light troops having carried the work towards the river will form on
the left of the column.

"It is especially forbidden to fire a single gun before the redoubts are
carried; or for any soldier to quit his rank to plunder without an order
for that purpose; any who shall presume to transgress in either of these
respects shall be reputed a disobeyer of military orders which is
punishable with death.

"The militia of the first and second brigades, General Williamson's and
the second battalion of the Charleston militia will parade immediately
under the command of General Huger; after draughting five hundred of
them the remainder of them will go into the trenches and put themselves
under the commanding officer there; with the 500 he will march to the
left of the enemy's line, remain as near them as he possibly can without
being seen, until four o'clock in the morning, at which time the troops
in the trenches will begin an attack upon the enemy; he will then
advance and make his attack as near the river as possible; though this
is only meant as a feint, yet should a favorable opportunity offer, he
will improve it and push into the town.

"In case of a repulse after taking Springhill redoubt, the troops will
retreat and rally in the rear of the redoubt; if it cannot be effected
that way, it must be attempted by the same route at which they entered.

"The second place of rallying (or the first if the redoubt should not be
carried) will be at the Jews' burying-ground, where the reserve will be
placed; if these two halts should not be effected, they will retire
towards camp.

"The troops will carry in their hats a piece of white paper by which
they will be distinguished."

General Huger with his five hundred militia, covered by the river swamp,
crept quite close to the enemy's lines and delivered his attack as
directed. Its purpose was to draw attention to that quarter and if
possible cause a weakening of the strength in the left centre of the
line. What its real effect was, there is now no means of knowing.

Count Dillon, who during the siege had been on D'Estaing's right, and
who appears to have been second in command in the French army, in this
assault was placed in command of a second attacking column. His purpose
was to move to the right of General Huger, and keeping in the edge of
the swamps along the river, steal past the enemy's batteries on the
left, and attack him in the rear. Bancroft describes the results of his
efforts as follows: "The column under Count Dillon, which was to have
attacked the rear of the British lines, became entangled in a swamp of
which it should only have skirted the edge was helplessly exposed to the
British batteries and could not even be formed." Here were the two
strong sand-filled redoubts, mounted with heavy cannon, and these may
have been the batteries that stopped Dillon's column.

Count Pulaski with his two hundred brave cavalrymen, undertook his part
in the deadly drama with ardor, and began that perilous ride which had
for its object: "to penetrate the enemy's lines, between the battery on
the left of the Springhill redoubt, and the next towards the river."
Balch describes it as an attempt to "penetrate into the city by
galloping between the redoubts." It was the anticipation of the Crimean
"Charge of the Light Brigade;" only in this case, no one blundered; it
was simply a desperate chance. Cannon were to the right, left, and
front, and the heroic charge proved in vain; the noble Pole fell, banner
in hand, pierced with a mortal wound--another foreign martyr to our dear
bought freedom.

The cavalry dash having failed, that much of the general plan was
blotted out. The feints may have been understood; it is said a sergeant
of the Charleston Grenadiers deserted during the night of the 8th and
gave the whole plan of the attack to General Prevost, so that he knew
just where to strengthen his lines. The feints were effectually checked
by the garrison on the left, twenty-eight of the Americans being killed;
while Dillon's column was stopped by the batteries near the river. This
state of affairs allowed the whole of Maitland's force to protect the
Springhill redoubt and that part of the line which was most threatened.
The Springhill redoubt, as has been stated, was occupied by the South
Carolina regiment and a corps of dragoons. This circumstance may account
for the fact, that while the three hundred and fifty Charleston militia
occupied a most exposed position in the attacking column, only one man
among them was killed and but six wounded. The battery on the left of
this redoubt was garrisoned by grenadiers and marines.

The attacking column now advanced boldly, under the command of D'Estaing
and Lincoln, the Americans consisting of six hundred continental troops
and three hundred and fifty Charleston militia, being on the left, while
the centre and right were made up of the French forces. They were met
with so severe and steady a fire that the head of the column was soon
thrown into confusion. They endured this fire for fifty-five minutes,
returning it as best they could, although many of the men had no
opportunity to fire at all. Two American standards, and one French
standard, were placed on the British works, but their bearers were
instantly killed. It being found impossible to carry any part of the
works, a general retreat was ordered. Of the six hundred continental
troops, more than one-third had fallen, and about one-fifth of the
French. The Charleston militia had not suffered, although they had
bravely borne their part in the assault, and it had certainly been no
fault of theirs if their brethren behind the enbankments had not fired
upon them. Count D'Estaing had received two wounds, one in the thigh,
and being unable to move, was saved by the young naval lieutenant
Truguet. Ramsey gives the losses of the battle as follows: French
soldiers 760; officers 61; Americans 312; total 1133.

As the army began its retreat, Lieutenant-colonel Maitland with the
grenadiers, and marines who were incorporated with the grenadiers,
charged its rear with the purpose of accomplishing its annihilation. It
was then that there occurred the most brilliant feat of the day, and one
of the bravest ever performed by foreign troops in the American cause.
In the army of D'Estaing was a legion of black and mulatto freedmen,
known as Fontages Legion, commanded by Vicount de Fontages, a brave and
experienced officer. The strength of this legion is given variously from
six hundred to over eight hundred men. This legion met the fierce charge
of Maitland and saved the retreating army.

In an official record prepared in Paris, now before me, are these words:
"This legion saved the army at Savannah by bravely covering its retreat.
Among the blacks who rendered signal services at that time were: Andre,
Beauvais, Rigaud, Villatte, Beauregard, Lambert, who latterly became
generals under the convention, including Henri Christophe, the future
king of Haiti." This quotation is taken from a paper secured by the
Honorable Richard Rush, our minister to Paris in 1849, and is preserved
in the Pennsylvania Historical Society. Henri Christophe received a
dangerous gunshot wound in Savannah. Balch says in speaking of Fontages
at Savannah: "He commanded there a legion of mulattoes, according to my
manuscript, of more than eight hundred men, and saved the army after the
useless assault on the fortifications, by bravely covering the

It was this legion that formed the connecting link between the siege of
Savannah and the wide development of republican liberty on the Western
continent, which followed early in the present century. In order to show
this connection and the sequences, it will be necessary to sketch in
brief the history of this remarkable body of men, especially that of the
prominent individuals who distinguished themselves at Savannah.

In 1779 the French colony of Saint Domingo was in a state of peace, the
population then consisting of white slaveholders, mulatto and black
freedmen (affranchis), and slaves. Count D'Estaing received orders to
recruit men from Saint Domingo for the auxiliary army; and there being
no question of color raised, received into the service a legion of
colored freedmen. There had been for years a colored militia in Saint
Domingo, and as early as 1716, the Marquis de Chateau-Morand, then
governor of the colony, made one Vincent, the Captain-general of all the
colored militia in the vicinity of the Cape. This Captain Vincent died
in 1780 at the reputed age of 120 years. He was certainly of great age,
for he had been in the siege of Carthagenia in 1697, was taken prisoner,
afterwards liberated by exchange and presented to Louis XIV, and fought
in the German war under Villars. Moreau de St. Mery, in his description
of Vincent incidentally mentions the Savannah expedition. He says: "I
saw him (Vincent) the year preceding his death, recalling his ancient
prowess to the men of color who were enrolling themselves for the
expedition to Savannah; and showing in his descendants who were among
the first to offer themselves, that he had transmitted his valor.
Vincent, the good Captain Vincent, had a most pleasing countenance; and
the contrast of his black skin with his white hair produced an effect
that always commanded respect."

The Haytian historian, Enclus Robin, says when the call for volunteers
reached Saint Domingo: "eight hundred young freedmen, blacks and
mulattoes, offered themselves to take part in the expedition;" that they
went and "fought valiantly; and returned to Saint Domingo covered with
glory." Madiou, another Haytian historian of the highest respectability
says: "A crowd of young men, black and colored, enlisted with the French
troops and left for the continent. They covered themselves with glory in
the siege of Savannah, under the orders of Count D'Estaing."

What effect this experience had upon these volunteers may be inferred
from their subsequent history. Robin says: "These men who contributed
their mite toward American independence, had still their mothers and
sisters in slavery; and they themselves were subject to humiliating
discriminations. Should not France have expected from that very moment,
that they would soon use in their own cause, those very arms which they
had learned so well to use in the interests of others?" Madiou says: "On
their return to Saint Domingo they demanded for their brothers the
enjoyment of political rights." Beauvais went to Europe and served in the
army of France; but returned to fight for liberty in Hayti, and was
Captain-general in 1791: Rigaud, Lambert and Christophe wrote their
names--not in the sand. These are the men who dared to stir Saint
Domingo, under whose influence Hayti became the first country of the New
World, after the United States, to throw off European rule. The
connection between the siege of Savannah and the independence of Hayti
is traced, both as to its spirit, and physically, through the black
legion that on that occasion saved the American army. How this
connection is traced to the republics of South America, I will allow a
Haytian statesman and man of letters, honored both at home and abroad,
to relate. I translate from a work published in Paris in 1885:

"The illustrious Bolivar, liberator and founder of five republics in
South America, undertook in 1811 his great work of shaking off the yoke
of Spain, and of securing the independence of those immense countries
which swelled the pride of the catholic crown--but failed. Stripped of
all resources he took flight and repaired to Jamaica, where he implored
in vain of the governor of that island, the help of England. Almost in
despair, and without means, he resolved to visit Hayti, and appeal to
the generosity of the black Republic for the help necessary to again
undertake that work of liberation which had gone to pieces in his hands.
Never was there a more solemn hour for any man--and that man the
representative of the destiny of South America! Could he hope for
success? After the English, who had every interest in the destruction of
Spanish colonial power, had treated him with so much indifference, could
he hope that a newborn nation, weak, with microscopic territory, and
still guarding anxiously its own ill-recognized independence, would risk
itself in an enterprise hazardous as the one he represented? Full of
doubt he came: but Petion gave him a most cordial welcome.

"Taking the precautions that a legitimate sentiment of prudence dictated
at that delicate moment of our national existence, the government of
Port-au-Prince put to the disposition of the hero of Boyaca and
Carabobo, all the elements, of which he had need--and Bolivar needed
everything. Men, arms, and money were generously given him. Petion did
not wish to act openly for fear of compromising himself with the Spanish
government; it was arranged that the men should embark secretly as
volunteers; and that no mention of Hayti should ever be made in any
official act of Venezuela."

Bolivar's first expedition with his Haytian volunteers was a failure;
returning to the island he procured reinforcements and made a second
descent which was brilliantly successful. Haytian arms, money, and men
turned Bolivar's disasters to victory; and the spirit of Western liberty
marched on to the redemption of South America. The liberation of Mexico
and all Central America, followed as a matter of course; and the ground
was thus cleared for the practical application of that Continentalism
enunciated in the Monroe doctrine.

The black men of the Antilles who fought in the siege of Savannah, enjoy
unquestionably the proud historical distinction of being the physical
conductors that bore away from our altars the sacred fire of liberty to
rekindle it in their own land; and also of becoming the humble but
important link that served to unite the Two Americas in the bond of
enlightened independence.


NOTE: In the preparation of the above paper I have been greatly assisted
by the Honorable L. J. Janvier, Chargè d' affairs d' Hayti, in London;
by Right Reverend James Theodore Holly, bishop of Hayti; and by Messrs.
Charles and Frank Rudolph Steward of Harvard University. To all of these
gentlemen my thanks are here expressed.                        T. G. S.


[1]The presentation of this banner by the Moravian Nuns of Bethlehem
forms the text of the poem by Longfellow beginning,--

  When the dying flame of day
  Through the chancel shot its ray,
  Far the glimmering tapers shed
  Faint light on the cowled head;
  And the censer burning swung,
  Where, before the altar, hung
  The crimson banner, that with prayer
  Had been consecrated there.
  And the nuns' sweet hymn was heard the while,
  Sung low in the dim, mysterious aisle.
      "Take thy banner! may it wave
      Proudly o'er the good and brave;
      When the battle's distant wail
      Breaks the Sabbath of our vale.
      When the cannon's music thrills
      To the hearts of those lone hills,
      When the spear in conflict shakes,
      And the strong lance shivering breaks.

       *       *       *       *       *

      "Take thy banner! and if e'er
      Thou shouldst press the soldier's bier,
      And the muffled drum shall beat
      To the tread of mournful feet,
      Then the crimson flag shall be
      Martial cloak and shroud for thee."
  The warrior took that banner proud,
    And it was his martial cloak and shroud!

Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _underscore_.

The following misprints have been corrected:
  "commande" corrected to "command" (page 7)
  "and and" corrected to "and" (page 9)
  "remander" corrected to "remainder" (page 10)
  "the the" corrected to "the" (page 10)
  "annihihilation" corrected to "annihilation" (page 12)
  "brillant" corrected to "brilliant" (page 12)

Other than the corrections listed above, printer's spelling and
hyphenation usage have been retained.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "How the Black St. Domingo Legion Saved the Patriot Army in the Siege of Savannah, 1779 - The American Negro Academy. Occasional Papers No. 5" ***

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