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Title: Anglo-Saxon Primer - With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary; Eighth Edition Revised
Author: Sweet, Henry, 1845-1912
Language: English
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Grammar, Notes, and Glossary



Eighth Edition, Revised

At the Clarendon Press

Printed in England
At the Oxford University Press



The want of an introduction to the study of Old-English has long been felt.
Vernon's _Anglo-Saxon Guide_ was an admirable book for its time, but has
long been completely antiquated. I was therefore obliged to make my
_Anglo-Saxon Reader_ a somewhat unsatisfactory compromise between an
elementary primer and a manual for advanced students, but I always looked
forward to producing a strictly elementary book like the present one, which
would enable me to give the larger one a more scientific character, and
would at the same time serve as an introduction to it. Meanwhile, however,
Professor Earle has brought out his _Book for the beginner in Anglo-Saxon_.
But this work is quite unsuited to serve as an introduction to my Reader,
and will be found to differ so totally in plan and execution from the
present one as to preclude all idea of rivalry on my part. We work on lines
which instead of clashing can only diverge more and more.

My main principle has been to make the book the easiest possible
introduction to the study of Old-English.

Poetry has been excluded, and a selection made from the easiest prose
pieces I could find. Old-English original prose is unfortunately limited in
extent, and the most suitable pieces (such as the voyages of Ohthere and
Wulfstan) are already given in the Reader; these I could not give over {vi}
again. But I hope the short extracts from the Chronicle and the Martyrdom
of King Edmund will be found not wanting in interest. For the rest of the
selections I have had to fall back on scriptural extracts, which have the
great advantages of simplicity and familiarity of subject. The Gospel
extracts have been transferred here from the Reader, where they will be
omitted in the next edition. The sentences which head the selections have
been gathered mainly from the Gospels, Ælfric's Homilies, and the
Chronicle. They are all of the simplest possible character, only those
having been taken which would bear isolation from their context. They are
intended to serve both as an introduction and as a supplement to the longer
pieces. They are grouped roughly into paragraphs, according to the
grammatical forms they illustrate. Thus the first paragraph consists mainly
of examples of the nominative singular of nouns and adjectives, the second
of accusative singulars, and so on.

The spelling has been made rigorously uniform throughout on an early
West-Saxon basis. Injurious as normalizing is to the advanced student, it
is an absolute necessity for the beginner, who wants to have the definite
results of scholarship laid before him, not the confused and fluctuating
spellings which he cannot yet interpret intelligently. Even for purely
scientific purposes we require a standard of comparison and classification,
as in the arrangement of words in a dictionary, where we have to decide,
for instance, whether to put the original of _hear_ under _[=e], [=i]e,
[=i]_ or _[=y]_. The spelling I here adopt is, in fact, the one I should
recommend for dictionary purposes. From early West-Saxon it is an easy step
both to late W. S. and to the Mercian forms from which Modern English is
derived. That I give Ælfric in a spelling slightly earlier than his date is
no more {vii} unreasonable than it is for a classical scholar to print
Ausonius (who doubtless spoke Latin with an almost Italian pronunciation)
in the same spelling as Virgil.

It is impossible to go into details, but in doubtful or optional cases I
have preferred those forms which seemed most instructive to the student.
Thus I have preferred keeping up the distinction between the indic.
_bundon_ and the subj. _bunden_, although the latter is often levelled
under the former even in early MS. In the accentuation I have for the
present retained the conventional quantities, which are really
'prehistoric' quantities, as I have shown elsewhere (Phil. Soc. Proc. 1880,
1881). It is no use trying to disguise the fact that Old English philology
(owing mainly to its neglect in its native land) is still in an unsettled

In the Grammar I have cut down the phonology to the narrowest limits,
giving only what is necessary to enable the beginner to trace the
connection of forms within the language itself. Derivation and syntax have
been treated with the same fulness as the inflections. In my opinion, to
give inflections without explaining their use is as absurd as it would be
to teach the names of the different parts of a machine without explaining
their use, and derivation is as much a fundamental element of a language as
inflection. The grammar has been based throughout on the texts, from which
all words and sentences given as examples have, as far as possible, been
taken. This I consider absolutely essential in an elementary book. What is
the use of a grammar which gives a number of forms and rules which the
learner has no occasion to apply practically in his reading? Simply to cut
down an ordinary grammar and prefix it to a selection of elementary texts,
without any attempt to adapt them to one another, is a most unjustifiable
proceeding. {viii}

In the Glossary cognate and root words are given only when they occur in
the texts, or else are easily recognizable by the ordinary English reader.

All reference to cognate languages has been avoided. Of course, if the
beginner knows German, the labour of learning Old English will be lightened
for him by one half, but he does not require to have the analogies pointed
out to him. The same applies to the relation between Old and Modern
English. To trace the history of the sounds would be quite out of place in
this book, and postulates a knowledge of the intermediate stages which the
beginner cannot have.

The Notes consist chiefly of references to the Grammar, and are intended
mainly for those who study without a teacher. As a general rule, no such
references are given where the passage itself is quoted in the Grammar.

On the whole I do not think the book could be made much easier without
defeating its object. Thus, instead of simply referring the student from
_st[e,]nt_ to _standan_, and thence to the Grammar, I might have saved him
all this trouble by putting '_st[e,]nt_, 3 sg. pres. of _standan_, stand,'
but the result would be in many cases that he would not look at the Grammar
at all--surely a most undesirable result.

Although I have given everything that I believe to be _necessary_, every
teacher may, of course, at his own discretion add such further
illustrations, linguistic, historical, antiquarian, or otherwise, as he
thinks likely to instruct or interest his pupils.

My thanks are due to Professor Skeat, not only for constant advice and
encouragement in planning and carrying out this work, but also for help in
correcting the proofs.

In conclusion I may be allowed to express a hope that this little book may
prove useful not only to young beginners, but also to some of our
Professors of and {ix} Examiners in the English language, most of whom are
now beginning to see the importance of a sound elementary knowledge of
'Anglo-Saxon'--a knowledge which I believe this book to be capable of
imparting, if studied diligently, and not hurriedly cast aside for a more
ambitious one.


  _March 31, 1882_.

       *       *       *       *       *


In the present edition I have put this book into what must be (for some
time at least) its permanent form, making such additions and alterations as
seemed necessary.

If I had any opportunity of teaching the language, I should no doubt have
been able to introduce many other improvements; as it is, I have had to
rely mainly on the suggestions and corrections kindly sent to me by various
teachers and students who have used this book, among whom my especial
thanks are due to the Rev. W. F. Moulton, of Cambridge, and Mr. C. Stoffel,
of Amsterdam.


  _October 15, 1884_.




  GRAMMAR                                                    1

  TEXTS                                                     55

  NOTES                                                     91

  GLOSSARY                                                  97



The oldest stage of English before the Norman Conquest is called 'Old
English,' which name will be used throughout in this Book, although the
name 'Anglo-Saxon' is still often used.

There were several dialects of Old English. This book deals only with the
_West-Saxon_ dialect in its earliest form.



The vowel-letters in Old English had nearly the same values as in Latin.
Long vowels were occasionally marked by (´), short vowels being left
unmarked. In this book long vowels are marked by (-). The following are the
elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and key-words from
English, French (F.), and German (G.):--

  a     _as in_     mann (G.)       nama (_name_).
  [=a]     "      father          st[=a]n (_stone_).
  æ        "      man             glæd (_glad_).
  [=æ]     "                      d[=æ]d (_deed_)[1].
  e        "      été (F.)        ic ete[2] (_I eat_).
  [=e]     "      see (G.)        h[=e] (_he_).
  [e,]     "      men             m[e,]nn (_men_).
  i        "      fini (F.)       cwic (_alive_).
  [=i]     "      sieh (G.)       w[=i]n (_wine_).
  ie       "      fin             ieldran (_ancestors_).
  [=i]e    "                      h[=i]eran (_hear_).
  o        "      beau (F.)       god (_god_).
  [=o]     "      so (G.)         g[=o]d (_good_).
  u        "      sou (F.)        sunu (_son_).
  [=u]     "      gut (G.)        n[=u] (_now_).
  y        "      véc_u_ (F.)     synn (_sin_).
  [=y]     "      grün (G.)       br[=y]d (_bride_).
  ea       =      æ + a           eall (_all_).
  [=e]a    =      [=æ] + a        [=e]ast (_east_).
  eo       =      e + o           weorc (_work_).
  [=e]o    =      [=e] + o        d[=e]op (_deep_).
        _e_ and _[e,]_ are both written e in the MSS.

The diphthongs are pronounced with the stress on the first element.

    Those who find a difficulty in learning strange vowel-sounds may adopt
    the following approximate pronunciation:--

      a     as in     ask (short)     nama (n[)a]hm[)a]h).
      [=a]     "      father          st[=a]n (stahn).
      æ        "      man             glæd (glad).
      [=æ]     "      there           [=æ]r (air).
      e, [e,]  "      men             ete (etty), m[e,]nn (men).
      [=e]     "      they            h[=e] (hay).
      i, ie    "      fin             cwic (quick), ieldran (ildr[)a]hn).
      [=i], [=i]e  "  see             w[=i]n (ween), h[=i]eran
      o        "      not             god (god).
      [=o]     "      note            g[=o]d (goad).
      u        "      full            full (full).
      [=u]     "      fool            n[=u] (noo).
      y        "      fin             synn (zin).
      [=y]     "      see             br[=y]d (breed).
      ea       =      [)e]-[)a]h      eall ([)e]-[)a]hl).
      [=e]a    =      ai-[)a]h        [=e]ast (ai-[)a]hst).
      eo       =      [)e]-o          weorc (w[)e]-ork).
      [=e]o    =      ai-o            d[=e]op (dai-op).

    The pronunciation given in parentheses is the nearest that can be
    expressed in English letters as pronounced in Southern English.


Double consonants must be pronounced double, or long, as in Italian. Thus
_sunu_ (son) must be distinguished from _sunne_ (sun) in the same way as
_penny_ is distinguished from _penknife_. So also _in_ (in) must be
distinguished from _inn_ (house); noting that in modern English final
consonants in accented monosyllables after a short vowel are long, our _in_
and _inn_ both having the pronunciation of Old English _inn_, not of O.E.

_c_ and _g_ had each a _back_ (guttural) and a _front_ (palatal) pron.,
which latter is in this book written _[.c]_, _[.g]_.

c = _k_, as in _c[=e]ne_ (bold), _cn[=a]wan_ (know).

[.c] = _kj_, a _k_ formed in the _j_ (English _y_) position, nearly as in
the old-fashioned pron. of _sky_: _[.c]iri[.c]e_ (church), _sty[.c][.c]e_
(piece), _þ[e,]n[.c]an_ (think).

g initially and in the combination _ng_ was pron. as in 'get': _g[=o]d_
(good), _lang_ (long); otherwise (that is, medially and finally after
vowels and _l, r_) as in German _sagen: dagas_ (days), _burg_ (city),
_h[=a]lga_ (saint).

[.g] initially and in the combination _n[.g]_ was pronounced _gj_
(corresponding to _kj_): _[.g][=e]_ (ye), _[.g]eorn_ (willing),
_spr[e,]n[.g]an_ (scatter); otherwise = _j_ (as in 'you'): _dæ[.g]_ (day),
_wr[=e][.g]an_ (accuse), _h[e,]r[.g]ian_ (ravage). It is possible that
_[.g]_ in _[.g]e-boren_ (born) and other unaccented syllables was already
pronounced _j. [.c][.g] = [.g][.g]: s[e,][.c][.g]an_ (say), _hry[.c][.g]_

f had the sound of _v_ everywhere where it was possible:--_faran_ (go),
_of_ (of), _ofer_ (over); not, of course, in _oft_ (often), or when
doubled, as in _offrian_ (offer). {4}

h initially, as in _h[=e]_ (he), had the same sound as now. Everywhere else
it had that of Scotch and German _ch_ in _loch_:--_h[=e]ah_ (high), _Wealh_
(Welshman), _riht_ (right). _hw_, as in _hwæt_ (what), _hw[=i]l_ (while),
had the sound of our _wh_; and _hl, hn, hr_ differed from _l, n, r_
respectively precisely as _wh_ differs from _w_, that is, they were these
consonants devocalized, _hl_ being nearly the same as Welsh
_ll:--hl[=a]ford_ (lord), _hl[=u]d_ (loud); _hnappian_ (doze), _hnutu_
(nut); _hraþe_ (quickly), _hr[=e]od_ (reed).

r was always a strong trill, as in Scotch:--_r[=æ]ran_ (to raise), _h[=e]r_
(here), _word_ (word).

s had the sound of _z_:--_s[=e][.c]an_ (seek), _sw[=a]_ (so), _w[=i]s_
(wise), _[=a]·r[=i]san_ (rise); not, of course, in combination with hard
consonants, as in _st[=a]n_ (stone), _fæst_ (firm), _r[=i][.c]sian_ (rule),
or when double, as in _cyssan_ (kiss).

þ had the sound of our _th_ (= dh) in _then_:_--þ[=u]_ (thou), _þing_
(thing), _s[=o]þ_ (true), _h[=æ]þen_ (heathen); except when in combination
with hard consonants, where it had that of our _th_ in _thin_, as in
_s[=e][.c]þ_ (seeks). Note _hæfþ_ (has) = _hævdh_.

w was fully pronounced wherever written:--_wr[=i]tan_ (write), _n[=i]we_
(new), _s[=e]ow_ (sowed _pret._).


The stress or accent is marked throughout in this book, whenever it is not
on the first syllable of a word, by (·) preceding the letter on which the
stress begins. Thus _for·[.g]iefan_ is pronounced with the same stress as
that of _forgive_, _andswaru_ with that of _answer_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Different vowels are related to one another in various ways in O.E., the
most important of which are _mutation_ (German _umlaut_) and _gradation_
(G. _ablaut_). {5}

The following changes are _mutations_:--

a .. [e,]:--mann, _pl._ m[e,]nn; wand (wound _prt._), w[e,]ndan (to turn).

ea (= a) .. ie (= [e,]):--eald (old), ieldra (older); feallan (fall), fielþ

[=a] .. [=æ]:--bl[=a]wan (to blow), bl[=æ]wþ (bloweth); h[=a]l (sound),
h[=æ]lan (heal).

u .. y:--burg (city), _pl._ byri[.g]; trum (strong), trymman (to

o .. y:--gold, gylden (golden); coss (a kiss), cyssan (to kiss).

e .. i:--beran (to bear), bireþ (beareth); cweþan (speak), cwide (speech).

eo (= e) .. ie (= i):--heord (herd), hierde (shepherd); [.c]eorfan (cut),
[.c]ierfþ (cuts).

u .. o:--curon (they chose), [.g]e·coren (chosen).

[=u] .. [=y]:--c[=u]þ (known), c[=y]þan (to make known); f[=u]l (foul),
[=a]·f[=y]lan (defile).

[=o] .. [=e]:--s[=o]hte (sought _prt._), s[=e][.c]an (to seek); f[=o]da
(food), f[=e]dan (to feed).

[=e]a .. [=i]e:--h[=e]awan (to hew), h[=i]ewþ (hews); t[=e]am (progeny),
t[=i]eman (teem).

[=e]o .. [=i]e:--st[=e]or (rudder), st[=i]eran (steer); [.g]e·str[=e]on
(possession), [.g]es·tr[=i]enan (gain).

Before proceeding to gradation, it will be desirable to describe the other
most important vowel-relations.

a, æ, ea. In O.E. original _a_ is preserved before nasals, as in _mann_,
_lang_, _nama_ (name), and before a single consonant followed by _a_, _u_,
or _o_, as in _dagas_ (days), _dagum_ (to days), _faran_ (go), _gafol_
(profit), and in some words when _e_ follows, as in _ic fare_ (I go),
_faren_ (gone). Before _r_, _l_, _h_ followed by another consonant, and
before _x_ it becomes _ea_, as in _heard_ (hard), _eall_ (all), _eald_
(old), _eahta_ (eight), _weaxan_ (to grow). Not in _bærst_ (p. 7). In most
other cases it becomes _æ_:--_dæ[.g]_, (day), _dæ[.g]es_ (of a day), _fæst_
(firm), _wær_ (wary). {6}

e before nasals always becomes _i_: compare _bindan_ (to bind), pret.
_band_, with _beran_ (to bear), pret. _bær_.

_e_ before _r_ (generally followed by a consonant) becomes _eo:--eorþe_
(earth), _heorte_ (heart). Not in _berstan_ (p. 7). Also in other
cases:--_seolfor_ (silver), _heofon_ (heaven).

i before _r_ + cons. becomes _ie:--bierþ_ (beareth) contr. from _bireþ,
hierde_ (shepherd) from _heord_ (herd), _wiersa_ (worse).

[e,] before _r_, or _l_ + cons. often becomes _ie:--fierd_ (army) from
_faran_, _bieldo_ (boldness) from _beald_, _ieldra_ (elder) from _eald_.

By _gradation_ the vowels are related as follows:--

e (i, eo) .. a (æ, ea) .. u (o):--

_bindan_ (inf.), _band_ (pret.), _bundon_ (they bound). _beran_ (inf.),
_bær_ (pret.), _boren_ (past partic.). _[.c]eorfan_ (cut), _[.c]earf_
(pret.), _curfon_ (they cut), _corfen_ (past partic.). _b[e,]nd_ (bond) =
mutation of band, _byr-þen_ (burden) of _bor-en_.

a (æ, ea) .. [=æ]:--_spræc_ (spoke), _spr[=æ]con_ (they spoke),
_spr[=æ][.c]_ (speech).

a .. [=o]:--_faran_ (to go), _f[=o]r_ (pret.), _f[=o]r_ (journey).
_[.g]e·f[=e]ra_ (companion) mutation of _f[=o]r_.

[=i] .. [=a] .. i:--_wr[=i]tan, wr[=a]t, writon, [.g]e·writ_ (writing,
_subst._). _(be)·l[=i]fan_ (remain), _l[=a]f_ (remains), whence by mutation
_l[=æ]fan_ (leave).

[=e]o ([=u]) .. [=e]a .. u (o):--_[.c][=e]osan_ (choose), _[.c][=e]as,
curon, coren_. _cys-t_ (choice). _(for)·l[=e]osan_ (lose), _l[=e]as_
(loose), _[=a]·l[=i]esan_ (release), _losian_ (to be lost). _b[=u]gan_
(bend), _boga_ (bow).

We see that the laws of gradation are most clearly shown in the conjugation
of the strong verbs. But they run through the whole language, and a
knowledge of the laws of gradation and mutation is the main key to O.E.

    It is often necessary to supply intermediate stages in connecting two
    words. Thus _l[e,][.c][.g]an_ (lay) cannot be directly referred to
    _li[.c][.g]an_ (lie), but only to a form *_lag_-, preserved in the
    preterite _læ[.g]_. So also _bl[e,]ndan_ (to blind) can be referred
    only indirectly to the adjective _blind_ through an intermediate
    *_bland_-. Again, the root-vowel of _byrþen_ {7} (burden) cannot be
    explained by the infinitive _beran_ (bear), but only by the past
    participle _[.g]e·boren_. In the same way _hryre_ (fall _sb._) must be
    referred, not to the infinitive _hr[=e]osan_, but to the preterite
    plural _hruron_.

    The vowel-changes in the preterites of verbs of the 'fall'-conjugation
    (1) _feallan_, _f[=e]oll_, &c., are due not to gradation, but to other


s becomes _r_ in the preterite plurals and past participles of strong
verbs, as in _curon_, _[.g]e·coren_ from _[.c][=e]osan_, _w[=æ]ron_ pl. of
_wæs_ (was), and in other formations, such as _hryre_ (fall) from

þ becomes _d_ under the same conditions, as in _wurdon_, _[.g]e·worden_
from _weorþan_ (become), _cwæþ_ (quoth), pl. _cw[=æ]don_, _cwide_ (speech)
from _cweþan_ (infin.).

r is often transposed, as in _iernan_ (run) from original *_rinnan_ (cp.
the subst. _ryne_), _berstan_ (burst) from *_brestan_, _bærst_ (burst
_pret._) from _bræst_, _hors_ (horse) from *_hross_.

The combinations cæ-, gæ- become _[.c]ea-_, _[.g]ea-_, as in _[.c]eaf_
(chaff) from *_cæf_, _s[.c]eal_ (shall) from *_scæl_, _[.g]eaf_ (gave) =
*_gæf_ from _[.g]iefan_ (cp. _cwæþ_ from _cweþan_), _[.g]eat_ (gate)--cp.
_fæt_ (vessel).

g[=æ]- often becomes _[.g][=e]a-_, as in _[.g][=e]afon_ (they gave), with
which compare _cw[=æ]don_ (they said).

ge- becomes _[.g]ie_, as in _[.g]iefan_, _[.g]ieldan_ (pay) from *_gefan_,
*_geldan_--cp. _cweþan_, _delfan_. Not in the prefix _[.g]e-_ and
_[.g][=e]_ (ye).

When g comes before a consonant in inflection, it often becomes _h_, as in
_h[=e] l[=i]ehþ_ (he lies) from _l[=e]ogan_ (mentiri).

h after a consonant is dropt when a vowel follows, the preceding vowel
being lengthened, thus _Wealh_ (Welshman) has plural _W[=e]alas_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Gender. There are three genders in O.E.--masculine, neuter, and feminine.
The gender is partly natural, partly {8} grammatical. By the natural gender
names of male beings, such as _se mann_ (the man), are masculine; of female
beings, such as _s[=e]o dohtor_ (the daughter), are feminine; and of young
creatures, such as _þæt [.c]ild_ (the child), neuter. Note, however, that
_þæt w[=i]f_ (woman) is neuter.

Grammatical gender is known only by the gender of the article and other
words connected with the noun, and, to some extent, by its form. Thus all
nouns ending in _-a_, such as _se m[=o]na_ (moon), are masculine, _s[=e]o
sunne_ (sun) being feminine. Those ending in _-d[=o]m_, _-h[=a]d_, and
_-s[.c]ipe_ are also masculine:--_se w[=i]sd[=o]m_ (wisdom), _se
[.c]ildh[=a]d_ (childhood), _se fr[=e]onds[.c]ipe_ (friendship). Those in
_-nes_, _-o_ (from adjectives) _-r[=æ]den_, and _-ung_ are
feminine:--_s[=e]o rihtw[=i]snes_ (righteousness), _s[=e]o bieldo_
(boldness) from _beald_, _s[=e]o mann-r[=æ]den_ (allegiance), _s[=e]o
scotung_ (shooting).

Compounds follow the gender of their last element, as in _þæt burg-[.g]eat_
(city-gate), from _s[=e]o burg_ and _þæt [.g]eat_. Hence also _se
w[=i]f-mann_ (woman) is masculine.

The gender of most words can be learnt only by practice, and the student
should learn each noun with its proper definite article.

Strong and Weak. Weak nouns are those which form their inflections with
_n_, such as _se m[=o]na_, plural _m[=o]nan_; _s[=e]o sunne_, genitive
sing. _þ[=æ]re sunnan_. All the others, such as _se dæ[.g]_, pl. _dagas_,
_þæt h[=u]s_ (house), gen. sing. _þæs h[=u]ses_, are strong.

Cases. There are four cases, nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive.
The acc. is the same as the nom. in all plurals, in the sing. of all neuter
nouns, and of all strong masculines. Masculine and neuter nouns never
differ in the plural except in the nom. and acc., and in the singular they
differ only in the acc. of weak nouns, which in neuters is the same as the
nom. The dative plural of nearly all nouns ends in _-um_. {9}


(1) as-plurals.

         SINGULAR.                    PLURAL.
  _Nom[3]._  st[=a]n (_stone_).   _Nom._  st[=a]n-as.
  _Dat._     st[=a]n-e.           _Dat._  st[=a]n-um.
  _Gen._     st[=a]n-es.          _Gen._  st[=a]n-a.

So also _d[=æ]l_ (part), _cyning_ (king), _[.c]ildh[=a]d_ (childhood).

_dæ[.g]_ (day) changes its vowel in the pl. (p. 5):--_dæ[.g]_, _dæ[.g]e_,
_dæ[.g]es_; _dagas_, _dagum_, _daga_.

Nouns in _-e_ have nom. and dat. sing. the same:--_[e,]nde_, (end),
_[e,]nde_, _[e,]ndes_; _[e,]ndas_, _[e,]ndum_, _[e,]nda_.

Nouns in _-el_, _-ol_, _-um_, _-en_, _-on_, _-er_, _-or_ often
contract:--_[e,]n[.g]el_ (angel), _[e,]n[.g]le_, _[e,]n[.g]les_;
_[e,]n[.g]las_, _[e,]n[.g]lum_, _[e,]n[.g]la_. So also _næ[.g]el_ (nail),
_þe[.g]en_ (thane), _ealdor_ (prince). Others, such as _æcer_ (field), do
not contract.

_h_ after a consonant is dropped in inflection (p. 7), as in _feorh_
(life), _f[=e]ore_, _f[=e]ores_. So also in _Wealh_ (Welshman), plur.

There are other classes which are represented only by a few nouns each.

(2) e-plurals.

    A few nouns which occur only in the plur.:--_l[=e]ode_ (people),
    _l[=e]odum_, _l[=e]oda_. So also several names of
    nations:--_[E,]n[.g]le_ (English), _D[e,]ne_ (Danes); _Seaxe_ (Saxons),
    _Mier[.c]e_ (Mercians), have gen. plur. _Seaxna_, _Mier[.c]na_.

(3) Mutation-plurals.

       SINGULAR.                 PLURAL.
  _Nom._  f[=o]t (_foot_).   _Nom._  f[=e]t.
  _Dat._  f[=e]t.            _Dat._  f[=o]t-um.
  _Gen._  f[=o]t-es.         _Gen._  f[=o]t-a.

So also _t[=o]þ_ (tooth). _Mann_ (man), _m[e,]nn_, _mannes_; _m[e,]nn_,
_mannum_, _manna_.


(4) u-nouns.

      SINGULAR.                    PLURAL.
  _Nom._  sun-u (_son_).        _Nom._ sun-a.
  _Dat._  sun-a.                _Dat._ sun-um.
  _Gen._  sun-a.                _Gen._ sun-a.

So also _wudu_ (wood).

(5) r-nouns (including feminines).

       SINGULAR.                           PLURAL.
  _Nom._  m[=o]dor (_mother_).         _Nom._  m[=o]dor.
  _Dat._  m[=e]der.                    _Dat._  m[=o]dr-um.
  _Gen._  m[=o]dor.                    _Gen._  m[=o]dr-a.

So also _br[=o]þor_ (brother); _fæder_ (father), _dohtor_ (daughter), have
dat. sing. _fæder_, _dehter_.

(6) nd-nouns.

Formed from the present participle of verbs.

       SINGULAR.                          PLURAL.
  _Nom._  fr[=e]ond (_friend_).       _Nom._  fr[=i]end.
  _Dat._  fr[=i]end.                  _Dat._  fr[=e]ond-um.
  _Gen._  fr[=e]ond-es.               _Gen._  fr[=e]ond-a.

So also _f[=e]ond_ (enemy).

Those in _-end_ inflect thus:--_b[=u]end_ (dweller), _b[=u]end_,
_b[=u]endes_; _b[=u]end_, _b[=u]endum_, _b[=u]endra_. So also _H[=æ]lend_
(saviour). The _-ra_ is an adjectival inflection.


(1) u-plurals.

       SINGULAR.                       PLURAL.
  _Nom._  s[.c]ip (_ship_).        _Nom._  s[.c]ip-u.
  _Dat._  s[.c]ip-e.               _Dat._  s[.c]ip-um.
  _Gen._  s[.c]ip-es.              _Gen._  s[.c]ip-a.

So all neuters with short final syllable, such as _[.g]e·bed_ (prayer),
_[.g]e·writ_ (writing), _[.g]eat_ (gate). {11}

_Fæt_ (vessel), _fæte_, _fætes_; _fatu_, _fatum_, _fata_ (p. 5).

_R[=i][.c]e_ (kingdom), _r[=i][.c]e_, _r[=i][.c]es_; _r[=i][.c]u_,
_r[=i][.c]um_, _r[=i][.c]a_. So also all neuters in _e_, except _[=e]age_
and _[=e]are_ (p. 13): _[.g]e·þ[=e]ode_ (language), _sty[.c][.c]e_ (piece).

Those in _-ol_, _-en_, _-or_, &c. are generally contracted:--_d[=e]ofol_
(devil), _d[=e]ofles_, _d[=e]oflu_. So also _w[=æ]pen_ (weapon), _mynster_
(monastery), _wundor_ (wonder).

(2) Unchanged plurals.

      SINGULAR.                        PLURAL.
  _Nom._  h[=u]s (_house_).        _Nom._  h[=u]s.
  _Dat._  h[=u]s-e.                _Dat._  h[=u]s-um.
  _Gen._  h[=u]s-es.               _Gen._  h[=u]s-a.

So all others with long final syllables (that is, containing a long vowel,
or a short vowel followed by more than one consonant), such as _bearn_
(child), _folc_ (nation), _w[=i]f_ (woman).

_Feoh_ (money) drops its _h_ in inflection and lengthens the _eo_:--_feoh_,
_f[=e]o_, _f[=e]os_. So also _bleoh_ (colour).


(1) a-plurals.

           SINGULAR.                         PLURAL.
  (a)  _Nom._ [.g]ief-u (_gift_).        _Nom._  [.g]ief-a.
       _Acc._ [.g]ief-e.                 _Acc._  [.g]ief-a.
       _Dat._ [.g]ief-e.                 _Dat._  [.g]ief-um.
       _Gen._ [.g]ief-e.                 _Gen._  [.g]ief-ena.

So also _lufu_ (love), _scamu_ (shame). _Duru_ (door) is an _u_-noun: it
has acc. _duru_, d., g. _dura_, g. pl. _dura_. Observe that all these nouns
have a short syllable before the final vowel. When it is long, the _u_ is
dropped, and the noun falls under (_b_). {12}

             SINGULAR.                             PLURAL.
  (_b_)  _Nom._  spr[=æ][.c] (_speech_).    _Nom._  spr[=æ][.c]-a.
         _Acc._  spr[=æ][.c]-e.             _Acc._  spr[=æ][.c]-a.
         _Dat._  spr[=æ][.c]-e.             _Dat._  spr[=æ][.c]-um.
         _Gen._  spr[=æ][.c]-e.             _Gen._  spr[=æ][.c]-a.

So also _str[=æ]t_ (street), _sorg_ (sorrow). Some have the acc. sing. the
same as the nom., such as _d[=æ]d_, _hand_, _miht_.

Those in _-ol_, _-er_, _-or_, &c. contract:--_s[=a]wol_ (soul), _s[=a]wle_,
_s[=a]wla_, _s[=a]wlum_. So also _[.c]easter_ (city), _hl[=æ]dder_

Some in _-en_ double the _n_ in inflection:--_byrþen_ (burden), _byrþenne_.
So also those in _-r[=æ]den_, such as _hierdr[=æ]den_ (guardianship). Those
in _-nes_ also double the _s_ in inflection: _g[=o]dnes_ (goodness),

(2) Mutation-plurals.

      SINGULAR.                   PLURAL.
  _Nom._  b[=o]c (_book_).    _Nom._  b[=e][.c].
  _Dat._  b[=e][.c].          _Dat._  b[=o]c-um.
  _Gen._  b[=e][.c].          _Gen._  b[=o]c-a.

_Burg_ (city), _byri[.g]_, _burge_; _byri[.g]_, _burgum_, _burga_.

(3) Indeclinable.

  _Nom._  bieldo (_boldness_).
  _Dat._  bieldo.
  _Gen._  bieldo.

So also _ieldo_ (age).

For _r_-nouns, see under Masculines.


        SINGULAR.                PLURAL.
  _Nom._  nam-a (_name_).    _Nom._  nam-an.
  _Acc._  nam-an.            _Acc._  nam-an.
  _Dat._  nam-an.            _Dat._  nam-um.
  _Gen._  nam-an.            _Gen._  nam-ena.


So also all nouns in _-a_:--_[.g]e·f[=e]ra_ (companion), _guma_ (man),
_[.g]e·l[=e]afa_ (belief). _Ieldran_ (elders) occurs only in the plural.

_[.G]e·f[=e]a_ (joy) is contracted throughout:--_[.g]ef[=e]a_,


      SINGULAR.                    PLURAL.
  _Nom._  [=e]ag-e (_eye_).    _Nom._  [=e]ag-an.
  _Acc._  [=e]ag-e.            _Acc._  [=e]ag-an.
  _Dat._  [=e]ag-an.           _Dat._  [=e]ag-um.
  _Gen._  [=e]ag-an.           _Gen._  [=e]ag-ena.

So also _[=e]are_ 'ear.'


      SINGULAR.                  PLURAL.
  _Nom._  sunn-e (_sun_).    _Nom._  sunn-an.
  _Acc._  sunn-an.           _Acc._  sunn-an.
  _Dat._  sunn-an.           _Dat._  sunn-um.
  _Gen._  sunn-an.           _Gen._  sunn-ena.

So also _[.c]iri[.c]e_ (church), _f[=æ]mne_ (virgin), _heorte_ (heart).

_L[=e]o_ (lion) has acc., &c. _l[=e]on_.


Native names of persons are declined like other nouns:--_Ælfred_, gen.
_Ælfredes_, dat. _Ælfrede_; _[=E]ad-burg_ (fem.), gen. _[=E]adburge_, &c.

Foreign names of persons sometimes follow the analogy of native names, thus
_Cr[=i]st_, _Salomon_ have gen. _Cr[=i]stes_, _Salomones_, dat.
_Cr[=i]ste_, _Salomone_. Sometimes they are declined as in Latin,
especially those in _-us_, but often with a mixture of English endings, and
the Latin endings are used {14} somewhat loosely, the accus. ending being
often extended to the other oblique cases; thus we find nom. _C[=y]rus_,
gen. _C[=y]res_, acc. _C[=y]rum_, dat. _C[=y]rum_ (þ[=æ]m cyninge

Almost the only names of countries and districts in Old English are those
taken from Latin, such as _Breten_ (Britain), _C[e,]nt_ (Kent),
_[.G]erm[=a]nia_ (Germany), and those formed by composition, generally with
_land_, such as _[E,]n[.g]la-land_ (land of the English, England),
_Isr·ah[=e]la-þ[=e]od_ (Israel). In both of these cases the first element
is in the gen. pl., but ordinary compounds, such as _Scot-land_, also
occur. In other cases the name of the inhabitants of a country is used for
the country itself:--_on [=E]ast-[e,]n[.g]lum_ = in East-anglia, lit.
'among the East-anglians.' So also _on Angel-cynne_ = in England, lit.
'among the English race,' more accurately expressed by _Angelcynnes land_.

Uncompounded names of countries are sometimes undeclined. Thus we find _on
C[e,]nt_, _t[=o] Hierusal[=e]m_.

_[.G]erm[=a]nia_, _Asia_, and other foreign names in _-a_ take _-e_ in the
oblique cases, thus gen. _[.G]erm[=a]nie_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with
partly different endings, together with strong and weak inflection. In the
masc. and neut. sing. they have an _instrumental_ case, for which in the
fem. and plur., and in the weak inflection the dative is used.


Adjectives with a short syllable before the endings take _-u_ in the fem.
sing. nom. and neut. pl. nom., those with a long one drop it. {15}

                     Masc.             Neut.        Fem.
  (_a_)  _Nom._    cwic (_alive_),    cwic,       cwic-u.
         _Acc._    cwic-ne,           cwic,       cwic-e.
         _Dat._    cwic-um,           cwic-um,    cwic-re.
         _Gen._    cwic-es,           cwic-es,    cwic-re.
         _Instr._  cwic-e,            cwic-e.     (cwicre).

         _Nom._    cwic-e,            cwic-u,     cwic-e.
                   \____________________  ______________/
         _Dat._                       cwic-um.
         _Gen._                       cwic-ra.

So also _sum_ (some), _f[=æ]rlic_ (dangerous).

Those with _æ_, such as _glæd_ (glad), change it to _a_ in dat. _gladum_,

Those in _-e_, such as _bl[=i]þe_ (glad), drop it in all
inflections:--_bl[=i]þne_, _bl[=i]þu_, _bl[=i]þre_.

Those in _-ig_, _-el_, _-ol_, _-en_, _-er_, _-or_ often contract before
inflections beginning with a vowel, as in _h[=a]li[.g]_ (holy),
_h[=a]lges_, _h[=a]lgum_; _mi[.c]el_ (great), _mi[.c]lu_, _mi[.c]le_. Not,
of course, before consonants:--_h[=a]li[.g]ne_, _mi[.c]elne_, _mi[.c]elra_.

Those in _-u_, such as _[.g]earu_ (ready), change the _u_ into a _w_ before
vowels:--_[.g]earwes_, _[.g]earwe_.

Adjectives with long syllable before the endings drop the _u_ of the fem.
and neuter:--

                          Masc.             Neut.      Fem.
  (_b_)  _Nom. Sing._  g[=o]d (_good_),    g[=o]d,    g[=o]d.
              _Plur._  g[=o]de,            g[=o]d,    g[=o]de.

_F[=e]a_ (few) has only the plural inflections, dat. _f[=e]am_, gen.

_H[=e]ah_ (high) drops its second _h_ in inflection and
contracts:--_h[=e]are_, nom. pl. _h[=e]a_, dat. _h[=e]am_, acc. sing. masc.

_Fela_ (many) is indeclinable. {16}


The weak inflections of adjectives agree exactly with the noun ones:-

            Masc.         Neut.         Fem.
  _Nom._  g[=o]d-a,     g[=o]d-e,     g[=o]d-e.
  _Acc._  g[=o]d-an,    g[=o]d-e,     g[=o]d-an.
  _Dat._  g[=o]d-an,    g[=o]d-an,    g[=o]d-an.
  _Gen._  g[=o]d-an,    g[=o]d-an,    g[=o]d-an.
          \________________  __________________/
  _Nom._                g[=o]d-an.
  _Dat._                g[=o]d-um.
  _Gen._                g[=o]d-ra.

The vowel- and consonant-changes are as in the strong declension.


The comparative is formed by adding _-ra_, and is declined like a weak
adjective:--_l[=e]of_ (dear), _l[=e]ofra_ masc., _l[=e]ofre_ fem.,
_l[=e]ofran_ plur., etc.; _m[=æ]re_ (famous), _m[=æ]rra_. The superlative
is formed by adding _-ost_, and may be either weak or strong:--_l[=e]ofost_

The following form their comparisons with mutation, with superlative in
_-est_ (the forms in parentheses are adverbs):--

  eald (_old_),        ieldra,          ieldest.
  lang (_long_),       l[e,]n[.g]ra,    l[e,]n[.g]est.
  n[=e]ah (_near_),    (n[=e]ar),       n[=i]ehst.
  h[=e]ah (_high_),    h[=i]erra,       h[=i]ehst.

The following show different roots:--

  g[=o]d (_good_),        b[e,]tera,            b[e,]tst.
  yfel (_evil_),          wiersa,               wierrest.
  mi[.c]el (_great_),     m[=a]ra (m[=a]),      m[=æ]st.
  l[=y]tel (_little_),    l[=æ]ssa (l[=æ]s),    l[=æ]st.


The following are defective as well as irregular, being formed from

  [=æ]r (_formerly_),    [=æ]rra ([=æ]ror),    [=æ]rest.
  fore (_before_),             . . .           forma, fyrmest.
  [=u]t (_out_),         [=y]terra,            [=y]temest.


               CARDINAL.                         ORDINAL.
  [=a]n,                    _one_.              forma (_first_).
  tw[=a],                   _two_.              [=o]þer.
  þr[=e]o,                  _three_.            þridda.
  f[=e]ower,                _four_.             f[=e]orþa.
  f[=i]f,                   _five_.             f[=i]f-ta.
  siex,                     _six_.              siex-ta.
  seofon,                   _seven_.            seofoþa.
  eahta,                    _eight_.            eahtoþa.
  nigon,                    _nine_.             nigoþa.
  t[=i]en,                  _ten_.              t[=e]oþa.
  [e,]ndlufon,              _eleven_.           [e,]ndlyf-ta.
  tw[e,]lf,                 _twelve_.           tw[=e,]lf-ta.
  þr[=e]o-t[=i]ene,         _thirteen_.         þr[=e]o-t[=e]oþa.
  f[=e]ower-t[=i]ene,       _fourteen_.
  f[=i]f-t[=i]ene,          _fifteen_.
  siex-t[=i]ene,            _sixteen_.
  seofon-t[=i]ene,          _seventeen_.
  eahta-t[=i]ene,           _eighteen_.
  nigon-t[=i]ene,           _nineteen_.
  tw[e,]n-ti[.g],           _twenty_.
  þri-ti[.g],               _thirty_.
  f[=e]ower-ti[.g],         _forty_.
  f[=i]f-ti[.g],            _fifty_.
  siex-ti[.g],              _sixty_.
  hund-·seofon-ti[.g],      _seventy_.
  hund-·eahta-ti[.g],       _eighty_.
  hund-·nigon-ti[.g],       _ninety_.
  hund                 }    _hundred_.
  hund-·t[=e]onti[.g], }
  hund-·[e,]ndlufonti[.g],  _hundred and ten_.
  hund-·tw[e,]lfti[.g],     _hundred and twenty_.
  þ[=u]send,                _thousand_.

_[=A]n_ is declined like other adjectives.

_Tw[=a]_ is declined thus:--

              Masc.         Neut.            Fem.
  _Nom._  tw[=e][.g]en,    tw[=a],          tw[=a].
          \__________________  ___________________/
  _Dat._                   tw[=æ]m.
  _Gen._                   tw[=e][.g]ra.

So also _b[=e][.g]en_ (both), _b[=a]_, _b[=æ]m_, _b[=e][.g]ra_.

_Þr[=e]o_ is declined thus:--

           Masc.       Neut.        Fem.
  _Nom._  þr[=i]e,    þr[=e]o,    þr[=e]o.
          \_____________  _______________/
  _Dat._              þrim.
  _Gen._              þr[=e]ora.

The others up to _tw[e,]nti[.g]_ are generally indeclinable. Those in
_-ti[.g]_ are sometimes declined like neuter nouns, sometimes like
adjectives, and are often left undeclined. When not made into adjectives
they govern the genitive.

_Hund_ and _þ[=u]send_ are either declined as neuters or left undeclined,
always taking a genitive:--_eahta hund m[=i]la_ (eight hundred miles),
_f[=e]ower þ[=u]send wera_ (four thousand men).

Units are always put before tens:--_[=a]n and tw[e,]nti[.g]_ (twenty-one).

The ordinals are always weak, except _[=o]þer_, which is always strong.

       *       *       *       *       *



  _Nom._  i[.c] (_I_),       þ[=u] (_thou_).
  _Acc._  m[=e],             þ[=e].
  _Dat._  m[=e],             þ[=e].
  _Gen._  m[=i]n,            þ[=i]n.

  _Nom._  wit (_we two_),    [.g]it (_ye two_).
  _Acc._  unc,               inc.
  _Dat._  unc,               inc.
  _Gen._  uncer,             incer.

  _Nom._  w[=e] (_we_),      [.g][=e] (_ye_).
  _Acc._  [=u]s,             [=e]ow.
  _Dat._  [=u]s,             [=e]ow.
  _Gen._  [=u]re,            [=e]ower.

           Masc.             Neut.          Fem.
  _Nom._  h[=e] (_he_),    hit (_it_),    h[=e]o (_she_).
  _Acc._  hine,            hit,           h[=i]e.
  _Dat._  him,             him,           hiere.
  _Gen._  his,             his,           hiere.
          \_________________  _________________/
  _Nom._                   h[=i]e (_they_).
  _Dat._                   him.
  _Gen._                   hiera.

There are no reflexive pronouns in O.E., and the ordinary {20} personal
pronouns are used instead:--_h[=i]e [.g]e·samnodon h[=i]e_ (they collected
themselves, assembled); _h[=i]e [=a]·b[=æ]don him w[=i]f_ (they asked for
wives for themselves). _Self_ is used as an emphatic reflexive adjective
agreeing with its pronoun:--_sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=i]e w[=y]s[.c]ton him selfum_
(as they wished for themselves).


_M[=i]n_ (my), _þ[=i]n_ (thy), _[=u]re_ (our), _[=e]ower_ (your), and the
dual _uncer_ and _incer_ are declined like other adjectives. The genitives
_his_ (his, its), _hiere_ (her), _hiera_ (their) are used as indeclinable


        Masc. and Fem.             Neut.
  _Nom._    hw[=a] (_who_),    hwæt (_what_).
  _Acc._    hwone,             hwæt.
  _Dat._    hw[=æ]m,           hw[=æ]m.
  _Gen._    hwæs,              hwæs.
  _Instr._  hw[=y],            hw[=y].

_Hwelc_ (which) is declined like a strong adjective: it is used both as a
noun and an adjective.


               Masc.               Neut.        Fem.
  _Nom._    se (_that_, _the_),    þæt,        s[=e]o.
  _Acc._    þone,                  þæt,        þ[=a].
  _Dat._    þ[=æ]m,                þ[=æ]m,     þ[=æ]re.
  _Gen._    þæs,                   þæs,        þ[=æ]re.
  _Instr._  þ[=y], þon,            þ[=y],      (þ[=æ]re).
            \_______________________  __________________/
  _Nom._                           þ[=a].
  _Dat._                           þ[=æ]m.
  _Gen._                           þ[=a]ra.


_Se_ is both a demonstrative and a definite article. It is also used as a
personal pronoun:--_h[=e] [.g]e·h[=i]erþ m[=i]n word, and wyr[.c]þ þ[=a]_
(he hears my words, and does them). _S[=e]_ as a demonstrative and pers.
pronoun has its vowel long.

             Masc.            Neut.      Fem.
  _Nom._    þes (_this_),    þis,       þ[=e]os.
  _Acc._    þisne,           þis,       þ[=a]s.
  _Dat._    þissum,          þissum,    þisse.
  _Gen._    þisses,          þisses,    þisse.
  _Instr._  þ[=y]s,          þ[=y]s.    (þisse).
            \__________________  ______________/
  _Nom._                     þ[=a]s.
  _Dat._                     þissum.
  _Gen._                     þissa.

Other demonstratives, which are used both as nouns and as adjectives, are
_se ilca_ (same), which is always weak, _swelc_ (such), which is always


The regular relative is the indeclinable _þe_, as in _[=æ]lc þ[=a]ra þe
þ[=a]s m[=i]n word [.g]e·h[=i]erþ_ (each of those who hears these my
words). It is often combined with _s[=e]_, which is declined:--_s[=e] þe_ =
who, masc., _s[=e]o þe_, fem., &c. _S[=e]_ alone is also used as a
relative:--_h[=e]r is m[=i]n cnapa, þone ic [.g]e·[.c][=e]as_ (here is my
servant, whom I have chosen); sometimes in the sense of 'he who':--_h[=e]r
þ[=u] hæfst þæt þ[=i]n is_ (here thou hast that which is thine).


Indefinites are formed with _sw[=a]_ and the interrogative pronouns,
thus:--_sw[=a] hw[=a] sw[=a]_, _sw[=a] hwel[.c] sw[=a]_ (whoever), _sw[=a]
hwæt sw[=a]_ (whatever). {22}

_[=A]n_ and _sum_ (some) are used in an indefinite sense:--_[=a]n mann_,
_sum mann_ = 'a certain man,' hence 'a man.' But the indefinite article is
generally not expressed.

_[=Æ]l[.c]_ (each), _[=æ]ni[.g]_ (any), _n[=æ]ni[.g]_ (no, none), are
declined like other adjectives.

_[=O]þer_ (other) is always strong:--_þ[=a] [=o]þre m[e,]nn_.

_Man_, another form of _mann_, is often used in the indefinite sense of
'one,' French _on_:--_his br[=o]þor Horsan man of·sl[=o]g_ (they killed his
brother Horsa).

       *       *       *       *       *


There are two classes of verbs in O.E., _strong_ and _weak_. The
conjugation of strong verbs is effected mainly by means of vowel-gradation,
that of weak verbs by the addition of _d_ (-ode, -ede, -de) to the

The following is the conjugation of the strong verb _bindan_ (bind), which
will serve to show the endings which are common to all verbs:--

                   INDICATIVE.             SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._  1. bind-e,                  bind-e.
                 2. bind-est, bintst,        bind-e.
                 3. bind-eþ, bint,           bind-e.
        _plur._     bind-aþ,                 bind-en.

  _Pret. sing._  1. band,                    bund-e.
                 2. bund-e,                  bund-e.
                 3. band,                    bund-e.
        _plur._     bund-on,                 bund-en.

  _Imper. sing._ bind; _plur._ bind-aþ. _Infin._ bind-an.
      _Partic. pres._ bind-ende; _pret._ [.g]e-·bund-en.
                _Gerund._ t[=o] bind-enne.

For the plural _bindaþ_, both indicative and imperative, _binde_ is used
when the personal pronoun follows immediately after {23} the verb:--_w[=e]
bindaþ_ (we bind), but _binde w[=e]_ (let us bind); so also _g[=a]þ!_ (go
plur.), but _g[=a] [.g][=e]!_ (go ye).

The present participle may be declined like an adjective. Its declension
when used as a noun is given above, p. 10.

The past participle generally prefixes _[.g]e-_, as in _[.g]e·bunden_,
_[.g]e·numen_ from _niman_ (take), unless the other parts of the verbs have
it already, as in _[.g]e·h[=i]eran_ (hear), _[.g]e·h[=i]ered_. It is
sometimes prefixed to other parts of the verb as well. No _[.g]e_ is added
if the verb has another prefix, such as _[=a]-_, _be-_, _for-_; thus
_for·[.g]iefan_ (forgive) has the past participle _for·[.g]iefen_. The past
participle may be declined like an adjective.

Traces of an older passive voice are preserved in the form _h[=a]t-te_ from
_h[=a]tan_ (call, name), which is both present 'is called,' and preterite
'was called':--_se munuc h[=a]tte Abbo_ (the monk's name was Abbo).


In the strong verbs the plural of the pret. indic. generally has a
different vowel from that of the sing. (_ic band_, _w[=e] bundon_). The 2nd
sing. pret. indic. and the whole pret. subj. always have the vowel of the
preterite plural indicative (_þ[=u] bunde, ic bunde, w[=e] bunden_.)

The 2nd and 3rd persons sing. of the pres. indic. often mutate the
root-vowel, thus:--

  a _becomes_ [e,] _as in_ (h[=e]) st[e,]nt _from_ standan (_stand_).
  ea    "     ie      "            fielþ       "   feallan (_fall_).
  e     "     i       "            cwiþþ       "   cweþan (_say_).
  eo    "     ie      "            wierþ       "   weorþan (_happen_).
  [=a]  "     [=æ]    "            h[=æ]tt     "   h[=a]tan (_command_).
  [=o]  "     [=e]    "            gr[=e]wþ    "   gr[=o]wan (_grow_).
  [=e]a "     [=i]e   "            h[=i]ewþ    "   h[=e]awan (_hew_).
  [=e]o "     [=i]e   "            [.c][=i]est "   [.c][=e]osan (_choose_).
  [=u]  "     [=y]    "            l[=y]cþ     "   l[=u]can (_close_).


The full ending of the 3rd pers. sing. pres. indic. is _-eþ_, which is
generally contracted, with the following consonant-changes:--

  -teþ  _becomes_ -tt _as in_ l[=æ]tt  _from_ l[=æ]tan (_let_).
  -deþ      "     -tt    "    b[=i]tt     "   b[=i]dan (_wait_).
  -ddeþ     "     -tt    "    bitt        "   biddan (_pray_).
  -þeþ      "     -þþ    "    cwiþþ       "   cweþan (_say_).
  -seþ      "     -st    "    [.c][=i]est "   [.c][=e]osan (_choose_).
  -ndeþ     "     -nt    "    bint        "   bindan (_bind_).

Double consonants become single, as in _h[=e] fielþ_ from _feallan_.

Before the _-st_ of the 2nd pers. consonants are often dropt, as in _þ[=u]
cwist_ from _cweþan_, _þ[=u] [.c][=i]est_ from _[.c][=e]osan_; and _d_
becomes _t_, as in _þ[=u] bintst_ from _bindan_.

For the changes between _s_ and _r_, _þ_ and _d_, _g_ and _h_, see p. 7.

Some verbs, such as _s[=e]on_ (see), drop the _h_ and contract before most
inflections beginning with a vowel:--_ic s[=e]o_, _w[=e] s[=e]oþ_, _t[=o]
s[=e]onne_; but _h[=e] sihþ_.

There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the
different formation of their preterites. The following lists comprise all
the strong verbs that occur in the texts given in this book, together with
several others of the commoner ones.

I. 'Fall'-conjugation.

The pret. sing. and pl. has _[=e]o_ or _[=e]_, and the past partic. retains
the original vowel of the infinitive. {25}

  (_a_) [=e]o-_preterites_.

  feallan (_fall_)        fielþ        f[=e]oll    f[=e]ollon    feallen
  healdan (_hold_)        hielt        h[=e]old    h[=e]oldon    healden
  wealdan (_wield_)       wielt        w[=e]old    w[=e]oldon    wealden
  weaxan (_grow_)         wiext        w[=e]ox     w[=e]oxon     weaxen

  bl[=a]wan (_blow_)      bl[=æ]wþ     bl[=e]ow    bl[=e]owon    bl[=a]wen
  cn[=a]wan (_know_)      cn[=æ]wþ     cn[=e]ow    cn[=e]owon    cn[=a]wen
  s[=a]wan (_sow_)        s[=æ]wþ      s[=e]ow     s[=e]owon     s[=a]wen

  w[=e]pan (_weep_)       w[=e]pþ      w[=e]op     w[=e]opon     w[=o]pen

_W[=e]pan_ has really a weak present (p. 30) with mutation (the original
_[=o]_ re-appearing in the past partic.), but it makes no difference in the

  fl[=o]wan (_flow_)      fl[=e]wþ     fl[=e]ow    fl[=e]owon    fl[=o]wen
  gr[=o]wan (_grow_)      gr[=e]wþ     gr[=e]ow    gr[=e]owon    gr[=o]wen
  r[=o]wan (_row_)        r[=e]wþ      r[=e]ow     r[=e]owon     r[=o]wen

  b[=e]atan (_beat_)      b[=i]ett     b[=e]ot     b[=e]oton     b[=e]aten
  h[=e]awan (_hew_)       h[=i]ewþ     h[=e]ow     h[=e]owon     h[=e]awen
  hl[=e]apan (_leap_)     hl[=i]epþ    hl[=e]op    hl[=e]opon    hl[=e]apen

(_b_) [=e]-_preterites_.

  h[=a]tan (_command_)    h[=æ]tt      h[=e]t      h[=e]ton      h[=a]ten

  l[=æ]tan (_let_)        l[=æ]tt      l[=e]t      l[=e]ton      l[=æ]ten

  f[=o]n (_seize_)        f[=e]hþ      f[=e]ng     f[=e]ngon     fangen
  h[=o]n (_hang_)         h[=e]hþ      h[=e]ng     h[=e]ngon     hangen


II. 'Shake'-conjugation.

Verbs in _a_ (_ea_) and _[e,]_ (_ie_). _[=O]_ in pret. sing, and pl., _a_
(_æ_) in partic. pret. _Standan_ drops its _n_ in the pret. The partic.
pret. of _sw[e,]rian_ is irregular.


  faran (_go_)            færþ          f[=o]r       f[=o]ron    faren
  sacan (_quarrel_)       sæcþ          s[=o]c       s[=o]con    sacen
  scacan (_shake_)        scæcþ         sc[=o]c      sc[=o]con   scacen
  standan (_stand_)       st[e,]nt      st[=o]d      st[=o]don   standen

The following shows contraction of original _ea_:--

  sl[=e]an (_strike_)     sliehþ        sl[=o]g      sl[=o]gon   slæ[.g]en


  h[e,]bban (_lift_)      h[e,]fþ       h[=o]f       h[=o]fon    hafen
  s[.c]ieppan (_create_)  s[.c]iepþ     sc[=o]p      sc[=o]pon   scapen
  sw[e,]rian (_swear_)    sw[e,]reþ     sw[=o]r      sw[=o]ron   sworen

The presents of these verbs are inflected weak, so that their imperative
sing. is _h[e,]fe_ and _sw[e,]re_, like that of _w[e,]nian_ (p. 32).
_Sw[e,]rian_ has indic. _sw[e,]rige_, _sw[e,]rest_, like _w[e,]nian_;
_h[e,]bban_ has _h[e,]bbe_, _h[e,]fst_, &c. like _h[=i]eran_ (p. 30).

III. 'Bind'-conjugation.

_I_ (_ie_, _e_, _eo_) followed by two consonants, one or both of which is
nearly always a liquid (_l_, _r_) or nasal (_m_, _n_) in the infin., _a_
(_æ_, _ea_) in pret. sing., _u_ in pret. pl., _u_ (_o_) in ptc. pret.
_Findan_ has a weak preterite.


  bindan (_bind_)          bint         band         bundon      bunden
  drincan (_drink_)        drincþ       dranc        druncon     druncen
  findan (_find_)          fint         funde        fundon      funden
  [.g]ieldan (_pay_)       [.g]ielt     [.g]eald     guldon      golden
  (on)[.g]innan (_begin_)  -[.g]inþ     -gann        -gunnon     -gunnen
  grindan (_grind_)        grint        grand        grundon     grunden
  iernan (_run_) [p. 7]    iernþ        arn          urnon       urnen
  [.g]e-·limpan (_happen_) -limpþ       -lamp        -lumpon     -lumpen
  scrincan (_shrink_)      scrincþ      scranc       scruncon    scruncen
  springan (_spring_)      springþ      sprang       sprungon    sprungen
  swincan (_toil_)         swincþ       swanc        swuncon     swuncen
  windan (_wind_)          wint         wand         wundon      wunden
  winnan (_fight_)         winþ         wann         wunnon      wunnen


  berstan (_burst_)        bierst       bærst        burston     borsten
  bre[.g]dan (_pull_)       ...         bræ[.g]d     brugdon     brogden
  delfan (_dig_)           dilfþ        dealf        dulfon      dolfen
  sweltan (_die_)          swilt        swealt       swulton     swolten


  beorgan (_protect_)      bierhþ       bearg        burgon      borgen
  beornan (_burn_)[p. 7]   biernþ       barn         burnon      burnen
  [.c]eorfan (_cut_)       [.c]ierfþ    [.c]earf     curfon      corfen
  feohtan (_fight_)        fieht        feaht        fuhton      fohten
  weorpan (_throw_)        wierpþ       wearp        wurpon      worpen
  weorþan (_become_)       wierþ        wearþ        wurdon      worden

IV. 'Bear'-conjugation.

Verbs in _e_ (_i_), followed by a single consonant, generally a liquid or
nasal; in _brecan_ the liquid precedes the vowel. _A_ (_æ_) in pret. sing.,
_[=æ]_ (_[=a]_) in pret. pl., _o_ (_u_) in ptc. pret. _Cuman_ is irregular.


  niman (_take_)           nimþ         nam          n[=a]mon       numen


  beran (_bear_)           bierþ        bær          b[=æ]ron       boren
  brecan (_break_)         bricþ        bræc         br[=æ]con      brocen
  s[.c]eran (_shear_)      s[.c]ierþ    s[.c]ear     s[.c][=e]aron  scoren
  stelan (_steal_)         stilþ        stæl         st[=æ]lon      stolen
  teran (_tear_)            ..          tær          t[=æ]ron       toren



  cuman (_come_)           cymþ          c[=o]m      c[=o]mon       cumen

V. 'Give'-conjugation.

Verbs in _e_ (_i_, _eo_, _ie_) followed by single consonants, which are not
liquids or nasals. This class differs from the last only in the ptc. pret.
which keeps the vowel of the infinitive.


  cweþan (_say_)               cwiþþ      cwæþ      cw[=æ]don     cweden
  etan (_eat_)                 itt        [=æ]t     [=æ]ton       eten
  sprecan (_speak_)            spricþ     spræc     spr[=æ]con    sprecen
  wrecan (_avenge_)            wricþ      wræc      wr[=æ]con     wrecen


  biddan (_pray_)              bitt       bæd       b[=æ]don      beden
  li[.c][.g]an (_lie_)         l[=i]þ     læ[.g]    l[=æ]gon      le[.g]en
  sittan (_sit_)               sitt       sæt       s[=æ]ton      seten
  þi[.c][.g]an (_receive_)     þi[.g]eþ   þeah      þ[=æ]gon      þe[.g]en

All these have weak presents:--imper. _bide_, _li[.g]e_, _site_, _þi[.g]e_.
Their _i_s are mutations of the _e_ which appears in their past partic.


  [.g]iefan (_give_)           [.g]iefþ   [.g]eaf   [.g][=e]afon  [.g]iefen
  (on)[.g]ietan (_understand_) -[.g]iett  -[.g]eat  -[.g][=e]aton

The following is contracted in most forms:--

  s[=e]on (_see_)              sihþ       seah      s[=a]won      sewen

VI. 'Shine'-conjugation.

Verbs in _[=i]_, with pret. sing, in _[=a]_, pl. _i_, ptc. pret. _i_.

  b[=i]dan (_wait_)          b[=i]tt       b[=a]d      bidon      biden
  b[=i]tan (_bite_)          b[=i]tt       b[=a]t      biton      biten
  dr[=i]fan (_drive_)        dr[=i]fþ      dr[=a]f     drifon     drifen
  (be)l[=i]fan (_remain_)    -l[=i]fþ      -l[=a]f     -lifon     -lifen
  r[=i]dan (_ride_)          r[=i]tt       r[=a]d      ridon      riden
  r[=i]pan (_reap_)          r[=i]pþ       r[=a]p      ripon      ripen
  ([=a])r[=i]san (_rise_)    -r[=i]st      -r[=a]s     -rison     -risen
  s[.c][=i]nan (_shine_)     s[.c][=i]nþ   sc[=a]n     s[.c]inon  s[.c]inen
  sn[=i]þan (_cut_)          sn[=i]þþ      sn[=a]þ     snidon     sniden
  st[=i]gan (_ascend_)       st[=i][.g]þ   st[=a]g     stigon     sti[.g]en
  (be)sw[=i]can (_deceive_)  -sw[=i]cþ     -sw[=a]c    -swicon    -swicen
  [.g]e·w[=i]tan (_depart_)  -w[=i]tt      w[=a]t      -witon     -witen
  wr[=i]tan (_write_)        wr[=i]tt      wr[=a]t     writon     writen

VII. 'Choose'-conjugation.

Verbs in _[=e]o_ and _[=u]_, with pret. sing. _[=e]a_, pl. _u_, ptc. pret.
_o_. _Fl[=e]on_ and _t[=e]on_ contract.

  b[=e]odan (_offer_)        b[=i]ett      b[=e]ad      budon      boden
  br[=e]otan (_break_)       br[=i]ett     br[=e]at     bruton     broten
  [.c][=e]osan (_choose_)    [.c][=i]est   [.c][=e]as   curon      coren
  fl[=e]ogan (_fly_)         fl[=i]ehþ     fl[=e]ag     flugon     flogen
  fl[=e]on (_flee_)          fl[=i]ehþ     fl[=e]ah     flugon     flogen
  fl[=e]otan (_float_)       fl[=i]ett     fl[=e]at     fluton     floten
  hr[=e]osan (_fall_)        hr[=i]est     hr[=e]as     hruron     hroren
  hr[=e]owan (_rue_)         hr[=i]ewþ     hr[=e]aw     hruwon     hrowen
  for·l[=e]osan (_lose_)     -l[=i]est     -l[=e]as     -luron     -loren
  s[.c][=e]otan (_shoot_)    s[.c][=i]ett  s[.c][=e]at  scuton     scoten
  sm[=e]ocan (_smoke_)       sm[=i]ecþ     sm[=e]ac     smucon     smocen
  t[=e]on (_pull_)           t[=i]ehþ      t[=e]ah      tugon      togen
  [=a]-þr[=e]otan (_fail_)   -þr[=i]ett    -þr[=e]at    -þruton    -þroten


  br[=u]can (_enjoy_)        br[=y]cþ      br[=e]ac     brucon     brocen
  b[=u]gan (_bow_)           b[=y]hþ       b[=e]ag      bugon      bogen
  l[=u]can (_lock_)          l[=y]cþ       l[=e]ac      lucon      locen
  l[=u]tan (_bow_)           l[=y]tt       l[=e]at      luton      loten
  sc[=u]fan (_push_)         sc[=y]fþ      s[.c][=e]af  scufon     scofen



There are three conjugations of weak verbs--(1) in _-an_, pret. _-de_
(_h[=i]eran_, _h[=i]erde_, 'hear'); (2) in _-ian_, pret. _-ede_
(_w[e,]nian_, _w[e,]nede_, 'wean'); (3) in _-ian_, pret. _-ode_ (_lufian_,
_lufode_, 'love'). The verbs of the first two conjugations nearly all have
a mutated vowel in the present and infinitive, which those of the third
conjugation very seldom have.

I. _an-_verbs.

This class of weak verbs has the same endings as the strong verbs, except
in the pret. and past partic., which are formed by adding _-de_ and _-ed_
respectively, with the following consonant changes.

  -ndde _becomes_ -nde _as in_ s[e,]nde _from_ s[e,]ndan (_send_).
  -llde     "     -lde    "    fylde       "   fyllan (_fill_).
  -tde      "     -tte    "    m[=e]tte    "   m[=e]tan (_find_).
  -pde      "     -pte    "    dypte       "   dyppan (_dip_).
  -cde      "     -hte    "    t[=æ]hte    "   t[=æ][.c]an (_show_).

The past partic. is generally contracted in the same way:--_s[e,]nd_,
_m[=e]tt_, _t[=æ]ht_, but some of them often retain the uncontracted
forms:--_fylled_, _dypped_. When declined like adjectives they drop their
_e_ where practicable:--_fylled_, plur. _fylde_; _h[=i]ered_, _h[=i]erde_.

The 2nd and 3rd pres. sing. ind. are contracted as in the strong verbs.

(_a_) 'Hear'_-class_.

               INDICATIVE.               SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  h[=i]er-e (_hear_),   h[=i]er-e.
                2.  h[=i]er-st,           h[=i]er-e.
                3.  h[=i]er-þ,            h[=i]er-e.
         _plur._    h[=i]er-aþ,           h[=i]er-en.

  _Pret. sing._ 1. h[=i]er-de,            h[=i]er-de.
                2. h[=i]er-dest,          h[=i]er-de.
                3. h[=i]er-de,            h[=i]er-de.
         _plur._   h[=i]er-don,           h[=i]er-den.

    Imper. sing. h[=i]er; plur. h[=i]er-aþ.   Infin. h[=i]er-an.
            Ptc. pres. h[=i]er-ende; pret. h[=i]er-ed.
                    Gerund. t[=o] h[=i]er-enne.

Further examples of this class are:--

   INFINITIVE.                     THIRD PRES.     PRET.      PARTIC. PRET.
  æt·[=i]ewan (_show_)               -[=i]ewþ      -[=i]ewde    -[=i]ewed.
  c[=y]þan (_make known_)            c[=y]þþ       c[=y]þde     c[=y]þed,
  fyllan (_fill_)                    fylþ          fylde        fylled
  (n[=e]a)l[=æ][.c]an (_approach_)   -l[=æ][.c]þ   -l[=æ]hte    -l[=æ]ht
  l[=æ]dan (_lead_)                  l[æ]tt        l[=æ]dde     l[=æ]dd
  l[e,][.c][.g]an (_lay_)            l[e,][.g]þ    l[e,][.g]de  l[e,][.g]d
  [.g]e·l[=i]efan (_believe_)        -l[=i]efþ     -l[=i]efde   -l[=i]efed
  n[e,]mnan (_name_)                 n[e,]mneþ     n[e,]mnde    n[e,]mned
  s[e,]ndan (_send_)                 s[e,]nt       s[e,]nde     s[e,]nd
  s[e,]ttan (_set_)                  s[e,]tt       s[e,]tte     s[e,]tt
  sm[=e]an (_consider_)              sm[=e]aþ      sm[=e]ade    sm[=e]ad
  t[=æ][.c]an (_show_)               t[=æ][.c]þ    t[=æ]hte     t[=æ]ht
  w[e,]ndan (_turn_)                 w[e,]nt       w[e,]nde     w[e,]nd

(_b_) 'Seek'-_class_.

In this class the mutated vowels lose their mutation in the preterite and
past partic., besides undergoing other changes in some verbs.

Those in double consonants (and _[.c][.g]_) simplify them in the contracted
2nd and 3rd sing. pres. indic.:--_s[e,]lle_, _s[e,]lst_, _s[e,]lþ_;
_s[e,][.c][,g]e_, _s[e,][.g]st_, _s[e,][.g]þ_; also in the imperative,
which is formed as in Conj. II:--_s[e,]le_, _s[e,][.g]e_, _by[.g]e_, &c.


   INFINITIVE.               THIRD PRES.       PRET.      PARTIC. PRET.

  cw[e,]llan (_kill_)        cw[e,]lþ         cwealde      cweald
  r[e,][.c][.c]an (_tell_)   r[e,][.c]þ       reahte       reaht
  s[e,][.c][.g]an (_say_)    s[e,][.g]þ       sæ[.g]de     sæ[.g]d
  s[e,]llan (_give_)         s[e,]lþ          sealde       seald
  w[e,][.c][.c]an (_wake_)   w[e,][.c]þ       weahte       weaht
  þ[e,]n[.c]an (_think_)     þ[e,]n[.c]þ      þ[=o]hte     þ[=o]ht


  bringan (_bring_)          bringþ           br[=o]hte    br[=o]ht


  by[.c][.g]an (_buy_)       by[.g]þ          bohte        boht
  þyn[.c]an (_appear_)       þyn[.c]þ         þ[=u]hte     þ-uht
  wyr[.c]an (_work_)         wyr[.c]þ         worhte       worht


  r[=e][.c]an (_care_)       r[=e][.c]þ       r[=o]hte     r[=o]ht
  s[=e][.c]an (_seek_)       s[=e][.c]þ       s[=o]hte     s[=o]ht

II. 'Wean'-_conjugation_.

              INDICATIVE.                    SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.   w[e,]n-i[.g]e (_wean_),  w[e,]n-i[.g]e.
                2.   w[e,]n-est,              w[e,]n-i[.g]e.
                3.   w[e,]n-eþ,               w[e,]n-i[.g]e.
         _plur._     w[e,]n-iaþ,              w[e,]n-ien.

  _Pret. sing._ 1.   w[e,]n-ede,              w[e,]n-ede.
                2.   w[e,]n-edest,            w[e,]n-ede.
                3.   w[e,]n-ede,              w[e,]n-ede.
         _plur._     w[e,]n-edon,             w[e,]n-eden.

    _Imper._ w[e,]n-e, w[e,]n-iaþ.      _Infin._ w[e,]n-ian.
       _Partic. pres._ w[e,]n-iende; _pret._ w[e,]n-ed.
                _Gerund._ t[=o] w[e,]n-ienne.


So are conjugated all weak verbs with a short mutated root syllable, such
as _f[e,]rian_ (carry), _w[e,]rian_ (defend), _[.g]e·byrian_ (befit). There
are not many of them.

III. 'Love'-_conjugation_.

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  luf-i[.g]e (_love_),   luf-i[.g]e.
                2.  luf-ast,               luf-i[.g]e.
                3.  luf-aþ,                luf-i[.g]e.
         _plur._    luf-iaþ,               luf-ien.

  _Pret. sing._ 1.  luf-ode,               luf-ode.
                2.  luf-odest,             luf-ode.
                3.  luf-ode,               luf-ode.
         _plur._    luf-odon,              luf-oden.

         _Imper._ luf-a, luf-iaþ.  _Infin._ luf-ian.
  _Partic. pres._ luf-iende: _pret._ luf-od. _Gerund._ t[=o] luf-ienne.

So also _[=a]scian_ (ask), _macian_ (make), _weorþian_ (honour), and many


Some verbs are conjugated partly after I, partly after III. Such are
_habban_ (have) and _libban_ (live).

_Habban_ has pres. indic. _hæbbe_, _hæfst_, _hæfþ_; _habbaþ_, subj.
_hæbbe_, _hæbben_, pret. _hæfde_, imper. _hafa_, _habbaþ_, particc.
_habbende_, _hæfd_.

_Libban_ has pres. _libbe_, _leofast_, _leofaþ_; _libbaþ_, subj. _libbe_,
pret. _leofode_, imper. _leofa_, _libbaþ_, particc. _libbende_, _lifiende_;

_F[e,]tian_ (fetch) has pret. _f[e,]tte_.


The strong-weak verbs have for their presents old strong preterites, from
which new weak preterites are formed. Note the occasional second person
sing. in _t_. {34}

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  w[=a]t (_know_),       wite.
                2.  w[=a]st,               wite.
                3.  w[=a]t,                wite.
         _plur._    witon,                 witen.

  _Pret._           wiste.

     _Imper._ wite, witaþ. _Infin._ witan.
     _Partic. pres._ witende; _pret._ witen.

The other most important weak-strong verbs are given below in the 1st and
2nd sing. pres. indic., in the plur. indic., in the pret., in the infin.
and partic. pret. Of several the last two forms are doubtful, or do not

[=A]h (_possess_), [=a]ge, [=a]gon; [=a]hte; [=a]gen (_only as

Cann (_know_) canst, cunnon; c[=u]þe; cunnan; c[=u]þ (_only as adjective_.)

Dearr (_dare_), durre, durron; dorste.

[.G]e·man (_remember_), -manst; -munde; -munan.

Mæ[.g] (_can_), miht, magon, mæ[.g]e (_subj._); mihte.

M[=o]t (_may_), m[=o]st, m[=o]ton; m[=o]ste.

S[.c]eal (_shall_), s[.c]ealt, sculon, scyle (_subj._); scolde.

Þearf (_need_), þurfon, þyrfe (_subj._); þorfte; þurfan.


(1) Willan (_will_) shows a mixture of subj. forms in the pres. indic.

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  wile,                  wile.
                2.  wilt,                  wile.
                3.  wile,                  wile.
         _plur._    willaþ,                willen.

  _Pret._           wolde, etc.


Similarly _nyllan_ (will not):--

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  nyle,                  nyle.
                2.  nylt,                  nyle.
                3.  nyle,                  nyle.
         _plur._    nyllaþ,                nyllen.

  _Pret._           nolde, etc.

(2) Wesan (_be_).

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  eom; b[=e]o,           s[=i]e; b[=e]o.
                2.  eart; bist,            s[=i]e; b[=e]o.
                3.  is; biþ,               s[=i]e; b[=e]o.
         _plur._    sind; b[=e]oþ,         s[=i]en; b[=e]on.

  _Pret. sing._ 1.  wæs,                   w[=æ]re.
                2.  w[=æ]re,               w[=æ]re.
                3.  wæs,                   w[=æ]re.
       _plur._      w[=æ]ron,              w[=æ]ren.

  _Imper._ wes, wesaþ; b[=e]o, b[=e]oþ. _Infin._ wesan; b[=e]on.
                   _Partic. pres._ wesende.

The contracted negative forms are:--_neom_, _neart_, _nis_; _næs_,
_n[=æ]re_, _n[=æ]ron_; _n[=æ]re_, _n[=æ]ren_.

(3) D[=o]n (_do_).

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  d[=o],                 d[=o].
                2.  d[=e]st,               d[=o].
                3.  d[=e]þ,                d[=o].
        _plur._     d[=o]þ,                d[=o]n.

  _Pret._           dyde, etc.

           _Imper._ d[=o], d[=o]þ. _Infin._ d[=o]n.
       _Partic. pres._ d[=o]nde; _pret._ [.g]e·d[=o]n.


(4) G[=a]n (_go_).

              INDICATIVE.                 SUBJUNCTIVE.
  _Pres. sing._ 1.  g[=a],                 g[=a].
                2.  g[=æ]st,               g[=a].
                3.  g[=æ]þ,                g[=a].
         _plur._    g[=a]þ,                g[=a]n.

  _Pret._           [=e]ode,               [=e]ode.

          _Imper._ g[=a], g[=a]þ. _Infin._ g[=a]n.
       _Partic. pres._ gangende; _pret._ [.g]e·g[=a]n.

       *       *       *       *       *



The following are the most important prefixes, some of which are _verbal_,
being confined to verbs and words formed directly from them; some
_nominal_, being confined to nouns and adjectives.

[=a]- (1) originally 'forth,' 'away,' as in _[=a]·r[=i]san_, 'rise forth,'
'arise'; _[=a]·faran_, 'go away,''depart'; but generally only intensive, as
in _[=a]·cw[e,]llan_ (kill), _[=a]·hr[=e]osan_ (fall).

(2) = 'ever' in pronouns and particles, where it gives an indefinite sense,
as in _[=a]-hw[=æ]r_ (anywhere), _[=a]-wiht_ (anything).

[=æ][.g]- from _[=a]-[.g]e_-, the _[=a]_ being mutated and the _e_ dropped,
has a similar meaning, as in _[=æ][.g]-hwelc_ (each), _[=æ][.g]þer_ =
_[=æ][.g]-hwæþer_ (either).

be-, originally 'by,' 'around' (cp. the preposition _be_), (1) specializes
the meaning of a transitive verb, as in _be·s[e,]ttan_ (beset, surround),
_be·s[.c]ieran_ (shear); (2) makes an intransitive verb transitive, as in
_be·þ[e,]n[.c]an_ (consider) from _þ[e,]n[.c]an_ (think); (3) gives a
privative meaning, as in _be·h[=e]afdian_ (behead). In some words, such as
_be·cuman_ (come), it is practically unmeaning. {37}

for- (which is distinct from the preposition _for_) generally has the sense
of 'loss' or 'destruction,' as in _for·d[=o]n_ (destroy), _for·weorþan_
(perish). Of course, if the verb with which it is compounded already has
this meaning, it acts merely as an intensitive, as in _for·br[=e]otan_
(break up, break), _for·scrincan_ (shrink up). It also modifies in a bad
sense generally, as in _for·s[=e]on_ (despise), or negatives, as in
_for·b[=e]odan_ (forbid).

[.g]e- originally meant 'together,' as in _[.g]e·f[=e]ra_
(fellow-traveller, companion) from _f[=e]ran_ (travel). With verbs it often
signifies 'completion,' 'attainment,' and hence 'success,' as in
_[.g]e·g[=a]n_ (conquer), originally 'go over,' or 'reach,' _[.g]e·winnan_
(win) from _winnan_ (fight). Hence generally prefixed to _h[=i]eran_ and
_s[=e]on_, _[.g]e·h[=i]eran_ and _[.g]e·s[=e]on_ strictly meaning 'succeed
in hearing, seeing.' It is generally prefixed to past participles (p. 23),
where it originally gave the meaning of completion--_[.g]e·lufod_ =
'completely loved.'

mis- = 'mis,' as in _mis-d[=æ]d_ (misdeed).

n- = _ne_ (not), as in _n[=a]_ (not), literally 'never,' _n[=æ]fre_
(never), _næs_ (was not) = _ne wæs_.

on- as a verbal prefix has nothing to do with the preposition _on_. It
properly signifies 'separation,' as in _on·l[=u]can_ (open) from _l[=u]can_
(lock, close), but is often practically unmeaning, as in _on·[.g]innan_

or-, literally 'out of,' is privative, as in _orsorg_ (unconcerned) from
_sorg_ (sorrow).

t[=o]- as a verbal prefix has nothing to do with the preposition _t[=o]_
(which occurs in _t[=o]·gædre_, 'together,' &c.), but signifies
'separation,' as in _t[=o]·berstan_ (burst asunder), _t[=o]·bre[.g]dan_
(shake off), and hence 'destruction,' as in _t[=o]·cw[=i]esan_ (crush to
pieces, bruise).

un- negatives, as in _un-[.g]es[=æ]li[.g]_ (unhappy). {38}


(_a_) NOUNS.


-end, from the present participle _-ende_, = '-er':--_H[=æ]lend_ (healer,
Saviour), _b[=u]end_ (dweller).

-ere = '-er':--_s[=a]were_ (sower), _mynetere_ (money-changer, minter) from
_mynet_ (coin).

-ing, patronymic, _æþeling_ (son of a noble, prince) from _æþele_ (noble).


-nes, fem. from adjectives:--_g[=o]d-nes_ (goodness), _rihtw[=i]snes_

-uþ, -þo, fem., generally from adjectives:--_[.g][=e]oguþ_ (youth),
_str[e,]n[.g]þo_ (strength) from _strang_.

-ung, fem. from verbs:--_scotung_ (shooting, shot), _h[e,]rgung_
(ravaging), from _scotian_, _h[e,]rgian_.

The following are also independent words:--

-d[=o]m, masc.:--_w[=i]s-d[=o]m_ (wisdom), _þ[=e]ow-d[=o]m_ (servitude).

-h[=a]d, masc.:--_[.c]ild-h[=a]d_ (childhood).

-r[=æ]den, fem.:--_[.g]e·cwid-r[=æ]den_ (agreement) from _cwide_ (speech);
_mann-r[=æ]den_ (allegiance).

-s[.c]ipe, masc.:--_fr[=e]ond-s[.c]ipe_ (friendship). Concrete in
_wæter-s[.c]ipe_ (piece of water, water).


-en, with mutation, denotes 'material,' 'belonging to':--_gylden_ (golden),
_st[=æ]nen_ (of stone), _h[=æ]þen_ (heathen) from _h[=æ]þ_ (heath). In
_seolcen_ (silken) there is no mutation.

-feald = '-fold':--_hund-feald_ (hundred-fold).

-i[.g]:--_miht-i[.g]_ (mighty); _h[=a]l-i[.g]_ (holy) from _h[=a]l_
(whole). {39}

-isc, with mutation:--_[E,]n[.g]lisc_ (English) from _Angel_; _m[e,]nn-isc_
(human) from _mann_.

-ol:--_swic-ol_ (deceitful).

-iht, with mutation, denotes 'material,' 'nature':--_st[=æ]n-iht_ (stony).

-sum = 'some':--_h[=i]er-sum_ (obedient).

The following exist (sometimes in a different form) as independent words:--

-fæst:--_s[=o]þ-fæst_ (truthful).

-full:--_sorg-full_ (sorrowful), _[.g]e·l[=e]af-full_ (believing, pious).

-l[=e]as = '-less':--_[=a]r-l[=e]as_ (dishonoured, wicked).

-lic (cp. _[.g]e·l[=i]c_) = '-ly':--_folc-lic_ (popular), _heofon-lic_

-weard = '-ward':--_s[=u]þan-weard_ (southward).


-l[=æ][.c]an:--_[=a]n-l[=æ][.c]an_ (unite), _[.g]e·þw[=æ]r-l[=æ][.c]an_


-e, the regular adverb-termination:--_lange_ (long), _[.g]e·l[=i]ce_
(similarly) from _lang_, _[.g]e·l[=i]c_. Sometimes _-l[=i]ce_ (from _-lic_)
is used to form adverbs, as _bl[=i]þe-l[=i]ce_ (gladly) from _bl[=i]þe_.


Many abstract words are formed from present participles (often in a passive
sense) and past participles (often in an active sense):--

-nes:--_for·[.g]iefen-nes_ (forgiveness), _[.g]e·r[e,][.c]ed-nes_
(narrative), _welwillend-nes_ (benevolence).

-lic:--_un[=a]r[=i]med-lic_ (innumerable).

-l[=i]ce:--_welwillend-l[=i]ce_ (benevolently).

       *       *       *       *       * {40}



When masculine and feminine beings are referred to by the same adjective or
pronoun, the adjective or pronoun is put in the neuter:--_h[=i]e
[.g]e·samnodon h[=i]e_, _ealle þ[=a] h[=e]afod-m[e,]nn, and [=e]ac swelce
w[=i]f-menn_ ... _and þ[=a] h[=i]e bl[=i]þost w[=æ]ron_ ... (they gathered
themselves, all the chief men, and also women ... and when they were most
merry ...). Here _bl[=i]þost_ is in the neuter plur.


Accusative. Some verbs of asking (a question) and requesting, together with
_l[=æ]ran_ (teach), take two accusatives, one of the person, and another of
the thing:--_h[=i]e hine ne dorston [=æ]ni[.g] þing [=a]scian_ (they durst
not ask him anything); _w[=e] magon [=e]ow r[=æ]d [.g]e·l[=æ]ran_ (we can
teach you a plan).

The accusative is used adverbially to express duration of time: _hw[=y]
stande [.g][=e] h[=e]r ealne dæ[.g] [=i]dle?_ (why stand ye here all the
day idle?)

Dative. The dative in Old E. is of two kinds, (1) the dative proper, and
(2) the instrumental dative, interchanging with the regular instrumental.
It is not always easy to separate the two.

(1) The dative proper usually designates personal relations, and is
frequently used with verbs, together with an accusative (generally of the
thing). The dative is also used with adjectives. It is used not only with
verbs of _giving_, &c., as in _h[=e] sealde [=æ]lcum [=a]nne p[e,]ning_ (he
gave each a penny); _addressing_, as in _ic [=e]ow s[e,][.c][.g]e_ (I say
to you), _h[=e] þancode his Dryhtne_ (he thanked his Lord); but also with
many verbs of _benefiting_, _influencing_, &c., as in _ne d[=o] ic þ[=e]
n[=a]nne t[=e]onan_ (I do thee no injury), _h[=i]e noldon him l[=i]efan_
(they would not allow {41} them to do so); _þ[=æ]m r[=e]þum st[=i]erde_
(restrained the cruel ones). Also in looser constructions, to denote the
person indirectly affected, benefited, &c., as in _by[.c][.g]aþ [=e]ow ele_
(buy for yourselves oil). Note especially the following idiom: _h[=i]e
[.g]e·s[=o]hton Bretene Brettum t[=o] fultume_ (they came to Britain as a
help to the Britains--to help them); _h[=e] clipode Cr[=i]st him t[=o]
fultume_ (he called Christ to his help).

The dative is also used with adjectives of _nearness_, _likeness_,
&c.:--_[=E]admund cyning clipode [=a]nne biscop þe him [.g]e·h[e,]ndost
wæs_ (King Edmund summoned a bishop who was nearest at hand to him);
_heofona r[=i][.c]e is [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m mangere þe s[=o]hte þæt g[=o]de
m[e,]regrot_ (the kingdom of the heavens is like the merchant who sought
the good pearl).

(2) The instrumental dative is used to denote the _instrument_ and _manner_
of an action: _h[=e] [.g]e·[e,]ndode yflum d[=e]aþe_ (he ended with an evil
death). Hence its use to form adverbs, as in _s[.c][=e]afm[=æ]lum_
(sheafwise). It also signifies time when:--_þrim [.g][=e]arum [=æ]r þ[=æ]m
þe h[=e] forþ·f[=e]rde_ (three years before he died), which is also
expressed by the instrumental itself:--_s[=e]o wolde [e,]fsian [=æ]lce
[.g][=e]are þone sanct_ (she used to cut the saint's hair every year);
_þ[=y] f[=e]orþan [.g][=e]are his r[=i][.c]es_ (in the fourth year of his
reign). A past participle with a noun in the instrumental dative is used
like the ablative absolute in Latin: _Hubba be·l[=a]f on Norþhymbra-lande,
[.g]e·wunnenum si[.g]e mid wælhr[=e]ownesse_ (H. remained in Northumbria,
victory having been won with cruelty).

Genitive. The genitive is often used in a partitive sense:--_his f[=e]onda
sum_ (one of his enemies); _hiera f[=i]f w[=æ]ron dysi[.g]e_ (five of them
were foolish). Hence it is generally used with _fela_, as in _fela wundra_
(many miracles); also with numerals when used as substantives (p. 18).

The genitive is often used like an accusative to denote the object of
various emotions and mental states, such as {42} _joy_, _desire_,
_remembering_:--_h[=i]e þæs fæ[.g]nodon sw[=i]þe_ (they rejoiced at it
greatly); _m[=e] l[=e]ofre w[=æ]re þæt ic on [.g]e·feohte f[=e]olle wiþ
þ[=æ]m þe m[=i]n folc m[=o]ste hiera eardes br[=u]can_ (it would be
pleasanter to me to fall in fight that my people might enjoy (possess)
their country); _ic þæs [.g]e·wilni[.g]e_ (I desire that); _[.g]if h[=e]
his f[=e]ores r[=o]hte_ (if he cared about his life); _h[=e] wæs þæs
H[=æ]lendes [.g]e·myndi[.g]_ (he was mindful of--he remembered the

Some of these verbs, such as _biddan_ (ask), take an accusative of the
person and a genitive of the thing:--_h[=e] hine hl[=a]fes bitt_ (he asks
him for bread).

Verbs of _depriving_, _restraining_, &c., have the same construction:--_nis
Angel-cynn be·d[=æ]led Dryhtnes h[=a]lgena_ (England is not deprived of the
Lord's saints).

Some verbs of _giving_, &c., take a genitive of the thing and a dative of
the person:--_him wæs of·togen [=æ]lces f[=o]dan_ (they were deprived of
all food).

The genitive is often used to _define_ an adjective or noun:--_þ[=u] eart
wierþe sl[e,][.g]es_ (thou art worthy of death); _on þ[=æ]m [.g][=e]are þe
Ælfred æþeling [=a]n and tw[e,]nti[.g] [.g][=e]ara wæs_ (in the year when
Prince Alfred was twenty-one).


Adjectives agree with their nouns not only when used attributively (g[=o]de
m[e,]nn), but also when the adjective follows the noun, either
predicatively or in apposition:--_þ[=a] m[e,]nn sind g[=o]de_; _h[=e]
[.g]e·seah [=o]þre [=i]dle standan_ (he saw others standing idle); _h[=i]e
c[=o]mon mid langum s[.c]ipum, n[=a] manigum_ (they came with long ships,
not many).


In such expressions as 'the island of Britain,' the second noun is not put
in the genitive, but the two are simply put in {43} apposition, both being
declined separately:--_Breten [=i]e[.g]land, on Bretene (þ[=æ]m)
[=i]e[.g]lande_. In 'king Alfred,' &c., the proper name is put first in the
same way:--_Ælfred æþeling_ (prince Alfred); _on Æþelredes cyninges
dæ[.g]e_ (in the days of king Æþelred).

There is a similar apposition with the adjective _sum_ followed by a noun
or pronoun, as in _sume þ[=a] m[e,]nn_ (some of the men); _þ[=a] þ[=a]
h[=e] s[=e]ow, sumu h[=i]e f[=e]ollon wiþ we[.g]_ (while he sowed, some of
them [the seeds] fell by the road). Sometimes the pronoun precedes, as in
_þ[=a] b[=æ]don h[=i]e sume þæt Samson m[=o]ste him macian sum gamen_ (then
some of them asked that Samson might make some sport for them).

Another kind of apposition occurs in instances like the following, where we
have an adjective agreeing with a following noun, and denoting a part of
it:--_h[=i]e [.g]e·s[=æ]ton s[=u]þanwearde Bretene [=æ]rest_ (they occupied
the south of Britain first); _s[=u]þanweard hit_ (= þæt land) _hæfdon
Peohtas_ (the Picts had the south part of it).


The weak forms are used:

(1) after the definite article:--_se æþela cyning_ (the noble king); _þæs
æþelan cyninges_, _þæt g[=o]de m[e,]regrot_, _þ[=a] g[=o]dan m[e,]regrotu_.

(2) after _þis_:--_þ[=a]s earman landl[=e]ode_ (these poor people, _pl._);
_þes h[=a]lga cyning_ (this holy king), _þisses h[=a]lgan cyninges_.

(3) occasionally after other demonstrative and indefinite adjectives, and
often after possessive pronouns:--_þ[=i]ne d[=i]eglan gold-hordas_ (thy
hidden treasures).

(4) in the vocative:--_þ[=u] yfla þ[=e]ow and sl[=a]wa!_ (thou bad and
slothful servant); _[=e]al[=a] þ[=u] l[=e]ofa cyning!_ (oh, thou dear

Note that _[=o]þer_ always keeps the strong form: _þ[=a] [=o]þru d[=e]or_
(the other wild beasts). So also do the possessive pronouns: {44} _þ[=a]s
m[=i]n word_ (these my words). _[=A]n_ in the sense of 'one' keeps the
strong form to distinguish it from the weak _[=a]na_ = 'alone': _þæt [=a]n
d[=e]orwierþe m[e,]regrot_ (the one precious pearl).


The definite article is omitted as in Modern English before names such as
_God_, and also before _Dryhten_ (the Lord), _D[=e]ofol_ (the Devil),
although _se D[=e]ofol_ also occurs, and names of nations:--_Bretta cyning_
(king of the Britons).

It is omitted in many prepositional combinations, not only in those where
it is omitted in Modern English also, as in _si[.g]efæst on s[=æ] and on
lande_ (victorious on sea and on land), but also in many others:
_[.g]ew[e,]nde t[=o] wuda on·[.g][=e]an_ (went back to the wood); _se
floth[e,]re f[=e]rde eft t[=o] s[.c]ipe_ (the army of pirates went back to
their ships); _h[=e] f[=e]ng t[=o] r[=i][.c]e_ (he took the
government--came to the throne).

The definite article is, on the other hand, sometimes used where it would
not be in Modern E., as in _se mann_ = 'man' (men in general).

The indefinite article is often not expressed at all:--_þæt dyde unhold
mann_ (an enemy did that); _h[=e] be·stealcode on land sw[=a] sw[=a] wulf_
(he stole to land like a wolf). Or it is expressed by _sum_: _on þ[=æ]m
lande wæs sum mann, L[=e]ofr[=i][.c] [.g]e·h[=a]ten_ (in that country was a
man called L.). Or by _[=a]n_, as in Modern English_:--[=a]n wulf wearþ
[=a]·s[e,]nd t[=o] be·w[e,]rienne þæt h[=e]afod wiþ þ[=a] [=o]þru d[=e]or_
(a wolf was sent to protect the head against the other wild beasts).


_Hwæt_ is used interrogatively of persons where we should use
'who':--_h[=e] nyste hwæt h[=i]e w[=æ]ron_ (he did not know who they were).



After _[=æ]lc þ[=a]ra þe_ (each of-those-who) the verb is put in the sing.,
agreeing not with _þ[=a]ra þe_ but with _[=æ]lc_:--_[=æ]lc þ[=a]ra þe
þ[=a]s m[=i]n word [.g]e·h[=i]erþ_ (each of those who hear these my words).

When _þæt_ or _þis_ is connected with a plural predicate by means of the
verb 'to be,' the verb is put in the plural:--_þæt w[=æ]ron þ[=a]
[=æ]restan s[.c]ipu D[e,]niscra manna þe Angel-cynnes land [.g]e·s[=o]hton_
(those were the first ships of Danish men which came to the land of the
English race).

Impersonal verbs take an accusative of the person, sometimes also with a
genitive of the thing.

Others, such as _þyn[.c]an_ (appear), take a dative of the person:--_wæs
him [.g]e·þ[=u]ht þæt h[=i]e be·h[=y]dden þæt h[=e]afod_ (they thought they
(the Danes) had hidden the head).


There being no future inflection in Old E., the present is used
instead:--_ne [=a]·b[=y]hþ n[=æ]fre E[=a]dmund Hinguare_ (Edmund will never
submit to H.); _g[=a] [.g][=e] on m[=i]nne w[=i]n[.g]eard, and ic s[e,]lle
[=e]ow þæt riht biþ_ (go ye into my vineyard, and I will give you what is
right). As we see in this example, there is a tendency to use _b[=e]on_ in
a future sense. Another example is _[.g]if ic b[=e]o [.g]e·bunden mid
seofon r[=a]pum, s[=o]na ic b[=e]o [.g]e·wield_ (if I am bound with seven
ropes, I shall at once be overcome). The future is sometimes expressed by
_will_ and _shall_, as in Modern English, though generally with a sense of
volition with the one, and of necessity with the other, the idea of simple
futurity coming out most clearly in the preterites _wolde_ and _scolde_:--

_H[=e] [.g]e·l[=æ]hte [=a]ne l[=e]on þe hine [=a]·b[=i]tan wolde_ (he
seized a lion {46} that was going to devour him); _h[=i]e w[=e]ndon þæt
h[=i]e scolden m[=a]re on·f[=o]n_ (they expected to receive more).

The preterite has the meaning of the modern

(1) Preterite and imperfect:--_se s[=a]were [=u]t [=e]ode his s[=æ]d t[=o]
s[=a]wenne, and þ[=a] þ[=a] h[=e] s[=e]ow ..._ (the sower _went_ out to sow
his seed, and while he _was sowing_ ...).

(2) Perfect:--_h[=e]r is m[=i]n cnapa, þone ic [.g]e[.c][=e]as_ (here is my
servant, whom I have chosen);--_[=u]re cyning c[=o]m n[=u] h[=e]r t[=o]
lande_ (our king has just landed here).

(3) Pluperfect:--_þ[=a] þ[=a] [.g]e·c[=o]mon þe ymb þ[=a] [e,]ndlyftan
t[=i]d c[=o]mon_ (when those came who had come at the eleventh hour).

Periphrastic tenses are sometimes formed, as in Modern E., by _hæbbe_ and
_hæfde_ with the past participles, and often have the meanings of the
modern perfect and pluperfect respectively, as in _n[=u] ic hæbbe
[.g]estr[=i]ened [=o]þru tw[=a] pund_ (now I have gained two other pounds),
but even the pluperfect often has the sense of a simple preterite. The
participle is undeclinable in the later language, but originally it was
declined, being really an adjective in apposition to the noun or pronoun
governed by _habban_: _h[=i]e hæfdon hiera cyning [=a]·worpenne_ (they had
deposed their king).

The pluperfect sense is often indicated by the addition of the adverb
_[=æ]r_ (before):--_his sw[=e]ora, þe [=æ]r wæs for·slæ[.g]en_ (his neck,
which had been cut through).

The periphrastic forms of intransitive verbs are formed with
_wesan_:--_siþþan h[=i]e [=a]·farene w[=æ]ron_ (after they had gone away).
Here the participle always agrees with the noun or pronoun with which it is

The periphrases with the present participle have no distinctive meanings of
duration, &c.:--_[=a]n mann wæs eardiende on Israh[=e]la þ[=e]ode, Manu[=e]
[.g]e·h[=a]ten_ (a man dwelt in Israel called Manue). {47}


The passive is formed with _wesan_ or _weorþan_ with the past participle.
These forms are very vague in meaning, and the distinction between the two
auxiliaries is not clearly marked, but _wesan_ appears to indicate a state,
_weorþan_ an action.

_wearþ [.g]e·lufod_ is generally preterite or perfect in meaning: _[=a]n
wulf wearþ [=a]·s[e,]nd_ (a wolf was sent); _m[=i]ne l[=e]ofe þe[.g]nas, þe
on hiera b[e,]ddum wurdon of·slæ[.g]ene_ (my beloved thanes, who have been
killed in their beds).

_wæs [.g]e·lufod_, indicating a state, is naturally pluperfect in
meaning:--_se [=æ]rendraca sæ[.g]de his hl[=a]forde h[=u] him [.g]e·andwyrd
wæs_ (the messenger told his lord how he had been answered).


The subjunctive states something not as a fact, as in the indicative, but
merely as an object of thought. Hence it is used to express wish,
conditions, doubt, &c.

A. In principal sentences.

_Wish_ and _command_ (often nearly equivalent to the imperative):--_þæs him
s[=i]e wuldor and lof [=a] b[=u]tan [e,]nde_ (therefore let there be to him
praise and glory ever without end); _ne h[=e] ealu ne drince n[=æ]fre oþþe
w[=i]n_ (nor shall he ever drink ale or wine).

B. In dependent sentences.

The chief cases are the following:--

(1) In _indirect narrative_ and _question_: _s[=e]o cw[=e]n sæ[.g]de þæt
hiere n[=æ]re be healfum d[=æ]le [.g]e·sæ[.g]d be Salomones m[=æ]rþo_ (the
queen said that she had not been told about Solomon's glory by half); _ic
[=a]sci[.g]e hw[=æ]r s[=e]o offrung s[=i]e_ (I ask where the offering is);
_m[e,]nn woldon s[.c][=e]awian h[=u] h[=e] l[=æ][.g]e_ (men {48} wished to
see how he lay). When the statement in the indirect narration is perfectly
certain in itself, and not merely accepted on the authority of the speaker,
it is put in the indicative:--_h[=e] hiere sæ[.g]de on hw[=æ]m his miht
wæs_ (he told her what his strength consisted in).

(2) After verbs of _desiring_ and _commanding_:--

_þæs ic [.g]e·wilni[.g]e and [.g]e·wys[.c]e mid m[=o]de þæt ic [=a]na ne
be·l[=i]fe æfter m[=i]num l[=e]ofum þe[.g]num_ (that I desire and wish with
heart that I may not remain alone after my dear thanes).

(3) To express _purpose_:--_þ[=y] l[=æ]s [.g][=e] þone hw[=æ]te
[=a]·wyrtwalien_ (lest ye root up the wheat);--_Dryhten [=a]s·t[=a]g niþer,
t[=o] b[=æ]m þæt h[=e] [.g]e·s[=a]we þ[=a] burg_ (the Lord descended, in
order that he might see the city).

(4) To express _result_:--_þ[=u] næfst þ[=a] mihte þæt þ[=u] mæ[.g]e him
wiþ·standan_ (thou hast not the power that thou canst withstand him).

(5) To express _hypothetical comparison_ (as if):--_se wulf folgode forþ
mid þ[=æ]m h[=e]afde, swelce h[=e] tam w[=æ]re_ (the wolf followed on with
the head, as if he were tame); _h[=e] [.g]e·l[=æ]hte [=a]ne l[=e]on, and
t[=o]·bræ[.g]d h[=i]e t[=o] sty[.c][.c]um, swelce h[=e] t[=o]·t[=æ]re
ti[.c][.c]en_ (he seized a lion and tore her to pieces, as if he were
rending a kid).

(6) In _conditional_ clauses, generally with _[.g]if_ or _b[=u]tan_, and in
_concessive_ clauses with _þ[=e]ah_, _þ[=e]ah þe_:--_God w[=a]t þæt ic nyle
[=a]·b[=u]gan fram his b[=i]g[e,]ngum [=æ]fre, swelte ic, libbe ic_ (God
knows that I will not swerve from his worship ever, whether I die or live);
_þ[=a]s flotm[e,]nn cumaþ, and þ[=e] cwicne [.g]e·bindaþ, b[=u]tan þ[=u]
mid fl[=e]ame þ[=i]num f[=e]ore [.g]e·beorge_ (these pirates will come and
bind thee alive, unless thou savest thy life with flight); _God hielt
[=E]admund h[=a]lne his l[=i]chaman oþ þone mi[.c]lan dæ[.g], þ[=e]ah þe
h[=e] on moldan c[=o]me_ (God will keep Edmund {49} with his body whole
until the great day, although he has come to earth--been buried). Sometimes
the idea of 'if' must be got from the context:--_clipiaþ t[=o] þissum
[.g]ieftum sw[=a] hwelce sw[=a] [.g][=e] [.g]e·m[=e]ten_ (summon to this
wedding whomsoever ye meet, = _if_ ye meet any one); _h[=i]e be·h[=e]ton
hiere s[.c]eattas wiþ þ[=æ]m þe h[=e]o be·swice Samson_ (they promised her
money in consideration of her betraying Samson, = if she would...).

When the statement is assumed as unreal, instead of merely hypothetical, as
in the above instances, both clauses are put in the subjunctive, the
preterite being substituted for the present, as in Modern English also,
where _if I were_ ... implies _I am not_.... The modern distinction between
_if I were_ and _if I had been_, the former corresponding to the present
indicative _I am not_, the latter to the preterite _I was not_, is not made
in Old English, which uses _gif ic w[=æ]re_ in both instances. Sometimes
the 'if'-clause has to be supplied in thought:--_m[=e] l[=e]ofre w[=æ]re
þæt ic on [.g]e·feohte f[=e]olle wiþ þ[=æ]m þe m[=i]n folc m[=o]ste hiera
eardes br[=u]can_ (I would rather fall in fight that my people might
possess their country), where we must supply some such clause as _[.g]if
hit sw[=a] b[=e]on mihte_ (if it might be so--if it were possible to save
my people by my death).

(7) In clauses dependant on a _negative sentence_:--_nis n[=a]n þing þe his
mihte wiþ·stande_ (there is nothing that resists his might). Sometimes the
negation must be gathered from the context, as in _se h[=a]lga is m[=æ]rra
þonne m[e,]nn mæ[.g]en [=a]·sm[=e]an_ (the saint is more illustrious than
men can conceive = the saint is so illustrious that no men can conceive

(8) In other cases, to express uncertainty, futurity, &c.: _þ[=i]n
r[=i][.c]e [.g]e·w[=i]tt fram þ[=e], oþ þæt þ[=u] wite þæt God [.g]e·wielt
manna r[=i][.c]a_ (thy kingdom shall depart from thee, till thou knowest
that God rules the kingdoms of men); _uton_ {50} _weorþian [=u]rne naman,
[=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe w[=e] s[=i]en t[=o]·d[=æ]lde [.g]eond ealle eorþan!_ (let
us make our name famous, before we are dispersed over the earth).

The preterite subjunctive is often expressed by _should_ and _would_ with
an infinitive, as in Modern English.

_Scolde_ is used after verbs of _desiring_, _requesting_ and
_commanding_:--_biddende þone Ælmihtigan þæt h[=e] him [=a]rian scolde_
(praying the Almighty to have mercy on him). In the following example the
verb of commanding is understood from the noun _[=æ]rende_:--_h[=e]
s[e,]nde t[=o] þæm cyninge b[=e]otlic [=æ]rende, þæt h[=e] [=a]·b[=u]gan
scolde t[=o] his mannr[=æ]denne, [.g]if h[=e] his f[=e]ores r[=o]hte_ (he
sent to the king an arrogant message, that he was to turn to his
allegiance, if he cared about his life).

_Wolde_ is used after verbs of _purpose_:--_se cyning [=e]ode inn þæt he
wolde [.g]e·s[=e]on þ[=a] þe þ[=æ]r s[=æ]ton_ (the king went in to see
those who were sitting there).


After verbs of commanding the infinitive often seems to have a passive
sense:--_h[=i]e h[=e]ton him s[e,]ndan m[=a]ran fultum_ (they ordered that
more forces should be sent to them). So also after verbs of hearing,
&c.:--_þæt m[=æ]ste wæl þe w[=e] s[e,][.c][.g]an h[=i]erdon_ (the greatest
slaughter we have heard told of). In such cases an indefinite pronoun has
been omitted: 'ordered them to send ...' etc.


The gerund is used--

(1) to express purpose:--_[=u]t [=e]ode se s[=a]were his s[=æ]d t[=o]
s[=a]wenne_ (the sower went forth to sow his seed).

(2) it defines or determines an adjective (adverb or noun): _hit is
scandlic ymb swelc t[=o] sprecenne_ (it is shameful to speak of such
things). {51}


Some prepositions govern the accusative, such as _þurh_ (through), _ymbe_
(about); some the dative (and instrumental), such as _æfter_ (after),
_[=æ]r_ (before), _æt_ (at), _be_ (by), _binnan_ (within), _b[=u]tan_
(without), _for_ (for), _fram_ (from), _of_ (of), _t[=o]_ (to).

Some govern both accusative and dative, such as _ofer_ (over), _on_ (on,
in), _under_ (under). The general rule is that when motion is implied they
take the accusative, when rest is implied, the dative. Thus _on_ with the
accusative signifies 'into,' with the dative 'in.' But this rule is not
strictly followed, and we often find the accusative used with verbs of
rest, as in _h[=e] his h[=u]s [.g]e·timbrode ofer st[=a]n_ (he built his
house on a rock), and conversely, the dative with verbs of motion, as in
_h[=i]e f[=e]ollon on st[=æ]nihte_ (they fell on stony ground).

As regards the use and meaning of the prepositions, it must be noticed that
_in_ is very seldom used, its place being supplied by _on_, the meaning
'on' being in its turn often expressed by _ofer_, as in the passage just

When a thing is referred to, _þ[=æ]r_ is substituted for _hit_, the
preposition being joined on to the _þ[=æ]r_, so that, for instance,
_þ[=æ]r-t[=o]_ corresponds to _t[=o] him_; _h[=i]e l[=æ]ddon þone cyning
t[=o] [=a]num tr[=e]owe, and t[=i]e[.g]don hine þ[=æ]r-t[=o]_ (they led the
king to a tree, and tied him to it). So also _h[=e]r-be[=e]astan_ is
equivalent to 'east of this (country).'

Prepositions sometimes follow, instead of preceding the words they modify,
sometimes with other words intervening: _h[=i]e scuton mid gafelocum him
t[=o]_ (they shot at him with missiles); _h[=i]e cw[=æ]don him
be·tw[=e]onan_ (they said among themselves); _þ[=æ]m Ælmihtigan t[=o] lofe,
þe h[=i]e on [.g]e·l[=i]efdon_ (to the praise of the Almighty, in whom they
believed), where _on_ {52} refers to the indeclinable _þe_. So also in _þæt
h[=u]s þe h[=e] inne wunode_ (the house he dwelt in).

Where the noun modified by such a preposition is not expressed, the
preposition becomes an adverb: _se cyning s[e,]nde his h[e,]re t[=o], and
for·dyde þ[=a] mannslagan_ (the king sent his army to the place, and
destroyed the murderers).


The negative particle is _ne_, which drops its _e_ before some common verbs
and pronouns, as in _nis_ = _ne is_, _n[=a]n_ = _ne [=a]n_. The negative
particle is prefixed to every finite verb in a sentence, and to all the
words besides which admit the contracted forms:--_t[=o]·cw[=i]esed hr[=e]od
h[=e] ne for·br[=i]ett_ (he breaks not the bruised reed), _hit n[=a] ne
f[=e]oll_ (it did not fall); _n[=a]n mann nyste n[=a]n þing_ (no man knew
anything). So also with _ne ... ne_ = 'neither ... nor': _ne fl[=i]tt h[=e]
ne h[=e] ne hr[=i]emþ_ (he neither disputes nor cries out).


Correlation is often more fully expressed in Old than in Modern English, as
in _þ[=a] þ[=a] m[e,]nn sl[=e]pon, þ[=a] c[=o]m his f[=e]onda sum_ =
'_when_ the men slept, _then_ came one of his enemies.' In _þ[=a] þ[=a]_ =
'when' the two correlatives are brought immediately together:--_þ[=a] þ[=a]
h[=e] s[=e]ow, sumu h[=i]e f[=e]ollon wiþ we[.g]_ = 'then when he sowed,
some of them fell by the road.' In the following example the conjunction
_þæt_ is correlative with the pronoun _þæt_:--_þæs ic [.g]e·wilni[.g]e þæt
ic [=a]na ne be·l[=i]fe æfter m[=i]num l[=e]ofum þe[.g]num_--'that I
desire, that I may not remain alone after my dear thanes.' Sometimes a word
is used to include both the demonstrative and the relative meaning:--_h[=e]
[.g]e·br[=o]hte hine þ[=æ]r h[=e] hine [=æ]r [.g]e·nam_ (he brought him to
the place where he took him from). {53}


The Old English word-order resembles that of German in many respects,
though it is not so strict, thus:--

The verb comes before its nominative when the sentence is headed by an
adverb or adverbial group, or when the object or predicate is put at the
head of the sentence:--_þ[=a] cwæþ se cyning_ (then said the king);
_[=æ]rest w[=æ]ron b[=u]end þisses landes Brettas_ (at first the Britons
were the inhabitants of this country); _on his dagum c[=o]mon [=æ]rest
þr[=e]o s[.c]ipu_ (in his days three ships first came); _þæt b[=æ]ron
olfendas_ (camels carried it); _m[=æ]re is se God þe Dani[=e]l on
be·l[=i]efþ_ (great is the God that Daniel believes in).

The infinite often comes at the end of the sentence; _w[=e] magon [=e]ow
r[=æ]d [.g]e·l[=æ]ran_ (we can teach you a plan).

The finite verb often comes at the end in dependent sentences, an auxiliary
verb often coming after an infinitive or participle; _þæt w[=æ]ron þ[=a]
[=æ]restan s[.c]ipu D[e,]niscra manna þe Angel-cynnes land [.g]e·s[=o]hton_
(those were the first ships of Danish men which came to the land of the
English race); _þæt m[=æ]ste wæl þe w[=e] s[e,][.c][.g]an h[=i]erdon oþ
þisne andweardan dæ[.g]_ (the greatest slaughter that we have heard tell of
up to this present day); _þæt h[=i]e þone Godes mann [=a]·bitan scolden_
(in order that they should devour the man of God).

There is a tendency to put the verb at the end in principal sentences also,
or, at least, to bring it near the end: _hiene man of·sl[=o]g_ (they killed
him); _h[=i]e þ[=æ]r si[.g]e n[=a]mon_ (they got the victory there).

       *       *       *       *       *



             STRONG.             WEAK.
            _M._   _N._   _F._       _M._   _N._   _F._
    _Sg. N._ --     --     -(u)       -a     -e     -e
        _A._ --     --     -(e)       -an    -e     -an
        _D._ -e     -e     -e         -an    -an    -an
        _G._ -es    -es    -e         -an    -an    -an
                                      \______  ______/
    _Pl. N._ -as    -(u)   -a                -an
        _D._ -um    -um    -um               -um
        _G._ -a     -a     -(en)a            -ena

    _Sg. N._ --     --     -(u)       -a     -e     -e
        _A._ -ne    --     -(e)       -an    -e     -an
        _D._ -um    -um    -re        -an    -an    -an
        _G._ -es    -es    -re        -an    -an    -an
        _I._ -e     -e    (-re)      (-an    -an    -an)
    _Pl. N._ -e     -(u)   -e         \______  ______/
             \______  ______/                \/
                    \/                       -an
        _D._        -um                      -um
        _G._        -ra                      -ra

                   PRESENT.                       PRETERITE.
            _Indic._       _Subj._          _Indic._      _Subj._
    _Sg._ 1. -e;      -i[.g]e -(i[.g])e    - ;  -de      -e;  -de
          2. -(e)st;  -ast    -(i[.g])e    -e;  -dest    -e;  -de
          3. -(e)þ;   -aþ     -(i[.g])e    - ;  -de      -e;  -de
    _Pl._    -aþ;     -iaþ    -(i)en       -on; -don     -en; -den
         _Imper. sg._ -(a); _pl._ -(i)aþ.   _Infin._ -(i)an.
  _Partic. pres._ -(i)ende; _pret._ -en, -ed, -od.   _Ger._ (i)enne.

       *       *       *       *       *





  [=A]n on-[.g]inn is ealra þinga, þæt is God æl-mihti[.g]. Se
  [.g]e·l[=e]afa þe biþ b[=u]tan g[=o]dum weorcum, s[=e] is d[=e]ad; þis
  þ[=a]ra apostola word. Ic eom g[=o]d hierde: se g[=o]da hierde
  s[e,]lþ his [=a]gen l[=i]f for his s[.c][=e]apum. [=U]re [=A]·l[=i]esend
      is se g[=o]da
  hierde, and w[=e] cr[=i]stene m[e,]nn sind his s[.c]eap. Se m[=o]na his
  leoht ne s[e,]lþ, and steorran of heofone feallaþ. Sw[=a] sw[=a]
  wæter [=a]·dw[=æ]s[.c]þ f[=y]r, sw[=a] [=a]·dw[=æ]s[.c]þ s[=e]o ælmesse

  Ealle [.g]e·s[.c]eafta, heofonas and [e,]n[.g]las, sunnan and m[=o]nan,
  steorran and eorþan, eall n[=i]etenu and ealle fuglas, s[=æ] and
  ealle fiscas God [.g]e·sc[=o]p and [.g]e·worhte on siex dagum; and  10
  on þ[=æ]m seofoþan dæ[.g]e h[=e] [.g]e·[e,]ndode his weorc; and h[=e]
  be·h[=e]old þ[=a] eall his weorc þe h[=e] [.g]e·worhte, and h[=i]e
  eall sw[=i]þe g[=o]d. H[=e] f[=e]rde [.g]eond manigu land, bodiende
  Godes [.g]e·l[=e]afan. H[=e] for·l[=e]t eall woruld-þing. Se cyning
  be·b[=e]ad þæt man scolde ofer eall Angel-cynn s[.c]ipu wyr[.c]an;  15
  and hiera wæs sw[=a] fela sw[=a] n[=æ]fre [=æ]r ne wæs on n[=a]nes
  cyninges dæ[.g]e. Se cyning h[=e]t of·sl[=e]an ealle þ[=a] D[e,]niscan
  m[e,]nn þe on Angel-cynne w[=æ]ron.

  Þ[=a] ne mihton h[=i]e him n[=a]n word and-swarian, ne n[=a]n
  mann ne dorste hine n[=a]n þing m[=a]re [=a]scian. H[=i]e fuhton  20
  on þ[=a] burg ealne dæ[.g], and þ[=o]hton þæt h[=i]e h[=i]e scolden
  [=a]·brecan. Se eorl [.g]e·w[e,]nde west t[=o] [=I]r-lande, and wæs
  ealne þone winter. Æþelred cyning and Ælfred his br[=o]þor
  fuhton wiþ ealne þone h[e,]re on Æsces-d[=u]ne.

  Se mann is [=e][.c]e on [=a]num d[=æ]le, þæt is, on þ[=æ]re s[=a]wle;  25
  h[=e]o ne [.g]e·[e,]ndaþ n[=æ]fre. [.G]if se biscop d[=e]þ be his
  willan, and wile bindan þone un-scyldigan, and þone scyldigan
  [=a]·l[=i]esan, þonne for·l[=i]est h[=e] þ[=a] miht þe him God
  for·[.g]eaf. Þ[=e]od winþ on·[.g][=e]an þ[=e]ode, and r[=i][.c]e
      on·[.g][=e]an r[=i][.c]e.
  Ealle m[e,]nn [=e]ow hatiaþ for m[=i]num naman. H[=e] [.g]e·worhte  30
  fela wundra binnan þ[=æ]m fierste þe h[=e] biscop wæs. H[=e]
  [.g]e·h[=æ]lde sum w[=i]f mid h[=a]lgum wætre. Se cyning wearþ
  of·slæ[.g]en fram his [=a]gnum folce. On þ[=æ]m ilcan [.g][=e]are wæs
  se mi[.c]la hungor [.g]eond Angel-cynn. Se mæsse-pr[=e]ost [=a]scaþ
  þæt [.c]ild, and cwiþþ: 'Wiþ·sæcst þ[=u] d[=e]ofle?' Þonne andwyrt  35
  se god-fæder, and cwiþþ: 'Ic wiþ·sace d[=e]ofle.' God
  ælmihtiga, [.g]e·miltsa m[=e] synn-fullum! Æþelred cyning c[=o]m
  h[=a]m t[=o] his [=a]genre þ[=e]ode, and h[=e] glædl[=i]ce fram him
  on·fangen wearþ.

  Cr[=i]st, [=u]re Dryhten, be·b[=e]ad his leornung-cnihtum þæt  40
  h[=i]e scolden t[=æ][.c]an eallum þ[=e]odum þ[=a] þing þ[=a] h[=e] self
  t[=æ]hte. [.G]if [.g][=e] for·[.g]iefaþ mannum hiera synna, þonne
  [=e]ower se heofonlica Fæder [=e]owre synna. Ne mæ[.g] n[=a]n
  mann tw[=æ]m hl[=a]fordum þ[=e]owian: oþþe h[=e] [=a]nne hataþ and
  [=o]þerne lufaþ, oþþe h[=e] biþ [=a]num [.g]e·h[=i]ersum and [=o]þrum
      un[.g]eh[=i]ersum.  45

  Se cyning nam þæs eorles sunu mid him t[=o] [E,]n[.g]la-lande.
  M[e,]nn be·h[=o]fiaþ g[=o]dre l[=a]re on þissum t[=i]man, þe is
  þisse worulde. Se l[=i]chama, þe is þ[=æ]re s[=a]wle r[=e]af, andb[=i]daþ
  þæs mi[.c]lan d[=o]mes; and þ[=e]ah h[=e] b[=e]o t[=o] d[=u]ste
      for·molsnod,  50
  God hine [=a]·r[=æ]rþ, and [.g]e·bringþ t[=o]·gædre s[=a]wle and
  l[=i]chaman t[=o] þ[=æ]m [=e][.c]an l[=i]fe. Hwelc fæder wile s[e,]llan
  [.c]ilde st[=a]n, [.g]if hit hine hl[=a]fes bitt? [=A]·[.g]iefaþ þ[=æ]m
      c[=a]sere þ[=a]
  þing þe þæs c[=a]seres sind, and Gode þ[=a] þing þe Godes sind.
  S[=e]o s[=a]wol and-b[=i]daþ þæs [=e][.c]an [=æ]ristes.       55

  H[=e] wæs cyning ofer eall [E,]n[.g]la-land tw[e,]nti[.g] wintra. God
  ælmihti[.g] is ealra cyninga cyning, and ealra hl[=a]forda hl[=a]ford.
  D[=e]ofol is ealra un-riht-w[=i]sra manna h[=e]afod, and þ[=a]
  yflan m[e,]nn sind his limu. Synnfulra manna d[=e]aþ is yfel and
  earmlic, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e faraþ of þissum scortan l[=i]fe t[=o]
      [=e][.c]um  60
  w[=i]tum. H[=u] fela hl[=a]fa hæbbe [.g][=e]? Seofon, and f[=e]a fisca.
  Ne [.g]e·wilna þ[=u] [=o]þres mannes [=æ]hta!

  On þ[=æ]m landum eardodon [E,]n[.g]le, [=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e hider on
  land c[=o]mon. H[=i]e fuhton on þ[=a] burg ealne dæ[.g], ac h[=i]e ne
  mihton h[=i]e [=a]·brecan. Þ[=a] [=e]odon h[=i]e t[=o] hiera s[.c]ipum.
      Þ[=æ]r  65
  b[=e]oþ sw[=i]þe mani[.g]e byri[.g] on þ[=æ]m lande, and on [=æ]lcre
  biþ cyning.

  God cwæþ t[=o] No[=e]: 'Ic wile for·d[=o]n eall mann-cynn mid
  wætre for hiera synnum, ac ic wile [.g]e·healdan þ[=e], and þ[=i]n
  w[=i]f, and þ[=i]ne þr[=i]e suna.' [=A]n mann hæfde tw[=e][.g]en suna;
      þ[=a]  70
  cwæþ h[=e] t[=o] þ[=æ]m ieldran: 'g[=a] and wyr[.c] t[=o]·dæ[.g] on
  w[=i]n-[.g]earde.' Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e]: 'ic nyle:' [=e]ode þ[=e]ah siþþan
  þ[=æ]m w[=i]n[.g]earde. H[=e] dyde his fæder willan. Se pr[=e]ost
  cwæþ t[=o] þ[=æ]m folce: 'Ic [=e]ow bl[=e]tsi[.g]e on naman þæs Fæder,
  þæs Suna, and þæs H[=a]lgan G[=a]stes.' [=A]ra þ[=i]num fæder and  75
  þ[=i]nre m[=e]der! Sum w[=i]f c[=o]m t[=o] Cr[=i]ste, and bæd for hiere
  dehter. S[=e]o dohtor wearþ [.g]e·h[=æ]led þurh [.g]e·l[=e]afan þ[=æ]re

  B[=e]oþ [.g]e·myndi[.g]e þ[=a]ra tw[=e][.g]ra worda þe Dryhten cwæþ on
  his god-spelle! H[=e] cwæþ: 'For·[.g]iefaþ, and [=e]ow biþ for·[.g]iefen;
  s[e,]llaþ, and [=e]ow biþ [.g]e·seald.'

  Tw[=e][.g]en m[e,]nn [=e]odon int[=o] Godes temple h[=i]e t[=o]
  Ælfred cyning f[=o]r mid þrim s[.c]ipum [=u]t on s[=æ], and
  [.g]e·feaht wiþ f[=e]ower s[.c]ip-hlæstas D[e,]niscra manna, and þ[=a]ra
  s[.c]ipa tw[=a] [.g]e·nam, and þ[=a] m[e,]nn of·slæ[.g]ene w[=æ]ron þe
  þ[=æ]r-on w[=æ]ron. Þ[=a] c[=o]mon þr[=e]o s[.c]ipu. Þ[=a]
      [.g]e·f[=e]ngon h[=i]e
  þ[=a]ra þr[=e]ora s[.c]ipa tw[=a], and þ-a m[e,]nn of·sl[=o]gon, ealle
  f[=i]fum. Se w[=i]tega [=a]·wr[=a]t be þ[=æ]m f[=e]ower n[=i]etenum þe
  æt·[=i]ewdu w[=æ]ron, þæt h[=i]e hæfden [=e]agan him on [=æ]lce healfe.
  [=A]n þ[=a]ra n[=i]etena wæs on m[e,]nniscre ons[=i]ene him æt·[=i]ewed,
  [=o]þer on l[=e]on ons[=i]ene, þridde on [.c]ealfes, f[=e]orþe on earnes.

  God þone [=æ]restan mann rihtne and g[=o]dne [.g]e·sc[=o]p, and
  eall mann-cynn mid him. Ælfred Æþelwulfing wæs cyning
  ofer eall Angel-cynn b[=u]tan þ[=æ]m d[=æ]le þe under D[e,]na onwealde
  wæs. [=Æ]lc g[=o]d tr[=e]ow bierþ g[=o]de wæstmas, and [=æ]lc  95
  yfel tr[=e]ow bierþ yfle wæstmas; ne mæ[.g] þæt g[=o]de tr[=e]ow
  beran yfle wæstmas, ne þæt yfle tr[=e]ow g[=o]de wæstmas.
  [=E]adigu sind [=e]owru [=e]agan, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e [.g]e·s[=e]oþ, and
  [=e]owru [=e]aran, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e [.g]e·h[=i]eraþ. Sw[=a] hw[=a]
      sw[=a] s[e,]lþ
  [=a]num þurstigum m[e,]nn [.c]eald wæter on m[=i]num naman, ne  100
  for·l[=i]est h[=e] his m[=e]de. Ne fare [.g][=e] on h[=æ]þenra manna
  G[=o]d mann of g[=o]dum gold-horde bringþ g[=o]d forþ; and yfel
  mann of yflum goldhorde bringþ yfel forþ.

  Greg[=o]rius se h[=a]lga p[=a]pa is rihtl[=i]ce [.g]e·cweden
  þ[=e]ode apostol. Þ[=a] h[=e] [.g]e·seah þæt se m[=æ]sta d[=æ]l þ[=æ]re
      þ[=e]ode  105
  his l[=a]re for·s[=a]won, þ[=a] for·l[=e]t h[=e] h[=i]e, and
      [.g]e·[.c][=e]as þ[=a] h[=æ]þnan
  l[=e]ode. [.G]if se blinda blindne l[=æ]tt, h[=i]e feallaþ b[=e][.g]en on
  pytt. Se H[=a]lga G[=a]st is lufu and willa þæs Fæder and þæs
  Suna; and h[=i]e sind ealle [.g]e·l[=i]ce mihti[.g]e. B[e,]tere is s[=e]o
  s[=a]wol þonne se m[e,]te, and b[e,]tera se l[=i]chama þonne his
      scr[=u]d.  110
  S[=e]o s[=a]wol is g[=a]st, and be eorþlicum m[e,]ttum ne leofaþ.
  Be·healdaþ þ[=a]s fl[=e]ogendan fuglas, þe ne s[=a]waþ ne ne r[=i]paþ,
  ac se heofonlica Fæder h[=i]e [=a]·f[=e]tt. H[=e] cwæþ, 'Ic neom
  [=o]þrum mannum [.g]e·l[=i]c;' swelce h[=e] cw[=æ]de, 'Ic [=a]na eom
  and þ[=a] [=o]þre sind synn-fulle.'                          115

  Þ[=a] se H[=æ]lend þanon f[=o]r, þ[=a] folgodon him tw[=e][.g]en blinde,
  cweþende: '[.G]e·miltsa unc, Dav[=i]des sunu!' H[=e] cwæþ t[=o]
  him: '[.G]e·l[=i]efe [.g]it þæt ic inc mæ[.g]e [.g]e·hælan?' H[=e] cwæþ:
 'S[=i]e inc æfter incrum [.g]e·l[=e]afan.' Æþelst[=a]n cyning f[=o]r
  inn on Scot-land, [=æ][.g]þer [.g]e mid land-h[e,]re [.g]e mid
      s[.c]ip-h[e,]re,  120
  and his mi[.c]el ofer·h[e,]rgode. Se mann þe God for·[.g]iett, God
  for·[.g]iett [=e]ac hine. Faraþ, and l[=æ]raþ ealle þ[=e]oda! L[=æ]raþ
  h[=i]e þæt h[=i]e healden eall þ[=a] þing þe ic [=e]ow be·b[=e]ad! Sume
  m[e,]nn sæ[.g]don be him þæt h[=e] w[=æ]re Ælfredes sunu cyninges.
  Se H[=æ]lend [=a]scode his leornung-cnihtas, 'Hwone s[e,][.c][.g]aþ  125
  m[e,]nn þæt s[=i]e mannes Sunu?' Hwæt s[e,][.c][.g]e [.g][=e] þæt ic
  Þ[=u] eart þæs libbendan Godes sunu. Cr[=i]st cwæþ be his
  Fæder: '[.G][=e] s[e,][.c][.g]aþ þæt h[=e] [=e]ower God s[=i]e, and
      [.g][=e] hine ne
  on·cn[=e]owon.' [.G]if h[=i]e þone h[=a]lgan Fæder on·cn[=e]owen,
  þonne under·f[=e]ngen h[=i]e mid [.g]e·l[=e]afan his Sunu, þe h[=e]
      [=a]·s[e,]nde  130
  t[=o] middan-[.g]earde. Se we[.g] is sw[=i]þe nearu and sticol
  s[=e] þe l[=æ]tt t[=o] heofona r[=i][.c]e; and se we[.g] is sw[=i]þe
      br[=a]d and
  sm[=e]þe s[=e] þe l[=æ]tt t[=o] h[e,]lle w[)i]te. Dysi[.g] biþ se
  mann s[=e] þe nimþ þone sm[=e]þan we[.g] þe h[=i]ne mis-l[=æ]tt, and
  for·l[=æ]tt þone sticolan þe hine [.g]e·bringþ t[=o] þ[=æ]re byri[.g].
      Þæt  135
  ic [=e]ow s[e,][.c][.g]e on þ[=e]ostrum, s[e,][.c][.g]aþ hit on leohte;
      and þæt
  [.g][=e] on [=e]are [.g]e·h[=i]eraþ, bodiaþ uppan hr[=o]fum. H[=i]e
      scufon [=u]t
  hiera s[.c]ipu, and [.g]e·w[e,]ndon him be·[.g]eondan s[=æ].

  Healdaþ and d[=o]þ sw[=a] hwæt sw[=a] h[=i]e s[e,][.c][.g]aþ; and ne
  [.g][=e] n[=a], æfter hiera weorcum: h[=i]e s[e,][.c][.g]aþ, and ne
      d[=o]þ. Eall  140
  hiera weorc h[=i]e d[=o]þ þæt m[e,]nn h[=i]e [.g]e·s[=e]on. H[=i]e lufiaþ
  man h[=i]e gr[=e]te on str[=æ]tum. [=E]al[=a] [.g][=e] n[=æ]ddran and
  cynn, h[=u] fl[=e]o [.g][=e] fram h[e,]lle d[=o]me?

  W[=e] sind ealle cuman on þissum and-weardan l[=i]fe, and
  [=u]re eard nis n[=a] h[=e]r; ac w[=e] sind h[=e]r swelce
      we[.g]-f[=e]rende  145
  m[e,]nn: [=a]n cymþ, [=o]þer færþ. Hwelc mann s[e,]lþ his bearne
  n[=æ]ddran, [.g]if hit fisces bitt? [=Æ]lc þ[=a]ra þe bitt, h[=e]
  and s[=e] þe s[=e][.c]þ, h[=e] hit fint. Ne g[=æ]þ [=æ]lc þ[=a]ra on
  r[=i][.c]e þe cwiþþ t[=o] m[=e], 'Dryhten, Dryhten;' ac s[=e] þe wyr[.c]þ
  m[=i]nes Fæder willan þe on heofonum is, s[=e] g[=æ]þ on heofona  150
  r[=i][.c]e. Nis hit n[=a] g[=o]d þ[=æ]t man nime bearna hl[=a]f and
  weorpe. Ic hæbbe þe[.g]nas under m[=e]: and ic cweþe t[=o]
  þissum, 'g[=a],' and h[=e] g[=æ]þ; and t[=o] [=o]þrum, 'cum,' and h[=e]
  cymþ, and t[=o] m[=i]num þ[=e]owe, 'wyr[.c] þis,' and h[=e] wyr[.c]þ.

  Se H[=æ]lend [.g]e·nam þ[=a] f[=i]f hl[=a]fas, and bl[=e]tsode, and
      t[=o]·bræc,  155
  and t[=o]·d[=æ]lde be·twix þ[=æ]m sittendum; sw[=a] [.g]e·l[=i]ce [=e]ac
  þ[=a] fiscas t[=o]·d[=æ]lde; and h[=i]e ealle [.g]e·n[=o]g hæfdon. Þ[=a]
  þ[=æ]r [=æ]ton w[=æ]ron f[=e]ower þ[=u]send manna, b[=u]tan [.c]ildum and
  w[=i]fum. H[=i]e c[=o]mon t[=o] him, and t[=o] him [.g]eb[=æ]don, and þus
  cw[=æ]don: 'S[=o]þl[=i]ce þ[=u] eart Godes sunu.' Ne w[=e]ne [.g][=e] þæt
  ic c[=o]me sibbe on eorþan to s[e,]ndenne: ne c[=o]m ic sibbe t[=o]
  s[e,]ndenne, ac sweord. H[=e] be·b[=e]ad þæt h[=i]e s[=æ]ten ofer þ[=æ]re
  eorþan. H[=e] sæ[.g]de þæt Norþ-manna land w[=æ]re sw[=i]þe lang
  and sw[=i]þe smæl.

  H[=i]e ealle on þone cyning w[=æ]ron feohtende, oþ þæt h[=i]e  165
  hine ofslæ[.g]enne hæfdon. [=Æ]lc mann þe [=o]þre m[e,]nn for·sihþ
  biþ fram Gode for·sewen. S[=e] þe [=e]aran hæbbe t[=o] [.g]e·hi[=e]renne,
  [.g]e·h[=i]ere. G[=o]d is [=u]s h[=e]r t[=o] b[=e]onne.

  God cwæþ t[=o] [=a]num w[=i]tegan, s[=e] wæs Ionas [.g]e·h[=a]ten:
 'Far t[=o] þ[=æ]re byri[.g], and boda þ[=æ]r þ[=a] word þe ic þ[=e]
     s[e,][.c][.g]e.'  170
  Lufiaþ [=e]owre f[=i]end, and d[=o]þ wel þ[=æ]m þe [=e]ow yfel d[=o]þ.
  Lufa Dryhten þ[=i]nne God on ealre þ[=i]nre heortan, and on
  ealre þ[=i]nre sawle, and on eallum þ[=i]num m[=o]de. S[=e] þe ne
  lufaþ his br[=o]þor, þone þe h[=e] [.g]e·sihþ, h[=u] mæ[.g] h[=e] lufian
  þone þe h[=e] ne [.g]e·sihþ l[=i]cham-l[=i]ce? S[e,][.g]e [=u]s hwonne
      þ[=a]s  175
  þing [.g]e·weorþen, and hwelc t[=a]cen s[=i]e þ[=i]nes t[=o]-cymes and
  worulde [.g]e·[e,]ndunge.

  Se H[=æ]lend cwæþ t[=o] [=a]num his leornung-cnihta, s[=e] wæs
  h[=a]ten Philippus: 'Mid hw[=æ]m magon w[=e] by[.c][.g]an hl[=a]f þissum
  folce?' Wel wiste Cr[=i]st hwæt h[=e] d[=o]n wolde, and h[=e] wiste  180
  þæt Philippus þæt nyste. God mæ[.g] d[=o]n eall þing; w[=e]
  sculon wundrian his mihte, and [=e]ac [.g]e·l[=i]efan. Cr[=i]st
  Lazarum of d[=e]aþe, and cwæþ t[=o] his leornung-cnihtum:
  his b[e,]ndas, þæt h[=e] g[=a]n mæ[.g]e.' God is ælmihti[.g],
  and mæ[.g] d[=o]n eall þæt h[=e] wile. [.G][=e] nyton on hwelcre t[=i]de
  [=e]ower hl[=a]ford cuman wile. For þ[=æ]m b[=e]o [.g][=e] [.g]earwe; for
  þ[=æ]m þe mannes Sunu wile cuman on þ[=æ]re t[=i]de þe [.g][=e] nyton.
  Se H[=æ]lend cwæþ be his Fæder: 'Ic hine cann, and [.g]if ic
  s[e,][.c][.g]e þæt ic hine ne cunne, þonne b[=e]o ic l[=e]as, [=e]ow

  Se d[=e]ofol cwæþ t[=o] Cr[=i]ste: '[.G]if þ[=u] s[=i]e Godes sunu, cweþ
  t[=o] þissum st[=a]num þæt h[=i]e b[=e]on [=a]·w[e,]nde t[=o] hl[=a]fum.'
  and-wyrde se H[=æ]lend, and cwæþ: 'Hit is [=a]·writen, "ne
  leofaþ se mann n[=a] be hl[=a]fe [=a]num, ac leofaþ be eallum þ[=æ]m
  wordum þe g[=a]þ of Godes m[=u]þe."' Se H[=æ]lend c[=o]m t[=o] him,
  þ[=æ]r h[=i]e w[=æ]ron [.g]e·gadrode, and cwæþ: 'S[=i]e sibb be·twix  195
  [=e]ow; ic hit eom; ne b[=e]o [.g][=e] n[=a] [=a]·fyrhte.' Fæder [=u]re,
      þ[=u] þe
  eart on heofonum, s[=i]e þ[=i]n nama [.g]e·h[=a]lgod. W[=e] syngodon,
  w[=e] dydon un-rihtl[=i]ce; s[e,]le [=u]s for·[.g]iefnesse: hwæt sculon




VII. 24-7.

  [=Æ]lc þ[=a]ra þe þ[=a]s m[=i]n word [.g]e·h[=i]erþ, and þ[=a] wyr[.c]þ,
  [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m w[=i]san were, s[=e] his h[=u]s ofer st[=a]n
  Þ[=a] c[=o]m þ[=æ]r re[.g]en and mi[.c]el fl[=o]d, and þ[=æ]r bl[=e]owon
  and [=a]·hruron on þæt h[=u]s, and hit n[=a] ne f[=e]oll: s[=o]þl[=i]ce
  wæs ofer st[=a]n [.g]e·timbrod.                                5

  And [=æ]lc þ[=a]ra þe [.g]e·h[=i]erþ þ[=a]s m[=i]n word, and þ[=a] ne
  s[=e] biþ [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m dysigan m[e,]nn, þe [.g]e·timbrode his
      h[=u]s ofer
  sand-[.c]eosol. Þ[=a] r[=i]nde hit, and þ[=æ]r c[=o]m fl[=o]d, and
  windas, and [=a]·hruron on þ[=æ]t h[=u]s, and þæt h[=u]s f[=e]oll; and
  his hryre wæs mi[.c]el.                                       10

XII. 18-21.

  H[=e]r is m[=i]n cnapa, þone ic [.g]e·[.c][=e]as; m[=i]n [.g]e·corena, on
  wel [.g]e·l[=i]code m[=i]nre s[=a]wle: ic [=a]·s[e,]tte m[=i]nne g[=a]st
      ofer hine,
  and d[=o]m h[=e] bodaþ þ[=e]odum. Ne fl[=i]tt h[=e], ne h[=e] ne hriemþ,
  ne n[=a]n mann ne [.g]e·h[=i]erþ his stefne on str[=æ]tum.
  hr[=e]od h[=e] ne for·br[=i]ett, and sm[=e]ocende fleax h[=e] ne
      [=a]·dw[=æ]scþ,  15
  [=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] [=a]·weorpe d[=o]m t[=o] si[.g]e. And on his naman
  þ[=e]oda [.g]e·hyhtaþ.

XIII. 3-8.

  S[=o]þl[=i]ce [=u]t [=e]ode se s[=a]were his s[=æ]d t[=o] s[=a]wenne. And
  þ[=a] h[=e] s[=e]ow, sumu h[=i]e f[=e]ollon wiþ we[.g], and fuglas
  and [=æ]ton þ[=a]. S[=o]þl[=i]ce sumu f[=e]ollon on st[=æ]nihte, þ[=æ]r
      hit  20
  næfde mi[.c]le eorþan, and hrædl[=i]ce [=u]p sprungon, for þ[=æ]m þe
  h[=i]e næfdon p[=æ]re eorþan d[=i]epan; s[=o]þl[=i]ce, [=u]p sprungenre
  sunnan, h[=i]e [=a]·dr[=u]godon and for·scruncon, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e
  næfdon wyrtruman. S[=o]þl[=i]ce sumu f[=e]ollon on þornas, and
  þ[=a] þornas w[=e]oxon, and for·þrysmdon þ[=a]. Sumu s[=o]þl[=i]ce  25
  f[=e]ollon on g[=o]de eorþan, and sealdon wæstm, sum hund-fealdne,
  sum siexti[.g]-fealdne, sum þriti[.g]-fealdn[e,].

XIII. 24-30.

  Heofona r[=i][.c]e is [.g]e·worden þ[=æ]m m[e,]nn [.g]e·l[=i]c þe s[=e]ow
  s[=æ]d on his æcere. S[=o]þl[=i]ce, þ[=a] þ[=a] m[e,]nn sl[=e]pon, þ[=a]
      c[=o]m his
  f[=e]onda sum, and ofer·s[=e]ow hit mid coccele on·middan þ[=æ]m  30
  hw[=æ]te, and f[=e]rde þanon. S[=o]þl[=i]ce, þ[=a] s[=e]o wyrt w[=e]ox,
  þone wæstm br[=o]hte, þ[=a] æt·[=i]ewde se coccel hine. Þ[=a] [=e]odon
  þæs hl[=a]fordes þ[=e]owas and cw[=æ]don: 'Hl[=a]ford, h[=u], ne s[=e]owe
  þ[=u] g[=o]d s[=æ]d on þ[=i]num æcere? hwanon hæfde h[=e] coccel?'
  Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e]: 'þæt dyde unhold mann.' Þ[=a] cw[=æ]don þ[=a]  35
  þ[=e]owas: 'Wilt þ[=u], w[=e] g[=a]þ and gadriaþ h[=i]e?' Þ[=a] cwæp
  h[=e]: 'Nese: þ[=y] l[=æ]s [.g][=e] þone hw[=æ]te [=a]·wyrtwalien, þonne
  þone coccel gadriaþ. L[=æ]taþ [=æ][.g]þer weaxan oþ r[=i]p-t[=i]man;
  and on p[=æ]m r[=i]pt[=i]man ic s[e,][.c][.g]e þ[=æ]m r[=i]perum:
  [=æ]rest þone coccel, and bindaþ s[.c][=e]af-m[=æ]lum t[=o] for·bærnenne;
  and gadriaþ þone hw[=æ]te int[=o] m[=i]num b[e,]rne."'

XIII. 44-8.

  Heofona r[=i][.c]e is [.g]e·l[=i]c [.g]e·h[=y]ddum gold-horde on þ[=æ]m
  æcere. Þone be·h[=y]tt se mann þe hine fint, and for his blisse
  g[=æ]þ, and s[e,]lþ eall þæt h[=e] [=a]h, and [.g]e·by[.g]þ þone æcer.

  Eft is heofona r[=i][.c]e [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m mangere þe s[=o]hte þæt
      g[=o]de  45
  m[e,]re-grot. Þ[=a] h[=e] funde þæt [=a]n d[=e]or-wierþe m[e,]regrot,
  [=e]ode h[=e], and sealde eall þæt h[=e] [=a]hte, and bohte þæt

  Eft is heofona r[=i][.c]e [.g]e·l[=i]c [=a]·s[e,]ndum n[e,]tte on þ[=a]
      s[=æ], and of
  [=æ]lcum fisc-cynne gadriendum. Þ[=a] h[=i]e þ[=a] þæt n[e,]tt [=u]p  50
  [=a]·tugon, and s[=æ]ton be þ[=æ]m strande, þ[=a] [.g]e·curon h[=i]e
  g[=o]dan on hiera fatu, and þ[=a] yflan h[=i]e [=a]·wurpon [=u]t.

XVIII. 12-14.

  [.G]if hwelc mann hæfþ hund s[.c][=e]apa, and him losaþ [=a]n of
  þ[=æ]m, h[=u], ne for·l[=æ]tt h[=e] þ[=a] nigon and hund·nigonti[.g] on
  muntum, and g[=æ]þ, and s[=e][.c]þ þæt [=a]n þe for·wearþ? And [.g]if  55
  hit [.g]e·limpþ þæt h[=e] hit fint, s[=o]þl[=i]ce ic [=e]ow
      s[e,][.c][.g]e þæt h[=e]
  sw[=i]þor [.g]e·blissaþ for þ[=æ]m [=a]num þonne for þ[=æ]m nigon and
  hund·nigontigum þe n[=a] ne losodon.

XX. 1-16.

  Heofona r[=i][.c]e is [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m h[=i]redes ealdre, þe on
  [=u]t [=e]ode [=a]·h[=y]ran wyrhtan on his w[=i]n-[.g]eard.
      [.G]e·wordenre  60
  [.g]e·cwid-r[=æ]denne þ[=æ]m wyrhtum, h[=e] sealde [=æ]lcum [=a]nne
  þ[e,]ning wiþ his dæ[.g]es weorce, and [=a]·s[e,]nde h[=i]e on his
  And þ[=a] h[=e] [=u]t [=e]ode ymbe undern-t[=i]d, h[=e] [.g]e·seah
  oþre on str[=æ]te [=i]dle standan. Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e]: 'G[=a] [.g][=e] on
  m[=i]nne w[=i]n[.g]eard, and ic s[e,]lle [=e]ow þæt riht biþ.' And h[=i]e
      þ[=a]  65
  f[=e]rdon. Eft h[=e] [=u]t [=e]ode ymbe þ[=a] siextan and nigoþan
  t[=i]d, and dyde þ[=æ]m sw[=a] [.g]e·l[=i]ce. Þ[=a] ymbe þ[=a]
  t[=i]d h[=e] [=u]t [=e]ode, and funde [=o]þre standende, and þ[=a]
      sæ[.g]de h[=e]:
 'Hw[=y] stande [.g][=e] h[=e]r ealne dae[.g] [=i]dle?' Þ[=a] cw[=æ]don
 'For þ[=æ]m þe [=u]s n[=a]n mann ne h[=y]rde.' Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e]: 'And  70
  g[=a] [.g][=e] on m[=i]nne w[=i]n[.g]eard.'

  S[=o]þl[=i]ce þ[=a] hit wæs [=æ]fen [.g]e·worden, þ[=a] sæ[.g]de se
  hl[=a]ford his [.g]e·r[=e]fan: 'Clipa þ[=a] wyrhtan, and [=a]·[.g]ief him
  hiera m[=e]de; on·[.g]inn fram þ[=æ]m [=y]t·emestan oþ þone fyrmestan.'
  Eornostl[=i]ce þ[=a] þ[=a] [.g]e·c[=o]mon þe ymbe þ[=a] [e,]ndlyftan  75
  t[=i]d c[=o]mon, þ[=a] on·f[=e]ngon h[=i]e [=æ]lc his p[e,]ning. And
      þ[=a] þe
  þ[=æ]r [=æ]rest c[=o]mon, w[=e]ndon þæt h[=i]e scolden m[=a]re on·f[=o]n;
  on·f[=e]ngon h[=i]e syndri[.g]e þ[e,]ningas. Þa on·gunnon h[=i]e murcnian
  on·[.g][=e]an þone h[=i]redes ealdor, and þus cw[=æ]don: 'Þ[=a]s
  [=y]temestan worhton [=a]ne t[=i]d, and þ[=u] dydest h[=i]e [.g]e·l[=i]ce
      [=u]s,  80
  þe b[=æ]ron byrþenna on þisses dæ[.g]es h[=æ]tan.' Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e]
  and-swariende hiera [=a]num: '[=E]al[=a] þ[=u] fr[=e]ond, ne d[=o] ic
  n[=a]nne t[=e]onan; h[=u], ne c[=o]me þ[=u] t[=o] m[=e] t[=o] wyr[.c]enne
  [=a]num p[e,]ninge? Nim þæt þ[=i]n is, and g[=a]; ic wile þissum
  [=y]temestum s[e,]llan eall sw[=a] mi[.c]el sw[=a] þ[=e]. Oþþe ne m[=o]t
      ic  85
  d[=o]n þæt ic wile? Hwæþer þe þ[=i]n [=e]age m[=a]nfull is for þ[=æ]m
  þe ic g[=o]d eom? Sw[=a] b[=e]oþ þa fyrmestan [=y]temeste, and þ[=a]
  [=y]temestan fyrmeste; s[=o]þl[=i]ce mani[.g]e sind [.g]e·clipode, and
  f[=e]a [.g]e·corene.'

XXII. 2-14.

  Heofona r[=i][.c]e is [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m cyninge þe macode his suna  90
  [.g]iefta, and s[e,]nde his þ[=e]owas, and clipode þ[=a] [.g]e·laþodan
  þ[=æ]m [.g]ieftum. Þ[=a] noldon h[=i]e cuman. Þ[=a] s[e,]nde h[=e] eft
  þ[=e]owas, and sæ[.g]de þ[=æ]m [.g]e·laþodum: 'N[=u] ic [.g]e·[.g]earwode
  m[=i]ne feorme: m[=i]ne fearras and m[=i]ne fuglas sind of·slæ[.g]ene,
  and eall m[=i]n þing sind [.g]earu; cumaþ t[=o] þ[=æ]m [.g]ieftum.' Þ[=a]
  for·g[=i]emdon h[=i]e þæt, and f[=e]rdon, sum t[=o] his t[=u]ne, sum
  his mangunge. And þ[=a] [=o]þre n[=a]mon his þ[=e]owas, and mid
  t[=e]onan [.g]e·sw[e,]n[.c]ton, and of·sl[=o]gon. Þ[=a] se cyning þæt
  þ[=a] wæs h[=e] ierre, and s[e,]nde his h[e,]re t[=o], and for·dyde
  þ[=a] mann-slagan, and hiera burg for·bærnde.                100

  Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e] t[=o] his þ[=e]owum: 'Witodl[=i]ce þ[=a]s [.g]iefta sind
  [.g]earwe, ac þ[=a] þe [.g]e·laþode w[=æ]ron ne sind wierþe. G[=a]þ n[=u]
  t[=o] wega [.g]el[=æ]tum, and clipiaþ t[=o] þissum [.g]ieftum sw[=a]
  sw[=a] [.g][=e] [.g]e·m[=e]ten.' Þ[=a] [=e]odon þ[=a] þ[=e]owas [=u]t on
      þ[=a] wegas,
  and [.g]e·gadrodon ealle þ[=a] þe h[=i]e [.g]e·m[=e]tton, g[=o]de and
      yfle;  105
  þ[=a] w[=æ]ron þ[=a] [.g]ieft-h[=u]s mid sittendum mannum [.g]efyldu.

  Þ[=a] [=e]ode se cyning inn, þæt h[=e] wolde [.g]e·s[=e]on þ[=a] þe
  s[=æ]ton, and þ[=a] [.g]e·seah h[=e] þ[=æ]r [=a]nne mann þe næs mid
  r[=e]afe [.g]escr[=y]dd. Þ[=a] cwæþ h[=e]: 'L[=a], fr[=e]ond, h[=u]meta
  [=e]odest þ[=u] inn, and næfdest [.g]ieftlic r[=e]af?' Þa sw[=i]gode
      h[=e].  110
  And se cyning cwæþ t[=o] his þe[.g]num: '[.G]e·bindaþ his handa
  and his f[=e]t, and weorpaþ hine on þ[=a] [=y]terran þ[=e]ostru; þ[=æ]r
  w[=o]p and t[=o]þa gr[=i]st-b[=i]tung.' Witodl[=i]ce mani[.g]e sind
  and f[=e]a [.g]e·corene.

XXV. 1-13.

  Þonne biþ heofona r[=i][.c]e [.g]e·l[=i]c þ[=æ]m t[=i]en f[=æ]mnum, þe
      þ[=a]  115
  leoht-fatu n[=a]mon, and f[=e]rdon on·[.g][=e]an þone br[=y]d-guman and
  þ[=a] br[=y]d. Hiera f[=i]f w[=æ]ron dysi[.g]e, and f[=i]f gl[=e]awe. And
      þ[=a] f[=i]f
  dysigan n[=a]mon leohtfatu, and ne n[=a]mon n[=a]nne ele mid him;
  þ[=a] gl[=e]awan n[=a]mon ele on hiera fatum mid þ[=æ]m leohtfatum.
  Þ[=a] se br[=y]dguma ielde, þ[=a] hnappodon h[=i]e ealle, and sl[=e]pon.
  Witodl[=i]ce t[=o] middre nihte man hr[=i]emde, and cwæþ: 'N[=u] se
  br[=y]dguma cymþ, faraþ him t[=o]·[.g][=e]anes.' Þ[=a] [=a]·rison ealle
  f[=æ]mnan, and gl[e,]n[.g]don hiera leohtfatu. Þ[=a] cw[=æ]don þ[=a]
  dysigan to p[=æ]m w[=i]sum: 'S[e,]llaþ [=u]s of [=e]owrum ele, for þ[=æ]m
  [=u]re leohtfatu sind [=a]·cw[e,]n[.c]tu.' Þ[=a] and·swarodon þ[=a]
      gl[=e]awan,  125
  and cw[=æ]don: 'Nese; þ[=y] l[=æ]s þe w[=e] and [.g][=e] næbben
  g[=a]þ t[=o] þ[=æ]m [.c][=i]ependum, and by[.c][.g]aþ [=e]ow ele.'
  þ[=a] h[=i]e f[=e]rdon, and woldon by[.c][.g]an, þ[=a] c[=o]m se
  and þ[=a] þe [.g]earwe w[=æ]ron [=e]odon inn mid him t[=o] þ[=æ]m
  [.g]ieftum; and s[=e]o duru wæs be·locen. Þ[=a] æt n[=i]ehstan c[=o]mon
  þa [=o]þre f[=æ]mnan, and cw[=æ]don: 'Dryhten, Dryhten, l[=æ]t [=u]s
  inn.' Þ[=a] and-swarode h[=e] him, and cwæþ: 'S[=o]þ ic [=e]ow
  s[e,][.c][.g]e, ne cann ic [=e]ow.' Witodl[=i]ce, waciaþ, for þ[=æ]m þe
  nyton ne þone dæ[.g] ne þ[=a] t[=i]d.

XXV. 14-30.

  Sum mann f[=e]rde on [e,]lþ[=e]odi[.g]nesse, and clipode his  135
  þ[=e]owas, and be·t[=æ]hte him his [=æ]hta. And [=a]num h[=e] sealde
  f[=i]f pund, sumum tw[=a], sumum [=a]n: [=æ][.g]hwelcum be his [=a]gnum
  mæ[.g]ne; and f[=e]rde s[=o]na.

  Þ[=a] f[=e]rde s[=e] þe þ[=a] f[=i]f pund under·f[=e]ng, and
  [=o]þru f[=i]f. And eall-sw[=a] s[=e] þe þ[=a] tw[=a] under·feng,
      [.g]e·str[=i]ende  140
  [=o]þru tw[=a]. Witodl[=i]ce s[=e] þe þæt [=a]n under·f[=e]ng, f[=e]rde,
  be·dealf hit on eorþan, and be·h[=y]dde his hl[=a]fordes feoh.

  Witodl[=i]ce æfter mi[.c]lum fierste c[=o]m þ[=a]ra þ[=e]owa hl[=a]ford,
  and dihte him [.g]e·rad. Þ[=a] c[=o]m s[=e] þe þ[=a] f[=i]f pund
  and br[=o]hte [=o]þru f[=i]f, and cwæþ: 'Hl[=a]ford, f[=i]f pund þ[=u]
      sealdest  145
  m[=e]; n[=u] ic [.g]e·str[=i]ende [=o]þru f[=i]f.' Þ[=a] cwæp his
      hl[=a]ford t[=o]
  him: 'B[=e]o bl[=i]þe, þ[=u] g[=o]da þ[=e]ow and [.g]e·tr[=e]owa: for
  þe þ[=u] w[=æ]re [.g]e·tr[=e]owe ofer l[=y]tlu þing, ic [.]ge·s[e,]tte
      þ[=e] ofer
  mi[.c]lu; g[=a] int[=o] þ[=i]nes hl[=a]fordes blisse.' Þ[=a] c[=o]m s[=e]
      þe þ[=a]
  tw[=a] pund under·f[=e]ng, and cwæþ: 'Hl[=a]ford, tw[=a] pund þ[=u]  150
  m[=e] sealdest; n[=u] ic hæbbe [.g]e·str[=i]ened [=o]þru tw[=a].' Þ[=a]
  his hl[=a]ford t[=o] him: '[.G]e·blissa, þ[=u] g[=o]da þ[=e]ow and
  for þ[=æ]m þe þ[=u] w[=æ]re [.g]e·tr[=e]owe ofer f[=e]a, ofer fela ic
  [.g]e·s[e,]tte; g[=a] on þ[=i]nes hl[=a]fordes [.g]e·f[=e]an.' Þ[=a]
      c[=o]m s[=e] þe þæt
  [=a]n pund under·f[=e]ng, and cwæþ: 'Hl[=a]ford, ic w[=a]t þæt  155
  þ[=u] eart heard mann: þ[=u] r[=i]pst þ[=æ]r þ[=u] ne s[=e]owe, and
  gaderast þ[=æ]r þ[=u] ne spr[e,]n[.g]dest. And ic f[=e]rde of·dr[=æ]dd,
  and be·h[=y]dde þ[=i]n pund on eorþan; h[=e]r þ[=u] hæfst þæt þ[=i]n
  is.' Þ[=a] andswarode his hl[=a]ford him, and cwæþ: 'þ[=u] yfla
  þ[=e]ow and sl[=a]wa, þ[=u] wistest þæt ic r[=i]pe þ[=æ]r ic ne s[=e]owe,
  and ic gadri[.g]e þ[=æ]r ic ne str[=e]dde: hit [.g]e·byrede þæt þ[=u]
  be·fæste m[=i]n feoh myneterum, and ic n[=a]me, þonne ic c[=o]me,
  þæt m[=i]n is, mid þ[=æ]m gafole. [=A]·nimaþ þæt pund æt him, and
  s[e,]llaþ þ[=æ]m þe m[=e] þ[=a] t[=i]en pund br[=o]hte. Witodl[=i]ce
  þ[=a]ra þe hæfþ man s[e,]lþ, and h[=e] hæfþ [.g]e·n[=o]g; þ[=æ]m þe næfþ,
  þæt him þyn[.c]þ þæt h[=e] hæbbe, þæt him biþ æt·brogden. And
  weorpaþ þone un·nyttan þ[=e]ow on þ[=a] [=y]terran þ[=e]ostru; þ[=æ]r
  biþ w[=o]p and t[=o]þa grist·b[=i]tung.'





  Æfter þ[=æ]m s[=o]þl[=i]ce ealle m[e,]nn spr[=æ]con [=a]ne spr[=æ][.c]e.
  þ[=a] h[=i]e f[=e]rdon fram [=E]ast-d[=æ]le, h[=i]e fundon [=a]nne feld
  Senna[=a]r-lande, and wunodon þ[=æ]r-on.

  Þ[=a] cw[=æ]don h[=i]e him be·tw[=e]onan: 'Uton wyr[.c]an [=u]s
  and [=æ]lan h[=i]e on f[=y]re!' Witodl[=i]ce h[=i]e hæfdon ti[.g]elan for
  st[=a]n and tierwan for weal-l[=i]m. And h[=i]e cw[=æ]don: 'Uton
  timbrian [=u]s [.c]eastre, and st[=i]epel oþ heofon h[=e]anne! uton
  weorþian [=u]rne naman, [=æ]r þ[æ]m þe w[=e] s[=i]en t[=o]·d[=æ]lde
  ealle eorþan!'

  Witodl[=i]ce Dryhten [=a]·st[=a]g niþer, t[=o] þ[=æ]m þæt h[=e]
      [.g]e·s[=a]we  10
  þ[=a] burg and þone st[=i]epel, þe Ad[=a]mes bearn [.g]e·timbrodon.
  And h[=e] cwæþ: 'þis is [=a]n folc, and ealle h[=i]e sprecaþ [=a]n
  læden, and h[=i]e be·gunnon þis t[=o] wyr[.c]enne: ne [.g]e·sw[=i]caþ
  [=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe hit [.g]earu s[=i]e; s[=o]þl[=i]ce uton cuman and
  hiera spr[=æ][.c]e!'                                          15

  Sw[=a] Dryhten h[=i]e t[=o]·d[=æ]lde of þ[=æ]re st[=o]we [.g]eond ealle
  And for þ[=æ]m man n[e,]mnde þ[=a] st[=o]we Bab[=e]l for þ[=æ]m þe þ[=æ]r
  w[=æ]ron t[=o]·d[=æ]lde ealle spr[=æ][.c]a.


  God wolde p[=a] fandian Abrah[=a]mes [.g]e·h[=i]ersumnesse, and
  clipode his naman, and cwæþ him þus t[=o]: 'Nim þ[=i]nne      20
  [=a]n-c[e,]nnedan sunu Isa[=a]c, þe þ[=u] lufast, and far t[=o] þ[=æ]m
  lande Visionis hraþe, and [.g]e·offra hine þ[=æ]r uppan [=a]nre

  Abrah[=a]m þ[=a] [=a]·r[=a]s on þ[=æ]re ilcan nihte, and f[=e]rde mid
  tw[=æ]m cnapum t[=o] þ[=æ]m fierlenum lande, and Isa[=a]c samod,  25
  on assum r[=i]dende.

  Þ[=a] on þ[=æ]m þriddan dæ[.g]e, þ[=a] h[=i]e þ[=a] d[=u]ne
      [.g]e·s[=a]won, þ[=æ]r
  þ[=æ]r h[=i]e t[=o] scoldon t[=o] of·sl[=e]anne Isa[=a]c, þ[=a] cwæþ
  t[=o] þ[=æ]m tw[=æ]m cnapum þus: 'Andb[=i]diaþ [=e]ow h[=e]r mid þ[=æ]m
  assum sume hw[=i]le! ic and þ[=æ]t [.c]ild g[=a]þ unc t[=o]
      [.g]e·biddenne,  30
  and wit siþþan cumaþ s[=o]na eft t[=o] [=e]ow.'

  Abrah[=a]m þ[=a] h[=e]t Isa[=a]c beran þone wudu t[=o] þ[=æ]re st[=o]we,
  and h[=e] self bær his sweord and f[=y]r. Isa[=a]c þa [=a]scode
  his fæder: 'Fæder m[=i]n, ic [=a]sci[.g]e hw[=æ]r s[=e]o offrung s[=i]e;
  h[=e]r is wudu and f[=y]r.' Him andwyrde se fæder: 'God
      fores[.c][=e]awaþ,  35
  m[=i]n sunu, him self þ[=a] offrunge.'

  H[=i]e c[=o]mon þ[=a] t[=o] þ[=æ]re st[=o]we þe him [.g]e·sweotolode God;
  and h[=e] þ[=æ]r weofod [=a]·r[=æ]rde on þ[=a] ealdan w[=i]san, and þone
  wudu [.g]e·l[=o]gode sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=e] hit wolde habban t[=o] his suna
  bærnette, siþþan h[=e] of·slæ[.g]en wurde. H[=e] [.g]e·band þ[=a] his  40
  sunu, and his sweord [=a]·t[=e]ah, þæt h[=e] hine [.g]e·offrode on þ[=a]
  ealdan w[=i]san.

  Mid þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] wolde þ[=æ]t weorc be·[.g]innan, þ[=a] clipode
  Godes [e,]n[.g]el arodl[=i]ce of heofonum: 'Abrah[=a]m!' H[=e] andwyrde
  s[=o]na. Se [e,]n[.g]el him cwæþ t[=o]: 'Ne [=a]·cw[e,]le þ[=u]  45
  þæt [.c]ild, ne þ[=i]ne hand ne [=a]·str[e,][.c]e ofer his sw[=e]oran!
      N[=u] ic
  on·cn[=e]ow s[=o]þl[=i]ce þæt p[=u] on·dr[=æ]tst sw[=i]þe God, n[=u]
      p[=u] p[=i]nne
  [=a]n-c[e,]nnedan sunu woldest of·sl[=e]an for him.'

  Þ[=a] be·seah Abrah[=a]m s[=o]na under bæc, and [.g]e·seah þ[=æ]r
  [=a]nne ramm be·twix þ[=æ]m br[=e]mlum be þ[=æ]m hornum [.g]e·hæftne,  50
  and h[=e] hæfde þone ramm t[=o] þ[=æ]re offrunge, and hine þ[=æ]r
  of·sn[=a]þ Gode t[=o] l[=a]ce for his sunu Isa[=a]c. H[=e] h[=e]t þ[=a]
  _Dominus videt_, þæt is 'God [.g]e·sihþ,' and [.g]iet is [.g]e·sæ[.g]d
  sw[=a], _In monte Dominus videbit_, þæt is, 'God [.g]e·sihþ on d[=u]ne.'

  Eft clipode se [e,]n[.g]el Abrah[=a]m, and cwæþ: 'Ic sæ[.g]de  55
  þurh m[=e] selfne, sæ[.g]de se Ælmihtiga, n[=u] þ[=u] noldest [=a]rian
  þ[=i]num [=a]nc[e,]nnedum suna, ac þ[=e] wæs m[=i]n [e,][.g]e m[=a]re
  his l[=i]f, ic þ[=e] n[=u] bl[=e]tsi[.g]e, and þ[=i]nne of-spring
  sw[=a] sw[=a] steorran on heofonum, and sw[=a] sw[=a] sand-[.c]eosol
  on s[=æ]; þ[=i]n ofspring s[.c]eal [=a]gan hiera f[=e]onda [.g]eatu. And
      on  60
  þ[=i]num s[=æ]de b[=e]oþ ealle þ[=e]oda [.g]e·bl[=e]tsode, for þ[=æ]m þe
  [.g]e·h[=i]ersumodest m[=i]nre h[=æ]se þus.'

  Abrah[=a]m þ[=a] [.g]e·[.c]ierde s[=o]na t[=o] his cnapum, and f[=e]rdon
  h[=a]m s[=o]na mid heofonlicre bl[=e]tsunge.


  Sum cw[=e]n wæs on s[=u]þ-d[=æ]le, Saba [.g]e·h[=a]ten, snotor and  65
  w[=i]s. Þ[=a] [.g]e·h[=i]erde h[=e]o Salomones hl[=i]san, and c[=o]m fram
  þ[=æ]m s[=u]þernum [.g]e·m[=æ]rum to Salomone binnan Hierusal[=e]m
  mid mi[.c]elre fare, and hiere olfendas b[=æ]ron s[=u]þerne wyrta,
  and d[=e]or-wierþe [.g]imm-st[=a]nas, and un-[.g]er[=i]m gold. S[=e]o
  þ[=a] hæfde spr[=æ][.c]e wiþ Salomon, and sæ[.g]de him sw[=a] hwæt  70
  sw[=a] h[=e]o on hiere heortan [.g]e·þ[=o]hte. Salomon þ[=a] h[=i]e
  and hiere sæ[.g]de ealra þ[=a]ra worda and[.g]iet þe h[=e]o hine
  Þ[=a] [.g]e·seah s[=e]o cw[=e]n Salomones w[=i]sd[=o]m, and þæt m[=æ]re
  tempel þe h[=e] [.g]e·timbrod hæfde, and þ[=a] l[=a]c þe man Gode
  offrode, and þæs cyninges mani[.g]-fealde þe[.g]nunga, and wæs  75
  t[=o] þ[=æ]m sw[=i]þe of·wundrod þæt h[=e]o næfde furþor n[=a]nne
  for þ[=æ]m þe h[=e]o ne mihte n[=a] furþor sm[=e]an. H[=e]o cwæþ þ[=a]
  t[=o] þ[=æ]m cyninge: 'S[=o]þ is þæt word þe ic [.g]e·h[=i]erde on
  m[=i]num earde be þ[=e] and be þ[=i]num w[=i]sd[=o]me, ac ic nolde
  [.g]e·l[=i]efan [=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe ic self hit [.g]e·s[=a]we. N[=u] hæbbe ic
      [=a]·fandod  80
  þæt m[=e] næs be healfum d[=æ]le þ[=i]n m[=æ]rþo [.g]e·c[=y]ped. M[=a]re
  is þ[=i]n w[=i]sd[=o]m and þ[=i]n weorc þonne se hl[=i]sa w[=æ]re þe ic
  [.g]e·h[=i]erde. [=E]adige sind þ[=i]ne þe[.g]nas and þ[=i]ne þ[=e]owas,
  simle æt·foran þ[=e] standaþ, and þ[=i]nne w[=i]sd[=o]m [.g]e·h[=i]eraþ.
  [.G]e·bl[=e]tsod s[=i]e se ælmihtiga God, þe þ[=e] [.g]e·[.c][=e]as and
      [.g]e·s[e,]tte  85
  ofer Israh[=e]la r[=i][.c]e, þæt þ[=u] d[=o]mas s[e,]tte and
  H[=e]o for·[.g]eaf þ[=æ]em cyninge þ[=a] hund·tw[e,]lfti[.g] punda
  and un[.g]er[=i]m d[=e]orwierþra wyrta and d[=e]orwierþra
  Salomon [=e]ac for·[.g]eaf þ[=æ]re cw[=e]ne sw[=a] hwæs sw[=a] h[=e]o
  æt him; and h[=e]o [.g]e·w[e,]nde on·[.g]e[=a]n t[=o] hiere [=e]þle mid
      hiere  90
  þe[.g]num. Salomon þ[=a] wæs [.g]e·m[=æ]rsod ofer eallum eorþlicum
  cyningum, and ealle þ[=e]oda [.g]e·wilnodon þæt h[=i]e hine
  and his w[=i]sd[=o]m [.g]e·h[=i]erden, and h[=i]e him mani[.g]feald

  S[=e]o cw[=e]n hæfde [.g]e·t[=a]cnunge þ[=æ]re h[=a]lgan [.g]e·laþunge
      ealles  95
  cr[=i]stenes folces, þe c[=o]m t[=o] þ[=æ]m [.g]e·sibbsuman Cr[=i]ste
  [.g]e·h[=i]erenne his w[=i]sd[=o]m and þ[=a] god-spellican l[=a]re þa
  [=a]·stealde, and be on·liehtunge þæs s[=o]þan [.g]e·l[=e]afan, and be
  þ[=æ]m t[=o]weardan d[=o]me, be [=u]rre s[=a]wle un-d[=e]adlicnesse, and
  hyhte and wuldre þæs [.g]e·m[=æ]nelican [=æ]ristes.          100

  S[=e]o cw[=e]n c[=o]m t[=o] Salomone mid mi[.c]lum l[=a]cum on golde
  and on d[=e]orwierþum [.g]immst[=a]num and wyrt-br[=æ]þum; and
  þæt b[=æ]ron olfendas. S[=e]o [.g]e·l[=e]affulle [.g]e·laþung, þe cymþ
  of [=æ]lcum earde t[=o] Cr[=i]ste, bringþ him þ[=a]s fore-sæ[.g]dan
  æfter g[=a]stlicum and[.g]iete. H[=e]o offraþ him gold þurh s[=o]þne  105
  [.g]e·l[=e]afan, and wyrtbr[=æ]þas þurh [.g]e·bedu, and d[=e]orwierþe
  [.g]immas þurh fæ[.g]ernesse g[=o]dra þ[=e]awa and h[=a]li[.g]ra
  Be þisse [.g]e·laþunge cwæþ se w[=i]tega t[=o] Gode: _Adstitit_
  _regina a dextris tuis, in vestitu deaurato, circumdata varietate_,
  þæt is, 's[=e]o cw[=e]n st[e,]nt æt þ[=i]nre sw[=i]þran, on ofergyldum
  [.g]ierlan, ymb·scr[=y]dd mid mani[.g]fealdre f[=a]gnesse.' S[=e]o
  cw[=e]n, Godes [.g]e·laþung, is [.g]e·gl[e,]n[.g]ed mid d[=e]orwierþre
  frætwunge and mani[.g]fealdum bl[=e]o g[=o]dra drohtnunga and

  H[=e]o sæ[.g]de Salomone ealle hiere d[=i]egolnessa, and s[=e]o  115
  [.g]e·laþung [.g]e·openaþ Cr[=i]ste hiere inn-[.g]ehy[.g]d and þa
  [.g]e·þ[=o]htas on s[=o]þre andetnesse.

  Olfendas b[=æ]ron þ[=a] d[=e]orwierþan l[=a]c mid þ[=æ]re cw[=e]ne
  int[=o] Hierusal[=e]m; for þ[=æ]m þe þ[=a] h[=æ]þnan, þe [=æ]r w[=æ]ron
  [.g]e·hoferode þurh [.g][=i]tsunge and atollice þurh leahtras, b[=æ]ron,
  þurh hiera [.g]e·[.c]ierrednesse and [.g]e·l[=e]afan, þ[=a] g[=a]stlican
  t[=o] Cr[=i]stes handum.

  S[=e]o cw[=e]n wundrode Salomones w[=i]sd[=o]mes, and his
  and þe[.g]nunga; and s[=e]o [.g]e·laþung wundraþ Cr[=i]stes
  w[=i]sd[=o]mes, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] is s[=o]þ w[=i]sd[=o]m, and eall
      w[=i]sd[=o]m is  125
  of him. H[=e] [.g]e·timbrode þ[=a] h[=e]alican heofonas and ealne
  middan[.g]eard, and ealle [.g]e·sceafta [.g]e·s[e,]tte on þrim þingum,
  _in mensura, et pondere, et numero_, þæt is, on [.g]e·mete, and
  on h[e,]fe, and on [.g]e·tele. Cr[=i]stes þe[.g]nung is [=u]re h[=æ]lo
  folca [=a]·l[=i]esednes, and þ[=a] sind [.g]e·s[=æ]li[.g]e þe him
      þe[.g]niaþ t[=o]  130
  [.g]e·cw[=e]mednesse on þ[=æ]m g[=a]stlicum [.g]e·r[=y]num.

  S[=e]o cw[=e]n sæ[.g]de þæt hiere n[=æ]re be healfum d[=æ]le
  be Salomones m[=æ]rþo, and s[=e]o g[=a]stlice cw[=e]n, Godes
  oþþe [.g]e·hwelc h[=a]li[.g] s[=a]wol, þonne h[=e]o cymþ t[=o] þ[=æ]re
  Hierusal[=e]m, þonne [.g]e·sihþ h[=e]o mi[.c]le m[=a]ran m[=æ]rþo  135
  and wuldor þonne hiere [=æ]r on l[=i]fe þurh w[=i]tegan oþþe apostolas
  [.g]e·c[=y]dd w[=æ]re. Ne mæ[.g] n[=a]n [=e]age on þissum l[=i]fe
  [.g]e·s[=e]on, ne n[=a]n [=e]are [.g]e·h[=i]eran, ne n[=a]nes mannes
  [=a]·sm[=e]an þ[=a] þing þe God [.g]earcaþ þ[=æ]m þe hine lufiaþ. Þ[=a]
  þing w[=e] magon be·[.g]ietan, ac w[=e] ne magon h[=i]e [=a]·sm[=e]an,
  ne [=u]s n[=æ]fre ne [=a]·þr[=i]ett þ[=a]ra g[=o]da [.g]e·nyhtsumnes.

  Cr[=i]st is ealra cyninga cyning, and sw[=a] sw[=a] ealle þ[=e]oda
  woldon [.g]e·s[=e]on þone [.g]e·sibbsuman Salomon, and his w[=i]sd[=o]m
  [.g]e·h[=i]eran, and him mislicu l[=a]c br[=o]hton, sw[=a] [=e]ac n[=u]
      of eallum
  þ[=e]odum [.g]e·wilniaþ m[e,]nn t[=o] [.g]e·s[=e]onne þone
      [.g]e-sibbsuman  145
  Cr[=i]st þurh [.g]e·l[=e]afan, and þone godspellican w[=i]sd[=o]m
  and h[=i]e him dæ[.g]-hw[=æ]ml[=i]ce þ[=a] g[=a]stlican l[=a]c
      [.g]e·offriaþ on
  mani[.g]fealdum [.g]e·metum.


  On C[=y]res dagum cyninges wr[=e][.g]don þ[=a] Babil[=o]niscan þone
  w[=i]tegan Dani[=e]l, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] t[=o]·wearp hiera
      d[=e]ofol-[.g]ield,  150
  and cw[=æ]don [=a]n-m[=o]dl[=i]ce t[=o] þ[=æ]m fore-sæ[.g]dan cyninge
 'Bet[=æ][.c] [=u]s Dani[=e]l, þe [=u]rne god B[=e]l t[=o]·wearp, and þone
  [=a]·cwealde þe w[=e] on be·l[=i]efdon; [.g]if þ[=u] hine for·st[e,]ntst,
  for·dilgiaþ þ[=e] and þ[=i]nne h[=i]red.'

  Þ[=a] [.g]e·seah se cyning þæt h[=i]e [=a]n-m[=o]de w[=æ]ron, and
      n[=i]edunga  155
  þone w[=i]tegan him t[=o] handum [=a]·s[.c][=e]af. H[=i]e þ[=a] hine
  [=a]·wurpon int[=o] [=a]num s[=e]aþe, on þ[=æ]m w[=æ]ron seofon l[=e]on,
  man sealde dæ[.g]hw[=æ]ml[=i]ce tw[=a] hr[=i]þeru and tw[=a] s[.c][=e]ap,
      ac him
  wæs þ[=a] of·togen [=æ]lces f[=o]dan siex dagas, þæt h[=i]e þone Godes
  mann [=a]·b[=i]tan scolden.                                  160

  On þ[=æ]re t[=i]de wæs sum [=o]þer w[=i]tega on J[=u]d[=e]a-lande, his
  nama waes Abacuc, s[=e] bær his rifterum m[e,]te t[=o] æcere. Þ[=a]
  c[=o]m him t[=o] Godes [e,]n[.g]el, and cwæþ: 'Abacuc, ber þone
  m[e,]te t[=o] Babil[=o]ne, and s[e,]le Dani[=e]le, s[=e] þe sitt on
      þ[=a]ra l[=e]ona
  s[=e]aþe.' Abacuc andwyrde þ[=æ]m [e,]n[.g]le: 'L[=a] l[=e]of, ne
      [.g]e·seah  165
  ic n[=æ]fre þ[=a] burg, ne ic þone s[=e]aþ n[=a]t.'

  Þ[=a] se [e,]n[.g]el [.g]e·l[=æ]hte hine be þ[=æ]m feaxe, and hine bær
  t[=o] Babil[=o]ne, and hine s[e,]tte bufan þ[=æ]m s[=e]aþe. Þ[=a] clipode
  Abacuc: 'þ[=u] Godes þ[=e]ow, Dani[=e]l, nim þ[=a]s l[=a]c þe þ[=e] God
  s[e,]nde!' Dani[=e]l cwæþ: 'M[=i]n Dryhten H[=æ]lend, s[=i]e þ[=e] lof
  and weorþ-mynd þæt þ[=u] m[=e] [.g]e·mundest.' And h[=e] þ[=a] þ[=æ]re
  sande br[=e]ac. Witodl[=i]ce Godes [e,]n[.g]el þ[=æ]r-rihte mid swiftum
  flyhte [.g]e·br[=o]hte þone disc-þe[.g]n, Abacuc, þ[=æ]r h[=e] hine
  [=æ]r [.g]e·nam.

  Se cyning þ[=a] C[=y]rus on þ[=æ]m seofoþan dæ[.g]e [=e]ode dr[=e]ori[.g]
  t[=o] þ[=a]ra l[=e]ona s[=e]aþe, and inn be·seah, and efne þ[=a]
  sittende wæs [.g]e·sundfull on·middan þ[=æ]m l[=e]onum. Þ[=a] clipode
  se cyning mid mi[.c]elre stefne: 'M[=æ]re is se God þe Dani[=e]l
  on be·l[=i]efþ.' And h[=e] þ[=a] mid þ[=æ]m worde hine [=a]·t[=e]ah of
  scræfe, and h[=e]t inn weorpan þ[=a] þe hine [=æ]r for·d[=o]n woldon.
  Þæs cyninges h[=æ]s wearþ hrædl[=i]ce [.g]e·fr[e,]mmed, and þæs
  w[=i]tegan [=e]hteras wurdon [=a]·scofene be·twix þ[=a] l[=e]on, and
  þ[=æ]r-rihte mid gr[=æ]digum [.c]eaflum h[=i]e ealle t[=o]·t[=æ]ron.
  cwæþ se cyning: 'Forhtien and on·dr[=æ]den ealle eorþ-b[=u]end
  Dani[=e]les God, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] is [=A]·l[=i]esend and H[=æ]lend,
  wyr[.c]ende t[=a]cnu and wundru on heofonan and on eorþan.'


  Nabochodonosor, se h[=æ]þena cyning, [.g]e·h[e,]rgode on Godes
  folce, on J[=u]d[=e]a-lande, and for hiera m[=a]n-d[=æ]dum God þæt
  [.g]e·þafode. Þ[=a] [.g]e·nam h[=e] þ[=a] m[=a]þm-fatu, gyldenu and
  binnan Godes temple, and t[=o] his lande mid him             190
  [.g]e·l[=æ]dde. Hit [.g]e·lamp eft siþþan þæt h[=e] on swefne [=a]ne
  [.g]e·sihþe be him selfum [.g]e·seah, sw[=a] sw[=a] him siþþan

  Æfter þissum ymb twelf m[=o]naþ, [=e]ode se cyning binnan
  his healle mid orm[=æ]tre [=u]p-[=a]hafennesse, h[e,]riende his weorc
  and his miht, and cwæþ: 'H[=u], ne is þis s[=e]o mi[.c]le Babil[=o]n,
  þe ic self [.g]e·timbrode t[=o] cyne-st[=o]le and t[=o] þrymme, m[=e]
  selfum to wlite and wuldre, mid m[=i]num [=a]gnum mæ[.g]ne
  and str[e,]n[.g]þo?' Ac him clipode þ[=æ]rrihte t[=o] sw[=i]þe
  stefn of heofonum, þus cweþende: 'Þ[=u] Nabochodonosor,
  þ[=i]n r[=i][.c]e [.g]e·w[=i]tt fram þ[=e], and þ[=u] bist fram mannum
      [=a]·worpen,  200
  and þ[=i]n wunung biþ mid wild[=e]orum, and þ[=u] itst gærs, sw[=a]
  sw[=a] oxa, seofon [.g][=e]ar, oþ þæt þ[=u] wite þæt se h[=e]alica
  God [.g]e·wielt manna r[=i][.c]a, and þæt h[=e] for·[.g]iefþ r[=i][.c]e
  þe h[=e] wile.'

  Witodl[=i]ce on þ[=æ]re ilcan t[=i]de wæs þ[=e]os spr[=æ][.c]
      [.g]e·fylled  205
  ofer Nabochodonosor, and h[=e] arn t[=o] wuda, and wunode mid
  wild[=e]orum, leofode be gærse, sw[=a] sw[=a] n[=i]eten, oþ þæt his
  feax w[=e]ox sw[=a] sw[=a] w[=i]f-manna, and his næ[.g]las sw[=a] sw[=a]
  earnes clawa.

  Eft siþþan him for·[.g]eaf se ælmihtiga Wealdend his [.g]e·witt,  210
  and h[=e] cwæþ: 'Ic Nabochodonosor [=a]·h[=o]f m[=i]n [=e]agan [=u]p
  heofonum, and m[=i]n and[.g]iet m[=e] wearþ for·[.g]iefen, and ic þ[=a]
  bl[=e]tsode þone h[=i]ehstan God, and ic h[e,]rede and wuldrode
  þone þe leofaþ on [=e][.c]nesse, for þ[=æ]m þe his miht is [=e][.c]e, and
  his r[=i][.c]e st[e,]nt on m[=æ][.g]þe and on m[=æ][.g]þe. Ealle
      eorþ-b[=u]end  215
  sind t[=o] n[=a]hte [.g]e·tealde on his wiþ·metennesse. Æfter his
  willan h[=e] d[=e]þ [=æ][.g]þer [.g]e on heofone [.g]e on eorþan, and nis
  n[=a]n þing þe his mihte wiþ·stande, oþþe him t[=o] cweþe 'hw[=y]
  d[=e]st þ[=u] sw[=a]?' On þ[=æ]re t[=i]de m[=i]n and[.g]iet
      [.g]e·w[e,]nde t[=o] m[=e],
  and ic be·c[=o]m t[=o] weorþ-mynde m[=i]nes cyne-r[=i][.c]es, and m[=i]n
  m[e,]nnisce h[=i]w m[=e] be·c[=o]m. M[=i]ne witan m[=e] s[=o]hton, and
  m[=æ]rþo wearþ [.g]e·[=e]acnod. N[=u] eornostl[=i]ce ic m[=æ]rsi[.g]e and
  wuldri[.g]e þone heofonlican cyning, for þ[=æ]m þe eall his weorc
  sind s[=o]þ, and his wegas riht-w[=i]se, and h[=e] mæ[.g]
  þ[=a] þe on m[=o]di[.g]nesse faraþ.'                         225

  Þus [.g]e·[=e]aþm[=e]dde se ælmihtiga God þone m[=o]digan cyning




  [=A]n mann wæs eardiende on Israh[=e]la þ[=e]ode, Manu[=e]
  [.g]e·h[=a]ten, of þ[=æ]re m[=æ][.g]þe Dan; his w[=i]f wæs un-t[=i]emend,
  h[=i]e wunodon b[=u]tan [.c]ilde. Him c[=o]m þ[=a] gangende t[=o] Godes
  [e,]n[.g]el, and cwæþ þæt h[=i]e scolden habban sunu him
  [.g]e·m[=æ]nne; 'ne h[=e] ealu ne drince n[=æ]fre oþþe w[=i]n, ne n[=a]ht
  f[=u]les ne þi[.c][.g]e; s[=e] biþ Gode h[=a]li[.g] fram his
      [.c]ildh[=a]de; and
  man ne m[=o]t hine [e,]fsian oþþe be·s[.c]ieran, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=e]
  on·[.g]inþ t[=o] [=a]·l[=i]esenne his folc, Israh[=e]la þ[=e]ode, of

  H[=e]o [=a]·c[e,]nde þ[=a] sunu, sw[=a] sw[=a] hiere sæ[.g]de se
      [e,]n[.g]el, and  10
  h[=e]t hine Samson; and h[=e] sw[=i]þe w[=e]ox; and God hine bl[=e]tsode,
  and Godes g[=a]st wæs on him. H[=e] wearþ þ[=a] mihti[.g] on
  mi[.c]elre str[e,]n[.g]þo, sw[=a] þæt h[=e] [.g]e·l[=æ]hte [=a]ne l[=e]on
      be we[.g]e, þe
  hine [=a]·b[=i]tan wolde, and t[=o]·bræ[.g]d h[=i]e t[=o] sty[.c][.c]um,
      swelce he
  t[=o]·t[=æ]re sum [=e]aþelic ti[.c][.c]en.                    15

  H[=e] be·gann þ[=a] t[=o] winnenne wiþ þ[=a] Philist[=e]os, and hiera
  fela of·sl[=o]g and t[=o] scame t[=u]code, þ[=e]ah þe h[=i]e onweald
  ofer h[=i]s l[=e]ode. Þ[=a] f[=e]rdon þ[=a] Philist[=e]i forþ æfter
  and h[=e]ton his l[=e]ode þæt h[=i]e hine [=a]·[.g][=e]afen t[=o] hiera
  þæt h[=i]e wrecan mihten hiera t[=e]on-r[=æ]denne mid tintregum  20
  on him. H[=i]e þ[=a] hine [.g]e·bundon mid tw[=æ]m bæstenum r[=a]pum
  and hine [.g]e·l[=æ]ddon t[=o] þ[=æ]m folce. And þ[=a] Philist[=e]iscan
  fæ[.g]nodon sw[=i]þe; urnon him t[=o]·[.g][=e]anes ealle hl[=y]dende;
  hine tintre[.g]ian for hiera t[=e]onr[=æ]denne. Þ[=a] t[=o]·bræ[.g]d
  Samson b[=e][.g]en his earmas, þæt þ[=a] r[=a]pas t[=o]-burston þe h[=e]
      mid  25
  [.g]e·bunden wæs. And h[=e] [.g]e·l[=æ]hte þ[= a] s[=o]na sumes assan
  [.c]inn-b[=a]n þe h[=e] þ[=æ]r funde, and [.g]e·feaht wiþ h[=i]e, and
  [=a]n þ[=u]send mid þæs assan [.c]innb[=a]ne. H[=e] wearþ þ[=a] sw[=i]þe
  of·þyrst for þ[=æ]m wundorlican sl[e,][.g]e, and bæd þone heofonlican
  God þæt h[=e] him [=a]·s[e,]nde drincan, for þ[=æ]m þe on þ[=æ]re  30
  n[=e]awiste næs n[=a]n wæters[.c]ipe. Þ[=a] arn of þ[=æ]n [.c]innb[=a]ne
  of [=a]num t[=e]þ wæter; and Samson þ[=a] dranc, and his Dryhtne

  Æfter þissum h[=e] f[=e]rde t[=o] Philist[=e]a lande, int[=o] [=a]nre
  on hiera onwealde, Gaza [.g]e·h[=a]ten. And h[=i]e þæs fæ[.g]nodon;  35
  be·s[e,]tton þ[=a] þ[=æ]t h[=u]s þe h[=e] inne wunode; woldon hine
  [.g]e·niman mid þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] [=u]t [=e]ode on [=æ]rne-mer[.g]en, and
  of·sl[=e]an. Hwæt þ[=a] Samson hiera sierwunga under·[.g]eat; and
  [=a]·r[=a]s on middre nihte t[=o]·middes his f[=e]ondum, and [.g]e·nam
  þ[=a] burg-[.g]eatu, and [.g]e·bær on his hry[.c][.g]e mid þ[=æ]m postum,
  sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=i]e be·locenu w[=æ]ron, [=u]p t[=o] [=a]nre d[=u]ne
      t[=o] ufeweardum
  þ[=æ]m cnolle; and [=e]ode sw[=a] or-sorg of hiera [.g]e·sihþum.

  Hine be·sw[=a]c sw[=a]·þ[=e]ah siþþan [=a]n w[=i]f, Dalila
      [.g]e·h[=a]ten, of
  þ[=æ]m h[=æ]þnan folce, sw[=a] þæt h[=e] hiere sæ[.g]de, þurh hiere
      sw[=i]cd[=o]m  45
  be·p[=æ]ht, on hw[=æ]m his str[e,]n[.g]þo wæs and his wundorlicu
  miht. Þ[=a] h[=æ]þnan Philist[=e]i be·h[=e]ton hiere s[.c]eattas wiþ
  þe h[=e]o be·swice Samson þone strangan. Þ[=a] [=a]scode h[=e]o
  hine [.g]eorne mid hiere [=o]l[=æ][.c]unge on hw[=æ]m his miht w[=æ]re;
  and h[=e] hiere andwyrde: '[.G]if ic b[=e]o [.g]e·bunden mid seofon  50
  r[=a]pum, of sinum [.g]eworhte, s[=o]na ic b[=e]o [.g]e·wield.' Þæt
  swicole w[=i]f þ[=a] be·[.g]eat þ[=a] seofon r[=a]pas, and h[=e] þurh
  sw[=a] wearþ [.g]e·bunden. And him man c[=y]þde þæt
  þ[=æ]r c[=o]mon his f[=i]end; þ[=a] t[=o]·bræc h[=e] s[=o]na þ[=a]
      r[=a]pas, sw[=a]
  sw[=a] h[e,]fel-þr[=æ]das; and þæt w[=i]f nyste on hw[=æ]m his miht  55
  wæs. H[=e] wearþ eft [.g]e·bunden mid eall-n[=i]wum r[=a]pum; and
  h[=e] þ[=a] t[=o]·bræc, sw[=a] sw[=a] þ[=a] [=o]þre.

  H[=e]o be·sw[=a]c hine sw[=a]·þ[=e]ah, þæt h[=e] hiere sæ[.g]de æt
  n[=i]ehstan: 'Ic eom Gode [.g]e·h[=a]lgod fram m[=i]num [.c]ildh[=a]de;
  ic næs n[=æ]fre [.g]e·[e,]fsod, ne n[=æ]fre be·scoren; and [.g]if ic
      b[=e]o  60
  be·scoren, þonne b[=e]o ic un-mihti[.g], [=o]þrum mannum [.g]e·l[=i]c;'
  and h[=e]o l[=e]t þ[=a] sw[=a].

  H[=e]o þ[=a] on sumum dæ[.g]e, þ[=a] þ[=a] h[=e] on sl[=æ]pe læ[.g],
  his seofon loccas, and [=a]·weahte hine siþþan; þ[=a] wæs
  h[=e] sw[=a] unmihti[.g] sw[=a] sw[=a] [=o]þre m[e,]nn. And þ[=a]
      Philist[=e]i  65
  [.g]e·f[=e]ngon hine s[=o]na, sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=e]o hine be·l[=æ]wde, and
  hine on·we[.g]; and h[=e]o hæfde þone s[.c]eatt, sw[=a] sw[=a]
  him [.g]e·wearþ.

  H[=i]e þ[=a] hine [=a]·bl[e,]ndon, and [.g]e·bundenne l[=æ]ddon on
  heardum racent[=e]agum h[=a]m t[=o] hiera byri[.g], and on cwearterne  70
  be·lucon t[=o] langre fierste: h[=e]ton hine grindan æt
  hiera hand-cweorne. Þ[=a] w[=e]oxon his loccas and his miht
  eft on him. And þ[=a] Philist[=e]i full·bl[=i]þe w[=æ]ron: þancodon
  hiera Gode, Dagon [.g]e·h[=a]ten, swelce h[=i]e þurh his fultum
  hiera f[=e]ond [.g]e·wielden.                                 75

  Þ[=a] Philist[=e]i þ[=a] mi[.c]le feorme [.g]e·worhton, and
  h[=i]e on sumre [=u]p-fl[=o]ra, ealle þ[=a] h[=e]afod-m[e,]nn, and
  [=e]ac swelce w[=i]f-m[e,]nn, þr[=e]o þ[=u]send manna on mi[.c]elre
  And þ[=a] þ[=a] h[=i]e bl[=i]þost w[=æ]ron, þ[=a] b[=æ]don h[=i]e sume
      þæt Samson
  m[=o]ste him macian sum gamen; and hine man s[=o]na           80
  [.g]e·f[e,]tte mid sw[=i]þlicre w[=a]funge, and h[=e]ton hine standan
  be·twix tw[=æ]m st[=æ]nenum sw[=e]orum. On þ[=æ]m tw[=æ]m sw[=e]orum
  st[=o]d þæt h[=u]s eall [.g]e·worht. And Samson þ[=a] plegode
  sw[=i]þe him æt·foran; and [.g]e·l[=æ]hte þ[=a] sw[=e]oras mid
  mihte, and sl[=o]g h[=i]e t[=o]·gædre þæt h[=i]e s[=o]na t[=o]·burston;
      and  85
  þæt h[=u]s þ[=a] [=a]·f[=e]oll eall, þ[=æ]m folce t[=o] d[=e]aþe, and
  forþ mid, sw[=a] þæt h[=e] mi[.c]le m[=a] on his d[=e]aþe [=a]·cwealde
  þonne h[=e] [=æ]r cwic dyde.




  Breten [=i]e[.g]-land is eahta hund m[=i]la lang, and tw[=a] hund
  m[=i]la br[=a]d; and h[=e]r sind on þ[=æ]m [=i]e[.g]lande f[=i]f
  [E,]n[.g]lisc, Brettisc, Scyttisc, Pihtisc, and B[=o]c-læden.

  [=Æ]rest w[=æ]ron b[=u]end þisses landes Brettas. Þ[=a] c[=o]mon
  of Armenia, and [.g]e·s[=æ]ton s[=u]þan-wearde Bretene [=æ]rest. Þ[=a]  5
  [.g]e·lamp hit þæt Peohtas c[=o]mon s[=u]þan of Scithian mid
  langum s[.c]ipum, n[=a] manigum; and þ[=a] c[=o]mon [=æ]rest on
  Norþ-ibernian [=u]p; and þ[=æ]r b[=æ]don Scottas þæt h[=i]e þ[=æ]r
  m[=o]sten wunian. Ac h[=i]e noldon him l[=i]efan, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e
  cw[=æ]don þæt h[=i]e ne mihten ealle æt·gædre [.g]e·wunian þ[=æ]r.  10
  And þ[=a] cw[=æ]don þ[=a] Scottas: 'W[=e] magon [=e]ow hwæþre r[=æ]d
  [.g]e·l[=æ]ran: w[=e] witon [=o]þer [=i]e[.g]land h[=e]r-be·[=e]astan;
      þ[=æ]r [.g][=e]
  magon eardian, [.g]if [.g][=e] willaþ; and [.g]if hw[=a] [=e]ow
  w[=e] [=e]ow fultumiaþ þæt [.g][=e] hit mæ[.g]en [.g]e·g[=a]n.'

  Þ[=a] f[=e]rdon þ[=a] Peohtas, and [.g]ef[=e]rdon þis land norþan-weard;
  s[=u]þan-weard hit hæfdon Brettas, sw[=a] sw[=a] w[=e] [=æ]r cw[=æ]don.
  And þ[=a] Peohtas him [=a]·b[=æ]don w[=i]f æt Scottum on þ[=a]
  þæt h[=i]e [.g]e·curen hiera cyne-cynn [=a] on þ[=a] w[=i]f-healfe. Þæt
  h[=i]e h[=e]oldon sw[=a] lange siþþan.

  And þ[=a] [.g]e·lamp ymbe [.g][=e]ara ryne þæt Scotta sum d[=æ]l  20
  [.g]e·w[=a]t of Ibernian on Bretene, and þæs landes sumne d[=æ]l
  [.g]e·[=e]odon; and wæs hiera h[e,]re-toga R[=e]oda [.g]e·h[=a]ten: fram
  þæm h[=i]e sind [.g]e·n[e,]mnede D[=a]lr[=e]odi.

  Anno 449. H[=e]r Marti[=a]nus and Valent[=i]nus on·f[=e]ngon r[=i][.c]e,
  and r[=i][.c]sodon seofon winter.                             25

  And on hiera dagum, H[e,]n[.g]est and Horsa, fram Wyrt[.g]eorne
  [.g]e·laþode, Bretta cyninge, [.g]e·s[=o]hton Bretene on þ[=æ]m
  st[e,]de þe is [.g]e·n[e,]mned Ypwines-fl[=e]ot, [=æ]rest Brettum t[=o]
  ac h[=i]e eft on h[=i]e fuhton.

  Se cyning h[=e]t h[=i]e feohtan on·[.g][=e]an Peohtas; and h[=i]e sw[=a]
  dydon, and si[.g]e hæfdon sw[=a] hw[=æ]r sw[=a] h[=i]e c[=o]mon.

  H[=i]e þ[=a] s[e,]ndon t[=o] Angle, and h[=e]ton him s[e,]ndan m[=a]ran
  fultum; and h[=e]ton him s[e,][.c][.g]an Bret-w[=e]ala n[=a]htnesse and
  landes cysta. H[=i]e þ[=a] s[e,]ndon him m[=a]ran fultum. Þ[=a] c[=o]mon
  þ[=a] m[e,]nn of þrim m[=æ][.g]þum [.G]erm[=a]nie: of Eald-seaxum, of  35
  [E,]n[.g]lum, of [=I]otum.

  Of [=I]otum c[=o]mon Cant-ware and Wiht-ware--þæt is s[=e]o
  m[=æ][.g]þ þe n[=u] eardaþ on Wiht--and þæt cynn on West-seaxum
  þe man n[=u]·[.g]iet h[=æ]tt '[=I]otena cynn.' Of Eald-seaxum
  c[=o]mon [=E]ast-seaxe, and S[=u]þ-seaxe, and West-seaxe.     40
  Of Angle c[=o]mon--s[=e] [=a] siþþan st[=o]d w[=e]ste be·twix [=I]otum
  Seaxum--[=E]ast-[e,]n[.g]le, Middel-[e,]n[.g]le, Mier[.c]e, and ealle

  455. H[=e]r H[e,]n[.g]est and Horsa fuhton wiþ Wyrt[.g]eorne
  þ[=æ]m cyninge in þ[=æ]re st[=o]we þe is [.g]e·cweden Æ[.g]les-þrep;  45
  and his br[=o]þor Horsan man of·sl[=o]g. And æfter þ[=æ]m H[e,]n[.g]est
  f[=e]ng t[=o] r[=i][.c]e, and Æsc his sunu.

  457. H[=e]r H[e,]n[.g]est and Æsc fuhton wiþ Brettas in þ[=æ]re
  st[=o]we þe is [.g]e·cweden Cr[e,][.c][.g]an-ford, and þ[=æ]r
  f[=e]ower þ[=u]send wera. And þ[=a] Brettas þ[=a] for·l[=e]ton
      C[e,]nt-land,  50
  and mid mi[.c]le [e,][.g]e flugon t[=o] Lunden-byri[.g].

  473. H[=e]r Hen[.g]est and Æsc [.g]e·fuhton wiþ W[=e]alas, and
  [.g]e·n[=a]mon un-[=a]r[=i]medlicu h[e,]re-r[=e]af, and þ[=a] W[=e]alas
  þ[=a] [E,]n[.g]le sw[=a] sw[=a] f[=y]r.

  787. H[=e]r nam Beorht-r[=i][.c] cyning Offan dohtor [=E]ad-burge.  55
  And on his dagum c[=o]mon [=æ]rest þr[=e]o s[.c]ipu; and þ[=a] se
  [.g]e·r[=e]fa þ[=æ]r t[=o] r[=a]d, and h[=i]e wolde dr[=i]fan t[=o] þæs
  t[=u]ne, þ[=y] h[=e] nyste hwæt h[=i]e w[=æ]ron; and hine man of·sl[=o]g.
  Þæt w[=æ]ron þ[=a] [=æ]restan s[.c]ipu D[e,]niscra manna þe Angel-cynnes
  land [.g]e·s[=o]hton.                                         60

  851. H[=e]r [.C]eorl ealdor-mann [.g]e·feaht wiþ h[=æ]þne m[e,]nn
  mid Defena-s[.c][=i]re æt Wi[.c][.g]an-beorge, and þ[=æ]r mi[.c]el wæl
  [.g]e·sl[=o]gon, and si[.g]e n[=a]mon.

  And þ[=y] ilcan [.g][=e]are Æþelst[=a]n cyning and Ealhh[e,]re dux
  mi[.c]elne h[e,]re of·sl[=o]gon æt Sand-w[=i]c on C[e,]nt; and nigon  65
  s[.c]ipu [.g]e·f[=e]ngon, and þ[=a] [=o]þru [.g]e·fl[=i]emdon; and
      h[=æ]þne m[e,]nn
  [=æ]rest ofer winter s[=æ]ton.

  And þ[=y] ilcan [.g][=e]are c[=o]m f[=e]orþe healf hund s[.c]ipa on
  T[e,]mese-m[=u]þan, and br[=æ]con Cantwara-burg, and Lunden-burg,
  and [.g]e·fl[=i]emdon Beorhtwulf Mier[.c]na cyning mid his    70
  fierde; and f[=e]rdon þ[=a] s[=u]þ ofer T[e,]mese on S[=u]þri[.g]e; and
  him [.g]e·feaht wiþ Æþelwulf cyning and Æþelbeald his
  sunu æt [=A]c-l[=e]a mid West-seaxna fierde, and þ[=æ]r þæt m[=æ]ste
  wæl [.g]e·sl[=o]gon on h[=æ]þnum h[e,]re þe w[=e] s[e,][.c][.g]an
      h[=i]erdon oþ
  þisne andweardan dæ[.g], and þ[=æ]r si[.g]e n[=a]mon.         75

  867. H[=e]r f[=o]r se h[e,]re of [=E]ast-[e,]n[.g]lum ofer
  t[=o] Eoforw[=i]c-[.c]eastre on Norþ-hymbre. And þ[=æ]r wæs mi[.c]el
  un-[.g]eþw[=æ]rnes þ[=æ]re þ[=e]ode be·twix him selfum, and h[=i]e
  hæfdon hiera cyning [=a]·worpenne [=O]sbryht, and un-[.g]ecyndne
  cyning under·f[=e]ngon Ællan. And h[=i]e late on [.g][=e]are t[=o] þ[=æ]m
  [.g]e·[.c]ierdon þæt h[=i]e wiþ þone h[e,]re winnende w[=æ]ron; and
  þ[=e]ah mi[.c]le fierd [.g]e·gadrodon, and þone h[e,]re s[=o]hton æt
  Eoforw[=i]c-[.c]eastre; and on þ[=a] [.c]eastre br[=æ]con, and h[=i]e
  inne wurdon; and þ[=æ]r wæs un-[.g]emetlic wæl ge·slæ[.g]en Norþanhymbra,
  sume binnan, sume b[=u]tan, and þ[=a] cyningas                85
  b[=e][.g]en ofslæ[.g]ene; and s[=e]o l[=a]f wiþ þone h[e,]re friþ nam.




  Sum sw[=i]þe [.g]e·l[=æ]red munuc c[=o]m s[=u]þan ofer s[=æ] fram sancte
  Benedictes st[=o]we, on Æþelredes cyninges dæ[.g]e, to D[=u]nst[=a]ne
  ær[.c]e-biscope, þrim [.g][=e]arum [=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] forþ·f[=e]rde,
  and se munuc h[=a]tte Abbo. Þ[=a] wurdon h[=i]e æt spr[=æ][.c]e, oþ
  þæt D[=u]nst[=a]n reahte be sancte [=E]admunde, sw[=a] sw[=a]
      [=E]admundes  5
  sweord-bora hit reahte Æþelst[=a]ne cyninge, þ[=a] þ[=a]
  D[=u]nst[=a]n [.g][=e]ong mann wæs, and se sweord-bora wæs for·ealdod
  mann. Þ[=a] [.g]e·s[e,]tte se munuc ealle þ[=a], [.g]e·r[e,][.c]ednesse
  [=a]nre b[=e]c, and eft, þ[=a] þ[=a] s[=e]o b[=o]c c[=o]m t[=o] [=u]s,
      binnan f[=e]am
  [.g][=e]arum, þ[=a] [=a]·w[e,]ndon w[=e] hit on [E,]n[.g]lisc, sw[=a]
      sw[=a] hit h[=e]r·æfter  10
  st[e,]nt. Se munuc þ[=a] Abbo binnan tw[=æ]m [.g][=e]arum [.g]e·w[e,]nde
  h[=a]m t[=o] his mynstre, and wearþ s[=o]na t[=o] abbode
  [.g]e·s[e,]tt on þ[=æ]m ilcan mynstre.

  [=E]admund se [=e]adiga, [=E]ast-[e,]n[.g]la cyning, wæs snotor and
  weorþfull, and weorþode simle mid æþelum þ[=e]awum þone       15
  ælmihtigan God. H[=e] wæs [=e]aþ-m[=o]d and [.g]e·þungen, and
  sw[=a] [=a]n-r[=æ]d þurh·wunode þæt h[=e] nolde [=a]·b[=u]gan t[=o]
  leahtrum, ne on n[=a]wþre healfe h[=e] ne [=a]·hielde his
  þ[=e]awas, ac wæs simle [.g]e·myndi[.g] þ[=æ]re s[=o]þan l[=a]re: '[.G]if
  eart t[=o] h[=e]afod-m[e,]nn [.g]e·s[e,]tt, ne [=a]·h[e,]fe þ[=u] þ[=e],
      ac b[=e]o be·twix  20
  mannum sw[=a] sw[=a] [=a]n mann of him.' H[=e] wæs
  cysti[.g] w[=æ]dlum and widewum sw[=a] sw[=a] fæder, and mid
  wel-willendnesse [.g]e·wissode his folc simle t[=o] riht-w[=i]snesse,
  and þ[=æ]m r[=e]þum st[=i]erde, and [.g]e·s[=æ]li[.g]l[=i]ce leofode on
  [.g]e·l[=e]afan.                                              25

  Hit [.g]e·lamp þ[=a] æt n[=i]ehstan þæt þ[=a] D[e,]niscan l[=e]ode
  mid s[.c]ip-h[e,]re, h[e,]rgiende and sl[=e]ande w[=i]de [.g]eond land,
  sw[=a] hiera [.g]e·wuna is. On þ[=æ]m flotan w[=æ]ron þ[=a] fyrmestan
  h[=e]afod-m[e,]nn, Hinguar and Hubba, [.g]e·[=a]nl[=æ]hte þurh d[=e]ofol,
  and h[=i]e on Norþhymbra-lande [.g]e·l[e,]ndon mid æscum, and  30
  [=a]·w[=e]ston þæt land, and þ[=a] l[=e]ode of·sl[=o]gon. Þ[=a]
  Hinguar [=e]ast mid his s[.c]ipum, and Hubba be·l[=a]f on
  [.g]e·wunnenum si[.g]e mid wæl-hr[=e]ownesse.
  Hinguar þ[=a] be·c[=o]m t[=o] [=E]ast-[e,]n[.g]lum r[=o]wende on þ[=æ]m
  þe Ælfred æþeling [=a]n and tw[e,]nti[.g] [.g][=e]ara wæs, s[=e] þe
      West-seaxna  35
  cyning siþþan wearþ m[=æ]re. And se fore-sæ[.g]da
  Hinguar f[=æ]rl[=i]ce, sw[=a] sw[=a] wulf, on lande be·stealcode, and
  þ[=a] l[=e]ode sl[=o]g, weras and w[=i]f, and þ[=a] un[.g]ewittigan
  and to bismere t[=u]code þ[=a] bilew[=i]tan Cr[=i]stenan. H[=e] s[e,]nde
  þ[=a] siþþan s[=o]na t[=o] þ[=æ]m cyninge b[=e]otlic [=æ]rende, þæt h[=e]
  [=a]·b[=u]gan scolde t[=o] his mann-r[=æ]denne, [.g]if h[=e] his
      f[=e]ores r[=o]hte.
  Se [=æ]rend-raca c[=o]m þ[=a] t[=o] [=E]admunde cyninge, and Hinguares
  [=æ]rende him arodl[=i]ce [=a]·b[=e]ad: 'Hinguar [=u]re cyning, c[=e]ne
  and si[.g]efæst on s[=æ] and on lande, hæfþ fela þ[=e]oda [.g]e·weald,
  and c[=o]m n[=u] mid fierde f[=æ]rl[=i]ce h[=e]r t[=o] lande, þæt  45
  h[=e] h[=e]r winter-setl mid his werode hæbbe. N[=u] h[=æ]tt h[=e] þ[=e]
  d[=æ]lan þ[=i]ne d[=i]eglan gold-hordas and þ[=i]nra ieldrena
  arodl[=i]ce wiþ hine, and þ[=u] b[=e]o his under-cyning, [.g]if þ[=u]
  cwic b[=e]on wilt, for þ[=æ]m þe þ[=u] næfst þ[=a] miht þæt þ[=u] mæ[.g]e
  him wiþ·standan.'                                             50

  Hwæt þ[=a] [=E]admund cyning clipode [=a]nne biscop þe him
  þ[=a] [.g]e·h[e,]ndost wæs, and wiþ hine sm[=e]ade h[=u] h[=e] þ[=æ]m
  r[=e]þan Hinguare andwyrdan scolde. Þ[=a] forhtode se biscop
  for þ[=æ]m f[=æ]rlican [.g]e·limpe, and for þæs cyninges l[=i]fe,
  and cwæþ þæt him r[=æ]d þ[=u]hte þæt h[=e] t[=o] þ[=æ]m [.g]e·buge þe  55
  him b[=e]ad Hinguar. Þ[=a] sw[=i]gode se cyning, and be·seah
  t[=o] þ[=æ]re eorþan, and cwæþ þ[=a] æt n[=i]ehstan cynel[=i]ce him
  t[=o]: '[=E]al[=a] þ[=u] biscop, t[=o] bismere sind [.g]e·t[=a]wode
      þ[=a]s earman
  land-l[=e]ode, and m[=e] n[=u] l[=e]ofre w[=æ]re þæt ic on [.g]e·feohte
  f[=e]olle wiþ þ[=æ]m þe m[=i]n folc m[=o]ste hiera eardes br[=u]can.'  60
  And se biscop cwæþ: '[=E]al[=a] þ[=u] l[=e]ofa cyning, þ[=i]n folc
  l[=i]þ of·slæ[.g]en, and þ[=u] næfst þone fultum þæt þ[=u] feohtan
  mæ[.g]e, and þ[=a]s flot-m[e,]nn cumaþ, and þ[=e] cwicne [.g]e·bindaþ,
  b[=u]tan þ[=u] mid fl[=e]ame þ[=i]num f[=e]ore [.g]e·beorge, oþþe þ[=u]
      þ[=e] sw[=a]
  [.g]e·beorge þæt þ[=u] b[=u]ge t[=o] him.' Þ[=a] cwæþ [=E]admund cyning,
  sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=e] full·c[=e]ne wæs: 'þæs ic [.g]e·wilni[.g]e and
  mid m[=o]de þæt ic [=a]na ne be·l[=i]fe æfter m[=i]num l[=e]ofum
  þe on hiera b[e,]ddum wurdon mid bearnum and w[=i]fum f[=æ]rl[=i]ce
  of·slæ[.g]ene fram þissum flot-mannum. Næs m[=e] n[=æ]fre [.g]e·wunelic
  þæt ic worhte fl[=e]ames, ac ic wolde sw[=i]þor sweltan,      70
  [.g]if ic þorfte, for m[=i]num [=a]gnum earde, and se ælmihtiga God
  w[=a]t þæt ic nyle [=a]·b[=u]gan fram his b[=i]-g[e,]n[.g]um [=æ]fre, ne
  his s[=o]þre lufe, swelte ic, libbe ic.'

  Æfter þissum wordum h[=e] [.g]e·w[e,]nde t[=o] þ[=æ]m [=æ]rend-racan þe
  Hinguar him t[=o] s[e,]nde, and sæ[.g]de him un·forht: 'Witodl[=i]ce  75
  þ[=u] w[=æ]re n[=u] wierþe sl[e,][.g]es, ac ic nyle [=a]·f[=y]lan on
      þ[=i]num f[=u]lum
  bl[=o]de m[=i]ne cl[=æ]nan handa, for þ[=æ]m þe ic Cr[=i]ste folgi[.g]e,
  [=u]s sw[=a] [.g]e·b[=y]snode; ac ic bl[=i]þel[=i]ce wile b[=e]on
  þurh [=e]ow, [.g]if hit sw[=a] God fore-s[.c][=e]awaþ. Far n[=u] sw[=i]þe
  and s[e,][.g]e þ[=i]num r[=e]þan hl[=a]forde, "ne [=a]·b[=y]hþ n[=æ]fre
      [=E]admund  80
  Hinguare on l[=i]fe, h[=æ]þnum h[e,]re-togan, b[=u]tan h[=e] to
  Cr[=i]ste [=æ]rest mid [.g]e·l[=e]afan on þissum lande [.g]e·b[=u]ge."'

  Þ[=a] [.g]e·w[e,]nde se [=æ]rend-raca arodl[=i]ce on·we[.g], and
  be we[.g]e þone wæl-hr[=e]owan Hinguar mid ealre his fierde
  f[=u]se to [=E]admunde, and sæ[.g]de þ[=æ]m [=a]rleasan h[=u] him
      [.g]e·andwyrd  85
  wæs. Hinguar beb[=e]ad þ[=a] mid bieldo þ[=æ]m s[.c]ip-h[e,]re
  þæt h[=i]e þæs cyninges [=a]nes ealle c[=e]pan scolden, þe his h[=æ]se
  for·seah, and hine s[=o]na bindan.

  Hwæt þ[=a] [=E]admund cyning, mid þ[=æ]m þe Hinguar c[=o]m,
  st[=o]d innan his healle, þæs H[=æ]lendes [.g]e·myndi[.g], and [=a]·wearp
  his w[=æ]pnu: wolde [.g]e·efenl[=æ][.c]an Cr[=i]stes [.g]e·b[=y]snungum,
  for·b[=e]ad Petre mid w[=æ]pnum t[=o] winnenne wiþ þ[=a] wælhr[=e]owan
  I[=u]d[=e]iscan. Hwæt þ[=a] [=a]rl[=e]asan þ[=a] [=E]admund [.g]e·bundon,
  [.g]e·bismrodon huxl[=i]ce, and b[=e]oton mid s[=a]glum, and sw[=a]
  siþþan l[=æ]ddon þone [.g]e·l[=e]affullan cyning t[=o] [=a]num
      eorþ-faestan  95
  tr[=e]owe, and t[=i]e[.g]don hine þ[=æ]r-t[=o] mid heardum b[e,]ndum,
  and hine eft swungon langl[=i]ce mid swipum; and h[=e]
  simle clipode be·twix þ[=æ]m swinglum mid s[=o]þum [.g]e·l[=e]afan t[=o]
  H[=æ]lende Cr[=i]ste; and þ[=a] h[=æ]þnan þ[=a] for his [.g]e·l[=e]afan
  w[=o]dl[=i]ce ierre, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=e] clipode Cr[=i]st him t[=o]
      fultume:  100
  h[=i]e scuton þ[=a] mid gafelocum him t[=o], swelce him to gamene,
  oþ þæt h[=e] eall wæs be·s[e,]tt mid hiera scotungum, swelce [=i]les
  byrsta, sw[=a] sw[=a] Sebasti[=a]nus wæs. Þ[=a] [.g]e·seah Hinguar, se
  [=a]rl[=e]asa flotmann, þæt se æþela cyning nolde Cr[=i]ste wiþ·sacan,
  ac mid [=a]nr[=æ]dum [.g]e·l[=e]afan hine [=æ]fre clipode: h[=e]t hine
      þ[=a]  105
  be·h[=e]afdian, and þ[=a] h[=æ]þnan sw[=a] dydon. Be·twix þ[=æ]m þe h[=e]
  clipode t[=o] Cr[=i]ste þ[=a]·[.g]iet, þ[=a] tugon þ[=a] h[=æ]þnan þone
  t[=o] sl[e,][.g]e, and mid [=a]num sw[e,]n[.g]e sl[=o]gon him of þæt
  and his s[=a]wol s[=i]þode [.g]e·s[=æ]li[.g] t[=o] Cr[=i]ste. Þ[=æ]r wæs
  mann [.g]e·h[e,]nde [.g]e·healden, þurh God be·h[=y]dd þ[=æ]m h[=æ]þnum,
  þe þis [.g]e·h[=i]erde eall, and hit eft sæ[.g]de, sw[=a] sw[=a] w[=e]
  s[e,][.c][.g]aþ h[=e]r.

  Hwæt þ[=a] se flot-h[e,]re f[=e]rde eft t[=o] s[.c]ipe, and be·h[=y]ddon
  h[=e]afod þæs h[=a]lgan [=E]admundes on þ[=æ]m þi[.c][.c]um br[=e]mlum,
  þæt hit be·byr[.g]ed ne wurde. Þ[=a] æfter fierste siþþan h[=i]e  115
  [=a]·farene w[=æ]ron, c[=o]m þæt land-folc t[=o], þe þ[=æ]r t[=o] l[=a]fe
  þ[=æ]r hiera hl[=a]fordes l[=i]c læ[.g] b[=u]tan h[=e]afde, and wurdon
  s[=a]ri[.g]e for his sl[e,][.g]e on m[=o]de, and h[=u]ru þæt h[=i]e
      næfden þæt
  h[=e]afod t[=o] þ[=æ]m bodi[.g]e. Þ[=a] sæ[.g]de se s[.c][=e]awere þe hit
  [.g]e·seah, þæt þ[=a] flotm[e,]nn hæfden þæt h[=e]afod mid him; and  120
  wæs him [.g]e·þ[=u]ht, sw[=a] sw[=a] hit wæs full·s[=o]þ, þæt h[=i]e
  þæt h[=e]afod on þ[=æ]m holte for·hwega.

  H[=i]e [=e]odon þ[=a] [e,]ndemes ealle t[=o] þ[=æ]m wuda, s[=e][.c]ende
  [.g]eond þ[=y]flas and br[=e]mlas, [.g]if h[=i]e [=a]-hw[=æ]r mihten
  [.g]e·m[=e]tan þæt h[=e]afod. Wæs [=e]ac mi[.c]el wundor þæt [=a]n wulf
  wearþ [=a]·s[e,]nd, þurh Godes wissunge, t[=o] be·w[e,]rienne þæt
  h[=e]afod wiþ þ[=a] [=o]þru d[=e]or ofer dæ[.g] and niht. H[=i]e [=e]odon
  s[=e][.c]ende and simle clipiende, sw[=a] sw[=a] hit [.g]e·wunelic is
  þe on wuda g[=a]þ oft, 'hw[=æ]r eart þ[=u] n[=u], [.g]e·f[=e]ra?' And him
  andwyrde þæt h[=e]afod, 'h[=e]r, h[=e]r, h[=e]r;' and sw[=a]
      [.g]e·l[=o]me  130
  clipode andswariende him eallum, sw[=a] oft sw[=a] hiera [=æ]ni[.g]
  clipode, oþ þæt h[=i]e ealle be·c[=o]mon þurh þ[=a] clipunge him t[=o].
  Þ[=a] læ[.g] se gr[=æ]ga wulf þe be·wiste þæt h[=e]afod, and mid his
  tw[=æ]m f[=o]tum hæfde þæt h[=e]afod be·clypped, gr[=æ]di[.g] and
  and for Gode ne dorste þæs h[=e]afdes on·byr[.g]an, ac       135
  h[=e]old hit wiþ d[=e]or. Þ[=a] wurdon h[=i]e of·wundrode þæs
  wulfes hierd-r[=æ]denne, and þæt h[=a]li[.g]e h[=e]afod h[=a]m f[e,]redon
  mid him, þanciende þ[=æ]m Ælmihtigan ealra his wundra.
  Ac se wulf folgode forþ mid þ[=æ]m h[=e]afde, oþ þæt h[=i]e t[=o]
  t[=u]ne c[=o]mon, swelce h[=e] tam wære, and [.g]e·w[e,]nde eft siþþan
  t[=o] wuda on·[.g][=e]an.

  Þ[=a] land-l[=e]ode þ[=a] siþþan l[e,][.g]don þæt h[=e]afod t[=o] þ[=æ]m
  bodi[.g]e, and be·byri[.g]don sw[=a] h[=i]e s[=e]lest mihton on swelcre
  hrædunge, and [.c]iri[.c]an [=a]·r[=æ]rdon s[=o]na him on·uppan. Eft
  þ[=a] on fierste, æfter fela [.g][=e]arum, þ[=a] s[=e]o h[e,]rgung
      [.g]e·sw[=a]c,  145
  and sibb wearþ for·[.g]iefen þ[=æ]m [.g]e·sw[e,]n[.c]tan folce, þ[=a]
  h[=i]e t[=o]·gædre, and worhton [=a]ne [.c]iri[.c]an weorþl[=i]ce þ[=æ]m
  for þ[=æ]m þe ge·l[=o]me wundru wurdon æt his byr[.g]enne, æt
  þ[=æ]m [.g]e·bed-h[=u]se þ[=æ]r h[=e] be·byr[.g]ed wæs. H[=i]e woldon
  f[e,]rian mid folclicre weorþmynde þone h[=a]lgan l[=i]chaman, and  150
  l[e,][.c][.g]an innan þ[=æ]re [.c]iri[.c]an. Þ[=a] wæs mi[.c]el wundor
      þæt h[=e]
  wæs eall sw[=a] [.g]e·h[=a]l swelce h[=e] cwic w[=æ]re, mid cl[=æ]num
  and his sw[=e]ora wæs [.g]e·h[=æ]led, þe [=æ]r wæs for·slæ[.g]en, and
  wæs swelce [=a]n seolcen þr[=æ]d ymbe his sw[=e]oran, mannum t[=o]
  sweotolunge h[=u] h[=e] ofs·læ[.g]en wæs. [=E]ac swelce þ[=a] wunda,  155
  þe þ[=a] wælhr[=e]owan h[=æ]þnan mid [.g]e·l[=o]mum scotungum on his
  l[=i]ce macodon, w[=æ]ron [.g]e·h[=æ]lde þurh þone heofonlican God;
  and h[=e]; l[=i]þ sw[=a] onsund oþ þisne and-weardan dæ[.g],
  [=æ]ristes and þæs [=e][.c]an wuldres. His l[=i]chama [=u]s
  c[=y]þþ, þe l[=i]þ un-formolsnod, þæt h[=e] b[=u]tan for·li[.g]re h[=e]r
      on  160
  worulde leofode, and mid cl[=æ]num l[=i]fe t[=o]; Cr[=i]ste s[=i]þode.

  Sum widewe wunode, [=O]swyn [.g]e·h[=a]ten, æt þæs h[=a]lgan
  byr[.g]enne, on [.g]e·bedum and fæstennum manigu [.g][=e]ar siþþan.
  S[=e]o wolde [e,]fsian [=æ]lce [.g][=e]are þone sanct, and his næ[.g]las
  [.c]eorfan s[=i]eferl[=i]ce mid lufe, and on scr[=i]ne healdan t[=o]
      h[=a]li[.g]-d[=o]me  165
  on weofode. Þa weorþode þæt land-folc mid [.g]e·l[=e]afan þone
  sanct, and Þ[=e]odred biscop þearle mid [.g]iefum on golde and
  on seolfre, þ[=æ]m sancte t[=o] weorþmynde.

  Þ[=a] c[=o]mon on sumne s[=æ]l un-[.g]es[=æ]lige þ[=e]ofas eahta on
  [=a]nre nihte t[=o] þ[=æ]m [=a]r-weorþan h[=a]lgan: woldon stelan þ[=a]
  m[=a]þmas þe m[e,]nn þider br[=o]hton, and cunnodon mid cræfte
  h[=u] h[=i]e inn cuman mihten. Sum sl[=o]g mid sl[e,][.c][.g]e sw[=i]þe
  hæspan, sum hiera mid f[=e]olan f[=e]olode ymb·[=u]tan, sum [=e]ac
  under·dealf þ[=a] duru mid spadan, sum hiera mid hl[=æ]ddre wolde
  on·l[=u]can þ[=æ]t [=e]ag-þ[=y]rel; ac h[=i]e swuncon on [=i]del, and
      earml[=i]ce  175
  f[=e]rdon, sw[=a] þæt se h[=a]lga wer h[=i]e wundorl[=i]ce [.g]e·band,
  [=æ]lcne sw[=a] h[=e] st[=o]d str[=u]tiendne mid t[=o]le, þæt hiera
      n[=a]n ne
  mihte þæt morþ [.g]e·fr[e,]mman ne h[=i]e þanon [=a]·styrian; ac
  st[=o]don sw[=a] oþ mer[.g]en. M[e,]nn þ[=a] þæs wundrodon, h[=u] þ[=a]
  weargas hangodon, sum on hl[=æ]ddre, sum l[=e]at t[=o] [.g]e·delfe,  180
  and [=æ]lc on his weorce wæs fæste [.g]e·bunden. H[=i]e wurdon
  þ[=a] [.g]e·br[=o]hte t[=o] þ[=æ]m biscope ealle, and h[=e] h[=e]t h[=i]e
      [=a]·h[=o]n on
  h[=e]am [.g]ealgum ealle; ac h[=e] næs n[=a] [.g]e·myndi[.g] h[=u] se
  God clipode þurh his w[=i]tegan þ[=a]s word þe h[=e]r standaþ:
  _Eos qui ducuntur ad mortem eruere ne cesses_, 'þ[=a] þe man l[=æ]tt  185
  t[=o] d[=e]aþe [=a]·l[=i]es h[=i]e [=u]t simle.' And [=e]ac þ[=a]
      h[=a]lgan can[=o]nes
  b[=e]c [.g]e·h[=a]dodum for·b[=e]odaþ [.g]e biscopum [.g]e pr[=e]ostum
  b[=e]onne ymbe þ[=e]ofas, for þ[=æ]m þe hit ne [.g]e·byreþ þ[=æ]m þe
  b[=e]op [.g]e·corene Gode to þe[.g]nienne þæt h[=i]e
  scylen on [=æ]ni[.g]es mannes d[=e]aþe, [.g]if h[=i]e b[=e]oþ Dryhtnes
  þe[.g]nas. Eft þ[=a] Þ[=e]odred biscop s[.c][=e]awode his b[=e]c, h[=e]
  be·hr[=e]owsode mid [.g][=e]omrunge þæt h[=e] sw[=a] r[=e]þne d[=o]m
  þ[=æ]m un[.g]es[=æ]ligum þ[=e]ofum, and hit be·s[=a]rgode [=æ]fre oþ his
  l[=i]fes [e,]nde, and þ[=a] l[=e]ode bæd [.g]eorne þæt h[=i]e him mid
  full[=i]ce þr[=i]e dagas, biddende þone Ælmihtigan þæt h[=e] him  195
  [=a]rian scolde.

  On þ[=æ]m lande wæs sum mann, L[=e]ofst[=a]n [.g]e·h[=a]ten, r[=i][.c]e
  for worulde, un-[.g]ewitti[.g] for Gode; s[=e] r[=a]d t[=o] þ[=æ]m
  mid r[=i][.c]etere sw[=i]þe, and h[=e]t him æt·[=i]ewan orgell[=i]ce
  þone h[=a]lgan sanct, hwæþer h[=e] [.g]e·sund w[=æ]re; ac sw[=a] hraþe
  sw[=a] h[=e] [.g]e·seah þæs sanctes l[=i]chaman, þ[=a] [=a]·w[=e]dde
      h[=e] s[=o]na,
  and wæl-hr[=e]owl[=i]ce grymetode, and earml[=i]ce [.g]e·[e,]ndode yflum
  d[=e]aþe. Þis is þ[=æ]m [.g]e·l[=i]c þe se [.g]e·l[=e]affulla p[=a]pa
  sæ[.g]de on his [.g]es[e,]tnesse be þ[=æ]m h[=a]lgan Laurentie, þe l[=i]þ
  R[=o]me-byri[.g], þæt m[e,]nn wolden s[.c][=e]awian h[=u] h[=e]
      l[=æ][.g]e [.g]e  205
  g[=o]de [.g]e yfle; ac God h[=i]e [.g]e·stilde sw[=a] þæt þ[=æ]r swulton
  on þ[=æ]re s[.c][=e]awunge seofon m[e,]nn æt·gædre; þ[=a] [.g]eswicon
  þ[=a] [=o]þre t[=o] s[.c][=e]awienne þone martyr mid m[e,]nniscum

  Fela wundra w[=e] [.g]e·h[=i]erdon on folclicre spr[=æ][.c]e be þ[=æ]m
  h[=a]lgan [=E]admunde, þe w[=e] h[=e]r nyllaþ on [.g]e·write s[e,]ttan,
      ac h[=i]e
  w[=a]t [.g]e·hw[=a]. On þissum h[=a]lgan is sweotol, and on swelcum
  [=o]þrum, þæt God ælmihti[.g] mæ[.g] þone mann [=a]·r[=æ]ran eft on
  d[=o]mes dæ[.g]e onsundne of eorþan, s[=e] þe hielt [=E]admund h[=a]lne
  his l[=i]chaman oþ þone m[=i][.c]lan dæ[.g], þ[=e]ah þe h[=e] on moldan
      c[=o]me.  215
  Wierþe w[=æ]re s[=e]o st[=o]w for þ[=æ]m weorþfullan h[=a]lgan þæt h[=i]e
  man weorþode and wel [.g]e·l[=o]gode mid cl[=æ]num Godes þ[=e]owum
  t[=o] Cr[=i]stes þ[=e]owd[=o]me; for þ[=æ]m þe se h[=a]lga is m[=æ]rra
  m[e,]nn mæ[.g]en [=a]·sm[=e]an. Nis Angel-cynn be·d[=æ]led Dryhtnes
  h[=a]lgena, þonne on [E,]n[.g]la-lande li[.c][.g]aþ swelce h[=a]lgan
      swelce  220
  þes h[=a]lga cyning, and C[=u]þberht se [=e]adiga and sancte
  Æþelþr[=y]þ on [=E]li[.g], and [=e]ac hiere sweostor, onsund on
  [.g]e·l[=e]afan t[=o] trymmunge. Sind [=e]ac fela [=o]þre on
  Angel-cynne h[=a]lgan, þe fela wundra wyr[.c]aþ, sw[=a] sw[=a] hit
  w[=i]de is c[=u]þ, þ[=æ]m Ælmihtigan t[=o] lofe, þe h[=i]e on
      [.g]e·l[=i]efdon.  225
  Cr[=i]st [.g]e·sweotolaþ mannum þurh his m[=æ]re h[=a]lgan þæt h[=e] is
  ælmihti[.g] God þe wyr[.c]þ swelc wundru, þ[=e]ah þe þ[=a] earman
  I[=u]d[=e]iscan hine eallunga wiþ·s[=o]cen, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e sind
  [=a]·wier[.g]de, sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=i]e w[=y]s[.c]ton him selfum. Ne
      b[=e]oþ n[=a]n
  wundru [.g]e·worht æt hiera byr[.g]ennum, for þ[=æ]m þe h[=i]e ne  230
  [.g]e·l[=i]efaþ on þone lifiendan Cr[=i]st; ac Cr[=i]st [.g]e·sweotolaþ
  mannum hw[=æ]r se g[=o]da [.g]e·l[=e]afa is, þonne h[=e] swelc wundru
  wyr[.c]þ þurh his h[=a]lgan w[=i]de [.g]eond þ[=a]s eorþan, þæs him
  wuldor and lof [=a] mid his heofonlicum Fæder and þ[=æ]m H[=a]lgan
  G[=a]ste, [=a] b[=u]tan [e,]nde.                             235



The references marked 'Gr.' are to the pages and paragraphs of the grammar;
paragraph-references in ( ) are to the numbered paragraphs in the grammar.


Line 2. s[=e]. Gr. 21. 1.

þis sind. Gr. 45. 2.

l. 6. s[e,]lþ. Gr. 45. 5.

l. 7. s[=e]o ælmesse. Gr. 44. 3.

l. 12. [.g]eworhte. Gr. 46. (3).

l. 16. hiera. Gr. 41. 3.

n[=æ]fre ... ne ... n[=a]nes. Gr. 52. 2. _ne wæs_ is usually contracted
into _næs_; the full form is used here because the _wæs_ is emphatic.

l. 17. h[=e]t ofsl[=e]an. Gr. 50. 4.

l. 23. Æþelred cyning. Gr. 42. 6.

l. 24. Æsces-d[=u]n, _sf._ Ashdown, literally 'hill (or down) of the

l. 27. wile here denotes _repetition_, = 'is in the habit of.' Cp. l. 52.

l. 28. þonne is correlative with _gif_ (l. 26), Gr. 52. 3.

l. 37. ælmihtiga. Gr. 43. (4).

l. 43. [=e]ower se heofonlica Fæder. This insertion of the definite article
between a possessive pronoun and an adjective is frequent.

l. 50. b[=e]o. Gr. 48. (6).

l. 52. t[=o], for.

l. 56. tw[e,]nti[.g] wintra. Gr. 18.

l. 58. D[=e]ofol. Gr. 44. 1.

l. 60. scortan. Gr. 43. (2).

l. 61. fisca. Gr. 41. 3.

l. 63. p[=æ]m, those.

hider on land, lit. hither on to land, = to this land.

l. 74. bl[=e]tsian. The older form of this word is _bledsian_. It is a
derivative of _bl[=o]d_, like _r[=i][.c]sian_ from _r[=i][.c]e_, with
mutation of the root vowel. Its original meaning was to 'sprinkle with
blood,' and hence, in heathen times, to 'consecrate,' especially to
consecrate an altar by sprinkling it with the blood of the victim.

l. 80. godspell. The original form of this word was probably _g[=o]dspell_
= 'good tidings,' a literal translation of the Greek _euaggélion_. {92}
Afterwards the first vowel was shortened before the following
consonant-group, or else _god_ was directly substituted for _g[=o]d_, as
giving a more evident meaning, the result being that the word was taken in
the sense of 'God's tidings.' In this form it was adopted into Icelandic
(guðspiall) and Old High German (gotespel), having been introduced by the
Old English missionaries.

biþ. Gr. 45. 5.

l. 82. h[=i]e. Gr. 19.

l. 89. him on [=æ]lce healfe, lit. 'to (for) themselves on each side,' = on
every side (of themselves).

l. 92. rihtne. Gr. 42. 5.

l. 93. Æþelwulf-ing. Gr. 38.

l. 101. fare [.g][=e]. Gr. 22. 7.

l. 106. fors[=a]won. A plural verb after a singular noun of multitude is
common in O. E., as in other languages.

l. 107. [.g]if se blinda blindne l[=æ]tt. _[.g]if_ here takes the indic.,
instead of the subj. (Gr. 48. 6), because the case is not assumed to be
unreal. So also in V. 13, where the opposition (wiþst[e,]nt) is assumed as
certain, and VI. 19.

l. 114. cw[=æ]de. Gr. 48. (5).

l. 118. mæ[.g]e. Compare Gr. 47. (B. 1).

l. 119. s[=i]e. Gr. 47. (A).

l. 120. Scotland is here used in its older sense of 'Ireland.' Compare the
first extract from the Chronicle, p. 79 below.

l. 121. his. Gr. 41. 3.

l. 123. healden. Gr. 48. (2).

l. 124. w[=æ]re. Gr. 47. (B. 1).

l. 132. s[=e] þe. Gr. 21.

l. 135. þæt. Gr. 21; 52. 3.

l. 137. on [=e]are. Gr. 51. 2.

l. 138. [.g]ew[e,]ndon him, lit. 'they went for-themselves'; a reflexive
pronoun in the dative, Gr. 40. (1), is often added to verbs of motion.

l. 139. d[=o] [.g][=e]. Gr. 22.

l. 142. gr[=e]te. Compare Gr. 49. (8).

l. 145. swelce, adverb, 'as it were.'

l. 151. nime. Gr. 49. (7).

l. 161. c[=o]me. Compare _mæ[.g]e_, l. 118 above.

l. 166. ofslæ[.g]enne. Gr. 46. 5.

l. 176. [.g]eweorþan. Gr. 47. (B. 1.)

l. 180. wolde. Gr. 45. 5.

l. 191. b[=e]on. Gr. 48. (2). {93}


l. 1. þ[=a]s m[=i]n word. Gr. 43. 8.

l. 16. [=a]weorpe. Gr. 49. (8).

l. 20. hit refers back to _s[=æ]d_, l. 18.

l. 22. [=u]p sprungenre sunnan. Gr. 41. 2.

l. 28. is [.g]eworden. An over-literal rendering of the Latin _factum est_.

l. 32. hine, reflexive, Gr. 19.

l. 40. t[=o] forbærnenne. We see here how out of the active 'in order to
burn it' may be developed the passive 'in order that it may be burnt,' as
in the modern E. 'a house to let.' Compare Gr. 50. 4, (1).

l. 52. on hiera fatu. Compare l. 137.

l. 60. [.g]ewordenre [.g]ecwidr[=æ]enne þ[=æ]m wyrhtum. A very stiff
adaptation of the ablative absolute of the original, 'conventione autem
facta cum operariis.' _þ[=æ]m wyrhtum_ is to be taken as a dative of the
person affected (Gr. 41).

l. 67. dyde þ[=æ]m sw[=a] [.g]el[=i]ce. The Latin has simply 'fecit
similiter.' The sense is 'did like to it' (like his former proceeding), the
_sw[=a]_ being pleonastic.

l. 86. þæt. Gr. 21.

l. 90. suna, dative, 'for his son.'

l. 106. [.g]iefth[=u]s. _h[=u]s_ must here be taken in the sense of 'hall,'
'chamber.' In Icelandic the plural _h[=u]s_ is regularly used to denote the
group of buildings (often detached) constituting a house or homestead, the
kitchen, for instance, which was originally detached, being still called
_eldh[=u]s_ (fire-house).

l. 107. þæt h[=e] wolde ges[=e]on. This clause is due to a confusion of two
constructions, (1) _h[=e] wolde [.g]es[=e]on_, (2) _þæt_ (in order that)
_h[=e] [.g]e·s[=a]we_.


The first two pieces are taken from Ælfric's translation of the Heptateuch,
first published by Thwaites in his Heptateuchus, and afterwards by Grein as
vol. i. of his _Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa_--Genesis xi. and
xxii. The other three are from Ælfric's Homilies (edited by Thorpe)--ii.
584 foll., i. 570, ii. 432.

l. 4. him betw[=e]onan. Gr. 51. 5.

l. 13. læden. This word is the Latin _latina_ (= _lingua latina_) used
first in the sense of 'Latin language,' then of language generally. {94}

l. 17. for þ[=æ]m ... for þ[=æ]m þe, correlative, the first demonstrative,
the second relative.

l. 28. t[=o] scoldon. This use of _s[.c]eal_ with a verb of motion
understood is very common.

l. 36. him self. _him_ is the reflexive dative of interest referring to
_God_--literally, 'God him-self will appoint for him-self.' In such
constructions we see the origin of the modern _himself_, _themselves_.

ll. 46, 47. n[=u] ... n[=u], correlative, = now ... now that, the second
_n[=u]_ being almost causal (since).

l. 51. hæfde ... t[=o], took ... for.

l. 52. Gode t[=o] l[=a]ce. Gr. 40. (1).

l. 57. m[=i]n [e,][.g]e, objective genitive, 'the fear of me.'

m[=a]re, neut. 'a greater thing,' 'something more important.'

l. 81. m[=a]re. Cp. l. 57.

l. 82. w[=æ]re. Gr. 49. (7).

l. 89. hwæs is governed by _[.g]iernde_, by 'attraction.'

l. 135. mi[.c]le, adverb.

l. 137. w[=æ]re. Gr, 49. (7).

l. 153. bel[=i]efan is a later form for _[.g]el[=i]efan_.

l. 156. t[=o] handum. Cp. l. 122 above.

l. 174. [=æ]r [.g]enam. Gr. 46. 6.

l. 200. fram mannum. _fram_ here, as usual, denotes the agent 'by' in
passive constructions.

l. 202. wite. Compare Gr. 48. (3) and 49. (8).


From Ælfric's translation of the Book of Judges in Thwaites' Heptateuch.

l. 8. on[.g]inþ t[=o] [=a]l[=i]esenne, will release, _on[.g]innan_ is often
used pleonastically in this way.

l. 35. Gaza [.g]eh[=a]ten. When a name together with _[.g]eh[=a]ten_ is put
in apposition to another noun it is left undeclined, contrary to the
general principle (Gr. 42. 6).

l. 41. sw[=a] sw[=a] h[=i]e belocenu w[=æ]ron, locked as they were.

ufeweardum þ[=æ]m cnolle. Gr. 43. 2.

l. 46. wæs, consisted.

l. 51. [.g]eworhte. We should expect _[.g]eworhtum_ (Gr. 42. 5). Perhaps
the nom. is due to confusion with the construction with a relative
clause--_þe of sinum [.g]eworhte sind_. {95}

l. 74. Dagon [.g]eh[=a]ten. Compare l. 35. swelce, 'on the ground
that'--'because (as they said).'

l. 81. h[=e]ton. Compare l. 106.

l. 87. forþ is often used pleonastically in this way with _mid_.


l. 2. h[=e]r sind, there are here. _h[=e]r_ is here used analogously to
_þ[=æ]r_, as in II. 3 and the modern E. _there are_. Cp. also l. 12 below.

[.g]eþ[=e]odu, languages as the test of nationality. It is believed that
Latin was still spoken as a living language by the Romanized Britons at the
time of the venerable Bede (eighth century), from whose Church History this
section was taken by the compilers of the Chronicle.

l. 5. Armenia is an error for _Armorica_.

l. 6. Scithie, Scythia.

l. 8. Norþibernie, North of Ireland.

l. 24. h[=e]r, at this date--at this place in the series of entries which
constitute the Chronicle.

l. 26. Wyrt[.g]eorn is the regular development of an earlier *_Wurtigern_
from the British _Vortigern_.

l. 28. Ypwinesfl[=e]ot has not been identified; some say Ebbsfleet.

l. 45. Æ[.g]lesþrep, Aylesthorpe, a village near Aylesford.

l. 49. Cr[e,][.c][.g]anford, Crayford.

l. 52. The diction of this passage, with its alliteration and simile, shows
that it is taken from some old poem.

l. 61. h[=æ]þne m[e,]nn, Danes.

l. 62. mid Defena-s[.c][=i]re, literally 'together with Devonshire,' that
is 'with a force of Devonshire men.'

l. 64. dux is here written instead of _ealdormann_. So also we find _rex_
for _cyning_.

l. 65. Sandw[=i]c, Sandwich.

l. 68. f[=e]orþe healf hund, fourth half = three and a half. This is the
regular way of expressing fractional numbers, as in the German

l. 71. S[=u]þri[.g]e, Surrey.

l. 73. [=A]cl[=e]a, Ockley.

l. 76. se h[e,]re, the Danish army. _h[e,]re_ got a bad sense, through its
association with _h[e,]rgian_ (to harry), and hence is applied only to a
plundering, marauding body of men. In the Laws _h[e,]re_ is defined as {96}
a gang of thieves more than thirty-five in number. The national English
army (militia) is called _fierd_, l. 71, 3 above.

Humbrem[=u]þa, mouth of the Humber.

l. 77. Eoforw[=i]c, York; a corruption of _Eboracum_.

l. 84. inne wurdon, got in.

l. 85. sume. Compare IV. 51.


From Ælfric's Lives of the Saints, now published for the Early English Text
Society by Prof. Skeat. The present life has been printed only by Thorpe,
in his _Analecta Anglosaxonica_ from a very late MS. It is here given from
the older MS., Cott. Jul. E. 7.

It will be observed that the present piece is in alliterative prose, that
is, with the letter-rime of poetry, but without its metrical form. The
alliteration is easily discernible:--c[=o]m _s_[=u]þan ofer s[=æ] fram
_s_ancte Benedictes _s_t[=o]we; _d_æ[.g]e, t[=o] _D_[=u]nst[=a]ne, &c.

l. 1. sancte is an English modification of the Latin genitive _sancti_.

l. 5. sancte is here the E. dative inflection, _sanct_ having been made
into a substantive.

l. 39. bilew[=i]t = _*bile-hw[=i]t_ (with the regular change of _hw_ into
_w_ between vowels) literally 'white (=tender) of bill,' originally, no
doubt, applied to young birds, and then used metaphorically in the sense of
'gentle,' 'simple.'

l. 70. worhte fl[=e]ames. This construction of _wyrcan_ with a genitive is

l. 76. w[=æ]re, subj. Gr. 48. (6).

l. 85. f[=u]se. The correct reading is probably _f[=u]sne_, but the plural
_f[=u]se_ may be taken to refer to Hinguar and his men collectively.

l. 149. [.g]ebedh[=u]s. The Welsh _bettws_, as in Bettws-y-coed = 'chapel
in the wood,' still preserves the O. E. form nearly unchanged.

l. 176. sw[=a] þæt does not denote result here, but is explanatory--'namely
by being bound....'

l. 178. h[=i]e, reflexive.

l. 179. þæs ... h[=u], correlative.

l. 185. The reference is apparently to Proverbs xxiv. 11, which (in the
Vulgate) runs thus: 'Erue eos qui ducuntur ad mortem.'

l. 200. hwæþer, (that he might see) whether ...

l. 215. l[=i]chaman, instrumental dative (Gr. 41) of defining.

l. 222. [=E]li[.g] = _[=æ]l-[=i]eg_ 'eel-island.' {97}


The order is strictly alphabetical (þ following _t_) except that words with
the prefix _ge_ are put in the order of the letter that follows the _ge_
(_gebed_ under _b_, &c.).

The following abbreviations are used :--

  _sm._, _sn._, _sf._ masc., neut., fem. substantive.
  _sv._ strong verb.
  _wv._ weak verb.
  _swv._ strong-weak verb (preterito-present).

The others require no explanation.

The numbers after _sv._ refer to the classes of strong verbs in the

Words in [ ] are Latin (and Greek) originals or cognate Old E. words. The
latter are only referred to when the connection can be proved by the
phonetic laws given in the grammar.

  [=A], _av._ ever, always.
  abbod, _sm._ abbot [_Latin_ abbatem].
  [=a]-·b[=e]odan, _sv. 7_, _w. dat._ (offer), announce.
  [=a]-·biddan, _sv. 5_, ask for, demand.
  [=a]-·b[=i]tan, _sv. 6_, devour.
  [=a]-·bl[e,]ndan, _wv._ blind [blind].
  [=a]-·brecan, _sv. 4_, break into, take (city).
  [=a]-·b[=u]gan, _sv. 7_, bend; swerve, turn.
  ac, _cj._ but.
  [=a]-·c[e,]nnan, _wv._ bring forth, bear (child).
  [=a]-·cw[e,]llan, _wv._ kill.
  [=a]-·cw[e,]n[.c]an, _wv._ extinguish.
  [=a]-·dr[=u]gian, _wv._ dry up, _intr._ [dr[=y][.g]e].
  [=a]-·dw[=æ]s[.c]an, _wv._ extinguish.
  æcer, _sm._ field.
  æþele, _aj._ noble, excellent.
  æþeling, _sm._ prince.
  [=æ]fen, _sm._ evening.
  [=æ]fre, _av._ ever, always.
  æfter, _av._, _prep. w. dat._ after--æfter þ[=æ]em, after that,
      afterwards; according to, by.
  [=æ][.g]-hwelc, _prn._ each.
  [=æ][.g]þer, _prn._ either, each--_cj._ [=æ][.g]þer [.g]e ... [.g]e, both
      ... and [ = [=æ][.g] hwæþer].
  [=æ]ht, _sf._ property [[=a]hte, [=a]gan].
  [=æ]lan, _wv._ burn.
  [=æ]l[.c], _aj._ each.
  ælmesse, _sf._ alms, charity [_Greek_ ele[=e]mosún[=e]].
  æl-mihti[g.], _aj._ almighty.
  [=æ]ni[.g], _aj._ any [[=a]n].
  [=æ]r, _prep. w. dat._ before (of time), [=æ]r þ[=æ]m þe, _cj._ before.
  [=æ]r, _av._ formerly, before; _superl._ [=æ]rest, _adj. and adv._,
  ær[.c]e-biscop, _sm._ archbishop [_Latin_ archiepiscopus].
  [=æ]rende, _sn._ errand, message.
  [=æ]rend-raca, _sm._ messenger.
  [=æ]-rist, _sfm._ (rising again), resurrection [[=a]r[=i]san].
  [=æ]rne-mergen, _sm._ early morning.
  æsc, _sm._ (ash-tree); war-ship.
  æt, _prp. w. dat._ at; _deprivation_, from; _origin_,
      _source_--[=a]b[=æ]don w[=i]f æt him, 'asked for wives from them;'
      _specification_, _defining_--wurdon æt spr[=æ][.c]e, 'fell into
  æt-·bre[.g]dan, _sv. 3_ (snatch away), deprive of.
  æt-·foran, _prp. w. dat._ before.
  æt-·gædre, _av._ together.
  æt-[=i]ewan, _wv. w. dat._ show.
  [=æ]ton, _see_ etan.
  [=a]-·fandian,  _wv._ experience, find out [findan].
  [=a]-·faran, _sv. 2_, go away, depart.
  [=a]-·feallan, _sv. 1_, fall.
  [=a]-·f[=e]dan, _wv._ feed.
  [=a]-·f[=y]lan, _wv._ defile [f[=u]l].
  [=a]-fyrht, _aj._ frightened [_past partic. of_ [=a]·fyrhtan _from_
  [=a]gan, _swv._ possess.
  [=a]-·g[=a]n, _sv._ happen.
  [=a]gen, _aj._ own [_originally past partic. of_ [=a]gan].
  [=a]-·[.g]iefan, _sv. 5_, _w. dat._ give, render.
  [=a]h, _see_ [=a]gan.
  [=a]-·h[e,]bban, _sv. 2_, raise, exalt.
  [=a]-·hieldan, _wv._ incline.
  [=a]-·h[=o]n, _sv. 1_, hang, _trans._
  [=a]-·hr[=e]osan, _sv. 7_, fall.
  [=a]hte, _see_ [=a]gan.
  [=a]-hw[=æ]r, _av._ anywhere.
  [=a]-·h[=y]ran, _wv._ hire.
  [=a]-·l[=i]esan, _wv._ (loosen), release; redeem [l[=e]as].
  [=a]-·l[=i]esed-nes, _sf._ redemption.
  [=a]-l[=i]esend, _sm._ redeemer.
  [=a]n, _aj._ one (_always strong_); a certain one, certain; alone
      (_generally weak_); _gen. pl._ [=a]nra _in_ [=a]nra ge-hwel[.c],
      'each one.'
  [=a]n-c[e,]nned, _aj._ (_past partic._) (only-born), only (child).
  and, _cj._ and.
  and-b[=i]dian, _wv. w. gen._ wait, expect [b[=i]dan].
  andet-nes, _sf._ confession.
  andettan, _wv._ confess.
  and-[.g]iet, _sn._ sense, meaning; understanding, intelligence.
  and-swarian, _wv. w. dat._ answer [andswaru].
  and-swaru, _sf._ answer [sw[e,]rian].
  and-weard, _aj._ present.
  and-wyrdan, _wv. w. dat._ answer [word].
  Angel, _sm._ Anglen (a district in Slesvig).
  Angel-cynn, _sn._ English nation, England.
  [=a]-·niman, _sv. 4_, take away.
  [=a]n-l[=æ][.c]an, _wv._ unite.
  [=a]n-m[=o]d, _aj._ unanimous.
  [=a]n-m[=o]d-l[=i]ce, _av._ unanimously.
  [=a]n-r[=æ]d, _aj._ (of one counsel) constant, firm, resolute.
  apostol, _sm._ apostle.
  [=a]r, _sf._ mercy; honour.
  [=a]-·r[=æ]ran, _wv._ raise, build [[=a]r[=i]san].
  [=a]rian, _wv. w. dat._ honour; spare, have mercy on [[=a]r].
  [=a]-·r[=i]san, _sv. 6_, arise.
  [=a]r-l[=e]as, _aj._ wicked.
  arn, _see_ iernan.
  arod, _aj._ quick, bold.
  arod-l[=i]ce, _av._ quickly, readily, boldly.
  [=a]r-weorþ, _adj._ worthy of honour, venerable.
  [=a]scian, _wv._ ask.
  [=a]-·sc[=u]fan, _sv. 7_, thrust.
  [=a]-·s[e,]ndan, _wv._ send.
  [=a]-·s[e,]ttan, _wv._ set, place.
  [=a]-·sm[=e]an, _wv._ consider, think of, conceive.
  assa, _sm._ ass.
  [=a]-·st[e,]llan, _wv._ institute.
  [=a]-·st[=i]gan, _sv. 6_, ascend, descend.
  [=a]-·str[e,][.c][.c]an, _wv._ stretch out, extend.
  [=a]-·styrian, _wv._ stir, move.
  [=a]-·t[=e]on, _sv. 7_, draw out, draw, take.
  atol-lic, _aj._ deformed.
  [=a]-·þr[=e]otan, _sv. 7_, fail, run short.
  [=a]-·w[e,][.c][.c]an, _wv._ awake, arouse [wacian].
  [=a]-·w[=e]dan, _wv._ go mad [w[=o]d].
  [=a]-·w[e,]ndan, _wv._ turn; translate.
  [=a]-·weorpan, _sv. 3_, throw, throw away; depose (king).
  [=a]-·w[=e]stan, _wv._ lay waste, ravage.
  [=a]-·wier[.g]ed, _aj._ cursed, accursed, [_past. partic. of_
      [=a]wier[.g]an, _from_ wearg].
  [=a]-wiht, _prn._ aught, anything.
  [=a]-·wr[=i]tan, _sv. 6_, write.
  [=a]-·wyrtwalian, _wv._ root up.


  Bæc, _sn._ back--under bæc, behind.
  bæd, _see_ biddan.
  b[=æ]don, _see_ biddan.
  bærnan, _wv._ burn, _trans._ [beornan].
  bærnett, _sn._ burning.
  b[=æ]ron, _see_ beran.
  bæst, _sm._ bast.
  bæsten, _aj._ of bast.
  be, _prep. w. dat._ by;   about, concerning.
  beald, _aj._ bold.
  bearn, _sn._ child [beran].
  b[=e]atan, _sv. 1_, beat.
  be-·b[=e]odan, _sv. 7_, _w. dat._ bid, command.
  be-·byr[.g]an, _wv._ bury.
  b[=e][.c], _see_ b[=o]c.
  be-·clyppan, _wv._ embrace, encompass, hold.
  be-·cuman, _sv. 4_, come.
  _[.g]e_·bed, _sn._ prayer [biddan].
  be-·d[=æ]lan, _wv. w. gen._ deprive of [d[=æ]l].
  b[e,]dd, _sn._ bed.
  be-·delfan, _sv. 3_; (hide by digging), bury.
  _[.g]e_·bed-h[=u]s, _sn._ oratory, chapel.
  be-·fæstan, _wv._ (make fast); _w. dat._ commit, entrust to.
  be-·foran, _prp. w. dat._ before.
  b[=e][.g]en, _prn._ both.
  be-·[.g]eondan, _prp. w. acc._ beyond.
  be-·[.g]ietan, _sv. 5_, get, obtain.
  be-·[.g]innan, _sv. 3_, begin.
  be-·h[=a]tan, _sv. 1_, _w. dat._ promise.
  be-·h[=e]afdian, _wv._ behead [h[=e]afod].
  be-·healdan, _sv. 1_, behold.
  be-·h[=o]fian, _wv. w. gen._ require.
  be-·hr[=e]owsian, _wv._ repent [hr[=e]owan].
  be-·h[=y]dan, _wv._ hide.
  be-·l[=æ]wan, _wv._ betray.
  be-·l[=i]efan, _wv._ believe.
  be-·l[=i]fan, _sv. 6_, remain [l[=a]f].
  be-·l[=u]can, _sv. 7_, lock, close.
  b[e,]nd, _smfn._ bond [bindan].
  b[=e]odan, _sv. 7_, _w. dat._ offer.
  b[=e]on, _v._ be--b[=e]on ymbe, have to do with.
  beorg, _sm._ hill, mountain.
  _[.g]e_beorgan, _sv. 3_, _w. dat._ save, protect.
  beornan, _sv. 3_, burn, _intrans_.
  b[=e]ot-lic, _aj._ boastful.
  be-·p[=æ][.c]an, _wv._ deceive.
  beran, _sv. 4_, bear, carry; ([.g]eberan, bring forth).
  b[e,]rn, _sn._ barn.
  berstan, _sv. 3_, burst.
  be-·s[=a]rgian, _wv._ lament [s[=a]ri[.g]].
  be-·s[.c]ieran, _sv. 4_, shear, cut hair.
  be-·s[=e]on, _sv. 5_, see, look.
  be-·s[e,]ttan, _wv._ set about, surround, cover.
  be-·stealcian, _wv._ go stealthily, steal.
  be-·sw[=i]can, _sv. 6_, deceive, circumvent, betray.
  be-·t[=æ][.c]an, _wv._ commit, entrust, give up.
  b[e,]tera, b[e,]tst, _see_ g[=o]d.
  be·tw[=e]onan, _prp. w. dat._ between, among.
  be-·twix, _prep. w. acc. and dat._ between, among; _of time_,
      during--betwix þ[=æ]m þe, _cj._ while.
  be-·w[e,]rian, _wv._ defend.
  be-·witan, _swv._ watch over, have charge of.
  b[=i]dan, _sv. 6_, wait.
  biddan, _sv. 5_, ask, beg.
  _[.g]e_·biddan, _sv. 5_, _refl._ pray.
  bieldo, _sf._ (boldness), arrogance [beald].
  b[=i]-g[e,]ng, _sm._ worship [bi, by, _and_ g[e,]n[.g] _from_ g[=a]n].
  bile-w[=i]t, _aj._ simple, innocent.
  bindan, _sv. 3_, bind.
  binnan, _av._ inside; _prp. w. dat._ within, in [ = be-innan].
  biscop, _sm._ bishop [_Latin_ episcopus].
  bi-smer, _snm._ insult, ignominy.
  bismer-full, _aj._ ignominious, shameful.
  bismerian, _wv._ treat with ignominy, insult [bismer].
  b[=i]tan, _sv. 6_, bite.
  biþ, _see_ b[=e]on.
  bl[=a]wan, _sv. 1_, blow.
  bleoh, _sn._ colour.
  bl[=e]ow, _see_ bl[=a]wan.
  bl[=e]tsian, _wv._ bless.
  blind, _aj._ blind.
  bliss, _sf._ merriment, joy.
  blissian, _wv._ rejoice.
  bl[=i]þe, _aj._ glad, merry.
  bl[=i]þe-l[=i]ce, _av._ gladly.
  bl[=o]d, _sn._ blood.
  b[=o]c, _sf._ book, scripture.
  B[=o]c-læden, _sn._ book Latin, Latin.
  bodian, _wv._ announce, preach [b[=e]odan].
  bodi[.g], _sm._ body.
  bohte, _see_ by[.c][.g]an.
  br[=a]d, _aj._ broad.
  br[=æ]þ, _sm._ vapour, odour.
  brecan, _sv. 4_, break; take (city).
  bre[.g]dan, _sv. 3_, pull.
  br[=e]mel, _sm._ bramble.
  Breten, _sf._ Britain.
  Brettas, _smpl._ the British.
  Brettisc, _aj._ British [Brettas].
  bringan, _wv._ bring.
  br[=o]hte, _see_ bringan.
  br[=o]þor, _sm._ brother.
  br[=u]can, _sv. 7_, _w. gen._ enjoy, partake of.
  br[=y]d, _sf._ bride.
  br[=y]d-guma, _sm._ bridegroom [_literally_ bride-man].
  b[=u]an, _wv._ dwell.
  b[=u]end, _smpl._ dwellers [_pres. partic. of_ b[=u]an].
  bufan, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ over, above, on.
  b[=u]gan, _sv. 7_, bend, incline.
  bundon, _see_ bindan.
  burg, _sf._ city.
  burg-[.g]eat, _sn._ city-gate.
  b[=u]tan, _av._ outs[=i]de; _prp. w. dat._ without, except, besides [ =
  b[=u]tan, _cj._ unless, except.
  by[.c][.g]an, _wv._ buy.
  byrþen, _sf._ burden [beran].
  byr[.g]en, _sf._ tomb [bebyr[.g]an].
  _[.g]e_byrian, _wf._ be due, befit.
  byri[.g], _see_ burg.
  byrst, _sf._ bristle.
  _[.g]e_·b[=y]snian, _wv._ give example, illustrate.
  _[.g]e_·b[=y]snung, _sf._ example.


  Cann, _see_ cunnan.
  can[=o]n, _sm._ canon; can[=o]nes b[=e]c, canonical books.
  Cantwara-burg, _sf._ Canterbury [Cantwara, _gen. of_ Cantware].
  Cant-ware, _pl._ Kent-dwellers, men of Kent [_Lat._ Cantia _and_ ware].
  c[=a]sere, _sm._ emperor [_Latin_ Caesar].
  [.c]eaflas, _smpl._ jaws.
  [.c]eald, _aj._ cold.
  [.c]ealf, _sn._ calf.
  [.c][=e]ap, _sn._ purchase.
  [.c][=e]as, _see_ [.c][=e]osan.
  [.c]easter, _sf._ city [_Latin_ castra].
  c[=e]ne, _aj._ brave, bold.
  c[e,]nnan, _wv._ bring forth, bear child.
  C[e,]nt, _sf._ Kent [Cantia].
  C[e,]nt-land, _sn._ Kent.
  [.c]eorfan, _sv. 3_, cut.
  [.c][=e]osan, _sv. 7_, choose.
  c[=e]pan, _wv. w. gen._ attend, look out for.
  [.c][=i]epan, _wv._ trade, sell [[.c][=e]ap].
  [.c][=i]epend, _sm._ seller [_pres. partic. of_ [.c][=i]epan].
  [.c]ierr, _sm._ turn.
  [.c]ierran, _wv._ turn, return, go--[.c]ierran t[=o], take to.
  _[.g]e_·[.c]ierred-nes, _sf._ conversion.
  [.c]ild, _sn._ child.
  [.c]ild-h[=a]d, _sm._ childhood.
  [.c]inn-b[=a]n, _sn._ jawbone.
  [.c]iri[.c]e, _sf._ church.
  cl[=æ]ne, _aj._ clean, pure.
  clawu, _sf._ claw.
  clipian, _wv._ call, summon.
  clipung, _sf._ calling.
  clyppan, _wv._ clip, embrace.
  cnapa, _sm._ (boy, youth), servant.
  cnoll, _sm._ top, summit.
  coccel, _sm._ corn-cockle.
  c[=o]m, _see_ cuman.
  coren, _see_ [.c][=e]osan.
  cræft, _sm._ skill, cunning.
  cr[=i]sten, _aj._ Christian.
  cuma, _sm._ stranger [cuman].
  cuman, _sv. 4_, come; cuman [=u]p, land.
  cunnan, _swv._ know.
  cunnian, _wv._ try [cunnan].
  curon, _see_ [.c][=e]osan.
  c[=u]þ, _aj._ known [_originally past partic. of_ cunnan].
  cw[=æ]don, _see_ cweþan.
  cwaeþ, _see_ cweþan.
  cweartern, _sn._ prison.
  cw[=e]man, _wv._ please, gratify.
  _[.g]e_·cw[=e]mednes, _sf._ pleasing.
  cw[=e]n, _sf._ queen.
  cweþan, _sv. 5_, say, speak; name, call.
  cwic, _aj._ alive.
  cwide, _sm._ speech, address [cweþan].
  _[.g]e_cw[=i]d-r[=æ]den, _sf._ agreement.
  cwiþþ, _see_ cweþan.
  cymþ, _see_ cuman.
  cyne-cynn, _sn._ royal family.
  cyne-l[=i]c, _aj._ royal.
  cyne-l[=i]ce, _av._ like a king, royally.
  cyne-st[=o]l, _sm._ throne.
  cyning, _sm._ king.
  cynn, _sn._ race, kind.
  cyst, _sf._ excellence [[.c][=e]osan].
  cysti[.g], _aj._ (excellent), charitable.
  c[=y]þan, _wv._ make known, tell [c[=u]þ].


  D[=æ]d, _sf._ deed.
  dæ[.g], _sm._ day.
  dæ[.g]-hw[=æ]m-l[=i]ce, _av._ daily.
  d[=æ]l, _sm._ part--be healfum d[=æ]le, by half.
  d[=æ]lan, _wv._ divide, share.
  d[=e]ad, _aj._ dead.
  d[=e]aþ, _sm._ death.
  Defena-s[.c][=i]r, _sf._ Devonshire [Devonia].
  dehter, _see_ dohtor.
  _[.g]e_delf, _sn._ digging.
  delfan, _sv. 3_, dig.
  D[e,]ne, _smpl._ Danes.
  D[e,]nisc, _aj._ Danish.
  d[=e]ofol, _sum._ devil [_Latin_ diabolus].
  d[=e]ofol-[.g]ield, _sn._ idol.
  d[=e]op, _aj._ deep.
  d[=e]or, _sn._ wild beast.
  d[=e]ore, _aj._ dear, precious.
  d[=e]or-wierþe, _aj._ precious.
  d[=i]egol, _aj._ hidden, secret.
  d[=i]egol-nes, _sf._ secret.
  d[=i]epe, _sf._ depth [d[=e]op].
  dihtan, _wv._ appoint [_Latin_ dictare].
  disc-þe[.g]n, _sm._ (dish-thane), waiter.
  dohtor, _sf._ daughter.
  d[=o]m, _sm._ doom, judgment, sentence.
  d[=o]n, _sv._ do, act.
  dorste, _see_ durran.
  draca, _sm._ dragon.
  dranc, _see_ drincan.
  dr[=e]ori[.g], _aj._ sad.
  dr[=i]fan, _sv. 6_, drive.
  drinca, _sm._ drink.
  drincan, _sv. 3_, drink.
  drohtnian, _wv._ live, continue, behave.
  drohtnung, _sf._ conduct.
  dr[=y][.g]e, _aj._ dry.
  Dryhten, _sm._ Lord,
  d[=u]n, _sf._ hill, down.
  durran, _swv._ dare.
  duru, _sf._ door.
  d[=u]st, _sn._ dust.
  _[.g]e_·dwyld, _sn._ error.
  dyde, _see_ d[=o]n.
  dyppan, _wv._ dip.
  dysi[.g], _aj._ foolish.


  [=E]ac, _av._ also; [=e]ac swelce, also.
  [=e]acnian, _wv._ increase.
  [=e]adi[.g], _aj._ (prosperous), blessed.
  [=e]age, _sn._ eye.
  [=e]ag-þ[=y]rel, _sn._ (eye-hole), window.
  eahta, _num._ eight.
  [=e]a-l[=a], _interj._ oh!
  eald, _aj._ old--_cp._ ieldra.
  Eald-seaxe, _smpl._ Old Saxons.
  ealdor, _sm._ chief, master.
  ealdor-mann, _sm._ chief, officer.
  eall, _aj._ all.
  eall, _av._ quite ; eall sw[=a] mi[.c]el sw[=a], (quite) as much as.
  eall-n[=i]we, _aj._ quite new.
  eallunga, _av._ entirely.
  ealu, _sn._ ale.
  eard, _sm._ country, native land.
  eardian, _wv._ dwell.
  [=e]are, _sn._ ear.
  earm, _sm._ arm.
  earm, _aj._ poor, wretched, despicable.
  earm-lic, _aj._ miserable.
  earm-l[=i]ce, _av._ miserably, wretchedly.
  earn, _sm._ eagle.
  eart, _see_ wesan.
  [=e]ast, _av._ eastwards.
  [=e]ast-d[=æ]l, _sm._ east part, the East.
  [=E]ast-[e,]n[.g]le, _smpl._ East-Anglians.
  [=E]ast-seaxe, _smpl._ East-Saxons.
  [=e]aþe-lic, _aj._ insignificant, weak.
  [=e]aþ-m[=e]dan, _wv._ humble [[=e]aþm[=o]d].
  [=e]aþ-m[=o]d, _aj._ humble.
  [=e][.c]e, _aj._ eternal.
  [=e][.c]-nes, _sf._ eternity.
  efen, _aj._ even.
  _[.g]e_·efen-l[=æ][.c]an, _wv._ imitate.
  efne, _av._ behold, lo! [efen].
  [e,]fsian, _wv._ clip, shear.
  eft, _av._ again; afterwards, then; back.
  [e,][.g]e, _sm._ fear.
  [e,][.g]esa, _sm._ fear [e[.g]e].
  [e,][.g]es-lic, _aj._ fearful, awful.
  [=e]htere, _sm._ persecutor.
  ele, _sm._ oil.
  [e,]l-þ[=e]odi[.g]-nes, _sf._ foreign land.
  [e,]nde, _sm._ end.
  [e,]ndemes, _av._ together.
  _[.g]e_·[e,]ndian, _wv._ end; die.
  [e,]ndlufon, _num._ eleven.
  [e,]ndlyfta, _aj._ eleventh.
  _[.g]e_·[e,]ndung, _sf._ ending, end.
  [e,]n[.g]el, _sm._ angel [_Latin_ angelus].
  [E,]n[.g]la-land, _sn._ England [[E,]n[.g]la _gen. pl. of_ [E,]n[.g]le].
  [E,]n[.g]le, _smpl._ the English [Angel].
  [E,]n[.g]lisc, _aj._ English--_sn._ English language [[E,]n[.g]le].
  [=e]ode, _see_ g[=a]n.
  eom, _see_ wesan.
  eorl, _sm._ earl.
  eorþ-b[=u]end, _sm._ earth-dweller.
  eorþe, _sf._ earth.
  eorþ-fæst, _aj._ firm in the earth.
  eorþ-lic, _aj._ earthly.
  eornost, _sf._ earnest.
  eornost-l[=i]ce, _av._ in truth, indeed.
  [=e]ow, _see_ þ[=u].
  etan, _sv. 5_, eat.
  [=e]þel, _sm._ country, native land.


  Fæder, _sm._ father.
  fæ[.g]en, _aj._ glad.
  fæ[.g]er, _aj._ fair.
  fæ[.g]er-nes, _sf._ fairness, beauty.
  fæ[.g]nian, _wv. w. gen._ rejoice.
  f[=æ]mne, _sf._ virgin.
  f[=æ]r, _sf._ danger.
  f[=æ]r-lic, _aj._ sudden.
  f[=æ]r-l[=i]ce, _av._ suddenly.
  fæst, _aj._ fast, firm.
  fæstan, _wv._ fast.
  fæsten, _sf._ fasting.
  fæt, _sn._ vessel.
  f[=a]g-nes, _sf._ variegation, various colours.
  fandian, _wv. w. gen._ try, test, tempt [findan].
  faran, _sv. 2_, go.
  faru, _sf._ procession, retinue, pomp.
  f[=e]a, _aj. pl._ few.
  _[.g]e_·f[=e]a, _sm._ joy.
  feallan, _sv. 1_, fall.
  fearr, _sm._ bull; ox.
  feax, _sn._ hair of head.
  f[=e]dan, _wv._ feed [f[=o]da].
  fela, _aj. pl. w. gen._ many.
  feld, _sm._ field.
  feoh, _sn._ money, property.
  _[.g]e_·feoht, _sn._ fight.
  feohtan, _sv. 3_, fight.
  f[=e]ole, _sf._ file.
  f[=e]olian, _wv._ file.
  f[=e]oll, _see_ feallan.
  f[=e]ond, _sm._ enemy.
  feorh, _snm._ life.
  feorm, _sf._ (food); feast, banquet.
  feorr, _av._ far.
  f[=e]orþa, _num._ fourth.
  f[=e]ower, _num._ four.
  _[.g]e_·f[=e]ra, _sm._ companion [f[=o]r].
  f[=e]ran, _wv._ go, fare [f[=o]r].
  _[.g]e_·f[=e]ran, _wv._ (go over), take possession of.
  f[e,]rian, _wv._ carry [faran].
  f[=e]t, _see_ f[=o]t.
  f[e,]tian, _wv._ fetch--_pret._ [.g]ef[e,]tte.
  _[.g]e_·f[e,]tte, _see_ f[e,]tian.
  f[=i]end, _see_ f[=e]ond.
  fierd, _sf._ army [faran].
  fierlen, _aj._ distant [feorr].
  fierst, _sm._ period, time.
  f[=i]f, _num._ five.
  findan, _sv. 3_ (_pret._ funde), find.
  fisc, _sm._ fish.
  fisc-cynn, _sn._ fish-kind.
  fl[=e]am, _sm._ flight [fl[=e]on].
  fleax, _sn._ flax.
  fl[=e]ogan, _sv. 7_, fly.
  fl[=e]on, _sv. 7_, flee.
  fl[=e]otan, _sv. 7_, float.
  fl[=i]tan, _sv. 6_, quarrel, dispute.
  _[.g]e_·fl[=i]eman, _wv._ put to flight [fl[=e]am].
  fl[=o]d, _sm._ flood.
  flota, _sm._ fleet [fl[=e]otan].
  flot-h[e,]re, _sm._ naval army, army of pirates.
  flot-mann, _sm._ sailor, pirate.
  fl[=o]wan, _sv. 1_, flow.
  flugon, _see_ fl[=e]on.
  flyht, _sm._ flight [fl[=e]ogan].
  f[=o]da, _sm._ food.
  folc, _sn._ people, nation.
  folc-lic, _aj._ popular.
  folgian, _wv. w. dat._ follow; obey.
  f[=o]n, _sv. 1_, seize, take, capture; f[=e]ng t[=o] r[=i][.c]e, came to
      the throne; t[=o]gædre f[=e]ngon, joined together.
  for, _prep. w. dat._ before--r[=i][.c]e for worulde, in the eyes of the
      world; _causal_, for, because of, for the sake of--ne dorste for
      Gode, for the fear of God--for þ[=æ]m, therefore, for þ[=æ]em (þe),
      because; _w. acc._, instead of, for.
  f[=o]r, _sf._ journey [faran].
  f[=o]r, _see_ faran.
  for-·bærnan, _wv._ burn up, burn, _trans._
  for-·b[=e]odan, _sv. 7_, forbid.
  for-·br[=e]otan, _sv. 7_, break.
  for-·[.c]eorfan, _sv. 3_, cut off.
  for-·dilgian, _wv._ destroy.
  for-·d[=o]n, _sv._ destroy.
  for-·ealdod, _aj._ aged [_past partic. of_ forealdian, grow old].
  fore-s[.c][=e]awian, _wv._ pre-ordain, decree, appoint.
  fore-s[e,][.c][.g]an, _wv._ say before--se foresæ[.g]da, the aforesaid.
  for-·[.g]iefan, _sv. 5_, _w. dat._ give, grant; forgive.
  for-·[.g]ief-nes, _sf._ forgiveness.
  for-·[.g][=i]eman, _wv._ neglect.
  for-·[.g]ietan, _sv._ forget.
  forht, _aj._ afraid.
  forhtian, _wv._ be afraid.
  for-·hwega, _av._ somewhere.
  for-·l[=æ]tan, _sv. 1_, leave, abandon.
  for-·l[=e]osan, _sv. 7_, lose.
  for-·li[.g]er, _sn._ wantonness, immorality.
  forma, _aj._ first--_superl._ fyrmest, first.
  for-·molsnian, _wv._ crumble, decay.
  for-·scrincan, _sv. 3_, shrink up.
  for-s[=e]on, _sv. 5_, despise.
  for-·sl[=e]an, _sv. 2_, cut through.
  for-·standan, _sv. 2_, (stand before), protect.
  forþ, _av._ forth, forwards, on.
  forþ-·f[=e]ran, _wv._ depart, die.
  for-·þrysman, _wv._ suffocate, choke.
  for-·weorþan, _sv. 3_, perish.
  f[=o]t, _sm._ foot.
  frætwian, _wv._ adorn.
  frætwung, _sf._ ornament.
  fram, _prep. w. dat._ from; _agent. w. pass._ h[=i]e w[=æ]ron fram
      Wyrt[.g]eorne [.g]elaþode, invited by.
  fr[e,]mman, _wv._ perform, do.
  fr[=e]ond, _sm._ friend.
  friþ, _sm._ peace--friþ niman, make peace.
  fugol, _sm._ bird.
  fuhton, _see_ feohtan.
  f[=u]l, _aj._ foul, impure.
  full, _aj._ full.
  full-·bl[=i]þe, _aj._ very glad.
  full-·c[=e]ne, _aj._ very brave.
  ful-l[=i]ce, _av._ fully.
  full-·s[=o]þ, _aj._ very true.
  fultum, _sm._ help; forces, troops.
  fultumian, _wv. w. dat._ help.
  funde, _see_ findan.
  furþor, _av._ further, more [forþ].
  f[=u]s, _aj._ hastening.
  fyllan, _wv._ fill, fulfil [full].
  f[=y]r, _sn._ fire.
  fyrmest, _see_ forma.


  Gadrian, _wv._ gather.
  gærs, _sn._ grass.
  gafeloc, _sm._ missile, spear.
  gafol, _sn._ interest, profit.
  gamen, _sn._ sport.
  g[=a]n, _sv._ go.
  _[.g]e·_g[=a]n, _sv._ gain, conquer.
  gangende, _see_ g[=a]n.
  g[=a]st, _sm._ spirit; se h[=a]lga g[=a]st, the Holy Ghost.
  g[=a]st-lic, _aj._ spiritual.
  [.g]e, _cj._ and--[.g]e ... [.g]e, both ... and.
  [.g][=e], _see_ þ[=u].
  [.g]ealga, _sm._ gallows.
  [.g][=e]ar, _sn._ year.
  [.g]earcian, _wv._ prepare [[.g]earo].
  [.g]eard, _sm._ yard, court.
  [.g]earu, _aj._ ready.
  [.g]earwian, _wv._ prepare.
  [.g]eat, _sn._ gate.
  [.g][=e]oguþ, _sf._ youth.
  [.g][=e]omrung, _sf._ lamentation.
  [.g]eond,  _prp. w. acc._ through, throughout.
  [.g][=e]ong, _aj._ young.
  [.g]eorn, _aj._ eager.
  [.g]eorne, _av._ eagerly, earnestly.
  [.g]iefan, _sv. 5_, give.
  [.g]iefta, _sfpl._ marriage, wedding [[.g]iefan].
  [.g]ieft-h[=u]s, _sn._ wedding-hall.
  [.g]ieft-lic, _aj._ wedding.
  [.g]iefu, _sf._ gift; grace (of God) [[.g]iefan].
  [.g]ierla, _sm._ dress [[.g]earu].
  [.g]iernan, _wv. w. gen._ yearn, desire; ask [[.g]eorn].
  [.g]iet, _av._ yet; further, besides.
  [.g]if, _cj._ if.
  [.g]imm, _sm._ gem, jewel [_Latin_ gemma].
  [.g]imm-st[=a]n, _sm._ gem, jewel.
  [.g]it, _see_ þ[=u].
  [.g][=i]tsian, _wv._ covet.
  [.g][=i]tsung, _sf._ covetousness, avarice.
  glæd, _aj._ glad.
  glæd-l[=i]ce, _av._ gladly.
  gl[=e]aw, _aj._ prudent, wise.
  gl[e,]n[.g]an, _wv._ adorn; trim (lamp).
  god, _sm._ God.
  god-fæder, _sm._ godfather.
  god-spell, _sn._ gospel.
  godspel-lic, _aj._ evangelical.
  g[=o]d, _aj._ good--_compar._ b[e,]tera. _superl._ b[e,]tst.
  g[=o]d, _sn._ good thing, good.
  gold, _sn._ gold.
  gold-hord, _sn._ treasure.
  gr[=æ]di[.g]. _aj._ greedy.
  gr[=æ][.g], _aj._ grey.
  gr[=e]tan, _wv._ greet, salute.
  grindan, _sv. 3_, grind.
  gr[=i]st-b[=i]tung, _sf._ gnashing of teeth.
  grymetian, _wv._ grunt, roar.
  gyldan, _wv._ gild [gold].
  gylden, _aj._ golden [gold].


  Habban, _wv._ have; take.
  h[=a]d, _sm._ rank, condition.
  _[.g]e_·h[=a]dod, _aj._ ordained, in orders, clerical [_past partic. of_
      h[=a]dian, ordain].
  hæfde, hæfþ, _see_ habban.
  hæftan, _wv._ hold fast, hold [habban].
  h[=æ]lan, _wv._ heal [h[=a]l].
  h[=æ]lend, _sm._ Saviour [_pres. partic. of_ h[=æ]lan].
  h[=æ]lo, _sf._ salvation [h[=a]l].
  h[=æ]s, _sf._ command.
  hæspe, _sf._ hasp.
  h[=æ]te, _sf._ heat [h[=a]t].
  h[=æ]þ, _sf._ heath.
  h[=æ]þen, _aj._ heathen [h[=æ]þ].
  h[=a]l, _aj._ whole, sound.
  _[.g]e_·h[=a]l, _aj._ whole, uninjured.
  h[=a]lga, _sm._ saint.
  h[=a]l[.g]ian, _wv._ hallow, consecrate.
  h[=a]li[.g], _aj._ holy.
  h[=a]li[.g]-d[=o]m, _sm._ holy object, relic.
  h[=a]m, _av._ homewards, home.
  hand, _sf._ hand.
  hand-cweorn, _sf._ hand-mill.
  hangian, _wv._ hang, _intr._ [h[=o]n].
  h[=a]t, _aj._ hot.
  h[=a]tan, _sv. 1_, command, ask--_w. inf. in passive sense_, h[=e]ton him
      s[e,][.c][.g]an, bade them be told ; name--_passive_, h[=a]tte.
  hatian, _wv._ hate.
  h[=a]tte, _see_ h[=a]tan.
  h[=e], _prn_. he.
  h[=e]afod, _sn._ head.
  h[=e]afod-mann, _sm._ head-man, ruler, chief.
  h[=e]ah, _aj._ high--_superl._ h[=i]ehst.
  healdan, _sv. 1_, hold, keep; guard; preserve; observe, keep.
  healf, _aj._ half.
  healf, _sf._ side.
  h[=e]a-lic, _aj._ lofty [h[=e]ah].
  heall, _sf._ hall.
  heard, _aj._ hard ; strong; severe.
  h[e,]bban, _sv. 2_, raise.
  h[e,]fel-þr[=æ]d, _sm._ web-thread, thread.
  h[e,]fe, _sm._ weight [h[e,]bban].
  h[e,]fi[.g], _aj._ heavy [h[e,]fe].
  h[e,]ll, _sf._ hell.
  _[.g]e_·h[e,]nde, _aj. w. dat._ near [hand].
  h[=e]o, _see_ h[=e].
  heofon, _sm._ heaven--_often in plur._, heofona r[=i][.c]e.
  heofon-lic, _aj._ heavenly.
  h[=e]old, _see_ healdan.
  heord, _sf._ herd.
  heorte, _sf._ heart.
  h[=e]r, _av._ here; hither--h[=e]r·æfter, &c., hereafter.
  h[=e]r-be-·[=e]astan, _av._ east of this.
  h[e,]re, _sm._ army.
  h[e,]re-r[=e]af, _sn._ spoil.
  h[e,]re-toga, _sm._ army-leader, general, chief [toga _from_ t[=e]on].
  h[e,]rgian, _wv._ ravage, make war [h[e,]re].
  h[e,]rgung, _sf._ (ravaging), warfare, war.
  h[e,]rian, _wv._ praise.
  h[=e]t, _see_ h[=a]tan.
  hider, _av_. hither.
  h[=i]e, _see_ h[=e].
  h[=i]ehst, _see_ h[=e]ah.
  hiera, _see_ h[=e].
  _[.g]e_·h[=i]eran, _wv._ hear.
  hierde, _sm._ shepherd [heord].
  hierd-r[=æ]den, _sf._ guardianship.
  hiere, _see_ h[=e].
  _[.g]e_·h[=i]er-sum, _aj. w. dat._ obedient [h[=i]eran].
  _[.g]e_·h[=i]ersum-nes, _sf._ obedience.
  him, hine, _see_ h[=e].
  h[=i]red, _snm._ family, household.
  his, _see_ h[=e].
  hit, _see_ h[=e].
  h[=i]w, _sn._ hue, form.
  hl[=æ]dder, _sf._ ladder.
  hlæst, _sm._ load.
  hl[=a]f, _sm._ bread, loaf of bread.
  hl[=a]ford, _sm._ lord.
  hl[=i]sa, _sm._ fame.
  hl[=u]d, _aj._ loud.
  hl[=y]dan, _wv._ make a noise, shout [hl[=u]d].
  hnappian, _wv_. doze.
  _[.g]e_·hoferod, _aj._ (past partic.), hump-backed.
  holt, _sn._ wood.
  h[=o]n, _sv. 1_, hang [hangian].
  horn, _sm._ horn.
  hræd-l[=i]ce, _av._ quickly.
  hrædung, _sf._ hurry.
  hraþe, _av._ quickly--sw[=a] hraþe sw[=a], as soon as.
  hr[=e]od, _sn._ reed.
  hr[=e]owan, _sv. 7_, rue, repent.
  hr[=i]eman, _wv._ cry, call.
  hr[=i]þer, _sn._ ox.
  hr[=o]f, _sn._ roof.
  hry[.c][.g], _sm._ back.
  hryre, _sm._ fall [hr[=e]osan].
  h[=u], _av._ how.
  h[=u]-meta, _av._ how.
  hund, _sn. w. gen._ hundred.
  hund, _sm._ dog.
  hund-feald, _aj._ hundredfold.
  hund-·nigonti[.g], _num._ ninety.
  hund-·tw[e,]lfti[.g], _num._ hundred and twenty.
  hungor, _sm._ hunger; famine.
  hungri[.g], _aj._ hungry.
  h[=u]ru, _av._ especially.
  h[=u]s, _sn._ house.
  hux-l[=i]ce, _av._ ignominiously.
  hw[=a], _prn._ who.
  [.g]e·hw[=a], _prn._ every one.
  hw[=æ]m, _see_ hw[=a].
  hw[=æ]r, _av._ where--sw[=a] hw[=æ]r sw[=a], wherever.
  [.g]e·hw[=æ]r, _av._ everywhere.
  hwæs, hwæt, _see_ hw[=a].
  hwæt, _interj._ what! lo! well.
  hw[=æ]te, _sm._ wheat.
  hwæþer, _av. cj._ whether--hwæþer þe, _to introduce a direct question_.
  hwæþre, _av._ however.
  hwanon, _av._ whence.
  hwel[.c], _prn._ which; any one, any--sw[=a] hwel[.c] sw[=a], whoever.
  [.g]e·hwel[.c], _prn._ any, any one.
  hw[=i]l, _sf._ while, time.
  hwone, _see_ hw[=a].
  hwonne, _av._ when.
  hw[=y], _av._ why.
  h[=y]dan, _wv._ hide.
  hyht, _sf._ hope.
  _[.g]e_·hyhtan, _wv._ hope.
  h[=y]ran, _wv._ hire.


  I[.c], _prn._ I.
  [=i]del, _aj._ idle; useless, vain--on [=i]del, in vain.
  [=i]e[.g]-land, _sn._ island.
  ieldan, _wv._ delay [eald].
  ieldra, _see_ eald.
  ieldran, _smpl._ ancestors [_originally compar._ of eald].
  iernan, _sv. 3_, run; flow.
  ierre, _aj._ angry.
  [=i]l, _sm._ hedgehog.
  ilca, _prn._ same (always weak, and with the definite article).
  in, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ in, into.
  inc, _see_ þ[=u].
  inn, _av._ in (of motion).
  innan, _prp. w. dat._ (_av._) within.
  inne, _av._ within, inside.
  inn-[.g]ehy[.g]d, _sn._ inner thoughts, mind.
  in-t[=o], _prp. w. dat._ into.
  [=I]otan, _smpl._ Jutes.
  [=I]r-land, _sn._ Ireland.
  I[=u]d[=e]isc, _aj._ Jewish--þ[=a] I[=u]d[=e]iscan, the Jews.


  L[=a], _interj._ lo!--l[=a] l[=e]of! Sir!
  l[=a]c, _sn._ gift; offering, sacrifice.
  [.g]e·l[=æ][.c]an, _wv._ seize.
  l[=æ]dan, _wv._ lead; carry, bring, take.
  læden, _sn._ Latin; language.
  læ[.g], _see_ li[.c][.g]an.
  l[=æ]ran, _wv. w. double acc._ teach; advise, suggest [l[=a]r].
  _[.g]e_·l[=æ]red, _aj._ learned [_past partic._ of l[=æ]ran].
  l[=æ]s, _av._ less--þ[=y] l[=æ]s (þe), _cj. w. subj._ lest.
  l[=æ]tan, _sv. 1_, let; leave--h[=e]o l[=e]t þ[=a] sw[=a], she let the
      matter rest there.
  _[.g]e_·l[=æ]te, _sn._--wega [.g]el[=æ]tu, _pl._ meetings of the roads.
  l[=a]f, _sf._ remains--t[=o] l[=a]fe b[=e]on, remain over, be left
  _[.g]e·_lamp, _see_ _[.g]e_limpan.
  land, _sn._ land, country.
  land-folc, _sn._ people of the country.
  land-h[e,]re, _sm._ land-army.
  land-l[=e]ode, _smpl._ people of the country.
  lang, _aj._ long.
  lange, _av._ for a long time, long.
  lang-l[=i]ce, _av._ for a long time, long.
  l[=a]r, _sf._ teaching, doctrine.
  late, _av._ slowly, late--late on [.g][=e]are, late in the year.
  _[.g]e·_laþian, _wv._ invite.
  _[.g]e·_laþung, _sf._ congregation.
  l[=e]af, _sf._ leave.
  __[.g]e·_l_[=e]afa, _sm._ belief, faith.
  _[.g]e·_l[=e]af-full, _aj._ believing, pious.
  leahtor, _sm._ crime, vice.
  l[=e]as, _aj._ without (expers), _in compos._--less; false.
  l[=e]at, _see_ l[=u]tan.
  l[e,][.c][.g]an, _wv._ lay [li[.c][.g]an].
  _[.g]e·_l[e,]ndan, _wv._ land [land].
  l[=e]o, _smf._ lion.
  l[=e]ode, _smpl._ people.
  l[=e]of, _aj._ dear, beloved; pleasant--m[=e] w[=æ]re l[=e]ofre, I would
  leofode, _see_ libban.
  leoht, _sn._ light.
  leoht-fæt, _sn._ (light-vessel), lamp.
  leornian, _wv._ learn.
  leornung-cniht, _sm._ disciple.
  l[=e]t, _see_ l[=æ]tan.
  libban, _wv._ live.
  l[=i]c, _sn._ body, corpse.
  _[.g]e·_l[=i]c, _aj. w. dat._ like.
  _[.g]e·_l[=i]ce, _av._ in like manner, alike, equally.
  li[.c][.g]an, _sv. 5_, lie.
  l[=i]c-hama, _sm._ body.
  l[=i]cham-l[=i]ce, _av._ bodily.
  _[.g]e_l[=i]cian, _wv. w. dat._ please.
  l[=i]efan, _wv. w. dat._ allow [l[=e]af].
  _[.g]e·_l[=i]efan, _wv._ believe [gel[=e]afa].
  l[=i]f, _sn._ l[=i]fe.
  lifiend, _see_ libban.
  lim, _sn._ limb, member.
  _[.g]e·_limp, _sn._ event, emergency, calamity.
  _[.g]e_·limpan, _sv. 3_, happen.
  l[=i]þ, _see_ li[.c][.g]an.
  locc, _sm._ lock of hair.
  lof, _sn._ praise; glory.
  _[.g]e_·l[=o]gian, place; occupy, furnish.
  _[.g]e_·l[=o]m, _aj._ frequent, repeated.
  _[.g]e_·l[=o]me, _av._ often, repeatedly.
  losian, _wv. w. dat._ be lost--him losaþ, he loses [(for)l[=e]osan].
  l[=u]can, _sv. 7_, close.
  lufian, _wv._ love.
  lufu, _sf._ love [l[=e]of].
  Lunden-burg, _sf._ London [Lundonia].
  l[=u]tan, _sv. 7_, stoop.
  l[=y]tel, _aj._ little.


  M[=a], _see_ micel.
  macian, _wv._ make.
  mæ[.g], _swv._ can, be able.
  mæ[.g]en, _sn._ strength, capacity; virtue [mæ[.g]].
  m[=æ][.g]þ, _sf._ family; tribe, nation; generation.
  _[.g]e_·m[=æ]ne, _aj._ common.
  _[.g]e_·m[=æ]nelic, _aj._ common, general.
  m[=æ]re, _aj._ famous, glorious, great (metaphorically).
  _[.g]e_·m[=æ]re, _sn._ boundary, territory.
  m[=æ]rsian, _wv._ extol, celebrate [m[=æ]re].
  m[=æ]rþo, _sf._ glory [m[=æ]re].
  mæsse, _sf._ mass [_Latin_ missa].
  mæsse-pr[=e]ost, _sm._ mass-priest.
  m[=æ]st, _see_ mi[.c]el.
  magon, _see_ mæ[.g].
  man, _indef._ one [mann].
  m[=a]n, _sn._ wickedness.
  m[=a]n-d[=æ]d, _sf._ wicked deed.
  m[=a]n-full, _aj._ wicked.
  mangere, _sm._ merchant.
  mangung, _sf._ trade, business.
  mani[.g], _aj._ many.
  man[=i][.g]-feald, _aj._ manifold.
  mani[.g]-fieldan, _wv._ multiply [mani[.g]feald].
  mann, _sm._ man; person.
  mann-cynn, _sn._ mankind.
  mann-r[=æ]den, _sf._ allegiance.
  mann-slaga, _sm._ manslayer, murderer [sl[=e]an, sl[e,][.g]e].
  m[=a]re, _see_ mi[.c]el.
  martyr, _sm._ martyr.
  m[=a]þm, _sm._ treasure.
  m[=a]þm-fæt, _sn._ precious vessel.
  m[=e], _see_ ic.
  mearc, _sf._ boundary.
  m[=e]d, _sf._ reward, pay.
  m[=e]der, _see_ m[=o]dor.
  m[e,]nn, _see_ mann.
  m[e,]nnisc, _aj._ human [mann].
  m[e,]re-grot, _sr._ pearl [margarita].
  mer[.g]en, _sm._ morning [morgen].
  _[.g]e_·met, _sn._ measure; manner, way.
  metan, _sv. 5_, measure.
  _[.g]e_·m[=e]tan, _wv._ meet; find [[.g]em[=o]t].
  m[e,]te, _sm._ food--pl. m[e,]ttas.
  mi[.c]el, _aj._ great, much--_comp._ m[=a]re, m[=a] (_adv._, _sn._,
      _aj._), _sup._ m[=æ]st.
  mi[.c]le, _av._ greatly, much.
  mid, _prp. w. dat._ (_instr._) with--mid þ[=æ]m þe, _cj._ when.
  middan-[.g]eard, _sm._ world [_literally_ middle enclosure].
  midde, _aj._ mid, middle (only of time).
  middel, _sn._ middle.
  Middel-[e,]n[.g]le, _smpl._ Middle-Angles.
  Mier[.c]e, _smpl._ Mercians [mearc].
  miht, _sf._ might, strength; virtue [mæ[.g]].
  mihte, _see_ mæ[.g].
  mihti[.g], _aj._ mighty, strong.
  m[=i]l, _sf._ mile [_Latin_ milia (passuum)].
  mild-heort, _aj._ mild-hearted, merciful.
  _[.g]e_·miltsian, _wv. w. dat._ have mercy on, pity [milde].
  m[=i]n, _see_ ic.
  mis-l[=æ]dan, _wv._ mislead, lead astray.
  mis-lic, _aj._ various.
  m[=o]d, _sn._ heart, mind.
  m[=o]dig, _aj._ proud.
  m[=o]di[.g]-nes, _sf._ pride.
  m[=o]dor, _sf._ mother.
  molde, _sf._ mould, earth.
  m[=o]na, _sm._ moon.
  m[=o]naþ, _sm._ month--_pl._ m[=o]naþ [m[=o]na].
  morgen, _sm._ morning.
  morþ, _sn._ (murder), crime.
  m[=o]ste, see m[=o]tan.
  _[.g]e·_m[=o]t, _sn._ meeting.
  m[=o]tan, _swv._ may; ne m[=o]t, must not.
  _[.g]e·_munan, _swv._ remember.
  munt, _sm._ mountain, hill [_Latin_ montem].
  munuc, _sm._ monk [_Latin_ monachus].
  murcnian, _wv._ grumble, complain.
  m[=u]þ, _sm._ mouth.
  m[=u]þa, _sm._ mouth of a river [m[=u]þ].
  _[.g]e·_mynd, _sf._ memory, mind [[.g]emunan].
  _[.g]e·_myndi[.g], _aj. w. gen._ mindful.
  mynet, _sf._ coin [_Latin_ moneta].
  mynetere, _sm._ money-changer.
  mynster, _sn._ monastery [_Latin_ monasterium].


  N[=a], _av._ not, no [ = ne [=a]].
  nabban = ne habban.
  n[=æ]ddre, _sf._ snake.
  næfde, næfst, = ne hæfde, ne hæfst.
  n[=æ]fre, _av._ never [ = ne [=æ]fre].
  næ[.g]el, _sm._ nail.
  næs = ne wæs.
  n[=a]ht, _prn. w. gen._ naught, nothing [ = n[=a]n wiht].
  n[=a]ht-nes, _sf._ worthlessness, cowardice.
  nam, _see_ niman.
  nama, _sm._ name.
  n[=a]mon, _see_ niman.
  n[=a]n, _prn._ none, no [ = ne [=a]n].
  n[=a]t = ne w[=a]t.
  n[=a]wþer, _prn._ neither [ = ne [=a]hwæþer (either)].
  ne, _av._ not--ne ... ne, neither ... not.
  n[=e]ah, _av._ near; _superl._ n[=i]ehst--æt n[=i]ehstan, next,
      immediately, afterwards.
  nearu, _aj._ narrow.
  n[=e]a-wist, _sfm._ neighbourhood [wesan].
  n[e,]mnan, _wv._ name [nama].
  neom = ne eom.
  nese, _av._ no.
  n[e,]tt, _sn._ net.
  n[=i]ed, _sf._ need.
  n[=i]edunga, _av._ needs, by necessity.
  n[=i]ehst, _see_ n[=e]ah.
  n[=i]eten, _sn._ animal.
  nigon, _num._ nine.
  nigoþa, _aj._ ninth.
  niht, _sf._ night.
  niman, _sv. 4_, take, capture; take in marriage, marry.
  nis = ne is.
  niþer, _av._ down.
  n[=i]we, _aj._ new.
  _[.g]e_·n[=o]g, _aj._ enough.
  nolde = ne wolde.
  norþ, _av._ north.
  Norþhymbra-land, _sn._ Northumberland.
  Norþ-hymbre, _smpl._ Northumbrians [Humbra].
  norþan-weard, _aj._ northward.
  Norþ-m[e,]nn, _pl._ Norwegians.
  n[=u], _av._ now, just now; _cj. causal_, now that, since.
  n[=u]·[.g]iet, _av._ still.
  _[.g]e_·nyht-sum-nes, _sf._ sufficience, abundance.
  nyle, = ne wile.
  nyste, nyton = ne wiste, ne witon.


  Of, _prp. w. dat._ of, from _of place_, _origin_, _privation_, _release_,
      &c.; _partitive_, s[e,]llaþ [=u]s of [=e]owrum ele, some of your oil.
  of-·dr[=æ]dd, _aj._ afraid [_past partic. of_ ofdr[=æ]dan, dread].
  ofer, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ over; on; _of time_, during, throughout,
  ofer-gyld, _aj._ (past partic.), gilded over, covered with gold.
  ofer-·h[e,]rgian, _wv._ ravage, over-run.
  ofer-·s[=a]wan, _sv. 2_, sow over.
  offrian, _wv._ offer, sacrifice [_Latin_ offerre].
  offrung, _sf._ offering, sacrifice.
  of-·sl[=e]an, _sv. 2_, slay.
  of-·sn[=i]þan, _sv. 6_, kill [sn[=i]þan, cut].
  of-spring, _sm._ offspring [springan].
  oft, _av._ often.
  of-·t[=e]on, _sv. 7, w. dat. of pers. and gen. of thing_, deprive.
  of-·þyrst, _aj._ thirsty [_past partic. of_ ofþyrstan, _from_ þurst].
  of-·wundrian, _wv. w. gen._ wonder.
  [=o]-l[=æ][.c]ung, _sf._ flattery.
  olfend, _sm._ camel [_Latin_ elephas].
  on, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ on; in; _hostility_, against, on h[=i]e
      fuhton; _of time_, in.
  on-·byr[.g]an, _wv._ taste.
  on-·cn[=a]wan, _sv. 1_, know, recognize.
  on·dr[=æ]dan, _sv. 1_, _wv._ dread, fear.
  on-·f[=o]n, _sv. 1_, receive.
  on-·[.g][=e]an, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ towards; _hostility_, against.
  on-·[.g][=e]an, _av._ back--[.g]ew[e,]nde on-[.g][=e]an, returned.
  on-[.g]inn, _sn._ beginning.
  on-·[.g]innan, _sv. 3_, begin.
  on-·liehtan, _wv._ illuminate, enlighten [leoht].
  on·liehtung, _sf._ illumination, light.
  on-·l[=u]can, _sv. 7_, unlock.
  on-·middan, _prp. w. dat._ in the midst of.
  on-s[=i]en, _sf._ appearance, form.
  on-sund, _aj._ sound, whole.
  on-·uppan, _prp. w. dat._ upon.
  on-weald, _sm._ rule, authority, power; territory.
  on-·we[.g], _av._ away.
  open, _aj._ open.
  openian, _wv._ open, reveal, disclose.
  orgel-l[=i]ce, _av._ proudly.
  or-m[=æ]te, _aj._ immense, boundless [metan].
  or-sorg, _aj._ unconcerned, careless.
  oþ, _prp. w. acc._ until--oþ þæt, _cj._ until; up to, as far as.
  [=o]þer, _prn._ (always strong), second; other.
  oþþe, _cj._ or--oþþe ... oþþe, either ... or.
  oxa, _sm._ ox.


  P[=a]pa, _sm._ pope [_Latin_ papa].
  p[e,]ning, _sm._ penny.
  Peohtas, _smpl._ Picts.
  Philist[=e]isc, _aj._ Philistine.
  Pihtisc, _aj._ Pictish [Peohtas].
  plegian, _wv._ play.
  post, _sm._ post [_Latin_ postis].
  pr[=e]ost, _sm._ priest  [_Latin_ presbyter].
  pund, _sn._ pound [_Latin_ pondus].
  pytt, _sm._ pit [_Latin_ puteus].


  Racent[=e]ag, _ sf._ chains.
  r[=a]d, _see_ r[=i]dan.
  _[.g]e_·r[=a]d, _sn._ reckoning, account; on þ[=a] [.g]er[=a]d þæt, on
      condition that.
  r[=æ]d, _sm._ advice; what is advisable, plan of action--him r[=æ]d
      þ[=u]hte, it seemed advisable to him.
  ramm, _sm._ ram.
  r[=a]p, _sm._ rope.
  r[=e]af, _sn._ robe, dress.
  reahte, _see_ re[.c][.c]an.
  r[=e][.c]an, _wv. w. gen._ reck, care.
  r[e,][.c][.c]an, _wv._ tell, narrate.
  _[.g]e_·r[e,][.c]ednes, _sf._ narrative.
  _[.g]e_·r[=e]fa, _sm._ officer, reeve, bailiff.
  re[.g]en, _sm._ rain.
  r[=e]þe, _aj._ fierce, cruel.
  r[=i][.c]e, _aj._ powerful, of high rank.
  r[=i][.c]e, _sn._ kingdom, sovereignty, government.
  r[=i][.c]etere, _sn._ (ambition), pomp.
  r[=i][.c]sian, _wv._ rule.
  r[=i]dan, _sv. 6_, ride.
  riftere, _sm._ reaper.
  riht, _aj._ right; righteous.
  riht-l[=i]ce, _av._ rightly, correctly.
  riht-w[=i]s, _aj._ righteous.
  riht-w[=i]snes, _sf._ righteousness.
  r[=i]m, _sm._ number.
  r[=i]man, _wv._ count.
  r[=i]nan, _wv._ rain [re[.g]en].
  r[=i]pan, _sv. 6_, reap.
  r[=i]pere, _sm._ reaper.
  r[=i]p-t[=i]ma, _sm._ reaping-time, harvest.
  r[=o]hte, _see_ r[=e][.c]an.
  R[=o]me-burg, _sf._ city of Rome.
  r[=o]wan, _sv. 1_, row.
  ryne, _sm._ course.
  _[.g]e_·r[=y]ne, _sn._ mystery.


  S[=æ], _sf._ sea--_dat._ s[=æ].
  s[=æ]d, _sn._ seed.
  sæ[.g]de, _see_ s[e,][.c][.g]an.
  s[=æ]l, _sm._ time, occasion.
  _[.g]e_·s[=æ]li[.g], _aj._ happy, blessed.
  _[.g]e_·s[=æ]li[.g]-l[=i]ce, _av._ happily, blessedly.
  sæt, s[=æ]ton, _see_ sittan.
  sagol, _sm._ rod, staff.
  [.g]e·samnian, _wv._ collect, assemble.
  samod, _av_. together, with.
  sanct, _sm._ saint [_Latin_ sanctus].
  sand, _sf._ dish of food [s[e,]ndan].
  sand-[.c]eosol, _sm._ sand (_literally_ sand-gravel).
  s[=a]r, _sn._ grief.
  s[=a]r, _aj._ grievous.
  s[=a]ri[.g], _aj._ sorry, sad.
  s[=a]wan, _sv. 1_, sow.
  s[=a]were, _sm._ sower.
  s[=a]wol, _sf._ soul.
  scamu, _sf._ shame.
  scand, _sf._ disgrace.
  scand-lic, _aj._ shameful.
  s[.c][=e]af, _sm._ sheaf [sc[=u]fan].
  s[.c][=e]af-m[=æ]lum, _av._ sheafwise.
  _[.g]e_·s[.c]eaft, _sf._ creature, created thing. s[.c]eal, _swv._ ought
      to, must; shall.
  s[.c][=e]ap, _sn._ sheep.
  s[.c]eatt, _sm._ (tribute); money.
  s[.c][=e]awere, _sm._ spy, witness.
  s[.c][=e]awian, _wv._ see; examine; read.
  s[.c][=e]awung, _sf._ seeing, examination.
  s[.c][=e]otan, _sv. 7_, shoot.
  s[.c]ieppan, _sv. 2_, create.
  s[.c]ieran, _sv. 4_, shear.
  s[.c]ip, _sn._ ship.
  s[.c]ip-h[e,]re, _sm._ fleet.
  s[.c]ip-hlæst, _sm._ (shipload), crew.
  s[.c][=i]r, _sf._ shire.
  scolde, _see_ sceal.
  sc[=o]p, _see_ s[.c]ieppan.
  scort, _aj._ short.
  scotian, _wv._ shoot [s[.c][=e]otan].
  Scot-land, _sn._ Ireland.
  Scottas, _smpl._ the Irish.
  scotung, _sf._ shot.
  scræf, _sn._ cave.
  scr[=i]n, _sn._ shrine [_Latin_ scrinium].
  scrincan, _sv. 3_, shrink.
  scr[=u]d, _sn._ dress.
  scr[=y]dan, _wv._ clothe [scr[=u]d].
  sc[=u]fan, _sv. 7_, push--sc[=u]fan [=u]t, launch (ship).
  sculon, _see_ s[.c]eal.
  scuton, _see_ s[.c][=e]otan.
  scyld, _sf._ guilt [sculon, sceal].
  scyldig, _aj._ guilty.
  scylen, _see_ sceal.
  Scyttisc, _aj._ Scotch [Scottas].
  se, s[=e], _prn._ that; the; he; who.
  _[.g]e_seah, _see_ _[.g]e_s[=e]on.
  sealde, _see_ s[e,]llan.
  s[=e]aþ, _sm._ pit.
  Seaxe, _smpl._ Saxons.
  s[=e][.c]an, _wv._ seek; visit, come to; attack.
  s[e,][.c][.g]an, _wv._ say.
  self, _prn._ self.
  s[e,]llan, _wv._ give; sell.
  s[=e]lest, _av. superl._ best.
  s[e,]ndan, _wv._ send, send message [sand].
  s[=e]o, _see_ se.
  seofon, _num._ seven.
  seofoþa, _aj._ seventh.
  seolc, _sf._ silk.
  seolcen, _aj._ silken.
  seolfor, _sn._ silver.
  _[.g]e·_s[=e]on, _sv. 5_, see.
  s[=e]ow, _see_ s[=a]wan.
  _[.g]e·_s[e,]tnes, _sf._ narrative [s[e,]ttan].
  s[e,]ttan, _wv._ set; appoint, institute--d[=o]m s[e,]ttan _w. dat._ pass
      sentence on; compose, write; create [sittan].
  sibb, _sf._ peace.
  _[.g]e_·sibb-sum, _aj._ peaceful.
  s[=i]e, _see_ wesan.
  s[=i]efer-l[=i]ce, _av._ purely.
  s[=i]efre, _aj._ pure.
  sierwung, _sf._ stratagem.
  siex, _num._ six.
  siexta, _aj._ sixth.
  siexti[.g], _num._ sixty.
  siexti[.g]-feald, _aj._ sixtyfold.
  si[.g]e, _sm._ victory--si[.g]e niman, gain the victory.
  si[.g]e-fæst, _aj._ victorious.
  _[.g]e_·sihþ, _sf._ sight; vision, dream [[.g]es[=e]on].
  sifren, _aj._ silver.
  simle, _av._ always.
  sind, _see_ wesan.
  sinu, _sf_, sinew.
  sittan, _sv. 5_, sit; settle, stay.
  _[.g]e_·sittan, _sv. 5_, take possession of.
  s[=i]þ, _sm._ journey.
  s[=i]þian, _wv._ journey, go.
  siþþan, _av._ since, afterwards; cj. when.
  sl[=æ]p, _sm._ sleep.
  sl[=æ]pan, _sv. 1_, sleep,
  slaga, _sm._ slayer. [sl[=e]an, _past. partic._ [.g]eslæ[.g]en].
  sl[=a]w, _aj._ slow, slothful, dull.
  sl[=e]an, _sv. 2_, strike; slay, kill.
  sl[e,][.c][.g], _sm._ hammer [slaga, sl[=e]an].
  sl[e,][.g]e, _sm._ killing [slaga, sl[=e]an].
  sl[=e]p, _see_ sl[=æ]pan.
  sl[=o]g, _see_ sl[=e]an.
  smæl, _aj._ narrow.
  sm[=e]an, _wv._ consider, think; consult.
  sm[=e]ocan, _sv. 7_, smoke.
  sm[=e]þe, _aj._ smooth.
  snotor, _aj._ wise, prudent.
  s[=o]na, _av._ soon; then.
  sorg, _sf._ sorrow.
  s[=o]þ, _aj._ true.
  s[=o]þ, _sn._ truth.
  s[=o]þ-l[=i]ce, _av._ truly, indeed.
  spade, _wf._ spade [_Lati_n spatha].
  spr[=æ][.c], _sf._ speech, language; conversation [sprecan].
  sprecan, _sv. 5_, speak.
  spr[e,]n[.g]an, _wv._ (scatter); sow [springan].
  springan, _sv. 3_, spring.
  sprungen, _see_ springan.
  st[=æ]nen, _aj._ of stone [st[=a]n].
  st[=æ]niht, _sn._ stony ground [_originally adj._ 'stony,' from st[=a]n].
  st[=a]n, _sm._ stone; brick.
  standan, _sv. 2_, stand.
  st[=e]ap, _aj._ steep.
  st[e,]de, _sm._ place.
  stefn, _sf._ voice.
  stelan, _sv. 4_, steal.
  st[e,]nt, _see_ standan.
  st[=e]or, _sf._ steering, rudder.
  steorra, _sm._ star.
  sticol, _aj._ rough.
  st[=i]epel, _sm._ steeple [st[=e]ap].
  st[=i]eran, _wv. w. dat._ restrain [st[=e]or].
  _[.g]e_·stillan, _wv._ stop, prevent.
  stille, _aj._ still, quiet.
  st[=o]d, _see_ standan.
  st[=o]l, _sm._ seat.
  st[=o]w, _sf._ place.
  str[=æ]t, _sf._ street, road [_Latin_ strata via].
  strand, _sm._ shore.
  strang, _aj._ strong.
  str[=e]dan, _wv._ (scatter), sow.
  str[e,]n[.g]þo, _sf._ strength [strang].
  [.g]e·str[=e]on, _sn._ possession.
  [.g]e·str[=i]enan, _wv._ gain [[.g]estr[=e]on].
  str[=u]tian, _wv._ strut.
  sty[.c][.c]e, _sn._ piece.
  sum, _prn._ some, a certain (one), one; a.
  _[.g]e_·sund, _aj._ sound, healthy.
  _[.g]e_·sund-full. _aj._ safe and sound.
  sundor, _av._ apart.
  sunne, _sf._ sun.
  sunu, _sm._ son.
  s[=u]þ, _av._ south, southwards.
  s[=u]þan, _av._ from the south.
  s[=u]þan-weard, _aj._ southward.
  s[=u]þ-d[=æ]l, _sm._ the South.
  s[=u]þerne, _aj._ southern.
  S[=u]þ-seaxe, _smpl._ South-Saxons.
  sw[=a], _av._ so; sw[=a], sw[=a], as, like--sw[=a] ... sw[=a], so ... as.
  sw[=a]c, _see_ sw[=i]can.
  sw[=a]-·þ[=e]ah, _av._ however.
  swefn, _sn._ sleep; dream.
  swel[.c], _prn._ such.
  swel[.c]e, _av._ as if, as it were, as, like.
  sweltan, _sv. 3_, die.
  sw[e,]n[.c]an, _wv._ afflict, molest [swincan].
  sw[e,]n[.g], _sm._ stroke, blow [swingan].
  sw[=e]or, _sm._ pillar.
  sw[=e]ora, _sm._ neck.
  sweord, _sn._ sword.
  sweord-bora, _sm._ sword-bearer [beran].
  sweotol, _aj._ clear, evident.
  sweotolian, _wv._ display, show, indicate.
  sweotolung, _sf._ manifestation, sign.
  sw[e,]rian, _sv. 2_, swear.
  sw[=i]c, _sm._ deceit.
  _[.g]e_·sw[=i]can, _sv. 6_ (fail, fall short); cease (betray).
  sw[=i]c-d[=o]m, _sm._ deceit [sw[=i]can].
  swicol, _aj._ deceitful, treacherous.
  swicon, _see_ sw[=i]can.
  swift, _aj._ swift.
  sw[=i]gian, _wv._ be silent.
  swincan, _sv. 3_, labour, toil.
  swingan, _sv. 3_, beat.
  swingle, _sf._ stroke [swingan].
  swipe, _sm._ whip.
  sw[=i]þe, _av._ very, much, greatly, violently--_cp._ sw[=i]þor, rather,
  sw[=i]þ-lic, _aj._ excessive, great.
  sw[=i]þre, _sf._ right hand [_cp. of_ sw[=i]þe _with_ hand _understood_].
  swulton, _see_ sweltan.
  swuncon, _see_ swincan.
  swungon, _see_ swingan.
  syndri[.g], _aj._ separate [sundor].
  syn-full, _aj._ sinful.
  syngian, _wv._ sin.
  synn, _sf._ sin.


  T[=a]cen, _sn._ sign, token; miracle.
  t[=a]cnian, _wv._ signify.
  _[.g]e_·t[=a]cnung, _sf._ signification, type.
  t[=æ][.c]an, _wv. w. dat._ show; teach.
  talu, _sf._ number [getel].
  tam, _aj._ tame.
  t[=a]wian, _wv._ ill-treat.
  t[=e]am, _sm._ progeny [t[=e]on].
  _[.g]e_·tel, _sn._ number.
  t[e,]llan, _wv._ count, account--t[e,]llan t[=o] n[=a]hte, count as
      naught [talu].
  T[e,]mes, _sf._ Thames [Tamisia].
  tempel, _sn._ temple [_Latin_ templum].
  t[=e]on, _sv. 7_, pull, drag.
  t[=e]ona, _sm._ injury, insult.
  t[=e]on-r[=æ]den, _sf._ humiliation.
  t[=e]þ, _see_ t[=o]þ.
  ti[.c][.c]en, _sn._ kid.
  t[=i]d, _sf._ time; hour.
  t[=i]e[.g]an, _wv._ tie.
  t[=i]eman, _wv._ teem, bring forth [t[=e]am].
  t[=i]en, _num._ ten.
  tierwe, _sf._ tar.
  ti[.g]ele, _wf._ tile [_Latin_ tegula].
  t[=i]ma, _sm._ time.
  timbrian, _wv._ build.
  _[.g]e_·timbrung, _sf._ building.
  tintre[.g], _sn._ torture.
  tintregian, _wv._ torture.
  t[=o], _prp. w. dat._ (_av._) to--t[=o] abbode [.g]es[e,]tt, made abbot;
      _time_, at--t[=o] langum fierste, for a long time; _adverbial_, t[=o]
      scande, ignominiously; _fitness_, _purpose_, _for_--þ[=æ]m folce
      (dat.) t[=o] d[=e]aþe, to the death of the people, so that the people
      were killed; t[=o] þ[=æ]m þæt, cj. in order that--t[=o] þæm
      (sw[=i]þe) ... þæt, so (greatly) ... that.
  t[=o], _av._ too.
  t[=o]-·berstan, _sv. 3_, burst, break asunder.
  t[=o]-·brecan, _sv. 4_, break in pieces, break through.
  t[=o]-·bre[.g]dan, _sv. 3_, tear asunder.
  t[=o]-·cw[=i]esan, _wv._ crush, bruise.
  t[=o]-cyme, _sm._ coming [cuman].
  t[=o]-·dæ[.g], _av._ to-day.
  t[=o]-·d[=æ]lan, _wv._ disperse; separate, divide.
  t[=o]-·gædre, _av._ together.
  t[=o]-·[.g][=e]anes, _prp. w. dat._ towards--him t[=o][.g][=e]anes, to
      meet him.
  t[=o]l, _sn._ tool.
  t[=o]-·l[=i]esan, _wv._ loosen [l[=e]as].
  t[=o]-·middes, _prp. w. dat._ in the midst of.
  t[=o]-·teran, _sv. 4_, tear to pieces.
  t[=o]þ, _sm._ tooth.
  t[=o]-weard, _aj._ future.
  t[=o]-·weorpan, _sv. 3_, overthrow, destroy.
  tr[=e]ow, _sn._ tree.
  _[.g]e_·tr[=e]owe, _aj._ true, faithful.
  trum, _aj._ strong.
  trymman, _wv._ strengthen [trum].
  trymmung, _sf._ strengthening, encouragement.
  t[=u]cian, _wv._ ill-treat.
  tugon, _see_ t[=e]on.
  t[=u]n, _sm._ village, town.
  tw[=a], tw[=æ]m, _see_ tw[=e][.g]en.
  tw[=e][.g]en, _num._ two.
  tw[e,]lf, _num._ twelve.
  tw[e,]nti[.g], _num. w. gen._ twenty.


  Þ[=a], _av. cj._ then; when--þ[=a] þ[=a], when, while--_correlative_
      þ[=a] ... þ[=a], when ... (then).
  þ[=a], þ[=æ]m, &c., _see_ se.
  þ[=æ]r, _av._ there--þ[=æ]rt[=o], &c. thereto, to it; where--þ[=æ]r
      þ[=æ]r, _correl._ where.
  þ[=æ]re, _see_ se.
  þ[=æ]r-rihte, _av._ immediately.
  þæs, _av._ therefore; wherefore.
  þæs, þæt, _see_ se.
  þæt, _cj._ that.
  _[.g]e_·þafian, _wv._ allow, permit.
  þ[=a]-·[.g]iet, _av._ still, yet.
  þanc, _sm._ thought; thanks.
  þancian, _wv. w. gen. of thing and dat. of person_, thank.
  þanon, _av._ thence, away.
  þ[=a]s, _see_ þis.
  þe, _rel. prn._ who--s[=e] þe, who; _av._ when.
  þ[=e], _see_ þ[=u].
  þ[=e]ah, _av. cj._ though, yet, however--þ[=e]ah þe, although.
  þearf, _swv._ need.
  þearle, _av._ very, greatly.
  þ[=e]aw, _sm._ custom, habit; þ[=e]awas, virtues, morality.
  þe[.g]en, _sm._ thane; servant.
  þe[.g]nian, _wv. w. dat._ serve.
  þe[.g]nung, _sf._ service, retinue.
  þ[e,]n[.c]an, _wv._ think, expect [þanc].
  þ[=e]od, _sf._ people, nation.
  _[.g]e_·þ[=e]ode, _sn._ language.
  þ[=e]of, _sm._ thief.
  þ[=e]os, _see_ þes.
  þ[=e]ostru, _spl._ darkness.
  þ[=e]ow, _sm._ servant.
  þ[=e]ow-d[=o]m, _sm._ service.
  þ[=e]owian, _wv. w. dat._ serve.
  þ[=e]owot, _sn._ servitude.
  þes, _prn._ this.
  þi[.c][.c]e, _aj._ thick.
  þi[.c][.g]an, _sv. 5_, take, receive; eat, drink.
  þ[=i]n, _see_ þ[=u].
  þing, _sn._ thing.
  þis, þissum, &c., _see_ þes.
  _[.g]e_·p[=o]ht, _sm._ thought.
  þ[=o]hte, _see_ þ[e,]n[.c]an.
  þone, _see_ se.
  þonne, _av. cj._ then; when; because.
  þonne, _av._ than.
  þorfte, _see_ þearf.
  þorn, _sm._ thorn.
  þr[=æ]d, _sm._ thread.
  þr[=e]o, _see_ þr[=i]e.
  þridda, _aj._ third.
  þr[=i]e, _num._ three.
  þrim, _see_ þr[=i]e.
  þriti[.g], _num._ thirty.
  þriti[.g]-feald, _aj._ thirtyfold.
  þrymm, _sm._ glory.
  þ[=u], _prn._ thou.
  þ[=u]hte, _see_ þyn[.c]an.
  _[.g]e_·þungen, _aj._ excellent, distinguished.
  þurh, _prp. w. acc._ through; _causal_, through, by.
  þurh-·wunian, _wv._ continue.
  þurst, _sm._ thirst.
  þursti[.g], _aj._ thirsty.
  þus, _av._ thus.
  þ[=u]send, _sn._ thousand.
  _[.g]e_·þw[=æ]r-l[=æ][.c]an, _wv._ agree.
  þ[=y], _instr. of_ se; _av._ because.
  þ[=y]fel, _sm._ bush.
  þ[=y]·l[=æ]s, _cj._ lest.
  þyn[.c]an, _wv. impers. w. dat._ m[=e] þyn[.c]þ, methinks [þ[e,]n[.c]an].
  þ[=y]rel, _sn._ hole [þurh].


  Ufe-weard, _aj._ upward, at the top of.
  un-[=a]r[=i]med-lic, _aj._ innumerable.
  unc, _see_ ic.
  un-_[.g]e_cynd, _aj._ strange, of alien family.
  un-d[=e]ad-lic-nes, _sf._ immortality.
  under, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ under.
  under-cyning, _sm._ under-king.
  under-·delfan, _sv._ dig under.
  under-·f[=o]n, _sv. 1_, receive, take.
  under-·[.g]ietan, _sv. 5_, understand.
  undern-t[=i]d, _sf._ morning-time.
  un-forht, _aj._ dauntless.
  un-for-molsnod, _aj._ (past partic.) undecayed.
  un-_[.g]e_h[=i]ersum, _aj. w. dat._ disobedient.
  un-hold, _aj._ hostile.
  un-_[.g]e_metlic, _aj._ immense.
  un-mihti[.g], _aj._ weak.
  un-nytt, _aj._ useless.
  un-rihtl[=i]ce, _av._ wrongly.
  un-rihtw[=i]s, _aj._ unrighteous.
  un-_[.g]e_r[=i]m, _sn._ countless number or quantity.
  un-_[.g]e_r[=i]m, _aj._ countless.
  un-_[.g]e_s[=æ]li[.g], _aj._ unhappy, accursed.
  un-scyldi[.g], _aj._ innocent.
  un-t[=i]emend, _aj._ barren [_from pres. partic._ of t[=i]eman].
  un-_[.g]e_þw[=æ]r-nes, _sf._ discord.
  un-_[.g]e_witti[.g], _aj._ foolish.
  [=u]p, _av._ up.
  [=u]p-[=a]hafen-nes, _sf._ conceit, arrogance.
  [=u]p-fl[=o]r, _sf._ (_dat. sing._ -a) upper floor, upper story.
  uppan, _prp. w. dat._ on, upon.
  urnon, _see_ iernan.
  [=u]s, _see_ ic.
  [=u]t, _av._ out.
  [=u]tan, _av._ outside.
  uton, _defect. verb, w. infin._ let us--uton g[=a]n, let us go!


  Wacian, _wv._ be awake, watch.
  w[=æ]dla, _sm._ poor man.
  wæl, _sn._ slaughter--wæl [.g]e·sl[=e]an, make a slaughter.
  wæl-hr[=e]ow, _aj._ cruel.
  wælhr[=e]ow-l[=i]ce, _av._ cruelly, savagely.
  wælhr[=e]ownes, _sf._ cruelty.
  w[=æ]pen, _sn._ weapon.
  wær, _aj._ wary.
  w[=æ]ron, wæs, _see_ wesan.
  wæstm, _sm._ (growth); fruit.
  wæter, _sn._ water.
  wæter-s[.c]ipe, _sm._ piece of water, water.
  w[=a]fung, _sf._ (spectacle), display.
  -ware, _pl._ (only in composition) dwellers, inhabitants [_originally
      defenders, cp._ w[e,]rian].
  w[=a]t, _see_ witan.
  _[.g]e_w[=a]t, _see_ _[.g]e_w[=i]tan.
  w[=e], _see_ ic.
  _[.g]e_·weald, _sn._ power, command.
  wealdan, _sv. 1, w. gen._ rule.
  Wealh, _sm._ (_pl._ W[=e]alas), _sm._ Welshman, Briton (_originally_
  weall, _sm._ wall.
  weall-l[=i]m, _sm._ (wall-lime), cement, mortar.
  wearg, _sm._ felon, criminal [_originally_ wolf, _then_ proscribed man,
  weaxan, _sv. 1_, grow, increase.
  we[.g], _sm._ way, road.
  we[.g]-f[=e]rende, _aj._ (pres. partic.) way-faring.
  wel, _av._ well.
  wel-willend-nes, _sf._ benevolence.
  w[=e]nan, _wv._ expect, think.
  _[.g]e_·w[e,]ndan, _wv._ turn; go [windan].
  w[e,]nian, _wv._ accustom, wean [[.g]ewuna].
  weofod, _sn._ altar.
  weorc, _sn._ work.
  weorpan, _sv. 3_, throw.
  weorþ, _sn._ worth.
  weorþ, _aj._ worth, worthy.
  weorþan, _sv. 3_, happen; become--w. æt spr[=æ][.c]e, enter into
  _[.g]e_·weorþan, _sv. 3, impers. w. dat._--him [.g]ewearþ, they agreed
  weorþ-full, _aj._ worthy.
  weorþian, _wv._ honour, worship; make honoured, exalt.
  weorþ-l[=i]ce, _aj._ honourably.
  weorþ-mynd, _sf._ honour.
  w[=e]ox, _see_ weaxan.
  w[=e]pan, _sv. 1_, weep.
  wer, _sm._ man.
  w[e,]rian, _wv._ defend [wær].
  werod, _sn._ troop, army.
  wesan, _sv._ be.
  west, _av._ west.
  West-seaxe, _smpl._ West-saxons.
  w[=e]ste, _aj._ waste, desolate.
  w[=i]d, _aj._ wide.
  w[=i]de, _av._ widely, far and wide.
  widewe, _sf._ widow.
  _[.g]e_·wieldan, _wv._ overpower, conquer [wealdan].
  wierþe, _aj. w. gen._ worthy [weorþ].
  w[=i]f, _sn._ woman; wife.
  w[=i]f-healf, _sf._ female side.
  w[=i]f-mann, _sm._ woman.
  wiht, _sf._ wight, creature, thing.
  Wiht, _sf._ Isle of Wight [Vectis].
  Wiht-ware, _pl._ Wight-dwellers.
  wilde, _aj._ wild.
  wild[=e]or, _sn._ wild beast.
  willa, _sm._ will.
  willan, _swv._ will, wish; _of repetition_, be used to.
  _[.g]e_·wilnian, _wv. w. gen._ desire.
  w[=i]n, _sn._ wine.
  wind, _sm._ wind.
  windan, _sv. 3_, wind.
  w[=i]n-[.g]eard, _sm._ vineyard.
  winnan, _sv. 3_, fight.
  _[.g]e_·winnan, _sv. 3_, win, gain.
  winter, (_pl._ winter), _sm._ winter; _in reckoning_ = year.
  winter-setl, _sn._ winter-quarters.
  w[=i]s, _aj._ wise.
  w[=i]s-d[=o]m, _sm._ wisdom.
  w[=i]se, _sf._ (wise), way.
  _[.g]e_·wiss, _aj._ certain.
  _[.g]e_·wissian, _wv._ guide, direct.
  _[.g]e_·wissung, _sf._ guidance, direction.
  wiste, _see_ witan.
  wit, _see_ ic.
  wita, _sm._ councillor, sage.
  witan, _swv._ know.
  _[.g]e_·w[=i]tan, _sv. 6_, depart.
  w[=i]te, _sn._ punishment; torment.
  w[=i]tega, _sm._ prophet.
  witod-l[=i]ce, _av._ truly, indeed, and [witan].
  _[.g]e_·witt, _sn._ wits, intelligence, understanding [witan].
  wiþ, _prp. w. dat. and acc._ towards; along--wiþ we[.g], by the road;
      _hostility_, against--fuhton wiþ Brettas, fought with the Britons;
      _association, sharing, &c._, with; _defence_, against; _exchange,
      price, for_--wiþ þ[=æ]m þe, in consideration of, provided that.
  wiþ-·meten-nes, _sf._ comparison.
  wiþ-·sacan, _sv. 2, w. dat._ deny.
  wiþ-·standan, _sv. 2, w. dat._ withstand, resist.
  wlite, _sm._ beauty.
  w[=o]d, _aj._ mad.
  w[=o]d-l[=i]ce, _av._ madly.
  wolde, _see_ willan.
  w[=o]p, _sm._ weeping [w[=e]pan].
  word, _sn._ word, sentence; subject of talk, question, answer, report.
  _[.g]e_worden, _see_ weorþan.
  worhte, _see_ wyr[.c]an.
  woruld, _sf._ world.
  woruld-þing, _sn._ worldly thing.
  wrecan, _sv. 5_, avenge.
  wr[=e][.g]an, _wv._ accuse.
  _[.g]e_·writ, _sn._ writing [wr[=i]tan].
  wr[=i]tan, _sv. 6_, write.
  wudu, _sm._ wood.
  wuldor, _sn._ glory.
  wuldrian, _wv._ glorify, extol.
  wulf, _sm._ wolf.
  _[.g]e_·wuna, _sm._ habit, custom [wunian].
  wund, _sf._ wound.
  wundor, _sn._ wonder; miracle.
  wundor-lic, _aj._ wonderful, wondrous.
  wundor-l[=i]ce, _av._ wonderfully, wondrously.
  wundrian, _wv. w. gen._ wonder.
  _[.g]e_·wunelic, _aj._ customary.
  wunian, _wv._ dwell, stay, continue [[.g]ewuna].
  wunung, _sf._ dwelling.
  _[.g]e_wunnen, _see_ _[.g]e_winnan.
  wyr[.c]an, _wv._ work, make; build; do, perform [weorc].
  wyrhta, _sm._ worker.
  wyrt, _sf._ herb, spice; crop.
  wyrt-br[=æ]þ, _sm._ spice-fragrance, fragrant spice.
  wyrtruma, _sm._ root.
  w[=y]s[.c]an, _wv._ wish.


  Yfel, _aj._ evil, bad.
  yfel, _sn._ evil.
  ymbe, _prp. w. acc._ around; _of time_, about, at.
  ymb-·scr[=y]dan, _wv._ clothe, array.
  ymb-·[=u]tan, _av._ round about.
  [=y]terra, _aj. comp._ outer; _superl._ [=y]temest, outermost, last

       *       *       *       *       *


[1] Where no key-word is given for a long vowel, it must be pronounced
exactly like the corresponding short one, only lengthened.

[2] Both vowels.

[3] Wherever the acc. is not given separately, it is the same as the nom.

[4] So also _n[=a]h_ = _ne_ (not) _[=a]h_.

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