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Title: A Retrospect
Author: Taylor, James Hudson, 1832-1905
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Retrospect" ***

by Linda Cantoni.(This file was produced from images
Libraries) Full-color map generously provided by The
Missionary E-texts Archive at

[Illustration: Signature: J. Hudson Taylor.]




_Thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee._


          507 CHURCH STREET

[Illustration: THE "LAMMERMUIR" PARTY. _See page 125._]


  CHAP.                                           PAGE
      I. THE POWER OF PRAYER                         1
     II. THE CALL TO SERVICE                         7
    III. PREPARATION FOR SERVICE                    13
     IV. FURTHER ANSWERS TO PRAYER                  19
      V. LIFE IN LONDON                             24
     VI. STRENGTHENED BY FAITH                      30
    VII. MIGHTY TO SAVE                             35
   VIII. VOYAGE TO CHINA                            39
      X. FIRST EVANGELISTIC EFFORTS                 49
     XI. WITH THE REV. W. C. BURNS                  57
    XII. THE CALL TO SWATOW                         70
           "The Missionary Call": Words and Music   75
   XIII. MAN PROPOSES, GOD DISPOSES                 77
    XIV. PROVIDENTIAL GUIDANCE                      92
     XV. SETTLEMENT IN NINGPO                       98
    XVI. TIMELY SUPPLIES                           105
   XVII. GOD A REFUGE FOR US                       110
  XVIII. A NEW AGENCY NEEDED                       116
    XIX. FORMATION OF THE C. I. M.                 121
     XX. THE MISSION IN 1894                       126
         THE MISSION IN 1902                       128
  STATIONS OF THE C. I. M.                         131

       *       *       *       *       *

                        MAP OF CHINA

    CORRECTED TO JUNE 1900          _To face page_ 131


   1. Portrait of J. Hudson Taylor             _Frontispiece_
   2. The "Lammermuir" party              _Facing "Contents"_
   3. Honorary banner presented to a missionary             1
   4. A heavy road in North China                           7
   5. Salt junk on the Yang-tsi                            13
   6. Travelling by mule cart on "the great plain"         19
   7. Ch'ung-k'ing, the Yang-tsi, and mountains beyond     24
   8. Water gate and Custom house, Soo-chow                29
   9. View on the Kwang-sin River                          30
  10. Temple and memorial portal                           34
  11. "Compassionate heart, benevolent methods"            35
  12. Outside the wall of Gan-k'ing                        38
  13. The new girls school at Chefoo                       39
  14. Entrance to the Po-yang lake                         44
  15. A fair wind, at sunset, on the lake                  45
  16. A view on the grand canal                            49
  17. Down the Yang-tsi on a cargo boat                    57
  18. East gate and sentry box, Bhamô, Burmah              69
  19. Farmhouse, with buffalo shed attached                70
  20. A fishing village on the lake near Yünnan Fu         77
  21. Teng-yueh, the westernmost walled city in China      91
  22. A small temple near Wun-chau                         92
  23. Group of Christians at Lan-k'i, Cheh-kiang           97
  24. A boat on the Red River, Tonquin                     98
  25. Students' quarters, Gan-k'ing Training Home         104
  26. A Mandarin's sedan chair                            105
  27. A presentation banner (a mark of high respect)      110
  28. View on the Po-yang lake                            116
  29. A village on the grand canal                        121
  30. The battlements of Pekin                            126
  31. Native woodcut of a landscape                       131
  32. Elder Liu and wife, Kwei-k'i                        136

        The hearty thanks of the Mission for the use of
          photographs and sketches are hereby tendered to
          Rev. George Hayes for Nos. 4 and 6; Dr. G.
          Whitfield Guinness for Nos. 8, 12, 16, 25, and 28;
          Miss Davies for No. 23; Mr. Thomas Selkirk for
          Nos. 18 and 21; Mr. J. T. Reid for Nos. 14, 15,
          and 27; Mr. J. S. Rough for No. 30; Mr. Grainger
          for No. 19; Mr. E. Murray for No. 13, and also to
          other friends unknown by name.




THE following account of some of the experiences which eventually led to
the formation of the CHINA INLAND MISSION, and to its taking the form in
which it has been developed, first appeared in the pages of _China's
Millions_. Many of those who read it there asked that it might appear in
separate form. Miss Guinness incorporated it in the _Story of the China
Inland Mission_, a record which contained the account of GOD'S goodness
to the beginning of 1894. But friends still asking for it in pamphlet
form, for wider distribution, this edition is brought out.

Much of the material was taken from notes of addresses given in China
during a conference of our missionaries; this will account for the
direct and narrative form of the papers, which it has not been thought
necessary to change.

It is always helpful to us to fix our attention on the GOD-ward aspect
of Christian work; to realise that the work of GOD does not mean so much
man's work for GOD, as GOD'S own work through man. Furthermore, in our
privileged position of fellow-workers with Him, while fully recognising
all the benefits and blessings to be bestowed on a sin-stricken world
through the proclamation of the Gospel and spread of the Truth, we
should never lose sight of the higher aspect of our work--that of
obedience to GOD, of bringing glory to His Name, of gladdening the
heart of our GOD and FATHER by living and serving as His beloved

Many circumstances connected with my own early life and service
presented this aspect of work vividly to me; and as I think of some of
them, I am reminded of how much the cause of missions is indebted to
many who are never themselves permitted to see the mission field--many,
it may be, who are unable to give largely of their substance, and who
will be not a little surprised in the Great Day to see how much the work
has been advanced by their love, their sympathy, and their prayers.

For myself, and for the work that I have been permitted to do for GOD, I
owe an unspeakable debt of gratitude to my beloved and honoured parents,
who have passed away and entered into rest, but the influence of whose
lives will never pass away.

Many years ago, probably about 1830, the heart of my dear father, then
himself an earnest and successful evangelist at home, was deeply stirred
as to the spiritual state of China by reading several books, and
especially an account of the travels of Captain Basil Hall. His
circumstances were such as to preclude the hope of his ever going to
China for personal service, but he was led to pray that if GOD should
give him a son, he might be called and privileged to labour in the vast
needy empire which was then apparently so sealed against the truth. I
was not aware of this desire or prayer myself until my return to
England, more than seven years after I had sailed for China; but it was
very interesting then to know how prayer offered before my birth had
been answered in this matter.

All thought of my becoming a missionary was abandoned for many years by
my dear parents on account of the feebleness of my health. When the
time came, however, GOD gave increased health, and my life has been
spared, and strength has been given for not a little toilsome service
both in the mission field and at home, while many stronger men and women
have succumbed.

I had many opportunities in early years of learning the value of prayer
and of the Word of GOD; for it was the delight of my dear parents to
point out that if there were any such Being as GOD, to trust Him, to
obey Him, and to be fully given up to His service, must of necessity be
the best and wisest course both for myself and others. But in spite of
these helpful examples and precepts my heart was unchanged. Often I had
tried to make myself a Christian; and failing of course in such efforts,
I began at last to think that for some reason or other I could not be
saved, and that the best I could do was to take my fill of this world,
as there was no hope for me beyond the grave.

While in this state of mind I came in contact with persons holding
sceptical and infidel views, and accepted their teaching, only too
thankful for some hope of escape from the doom which, if my parents were
right and the Bible true, awaited the impenitent. It may seem strange to
say it, but I have often felt thankful for the experience of this time
of scepticism. The inconsistencies of Christian people, who while
professing to believe their Bibles were yet content to live just as they
would if there were no such book, had been one of the strongest
arguments of my sceptical companions; and I frequently felt at that
time, and said, that if I pretended to believe the Bible I would at any
rate attempt to live by it, putting it fairly to the test, and if it
failed to prove true and reliable, would throw it overboard altogether.
These views I retained when the LORD was pleased to bring me to
Himself; and I think I may say that since then I _have_ put GOD'S Word
to the test. Certainly it has never failed me. I have never had reason
to regret the confidence I have placed in its promises, or to deplore
following the guidance I have found in its directions.

Let me tell you how GOD answered the prayers of my dear mother and of my
beloved sister, now Mrs. Broomhall, for my conversion. On a day which I
shall never forget, when I was about fifteen years of age, my dear
mother being absent from home, I had a holiday, and in the afternoon
looked through my father's library to find some book with which to while
away the unoccupied hours. Nothing attracting me, I turned over a little
basket of pamphlets, and selected from amongst them a Gospel tract which
looked interesting, saying to myself, "There will be a story at the
commencement, and a sermon or moral at the close: I will take the former
and leave the latter for those who like it."

I sat down to read the little book in an utterly unconcerned state of
mind, believing indeed at the time that if there were any salvation it
was not for me, and with a distinct intention to put away the tract as
soon as it should seem prosy. I may say that it was not uncommon in
those days to call conversion "becoming serious"; and judging by the
faces of some of its professors, it appeared to be a very serious matter
indeed. Would it not be well if the people of GOD had always tell-tale
faces, evincing the blessings and gladness of salvation so clearly that
unconverted people might have to call conversion "becoming joyful"
instead of "becoming serious"?

Little did I know at the time what was going on in the heart of my dear
mother, seventy or eighty miles away. She rose from the dinner-table
that afternoon with an intense yearning for the conversion of her boy,
and feeling that--absent from home, and having more leisure than she
could otherwise secure--a special opportunity was afforded her of
pleading with GOD on my behalf. She went to her room and turned the key
in the door, resolved not to leave that spot until her prayers were
answered. Hour after hour did that dear mother plead for me, until at
length she could pray no longer, but was constrained to praise GOD for
that which His SPIRIT taught her had already been accomplished--the
conversion of her only son.

I in the meantime had been led in the way I have mentioned to take up
this little tract, and while reading it was struck with the sentence,
"The finished work of CHRIST." The thought passed through my mind, "Why
does the author use this expression? why not say the atoning or
propitiatory work of CHRIST?" Immediately the words "It is finished"
suggested themselves to my mind. What was finished? And I at once
replied, "A full and perfect atonement and satisfaction for sin: the
debt was paid by the Substitute; CHRIST died for our sins, and not for
ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world." Then came the
thought, "If the whole work was finished and the whole debt paid, what
is there left for me to do?" And with this dawned the joyful conviction,
as light was flashed into my soul by the HOLY SPIRIT, that there was
nothing in the world to be done but to fall down on one's knees, and
accepting this SAVIOUR and His salvation, to praise Him for evermore.
Thus while my dear mother was praising GOD on her knees in her chamber,
I was praising Him in the old warehouse to which I had gone alone to
read at my leisure this little book.

Several days elapsed ere I ventured to make my beloved sister the
confidante of my joy, and then only after she had promised not to tell
any one of my soul secret. When our dear mother came home a fortnight
later, I was the first to meet her at the door, and to tell her I had
such glad news to give. I can almost feel that dear mother's arms around
my neck, as she pressed me to her bosom and said, "I know, my boy; I
have been rejoicing for a fortnight in the glad tidings you have to tell
me." "Why," I asked in surprise, "has Amelia broken her promise? She
said she would tell no one." My dear mother assured me that it was not
from any human source that she had learned the tidings, and went on to
tell the little incident mentioned above. You will agree with me that it
would be strange indeed if I were not a believer in the power of prayer.

Nor was this all. Some little time after, I picked up a pocket-book
exactly like one of my own, and thinking that it was mine, opened it.
The lines that caught my eye were an entry in the little diary, which
belonged to my sister, to the effect that she would give herself daily
to prayer until GOD should answer in the conversion of her brother.
Exactly one month later the LORD was pleased to turn me from darkness to

Brought up in such a circle and saved under such circumstances, it was
perhaps natural that from the commencement of my Christian life I was
led to feel that the promises were very real, and that prayer was in
sober matter of fact transacting business with GOD, whether on one's own
behalf or on behalf of those for whom one sought His blessing.




THE first joys of conversion passed away after a time, and were
succeeded by a period of painful deadness of soul, with much conflict.
But this also came to an end, leaving a deepened sense of personal
weakness and dependence on the LORD as the only KEEPER as well as
SAVIOUR of His people. How sweet to the soul, wearied and disappointed
in its struggles with sin, is the calm repose of trust in the SHEPHERD
of Israel.

Not many months after my conversion, having a leisure afternoon, I
retired to my own chamber to spend it largely in communion with GOD.
Well do I remember that occasion. How in the gladness of my heart I
poured out my soul before GOD; and again and again confessing my
grateful love to Him who had done everything for me--who had saved me
when I had given up all hope and even desire for salvation--I besought
Him to give me some work to do for Him, as an outlet for love and
gratitude; some self-denying service, no matter what it might be,
however trying or however trivial; something with which He would be
pleased, and that I might do for Him who had done so much for me. Well
do I remember, as in unreserved consecration I put myself, my life, my
friends, my all, upon the altar, the deep solemnity that came over my
soul with the assurance that my offering was accepted. The presence of
GOD became unutterably real and blessed; and though but a child under
sixteen, I remember stretching myself on the ground, and lying there
silent before Him with unspeakable awe and unspeakable joy.

For what service I was accepted I knew not; but a deep consciousness
that I was no longer my own took possession of me, which has never since
been effaced. It has been a very practical consciousness. Two or three
years later propositions of an unusually favourable nature were made to
me with regard to medical study, on the condition of my becoming
apprenticed to the medical man who was my friend and teacher. But I felt
I dared not accept any binding engagement such as was suggested. I was
not my own to give myself away; for I knew not when or how He whose
alone I was, and for whose disposal I felt I must ever keep myself free,
might call for service.

Within a few months of this time of consecration the impression was
wrought into my soul that it was in China the LORD wanted me. It seemed
to me highly probable that the work to which I was thus called might
cost my life; for China was not then open as it is now. But few
missionary societies had at that time workers in China, and but few
books on the subject of China missions were accessible to me. I learned,
however, that the Congregational minister of my native town possessed a
copy of Medhurst's _China_, and I called upon him to ask a loan of the
book. This he kindly granted, asking me why I wished to read it. I told
him that GOD had called me to spend my life in missionary service in
that land. "And how do you propose to go there?" he inquired. I answered
that I did not at all know; that it seemed to me probable that I should
need to do as the Twelve and the Seventy had done in Judæa--go without
purse or scrip, relying on Him who had called me to supply all my need.
Kindly placing his hand upon my shoulder, the minister replied, "Ah, my
boy, as you grow older you will get wiser than that. Such an idea would
do very well in the days when CHRIST Himself was on earth, but not now."

I have grown older since then, but not wiser. I am more than ever
convinced that if we were to take the directions of our MASTER and the
assurances He gave to His first disciples more fully as our guide, we
should find them to be just as suited to our times as to those in which
they were originally given.

Medhurst's book on China emphasised the value of medical missions there,
and this directed my attention to medical studies as a valuable mode of

My beloved parents neither discouraged nor encouraged my desire to
engage in missionary work. They advised me, with such convictions, to
use all the means in my power to develop the resources of body, mind,
heart, and soul, and to wait prayerfully upon GOD, quite willing, should
He show me that I was mistaken, to follow His guidance, or to go forward
if in due time He should open the way to missionary service. The
importance of this advice I have often since had occasion to prove. I
began to take more exercise in the open air to strengthen my physique.
My feather bed I had taken away, and sought to dispense with as many
other home comforts as I could, in order to prepare myself for rougher
lines of life. I began also to do what Christian work was in my power,
in the way of tract distribution, Sunday-school teaching, and visiting
the poor and sick, as opportunity afforded.

After a time of preparatory study at home, I went to Hull for medical
and surgical training. There I became assistant to a doctor who was
connected with the Hull school of medicine, and was surgeon also to a
number of factories, which brought many accident cases to our
dispensary, and gave me the opportunity of seeing and practising the
minor operations of surgery.

And here an event took place that I must not omit to mention. Before
leaving home my attention was drawn to the subject of setting apart the
firstfruits of all one's increase and a proportionate part of one's
possessions to the LORD'S service. I thought it well to study the
question with my Bible in hand before I went away from home, and was
placed in circumstances which might bias my conclusions by the pressure
of surrounding wants and cares. I was thus led to the determination to
set apart not less than one-tenth of whatever moneys I might earn or
become possessed of for the LORD'S service. The salary I received as
medical assistant in Hull at the time now referred to would have allowed
me with ease to do this. But owing to changes in the family of my kind
friend and employer, it was necessary for me to reside out of doors.
Comfortable quarters were secured with a relative, and in addition to
the sum determined on as remuneration for my services I received the
exact amount I had to pay for board and lodging.

Now arose in my mind the question, Ought not this sum also to be tithed?
It was surely a part of my income, and I felt that if it had been a
question of Government income tax it certainly would not have been
excluded. On the other hand, to take a tithe from the whole would not
leave me sufficient for other purposes; and for some little time I was
much embarrassed to know what to do. After much thought and prayer I was
led to leave the comfortable quarters and happy circle in which I was
now residing, and to engage a little lodging in the suburbs--a
sitting-room and bedroom in one--undertaking to board myself. In this
way I was able without difficulty to tithe the whole of my income; and
while I felt the change a good deal, it was attended with no small

More time was given in my solitude to the study of the Word of GOD, to
visiting the poor, and to evangelistic work on summer evenings than
would otherwise have been the case. Brought into contact in this way
with many who were in distress, I soon saw the privilege of still
further economising, and found it not difficult to give away much more
than the proportion of my income I had at first intended.

About this time a friend drew my attention to the question of the
personal and pre-millennial coming of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, and gave me
a list of passages bearing upon it, without note or comment, advising me
to ponder the subject. For a while I gave much time to studying the
Scriptures about it, with the result that I was led to see that this
same JESUS who left our earth in His resurrection body was so to come
again, that His feet were to stand on the Mount of Olives, and that He
was to take possession of the temporal throne of His father David which
was promised before His birth. I saw, further, that all through the New
Testament the coming of the LORD was the great hope of His people, and
was always appealed to as the strongest motive for consecration and
service, and as the greatest comfort in trial and affliction. I learned,
too, that the period of His return for His people was not revealed, and
that it was their privilege, from day to day and from hour to hour, to
live as men who wait for the LORD; that thus living it was immaterial,
so to speak, whether He should or should not come at any particular
hour, the important thing being to be so ready for Him as to be able,
whenever He might appear, to give an account of one's stewardship with
joy, and not with grief.

The effect of this blessed hope was a thoroughly practical one. It led
me to look carefully through my little library to see if there were any
books there that were not needed or likely to be of further service, and
to examine my small wardrobe, to be quite sure that it contained nothing
that I should be sorry to give an account of should the MASTER come at
once. The result was that the library was considerably diminished, to
the benefit of some poor neighbours, and to the far greater benefit of
my own and that I found I had articles of clothing also which might be
put to better advantage in other directions.

It has been very helpful to me from time to time through life, as
occasion has served, to act again in a similar way; and I have never
gone through my house, from basement to attic, with this object in view,
without receiving a great accession of spiritual joy and blessing. I
believe we are all in danger of accumulating--it may be from
thoughtlessness, or from pressure of occupation--things which would be
useful to others, while not needed by ourselves, and the retention of
which entails loss of blessing. If the whole resources of the Church of
GOD were well utilised, how much more might be accomplished! How many
poor might be fed and naked clothed, and to how many of those as yet
unreached the Gospel might be carried! Let me advise this line of things
as a constant habit of mind, and a profitable course to be practically
adopted whenever circumstances permit.




HAVING now the twofold object in view of accustoming myself to endure
hardness, and of economising in order to be able more largely to assist
those amongst whom I spent a good deal of time labouring in the Gospel,
I soon found that I could live upon very much less than I had previously
thought possible. Butter, milk, and other such luxuries I soon ceased to
use; and I found that by living mainly on oatmeal and rice, with
occasional variations, a very small sum was sufficient for my needs. In
this way I had more than two-thirds of my income available for other
purposes; and my experience was that the less I spent on myself and the
more I gave away, the fuller of happiness and blessing did my soul
become. Unspeakable joy all the day long, and every day, was my happy
experience. GOD, even my GOD, was a living, bright Reality; and all I
had to do was joyful service.

It was to me a very grave matter, however, to contemplate going out to
China, far away from all human aid, there to depend upon the living GOD
alone for protection, supplies, and help of every kind. I felt that
one's spiritual muscles required strengthening for such an undertaking.
There was no doubt that if faith did not fail, GOD would not fail; but,
then, what if one's faith should prove insufficient? I had not at that
time learned that even "if we believe not, He abideth faithful, He
cannot deny Himself"; and it was consequently a very serious question to
my mind, not whether _He_ was faithful, but whether I had strong enough
faith to warrant my embarking in the enterprise set before me.

I thought to myself, "When I get out to China, I shall have no claim on
any one for anything; my only claim will be on GOD. How important,
therefore, to learn before leaving England to move man, through GOD, by
prayer alone."

At Hull my kind employer, always busily occupied, wished me to remind
him whenever my salary became due. This I determined not to do directly,
but to ask that GOD would bring the fact to his recollection, and thus
encourage me by answering prayer. At one time, as the day drew near for
the payment of a quarter's salary, I was as usual much in prayer about
it. The time arrived, but my kind friend made no allusion to the matter.
I continued praying, and days passed on, but he did not remember, until
at length, on settling up my weekly accounts one Saturday night, I found
myself possessed of only a single coin--one half-crown piece. Still I
had hitherto had no lack, and I continued in prayer.

That Sunday was a very happy one. As usual my heart was full and
brimming over with blessing. After attending Divine service in the
morning, my afternoons and evenings were filled with Gospel work, in the
various lodging-houses I was accustomed to visit in the lowest part of
the town. At such times it almost seemed to me as if heaven were begun
below, and that all that could be looked for was an enlargement of one's
capacity for joy, not a truer filling than I possessed. After concluding
my last service about ten o'clock that night, a poor man asked me to go
and pray with his wife, saying that she was dying. I readily agreed, and
on the way to his house asked him why he had not sent for the priest, as
his accent told me he was an Irishman. He had done so, he said, but the
priest refused to come without a payment of eighteenpence, which the man
did not possess, as the family was starving. Immediately it occurred to
my mind that all the money I had in the world was the solitary
half-crown, and that it was in one coin; moreover, that while the basin
of water gruel I usually took for supper was awaiting me, and there was
sufficient in the house for breakfast in the morning, I certainly had
nothing for dinner on the coming day.

Somehow or other there was at once a stoppage in the flow of joy in my
heart; but instead of reproving myself I began to reprove the poor man,
telling him that it was very wrong to have allowed matters to get into
such a state as he described, and that he ought to have applied to the
relieving officer. His answer was that he had done so, and was told to
come at eleven o'clock the next morning, but that he feared that his
wife might not live through the night. "Ah," thought I, "if only I had
two shillings and a sixpence instead of this half-crown, how gladly
would I give these poor people one shilling of it!" But to part with the
half-crown was far from my thoughts. I little dreamed that the real
truth of the matter simply was that I could trust in GOD plus
one-and-sixpence, but was not yet prepared to trust Him only, without
any money at all in my pocket.

My conductor led me into a court, down which I followed him with some
degree of nervousness. I had found myself there before, and at my last
visit had been very roughly handled, while my tracts were torn to
pieces, and I received such a warning not to come again that I felt
more than a little concerned. Still, it was the path of duty, and I
followed on. Up a miserable flight of stairs, into a wretched room, he
led me; and oh what a sight there presented itself to our eyes! Four or
five poor children stood about, their sunken cheeks and temples all
telling unmistakably the story of slow starvation; and lying on a
wretched pallet was a poor exhausted mother, with a tiny infant
thirty-six hours old, moaning rather than crying at her side, for it too
seemed spent and failing. "Ah!" thought I, "if I had two shillings and a
sixpence instead of half-a-crown, how gladly should they have
one-and-sixpence of it!" But still a wretched unbelief prevented me from
obeying the impulse to relieve their distress at the cost of all I

It will scarcely seem strange that I was unable to say much to comfort
these poor people. I needed comfort myself. I began to tell them,
however, that they must not be cast down, that though their
circumstances were very distressing, there was a kind and loving FATHER
in heaven; but something within me said, "You hypocrite! telling these
unconverted people about a kind and loving FATHER in heaven, and not
prepared yourself to trust Him without half-a-crown!" I was nearly
choked. How gladly would I have compromised with conscience if I had had
a florin and a sixpence! I would have given the florin thankfully and
kept the rest; but I was not yet prepared to trust in GOD alone, without
the sixpence.

To talk was impossible under these circumstances; yet, strange to say, I
thought I should have no difficulty in praying. Prayer was a delightful
occupation to me in those days; time thus spent never seemed wearisome,
and I knew nothing of lack of words. I seemed to think that all I should
have to do would be to kneel down and engage in prayer, and that relief
would come to them and to myself together. "You asked me to come and
pray with your wife," I said to the man, "let us pray." And I knelt
down. But scarcely had I opened my lips with "Our FATHER who art in
heaven" than conscience said within, "Dare you mock GOD? Dare you kneel
down and call Him FATHER with that half-crown in your pocket?" Such a
time of conflict came upon me then as I have never experienced before or
since. How I got through that form of prayer I know not, and whether the
words uttered were connected or disconnected I cannot tell; but I arose
from my knees in great distress of mind.

The poor father turned to me and said, "You see what a terrible state we
are in, sir; if you can help us, for GOD'S sake do!" Just then the word
flashed into my mind, "Give to him that asketh of thee," and in the word
of a KING there is power. I put my hand into my pocket, and slowly
drawing forth the half-crown, gave it to the man, telling him that it
might seem a small matter for me to relieve them, seeing that I was
comparatively well off, but that in parting with that coin I was giving
him my all; what I had been trying to tell him was indeed true--GOD
really was a FATHER, and might be trusted. The joy all came back in full
flood-tide to my heart; I could say anything and feel it then, and the
hindrance to blessing was gone--gone, I trust, for ever.

Not only was the poor woman's life saved, but I realised that my life
was saved too! It might have been a wreck--would have been a wreck
probably, as a Christian life--had not grace at that time conquered, and
the striving of GOD'S SPIRIT been obeyed. I well remember how that
night, as I went home to my lodgings, my heart was as light as my
pocket. The lonely, deserted streets resounded with a hymn of praise
which I could not restrain. When I took my basin of gruel before
retiring, I would not have exchanged it for a prince's feast. I
reminded the LORD as I knelt at my bedside of His own Word, that he who
giveth to the poor lendeth to the LORD: I asked Him not to let my loan
be a long one, or I should have no dinner next day; and with peace
within and peace without, I spent a happy, restful night.

Next morning for breakfast my plate of porridge remained, and before it
was consumed the postman's knock was heard at the door. I was not in the
habit of receiving letters on Monday, as my parents and most of my
friends refrained from posting on Saturday; so that I was somewhat
surprised when the landlady came in holding a letter or packet in her
wet hand covered by her apron. I looked at the letter, but could not
make out the handwriting. It was either a strange hand or a feigned one,
and the postmark was blurred. Where it came from I could not tell. On
opening the envelope I found nothing written within; but inside a sheet
of blank paper was folded a pair of kid gloves, from which, as I opened
them in astonishment, half-a-sovereign fell to the ground. "Praise the
LORD!" I exclaimed; "400 per cent for twelve hours investment; that is
good interest. How glad the merchants of Hull would be if they could
lend their money at such a rate!" I then and there determined that a
bank which could not break should have my savings or earnings as the
case might be--a determination I have not yet learned to regret.

I cannot tell you how often my mind has recurred to this incident, or
all the help it has been to me in circumstances of difficulty in
after-life. If we are faithful to GOD in little things, we shall gain
experience and strength that will be helpful to us in the more serious
trials of life.




THE remarkable and gracious deliverance I have spoken of, was a great
joy to me, as well as a strong confirmation of faith; but of course ten
shillings, however economically used, will not go very far, and it was
none the less necessary to continue in prayer, asking that the larger
supply which was still due might be remembered and paid. All my
petitions, however, appeared to remain unanswered; and before a
fortnight had elapsed I found myself pretty much in the same position
that I had occupied on the Sunday night already made so memorable.
Meanwhile, I continued pleading with GOD, more and more earnestly, that
He would graciously remind my employer that my salary was overdue. Of
course it was not the want of the money that distressed me--that could
have been had at any time for the asking--but the question uppermost in
my mind was this: "Can I go to China? or will my want of faith and power
with GOD prove to be so serious an obstacle as to preclude my entering
upon this much-prized service?"

As the week drew to a close I felt exceedingly embarrassed. There was
not only myself to consider; on Saturday night a payment would be due to
my Christian landlady which I knew she could not well dispense with.
Ought I not, for her sake, to speak about the matter of the salary? Yet
to do so would be, to myself at any rate, the admission that I was not
fitted to undertake a missionary enterprise. I gave nearly the whole of
Thursday and Friday--all the time not occupied in my necessary
employment--to earnest wrestling with GOD in prayer. But still on
Saturday morning I was in the same position as before. And now my
earnest cry was for guidance as to whether it was my duty to break
silence and speak to my employer, or whether I should still continue to
wait the FATHER's time. As far as I could judge, I received the
assurance that to wait His time was best; and that GOD in some way or
other would interpose on my behalf. So I waited, my heart being now at
rest and the burden gone.

About five o'clock that Saturday afternoon, when the doctor had finished
writing his prescriptions, his last circuit for the day being taken, he
threw himself back in his arm-chair, as he was wont, and began to speak
of the things of GOD. He was a truly Christian man, and many seasons of
very happy spiritual fellowship we had together. I was busily watching,
at the time, a pan in which a decoction was boiling that required a good
deal of attention. It was indeed fortunate for me that it was so, for
without any obvious connection with what had been going on, all at once
he said, "By-the-bye, Taylor, is not your salary due again?" My emotion
may be imagined! I had to swallow two or three times before I could
answer. With my eye fixed on the pan and my back to the doctor, I told
him as quietly as I could that it was overdue some little time. How
thankful I felt at that moment! GOD surely had heard my prayer, and
caused him, in this time of my great need, to remember the salary
without any word or suggestion from me. He replied, "Oh, I am so sorry
you did not remind me! You know how busy I am; I wish I had thought of
it a little sooner, for only this afternoon I sent all the money I had
to the bank, otherwise I would pay you at once." It is impossible to
describe the revulsion of feeling caused by this unexpected statement. I
knew not what to do. Fortunately for me my pan boiled up, and I had a
good reason for rushing with it from the room. Glad indeed I was to get
away, and keep out of sight until after the doctor had returned to his
house, and most thankful that he had not perceived my emotion.

As soon as he was gone I had to seek my little sanctum, and pour out my
heart before the LORD for some time, before calmness--and more than
calmness--thankfulness, and joy were restored to me. I felt that GOD had
His own way, and was not going to fail me. I had sought to know His will
early in the day, and as far as I could judge had received guidance to
wait patiently; and now GOD was going to work for me in some other way.

That evening was spent, as my Saturday evenings usually were, in reading
the Word and preparing the subjects on which I expected to speak in the
various lodging-houses on the morrow. I waited, perhaps, a little longer
than usual. At last, about ten o'clock, there being no interruption of
any kind, I put on my overcoat, and was preparing to leave for home,
rather thankful to know that by that time I should have to let myself in
with the latch-key, as my landlady retired early to rest. There was
certainly no help for that night; but perhaps GOD would interpose for me
by Monday, and I might be able to pay my landlady early in the week the
money I would have given her before, had it been possible.

Just as I was preparing to turn down the gas, I heard the doctor's step
in the garden which lay between the dwelling-house and surgery. He was
laughing to himself very heartily, as though greatly amused by
something. Entering the surgery, he asked for the ledger, and told me
that, strange to say, one of his richest patients had just come to pay
his doctor's bill--was it not an odd thing to do? It never struck me
that it might have any bearing on my own particular case, or I might
have felt embarrassed; but looking at it simply from the position of an
uninterested spectator, I also was highly amused that a man who was
rolling in wealth should come after ten o'clock at night to pay a
doctor's bill, which he could any day have met by a cheque with the
greatest ease. It appeared that somehow or other he could not rest with
this on his mind, and had been constrained to come at that unusual hour
to discharge his liability.

The account was duly receipted in the ledger, and the doctor was about
to leave, when suddenly he turned, and handing me some of the bank notes
just received, said, to my surprise and thankfulness, "By the way,
Taylor, you might as well take these notes; I have not any change, but
can give you the balance next week." Again I was left--my feelings
undiscovered--to go back to my own little closet and praise the LORD
with a joyful heart that after all I might go to China.

To me this incident was not a trivial one; and to recall it sometimes,
in circumstances of great difficulty, in China or elsewhere, has proved
no small comfort and strength.

By-and-by the time drew near when it was thought desirable that I should
leave Hull to attend the medical course of the London Hospital. A little
while spent there, and then I had every reason to believe that my
life-work in China would commence. But much as I had rejoiced at the
willingness of GOD to hear and answer prayer and to help His
half-trusting, half-timid child, I felt that I could not go to China
without having still further developed and tested my power to rest upon
His faithfulness; and a marked opportunity for doing so was
providentially afforded me.

My dear father had offered to bear all the expense of my stay in London.
I knew, however, that, owing to recent losses, it would mean a
considerable sacrifice for him to undertake this just when it seemed
necessary for me to go forward. I had recently become acquainted with
the Committee of the Chinese Evangelisation Society, in connection with
which I ultimately left for China, and especially with its secretary, my
esteemed and much-loved friend Mr. George Pearse, then of the Stock
Exchange, but now[1] and for many years himself a missionary. Not
knowing of my father's proposition, the Committee also kindly offered to
bear my expenses while in London. When these proposals were first made
to me, I was not quite clear as to what I ought to do, and in writing to
my father and the secretaries, told them that I would take a few days to
pray about the matter before deciding any course of action. I mentioned
to my father that I had had this offer from the Society, and told the
secretaries also of his proffered aid.

Subsequently, while waiting upon GOD in prayer for guidance, it became
clear to my mind that I could without difficulty decline both offers.
The secretaries of the Society would not know that I had cast myself
wholly on GOD for supplies, and my father would conclude that I had
accepted the other offer. I therefore wrote declining both propositions,
and felt that without any one having either care or anxiety on my
account I was simply in the hands of GOD, and that He, who knew my
heart, if He wished to encourage me to go to China, would bless my
effort to depend upon Him alone at home.



[1] Since the above was written Mr. George Pearse has died.



I MUST not now attempt to detail the ways in which the LORD was
pleased--often to my surprise, as well as to my delight--to help me from
time to time. I soon found that it was not possible to live quite as
economically in London as in Hull. To lessen expenses I shared a room
with a cousin, four miles from the hospital, providing myself with
board; and after various experiments I found that the most economical
way was to live almost exclusively on brown bread and water. Thus I was
able to make the means that GOD gave me last as long as possible. Some
of my expenses I could not diminish, but my board was largely within my
own control. A large twopenny loaf of brown bread, purchased daily on my
long walk from the hospital, furnished me with supper and breakfast; and
on that diet, with a few apples for lunch, I managed to walk eight or
nine miles a day, besides being a good deal on foot while attending the
practice of the hospital and the medical school.

One incident that occurred just about this time I must refer to. The
husband of my former landlady in Hull was chief officer of a ship that
sailed from London, and by receiving his half-pay monthly and remitting
it to her I was able to save her the cost of a commission. This I had
been doing for several months, when she wrote requesting that I would
obtain the next payment as early as possible, as her rent was almost
due, and she depended upon that sum to meet it. The request came at an
inconvenient time. I was working hard for an examination in the hope of
obtaining a scholarship which would be of service to me, and felt that I
could ill afford the time to go during the busiest part of the day to
the city and procure the money. I had, however, sufficient of my own in
hand to enable me to send the required sum. I made the remittance
therefore, purposing, as soon as the examination was over, to go and
draw the regular allowance with which to refund myself.

Before the time of examination the medical school was closed for a day,
on account of the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, and I had an
opportunity of going at once to the office, which was situated in a
street on Cheapside, and applying for the due amount. To my surprise and
dismay the cleric told me that he could not pay it, as the officer in
question had run away from his ship and gone to the gold diggings.
"Well," I remarked, "that is very inconvenient for me, as I have already
advanced the money, and I know his wife will have no means of repaying
it." The clerk said he was sorry, but could of course only act according
to orders; so there was no help for me in that direction. A little more
time and thought, however, brought the comforting conclusion to my mind,
that as I was depending on the LORD for everything, and His means were
not limited, it was a small matter to be brought a little sooner or
later into the position of needing fresh supplies from Him; and so the
joy and the peace were not long interfered with.

Very soon after this, possibly the same evening, while sewing together
some sheets of paper on which to take notes of the lectures, I
accidentally pricked the first finger of my right hand, and in a few
moments forgot all about it. The next day at the hospital I continued
dissecting as before. The body was that of a person who had died of
fever, and was more than usually disagreeable and dangerous. I need
scarcely say that those of us who were at work upon it dissected with
special care, knowing that the slightest scratch might cost us our
lives. Before the morning was far advanced I began to feel very weary,
and while going through the surgical wards at noon was obliged to run
out, being suddenly very sick--a most unusual circumstance with me, as I
took but little food and nothing that could disagree with me. After
feeling faint for some time, a draught of cold water revived me, and I
was able to rejoin the students. I became more and more unwell, however,
and ere the afternoon lecture on surgery was over found it impossible to
hold the pencil and continue taking notes. By the time the next lecture
was through, my whole arm and right side were full of severe pain, and I
was both looking and feeling very ill.

Finding that I could not resume work, I went into the dissecting-room to
bind up the portion I was engaged upon and put away my apparatus, and
said to the demonstrator, who was a very skilful surgeon, "I cannot
think what has come over me," describing the symptoms. "Why," said he,
"what has happened is clear enough: you must have cut yourself in
dissecting, and you know that this is a case of malignant fever." I
assured him that I had been most careful, and was quite certain that I
had no cut or scratch. "Well," he replied, "you certainly must have had
one;" and he very closely scrutinised my hand to find it, but in vain.
All at once it occurred to me that I had pricked my finger the night
before, and I asked him if it were possible that a prick from a needle,
at that time, could have been still unclosed. His opinion was that this
was probably the cause of the trouble, and he advised me to get a
hansom, drive home as fast as I could, and arrange my affairs forthwith.
"For," he said, "you are a dead man."

My first thought was one of sorrow that I could not go to China; but
very soon came the feeling, "Unless I am greatly mistaken, I have work
to do in China, and shall not die." I was glad, however, to take the
opportunity of speaking to my medical friend, who was a confirmed
sceptic as to things spiritual, of the joy that the prospect of perhaps
soon being with my MASTER gave me; telling him at the same time that I
did not think I should die, as, unless I were much mistaken, I had work
to do in China; and if so, however severe the struggle, I must be
brought through. "That is all very well," he answered, "but you get a
hansom and drive home as fast as you can. You have no time to lose, for
you will soon be incapable of winding up your affairs."

I smiled a little at the idea of my driving home in a hansom, for by
this time my means were too exhausted to allow of such a proceeding, and
I set out to walk the distance if possible. Before long, however, my
strength gave way, and I felt it was no use to attempt to reach home by
walking. Availing myself of an omnibus from Whitechapel Church to
Farringdon Street, and another from Farringdon Street onwards, I
reached, in great suffering, the neighbourhood of Soho Square, behind
which I lived. On going into the house I got some hot water from the
servant, and charging her very earnestly--literally as a dying man--to
accept eternal life as the gift of GOD through JESUS CHRIST, I bathed my
head and lanced the finger, hoping to let out some of the poisoned
blood. The pain was very severe; I fainted away, and was for some time
unconscious, so long that when I came to myself I found that I had been
carried to bed.

An uncle of mine who lived near at hand had come in, and sent for his
own medical man, an assistant surgeon at the Westminster Hospital. I
assured my uncle that medical help would be of no service to me, and
that I did not wish to go to the expense involved. He, however, quieted
me on this score, saying that he had sent for his own doctor, and that
the bill would be charged to himself. When the surgeon came and learned
all the particulars, he said, "Well, if you have been living moderately,
you may pull through; but if you have been going in for beer and that
sort of thing, there is no manner of chance for you." I thought that if
sober living was to do anything, few could have a better chance, as
little but bread and water had been my diet for a good while past. I
told him I had lived abstemiously, and found that it helped me in study.
"But now," he said, "you must keep up your strength, for it will be a
pretty hard struggle." And he ordered me a bottle of port wine every
day, and as many chops as I could consume. Again I smiled inwardly,
having no means for the purchase of such luxuries. This difficulty,
however, was also met by my kind uncle, who sent me at once all that was

I was much concerned, notwithstanding the agony I suffered, that my dear
parents should not be made acquainted with my state. Thought and prayer
had satisfied me that I was not going to die, but that there was indeed
a work for me to do in China. If my dear parents should come up and find
me in that condition, I must lose the opportunity of seeing how GOD was
going to work for me, now that my money had almost come to an end. So,
after prayer for guidance, I obtained a promise from my uncle and cousin
not to write to my parents, but to leave me to communicate with them
myself. I felt it was a very distinct answer to prayer when they gave me
this promise, and I took care to defer all communication with them
myself until the crisis was past and the worst of the attack over. At
home they knew that I was working hard for an examination, and did not
wonder at my silence.

Days and nights of suffering passed slowly by; but at length, after
several weeks, I was sufficiently restored to leave my room; and then I
learned that two men, though not from the London Hospital, who had had
dissection wounds at the same time as myself, had both succumbed, while
I was spared in answer to prayer to work for GOD in China.





ONE day the doctor coming in found me on the sofa, and was surprised to
learn that with assistance I had walked downstairs. "Now," he said, "the
best thing you can go is to get off to the country as soon as you feel
equal to the journey. You must rusticate until you have recovered a fair
amount of health and strength, for if you begin your work too soon the
consequences may still be serious." When he had left, as I lay very
exhausted on the sofa, I just told the LORD all about it, and that I was
refraining from making my circumstances known to those who would delight
to meet my need, in order that my faith might be strengthened by
receiving help from Himself in answer to prayer alone. What was I to do?
And I waited for His answer.

It seemed to me as if He were directing my mind to the conclusion to go
again to the shipping office, and inquire about the wages I had been
unable to draw. I reminded the LORD that I could not afford to take a
conveyance, and that it did not seem at all likely that I should succeed
in getting the money, and asked whether this impulse was not a mere
clutching at a straw, some mental process of my own, rather than His
guidance and teaching. After prayer, however, and renewed waiting upon
GOD, I was confirmed in my belief that He Himself was teaching me to go
to the office.

The next question was, "How am I to go?" I had had to seek help in
coming downstairs, and the place was at least two miles away. The
assurance was brought vividly home to me that whatever I asked of GOD in
the name of CHRIST would be done, that the FATHER might be glorified in
the SON; that what I had to do was to seek strength for the long walk,
to receive it by faith, and to set out upon it. Unhesitatingly I told
the LORD that I was quite willing to take the walk if He would give me
the strength. I asked in the name of CHRIST that the strength might be
immediately given; and sending the servant up to my room for my hat and
stick, I set out, not to _attempt_ to walk, but TO WALK to Cheapside.

Although undoubtedly strengthened by faith, I never took so much
interest in shop windows as I did upon that journey. At every second or
third step I was glad to lean a little against the plate glass, and take
time to examine the contents of the windows before passing on. It needed
a special effort of faith when I got to the bottom of Farringdon Street
to attempt the toilsome ascent of Snow Hill: there was no Holborn
Viaduct in those days, and it had to be done. GOD did wonderfully help
me, and in due time I reached Cheapside, turned into the by-street in
which the office was found, and sat down much exhausted on the steps
leading to the first floor, which was my destination. I felt my position
to be a little peculiar--sitting there on the steps, so evidently
spent--and the gentlemen who rushed up and downstairs looked at me with
an inquiring gaze. After a little rest, however, and a further season of
prayer, I succeeded in climbing the staircase, and to my comfort found
in the office the clerk with whom I had hitherto dealt in the matter.
Seeing me looking pale and exhausted, he kindly inquired as to my
health, and I told him that I had had a serious illness, and was ordered
to the country, but thought it well to call first, and make further
inquiry, lest there should have been any mistake about the mate having
run off to the gold diggings. "Oh," he said, "I am so glad you have
come, for it turns out that it was an able seaman of the same name that
ran away. The mate is still on board; the ship has just reached
Gravesend, and will be up very soon. I shall be glad to give you the
half-pay up to date, for doubtless it will reach his wife more safely
through you. We all know what temptations beset the men when they arrive
at home after a voyage."

Before, however, giving me the sum of money, he insisted upon my coming
inside and sharing his lunch. I felt it was the LORD indeed who was
providing for me, and accepted his offer with thankfulness. When I was
refreshed and rested, he gave me a sheet of paper to write a few lines
to the wife, telling her of the circumstances. On my way back I procured
in Cheapside a money order for the balance due to her, and posted it;
and returning home again, felt myself now quite justified in taking an
omnibus as far as it would serve me.

Very much better the next morning, after seeing to some little matters
that I had to settle, I made my way to the surgery of the doctor who had
attended me, feeling that, although my uncle was prepared to pay the
bill, it was right for me, now that I had some money in hand, to ask for
the account myself. The kind surgeon refused to allow me, as a medical
student, to pay anything for his attendance: but he had supplied me with
quinine, which he allowed me to pay for to the extent of eight
shillings. When that was settled, I saw that the sum left was just
sufficient to take me home; and to my mind the whole thing seemed a
wonderful interposition of GOD on my behalf.

I knew that the surgeon was sceptical, and told him that I should very
much like to speak to him freely, if I might do so without offence; that
I felt that under GOD I owed my life to his kind care, and wished very
earnestly that he himself might become a partaker of the same precious
faith that I possessed. So I told him my reason for being in London, and
about my circumstances, and why I had declined the help of both my
father and the officers of the Society in connection with which it was
probable that I should go to China. I told him of the recent
providential dealings of GOD with me, and how apparently hopeless my
position had been the day before, when he had ordered me to go to the
country, unless I would reveal my need, which I had determined not to
do. I described to him the mental exercises I had gone through; but when
I added that I had actually got up from the sofa and walked to
Cheapside, he looked at me incredulously, and "Impossible! Why, I left
you lying there more like a ghost than a man." And I had to assure him
again and again that, strengthened by faith, the walk had really been
taken. I told him also what money was left to me, and what payments
there had been to make, and showed him that just sufficient remained to
take me home to Yorkshire, providing for needful refreshment by the way
and the omnibus journey at the end.

My kind friend was completely broken down, and said with tears in his
eyes, "I would give all the world for a faith like yours." I, on the
other hand, had the joy of telling him that it was to be obtained
without money and without price. We never met again. When I came back to
town, restored to health and strength, I found that he had had a
stroke, and left for the country; and I subsequently learned that he
never rallied. I was able to gain no information as to his state of mind
when taken away; but I have always felt very thankful that I had the
opportunity, and embraced it, of bearing that testimony for GOD. I
cannot but entertain the hope that the MASTER Himself was speaking to
him through His dealings with me, and that I shall meet him again in the
Better Land. It would be no small joy to be welcomed by him, when my own
service is over.

The next day found me in my dear parents' home. My joy in the LORD's
help and deliverance was so great that I was unable to keep it to
myself, and before my return to London my dear mother knew the secret of
my life for some time past. I need scarcely say that when I went up
again to town I was not allowed to live--as, indeed, I was not fit to
live--on the same economical lines as before my illness. I needed more
now, and the LORD did provide.





RETURNING to London when sufficiently recovered to resume my studies,
the busy life of hospital and lecture-hall was resumed; often relieved
by happy Sundays of fellowship with Christian friends, especially in
London or Tottenham. Opportunities for service are to be found in every
sphere, and mine was no exception. I shall only mention one case now
that gave me great encouragement in seeking conversion even when it
seemed apparently hopeless.

GOD had given me the joy of winning souls before, but not in
surroundings of such special difficulty. With GOD all things are
possible, and no conversion ever takes place save by the almighty power
of the HOLY GHOST. The great need, therefore, of every Christian worker
is to _know_ GOD. Indeed, this is the purpose for which He has given us
eternal life, as our SAVIOUR Himself says, in the oft misquoted verse,
John xvii. 3: "This is [the object of] life eternal, [not _to_ know but]
that they _might_ know Thee the only true GOD, and JESUS CHRIST, whom
Thou hast sent." I was now to prove the willingness of GOD to answer
prayer for spiritual blessing under most unpromising circumstances, and
thus to gain an increased acquaintance with the prayer-answering GOD as
One "mighty to save."

A short time before leaving for China, it became my duty daily to dress
the foot of a patient suffering from senile gangrene. The disease
commenced, as usual, insidiously, and the patient had little idea that
he was a doomed man, and probably had not long to live. I was not the
first to attend to him, but when the case was transferred to me, I
naturally became very anxious about his soul. The family with whom he
lived were Christians, and from them I learned that he was an avowed
atheist, and very antagonistic to anything religious. They had, without
asking his consent, invited a Scripture reader to visit him, but in
great passion he had ordered him from the room. The vicar of the
district had also called, hoping to help him; but he had spit in his
face, and refused to allow him to speak to him. His passionate temper
was described to me as very violent, and altogether the case seemed to
be as hopeless as could well be imagined.

Upon first commencing to attend him I prayed much about it; but for two
or three days said nothing to him of a religious nature. By special care
in dressing his diseased limb I was able considerably to lessen his
sufferings, and he soon began to manifest grateful appreciation of my
services. One day, with a trembling heart, I took advantage of his warm
acknowledgments to tell him what was the spring of my action, and to
speak of his own solemn position and need of GOD's mercy through CHRIST.
It was evidently only by a powerful effort of self-restraint that he
kept his lips closed. He turned over in bed with his back to me, and
uttered no word.

I could not get the poor man out of my mind, and very often through each
day I pleaded with GOD, by His SPIRIT, to save him ere He took him
hence. After dressing the wound and relieving his pain, I never failed
to say a few words to him, which I hoped the LORD would bless. He
always turned his back to me, looking annoyed, but never spoke a word in

After continuing this for some time, my heart sank. It seemed to me that
I was not only doing no good, but perhaps really hardening him and
increasing his guilt. One day, after dressing his limb and washing my
hands, instead of returning to the bedside to speak to him, I went to
the door, and stood hesitating for a few moments with the thought in my
mind, "Ephraim is joined to his idols; let him alone." I looked at the
man and saw his surprise, as it was the first time since speaking to him
that I had attempted to leave without going up to his bedside to say a
few words for my MASTER. I could bear it no longer. Bursting into tears,
I crossed the room and said, "My friend, whether you will hear or
whether you will forbear, I _must_ deliver _my_ soul," and went on to
speak very earnestly to him, telling him with many tears how much I
wished that he would let me pray with him. To my unspeakable joy he did
not turn away, but replied, "If it will be a relief to you, do." I need
scarcely say that I fell on my knees and poured out my whole soul to GOD
on his behalf. I believe the LORD then and there wrought a change in his

He was never afterwards unwilling to be spoken to and prayed with, and
within a few days he definitely accepted CHRIST as his SAVIOUR. Oh the
joy it was to me to see that dear man rejoicing in hope of the glory of
GOD! He told me that for forty years he had never darkened the door of
church or chapel, and that then--forty years ago--he had only entered a
place of worship to be married, and could not be persuaded to go inside
when his wife was buried. Now, thank GOD, his sin-stained soul, I had
every reason to believe, was washed, was sanctified, was justified, in
the Name of the LORD JESUS CHRIST and in the SPIRIT of our GOD.
Oftentimes, when in my early work in China circumstances rendered me
almost hopeless of success, I have thought of this man's conversion, and
have been encouraged to persevere in speaking the Word, whether men
would hear or whether they would forbear.

The now happy sufferer lived for some time after this change, and was
never tired of bearing testimony to the grace of GOD. Though his
condition was most distressing, the alteration in his character and
behaviour made the previously painful duty of attending him one of real
pleasure. I have often thought since, in connection with this case and
the work of GOD generally, of the words, "He that goeth forth _weeping_,
bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again rejoicing, bringing
his sheaves with him." Perhaps if there were more of that intense
distress for souls that leads to tears, we should more frequently see
the results we desire. Sometimes it may be that while we are complaining
of the hardness of the hearts of those we are seeking to benefit, the
hardness of our own hearts, and our own feeble apprehension of the
solemn reality of eternal things, may be the true cause of our want of





SOON after this the time so long looked forward to arrived--the time
that I was to leave England for China. After being set apart with many
prayers for the ministry of GOD's Word among the heathen Chinese I left
London for Liverpool; and on the 19th of September 1853 a little service
was held in the stern cabin of the _Dumfries_, which had been secured
for me by the Committee of the Chinese Evangelisation Society, under
whose auspices I was going to China.

My beloved, now sainted, mother had come to see me off from Liverpool.
Never shall I forget that day, nor how she went with me into the little
cabin that was to be my home for nearly six long months. With a mother's
loving hand she smoothed the little bed. She sat by my side, and joined
me in the last hymn that we should sing together before the long
parting. We knelt down, and she prayed--the last mother's prayer I was
to hear before starting for China. Then notice was given that we must
separate, and we had to say good-bye, never expecting to meet on earth

For my sake she restrained her feelings as much as possible. We parted;
and she went on shore, giving me her blessing; I stood alone on deck,
and she followed the ship as we moved towards the dock gates. As we
passed through the gates, and the separation really commenced, I shall
never forget the cry of anguish wrung from that mother's heart. It went
through me like a knife. I never knew so fully, until then, what GOD
_so_ loved the world meant. And I am quite sure that my precious mother
learned more of the love of GOD to the perishing in that hour than in
all her life before.

Oh, how it must grieve the heart of GOD when He sees His children
indifferent to the needs of that wide world for which His beloved, His
only begotten SON died!

          Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear;
          Forget also thine own people, and thy father's house;
          So shall the KING desire thy beauty:
          For He is thy LORD; and worship thou Him.

Praise GOD, the number is increasing who are finding out the exceeding
joys, the wondrous revelations of His mercies, vouchsafed to those who
follow Him, and emptying themselves, leave all in obedience to His great

It was on 19th September 1853 that the _Dumfries_ sailed for China; and
not until 1st March, in the spring of the following year, did I arrive
in Shanghai.

Our voyage had a rough beginning, but many had promised to remember us
in constant prayer. No small comfort was this; for we had scarcely left
the Mersey when a violent equinoctial gale caught us, and for twelve
days we were beating backwards and forwards in the Irish Channel, unable
to get out to sea. The gale steadily increased, and after almost a week
we lay to for a time; but drifting on a lee coast, we were compelled
again to make sail, and endeavoured to beat on to windward. The utmost
efforts of the captain and crew, however, were unavailing; and Sunday
night, 25th September, found us drifting into Carnarvon Bay, each tack
becoming shorter, until at last we were within a stone's-throw of the
rocks. About this time, as the ship, which had refused to stay, was put
round in the other direction, the Christian captain said to me, "We
cannot live half an hour now: what of your call to labour for the LORD
in China?" I had previously passed through a time of much conflict, but
that was over, and it was a great joy to feel and to tell him that I
would not for any consideration be in any other position; that I
strongly expected to reach China; but that, if otherwise, at any rate
the Master would say it was well that I was found seeking to obey His

Within a few minutes after wearing ship the captain walked, up to the
compass, and said to me, "The wind has freed two points; we shall be
able to beat out of the bay." And so we did. The bowsprit was sprung and
the vessel seriously strained; but in a few days we got out to sea, and
the necessary repairs were so thoroughly effected on board that our
journey to China was in due time satisfactorily accomplished.

One thing was a great trouble to me that night. I was a very young
believer, and had not sufficient faith in GOD to see Him in and through
the use of means. I had felt it a duty to comply with the earnest wish
of my beloved and honoured mother, and for her sake to procure a
swimming-belt. But in my own soul I felt as if I could not simply trust
in GOD while I had this swimming-belt; and my heart had no rest until on
that night, after all hope of being saved was gone, I had given it away.
Then I had perfect peace; and, strange to say, put several light things
together, likely to float at the time we struck, without any thought of
inconsistency or scruple. Ever since, I have seen clearly the mistake I
made--a mistake that is very common in these days, when erroneous
teaching on faith-healing does much harm, misleading some as to the
purposes of GOD, shaking the faith of others, and distressing the minds
of many. The use of means ought not to lessen our faith in GOD; and our
faith in GOD ought not to hinder our using whatever means He has given
us for the accomplishment of His own purposes.

For years after this I always took a swimming-belt with me, and never
had any trouble about it; for after the storm was over, the question was
settled for me, through the prayerful study of the Scriptures. GOD gave
me then to see my mistake, probably to deliver me from a great deal of
trouble on similar questions now so constantly raised. When in medical
or surgical charge of any case, I have never thought of neglecting to
ask GOD's guidance and blessing in the use of appropriate means, nor yet
of omitting to give Him thanks for answered prayer and restored health.
But to me it would appear as presumptuous and wrong to neglect the use
of those measures which He Himself has put within our reach, as to
neglect to take daily food, and suppose that life and health might be
maintained by prayer alone.

The voyage was a very tedious one. We lost a good deal of time on the
equator from calms; and when we finally reached the Eastern Archipelago,
were again detained from the same cause. Usually a breeze would spring
up soon after sunset, and last until about dawn. The utmost use was made
of it, but during the day we lay still with flapping sails, often
drifting back and losing a good deal of the advantage we had gained
during the night.

This happened notably on one occasion, when we were in dangerous
proximity to the north of New Guinea. Saturday night had brought us to a
point some thirty miles off the land; but during the Sunday morning
service, which was held on deck, I could not fail to notice that the
captain looked troubled, and frequently went over to the side of the
ship. When the service was ended, I learnt from him the cause--a
four-knot current was carrying us rapidly towards some sunken reefs, and
we were already so near that it seemed improbable that we should get
through the afternoon in safety. After dinner the long-boat was put out,
and all hands endeavoured, without success, to turn the ship's head from
the shore. As we drifted nearer we could plainly see the natives rushing
about the sands and lighting fires every here and there. The captain's
horn-book informed him that these people were cannibals, so that our
position was not a little alarming.

After standing together on the deck for some time in silence, the
captain said to me, "Well, we have done everything that can be done; we
can only await the result." A thought occurred to me, and I replied,
"No, there is one thing we have not done yet." "What is it?" he queried.
"Four of us on board are Christians," I answered (the Swedish carpenter
and our coloured steward, with the captain and myself); "let us each
retire to his own cabin, and in agreed prayer ask the LORD to give us
immediately a breeze. He can as easily send it now as at sunset."

The captain complied with this proposal. I went and spoke to the other
two men, and after prayer with the carpenter we all four retired to wait
upon GOD. I had a good but very brief season in prayer, and then felt so
satisfied that our request was granted that I could not continue asking,
and very soon went up again on deck. The first officer, a godless man,
was in charge. I went over and asked him to let down the clews or
corners of the mainsail, which had been drawn up in order to lessen the
useless flapping of the sail against the rigging. He answered, "What
would be the good of that?" I told him we had been asking a wind from
GOD, that it was coming immediately, and we were so near the reef by
this time that there was not a minute to lose. With a look of
incredulity and contempt, he said with an oath that he would rather see
a wind than hear of it! But while he was speaking I watched his eye, and
followed it up to the royal (the topmost sail), and there, sure enough,
the corner of the sail was beginning to tremble in the coming breeze.
"Don't you see the wind is coming? Look at the royal!" I exclaimed. "No,
it is only a cat's-paw," he rejoined (a mere puff of wind). "Cat's-paw
or not," I cried, "pray let down the mainsail, and let us have the

This he was not slow to do. In another minute the heavy tread of the men
on the deck brought up the captain from his cabin to see what was the
matter; and he saw that the breeze had indeed come. In a few minutes we
were ploughing our way at six or seven knots an hour through the water,
and the multitude of naked savages whom we had seen on the beach had no
wreckage that night. We were soon out of danger; and though the wind was
sometimes unsteady, we did not altogether lose it until after passing
the Pelew Islands.

Thus GOD encouraged me, ere landing on China's shores, to bring every
variety of need to Him in prayer, and _to expect that He would honour
the Name_ of the LORD JESUS, and give the help which each emergency





ON landing in Shanghai on 1st March 1854, I found myself surrounded with
difficulties that were wholly unexpected. A band of rebels, known as the
"Red Turbans," had taken possession of the native city, against which
was encamped an Imperial army of from forty to fifty thousand men, who
were a much greater source of discomfort and danger to the little
European community than were the rebels themselves. Upon landing, I was
told that to live outside the Settlement was impossible, while within
the foreign concession apartments were scarcely obtainable at any price.
The dollar, now worth about three shillings, had risen to a value of
eight-and-ninepence, and the prospect for one with only a small income
of English money was dark indeed. However, I had three letters of
introduction, and counted on counsel and help, especially from one of
those to whom I had been commended, whose friends I well knew and highly
valued. Of course I sought him out at once, but only to learn that he
had been buried a month or two before, having died from fever during the
time of my voyage.

Saddened by these tidings, I inquired for a missionary to whom another
of my letters of introduction was addressed; but a further
disappointment awaited me--he had left for America. The third letter
remained; but as it had been given by a comparative stranger, I had
expected less from it than from the other two. It proved, however, to be
GOD's channel of help. The Rev. Dr. Medhurst, of the London Mission, to
whom it was addressed, introduced me to Dr. Lockhart, who kindly allowed
me to live with him for six months. Dr. Medhurst procured my first
Chinese teacher; and he, Dr. Edkins, and the late Mr. Alexander Wylie
gave me considerable help with the language.

Those were indeed troublous times, and times of danger. Coming out of
the city one day with Mr. Wylie, he entered into conversation with two
coolies, while we waited a little while at the East Gate for a companion
who was behind us. Before our companion came up an attack upon the city
from the batteries on the opposite side of the river commenced, which
caused us to hurry away to a place of less danger, the whiz of the balls
being unpleasantly near. The coolies, unfortunately, stayed too long,
and were wounded. On reaching the Settlement we stopped a few minutes to
make a purchase, and then proceeded at once to the London Mission
compound, where, at the door of the hospital, we found the two poor
coolies with whom Mr. Wylie had conversed, their four ankles terribly
shattered by a cannon ball. The poor fellows declined amputation, and
both died. We felt how narrow had been our escape.

At another time, early in the morning, I had joined one of the
missionaries on his verandah to watch the battle proceeding, at a
distance of perhaps three-quarters of a mile, when suddenly a spent ball
passed between us and buried itself in the verandah wall. Another day my
friend Mr. Wylie left a book on the table after luncheon, and returning
for it about five minutes later, found the arm of the chair on which he
had been sitting shot clean away. But in the midst of these and many
other dangers GOD protected us.

After six months' stay with Dr. Lockhart, I rented a native house
outside the Settlement, and commenced a little missionary work amongst
my Chinese neighbours, which for a few months continued practicable.
When the French joined the Imperialists in attacking the city, the
position of my house became so dangerous that during the last few weeks,
in consequence of nightly recurring skirmishes, I gave up attempting to
sleep except in the daytime. One night a fire appeared very near, and I
climbed up to a little observatory I had arranged on the roof of the
house, to see whether it was necessary to attempt escape. While there a
ball struck the ridge of the roof on the opposite side of the
quadrangle, showering pieces of broken tile all around me, while the
ball itself rolled down into the court below. It weighed four or five
pounds; and had it come a few inches higher, would probably have spent
its force on me instead of on the building. My dear mother kept the ball
for many years. Shortly after this I had to abandon the house and return
to the Foreign Settlement--a step that was taken none too soon, for
before the last of my belongings were removed, the house was burnt to
the ground.

Of the trials of this early period it is scarcely possible to convey any
adequate idea. To one of a sensitive nature, the horrors, atrocities,
and misery connected with war were a terrible ordeal. The embarrassment
also of the times was considerable. With an income of only eighty pounds
a year, I was compelled, upon moving into the Settlement, to give one
hundred and twenty for rent, and sublet half the house; and though the
Committee of the Chinese Evangelisation Society increased my income
when, after the arrival of Dr. Parker, they learned more of our
circumstances, many painful experiences had necessarily been passed
through. Few can realise how distressing to so young and untried a
worker these difficulties seemed, or the intense loneliness of the
position of a pioneer who could not even hint at many of his
circumstances, as to do so would have been a tacit appeal for help.

The great enemy is always ready with his oft-repeated suggestion, "All
these things are against me." But oh, how false the word! The cold, and
even the hunger, the watchings and sleeplessness of nights of danger,
and the feeling at times of utter isolation and helplessness, were well
and wisely chosen, and tenderly and lovingly meted out. What
circumstances could have rendered the Word of GOD more sweet, the
presence of GOD more real, the help of GOD more precious? They were
times, indeed, of emptying and humbling, but were experiences that made
not ashamed, and that strengthened purpose to go forward as GOD might
direct, with His _proved_ promise, "I will not fail thee, nor forsake
thee." One can see, even now, that as for GOD, His way is perfect, and
yet can rejoice that the missionary path of to-day is comparatively a
smooth and an easy one.

Journeying inland was contrary to treaty arrangements, and attended with
much difficulty, especially for some time after the battle of Muddy
Flat, in which an Anglo-American contingent of about three hundred
marines and seamen, with a volunteer corps of less than a hundred
residents, attacked the Imperial camp, and drove away from thirty to
fifty thousand Chinese soldiers, the range of our shot and shell making
the native artillery useless. Still, in the autumn of 1854 a journey of
perhaps a week's duration was safely accomplished with Dr. Edkins, who
of course did the speaking and preaching, while I was able to help in
the distribution of books.




A JOURNEY taken in the spring of 1855 with the Rev. J. S. Burden of the
Church Missionary Society (now the Bishop of Victoria, Hong-kong) was
attended with some serious dangers.

In the great mouth of the river Yang-tse, distant some thirty miles to
the north of Shanghai, lies the group of islands of which Ts'ung-ming
and Hai-men are the largest and most important; and farther up the
river, where the estuary narrows away from the sea, is situated the
influential city of T'ung-chau, close to Lang-shan, or the Wolf
Mountains, famous as a resort for pilgrim devotees. We spent some time
in evangelising on those islands, and then proceeded to Lang-shan, where
we preached and gave books to thousands of the devotees who were
attending an idolatrous festival. From thence we went on to T'ung-chau,
and of our painful experiences there the following journal will tell:--

                                      _Thursday, April 26th, 1855._

After breakfast we commended ourselves to the care of our Heavenly
FATHER, and sought His Blessing before proceeding to this great city.
The day was dull and wet. We felt persuaded that Satan would not allow
us to assail his kingdom, as we were attempting to do, without raising
serious opposition; but we were also fully assured that it was the will
of GOD that we should preach CHRIST in this city, and distribute the
Word of Truth among its people. We were sorry that we had but few books
left for such an important place: the result, however, proved that this
also was providential.

Our native teachers did their best to persuade us not to go into the
city; but we determined that, by GOD'S help, nothing should hinder us.
We directed them, however, to remain in one of the boats; and if we did
not return, to learn whatever they could respecting our fate, and make
all possible haste to Shanghai with the information. We also arranged
that the other boat should wait for us, even if we could not get back
that night, so that we might not be detained for want of a boat in case
of returning later. We then put our books into two bags, and with a
servant who always accompanied us on these occasions, set off for the
city, distant about seven miles. Walking was out of the question, from
the state of the roads, so we availed ourselves of wheel-barrows, the
only conveyance to be had in these parts. A wheel-barrow is cheaper than
a sedan, only requiring one coolie; but is by no means an agreeable
conveyance on rough, dirty roads.

We had not gone far before the servant requested permission to go back,
as he was thoroughly frightened by reports concerning the native
soldiery. Of course we at once consented, not wishing to involve another
in trouble, and determined to carry the books ourselves, and look for
physical as well as spiritual strength to Him who had promised to supply
all our need.

At this point a respectable man came up, and earnestly warned us against
proceeding, saying that if we did we should find to our sorrow what the
T'ung-chau militia were like. We thanked him for his kindly counsel, but
could not act upon it, as our hearts were fixed, whether it were to
bonds, imprisonment, and death, or whether to distribute our Scriptures
and tracts in safety, and return unhurt, we knew not; but we were
determined, by the grace of GOD, not to leave T'ung-chau any longer
without the Gospel, nor its teeming thousands to die in uncared-for
ignorance of the Way of life.

After this my wheel-barrow man would proceed no farther, and I had to
seek another, who was fortunately not difficult to find. As we went on,
the ride in the mud and rain was anything but agreeable, and we could
not help feeling the danger of our position, although wavering not for a
moment. At intervals we encouraged one another with promises from the
Scripture and verses of hymns. That verse--

          "The perils of the sea, the perils of the land,
          Should not dishearten thee: thy LORD is nigh at hand.
          But should thy courage fail, when tried and sore oppressed,
          His promise shall avail, and set thy soul at rest."

seemed particularly appropriate to our circumstances, and was very
comforting to me.

On our way we passed through one small town of about a thousand
inhabitants; and here, in the Mandarin dialect, I preached JESUS to a
good number of people. Never was I so happy in speaking of the love of
GOD and the atonement of JESUS CHRIST. My own soul was richly blessed,
and filled with joy and peace; and I was able to speak with unusual
freedom and ease. And how rejoiced I was when, afterwards, I heard one
of our hearers repeating to the newcomers, in his own local dialect, the
truths upon which I had been dwelling! Oh, how thankful I felt to hear a
Chinaman, of his own accord, telling his fellow-countrymen that GOD
loved them; that they were sinners, but that JESUS died instead of
them, and paid the penalty of their guilt. That one moment repaid me for
all the trials we had passed through; and I felt that if the LORD should
grant HIS HOLY SPIRIT to change the heart of that man, we had not come
in vain.

We distributed a few Testaments and tracts, for the people were able to
read, and we could not leave them without the Gospel. It was well that
we did so, for when we reached T'ung-chau we found we had quite as many
left as we had strength to carry.

Nearing the end of our journey, as we approached the western suburb of
the city, the prayer of the early Christians, when persecution was
commencing, came to my mind: "And now, LORD, behold their threatenings,
and grant unto Thy servants that with all boldness they may speak Thy
Word." In this petition we most heartily united. Before entering the
suburb we laid our plans, so as to act in concert, and told our
wheel-barrow men where to await us, that they might not be involved in
any trouble on our account. Then looking up to our Heavenly FATHER, we
committed ourselves to His keeping, took our books, and set on for the

For some distance we walked along the principal street of the suburb
leading to the West Gate unmolested, and were amused at the unusual
title of _Heh-kwei-tsi_ (black devils) which was applied to us. We
wondered about it at the time, but afterwards found that it was our
clothes, and not our skin, that gave rise to it. As we passed several of
the soldiers, I remarked to Mr. Burdon that these were the men we had
heard so much about, and that they seemed willing to receive us quietly
enough. Long before we reached the gate, however, a tall powerful man,
made tenfold fiercer by partial intoxication, let us know that all the
militia were not so peaceably inclined, by seizing Mr. Burdon by the
shoulders. My companion endeavoured to shake him off. I turned to see
what was the matter, and at once we were surrounded by a dozen or more
brutal men, who hurried us on to the city at a fearful pace.

My bag now began to feel very heavy, and I could not change hands to
relieve myself. I was soon in a profuse perspiration, and was scarcely
able to keep pace with them. We demanded to be taken before the chief
magistrate, but were told that they knew where to take us, and what to
do with such persons as we were, with the most insulting epithets. The
man who first seized Mr. Burdon soon afterwards left him for me, and
became my principal tormentor; for I was neither so tall nor so strong
as my friend, and was therefore less able to resist him. He all but
knocked me down again and again, seized me by the hair, took hold of my
collar so as to almost choke me, and grasped my arms and shoulders,
making them black and blue. Had this treatment continued much longer, I
must have fainted. All but exhausted, how refreshing was the remembrance
of a verse quoted by my dear mother in one of my last home letters--

          "We speak of the realms of the blest,
          That country so bright and so fair,
          And oft are its glories confessed;
          But what must it be to be there!"

To be absent from the body! to be present with the LORD! to be free from
sin! And this is the end of the worst that man's malice can ever bring
upon us.

As we were walking along Mr. Burdon tried to give away a few books that
he was carrying, not knowing whether we might have another opportunity
of doing so; but the fearful rage of the soldier, and the way he
insisted on manacles being brought, which fortunately were not at hand,
convinced us that in our present position we could do no good in
attempting book-distribution. There was nothing to be done but quietly
to submit, and go along with our captors.

Once or twice a quarrel arose as to how we should be dealt with; the
more mild of our conductors saying that we ought to be taken to the
magistrate's office, but others wishing to kill us at once without
appeal to any authority. Our minds were kept in perfect peace; and when
thrown together on one of these occasions, we reminded each other that
the Apostles rejoiced that they were counted _worthy_ to suffer in the
cause of CHRIST. Having succeeded in getting my hand into my pocket, I
produced a Chinese card (if the large red paper, bearing one's name, may
be so called), and after this was treated with more respect. I demanded
it should be given to the chief official of the place, and that we
should be led to his office. Before this we had been unable, say what we
would, to persuade them that we were foreigners, although we were both
in English attire.

Oh the long weary streets that we were dragged through! I thought they
would never end; and seldom have I felt more thankful than when we
stopped at a place where we were told a mandarin resided. Quite
exhausted, bathed in perspiration, and with my tongue cleaving to the
roof of my mouth, I leaned against the wall, and saw that Mr. Burdon was
in much the same condition. I requested them to bring us chairs, but
they told us to wait; and when I begged them to give us some tea,
received only the same answer. Round the doorway a large crowd had
gathered; and Mr. Burdon, collecting his remaining strength, preached
CHRIST JESUS to them. Our cards and books had been taken in to the
mandarin, but he proved to be one of low rank, and after keeping us
waiting for some time he referred us to his superiors in office.

Upon hearing this, and finding that it was their purpose to turn us out
again into the crowded streets, we positively refused to move a single
step, and insisted on chairs being brought. After some demur this was
done; we seated ourselves in them, and were carried on. On the road we
felt so glad of the rest which the chairs afforded us, and so thankful
at having been able to preach JESUS in spite of Satan's malice, that our
joy was depicted on our countenances; and as we passed along we heard
some say that we did not look like bad men, while others seemed to pity
us. When we arrived at the magistrate's office, I wondered where we were
being taken; for though we passed through some great gates that looked
like those of the city wall, we were still evidently within the city. A
second pair of gates suggested the idea that it was a prison into which
we were being carried; but when we came in sight of a large tablet, with
the inscription "_Ming chï fu mu_" (the father and mother of the
people), we felt that we had been conveyed to the right place; this
being the title assumed by the mandarins.

Our cards were again sent in, and after a short delay we were taken into
the presence of Ch'en Ta Lao-ie (the Great Venerable Father Ch'en), who,
as it proved, had formerly been Tao-tai of Shanghai, and consequently
knew the importance of treating foreigners with courtesy. Coming before
him, some of the people fell on their knees and bowed down to the
ground, and my conductor motioned for me to do the same, but without
success. This mandarin, who seemed to be the highest authority of
T'ung-chau, and wore an opaque blue button on his cap, came out to meet
us, and treated us with every possible token of respect. He took us to
an inner apartment, a more private room, but was followed by a large
number of writers, runners, and other semi-officials. I related the
object of our visit, and begged permission to give him copies of our
books and tracts, for which he thanked me. As I handed him a copy of the
New Testament with part of the Old (from Genesis to Ruth) and some
tracts, I tried to explain a little about them, and also to give him a
brief summary of our teachings. . . . He listened very attentively, as of
course did all the others present. He then ordered some refreshments to
be brought in, which were very welcome, and himself partook of them with

After a long stay, we asked permission to see something of the city, and
to distribute the books we had brought, before our return. To this he
kindly consented. We then mentioned that we had been most
disrespectfully treated as we came in, but that we did not attach much
importance to the fact, being aware that the soldiers knew no better.
Not desiring, however, to have such an experience repeated, we requested
him to give orders that we were not to be further molested. This also he
promised to do, and with every possible token of respect accompanied us
to the door of his official residence, sending several runners to see
that we were respectfully treated. We distributed our books well and
quickly, and left the city quite in state. It was amusing to us to see
the way in which the runners made use of their tails. When the street
was blocked by the crowd, they turned them into whips, and laid them
about the people's shoulders to right and left!

We had a little trouble in finding our wheel-barrows; but eventually
succeeding, we paid off the chair coolies, mounted our humble vehicles,
and returned to the river, accompanied for fully half the distance by an
attendant from the magistrate's office. Early in the evening we got back
to the boats in safety, sincerely thankful to our Heavenly FATHER for
His gracious protection and aid.




AFTER the retaking of Shanghai by the Imperialists, in February 1855, I
was enabled to rent a house within the walls of the native city, and
gladly availed myself of this opportunity to reside amidst the crowded
population left to inhabit the ruins that had survived the war. Here I
made my headquarters, though often absent on more or less prolonged

At the suggestion of the Rev. Dr. Medhurst, the veteran leader of the
London Mission, I was led at about this period to adopt the native
costume in preference to foreign dress, to facilitate travel and
residence inland. The Chinese had permitted a foreign firm to build a
silk factory some distance inland, with the proviso that the style of
building must be purely Chinese, and that there should be nothing
external to suggest that it was foreign. Much benefit was found to
result from this change of costume; and I, and most of those associated
with me, have continued to use native dress.

The T'ai-p'ing rebellion, commenced in 1851, had by this time reached
the height of its ephemeral success. The great city of Nan-king had
fallen before the invading host; and there, within two hundred miles of
Shanghai, the rebels had established their headquarters, and proceeded
to fortify themselves for further conquests. During the summer of 1855
various attempts were made to visit the leaders of the movement, in
order to bring to bear some decidedly Christian influence upon them; but
so little success was met with, that these efforts were abandoned.

I, amongst others, had sought to reach Nan-king; but finding it
impossible to do so, turned my attention again to evangelistic work on
the island of Ts'ung-ming. After some time I was enabled so far to
overcome the prejudice and fears of the people as to rent a little house
and settle down in their midst. This was a great joy and encouragement
to me; but before many weeks were over complaints were made by the local
authorities to the British Consul, who compelled me to retire; though
the French Consul had himself secured to the Romish missionaries a
property within three or four miles of the house I had to vacate. Sorely
tried and disappointed by this unexpected hindrance, I reluctantly
returned to Shanghai, little dreaming of the blessing that GOD had in
store for me there.

A few months previously the Rev. William Burns, of the English
Presbyterian Mission, had arrived in that port on his return journey
from home; and before proceeding to his former sphere of service in the
southern province of FU-KIEN, he had endeavoured, like myself, without
success, to visit the T'ai-p'ing rebels at Nan-king. Failing in this
attempt, he made his headquarters in Shanghai for a season, devoting
himself to the evangelisation of the surrounding populous regions. Thus
in the autumn of the year I was providentially led into association with
this beloved and honoured servant of GOD.

We journeyed together, evangelising cities and towns in southern
KIANG-SU and north CHEH-KIANG, living in our boats, and following the
course of the canals and rivers which here spread like a network over
the whole face of the rich and fertile country. Mr. Burns at that time
was wearing English dress; but saw that while I was the younger and in
every way less experienced, I had the quiet hearers, while he was
followed by the rude boys, and by the curious but careless; that I was
invited to the homes of the people, while he received an apology that
the crowd that would follow precluded his being invited. After some
weeks of observation he also adopted the native dress, and enjoyed the
increased facilities which it gave.

Those happy months were an unspeakable joy and privilege to me. His love
for the Word was delightful, and his holy, reverential life and constant
communings with GOD made fellowship with him satisfying to the deep
cravings of my heart. His accounts of revival work and of persecutions
in Canada, and Dublin, and in Southern China were most instructive, as
well as interesting; for with true spiritual insight he often pointed
out GOD's purposes in trial in a way that made all life assume quite a
new aspect and value. His views especially about evangelism as the great
work of the Church, and the order of lay evangelists as a lost order
that Scripture required to be restored, were seed-thoughts which were to
prove fruitful in the subsequent organisation of the China Inland

Externally, however, our path was not always a smooth one; but when
permitted to stay for any length of time in town or city, the
opportunity was well utilised. We were in the habit of leaving our
boats, after prayer for blessing, at about nine o'clock in the morning,
with a light bamboo stool in hand. Selecting a suitable station, one
would mount the stool and speak for twenty minutes, while the other was
pleading for blessing; and then changing places, the voice of the first
speaker had a rest. After an hour or two thus occupied, we would move on
to another point at some distance from the first, and speak again.
Usually about midday we returned to our boats for dinner, fellowship,
and prayer, and then resumed our out-door work until dusk. After tea and
further rest, we would go with our native helpers to some tea-shop,
where several hours might be spent in free conversation with the people.
Not infrequently before leaving a town we had good reason to believe
that much truth had been grasped; and we placed many Scriptures and
books in the hands of those interested. The following letter was written
by Mr. Burns to his mother at home in Scotland about this time:--

                            "TWENTY-FIVE MILES FROM SHANGHAI,
                                        _January 26th, 1856_.

          "Taking advantage of a rainy day which confines me
          to my boat, I pen a few lines, in addition to a
          letter to Dundee, containing particulars which I
          need not repeat. It is now forty-one days since I
          left Shanghai on this last occasion. A young
          English missionary, Mr. Taylor, of the Chinese
          Evangelisation Society, has been my companion
          during these weeks--he in his boat, and I in
          mine--and we have experienced much mercy, and on
          some occasions considerable assistance in our

          "I must once more tell the story I have had to
          tell already more than once--how four weeks ago,
          on December 29th, I put on the Chinese dress,
          which I am now wearing. Mr. Taylor had made this
          change a few months before, and I found that he
          was, in consequence, so much less incommoded in
          preaching, etc., by the crowd, that I concluded it
          was my duty to follow his example. We were at that
          time more than double the distance from Shanghai
          that we are now, and would still have been at as
          great a distance had we not met at one place with
          a band of lawless people, who demanded money and
          threatened to break our boats if their demands
          were refused. The boatmen were very much alarmed,
          and insisted on returning to some place nearer
          home. These people had previously broken in,
          violently, a part of Mr. Taylor's boat, because
          their unreasonable demand for books was not
          complied with.

          "We have a large, very large, field of labour in
          this region, though it might be difficult in the
          meantime for one to establish himself in any
          particular place; the people listen with
          attention, but we need the Power from on High to
          convince and convert. Is there any spirit of
          prayer on our behalf among GOD's people in
          Kilsyth? or is there any effort to seek this
          spirit? How great the need is, and how great the
          arguments and motives for prayer in this case. The
          harvest here is indeed great, and the labourers
          are few, and imperfectly fitted without much grace
          for such a work. And yet grace can make the few
          and feeble instruments the means of accomplishing
          great things--things greater than we can even

The incident referred to in this letter, which led to our return to
Shanghai more speedily than we had at first intended, took place on the
northern border of CHEH-KIANG. We had reached a busy market town known
by the name of Wu-chen, or Black Town, the inhabitants of which, we had
been told, were the wildest and most lawless people in that part of the
country. Such indeed we found them to be: the town was a refuge for salt
smugglers and other bad characters. The following extracts are taken
from my journal, written at the time:--

                                                  _January 8th, 1856._

Commenced our work in Wu-chen this morning by distributing a large
number of tracts and some Testaments. The people seemed much surprised,
and we could not learn that any foreigner had been here before. We
preached twice--once in the temple of the God of War, and afterwards in
an empty space left by a fire, which had completely destroyed many
houses. In the afternoon we preached again to a large and attentive
audience on the same site; and in the evening adjourned to a tea-shop,
where we had a good opportunity of speaking until it got noised abroad
that we were there, when, too many people coming in, we were obliged to
leave. Our native assistants, Tsien and Kuei-hua, were able, however, to
remain. Returning to our boats, we spoke to a number of people standing
on a bridge, and felt we had abundant reason to be thankful and
encouraged by the result of our first day's labour.

                                                   _January 10th._

First sent Tsien and Kuei-hua to distribute some sheet tracts. After
their return we went with them, and in a space cleared by fire we
separated, and addressed two audiences. On our return to the boats for
lunch, we found people waiting, as usual, and desiring books. Some were
distributed to those who were able to read them; and then asking them
kindly to excuse us while we took our midday meal, I went into my boat
and shut the door.

Hardly was there time to pour out a cup of tea when a battering began,
and the roof was at once broken in. I went out at the back, and found
four or five men taking the large lumps of frozen earth turned up in a
field close by--weighing, I should suppose, from seven to fourteen
pounds each--and throwing them at the boat. Remonstrance was of no
avail, and it was not long ere a considerable part of the upper
structure of the boat was broken to pieces, and a quantity of earth
covered the things inside. Finally, Tsien got a boat that was passing to
land him at a short distance, and by a few tracts drew away the
attention of the men, thus ending the assault.

We now learned that of those who had done the mischief only two were
natives of the place, the others being salt smugglers, and that the
cause was our not having satisfied their unreasonable demand for books.
Most providentially no one was injured; and as soon as quiet was
somewhat restored, we all met in Mr. Burns's boat and joined in
thanksgiving that we had been preserved from personal harm, praying also
for the perpetrators of the mischief, and that it might be over-ruled
for good to us and to those with us. We then took our lunch and went on
shore, and but a few steps from the boats addressed a large multitude
that soon assembled. We were specially assisted; never were we heard
with more attention, and not one voice was found to sympathise with the
men who had molested us. In the evening, at the tea-shops, the same
spirit was manifested, and some seemed to hear with joy the glad tidings
of salvation through a crucified and risen SAVIOUR.

As we came home we passed a barber's shop still open, and I went in, and
while getting my head shaved had an opportunity of speaking to a few
people, and afterwards pasted a couple of sheet tracts on the wall for
the benefit of future customers.

                                                      _January 11th._

A respectable shop-keeper of the name of Yao, who on the first or second
day of our stay at Wu-chen had received portions of the New Testament
and a tract, came yesterday, when our boat was broken, to beg for some
more books. At that time we were all in confusion from the damage done,
and from the earth thrown into the boat, and so invited him to come
again in a day or two's time, when we would gladly supply him. This
morning he appeared and handed in the following note:--

"On a former day I begged Burns and Taylor, the two '_Rabbis_,' to give
me good books. It happened at that time those of our town whose hearts
were deceived by _Satan_, not knowing the _Son of David_, went so far as
to dare to '_raca_' and '_moreh_' and injure your respected boat. I
thank you for promising afterwards to give the books, and beg the
following: Complete New Testament, 'Discourse of a Good Man when near
his Death,' 'Important Christian Doctrines,' an Almanack, 'Principles of
Christianity,' 'Way to make the World happy,'--of each one copy. Sung
and Tsien, and all teachers I hope are well. Further compliments are

This note is interesting, as showing that he had been reading the New
Testament attentively, as the italicised words were all taken from it.
His use of "raca" and "moreh" for reviling, shows their meaning was not
lost upon him.

After supplying this man, we went out with Tsien and Kuei-hua to the
east of the town, and spoke in the street for a short time. Upon
returning to the boats, I was visited by two CHIH-LI men, who are in the
magistrate's office here. I was greatly helped in speaking to them of a
crucified SAVIOUR in the Mandarin dialect; and though one of them did
not pay much attention, the other did, and made inquiries that showed
the interest he was feeling. When they had left, I went on shore and
spoke to the people collected there, to whom Kuei-hua had been
preaching. The setting sun afforded a parable, and reminded one of the
words of JESUS, "The night cometh, when no man can work;" and as I spoke
of the uncertain duration of this life, and of our ignorance as to the
time of CHRIST'S return, a degree of deep seriousness prevailed that I
had never previously witnessed in China. I engaged in prayer, and the
greatest decorum was observed. I then returned to my boat with a
Buddhist priest who had been in the audience, and he admitted that
Buddhism was a system of deceit that could give no hope in death.

                                                      _January 12th._

In the afternoon we addressed the people on shore close to our boats,
also in one of the streets of the city, and in a tea-shop, books being
distributed on each occasion. In the evening we went as usual to speak
in the tea-shops, but determined to go to the opposite end of the town,
in order to afford those who lived there a better opportunity of meeting
with us. It was a long straggling place, nearly two English miles in
length. As Mr. Burns and I were accustomed to talk together in Chinese,
this conclusion was known to those in the boats.

After we had proceeded a short distance we changed our minds, and went
instead to the usual tea-shop, thinking that persons might have gone
there expecting to meet us. But this was not the case; and we did not
find such serious hearers as we had done on previous occasions. On this
account Mr. Burns proposed leaving earlier than usual, and we did so,
telling Tsien and Kuei-hua that they might remain a little longer.
Returning to the boats, we gave away a few books; but, singularly
enough, were left to go alone, no one accompanying us, as is so
generally the case. Instead of being a clear night, as it was when we
started, we found that it had become intensely dark. On our way we met
the boatman, whose manner seemed very strange, and without giving us any
explanation he blew out the candle of our lantern; we relighted the
lantern, telling him not to put it out again, when to our surprise he
deliberately removed the candle and threw it into the canal. He then
walked down along a low wall jutting out to the river's edge, and gazed
into the water.

Not knowing what was the matter with him, I ran forward to hold him,
fearful lest he were going to drown himself; but to my great relief he
came quietly back. In answer to our repeated questions he told us not to
speak, for some bad men were seeking to destroy the boats, and they had
moved away to avoid them. He then led us to the place where one of them
was lying. Before long Tsien and Kuei-hua came and got safely on board,
and soon after we were joined by the teacher Sung, and the boat moved

The cause of all this disturbance was then explained. A man professing
to be the constable had come to the boats in our absence, with a written
demand for ten dollars and a quantity of opium. He stated that there
were more than fifty country people (salt smugglers) awaiting our reply
in an adjoining tea-shop; and if we gave them what they wanted, and
three hundred cash to pay for their tea, we might remain in peace; but
that if not, they would come at once and destroy our boats. Sung told
them that we could not comply with their demand; for, not being engaged
in trade, but only in preaching and book-distribution, we had not an
atom of opium, and that our money was nearly all expended. The man,
however, told him plainly that he did not believe him, and Sung had no
alternative but to seek us out, desiring the man to await our reply. Not
knowing that we had changed our plans, he sought us in the wrong
direction, and of course in vain.

In the meanwhile the boatmen had succeeded in moving off. They were very
much alarmed; and having so recently had proof of what these men would
do in open daylight, felt no desire to experience what they might
attempt by night. Moving away, therefore, they had separated, so that if
one boat should be injured the other might afford us a refuge. It was
after this that we had providentially met the boatman, and had been
safely led on board. As Sung repassed the place where we were previously
moored, he saw between the trees a dozen or more men, and heard them
inquiring where the boats had gone to; but no one could tell.
Fortunately they sought in vain.

After a while the two boats joined, and rowed together for some time. It
was already late, and to travel by night in that part of the country was
not the way to avoid danger from evil men; so the question arose as to
what should be done. This we left for the boatmen to decide; they had
moved off of their own accord, and we felt that whatever we personally
might desire we could not constrain others to remain in a position of
danger on our account. We urged them, however, to do quickly whatever
they intended to do, as the morrow was the LORD'S DAY, when we should
not wish to travel. We also informed them that wherever we were we must
fulfil our mission, and preach the Gospel; it therefore made but little
difference where we might stay, for even if we passed the night
unperceived, we were sure to be found out on the following morning. The
men consequently concluded that we might as well return to the place
from which we had started; to this we fully agreed, and they turned back
accordingly. But--whether by accident or no we could not tell--they got
into another stream, and rowed for some time they knew not whither. At
last, as it was very dark, they moored for the night.

We then called all the boatmen together, with our native assistants, and
read to them the ninety-first Psalm. It may be imagined how appropriate
to our position and need and how sweetly consoling was this portion of
GOD'S Word:--

  "He that dwelleth in the secret place of the MOST HIGH
   Shall abide under the shadow of the ALMIGHTY.
   I will say of the LORD, _He_ is my refuge and my fortress:
   My GOD; in Him will I trust.

  "Surely He shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler,
   And from the noisome pestilence.

   He shall cover thee with His feathers, and under His wings
         shalt thou trust:
   His truth shall be thy shield and buckler.
   Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night;
   Nor for the arrow that flieth by day.

  "Because he hath set his love upon Me, therefore will I deliver him.
   I will set him on high, because he hath known My Name.
   He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him;
   I will be with him in trouble;--I will deliver him, and honour him.
   With long life will I satisfy him,--and show him My salvation."

Committing ourselves in prayer to His care and keeping Who had covered
us with thick darkness and permitted us to escape from the hand of the
violent, we retired for the night; which--thanks to the kind protection
of the WATCHMAN OF ISRAEL, who neither slumbers nor forgets His
people--we passed in peace and quietness, and were enabled, in some
measure, to realise the truth of that precious word, "_Thou_ art my
_Hiding-place_, and my _Shield_."

                                             _Sunday, January 13th._

This morning I was awakened about 4 A.M. by violent pain in the
knee-joint. I had bruised it the day before, and severe inflammation was
the result. To my great surprise I heard the rain pouring down in
torrents, the weather having previously been particularly fine. On
looking out, we found ourselves so near our former stopping-place, that,
had nothing happened to prevent it, we should not have felt justified in
neglecting to go into the town to preach as usual; but the rain was so
heavy all day that no one could leave the boats. Thus we enjoyed a
delightful day of rest, such as we had not had for some time; and the
weather prevented much inquiry being made for us. Had the day been fine
we should most likely have been discovered, even if we had not left the
boats. As it was, we were allowed to think in peace, with wonder and
gratitude, of the gracious dealings of our GOD, who had thus led us
apart into "a desert place" to rest awhile.

                                                _Monday, January 14th._

A cloudless morning. One of the native assistants went before daybreak
to get some clothes which had been given out for washing. He came back
with the tidings that, notwithstanding the drenching rain of yesterday,
men had been seeking us in all directions. We had been kept, however, in
peace and safety "under the shadow of the Almighty."

The boatmen were now so thoroughly alarmed that they would stay no
longer, and moved off at dawn. I was confined to my quarters by
lameness, and had no alternative but to go with them. In the afternoon
we reached Ping-wang, on the way to Shanghai.

          "Ill that GOD blesses is our good,
                And unblest good is ill;
           And all is right that seems most wrong,
                If it be His sweet will."





HAVING to leave the neighbourhood of Black Town thus unexpectedly was a
real disappointment to us, as we had hoped to spend some time
evangelising in that district. We were to prove, however, that no
unforeseen mischance had happened, but that these circumstances which
seemed so trying were necessary links in the chain of a divinely ordered
providence, guiding to other and wider spheres.

GOD does not permit persecution to arise without sufficient reason. . . .
He was leading us by a way that we knew not; but it was none the less
His way.

          "O LORD, how happy should we be
           If we would cast our care on Thee,
             If we from self would rest;
           And feel at heart that One above,
           In perfect wisdom, perfect love,
             Is working for the best!"

When we reached Shanghai, thinking to return inland in a few days with
fresh supplies of books and money, we met a Christian captain who had
been trading at Swatow, and he put very strongly before us the need of
that region, and the fact that there were British merchants living on
Double Island, selling opium and engaged in the coolie trade
(practically a slave traffic), while there was no British missionary to
preach the Gospel. The SPIRIT OF GOD impressed me with the feeling that
this was His call, but for days I felt that I could not obey it. I had
never had such a spiritual father as Mr. Burns; I had never known such
holy, happy fellowship; and I said to myself that it could not be GOD'S
will that we should separate.

In great unrest of soul I went one evening, with Mr. Burns, to take tea
at the house of the Rev. R. Lowrie, of the American Presbyterian
Mission, at the South Gate of Shanghai. After tea Mrs. Lowrie played
over to us "The Missionary Call."[2] I had never heard it before, and it
greatly affected me. My heart was almost broken before it was finished,
and I said to the LORD, in the words that had been sung--

                        "And I will go!
  I may no longer doubt to give up friends, and idol hopes,
  And every tie that binds my heart. . . .
  Henceforth, then, it matters not, if storm or sunshine
         be my earthly lot, bitter or sweet my cup;
  I only pray, GOD, make me holy,
  And my spirit nerve for the stern hour of strife."

Upon leaving I asked Mr. Burns to come home with me to the little house
that was still my headquarters in the native city, and there, with many
tears, told him how the LORD had been leading me, and how rebellious I
had been and unwilling to leave him for this new sphere of labour. He
listened with a strange look of surprise, and of pleasure rather than
pain; and answered that he had determined that very night to tell me
that he had heard the LORD'S call to Swatow, and that his one regret had
been the prospect of the severance of our happy fellowship. We went
together; and thus was recommenced missionary work in that part of
China, which in later years has been so abundantly blessed.

Long before this time the Rev. R. Lechler, of the Basel Missionary
Society, had widely itinerated in the neighbourhood of Swatow and the
surrounding regions. Driven about from place to place, he had done work
that was not forgotten, although ultimately he was obliged to retire to
Hong-kong. For more than forty years this earnest-hearted servant of GOD
has continued in "labours more abundant"; and quite recently he has left
Hong-kong, with his devoted wife, to return again inland, and spend the
strength of his remaining years amongst the people he has so long and
truly loved.

Captain Bowers, the Christian friend who had been used of GOD in
bringing the needs of Swatow before Mr. Burns and myself, was overjoyed
when he heard of our decision to devote ourselves to the evangelisation
of that busy, important, and populous mart. Being about to sail himself
on his return journey, he gladly offered us free passages on board the
_Geelong_, in which we left Shanghai early in the month of March 1856.

A favourable journey of six days brought us to Double Island, where we
found ourselves landed in the midst of a small but very ungodly
community of foreigners, engaged in the opium trade and other commercial
enterprises. Unwilling to be in any way identified with these
fellow-countrymen, we were most desirous of obtaining quarters at once
within the native city, situated on a promontory of the mainland, five
miles farther up, at the mouth of the Han river. Great difficulty was
experienced in this attempt to obtain a footing amongst the people.
Indeed, it seemed as though we should fail altogether, and we were
helplessly cast upon the LORD in prayer. Our GOD soon undertook for us.
Meeting one day with a Cantonese merchant, a relative of the highest
official in the town, Mr. Burns addressed him in the Cantonese dialect;
this gentleman was so pleased at being spoken to by a foreigner in his
own tongue that he became our friend, and secured us a lodging. We had
only one little room, however, and not easily shall I forget the long
hot summer months in that oven-like place, where towards the eaves one
could touch the heated tiles with one's hand. More room or better
accommodation it was impossible to obtain.

We varied our stay by visits to the surrounding country; but the
difficulties and dangers that encountered us here were so great and
constant, that our former work in the North began to appear safe and
easy in comparison. The hatred and contempt of the Cantonese was very
painful, "foreign devil," "foreign dog," or "foreign pig" being the
commonest appellations; but all this led us into deeper fellowship than
I had ever known before with Him who was "despised and rejected of men."

In our visits to the country we were liable to be seized at any time and
held to ransom; and the people commonly declared that the whole district
was "without emperor, without ruler, and without law." Certainly, might
was right in those days. On one occasion we were visiting a small town,
and found that the inhabitants had captured a wealthy man of another
clan. A large ransom was demanded for his release, and on his refusing
to pay it they had smashed his ankle-bones, one by one, with a club, and
thus extorted the promise they desired. There was nothing but GOD'S
protection to prevent our being treated in the same way. The towns were
all walled, and one such place would contain ten or twenty thousand
people of the same clan and surname, who were frequently at war with the
people living in the next town. To be kindly received in one place was
not uncommonly a source of danger in the next. In circumstances such as
these the preserving care of our GOD was often manifested.

After a time the local mandarin became ill, and the native doctors were
unable to relieve him. He had heard from some who had been under my
treatment of the benefit derived, and was led to seek our help. GOD
blessed the medicines given, and grateful for relief, he advised our
renting a house for a hospital and dispensary. Having his permission, we
were able to secure the entire premises, one room of which we had
previously occupied. I had left my stock of medicine and surgical
instruments under the care of my friend, the late Mr. Wylie, in
Shanghai, and went back at once to fetch them.

Mr. Burns came down from a town called Am-po, that we had visited
together several times, to see me off, and returned again when I had
sailed, with two native evangelists sent up from Hong-kong by the Rev.
J. Johnson, of the American Baptist Missionary Union. The people were
willing to listen to their preaching, and to accept their books as a
gift, but they would not buy them. One night robbers broke in and
carried off everything they had, with the exception of their stock of
literature, which was supposed to be valueless. Next morning, very
early, they were knocked up by persons wishing to buy books, and the
sales continued; so that by breakfast time they had not only cash enough
to procure food, but to pay also for the passage of one of the men to
Double Island, below Swatow, with a letter to Mr. Burns's agent to
supply him with money. Purchasers continued coming during that day and
the next, and our friends lacked nothing; but on the third day they
could not sell a single book. Then, however, when the cash from their
sales was just exhausted, the messenger returned with supplies.

It was early in July, after about four months' residence in Swatow, that
I left for Shanghai, intending to return in the course of a few weeks,
bringing with me my medical apparatus, for further work in association
with the Rev. William Burns. A new and promising field seemed to be
opening before us, and it was with much hopeful anticipation that we
looked forward to the future of the work. Marked blessing was indeed in
store for the city and neighbourhood of Swatow; but it was not the
purpose of GOD that either of us should remain to reap the harvest. Mr.
Burns while in the interior was taken up and imprisoned by the Chinese
authorities soon after I left, and was sent to Canton. And though he
returned to Swatow after the war had broken out, he was called away for
other service, which prevented his subsequent return; while my journey
to Shanghai proved to be the first step in a diverging pathway leading
to other spheres.


[2] For words and music see the end of this chapter.

[Illustration: Music: The Missionary Call]


  1. My soul is not at rest.
  There comes a strange
  and secret whisper to
  my. . . .
  spirit, like a dream of night,
  that tells me
  I am on enchanted


  _Vivace._ The voice of my departed LORD, "Go, teach all nations,"

  Comes on the night air and awakes mine ear.


  Through ages of eternal years,
  My spirit never shall repent,
  that toil and suff'ring once were mine . . . below.

  2. Why live I here? the vows of GOD are | on me; | and I may not stop
  to play with shadows or pluck earthly flowers, | till I my work
  have done, and | rendered up ac | count.

  3. And I will | go! | I may no longer doubt to give up friends,
  and idol | hopes, | and every tie that binds my heart to | thee, my |

  4. Henceforth, then, it matters not, if storm or sunshine be my |
  earthly lot, | bitter or sweet my | cup; | I only pray: "GOD make me
  holy, and my spirit nerve for the stern | hour of strife!"

  5. And when one for whom Satan hath struggled as he hath for | me, |
  has gained at last that blessed | shore, | Oh! how this heart will
  glow with | gratitude and | love.




IT is interesting to notice the various events which united, in the
providence of GOD, in preventing my return to Swatow, and ultimately led
to my settling in Ningpo, and making that the centre for the development
of future labours.

Upon reaching Shanghai, great was my dismay to find that the premises in
which my medicines and instruments had been stored were burnt down, and
that all the medicines and many of the instruments were entirely
destroyed. To me this appeared a great calamity, and I fear I was more
disposed with faithless Jacob to say, "All these things are against me,"
than to recognise that "All things work together for good." I had not
then learned to think of GOD as the One Great Circumstance "in Whom we
live, and move, and have our being"; and of _all_ lesser, external
circumstances, as necessarily the kindest, wisest, best, because either
ordered or permitted by Him. Hence my disappointment and trial were very

Medicines were expensive in Shanghai, and my means were limited. I
therefore set out on an inland journey to Ningpo, hoping to obtain a
supply from Dr. William Parker, a member of the same mission as myself.
I took with me my few remaining possessions, the principal being my
watch, a few surgical instruments, a concertina, books for the study of
Chinese, which in those days were very expensive; but left behind in
Shanghai a portion of my money.

The country through which I had to pass was suffering much from drought;
it was the height of summer; and the water in the Grand Canal was very
low, having been largely drawn upon for the neighbouring rice fields, as
well as evaporated by the intense heat. I had determined to make the
journey as much of a mission tour as possible, and set out well supplied
with Christian tracts and books. After fourteen days spent in travelling
slowly through the populous country, preaching and distributing books,
etc., we reached a large town called Shih-mun-wan, and here, finding
that my supply of literature was exhausted, I determined not to linger
over the rest of the journey, but to reach Ningpo as speedily as
possible, _viâ_ the city of Hai-ning.

                                                    _August 4th, 1856._

There was no water beyond Shih-mun-wan, so I paid off my boat, hired
coolies to carry my things as far as to Chang-gan, and ere sunrise we
were on the way. I walked on alone, leaving my servant to follow with
the men, who made frequent stoppages to rest; and on reaching a city
through which we had to pass, I waited for them in a tea-shop just
outside the North Gate. The coolies came on very slowly, and seemed
tired when they arrived. I soon found that they were both opium-smokers,
so that, although they had only carried a load that one strong man would
think nothing of taking three times the distance, they really seemed

After some rice and tea and an hour's rest--including, I doubt not, a
smoke of the opium pipe--they were a little refreshed, and I proposed
moving on, that we might get to Chang-gan before the sun became too
powerful. My servant, however, had a friend in the city, and he desired
to spend the day there, and to go on next morning. But to this I
objected, wishing to reach Hai-ning that night if possible. . . . We
therefore set off, entered the North Gate, and had passed through about
a third of the city, when the coolies stopped to rest, and said they
should be unable to carry the burden on to Chang-gan. Finally, they
agreed to take it to the South Gate, where they were to be paid in
proportion to the distance they had carried it; and the servant
undertook to call other coolies and come along with them.

I walked on before as in the first instance, and the distance being only
about four miles, soon reached Chang-gan, and waited their arrival,
meanwhile engaging coolies for the rest of the journey to Hai-ning.
Having waited a long time, I began to wonder at the delay; and at length
it became too late to finish the journey to Hai-ning that night. I felt
somewhat annoyed; and but that my feet were blistered, and the afternoon
very hot, I should have gone back to meet them and urge them on. At last
I concluded that my servant must have gone to his friend's, and would
not appear until evening. But evening came, and still there was no sign
of them.

Feeling very uneasy, I began diligently to inquire whether they had been
seen. At last a man responded, "Are you a guest from Shih-mun-wan?" I
answered in the affirmative. "Are you going to Hai-ning?" "That is my
destination." "Then your things have gone on before you; for I was
sitting in a tea-shop when a coolie came in, took a cup of tea, and set
off for Hai-ning in a great hurry, saying that the bamboo box and bed he
carried, which were just such as you describe yours to have been, were
from Shih-mun-wan, and he had to take them to Hai-ning to-night, where
he was to be paid at the rate of ten cash a pound." From this I
concluded that my goods were on before me; but it was impossible to
follow them at once, for I was too tired to walk, and it was already

Under these circumstances all I could do was to seek a lodging for the
night; and no easy task I found it. After raising my heart to GOD to ask
His aid, I walked through to the farther end of the town, where I
thought the tidings of a foreigner's being in the place might not have
spread, and looked out for an inn. I soon came to one, and went in,
hoping that I might pass unquestioned, as it was already dark. Asking
the bill of fare, I was told that cold rice--which proved to be more
than "rather burnt"--and snakes, fried in lamp-oil, were all that could
be had. Not wishing any question to be raised as to my nationality, I
was compelled to order some, and tried to make a meal, but with little

While thus engaged I said to the landlord, "I suppose I can arrange to
spend the night here?"

To which he replied in the affirmative; but bringing out his book, he

"In these unsettled times we are required by the authorities to keep a
record of our lodgers: may I ask your respected family name?"

"My unworthy family name is Tai," I responded.

"And your honourable second name?"

"My humble name is Ia-koh" (James).

"What an extraordinary name! I never heard it before. How do you write

I told him, and added, "It is a common name in the district from which I

"And may I ask whence you come and whither you are going?"

"I am journeying from Shanghai to Ningpo, by way of Hang-chau."

"What may be your honourable profession?"

"I heal the sick."

"Oh! you are a physician," the landlord remarked; and to my intense
relief closed the book. His wife, however, took up the conversation.

"You are a physician, are you?" said she; "I am glad of that, for I have
a daughter afflicted with leprosy. If you will cure her, you shall have
your supper and bed for nothing."

I was curious enough to inquire what my supper and bed were to cost, if
paid for; and to my amusement found they were worth less than
three-halfpence of our money!

Being unable to benefit the girl, I declined to prescribe for her,
saying that leprosy was a very intractable disease, and that I had no
medicines with me.

The mother, however, brought pen and paper, urging, "You can at least
write a prescription, which will do no harm, if it does no good."

But this also I declined to do, and requested to be shown my bed. I was
conducted to a very miserable room on the ground-floor, where, on some
boards raised upon two stools, I passed the night, without bed or
pillow, save my umbrella and shoe, and without any mosquito netting. Ten
or eleven other lodgers were sleeping in the same room, so I could not
take anything off, for fear of its being stolen; but I was, I found, by
no means too warm as midnight came on.

                                                    _August 5th._

As may be supposed, I arose but little rested or refreshed, and felt
very far from well. I had to wait a long time ere breakfast was
obtainable, and then there was another delay before I could get change
for the only dollar I had with me, in consequence of its being chipped
in one or two places. More than three hundred cash also were deducted
from its price on this account, which was a serious loss to me in my
trying position.

I then sought throughout the town for tidings of my servant and coolies,
as I thought it possible that they might have arrived later, or have
come on in the morning. The town is large, long, and straggling, being
nearly two miles from one end to the other, so this occupied some time.
I gained no information, however; and, footsore and weary, set out for
Hai-ning in the full heat of the day. The journey--about eight
miles--took me a long time; but a halfway village afforded a
resting-place and a cup of tea, both of which I gladly availed myself
of. When about to leave again, a heavy shower of rain came on, and the
delay thus occasioned enabled me to speak a little to the people about
the truths of the Gospel.

The afternoon was far spent before I approached the northern suburb of
Hai-ning, where I commenced inquiries, but could hear no tidings of my
servant or things. I was told that outside the East Gate I should be
more likely to hear of them, as it was there the sea-junks called. I
therefore proceeded thither, and sought for them outside the Little East
Gate, but in vain. Very weary, I sat down in a tea-shop to rest; and
while there a number of persons from one of the mandarin's offices came
in, and made inquiries as to who I was, where I had come from, etc. On
learning the object of my search, one of the men in the tea-shop said,
"A bamboo box and a bed, such as you describe, were carried past here
about half an hour ago. The bearer seemed to be going towards either the
Great East Gate or the South Gate; you had better go to the hongs there
and inquire." I asked him to accompany me in the search, and promised to
reward him for his trouble, but he would not. Another man offered to go
with me, so we set off together, and both inside and outside the two
gates made diligent inquiries, but all in vain. I then engaged a man to
make a thorough search, promising him a liberal reward if he should be
successful. In the meantime I had some dinner, and addressed a large
concourse of people who had gathered together.

When he returned, having met with no success, I said to him, "I am now
quite exhausted: will you help me to find quarters for the night, and
then I will pay you for your trouble?" He was willing to befriend me,
and we set off in search of lodgings. At the first place or two the
people would not receive me; for though on our first going in they
seemed willing to do so, the presence of a man who followed us, and who,
I found, was engaged in one of the Government offices, seemed to alarm
them, and I was refused. We now went to a third place, and being no
longer followed by the mandarin's messenger, we were promised quarters;
some tea was brought, and I paid the man who had accompanied me for his

Soon after he was gone some official people came in; they soon went
away, but the result of their visit was that I was told I could not be
entertained there that night. A young man present blamed them for their
heartless behaviour, and said, "Never mind, come with me; and if we
cannot get better lodgings for you, you shall sleep at our house." I
went with him, but we found the people of his house unwilling to receive
me. Weary and footsore, so that I could scarcely stand, I had again to
seek quarters, and at length got promise of them; but a little crowd
collecting about the door, they desired me to go to a tea-shop and wait
there till the people had retired, or they would be unable to
accommodate me. There was no help for it, so I went, accompanied still
by the young man, and waited till past midnight. Then we left for the
promised resting-place; but my conductor would not find it, and he led
me about to another part of the city; and finally, between one and two
o'clock, he left me to pass the rest of the night as best I could.

I was opposite a temple, but it was closed; so I lay down on the stone
steps in front of it, and putting my money under my head for a pillow,
should soon have been asleep in spite of the cold had I not perceived a
person coming stealthily towards me. As he approached I saw he was one
of the beggars so common in China, and had no doubt his intention was to
rob me of my money. I did not stir, but watched his movements, and
looked to my FATHER not to leave me in this hour of trial. The man came
up, looked at me for some time to assure himself that I was asleep (it
was so dark that he could not see my eyes fixed on him), and then began
to feel about me gently. I said to him in the quietest tone, but so as
to convince him that I was not, nor had been, sleeping, "What do you
want?" He made no answer, but went away.

I was very thankful to see him go, and when he was out of sight put as
much of my cash as would not go into my pocket safely up my sleeve, and
made my pillow of a stone projection of the wall. It was not long ere I
began to doze, but I was aroused by the all but noiseless footsteps of
two persons approaching; for my nervous system was rendered so sensitive
by exhaustion that the slightest noise startled me. Again I sought
protection from Him who alone was my stay, and lay still as before, till
one of them came up and began to feel under my head for the cash. I
spoke again, and they sat down at my feet. I asked them what they were
doing; they replied that they, like me, were going to pass the night
there. I then requested them to take the opposite side, as there was
plenty of room, and leave this side to me; but they would not move from
my feet, so I raised myself up and set my back against the wall.

They said, "You had better lie down and sleep; if you do not, you will
be unable to walk to-morrow. Do not be afraid; we shall not leave you,
and will see that no one hurts you."

"Listen to me," I replied. "I do not want your protection; I need it
not; I am not a Chinese; I do not worship your senseless, helpless
idols. I worship GOD; He is my FATHER; I trust in Him. I know well what
you are, and what your intentions are, and shall keep my eye on you, and
shall not sleep."

On this, one of them went away, but soon returned with a third
companion. I felt very uneasy, but looked to GOD for help. Once or twice
one of them got up to see if I was asleep. I only said, "Do not be
mistaken; I am not sleeping." Occasionally my head dropped, and this was
a signal for one of them to rise; but I at once roused myself and made
some remark. As the night slowly passed on, I felt very weary; and to
keep myself awake, as well as to cheer my mind, I sang several hymns,
repeated aloud some portions of Scripture, and engaged in prayer in
English, to the great annoyance of my companions, who seemed as if they
would have given anything to get me to desist. After that they troubled
me no more; and shortly before dawn of day they left me, and I got a
little sleep.

                                                    _August 6th._

I was awakened by the young man who had so misled me on the previous
evening. He was very rude, and insisted on my getting up and paying him
for his trouble, and even went so far as to try to accomplish by force
what he wanted. This roused me; and in an unguarded moment, with very
improper feeling, I seized his arm with such a grasp as he little
expected I was capable of, and dared him to lay a finger upon me again
or to annoy me further. This quite changed his manner; he let me quietly
remain till the guns announced the opening of the gates of the city, and
then he begged me to give him some money to buy opium with. It is
needless to say this was refused. I gave him the price of two candles,
that he said he had burnt while with me last night and no more. I
learned he was connected with one of the mandarin's offices.

As soon as possible, I bought some rice gruel and tea for breakfast, and
then once more made a personal search after my things. Some hours thus
spent proving unavailing, I set out on the return journey, and after a
long, weary, and painful walk reached Chang-gan about noon. Here also my
inquiries failed to give me any trace of the missing goods; so I had a
meal cooked in a tea-shop, got a thorough wash and bathed my inflamed
feet, and after dinner rested and slept till four in the afternoon.

Much refreshed, I then set on to return to the city, at the South Gate
of which I had parted with my servant and coolies two days before. On
the way I was led to reflect on the goodness of GOD, and recollected
that I had not made it a matter of prayer that I might be provided with
lodgings last night. I felt condemned, too, that I should have been so
anxious for my few things, while the many precious souls around me had
caused so little emotion. I came as a sinner and pleaded the blood of
JESUS, realising that I was accepted in Him--pardoned, cleansed,
sanctified--and oh the love of JESUS, how great I felt it to be! I knew
something more than I had ever previously known of what it was to be
despised and rejected, and to have nowhere to lay one's head; and I felt
more than ever I had done before the greatness of that love which
induced Him to leave His home in glory and suffer thus for me; nay, to
lay down His very life upon the Cross. I thought of Him as "despised and
rejected of men, a Man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief"; I thought
of Him at Jacob's well, weary, hungry, and thirsty, yet finding it His
meat and drink to do His Father's will; and contrasted this with my
littleness of love. I looked to Him for pardon for the past, and for
grace and strength to do His will in the future, to tread more closely
in His footsteps, and be more than ever wholly His. I prayed for myself,
for friends in England, and for my brethren in the work. Sweet tears of
mingled joy and sorrow flowed freely, the road was almost forgotten, and
before I was aware of it I had reached my destination. Outside the South
Gate I took a cup of tea, asked about my lost luggage, and spoke of the
love of JESUS. Then I entered the city, and after many vain inquiries
left it by the North Gate.

I felt so much refreshed both in mind and body by the communion I had on
my walk to the city that I thought myself able to finish the remaining
six miles back to Shih-mun-wan that evening. First I went into another
tea-shop to buy some native cakes, and was making a meal of them when
who should come in but one of the identical coolies who had carried my
things the first stage. From him I learned that after I left them they
had taken my luggage to the South Gate; there my servant went away,
saying on his return that I had gone on, that he did not intend to start
at once, but would spend the day with his friend, and then rejoin me;
they carried the things to this friend's house, and left them there. I
got him to go with me to the house, and there learned that the man had
spent the day and night with them, and next morning had called other
coolies, and set off for Hang-chau. This was all I could gather; so,
unable to do anything but proceed on my return journey to Shanghai with
all expedition, I left the city again. It was now too late to go on to
Shih-mun-wan. I looked to my FATHER as able to supply all my need, and
received another token of His ceaseless love and care, being invited to
sleep on a hong-boat, now dry in the bed of the river. The night was
again very cold and the mosquitoes troublesome. Still, I got a little
rest, and at sunrise was up and continued my journey.

                                                    _August 7th._

I felt very ill at first, and had a sore throat, but reflected on the
wonderful goodness of GOD in enabling me to bear the heat by day and the
cold by night so long. I felt also that quite a load was now taken off
my mind. I had committed myself and my affairs to the LORD, and knew
that if it was for my good and for His glory my things would be
restored; if not, all would be for the best. I hoped that the most
trying part of my journey was now drawing to a close, and this helped
me, weary and footsore, on the way. When I got to Shih-mun-wan and had
breakfasted, I found I had still eight hundred and ten cash in hand; and
I knew that the hong-boat fare to Kia-hing Fu was one hundred and twenty
cash, and thence to Shanghai three hundred and sixty, leaving me just
three hundred and thirty cash--or twelve pence and a fraction--for three
or four days provisions. I went at once to the boat office, but to my
dismay found that from the dry state of the river goods had not come
down, so that no boat would leave to-day and perhaps none to-morrow. I
inquired if there were no letter-boats for Kia-hing Fu, and was told
that they had already left. The only remaining resource was to ascertain
if any private boats were going in which I could get a passage. My
search, however, was in vain; and I could get no boat to undertake to go
all the way to Shanghai, or my difficulty would have been at an end.

Just at this juncture I saw before me, at a turn in the canal, a
letter-boat going in the direction of Kia-hing Fu This, I concluded,
must be one of the Kia-hing boats that had been unexpectedly detained,
and I set off after it as fast as hope and the necessities of the case
would carry me. For the time being weariness and sore feet were alike
forgotten. After a chase of about a mile I overtook it.

"Are you going to Kia-hing Fu?" I called out.

"No," was the only answer.

"Are you going in that direction?"


"Will you give me a passage as far as you do go that way?"

Still "No," and nothing more.

Completely dispirited and exhausted, I sank down on the grass and
fainted away.

As consciousness returned some voices reached my ear, and I found they
were talking about me. One said, "He speaks pure Shanghai dialect," and
from their own speech I knew them to be Shanghai people. Raising myself,
I saw that they were on a large hong-boat on the other side of the
canal, and after a few words they sent their small boat to fetch me, and
I went on board the junk. They were very kind, and gave me some tea; and
when I was refreshed and able to partake of it, some food also. I then
took my shoes and stockings off to ease my feet, and the boatman kindly
provided me with hot water to bathe them. When they heard my story, and
saw the blisters on my feet, they evidently pitied me, and hailed every
boat that passed to see if it was going my way. Not finding one, by and
by, after a few hours' sleep, I went ashore with the captain, intending
to preach in the temple of Kwan-ti.

Before leaving the junk I told the captain and those on board that I was
now unable to help myself; that I had not strength to walk to Kia-hing
Fu, and having been disappointed in getting a passage to-day, I should
no longer have sufficient means to take me there by letter-boat, which
was an expensive mode of travelling; that I knew not how the GOD whom I
served would help me, but that I had no doubt He would do so; and that
my business now was to serve Him where I was. I also told them that the
help which I knew would come ought to be an evidence to them of the
truth of the religion which I and the other missionaries at Shanghai

On our way to the town, while engaged in conversation with the captain,
we saw a letter-boat coming up. The captain drew my attention to it; but
I reminded him that I had no longer the means of paying my passage by
it. He hailed it, nevertheless, and found that it was going to a place
about nine English miles from Shanghai, whence one of the boatmen would
carry the mails overland to the city. He then said, "This gentleman is a
foreigner from Shanghai, who has been robbed, and has no longer the
means of returning. If you will take him with you as far as you go, and
then engage a sedan chair to carry him the rest of the way, he will pay
you in Shanghai. You see my boat is lying aground yonder for want of
water, and cannot get away. Now, I will stand surety; and if this
gentleman does not pay when you get to Shanghai, I will do so on your
return." This unsolicited kindness on the part of a Chinaman, a perfect
stranger, will appear the more remarkable to any one acquainted with the
character of the Chinese, who are generally most reluctant to risk their
money. Those on the letter-boat agreeing to the terms, I was taken on
board as a passenger. Oh, how thankful I felt for this providential
interposition, and to be once more on my way to Shanghai!

Letter-boats such as the one on which I was now travelling are of a
long narrow build, and very limited as to their inside accommodation.
One has to lie down all the time they are in motion, as a slight
movement would easily upset them. This was no irksome condition to me,
however; on the contrary, I was only too glad to be quiet. They are the
quickest boats I have seen in China. Each one is worked by two men, who
relieve one another continuously night and day. They row with their
feet, and paddle with their hands; or if the wind is quite favourable,
row with their feet, and with one hand manage a small sail, while
steering with the other.

After a pleasant and speedy journey, I reached Shanghai in safety on
August 9th, through the help of Him who has said, "I will never leave
thee, nor forsake thee;" "Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of
the world."





IT now seemed very clear that the lost property--including everything I
possessed in China, with the exception of a small sum of money
providentially left in Shanghai--had been deliberately stolen by my
servant, who had gone off with it to Hang-chau. The first question, of
course, was how best to act for the good of the man who had been the
cause of so much trouble. It would not have been difficult to take steps
that would have led to his punishment; though the likelihood of any
reparation being made for the loss sustained was very small. But the
consideration which weighed most heavily was that the thief was a man
for whose salvation I had laboured and prayed; and I felt that to
prosecute him would not be to emphasise the teaching of the Sermon on
the Mount, in which we had read together, "Resist not evil," and other
similar precepts. Finally, concluding that his soul was of more value
than the £40 worth of things I had lost, I wrote and told him this,
urging upon him his need of repentance and faith in the LORD JESUS
CHRIST. The course I took commended itself to my Christian friends in
England, one of whom was afterwards led to send me a cheque for £40--the
first of many subsequently received from the same kind helper.

Having obtained the little money left in Shanghai, I again set out for
Ningpo, to seek assistance from Dr. Parker in replacing the medicines I
had previously lost by fire. This being satisfactorily accomplished, I
returned once more to Shanghai, _en route_ for Swatow, hoping soon to
rejoin my much-loved friend, Mr. Burns, in the work in that important
centre. GOD had willed it otherwise, however; and the delay caused by
the robbery was just sufficient to prevent me from starting for the
South as I had intended.

Over the political horizon storm-clouds had long been gathering,
precursors of coming war; and early in October of this year (1856) the
affair of the Lorcha _Arrow_ at Canton led to the definite commencement
of hostilities. Very soon China was deeply involved in a second
prolonged struggle with foreign powers; and missionary operations, in
the South at any rate, had to be largely suspended. Tidings of these
events, together with letters from Mr. Burns, arrived just in time to
meet me in Shanghai as I was leaving for Swatow; and thus hindered, I
could not but realise the hand of GOD in closing the door I had so much
desired to enter.

While in Ningpo, I had made the acquaintance of Mr. John Jones, who,
with Dr. Parker, represented the Chinese Evangelisation Society in that
city. Hindered from returning to Swatow, I now decided to join these
brethren in the Ningpo work, and set out at once upon the journey. On
the afternoon of the second day, when already about thirty miles distant
from Shanghai, Mr. Jones and I drew near the large and important city of
Sung-kiang, and I spoke of going ashore to preach the Gospel to the
thronging multitudes that lined the banks and crowded the approaches to
the city gates.

Among the passengers on board the boat was one intelligent man, who in
the course of his travels had been a good deal abroad, and had even
visited England, where he went by the name of Peter. As might be
expected, he had heard something of the Gospel, but had never
experienced its saving power. On the previous evening I had drawn him
into earnest converse about his soul's salvation. The man listened with
attention, and was even moved to tears, but still no definite result was
apparent. I was pleased, therefore, when he asked to be allowed to
accompany me, and to hear me preach.

I went into the cabin of the boat to prepare tracts and books for
distribution on landing with my Chinese friend, when suddenly I was
startled by a splash and a cry from without. I sprang on deck, and took
in the situation at a glance. Peter was gone! The other men were all
there, on board, looking helplessly at the spot where he had
disappeared, but making no effort to save him. A strong wind was
carrying the junk rapidly forward in spite of a steady current in the
opposite direction, and the low-lying, shrubless shore afforded no
landmark to indicate how far we had left the drowning man behind.

I instantly let down the sail and leapt overboard in the hope of finding
him. Unsuccessful, I looked around in agonising suspense, and saw close
to me a fishing-boat with a peculiar drag-net furnished with hooks,
which I knew would bring him up.

"Come!" I cried, as hope revived in my heart. "Come and drag over this
spot directly; a man is drowning just here!"

"Veh bin" (It is not convenient), was the unfeeling answer.

"Don't talk of _convenience_!" cried I in an agony; "a man is drowning,
I tell you!"

"We are busy fishing," they responded, "and cannot come."

"Never mind your fishing," I said, "I will give you more money than many
a day's fishing will bring; only come--come at once!"

"How much money will you give us?"

"We cannot stay to discuss that now! Come, or it will be too late. I
will give you five dollars" (then worth about thirty shillings in English

"We won't do it for that," replied the men. "Give us twenty dollars, and
we will drag."

"I do not possess so much: do come quickly, and I will give you all I

"How much may that be?"

“I don't know exactly, about fourteen dollars."

At last, but even then slowly enough, the boat was paddled over, and the
net let down. Less than a minute sufficed to bring up the body of the
missing man. The fishermen were clamorous and indignant because their
exorbitant demand was delayed while efforts at resuscitation were being
made. But all was in vain--life was extinct.

To myself this incident was profoundly sad and full of significance,
suggesting a far more mournful reality. Were not those fishermen
actually guilty of this poor Chinaman's death, in that they had the
means of saving him at hand, if they would but have used them? Assuredly
they were guilty. And yet, let us pause ere we pronounce judgment
against them, lest a greater than Nathan answer, "_Thou art the man_."
Is it so hard-hearted, so wicked a thing to neglect to save the body? Of
how much sorer punishment, then, is he worthy who leaves the soul to
perish, and Cain-like says, "Am I my brother's keeper?" The LORD JESUS
commands, commands _me_, commands _you_, my brother, and _you_, my
sister. "Go," says He, "go ye into _all_ the world, and preach the
Gospel to _every_ creature." Shall we say to _Him_, "No, it is not
convenient"? shall we tell _Him_ that we are busy fishing and cannot
go? that we have bought a piece of ground and cannot go? that we have
purchased five yoke of oxen, or have married, or are engaged in other
and more interesting pursuits, and cannot go? Ere long "we must all
appear before the judgment seat of CHRIST; that every one may receive
the things done in his body." Let us remember, let us pray for, let us
labour for the unevangelised Chinese; _or we shall sin against our own
souls_. Let us consider _Who_ it is that has said, "If thou _forbear_ to
deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be
slain; if thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not He that
pondereth the heart consider it? and He that keepeth _thy_ soul, doth
not he know it? and shall not He render to every man according to his

          Through midnight gloom from Macedon,
          The cry of myriads as of one;
          The voiceful silence of despair
          Is eloquent in awful prayer:
          The soul's exceeding bitter cry,
          "Come o'er and help us, or we die."

          How mournfully it echoes on,
          For half the earth is Macedon;
          These brethren to their brethren call,
          And by the Love which loves them all,
          And by the whole world's Life they cry,
          "O ye that live, behold we die!"

          By other sounds the world is won
          Than that which wails from Macedon;
          The roar of gain is round it rolled,
          Or men unto themselves are sold,
          And cannot list the alien cry,
          "O hear and help us, lest we die!"

          Yet with that cry from Macedon
          The very car of CHRIST rolls on:
          "_I come; who would abide My day,_
          _In yonder wilds prepare My way;_
          _My voice is crying in their cry,_
          _Help ye the dying, lest ye die_."

          JESU, for men of Man the SON,
          Yea, THINE the cry from Macedon;
          Oh, by the kingdom and the power
          And glory of Thine advent hour,
          Wake heart and will to hear their cry:
          Help us to help them, lest we die.





THE autumn of 1856 was well advanced before I reached Ningpo, one of the
most ancient and influential cities on the coast of China. Opened to the
residence of foreigners in 1842 by the treaty of Nan-king, it had long
been the scene of missionary labours. Within its thronging thoroughfares
the busy tide of life runs high. Four hundred thousand human beings
dwell within or around the five miles circuit of its ancient wall, every
one a soul that JESUS loves, for whom He died.

As winter drew on I rented a native house in Wu-gyiao-deo, or Lake Head
Street. It was not then a very comfortable residence. I have a very
distinct remembrance of tracing my initials on the snow which during the
night had collected upon my coverlet in the large barn-like upper room,
now subdivided into four or five smaller ones, each of which is
comfortably ceiled. The tiling of an unceiled Chinese house may keep off
the rain--if it happens to be sound--but it does not afford so good a
protection against snow, which will beat up through crannies and
crevices, and find its way within. But however unfinished may have been
its fittings, the little house was well adapted for work amongst the
people; and there I thankfully settled down, finding ample scope for
service,--morning, noon, and night.

During the latter part of this year my mind was greatly exercised about
continued connection with my Society, it being frequently in debt.
Personally I had always avoided debt, and kept within my salary, though
at times only by very careful economy. Now there was no difficulty in
doing this, for my income was larger, and the country being in a more
peaceful state, things were not so dear. But the Society itself was in
debt. The quarterly bills which I and others were instructed to draw
were often met by borrowed money, and a correspondence commenced which
terminated in the following year by my resigning from conscientious

To me it seemed that the teaching of GOD'S Word was unmistakably clear:
"Owe no man any thing." To borrow money implied, to my mind, a
contradiction of Scripture--a confession that GOD had withheld some good
thing, and a determination to get for ourselves what He had not given.
Could that which was wrong for one Christian to do be right for an
association of Christians? Or could any amount of precedents make a
wrong course justifiable? If the Word taught me anything, it taught me
to have no connection with debt. I could not think that GOD was poor,
that He was short of resources, or unwilling to supply any want of
whatever work was really His. It seemed to me that if there were lack of
funds to carry on work, then to that degree, in that special
development, or at that time, it could not be the work of GOD. To
satisfy my conscience I was therefore compelled to resign connection
with the Society which had hitherto supplied my salary.

It was a great satisfaction to me that my friend and colleague, Mr.
Jones, also of the Chinese Evangelisation Society, was led to take the
same step; and we were both profoundly thankful that the separation
took place without the least breach of friendly feeling on either side.
Indeed, we had the joy of knowing that the step we took commended itself
to several members of the Committee, although as a whole the Society
could not come to our position. Depending upon GOD alone for supplies,
we were enabled to continue a measure of connection with our former
supporters, sending home journals, etc., for publication as before, so
long as the Society continued to exist.

The step we had taken was not a little trying to faith. I was not at all
sure what GOD would have me do, or whether He would so meet my need as
to enable me to continue working as before. I had no friends whatever
from whom I expected supplies. I did not know what means the LORD might
use; but I was willing to give up all my time to the service of
evangelisation among the heathen, if by any means He would supply the
smallest amount on which I could live; and if He were not pleased to do
this, I was prepared to undertake whatever work might be necessary to
supply myself, giving all the time that could be spared from such a
calling to more distinctly missionary efforts. But GOD blessed and
prospered me; and how glad and thankful I felt when the separation was
really effected! I could look right up into my FATHER'S face with a
satisfied heart, ready, by His grace, to do the next thing as He might
teach me, and feeling very sure of His loving care.

And how blessedly He did lead me on and provide for me I can never,
never tell. It was like a continuation of some of my earlier home
experiences. My faith was not untried; it often, often failed, and I was
so sorry and ashamed of the failure to trust such a FATHER. But oh! I
was learning to know Him. I would not even then have missed the trial.
He became so near, so real, so intimate. The occasional difficulty about
funds never came from an insufficient supply for personal needs, but in
consequence of ministering to the wants of scores of the hungry and
dying ones around us. And trials far more searching in other ways quite
eclipsed these difficulties; and being deeper, brought forth in
consequence richer fruits. How glad one is now, not only to know, with
dear Miss Havergal, that----

          "They who trust Him wholly
              Find Him wholly true,"

but also that when we fail to trust fully He still remains unchangingly
faithful. He _is_ wholly true whether we trust or not. "If we believe
not, He abideth faithful; He cannot deny Himself." But oh, how we
dishonour our LORD whenever we fail to trust Him, and what peace,
blessing, and triumph we lose in thus sinning against the Faithful One!
May we never again presume in anything to doubt Him!

The year 1857 was a troublous time, and closed with the notorious
bombardment of Canton by the British, and the commencement of our second
Chinese war. Rumours of trouble were everywhere rife, and in many places
the missionaries passed through not a little danger. In Ningpo this was
especially the case, and the preserving care of GOD in answer to prayer
was consequently most marked. When the awful news of the bombardment of
Canton reached the Cantonese in Ningpo their wrath and indignation knew
no bounds, and they immediately set to work to plot the destruction of
all the foreigners resident in the city and neighbourhood. It was well
known that many of the foreigners were in the habit of meeting for
worship every Sunday evening at one of the missionary houses, and the
plan was to surround the place on a given occasion and make short work
of all present, cutting off afterwards any who might not be present.

The sanction of the Tao-t'ai, or chief civil magistrate of the city, was
easily obtained; and nothing remained to hinder the execution of the
plot, of which the foreigners were of course entirely in ignorance. (A
similar plot against the Portuguese a few months later was carried out,
and between fifty and sixty were massacred in open daylight.) It so
happened, however, that one of those acquainted with the conspiracy had
a friend engaged in the service of the missionaries; and anxious for his
safety, he was led to warn him of the coming danger, and urge his
leaving foreign employ. The servant made the matter known to his master,
and thus the little community became aware of their peril. Realising the
gravity of the situation, they determined to meet together at the house
of one of their number to seek the protection of the Most High, and to
hide under the shadow of His wings. Nor did they thus meet in vain.

At the very time we were praying the LORD was working. He led an
inferior mandarin, the Superintendent of Customs, to call upon the
Tao-t'ai, and remonstrate with him upon the folly of permitting such an
attempt, which he assured him would rouse the foreigners in other places
to come with armed forces to avenge the death of their countrymen and
raze the city to the ground. The Tao-t'ai replied that, when the
foreigners came for that purpose, he should deny all knowledge of or
complicity in the plot, and so direct their vengeance against the
Cantonese, who would in their turn be destroyed; "and thus," said he,
"we shall get rid of both Cantonese and foreigners by one stroke of
policy." The Superintendent of Customs assured him that all such
attempts at evasion would be useless; and, finally, the Tao-t'ai sent to
the Cantonese, withdrawing his permission, and prohibiting the attack.
This took place at the very time when we were asking protection of the
LORD, though we did not become acquainted with the facts until some
weeks later. Thus again we were led to prove that--

          "Sufficient is His arm alone,
              And our defence is sure."

I cannot attempt to give any historical record of the events of this
period, but ere 1857 terminated Mr. Jones and I were cheered by tokens
of blessing. It is interesting to recall the circumstances connected
with the first profession of faith in Christ, which encouraged us.

On one occasion I was preaching the glad tidings of salvation through
the finished work of CHRIST, when a middle-aged man stood up, and
testified before his assembled countrymen to his faith in the power of
the Gospel.

"I have long sought for the Truth," said he earnestly, "as my fathers
did before me; but I have never found it. I have travelled far and near,
but without obtaining it. I have found no rest in Confucianism,
Buddhism, or Taoism; but I do find rest in what I have heard here
to-night. Henceforth I am a believer in JESUS."

This man was one of the leading officers of a sect of reformed Buddhists
in Ningpo. A short time after his confession of faith in the SAVIOUR
there was a meeting of the sect over which he had formerly presided. I
accompanied him to that meeting, and there, to his former
co-religionists, he testified of the peace he had obtained in believing.
Soon after, one of his former companions was converted and baptized.
Both now sleep in JESUS. The first of these two long continued to preach
to his countrymen the glad tidings of great joy. A few nights after his
conversion he asked how long this Gospel had been known in England. He
was told that we had known it for some hundreds of years.

"What!" said he, amazed; "is it possible that for hundreds of years you
have had the knowledge of these glad tidings in your possession, and yet
have only now come to preach it to us? My father sought after the Truth
for more than twenty years, and died without finding it. Oh, why did you
not come sooner?"

A whole generation has passed away since that mournful inquiry was made;
but how many, alas! might repeat the same question to-day? More than two
hundred millions in the meanwhile have been swept into eternity, without
an offer of salvation. How long shall this continue, and the MASTER'S
words, "To every creature," remain unheeded?





NOT infrequently our GOD brings His people into difficulties on purpose
that they may come to know Him as they could not otherwise do. Then He
reveals Himself as "a very present help in trouble," and makes the heart
glad indeed at each fresh revelation of a FATHER'S faithfulness. We who
only see so small a part of the sweet issues of trial often feel that we
would not for anything have missed them; how much more shall we bless
and magnify His Name when all the hidden things are brought to light!

In the autumn of 1857, just one year after I came to settle in Ningpo, a
little incident occurred that did much to strengthen our faith in the
loving-kindness and ever-watchful care of GOD.

A brother in the LORD, the Rev. John Quarterman, of the American
Presbyterian Mission North, was taken with virulent small-pox, and it
was my mournful privilege to nurse him through his suffering illness to
its fatal close. When all was over, it became necessary to lay aside the
garments worn while nursing, for fear of conveying the infection to
others. Not having sufficient money in hand to purchase what was needful
in order to make this change, prayer was the only resource. The LORD
answered it by the unexpected arrival of a long-lost box of clothing
from Swatow, that had remained in the care of the Rev. William Burns
when I left him for Shanghai, in the early summer of the previous year.
The arrival of the things just at this juncture was as appropriate as it
was remarkable, and brought a sweet sense of the FATHER'S own providing.

About two months later the following was penned:----

                                            _November 18th, 1857._

Many seem to think that I am very poor. This certainly is true enough in
one sense, but I thank GOD it is "as poor, yet making many rich; as
having nothing, yet possessing all things." And my GOD shall supply
_all_ my need; to Him be all the glory. I would not, if I could, be
otherwise than I am--entirely dependent myself upon the LORD, and used
as a channel of help to others.

On Saturday, the 4th inst., our regular home mail arrived. That morning
we supplied, as usual, a breakfast to the destitute poor, who came to
the number of seventy. Sometimes they do not reach forty, at others
again exceeding eighty. They come to us every day, LORD'S Day excepted,
for then we cannot manage to attend to them and get through all our
other duties too. Well, on that Saturday morning we paid all expenses,
and provided ourselves for the morrow, after which we had not a single
dollar left between us. How the LORD was going to provide for Monday we
knew not; but over our mantelpiece hung two scrolls in the Chinese
character--_Ebenezer_, "Hitherto hath the LORD helped us"; and
_Jehovah-Jireh_, "The LORD will provide"--and He kept us from doubting
for a moment. That very day the mail came in, _a week sooner than was
expected_, and Mr. Jones received a bill for two hundred and fourteen
dollars. We thanked GOD and took courage. The bill was taken to a
merchant, and although there is usually a delay of several days in
getting the change, this time he said, "Send down on Monday." We sent,
and though he had not been able to buy all the dollars, he let us have
seventy on account; so all was well. Oh, it is sweet to live thus
directly dependent upon the LORD, who never fails us!

On Monday the poor had their breakfast as usual, for we had not told
them not to come, being assured that it was the LORD'S work, and that
the LORD would provide. We could not help our eyes filling with tears of
gratitude when we saw not only our own needs supplied, but the widow and
the orphan, the blind and the lame, the friendless and the destitute,
together provided for by the bounty of Him who feeds the ravens. "O
magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt His Name together. . . . Taste
and see that the LORD is good: blessed is the man that trusteth in Him.
O fear the LORD, ye His saints: for there is no want to them that fear
Him. The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger: but they that seek the
LORD shall not want any good thing"--and if not good, why want it?

But even two hundred dollars cannot last for ever, and by New Year's Day
supplies were again getting low. At last, on January 6th, 1858, only one
solitary cash remained--the twentieth part of a penny--in the joint
possession of Mr. Jones and myself; but though tried we looked to GOD
once again to manifest His gracious care. Enough provision was found in
the house to supply a meagre breakfast; after which, having neither food
for the rest of the day, nor money to buy any, we could only betake
ourselves to Him who was able to supply all our need with the petition,
"Give us this day our daily bread."

After prayer and deliberation we thought that perhaps we ought to
dispose of something we possessed in order to meet our immediate
requirements. But on looking round we saw nothing that we could well
spare, and little that the Chinese would purchase for ready money.
Credit to any extent we might have had, could we conscientiously have
availed ourselves of it, but this we felt to be unscriptural in itself,
as well as inconsistent with the position we were in. We had, indeed,
one article--an iron stove--which we knew the Chinese would readily
purchase; but we much regretted the necessity of parting with it. At
length, however, we set out to the founder's, and after a walk of some
distance came to the river, which we had intended to cross by a floating
bridge of boats; but here the LORD shut up our path. The bridge had been
carried away during the preceding night, and the river was only passable
by means of a ferry, the fare for which was two cash each person. As we
only possessed one cash, our course clearly was to return and await
GOD'S own interposition on our behalf.

Upon reaching home, we found that Mrs. Jones had gone with the children
to dine at a friend's house, in accordance with an invitation accepted
some days previously. Mr. Jones, though himself included in the
invitation, refused now to go and leave me to fast alone. So we set to
work and carefully searched the cupboards; and though there was nothing
to eat, we found a small packet of cocoa, which, with a little hot
water, somewhat revived us. After this we again cried to the LORD in our
trouble, and the LORD heard and saved us out of all our distresses. For
while we were still upon our knees a letter arrived from England
containing a remittance.

This timely supply not only met the immediate and urgent need of the
day; for in the assured confidence that GOD, whose we were and whom we
served, would not put to shame those whose whole and only trust was in
Himself. My marriage had been previously arranged to take place just
fourteen days after this date. And this expectation was not
disappointed; for "the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed,
but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant
of My peace be removed." And although during subsequent years our faith
was often exercised, and sometimes severely, He ever proved faithful to
His promise, and never suffered us to lack any good thing.

Never, perhaps, was there a union that more fully realised the blessed
truth, "Whoso findeth a wife findeth a good thing, and obtaineth favour
of the LORD." My dear wife was not only a precious gift to me; GOD
blessed her to many others during the twelve eventful years through
which she was spared to those that loved her and to China.

Hers had been a life connection with missionary work in that great
empire; for her father, the loved and devoted Samuel Dyer, was amongst
the very earliest representatives of the London Mission in the East. He
reached the Straits as early as 1827, and for sixteen years laboured
assiduously amongst the Chinese in Penang and Singapore, completing at
the same time a valuable fount of Chinese metallic type, the first of
the kind that had then been attempted. Dying in 1843, it was never Mr.
Dyers privilege to realise his hopes of ultimately being able to settle
on Chinese soil; but his children lived to see the country opened to the
Gospel, and to take their share in the great work that had been so dear
to his heart. At the time of her marriage, my dear wife had been already
living for several years in Ningpo with her friend, Miss Aldersey, in
whose varied missionary operations she was well qualified to render
valuable assistance.




A SOMEWHAT different though not less manifest answer to prayer was
vouchsafed early in the year 1859. My dear wife was brought very low by
illness, and at last all hope of recovery seemed gone. Every remedy
tried had proved unavailing; and Dr. Parker, who was in attendance, had
nothing more to suggest. Life was ebbing fast away. The only ground of
hope was that GOD might yet see fit to raise her up, in answer to
believing but submissive prayer.

The afternoon for the usual prayer meeting among the missionaries had
arrived, and I sent in a request for prayer, which was most warmly
responded to. Just at this time a remedy that had not yet been tried was
suggested to my mind, and I felt that I must hasten to consult Dr.
Parker as to the propriety of using it. It was a moment of anguish. The
hollow temples, sunken eyes, and pinched features denoted the near
approach of death; and it seemed more than questionable as to whether
life would hold out until my return. It was nearly two miles to Dr.
Parker's house, and every moment appeared long. On my way thither, while
wrestling mightily with GOD in prayer, the precious words were brought
with power to my soul, "Call upon Me in the day of trouble: I will
deliver thee, and thou shall glorify Me." I was at once enabled to plead
them in faith, and the result was deep, deep, unspeakable peace and
joy. All consciousness of distance was gone. Dr. Parker cordially
approved of the use of the means suggested, but upon arriving at home I
saw at a glance that the desired change had taken place in the absence
of this or any other remedy. The pinched aspect of the countenance had
given place to the calmness of tranquil slumber, and not one
unfavourable symptom remained to retard recovery to health and strength.

Spared thus in answer to prayer the loss of my own loved one, it was
with added sympathy and sorrow that I felt for Dr. Parker, when, in the
autumn of the same year, his own wife was very suddenly removed. It
being necessary for the doctor to return at once with his motherless
children to Glasgow, temporary arrangements had to be made for the
conduct of the Mission Hospital in Ningpo, for which he alone had been
responsible. Under these circumstances he requested me to take up the
work, at least so far as the dispensary was concerned. After a few days'
waiting upon the LORD for guidance, I felt constrained to undertake not
only the dispensary work, but also that of the hospital; relying solely
upon the faithfulness of a prayer-hearing GOD to furnish the means
required for its support.

The funds for the maintenance of the hospital had hitherto been supplied
by the proceeds of the doctor's foreign medical practice; and with his
departure these ceased. But had not GOD said that whatever we ask in the
Name of the LORD JESUS shall be done? And are we not told to seek first
the kingdom of GOD, not means to advance it, and that all these things
shall be added to us? Such promises were surely sufficient. Eight days
before entering upon this responsibility I had not the remotest idea of
ever doing so; still less could friends at home have anticipated it.
But the LORD had foreseen the need, and already funds were on the way to
supply it.

At times there were not less than fifty in-patients in the hospital,
besides a large number who daily attended the out-patient department.
Thirty beds were ordinarily allotted to free patients and their
attendants; and about as many to opium-smokers, who paid for their board
while being cured of the habit. As all the wants of the sick in the
wards were supplied gratuitously, in addition to the remedial appliances
needed for the out-patient work, the daily expenses were considerable;
besides which, a number of native attendants were required, involving
their support.

When Dr. Parker handed the hospital over to me he was able to leave
money that would meet the salaries and working expenses of the current
month, and little more. Being unable to guarantee their support, his
native staff retired; and then I mentioned the circumstances to the
members of our little church, some of whom volunteered to help me,
depending, like myself, upon the LORD; and they with me continued to
wait upon GOD that in some way or other He would provide for His own
work. Day by day the stores diminished, and they were all but exhausted
when one day a remarkable letter reached me from a friend in England
which contained a cheque for £50. The letter stated that the sender had
recently lost his father, and had inherited his property; that not
desiring to increase his personal expenditure, he wished to hold the
money which had now been left to him to further the LORD'S work. He
enclosed the £50, saying that I might know of some special need for it;
but leaving me free to use it for my own support, or in any way that the
LORD might lead me; only asking to know how it was applied, and whether
there was need for more.

After a little season of thanksgiving with my dear wife, I called my
native helpers into our little chapel, and translated to them the
letter. I need not say how rejoiced they were, and that we together
praised GOD. They returned to their work in the hospital with
overflowing hearts, and told out to the patients what a GOD was ours;
appealing to them whether their idols had ever helped them so. Both
helpers and patients were blessed spiritually through this remarkable
provision, and from that time the LORD provided all that was necessary
for carrying on the institution, in addition to what was needed for the
maintenance of my own family, and for sustaining other branches of
missionary work under my care. When, nine months later, I was obliged
through failure of health to relinquish this charge, I was able to leave
more funds in hand for the support of the hospital than were forthcoming
at the time I undertook it.

But not only were pecuniary supplies vouchsafed in answer to
prayer--many lives were spared; persons apparently in hopeless stages of
disease were restored, and success was given in cases of serious and
dangerous operations. In the case of one poor man, whose legs were
amputated under very unfavourable circumstances, healthy action took
place with such rapidity that both wounds were healed in less than two
weeks. And more permanent benefits than these were conferred. Many were
convinced of the truth of Christianity; not a few sought the LORD in
faith and prayer, and experienced the power of the Great Physician to
cure the sin-sick soul. During the nine months above alluded to sixteen
patients from the hospital were baptized, and more than thirty others
became candidates for admission into one or other of the Christian
churches in the city.

Thus the year 1860 began with openings on all hands, but time and
strength were sadly too limited to admit of their being used to the
best advantage. For some time the help of additional workers had been a
much-felt need; and in January very definite prayer was made to the LORD
of the harvest that He would thrust forth more labourers into this
special portion of the great world-field. Writing to relatives at home
in England, under date of January 16th, 1860, I thus expressed the deep
longing of our hearts:--

          Do you know any earnest, devoted young men
          desirous of serving GOD in China, who--not wishing
          for more than their actual support--would be
          willing to come out and labour here? Oh, for four
          or five such helpers! They would probably begin to
          preach in Chinese in six months time; and in
          answer to prayer the necessary means for their
          support would be found.

But no one came to help us then; and under the incessant physical and
mental strain involved, in the care of the hospital during Dr. Parker's
absence, as well as the continued discharge of my other missionary
duties, my own health began rapidly to fail, and it became a serious
question as to whether it would not be needful to return to England for
a time.

It was hard to face this possibility. The growing church and work seemed
to need our presence, and it was no small trial to part from those whom
we had learned so truly to love in the LORD. Thirty or forty native
Christians had been gathered into the recently organised church; and the
well-filled meetings, and the warm-hearted earnestness of the converts,
all bespoke a future of much promise. At last, however, completely
prostrated by repeated attacks of illness, the only hope of restoration
seemed to lie in a voyage to England and a brief stay in its more
bracing climate; and this necessity, painful though it seemed at the
time, proved to be only another opportunity for the manifestation of the
faithfulness and loving care of Him "who worketh all things after the
counsel of His own will."

As heretofore, the LORD was present with His aid. The means for our
journey were supplied, and that so liberally that we were able to bring
with us a native Christian to assist in translation or other literary
work, and to instruct in the language such helpers as the LORD might
raise up for the extension of the Mission. That He would give us
fellow-labourers we had no doubt; for we had been enabled to seek them
from Him in earnest and believing prayer for many months previously.

The day before leaving China we wrote as follows to our friend W. T.
Berger, Esq., whom we had known in England, and who had ever
strengthened our hands in the LORD while in that distant land:--

"We are bringing with us a young Chinese brother to assist in literary
work, and I hope also in teaching the dialect to those whom the LORD may
induce to return with us."

And throughout the voyage our earnest cry to GOD was that He would
overrule our stay at home for good to China, and make it instrumental in
raising up at least five helpers to labour in the province of

The way in which it pleased the LORD to answer these earnest and
believing prayers, and the "exceeding abundantly" with which He crowned
them, we shall now sketch in brief outline.




"My thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My ways, saith
the LORD. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways
higher than your ways, and My thoughts than your thoughts."[3] How true
are these words! When the LORD is bringing in great blessing in the best
possible way, how oftentimes our unbelieving hearts are feeling, if not
saying, like Jacob of old, "All these things are against me." Or we are
filled with fear, as were the disciples when the LORD, walking on the
waters, drew near to quiet the troubled sea, and to bring them quickly
to their desired haven. And yet mere common-sense ought to tell us that
He, whose way is perfect, _can_ make no mistakes; that He who has
promised to "perfect that which concerneth" us, and whose minute care
counts the very hairs of our heads, and forms for us our circumstances,
_must_ know better than we the way to forward our truest interests and
to glorify His own Name.

          "Blind unbelief is _sure_ to err
             And scan His work in vain;
           GOD is His own Interpreter,
             And He will make it plain."

To me it seemed a great calamity that failure of health compelled my
relinquishing work for GOD in China, just when it was more fruitful than
ever before; and to leave the little band of Christians in Ningpo,
needing much care and teaching, was a great sorrow. Nor was the sorrow
lessened when, on reaching England, medical testimony assured me that
return to China, at least for years to come, was impossible. Little did
I then realise that the long separation from China was a necessary step
towards the formation of a work which GOD would bless as He has blessed
the CHINA INLAND MISSION. While in the field, the pressure of claims
immediately around me was so great that I could not think much of the
still greater needs of the regions farther inland; and, if they were
thought of, could do nothing for them. But while detained for some years
in England, daily viewing the whole country on the large map on the wall
of my study, I was as near to the vast regions of Inland China as to the
smaller districts in which I had laboured personally for GOD; and prayer
was often the only resource by which the burdened heart could gain any

As a long absence from China appeared inevitable, the next question was
how best to serve China while in England, and this led to my engaging
for several years, with the late Rev. F. F. Gough of the C. M. S., in
the revision of a version of the New Testament in the colloquial of
Ningpo for the British and Foreign Bible Society. In undertaking this
work, in my short-sightedness I saw nothing beyond the use that the
Book, and the marginal references, would be to the native Christians;
but I have often seen since that, without those months of feeding and
feasting on the Word of GOD, I should have been quite unprepared to
form, on its present basis, a mission like the CHINA INLAND MISSION.

In the study of that Divine Word I learned that, to obtain successful
labourers, not elaborate appeals for help, but, _first_, earnest _prayer
to GOD to thrust forth labourers_, and, _second_, the deepening of the
spiritual life of the church, so that _men should be unable to stay at
home_, were what was needed. I saw that the Apostolic plan was not to
raise ways and means, but _to go and do the work_, trusting in His sure
Word who has said, "Seek ye _first_ the Kingdom of GOD and His
righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you."

In the meantime the prayer for workers for CHEH-KIANG was being
answered. The first, Mr. Meadows, sailed for China with his young wife
in January 1862, through the kind co-operation and aid of our friend Mr.
Berger. The second left England in 1864, having her passage provided by
the Foreign Evangelisation Society. The third and fourth reached Ningpo
on July 24th, 1865. A fifth soon followed them, reaching Ningpo in
September 1865. Thus the prayer for the five workers was fully answered;
and we were encouraged to look to GOD for still greater things.

Months of earnest prayer and not a few abortive efforts had resulted in
a deep conviction that _a special agency was essential_ for the
evangelisation of Inland China. At this time I had not only the daily
help of prayer and conference with my beloved friend and fellow-worker
the late Rev. F. F. Gough, but also invaluable aid and counsel from Mr.
and Mrs. Berger, with whom I and my dear wife (whose judgment and piety
were of priceless value at this juncture) spent many days in prayerful
deliberation. The grave difficulty of possibly interfering with existing
missionary operations at home was foreseen; but it was concluded that,
by simple trust in GOD, suitable agency might be raised up and sustained
without interfering injuriously with any existing work. I had also a
growing conviction that GOD would have _me_ to seek from Him the needed
workers, and to go forth with them. But for a long time unbelief
hindered my taking the first step.

How inconsistent unbelief always is! I had no doubt that, if I prayed
for workers, "_in_ the Name" of the LORD JESUS CHRIST, they would be
given me. I had no doubt that, in answer to such prayer, the means for
our going forth would be provided, and that doors would be opened before
us in unreached parts of the Empire. But I had not then learned to trust
GOD for _keeping_ power and grace for myself, so no wonder that I could
not trust Him to keep others who might be prepared to go with me. I
feared that in the midst of the dangers, difficulties, and trials which
would necessarily be connected with such a work, some who were
comparatively inexperienced Christians might break down, and bitterly
reproach me for having encouraged them to undertake an enterprise for
which they were unequal.

Yet, what was I to do? The feeling of blood-guiltiness became more and
more intense. Simply because I refused to ask for them, the labourers
did not come forward--did not go out to China--and every day tens of
thousands were passing away to Christless graves! Perishing China so
filled my heart and mind that there was no rest by day, and little sleep
by night, till health broke down. At the invitation of my beloved and
honoured friend, Mr. George Pearse (then of the Stock Exchange), I went
to spend a few days with him in Brighton.

On Sunday, June 25th, 1865, unable to bear the sight of a congregation
of a thousand or more Christian people rejoicing in their own security,
while millions were perishing for lack of knowledge, I wandered out on
the sands alone, in great spiritual agony; and there the LORD conquered
my unbelief, and I surrendered myself to GOD for this service. I told
Him that all the responsibility as to issues and consequences must rest
with Him; that as His servant, it was mine to obey and to follow
Him--His, to direct, to care for, and to guide me and those who might
labour with me. Need I say that peace at once flowed into my burdened
heart? There and then I asked Him for twenty-four fellow-workers, two
for each of eleven inland provinces which were without a missionary, and
two for Mongolia; and writing the petition on the margin of the Bible I
had with me, I returned home with a heart enjoying rest such as it had
been a stranger to for months, and with an assurance that the LORD would
bless His own work and that I should share in the blessing. I had
previously prayed, and asked prayer, that workers might be raised up for
the eleven then unoccupied provinces, and thrust forth and provided for,
but had not surrendered myself to be their leader.

About this time, with the help of my dear wife, I wrote the little book,
_China's Spiritual Need and Claims_. Every paragraph was steeped in
prayer. With the help of Mr. Berger, who had given valued aid in the
revision of the manuscript, and who bore the expense of printing an
edition of 3000 copies, they were soon put in circulation. I spoke
publicly of the proposed work as opportunity permitted, specially at the
Perth and Mildmay Conferences of 1865, and continued in prayer for
fellow-workers, who were soon raised up, and after due correspondence
were invited to my home, then in the East of London. When one house
became insufficient, the occupant of the adjoining house removed, and I
was able to rent it; and when that in its turn became insufficient,
further accommodation was provided close by. Soon there were a number of
men and women under preparatory training, and engaging in evangelistic
work which tested in some measure their qualifications as soul-winners.



[3] Isaiah lv. 8, 9.



IT was thus that in the year 1865 the CHINA INLAND MISSION was
organised; and the workers already in the field were incorporated into
it. W. T. Berger, Esq., then residing at Saint Hill, near East
Grinstead, without whose help and encouragement I could not have gone
forward, undertook the direction of the home department of the work
during my anticipated absence in China; and I proposed, as soon as
arrangements could be completed, to go out with the volunteers and take
the direction of the work in the field. For the support of the workers
already in China, our friends at home were sending in unsolicited
contributions from time to time, and every need was met.

We had now, however, to look forward to the outgoing of a party of
sixteen or seventeen, and estimated that from £1500 to £2000 might be
required to cover outfits, passage-money, and initial expenses. I wrote
a little pamphlet, calling it "Occasional Paper, No. I." (intending in
successive numbers to give to donors and friends accounts of the work
wrought through us in China), and in that paper stated the anticipated
needs for floating the enterprise. I expected that GOD would incline the
hearts of some of the readers to send contributions: I had determined
never to use personal solicitation, or to make collections, or to issue
collecting-books. Missionary-boxes were thought unobjectionable, and we
had a few prepared for those who might ask for them, and have continued
to use them ever since.

It was February 6th, 1866, when I sent my manuscript of "Occasional
Paper, No. I.," with a design for the cover, to the printer. From delays
in engraving and printing, it was March 12th when the bales of pamphlets
were delivered at my house. Now on February 6th a daily prayer-meeting,
from 12 to 1 o'clock, had been commenced, to ask for the needed funds.
And that we had not asked in vain, the following extract from
"Occasional Paper, No. II." will show:--

"The receipts for 1864 were £51:14s.; for 1865, from January to June,
£221:12:6, besides two free passages; from June to December, £923:12:8.
Hindrances having occurred, the MS. of the "Occasional Paper, No. I."
was not completed till February 6th, 1866. Up to this time we had
received (from December 30th) £170:8:3.

"We felt much encouraged by the receipt of so much money in little more
than a month, as it was entirely unsolicited by us--save from GOD. But
it was also evident that we must ask the LORD to do yet greater things
for us, or it would be impossible for a party of from ten to sixteen to
leave in the middle of May. _Daily united prayer was therefore offered
to_ GOD for the funds needful for the outfits and passages of as many as
He would have to go out in May.

"Owing to the delays mentioned above in the printing of the 'Occasional
Paper,' it was not ready for the publisher until March 12th. On this day
I again examined my mission cash-book, and the comparison of the result
of the two similar periods of one month and six days each, one before
and one after special prayer for £1500 to £2000, was very striking:--

          "Receipts from December 30th to February 6th, £170  8  3
             "    Feb. 6th to Mar. 12th £1774 5 11
          "Funds advised, since received  200 0  0
                                         ---------     £1974  5 11

"This, it will be noticed, was _previous_ to the circulation of the
'Occasional Paper,' and, consequently, was not the result of it. It was
the response of a faithful GOD to the united prayers of those whom He
had called to serve Him in the Gospel of His dear SON.

"We can now compare with these two periods a third of the same extent.
From March 12th to April 18th the receipts were £529, showing that when
GOD had supplied the special need, the special supply also ceased. Truly
there is a LIVING GOD, and HE is the hearer and answerer of prayer."

But this gracious answer to prayer made it a little difficult to
circulate "Occasional Paper, No. I.," for it stated as a need that which
was already supplied. The difficulty was obviated by the issue with each
copy of a coloured inset stating that the funds for outfit and passage
were already in hand in answer to prayer. We were reminded of the
difficulty of Moses--not a very common one in the present day--and of
the proclamation he had to send through the camp to the people to
prepare no more for the building of the Tabernacle, as the gifts in hand
were already too much. We are convinced that if there were _less_
solicitation for money and _more_ dependence upon the power of the HOLY
GHOST and upon the deepening of spiritual life, the experience of Moses
would be a common one in every branch of Christian work.

Preparations for sailing to China were at once proceeded with. About
this time I was asked to give a lecture on China in a village not very
far from London, and agreed to do so on condition that there should be
no collection, and that this should be announced on the bills. The
gentleman who invited me, and who kindly presided as chairman, said he
had never had that condition imposed before. He accepted it, however,
and the bills were issued accordingly for the 2nd or 3rd of May. With
the aid of a large map, something of the extent and population and deep
spiritual need of China was presented, and many were evidently

At the close of the meeting the chairman said that by my request it had
been intimated on the bills that there would be no collection; but he
felt that many present would be distressed and burdened if they had not
the opportunity of contributing something towards the good work
proposed. He trusted that as the proposition emanated entirely from
himself, and expressed, he felt sure, the feelings of many in the
audience, I should not object to it. I begged, however, that the
condition agreed to might be carried out; pointing out among other
reasons for making no collection, that the very reason adduced by our
kind chairman was, to my mind, one of the strongest for not making it.
My wish was, not that those present should be relieved by making such
contribution as might there and then be convenient, under the influence
of a present emotion; but that each one should go home burdened with the
deep need of China, and ask of GOD what He would have them to do. If,
after thought and prayer, they were satisfied that a pecuniary
contribution was what He wanted of them, it could be given to any
Missionary Society having agents in China; or it might be posted to our
London office; but that perhaps in many cases what GOD wanted was _not_
a money contribution, but personal consecration to His service abroad;
or the giving up of son or daughter--more precious than silver or
gold--to His service. I added that I thought the tendency of a
collection was to leave the impression that the all-important thing was
_money_, whereas no amount of money could convert a single soul; that
what was needed was that men and women filled with the HOLY GHOST should
give _themselves_ to the work: for the support of such there would never
be a lack of funds. As my wish was evidently very strong, the chairman
kindly yielded to it, and closed the meeting. He told me, however, at
the supper-table, that he thought it was a mistake on my part, and that,
notwithstanding all I had said, a few persons had put some little
contributions into his hands.

Next morning at breakfast, my kind host came in a little late, and
acknowledged to not having had a very good night. After breakfast he
asked me to his study, and giving me the contributions handed to him the
night before, said, "I thought last night, Mr. Taylor, that you were in
the wrong about a collection; I am now convinced you were quite right.
As I thought in the night of that stream of souls in China ever passing
onward into the dark, I could only cry as you suggested, 'LORD, what
wilt Thou have _me_ to do?' I think I have obtained the guidance I
sought, and here it is." He handed me a cheque for £500, adding that if
there had been a collection he would have given a few pounds to it, but
now this cheque was the result of having spent no small part of the
night in prayer.

I need scarcely say how surprised and thankful I was for this gift. I
had received at the breakfast-table a letter from Messrs. Killick,
Martin and Co., shipping agents, in which they stated that they could
offer us the whole passenger accommodation of the ship _Lammermuir_. I
went direct to the ship, found it in every way suitable, and paid the
cheque on account. As above stated, the funds deemed needed had been
already in hand for some time; but the coincidence of the simultaneous
offer of the ship accommodation and this munificent gift--GOD'S
"exceeding abundantly"--greatly encouraged my heart.

On the 26th of May we sailed for China in the _Lammermuir_, a missionary
party of 16 (besides my four children and their nurse, and Miss Bausum
(afterwards Mrs. Barchet)); in all 22 passengers. Mr. Berger took charge
of the home department, and thus the C. I. M. was fully inaugurated.




THE events sketched in the last two chapters have been more fully
delineated by Miss Guinness in her interesting _Story of the China
Inland Mission_, which continues its history to the present date. It is
indeed a record of the goodness of GOD, every remembrance of which calls
for gratitude and praise. We can only here briefly mention a few facts,
referring our readers to Miss Guinness's work for all details.

After a voyage of many mercies the _Lammermuir_ party safely reached
China, and during the first ten years stations and out-stations were
opened in many cities and towns in four provinces which hitherto had
been unreached by the Gospel. At home Mr. and Mrs. Berger continued
their devoted service until March 19th, 1872, I having returned to
England the year before. Shortly after this the London Council was
formed, which has now for several years been assisted by an auxiliary
Council of ladies. A Scotch Council was also formed in Glasgow a few
years ago.

A visit to America in 1888 issued in the formation of the Council for
North America, and a similar Council for Australasia was commenced in
Melbourne two years later. In the field a China Council was organised in
1886, composed of senior missionaries who meet quarterly in Shanghai.

Closely associated with the C. I. M. are seven Committees--in England,
Norway, Sweden (two), Finland, Germany, and the United States--which
send out and support their own missionaries, who in China have the
assistance of the educational and other advantages of the C. I. M., and
who work under its direction.

The staff of the Mission, in May 1893, consisted of 552 missionaries
(including wives and associates). There were also 326 native helpers (95
of whom were unpaid), working as pastors, evangelists, teachers,
colporteurs, Bible-women, etc., in 14 different provinces.

Duly qualified candidates for missionary labour are accepted without
restriction as to denomination, provided they are sound in the faith in
all fundamental truths: these go out in dependence upon GOD for temporal
supplies, with the clear understanding that the officers of the Mission
do not guarantee any income whatever; and knowing that as they will not
go into debt, they can only minister to them as the funds sent in from
time to time will allow. But we praise GOD that during the past
twenty-eight years such ministry has always been possible; our GOD _has_
supplied all our need, and has withheld no good thing.

All the expenses of the Mission at home and abroad are met by voluntary
contributions, sent to the offices of the Mission without personal
solicitation, by those who wish to aid in this effort to spread the
knowledge of the Gospel throughout China. The income for the year 1892
was about £34,000 from all sources--Great Britain, the Continent of
Europe, North America, Australasia, China, etc.

Some of the missionaries having private property have gone out at their
own expense, and do not take anything from the Mission funds.

Stations have been opened in ten of the eleven provinces which were
previously without Protestant missionaries; from one of these, however,
we have had to retire. The eleventh province has been visited several
times, and it is hoped that in it permanent work may soon be begun.

More than 200 stations and out-stations have been opened in fourteen of
the eighteen provinces, in all of which stations either missionaries or
native labourers are resident. Over 6000 converts have been baptized
from the commencement, some 4000 of whom are now living and in


The year 1894, in which the first edition of _A Retrospect_ appeared,
was marked by the erection of large and commodious premises for the work
of the Mission, and early in the following year the houses in Pyrland
Road, which had so long formed the home of the Mission in England, were
vacated, and NEWINGTON GREEN, LONDON, N., became the address of the
Mission offices and home.

From that date until the Boxer outbreak of 1900 the Mission made steady
progress, the development of the work in China being accompanied by
corresponding developments in the home departments of the Mission in
England, America, and Australasia.

In January 1900, before the Boxer outbreak, there were in connection
with the Mission, 811 missionaries, including wives and associates; 171
stations; 223 out-stations; 387 chapels; 581 paid native helpers; 193
unpaid native helpers; 8557 communicants in fellowship, 12,964 having
been baptized from the commencement. There were 266 organised churches;
788 boarding scholars; 1382 day scholars; 6 hospitals; 18 dispensaries;
and 46 opium refuges.

During the terrible year of 1900, when no fewer than 135 missionaries
and 53 missionaries' children and many thousands of Chinese Christians
were cruelly murdered, the China Inland Mission lost 58 missionaries and
21 children. The records of these unparalleled times of suffering have
been told in _Martyred Missionaries of the China Inland Mission_ and in
_Last Letters_, both of which books will be found advertised at the end
of this volume. Apart from loss of life, there was an immense amount of
Mission property destroyed, and the missionaries were compelled to
retire from their stations in most parts of China.

The doors closed by this outbreak have all been reopened in the goodness
of GOD. In those districts which suffered most from the massacres the
work has largely been one of reorganisation; but throughout China
generally there has been a spirit of awakening and a time of enlarged
opportunity; which is a loud call for more men and women to volunteer to
step into the gaps and fill the places of those who have fallen.

Among recent developments we would specially mention the opening of a
new home centre at Philadelphia, U.S.A. The total income of the Mission
for 1901 was £53,633 = $257,712, and the total received in England
alone, for 1902, was £51,446 = $246,912. The total membership of the
Mission in June 1902 was 761.

Current information about the progress of the work in China may be
obtained from _China's Millions_, the organ of the Mission. It is
published monthly, and may be ordered through any bookseller from
Messrs. Morgan and Scott, 12 Paternoster Buildings, E.C., for 1s. per
year, or direct by post from the offices of the Mission, Newington
Green, London, N., for 1s. 6d. per annum.

The Australasian edition of _China's Millions_ may be ordered at the
same price from M. L. Hutchinson, Little Collins Street, or from the
Mission Offices, 267 Collins Street, Melbourne. The North American
edition will be sent post free from the Mission Offices, 507 Church
Street, Toronto, for 50 cents per annum.

Prayer meetings on behalf of the work in China are held at the principal
home centres of the Mission, as follows: Every Saturday afternoon from 4
to 6 o'clock, at Newington Green, London. Every Friday evening at 8
o'clock, at 507 Church Street, Toronto. Every Saturday afternoon at 4
o'clock, in the Office, 267 Collins Street, Melbourne. A hearty
invitation to attend any one of these meetings is given to any one
residing in or visiting any of these cities.

Donations to the Mission, applications from candidates, orders for
literature, requests for deputation speakers, and other correspondence
should be forwarded to

          The Secretary,
            China Inland Mission,
              Newington Green, London, N.

          The Home Director,
            China Inland Mission,
              507 Church Street, Toronto, Canada.


          702 Witherspoon Buildings, Philadelphia, U.S.A.

or to

          The Secretary,
            China Inland Mission,
              267 Collins Street, Melbourne, Australia.

[Illustration: MAP OF CHINA

  Shewing {1. All Protestant Mission Stations in China up to June 1866,
              when the C.I.M. was founded (they numbered fifteen) These
              are underlined in black.
          {2. The Stations of the China Inland Mission which (with the
              exception of Ning-Po & Fung-hwa) have been opened since
              June 1866. These are printed in red.]





The best guide to the stations of the Mission is the new _China Inland
Mission Map_ (size 44 × 38 in., mounted on linen, coloured, varnished,
and hung on rollers), price 8s. _net_, carriage and packing extra.
Mounted to fold, 8s. _net_, post free.

      Provinces.[4]                Stations.[5]            WORK BEGUN.

  =Kan-suh=, 1876                    LIANG-CHAU                   1888
                                     SI-NING                      1885
                                     LAN-CHAU                     1885
                                     TS'IN-CHAU                   1878
  _Area,[6] 125,450 square miles._   FU K'IANG                    1899
  _Population, 9,285,377._           P'ING-LIANG                  1895
                                     KING-CHAU                    1895
                                     TS'ING-NING                  1897
                                     Chen-yuen                    1897
                                     Tong-chi                     1899
  =Shen-si=, 1876.                   Lung-chau                    1893
                                     FENG-TSIANG                  1888
                                     Mei-hien                     1893
                                     K'IEN-CHAU                   1894
  _Area, 67,400 square miles._       Chau-chih                    1893
  _Population, 8,432,193._           _Sang-kia-chuang_            1894
                                     Hing-p'ing                   1893
                                     SI-GAN                       1893
                                     _Ying-kia-wei_               1893
                                     Chen-kia-hu                  1897
                                     Lan-t'ien                    1895
                                     K'ien-yang                   1897
                                     Ch'ang-wu                    1897
                                     San-shui                     1897
                                     T'UNG-CHAU                   1891
                                     Han-ch'eng                   1897
                                     HAN-CHUNG                    1879
                                     Ch'eng-ku                    1887
                                     Si-hsiang                    1896
                                     Yang-hien                    1896
                                     HING-AN                      1898
  =Shan-si=, 1876                    TA-T'UNG                     1886
                                     Hwen-yuen                    1898
                                     SOH-P'ING                    1895
                                     Tsö-yuin                     1895
                                     YING-CHAU                    1897
                                     Hiao-i                       1887
                                     Kiai-hiu                     1891
                                     SIH-CHAU                     1885
                                     Ta-ning                      1885
                                     KIH-CHAU                     1891
                                     Ho-tsin                      1893
                                     Ping-yao                     1888
  _Area, 56,268 square miles._       HOH-CHAU                     1886
  _Population, 12,211,453._          Hung-t'ung                   1886
                                     Yoh-yang                     1896
                                     P'ING-YANG                   1879
                                     K'üh-wu                      1885
                                     I-shï                        1891
                                     Yüin-ch'eng                  1888
                                     _Mei-ti-kiai_                1895
                                     HIAI-CHAU                    1895
                                     Lu-ch'eng                    1889
                                     _Ü-wu_                       1896
                                     LU-GAN                       1889
                                     Kiang-chau                   1898
  =Chih-li=, 1887                    T'IEN-TSIN                   1888
  _Area, 58,949 square miles._       PAO-T'ING                    1891
  _Population, 17,937,000._          Hwuy-luh                     1887
                                     SHUN-TEH                     1888
  =Shan-tung=, 1879                  _Chefoo_                     1879
                                        "    Sanatorium           1880
                                        "    Boys' School         1880
  _Area, 53,762 square miles._          "    Girls'  "            1884
  _Population, 36,247,835._             "    Preparatory School   1895
                                     _T'ung-shin_                 1889
                                     Ning-hai                     1886
  =Ho-nan=, 1875                     Siang-ch'eng                 1891
                                     _Chau-kia-k'eo_              1884
                                       _Ho-nan_                    ...
                                       _Ho-peh_                    ...
                                       _Ho-si_                     ...
  _Area, 66,913 square miles._       CH'EN-CHAU                   1895
  _Population, 22,115,827._          T'ai-k'ang                   1895
                                     _She-k'i-tien_               1886
                                     Kwang-chau                   1899
                                     Hin-an                       1899
                                     _King-tsï-kuan_              1896
  =W. Si-ch'uan=, 1877               Kwan-hien                    1889
                                     CH'EN-TU                     1881
                                     KIA-TING                     1888
  _Area of whole Province,           SUI-FU                       1888
  166,800 square miles._             LU-CHAU                      1890
                                     Hiao-shï                     1899
                                     CH'UNG-K'ING                 1877
                                     Ta-chien-lu                  1897
  =E. Si-ch'uan=, 1886               Kwang-yuen                   1889
                                     _Sin-tien-tsï_               1892
                                     PAO-NING                     1886
                                     Ying-shan                    1898
  _Population of whole Province,     Kü-hien                      1898
  67,712,897._                       SHUN-K'ING                   1896
                                     Pa-chau                      1887
                                     SUI-TING                     1899
                                     Wan-hien                     1888
  =Hu-peh=, 1874                     _Lao-ho-k'eo_                1887
  _Area, 70,450 square miles._       _Han-kow_                    1889
  _Population, 34,244,685._          I-CH'ANG                     1895
  =Gan-hwuy=, 1869                   T'ai-ho                      1892
                                     VING-CHAU                    1897
                                     _Ch'eng-yang-kwan_           1887
                                     _K'u-ch'eng_                 1887
                                     Fuh-hing-tsih (Lai-gan)      1898
                                     LUH-GAN                      1890
                                     GAN-K'ING                    1869
  _Area, 48,461 square miles._          Training Home              ...
  _Population, 20,596,288._          Wu-hu                        1893
                                     Kien-p'ing                   1894
                                     NING-KWOH                    1874
                                     KWANG-TEH                    1890
                                     CH'I-CHAU                    1889
                                     Kien-teh                     1892
                                     HWUY-CHAU                    1884
  =Kiang-su=, 1854                   Gan-tung                     1891
                                     Ts'ing-kiang-pu              1869
                                     Kao-yiu                      1888
                                     YANG-CHAU                    1868
                                       Training Home               ...
                                     CHIN-KIANG                   1888
  _Area, 44,500 square miles._       Shanghai                     1854
  _Population, 20,905,171._            Financial Department        ...
                                       Business Department         ...
                                       Home                        ...
                                       Hospital                    ...
                                       Evangelistic Work           ...
                                       Literary Work               ...
  =Yun-nan=, 1877                    Bhâmo (Upper Burmah)         1875
  _Area, 107,969 square miles._      TA-LI                        1881
  _Population, 11,721,576._          YUN-NAN                      1882
                                     K'ÜH-TS'ING                  1889
  =Kwei-chau=, 1877                  KWEI-YANG                    1877
                                     GAN-SHUN                     1888
  _Area, 64,554 square miles._       Tuh-shan                     1893
  _Population, 7,669,181._           HING-I                       1891
                                       (Work among Aborigines)     ...
                                     _P'ang-hai_                  1897
  =Hu-nan=, 1875                     CH'ANG-TEH                   1898
  _Area, 74,320 square miles_.       SHEN-CHAU                    1898
  _Population, 21,002,604._          Ch'a-ling                    1898
  =Kiang-si=, 1869                   KIU-KIANG                    1889
                                     Ku-ling Sanatorium           1898
                                     _Ta-ku-t'ang_                1873
                                     NAN-K'ANG                    1887
                                     Gan-ren                      1889
                                     RAO-CHAU                     1898
                                     _Peh-kan_                    1893
                                     Kwei-k'i                     1878
                                     _Shang-ts'ing_               1893
                                     Hü-wan                       1899
                                     Ih-yang                      1890
  _Area, 72,176 square miles._       _Ho-k'eo_                    1878
  _Population, 24,534,118._          _Yang-k'eo_                  1890
                                     Kwang-feng                   1889
                                     Yuh-shan                     1877
                                     _Chang-shu_                  1895
                                     KUI-GAN                      1891
                                     _Feng-kang_                  1891
                                     KAN-CHAU                     1899
                                     Sin-feng                     1899
                                     LIN-KIANG                    1898
                                     NAN-CH'ANG                   1898
                                     UEN-CHAU (_Itinerating_)      ...
                                     Yung-sin                     1899
  =Cheh-kiang=, 1857                 HANG-CHAU                    1866
                                     SHAO-HING                    1866
                                     Sin-ch'ang                   1870
                                     KIU-CHAU                     1872
                                     Ch'ang-shan                  1878
                                     Lan-k'i                      1894
  _Area, 39,150 square miles_.       KIN-HWA                      1875
  _Population, 11,588,692._          Yung-k'ang                   1882
                                     Tseh-k'i                     1897
                                     CH'U-CHAU                    1875
                                     Lung-ch'uen                  1894
                                     Uin-ho                       1895
                                     Song-yang                    1896
                                     _Siao-mei_                   1896
                                     Tsin-yun                     1898
                                     NING-P'O                     1857
                                     Fung-hwa                     1866
                                     Ning-hai                     1868
                                     T'ien-t'ai                   1898
                                     T'AI-CHAU                    1867
                                     Ling-he District              ...
                                     Hwang-yen                    1896
                                     T'ai-p'ing                   1898
                                     WUN-CHAU                     1867
                                     Bing-yae                     1874


[4] Arranged in three lines from west to east, for easy reference to
Map. The dates in this column in many cases are of itinerations begun.

[5] Capitals of Provinces in capital letters; of Prefectures in small
capitals; and of Counties in romans; Market Towns in italics.

[6] Areas and populations are from _The Statesman's Year Book_.


_Printed by_ R. & R. CLARK, LIMITED, _Edinburgh._

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Page 109, "my" changed to "My" (My marriage had been)

Page 125, ending ) added. (Miss Bausum (afterwards Mrs. Barchett)); in)

Page 129, format of "God" was changed to "GOD" to match rest of usage.
(goodness of GOD)

Possible nconsistencies in spelling of Chinese names were retained such
as Bhâmo and Bhamô.

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Retrospect" ***

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