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Title: History of the Postage Stamps of the United States of America
Author: Tiffany, John Kerr
Language: English
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Transcriber's Notes:

1. Passages in italics are surrounded by _underscores_.
   Passages in Decorative Fonts are surrounded by =equals=.
   Superscripted numbers are preceded by a ^carat. Multiple
       superscripted numbers are surrounded by curly brackets {1 2}.

2. Corrections from the "Errata" page have been incorporated into this
   e-text.

3. Horizontal tables exceeding the width of this e-text have been
   reformatted to fit vertically.

4. Additional Transcriber's Notes are located at the end of this e-text.



[Illustration: PORTRAIT OF J. K. TIFFANY.]



HISTORY OF THE

=POSTAGE STAMPS=

OF THE

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


BY JOHN K. TIFFANY,

Author of THE PHILATELICAL LIBRARY,
President of the American Philatelic Association and of the St. Louis
Philatelic Society. Honorary Member of the Philatelic Society of London.
Corresponding Member of the Societe Francaise de Timbrologie, the
Societies of Dresden, Wurtemburg, Etc.


1887:
C. H. MEKEEL, PHILATELIC PUBLISHER,
ST. LOUIS, MO.


Copyrighted by J. K. Tiffany. 1886.
All Rights Reserved.



=CONTENTS.=


      PORTRAIT OF J. K. TIFFANY               (Frontispiece).
      PREFACE                                               9
      INTRODUCTION                                         13
      Chapter I,      U. S. City Dispatch Post             19
        "     II,     Uniform Postage                      23
        "     III,    Postmaster's Stamps                  26
        "     IV,     Stamp of the N. Y. Postmaster        29
        "     V,      Stamps of the St. Louis   "          36
        "     VI,     Stamp of the Brattleboro  "          48
        "     VII,    Stamp of the New Haven    "          51
        "     VIII,   Stamps of the Providence  "          54
        "     IX,     Stamp of the Alexandria   "          60
        "     X,      Stamps of the Baltimore   "          62
        "     XI,     Stamp of the Millbury     "          65
        "     XII,    Stamped Env. of Wash'n    "          67
        "     XIII,   Stamps of the Phila'lphia "          69
        "     XIV,    Stamp of the Worcester    "          70
        "     XV,     Stamp of the Pittsfield   "          71
        "     XVI,    Observations                         72
        "     XVII,   The Issue of 1847                    74
        "     XVIII,  The Issue of 1851                    81
        "     XIX,    The Issue of 1857                   110
        "     XX,     The Issue of 1861                   122
        "     XXI,    The Issue of 1867-9                 137
        "     XXII,   The Issue of 1869                   144
        "     XXIII,  The Issue of 1870                   158
        "     XXIV,   Postage Due Stamps                  198
        "     XXV,    Special Delivery Stamp              204
        "     XXVI,   Newspaper and Periodical St'ps      209
        "     XXVII,  Official Stamps                     227
        "     XXVIII, Official Seals                      249
        "     XXIX,   Reprints                            254
      INDEX                                               267
      PUBLISHERS' ANNOUNCEMENTS                           275



=ERRATA.=


Page 96, 3d line from top, for _25_c lilac read _24_ cents.

Page 102 in lines 5, 6, 7 and 8 from bottom in last column for F^2 G^2
H^2 I^2 read F^4 G^4 H^4 I^4.

Page 103 in lines 16 to 20 in second column for S^2 T^2 U^2 V^2 W^2 read
S^3 T^3 U^3 V^3 W^3.

Page 104 5th line from bottom, omit _u_ in "prolongued."

Page 143, 9th line from top for "_follows_" read "_above_."

Page 144, last line supply "_test of_" in the blank.

Page 196, 4th line from top for (") read "_cochineal_."

Page 196, 6th line from top, for "_12 cents_" read "_15 cents_."



PREFACE.


In seeking for information concerning the postage stamps of the United
States, we shall turn in vain to sources which have furnished, in other
countries, such accurate details in regard to the stamps issued by their
postal authorities, for the stamps authorized by the United States Post
Office Department are not manufactured by the government, and there is
no "stamp office" to authenticate each plate, and register the number of
sheets made from it, and no edict, proclamation or law informs the
public of the values authorized for use, or of the designs, or other
peculiarities of the stamps to be employed. The Postmaster General is
authorized, in general terms of the law, to provide such stamps as he
may, from time to time, judge most convenient and expedient for the
collection of the postal rates fixed by other laws, and is required to
have them manufactured by those who, under general provisions of other
laws regulating all government work, offer to do it at the lowest
price.

The proposals for such work and the contracts made with the parties
successful in the competition, reserve the right to the Postmaster
General to change the values, designs, etc., from time to time as he may
judge expedient, and specify nothing as to these particulars, while they
are very specific as to the quality of the work, and the precautions to
be observed in the manufacture, to prevent pecuniary loss to the
Department. A government official inspects the work in order that it may
conform in quality to the contract, and the records are kept of the
number of stamps of each value made and turned over to the Department,
without further specifications. In a word, no record is preserved of how
many stamps of any particular design, paper, water-mark, perforation or
other peculiarity, are made, or of the date of the adoption of any of
these things. Third Assistant Postmaster General Ireland, during his
term of office, once wrote "It has always surprised me that the
Department has never kept any official history of its stamps." Many of
these details might be gathered no doubt from the very voluminous
correspondence between the Department and the several contractors, if it
were accessible, but upon investigation it appears that many interesting
changes have been made upon mere verbal instructions.

We shall have therefore to rely upon quite different sources for our
information. Fortunately the enterprise of collectors has probably
discovered all the varieties of the stamps themselves, and only a
careful study of them is necessary to their complete description. The
materials upon which the present work is based were gathered together
mostly as accident threw them into the hands of the author, from time to
time, without any attempt at systematic research or arrangement, until
at the request of J. B. Moens, of Brussells, they were arranged to form
a volume of his "Bibliotheque Des Timbrophiles." The annual reports of
the Postmaster General have furnished some points of interest directly
and many inferentially; the circulars notifying postmasters of the more
important changes, a nearly complete file of which has been consulted,
have been a great guide; while frequently very interesting details have
been extracted from the files of contemporaneous daily papers; and the
published results of the researches of such indefatigable investigators
as Messrs. Bagg, Brown and Scott, in the Philatelical Press, and the
articles of Cosmopolitan and Scott have been freely drawn upon. Many
large collections have been kindly submitted for inspection, in
particular those of Messrs Van Derlip, Sterling and Casey, and thus we
are able to describe every stamp and essay from actual specimens, except
in a few instances specially noted. While there may be possible
omissions, the reader may feel assured of the existence of everything
described.

Frequent demands for the translation of the French work have led to the
present publication. But as that work was prepared to conform to the
general plan of the works compiled for the series of M. Moens'
Bibliotheque, it contained many things, concerning the history and
customs of the post office of the United States, which the American
collector is supposed to know, and omitted some details concerning the
part played by various collectors and dealers in finding out the
particulars of the history of certain stamps and like matters, which it
was thought might be interesting to our home collectors, but which the
impersonal character of the French Series made it advisable to omit in
the original compilation.

The entire work has been therefore largely recast in the hope of making
it more acceptable to American collectors, and in several instances
comments have been made upon stamps that were not mentioned in the
French edition, in order to correct certain erroneous views entertained
concerning them in this country, which it was supposed was sufficiently
accomplished by their omission in the other series.

_St. Louis, August, 1886._



INTRODUCTION.


In 1676 John Heyward, by the authority of General Court of the Colony of
Massachusetts, established his postal system with its office in Boston.
In 1683 the government of Penn established a postal system for the
Colony of Pennsylvania. In 1700 Col. J. Hamilton organized "his postal
establishment for British America" including all the English colonies,
but soon after disposed of his right to the English crown. In 1710 the
English Parliament established by law the first governmental postal
system with the general office at New York, which continued until in
1776 the Continental Congress adopted and set in action the postal
system proposed by Franklin, who was appointed the first Postmaster
General. The first law of the Federal Congress continued this system in
operation as sufficient for the public wants, but the postal service was
not finally settled until the act of 1792.

This law (1792) liked a tariff which with unimportant changes remained
in force until the adoption of the system of Uniform Postage in the
United States. Single, double and triple letters were charged 8, 16 and
24 cents respectively when sent to other countries, and four cents plus
the internal postage when arriving from foreign countries. The internal
postage between offices in the United States was 6, 8, 10, 15, 17, 20,
22 and 25 cents for distances of 30, 60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 350, or 400
miles respectively for single letters, and double, triple, etc., this
for double, triple, etc., letters. A single letter was defined by the
law to be a single sheet or piece of paper, a double letter, two sheets
or pieces of paper, etc., etc.

The following acts of Congress may be consulted with advantage by those
curious with regard to the Post Office before the introduction of
stamps.

          I Congress.   I Session.  Chap. 16,     Sept., 1789
          I    "       II    "        "   36,     Aug.,  1790
          I    "      III    "        "   23,     March, 1791
         II    "        I    "        "   27,     Feb.,  1792
        III    "        I    "        "   23,   8 May,   1794
          V    "      III    "        "   41,   2 March, 1799
         XI    "       II    "        "   37,  30 April, 1810
       XIII    "      III    "        "   16,  23 Dec.,  1814
        XIV    "        I    "        "    7,   1 Feb.,  1815
        XIV    "        I    "        "   43,   9 April, 1816
        XIX    "       II    "        "   61,   3 March, 1825
         XX    "        I    "        "   61,   3 March, 1827
      XXVII    "       II    "        "   43,   2 March, 1845

The earliest letters which we have seen, consist of single sheets of
paper folded and addressed upon the sheet. An envelope would have
subjected them to double postage. They are penmarked with the name of
the mailing office, the date occasionally, the amount of the postage
paid or due, generally in simple figures, sometimes with the word
"cents" in full or abbreviated, added. Gradually, hand stamps were
introduced. At first the name of the mailing office in a simple frame,
generally circular, the month and day being still written in with a pen,
and the amount of postage written as before. A further improvement
appears later on in the introduction of the month and day as part of the
hand stamp. The word "paid" or "due," the amount of postage in figures
or with "cents," either written or hand stamped, always added. And
finally all the marks are included in one hand stamp.

There was evidently no uniformity of practice, except the general
requirement that the name of the mailing office, the month and day, and
the amount of postage should in some form be marked on the letter.
Improvements seem generally to have originated in the larger offices,
but smaller offices sometimes took the lead in enterprise. An
improvement once adopted does not seem always to have been adhered to;
letters mailed at the same office on the same day and differently marked
may be frequently found in old files. The hand stamps seem to have been
obtained by the several offices for themselves, as there is no
uniformity of style.

Some of these hand stamps are curious enough to warrant a brief
description, and it would be difficult to lay down a rule which would
distinguish some of them from the stamps we admit to our albums.

A letter mailed at Philadelphia in 1825, bears an octagonal hand stamp
with a double lined frame and the words "Phila. 20 Jan." in three
lines, a second similar but smaller hand stamp with the word "Paid," and
the figures "26" written with a pen, all in red ink. These seem to have
been regularly employed for several years. Other letters from the same
city mailed in 1845-6-7 and 8, bear a circular hand stamp, the name of
the City and State surrounding the edge, the month and day in the
center, a single line surrounding all, the amount of postage in large
numerals and the words "DUE" or "PAID" in a small oval are separately
hand stamped. Letters from Baltimore of the same dates bear a similar
circular hand stamp with name and date, the amount of postage in large
numerals in an oval, and sometimes the word "PAID" in large letters
without frame. Jacksonville, Ill., Pittsburgh, Pa., and Little Rock,
Ark., employed similar hand stamps at the same time.

Louisville, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Boston and New York letters of the
same years have the same hand stamp with a numeral or numerals
indicative of the amount of postage added at the bottom within the
frame. When prepaid the word "PAID" was hand stamped below the other.

Some New York, Boston and Philadelphia letters of the same dates bear
the same hand stamp with "5 cts," "10 cts," etc., in the lower margin
within the frame, the word "PAID" being separately hand stamped when the
letter was prepaid. Many western letters bear also the word "Steam 5"
hand stamped upon them. These hand stamps remained in use up to 1851
when the rates were changed and appear even upon letters bearing the
adhesive stamps of the first issue.

In 1851 when the rates were changed to 3 cents ordinary postage, and 1
cent for drop letters, many of the same stamps appear with the figures
changed to 1 or 3, or to 1 ct., 3 cts., and 6 cts., Boston and
Petersburgh, Va., for example. A New York hand stamp of this period has
New York above, month and day in the middle and "PAID" and "3 cts" in
two more lines.

A Philadelphia hand stamp has name above, month and day in one line, and
"3 cts" in another, in the center, and "PAID" in lower margin.

Another, the ordinary dated postmark and a second circular stamp, nearly
as large, with the word "PAID" in large letters crossed by the numeral
"3" nearly an inch long.

A Springfield letter has the ordinary dated postmark and a second hand
stamp nearly as large with a large numeral "3" above and "PAID" below.

Cincinnati, Buffalo, Quincy, Ill., and others have the ordinary hand
stamp with the name above, month and day in the center and "3 PAID"
below.

Another letter has a round hand stamp fully an inch in diameter with the
word "PAID" across the center crossed by a large outline "3."

Another letter was hand stamped with a large "6" in an octagon double
frame and "PAID" separately hand stamped across it.

The Cincinnati hand stamp also appears with "1 PAID" in the margin.

New Orleans has the ordinary hand stamp and "PAID," "1" in two lines of
very large letters beneath.

St. Louis, has the ordinary hand stamp, and another with "1 ct" in large
octagonal frame added.

Many letters where the word "paid" appears in the dated stamp are also
separately hand stamped "PAID." Some of these letters bear also the 3
and 1 ct. adhesives of the period. Those that indicate postage to be
paid differ from postage due stamps in no respect except that they are
not adhesive. Those that indicate postage prepaid correspond to many
other hand stamps in every thing except that they were applied after,
instead of before payment; but in some countries we have examples of
adhesive stamps applied in the same way. They are not beautiful but are
interesting relics of the old system. A number of similar stamps with
the words "Post Office" following the name of the town and "5 paid" have
passed through the hands of the compiler, but having been cut from the
letters the date could not be authenticated. These would appear to be
very similar in character to the adhesives issued by the postmasters of
some offices about the same time, and to many similar stamps used in the
early days of the Southern Confederacy.



I.

UNITED STATES CITY DISPATCH POST.


Hardly had the discussion of Postal reform begun in England than the
subject was taken up in the United States. The daily press was full of
it. Pamphlets were distributed broadcast. In nearly every city, private
companies undertook to distribute mail matter at less than the
government rates. Some even carried letters from city to city. In
Congress, members related the expedients resorted to for sending letters
at a reduced rate. In New York, a certain A. M. Greig had established a
local delivery and employed an adhesive stamp, charging but two cents
when the government exacted three. Such competition greatly harassed the
department. The act of 1836 had authorized the Postmaster General to
establish a carrier system in such cities as he might think advisable.
Apparently with the view of disposing of Greig's post, Greig was made a
government officer. The following letter authorizing the postmaster at
New York to make the appointment was first published by the American
Journal of Philately.

                                     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
                              _Contract Office, August 1st, 1842_.

    Sir--

    By an order made on Saturday, but journalized to-day, the
    Postmaster General has established a letter carrier arrangement
    for the City of New York to be called the "United States City
    Despatch Post" for the conveyance of letters from one part of
    the city to another subject to a charge on each letter of three
    cents, under the 20th section of the Act of 1836, and authorizes
    you to employ Alex. M. Greig, nominated by you as letter
    carrier, other carriers are to be appointed from time to time as
    may be required, and you are requested to nominate for that
    purpose. And you are also authorized to obtain the necessary
    fixtures, pouches, boxes, labels, stamps, etc, at not exceeding
    $1,200.00 for the whole and to appoint a clerk to superintend
    said establishment at not exceeding $1,000 per annum. You will
    be pleased to report the date of commencement of this arrangement.

                            Very respectfully,
                                 Your obedient servant,
                                             S. R. HOBBIE,
                                      _First Ass't P. M. General_.

    JOHN LORIMER GRAHAM,
      _Postmaster, New York_.

In another number of the same paper we have the text of the following
notice concerning the same post.

    UNITED STATES CITY DISPATCH POST.

    Hours of delivery every day (Sundays excepted) at the principal
    office, upper P. O. Park and lower P. O. Merchants Exchange.

    Letters deposited before 8, 12, 3 and at the stations before 7,
    11 and 2 will be sent out for delivery at 9, 1 and 4.

    Letters to be sent free must have a free stamp attached to them,
    which can be purchased at the upper and lower Post Offices and
    at all the stations. The charge will be 36 cents per dozen, 2
    dols. 50 cents per hundred. All letters intended to be sent
    forward to the General Post Office for the inland mails must
    have a free stamp attached to them. Letters not having a free
    stamp will be charged 3 cents on delivery.

                                        JOHN LORIMER GRAHAM, P. M.
    _New York, June, 1843._

The stamp issued and used by this post was known in an early day and is
catalogued in Kline's Manual 1862, but its true history was unknown
until the publication of the above document. It is a stamp probably
alone of its kind. Any one familiar with the law of 1836 will see that
the Postmaster General widely exceeded the authority conferred on him as
it would be construed to day in making the "arrangement" under the power
to provide a carrier system. The labels and stamps mentioned in the
letter quoted were probably however, not intended to include the postage
stamp actually issued, as these terms are used in various documents,
reports, etc., of the period to designate quite different articles, the
"stamps" being invariably the hand stamps such as we have already
described. But whatever may have been intended by the letter, the law
did not confer any authority upon the Postmaster General to issue or
authorize the issue of the stamp and undertake to insist on its use. It
certainly has no more character than the hand stamps already described,
but is none the less interesting or worthy of preservation on this
account. It was probably employed because the public had seen and
appreciated the utility of the adhesive stamp, by its employment by the
local or private posts, in advance of the official adoption of the
system.


NEW YORK.

ISSUE OF AUGUST, 1842.

Portrait of President Washington turned ¾ to the right on plain oval,
enclosed by plain oval band bounded within and without by two colored
lines and inscribed: _United States City Despatch Post_ *_Three Cents_*,
the lower legend separated from the upper by a star on each side;
rectangular frame of two colored lines, corners filled with rayed
ornaments between frame and oval.

Plate impression 18 by 22 mm., in black on colored paper.

      3 cents, black on violet.
      3   "      "   "  brown.
      3   "      "   "  green.
      3   "      "   "  blue glazed.



II.

UNIFORM POSTAGE.


The "arrangement" put in operation in New York does not seem to have
been a great success for it was not extended to other cities, and local
posts continued to flourish and do the work at less than the government
rates. The demand for better service and lower rates, for "reform" as it
was called grew louder and louder, until the Postmaster General in his
report dated November 25th, 1844, recommended to Congress a reduced
uniform rate according to distance and weight. Stamps were recommended
but only for use on foreign letters.

The bill which was introduced in Congress in pursuance of this
recommendation provided, it is said, both for obligatory prepayment and
the use of postage stamps. But there was great hesitation in adopting
the English system in the United States; the conditions were considered
to be so different; the distances were so great that a greater rate was
necessary; the country was so new that the risk from counterfeiting was
much greater; the custom was not to prepay letters, and custom is
stronger than law. Such and like objections were raised and the law
passed without adopting prepayment by stamp, but the great principle of
the reform, uniform rate by distance and weight was adopted. The only
portion of the law that is of interest here is the following section of
the Statutes of the United States, XXVIII Congress, II Session, XLIII
Chapter, approved March 30, 1845.

    "From and after the first day of July next, members of Congress
    and Delegates from Territories may receive letters not exceeding
    two ounces in weight, free of postage during the recess of
    Congress anything to the contrary in this act notwithstanding;
    and the same franking privilege which is granted by this act to
    the members of the two Houses of Congress, is hereby extended to
    the Vice President of the United States; and in lieu of the
    rates of postage now established by law, there shall be charged
    the following rates, viz: For every single letter in manuscript
    or paper of any kind by or upon which information shall be asked
    for or communicated in writing or by marks or signs, conveyed in
    the mail, for any distance under three hundred miles, five
    cents: and for any distance over three hundred miles, ten cents:
    and for a double letter there shall be charged double these
    rates: and for a treble letter treble these rates: and for a
    quadruple letter quadruple these rates: and every letter or
    parcel not exceeding half an ounce in weight shall be deemed a
    single letter, and every additional weight of half an ounce, or
    additional weight of less than half an ounce, shall be charged
    with an additional single postage.

    And all drop letters, or letters placed in any post office, not
    for transmission through the mail, but for delivery only, shall
    be charged with postage at the rate of two cents each."

The newspaper rate was one cent within one hundred miles and one and a
half cents for a greater distance, for all newspapers not exceeding a
certain size, and two cents for each sheet over that size, and two cents
for all hand bills and circulars per sheet, and two and a half cents for
all magazines and pamphlets.



III.

POSTMASTER'S STAMPS.


Notwithstanding the failure of Congress to adopt postage stamps, and to
authorize the Postmaster General to issue them, and to provide an
appropriation for their manufacture, public attention had been drawn to
the advantages of the system, and the convenience, to the business
community particularly, of mailing and receiving letters at hours when
the post office or business houses were closed. The question as to
whether the Postmaster General might not issue postage stamps on his own
authority was raised and officially decided in the negative, although
the Postmaster General himself favored their use. The postmasters in
several places however undertook to meet the public demand by having
stamps prepared on their own responsibility, paying the expense of
manufacture themselves and selling them to the public at a sufficient
advance on the postal rates, to cover the cost of engraving and
printing. In some cases the matter was brought to the attention of the
Postmaster General and he saw no objection to the arrangement; in
others the whole affair seems to have passed without any attention being
paid to it by the Department. In fact it was a mere contract between the
postmaster and the purchaser of his stamps, that when a letter bearing
one of his stamps was mailed at his office, it should be treated as if
the money were handed in with it. No postmaster recognized the stamp of
any post office but his own. A letter adorned with a New York stamp
mailed at the St. Louis office would have been treated as unpaid. A New
York stamp was recognized only at the New York office, and a St. Louis
stamp only at the St. Louis office. When a letter bearing a stamp was
mailed _at the office that issued the stamp_, and accepted as prepaid,
the contract between the postmaster and the purchaser of the stamp was
fulfilled, the postmaster had to account to the government for the
amount of the postage as if he had received it with the letter. The
Department had nothing to do with the fact that the stamp had been
actually paid for at another time or with its existence at all.
Examination at several of these offices show that there was no stamp
account kept in the records of the office. Such letters were treated
exactly as letters were, on which the postage was either paid in money
or charged in the open accounts which the postmaster chose to keep with
the commercial houses. It was marked "Paid." The stamp had no
significance at any other office, except as the mark or stamp indicating
the amount charged, always put on letters at that date, but the word
"paid" was recognized by every office. The letter was entered as a paid
letter on the way bill, and was treated as prepaid, not because of the
stamp, but because the forwarding office treated it as prepaid.

It has been thought necessary to define the exact character of these
stamps with some exactness, and at the risk of some re-iteration,
because their true character seems to be little understood. They had no
official sanction whatever, because no official had any authority to
sanction them. It was a mere arrangement between the individual
postmaster and the public for their mutual accommodation.

Such stamps were issued at New York, St. Louis, Brattleboro, New Haven,
Providence, Alexandria, Baltimore, Millbury and probably other places.
Although not governmental or official stamps, they are none the less
interesting or valuable mementoes. They show how determined the public
were to have the postage stamp, and their history shows how the Public
Will compelled the government to adopt the postage stamp in spite of the
supposed difficulties in the way.



IV.

STAMP OF THE NEW YORK POSTMASTER.


The stamp issued by the postmaster of New York was chronicled in the
earliest American Catalogue, (Kline, 1862,) but its true character was
not established until the resuscitation and republication in the
communications of the author of this work to the Philatelist and Le
Timbre Poste, in 1873-4, of the following articles from contemporaneous
newspapers.

The Express of New York in its issue of July 1st, 1845, contains an
editorial mentioning, that the Act of March 3rd, 1845, went into force
on the day of publication, and a report of the meeting of the Cheap
Postage Association. In its issue of July 7th, 1845, the same paper
published as part of its Washington correspondence, the following:

                                           _Washington, July 2nd._

    It was suggested in New York to Mr. Morris, your postmaster,
    that he might accommodate the public very much by selling
    stamped envelopes, as the law does not authorize the sale of
    stamps on the English plan. When he was here he laid the subject
    before the Postmaster General, who has to-day decided that he
    may do this. The envelopes are to be marked with the amount of
    postage thereon, say 5 or 10 or more cents as the case may be,
    and the initials of the postmaster are to be superadded, and
    then the envelopes can be sold. The object is to facilitate the
    payment of prepaid letters. Postmasters can interchange
    envelopes whenever they can agree to do so among themselves.

In the issue of the next day (Express, July 8th) appeared the following
editorial:

    FREE STAMPED ENVELOPES. When the Bill for Cheap Postage was
    before Congress, it contained a clause authorizing the sale of
    stamps on the English system. The provision was however stricken
    out, leaving the public only the old method of prepaying letters
    during the business hours of the Post Office. A suggestion was
    made to our new Postmaster, Mr. Morris, that the public
    convenience would be very much promoted if he would sell
    envelopes which would pass free through his office. By this
    measure letters could be sent at any hour of the night to the
    post office and the postage paid, where the writer desires it,
    by enclosing it in a free envelope. The postmaster proposed to
    sell stamps at five cents each, but this not having been
    sanctioned by Congress, we should think would not be the best
    way, and as the public convenience demands something of the
    kind, we are glad to learn that he has prepared envelopes of the
    kind referred to, some of which we have seen. They are marked
    "Five Cents," and under these words is the name "R. H. Morris."
    For letters over one ounce they are marked according to the Post
    Office Rates in the same way. These envelopes will be sold by
    the Postmaster at six and a quarter cents each, or sixteen for a
    dollar of the common kind and common size. This will be as
    cheap or cheaper than they can be bought in small quantities at
    the stationers. A thin envelope will contain two letters and be
    subject only to a single postage. Envelopes of various sizes
    will also be furnished and of fine quality when desired by the
    purchaser. The plan we hear, has also been adopted by the
    postmaster at Washington, D. C., and has met the approval of the
    Postmaster General. We think it will add to the revenue of the
    Department very considerably.

From the preceding extract we should infer that envelopes marked in some
way "Five Cents," "R. H. Morris, P. M." had been issued and used at New
York, and possibly something of the kind at Washington. The latter would
be signed C. K. Gardner, P. M., but up to the present day none have been
found. They must have been prepared at New York at least, since the
editor of the Express claims to have seen them. They were probably made
by some of the New York hand stamps noted as current at this time,
leaving out the date and signed by the postmaster.

Such an arrangement was clumsy and liable to abuse and could have had
but a short duration in so large an office as New York, and in the
Express of the 14th of July, 1845, appears another editorial as follows:

    Post Office Stamps. We would call the attention of merchants and
    indeed all who pay postage, to the advertisement of the
    postmaster, who offers to sell stamps of the value of five cents
    each for the prepayment of letters. This is the cost of the
    postage under 300 miles. The stamps should be generally adopted
    as they will give additional facilities to business men, and
    save them time in making change. The postmaster will receive
    nothing for this trouble and his stamps beyond the profit of
    lost stamps. The disposition of the postmaster to make the new
    system popular merits the thanks of our citizens.

In another column of the same paper appears the advertisement of the
postmaster referred to in the editorial.

                                             POST OFFICE,
                                      _New York, July 14th. 1845_.

    The public is respectfully informed that the undersigned has
    caused to be prepared stamps for the prepayment of postage, made
    for five cents each, which will be sold in parcels of five and
    upwards. To prevent counterfeits they will be sold only at this
    office and the branch office. The public may therefore be
    assured that any stamps which may be offered for sale at any
    place other than the two post offices are spurious and will not
    be considered as prepayment.

          (Signed.)                    Robert H. Morris, P. M.

    [Evening papers please copy.]

Unfortunately these articles contain no description of the stamp issued,
and it will occur to those familiar with the process of engraving stamps
at that date, that the production of a stamp as elaborate as the stamp
known, in so short a time as elapsed between the date of the first and
last of these articles, was either a remarkable piece of work, or had
been commenced some time before. Possibly the stamps first issued were
not those known to collectors and have never been discovered.

Be this as it may, the plate contained more than a single stamp. From
double copies that have passed through our hands, we have proof that it
consisted of at least eight different varieties, arranged in two
horizontal rows of four stamps each, differing in minute details and at
different distances apart. There may have been more, but this remains to
be verified. The stamp which appears to have occupied the upper left
hand corner of the sheet shows in each letter the outlines of the same
letters, engraved in black and a little lower down than the white ones,
as if the intention had originally been to have the value appear in
black on a white label. It is said that the plate is now in the
possession of the consolidated Bank Note Companies (American) of New
York. At any rate PROOFS were struck from it long after the stamp was
out of use, in various colors.


NEW YORK POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF JULY 14, 1845.

Portrait of President Washington, faced ¾ to left in an oval, 19½ mm.
wide by 21½ mm. high, with a back ground of colored lines, crossed at
right angles and bordered by a colorless line. Solid colored label
bordered by a colorless line above and below the oval, inscribed in
colorless ordinary capitals, above "_Post Office_," below "_Five
Cents_." Foliated ornaments in the four corners, the upper enclosing
small colorless labels inscribed in small colored capitals "_New_," at
the left "_York_," at the right, the whole surrounded by a colored line
forming a rectangle.

Engraved on copper at New York by Messrs. Rawden, Wright and Hatch.

Plate impression 20½ by 28 mm., on slightly bluish paper.

      5 cents black.

In most of the catalogues this stamp has been described also, as on
white paper. Such specimens are shown, but they are produced by some
chemical action of the gum used to fasten them to letters, or of the
composition of the paper or other accidental causes. Specimens may be
also found of a buff color as if steeped in coffee, another changeling
produced by the action of strong gum.

Each stamp is signed A. C. M. in red ink. They are generally cancelled
with a pen and blue ink, or by the word "Paid" hand stamped in red ink,
or by the dating stamp.

There is another type of stamp said to have been issued by the
postmaster of New York in 1849. The design is two concentric circles,
the inner 13½, the outer 17½ mm. in diameter. In the center, "_One
Cent_" in two lines of ordinary colored capitals, about 2 mm. high.
Between the circles, above, "_U. S. Mail_;" below, "_Prepaid_" in
similar letters 2½ mm. high. They were printed in black on small squares
of rose colored paper, and afterwards on paper varying from bright
yellow to pale drab and generally glazed.

This stamp was chronicled in Kline's Manual, first edition, 1862, as a
"Carrier Stamp," and has since been alternately considered a
governmental, or a local stamp. Upon what ground it is so confidently
asserted to have been issued by the New York postmaster, and its date
assigned to 1849, seems never to have been stated. It is certain however
that if it were issued prior to 1851, it did not prepay any authorized
government postage, and if issued after 1847, such an issue was
forbidden by law unless authorized by the Postmaster General. It is
hardly to be supposed that the postmaster of New York City would have
openly violated the law. The inscription, "U. S. Mail," does not prove
anything but probably means "prepaid to the U. S. Mail," and the stamp
is probably the issue of some of the local delivery companies.



V.

STAMPS OF THE ST. LOUIS POSTMASTER.


Of all the stamps of this character, those issued by the St. Louis
Postmaster have been most discussed in the Philatelical Press. The ten
cents was first noticed in an article in the Stamp Collector's Magazine
in November, 1863, and the five cents was mentioned in Kline's Manual,
3rd edition, 1865. Mr. L. W. Durbin first mentioned the second die of
the 10 cents, Mr. Pemberton the second die of the 5 cents, and Mr. Scott
is entitled to the credit of discovering the third die of each.

It is unnecessary to repeat the numerous discussions, pro and con,
concerning the authenticity of these stamps, since the present author
discovered, and republished in Le Timbre Poste, in May, 1873, the
following articles from contemporaneous daily papers, which leave no
further room for doubt concerning the two values, 5 and 10 cents.

    _Missouri Republican._ July 17th. 1845.

    "Free stamped envelopes. For the convenience of those who may
    wish to prepay their packages at any hour of the night, Robert
    H. Morris, the postmaster of New York, as we learn from the
    Express, has prepared a variety of stamped envelopes. They are
    marked five cents, ten cents, &c., and under these words is the
    name R. H. Morris. The five cent envelopes will be sold by the
    postmaster at 6¼ cents each, or 16 for a dollar of the common
    kind and common size, and the others in proportion. This will be
    as cheap as they can be bought in small quantities at the
    stationers. A thin envelope will contain two letters and be
    subject only to a single postage. Envelopes of various sizes
    will also be furnished and of fine quality when desired by the
    purchaser. The plan has also been adopted by the postmaster at
    Washington and has met the approval of the Postmaster General.
    We think it not only a convenience to the public but that it
    will add to the revenue of the Department very considerably. The
    above arrangement would be a great convenience to many persons.
    Why should not the postmaster here adopt the same plan. We
    believe the public generally would buy them."

This article, although a mere repetition of the article of the Express,
and like that mentioning envelopes of New York and Washington which no
one has ever seen, contains at the end a reference which was evidently
the inspiration of the St. Louis postmaster to issue his stamps, for we
read in the Missouri Republican of November 5th, 1845, the following:

    "LETTER STAMPS. Mr. Wimer, the postmaster, has prepared a set of
    letter stamps, or rather marks to put upon letters, indicating
    that the postage has been paid. In this he has copied after the
    plan adopted by the postmaster of New York and other cities.
    These stamps are engraved to represent the Missouri Coat of
    Arms, and are five and ten cents. They are so prepared that they
    may be stuck upon a letter like a wafer and will prove a great
    convenience to merchants and all those having many letters to
    send post paid, as it saves all trouble of paying at the post
    office. They will be sold as they are sold in the East, viz:
    Sixteen five cent stamps and eight ten cent stamps for a dollar.
    We would recommend merchants and others to give them a trial."

And a few days later in the same paper of November 13th, 1845, we again
read:

    "Post Office Stamps. Mr. Wimer, the postmaster, requests us to
    say that he will furnish nine ten cent stamps and eighteen five
    cent stamps for one dollar, the difference being required to pay
    for the printing of the stamps."

The above articles contain nearly the whole history of the stamps of St.
Louis. We learn the name of the postmaster who had them made, (the name,
however is incorrectly spelled) their use and price, the date and object
of their issue. A thorough search of all the files preserved, of the
daily papers published in St. Louis from January, 1845, to December,
1848, resulted in no further discoveries concerning them.


ST. LOUIS POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF NOVEMBER 5th, 1845.

Arms of the State of Missouri. A round shield parted per pale; on the
dexter side, gules (red or vertically lined ground), the grizzly bear
of Missouri, passant guardant, proper; on a chief engrailed azure
(horizontally lined), a crescent argent; on the sinister side, argent,
the arms of the United States, (the stamp is dotted or gold) the whole
with a band inscribed "United we stand, divided we fall" (The buckle
below on the left, in the 5 cents, should be omitted). Supporters on
each side, a grizzly bear of Missouri, proper; rampant guardant,
standing on a scroll inscribed "Salus Populi Suprema lex esto." Above,
the value is expressed in large outline numerals, ornamented and shaded.
In the corners "_Saint_" and "_Louis_" with numerous flourishes. Below
the arms "_Post Office_" in large ordinary capitals. The whole in a
rectangular frame of a thin and thick colored line.

Engraved on copper by J. M. Kershaw, at St. Louis. The plate consisted
of six stamps, three of each value, and was delivered to Mr. Wymer, and
is said to have been lost with other of his effects during the war. The
engraver thinks he printed about 500 sheets, at three different times,
upon such paper as he happened to have at hand, and that as the plate
deteriorated easily, he probably retouched it slightly each time in
parts, before printing. He denies positively the possibility of the
figures upon the twenty cent value being his work. These are all the
facts he can now vouch for, and states that many of the statements from
time to time attributed to him "were the ideas of his interviewers, who
tried to refresh his recollection and may have mixed him up."

Plate Impression in black upon three qualities of bluish paper, 3
varieties of each value.

       5 cents, black 17½ by 22½ mm.
      10 cents, black 18½ by 22½ mm.

These stamps are printed on a rather thick greenish blue paper, on a
thinner grey-blue paper, and on a very thin greyish paper, which agrees
with the recollection of the engraver that he printed three different
lots of them. A pair is also known on a coffee colored paper. They were
taken from buff envelopes, and are undoubtedly discolored by the action
of the paper or gum. Those on white paper have been made so by chemical
action.

The varieties may be thus distinguished:

FIVE CENTS. The dashes in the corners form a sort of triangular
ornament, or branch. The letters are block capitals, shaded by a fine
line. There are no lines or dashes under "_Post Office_."

_First Variety._ (_a_) The buckle on the garter has the point and tongue
turned up to the left.

(_b_) There are six dashes above "_Saint_," and eight above "_Louis_,"
of which the top and bottom ones on each side are long strokes.

(_c_) One long and two short lines and a speck under "_Saint_," and one
long and three short lines under "_Louis_."

(_d_) A long diamond in top of numeral, and a mis-shapened diamond in
the bow of the numeral, with four dots above and nine below it, and a
dot in the ball of the numeral.

(_e_) The bear in the shield is on a vertically lined ground.

_Second Variety._ (_a_) The buckle has the tongue and point turned down
to the right.

(_b_) There are eleven dashes above "_Saint_," and ten above "_Louis_,"
one of which cuts the frame on the right.

(_c_) One long and two short lines, a dot, and a horizontal stroke below
"_Saint_," one very long, and three short lines under "_Louis_," two
above and two below the level of the bear's ear.

(_d_) A triangle in the top of the numeral, and a diamond in the bow of
the numeral, with four dots above and nine below the latter. No dot in
the ball of the numeral. The right end of the scroll is double, and
touches the frame.

(_e_) The bear is on a vertically lined ground.

_Third Variety._ (_a_) The buckle has the point turned down to the
right.

(_b_) There are twelve lines above "_Saint_," and seventeen above
"_Louis_."

(_c_) There are one long and three short lines under "_Saint_," and one
long and two short lines and a dot under "_Louis_," the latter on a line
between the ear and eye of the bear.

(_d_) A diamond in the top of the 5, and an upright diamond in the back,
with eleven dots below and four dots above it.

(_e_) The bear is on a ground lined horizontally above and vertically
below.

Mr. Pemberton thinks, from a fine clear copy he had seen, that for some
reason the numeral of this variety had been originally engraved as a 1.
He says there is a thin line to the right of the down stroke of the 5,
three small dots in a curve to the right of the diamond in the top of
the 5, and two small dots, one over the other to the left of the
diamond.

_Fourth Variety._[A] Mr. Pemberton describes a fourth type of the Five
cents which he claims is a restoration of the second variety, from which
one variety of the 20 cents was made by alteration.

(_a_) The buckle has the point turned down to the right.

(_b_) There are eleven dashes above "_Saint_," and ten above "_Louis_."

(_c_) There are four lines under "_Saint_," and three long and two short
lines under "_Louis_," the last on a level with the bear's ear.

(_d_) A diamond in the top, and a long diamond in the back of 5, with
four dots over and four dots under the latter. Coarser shading around
the figure, and a curved vertical line at the back of the bow, being
part of the 0 of 20 badly erased.

(_e_) Bear on a vertically lined ground. The two lines of the frame
above Louis bulged.

  [A] NOTE.--Without examining the specimen from which Mr.
  Pemberton described, it is impossible to say that it may not be
  one of the retouches which Mr. Kershaw thinks he made.

TEN CENTS. The words "_Saint_," and "_Louis_" are in small, colored,
ordinary capitals, unshaded. There is a long flourish curved upwards
over each word. It seems to have been intended to have a point with a
short dash on each side of it, above each of these, with a second long
flourish curved upwards and then brought down round the end of the word,
and continued as a flourish under them, but the details are different in
the several types. The numerals are ornamented by a diamond in the
middle of each down stroke, with three dots, above and below each
diamond, except in type one, which has only two dots below the diamond
in the 1.

The following varieties will be noticed:

_First Variety._ The point and right dash, between the corner flourishes
on both sides, usually missing, and the upper flourish does not come
distinctly round the right hand word.

      3 lines beneath "Post Office."
      5   "      "    "Saint."
      4   "      "    "Louis."

_Second Variety._ The point and right dash, between the flourishes in
the right hand corner, gone, and the upper flourish, does not come round
the right hand word distinctly.

      3 lines beneath "Post Office," with a smaller stroke over each.
      4 lines beneath "Saint."
      4   "      "    "Louis."

_Third Variety._ The point between the dashes, between the flourishes on
the left, missing.

      3 lines beneath "Post Office," with a smaller stroke over each,
          and dots between them.
      3 lines and 2 dots beneath "Saint."
      4     "     1  "      "    "Louis."

Mr. Pemberton at one time chronicled a fourth variety of this value
also, but could not afterward identify it. Indeed the impressions show
great variation from the intended design in the corner flourishes, which
seem to have been engraved too fine in parts.

TWENTY CENTS. While the author and many others do not believe the twenty
cent value to be genuine, in deference to such authorities as Messrs.
Scott and Pemberton, who accept the few specimens known, they are here
described. In the American Journal of Philately, of January, 1870, Mr.
Scott, after describing the three varieties each of the 5 and 10 cents
for the first time, mentions the 20 cent value as a new discovery.
Comparing the three specimens, he says: Two are exactly alike, and have
evidently been altered from variety three, above described, while the
third is different, having evidently been altered from variety two. At a
later date he mentions a fourth specimen. Five specimens are all that
have ever been chronicled, we believe.

Mr. Pemberton describes the first three more at length, in a paper in
the Stamp Collector's Magazine, for January, 1871. He says he had before
him 13 stamps of the 5 cent value, and 12 of the 10 cents, but he does
not state how many he had of the 20 cents, but that 10 of the 25
specimens were lent him from America. The American Journal, for
January, 1871, however, says he had the three known specimens of the 20
cents. The theory of his article is that the twenty cents was made by
erasing the numerals, and of course incidentally other surrounding parts
of the varieties two and three, of the five cent value on the plate, and
engraving the numerals 20, printing that value and afterwards erasing
the 20 and replacing the five. It is also the theory of the article that
this was done with all three varieties of the 3 cents, although the
author had seen only two varieties of the 20 cents, and only one
specimen of the 5 cents, which he could torture into a re-engraving. He
alters the arrangement of varieties of Mr. Scott, to which we prefer to
adhere, and thus describes them:

_Variety One_, from variety three of the five cents.

One long and one short line under "_Saint_." Half of each of the
original top strokes and the third stroke under "_Louis_" being erased,
but the dot left. The inner line of the frame erased from the T to L,
and a smaller portion of the outer frame above erased also.

_Variety Two_, from variety two of the five cents. Four strokes under
"_Saint_," but bolder and closer than the original, the vertical stroke
over the left bear's paw nearly erased.

Four strokes under "_Louis_," but deeper and more regular, the third
stroke downwards on a level with the bear's ear. L of "Louis" has been
re-engraved. Bear's paw on the garter erased.

The inner line of frame half erased between "_Saint_," and "_Louis_."

It remains to be added that the numerals are, in both these varieties,
very badly drawn, single lined and solid, instead of open and
ornamented, and are shaded by miserably drawn irregular horizontal fine
lines of uneven length, totally different from the figures in the other
two values.

It is both impracticable and useless to attempt to repeat here all the
arguments for and against the authenticity of these specimens. It is
claimed that they were found in the same file of letters with the
greater part of the specimens of the other values known. That the rate
they indicate was a regular rate upon heavy letters from St. Louis to
New York, and that many letters so marked that do not bear stamps, were
found in the same and other files; that there are no traces of erasure
of the 5 by scratching, and the paper is no thinner under the numerals
than elsewhere. This seems to be the substance of what can be said in
their favor.

On the other hand they are not alluded to in the notices published in
the Republican, above quoted, or elsewhere; the engraver is positive
that he did not alter the values; says that he retained the plate until
after Mr. Wyman had ceased to be postmaster, which was at least two
years after the stamps were prohibited by law, and that the workmanship
of the numerals could not possibly be his, and would be a disgrace to
any engraver; the figures are apparently made by an unskilled hand with
an ordinary pen and ink; competent authorities in such matters state
that it is possible to remove printing ink from paper; three of the
known specimens have been photographed, two of one variety and one of
another; in all the numerals differ, those of the two varieties
mentioned by Mr. Scott as corresponding, vary as much as the two from
different varieties of the five cents. While it is true that a portion
of the inner line of the frame is gone between Saint and Louis, and that
the strokes are bolder beneath these words on one variety, it is not
apparent that they are nearer together, or of different shape as Mr.
Pemberton thought, or that the L of "Louis" has been re-engraved. The
absent lines need no comment. Lastly, the work has a blurred appearance,
as if the ink had slightly run into the paper around these famous 20
numerals, and in all the photographs they are of a different color from
the remaining parts of the same stamps, and the other stamps
photographed with them, particularly noticeable in light photographs,
while the blurred appearance is more apparent in the dark photographs.
If these facts do not convince those who believe in the authenticity of
these 20 cent varieties, that they, with Messrs. Scott and Pemberton,
have been the victims of a clever fraud, the question will probably
never be settled for them, as no new facts are likely at this date to be
discovered.

The two cent value, once chronicled, is of a different design, and an
admitted invention.



VI.

STAMP OF THE BRATTLEBORO POSTMASTER.


The stamp issued by the Postmaster, of Brattleboro, Vermont, is
catalogued as a local as early as Kline's Manual, 2nd edition, 1863. The
first magazine to describe it was Taylor's Record, February, 1865, which
states that it was issued in 1848, by F. N. Palmer, to supply a
temporary lack of the current five cents and gives a fair description of
it. The American Journal of Philately, in January, 1869, in an article
by Dr. Petrie, gave the first correct account of it. The article gives a
letter purporting to have been written by Dr. Palmer, who says it was a
strictly private enterprise, neither ordered or repudiated by the
Department, and did not appear in his account with the head office at
Washington. "My object," he says, "in issuing it was to accommodate the
people, and save myself labor in making and collecting quarterly bills,
almost everything at that time being either charged or forwarded without
prepayment. I was disappointed in the effect, having still to charge
the stamps and collect my bills. As to the number issued, I should say
five or six hundred as an experiment. They were engraved by Mr. Thomas
Chubbuck, then of Brattleboro, now of Springfield."

Mr. Palmer thinks the stamp was issued during his first year as
postmaster, (1845).

The March number of the same journal, for the same year, mentions a
specimen on a letter of 1846, postmarked with a pen, November 10th, but
the stamp cancelled with the word "PAID," hand stamped in red. In the
Stamp Collector's Magazine, November, 1870, Mr. L. H. Bagg,
recapitulating the foregoing, states incidentally, that one reason for
this accommodating spirit on the part of the postmaster, was that his
salary depended on the cash receipts of his office, and hence his
anxiety to have as many letters prepaid as possible, a fact which
assists us in understanding why a stamp should have been issued at such
a small place as Brattleboro then was. The postmarked letter shows that
the use of the stamp did not do away with the necessity of marking the
letter "PAID," and that it was this mark and not the stamp that was
recognized by other postmasters. In his interview with Mr. Bagg, the
engraver, Mr. Chubbuck, was quite confident that Mr. Palmer burned all
the unsold stamps in his possession upon the appearance of the first
regular United States Stamps, that the bill for engraving them was not
collected until June, 1848, and that the charges were $7.50 for
engraving the plate, and $1.50 for printing 500 stamps. Mr. Bagg also
obtained from Mr. Chubbuck a part of a sheet, eight stamps, which was
afterwards purchased by Mr. Scott, who got together all the copies he
could, and thus reconstructed the sheet, which was shown to have
contained ten varieties, in two horizontal rows of 5 stamps each, each
stamp separately engraved, the words "Eng. by Thos. Chubbuck, Bratt'o,"
appearing in small script under the middle stamp of the lower row, and
not extending over the length of that stamp.


BRATTLEBORO POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF 1845 OR 1846.

"F. N. P.", the initials of the postmaster, Frederick N. Palmer, in
fac-simile, with flourish beneath, on a vertically lined ground, in an
oblong with cut corners, bordered by a heavy colored, a colorless and a
finer colored line in a band lined diagonally, (from right above, to
left below) and bordered by another fine colored, a colorless and
heavier colored line, forming an oblong rectangle, and inscribed above
"_Brattleboro, Vt._," in colored black letters, "_P._ and _O._" on left
and right, in ordinary colored capitals, and "_5 Cents_" in outline
capitals below.

Plate impression 21 by 19 mm., in color, on brownish paper.

      5 cents, black.



VII.

STAMP OF THE NEW HAVEN POSTMASTER.


This stamp was discovered in an old collection by Mr. Wm. P. Brown, and
described by him in his Curiosity Cabinet in May, 1871. The New Haven
Palladium of May 11, 1871, has the following account of the discovery,
which, though it contains some errors as to the former postal rates, and
some ignorance as to the history of the stamps of the United States, is
worthy of insertion here.

    "A CURIOSITY."

    "An old envelope post office stamp, issued at New Haven, of the
    denomination of 5 cents, marked 'PAID,' and subscribed by 'E. A.
    Mitchell, P. M.,' has lately turned up. It must have been issued
    over 20 years ago and is probably one of the oldest United
    States stamps in existence. Mr. Mitchell was postmaster of this
    city from 1844 to 1850. When he took office the rates were 6,
    10, 12½, and 25 cents for single letters, according to distance,
    no prepayment being required. The rates were afterwards reduced
    to 10 and 5 cents according to distance, and subsequently to
    five cents, uniform for all distances, the weight not exceeding
    one quarter ounce, and prepayment required. At this period
    envelopes began to come in use, and as prepayment of postage
    could only be made at the office during business hours, Mr.
    Mitchell took the responsibility of issuing envelopes, stamped
    as above, with his signature on each, and selling them at the
    cost of envelopes and postage as an accommodation; some of the
    post offices refused to recognize them, and reported the fact to
    the Department. As however the stamps could only be used at the
    New Haven office, and were sent as prepaid matter, properly
    entered on the New Haven Post Bill, there could be no loss to
    the government, and the Department taking a liberal view of the
    subject, authorized their continuance. There is no doubt that
    the adoption of stamps by our government was much hastened by
    the issue of these prepaid envelopes, and it can truly be said
    that they were the first stamps issued by the United States. Mr.
    Mitchell is still in possession of the original plate."

From a letter of Mr. Mitchell's, printed in the American Journal of
Philately in May, 1871, it further appears that Mr. Mitchell permitted
parties to bring their own envelopes to be stamped. The die was a simple
hand stamp engraved by F. G. Gorham, and the ink employed was that in
ordinary use for hand stamps in the office, red or blue. He was
postmaster from September, 1844, to 1852, and thinks the stamp was
issued first in 1845. Only one original stamp has so far been found.


NEW HAVEN POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF 1845.

Large rectangular stamp, with corners cut by quarter circles. Frame of a
very heavy outside line with an interior fine line. "_Post Office_" in
heavy block letters inclined to left, in a straight line across the top,
"_New Haven, Ct._," in a curved line of Roman capitals, in a second
line. Large numeral "5" with "PAID" in large block capitals beneath,
signature (E. A. Mitchell) written, and "P. M." in ordinary capitals
forming the fifth line.

Impression 26 by 31 mm., from brass hand stamp, in color on white or
colored envelopes.

      5 cents, red.

The only known original is cut square. In 1871, Mr. Mitchell made a few
re-impressions in red and blue ink, which he signed and distributed to
collectors. The die was then deposited in the archives of the New Haven
Colonial Historical Society.

      Reprints. 5 cents, blue impression, red signature.
                5   "    red      "       blue    "
                5   "     "       "       black   "
                5   "     "       "       no      "

All on large white paper.



VIII.

STAMPS OF THE PROVIDENCE POSTMASTER.


These stamps, of which the 5 cent value was catalogued as early as 1863,
and the 10 cent in June, 1865, were issued by Mr. H. B. Sayles,
postmaster at Providence, and engraved by a Mr. Kidden, of that city in
1846. None of the daily papers of the locality, which we have been
permitted to consult, seem to have noticed the issue. The plate has
however been preserved among the archives of the State of Rhode Island.


PROVIDENCE POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF 1846.

"_Post Office_," in a curved line, "_Prov. R. I._" in a straight line,
and "_Five Cents_" in a curved line, all in outline colorless block
capitals on a ground of fine horizontal lines, bordered by a fine
colored, a broad colorless and second fine colored line, forming a
horizontal oval, the space outside filled in with similar horizontal
lined ground to form a rectangle, bordered by a fine colored line, the
bottom and right side double thickness, and ornamented with a white
foliated ornament in each of the four corners, separated by a white ball
on the sides, and by from two to five balls above, but none at the
bottom, where there is instead a prolongation of the foliation.

Plate impression (copper), 20 by 28 mm., on yellowish white paper.

      5 cents, black,
      10 cents, black.

These stamps were issued gummed.

The paper of the sheet measures 85½ by 88 mm. On the plate there are
three stamps in each horizontal and four in each vertical row, or twelve
stamps. The upper right hand corner stamp alone bears the value "_Ten
Cents_." If for the sake of convenience the first stamp on the left of
the upper row is designated as type one, the next two, etc.; the first
stamp on the left of the second row as type four; the first of the third
row as seven; and the first of the fourth row as ten, the following may
be noticed among the many points of difference. The plate was originally
ruled into spaces for the stamps by very fine lines, which seem to have
been carried straight through over the spaces intended to separate the
stamps, and not always to have been perfectly obliterated afterwards. On
the right of the plate there is also a vertical line parallel to the
right side of all the stamps in the right hand row, at the distance
separating two stamps (nearly 2 mm.) as if the intention had been to add
another stamp to each horizontal row.

_Type 1._ At the upper left corner, the horizontal frame line thickened
projects to the left and the vertical line projects upward. 5 balls
between the foliations the middle one is an oblong rectangle, the end
ones touch the ornaments. The side balls are on a line with the tops of
the letters of "Prov., R. I." There is a period after Cents.

_Type 2._ At the upper left corner, the horizontal frame line thickened
projects to the left. At the lower left corner both the horizontal and
vertical lines thickened project. Both the horizontal top and bottom
lines continue on the right to Type 3. 5 balls, the middle one is a
square, the next on the right is the lower half of a circle, the next on
left flat at top and bottom. These three are all small. The end ball on
the right larger than the others. Both it and the end ball on the left
are flat on top. "F" in "Five" very close to the border. Side balls
above the line of the top of the letters of "Prov., R. I." A period
after Cents.

_Type 3._ Ten cents. The horizontal top line of frame projects each way.
The vertical line at the right plain above but thickened and partially
obliterated below the lower right corner. The lower horizontal line
projects to the left to Type 2. 5 balls, the middle one large and
square, the extreme right one nearly round, the remaining three
irregular and nearly equal in size. "E" of "Office" touches the oval.
Side balls below the line of the top of the letters of "Prov., R. I.,"
and lower point of left foliation cuts into the left ball. No period
after Cents.

_Type 4._ The top horizontal line projects to the left. The bottom
horizontal line projects both to the left and right. 5 balls. The middle
one is a small oblong rectangle. Those next to it very small. Left side
ball on a level with the top line of letters of "Prov., R. I.," but the
right ball smaller and lower down. No period after Cents.

_Type 5._ The top horizontal line projects to the left, and part of it
is thickened. It also projects to the right. The bottom horizontal line
projects to the left. 5 balls. The middle one in an oblong rectangle.
The "s" of Cents, resembles an 8. Side balls are above the line of the
top of "Prov., R. I." No period after Cents.

_Type 6._ The top horizontal line projects to left. The bottom
horizontal line also. The vertical left line projects to type 9. 5
balls. The middle one is a square. Shading of "E" of "Office" touches
the oval. The side balls are below the tops of "Prov., R. I." No period
after Cents.

_Type 7._ The top horizontal line projects both to left and right. The
right vertical line projects above the corner. 4 balls only. The middle
one is gone. They are all small. A period after Cents.

_Type 8._ The top horizontal and left vertical lines both project at the
upper left corner. 5 balls. The middle ball is a square. The top of the
"E" of "Office" touches the oval. The "s" in Cents is very small, and is
followed by a period.

_Type 9._ The top horizontal line projects both ways, and the left
vertical line projects above the upper left corner. Both vertical lines
are continued down to type 12. 2 balls only, the middle ones are left
out. "V" in "Prov." is too large and the "F" of "Five" touches the oval.
No period after Cents.

_Type 10._ The top horizontal and right vertical lines both project
beyond the upper right corner. 5 balls. The middle one square. The lower
leaf of the upper left foliation has no notch. Point after Cents.

_Type 11._ The top horizontal line projects to the left and both
verticals project upwards. 5 balls. The middle one is square. The end
balls project above top line. No period after Cents.

_Type 12._ Both vertical lines project up to Type 9. 5 dots. Middle one
is an oblong rectangle. The next on the right projects above the frame.
The one at right end is nearly round, but both those at the left are
rectangular. Ball at right side large and flat. No period after Cents.

It has been stated that the engraver of the original plate re-engraved
these stamps for the benefit of collectors many years ago. However this
may be, there are a number of very dangerous counterfeits in existence,
as well as some that are easily detected.

In the following table the lines which touch the letters or other parts
are counted as well as those between them. By these differences and
peculiarities the position of a given specimen on the plate can readily
be determined.

The following peculiarities are noticed in Le Timbre Poste, page 5, 1871.

  Row A, Width of the oval
   "  B, Height of the oval

  Horizontal lines between the;
      Row C, Upper frame and oval
       "  D, O of Office, and oval above
       "  E, V of Prov., and oval above
       "  F, V of Prov., and C of Cents
       "  G, C of Cents, and oval below
       "  H, P of Prov., & E or T of 5, 10
       "  I, I of R. I., and S of Cents
       "  J, P of Post, and P of Prov.
       "  K, E of Office, and I of R. I.

      -------------------------------------------------------------
      |Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|Type|
      | 1  |  2 |  3 |  4 |  5 |  6 |  7 |  8 |  9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    A |24¼ | 24 | 24 | 23¾| 23¾| 24 | 24 | 24 | 24¼| 24 | 24 | 24¼|
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    B |18½ | 18¼| 18¼| 18½| 18¼| 18¼| 18¼| 18½| 18¼| 18½|18¼ | 18¼|
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    C | 3  |  2 |  3 |  2 |  3 |  4 |  0 |  2 |  3 |  3 |  2 |  2 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    D |12  | 13 | 11 | 11 | 12 | 11 | 12 |  9 | 12 | 11 | 12 | 11 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    E |15  | 14 | 14 | 14 | 15 | 12 | 12 | 16 | 16 | 14 | 15 | 15 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    F |13  | 14 | 14 | 14 | 14 | 16 | 16 | 15 | 15 | 13 | 14 | 13 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    G | 7  |  6 |  7 |  7 |  7 |  7 |  8 |  8 |  6 |  9 |  7 |  9 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    H | 3  |  4 |  4 |  4 |  4 |  5 |  6 |  5 |  4 |  5 |  4 |  3 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    I | 5  |  5 |  6 |  5 |  6 |  7 |  7 |  6 |  7 |  4 |  5 |  4 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    J | 6  |  6 |  3 |  4 |  6 |  3 |  5 |  7 |  6 |  4 |  5 |  6 |
      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
    K | 4  |  4 |  3 |  1 |  4 |  2 |  2 |  6 |  4 |  3 |  4 |  3 |
      -------------------------------------------------------------



IX.

STAMP OF THE ALEXANDRIA POSTMASTER.


This stamp was discovered by the present author, and was first
chronicled in an article by him in Le Timbre Poste, of February, 1873. A
second specimen is chronicled in Durbin's Philatelic Monthly, of August,
1879. They are both postmarked with the ordinary dated hand stamp of
Alexandria, D. C., the word "PAID," and large numeral "5." The first
postmark is dated July 10th, that of the second is illegible, but the
letter was dated Sept. 9th, 1846.


ALEXANDRIA POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF 1846.

Large round stamp, 30 mm. in diameter, with border of 40 six-rayed
stars. Within "_Alexandria_," above, and "_Post Office_," below, in
heavy block capitals, a six-rayed star separating the words, on each
side. In the centre "PAID," in smaller capitals, with the numeral "5"
beneath.

Impression from wood block, 30 mm. in diameter, on yellow paper.

      5 cents, black.

This stamp appears to have been originally stamped upon the buff
envelopes common at the time, and to have been cut out and fastened to
the letter. No further information concerning it has yet been
discovered. The files at Washington, of the Alexandria Gazette, the only
Alexandria paper of that period, are defective from May 22nd, to
October, 1845, and in part for 1847. Daniel Brien was Postmaster at
Alexandria during 1845-47.



X.

STAMPS OF THE BALTIMORE POSTMASTER.


This stamp was first chronicled in the Philatelical Journal in 1874. The
copy there described was the only one known, until very recently, a
second copy was described in the New York World, and subsequently that
and another were mentioned in the Alexandria Gazette, of August 3rd,
1886, as having been in possession of Mr. Thomas Semmes, of Alexandria.
These are described as postmarked respectively, January 15th, and 31st.,
1847, with the other marks usual upon letters of the period. From 1845
to 1849, Mr. James Madison Buchannan was the postmaster at Baltimore,
and is said to have issued this stamp in the fall of 1846. Further
details are wanting. The stamp is a simple looking slip of paper
containing the signature of the postmaster in fac-simile, in one line,
and the value, "_5 Cents_," in a second line, bordered by a frame of
single colored lines, crossed at the four angles.

Impression, 55 by 15 mm., in color upon thin bluish paper.

      5 cents, black.

[Illustration: James M. Buchannan (handwritten signature) PAID 5 (with 5
inside circle)]

Besides these adhesive stamps, Mr. Buchannan also issued a species of
franked envelope. Two copies of this were found by Mr. Robt. H. Smith,
in examining his old letters. They are the ordinary buff wove envelopes
of the period, size 80 by 137 mm., of the old simple form with straight
edged flaps. In the right upper hand corner the signature "James M.
Buchannan," hand stamped, 50½ mm. long, the "B," 4½ mm. high. Beneath
this in a second line the word "PAID," in capitals, 4 mm. high, and 16
mm. long is also hand stamped. Below this again, a large numeral "5,"
11½ mm. high, in an oval 20½ mm. long by 7½ high, is also hand stamped.

The specimen described is hand stamped with the ordinary round hand
stamp of Baltimore, Md., and dated Nov. 24th, no year stated and is
directed to the present owner and finder.

Impression hand stamped in blue ink on buff envelopes.

      5 cents, blue.

Besides these it has been claimed that the stamp known as the
"horseman," was also issued in 1860 or 1861, by the Postmaster of
Baltimore. It may be described as a rough design of a horseman,
galloping to the right, holding a streamer, inscribed: "_One Cent_." On
ribbons above, "_Government City Dispatch_." Rough frame of vertical
lines with rough ornaments in the corners, bordered by a single colored
line.

Impression, 23 by 17 mm., apparently lithographed in color on white
paper.

               1 Cent, red.
               1  "    black.
      Variety, 1 Sent    "

It will appear further on, that at this date, 1860, and long prior
thereto, the law prohibited postmasters from recognizing or permitting
to be used any stamps not received from the Postmaster General. In a
letter published in the American Journal of Philately, July 20th, 1869,
W. H. H. Corell, 3rd Assistant Postmaster General, says: "The records of
the Department do not contain any reference to the other stamp, Post
Rider." It is supposed to have been issued by one of the numerous "City
Dispatch" companies located in New York. These facts and the very rough
workmanship, so unlike any of the authorized Government issues, would
seem sufficient to settle the absolutely unofficial character of this
stamp.



XI.

STAMP OF THE MILLBURY POSTMASTER.


In the collection of letters received by Col. Isaac Davis, of Worcester,
Mass., now in the library of the American Antiquarian Society, were
found, in 1884, two letters written and posted at Millbury, in August
and December, 1846, postmarked with the ordinary dating stamp of
Millbury, of the dates August 21st, and December 16th, respectively, and
stamped with an adhesive stamp, cancelled with the word "PAID," in large
capitals, partly on the letter and partly on the stamp. The earliest
also bears a large "V," in an octagon frame, and the other a large
numeral "5," in a circle. Col. Asa H. Waters, was postmaster of Millbury
in 1846, having received his commission, dated January 2nd, 1836, from
President Jackson, "Old Hickory," and retained the office until
November, 1848, when he resigned and obtained the office for Henry
Waterman, who had been his assistant. A third copy of the adhesive stamp
is in the possession of Col. Waters, postmarked exactly as the first
described specimen, but the date is July 18th. Both Col. Waters and Mr.
Waterman state that the idea of the stamp was suggested by the reception
of letters bearing the New York stamp, and that the stamp was printed in
Boston, from a block cut in 1846. Neither gentleman has any data by
which to fix more exactly the date of its issue.


MILLBURY POST OFFICE.

ISSUE OF 1846.

Head of Washington, ¾ face to the right, on a colorless circular disk,
16½ mm. in diameter, shaded to left of the head, and part way in front
by 4 diagonal lines, and bordered by a circular band, 2 mm. wide, edged
outside and inside by a colored line. The band is inscribed above,
"_Post Office_," below, "_Paid 5 Cents_," in colored block capitals,
except "5 Cents," which is in script. There are three five-pointed stars
irregularly formed on each side in the band. The outer circle is a
little flat between T and O. The vertical diameter is ½ mm. longer than
the horizontal.

Impression from wood block 22 by 22½ mm. in diameter, in black on smooth
unsurfaced white paper.

      5 cents, black.



XII.

STAMPED ENVELOPES OF THE WASHINGTON POSTMASTER.


The Daily Union, published at Washington, Wednesday, July 23rd, 1845,
and the National Intelligencer, of Friday, July 25th, 1845, contain the
following advertising editorial[A]:

    "INTERESTING TO CITIZENS AND SOJOURNERS IN WASHINGTON. Upon
    inquiring at the city post office, we learn that Col. Gardiner
    has had franked (or rather prepaid) envelopes prepared, which do
    away with the necessity of personal application at the delivery
    window when one wishes to pay postage on sending off a letter.
    They are for sale at the post office, at the following rates;
    which barely pay the cost, after deducting the sum chargeable on
    each for postage, viz:

      18 envelopes to enclose letters charged at 5 cents for $1.00
       9    "              "              "         "           50
       1    "              "              "         "           6¼
       9    "              "              "     10 cents      1.00
       4    "              "              "     10  "   }       50
       1    "              "              "      5  "   }

    This plan, it will be recollected has been adopted in the
    northern cities to the great advantage of the public, and its
    introduction here will save our fellow citizens many a long and
    hitherto, indispensable trudge, in this metropolis of
    magnificent distances."

The latter paper, however quotes the price of the 5 cent envelopes at 6
cents, instead of 6¼. These are evidently the envelopes mentioned in the
article of the Express, of July 8th, quoted in the chapter on the stamps
of the New York postmaster. Up to the present time none of them have
been reported to have been found.

  [A] The newspaper articles concerning these envelopes were found
  by Mr. C. F. Rothfuchs who, at the suggestion of the author,
  kindly searched the files of the Washington papers.



XIII.

STAMPS OF THE PHILADELPHIA POSTMASTER.


From 1845 to 1849, Dr. Geo. F. Lehman was postmaster of Philadelphia. It
is asserted that he adopted for use in the post office at Philadelphia,
a number of peculiar devices of his own, which appear to have been a
substitute for postage stamps. They are described as bands with the
names of the persons who mailed the letters upon them, which were
fastened around the letters, and upon receipt at the post office, were
removed by the clerks and kept as vouchers, the amount of postage due
being charged to the account of the sender, and collected with the
quarterly bill. There are also said to have been in use several other
designs in the form of stamps, printed and sold by the post office,
which when fastened upon the letter indicated that the office had
received postage, and such letters were then forwarded and marked as
paid.

Although several varieties of these are said to have been in use, none
of them have yet been found.



XIV.

STAMPS OF THE WORCESTER POSTMASTER.


In the National Aegis, published at Worcester, Mass., September 2nd,
1846, may be found the following item:

    "POST OFFICE STAMPS. The postmaster has issued postage stamps of
    the denomination of five cents and ten cents. They are very
    convenient, and will save the trouble of making change at the
    post office, and will enable people to send prepaid letters at
    times when the office is closed. To cover the expense of
    engraving and printing, these stamps are sold at five per cent
    advance upon the regular rates of postage."

Maturin L. Fisher was postmaster at Worcester, from 1839 to 1849, and
Andrew A. Williams was his chief clerk in 1846. The above item was
recently found by the present author in searching old files of
newspapers, for information about the various postmaster's stamps. No
other Worcester paper seems to have noticed the matter, and no further
information has so far rewarded the limited inquiry and search possible
since the discovery. Both of the gentlemen in the office at the time are
now deceased.



XV.

STAMPS OF THE PITTSFIELD POSTMASTER.


A short notice published in one of the Springfield, Mass., papers, in
the summer of 1874, asserts that in overhauling the vaults of the
Berkshire Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of Pittsfield, a number of
stamps were found that were issued by the Pittsfield postmaster, in
1846-7. Phineas Allen was postmaster of Pittsfield at the time. No
further information concerning these stamps, has rewarded inquiry.



XVI.

OBSERVATIONS.


It is by no means improbable that other similar devices were in use in
other towns and cities at this period, by which prepayment of postage
was secured. The salaries of many of the smaller offices depended on the
amount of postage collected, and the importance of all offices was
estimated by the revenue collected. It was natural, therefore, as the
public demand for such accommodation grew, that the postmaster should
adopt a device tending to their own benefit. There are in the possession
of the present author a number of hand stamps, apparently cut from
letters and envelopes, inscribed such and such a "Post Office," "5 Cents
Paid," which would seem to be stamps of this kind, but in the absence of
further information, are not here chronicled. The wide spread use of
such stamps would appear from the following caution, published in the
Courier, of New York, July 18th, 1845.

    "The postmaster of this city has given notice that he has
    prepared stamps for the use of merchants, and requests them to
    provide themselves with these stamps to facilitate the business
    of the post office, and for their own convenience. It will be
    observed that the postmaster warns the public that any stamps
    offered for sale at any place other than the post office of this
    city are spurious. That the use of proper stamps by merchants
    will be a great convenience is admitted; but these stamps, thus
    offered, should be considered in no other light than the
    personal obligations of the postmaster, unauthorized as far as
    the public know, by any proper authority, and if issued by the
    postmaster of one city, may also be issued by the postmaster of
    any town or city in the United States; and if this practice
    becomes general, the amount in these stamps held by the public
    will be very considerable, and will evidently lead to great
    abuses and probably losses.

    In case of the death or removal of a postmaster, we know of no
    legal obligation of his successor to consider these stamps of
    any value whatever.

    Post office stamps to be of general utility, should be issued by
    the General Post Office at Washington, sanctioned by law, and
    with suitable penalties in case of forgery: they would be of
    great advantage to the Post Office Department, and would much
    facilitate business in various ways, but if issued by any or all
    postmasters, will in some cases be used "to raise the wind," and
    may raise it pretty effectually in cases of death or default, as
    the amount held by the public in any of the large cities would
    be a very considerable sum."

          (Signed)                                     CAVEAT.

This article was reprinted by numerous journals, among them the Express,
of New York, July 18th, 1845.



XVII.

THE ISSUE OF 1847.


Notwithstanding these manifest dangers, noticed by the Courier and
Express, the public continued to demand and use, and the postmasters to
issue, as we have seen, these unauthorized stamps, without action on the
part of Congress, or interference by the Department, until the beginning
of 1847 when, apparently in response to the necessities of the case the
following law was passed:

    STATUTES OF THE UNITED STATES, XXIX Congress, Session II,
    Chapter LXIII, Section 1, approved March 3rd, 1847. An Act to
    establish certain Post Roads and for other purposes.

    "And be it further enacted, that to facilitate the
    transportation of letters by mail, the Postmaster General be
    authorized to prepare postage stamps, which, when attached to
    any letter or packet, shall be evidence of the prepayment of the
    postage chargeable on such letter, which said stamps the
    Postmaster General may deliver to any deputy postmaster who may
    apply for the same, the deputy postmaster paying or becoming
    accountable for the amount of the stamps so received by him, and
    if any of said stamps shall not be used, but be returned to the
    General Post Office, the amount so returned shall be credited to
    such deputy postmaster, and such deputy postmaster may sell or
    dispose of any stamps so received by him to any person who may
    wish to use the same, but it shall not be lawful for any deputy
    postmaster, to prepare, use, or dispose of any postage stamps
    not authorized by and received from the Postmaster General. And
    any person who shall falsely and fraudulently make, alter or
    forge any postage stamp with intent to defraud the Post Office
    Department, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and on conviction
    shall be subject to the same punishment as provided in the 21
    Section of the Act approved March 3rd, 1825, entitled an Act,"
    etc.

This is the first authorization of postage stamps in the United States,
and it will be well to observe that the use of any stamps other than
_those authorized and received from_ the Postmaster General is strictly
prohibited. The use of the stamps of the postmasters herein before
treated of, must therefore have ceased from and after the 1st of July,
1847, when the law went into effect, or as soon thereafter as supplies
were received from the Department. This effectually determines the
character of such locals, as the so-called "Horseman," and "U. S. Mail
Prepaid," before referred to.

According to the law and custom in the United States, a contract for the
engraving and printing of stamps, under the authority of this Act, was
made by the Postmaster General with Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and
Edson, for four years. During this time they furnished 4,400,000, five
cent stamps, and 1,050,000, ten cent stamps, of which 3,712,000 five
cent, and 891,000 ten cent stamps are officially reported to have been
distributed by the Department to deputy postmasters for sale. A portion
of these, valued at $12,038.55, were however afterwards returned to the
Department and exchanged for those of the subsequent issue, and credited
to the deputies who returned them.


ISSUE OF JULY 1ST, 1847.

The issue consisted of two values only, five and ten cents.

FIVE CENTS. Portrait of Benjamin Franklin, Continental Postmaster
General, facing three quarters to the left, on an oval disk with hatched
ground, 14½ by 17¼ mm., bounded by a broad colorless line with a fine
colored line outside, in a rectangular frame, also bordered by a broad
colorless line with a fine colored line outside. The ground work of this
frame is composed of fine horizontal colored lines, and is ornamented by
foliations, and inscribed in outlined colorless capitals, "_U._" and
"_S._," in the upper corners, with "_Post Office_," between, following
the form of the oval, large numeral "5," and "5," in the lower corners,
with "_Five Cents_" between, following the form of the oval.

Between the lines of the outer border, exactly in the centre, are the
initials of the engravers, "R. W. H. & E.," in small colored capitals.

Plate impression, 18½ by 23½ mm., in color, on faintly bluish paper.

      5 cents, bronze.

TEN CENTS. Portrait of George Washington, first President, facing three
quarters to the right, on an oval disk, with hatched background,
bordered by a broad colorless line, with a fine colored line outside, in
a rectangular frame, bordered in the same manner. The ground of the
frame and inscriptions are similar to the five cents, but changed for
the value to a large "X," in each lower corner, with "_Ten Cents_,"
between. Same small initials in the lower border.

Plate impression, 18½ by 23½ mm., in color, on faintly bluish paper.

      10 cents, black.

In the Hartford Times of August 5th, 1885, appeared a long article,
entitled: "The First Postage Stamps," from which the following relating
to the actual date of this issue may be here repeated.

    "Thirty eight years ago to-day the first postage stamps were
    used in the United States. * * * On the 25th of March, 1840,
    John M. Niles, of Hartford, became Postmaster General and
    signalized his administration by many reforms. * * * It was
    necessary to cap all by a genuine innovation, and he performed
    this by suggesting the postage stamp. The suggestion was
    received with ridicule, and Mr. Niles soon after retired. * * *
    When Cave Johnson assumed the post office, on the 5th of March,
    1845, he found it an Herculian task to reinstate the reform
    measures of Mr. Niles. * * * Among the measures of Mr. Niles
    that he adopted was the postage stamp idea. * * * Johnson
    garnished his conversation with fathering the suggestion
    originated six years before. * * * The matter took form as a
    bill. * * * Approved March 3rd, 1847. The date of the issue was
    appointed as July 1st, but there was a delay in the contractors'
    work and the time ran over a month.

    On the 5th of August, soon after the opening of the Postmaster
    General's office for the day, an old gentleman called to see Mr.
    Johnson on business. The gentleman was the Hon. Henry Shaw, a
    New Yorker, * * * and the father of the well known Henry Shaw,
    Jr., (Josh Billings). * * * Mr. Johnson came into his office
    accompanied by the printer of the new stamps, a few minutes
    after Mr. Shaw had arrived, on that August morning. Sheets of
    the stamps were laid before the Postmaster General, who, after
    receipting for them, handed them to his visitor to inspect. Mr.
    Shaw returned them after a hasty glance, and then drawing out
    his wallet, he counted fifteen cents, with which he purchased
    two of the stamps--the first two ever issued. The five cent
    stamp he kept as a curiosity, and the ten cent stamp he
    presented to Governor Briggs, as an appropriate gift."


OBSERVATIONS.

In nearly all the early catalogues and in some recent foreign ones,
these stamps are catalogued upon _white_ paper. Mr. Terrell, Third
Assistant Postmaster General, in a letter published on page 111,
American Stamp Mercury, 1870, states positively that this issue was
never printed except upon faintly tinted bluish paper. It may be
observed, generally, that the paper of all stamps of the early issues of
all countries which were affixed to the blue or bluish paper in general
use at the time, has a tendency to vary from the original color,
sometimes becoming blue or bluish, when originally white, darker or
lighter blue or even whitish if originally blue. This has been variously
explained, as the action of some ingredient in the paper of the letter,
or of the stamp, in the gum or the ink.

It must be further observed that the color of the impression of the five
cents varies greatly from the original pale red brown, called bronze.
Many shades of faint red brown, red brown, faint dark brown, deep dark
brown, black brown, bluish black, and almost pure black, may be found.
Whether these result, as seems to be the case, from a natural change in
the course of time, from something in the ink, paper or surroundings of
the stamp itself, or whether it results from the use of different
colored ink originally, may perhaps be impossible now to determine.

The ten cent, however, varies very little in the color of the
impression. Beyond a lighter, or grayish shade, a black with a bluish
cast, and the ordinary black impression, little is to be noticed.

The stamps are separated in the sheet by about 2 mm., each way. Double
copies of the five cents, adhering either by the side, or by the top and
bottom, are often found on old letters, and occasionally, three or four
adhering specimens are encountered. The ten cents is almost invariably
found in single specimens, though a few pairs, and even three used
together are known.

According to a statement in the American Journal of Philately, of April,
1871, this issue was withdrawn from circulation between June 11th and
September 30th, 1851. The instructions of the Department to the deputy
postmasters, concerning the distribution of the next issue, published in
June, 1851, order that these five and ten cent stamps must not be
recognized as prepaying letters after the 30th of June, 1851, and
request the public to return them to the deputy postmasters, in exchange
for others of the new issue. The report of the Postmaster General for
the year expiring June 30th, 1851, and published in the fall of that
year, further states: "Directions for the destruction of the dies and
plates, employed in the manufacture of the stamps formerly used, have
been given, and for counting and burning such stamps as have not been
issued to postmasters or have been returned."

These facts probably explain the extreme rarity of unused stamps of this
issue, and the re-engraving of the dies by the Government, when it was
considered advisable to make an exhibit of all its issues of adhesive
stamps at the Centennial Exhibition.

The existence therefore, of a specimen of four unused five cent stamps,
adhering by the sides, and another of four unused ten cent stamps,
adhering also by the sides, in the private collection of Mr. Sterling,
is worthy of notice. The latter specimen, at any rate, is probably
unique, and though called whitish paper by him, has nevertheless, the
bluish tint, and certainly is not _white_ paper.

NOTE. There are _proofs_ however on white paper.



XVIII.

THE ISSUE OF 1851.


The Act of the XXXI Congress, Session II, Chapter XX, approved March
3rd, 1851, and entitled: "An Act to reduce and modify the Rates of
Postage in the United States, and for other purposes" reads:

    "Be it enacted, etc., that from and after the 30th day of June,
    1851, in lieu of the rates of postage now established by law,
    there shall be charged the following rates, viz: For every
    single letter in manuscript, or paper of any kind, upon which
    information shall be asked for, or communicated, in writing, or
    by marks or signs, conveyed in the mail for any distance,
    between places within the United States, not exceeding 3,000
    miles, when the postage upon said letter shall have been
    prepaid, three cents, and five cents when the postage thereon
    shall not have been prepaid, and for any distance exceeding
    3,000 miles, double these rates; for every such single letter or
    paper when conveyed wholly or in part by sea, and to or from a
    foreign country, for any distance over 2,500 miles, twenty
    cents, and for any distance under 2,500 miles, ten cents,
    excepting however, all cases where such postages have been or
    shall be adjusted at different rates by postal treaty or
    convention already concluded or hereafter to be made; and for a
    double letter there shall be charged double the rates above
    specified; and for a treble letter, treble these rates; and for
    a quadruple letter, quadruple these rates; and every letter or
    parcel not exceeding half an ounce in weight, shall be deemed a
    single letter, and every additional weight of half an ounce, or
    every additional weight of less than half an ounce, shall be
    charged with an additional single postage. And all drop letters,
    or letters placed in any post office, not for transmission, but
    for delivery only, shall be charged with postage at the rate of
    one cent each, and all letters which shall hereafter be
    advertised as remaining over or uncalled for in any post office
    shall be charged with one cent in addition to the regular
    postage to be accounted for as other postages now are."

The second section fixed the rates upon newspapers of all descriptions,
coming from the publishers, etc., etc., which were not to be paid for by
stamps, but:

    "Every other newspaper circular, hand bill, engraving,
    pamphlet," etc., etc., "shall be charged one cent an ounce under
    500 miles and one cent each additional ounce between 500 and
    1500 miles," double beyond, etc., etc.

The third section provides:

    "And be it further enacted, that it shall be the duty of the
    Postmaster General to provide and furnish to all deputy
    postmasters, and to all other persons applying and paying
    therefor, suitable postage stamps, of the denomination of three
    cents, and of such other denominations as he may think expedient
    to facilitate prepayment of postages provided for in this Act;
    and any person who shall forge or counterfeit any postage stamp,
    provided or furnished under this Act, whether the same are
    impressed or printed on or attached to envelopes or not, or any
    die, plate or engraving therefor, or shall make or print, or
    knowingly use or sell, or have in his possession, with intent to
    use or sell, any such false, forged or counterfeit die, plate,
    engraving, or postage stamps, or who shall make or print, or
    otherwise procure to be made or printed, any postage stamps of
    the kind provided and furnished by the Postmaster General, as
    aforesaid, without the especial authority and direction of the
    Post Office Department, or who, after such postage stamps have
    been printed, shall, with intent to defraud the revenue of the
    Post Office Department, deliver any postage stamps to any person
    or persons other than such as shall be authorized to receive the
    same by an instrument of writing duly executed under the hand of
    the Postmaster General, and the seal of the Post Office
    Department, shall on conviction thereof be deemed guilty of
    felony, and punishable by a fine not exceeding 500 dollars, or
    by imprisonment not exceeding five years; or by both such fine
    or imprisonment, and the expenses of procuring and providing all
    such postage stamps and letter envelopes as are provided or
    authorized by this Act, shall be paid, after being adjusted by
    the auditor of the Post Office Department, on the certificate of
    the Postmaster General, out of any money in the Treasury,
    arising from the Revenues of the Post Office Department."

The 4th section provides that postage stamps shall be defaced as the
Postmaster General may direct, and the penalty for omitting so to do.

The 10th section provides for the appointment of carriers, the rate to
be one or two cents prepaid, the carriers to be paid out of the receipts
from this postage.

The 11th section authorizes the coining of the three cent coin, probably
to facilitate the payment of these rates.

The other matters mentioned in the foregoing Act are of little interest
here, but the following circular contains some matters of importance:

               REGULATIONS CONCERNING POSTAGE STAMPS.

                                        POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
                                                _June 10th, 1851_.

    "To facilitate the payment of postages upon letters and
    packages, postage stamps of the following denominations are
    provided and furnished by the postmaster General, pursuant to
    the third section of the "Act to reduce and modify the rates of
    Postage in the United States," and for other purposes approved
    March 3rd, 1851.

    Viz: No. 1. Printed in black, representing the head of
                Washington, of the denomination of twelve cents.
         No. 2. Printed in red, representing the head of
                Washington, in profile, of the denomination of three
                cents.
         No. 3. Printed in blue, representing the head of Franklin,
                in profile, of the denomination of one cent.

    These stamps will be furnished to one or more of the principal
    postmasters in each county, who will be required to supply the
    other postmasters in their vicinities, upon being paid for the
    amount furnished."

The remaining provisions relate to the mode of distribution, accounting,
cancelling, etc., and are of no particular interest. The circular is
signed "Nathan D. Hall, Postmaster General."

A similar circular dated April 3rd, 1852, is almost an exact repetition
of the foregoing. The stamps issued may be described more fully thus:


ISSUE OF JULY 1ST, 1851.

ONE CENT. Bust of Benjamin Franklin, first Postmaster General, in
profile, facing to the right, in an oval disk 17 by 20½ mm., with a
ground of very fine horizontal colored lines, slightly waved, bordered
by a colorless line between two fine colored lines. The colorless line
is ornamented by a line of fine dots. Above is a label, bordered at the
top by a similarly ornamented colorless line, between two fine colored
lines, terminated at the ends by the corner ornaments of the stamp, with
a ground of fine colored lines following the lines of the oval, and
inscribed in outline capitals "_U. S. Postage_." Below the oval is a
similar label, the ends terminated by a similar border, with a ground of
fine colored lines, inscribed "_One Cent_" in outline capitals. This
label is shaded by a number of vertical lines. Scroll and foliated
corner ornaments extending down the sides. There is no outside line
finishing the frame. The stamps are very near each other on the sheet.

Plate impression, 19 by 22 mm., color, white paper.

      1 cent, shades of indigo blue.

THREE CENTS. Bust of Washington, first President of the United States,
in profile to left, on an oval disk, with hatched ground, bordered by a
fine colorless line between two fine colored lines, surrounded by a
frame composed of colorless lines, forming diamonds on a solid ground,
the alternate diamonds filled in with diagonal colorless lines, leaving
a colored chain conspicuous, with rosettes in the four angles. The space
between the oval and frame filled with horizontal lines, and the corners
outside the rosettes filled with ornamented triangles. Above and below
all these are solid colored labels, with a small piece containing a
diamond cut off at each end by a vertical colorless line, inscribed in
colorless Roman capitals, above "_U. S. Postage_," below "_Three
Cents_." The whole is surrounded, at a little distance, by a colored
line forming a rectangle.

Plate impression 20 by 25 mm., color, white paper.

      3 cents, in shades of brick and rose red.

TWELVE CENTS. Bust of Washington, after Stewart, facing three quarters
to the left, on an oval disk 13½ by 17 mm., with hatched ground,
bordered by a colorless line between two colored lines. This colorless
line is crossed by horizontal lines. About this is a frame like that of
the 3 cents, with rosettes at the angles, but showing six and two half
links in the chain on each side, instead of five and two half links as
in the three cents. The outside corners are filled by small foliations.
The space between the oval and frame is filled by horizontal lines.
Inscription above "_U. S. Postage_," below "_Twelve Cents_" in colorless
capitals, shaded outside on the back ground and following the curve of
the oval. The whole is surrounded by a fine colored line.

Plate impression, 19 by 25 mm., color, white paper.

      12 cents, black.

As it was considered desirable to keep the amounts collected and paid
for delivery by carriers (under section 10 of the act) separate, a
special stamp for the payment of such postage was soon added:


ISSUE OF SEPTEMBER 29TH, 1851.

ONE CENT. Bust of Benjamin Franklin, in profile, to the left, on an oval
disk, 15 by 17½ mm. with hatched ground, bordered by a colorless line
between two fine colored lines. Frame, labels, etc., like the three
cents, but with a colorless star between curved colorless lines at the
end instead of the diamonds. The inscription is in colorless Roman
capitals, on the upper label "_Carrier's_," and "_Stamp_" in the lower
label.

Plate impression, 19½ by 24 mm., color, rose paper.

      No value indicated, indigo blue.

Specimens exist in brick red, some of which show the crack in the die.
These must be proofs, although a letter purporting to be from W. M.
Ireland, Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated August 10th, 1869,
and published in the August number of the American Journal of Philately,
after describing this stamp says:

    "Color, orange-brown, typographed in color on white paper.
    Proofs were issued printed in blue on pink paper; also in green
    and yellow. It was issued about September 29th, 1851, but was
    suppressed almost immediately, owing to its great similarity to
    the then three cent stamp. Only about 300,000 were ever issued.
    It has always surprised me that the Department has never kept
    any official history of its stamps."

This stamp was succeeded by the;


ISSUE OF NOVEMBER, 17, 1851.

ONE CENT. Eagle poised for flight, turned to the left, resting on a
branch of laurel, on an oval disk, 18 by 13 mm., the ground of clouds
and rays, surrounded by a fine colored line, a colorless line, and a
band of solid color inscribed in colorless Roman capitals above "_U. S.
P. O. Dispatch_," below "_Prepaid, One Cent_," with ornaments of oak
leaves on the left and of laurels on the right.

Plate impression, 19 by 25 mm., color, white paper.

      1 cent, blue.

A letter dated from the Post Office Department, Finance Office. July
20th, 1869, and signed W. H. H. Corell, Third Assistant Postmaster
General, published in the American Journal of Philately, says:

    "The blue stamp "Eagle" was used for prepaying City letters
    delivered by carriers. It was issued about Nov. 17th, 1851, and
    was withdrawn Jan. 27th, 1852. It was very little used except in
    Philadelphia, Pa., and Cincinnati, Ohio."

As a matter of fact however, the published reports of the Postmaster
General, shows that there were issued:

      4,777,552 from Nov. 1851, up to June, 1852.
      4,370,383  "   June 1852,  "  "  "    1853.
      7,103,416  "     "  1853,  "  "  "    1854.

These stamps were all engraved and printed by Messrs. Toppan, Carpenter,
Cassilar and Co., of Philadelphia, under a contract with the Department.

The collector naturally desires to know what supposed peculiarities of
the public demand led to the selection of these values, and not others.
As already shown, the carriers were paid out of the receipts from the
sale of the two carrier stamps.

The one cent was required for newspapers and other printed matter,
either singly or in twos, threes, fours, fives, sixes, etc., and Mr.
Sterling has preserved specimens thus used, adhering, either in strips
by the sides or ends, or in blocks.

The three cent stamp paid the ordinary letter rate, and two or more
would be required on double, triple, etc., letters. Mr. Sterling has
also preserved strips and blocks of these found so used.

The single postage to California was six cents. This was also the double
letter rate, and it seems singular that a stamp of this value was not
issued. Its place was supplied by two three cent stamps, the double rate
to California by four three cent stamps, etc. That it was also supplied
occasionally by half of the twelve cent stamp, cut diagonally from
corner to corner, specimens so used on the original envelopes in the
possession of the same gentleman abundantly prove. The twelve cent must,
therefore, have had no function except to replace a quadruple ordinary
rate, or a double California rate. For foreign letters, the postage was
10 or 20 cents, when not provided for by treaty. Most of the treaties
fixed the same rates, and stamps of those values would seem to have been
required. The fact that prepayment was optional, may have influenced the
demand for these values.

Soon after the issue of the foregoing series, the postal rates were
again discussed in congress, and the law amended as follows:

    XXXIII Congress, Session II, Chapter 173, Section 31, approved
    March 30th, 1885, entitled: "An Act further to amend the Act
    entitled: 'An Act to reduce, etc., approved March 3d, 1851.'"

    Be it enacted, etc. That in lieu of the rates of postage now
    established by law, there shall be charged the following rates
    to wit: For every single letter in manuscript, or paper of any
    kind in which information shall be asked, or, communicated in
    writing, or by marks or signs, conveyed in the mail, for any
    distance between places in the United States not exceeding 3,000
    miles, three cents; and for any distance exceeding 3,000 miles,
    ten cents. And for a double letter, there shall be charged
    double the rates above specified; and for a treble letter,
    treble these rates, and for a quadruple letter, quadruple these
    rates; and every letter or paper not exceeding half an ounce in
    weight shall be deemed a single letter; and every additional
    weight of half an ounce, or every additional weight of less than
    half an ounce, shall be charged with an additional single
    postage; and upon all letters passing through or in the mail of
    the United States, except such as are to or from a foreign
    country, the postages as above specified, shall be prepaid,
    except upon letters and papers addressed to officers of the
    government on official business, which shall be so marked on the
    envelope. And from and after the first day of January, 1856,
    the Postmaster General may require postmasters to place postage
    stamps upon all prepaid letters, upon which such stamps may not
    have been placed by the writers.

    And all drop letters, or letters placed in the post office, not
    for transmission through the mail, but for delivery only, shall
    be charged with postage at the rate of one cent each, and all
    letters which shall hereafter be advertised as remaining over or
    uncalled for in any post office, shall be charged with one cent
    each in addition to the regular postage, both to be accounted
    for as other postages now are.

    Section 2. And be it further enacted, that it shall be unlawful
    for any postmaster or other person, to sell any postage stamp or
    stamped envelope for any larger sum than that indicated upon the
    face of such postage stamp, or for a larger sum than that
    charged therefor by the Post Office Department.

    [Here follows the penalty for so doing.]

    Section 3. And be it further enacted: That for the greater
    security of valuable letters posted for transmission in the
    mails of the United States, the Postmaster General be, and
    hereby is authorized to establish a uniform plan for the
    registration of such letters on application of parties posting
    the same, and to require the prepayment of the postage, as well
    as a registration fee of five cents, on every such letter or
    packet, to be accounted for by postmasters receiving the same,
    in such manner as the Postmaster General may direct: Provided,
    however, that such registration shall not be compulsory: and
    shall not render the Post Office Department, or its revenues
    liable for the loss of such letter or package, or the contents
    thereof.

By this Act there was established for the first time compulsory
prepayment, at a uniform rate of 3 and 10 cents, according as the
distance was less or greater than 3,000 miles, upon letters in the
United States, and the Act of the XXXIV Congress, Session III, Chapter
1, approved January 2d, 1857, entitled: "An Act to provide for the
compulsory Prepayment of Postage on all transient printed matter," which
provided, that such postage "shall be prepaid by stamps or otherwise, as
the Postmaster General may direct," completes the legislation upon the
subject, so far as it is of interest here, up to the year 1861.

Upon the approval of this Act, the following circular, dated at
Washington, March 12th, 1855, was issued to postmasters:

    NEW POSTAGE ACT.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO POSTMASTERS.

    The particular attention of Postmasters and others is invited to
    the annexed Act, passed at the last session of Congress. It will
    be observed:

    1st. That from and after April 1st, 1855, the single rate of
    postage on a letter conveyed in the mail, for any distance in
    the United States, not exceeding three thousand miles, is three
    cents, and for any distance exceeding three thousand miles, ten
    cents.

    2nd. That from and after April 1st, 1855, prepayment by stamps,
    stamped envelopes or in money is compulsory.

    3rd. That from and after January 1st, 1856, all letters, between
    places in the United States, must be prepaid either by postage
    stamps or stamped envelopes.

    4th. That the laws relating to the Franking Privilege are not
    altered.

    5th. That the existing rates and regulations in regard to
    letters to or from Canada, and all foreign countries, remain
    unchanged.

    Unpaid letters mailed before April 1st, 1855, will be forwarded
    and delivered upon payment of the postage, by the person
    addressed. Postage stamps and stamped envelopes, of the
    denomination of ten cents, will be prepared and issued speedily,
    and the Department will use every exertion to supply all post
    offices with one and and three cent stamps also, as fast as they
    are required.

    Absolute prepayment being required on all letters to places
    within the United States, from and after April 1st, 1855, great
    care should be used as well in prepaying the proper amount on
    letters above the weight of half an ounce, as on single letters.

    Postmasters will post up conspicuously in their respective
    offices a notice, calling attention to the provisions of the Act
    requiring prepayment.

    The provisions in regard to the registration of valuable letters
    will be carried into effect, and special instructions issued on
    the subject, as soon as the necessary blanks can be prepared and
    distributed.

          (Signed)                             JAMES CAMPBELL,
                                               Postmaster General.

    _Post Office Department, March 12, 1855._

    N. B.--Copy of the Act of March 3d, 1855, on the back.

Another circular dated at Washington, Nov. 20th, 1855, also signed by
the Postmaster General, after reciting certain regulations which are
addressed to and concern only the postmasters themselves, contains the
following:

    "Section 7. The denominations of postage stamps authorized by
    the Department to be issued, are _one_, _three_, _five_, _ten_
    and _twelve_ cents."

The one, three and twelve cents of the issue of 1851, remaining in use
without apparent change, and the same contract with Messrs. Toppan,
Carpenter, Cassilar & Co., of Philadelphia, remaining in force, the
following were added to the series:


ISSUE OF MAY 5TH, 1855.

TEN CENTS. Portrait of Washington, after Stewart, faced three-quarters
to the left, on an oval disk with hatched ground, bordered by a
colorless line between two fine colored lines, the colorless line
crossed in parts by small horizontal lines, on a hatched back-ground,
bordered by outlined foliations, which form small ovals in the upper
corners containing a colorless "X," with "_U. S. Postage_" in colored
capitals between them. Thirteen colorless stars on the ground above the
oval. "_Ten Cents_" in colorless capitals in a waved line below.

Plate impression, 18 by 24 mm., in color, on white paper.

      10 cents, green.

This stamp was issued to provide for the single rate to California.


ISSUE OF JANUARY 5TH, 1856.

FIVE CENTS. Portrait of Jefferson, the third President of the United
States, faced three quarters to the right, on an oval disk, 12½ by 15½
mm., with hatched ground, bordered by a colorless line between two fine
colored lines, in a broad frame with solid ground, ornamented by
colorless lines forming a geometric lathe pattern. This frame is
rounded at the corners, with a small projection of about 2 mm. between
at the top, bottom and sides, and is surrounded at a little distance by
a fine colored line following the same outline. On the back ground,
without labels, above "_U. S. Postage_," below "_Five Cents_," in
colorless Roman capitals.

Plate impression, 19 by 25 mm., in color, on white paper.

      5 cents, in shades of yellow brown, red brown,
      and dark brown.

This stamp was issued to prepay the registration fee, but is often found
in unsevered pairs upon California letters, and sometimes in triplets
including the registration fee and a single postage to California.

On the 24th of April, 1856, a stamp of the value of twenty-four cents
was approved.

TWENTY-FOUR CENTS. Portrait of Washington, after Stewart, faced three
quarters to the right, on an oval disk, with hatched ground, bordered by
a colorless line, surrounded by a solid band of color, inscribed in
colorless Roman capitals, above "_U. S. Postage_," below "_Twenty-four
Cents_," separated by a sort of buckle at the sides. A broad solid
colored frame, ornamented by colorless lathe work is surrounded, at a
little distance, by a fine colored line, and the corners are rounded,
with a single swell between them above and below, and three between them
at the sides.

Plate impression, 18½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper.

      24 cents, lilac.

Although made and approved, this stamp is said to have been withheld
from issue in this imperforate condition. They were finished and gummed,
and some of them seem to have gotten into circulation, as occasional
specimens are to be found in collections, and one entire sheet, at
least, is known to have existed.


OBSERVATIONS.

Every collector ought at least to be aware of the nature and character
of the varieties that exist in these stamps. Although many of them are
very minute, and can be distinguished only by the use of a good
magnifying glass, others, once noticed, can readily be selected by the
unassisted eye. Few will care, probably, to place more than the most
marked varieties in their collections, still fewer will have the
patience to explore the necessary piles of common "stock," in order to
find these marked varieties, for the most marked are the most uncommon,
or to distinguish the more minute varieties from each other.

The plates of all values printed 200 stamps each upon the sheet. Before
the stamps were distributed, each sheet was cut vertically into half
sheets, the place where they were to be cut being marked on the plate by
a vertical colored line, and each half containing ten rows of ten
stamps each. Upon each side of the plate, at a little distance from the
outer row of stamps, the tops of the letters being towards the stamps,
and running along the sides of the 5th and 6th stamp from the top or
bottom of the sheet, and part of the 4th and 7th stamp, is the maker's
imprint, "Toppan, Carpenter, Cassilar & Co., BANK NOTE ENGRAVERS,
Phila., New York, Boston and Cincinnati," with "No--P." in a second
line. This imprint was afterwards changed by leaving out the third name.

The one cent eagle is an exception, as the imprint here appears at the
top and bottom of the sheet, running along the space covered by four
stamps, and the sheet is said to have contained only 100 stamps.

Upon some of the sheets, of the other values, from the first plate,
there is also a vertical line from the top to bottom of the plate,
probably upon each outer margin. Upon other sheets, this does not
appear. Specimens of these are now difficult to obtain, as the wide
borders at the sides, the top and bottom of the sheets, were usually cut
off when the stamps were used.


ONE CENT UNPERFORATED.

The stamps are about ½ mm. apart between the nearest points of the tops
and bottoms, and 1 mm. between the nearest points of the sides.

It should be noticed that the top and bottom labels have a fine line
parallel to the solid body of the inscribed labels, both at the top and
bottom.

The imprint is about 1½ mm. from the outer row of stamps. The central
vertical line is about 1¾ mm. from each central row. The side vertical
lines are about 3¾ mm. from the outside rows. These dimensions vary
slightly. There is little appreciable difference in the stamps in a
sheet, except in the thickness of the lines bordering or shading the
ornaments. In some specimens, these lines are all fine in all parts of
the stamp, in others, they are much heavier, and in others fine in parts
and heavy in other parts, in many gradations. The color used seems to
have been always the same, varying only in intensity, as more or less
ink was left on the paper in printing. Dark, or pale specimens, with
intermediate shades may therefore be found. The paper is always white,
but more or less tinted with the color of the stamp from imperfect
wiping of the plates.


THREE CENTS UNPERFORATED.

The number of plates used in printing this value unperforated, has not
been possible to determine. The distance between the stamps varies
considerably in different plates. In some, they are only 7/10 mm. apart
between the tops and bottoms, in others a little over 1 mm. In some they
are only 9/10 mm. apart between the side lines, in other fully 1-2/10
mm. Specimens with broad, white margins (A) show the paper to have
extended, sometimes 15 mm. beyond the stamps. The vertical lines are (B)
6 mm., or (C) 2½, 3 and 3¾ mm. from the center rows. The makers imprint
(D) is about 1½ mm. from the outer rows, but varies slightly in
different sheets.

The process of making these plates is said to have been; first to mark
out on a soft plate of steel the points at which the right vertical line
of each vertical row of stamps was to come, by a dot at the top and
bottom of the plate. These dots were sometimes too large and too heavily
put in, and may be found in some specimens (E) at or near, the upper or
lower right hand corner of the stamp. The lines however were not always
accurately drawn so that the dot appears (F) on the top or bottom line,
at a distance to the left of the corner, or (G) above the line, or (H)
below the line, or (I) entirely outside of the stamp to the right. These
lines having been drawn, the next step in the process was to put in the
body of the design, which had been engraved on a soft steel punch or
die, and then hardened, by placing the die successively in the position
to be occupied by each stamp on the plate, and "rocking" it back and
forth under pressure. As this process was not as perfect as that now
employed, the die was not always placed in exactly the proper position,
not infrequently being too near or too far from the vertical side lines,
or the die was not rocked far enough, and the edges were left imperfect.

In the design, it was evidently intended that the outside lines should
be equally distant from the top and bottom labels, and the side edges of
the block, and that the corners should be exactly mitered. The top and
bottom lines are practically always at the same distance from the
labels, and one engraver maintains that they were engraved on the die.
But specimens are plentiful in which (a) the top and bottom line
projects beyond the side line, or (b) does not touch it, or rarely (c)
is double or split, or again the side line (d) projects beyond the top
or bottom line, or (e) does not touch it. Again, instead of the side
line being (f) at the proper distance from the corner blocks, it is not
infrequently (g) too far from one or more of them, or (h) too near one
or more of them, or (i) touches one or more of them. Again, the side
line is found (j) connecting with the next stamp above or below, and
occasionally there is a second line (J) near this between two stamps.

In the die itself it will be noticed that the lower left block is almost
always a little further to the left than the top one, in fact, that the
distance from the right of the right block to the left of the left block
is about ¼ of a mm. greater at the bottom than at the top of the stamp.
The lower right rosette is a little too far also to the right,
ordinarily at least. The blocks vary in size in the same and different
stamps, as well as the diamonds in them, which are not of uniform shape
or size. The labels above and below are crowded upon the rosettes. The
sides of the groundwork should terminate in a straight line, formed by
the bases of the little colored triangles, which touch each other. But
this line is often broken in appearance as parts of it are too finely
cut, or the die was not rocked far enough. In some cases this seems to
have been remedied by re-engraving this line, and there is a heavy line,
independent of the base lines of the triangles extending, (K) from
rosette to rosette, (L) from the lower rosette to the upper triangle,
(M) from the lower rosette to the middle of the upper triangle, (N) from
the lower rosette to the top of the upper triangle, (O) from the lower
rosette to the upper block, (P) a light line extending from the lower
rosette to the upper block, (Q) a heavy line extending from the middle
of the lower block to the upper triangle, (R) or from the middle of the
lower triangle to the upper rosette. Frequently there is a light line
(S) from the side of the triangle in the corner to the adjacent block.
The triangles are ordinarily shaded by horizontal parallel lines, and
are formed by a single fine line on the top and vertical sides, while
the curved side is double. But the following variations occur: (T) the
triangle has a heavy side line, (U) a double side line, (V) a triple
side line, (W) is white or nearly so, the horizontal line having
disappeared.

Again it will be found that there are added lines along the whole or
part of either side line, making these double, or even triple. Thus
whether there is a distinct line, as described, between the rosettes,
etc., or not, if the next line be called the frame line, there may be
found varieties with an extra line outside the frame line, but (k) very
near it, (l) farther from it, (m) very heavy, the frame line being
thin, (n) the frame line split into two parts from the middle up, (o)
frame line split into two parts from chin up, (p) two extra side lines
all the way, (q) extra line from the level of the chin to the upper
rosette, (r) extra line from the level of the lips to upper rosette, (s)
from the level of the lips to the centre of the rosette, (t) from the
level of the nose to the top of the triangle, (u) from the level of the
breast to the top of the triangle, (v) opposite the bottom rosette. If
there be added to these letters the numerals 1 to express the left side,
2 the right when the variations occur along the whole side, and 1 for
the top, 3 for the bottom on the left side, 2 for the top, and 4 for the
bottom on the right side, when the variations occur only at the top or
bottom, the following table will facilitate investigation.

    On the                                              On the
     LEFT             Specimens Showing                  RIGHT
    at the                                               at the
  Top Bottom                                           Top Bottom

     A^1     broad margin over 6 mm. and no line           A^2
     B^1        "    "    ver. line 6 mm. from stamp       B^2
     C^1        "    "         "    2½ to 3½ "             C^2
     D^1        "    "              printer's imprint      D^2
  ...   ...  dot on or near the corner                  E^2   E^4
  ...   ...   "  "  the end line, away from corner      F^2   F^4
  ...   ...   "  above     "                            G^2   G^4
  ...   ...   "  below     "                            H^2   H^4
  ...   ...   "  outside the corner                     I^2   I^4
  a^1   a^3  end line projecting beyond the corner      a^2   a^4
  b^1   b^3   "   "   not touching          "           b^2   b^4
        c^3   "   "   split or double                         c^4
  d^1   d^3  side "   projecting beyond     "           d^2   d^4
  e^1   e^3   "   "   not touching          "           e^2   e^4
  f^1   f^3   "   "   ordinary distance from block      f^2   f^4
  g^1   g^3   "   "   too far from             "        g^2   g^4
  h^1   h^3   "   "   too close to             "        h^2   h^4
  i^1   i^3   "   "   touching the             "        i^2   i^4
  j^1   j^3   "   "   connecting with the next stamp    j^2   j^4
  ...   ...   "   "   and another   "      "     "      J^2   ...
     K^1     heavy "  from rosette to rosette              K^2
     L^1       "   "    "  low. roset. to up'r triangle    L^2
     M^1       "   "    "  lo. r. to mid. of "    "        M^2
     N^1       "   "    "    " "  top of     "    "        N^2
     O^1       "   "    "    " "             " block       O^2
     P^1     light "    "    " "             "   "         P^2
     Q^1     heavy "    "  mid. low. block to triangle     Q^2
     R^1      "    "    "     "  tri. to up. roset.        R^2
  S^1   S^3  fine  "    "  triangle to adjoining block  S^2   S^4
  T^1   T^3  triangle with  heavy side line             T^2   T^4
  U^1   U^3        "        extra    "                  U^2   U^4
  V^1   V^3        "      2   "      "                  V^2   V^4
  W^1   W^3        "        white or nearly so          W^2   W^4
     k^1     extra line, outside frame line near it        k^2
     l^1       "     "      "        "      far off        l^2
     m^1     heavy   "      "    thin frame line           m^2
     n^1     frame   "   split into 2 parts half way       n^2
     o^1       "     "         "      "     ¾     "        ...
     p^1     two extra lines, continuous                   ...
     q^1     extra line frame, lev. of chin to up'r roset. ...
     r^1        "       "         "    lips      "         ...
     s^1        "       "         "    "    center roset.  ...
     t^1        "       "         "    nose, top of trian. ...
     u^1        "       "            " breast,    "        ...
     v^1        "       opposite the bottom rosette        ...

All the variations mentioned in this table have been found. It is
scarcely possible that each of them exists separately, i. e.; on
specimens that are in other respects normal. Many of them have been
found so, but most of them only in combination. The following may be
mentioned:

  A, B, C, D. Specimens showing broad margins with no outer line,
  with outer line 6 mm. from stamp, with outer line about 3 mm.
  from the stamp, or with printer's imprint, have been found, both
  from the left and right sides of the sheet, with all the other
  parts normal. These would be,

  A^1 f^{1 2 3 4}, A^2 f^{1 2 3 4}, B^1 f^{1 2 3 4}, B^2 f^{1 2 3 4},
  C^1 f^{1 2 3 4}, C^2 f^{1 2 3 4}, D^1 f^{1 2 3 4}, D^2 f^{1 2 3 4}.

  With the vertical line about 3 mm. from the stamp, three corners
  only normal, the side line too near the lower right block, a dot
  on the upper right corner, the right line connected with the
  stamp below, and a fine line from each of the upper triangles to
  the block above, which would be C^2 f^{1 2 3} h^4 E^2 j^4 S^{2 4}.

  And also with the vertical line about 3 mm. from the stamp, all
  the corners normal, a heavy line terminating the ground between
  the rosettes on the right, both the triangles on the right
  connected with the blocks next them, and an extra vertical line
  in the upper right triangle, which would be C^2 f^{1 2 3 4} K^2
  S^{2 4} U^2, which will serve to show the character of the
  combinations in which these varieties may be found.

  Varieties showing the dot, E to I, generally present other
  varieties also. The following combinations may be noted:

  With the bottom line double, or rather split, three of the
  triangles have fine connecting lines, c^3 c^4 S^{2 3 4}.

  With the right side prolonged, and continuous with the side line
  of the stamp above or below, j^2 or j^4.

  With the right side line prolonged upwards, and continuous with
  the lower, but not with the upper stamp and a second line 1 mm.
  to left from stamp to stamp, J^2.

  With the extra line outside the frame line on right and near it,
  all the other parts being normal, the line of the ground work
  not appearing as a separate line, k^2.

  With an extra line outside the frame line on right and near it,
  a heavy line from rosette to rosette on the right, giving the
  appearance of three parallel lines on that side, a similar line
  from rosette to rosette on the left, and a fine line from the
  upper right triangle to block, k^2 K^{2 1} S^2.

  With the same arrangement, but the heavy line on the right of
  ground extends to the top of the upper triangle, there is a fine
  line to the block, k^2 K^1 N^2 S^2.

  With an extra line outside the frame line on the right but
  further from it. The left line touches the rosette, and is very
  near the upper left block. The upper triangles both have the
  extra vertical line, and the right triangles both have the fine
  line connecting them with the adjacent block, l^2 h^1 U^{1 2}
  S^{2 4}.

  With the right frame line split into two parts in its lower
  half. The upper right triangle has the extra vertical line, and
  the fine line to upper block, n^2 U^2 S^2.

  With the extra line outside the left frame line, and a distinct
  line between the left rosettes, the right line near the corner
  blocks, k^1 K^1 h^{2 4}.

  With the same peculiarities, but frame line touches the lower
  left corner, k^1 K^1 h^2 i^4.

  With two extra lines outside the left frame line, and a heavy
  line between the left rosettes, so that the stamp appears to
  have four lines on that side. The right frame line runs from
  block to block, touching both triangles and rosettes. There is a
  dot in the lower right corner, and another to the left of it,
  p^1 S^1 i^{2 4} E^4 F^4.

  With the extra line on the left very light, and a heavier one
  outside, and the ground does not appear to end in a line, m^1.

  With the extra line on the left the usual thickness, and the
  frame line heavier. The right frame line touches all the parts
  on that side, l^1 i^{2 4}.

  With the frame line on the left split into two parts from the
  level of the chin up, the inner touches the rosette, the
  triangle and almost touches the block. The right frame line is
  split into two parts in the lower half. Both the right triangles
  have the finer line, and the upper the extra vertical line, q^1
  i^2 n^2 U^{2 4} S^4.

  With the extra outside line from level of lips to the upper
  rosette. All four triangles are connected with the blocks, the
  upper right and lower left have the extra vertical line, r^1
  U^{1 2 3 4} S^{3 4}.

  With extra outside line from level of the lips to the level of
  the center of the rosette. The frame line is too near the top on
  the left, the upper right triangle is connected with the block,
  and has the extra vertical line, the lower right triangle is
  also connected with the block, s^1 h^1 S^{2 4} U^2.

  With the extra left line from the level of the nose to the top
  of the rosette, the upper right triangle connected with the
  upper block, and with extra vertical line, t^1 S^2 U^2.

  With the extra line on the left from the level of the breast to
  the top of the rosette, the frame line is too near the upper
  left corner, and an extra vertical line in all the triangles,
  u^1 i^1 U^{1 2 3 4}.

  With the extra line on the left opposite the bottom rosette
  only. The two upper triangles are connected with the blocks, and
  an extra line in the upper right one, v^1 S^{1 2} U^2.

  With the left frame line heavy, and too near to the bottom
  block, a split runs off to left half way down. Both sides appear
  to have a heavy line from rosette to rosette, but the left one
  is irregular, all the triangles are connected with the adjoining
  blocks, and all except the lower right one have the extra
  vertical line, h^3 n^1 S^{1 2 3 4} U^{1 2 3} K^{1 2}.

In the above descriptions, no mention has been made of those parts that
are in their proper ordinary position.

These varieties are the leading ones, and are probably more than enough
to show the combinations. Less conspicuous ones are numberless. Owing to
the scarcity of adhering specimens, and the uncertainty as to how many
plates were actually employed, no attempt has been made to reconstruct
any plate. It is perhaps necessary to repeat that the collection of any,
except perhaps the more marked varieties, is not advocated.

The color of these stamps varies wonderfully, every shade from pale to
dark, with yellowish vermilion, pink, red, and carmine may be found.
Some are undoubtedly changelings from accidental causes, particularly
those that run from brown and black brown, to an almost jet black, which
were at one time much sought after.


UNPERFORATED FIVE CENTS.

The stamps are about 1½ mm. apart each way on the sheet. All have the
projection at the top and bottom. Double and triple adhering specimens
may be found, but are rare. The imprint is on the sides, 1¾ mm. from the
stamps. No specimens have been found with vertical lines.

The color is generally dark, either a chestnut brown, or with a stronger
reddish cast.


UNPERFORATED TEN CENTS.

The stamps are 2½ mm. apart each way on the sheet. The imprint is at
about 1¾ mm. from the side rows. The few specimens with the vertical
lines examined, show it at 3 mm. from the stamps. The color is a
yellow-green, of which dark and light impressions may readily be found.
A block of four used, adhering 2 and 2, is possessed by Mr. Sterling.


UNPERFORATED TWELVE CENTS.

The stamps are 1 mm. apart each way on the sheet. The vertical line 2½
mm. from the stamps. No specimens with the imprint have come under the
notice of the author. The color is very uniform, slightly greyish-black.
Adhering specimens are rare. A pair adhering by the sides, used, and a
block of four unused, are in Mr. Sterlings' collection, and the curious
specimens divided diagonally, on the original letters, in the same
collection, have already been mentioned.


UNPERFORATED TWENTY-FOUR CENTS.

The imprint is at the side, 1¾ mm. from the stamp. The stamps are 2 mm.
apart. The rarity of specimens has prevented further examination. The
color of the specimens seen is lilac, with the reddish cast.


ONE CENT "CARRIER," (FRANKLIN.)

This stamp was never issued perforated. The imprint is 4 mm. from the
side rows, and the stamps are about 1 mm. apart.


ONE CENT "CARRIER," (EAGLE.)

This stamp was never issued perforated, and any specimens so catalogued
will be found to be the reprints. The printer's imprint is at the bottom
or top of the four centre rows in the sheet. As the Department is
accustomed to call the half sheets issued "sheets," it is often
difficult to know which is meant. It has been stated that there are only
100 stamps on the plate. The imprint is 4 mm. from the stamps, and the
places where the stamps are to be cut apart are indicated by single
lines ruled horizontally and vertically.



XIX.

THE ISSUE OF 1857.


Without any change in the law, and, so far as is known, without any
announcement of the improvement, on the 24th of February, 1857, the
three cent value of the type of 1851 was issued perforated, and the
other values of the series speedily followed with the perforation, and
so remained without addition until the middle of 1860.


ISSUE OF 1857.

Same values, types and colors as the prior issue, perforated with 15
holes in the space of two millimetres.

Plate impression, in color, on white paper, perforated 15.

       1 cent, shades of indigo blue.
       3  "      "    "  red.
       5  "      "    "  brown.
      10  "      "    "  green.
      12  "      "    "  black.

The report of the Postmaster General, dated December 1st, 1860, states
that:

    "Larger denominations of postage stamps have been adopted and
    introduced, especially intended for the purpose of affording
    requisite facilities to prepay the postage on letters to foreign
    countries, and of removing all excuse heretofore existing for
    paying such postages in money. The new denominations are
    twenty-four cents, thirty cents and ninety cents. The two latter
    have been introduced since July 1st, last," i. e. since the
    commencement of the new fiscal year.


ISSUE OF JUNE 15TH, 1860.

TWENTY-FOUR CENTS. The stamp described on page 95 as prepared
imperforated in 1856, but not regularly issued in that condition, was
now issued perforated.

Plate impression, 18½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
15.

      24 cents, lilac.


ISSUE OF AUGUST 12TH, 1860.

THIRTY CENTS. Head of Benjamin Franklin, in profile to the left, similar
to that on, the Carrier's Stamp of September, 1851, on an oval disk with
hatched back-ground bounded by a colorless line ornamented by a single
fine colored line. A colored back-ground fills out the rectangle and is
ornamented by a shield of the United States in each of the four corners,
the bottom of the shields pointed towards the center, and the ground
just behind them ornamented by colorless rays, with a foliated ornament
on each side of them. Between the ornaments in colorless capitals, on
the solid ground, above, in two lines, "_U. S._" and "_Postage_," below
"30," on the left side "_Thirty_," and on the right side "_Cents_."

Plate impression, 20 by 24 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 15.

      30 cents, orange.


ISSUE OF AUGUST 13TH, 1860.

NINETY CENTS. Bust of Washington, in General's uniform, after Trumbal,
faced three quarters to the left, on closely hatched ground, appearing
nearly solid, square below, arched above, bordered by a colorless line.
Solid arched label above, inscribed in colorless capitals, "_U. S.
Postage_"; below, solid straight label, inscribed in the same letters
"_Ninety Cents_." The ends of the upper label are curved inwards, those
of the lower label outwards, and the colorless line borders the ends and
remaining side of each. Outside a double colored line borders all,
forming foliated ornaments, etc. There is an added colored line at the
top and bottom, and fine lines shading the ornaments.

Plate impression, 18½ by 24 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
15.

      90 cents, deep indigo blue.

The twenty-four cents was required to prepay the single rate of postage
on letters to England, and the thirty cents to prepay the single rate on
letters to Germany. The ninety cents does not seem to have been required
for any single rate. The contract with the Bank Note Engravers, Toppan,
Carpenter and Co., expired on the 10th of June, 1861, and all the stamps
made by them were withdrawn from circulation, and ceased to be
available for postage, between August 1st, 1861, and January 1st 1862,
as will appear from the circulars quoted, relating to the issue of 1861.
They have been reprinted, differently perforated, and sold to collectors
by the department. (See chapter on reprints.)


OBSERVATIONS.

The one, three, five, ten and twelve cent values were first made by
perforating sheets from the original plates, and later, certain changes
were made that require to be noticed.


ONE CENT, PERFORATED.

The first perforated sheets being from the same plates as the
unperforated, the same observations apply to them. It is to be noticed
that these had the fine colored line outside the labels _at the top and
bottom_. Owing to the nearness of the stamps on the sheets the
perforation generally cut into the stamps, either at the top or bottom,
and cut these lines, but the remains will be found on the points left
between the holes. Careful search will secure specimens in which both
these lines are intact, though they are somewhat rare. The vertical
lines, printer's imprint, etc., are of course in the same positions, and
the same varieties of finer or coarser lines may be found. The color
varies in the same degree. The paper is apparently the same, with the
same tinting, from the imperfectly wiped plates.

In later specimens, however, the attempt was made to keep the
perforations from impinging on the printed portion. This was done by
removing the larger portion of the fine colored lines outside the
labels, and with them, portions of the upper and lower ornaments. In
many cases, they appear to have been wiped off, and the ends are
smudged. In others, they are clear and distinct. A great many varieties
result, as a greater or less portion of the lines or ornaments were
removed. Some of them are curious enough, in stamps that have always
been supposed to present no varieties. The fact being pointed out, it is
hardly worth while to attempt to distinguish them.

The vertical lines and printer's imprints are in the same positions.
The stamps are still so near together that evenly perforated specimens,
i. e.; specimens in which the perforation does not cut some portion of
the stamp, are not easily found.

_Two marked varieties_ may be noticed. In one, the outer fine line _is
removed above the top label_, while that under the bottom is left
intact. In the other, this outer line is removed _below the bottom
label_, while it remains intact above the top label. Both these
variations are exceedingly uncommon and appear to belong to the bottom
and top rows of the sheet respectively, though this has not been
verified. The same observations may be repeated as to variations in the
thickness of lines, the color of the paper and the impression.

_Oddities._ Specimen showing two rows of perforations at the top and
bottom. Specimen without the outer lines to labels, unperforated.


THREE CENTS PERFORATED.

The first perforated sheets of the three cents were from the same plate
as the last unperforated sheets, and consequently have the rectangular
outside frame lines, not only at the sides, but at the top and bottom as
well. As the stamps measure 25 mm. vertically and are only 1 mm. apart,
and the horizontal rows of perforation are about 25½ mm. from center to
center of the holes vertically, the perforations generally cut into the
stamp and partially obliterate these lines. As the stamps are only 1 mm.
apart at the sides, and are 19½ mm. wide, and the vertical rows of
perforations are 20½ mm. from center to center of the holes horizontally
and the holes are nearly 1 mm. in diameter, the side perforations also
usually cut into some part of the stamp. It is therefore quite difficult
to find good specimens of this variety, and to distinguish some of the
minor varieties, as the corners are generally imperfect. Specimens were
found showing the sheet cut along the colored vertical line, and (X)
perforated between this line and the stamp, from either half of the
sheet. New plates were however, soon constructed. In one of these, No.
24, the side lines are drawn on the plate from the top to the bottom,
and are about 19½ mm. apart. The fine outer lines at the top and bottom
are entirely omitted. The maker's imprint, "Toppan, Carpenter & Co.,
Bank Note Engravers, Phila., New York, Boston and Cincinnati," 1¼ mm.
from the outer rows, is 68 mm. long. "No. 24 P," is 4 mm. from the
outer rows. The vertical center line is 1¾ mm. from the stamp. The sheet
measures 418 mm. from side to side, and 252½ mm. from top to bottom of
the printed part. The paper is 447 by 283 mm. The vertical rows of
stamps are 1½ mm. apart, and the vertical rows of perforations nearly 21
mm. apart horizontally from center to center of the holes. The last two
rows at the sides are a little further apart. The horizontal rows of
holes are 25½ mm. apart vertically. Most of the differences in the
stamps on this sheet arise from the fact that the central portion is not
always placed in the same position in regard to the vertical lines. A
few of the stamps show dots in or near the corners.

In some the lines are too near some of the corners, in some too far off,
and in others they touch and even cut into the blocks. Some few show
double or partly double lines.

The whole sheet from plate 24, above mentioned, does not contain all the
varieties round, nor are they arranged just in the same order that they
appear in portions of other sheets examined.

All the varieties possible, considering merely the position of the
corners and side lines, would be 246. So that each stamp on a sheet
might be different in this respect without showing them all.

In sheet 24 however, only 32 exist. There are therefore, a number of
each variety, as follows, by the table previously given:

      hhhh   1   hiif   1   ifih   2   fihh   5
      hhhf   2   hifh   1   ifif  13   fiih   8
      hhih  16   hfif   3   fhhh   2   fiii   2
      hhif  20   ihih  14   fhhi   1   fiif   9
      hihh   2   ihif  32   fhhf   2   fihh   2
      hihi   2   iiih   7   fhih   3   fihi   3
      hiih  20   iiii  12   fhif   5   ffhf   1
      hiii   5   iiif   1   fhff   1   ffif   2

The 11th stamp in the first horizontal row, the 11th and 12th in the
second row, the 13th in the 4th row, and the 17th to 20th in the 10th
row show an extra line to the left of the left bottom rosette, V^1.

In the 18th vertical row the left line actually cuts through the left
block in four specimens which are marked as if it merely touched in the
foregoing list.

The 14th and 15th stamps in the top row show the dot.

The 13th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th stamps in the upper row show
the right vertical line not only too far, g^2 g^4, as marked, but very
far from the corner block.

The 9th stamp in the upper row has the double left line.

The center stamps of this sheet are all of the varieties marked hiih in
the list, on the right half of the sheet, and hhih or hhif, on the left
half.

None of the more prominent varieties are to be found on this sheet
unless the 9th stamp in the upper row may be considered as such. Loose
specimens from other plates show the vertical line only 7/8 mm. from the
stamps. Some of these are otherwise like those mentioned before, and
hfhg, gfff and ffhf from the left side, and hfhh, fhfg, fgfg and ifig
have also been noted. The above are all cut at or near the vertical
line. Some of the same varieties exist perforated along this line, and
higg and fihh exist also so perforated. In loose specimens have also
been found, igig, ihih, ifif, hhhf, hhhi, hhfh, hhff, hhif, hfhh, hfif,
hfig, hgig, hgif, hifi, hiih, gfgh, gfgf, gfff, ghgh, gigi, ffff, fffh,
ffhg, fgfg, fghf, fghg, fgig, fhfh, figh, varieties not on sheet from
plate 24.

Passing now from these varieties dependent upon the nearness of the
lines and corner blocks the following more interesting variations may be
found:

With the upper left corners too far from the blocks, the others being
ordinary; there is an extra line outside the frame line and close to it,
at the right, g^1 f^{2 3 4} k^2.

With the upper left corner too far from the block, the lower left corner
too near to the block, an extra line outside the frame line and close to
it, g^1 f^2 h^3 f^4 k^2.

With the upper left corner too far from the block, the others ordinary,
the frame line light, the extra line heavier. Numerous specimens showing
the frame line broken, those with it perfect are much rarer, g^1 f^{2 3
4} m^2.

With the upper right corner very near the block, all the others ordinary
but the right frame line runs only half way down, and into the ground
work. The extra line outside is the real side line, beginning too far
from the upper right corner, and running down to the right position at
the bottom (Y). Both the triangles on the right have the fine line
connecting them with the adjacent blocks, and also the extra vertical
line, f^1 i^2 t^{3 4} Y^2 S^{2 4} U^{2 4}.

With the side line on the right starting at the usual distance from the
block, and running off to the right, and ending half way down, at nearly
twice the distance from the body of the stamps at which it started. A
second line starts at the proper distance from the stamp, and inside the
other at about the level of the lower point of the upper triangle, and
runs off to the right, down to the level of the lower rosette. A third
line starts at the proper distance from the stamp, inside this at about
the middle of the stamp, and runs down straight, (Z) g^1 f^2 i^3 f^4
S^{1 2 3} Z^2.

With the right line split about ½ way down, into two or three parts, i^1
f^{2 3} g^4 n^2.

With an extra line on both sides, f^{1 2} g^3 f^4 k^1 k^2.

With an extra line outside the left frame line, but far from it (almost
the same distance as the frame line is from the blocks), f^1 f^2 h^3 g^4
l^1.

With the frame line thin, often broken, and the extra line heavy and
further off. The outer line is really the one drawn on the plate, and
the inner line probably put in afterwards. A number of differing
specimens. Also one in which there is no side line on the left except a
very thin line from the level of the chin down, and another from the
middle of the lower triangle down, apparently an impression from a worn
plate, the left margin is wide, the perforation cutting into the next
stamp, m^1 in varieties.

With the left frame line split into two parts from the level of the chin
up, n^1.

These variations, and a few others easily recognized, not found in the
imperforate stamps add to the table:

    LEFT.                                               RIGHT.
  Top Bottom                                          Top Bottom

    X^1     perforated along center line                  X^2
    ...     extra line inside half way                    Y^2
    ...     side line starts thrice                       Z^2
            extra line opposite lower ½ of stamp             w^4
                 "        "       "   ¼    "                 x^4
                 "     cen. of roset. to cen. of stamp       y^4
                 "     lower block to upper     "            z^4

The color of all these stamps varies like the unperforated greatly, and
the same remarks concerning it might be here repeated.


PERFORATED FIVE CENTS.

The stamps are 2½ mm. apart between the sides and 1½ between the tops
and bottoms; the imprint etc., as before. In these sheets the
perforations generally cut into the stamp. They were printed in many
varying shades of several colors; dark brown, dark black-brown, yellow
brown, red brown, and almost rose.

The second plate was slightly altered. The little projection or salie at
the top and bottom was partially or wholly removed, forming the
following variations:

      5 cents perforated,     projection at top and bottom.
        "           "     ½       "          "         "
        "           "     no      "          "   or    "

The color is very variable, numerous shades of dark black-brown, dark
chestnut-brown, brown, and yellow-brown may be found.


PERFORATED TEN CENTS.

The stamps were apparently, a little further apart in some sheets than
in others, and the color presents only shades of the yellow-green. A
specimen is shown perforated in two rows at the sides.


PERFORATED TWELVE CENTS.

There seems to have been no change in this value. An oddity is shown,
showing two extra lines at the right.


TWENTY-FOUR, THIRTY AND NINETY CENTS.

The plates for these values having been prepared with a view to
perforating, the stamps are arranged about 1¾ mm. apart between the
sides, and 1¼ mm. apart between the tops and bottoms. There is very
little difference to be noted in the color beyond a dark and lighter
shade of the orange of the thirty cents, and of the dark blue of the
ninety cents. There are however, two shades of the lilac of the
twenty-four cents, a red and a blue cast.



XX.

THE ISSUE OF 1861.


The reason for the introduction of this issue is not to be found in any
change in the law. The report of the Postmaster General, dated on
December 2d, 1861, states that:

    "The contract for the manufacture of postage stamps having
    expired on the 10th of June, 1861, a new one was entered into
    with the National Bank Note Company of New York, upon terms
    very advantageous to the Department, from which there will
    result an annual saving of more than thirty per cent, in the
    cost of the stamps. In order to prevent the fraudulent use of
    the large quantity of stamps remaining unaccounted for, in the
    hands of postmasters in the disloyal States, it was deemed
    advisable to change the design and the color of those
    manufactured under the new contract, and also to modify the
    design of the stamp upon the stamped envelope, and to substitute
    as soon as possible the new for the old issues. It was the
    design of the Department that the distribution of the new stamps
    and envelopes should commence on the first of August, but, from
    unavoidable delays, that of the latter did not take place until
    the 15th of that month. * * * Those of the old issue have been
    exchanged and superseded. The old stamps on hand, and such as
    were received by exchange, at the larger offices, have been to a
    great extent counted and destroyed, and those at the smaller
    offices returned to the Department."

The Act of the 27th Congress, Statute II, Chapter 37, Section 14,
approved March 3d, 1861, had so qualified the Act of 1851:

    "As to require the ten cent rate of postage to be prepaid on
    letters in the mail, from any point in the United States east of
    the Rocky Mountains to any State or Territory on the Pacific,
    and from any State or Territory on the Pacific to any point in
    the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. And all drop
    letters shall be prepaid by postage stamps."

Other sections also introduced minor changes in the rates on printed
matter, which it is not important to notice.

The denomination of the stamps of the new issue therefore remained at
first the same.

The circular letter from the Department to the several postmasters,
informing them of the change is as follows:

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

                                        _Finance Office_ ... 1861.

    POSTMASTER,

    Sir: You will receive herewith a supply of postage stamps which
    you will observe are of a new style, differing both in design
    and color, from those hitherto used, and having the letters U.
    S. in the lower corners of each stamp, and its respective
    denomination indicated by figures as well as letters. You will
    immediately give public notice through the newspapers and
    otherwise, that you are prepared to exchange stamps of the new
    style for an equivalent amount of the old issue, during a period
    of six days from the date of the notice, and that the latter
    will not thereafter be received in payment of postage on letters
    sent from your office.

    You will satisfy yourself by personal inspection that stamps
    offered in exchange have not been used through the mails or
    otherwise; and if in any case you have good grounds for
    suspecting that stamps presented to you for exchange, were sent
    from any of the disloyal states, you will not receive them
    without due investigation.

    Immediately after the expiration of the above period of six
    days, you will return to the Third Assistant Postmaster General
    all stamps of the old style in your possession, including such
    as you may obtain by exchange, placing them in a secure package,
    which must be carefully registered in the manner prescribed by
    Chapter 39, of the Regulations of this Department.

    Be careful also to write legibly the name of your office as well
    as that of your county and state. A strict compliance with the
    foregoing instructions is absolutely necessary, that you may not
    fail to obtain credit for the amount of stamps returned.

    Instead of sending stamps to the Department you can if
    convenient, exchange them for new ones at some city post office,
    where large supplies are to be found. It being impossible to
    supply all offices with new stamps at once, you will deliver
    letters received from Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio,
    Indiana, Maryland and Pennsylvania, prepayed by stamps of the
    old issue, until September 10th, those from other loyal states
    east of the Rocky Mountains until the first of October, and
    those from the states of California and Oregon and from the
    Territories of New Mexico, Utah, and Washington, until the first
    of November, 1861.

                                 Your Obedient Servant,
                                             A. N. ZEVELY,
                                 Third Assistant Postmaster General.

A second issue of this circular merely extended the dates September
10th, October 1st and November 1st, 1861 to November 1st, December 1st,
1861, and January 1st, 1862, respectively.


ISSUE OF AUGUST 14TH, 1861.

The portraits upon the 8 types or values of this issue seem to be copied
from the same pictures as were those on the corresponding denominations
of the preceeding issue. The same values are represented, that is:

ONE CENT. Portrait of Benjamin Franklin, in profile to the right, on an
oval disk with engine turned ground of interlaced colored lines on a
solid colored ground, framed round with interlaced colorless lines of
engine turned work on solid colored ground, bordered by a colorless line
with exterior fine colored line. "_U. S. Postage_" in colorless ordinary
capitals in a curved line following the oval above, "_One Cent_" in the
same letters and reversed curve below. Corners of quarter circles and
two foliated ornaments. "1" and "1" in the upper and "_U._" and "_S._"
in the lower corners, in ornamental colorless numerals and letters, on a
vertically lined ground.

Plate impression, 20 by 25½ mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      1 Cent, pale and dark blue.

THREE CENTS. Head of Washington, in profile to left, upon engine turned
ground with sinuous frame of interlaced engine turned colorless lines
upon a solid colored ground, bordered by a colorless line, with exterior
fine colored line following the curves of the ground. Above, "_U. S._"
in a straight line with "_Postage_" below it in an arched line, and
large numeral "3" on each side. Below the head "_Three_," in reversed
curve with "_Cents_" in double curve below and "_U._" and "_S._" at the
sides all in colorless capitals and numerals on the engine turned frame
and ground, the corner numerals and letters ornamented. Corners and
sides filled out with foliated ornaments.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      3 cents, shades of rose.

FIVE CENTS. Head of Jefferson, faced three quarters to the left on an
oval disk with rectangular hatched ground, bordered by a colorless line
with fine colored exterior line. Broad frame of engine turned colorless
lines on a solid ground, with rounded corners, and curved outwards at
top, bottom and sides, bordered by a colorless line and a fine colored
line. Large "5" in upper corners, and "_U. S. Postage_" in a double
curve above the oval, "_Five Cents_" in a curved line following the oval
below, "_U._" in lower left, and "_S._" in lower right corner, all in
colorless letters upon the engine turned work of frame. The corners are
filled out with foliated ornaments.

Plate impression, 20 by 25½ mm., in color, upon white paper, perforated
12.

      5 cents, ochre, shades of brown.

TEN CENTS. Head of Washington, faced three quarters to left, on a
rectangularly hatched ground, bordered by four bands, forming a sort of
oval. The bands are bordered all around by a colorless and exterior fine
colored line. The upper band is inscribed "_U. S. Postage_," on the
solid ground, and the ends of the bands are rounded; the lower band is
inscribed "_Ten Cents_" on the solid ground, and the ends of the band
are curved inwards; the side bands are of irregular shape, with the ends
rounded and bear four stars each, on a horizontally lined ground. The
rest of the stamp is composed of colorless foliated ornaments, between
colored lines upon the solid ground, forming irregular ovals in the
corners, with a band between the upper ones, bearing five stars, "10"
and "10" in the upper, "_U._" and "_S._" in the lower corners, on
horizontally lined ground, letters, numerals and stars all colorless in
colored outlines.

Plate impression, 20 by 24½ mm, in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      10 cents, green, yellow-green.

TWELVE CENTS. Head of Washington, similar to the ten cents, on an oval
disk, with rectangularly hatched ground, bordered by a colorless line
and exterior fine colored line. Broad frame of engine turned colorless
lines on a solid ground, with rounded corners and waved edges, bordered
by a colorless line, and a fine colored line. The corners are filled out
with loops on colored ground. "12" and "12" set diagonally in the upper
corners, "_U. S. Postage_" following the curve of the oval above,
"_Twelve Cents_" in double curve line below, and "_U._" and "_S._" in
the lower corners. The letters and numerals are colorless, with colored
outlines on the engine turned work of frame.

Plate impression, 19½ by 24½ mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      12 cents, black.

TWENTY-FOUR CENTS. Small portrait of Washington, faced three quarters to
the right, on a rectangularly hatched ground, surrounded by a fancy
lozenge-shaped frame of engine turned colorless lines on solid colored
ground, bordered by a colorless line and exterior fine colored line. The
upper corners are filled out with foliated ornaments, containing the
numerals "24" and "24," set diagonally with 3 colorless stars between.
The lower corners each contain a large colored star between foliated
ornaments. "_U._" on the left and "_S._" on the right star; "_U. S.
Postage_" above and "_Twenty-four Cents_" below the head, near and
following the outer curve of frame. The letters, numerals and ornaments
are all colorless, but with colored outlines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 24 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      24 cents, lilac.

THIRTY CENTS. Head of Benjamin Franklin, in profile to left, on a
circular disk with diagonally hatched ground, 16½ mm. in diameter,
bordered by a colorless line and exterior fine colored line. A colorless
line between two fine colored lines, at about 2 mm. from the circle,
with foliated ends, forms a label above and below, the upper inscribed
"_U. S. Postage_," the lower "_Thirty Cents_," on lined ground, in
colorless letters outlined with color. Foliated ornaments without color,
but colored outlines form irregular spaces in the corners, with "30" and
"30" in the upper, "_U._" and "_S._" in the lower ones, in colorless
letters outlined and heavily shaded in color on a lined ground.

Plate impression, 20 by 24 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      30 cents, orange.

NINETY CENTS. Head of Washington, in General's costume, after Trumbal's
portrait, faced three quarters to the left, on an oval disk, 13½ by 17½
mm., with rectangularly hatched ground, bordered by a colorless line and
exterior colored line, surrounded by a band forming a point above and
below, and bordered outside by a second colorless line and an exterior
colored line, and crossed by fine colored lines. "90" and "90" on this
band above, "_Ninety Cents_" below in colorless letters with colored
outlines. Waved band with similar borders crossing the former above,
and inscribed "_U. S. Postage_" in the same letters. The lower corners
are filled with foliated ornaments upon which are "_U._" and "_S._" in
similar letters.

Plate impression, 19 by 24 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      90 cents, indigo blue.

It will be noticed that the original contract under which these stamps
were first manufactured by the National Bank Note Co., expired in 1865.
On its expiration a new contract was made with the same company for a
term of four years longer.

To preserve the history of the postal legislation of the United States
which effects the use of stamps, the provisions of the Act of the XXXVII
Congress, Session III, Chapter 71, approved March 3d, 1863, must be
noted here, although they did not result in any change in the stamps in
use, except the addition of two new values:

    Sec. 3.   No mail matter shall be delivered until postage
              is paid.

    Sec. 13.  The Postmaster General is authorized to establish
              branch offices for the sale of stamps, etc.

    Sec. 17.  Postage must be prepaid at the time of mailing
              on domestic letters, transient printed matter
              and all other things not herein provided for.

    Sec. 18.  Daily, weekly, etc., publications must be prepaid
              quarterly in advance by the receiver.

    Sec. 23.  Drop letters will be charged 2 cents, to be prepaid
              by postage stamps, but no carrier's fee.

    Sec. 32.  The registration fee to be fixed by the Postmaster
              General, but not to exceed in any case 20
              cents.

In accordance with these last provisions however, there were issued two
additional values.

The report of the Postmaster General for the year 1863, states that a
two cent stamp had been prepared and issued, principally to prepay the
postage on drop letters, and the report for 1878, fixes the date of
issue at of the 1st of July, 1863.


ISSUE OF JULY 1ST, 1863.

(As additional to the series of 1861.)

TWO CENTS. Very large head of Andrew Jackson, on an oval disk with
rectangularly hatched ground, bordered by a fine colorless line with an
exterior colored line; on a band above, similarly bordered, and with
parallel lined ground, "_U. S. Postage_" in colorless capitals outlined
and shaded; on short bands, similarly constructed, below on the left
"_Two_," on the right "_Cents_." Foliated ornaments in the four corners,
forming small solid circles, bearing the numeral "2" in the upper, and
colorless ovals bearing "_U._" on the left, and "_S._" on the right, in
irregular shaped colored letters.

Plate impression, 20 by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      2 cents, black.

The Postmaster General having fixed the registration fee at 15 cents, a
stamp of that denomination was issued.


ISSUE OF APRIL 1ST, 1866.

FIFTEEN CENTS. Bust of Abraham Lincoln, on an oval disk 13½ by 18 mm.
with rectangularly hatched ground, bordered by a broad colorless line,
between two fine colored lines, and ornamented by short horizontal
colored lines. On the sides, Roman fasces, without the ax, on each side.
Above on a scroll, bordered by a colorless line between two fine colored
lines, curved up and back to form small ovals, and ending at the top in
foliations and inscribed on the band "_U. S. Postage_" in colorless
capitals, in the ovals "15" in colorless numerals; below, a curved band
following the outline of the oval, similarly bordered, and inscribed in
similar letters "_Fifteen Cents_"; foliated ornaments forming colored
ovals in the corners, with "_U._" in the left, "_S._" in the right, in
colorless capitals.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      15 cents, black.

Issued originally for registered letters, this stamp also served the
next year, principally to prepay the postage on letters to Belgium,
Prussia, Holland, Switzerland and the German Postal Union.

The entire series of 1861-63-66 was reprinted in 1874.

It may also be noticed, that the act of the XXXIX Congress, Session I,
Chapter 281, approved July 27, 1866, authorized the use in all post
offices of weights of the denomination of grams, 15 grams to equal one
half ounce, and the postal laws to be applied accordingly.

Also the Act of the XL Congress, Session I, Chapter 246, Section 10 and
11, approved July 29th, 1868, provided penalties for re-using stamps
that had once paid postage, and authorized the sale of stamps at a
discount of five per cent to persons to sell again as agents.


OBSERVATIONS.

The plates of this issue having been prepared with a view of
perforating, the stamps are placed sufficiently far apart to allow a
perforation, without ordinarily cutting into the stamps. Occasionally
eccentricities may be found, which are the result of accident. The
sheets, as in the previous issue, consist of 200 stamps, the central
point is indicated by three lines at the top and at the bottom, and the
sheets are cut apart on this line and distributed in half sheets of 100,
or ten stamps in ten rows. The printer's imprint is generally to be
found at the center of the top and bottom of each half sheet, at about 4
mm. from the printed stamps, and consists of a small colored label with
a dotted edge, inscribed "National Bank Note Co." preceded by "New
York," and followed by "City" in colored capitals. The plate number also
appears near this.

The ONE CENT varies in color from a pale blue to a dark blue, generally
of the shade known as ultramarine. The paper is ordinarily white with a
yellowish cast, but there are specimens which appear surfaced with the
same ink as the stamp, which is probably an accident from imperfect
wiping of the plates, and others the paper of which has a pale pink
cast, both on the front and back.

The TWO CENTS varies from grey to black, with occasional specimens
partially tinted with the ink, probably from the same cause as in the
one cent.

_Variety._ Doubly perforated at the sides.

The THREE CENTS varies from a very faint rose to a deep rose, with
occasional specimens tinted as in the other values, probably from the
same cause.

_Variety._ Doubly perforated at sides.
             "        "      top and bottom.

There are also a few specimens known of a scarlet tint. They resemble
the ordinary stamps of this value in all other particulars, and it does
not appear to be settled whether they were ever used or not. Proofs,
both perforated and unperforated, exist in this shade, and the better
opinion would seem to be that all of this shade are proofs. It is
claimed, however, that a sheet, or part of a sheet unused, was picked up
at the New York Post Office by a collector.

Strips of ten stamps adhering, forming a vertical row from the sheet,
and showing a double perforation along the sides are also exhibited.

Unperforated specimens have been catalogued.

The FIVE CENTS was originally issued in a pale yellow brown or ochre,
but was changed in September to a darker brown, with a reddish cast,
there is also a brown with a yellowish cast, another with a blackish
cast and a chestnut brown. It would appear that the latter is the true
color composed of red, yellow and black, and that the others result from
some improper mixing of these colors, by which one or the other
predominates.

_Variety._ Doubly perforated at the sides.

A "yellowish brown," meaning the brown with a yellowish cast, has been
chronicled unperforated.

The TEN CENTS is light and dark green. The lighter shade is generally
called a yellow-green, but the two shades differ only in intensity.

The TWELVE AND FIFTEEN CENTS also vary from grey to deep black.

The TWENTY-FOUR CENTS is violet, and pale or dark lilac.

The THIRTY CENTS is of two shades of orange, and an orange-brown.

The NINETY CENTS is faint deep blue and indigo blue.

The number of the several values of these stamps issued, without the
_grille_ is approximated as follows: it being not quite certain whether
a few with the grille were not issued prior to the dates to which the
enumeration is made.

       1 cent        91,256,650
       2 cents      254,265,050
       3 cents    1,847,559,100
       5 cents        8,258,460
      10 cents       28,872,780
      12 cents        7,639,525
      15 cents        2,139,300
      24 cents       10,238,650
      30 cents        3,208,980
      90 cents          337,770



XXI.

THE ISSUE OF 1867-9.


The Act of the XXXIX Congress, Session I, Chapter 114, Section 7,
approved June 12th, 1866, entitled an Act to amend the Postal Laws, had
provided among other things.

    "Sec. 7. And be it further enacted: that whenever it shall
    become expedient in the opinion of the Postmaster General to
    substitute a different kind of postage stamps for those now in
    use, he shall be, and is hereby authorized to modify the
    existing contracts for the manufacture of postage stamps, so as
    to allow the contractors a sum sufficient to cover the increased
    expenses, if any, of manufacturing stamps so substituted."

The Report for the Postmaster General for the year ending June 30th,
1867, states that experiments had been made in printing postage stamps
on an embossed paper, which appeared to offer a fair guarantee against
fraud; that the tissues of the paper were broken by the process, so that
the ink of the cancelling stamps penetrated the stamps in such a manner
as to render cleaning impossible; that the adhesiveness of the stamps
was also increased, to say nothing of other advantages, which recommend
the invention. Some of these curious experiments will be noticed in the
chapter on Essays. The plan adopted was, however, to emboss the stamp,
after it was printed, with a series of small square points, arranged in
the form of a rectangle, much in the same way that checks are sometimes
treated to prevent alteration. This breaks the tissues of the paper. The
French collectors call this a _grille_, or grating, which it resembles.
There were several varieties used on this issue, and they were applied
to the stamps then current, without other change in the design, paper,
color or gum.


ISSUE OF 1867 TO 1869.

The first variety was a grille covering the entire stamp, adopted May
8th, 1867, and applied only to the;

      3 cents, rose, perforated 12, grilled all over.

If this is examined with a glass on the face of the stamp, there appear
to be rows of slightly raised squares, separated by depressed straight
lines, with a still more raised cross, formed by diagonal lines running
from corner to corner of the square. If the back is examined, the
straight lines appear raised, the crosses depressed. In all specimens
examined, the embossing is very flat.

The second variety does not cover the entire stamp, but shows a
rectangle, measuring 13 by 16 mm., composed of 16 rows of 20 small
squares each. It was adopted August 8th, 1867, and was applied only to
the;

      3 cents, rose, perforated 12, large grille.

Copies with this grille may be found in which one side row or the other
shows only half squares instead of whole ones, also with some of the top
or bottom rows missing, wholly or partly.

_Var._ 12½ by 16 mm., 15½ by 20 rows, 3c., perf. 12.
       12¼ "  15 "    15  by 18½ "    3c       "

The appearance of this grille, examined on the face, is just the reverse
of the preceding, as the straight lines are raised and the crosses
depressed.

The third variety was a still smaller rectangle, about 11 by 14 mm.,
composed of 14 rows of 17 small squares or parts of squares. The date is
January 8th, 1868. Numerous variations may be found. It was applied only
to the;

       1 cent, blue, perforated 12, medium grille.
       2   "   black      "     12        "
       3   "   rose       "     12        "
      10   "   green      "     12        "
      12   "   black      "     12        "
      15   "   black      "     12        "

_Var._ 11½ by 14½ mm., 15 by 18 rows, 3c, rose, perf. 12.
       11  by 14  mm., 14 by 17½  "   3c    "        "
                       14 by 17   "   3c    "        "
                       14 by 16½  "   1c  blue       "
                       14 by 16½  "   3c  rose       "
                       14 by 16½  "  10c  green      "
                       14 by 16½  "  12c  black      "
                       14 by 16½  "   2c    "        "
                       14 by 16½  "   3c  rose       "
       11  by 13  mm., 14 by 16½  "   3c    "        "
                       14 by 16   "   3c    "        "
       10½ by 14  mm., 14 by 16½  "   3c    "        "
                       13 by 16½  "   3c    "        "
                       13 by 16½  "  10c  green      "

_Oddity._ With 2 grilles touching on the same stamp. 3 cents, rose,
perforated 12.

_Note._ It is not uncommon to find parts of two grilles on the same
stamp at a distance from each other, part of a grille being at the top
and part at the bottom, or part of a grille on each side. The oddity
noted presents two grilles touching by the top and bottom, one a little
farther to the left than the other, making a strip of squares from the
top to the bottom of the stamp.

This medium grille if examined on the face is quite different from the
foregoing large grille. It appears to be composed of raised lines
between the squares and depressed crosses in them. A glass transforms
these lines into rows of diamonds. On the reverse it appears as if
composed of depressed lines, between the squares, and raised crosses in
them.

_Note._ The other values so far as known, have not been found with this
grille. Up to May, 1868, only the values from 1 to 12 cents had been
noted by the stamp papers as having been found with any grille. The 24
and 30 cents are chronicled with a grille in the November, 1868, but the
90 cents was not so noticed until much later, February, 1869, (see
American Journal of Philately).

The fourth and most common grille is a square of 9 by 14 mm., composed
of 12 rows of 16½ squares each. The date of its adoption is not known.
It was applied to the whole series.

                  1 cent, blue, perforated 12, small grille.
                  2   "   black     "      12      "
                  3   "   rose      "      12      "
                  5   "   brown     "      12      "
                 10   "   green     "      12      "
                 12   "   black     "      12      "
                 15   "   black     "      12      "
      Nov. 1868, 24   "   lilac     "      12      "
           "     30   "   orange    "      12      "
      Feb. 1869, 90   "   blue      "      12      "

_Varieties._ 9 by 14 mm., 12 by 16½ rows,  1c., perf. 12.
                "             "      "     3c       "
                "         12 by 17   "    30c       "


OBSERVATIONS.

The colors are generally stronger than in those without the grille. The
majority of the specimens of these stamps appear to have the surface of
the paper tinted slightly with the color of the stamps, possibly from
some imperfection in cleaning the plates. A few values have been noted
on pure white paper.

       1 cent, blue, small grille, perforated 12.
       2   "   black      "             "     12
      10   "   green      "             "     12

The 3 cents, rose, small grille, unperforated, has been noted, and

      2 cents, black, grille, variety 4  { unperforated
      3   "    rose     "        "    4  {    at the
      5   "    brown    "        "    4  {    sides.

The re-impressions of these designs did not have the grille.

The five cents was in use up to September, 1870.

Some specimens examined seem to indicate that all these varieties of
grille are occasionally to be found reversed, i. e. they present the
appearance on the face that is usually to be seen on the back, and vice
versa.

Of these stamps with the grille, there were, issued approximately the
following numbers:

       1 cent      9,638,600
       2 cents    46,440,000
       3   "     231,773,300
       5   "       1,006,400
      10   "       3,076,070
      12   "       2,087,575
      15   "         868,080
      24   "         167,453
      30   "         214,000
      90   "          26,870

During the currency of these stamps, a new contract was entered into
with the same company. A special despatch to the St. Louis
Globe-Democrat, dated Oct. 3rd, 1868 states:

    "Postmaster General Randall to-day accepted the proposal of the
    National Bank Note Company, of New York, for furnishing stamps
    for four years at 25½ cents per 1000. This includes everything
    required for preparing the stamps for immediate use, gumming,
    perforation printing and preparing receipts. The contractors are
    also required to furnish new designs, at least four of which
    must be printed in combination colors."

The number of the several values of these stamps issued, with the
_grille_ is approximated as above, it being not quite certain whether a
few without the grille were not in stock at the dates from which the
enumeration is made.



XXII.

THE ISSUE OF 1869.


The New York Evening Post of October 6th, 1868, also contains a notice
of;

    "THE NEW CONTRACT FOR POSTAGE STAMPS.

    In June last, Postmaster General Randall, advertised for
    proposals for furnishing the Government with postage stamps for
    a term of years. The Committee of experts appointed for the
    purpose, decided in favor of the National Bank Note Company, and
    on Saturday last, the Postmaster General awarded the contract to
    that Company for a term of four years. We have been shown proofs
    of the new stamps, and they reflect credit upon the artistic
    taste of the Company."

Some of these proofs are then described.

    "One of the characteristics of the stamps manufactured by this
    Company is that the ink used prevents persons washing, and using
    the stamps a second time. The fiber in the centre of the stamp
    is broken completely, and they adhere better, while the ink of
    cancellation sinks into the paper. The engraving on these stamps
    are remarkable copies of historical pictures, and bear the test
    of microscopical examination."

These are probably the only words of approbation to be found in the
daily press among the host of comments upon these stamps, which by the
terms of the contract were to be ready on the first of February, 1869.
Messrs. Butler & Carpenter, of Philadelphia, had claimed to be entitled
to the award on the ground that they had submitted a better bid than the
National Bank Note Co., which resulted in delay and the appointment of
the commission above mentioned.

However, in March, 1869, the greater part if not all the values were
printed and ready for issue, but were distributed to the public only as
the stock of the old issue was exhausted. About the end of April they
began to appear, and even in September only the 1, 2, 3 and 6 cents were
to be obtained in the larger post offices. Already the public demanded
that they should be replaced, and this was done in April, 1870. As late
as March, 1870, the 90 cents of the previous issue was on sale in some
of the offices.

This unfortunate issue was generally received with approval by the
Philatelic press. It is certainly well engraved, and forms an
interesting and handsome series for the most part, and is an adornment
to the collectors' album. But it is hardly so well suited to the
practical requirements of a postage stamp. It was announced that the
series was intended in some sort, to portray the history of the Post
Office in the United States, beginning with Franklin, the Continental
postmaster, and the post rider of the early days, followed by the
locomotive of a later day, and the Ocean Steamer carrying the mails
which had become so important a branch of the postal service, the most
important scenes in the early history of the country, its triumphant
arms, and Washington its first and Lincoln its last President. But
hardly had it been issued before its doom was sealed.

In August the New York Tribune says:

    "The greater part of the stamps sold at the Post Office in this
    city are worthless, and have not sufficient gum to make them
    stick to letters. One can be amused, or become indignant, in
    watching people who buy stamps, demanding a little mucilage from
    the clerk, in order to fasten the stamp on their envelopes. It
    appears that the invention of embossing which is continued in
    this emission, while it spoils the stamps, does not increase
    their adhesive properties as was pretended."

Other papers pronounced the stamp too small. The comic papers exhibited
caricatures in which the people were looking for their stamps in their
pocket books with powerful microscopes.

The Evening Telegram says:

    "The new United States postage stamps have a very un-American
    look."

The Evening Mail says:

    "Our old postage stamps were really neat and pleasing in
    appearance. They were National and American, as they ought to
    have been. The head of Washington was venerable, and our three
    cent stamps were as perfect as they well could be. So also the
    one cent stamp with the head of Franklin was equally
    appropriate. There was a fitness of congruity in putting the
    head of the old, thrifty economist, on the one cent stamp. Our
    youth were reminded of the wise saws and sayings of "Poor
    Richard" and it taught them that if they learned to save the
    cents, the dollars were more likely to take care of themselves.
    But now think of the miserable, confused looking thing, with its
    wretched printing, that the Post Office has given us for the
    present three cent stamp. It is neither historical, national,
    beautiful, nor anything but a paltry evidence of the fact, that
    some engraver has got paid or will get paid for a job that ought
    never to have been done. Can our authorities not let well enough
    alone?

    Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, all have railroad engines
    such as ours. What is there in a big chimney on a railroad
    carriage to indicate the nationality of our postal system. Aye,
    but there are words, "United States Postage" on the stamp. Just
    so. We remember to have seen a boy's drawing on a sheet of
    paper, the words "this is a church" underneath, and certainly
    the artistic performance needed the index, but not more so than
    the new stamp requires a similar proclamation to tell the world
    what it means. And then again look at the printing of the word
    "Postage." Can our engravers do nothing better than that? We
    hope that the contractors have been paid for their work. If so,
    then let the post office folks give us back again our old head
    of Washington, and save us from looking at the contemptible
    thing that we are now getting in its stead."

Another paper says:

    "The present miserable experiments in blue, with a meaningless
    legend, are to be recalled and something new in red is to be
    substituted. The old heads of Washington, Jefferson, Jackson,
    Franklin and Lincoln are to be restored. It is about time that
    some definite form and design of postage stamp should be
    adopted, so that people may know to a certainty what mucilaged
    square of paper will carry a letter to its designation, and what
    not."

The New York Herald says:

    "The old style of three cent postage stamps had thereon a face
    of Washington, out of compliment to a good man. It now has a
    railway scene to represent how Congressmen make money. The two
    cent stamp represents a man on horseback. This represents
    Booth's death ride into Maryland. The one cent stamp should
    represent a cow with the favorite son of the Covington
    postmaster fast to her tail. This out of compliment to Grant."

An Eastern paper says:

    "The Government introduced the present nondescript things called
    postage stamps, for the purpose of frightening counterfeiters."

And later the Herald says:

    "Another attempt is to be made to give us decent postage stamps.
    We suppose it will fail, as so many have hitherto. Our postal
    authorities try too much. If they will only take the Italian or
    French stamp, and put Washington's head in place of Victor
    Emanuel's, or Napoleon's, they cannot fail; but they will try
    some improvements and spoil all."

The post office department announced the issue in the following
circular:

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

                                _Finance Office, March 1st, 1869._

    Sir:

    At an early day, in the regular course of business, the
    Department will issue to Postmasters stamps of new designs.
    [See description annexed.] In the proposed issue the six cent
    stamp is substituted for the five cents. You are required to
    exhaust all of the present style on hand, before supplying the
    public with the new; and in no case will you be allowed to make
    exchanges for individuals, or to return stamps to the Department
    to be exchanged. The stamps now in use are not to be
    disregarded, but must be recognized in all cases equally with
    the new ones.

    Special attention is called to the fact that sheets of all
    denominations below 15 cents contain 150 stamps. The 15 cents
    and all higher denominations, contain 100 stamps on each sheet.
    This must be borne in mind to prevent mistakes in counting, as
    in the present issue each denomination has but 100 stamps to the
    sheet. Special requests for the new style of stamps will be
    disregarded until the stock of the present issue in possession
    of the Department is exhausted. Due notice will be given of the
    date of issue of any new design of stamped envelopes, therefor
    all inquiries respecting them will be disregarded.

          (Signed.)                           A. N. ZEVELY,
                                 Third Assistant Postmaster General.

The description upon the other side requires to be supplemented for
collectors, but is incorporated in those following.


ISSUE OF MARCH 19TH, 1869.

Composed of ten values each of a different type.

ONE CENT. Head of Franklin, in profile, looking to the left, on a
circular disk horizontally lined, surrounded by a broad circle
ornamented with colorless pearls, bordered by a band of rayed lines
between fine white lines, with exterior fine colored line, and divided
into three labels by ornaments at the sides and bottom. "_U. S.
Postage_" at the top; large numeral "1" in a small oval (sic) with a
border of colorless loops between the words "_One Cent_" at the bottom.
Color, Roman ochre. Corners plain without color.

Plate impression, circular, 20 by 20 mm., in color, on white paper,
perforated 12, grilled and without grille.

      1 cent, Roman ochre.

TWO CENTS. Post horse and rider facing to the left, trees, fence, etc.,
in background, surrounded by ornamental scroll work, "_United States_"
in small colored capitals on the ground above, a curtain inscribed
"_Postage_" in colorless capitals at the top. "_Two Cents_" at the
bottom on a ribbon with large numeral "2" between the words, both in
outline shaded. Color, light bronze.

Plate impression, 20 by 19 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12,
grilled and without grille.

      2 cents, yellow-brown, light and dark chestnut-brown.

THREE CENTS. Locomotive heading to the right, surrounded by ornamental
scroll work, "_United States_" in colored block capitals on a curved
band, "_Postage_" in colorless capitals in a tablet beneath, at top.
"_Three Cents_" in outline shaded block capitals, in two scrolls at the
bottom, with numeral "3" in a shield (sic) between the words. Color,
Imperial ultramarine blue.

There is no shield as stated in the official description.

Plate impression, 20 by 19 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12,
grilled and without grille.

      3 cents blue.

SIX CENTS. Head of Washington, three quarters face looking to the right,
on a ground of vertical and horizontal lines, bordered by a solid broad
colored line, ornamented by 68 pearls. Spandrels checkered and bordered
by colorless lines. Frame square, composed of vertically lined squares
in the upper corners, with narrower horizontally lined label between,
with a broad colored border, ornamented by pearls and exterior colorless
and colored line above. The colored labels are narrower than the upper
squares at the sides, and are bordered by colorless pearls and an
interior white line, an exterior colorless and fine colored line.
Horizontally lined label across the entire bottom, widened at the ends
to correspond with the upper squares, with exterior colorless and
colored line. "_U. S._" in upper left and right corners of frame
respectively. The word "_Postage_" in upper bar of frame, "_Six Cents_"
in lower, the numeral "6" between the words, and "_United States_" on
each side. Color, ultramarine.

Plate impression, 20 by 20 mm., square, in color, on white paper,
perforated 12, grilled and possibly without grille.

      6 cents blue.

TEN CENTS. Shield of the United States on which is resting an eagle with
outspread wings, looking to the left. "_United States_" in small
colored capitals with "_Postage_" in large outline capitals, shaded in
a second line beneath, in the upper section of the shield, numeral "10"
in lower. The words "_Ten Cents_" in scroll at the bottom in outline
shaded capitals. The whole design surrounded by thirteen stars arranged
in a semicircle, (sic) color, orange. The background is rayed behind the
eagle and the semicircle of stars are upon this only, the background
behind the shield is of clouds, there is no frame.

Plate impression, 19 by 18 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12
and grilled, possibly also without grille.

      10 cents orange.

TWELVE CENTS. Ocean Steam ship, headed to left in horizontal oval,
surrounded by ornamented scroll work. In a double tablet with arched top
on horizontally lined ground, and colored capitals in a curved line,
"_United States_" and "_Postage_" in outline capitals on a solid ground.
On three scrolls in outline capitals and numerals shaded, "_Twelve
Cents_" at the bottom, with numeral "12" between the words. Color,
malori green.

Plate impression, 20 by 19 mm., in color, on white paper, slightly
surfaced green, perforated 12 and grilled, possibly also without grille.

      12 cents, green.

FIFTEEN CENTS. Microscopic reproduction of the large picture, in the
Capitol at Washington, of the "Landing of Columbus," in an oblong
rectangle 20 by 10 mm., with rounded upper corners, surrounded at a
little distance by a single colored line. Ornamental and scroll work at
top and bottom on a ground ruled horizontally inside and vertically
outside of the scrolls, the whole surrounded by a colorless and fine
colored line. On a colorless tablet, in Gothic capitals, "_U. S._"; in a
curved line of outline capitals on the ground, "_Postage_" at top.
_Fifteen Cents_ at bottom, with numerals "15" underneath in outline
colorless capitals, on the ground. Colors: picture, Prussian blue,
scroll and ornamental work pale Indian red.

Plate impression, 21½ by 21½ mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12, grilled and not grilled. The paper is more or less surfaced with
blue.

      15 cents blue and brown.

NOTE. There are two varieties of this stamp, depending on the type, and
an error, the latter was however never circulated. The line of the
frame, above the picture, is curved up on the left hand, beginning under
the O, and on the right hand beginning under the G, in what is called
the O. G. curve, till the two meet in a point. In the ordinary variety
there are two fine lines within the space left for the picture, which
along the whole top, including the curved corners and this central
double curve, are united in a heavy line and at about ½ a millimeter
from the center line on each side, curve down, as well as up, to a
point, forming a diamond. On the sides and bottom within this line,
there is a shading of fine diagonal lines. When the picture is exactly
in position, which is rare, the colored line surrounding it falls
between these fine lines, and on the heavy curved line, just touching
the lower part of the diamond.

In the rarer variety, the two fine lines, the broad top line, and the
bottom of the diamond are all omitted, the entire space is either empty
or shows one, two or three horizontal lines across the top of the space,
and three or four across the bottom, with a row of short horizontal
lines at the sides. When the picture is in proper place there is an
almost blank space at the top, and apparently a white line surrounding
the picture. When it is misplaced the colored lines described can be
seen and there appear to have been several varieties, as there were more
or less of them.

_The error_ is not as is sometimes supposed an error of printing, but in
the plate. Two plates, one for each color, had to be used. Originally,
there were 150 stamps as in the smaller values, (See circular of March
1st, 1869 above cited) but upon the plate for printing the picture, it
is said one picture was reversed, and the error once discovered, the
plate was cut down to print only 100 stamps as stated in the circular.
It is probable that no copies with the error were ever circulated.

TWENTY-FOUR CENTS. Microscopic reproduction of the large picture at the
Capitol, of the "Signing of the Declaration of Independence" forming an
oblong rectangle 20 by 10 mm., with all four corners cut off diagonally,
surrounded by a fine colored line at a little distance. Ornamental
scroll work at top and bottom on a lined ground. A line of pearls on a
colored line, between a colorless and colored line, forms the frame for
the picture. In block capitals "_U._" and "_S._" surrounded by ovals at
upper left and right corners respectively, the word "_Postage_" between
the two, in a curved line of outline capitals, shaded on the background.
"_Twenty-four Cents_" in scrolls at bottom, with numeral "24" beneath in
outline letters shaded. Colors: the picture, purple lake, scroll and
ornamental work, light malori green. Just beneath the picture in small
colored numerals, "1776."

Plate impression, 21½ by 22 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12, grilled and not grilled.

      24 cents, purple and green.

NOTE. There is the same error of this stamp "reversed picture" stated to
be from the same cause, a defect in the plate as for the 15 cents, and
the same remarks apply.

THIRTY CENTS. Eagle facing to left, with outspread wings, resting on
shield with flags grouped on either side. The words "_United States
Postage_" in upper section of shield. The numeral "30" in lower. The
words "_Thirty Cents_" across the bottom, with three stars arranged in a
semi-circle at top of the design. Colors: Eagle and Shield, carmine,
flags blue. Except for the change of numerals and words of value, the
omission of the scroll, and the substitution of the two flags on each
side for the clouds, the design, though not the drawing of this stamp is
identical with the ten cents. "Thirty cents" is however in block
letters, the T Y C E in outline, the rest shaded.

Plate impression, 21½ by 22 mm., in color, on white paper, slightly
tinted with pink, perforated 12, grilled and not grilled.

      30 cents, carmine and blue.

_Error._ There is also an error of this stamp in which the flags are
reversed. It is also stated to be an error on the plate, but may be only
an error in printing.

NINETY CENTS. Portrait of Lincoln in an oval, looking to the right,
surrounded by ornamental scroll work, numerals "90" at each of the upper
corners, set diagonally in outline, and shaded on vertically lined
ground. On a label with rayed ground, edged by a colorless and colored
line, in outline capitals shaded, "_U. S. Postage_" at top of oval.
"_Ninety_" and "_Cents_" on scrolls at the lower left and right corners
of oval respectively, set diagonally and in colored capitals. In outline
Gothic capitals "_U._" and "_S._" at the lower left and right corners of
the stamp respectively. Colors: portrait black, surrounding ornamental
and scroll work, carmine. It may be well to add that the portrait is
three quarters face, on a square hatched ground, and a single colored
line in same color surrounds the oval at a little distance. The space
left in the frame for the picture is bordered by fine short horizontal
lines, which show when the picture is not properly placed.

Plate impression, 21½ by 21½ mm. square, in two colors, on white paper,
slightly surfaced pink, perforated 12, grilled and not grilled.

      90 cents, black and carmine.

The grille in this series is a square 9½ by 9½ mm. composed of 11½ rows
of 12 smaller squares each, apparently separated by raised lines
crossing each other at right angles, each little square divided by
depressed diagonals also, as if produced by forcing a series of pyramids
set close together, but not touching, into the face of the stamp. Seen
from the reverse, the dividing lines are depressed and the squares stand
up like pyramids, with ragged edges showing the broken fibre of the
paper.

The numbers of the several values of this issue is approximated as
follows:

       1 cent,   24,988,100
       2 cents, 114,058,000
       3 cents  530,346,800
       6 cents,   6,363,700
      10 cents,   5,770,130
      12 cents,   4,088,875
      15 cents,   2,360,740
      24 cents,     414,325
      30 cents      513,180
      90 cents,      77,650



XXIII.

THE ISSUE OF 1870.


In the report of the Postmaster General for the year ending the 30th of
June, 1870, under date of Nov. 15th, 1870, he says:

    The adhesive postage stamps adopted by my predecessor in 1869,
    having failed to give satisfaction to the public, on account of
    their small size, their unshapely form, the inappropriations of
    their designs, the difficulty of cancelling them effectually,
    and the inferior quality of gum used in their manufacture, I
    found it necessary in April last, to issue new stamps of larger
    size, superior quality of gum and new designs. As the contract
    then in force contained a provision that the stamps should be
    changed, and new designs and plates furnished at the pleasure of
    the Postmaster General, without additional cost to the
    department, I decided to substitute an entire new series,
    one-third larger in size, and to adopt for designs the heads, in
    profile, of distinguished deceased Americans. This style was
    deemed the most eligible, because it not only afforded the best
    opportunity for the exercise of the highest grade of artistic
    skill in composition and execution, but also appeared to be the
    most difficult to counterfeit. The designs were selected from
    marble busts of acknowledged excellence, as follows: One cent,
    Franklin, after Rubricht; two cents, Jackson, after Powers;
    three cents, Washington, after Houdon; six cents, Lincoln, after
    Volk; ten cents, Jefferson, after Powers' statue; twelve cents,
    Clay, after Hart; fifteen cents, Webster, after Clevenger;
    twenty-four cents, Scott, after Coffee; thirty cents, Hamilton,
    after Cerrachi; ninety cents, Commodore O. H. Perry, profile
    bust, after Walcott's statue. The stamps were completed and
    issues of them began in April last. The superior gum with which
    they are coated is not the least of the advantages derived from
    the change.

    Upon the conclusion of the postal treaty with the North German
    Confederation, fixing the single letter rate by direct steamers
    at seven cents, to take effect the 1st of July last, a stamp of
    that denomination was adopted, and the profile bust of the late
    Edwin M. Stanton selected for the design. This has been
    completed in a satisfactory manner, but owing to the temporary
    discontinuance of the direct mail steamship service to North
    Germany, it has not yet been issued to postmasters.

It may not be uninteresting to remark that the following stamps were
adapted among other uses, to the payment of the rates under postal
treaties as follows;

  6 cents, England, Dec. 3d, 1869;
           Sandwich Islands, May 5th, 1870;
           British Columbia, July 15th, 1870;
           Germany, March 31st, 1871.

  7 cents, Germany, April 7th, 1870;
           Denmark, Dec. 1st 1871.

  10 cent, Italy, Feb. 8th, 1870;
           Belgium, March 1st, 1870;
           Switzerland, April 13, 1870;
           Salvador, Oct. 5th, 1870.

  12 cents, British Honduras, August 11th. 1869;
            New Zealand, Oct. 5th, 1870.

  15 cents, Brazil, May 9th, 1870.

The series being ready for issue, was announced to the various
Postmasters in the following:

                       CIRCULAR TO POSTMASTERS.

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
            Office of Third Assistant Postmaster General,

                                                _April 9th, 1870_.

    New Series of Postage Stamps.

    At an early date in the regular course of business, the
    Department will issue to Postmasters, postage stamps of a new
    design. [See description annexed.]

    You are required to exhaust all of the present style on hand
    before supplying the public with the new; and in no case will
    you be allowed to make exchanges for individuals or to return
    stamps to the Department to be exchanged.

    The stamps now in use are not to be disregarded, but must be
    recognized in all cases equally with the new ones. The stamps
    known as the series of 1861, of which a few are supposed to be
    yet outstanding, are also to be recognized. Those issued prior
    to the commencement of the war of the Rebellion were long since
    declared to be valueless.

    Special attention is called to the fact that each sheet, of all
    denominations of the new series, contains but 100 stamps. This
    must be borne in mind to prevent mistakes in counting, as in the
    present issue some of the denominations have 150 stamps to the
    sheet.

    Special requests for the new style of stamps will be disregarded
    until the stock of the present issue, in possession of the
    Department, is exhausted. [ * * * * relating to envelopes to be
    issued to conform * * * * ]

          [Signed]                        Wm. H. Terrell,
                               Third Assistant Postmaster General.

[The "description annexed" is on the other side and is merely a list of
values, the bust from which the portrait was copied, the color, etc.,
exactly following that in the extract from the Postmaster General's
report above.] The exact date of issue is fixed by the Postmaster
General's report, as May, 1870.


ISSUE OF MAY, 1870.

Composed of ten values as follows:

ONE CENT. Bust of Benj. Franklin, in profile to the left, after
Rubricht, on an oval disk, lined horizontally and obliquely, bordered by
a broad colorless line and exterior colored fine line. Outside of this a
series of colorless curved lines, bordered by fine colored lines, and
foliated at the corners on a ground of parallel vertical colored lines,
completes the rectangle. There is no enclosing colored line at top or
bottom. Short horizontal colored lines form the shadows of the oval and
ornaments. The upper corners are formed by a line curved round from the
oval and terminating in a large ball, a second line curving round from
this and continued along the top, ending in two foliations with a small
leaf-shaped dash beyond. There is a large ball at the intersection of
these lines in the corner of the stamp. A slightly curved line continues
down from the corner, forming the sides. The lower corner being formed
by a curved line starting in a dot, curving upward and round, and
terminating inside the side lines in a large foliation with three balls
above it. The bottom is formed of a waved line. These are all distinct
and plain colorless lines between fine colored lines, and about the
width of the line surrounding the oval.

The ornaments in the corners have shadows beneath, and on the inner
edges, and the side lines have shadows on the outer edges, formed of
short horizontal lines. The oval has heavy shadows similarly formed. The
vertical lines of the background are fine, and of even width throughout.
Above the oval, a thin colorless line, bordered by a fine colored line,
within and without, parallel with the oval, but curved round at the ends
to meet it, forms a label inscribed in outline capitals, "_U. S.
Postage_," shaded without on a rectangularly hatched ground. Below the
oval a large outline pearled numeral "1" shaded without, divides the
lower border line, and a similar line parallel to the border line, but
terminated at each end by a ball, forms a label inscribed in outline
capitals "_One Cent_" shaded outside on a rectangularly hatched ground.
Above this label are three small white pearls on each side of the
numeral.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      1 cent, imperial ultramarine.

TWO CENTS. Bust of Andrew Jackson, in profile to the left, after Powers,
on an oval disk lined horizontally and doubly obliquely, bordered by a
broad white line and fine exterior colored line, the whole super-imposed
on a shield, with ground of vertical colored lines, and bordered by a
very fine colored exterior line. The shield is curved in at the top,
corners diagonal, sides curved in and then out, bottom rounded and rests
on a background of horizontal colored lines. There are no exterior lines
on the sides. Below the oval, a large outline numeral "2" divides a
colorless ribbon bordered by fine colored lines, and inscribed "_Two
Cents_" in outline colored capitals shaded outside, on a background of
short vertical colored lines. Above the oval, a band bordered by a
colorless line edged by fine colored lines, extends nearly to the outer
edge of the stamp, and is inscribed, "_U. S. Postage_" in outline
colorless capitals, shaded outside on a rectangularly hatched ground.
The shadows of the shield are made by short vertical lines, those of the
oval by short horizontal lines. The shield is ornamented by fine laurel
leaves on each side, just above the lower label.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      2 cents, velvet brown.

THREE CENTS. Bust of Geo. Washington, after Houdon, in profile to left,
on oval disk with horizontally lined ground, and occasional diagonal
latticed hatchings, bordered by a broad colorless line with exterior
fine colored line, resting on a shield with vertically lined ground, on
a background of horizontal lines, with a border line on the right side
but none on the left. Above the oval, a band bordered by a colorless
line, with a ball on each end and three little foliations above on each
side, all edged by a fine colored line inscribed "_U. S. Postage_," in
outline capitals, shaded outside on a horizontally lined ground. Below
the oval a large numeral "3," shaded outside, divides a ribbon bordered
by a colored line, and inscribed in similar capitals, "_Three Cents_" on
a ground of short vertical lines. The shadows of the oval are made by
short colored horizontal lines, and those of the shield by vertical
lines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      3 cents, malori green.

SIX CENTS. Bust of Abraham Lincoln, in profile to the left, after Volk,
on an oval disk lined horizontally and doubly lined obliquely, bordered
by a colorless line. On a depressed panel, lined horizontally, the sides
projected, darker than the frame of fine vertical lines which surrounds
it, completes the rectangle. There is no terminal line at the sides.
Above the oval a yoke-shaped label, bordered by a colorless line, edged
by fine colored lines, inscribed "_U. S. Postage_" in outline colorless
capitals, shaded outside on a ground of horizontal lines. Below the oval
is a ribbon bordered by fine colored lines, inscribed in the same
letters, "_Six Cents_" divided by a large outline numeral "6," on a
ground of short colored vertical lines. A distinct line borders the
depressed panel all the way around, being heaviest on the left side. The
shadows of the oval and depressed panel are made by vertical colored
lines, and those of the upper and lower labels are made by horizontal
colored lines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      6 cents, cochineal red.

TEN CENTS. Bust of Thomas Jefferson, in profile to left, after Powers,
on an oval disk, lined horizontally, and obliquely from right to left,
bordered by a colorless line with exterior colored line, on a shield
bordered by a fine colored line, vertically lined, on a rectangular
background, which is lined horizontally. Above the oval a label formed
by a colorless line edged by a colored exterior line, curved round from
the oval line at the ends, and then parallel with it, having a small
ball ornament at each end, is inscribed "_U. S. Postage_" in outline
capitals, shaded outside, on a ground of vertical lines, except at the
ends, where the lines are horizontal. Below the oval, on a ribbon
bordered by colored lines, in the same letters "_Ten Cents_," on a
ground of short vertical lines, the words separated by large outline
numerals "10." Shadows of the oval in short horizontal lines crossed by
lines parallel to the oval. Shadows of the lower ribbon in vertical
lines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      10 cents, chocolate.

TWELVE CENTS. Bust of Henry Clay, after Hart, in profile to the left, on
an oval disk, closely lined horizontally, and bordered by a colorless
line between two fine colored lines, surrounded by labels bordered
without by a second colorless line, between fine colored lines, but
curved inwards, crossed and the sides united in a vertical line at the
sides of the stamp, the whole arranged in a double tablet formed by
vertical lines, terminated by an outside colored line at top and bottom.
The outer edges representing a chamfer are horizontally lined. A little
distance from the edge, a series of diagonal lines between two parallel
lines, represent a beveled edge, making the parts within appear higher.
The upper label is inscribed "_U. S. Postage_," in outline capitals,
doubly shaded outside, on a ground of horizontal lines. The lower label
is inscribed, "_Twelve Cents_," in outline block capitals, doubly shaded
on a ground of horizontal lines. Large outline numerals "12," doubly
shaded, divide the lower band and separate the words.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      12 cents, neutral tint.

FIFTEEN CENTS. Bust of Daniel Webster, in profile to the left, after
Clevenger, on an oval disk, very closely lined horizontally and
obliquely, bordered by a colorless line, on a vertically lined
background, with no terminal line at the top or bottom. There is a
triangular depression represented in each of the four corners by
horizontally lined ground and shade lines, and mitered at the angles.
Above the oval and following its outline, is a label indicated by a
colorless line between fine colored lines, square at the ends with a
ball beyond, inscribed on a horizontally lined ground in colorless
capitals, outlined by colored lines and shaded without, "_U. S.
Postage_." Below the oval is a similarly formed label with pointed ends,
inscribed in the same letters on horizontally lined ground, "_Fifteen
Cents_," divided by large pearled numerals "15."

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      15 cents, orange.

TWENTY-FOUR CENTS. Bust of Winfield Scott, in profile to the left, after
Coffee, on an oval disk closely lined horizontally, and bordered by a
colorless line with exterior colored line, on a rectangular background
of horizontal lines. Above and following the line of the oval are
thirteen five pointed stars, two at each end plain, and one letter of
the inscription "_U. S. Postage_" in colored block capitals in each of
the others. Above these and parallel to the oval is a colorless line
between colored lines, divided and curving into two balls below, but
curving into a single ball above and shaded by another colored line.
Above these in each corner on a solid ground of color, bordered by a
similar arrangement of lines, etc., in colorless block numerals "24."
Below the oval is a label inscribed "_Twenty Four_," with another
beneath it inscribed "_Cents_," both indicated by a colorless line
between colored lines, with a horizontally lined background. The letters
are colorless block capitals. In the lower left corner are flags and
cannon, and in the right three muskets stacked.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      24 cents, pure purple.

THIRTY CENTS. Bust of Alexander Hamilton, in profile to the left, after
Cerrachi, on an oval disk horizontally and obliquely lined, bordered by
a colorless line with outer colored line, on a shield shaped panel
vertically lined, the edges beveled and obliquely lined, resting on a
background of horizontal lines. The upper corners of the panel project
beyond the rest at top and sides, the sides project beyond the curved
bottom, the shadows of the oval on the shield are indicated by short
horizontal lines; those of the shield by vertical lines. Across the
curved top of the shield is a colorless line bordered by outside colored
lines. Across the top of the shield in a double curve of outline
capitals, shaded outside, "_U. S. Postage_." Below the oval, a small
shield, outlined by a colorless line between colored lines, bears the
outlined numerals "30," shaded outside on ground of horizontal lines,
dividing a ribbon outlined by colored lines, inscribed "_Thirty Cents_,"
in colored spurred capitals, on a ground of vertical lines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      30 cents, black.

NINETY CENTS. Bust of Com. O. H. Perry, in profile to left, after
Wolcutt, on an oval disk bordered by a colorless line with exterior
colored line. The upper half of this line is covered by a cable, rove at
each end to a ring, that supports the lower label. Above the oval a
label with hatched ground, bordered by a colorless line, with exterior
colored line following the oval, the ends curved outward and inward in a
sort of foliation, is inscribed "_U. S. Postage_" in outline capitals,
shaded outside. A five pointed star in each corner. Below the oval, the
lower label, square at the ends, with hatched ground, bordered by a
colorless line and outer colored line, is inscribed "_Ninety Cents_," in
outline block capitals, shaded outside. There is a heavy shadow beneath
the label, an anchor in each lower corner. The whole is on a vertically
lined panel chamfered at the top, bottom and sides.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      90 cents, carmine.


ISSUE OF JULY 1870.

SEVEN CENTS. Bust of Secretary Edwin M. Stanton, in profile to left, on
an oval disk, closely lined horizontally, bordered by a colorless line.
Above and below, a label bordered by a colorless line following the
outline of the oval, but curved round and terminated inside by a ball at
each end. The whole on a panel, vertically lined, with rounded corners,
and large ball on a rectangular background of horizontal lines. The
labels are inscribed in outline capitals, shaded outside on a hatched
ground, the upper, "_U. S. Postage_," the lower, "_Seven Cents_,"
divided by a large outline numeral "7," doubly shaded outside.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      7 cents, vermilion.

All these values were first issued with a grille, of which there are
several sizes, but on many, if not most, even of unused specimens it is
so indistinct that it is impossible to distinguish the outlines, measure
the size, or count the squares. Some very perfect unused specimens have
been examined however, and on the face it appears to be composed of
horizontal rows of depressed diamonds, divided by alternate rows of
smaller raised diamonds, with deep-depressed lines along the sides of
the latter. On the reverse, the appearance is of rows of squares divided
by depressed lines, with little raised crosses in each square. By these
specimens it has also been determined, that there were at least two
distinct sizes of grille.

The first measures 10½ by 12½ mm., composed of 13 by 15½ rows of
squares. Perfect specimens of the 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10 cent so grilled,
have been found, and satisfactory specimens of the 6, 12, 15, 24, 30 and
90 cents.

The other variety measures 8½ by 10½ mm., and is composed of 10 by 13
rows of squares. Perfect specimens of the 1, 2, 3 and 7 cents so
grilled have been found, but no satisfactory specimens of any other
value.

Specimens with only a few distinct squares, are comparatively common.

The difficulty of arriving at accurate measurement, is increased when
the specimens examined have been used, but apparently the larger of the
above grilles was gradually cut down row by row to the smaller, as
specimens of the 1, 2 and 3 cents, the most used values, are found
undoubtedly grilled.

      10½ by 12½ mm., or 13 by 17 rows.
      10  "  12   "   "  13 "  15  "
       9  "  11½  "   "  12 "  15  "
       9  "  11   "   "  11 "  14  "
       8½ "  10   "   "  11 "  13  "

These all now bear a deep yellow or brown gum. The colors are very
uniform.

As stated by the passage quoted above, there are 100 stamps, or ten rows
of ten stamps in the so called sheet, or properly half sheet, there
being 200 on the plate. The imprint was either "Engraved and printed by
the," in one line, "National Bank Note Co., New York," in a second line
in colorless capitals, on a solid ground, with pearled edges and outer
fine colored line, or the second line above without pearls on colored
ground, bordered by a double colored line. The author cannot state
whether all the values bore both imprints, having only seen the 1, 2 and
3 cents with the first, and the 30 and 90 with the second, the latter
without the grille. These imprints are placed 2 mm. from the stamps,
above and below the 5th and 6th rows on each half sheet, the plate
number being between the 8th and 9th rows. The line on which the sheets
are divided is indicated by three lines forming a sort of arrow head, at
the top and bottom of the sheet. The center rows of stamps are 2½ mm.
apart, and there are no perforations between them. The vertical rows of
perforation are 22½ mm. apart horizontally. The horizontal rows 27½ mm.
apart vertically, but the upper and lower rows are sometimes 28½ and
sometimes 29½ mm. apart. If a sheet is selected, where the vertical rows
are so far from the center line as to cut into the stamps, and the
horizontal rows too high or too low, and a stamp from the top or bottom
of the row next to the center cut line is selected, and the perforations
carefully cut off, specimens can be made that have a much larger margin
than the ordinary perforated stamps, and might easily pass as
unperforated. This may not account for all the unperforated specimens,
some of which may be the result of accident, but all the values of this
series and the following may be so made unperforated, and have been so
catalogued.

The number of these stamps issued with grille, is estimated as follows:

       1 cent,    95,127,100.
       2 cents,  208,375,550.
       3  "      962,467,790.
       6  "       21,600,900.
       7  "        2,070,800.
      10 cents     8,509,280.
      12  "        2,857,975.
      15  "        4,299,220.
      24  "          637,450.
      30  "          711,430.
      90  "          165,180.


ISSUE WITHOUT GRILLE (1873?)

The use of the grille was finally abandoned altogether. The first notice
of this change appeared in the stamp papers of February, 1873. They were
made by the same company, and are in all respects the same, except the
embossing.

       1 cent,  imperial ultramarine, perforated 12.
       2 cents, velvet brown              "       "
       3   "    milori green              "       "
       6   "    cochineal                 "       "
       7   "    vermilion                 "       "
      10   "    chocolate                 "       "
      12   "    purple                    "       "
      15   "    orange                    "       "
      24   "    pure purple               "       "
      30   "    black                     "       "
      90   "    carmine                   "       "

The colors do not vary materially from those of the grilled series, but
there are two quite distinct shades of the twelve cents, a blackish
purple and a brownish tint.


ISSUE OF 1873.

In accordance with the provisions of the general law, before the
expiration of the contract with the National Bank Note Company, the
Postmaster General advertised in the daily papers, in December, 1872,
that he would receive bids for furnishing the Department with postage
stamps from the 1st of May, 1873, to the 1st of May, 1877. This
contract, as well as the subsequent one which terminated the 1st of
July, 1881, was awarded to the Continental Bank Note Company, of New
York. The dies and plates, by the terms of the contract with the
National Bank Note Company, were the property of the Government, and
were turned over to the new contractors, who continued to print the
stamps from the same plates, until they were worn out, and theoretically
in the same colors. As new plates were required from time to time, they
were made from the original dies, but bore the imprint of the new
contractor, which resembles the first one described as used by the
National Company, but reads "Printed by the" in the first line,
"Continental Bank Note Co., New York," in the second line. This imprint
probably, was not put upon one of the values above 15 cents. In fact the
30 and 90 cents sent out just before, and for some years after the
expiration of the second contract awarded to this Company, bore the
second named imprint of the National Bank Note Company.

Specimens are found which show the heavier border lines and shadows of
the different parts of the design, the fine lines of the background, of
the tablets, and sometimes of the shields, being invisible to the eye,
though more or less of them can generally be traced with a glass. These
collectors have designated as "plain frames," as they appear to be
without color. They are, really, defective impressions either from worn
plates, when the plates made by the National Bank Note Company, were
giving out in 1873, or from the poor results of the process of printing
adopted, as is claimed by the Postmaster General.

But similar varieties have certainly appeared, and for like causes, at
other times. Collectors of curiosities will find:

       1 cent plain frame, perforated 12.
       2 cents  "      "        "      "
       3   "    "      "        "      "
       6   "    "      "        "      "
      10   "    "      "        "      "

The stamps from the plates with the imprint of this Company, now bear on
the back a white gum, and not the brownish, used by the National Bank
Note Company, which will help to distinguish impressions made by them
from the old plates. The colors, however, are not identical, and will
further serve to distinguish them. There may be exceptions, but
ordinarily the ONE CENT is a pure indigo, without the red or ultramarine
cast, of those printed previously, whether lighter or deeper impressions
are chosen.

The TWO CENTS has also lost its reddish tone, and is a dull brown, with
a tendency to blackish-brown, whether lighter or deeper in shade.

The THREE CENTS is of a duller and generally a pale shade.

The SIX CENTS is much lighter and is a washy pink.

The SEVEN CENTS is a more yellowish vermilion.

The TEN CENTS approaches very nearly to the original shade of the two
cents, but is a little more of a blackish brown, very unlike the
delicate original shade. The oval and face lines are dark and heavy.

The FIFTEEN CENTS is a much paler orange.

The higher values, TWENTY-FOUR, THIRTY and NINETY CENTS, have a thinner
tone than the deep rich color of the former Company's work.

In the meantime, the following changes were announced in a circular to
postmasters:

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
           Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General,
         Division of Stamps, Stamped Envelopes & Postal Cards.

                             _Washington, D. C., June 21st, 1875._

    The Department is prepared to commence the issue of postage
    stamps of the denomination of five (5) cents to meet the new
    letter rate of postage, under the treaty of Berne, to the
    following countries, viz:

    [Here follow the names of all countries that had then joined the
    Postal Union, to which five cents was the rate.]

    The new five cent stamp is designed from a bust of Gen. Zackary
    Taylor in full face, and printed in dark blue color. The
    changes in foreign postages will render unnecessary the further
    use of the 7, 12 and 24 cent stamps and stamped envelopes, and
    they will accordingly be discontinued.

    In order to avoid the liability to mistake caused by the near
    similarity in color between the two cent and ten cent stamp, the
    former will in future be printed in vermilion, the color of the
    discontinued seven cent stamp.

    [Here follows directions to use up the stock of the discontinued
    stamps and envelopes, whenever they can be utilized.]

          (Signed.)                            E. W. BARBER,
                               Third Assistant Postmaster General.


ISSUE OF JULY 1ST, 1875.

TWO CENTS. Same design, and from the same die and plate as the previous
brown impression, the color only changed.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      2 cents, vermilion.


ISSUE OF OCTOBER 5TH, 1875.

One of the New York daily papers in April, 1882, speaking of the new
five cent stamp (Garfield) about to be issued, says: The history of the
current five cent stamp with Taylor's portrait is as follows:

    The rates for international postage had been decided upon as 5
    cents, the United States series of postage stamps had not such a
    value. Mr. Jewell, the Postmaster General at the time, suggested
    to President Grant the propriety of having his portrait on the
    new stamp of the required value. Gen. Grant did not agree with
    his Cabinet officer. Finally, he suggested that if Mr. Jewell
    would insist upon consulting his wishes, he (Gen. Grant) would
    be well pleased if the portrait of old Zack Taylor, with whom he
    served in the Mexican war, could be used on the new stamp.
    Instead of instructing the then contractors to prepare a
    portrait of Gen. Taylor, which would be in harmony with the
    other stamps of the series, Mr. Jewell found in the Bureau of
    Engraving and Printing, a portrait of Taylor, which had been
    used on the old tobacco strip series. This portrait was
    transmogrified into the five cent stamp. It was badly engraved
    and of wretched color.


ISSUE OF OCTOBER 5TH, 1875.

FIVE CENTS. Bust of General Zachary Taylor, full face, on an oval disk
lined horizontally and obliquely, the horizontal lines growing closer
and closer towards the top, surrounded by a colorless line with outer
colored line, and resting on a shield, vertically lined, and bordered by
an exterior colored line, all on a background of colored horizontal
lines, the shadows of short horizontal lines. Above the oval is a label,
bordered by a colorless line between fine colored lines, and curved
round and divided at the ends, the outer part terminating in a ball,
horizontally lined and inscribed "_U. S. Postage_," in outline capitals
shaded without. Below the oval is a ribbon, bordered by a colored line,
and inscribed "_Five Cents_," the words divided by a large numeral "5",
all in outline capitals, shaded without on a ground of short vertical
lines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      5 cents, dark blue.

The stamp is identical with the two and ten cent values, with the value
changed, and the portrait of Taylor from the six ounce tobacco stamp of
the "series of 1871," placed in the medallion.

Both the two cent vermilion and the five cent blue, bear the imprint
"Printed by the Continental Bank Note Company," which also prepared the
tobacco stamp in question.

These two stamps have been chronicled as having been issued grilled. The
error crept into the French edition of this work likewise, but they were
at least never so issued for circulation.

All the values as issued by this company have likewise been chronicled
as unperforated. If they are not accounted for as indicated under the
remarks made on page 172, they are the result of accident.

In many cases indistinct dots can be seen where the perforating machine
failed to do its work. Such specimens are curious but do not require
more than mention.

Before the second contract with the Continental Bank Note Co. expired,
it was consolidated with the American Bank Note Co. under, the name of
the American Bank Note Company, and new plates began to appear with the
imprint of this company, in large colored block capitals, shaded by a
colored line parallel to the letters and an outside row of lighter
horizontal lines.

The one, two, three, five and ten are found with this imprint, without
material change. The seven, twelve and twenty-four cent having long been
retired are not to be looked for with this imprint, and the fifteen,
thirty and ninety cents at this time were still printed from the plates,
with the imprint of the Continental Bank Note Co.

The gum has the white shade and the colors are the same as used by that
company.

The _one cent_ of the dull indigo blue.

The _two cents_ has a misty look.

The _three cents_ inclines to a blue-green.

The _five cents_ has heavier lines and is a darker blue.

The _ten cents_ returns to the light appearance of the original of 1870
but is of the yellow-brown shade.


ISSUE OF APRIL 10TH, 1882.

With the letting of the contract for another term in June, 1881, the
American Bank Note Company again secured the contract.

Soon after the death of President Garfield, it was proposed that his
portrait should be placed on the five cent stamp used for foreign
postage, and the stamp printed in mourning, as was said to have been
done with the fifteen cent stamp, then used for foreign postage, after
the death of President Lincoln. The stamp with the head of Taylor, it
was said had been hurriedly gotten up, and did not correspond with the
rest of the series. By direction of Postmaster General James, the
American Bank Note Co. therefore prepared the new stamp, after a
photograph of President Garfield. Mrs. Garfield was consulted, and
proofs in various colors were, it is said, submitted to her. Instead of
black, she finally selected a vandyke brown. The first proofs were in
black, and at the request of Mrs. Garfield it is stated, the Postmaster
General sent one of them, mounted on card and placed in a frame of
silver, surrounded by a second frame of gold, on a background of purple
velvet, and protected by a glass in an ebony frame, to Her Majesty, the
Queen of England.

From the correspondence columns of the daily papers, we learn that the
Department received the first invoice of these stamps at Washington, the
7th of February, 1882, and that it was expected to begin the issue the
1st of March, following. Mr. Durbin obtained some copies which he used
on St. Valentines day. But the stamps were not distributed from the
offices until the 10th of April, 1882 and were then sold only as the
supply of the old ones was exhausted. This is the date officially given
by the report of Postmaster General for the year, and the same date is
also given by the New York papers. The description given by the
Postmaster General it is not necessary to repeat.


ISSUE OF APRIL 10TH, 1882.

FIVE CENTS. Portrait in profile to the left, of President Garfield, in
an oval disk 16 by 20 mm., lined horizontally and obliquely, and
bordered by a line of colorless pearls on a broad colored band, resting
on a shield lined horizontally, and bordered by a colored line, very
heavy on the right side and at the bottom, and an exterior fine
colorless line at the bottom and sides, all on a back ground of
horizontal lines bordered at the sides by a terminal line of color. The
shield is square at the top, of the width of the stamp, with
perpendicular sides not quite so far apart, the corners being slanted
back, and is pointed at the bottom which is formed of two diagonal
lines. A large solid six pointed star, bordered by a colorless line and
exterior colored line covers the lower point of the shield and a part of
the pearled border, and bears a large colorless numeral "5." On each
side of this a ribbon indicated by a colored line, inscribed on left
"_Five_," on right "_Cents_," in outline capitals, on a ground of short
vertical lines. On the background of the stamp, beneath all, "_U. S.
Postage_" in colored block letters, shaded on the left and top by
colorless lines.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      5 cents, dark chocolate.


ISSUE OF NOVEMBER, 1882.

Without any notice to the postmasters or the public, new plates were
made by the American Bank Note Company, and slight changes were made in
the engraving. These began to appear in November, 1882, and may be
found in the one three, six and ten cent values.

ONE CENT. The vertical lines of the background are thickened in the
upper half and so nearly touch, that the ground now appears solid and in
fact from the running of the ink, sometimes really is solid. The curved
ornamental lines in the upper corners and the balls are now shaded with
one or more interior colored lines, instead of being plain. The exterior
shading of horizontal lines is omitted here, at the ends of the upper
labels, and also outside of the side lines, and is very faint under the
lower ornaments and label.

(_a_) The first impressions of this altered plate are in an ashey blue
and, the upper ornaments are rendered indistinct by the interior lines.
There is a whitish space, like a reflection beneath the bust.

(_b_) Later impressions in 1886, show the upper ornaments more
distinctly white, and shaded outside again by lines parallel to their
curves. A heavy shadow now appears under the bust, the ground being
almost solid where it falls. The color by daylight is again slightly of
the ultramarine cast, but differing only slightly from the ashey hue by
gaslight.

(_c_) Later impressions in 1887, show the return to the heavy upper
ornaments, but their exterior shading remains as in (b). The ground work
of the oval is uniform and there is no light or dark shadow under the
bust. The ultramarine is of a more pronounced cast by daylight.

TWO CENTS. There seems to have been no change beyond that already
mentioned, as the design was soon changed.

THREE CENTS. The altered die beside the other appears quite different,
but a close examination is necessary to determine the differences at
first. Once detected, they are very apparent. The lines of ground of the
oval are heavier. The cross lines can still be seen with the glass, and
the part behind the head is now crossed by vertical lines also. The
shadows of the upper ornaments are now solid, and the horizontal lines
cannot be detected. The shadows of the oval are also solid, and about
half as broad as in the other die. The horizontal lines can be seen by
the glass, but are very light. This is the most conspicuous difference.
The vertical shadow lines under the lower label are omitted. The shield
in the old die has a ground of horizontal lines on the right side, with
an outside vertical border line, and two fine vertical lines on the
horizontal lines form the shadow of the shield. The altered die has the
three vertical lines, but the horizontal lines are omitted to the point
where the bottom line begins. The color is a blue-green, not
yellow-green as before.

SIX CENTS. The ground work of the oval, is practically solid or mottled,
that of the panel nearly so. The border line cannot be distinguished
from the ground, while in the original issue, not only is the border
line distinct, but in the "sallie" the fine vertical shadow lines can be
counted inside, and on the right side three, very close together, and
four lines besides these between the panel and the edge, counting the
outside line. In the new, none of these shadows exist, and there are
only _three_ lines between the panel and the edge, including the outside
line. In the old, on the right side, there are fourteen lines in the
frame above and below the projection. In the new there are thirteen
above, and eleven below. The color is a brick red, neither the cochineal
or pink previously used.

TEN CENTS. The frame lines have all been strengthened as well as those
of the background, so that the entire stamp is more uniform in engraving
and color, but has entirely lost its light look. The edges no longer
fade away, but stand out sharp from the paper. It is apparent to the eye
that the space between the oval and the shield, is reduced one-third its
width. There are only four vertical lines between the line of the shield
and the line of the oval at their nearest point on the left, or six
lines in all; in the originals, there were five lines, or seven in all.
Beneath the ribbon containing the value in the old stamps, the
horizontal lines of the background are scarcely visible, the vertical
shade lines being conspicuous. In the new the horizontal lines are
strong and clear.

(_a_) The earliest impressions are in muddy yellow brown, quite uniform
all over the stamp.

(_b_) Later impressions, in 1886, are in a clearer shade of
yellow-brown, and the light on the face has been increased, much
improving the effect.

(_c_) An odd purple-brown shade appeared in 1886.

(_d_) A dark black-brown shade is now, 1887, in use.


THE ISSUE OF OCTOBER, 1883.

The Act of the 47th Congress, Session II, Chapter 92, approved March 3d,
1883, provided that:

    "Upon all matter of the 1st class [as defined by chapter 180 of
    the laws of Congress, approved March 3d, 1879, entitled: An Act,
    etc.] postage shall be charged on and after the first day of
    October, A. D. 1883, at the rate of two cents for each half
    ounce or fraction thereof, and all acts so far as they fix a
    different rate of postage than herein provided upon said first
    class matter, are to that extent hereby repealed."

The report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General under date of
November 8th, 1883, says:

    "Soon after the passage of the Act of March 3d, 1883,
    preparations were begun to carry the new law into effect. The
    change left the 3 cent denomination of postage stamps of little
    utility, it no longer representing the single rate of postage on
    any class of matter, and it was determined to discontinue its
    issue. As the public would have undoubtedly regarded with
    disfavor, the dropping of Washington from portraits, forming the
    distinguishing feature in the series of postage stamps, it was
    decided to replace the old 2 cent stamp by a new one bearing the
    profile of the first president, thus restoring it to its old
    place on the stamp in most general use. It was also decided to
    issue a new stamp of the value of four cents, a denomination not
    previously in use, and designed to cover two rates of letter
    postage. The portrait of Jackson, formerly on the 2 cent stamp,
    was transferred to this new (four cent) stamp. The following is
    a brief description of the new stamp:

    TWO CENT STAMP.

    An oblong shield, slightly shouldered on the upper square, the
    lower lines terminating in a point. Within this shield is an
    oval containing a profile bust of George Washington engraved in
    line, surrounded by a ribbon ending with small scrolls bearing
    the legend "United States Postage," in white letters. From each
    end of the scrolls a chain of pearls completes the outlines of
    the oval. A prominent white-faced figure "2" laps over the lower
    centre point of the oval and shield, dividing the words "Two
    Cents." The whole is enclosed in a dark upright square to give
    relief to the device. The stamp is printed in dark red.

    FOUR CENT STAMP.

    Over an oval containing a bust of Andrew Jackson in profile, is
    a ribbon with the legend "United States Postage," in white
    letters. A string of pearls forms round the lower half of the
    oval and unites the two ends of the ribbon. At the lower part
    of the oval, on either side, appears the figure "4," and under
    that the words "Four Cents," with a star on each side, all
    engraved in white faced letters. The whole device is inclosed
    in an upright oblong tablet. The stamp is printed in green.

    It is worthy of notice that these are the first postage stamps
    ever bearing the words "United States Postage" in full, the
    name of the country being abbreviated to "U. S." on all other
    stamps * * * Postmasters were notified by circular of the
    coming change of postage, and intrusted to make their
    requisitions for 3 cent stamps and envelopes sufficient only
    for carefully estimated needs to the 1st October. * * * The
    issue of the new 2 cent and 4 cent stamped envelopes was
    commenced on the 1st September, and of the 2 and 4 cent
    adhesive stamps on the 15th September; and they were so
    generally distributed by the 1st October that the change of
    postage was attended with but little inconvenience for want of
    the necessary stamps."

The circular issued to postmasters read as follows:

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
            Office of Third Assistant Postmaster General.

                             _Washington, D. C., July 18th, 1883._

    On and after the first day of October, 1883, the rate of postage
    on domestic mail matter of the first class, will be reduced from
    three cents per half ounce, or fraction thereof, as provided by
    Act of Congress, approved March 3d, 1883.

    The department has adopted a new design for the two cent stamp.

    The head of Washington, in profile from Houdon's bust, placed on
    a plain tablet. Above the oval, surrounding the head, are the
    words "United States Postage," and underneath the tablet are the
    words "Two Cents." The stamp will be printed in metallic red.
    The engraved stamp on the 2 cent envelope will also bear the
    head of Washington.

    A four cent denomination of postage stamps and stamped
    envelopes, to cover double postage under the new rate, will also
    be issued.

    The design embraces the head of Jackson, similar to that on the
    present 2 cent stamp and envelope. No change will be made in the
    postage due stamps.

    The same 3 cent stamps and stamped envelopes of the present
    design, will continue to be valid after the 1st of October, and
    must be accepted in payment of postage whenever offered in
    appropriate amounts.

    The drop letter rate of postage will remain the same as now.

                                           A. D. HAZEN,
                             _Third Assistant Postmaster General_.


ISSUE OF SEPTEMBER 15TH, 1883.

TWO CENTS. Bust of General Washington, in profile to the left, after
Houdon, on an oval disk, lined horizontally and doubly diagonally,
bordered by a colorless line, surrounded by a solid colored band,
ornamented in the lower two-thirds with a row of white pearls, the upper
third broadened into a label, edged outside by a colorless line, with
outside colored line, the ends curved round into a hook, the whole
resting on a shield shaped tablet, corresponding to that of the last
three cents, horizontally lined and edged by a colored line, very heavy
on the right and bottom, with an outside colorless line, the whole on a
rectangular background of horizontal lines, very close together below,
and farther apart above. There are no shadows except a few vertical
lines beneath the projecting part of the top parts of the shield.

The label above the oval is inscribed "_United States Postage_," in full
colorless capitals, on the solid ground. A large colorless numeral
outlined in color and doubly shaded outside, obscures the point of the
shield and the pearled and colorless border of the oval, dividing the
words "_Two Cents_" in full colorless capitals on the background, so
shaded as to be on a solid colored ground.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      2 cents, metallic red.

FOUR CENTS. Bust of Andrew Jackson, in profile to left, after Powers,
in an oval disk, horizontally lined, very closely at the top, and doubly
diagonally bordered by a colorless line, twice as wide as that in the
last two cents, surrounded by a solid colored band, ornamented with
pearls below, and broadened above into a label, bordered above and at
the ends by a colorless line, and inscribed "_United States Postage_,"
just as in the two cents, the whole resting on a rectangular tablet,
with horizontally lined ground, crossed by vertical lines below the
oval, and bordered by a vertical colorless line on the right and above
the oval on the left, with mitered or bevelled edge, represented by five
colored lines parallel with the top, bottom and sides, the right, upper
third of the left, and bottom bevel crossed by short colored lines at
right angles. On the ground below the oval, which is nearly solid color,
in colorless capitals, "_Four Cents_," between colored five pointed
stars. Large colorless numeral "4" on each side, above the stars and end
letters of the value.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, slightly
surfaced with green, perforated 12.

      4 cents, blue green.

The arrangement of the plates, printer's imprint, plate number, etc., is
the same as before, for both of the new stamps.

The report of 1883 also proposed that the 3 and 6 cent stamps should be
called in, redeemed and destroyed. Nothing seems to have been done about
it however, until Frank Hatton, Postmaster General, issued an order,
dated December 1st, 1884, that the three and six cents of all issues
with the exceptions following, should be exchanged by postmasters for
other values.

    "Especial care must be taken not to redeem postage stamps issued
    prior to 1861, as such stamps were long since declared obsolete
    and valueless for postage. No six cent stamps were issued prior
    to 1861. The three cent issued before that time bears the head
    of Washington, and is printed in red. In a straight line at the
    top are the words "U. S. Postage," and at the bottom, the words
    "Three Cents." The figure 3 does not appear on the stamps, as it
    does upon all subsequent issues of that denomination. Stamps
    answering to this description, must in all cases be refused."

On the 14th of January, 1885, Postmaster General Frank Hatton, by order
No. 75, appointed a committee of three to proceed among other things to
the stamp manufactory at New York, and effectually cancel all the
plates, except one working plate of each denomination, of the issues of
1847, of 1851, including the two carrier stamps, of 1861, of 1865
newspaper and periodicals, of 1869, of the 3, 5, Taylor, 7, 12 and 24
cents of 1870, 3 and 9 cent newspaper and periodical of 1874, and of all
the Department stamps.

    "One plate of each kind and denomination of postage stamp
    reserved as above, and the dies and rolls from which they have
    been produced, together with all the cancelled plates, to be
    inventoried, waxed and carefully boxed and sealed, and placed in
    the vault of the stamp manufactory, in the custody and under the
    control of the agent."

The committee were also to cancel any worn out and unserviceable plates
of the current series, and to count and destroy the official stamps
remaining in the vaults of the American Bank Note Company, of all
denominations and Departments, numbering 17,024,588, of the 3 and 9 cent
newspaper and periodical stamps of 1874, numbering 324,990, and of the
7, 12, and 24 cent stamps of the 1870 issue, numbering 1,414,300, a
grand total of 18,763,878 stamps. On the 24th of February, the committee
reported that they had carried out the order.

A. D. Hazen, Third Assistant Postmaster General, who recommended this
holocaust, says:

    "I have excepted from this recommendation the 3 cent stamps of
    the current series, of which there are 135,800 in the vault, for
    the reason that though their general issue has been
    discontinued, occasional calls are made for them by some of the
    larger offices."

The reports show further that from January 1st, to June 30, 1886,
1,094,200 three cent stamps were actually issued. During the same
period, 201,600 six cent stamps were also issued, while 645,950 thirty
cent stamps, and only 29,620 ninety cent stamps were issued. As a matter
of fact therefore these values, though retired from general issue, are
more in demand than the two higher values retained, nearly 2 to 1, as
between the 3 and 30 cents, 50 to 1 as between the 3 and 90 cents, or 9
to 1 as between the 6 and 90 cents, and that too when the general public
is unaware that these values can be obtained at all.


CONTRACT FOR 1885-89.

The contract for the manufacture of adhesive stamps between the
Department and the American Bank Note Company, expiring on the 30th of
June, 1885, sealed proposals were invited by public advertisement of
March 30th, 1885, for a new contract for four years from July 1st, 1885.
The important features of the new contract to be noticed here, are
_first_, that a definite standard of paper to be used for printing the
stamps, made by an improved formula, was for the first time required,
all other contracts having provided that the paper should be equal to a
sample only; and _second_, that all ordinary postage stamps should be
printed wholly by machinery run by steam power. "The two previous
contracts, 1877 to 1881, and 1881 to 1885, expressly stipulated that the
printing should be done on hand roller presses, the use of steam presses
under the contract immediately preceeding the same, 1873 to 1877, which
was silent as to the mode of printing, having resulted in extremely
unsatisfactory work."

The act of the 48th Congress, Session II, Chapter 342, approved March
30th, 1885, provides:

    "That upon all matter of the first class, as defined by chapter
    180 of the laws of Congress, approved March 3d, 1879, entitled:
    An Act, etc., and by that act declared subject to postage at the
    rate of three cents for each half ounce or fraction thereof, and
    reduced by act of March 3d, 1883, to two cents for each ounce or
    fraction thereof, postage shall be charged, on and after the
    first day of July, 1885, at the rate of two cents for each
    ounce or fraction thereof; and drop letters shall be mailed at
    the rate of two cents per ounce or fraction thereof, including
    delivery at letter carrier offices, and one cent for each ounce
    or fraction thereof where free delivery by carriers is not
    established."

It was claimed that the improvements in machinery had produced steam
presses that could produce better word than the hand presses, at less
cost. Bids were taken for stamps printed entirely by hand, partly by
hand and partly by steam, entirely by steam; the last two with or
without an option reserved to the Postmaster General, to require the
work to be done by hand roller presses. The Treasury Bureau of Engraving
and Printing, the Franklin Bank Note Co., and the American Bank Note
Co., were the only bidders. The latter again secured the contract to
print the ordinary stamps, by steam power entirely, and the newspaper,
postage due and special delivery stamps by hand roller presses. For the
latter of these they are paid $18 per 1000, for the postage due $8.49
per 1000, and for the steam printed stamps $6.99 per thousand. For these
latter the Government paid $9.19 under the previous contract up to 1885,
$9.98 up to 1881, and $14.99 up to 1877.

The following is the number of stamps of the issue of 1870 as it is
called without the grille.

       1 cent,  old     plate, blue,        1,748,378,900
       1  "     altered  "      "           1,872,063,600
       2 cents, old      "     brown          176,830,300
       2  "      "       "     vermilion      661,829,150
       2  "     new      "     red-brown    4,370,788,300
       3  "     old      "                  4,986,505,600
       3  "     altered  "                    629,537,100
       5  "     Jackson                        80,390,500
       5  "     Garfield                       14,454,640
       6  "     old     plate                  76,726,850
       6  "     altered  "                      8,013,300
       7  "                                     3,349,100
      10  "     old      "                     79,126,690
      10  "     altered  "                     81,307,910
      12  "                                     3,272,125
      15  "                                    16,136,380
      24  "                                       716,975
      30  "                                     6,134,410
      90  "                                       436,150

The paper provided for in this contract is the soft porous paper, which
according to Mr. Sterling was introduced in 1883. It is not stiff and
hard like the previous paper, and seems to have been adopted about the
time of the change in the dies, the fall 1882. All the values employed
since are to be found on it. It may be noted that the fifteen and thirty
cents on this paper are with the imprint of the American Company. The
fifteen is again a deep orange and the thirty a full black.


ISSUE OF 1883, ETC.

Same colors, values and designs, soft porous paper, perforated 12.

       1 cent,  ultramarine blue.
       2 cents, red-brown.
       3 cents, green.
       4   "    dark green.
       5   "     "   brown.
       6   "    cochineal.
      10   "    brown.
      15   "    orange.
      30   "    black.
      90   "    carmine.


ISSUE OF JUNE 15TH, 1887.

The following circular explains itself:

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
                  Office of the Postmaster General.

                               _Washington, D. C., May 23d, 1887._

    On or about the 15th of June, 1887, the Department will begin
    the issue of a new design of the ordinary one cent postage
    stamp, of which the following is a description: The center of
    the stamp consists of a profile bust of Benjamin Franklin
    (after-the original by Caracci), looking to the left, in an oval
    disk, with shaded background, the lower portion of the oval
    being bordered with pearls and the upper portion with a curved
    frame, containing in small white letters, the words, "United
    States Postage." The whole is engraved in line upon a shield
    shaped tablet, with a truncated pyramidal base, bearing on it
    the words "one" and "cent," on either side of the figure "1."
    The color of the stamp is ultramarine blue, and its general
    appearance is somewhat similar to that of the stamp now in use.

    Before ordering supplies of the new stamps, postmasters will be
    expected to exhaust their stock of the old, which will continue
    to be valid. Under no circumstances are the old stamps to be
    sent to the Department for redemption or exchange.

                                           WILLIAM T. VILAS,
                                               Postmaster General.

          H. R. HARRIS,
    Third Assist. P. M. General.


ISSUE OF JUNE 15TH, 1887.

ONE CENT. Head of Benjamin Franklin, in profile to the left, after
Carraci, on an oval disk lined horizontally and doubly diagonally, the
upper third bordered by a label, the lower two thirds by a broad solid
colored line, ornamented with colorless pearls increasing in size from
top to bottom, with a colorless line outside this, shaded by another
heavy colored line. The label is of solid color, between two colorless
lines, the upper one curved round the ends, forming a hook and edged
outside by a fine colored line, and is inscribed in white capitals
similar to the two cents last described, "United States Postage." The
whole is on a horizontally lined shield shaped tablet, the top similar
to that of the two cents, but with a small point in the centre of the
top and the diagonals shorter. The bottom is curved at the corners, then
curved back up and round, and spreads out into the lower part of a
"truncated pyramid." It is edged with a heavy colored line on the right
and bottom, with a heavy colored line on the left and top. On the
truncated base is a large pearled outlined colorless numeral "1,"
dividing the border of the oval and the words "One Cent," in outline
colorless capitals. The rectangle is filled out with horizontal lines at
the sides of the shield and vertical line at the top.

Plate impression, 20 by 25½ mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      1 cent, ultramarine blue.



XXIV.

POSTAGE DUE STAMPS.


From the adoption of compulsory prepayment up to 1879, various
regulations had been made from time to time regarding insufficiently
paid letters, in order to relieve the Dead Letter Office as far as
possible, and yet enforce the prepayment of all mail matter.
Nevertheless mistakes continued to be made and the practice of
forwarding all letters upon which one full rate was paid, and collecting
the balance of the receiver had finally been adopted, the amount to be
collected being written or stamped upon the letter. From this practice
abuses arose, and by the Act of the XLV Congress, Section III, Chapter
180, Section 26, approved March 3d, 1879, it was enacted:

    "That all mail matter of the first class upon which one full
    rate of postage has been prepaid shall be forwarded to its
    destination charged with the unpaid rate, to be collected on
    delivery, but postmasters before delivering the same, or any
    article of mail matter upon which prepayment in full has not
    been made, shall affix, or cause to be affixed, and cancelled as
    ordinary stamps are cancelled, one or more stamps equivalent in
    value to the amount of postage due on such article of mail
    matter, which stamps shall be of such special design as the
    Postmaster General shall prescribe, and which shall in no case
    be sold by any postmaster or received by him in prepayment of
    postage," etc.

    Sec. 27. "That any postmaster or other person engaged in the
    postal service who shall collect and fail to account for the
    postage due upon any article of mail matter which he may deliver
    without having previously affixed and cancelled such stamp as
    herein before provided shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,
    and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of fifty
    dollars."

Shortly after the passage of this Act the following circular was
addressed to all postmasters:

    Form No. 3288.

    SPECIAL STAMP FOR POSTAGE DUE.

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
          Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General,
        Division of Stamps, Stamped Envelopes and Postal Cards.

                                _Washington, D. C., May 5th 1879._

    By Sections 26 and 27 of the Act of Congress, making
    appropriations for the service of the Post Office Department for
    the year ending June 30th, 1880, and for other purposes
    "approved March 3d, 1879, it is made the duty of postmasters to
    affix to all mail matter that has arrived at destination without
    full payment of postage, and before delivery of the same, an
    amount of stamps equal to the postage due, the stamps to be of
    such special design as the Postmaster General may direct."

    To avoid any confusion in the accounts of Postmasters with the
    Auditor, and on account of the length of the time necessary to
    prepare for the change contemplated by the above sections in
    the mode of collecting and accounting for short paid postage, it
    has been decided to have the same go into practical operation on
    the 1st of July next.

    The Department however, will begin issuing sometime during the
    present month, in anticipation of the wants of postmasters,
    special stamps for the collection of postage due of the
    denomination of 1, 2, 3 and 5 cents, and of the following
    general description:

    A large figure, representing the denomination is placed in the
    center of the stamp, and is surrounded by an oval of very
    delicate lathe work. On the upper border of this oval, the words
    "Postage Due" are printed in white letters; in the lower border
    is the denomination, in letters of the same kind; on either side
    of the oval are the letters "U. S." in a small white shield.
    Around the oval is a form of complex character, described upon
    an oblong tablet. The general design is the same for all the
    stamps, the only difference being in the figures and lettering
    for the several denominations. The color is the same, a reddish
    brown.

    These stamps are intended, exclusively for the collection of
    postage due on matter arriving at destination through the mails,
    and are to be used in combination, wherever required to cover
    unusual amounts of postage. They are to be cancelled in the
    customary way after being attached to mail matter, are never to
    be sold or received by Postmasters for prepayment of postage.
    Postmasters must distinctly understand, that these stamps are
    not to be used until July 1st, 1879.

    A supply of these will be sent at first to all post offices in
    advance of requisitions from postmasters, and charged to their
    account; but afterwards they must be ordered on blank forms (No.
    3285) to be furnished by the First Assistant Postmaster General.
    With the first supply of stamps, however, blank requisitions for
    future use will be enclosed.

    The stamps will be accounted for to the auditor the same as
    other stamps, and will enter into the monthly reports of stamps,
    etc., received, sold and on hand, required by the regulations,
    to be made by postmasters at Presidential offices, to the Third
    Assistant Postmaster General.

    On the next page of this circular will be found the sections of
    the new postal law and regulations relating to the above
    described stamps, which are published in advance for the
    information and guidance of postmasters. The distinguishing
    numbers of the sections cannot now be given, but the
    instructions are here printed in the same order in which they
    will appear in the forthcoming volume of the new postal
    regulations.

                                           A. D. HAZEN,
                             _Third Assistant Postmaster General_.


ISSUE OF MAY 9TH, 1879.

For use from and after July 1st, 1879.

Large colorless numeral, 10 mm. high, representing the value, ornamented
and shaded, on an oval disk, 17 by 13½ mm., with colored ground
ornamented by colorless geometric lathe work, bordered by a solid
colored band between two heavy colorless lines and an exterior fine
colored line, interrupted by small white shields on the sides bearing
"_U._" on the left, "_S._" on the right, in fancy colored capitals. The
band is inscribed in white capitals, above, "_Postage Due_," below with
the value in full letters, the whole on a tablet with vertically lined
ground, with an irregular outline colorless line bordered by an
extensive fine colored line, and a double rectangular frame, the
interior formed by parallel, diagonal curved lines, and the exterior by
vertical short lines at top and bottom, horizontal ones at sides,
indicating a bevel.

Plate impression, 20 by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      1 cent, reddish brown.
      2 cents,     "
      3   "        "
      5   "        "

The report of the Postmaster General dated December, 1879, states:

    "Under a provision in the act of Congress, approved March 3d
    1879, authorizing a change in the mode of collecting postage
    due, on matter arriving at destination through the mails, the
    Department began issuing on the 9th of May, special stamps,
    called postage due stamps, of the denominations of 1, 2, 3 and 5
    cents, and subsequently of the additional denominations of 10,
    30, and 50 cents. Before the first of July, every office in the
    country was provided with a supply of these stamps, and the new
    system of collecting short paid postage is now fairly in
    operation."


ISSUE OF AUGUST, 1879.

Stamps of the same design, but there being two figures, the numerals are
smaller.

Plate impression, in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      10 cents, reddish brown.
      30   "          "
      50   "          "

The number of these stamps issued from May, 1879, to June 30th, 1885,
was:

       1 cent,   25,328,525
       2 cents,  30,534,425
       3   "     31,146,230
       5   "      5,029,435
      10   "      6,105,175
      30   "        169,078
      50   "         93,490


OBSERVATIONS.

There are two quite distinct shades of the red-brown in which these
stamps are printed, the earlier issues being of a brown that shows
hardly a trace of red, while those printed under the 1885 contract are
of the shade of the current two cent postage stamp.



XXV.

SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMP.


The history of the introduction and usage of these stamps is contained
in the following extracts from two circulars, both dated at Post Office
Department, Office of the Postmaster General, Washington, D. C., August
11th, 1885, and signed by William F. Vilas, Postmaster General. The
first directed to postmasters reads as follows:

    "SIR:--On the first of October, 1885, you are directed to
    establish at your office, a system for special delivery of
    letters, in accordance with sections 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Act
    making appropriation for the postal service for the current
    fiscal year (XLVIII Congress, Session II, Chapter 342, approved
    March 3d, 1885,) which are as follows:

    SECTION 3. That a special stamp of the face valuation of 10
    cents may be provided and issued, whenever deemed advisable or
    expedient, in such form and bearing such device as may meet the
    approval of the Postmaster General, which when attached to a
    letter, in addition to the lawful postage thereon, the delivery
    of which is to be at a free delivery office, or at any city,
    town or village containing a population of 4,000 or over,
    according to the Federal census, shall be regarded as entitling
    such letter to immediate delivery within the carrier limit of
    any free delivery office which may be designated by the
    Postmaster General as a special delivery office, or within one
    mile of the post office at any other office coming within, the
    provisions of this section which may in like manner be
    designated as a special delivery office."

    SECTION 4 provides for immediate delivery between the hours of 7
    A. M. and midnight.

    SECTION 5 provides for the employment of special messengers and,

    SECTION 6 the mode of paying them. The rest of this circular
    gives the details of the service which it is not necessary to
    repeat here."

The second circular after reciting the provisions of Section 3, of the
Act of March 3d, 1885, and that it has been decided to introduce the
system on the first day of October, at all the post offices permitted by
the law; contains a description of the stamp prepared to carry out the
law, which with some additions is as follows:


SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMP.

ISSUE OF OCTOBER 1ST, 1885.

A line engraving on steel, oblong in form; dimensions 13/16 by 1-7/16
inches, color dark blue. Design: on the left in an arched panel, 10½ by
15½ mm., a mail messenger boy on a run, faced to the right on a hatched
back-ground, and surrounded above by the words "_United States_," in
curved line of colorless capitals. On the right an oblong tablet,
ornamented with a wreath of oak on the left, and laurel on the right,
surrounding the words, "_Secures--Immediate--Delivery--At a
special--Delivery--Office_," in six lines of white capitals on a solid
ground. The ground of the tablet above is composed of light vertical
lines with colorless border. Across the top of the tablet, but above it,
is the legend, "_Special--Postal delivery_," and at the bottom the
words, "_Ten Cents_," separated by a shield bearing the numeral "10."
The entire ground of the stamp is composed of fine vertical lines except
the edges, which are so contrived as to appear bevelled.

Plate impression, 21 by 27 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      10 cents, dark blue.

    "They are to be sold by Postmasters to any required amount, and
    to any person who may apply for them, but they can be used only
    for the purpose of securing the immediate delivery of letters."

About a year ago, after the system was inaugurated at carrier offices
there was a further change in the law, and the system was further
extended as is shown by the following extracts from three circulars, all
dated August 10th, 1886, from the office of the Postmaster General,
Washington, D. C., signed by William F. Vilas, Postmaster General. The
first is addressed to Postmasters at carrier offices, the second to all
other postmasters, and the third to the public. The following from the
first circular:

    "By the Act of August 4th, 1886, Congress has authorized the
    extention of the special delivery system to all post offices and
    to all mailable matter. The Act is as follows, namely:

    'That every article of mailable matter upon which the special
    stamp, provided for by Section 3 of the act entitled: an Act,
    etc., shall be duly affixed, shall be entitled to immediate
    delivery according to said act, within the carrier limit of any
    free delivery office, and within one mile of any other post
    office which the Postmaster General shall at any time designate
    as a special delivery office.'"

From the second circular only this is of interest:

    "No change will be made in the general style of the special
    delivery stamp now in use. The following is its description:
    (same as in the original circular). The words 'Secures immediate
    delivery at a special delivery office,' will however, be changed
    to read: 'Secures immediate delivery at any post office.' But as
    stamps with the former words are now in the hands of the
    postmasters and the public, their use will continue until the
    present supply shall be exhausted."

From the third circular only this is to be noticed:

    "The attention of the public is invited to the fact that under a
    recent Act of Congress the special delivery system heretofore in
    effect in cities and towns having a population of 4,000 and
    upwards, has been extended to all post offices in the United
    States, to take effect on and after October 1st, 1886. The
    privileges of this system have also been extended to all classes
    of mail matter."

The remainder of these circulars are devoted to directions to
postmasters at the two classes of offices, and to the public.

These stamps are printed in sheets of 100, and distributed in half
sheets of 50, the center of the sheets being marked as usual by an arrow
head. There are consequently 10 stamps in a row, and 10 rows in the
whole sheet. The makers imprint appears four times on the sheet, above
and below the center row of each half sheet, and the plate number is
also four times repeated on the sheet.

3,699,560 special delivery stamps were issued up to June 30th, 1886.



XXVI.

NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS.

ISSUE OF 1865.


The newspaper stamps issued by the United States Post Office Department
do not correspond in their usage very nearly to the stamps denominated
newspaper stamps in other countries. The series under review had a very
limited and peculiar use. While the dissemination of learning and
information had always been fostered in every way by the Acts of
Congress, and the distribution of newspapers and periodicals had always
been undertaken by the post office at rates that did not pay for the
expense of the service, in the intention of encouraging these
publications, the Department always found a great rival in the express
companies, which, having conformed their rules to the exigencies of
business, were enabled to deliver newspapers and periodicals from the
trains to the agents and dealers always hours, sometimes days before
those sent by the mails reached their destination, as these were sent
to the post office and there assorted, some to be delivered locally and
others to be made up again into the new mail for further transportation,
while those sent by the express companies being transferred at the
depot, often finished their journey before the mails could be made up
and started.

This service assisted the express companies in those violations of the
postal laws which each year the Postmaster General called to the
attention of Congress, and Congress endeavored to reach by new laws. The
government got the expensive service, the express companies the paying
business partly because of their more liberal rates, but particularly
because of their more expeditious service.

The attempt was therefore made to so frame the law that the post office
might successfully compete for the carriage of newspapers. The Act of
the XXXVII Congress, III Session, Chapter 71, Section 38, approved the
3rd of March, 1863, reads:

    "And be it further enacted that the Postmaster General may, from
    time to time, provide by order the rates and terms upon which
    route agents may receive and deliver, at the mail car or
    steamer, packages of newspapers and periodicals, delivered to
    them for that purpose by the publishers or any news agent in
    charge thereof, and not received from or designed for delivery
    at any post office."

Under this act for some time payment was made in money, but the report
of the Postmaster General dated November 15th, 1865, states:

    "New stamps have been adopted of the denominations of 5, 10,
    and 25 cents for prepaying postage on packages of newspapers
    forwarded by publishers or news dealers under the authority of
    law, whereby a revenue will be secured, hitherto lost to the
    Department."

In the report of the Postmaster General for 1878, the date of this issue
is stated to have been April 1st, 1865. In the accounts of the number of
stamps issued in each quarter it appears, however, that the first issue
was in the quarter between June 30th and September 30th, 1865.

The stamps were of very large dimensions, and the figures conspicuous. A
package adorned with the requisite number was mailed on the train and it
could easily be seen that it was duly stamped. The stamps were
ordinarily if not always, cancelled by smearing them with ink, with a
brush, and not with hand stamps, and the packages were thrown out of the
cars to the agents waiting at each station to receive them, and were
often torn open by the agent at the depot and distributed to his
customers there. Thus the delay that sending them to the post office for
distribution would have caused, was avoided.


ISSUE OF APRIL 1ST, 1865.

FIVE CENTS. Large bust of Washington in profile, faced to the right,
indicated by colorless curved lines, on a round medallion of straight
horizontal lines, 28 mm. in diameter, surrounded by a circular band of
curved interlaced colorless lines, all on a colored ground, a smaller
circular disk, 11 mm. in diameter, interrupting this band on each side
displays a large "V," in color on a horizontally lined ground. Above on
a solid ground of color, but ornamented by interlaced colorless lines in
colorless letters, "_U. S._" and "_Postage_," in a second curved line;
below the head on a solid curved label covering a portion of the
circular band in large colorless capitals, "_Five Cents_"; below this
again, the ground is ornamented by several colorless lines upon which
appear in colored capitals, "_Newspapers_," a colored label with
"_and_"; in colorless capitals "_Periodicals_"; below this again, in two
lines of colorless capitals on the colored ground, "_Sec. 18, Act of
Congress approved--March 3d, 1863_." In each upper corner is a large
colorless numeral "5." About all is a frame of 3 colorless lines,
ornamented at the corners. The words "_National Bank Note Company, New
York_," in small colorless capitals appear between the lower colorless
lines. The colored ground extends between the stamps which were
perforated.

Plate impression, 55 by 98 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      5 cents, dark blue.

Note. 20,140 of this value were issued.

TEN CENTS. Similar design, but with the profile of Franklin in an oval,
the side letters "X," the label "_Ten Cents_," the upper numerals "10,"
set at an angle.

Plate impression, 55 by 98 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      10 cents, green.

Note. 215,600 of this value were issued.

TWENTY-FIVE CENTS. Similar design, but with the profile of Lincoln,
faced to the left, in a rectangle with corners cut off, "25" in figures
instead of numerals at the side, on the label "_Twenty Five Cents_," the
upper numerals "25" set at an angle.

Plate impression, 55 by 98 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      25 cents, vermilion.

Note. 31,488 of this value were issued.

In 1868-9 there were issued 35,420 more of the five cent value, but
these were improved by having the broad colored border removed till only
a fine colored line remained outside the colorless frame.

Plate impression, 51½ by 95 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      5 cents, dark blue, white border.

The Postmaster General's Report for 1869 states that the use of these
stamps ceased about the 1st of February, 1869. They were used
principally at Chicago, Ill., and Milwaukee, Wis. Reprints were made of
all of them except the 5 cents with white border, with the other early
issues in 1874.

There was a very wide margin of some 65 mm. at the top and bottom of the
sheet, the manufacturers imprint appearing at the top and bottom in
colored letters on a small white label let into the colored ground. It
is not known how many stamps formed a sheet.


NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS.

ISSUE OF 1874.

Notwithstanding the very liberal provisions of all the laws regarding
postage on printed matter, and particularly those of this Act of March
3rd, 1863, we find the Postmaster General in his report of November
15th, 1869, complaining that the Department was largely defrauded of its
revenues by abuses rendered possible by the provisions of that Act, and
suggesting that:

    "For this mischief there is but one adequate remedy, and that is
    to require prepayment on all printed matter. A due regard to the
    convenience of the publishers of newspapers would require that
    postage on newspapers should be charged according to the weight
    of packages, and that such packages should when suspected, be
    liable to be opened and searched, and penalties provided if they
    were found to contain improper matter."

Nothing seems to have resulted from his recommendations, however. The
inconveniences of the system led to calling the attention of Congress to
the matter again in the Report of the Postmaster General, in 1873. He
says:

    "In my report for 1869, I had the honor to suggest a plan for
    the prepayment of postage on newspapers and other matter of the
    second class by weight of packages rather than by the present
    system, which requires the manipulation of each particular
    paper, and allows the payment of postage at either the mailing
    office, or the office of delivery. A careful revision of the
    subject confirms me in the opinion, that the postage on all
    such matter should be collected in advance at the mailing
    office. * * * No stamps are used for the payment of such
    postage; and the Department is compelled to accept in full
    satisfaction whatever sums of money postmasters choose to charge
    against themselves. So execrably bad is this system, that postal
    officers of high standing have estimated that not more than
    one-third of the postage properly chargeable on newspapers is
    accounted for and paid over. Furthermore, disputes are
    continually arising, as to whether the sheets they transmit,
    come within the meaning of the term newspapers. * * * I
    respectfully submit the following plan for the prepayment of
    postage on newspapers of the second class, and urge its
    adoption. Let all publishers, their business managers or agents,
    be required at the beginning of every quarter, to state under
    oath the number of papers of a certain name, they will send by
    mail during the quarter, and pay the postage thereon in advance.
    On the other hand, postmasters to make return of all newspapers,
    with particulars, mailed to regular subscribers. No stamps would
    be required. Every paper answering to the description would be
    forwarded. No manipulation of each paper would be required, and
    the saving to publishers in time and labor, would, it is
    thought, be greater than the amount paid for postage, while the
    saving to the Department, would justify a reduction of 40 per
    cent in the rates, on this class of matter. Periodicals to come
    under the same law."

The result of the deliberations upon this suggestion, was the passage by
Congress of the following law:

    XLIII Congress, Statute 1, Chapter 456, approved June 23rd,
    1874, "Section 5. That on and after the first day of January,
    1875, all newspapers and periodical publications mailed from a
    known office of publication or news agency and addressed to
    regular subscribers or news agents shall be charged the
    following rates:

    On newspapers and periodical publications issued weekly and more
    frequently than once a week, two cents for each pound or
    fraction thereof, and on those issued less frequently than once
    a week three cents for each pound or fraction thereof, provided
    that nothing in this Act shall be held to change or amend
    Section 99 of the Act entitled: An Act to revise, consolidate
    and amend the statutes relating to the Post Office Department,
    approved June 8th, 1872.

    SEC. 6. That on and after the first day of January, 1875, upon
    the receipt of such newspapers and periodical publications at
    the office of mailing, they shall be weighed in bulk, and
    postage paid thereon by a special adhesive stamp; to be devised
    and furnished by the Postmaster General, which shall be affixed
    to such matter or to the sack containing the same; or upon a
    memorandum of such mailing, or otherwise as the Postmaster
    General may from time to time provide by regulation," etc., etc.

The report of the Postmaster General also states Nov. 14th 1874, that
being confined to these three modes of collecting this postage;

    "It was deemed best to recommend the adoption of the system
    of prepayment by postage stamps 'affixed to a memorandum of
    mailing' or in other words, to a stub in a book retained by
    the postmaster at the mailing office; a receipt, showing the
    weight of matter and the amount paid, being given by the
    postmaster to the person mailing the same; the stamps affixed
    to the stub, to be cancelled by a cutting punch, thus preventing
    their reuse. * * * The Postmaster General having approved the
    recommendations, a series of stamps have been devised of twenty
    four denominations, by means of which any sum which is a multiple
    of either the two or three cent rate, from two cents to
    seventy-two dollars, can be made by the use of not more than
    five stamps."

In the report dated November 15th, 1875, we find the following
observations and descriptions of this issue which will further explain
the mode of using them, which seems to be little understood, except by
publishers and post office officials.

    "On the first day of January 1875, the new law, requiring
    prepayment of postage by stamps, on all newspapers and
    periodicals sent from a known office of publication, to regular
    subscribers through the mails, went into operation. The system
    inaugurated to carry the law into effect, was approved in
    October, 1874 and has been found by experience to be admirably
    adapted to the purposes for which it was devised. No complaints
    of abuses on the part of publishers or postmasters, have been
    received at this office during the nine months, that have
    elapsed since the law went into effect. Indeed, it has worked so
    well in all its details, and has given such general
    satisfaction, that the idea of returning to the old system, or
    materially modifying the new one, ought not to be entertained.

    Previous to the time when this law began to operate, no stamps
    were required for the payment of postage on newspapers sent to
    regular subscribers, as the postage was collected in money
    quarterly, at the office of delivery. Last year there were
    35,000 post offices at which newspaper postage was collected,
    while under the present true system of the absolute prepayment
    of all postage, the whole amount is collected at about 3,400
    offices, the latter representing the number of places in the
    United States at which newspapers and periodicals are mailed.

    The papers for subscribers living outside of the county in
    which they are published, are made up in bulk at the publication
    office, carried to the post office and there weighed. The
    postage is computed on the whole issue, the proper amount in
    stamps handed to the postmaster, who gives the publisher a
    receipt as evidence of payment, and on the stubs of the receipt
    book he affixes and cancels the stamps which correspond in
    value, with the sum mentioned in the receipt. Thus one
    transaction is all that is required in paying the postage upon a
    single issue of any regular publication. The stubs with their
    cancelled stamps, are kept in the post office as vouchers for
    the postage paid. In no case are the stamps affixed to the
    papers or packages that pass through the mails.

    These stamps are twenty-four in number and were prepared by the
    Continental Bank Note Company, of New York, from designs
    selected in October, 1874." Elsewhere it is stated that the
    distribution to postmasters began December 11th, 1874. "The
    denominations are as follows, viz: 2 cents, 3 cents, 4 cents, 6
    cents, 8 cents, 9 cents, 10 cents, 12 cents, 24 cents, 36 cents,
    48 cents, 60 cents, 72 cents, 84 cents, 96 cents, $1.92 cents,
    $3, $6, $9, $12, $24, $36, $48 and $60. These denominations were
    found to be necessary, in order that payment might be made on
    any given quantity from one pound to one ton, at both the two
    and three cent rate, with the use of not to exceed five stamps
    in any transaction.

    No description of these stamps having been given in any official
    form. I may be pardoned for presenting herewith a detailed
    description of them, in order that it may be printed, and be
    permanently preserved in the records of the department."

TWO CENTS TO TEN CENTS, inclusive, emblematical figure of America,
looking to the right and modeled after Crawford's statue surmounting the
dome of the capitol. The left hand rests on a shield, and holds a
wreath; the right rests on a sword. The head is adorned with a head
dress consisting of a coronet of stars, surmounted by an eagle's head
and plumes. The background is horizontally lined and in parts diagonally
also. The vignette stands in an arched frame, composed of vertical
lines; and on either side of this frame, and at the top are slabs
containing the inscriptions (the upper in colored letters on
horizontally lined ground, the others in colorless block capitals, the
sides upon vertically lined ground), "_Newspapers_" and "_Periodicals_"
(at the sides), "_U. S. Postage_" (at top). At the bottom are shaded
outline block letters, representing the value, which is also indicated
by large outlined figures shaded on the face, in the upper corners, on
foliated scrolls. The lower corners are ornamented with shields. The
color of these stamps is black.

TWELVE CENTS TO NINETY-SIX CENTS, inclusive. Vignette of Astraea or
Justice, in niche, bordered by a colorless line curved at the top,
holding in her right hand the balance, and resting with her left on a
shield bearing the United States coat of arms. The figure is full robed,
mailed and girdled as to the upper part and helmeted. Surmounting the
helmet is an eagle with out-stretched wings on a background horizontally
and diagonally lined. Figures representing values in shaded numerals on
shields, in the upper corners; values also in sunken letters below, on
solid labels bordered by a colorless and colored line, richly
ornamented. Inscriptions, "_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," on side and
at top in shaded outlined capitals on vertically lined ground. Color,
pink.

ONE DOLLAR AND NINETY-TWO CENTS. Vignette of Ceres, Goddess of
Agriculture, in curved niche, bordered by a colorless line and a
vertically lined frame. She holds in her left hand an ear of corn, her
right holding a wreath, rests against the hip. The figure faced to the
front and is clad in full flowing robes. "_U. S. Postage_" at the top,
other inscriptions, "_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," in italic capitals
shaded on the face and outside, on obelisks at either side, resting on
the lower slab, which is in solid color, containing value, "_One dollar
and ninety-two cents_," in two lines of white capitals. Value also in
figures, "$1-92/100" in upper corners. Color, deep brown.

THREE DOLLARS. Goddess of Victory in curved niche, full-robed, girdled
with sword to the left, and mantle thrown over shoulders. The right hand
is stretched forward, holding a wreath; the left rests on a shield.
Outline figures of value, "$3" on octagons in upper corners, value below
in letters on either side of a large outline figure "3" on a shield.
Inscriptions, "_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," in colorless capitals, in
solid labels on either side, and "_U. S. Postage_" on lined ground
above. The niche and labels are all edged with colorless lines. The
background is vertically lined. Color, vermilion.

SIX DOLLARS. Clio, the Muse of History in curved niche, bordered by
colorless line, on horizontally lined ground, full robed the toga thrown
over the left shoulder. In her right hand she holds a stylus, in the
left a tablet. Outline colorless figures of value, "$6" in upper
corners, surrounded by curved ornaments. Inscriptions, "_Newspapers_,"
"_Periodicals_," in white shaded letters on the sides, and above "_U. S.
Postage_" in dark letters, value, "_Six Dollars_" in outline colorless
letters in label, on vertically lined ground. Color, light blue.

NINE DOLLARS. Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom, full robed, in curved
niche, bordered by a colorless line with horizontally and diagonally
lined ground. The left hand is placed across her breast, holding a
portion of her toga; the right is grasping a spear. Figures of value
"$9" in upper corners, in foliated ornaments. Inscriptions,
"_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," on sides in outline colorless and
shaded italics, and above in small colored letters, on the lined ground,
"_U. S. Postage_." Value, "_Nine Dollars_," also in letters shaded on
the face, below on scroll. Beneath is a large "9" in curved foliated
ornaments. Color, orange.

TWELVE DOLLARS. Vesta, Goddess of the Fireside, full robed in curved
niche, with horizontally lined ground, and bordered by a colorless line.
The left hand lifts her drapery; the right holds a burning lamp. Figures
of value, "$12" in upper corners on tablets. Value, "_Twelve Dollars_"
also in colorless letters on beaded frame beneath. Inscriptions,
"_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," on solid (sic), italic letters on
sides, and "_U. S. Postage_" in small white letters above. Frame of
vertical lines. Color, rich green.

TWENTY-FOUR DOLLARS. Goddess of Peace in curved niche, bordered by a
colorless line, and on horizontally lined ground, a half naked figure
leaning against a broken column. She holds in her right hand an olive
branch, while her left grasps three arrows. The value, "_Twenty-four
Dollars_" is in colorless letters beneath, on a solid tablet; also in
figures "$24" in ornamented curves in upper corners. Inscriptions, "_U.
S. Postage_" in white shaded letters above, and "_Newspapers_,"
"_Periodicals_" on the sides between which latter and each upper corner
is a six-pointed star. The back ground is vertically lined. The
ornaments bordered by a colorless line. Color, purplish shade.

THIRTY-SIX DOLLARS. Figure representing Commerce, in full garments, in
curved niche, bordered by a colorless line with hatched background. She
holds in her left hand the _caduceus_, the winged rod of Mercury, in her
right a miniature ship. Figures of value, "$36" in the upper corners and
"_Thirty-six Dollars_" in ornamented capitals below, in two lines.
Inscriptions, "_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," also in ornamented
capitals on sides and "_U. S. Postage_" in colorless capitals above. The
frame is vertically lined. Color, dull red.

FORTY-EIGHT DOLLARS. Hebe, the Goddess of Youth, partly draped in curved
niche with colorless border and horizontally lined ground. The right
hand holds a cup, which she is offering to the eagle around whose neck
is thrown her left arm. Shaded figures of value, "$48" on shields in the
upper corners, the word "_Postage_" between in colorless capitals on
solid label. The value, "_Forty-eight Dollars_" also in colorless
letters below on solid ground, in curved ornaments. The letters "_U._"
and "_S._" in colorless circles between the corners and side
inscriptions, "_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," the latter being in
colorless letters on solid curved labels. Frame vertically lined. Color,
light brown.

SIXTY DOLLARS. Vignette of an Indian Maiden, standing in a rectangular
frame. She is robed from her waist downward. Her right arm is extended,
while her left hangs by her side. The background is a landscape. Trees
and vines to the left, and wigwams to the right in the distance,
bordered by a colorless line between fine colored lines. Figures of
value, "$60" on shields in the upper corners. Value, "_Sixty Dollars_"
also in white letters on solid tablets below. Inscriptions,
"_Newspapers_," "_Periodicals_," in white on solid labels on the sides.
"_U. S._" in colorless capitals on the ground, and "_Postage_" on a band
in colored letters above. Ground vertically lined. Color, rich purple.

       #       #       #       #       #

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
         Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General,
       Division of Postage Stamps, Stamped Env. & Post Cards.

                               _Washington D. C., April 25, 1879._

    The attention of Postmasters is hereby called to the fact, that
    on and after the first of May proximo, under the act of March
    3d, 1879, matter of the second class, commonly known as
    newspaper and periodical matter, will be entitled to pass
    through the mail, at a uniform rate of 2 cents per pound. Care
    will be taken not to collect payment on such matter, at more
    than that rate. The same general regulations concerning the
    collection of newspaper postage, as have been heretofore
    promulgated will remain in force, and the same books and blanks
    together with the newspaper and periodical stamps, that are now
    outstanding will continue to be used. In future, however, the
    issue of the three and nine cents denominations of newspaper and
    periodical stamps, will be discontinued. * * * *

                                           A. D. HAZEN,
                               Third Assistant Postmaster General.

Act of the XLV Congress, Session III, Chapter 180, approved March 3rd,
1879, Sections 10 and 14 merely change the classification to a uniform
one at the rate of two cents per pound.

The Act of the XLVIII Congress, Session II, Chapter 342, approved
March 3rd, 1885, provides as stated in Order No. 109 of the Postmaster
General, dated April 24th, 1885, "That all publications of the second
class, * * * shall on and after July 1st, 1885, be entitled to
transmission through the mails at one cent a pound or fraction
thereof. * * * To provide for wants that may arise from this change in
the rate of second class postage, the Department has decided to issue
a newspaper and periodical stamp of the denomination of one cent, the
design and color of which will be the same as those of the present
series of newspaper and periodical stamps of the denomination of from
2 to 10 cents. Stamps of this new denomination will be ready for issue
by the 1st of June, after which all postmasters needing them will make
requisition for suitable supplies."


NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS.

SERIES OF 1875-1885.

Plate impression, 24 by 35½ mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

      June 1st, 1885,  1 cent, black.
      Jan. 1st, 1875,  3 cents,  "    to April 25th, 1879.
                       9   "     "        "     "     "
                       2   "     "
                       4   "     "
                       6   "     "
                       8   "     "
                      10   "     "
                      12   "   carmine,
                      24   "      "
                      36   "      "
                      48   "      "
                      60   "      "
                      72   "      "
                      84   "      "
                      96   "      "
            1 dollar  92   "   deep brown
            3 dollars          vermilion
            6   "              light blue
            9   "              orange
           12 dollars          rich green
           24   "              purplish slate
           36   "              dull red
           48   "              light brown
           60   "              rich purple

These stamps were not reprinted in 1874, but samples ungummed and
surcharged "specimen" were sold to collectors.


OBSERVATIONS.

A slight change in the regulations now prohibits postmasters from
selling these stamps even to publishers, but the money is received and
the requisite amount in stamps placed upon the stubs and cancelled. The
amount sold and the amount used in an office should now correspond. The
stubs are sent periodically to Washington with the accounts, compared
and destroyed. Used specimens and even unused specimens are likely to
grow rare in collections.



XXVII.

OFFICIAL STAMPS.


A thorough understanding of the use of these stamps will best be
obtained by a brief review of the system it for a time supplanted, which
was briefly designated as the "Franking Privilege." As early as the 1st
Session of the Second Congress the necessity and propriety of providing
for the carriage of official correspondence and the correspondence of
Government officers and Members of Congress upon public business was
recognized, and Chapter 7, Section 19, approved February 1st, 1792, of
the Acts of that Sessions provided:

    "That the following letters and packets and no others shall be
    received and conveyed by post, free of postage under such
    restrictions as are hereinafter provided, that is to say: all
    letters and packages to or from the President or Vice-President
    of the United States, and all letters and packages not exceeding
    2 ounces in weight, to or from any member of the Senate or House
    of Representatives, the Secretary of the Senate, or Clerk of the
    House of Representatives, during their actual attendance in any
    session of Congress, and twenty days after such session, all
    letters to and from the Secretary of the Treasury and his
    assistant; Comptroller, Register and Auditor of the Treasury,
    Treasurer, Secretary of State, Secretary of War, the Committee
    for settling accounts between the United States and individual
    States, the Postmaster General and his assistant. Provided that
    no person shall frank or enclose any letter or packet other than
    his own, but any public letter or packet from the department of
    the Treasury may be franked by the Secretary of the Treasury, or
    the assistant Secretary, or by the Comptroller, Register,
    Auditor or Treasurer, and that each person before named shall
    deliver to the post office, every letter or packet enclosed to
    him, which may be directed to any other person, noting the place
    from whence it comes by post, and the usual postage shall be
    charged thereon."

By various acts of Congress this privilege was gradually extended to
various persons in the employ of the Government until, in 1869, the
Postmaster General stated in his report that fully 31,933 persons were
authorized by the laws to enjoy this privilege.

As early as 1836, Congress appropriated the sum of $700,000 to pay the
post office department for this carriage of official correspondence. The
abuses became enormous. Signatures with hand stamps were even
recognized. All sorts of favors were extended by persons having the
privilege, to their friends. In 1869 the annual expense to the
department of this free matter was estimated at $5,000,000. To remedy
this abuse, which had the effect of preventing a proper reduction of
postal rates to the general public, as the expenses of the Department,
including the expense of carrying official matter so-called, greatly
exceeded its annual revenue, there was but one remedy--the passage of
an act abolishing the franking privilege and providing by appropriation
for carrying the necessary government dispatches. The Act of the XLII
Congress, Session III, Chapter 82, approved the 27th of January, 1873,
accordingly provided:

    "That the franking privilege be hereby abolished from and after
    the first day of July, Anno Domini 1873, and that henceforth all
    official correspondence of whatever nature, and other mailable
    matter sent from or addressed to any officer of the government
    or person now authorized to frank such matter, shall be
    chargeable with the same rates of postage as may be lawfully
    imposed upon like matter sent by, or addressed to other persons.
    Provided that no compensation or allowance shall be now or
    hereafter made to Senators or Members and Delegates of the House
    of Representatives on account of postage."

The Act of the XLII Congress, Session III, Chapter 228, approved March
3, 1873, after appropriating so much as should be necessary of a certain
sum for the purchase of postage stamps for each department, continues:

    "That the Postmaster General shall cause to be prepared a
    special stamp or stamped envelope to be used only for official
    mail matter for each of the executive departments, and said
    stamp and stamped envelope shall be supplied by proper officer
    of said departments to all persons under its direction requiring
    the same for official use, and all appropriations for postage
    heretofore made shall no longer be available for said purpose,
    and all said stamps and stamped envelopes shall be sold or
    furnished to said several departments or clerks only at the
    price for which stamps and stamped envelopes of like value are
    sold at the several post offices."

In the report of the Postmaster General for the year ending June 30,
1873, it is stated that:

    "The several Acts for the repeal of the franking privilege
    became operative on the first of July last. The results of the
    first quarter of the current year are highly satisfactory and
    more fully verified the predictions of the friends of the
    repeal. * * * Section 4 of the Act of March 3rd, 1873, making it
    the duty of the Postmaster General to provide official stamps
    and stamped envelopes for the several Executive Departments, has
    been strictly complied with. The stamps and envelopes furnished
    have been executed in the highest style of art and will compare
    favorably with those of any other country. From July 1st to
    September 30th of the current year the following varieties,
    numbers and values were issued:

       To whom issued.     D'minat'n.     Number.     Value.
      The Executive Dep't        5          5,150      200.00
      The State Dep't           14         60,495   20,749.70
      The Treasury Dep't        11      7,842,500  407,000.00
      The War Dep't             11        446,500   17,689.00
      The Navy Dep't            11        247,230   12,239.00
      The Post Office Dep't     10     10,054,660  354,535.00
      The Interior Dep't        10      1,058,475   59,171.00
      The Dep't of Justice      10         65,400    3,900.00
      The Dep't of Agriculture,  9        275,000   20,730.00
                                --     ----------  ----------
             Making a total of  91     20,055,410  896,213.70

                  *       *       *       *       *

    The stamps for the Departments other than the Post Office do not
    differ materially from those for sale to the public except that
    each Department has its own distinctive color and legend. The
    colors are: For the Executive, carmine; State Department, green;
    Treasury, velvet-brown; War, cochineal red; Navy, blue; Post
    Office, black; Interior, vermilion; Department of Justice,
    purple; and Department of Agriculture, straw color.

    In the stamps for the Post Office Department the medallion head
    gives place to a numeral representing the value with the words
    "Post Office Department" above and the denomination expressed in
    words below. All the official stamps correspond in denomination
    with those issued for the public, except in the case of the
    State Department, for which four of higher value were made for
    dispatch bags. These four are of the denominations of $2, $5,
    $10, and $20, respectively, are of large size and printed in two
    colors, and bear a profile bust of the late Secretary Seward."

Elsewhere the Postmaster General states that the stamps were ready the
24th of May, for use the 1st of July, 1873. The following circular was
accordingly issued to postmasters:

    OFFICIAL POSTAGE STAMPS AND STAMPED ENVELOPES.

    [Circular to postmasters.]

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
         Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General,
       Division of Postage Stamps, Stamped Env. & Post Cards.

                              _Washington, D. C., May 15th, 1873._

    "The Franking Privilege having been abolished, to take effect on
    the first day of July, 1873, the Postmaster General is required
    by law to provide postage stamps or stamped envelopes of special
    design for each of the several Executive Departments of the
    Government for the prepayment of postage on official matter
    passing through the mails.

    DESCRIPTION.

    In place of the heads on the regular stamps, the official stamps
    adopted for the Post Office Department have conspicuous figures
    (numerals) to represent the denomination, with the word
    "_Official_" above, and the word "_Stamp_" below.

    These printed in black, and resting on an oval shaped
    background, render the stamps especially distinctive, and leave
    no good excuse for confounding them with the other stamps. To
    further distinguish them, the name of the Department is printed
    across the top in lieu of the words "U. S. Postage." There is
    also a slight difference in the ornamentation of the border.

    In design, the official stamps for the other Departments do not
    differ materially from those issued for sale to the public, the
    profile busts are retained but each stamp has at the top the
    name of the particular Department for which it is provided.
    Other changes appearing in the border need not be specified.

    The stamps for each Department have their own distinctive color,
    as follows: For the Executive, carmine; State Department, green;
    Treasury Department, velvet-brown; War Department, cochineal
    red; Navy Department, blue; Interior Department, vermilion;
    Department of Justice, purple; Department of Agriculture, straw;
    and for the Post Office Department, black.

    The official stamps will correspond in denomination with the
    regular stamps except that for the State Department there will
    be four additional denominations, viz: two, five, ten and twenty
    dollars respectively. These additional stamps are designed from
    a profile bust of the late Hon. William H. Seward, and are of
    double size and printed in two colors.

    OFFICIAL STAMPS FOR POSTMASTERS.

    Postmasters at all offices will be furnished with the official
    stamps of this Department in suitable denominations and amounts
    as far as they can be supplied. The Department will exercise its
    own discretion in filling requisitions, and will send only in
    such denominations and amounts, as the needs of an office may
    seem to require. The less important offices, say those at which
    the money order system has not been established, will need only
    three cent stamps, but comparatively few offices will require
    stamps above the denomination of six cents. The higher
    denominations will be supplied to a few of the larger offices
    only. Postmasters will combine stamps of the most convenient
    denominations at hand to meet emergencies for which they may
    have no single stamp exactly filling the rate required."
              *     *     *     *     *     *     *

                                          EDWARD W. BARBER,
                               Third Assistant Postmaster General.


ISSUE OF JULY 1st, 1873.

The several denominations for all the departments have certain
characteristics that are common to all stamps of that value, which may
as well be stated once for all, to avoid repetition.

With the exception of those of the post office department, the head is
the same as that on the ordinary stamp of the same value then current.

The value is expressed in numerals and words beneath the oval in the
same numerals, letters and scrolls as on the ordinary stamps of the same
value, except that in those for the Post Office Department the numerals
in the 1, 12 and 30 cents and the letters in all are a trifle smaller.

The ONE CENT has the head of Franklin in an oval as described, the large
"1" dividing "_One Cent_" on a band bordered by heavy white lines as
described, but the ornament across the ends is omitted except in that
for the Executive and Agriculture, and is lessened in that for the
Interior.

The TWO CENTS has the head of Jackson as described, the large numeral
"2" dividing "_Two Cents_" upon a scroll with white border as described,
the ends of the scroll are, however, differently arranged to accommodate
parts of the design.

The THREE CENTS has the head of Washington as described, the large "3"
dividing the words "_Three Cents_" upon a scroll as described.

The SIX CENTS has the head of Lincoln, the large "6" dividing the words
"_Six Cents_" upon a scroll with colorless borders as described.

The SEVEN CENTS has the head of Stanton, the large "7" dividing the
words "_Seven Cents_" upon a label following the oval and bordered by
the white line between two colored lines and ending in a curve and ball
as described.

The TEN CENTS has the head of Jefferson, the large "10" dividing the
words "_Ten Cents_" upon a colorless bordered scroll as described.

The TWELVE CENTS has the head of Clay, the large numerals "2" dividing
the words "_Twelve Cents_" in block letters following the oval bounded
by the white line between two colored lines and curved back as
described.

The FIFTEEN CENTS has the head of Webster, the large numerals "15"
dividing the words "_Fifteen Cents_" upon a label bordered as described.

The TWENTY-FOUR CENTS has the head of Scott, no numerals below, the
words "_Twenty-four_" and "_Cents_" upon two labels and in block letters
as described. In that for the Department of Agriculture the upper label
is changed into a scroll with large ends curved backwards, then forwards
and then downwards.

The THIRTY CENTS has the head of Hamilton, the large numerals "30" on
the shield dividing the words "_Thirty Cents_" in colored letters on the
scroll as described.

The NINETY CENTS has the head of Perry, the large numerals "90" dividing
the words "_Ninety Cents_" in block letters on a label bordered as
described, but the ends have a small curve inward in those for the Post
Office Department, are square in those for the Interior and Navy
Departments, are curved inwards in that for the War Department, are
terminated by curves forming a point in that for the Department of
Justice, and are square with a projecting small half circle in those for
the Treasury and State Departments.


EXECUTIVE.

The oval containing the bust, the scroll or label and numeral are all
placed upon a back-ground of vertical parallel lines so disposed as to
produce the stripes of the shield or flag. Above and following the oval
a solid colored label inscribed in colorless capitals, "_Executive_,"
and bounded by a white and exterior colored line terminating in a
foliated ornament against the oval; foliated ornaments in the corners
forming small white circles enclosing "_U._" and "_S._" on rectangularly
hatched disks.

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm. in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

       1 cent  carmine,  6,800 issued.
       2 cents    "      9,100    "
       3   "      "     23,500    "
       6   "      "      5,500    "
      10   "      "      5,150    "


DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

The oval containing the bust, the scroll or label and numeral are all
placed upon a ground of parallel vertical lines. At the top these are
crossed by horizontal lines at about 1 mm. from the edge over a space of
equal width, so as to form a darker band and thus form a double frame
half way down where the darker frame terminates on each side in a round
ball, except in the 12 cents, which has the dark frame all the way
round. In the values with scrolls "_U._" on the left, "_S._" on the
right above the ends of the scrolls in large white letters shaded
outside. In the values with labels the same letters in the corners below
the ends of the labels, also colorless, except in the 15 cents, in which
they are crossed by parallel horizontal lines. Above the ovals "_Dep't
of State_," in similar capitals, large at the sides and gradually
decreasing towards the center. Above these a fine curved colorless line
between colored lines, the lower heavily shaded; beneath the letters a
white ornament terminating on each side in a fleur de lis, and shaded by
colored lines.

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

       1  cent green,   31,800 issued.
       2  cents green,  41,800    "
       3       "       109,200    "
       6       "        82,100    "
       7       "        37,800    "
      10       "        64,900    "
      12       "        20,800    "
      15       "        22,800    "
      24       "        13,800    "
      30       "        20,100    "
      90       "         6,043    "

To these are added the four higher values of larger size. These have a
large profile head of Wm. H. Seward, facing to the left, on a hatched
ground forming an oval disk, with a ground of fine parallel lines all
printed in black. The lines are arranged to form a panelled triangle in
the upper corners, the lines being horizontal and light in the borders
and thickened to form the darker panels which contain a foliated
ornament. On a broad colorless, curved label, with rounded ends,
"_Department of_" in outline Roman capitals shaded at top by curved
parallel colored lines, a series of curved parallel colored lines
filling the lower part of the label. Beneath this, in outlined pearled
capitals, following the label and shaded outside, "_State_." At the
sides bunches of rods tied above and below with crossed bands with "_U.
S. A._" in colorless letters below each. Across the bottom a hatched
label with colorless borders inscribed in colorless letters shaded
outside with the value.

Plate impression 25 by 39 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      Two dollars, black and green, 3,508 issued.
      Five    "      "         "      363    "
      Ten     "      "         "      363    "
      Twenty  "      "         "      363    "


TREASURY DEPARTMENT.

The oval containing the portraits, the scrolls or labels and large
numerals are placed on a background of vertical parallel lines arranged
to form a drapery with fringes, cords and tassels, and a panel similar
to the State Department stamps. At the top a label indicated by a
colorless line curved up at the ends and terminating above in foliated
ornaments, is inscribed "_Treasury_" in the same letters as the other
official stamps with "_U. S._" beneath the left end and "_Dept._"
beneath the right end.

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

       1 cent  velvet-brown, 2,900,000 issued.
       2 cents       "       2,484,500    "
       3   "         "      11,250,000    "
       6   "         "       4,105,000    "
       7   "         "         220,000    "
      10   "         "       1,291,500    "
      12   "         "         783,000    "
      15   "         "         663,000    "
      24   "         "         100,000    "
      30   "         "         456,500    "
      90   "         "         312,500    "

The shades of these stamps vary somewhat in depth, some specimens having
a spotted appearance as if the ink did not work well.


WAR DEPARTMENT.

The oval containing the bust, the scrolls or labels and numerals are
placed on a back ground of parallel vertical lines above and below,
horizontal on the sides. In the upper corners "_U._" on the left, "_S._"
on the right. A curved solid label bordered by a cord, cuts off the
upper corners and is inscribed on the left "_War_" on right "_Dept._" in
the usual capitals. The lines of the sides are arranged to show the
stripes of the flag. A shield on each side above the scrolls or beneath
the labels.

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

       1 cent  cochineal red, 3,301,230 issued.
       2 cents        "       1,867,160    "
       3   "          "       5,393,137    "
       6   "          "       3,584,813    "
       7   "          "          55,728    "
      10   "          "         342,152    "
      12   "          "         792,070    "
      15   "          "         284,960    "
      24   "          "         201,025    "
      30   "          "         336,641    "
      90   "          "          48,172    "

The shades of these stamps vary somewhat in intensity, some being much
lighter and some darker than ordinary.


NAVY DEPARTMENT.

The ovals containing the busts, the labels or scrolls and large numerals
are placed on a ground of vertical parallel lines. A large, six-pointed
star in each upper corner, and a smaller one on each side. A cable runs
round the sides and top. The words "_Navy_" on the left and "_Dept._" on
the right in the usual capitals across the upper corners and a losenge
with "_U._" on the left and "_S._" on the right shaded in the lower
corners and placed diagonally above the scrolls or below the labels.

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

       1 cent, ultramarine-blue, 106,800 issued.
       2 cents          "        201,300    "
       3   "            "        580,700    "
       6   "            "        234,800    "
       7   "            "         16,000    "
      10   "            "         55,210    "
      12   "            "         61,300    "
      15   "            "         37,500    "
      24   "            "         26,000    "
      30   "            "         29,600    "
      90   "            "         11,270    "


POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

The oval as before stated contains a large numeral of value instead of
the head with the word "_Official_" above and "_Stamp_" below, on a
plain colorless ground. Same labels or scrolls and numerals rather
smaller below as in the stamps of other departments, with small circular
disks bearing "_U._" and "_S._" on the left and right above the scrolls
or under the labels. In the 1, 6, 10, 30 and 90 cents these small disks
are shaded by vertical lines, in the other values by diagonal lines, and
the letters are filled with horizontal lines. Around the top of the oval
a solid colored label bordered by colorless lines and inscribed "_Post
Office Department_." There is a small circle with four horizontal lines,
and shaded outside in each upper corner, all on a ground of parallel
vertical lines.

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

       1 cent  black, 1,114,250 issued.
       2 cents   "      894,600    "
       3   "     "    6,479,700    "
       6   "     "    3,306,800    "
      10   "     "      182,450    "
      12   "     "      298,780    "
      15   "     "      109,285    "
      24   "     "       87,625    "
      30   "     "      133,255    "
      90   "     "       65,200    "

Two complete series of these stamps may be found, the one on white
paper, the other having the surface tinted with the ink of the stamp,
also intermediate or partly tinted specimens, showing that the tinting
probably results from imperfect wiping of the plates.


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.

The ovals containing the heads, the scrolls, labels and large numerals
are placed on a ground of vertically ruled lines, crossed in parts to
form heavy shadows and showing stripes at the sides, small shields above
the ends of the scrolls and below the ends of the labels, bearing the
"_U._" and "_S._" lined and shaded. A large, six-pointed star in the
upper corners. A broad, colorless band doubly curved and following in
part the outline of the oval above, inscribed in lined and shaded Roman
capitals, "_Dept. of the Interior_."

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

       1 cent  vermilion,  394,800 issued.
       2 cents    "      1,414,400    "
       3   "      "      5,255,300    "
       6   "      "      1,722,500    "
      10   "      "        284,550    "
      12   "      "        359,850    "
      15   "      "        257,100    "
      24   "      "        134,125    "
      30   "      "        138,300    "
      90   "      "         64,377    "


DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.

The ovals containing the heads, bands, scrolls and large numerals are
placed on a ground of vertically ruled lines. Six pointed stars with the
letters "_U._" and "_S._" above the ends of the scrolls or under the
ends of the labels. Diagonally in small capitals in the upper left
corner, "_Dept._" in the right "_of_" and in larger capitals following
the line of the oval, "_Justice_" all in outline Roman capitals heavily
shaded, on the ground without bands. The oval, stars, scrolls, etc., are
also heavily shaded.

Plate impression 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated 12.

      1 cent, purple,     25,000 issued.
      2 cents,  "         26,900  "
      3  "      "        182,000  "
      6  "      "         84,000  "
      10 "      "         20,500  "
      12 "      "         26,800  "
      15 "      "         12,800  "
      24 "      "         12,800  "
      30 "      "          8,600  "
      90 "      "          3,200  "

The color varies very slightly in intensity.


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

The ovals containing the heads, bands scrolls and large numerals are
placed upon a ground of vertically ruled lines, showing stripes at the
sides. A solid label curved with the oval above bounded by a colorless
line and rounded at the ends, is inscribed "_Agriculture_" in outlined
capitals. In small similar capitals in the upper left corner, "_Dept.
of_" in two lines. In the upper right corner in monogram, "_U. S._"

Plate impression, 19½ by 25 mm., in color, on white paper, perforated
12.

       1 cent,  straw,   95,415 issued.
       2 cents    "     230,150   "
       3   "      "     435,050   "
       6 cents, straw,  120,000 issued.
      10   "      "      95,265   "
      12   "      "      51,265   "
      15   "      "      54,050   "
      24   "      "      60,265   "
      30   "      "      82,265   "

By the appropriation acts each year from the Act of the 22 June, 1874, a
certain amount was annually appropriated to each Department for the
purchase from the Post Office Department of such of these official
stamps as were necessary for the use of the Department and its
subordinate officers. By the 9th Section of the Act of the XLIVth
Congress, Session I, Chapter 287, approved the 15th of August, 1876, it
was enacted.

    "That the Secretaries respectively of the Departments of State,
    Treasury, War, Navy and Interior and the Attorney General are
    authorized to make requisition upon the Postmaster General for
    the necessary amount of postage stamps for the use of their
    Departments not exceeding the amount stated in the estimates
    submitted to Congress, and upon presentation of proper vouchers
    therefore at the Treasury, the amount thereof shall be credited
    to the appropriation for the Post Office Department for the same
    fiscal year."

This was the beginning of an entire change in the method of crediting
the Post Office Department for work done in carrying official
correspondence.

By the Act of XLIVth Congress, Session II, Chapter 103, approved March
30, 1877, the law was modified in the following terms:

    Sec. 5. That it shall be lawful to transmit through the mail,
    free of postage any letters, packages or other matter relating
    exclusively to the business of the Government of the United
    States: Provided that every such letter or package to entitle it
    to pass free shall bear over the words "Official Business" an
    endorsement, showing also the name of the Department, and if
    from a bureau or office, the names of the Department and bureau
    or office, as the case may be, whence transmitted. And if any
    person shall make use of any such official envelope to avoid the
    payment of postage on his private letter, package or other
    matter in the mail, the person so offending shall be deemed
    guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine of three hundred
    dollars, to be prosecuted in any court of competent
    jurisdiction.

    Sec. 6. That for the purpose of carrying this act into effect it
    shall be the duty of each of the Executive Departments of the
    United States to provide for itself and its subordinate officers
    the necessary envelopes, and in addition to the endorsement
    designating the Department in which they are to be used, the
    penalty for the unlawful use shall be stated thereon.

    Sec. 7. That Senators, Representatives and Delegates in
    Congress, the Secretary of the Senate and Clerk of the House of
    Representatives may send and receive through the mail all public
    documents printed by order of Congress, and the name of each
    Senator, Representative, Delegate, Secretary of the Senate, and
    Clerk of the House, shall be written thereon with the proper
    designation of the office he holds, and the provisions of this
    section shall apply to each of the persons mentioned therein
    until the first day of December following the expiration of
    their terms of office.

By this act the use of official stamps upon mail matter _from_ the
Departments, bureaus and offices was practically abolished, but official
stamps continued to be used by postmasters and other subordinate
officers in their mail matter _to_ the Departments or each other on
official business.

By the 29th Section of the Act of the XLVth Congress, Chapter 180,
approved March 3d, 1879, it was enacted that,--

    "The provisions of the 5th and 6th Sections of the Act entitled,
    An Act Establishing Post Routes and for other purposes, approved
    March 3d, 1877, for the transmission of official mail matter, be
    and they are hereby extended to all officers of the United
    States Government, and made applicable to all official mail
    matter transmitted between any of the officers of the United
    States, or between any such officer and either of the Executive
    Departments or officers of the Government, the envelopes of such
    matter in all cases to bear appropriate endorsements containing
    the proper designation of the office from which the same is
    transmitted, with a statement of the penalty for their misuse.
    And the provisions of said 5th and 6th Sections are hereby
    likewise extended and made applicable to all official mail
    matter sent from the Smithsonian Institution. Provided, that
    this Act shall not extend or apply to pension agents, or other
    officers who receive a fixed allowance for their services,
    including expenses for postage."

In his report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1878, D. M. Key,
Postmaster General, had already stated that,--

    "The amount of matter sent through the mails free is very large,
    adding greatly to our expenditures and giving us no revenue. The
    Franking Privilege has been restored to the members and chief
    officers of Congress, so as to allow them to send free almost
    anything which they were ever allowed to transmit through the
    mails free, except letters. Tons upon tons of books, documents,
    seeds, shrubs and the like are placed in our mails free of cost,
    on this score. The official letters of the Executive Departments
    of the general Government, their documents, etc., go free
    through the mails."

The operation of the act of 1879, however, greatly increased the amount
of free matter, and decreased the use of official stamps. The Post
Office Department discontinued their use entirely. In a circular dated,
Washington, D. C., April 22nd, 1879, and signed by A. D. Hazen, third
assistant Postmaster General, it is stated that:

    "The Department will begin the issue on May 1st next, of
    envelopes for official business which will secure the free
    transmission through the mails of all official matter and which
    are intended to supercede the Post Office envelopes now in use,
    as well as official postage stamps and official stamped
    envelopes. Accordingly the issue of official stamps and official
    stamped envelopes will be discontinued on and after the date
    named. * * * The stock of post office envelopes now in the hands
    of postmasters will continue until exhausted to be used as
    heretofore by the attachment of official postage stamps. So also
    official stamped envelopes now in the hands of postmasters at
    Presidential offices will be used as heretofore until
    exhausted."

This circular, of course, applies only to stamps, etc., of the Post
Office Department. The other Departments continued to use them for
certain purposes, though none were issued to the Executive Department.
The report of the Postmaster General for the year ending June 30th,
1885, says:

    "The use of official stamps and stamped envelopes was wholly
    discontinued by this Department and substantially so by the
    other Departments on the 30th of June, 1879, under the Act
    authorizing the use of official penalty envelopes."

By the Act of the XLVIIIth Congress, Session I, Chapter 234, Section 3,
approved July 5, 1884, the provisions of the Act of 1879, were
substantially re-enacted with the addition that any Department or
officer authorized to use the penalty envelopes, might enclose them to
any person from whom an answer was requested, and might register any
letter required by law, or the regulations to be registered free, and
might receive any letter partly paid free, and added that:

    "Section 3915 of the Revised Statutes of the United States so
    far as the same relates to stamps and stamped envelopes for
    official purposes is hereby repealed."

To this the report of the Postmaster General for 1885, adds:

    "The use of official postage stamps and stamped envelopes having
    ceased on the 30th of June, 1884, and the same having been
    declared invalid for postages by the Act of July 5th, 1884, the
    stock remaining in the hands of the stamp and envelope
    contractors was destroyed in February last, under the
    supervision of the committee appointed by the Postmaster
    General."

From the report of this committee it appears that they destroyed in all,
17,024,588 official stamps, and 1,739,290 of ordinary and newspaper
stamps that had ceased to be of use. Also that about 2½ per cent of all
the stamps manufactured annually, are destroyed, a single imperfect
specimen on the "sheet" of 100 causing the rejection of at least fifty
or half the sheet.



XXVIII.

OFFICIAL SEALS.


The Post Office Department of the United States, besides the stamps for
the collection of postage, has employed from time to time for special
usages certain seals which, as they are adhesive and in the form of
postage stamps and officially used, are here described, although they
are of no postal value and not properly stamps, but are all employed to
indicate that the packages which bear them are properly secured and have
not been tampered with in transit.


REGISTERED PACKAGE SEAL.

This is a large rectangular seal 71½ by 39 mm., in the form of an
adhesive stamp duly gummed and perforated. After the letters or parcels
of registered letters were duly placed in the large registered package
envelopes employed for the purpose, one of these seals was firmly
secured over the tongue of the envelope and duly stamped with the date
of mailing. It is simply an additional guarantee to the receiving office
that the package has not been opened since it was sealed at the sending
office. A circular announcing its issue and directing its use was issued
from the office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General at Washington,
dated February 14, 1872. A second circular from the same office dated
1875, without stating the month or day, announces the adoption of a
differently constructed envelope and the abandonment of the use of the
registered seal.


ISSUE OF FEBRUARY 14, 1872.

Large, oblong, rectangular seals, having in the middle a circular disk
with ground of fine concentric circles, so broken as to present the
appearance of white rays, bounded by two heavier, but still fine colored
lines, separated by a colorless line, and and a broad colorless band
with exterior colored line, inscribed in plain block, colored capitals,
above "_Stamp Here_," below, "_Date_" and "_Place of Mailing_" separated
by a small maltese cross on each side. On each side of this is a ground
of horizontal lines bordered by a heavy colored line with ornamental
triangles of solid color, with colorless geometric lines forming the
corners. Outside all a single colored line. On the ground in three lines
of colored capitals, on each side are the inscriptions: on the left,
reading from the bottom to the top, "_Post Office_," "_Department_"; on
the right, reading from the top to the bottom, "_United States_," "_of
America_"; in the upper corner triangles "_U. S._" in monogram; in the
lower, "_P. O. D._" in white capitals. Across the middle of the whole
stamp in large block capitals 8½ mm. high and shaded by horizontal lines
is the word "_Registered_."

Plate impression, 71½ by 39 mm., printed in color, on white paper,
perforated 12.

      No value, green.

A second seal employed for a time by the United States Postage Stamp
Agency upon the packages of stamps sent out to postmasters, was equally
an additional guarantee against opening or tampering with the package.


ISSUE OF (END) 1875.

A large rectangle bearing in the center the monogram, "_U. S._" in large
colorless capitals in an oval of geometric colored lines, surrounded by
a ground of interlaced colorless geometric lines on color. A frame of
fifteen colored parallel lines crossing in the angles. A clover leaf of
geometric work, also in the corners. On the frame above in large
colorless capitals, "_U. S. Postage Stamp Agency_," all in brown. A
black surcharge of eight lines reads: "_Postmasters Receiving this
Package--Will Please--Note Its Condition--If showing signs of having
been tam--pered with, report the same and return--this package to 3d
Asst. P. M. General, at--Washington, D. C. This Package--Should be
opened at the end. E. W. Barber, 3d Asst. P. M. G._" Lithographed in
color on white paper, but not perforated, 102 by 52 mm.

      No value, brown and black.

This was afterwards changed by merely changing the signature to "_A. D.
Hazen, 3d Asst. P. M. G._" and the surcharge to vermilion.

Lithographed in color on white paper and not perforated.

      No value, brown and vermilion.

[The latter are still in use. Dec., '86].

A third seal was employed by the Dead Letter Office at Washington, and
afterwards by other offices, to reseal letters opened at that office or
broken in the mails. It was placed upon the flap of the envelope of
letters opened at the Dead Letter Office, in order to ascertain the name
of the sender, or on letters opened by the wrong persons through
mistake, or upon the torn places of other packages.


ISSUE OF (BEGINNING OF) 1877.

A large rectangle with small head of Liberty, full face in an oval 11 by
8 mm. in the center. Above in curved line of colored block letters,
"_Post Office Department_," below in double curve of Old English colored
letters, "_United States of America_." On each side of the oval a solid
label bearing in large colorless letters on left, "_Officially_," on
right "_Sealed_." In the corners "_U. S._" in monogram. The frame is a
broad band 3 mm. wide, vertically lined forming a rectangle with rounded
corners, double lined outside and inside and shaded. The ground is
covered with the words "_Post Obitum_" repeated in whole or part 180
times, in horizontal lines. On the frame below "National Bank Note
Company New York" in small colored letters.

Plate impression, in color, on white paper, 43¼ by 27 mm., perforated
12.

      No value, brown.


ISSUE OF 1879.

The foregoing stamp was replaced in 1879, by another of the same design,
but the words "_Post Obitum_" in the ground are replaced by a pattern of
interlaced circles. The same name on the frame.

Plate impression, in color, on white paper, 43¼ by 27 mm., perforated
12.

      No value, brown.



XXIX.

REPRINTS.


There seems to have been no special law authorizing the Postmaster
General to issue reprints of the stamps of the United States, or as the
authorities choose to call them, "Specimen Postage Stamps." On the other
hand his general authority under the law is sufficient to make any
re-issue for postal purposes of any of the issues of the Department
legal, for none of them except the official stamps have ever been made
invalid for postal purposes by any authority but his own, and this
authority he undoubtedly has also. It has always seemed expedient to the
Department to issue certain specimens of the stamps and envelopes in
circulation, or to be circulated, from time to time, in the proper, as
well as in trial colors. It has been said that it being considered
expedient to exhibit at the Centennial Exhibition a complete series of
all the various issues authorized from time to time, by the Department,
as a part of its history, and unused specimens not being easily
obtained, the old dies and plates were taken from their places of
storage in order to print the necessary specimens, and that the
Department having been solicited to furnish collectors with specimens of
its old issues, took this opportunity to provide itself to satisfy these
demands. It was, however, a mistaken kindness and unused originals were
not unattainable. So that for exhibition purposes even reprinting was
not necessary. Besides as the reprints or specimens of all except the
current series, are in some respects or other unlike the originals, they
were really only so many tolerably accurate pictures of what had been.

When the Department was ready to furnish collectors with these doubtful
boons the following official circular was issued:

                       SPECIMEN POSTAGE STAMPS.

                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT,
            Office of Third Assistant Postmaster General,
       Div. of Postage Stamps, St'ped Envelopes & Postal Cards.

                              _Washington, D. C., March 27, 1875._

    The Department is prepared to furnish upon application, at face
    value, specimens of adhesive postage stamps issued under its
    auspices as follows:


    Ordinary Stamps for Use of the Public.

    1. Issue of 1847. Denominations, 5 and 10 cents. Value of set,
         15 cents.

    2. Issue of 1851. Denominations, 1, 3, 5, 10, 12, 24, 30 and 90
         cents; also two separate designs of 1 cent carrier stamps.
         Value of set, $1.77.

    3. Issue of 1861. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30
         and 90 cents. Value of set, $1.92.

    4. Issue of 1869. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30
         and 90 cents. Value of set, $1.93.

    5. Issue of 1870 (current series). Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7,
         10, 12, 15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $2.


    Official Stamps.

    1. Executive. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 cents. Value of
        set, 22 cents.

    2. Department of State. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15,
        24, 30 and 90 cents, and $2, $5, $10 and $20. Value of Set,
        $39.

    3. Treasury Department. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15,
        24, 30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $2.

    4. War Department. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24,
        30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $2.

    5. Navy Department. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24,
        30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $2.

    6. Post Office Department. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15,
        24, 30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $1.93.

    7. Department of the Interior. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12,
        15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $1.93.

    8. Department of Justice. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15,
        24, 30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $1.93.

    9. Department of Agriculture. Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12,
        15, 24 and 30 cents. Value of set, $1.03.


    Newspaper and Periodical Stamps.

    1. Issue of 1865. Denominations, 5, 10 and 25 cents. Value of
        set, 40 cents.

    2. Issue of 1874. Denominations, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 24, 36,
        48, 60, 72, 84, 96 cents, $1.92, $3, $6, $9, $12, $24, $36,
        $48 and $60. Value of set, $204.66.

    The 1847 and 1851 stamps are obsolete, and no longer receivable
    for postage. The subsequent issues of ordinary stamps are still
    valid. The newspaper and periodical stamps of 1865 are also
    uncurrent; those of the issue of 1874 can be used only by
    publishers and news agents for matter mailed in bulk under the
    Act of June 23rd, 1874. The official stamps cannot be used
    except for the official business of the particular Department for
    which it is provided.

    All the specimens furnished will be ungummed, and the official
    stamps will have printed across the face the word "Specimen" in
    small type. It will be useless to apply for gummed stamps or for
    official stamps with the word "Specimen" omitted.

    The stamps will be sold by sets, and application must not be made
    for less than one full set of any issue except the State
    Department official stamps and newspaper and periodical stamps of
    the issue of 1874. The regular set of the former will embrace all
    the denominations from 1 cent to 90 cents inclusive, valued at
    $2; and any or all of the other denominations ($2, $5, $10 and
    $20) will be added or sold separately from the regular set as
    desired.

    The newspaper and periodical stamps will be sold in quantities of
    not less than two dollars worth in each case, of any denomination
    or denominations that may be ordered.

    Under no circumstances will stamps be sold for less than their
    face value.

    Payment must invariably be made in advance in current funds of
    the United States. Mutilated currency, internal revenue and
    postage stamps, bank checks and drafts, will not be accepted, but
    will in all cases be returned to the sender.

    To insure greater certainty in the transmission, it is strongly
    urged that remittances be made either by money order or
    registered letter. Applicants will also include a sufficient
    amount for return postage and registry fee, it being desirable to
    send stamps by registered letter. Losses in the mails or by any
    mode of transmission must be at the risk of the purchaser.

    [Symbol: Right Index] Applications must be addressed to "The
    Third Assistant Postmaster General, Washington, D. C."

    Specimens of stamped envelopes will not be furnished in any case.

                                             E. W. BARBER,
                               Third Assistant Postmaster General.

Here is truly a pretty kettle of fish. The proceedings do not seem to
have been reported by the Department, and there seems to have been no
account rendered of this peculiar transaction of the Stamp Office.
Doubtless the amounts received for these specimens and the number of
them sold are blended in the accounts of the number of stamps sold and
no loss accrued to the service. The public are not, however, informed of
the extent of the transactions, and judging from the difficulty of
finding these specimens in collections, the business was not large.

There was no law preventing any one from purchasing either the newspaper
or periodical stamps from the Post office, and at the time there was
probably no regulation of the Department which prevented postmasters
from selling them to all desirous of purchasing. Certainly some were
sold to dealers and collectors. Hence the privilege of purchasing the
current newspaper and periodical stamps _without gum_ for the same price
that actual and complete copies could be obtained, particularly in view
of the fact that the purchaser, unless a publisher or agent, could not
use them when so purchased, even if he were willing to gum them himself,
was probably not largely taken advantage of. The specimens when found
can hardly be called reprints and cannot be distinguished from the
ordinary stamps that have by some accident lost their gum. There is
reason to believe that some of them have been adorned with this
appendage by private parties, so that the presence of gum is no
guarantee of genuineness. As, however, they are only partly finished
stamps of the regular issue, no great harm is done if a specimen is
treasured in a collection.

With the newspaper stamps of the 1865 issue the facts are different.
While they are from the same plates apparently, they can generally be
detected by the color. As the five cents with white border does not
appear in the list of reprints or "specimens" the series was not, after
all, complete, and the possessor of this stamp may feel confident of
possessing an original. The companion five cents with colored border is
exactly of the same color, varying only in different specimens of either
variety in depths of color. The blue of the reprints is of a different
shade, more intense and perhaps the difference can best be expressed by
saying there is a _bloom_ about it that there is not about the
originals. When the two are placed side by side the homely expression
that the "new is worn off" of the originals will serve to express the
difference, though in point of fact they never had the brightness of the
reprints. The same remarks apply to the old and new ten cent values. The
color of the 25 cents, is, however, very badly imitated, the originals
have a yellowish-red cast, the reprint is a dull common red. A very
good idea of it might be had by comparing what are called salmon brick
and pressed brick together. Unfortunately some unscrupulous parties have
"experimented" with the reprints and thus rendered some specimens rather
harder to distinguish, but so far as the observation of the writer goes,
comparison with originals will always satisfactorily expose the
difference.

The extreme anxiety of the Department that the revenue of the service
should not suffer by the use of a private party of an official stamp for
which he had paid the department full value, led as the advertisement
states to the placing of the word "specimen" in small type across the
face, and thereby saved the collector any trouble in identifying
"specimens" from originals, though as the stamps were current the
omission of the gum only reduced them to partly finished stamps, and not
to the category of reprints or counterfeits.

Of the "ordinary stamps for the use of the public," the 5th or 1870
issue was then current, and why ungummed stamps which the circular says
were never the less available for postage, should have been sold when
the Department had a large supply of finished originals at command, is a
mystery to all but official minds.

The 4th or 1869 series presents greater difficulties to the collector
who desires to have only genuine originals. Made by the same company
that produced the originals, and only a short time afterwards, the
processes of printing, ink and paper making had not materially changed,
but the reprints show signs of more careful workmanship. Notwithstanding
the circular some of them at least were sent out by the department
gummed. But strange to say as noticed by Mr. Coster (A. J. P. 1875 page
6) the gum of the originals "varied from decidedly brownish to almost
white" and "on the 1861-69 issues of the reprints (as also on the
eagles) simple gum arabic seems to have been used, the color being
perfectly white. Furthermore, if the stamps are bent at all, the gum
cracks, which is in no case true of the originals." Mr. Coster further
says, "the originals all had the grille and the reprints have not."
Unfortunately, Mr. Coster was not aware that the four higher values at
least, with the brownish gum and without the grille, and undoubtedly
original, existed in collections before the reprints were made, and have
since been officially stated to have been so issued, and other values
also in that condition are known, which have every appearance of being
originals. Unfortunately also, it is not very difficult to remove the
gum, imitate the grille or not and regum the stamp with brownish gum.
Such experiments have been made with fair success by members of that
fraternity who exist by the trade in bogus antiquities and counterfeit
evidences of value, who sometimes do these little things merely to
experience the delight they feel in deceiving the so-called experts,
especially when as in this case a known reprint is almost unsalable,
but if it can be made to pass as an original its value is increased
several hundred fold and its salable qualities many times more.
Fortunately there are not a large number of the reprints to encounter
and grilled specimens are in all probability original. The 3d or 1861
issue was also made by the same company that did the reprinting. The
originals were issued first without the grille and afterwards with it,
both had the brownish gum. The reprints have the same perforation and,
notwithstanding the circular, were issued both without the gum and with
the white stiff gum noticed above. Originals without the grille are
rarely on tinted or surfaced paper, though sometimes smurched in parts
from careless wiping of the plates. Originals with the grille are
generally on lightly tinted or surfaced paper and the colors are usually
stronger than the earlier ones. The reprints were without the grille,
but the colors are rather those of the grilled originals, the paper is
however whiter, the printing more carefully worked, and there is the new
look about them noticed when speaking of the reprints of the newspaper
series of 1865. Sheets of the one cent reprinted show the printer's
imprint on the sides and of the pattern of that on the 1869 issue. All
the originals of this value probably had the imprint of the other
pattern, and at the top or bottom. The reprints are therefore, probably
from new plates.

A few reprints with a forged grille have come under the observation of
the writer, but as the grille was the small grille imitated from that on
the 1869 issue it was easily detected.

The 2nd or 1851 issue, as it is called in the circular, actually
consisted of two series, the imperforate and perforate. Imperforate
reprints were not furnished. The originals were perforated 15 to the mm.
or 17 to the 7/8 of an inch. The reprints were perforated 12 to the mm.
or 13 to the 7/8 of an inch. This is the perforation of the 1870 series
and of most of the U. S. stamps.

This is an absolute test then for perforated specimens. Attempts are,
however, made to palm off trimmed reprints as imperforate specimens. The
originals are on a yellowish paper and with brown gum. The reprints on a
very white paper originally but easily manipulated to yellowish. The
reprint of the one cent is from a new plate, the stamps have the outside
fine labels of the original imperforate series, but are set farther
apart on the plate so that even the larger perforation used does not cut
into the stamp. The blue is too bright. The reprinted three cents has
the outer top and bottom lines of the original imperforate stamp. The
stamps do not seem to have been set quite far enough apart on the plate,
as most specimens are somewhat marred by the large perforation. The
color is however a vermilion and not the brick-red, pink or carmine of
the originals. The reprinted five cents is from plate No. 2 without the
top and bottom projection, and the stamps being too near together are
marred by the large perforation. The color is a decided yellow brown,
unlike any of the shades of the original. It would probably be
impossible to remove the perforation so as to make this stamp pass for
an imperforate specimen and then it would lack the projection of the
original.

The ten and twelve cents are harder to distinguish, the green is too
green, the black too black. The twenty-four, thirty and ninety cents
were not issued imperforate (except the very rare instances of the 24
cents) and are not likely to deceive any one, their colors, however, are
the more brilliant new colors and not the old dull colors of the
originals.

The reprinted "Eagle" Carrier's stamp was first sent out perforated 12,
the original was, of course, imperforate, and the stamps upon the sheet
were separated by colored lines. The perforations of the reprints made
sad havoc with these. Later the reprints were sent out imperforate. Such
originals as the present writer has seen are on a yellowish tinted paper
arising probably from the gum or age, the reprints are on a paper blued
on the printed side by the ink of the stamp and with a blue cast at the
back.

The reprinted "Franklin" Carrier's stamp is on too deep a pink paper and
the dark blue ink is not deep and dull enough.

Finally the only safe test of any of these stamps is comparison with
undoubted originals, in every case of doubt.

The first or 1847 reprints are not from the original plates nor even
from the original dies, but from newly engraved dies, and hence are
absolutely worthless as representing the originals. They are not
reprints, but official imitations. In speaking of this issue it was
stated that the Department had ordered all remainders to be burnt and
the plates and dies destroyed. Supposing this to have been done
reprinting was impossible. To take the place of the originals, new dies
were made.

The imitations are both wider and shorter than the originals. The
foliated ornaments are too conspicuous in both. The small letters, R. W.
H. and E. in the margins, though clear in the originals are too small,
and particularly in the five cents almost illegible, being too light,
and apparently the engraver did not know whether to make an R or an H,
an M or a W, an H or an N, an E or an F. These are the general and
common differences.

The Five Cents. The hair on the right of the head (left of the stamp) is
in heavy dark masses in the original, but is too light, open and airy in
the imitation. The mouth prolonged in the original beyond the dot on the
right, ends with it in the imitation, in which there is a second dot to
the right of the first. The eyes are clear and distinct in the original,
with perhaps too much white in the right one, they are weak undecided
eyes in the imitation. The shirt front in the original is terminated by
a diagonal line which reaches the oval above the top of the F of "Five"
in the original, but is more nearly horizontal in the imitation,
reaching the oval nearly on a line with the top of the 5.

The Ten Cents. In the hair on the right of the stamp there is a small,
white circle with a dark center in the imitation which does not appear
in the original. The lips are larger and the mouth longer in the
original than the imitation, but in the latter the lower lip is
indicated throughout by vertical lines, in the original there are three
vertical lines, the rest indicated by points. In the original the white
cravat is separated from the inner colored line marking the oval by a
fine white line with a colored line above it; in the imitation the line
of the oval terminates the cravat. The lines of the face are all too
stiff and ridged and the execution does not compare in delicacy and
boldness of touch with the original.



INDEX.


  Agriculture Department; 230, 243

  Alexandria; 28, 60


  Baltimore; 28, 62, 63

  Baltimore, Horseman; 63

  Brattleboro; 28, 48, 50


  Carrier Stamps; 87, 88, 100, 191, 264

  Compulsory prepayment; 23, 90, 91


  Eight Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 218

  Eighty-four Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 219

  Executive Department; 230, 235


  Fifteen Cents, 1866; 131, 135, 136, 191
        "        1867, medium grille; 139, 142, 191
        "        1867, small grille; 141, 142, 191
        "        1869; 153, 191
        "        1870; 166, 170, 173
        "        1873; 176
        "        1883; 195
        "        Official; 234

  Fifty Cents, Postage Due; 202

  Five Cents, 1847; 76, 78, 191, 265
      "       1856; 94, 107, 191
      "       1857; 110, 120, 191
      "       1861; 126, 134, 135, 191
      "       1867; 140, 141, 142, 191
      "       1875; 178
      "       1881; 180
      "       1882; 181
      "       1883; 196
      "       Newspapers, 1865; 191
      "       Postage Due; 200

  Five Dollars, State Department; 237

  Four Cents, 1883; 187, 189, 196
      "       Newspapers, 1874; 218

  Forty-eight Cents,  "   1874; 219

  Forty-eight Dollars,"   1874; 222


  Grille of 1867; 138, 139, 140
       "    1869; 157
       "    1870; 170


  Interior Dep't; 230, 241

  Introduction; 13

  Issue of 1847; 74, 191, 265
       "   1851; 81, 85, 87, 88, 191, 263
       "   1855; 94, 191
       "   1856; 94, 191
       "   1857; 110, 191
       "   1860; 111, 191
       "   1861; 122, 125, 191, 261
       "   1863; 131, 191
       "   1865; 209, 191
       "   1866; 132, 191
       "   1867; 137, 191
       "   1869; 144, 149, 191, 260
       "   1870; 158, 191, 260
       "   1873; 173, 227
       "   1874; 214
       "   1875; 177
       "   1879; 201
       "   1882; 180
       "   1883; 186, 189, 195
       "   1885; 205
       "   1887; 196


  Justice Dep't; 230, 242


  Millbury; 28, 65


  Navy Dep't; 230, 240

  Newspaper and Periodical, 1865; 209, 259
      "             "         "  5 cts.; 211
      "             "         " 10 cts.; 212
      "             "         " 25 cts.; 213
      "             "       1874; 214

  New Haven; 28, 51, 53

  New York; 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33

  New York "U. S. Mail"; 34

  Nine Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 191, 192, 218

  Nine Dollars,   "         " ; 221

  Ninety Cents, 1860; 112, 121, 191
        "       1861; 129, 135, 136, 191
        "       1867; 140, 141, 142, 191
        "       1869; 156, 191
        "       1870; 169, 170, 173
        "       1873; 176
        "       1883; 195, 196
        "       Official; 235

  Ninety-six Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 219


  Official Stamps; 227

  Official Seals; 249

  Officially Sealed; 250

  One Cent Carrier, Eagle; 88, 109, 191, 264
     "        "     Franklin; 87, 109, 191, 264
     "     1851; 85, 89, 97, 191
     "     1857; 110, 113, 191
     "     1861; 125, 133, 134, 135, 191
     "     1867, medium grille; 139, 191
     "     1867, small grille; 140, 141, 142, 191
     "     1869; 149, 191
     "     1870; 161, 170, 172, 173
     "     1873; 175
     "     1881; 180
     "     1882; 183
     "     1883; 195
     "     1886; 183
     "     1887; 183
     "     1887; 196
     "     Newspaper, 1885; 224
     "     Official; 233
     "     Postage Due; 200

  One Dollar and Ninety-two Cents, Newspaper, 1874; 220


  Philadelphia; 69

  Pittsfield; 71

  Postage Due; 198
       "       1, 2, 3, 5; 200
       "       10, 30, 50; 202

  Postmarks; 14 to 18

  Post Obitum; 252

  Post Office Department; 230

  Postmasters Stamps; 25, 72

  Providence; 23, 54, 56


  Registered Seals; 249

  Registered Seals for stamp packages; 250

  Reprints; 254


  St. Louis; 27, 28, 36, 38
      "      2 Cents; 47
      "      5   "  ; 40
      "     10   "  ; 42
      "     20   "  ; 44

  Seven Cents, 1870; 159, 169, 170, 172, 173, 191, 192
       "       1873; 176
       "       Official; 234

  Seventy-two Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 219

  Six Cents, 1869; 151, 191
      "      1870; 159, 164, 170, 172, 173
      "      1873; 175, 176
      "      1882; 184, 190, 192
      "      1883; 196
      "      1886; 192
      "      Newspapers, 1874; 218
      "      Official; 234

  Sixty Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 219

  Sixty Dollars, Newspapers, 1874; 223

  Six Dollars, Newspapers, 1874; 220

  Specimen Postage Stamps; 225

  Special Delivery; 204

  State Department; 230, 236


  Ten Cents, 1847; 77, 79, 191, 266
      "      1855; 94, 108, 191
      "      1857; 110, 121, 191
      "      1861; 127, 135, 191
      "      1867, medium grille; 139, 191
      "      1867, small grille; 140, 141, 142, 191
      "      1869; 151, 191
      "      1870; 159, 165, 170, 173
      "      1881; 180
      "      1882; 185
      "      1883; 185, 186
      "      1886; 196
      "      1887; 186
      "      Newspapers, 1874; 218
      "      Official; 234
      "      Postage Due; 202
      "      Special Delivery; 204

  Ten Dollars, State; 237

  Thirty Cents, 1860; 111, 112, 121, 191
        "       1861; 129, 135, 136, 191
        "       1867; 140, 141, 142, 191
        "       1869; 155, 191
        "       1870; 168, 170, 173
        "       1873; 176
        "       1883; 196
        "       Official; 235
        "       Postage Due; 202

  Thirty-six Cents, Newspapers, 1874; 219

  Thirty-six Dollars, Newspapers, 1874; 222

  Three Cents, 1851; 85, 89, 98, 191
       "       1857; 110, 115, 191
       "       1861; 126, 134, 135, 191
       "       1867 grilled all over; 138, 191
       "         "  large grille; 139, 191
       "         "  medium grille; 139, 191
       "         "  small grille; 140, 141, 142, 191
       "         "  imperforate; 142, 191
       "       1869; 150, 191
       "       1870; 163, 170, 172, 173
       "       1873; 175, 176
       "       1881; 180
       "       1882; 184, 186, 190, 192
       "       1883; 196
       "       1886-7; 192
       "       Official; 234
       "       Newspapers, 1874; 191, 192, 218
       "       Postage due; 200

  Three Dollars, Newspapers, 1874; 220

  Treasury Dept; 230, 238

  Twelve Cents, 1851; 86, 89, 108, 191
        "       1857; 110, 121, 191
        "       1861; 127, 135, 191
        "       1867 medium grille; 139, 191
        "       1867 small grille; 140, 141, 142, 191
        "       1869; 152, 191
        "       1870; 159, 165, 170, 173, 191, 192
        "       1883; 196
        "       Newspapers, 1874; 219
        "       Official; 234

  Twelve Dollars, Newspapers, 1874; 221

  Twenty Dollars, State; 237

  Twenty-four Cents, 1856; 93, 108, 191
        "       "    1860; 111, 112, 121, 191
        "       "    1861; 128, 135, 136, 191
        "       "    1867; 140, 141, 142, 191
        "       "    1869; 154, 191
        "       "    1870; 167, 170, 173, 191, 192
        "       "    1873; 176
        "       "    Newspapers, 1874; 219
        "       "    Official; 234

  Twenty-four Dollars, Newspapers, 1874; 222

  Two Cents, 1863; 131, 135, 191
      "      1867, medium grille; 139, 191
      "      1867, small grille; 140, 141, 142, 191
      "      1867, imperforate; 142, 191
      "      1869; 150, 191
      "      1870; 161, 170, 172, 173
      "      1873; 175
      "      1875; 177
      "      1881; 180
      "      1882; 184, 186
      "      1883; 187, 189, 195
      "      Official; 234
      "      Newspaper; 218
      "      Postage Due; 200

  Two Dollars, State; 237


  Uniform Postage; 23

  Unpaid Letter Stamps; 200

  Unperforated Specimens, 1867; 142
       "           "      1870; 172

  U. S. Mail; 34

  U. S. City Dispatch Post; 19, 22


  War Department; 230, 239

  Washington; 31, 67

  Worcester; 70



THE

=PHILATELIC CATALOGUE=

OF POSTAGE STAMPS, STAMPED ENVELOPES
AND POSTAL CARDS.

BY MAJOR EDW. B. EVANS, R. A.


This work is fully illustrated with engravings, also gives full
description of all stamps, particulars as to printing, perforation,
paper, watermarks, colors, as well as market price. Also valuable notes
by the author on subjects pertaining to the stamps.

The following is the plan of the work:

      Part 1. Adhesives.
      Part 2. Stamped Envelopes.
      Part 3. Postal Cards.

Each part is divided into sections:

      Section 1. America.
      Section 2. Great Britain and Colonies.
      Section 3. Europe.
      Section 4. Asia, Africa and Australasia.

Each section is divided into groups, the groups of Part 1, Section 1 are
now ready and are as follows:

      Group 1. United States (including Confederate issues).
      Group 2. Mexico and Central America.
      Group 3. U. S. of Columbia and states.
      Group 4. Other South American countries.

The price of each group is 10c; a new one will be published every month.

The work is limited to 500 copies and when completed will be the
greatest philatelic work ever published.

Subscriptions received $1.00 per 10 parts, until the number 500 is
reached subscribers will receive the first numbers.

_C. H. MEKEEL, Philatelic Publisher,_
_Room 71, Turner Building._      _ST. LOUIS, MO._



THE

=Improved Stamp Album.=

With a rational plan for the arrangement of a collection of stamps.
Copyrighted.


This is a blank album manufactured expressly for the purpose.

Good paper is used; size of pages 8½ by 11 inches; a neat border
surrounds each page and an ornamental band at top for the reception of
the name of the country. Neatly printed names are provided on adhesive
paper.

Guards or stubs are bound between the pages, so that when filled it will
not bulge, it is equally well adapted for postal cards, stamps or
envelopes.

One thousand lithographed stamp mounts are furnished with each album.
The stamp mounts are on a new plan, a neat black border surrounds the
stamp, and the mounts are provided in different sizes for the various
stamps.

      No. 1. Album 168 pp., bound in cloth, good paper, with
          names and 1000 mounts                        $2.00

      No. 2. Album 328 pp., same as above but border printed
          on only one side of the page                 $3.00

      No. 3. Album 500 pp., same style as the No. 3, better
          paper, printed on one side of page           $5.00

      No. 4. Album 500 pp., handsomely bound in leather,
          superior paper, printed on one side of page  $7.50

      No. 5. Portfolio, with 200 sheets fine card-board, printed
          on one side with names and mounts            $5.00

The album has given satisfaction wherever it has been sold.

C. H. MEKEEL, Philatelic Publisher,
_Room 71, Turner B'l'g_,      _ST. LOUIS, MO._



THE

=Philatelic Journal of America.=


A large monthly magazine published in interest of stamp collecting.

Contributed to, by the leading philatelic writers of the day, including,
Major Edw. B. Evans, R. A., James M. Chute, John K. Tiffany, Edw. B.
Hanes, Lieut. J. M. T. Partello, Joseph J. Casey, E. B. Sterling, Wm. E.
Stone, and many others.

The latest information regarding newly issued stamps and discoveries may
always be found.

Reports of the proceedings of the leading American philatelic societies.

Answers to questions, and open letters on current topics, are important
departments.

The Philatelic Catalogue, by Major Edw. B. Evans, is being published in
monthly installments.


SUBSCRIPTION.

Sent post free, 50 cents per annum, to United States, Canada and Mexico;
75 cents per annum to all countries in the Universal Postal Union.

$1. per annum to Natal, Cape of Good Hope, Transvaal and Australian
Colonies.

Payment must be made in advance. Subscription can commence at any time.
Back numbers of current volume, 10 cents each.


UNBOUND COPIES, VOLS. I AND II.

Volume I. March, 1885--February, 1886. 12 numbers, 250p., $3.

Volume II. March, 1886--February, 1887. 12 numbers, 350p., $1.

_C. H. MEKEEL, Philatelic Publisher_,
Room 71, Turner Building,      ST. LOUIS, MO.



C. H. MEKEEL,

PHILATELIC PUBLISHER

--AND--

=POSTAGE STAMP DEALER,=


Solicits business relations with all philatelists. Rarities are always
on hand for the advanced collector. Rare stamps bought for cash or taken
in exchange.

New issues and novelties always on hand. A fine stock of desirable
stamps at very reasonable prices. Selections of stamps on approval sent
to responsible parties. Agents wanted for the sale of stamps on liberal
commission.

Foreign correspondence and exchange solicited.

A large wholesale stock for sale by 10, 100 or 1000 at lowest prices.
Mexican, South and Central American stamps is a specialty in wholesale
trade. Hundreds of thousands of these stamps imported yearly.

Cash paid for U. S. Department stamps, Newspaper and Periodical stamps,
Old U. S. Envelopes, Confederate and U. S. Locals.

Large or old collections wanted for cash. Send for U. S. Exchange list.

Inquiries should contain stamp for reply.

C. H. MEKEEL,
_Room 71, Turner Building_,      _ST. LOUIS, MO._


       #       #       #       #       #

Transcriber's Notes:

5. Obvious punctuation errors have been corrected without comment.

6. Inconsistent quote marks in cited materials have been retained.
   Mismatched quotes have been repaired.

7. Inconsistent abbreviations, punctuation, character spacing, etc.,
   have been made uniform.

8. Inconsistent variations of millimeter fractions, _i. e._ 1/2 (with
   forward slash) and 1-2 (stacked 1 over 2), etc. have been made
   consistent.

9. Right justified page numbers in the "INDEX" have been replaced by
   a left justified semi-colon ";" immediately followed by the
   referenced page numbers.

10. SPELLING CORRECTIONS: (#) shows number of times word was correctly
    spelled in the text.

  p. 47, "apperance" to "appearance" (14) (has a blurred appearance)
  p. 47, "diffent" to "different" (30) (a different design)
  p. 48, "Brattleborro" to "Brattleboro" (8) (of Brattleboro, Vermont)
  p. 50, "seperately" to "separately" (7) (stamp separately engraved)
  p. 52, "accomodation" to "accommodation" (7) (as an accommodation;)
  p. 53, "impresions" to "impressions" (102) (re-impressions in red)
  p. 55, "orignally" to "originally" (11) (originally ruled into spaces)
  p. 64, "permiting" to "permitting" (4) (permitting to be used)
  p. 78, "Terell" to "Terrell" (2) (Mr. Terrell, Third Assistant
             Postmaster General)
  p. 80, "Goverment" to "Government" (34) (dies by the Government)
  p. 88, "Pastmaster" to "Postmaster" (200) (the Postmaster General)
  p. 91, "postmater" to "postmaster" (200) (unlawful for any postmaster)
  p. 92, "Priviledge" to "Privilege" (13) (the Franking Privilege)
  p. 93, "lettters" to "letters" (200) (amount on letters)
  p. 94, "Casellar" to "Cassilar" (2) (Toppan, Carpenter, Cassilar & Co.)
  p. 104, "prolongued" to "prolonged" (3) (right side prolonged)
              (this correction is noted on the publishers "Errata" page)
  p. 107, "vermillion" to "vermilion" (15) (with yellowish vermilion)
  p. 110, "millemetres" to "millimetres" (2) (space of two millimetres)
  p. 110, "impresion" to "impression" (102) (Plate impression,)
  p. 119, "runing" to "running" (5) (and running off to the right)
  p. 120, "Botom" to "Bottom" (110) (LEFT. Top, Bottom)
  p. 123, "newpapers" to "newspapers" (88+) (through the newspapers)
  p. 124, "Immediatly" to "Immediately" (3) (Immediately after the
              expiration)
  p. 127, "ocre" to "ochre" (5) (5 cents, ochre, shades of brown.)
  p. 129, "impresion" to "impression" (102) (Plate impression,)
  p. 132, "borderded" to "bordered" (105) (bordered by a broad)
  p. 140, "compossed" to "composed" (19) (composed of depressed lines)
  p. 159, "ninty" to "ninety" (27) (ninety cents, Commodore)
  p. 160, "posesion" to "possession" (11) (present issue, in possession)
  p. 170, "vermillion" to "vermilion" (15) (7 cents, vermilion.)
  p. 179, "ZEVERLY" to "ZEVELY" (2) ((Signed.) A. N. ZEVELY)
  p. 180, "hurridly" to "hurriedly" (0) (hurriedly gotten up)
  p. 185, "conspicious" to "conspicuous" (6) (shade lines being
              conspicuous)
  p. 194, "improvments" to "improvements" (5) (improvements in
              machinery)
  p. 197, "soild" to "solid" (60) (broad solid colored line)
  p. 200, "whereever" to "wherever" (1) (wherever required)
  p. 201, "beween" to "between" (117) (colored band between)
  p. 207, "cirular" to "circular" (55) (From the third circular)
  p. 209, "newpaper" to "newspaper" (88+) (newspaper stamps in other
              countries)
  p. 209, "newpapers" to "newspapers" (88+) (distribution of newspapers
              and periodicals)
  p. 213, "principly" to "principally" (3) (principally at Chicago)
  p. 219, "horizontically" to "horizontally" (49) (horizontally and
              diagonally)
  p. 220, "Ninty" to "Ninety" (27) (One Dollar and Ninety-Two)
  p. 224, "classs" to "class" (11) (publications of the second class)
  p. 227, "reveiw" to "review" (2) (by a brief review)
  p. 228, "Treasuay" to "Treasury" (16) (the Treasury may be)
  p. 229, "Ano" to "Anno" (0) (Anno Domini 1873)
  p. 232, "addional" to "additional" (19) (four additional denominations)
  p. 232, "excercise" to "exercise" (2) (exercise its own discretion)
  p. 232, "chocineal" to "cochineal" (7) (War Department, cochineal red;)
  p. 245, "judisdiction" to "jurisdiction" (0) (court of competent
              jurisdiction)
  p. 245, "theron" to "thereon" (9) (shall be stated thereon)
  p. 246, "transmision" to "transmission" (9) (for the transmission of)
  p. 246, "throught" to "through" (23) (through the mails free)
  p. 247, "attatchment" to "attachment" (6) (attachment of official
              postage)
  p. 259, "genuiness" to "genuineness" (0) (no guarantee of genuineness)
  p. 271, "Newpapers" to "Newspapers" (88+) (Three Dollars, Newspapers)
  p. 275, "Britian" to "Britain" (0) (Great Britain and Colonies)

11. PRINTER AND TYPOGRAPHY CORRECTIONS: Words with missing and
    misprinted letters, inconsistent hyphenation, punctuation and spacing
    have been corrected without comment. Additional corrections;

  p. 23, removed duplicate word "the" (the distances were so great)
  p. 56, removed duplicate word "the" (the lower half of a circle)
  p. 59, removed duplicate "of" (I, of R. I., and S of Cents)
  p. 67-68, added Footnote anchor [A] (following advertising
             editorial[A]:)
  p. 75, removed duplicate word "be" (shall be subject to)
  p. 76, removed duplicate word "been" (to have been distributed)
  p. 82, removed duplicate word "be" (shall be deemed)
  p. 98, removed duplicate word "the" ((A) show the paper)
  P. 104, corrected duplicate instance of D^2 f^{1 2 3 4}, to
              D^1 f^{1 2 3 4}, to match established pattern of data.
  p. 139, 3rd through 6th line from bottom, changed fraction from 16-2/2
              to 16-1/2.
  p. 151, removed duplicate "the" (upper squares at the sides)
  p. 177, changed "E. M. BARBER" to "E. W. BARBER" to match all other
              instances.

12. WORD VARIATIONS:

  "back ground" (6), "back-ground" (5), "background" (32)
  "Caracci" (1), "Carraci" (1) "Cerrachi" (2) (misspellings appear in
      official documents referring to Giuseppe Ceracchi, aka Giuseppe
      Cirachi, the Italian sculptor.)
  "despatch" (3) and "dispatch" (9)
  "enclose(ed)" (7) and "inclose" (1) (in quoted Postmaster report)
  "extention" (1) (as shown in quoted postal circular)
  "grayish" (1) and "greyish" (2)
  "lozenge" (1) and "losenge" (1) (middle english)
  "millimeter" (1) and "millimetre(s)" (1)
  "preceding" (2) and "preceeding" (2)
  "prepaid" (15) and "prepayed" (1) (in quoted Postmaster letter)
  "Rawdon" (1) and "Rawden" (1) (part of a company name)
  "salie" (1) and "sallie" (1)
  "semi-circle" (1) and "semicircle" (2)
  "supersede(ed)" (1) and "supercede" (1) (in quoted Postmaster report)
  "Wyman" (1) and "Wymer" (1)
  "Zachary" (1) (in text) and "Zackary" (1) (General Taylor, in quoted
      Postmaster letter)





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