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Title: Hand-Loom Weaving - A Manual for School and Home
Author: Todd, Mattie Phipps
Language: English
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A Manual


_Showing the necessary positions. The rug the little girl is weaving is
made of heavy carpet wool. The body of the rug is golden brown, with
stripes of deep blue and green, separated by narrow stripes of white_]


A Manual for School and Home



Of the Motley School, Minneapolis, Minn.

With an Introduction by Alice W. Cooley

Formerly Supervisor of Primary Schools, Minneapolis, Minn.

With Fifty-seven Illustrations


Rand, McNally & Company
Educational Publishers
Chicago         New York          London

Copyright, 1902,
By Mattie Phipps Todd



An Introduction.      By _Alice W. Cooley_                              7

_Chapter One._        The Primitive Loom                               13

_Chapter Two._        A Chat on Weaving                                22

_Chapter Three._      First Steps in Weaving                           30

_Chapter Four._       Methods of Stringing Warp                        42

_Chapter Five._       Materials                                        51

_Chapter Six._        Directions for Dyeing                            58

_Chapter Seven._      Methods of Splicing Materials for Weaving        83

_Chapter Eight._      Wool and Silkoline Rugs or Mats                  86

_Chapter Nine._       Hammocks                                         93

_Chapter Ten._        Face and Dish Cloths and Bath Rugs               99

_Chapter Eleven._     Raffia Mats                                     101

_Chapter Twelve._     Oriental Rugs                                   122

_Chapter Thirteen._   Navajo Blankets                                 135

_Chapter Fourteen._   Songs, Games, and Stories                       143

_Chapter Fifteen._    A List of Helpful Books and Magazine Articles   153

The Index                                                             159

    The highest
    aim of art is
    to make some
    useful thing

    Kenyon Cox.


For many years we, the teachers of the United States assembled in
village, city, State, and national conventions, have recited our creed
and chanted it in all keys.

[Sidenote: _Our creed_]

We believe that man is a trinity, three in one--head, heart, and hand,
one soul made manifest; we believe that this union is vital and
indissoluble, since "what God hath joined together" may not be rent
asunder; we believe that this three-fold man, being "put to school" on
earth to grow, may devise and bring to successful issue no scheme of
education that is out of harmony with the plan of the Creator.

Congratulating ourselves upon our ready and distinct utterance of this
lofty thought, we have calmly returned to our man-devised book-schools
for the acquisition of knowledge, in order to forward some plan for the
accumulation of more knowledge.

[Sidenote: _Deeds, not words, are now necessary_]

But "wisdom lingered"! Here and there voices were raised that would not
be silenced: "You sang your beautiful song; what are you going to _do_
about it?" In the words of John Stuart Mill, "It is now time to assert
in deeds, since the power of words is well-nigh exhausted."

Investigators, studying this union of head and hand from the
physiological side, hurled truths at us that startled us from our

[Sidenote: _Physiological truths_]

Every stimulus poured into nerve cells through the avenues of the senses
tends to pass out in motor action, which causes muscular movement. In
every idea are vitally united the impression and the tendency to
expression in action. The nervous system consists of the fibres which
carry currents inward, the organs of central redirection, and the fibres
which carry them outward--sensation, direction, action. Since control
means mental direction of this involuntary discharge of energy (directed
muscular movement), control of the muscles means development of will as
well as of skill. To prevent or cut off the natural outflow of nervous
energy results in fatigue and diseased nerves. Unrestrained and
uncontrolled expenditure of nervous energy results in lawlessness and
weakened will.

Men of science said: "These are facts about man. What account have you
made of them in your elaborate system for educating him?"

Students of sociological and economic problems called out to us as the
teachers of men:

[Sidenote: _Labor must be respected_]

These great problems concerning the relation of labor and capital (the
brotherhood of man) will never be solved until there is greater respect
for labor; greater appreciation of the value of the products of labor;
until there is more joy to the worker in his labor, which should be the
expression through his hand, of the thought of his head, and the feeling
of his heart; until labor is seen in its true light, as service; until
the man with money as well as the man without learns through experience
to respect and appreciate labor and its products. "We _absorb_ only so
much as we can interpret in terms of our own active experience."

What contributions are our schools making to the bettering of social and
industrial conditions?

Philosopher and poet--thinker and seer--send their message:

    "That life is wisest spent
    Where the strong, working hand
    Makes strong the working brain."

To create, to make something, is the instinct of divinity in humanity,
the power that crowns man as divine.

    "It is his impulse to create
    Should gladden thee."

[Sidenote: _The will to do_]

The practical business man thunders his protest at us against the
inefficiency of the man with only the knowledge-stored brain. He says:
We must have men that can _will to do_, and then _do_ something, not
merely men that can think of things "'twere good to do." Our public
schools must train men and women to go out and take their place with the
workers of the world, to do something well and effectively.

[Sidenote: _Systematic hand-training the work of to-day_]

At last we are awake, and throughout the country we are trying to heed
these calls, and to revive our own weakened thought by action, singing
our creed in deeds. Upon the foundations laid by Friedrich Froebel and
his students in the kindergarten, we are trying to build up a course in
systematic hand-training, through the primary, to intermediate and
grammar grades, and thence to manual training in the high schools.
_What_ to do and _how_ to do it has now become the practical problem of
the day. Everywhere the wide-awake primary teacher is sharing her
thought and experience with her co-workers.

For little children, the _what_ must utilize material suitable for
little fingers, and tools must be large. The finished product should
belong to the maker, or be made by him as a service rendered to others;
the result should also be worthy of keeping or giving, from the
view-points of both beauty and utility.

Another important factor is the adaptation to present public-schoolroom
conditions, and to present public-school treasury conditions.

[Sidenote: _Weaving the best hand work for primary schools_]

More thoughtful study has led to the abandonment of the old-time sewing
and fine handwork in kindergarten and primary school. In its place we
find the weaving of useful and beautiful articles, out of various
available materials, and with simple, primitive tools--allowing always
for much and varied use of the great tools, the fingers.

It is interesting to note that teachers in all parts of the country,
working independently of each other, have come to practically the same
conclusions, viz., that under present conditions, _weaving_ seems the
best basis for a systematic course in industrial work that shall train
head and heart as well as hand. It is also of great interest to remember
that the signboards along the pathway of race development, by means of
work, exchange of labor and its products, all point to this idea as the
entering gateway. Weaving is the first industry of all primitive

[Sidenote: _This manual the result of study and experience_]

Being practically agreed as to _what_ shall be the first industrial work
in the primary school, the next great question is the _how_. With large
numbers of little children in her own schoolroom, the author of this
manual has long sought a satisfactory answer. Believing that the results
of her study and experience will be helpful to others in suggesting
possibilities, and in stimulating thought, as well as in practical
teaching and time-saving, she sends forth this little book with the
earnest hope that it may in these ways be of real service.

                                 ALICE W. COOLEY,

                  _Critic Teacher and Instructor,
                     University of North Dakota._

    _August 1st, 1902._


Chapter One


[Sidenote: _History of weaving_]

Weaving, the oldest of the industrial arts, dates back so far that no
one can say when or where it had its beginning. We read in Genesis iii,
21, that when Adam was driven from the Garden of Eden he wore a coat of
skin; but, not long after, according to Professor Hurwitz, the
descendants of Adam wore an upper garment called the simla, which
consisted of a piece of cloth about six yards long and two or three
wide, greatly resembling a blanket (_Ashenhurst_). This might have been
woven from vegetable fibres, perhaps from wool, but in what manner we do
not know. The warp and woof of linen and woolen garments is mentioned in
Leviticus xiii, 47, 48.

[Sidenote: _Dyeing_]

Spinning and weaving have been practised by the Chinese, Hindoos, and
Egyptians for thousands of years and carried by them to great
proficiency. The Israelites were probably familiar with the art of
weaving before their sojourn in Egypt, but it was there that they
attained the skill which enabled them to execute the hangings in the
Tabernacle. Joseph's "coat of many colors" is a proof that dyeing
existed at a very early period, and the eloquent writings of Ezekiel
tell us of the beautiful colored cloths of Tyre and Damascus.

[Sidenote: _Migration of weaving_]

From the ancient world the art of weaving passed through Europe and
became known in England after the Roman conquest. No doubt primitive
weaving with vegetable fibres, and perhaps with wool, was known in a
very crude way before that time. How the art developed, and how
improvement followed improvement, makes very interesting reading for the
student of textile fabrics.

[Sidenote: _Weaving as the first industrial art_]

We know that weaving is the first industrial art practised by primitive
peoples, from the fact that it is found among the savages of Central
Africa (_Park_) and the islands of the sea. "Clavigero, in his history
of Mexico, shows that on the conquest of that country, weaving was found
to be practised by the natives." (_Ashenhurst_.)

[Sidenote: _Egyptian loom_]

[Sidenote: _Method of pushing the woof_]

[Sidenote: _Hindoo loom_]

The Egyptians are supposed to have been inventors of the loom. There
were two kinds in use, one horizontal and the other perpendicular.
Instead of a shuttle they used a stick with a hook at one end, which was
used also as a batten. Herodotus says that it was the practice of the
Egyptians to push the woof downwards, and this method is pictured in
many paintings; but one representation found at Thebes shows a man
pushing it upwards. The former method is, I believe, the one generally
used by all nations, and it certainly seems the easier way. Martin's
description of a Hindoo loom in his "Circle of the Mechanical Arts" is
interesting: "The loom consists merely of two bamboo rollers, one for
the warp and the other for the web, and a pair of gears. The shuttle
performs the double office of shuttle and batten, and for this purpose
is made like a huge netting needle, and of a length somewhat exceeding
the breadth of the cloth. This apparatus the weaver carries to a tree,
under which he digs a hole large enough to contain his legs and the
lower part of the gear. He then stretches his warp by fastening his
bamboo rollers, at a due distance from each other on the turf, by wooden
pins. The balance of the gear he fastens to some convenient branch of
the tree over his head. Two loops underneath the gear, in which he
inserts his great toes, serve instead of treadles, and his long
shuttle, which also performs the office of batten, draws the weft
through the warp, and afterwards strikes it up close to the web."

[Sidenote: _Crude implements used by primitive peoples_]

[Sidenote: _Patience and dexterity necessary_]

Ashenhurst says: "It is very evident that the implements used, not only
by the early Egyptians, but by other contemporaneous nations, and even
by the Hindoos at the present time, were of the rudest possible
character, and nothing but the most exemplary patience, dexterity, and
great delicacy of hand, acquired by long traditionary habit, can account
for the extraordinary beauty and fineness of their textile productions."
This exemplary patience, dexterity, and great delicacy of hand is
exactly what we claim that weaving develops in our children to-day.

[Sidenote: _Primitive loom in the public schools_]

[Sidenote: _Its disadvantages_]

The primitive loom, as it is made for use in the public schools, is
familiar to almost every teacher. It consists of a wooden frame, in the
two ends of which are fastened brads at intervals of half an inch. The
warp is strung around these brads. There is no variation either in the
size of the rug or in the width of the warp to afford opportunity for
different materials. This is a decided objection, as a new frame has to
be made every time a change is desired. The first difficulty encountered
is the drawing in of the sides of the rug, which is almost impossible
to avoid, even with the utmost care. Photographs of work in the leading
educational magazines, as well as samples of teachers' work, all show
the same defect. The Indians obviate this difficulty by twisting two
stout cords in the edge of the woof during the process of weaving. (See
illustration on page 135.) In one school, where the work in this respect
was fairly well done, the teacher was asked how she accomplished the
result. Her reply was, "Oh, I make them pull it out every time it
draws." Poor, patient little fingers! One can imagine the thoughts which
were woven into that imperfect rug by the discouraged little worker.
Another disadvantage of the primitive loom is that the child must bend
over it while weaving, and if, by chance, he turns it over to examine
the other side of the work, the brads are apt to leave an unsightly
impression on the desk.

[Sidenote: _Success in doing_]

One of Froebel's fundamental principles is that a child should never be
_allowed_ to fail--that his work should be so adapted that he will
succeed _every time_, and that he should be led step by step as his
power grows, to something more difficult.

    "One thing is forever good,
    That one thing is success."

We have all experienced the joy of success in one way and another. Let
us help the children to have the same experience.

[Sidenote: _Idea of the "new education"_]

[Sidenote: _Small classes_]

[Sidenote: _Public school conditions_]

The idea of the "new education" is that the child should work out his
own salvation--that having wrestled with the difficulties involved in
weaving on the primitive loom, he should proceed not only to invent, but
to construct a newer and more improved loom. In model schools, where the
classes are limited to ten, or sometimes fewer children, with one
teacher and several assistants, this idea, if carried out, is ideal, and
perhaps practical. But what shall be said of the public-school teacher
who has fifty children and no assistants; or, which is even more
objectionable, and which is the case in many of our crowded schools,
what of the teacher with two sessions of fifty children each? It was the
effort to solve a problem of this kind that led to the invention of the
Todd adjustable hand loom.

[Sidenote: _Description of the Todd loom_]

[Illustration: _The Todd adjustable hand loom, Style b_]

[Sidenote: _The needle_]

[Sidenote: _Finishing the work_]

[Sidenote: _Removing the work_]

The full size of the loom is 10 × 13 inches, upon which a rug 9 × 12
inches can be woven. It is made adjustable to innumerable smaller square
and oblong sizes, by two devices. To regulate the length, the head
piece, which is movable, can be let down on brass buttons, which are
disposed along the sides at intervals of an inch. Perforations are
placed half an inch apart in the head and foot pieces so that the side
rods can be moved inward to regulate the width. They also insure
straight edges, since the woof threads are passed around them as the
work progresses. The rods also serve another important function as
fulcrums upon which the needle may be pressed up and down, so that it
passes more easily over and under the successive warp strings. The
notches are one-sixteenth inch and the teeth one-eighth inch apart,
giving opportunity for warp one-half, three-eighths, and
three-sixteenths inches wide. The loom has an easel support, so that the
pupil need not bend over it--an important consideration in school
classes, and in home work as well. This support makes it possible to use
the loom for an easel in the painting lessons, by resting a piece of
pasteboard against it. The needle, which is longer than the warp is
wide, serves also as a heddle in pressing the woof threads together
evenly. It is furnished with an eye for worsted, chenille, carpet
ravelings, or rope silk, and three slits for rags. To thread the needle
with rags, pass the strip up and down through the slits and _back_ again
_under_ the strip through the first slit. This binds the strip securely.
In finishing the work weave the last few woof threads with a large tape
needle, putting it up and down, over one thread at a time, as you would
sew on canvas. It has been found desirable with children to push about
an inch of woof threads close to the head piece and then fill in the
space. Care should be taken not to pull the woof too tight. If these
directions are followed and the warp is strung correctly the strings
will not slip out of the notches. In adjusting the loom it will be found
that the width from rod to rod is a little more than is required. For
instance, for a rug nine inches wide, the width from rod to rod will be
about nine and one-half inches. This is to allow for the springing
together when the work is finished. To remove it from the loom, pull the
rods gently upward and out. Then lift the warp strings out of the

[Illustration: _The Todd adjustable hand loom, Style a_]

[Sidenote: _Use of the primitive loom_]

The primitive loom can be used by following these same directions, but
the work will, of course, be limited.

[Sidenote: _For school and home work_]

While a great deal of the work is intended for the schoolroom, many
suggestions are given for home weaving, in making various articles for
birthday and holiday gifts.

Chapter Two


[Sidenote: _Weaving defined_]

[Sidenote: _Weaving trains both hands_]

[Sidenote: _The three-fold development_]

Weaving is the art of interlacing threads, yarns, filaments, or strips
of different material, so as to form a cloth or fabric. It is an ideal
occupation, not only for little children, but for older ones as well,
affording admirable opportunities for the development of head, hand, and
heart. It trains both hands in deftness and proves a delight to the
left-handed child, who for the joy of using his left hand again, will
plod patiently across with the right. The fat little hands soon learn to
grasp the large needle, and the nerves and muscles of both hand and arm
are strengthened by daily use. Both hand and eye are trained in
accuracy, and the training in patience, perseverance, industry, economy
in the use of materials, perception, concentration, dexterity, and
self-reliance cannot be overestimated. The heart, too, has its part in
the joy of giving to others, for the children are encouraged to make
little gifts for the home. A consciousness of power comes, also, with
experience; and a sense of self-respect arises when the child realizes
that he is of some use in the world.

[Sidenote: _Knowledge of principles necessary_]

Lois Bates, in her "Kindergarten Guide," says that "in the manufacturing
districts of England great numbers of the children who pass through the
elementary schools are employed in mills where weaving is carried on, or
enter textile schools to learn designing in cloth. If this occupation of
mat-weaving could be continued until the children had a thorough
knowledge of its principles, how much intelligence might be brought to
bear on the actual weaving and how much more pleasure might the worker
draw from labor that is often looked upon as so much mechanical
drudgery!" The keynote for this is the _thorough knowledge_ which is
necessary, whether or not our children are to enter textile schools.
Whatever they do, let them do it thoroughly. It should always be a
question of quality, not quantity.

[Sidenote: _Simple weaving the first essential_]

[Sidenote: _Mats as a preparation for loom weaving_]

[Sidenote: _Slat interlacing and splint work lead to basketry_]

For this reason I have taken up, quite at length, the subject of first
steps in weaving, believing that children should be kept at simple
weaving until they understand the principles thoroughly. The felt and
paper mats prepare the way for loom-weaving; the free paper weaving, and
the slats and splints for basketry. A few suggestions on the use of the
slats and splints have been given for two reasons: First, for the
training which they afford in dexterity and great delicacy of touch, to
say nothing of _exemplary patience_; and second, because the preliminary
training for basketry should be given in the lower primary grades. The
time necessary to train clumsy fingers can hardly be taken from the
regular work in grades where basketry is a prescribed course.

"Skill in the fundamental methods of weaving is essential even as the
fingers must be trained in music before the soul of the musician can
find its expression. Make good baskets first, simple in shape, strong in
texture, suited to the purpose for which they are intended;
unconsciously they will grow beautiful. The most intricate basket will
fail in its purpose if the joinings are careless or flaws in workmanship
permitted. If originality is within the weaver, it will find its
expression, once the principles of weaving are second nature." (_C. S.
Coles._) This is also true of rug and mat weaving, for the aim of all
training should be to bring out the best there is in a child.

[Sidenote: _"Devotedness to duty"_]

    "The longer on this earth we live
    And weigh the various qualities of men,
    The more we feel the high, stern-featured beauty
    Of plain devotedness to duty;
    Steadfast and still, nor paid with mortal praise,
    But finding amplest recompense
    For life's ungarlanded expense
    In work done squarely and unwasted days."

               --_James Russell Lowell._

[Sidenote: _Weaving the foundation for designing_]

[Sidenote: _Honest work begets sympathy with labor_]

[Sidenote: _Interdependence in life_]

The "Kraus-Boelte Guide" has some good suggestions with regard to the
value of paper mat weaving, in number training, and for following
certain formulæ which will lead ultimately to invention. Mme.
Kraus-Boelte says: "Weaving leads to independent effort and offers the
greatest scope for future technical work, for it lays the foundation for
designing. Even though it may not fan into flame a latent spark of
genius, this means of occupation at least tends to show the value of
honest labor." The child not only recognizes the value in honest labor,
but his sympathy with all labor is aroused through his own efforts and
through the stories told of weavers in all lands. He realizes, also,
although in a limited way, the interdependence of the whole world. If
the sun did not shine, and the rain fall, there would be no grass. If
there were no grass, what would the sheep do? If the sheep did not give
any wool, what would the weaver do? If the weaver could not weave, what
would we do for clothes? Little children are always delighted to go back
to the beginning of things. Oh, the joy of looking back on one's school
days! As Friedrich Richter has truly said, "Recollection is the only
paradise from which no man can be driven."

[Sidenote: _Some difficulties_]

[Sidenote: _A bit of experience_]

[Sidenote: _One solution_]

[Sidenote: _Community feeling continued_]

One important thought in this whole subject is that the work should be
so arranged as not to add any additional burden to the already crowded
life of the teacher. It is a lamentable fact that we have overcrowded
rooms, and only one pair of hands to do all that has to be done. Perhaps
a bit of the author's own experience will be of some assistance. After
looking the subject squarely in the face and considering it on all
sides, the writer came to the conclusion that it would be an
impossibility to do all the work alone. So some helpers were called from
the pupils of the higher grades, and the request met such a hearty
response that it was wondered why it had not been tried before. As it is
now arranged the older girls come in before school and at recess. They
wind worsted, correct any knitting that may be wrong, start new spools,
string looms, cut material for rugs, water plants, keep the closets
where the materials are stored in order, and do many other things which
relieve in a great measure the burden of detail. When it is possible,
the teacher should choose girls who have a sister or brother in the
room, because their interest is stronger and more lasting. Of course,
some training is necessary, but the result compensates for the trouble.
Sometimes the work in other grades can be so planned that the children
can make paper mats, etc., for use in the first grade. The beautiful
community feeling begun in the kindergarten can thus be continued in the
public school. The time will come when boys and girls in the higher
grades will design patterns for the younger children to weave.

[Sidenote: _Nature knows no hurry_]

Take plenty of time in the first part of the year to teach the children
to work well. "Time is nothing when _power_ is growing." There are some
children who learn faster than others and they are always delighted to
go about the room and help the slower ones. It will sometimes be found
that they know just how to explain a difficult point--perhaps because
they have just conquered it themselves.

[Sidenote: _A child's work should be suited to his capacity, without
regard to grade_]

[Sidenote: _Train the individual_]

No work has been specified as suited to any particular grade. It should
depend entirely upon the children. While, for convenience, courses in
industrial training are planned, advising certain lines of work which
experience has proved the best for first, second, or third grade, there
are in every school, certain children who have more manual than mental
ability. These are left behind as the more favored ones are promoted,
and because a certain course has been recommended for that particular
grade, they must, perforce, do it all over again. Instead of bringing
out the best in these less fortunate ones, and developing and
strengthening their minds through the hand by offering something not
only new and interesting, but which presents new difficulties to
conquer, we stunt their growth by giving them the same baby work term
after term. It is time that earnest teachers considered this important
question. Let us give up training the _mass_ and begin to train the
_individual_. Through our interest in them they may find their life
work. If a child in the first grade is prepared to do any industrial
work of a higher grade, no matter how dull he may otherwise be, by all
means let him do it. It is his way of expressing what lies within him.
Not only will his hand and mind be trained thereby, but his heart will
be filled with the joy that always comes through achievement.

[Sidenote: _Value of hand training_]

[Sidenote: _If you would develop morality in a child, train him to

[Sidenote: _Making citizens_]

Hand training has been found to be of great value in all other work. The
children are brighter, and seem better able to grasp an idea. The slow
children are also stimulated, and in doing the simple work well are
preparing for that which is more difficult. Impression and expression
should go hand in hand. We know nothing of "the bad boy," now that we
have found something for his restless fingers to do. "The habit of
methodical work is the basis of all ethics." In teaching children to do
their best, we are training citizens. Some one has facetiously remarked
that, "In the making of a good citizen it is necessary to catch your
citizen early." We cannot get hold of the anarchists, but we can get
hold of their children, and in the training of them to work lies their
salvation. Formation is better than reformation.

[Sidenote: _Formation, not reformation_]

[Sidenote: _New applications for old teachings_]

Verily, there is nothing new under the sun. We hie ourselves to the
summer schools, and return laden with new ideas--when lo! it dawns upon
us that all we have done during the hot days has been to make a new
application of what Froebel taught the world before we were born. So in
this introduction, an old story has been retold, but I hope that it will
come with a new meaning to my fellow teachers.

Chapter Three


[Sidenote: _Felt mats and slats_]

[Sidenote: _Demonstration cards and diagrams_]

The principles of weaving are very easily learned with felt mats and
slats. One-half a yard of felt two yards wide will make thirty-six mats
six inches square. These are very durable, and can be used year after
year, if protected from moth during the summer. Some prefer leather or
oil-cloth mats, backed with heavy unbleached muslin, but they are more
expensive, and not so pleasant to work with as the soft wool. The slats,
which should be at least one-half an inch wide, can be obtained at any
kindergarten supply store. Buy the uncolored slats and dye them
yourself. Dark green mats, woven with deep red slats, are pretty. The
slats are easier to handle if they are soaked and cut the required
length before dyeing. When the six-inch mats are cut, allow a
three-quarter-inch margin on all sides. Measure the mat for
one-half-inch strips, of which there will be nine, and mark by snapping
a chalked string upon the mat. Double it with chalked lines outside and
commence to cut from the center; then open and finish cutting to the
margin. It would be better for very little children if the strips and
slats could be one inch wide. In this case the mats would, of course, be
larger, and it might be necessary to have the slats made to order. The
slats should be kept in little bundles containing the required number,
and secured by rubber bands. If one could have plenty of time and
material it would be a good plan to have several sets of mats of
different sizes, so that the children would not always be confined to
one number and its combinations in a certain set of patterns--in this
case, nine--but have the pleasure which comes from variety.
Demonstration cards and diagrams for weaving can be obtained at the
kindergarten and school-supply stores. An illustration of an excellent
demonstration frame can be seen in the "Kindergarten Guide," by Lois
Bates. Sample mats can be woven by the older children from the designs
in any of the "Guides," and given to the smaller children to copy.

[Sidenote: _Purpose of practice mats_]

[Sidenote: _Do not deceive the child_]

When the purpose of these practice mats is understood there can be no
objection to them on the ground that the work is destroyed by pulling
out the slats each time. It is not an unusual thing to see in schools,
and even in kindergartens, faithful and conscientious teachers remaining
after hours to pull out the slats, on the principle, perhaps, that what
the children do not see will not affect their development, and the
innocent little bundles are given out again on the morrow, only to
undergo the same experience at night. One wonders sometimes if this is
possibly within the definition of deception. "We mount to the summit,
round by round," and when the children understand that in doing the work
with the slats well, they are only learning _how_, and that each
successful attempt brings the delightful day nearer when they may have a
loom to work upon, they are perfectly satisfied.

[Sidenote: _Long slat weaving_]

When the children have learned to weave the small mats, further practice
can be had by weaving long slats into a warp of cord on the loom. It is
better to conquer the mystery of "over and under" in this way than to
undo the work and wear out the material after making a mistake.

[Sidenote: _Paper mats_]

Many teachers prefer to make the practice mats of paper because they are
cheaper. Heavy paper, in desirable colors, can be obtained at the
wholesale paper houses, and for a small sum can be cut in squares of any
required size. Mats can be made more durable by pasting them on heavy
muslin before cutting. In many schools children in grades above the
entering room prepare their own mats by measuring with tablets or rulers
and then drawing and cutting on the lines. When they have learned to do
them well, let each child make one for the entering room. Nothing
strengthens the community feeling so much in a school as to encourage
the older pupils to help the younger.

[Sidenote: _Mat weaving in the kindergarten_]

The mat-weaving, as it is done in the kindergarten, is very beautiful
and fascinating work. The mats can be obtained in any size and any width
of strips at the supply stores. The weaving is done with a long steel
needle which has a spring at one end to hold the strip. After
preliminary work with the felt mats and slats the children find
themselves able to weave quite independently, particularly if
demonstration cards or sample mats are placed before the class. An
infinite variety of patterns, which later will be useful in
wool-weaving, can be found in the "Kindergarten Guides." In weaving
patterns having a center, it is better to weave two strips at once,
pushing one to the top and one to the bottom of the mat. The old numbers
of the Godey and Peterson magazines have patterns for Berlin wool and
bead work which can be used for the paper mats with good effect. Mrs.
Kate Douglas Wiggin (Mrs. Riggs) has some good suggestions for invention
in weaving, in her "Republic of Childhood" (Occupations). The value of
weaving in number work is also admirably set forth in this book.

[Sidenote: _Gifts_]

At Christmas time many charming little gifts can be made of these mats.
Sachet cases made of a six or eight inch square, with four corners
folded to the center, are attractive. Inclose a square of wadding, in
which a pinch of heliotrope or white rose perfume powder has been
hidden, and fasten the corners together with a scrap picture of old
Santa Claus.

Slat work is useful in learning the fundamental principles of weaving,
although this work is more closely related to basket than to rug
weaving. It is an excellent preparation for the free-paper weaving, and
is also a step toward basket work.

[Sidenote: _Interlacing slats_]

In interlacing slats the mystery of "over and under" is solved and the
dependence of one slat upon another in making a perfect whole is shown
in a forcible way, particularly when the form falls to pieces in the
attempt to lift it from the table. Edward Wiebe says in his "Paradise
of Childhood": "It was the _one_ slat which, owing to its dereliction in
performing its duty, destroyed the figure and prevented all the other
slats from performing theirs." One experience of this kind will teach
more than a thousand precepts. The geometrical forms learned in the
sense-training lessons can be reproduced with the slats and will thus be
impressed upon the mind during the period of busy work at the desk. A
series of beautiful designs is published by E. Steiger, New York. Many
designs may be grouped for decoration, and single symmetrical figures
can be mounted upon heavy paper.

[Sidenote: _Free-paper weaving_]

[Sidenote: _Sequence_]

Free-paper weaving requires quite a little skill of hand and a great
deal of patience before the child can achieve a successful result.
Perhaps a few words regarding it, and information about a simple
sequence of paper patterns, will not be out of place, since so many are
to-day taking it up. Strips of manilla paper forty inches long and one
inch wide are used. These are cut into strips eight inches, sixteen
inches, twenty inches, and twenty-four inches in length. For the first
pattern of the sequence take four strips eight inches long and double
each one. Hold two of them side by side in the left hand, so that the
open ends of the outer strip are at the top while those of the other are
at the bottom. With the right hand inclose the first strip in the left
hand with one of the remaining double strips and pass the ends of the
latter between the two ends of the second strip. Then hold the work in
the right hand and proceed in the same way with the left hand. When both
strips are in, draw them tight and they will be firmly woven. The ends
can be cut in any way desired. These little forms can be used for
bookmarks. They are very attractive when made in two tones of one color.

[Illustration: _Sequence in paper weaving_]

[Sidenote: _Sequence weaving_]

The second pattern of the sequence is made with sixteen-inch strips.
The first part is woven like the bookmark. Four double strips now
project from the square. Begin at the bottom and fold back the _upper_
one of each of these double strips. As you do this you will find that
you are weaving another square on top of the first one. To secure the
last strip pass it under the square next to it and pull it through. You
will now have eight single strips, two on each side. To form these into
points for a star proceed as follows: Begin with the right-hand strip at
the top and number all the strips from one to eight. Fold number one
back toward the right, making at the fold a right-angled triangle. Fold
the strip down again towards you, making another triangle which is
folded back to the left on the first one. Slip the end of the strip
under the square next to it and cut it off. Proceed in the same way with
three, five, and seven. Then turn the form over and fold the strips two,
four, six, and eight in the same way, cutting off the strips when
finished. Many of these stars can be joined to make mats, baskets,
picture frames, etc. They are pretty when made of gilt or colored paper
for Christmas decorations.

[Sidenote: _Sequence weaving_]

Pattern number three, a bookmark, is made like the first, except that
eight strips of sixteen-inch length are used and the strips woven at
right and left are finished as directed for the mat. Number four is
another form like this, with the long ends back and front slipped
through squares to form a napkin ring. Number five is a six-inch mat
made of twelve twenty-inch strips. Weave six double strips left and
right into two strips and then add four to make the square. To finish
the edge cut off the _under_ one of each double strip, fold the upper
one over it and then slip it under the square which comes next, cutting
it off even. Strips of felt can be woven in this way for table mats or

The sixth pattern is a pencil holder or a basket, as you may wish. It
may be round or square on the bottom--in the latter case the sides are
creased to form a square prism. Double twelve twenty-four-inch strips,
weave eight right and left into four; finish one long edge for the top
of the basket as you did the edge for the mat. Bend in the form of a
ring and slip the ends as you did for the napkin ring, cutting them off.
To make the bottom, crease all the projecting ends in and weave together
as you did the second part of number two only double, and fasten the
strips on the _outside_ of the basket. This makes a good waste basket
for the doll house. With a cover it would make a fine hamper for Miss
Dolly's clothes.

[Illustration: _Examples of splint work_]

[Sidenote: _Weaving with splints_]

This free weaving leads directly to weaving with splints. These are much
thinner than slats and can be obtained at the kindergarten supply
stores. Many beautiful things can be made with splints. They are easily
dyed at home and many pleasing combinations of color can be obtained in
this way. Celluloid strips make beautiful boxes and baskets.

[Sidenote: "_Jacob's ladder_"]

A delightful exercise with the small children is the making of a
"Jacob's ladder," or "Pussy-cat stairs," as they are often called. Fold
a forty-inch strip of paper, one inch wide, so as to form a right-angle
in the middle. Or, if a longer ladder be desired, place one end of a
forty-inch strip over the end of another one, at right angles, and
fasten with a drop of paste. Fold from left to right, one strip upon the
other, until you come to the end; then pull out, and behold the stairs!
The fat and clumsy little fingers will work patiently a long time to
achieve this charming result, and much skill of hand will be gained in
the doing. Use colored paper for this whenever possible.

[Illustration: _A skirt for winter_]

[Illustration: _A mitten and a cap_]

The illustrations on this and on the following page show some
fascinating work for little hands. The looms are made of heavy
pasteboard cut in notches, in which the warp of the same material as
the woof is strung. Care should be taken to keep the warp straight, and
to finish all the edges well. The articles in the illustrations were
made by first-grade children in the Ericcson School, St. Paul, Minn.

[Illustration: _A sweater for the doll_]

Chapter Four


[Sidenote: _Warp of three widths_]

The adjustable loom can be strung with warp of three widths, one-half
inch, three-eighths inch, and three-sixteenths inch, thus giving
opportunity for a variety of materials.

For heavy rags, candle wicking, etc., wind the warp strings around three
teeth in the head and foot pieces. This will give a warp of one-half
inch--that is, one-half inch from one string to the other.

For silk, silkoline, finer rags, carpet ravelings, double wool, etc.,
wind the warp strings around two teeth, thus making a warp of
three-eighths inches.

[Sidenote: _Kindergarten patterns_]

For double wool, worsted, rope silk, chenille, or raffia, where one
wishes to reproduce kindergarten designs, as in paper-weaving, place the
warp strings around one tooth only. This makes a close warp of
three-sixteenths inch, which helps to form the design with the woof
threads. In this case the warp should be of the same material as the
woof. In kindergarten patterns the woof threads determine the color
effect. It is better to have the children weave the pattern first with
practice mats and slats, particularly if they have never had experience
in the kindergarten. Suggestions for weaving kindergarten designs are
given under the head of _Raffia_.

[Sidenote: _Plaids_]

For a plaid effect, string the warp at regular intervals, with different
colors. Then weave the same colors at equal intervals to form the plaid.
(See illustrations, pages 92, 98, and 101.) Shawls, carriage blankets,
etc., woven in this way are very attractive.

[Sidenote: _Stripes_]

A striped warp is strung in the same way. (See illustrations, pages 101
and 117.) The stripes could be continued through the mat, if desired, by
weaving only _one_ color in the woof. By weaving _two_ colors squares
are obtained such as those seen in the corners.

[Sidenote: _Materials for warp_]

For weaving with carpet ravelings or rags, and sometimes double wool,
where a plain effect is desired, the warp should be of common twine, as
near the color of the work as possible. Carpet thread is good,
especially for the double warp in Turkish rugs. Balls of warp string can
be obtained at department stores. Oriental cord comes in several colors,
and can be had at a few cents a ball at the notion and stationery
counters in department stores.

[Sidenote: _How to string a warp_]

The warp should always be one continuous string, and several inches
should be left at each end in order to fasten securely when the work is
finished. If preferred, the warp ends can be fastened before the weaving
is commenced. Care should be taken to place the first and last strings
of the warp directly _over_ the rods, and, in weaving, to pass the woof
threads entirely around the _rods and strings_ to insure straight edges.
The ends of wool warp threads should be wound in and out of the notches
to the right and left of rods, to fasten them until the weaving is
finished. It sometimes happens that little children, and more especially
those who are blind, pull up the warp strings when near the end of the
work. In such cases it is a good plan to pass a rubber band _over_ the
warp strings at the top of the loom and _behind_ the bars, back of the
head piece, making it set up close by putting it around one tooth at
each end. In this way the warp strings cannot possibly slip out of the

[Sidenote: _Splicing with a weaver's knot_]

[Sidenote: _A raffia warp_]

Some teachers splice the warp with a weaver's knot, an illustration of
which can be seen in any large dictionary. The continuous string is to
be preferred, however, as experience has proved that even a weaver's
knot will sometimes fail to stand the stress of weaving. It is very
difficult to splice a warp of raffia. It is better to knot the warp
threads in pairs (see directions, page 46), leaving two or three inches
beyond the head and foot. These ends may be used for a fringe by tearing
very fine, or they may be run down in the woven part with a darning
needle, as rattan is run down in basket work.

[Sidenote: _To fasten wool or silk warp strings_]

[Sidenote: _When the warp is correct_]

When the weaving is done and the mat lifted from the loom, the ends of
the wool warp strings can be run in along the sides with a tape needle.
If the warp be of twine, it is better to tie the end to the next warp
string and allow the fringe to cover the knot; or, as in the case of
silkoline, the woof strips can be caught over the warp strings with silk
of the same color in order to hide them. Only experience can teach the
tightness with which a warp should be strung. Worsted, carpet thread and
twine will stretch as the work progresses, and raffia will not. If the
warp be too loose the work will be uneven and the strings will slip out
of the notches. If it be too tight it will be difficult to finish the
last two or three inches and the woof threads will look crowded. The
best test is to place the hand upon the warp before commencing to weave.
If it feels firm and does not push down too easily, but springs
slightly beneath the hand, it is probably correct.

[Sidenote: _To string a warp for fringe_]

[Sidenote: _To string the warp threads in pairs_]

Where the warp is of the same material as the woof and it is desired to
extend it to form a fringe, it can be done in the following manner:
After the loom is adjusted for the size required, cut the warp strings
so as to allow two or three inches beyond the head and foot pieces. If
you intend to knot the fringe in some fanciful way after the weaving is
finished, allow four or five inches. Take two threads, knot so as to
leave the required length for fringe below the foot piece, then pass
around one or two teeth, as the case may be, draw tightly to the head
piece and knot firmly on the upper side, leaving a fringe of the same
length there. Knot the strings in pairs in this way until the whole warp
is strung. It will be noticed that the rods are placed beneath the
notches of odd numbers. In knotting warp strings in pairs it will be
found necessary, when the last tooth is reached, to do one of two
things--either allow one string to lie beyond the rod, or, having strung
the warp within one tooth of the rod, to start the next string in the
_same_ notch, bringing the two strings together. This will bring one
string on top of the rod and none beyond. In the first case, the string
beyond the rod must be taken up in weaving with the one on top of the
rod. Experience has proved the second method to be the better one.

[Sidenote: _Double warp for Turkish rugs, etc., with fringe_]

Kiz-Kilim rugs have perforated or open-work patterns. To produce this
effect string a _double_ warp through every notch in the foot and head
pieces; that is, use two strings in each notch, tying in pairs for
fringe as before. Use a brownish white carpet thread. With strong black
thread string through every other notch to outline perpendicular sides
of squares in the pattern. Your warp will be strung three-sixteenths
inch, but the black threads will be three-eighths inch. This will enable
you to keep the patterns straight as the work progresses.

[Illustration: _A Kiz-Kilim rug pattern_]

[Sidenote: _Patterns for Turkish rugs_]

In drawing designs for Turkish rugs, where the pattern is to be placed
under the warp, it is better to make a squared paper first. Lay the head
piece of the loom upon unlined paper. Place a dot at every other notch.
Draw perpendicular lines first, then dot for horizontal lines. The
result will be a foundation to fit your loom. If the squared paper of
the kindergarten be used the squares will be either too large or too
small to correspond with the notches in the loom. It will be found very
easy to transfer a pattern from a rug to the paper. Fasten the pattern
under the warp by overhanding to the rods, taking care to have the black
strings directly over the perpendicular lines in the pattern.

[Sidenote: _Patterns for Navajo blankets_]

Patterns for Navajo blankets are usually triangular. Draw on unlined
paper and fasten under the warp as before.

[Sidenote: _To string a continuous warp for long strips_]

Rugs and similar articles may be made of any length by stringing a
continuous warp. After the length has been decided upon, cut the warp
strings _twice_ as long. Place the middle of one string around the first
tooth of the foot piece (or two or three, according to the width of warp
desired) and bring up the two ends firmly to the first tooth in the head
piece. Knot securely and let the long ends extend beyond the head piece.
If desired they can be wound on spools, or around the tops of the rods,
to prevent tangling. Continue until all the warp is strung. Observe the
instructions given before for stringing warp strings in pairs. It is not
necessary to weave the loom full each time, as the last inch is very
slow work, but when the weaving is near the head piece draw out the
rods, lift it from the notches, pass it down to the foot piece so that
the part which was at the head is now at the foot, untie the knots so
that the work will lie close to the foot piece and knot the warp strings
as before at the head piece. This can be done as many times as desired.

[Sidenote: _Methods of fastening long strips together_]

For afghans, slumber robes, couch covers, etc., crochet with plain
stitch or baste on oil-cloth and weave together with tape needle, making
it as nearly like the original weaving as possible. By studying Turkish
rugs and curtains one can learn how to put strips together with a fancy
stitch somewhat like our feather stitch.

Strips for floor rugs should be basted on oil-cloth and the warp strings
in the two edges caught together at intervals, running the connecting
thread _through_ the loops so as to be invisible. Finish the outside
edges by stitching on a tape of the same color, by machine.

[Sidenote: _Table covers, afghans, slumber robes, or large rugs_]

By making several of these long strips and fastening them together one
can have a table cover, afghan, slumber robe, or a large rug.

[Sidenote: _Floor rugs_]

The floor rug shown in the illustration on page 100 (1-1/4 yards by 3/4
yard) is woven in strips with a continuous warp. The center strip is
one yard long and nine inches wide. It is made of deep cardinal carpet
wool. The strips of black, nine inches wide at the sides and ends,
terminate diagonally, as seen in the illustration. The black diagonal
lines show where the weaving ends. The warp is then tied and cut close
to the weaving. The strips are to be sewn or crocheted together.

[Sidenote: _Fine weaving_]

[Sidenote: _To produce a design with the woof_]

For very fine weaving, where it is necessary for the warp threads to
_touch_ each other in order to produce a design with the woof, string a
_double_ warp in every notch with the same material. Then, with a tape
needle, separate the warp threads, twist one over the other so that all
will lie side by side, and secure them by weaving a few times across the
loom. By using this method, one can have a close warp on the wooden

[Sidenote: _Warp for doll towels_]

In stringing warp in pairs for doll towels, have two strings on each bar
and one extending one notch beyond at each side. This makes a good
fringe for the edges of the towel.

Chapter Five


[Sidenote: _Silkoline_]

Plain and figured silkoline should be cut in bias strips one-half inch
wide. Stretch and pull through the hands until both edges are raveled.
When these strips are woven, the rug or mat will be reversible. Figured
silkolines give a pretty mottled effect, especially those in which
Turkish colors predominate. Rugs having plain centers and mottled
borders are beautiful. A full-sized rug requires nearly two yards of

[Sidenote: _Cheese cloth_]

Strips of cheese cloth can be prepared in the same way. Cut them
three-fourths inch wide on account of the tendency to ravel. Serviceable
face and dish cloths can be made of white cheese cloth. Some of the
colored cheese cloths make pretty rugs. When a desirable color cannot be
found, the white cloth can be dyed at home.

[Sidenote: _Dress linings_]

Soft dress linings come in many beautiful colors. Old pieces may be
utilized by cleaning and dyeing. The pieces are cut in bias strips,
one-half inch in width.

[Sidenote: _Silk_]

Pieces of old silk can also be prepared in this way. One can often
obtain new pieces at dressmaking establishments.

[Sidenote: _Candle-wicking_]

Table mats, wash cloths, and similar articles can be made from
candle-wicking. For lamp mats, cushion covers, and other articles the
material may be dyed and woven in two colors, or in two tones of one
color. A number of squares can be joined to make a hammock pillow. By
stringing a close warp with white or colored wicking and weaving over
and under one string with the same material, a coarse canvas can be
made, upon which the children can cross-stitch a pretty border and
center piece, or an all-over pattern by copying the kindergarten
designs, or even initials and monograms. Most of the canvas sold at the
stores, even the old Java canvas of our childhood days, is too fine for
little children to work upon. In canvas made of candle-wicking by the
child himself, the squares are large, and to this there is the added
pleasure of the child being able to say when the work is finished, "I
did it all myself."

[Sidenote: _Rope silk, or ropetine_]

Beautiful silk canvas can be made of rope silk and cross-stitched with
another color or tone, or with chenille, making a velvet figure. This
material is, of course, more expensive. Two colors or two tones may be
woven with chenille and silk in a kindergarten design. Beautiful holiday
and birthday gifts can be made from these materials, such as mats,
cushion covers, and sachet cases. Glove, mouchoir, necktie, fan, and
trinket boxes can be made by weaving the top, bottom, and sides in
panels. Foundation boxes, which may be purchased for a few cents, are
excellent for this purpose, or they can be made very well at home from
three-ply cardboard. Make the hinges of ribbon and line the boxes with
silk of a corresponding or contrasting color.

[Sidenote: _Carpet ravelings_]

Carpet ravelings may be obtained from the carpet stores, or pieces of
carpet can be raveled by the children. Let them have the pleasure and
benefit which come from sorting the ravelings. It is an excellent lesson
in color, besides developing the patience, concentration,
discrimination, and judgment so much to be desired in other work. After
the wool is sorted--not before, because it is not all fast color--dip in
water, wring, and let the children straighten it gently, one piece at a
time. This will make it as smooth and soft as new wool. Procure some
small boxes--shoe boxes are a good size--place one color in a box with a
sample fastened outside at one end, and pile them upon a low shelf or
window sill. Train the children to go to the "play store" to match their
own wool. If they go quietly, one at a time, no one is disturbed and
each child gains in knowledge of color as well as in independence. A
little management of this kind helps the teacher as well as the child.

[Sidenote: _Carpet wools_]

New wools of various kinds and beautiful colors can be bought in large
quantities from dealers in materials for industrial work. In some carpet
departments you will find oriental wools which are used to mend rugs,
and a small quantity can be bought. Some of the kindergarten supply
stores and decoration companies have already advertised a stock of these

[Sidenote: _Double Germantown wool_]

[Sidenote: _Germantown knitting yarn_]

An ideal material for little folks is double Germantown wool. The soft
wool, used for both warp and woof, is excellent for weaving kindergarten
designs. This should be done with a close warp, which may be extended
each side of the head and foot piece as a fringe. By extending the warp
any length desired beyond the head piece, long strips for slumber robes,
afghans, and such articles can be woven. The warp may be strung with
twine as near the color of the wool as possible, and a plain rug be
made, with colored stripes at each end. A very pretty and easy gift for
a little child to make is a holder for the teapot, as described on page
92. The Germantown knitting yarn, which is more tightly twisted, makes
very pretty rugs and mats. It is sometimes used for Navajo blankets.

[Sidenote: _Darning cotton_]

White dolls'-towels, with red or blue stripes, are made of darning
cotton. Baste a small piece of canvas at one end and cross-stitch Miss
Dolly's initial.

[Sidenote: _Knitting cotton_]

Plain white bedspreads, or white combined with a color in a kindergarten
design, can be made of knitting cotton which is a little coarser than
darning cotton. Knot a fringe on all sides. Lunch cloths and table
covers for Miss Dolly can be made in the same way.

[Sidenote: _Macremé cord_]

Macremé cord is the best material for hammocks. It comes in many
beautiful colors, at a few cents a ball.

[Sidenote: _Leather strips_]

To weave a kindergarten design in two colors of leather strips, have the
leather cut the desired width, and fasten them to a piece of strong
muslin at the top and bottom of the mat or panel. Fit the muslin over
the teeth in head and foot pieces by cutting a small opening.

[Sidenote: _Celluloid strips_]

[Sidenote: _Leather strips_]

Celluloid strips may be treated in the same way. Leather and celluloid
strips can be woven free-hand like the paper strips.

[Sidenote: _Raffia_]

Many beautiful articles can be made of raffia, which is a palm fibre
brought from the island of Madagascar. It can be obtained in the natural
color at most of the department stores, the kindergarten supply houses,
and the florists. The cost is usually 20 cents or 25 cents per pound,
although the florists will sell a few cents' worth. It can be dyed
easily, and with little expense, with Diamond or aniline dyes. It should
first be washed. Care should be taken, in the selection, to obtain long,
smooth pieces which will be at least one-half inch wide when wet, and of
an even color. Some of the raffia is musty and badly spotted. It is well
to wet all of it first, then straighten and allow it to dry. While
weaving, keep the raffia moist by dipping the fingers now and then in a
cup of water. Experience has proved this method to be more satisfactory
than to allow the raffia to remain in water and become thoroughly
soaked, particularly the colored raffia. If one cares to expend money
instead of time and trouble, the raffia can be dyed in very beautiful
colors at the dye houses.

[Sidenote: _Shetland wool_]

Blankets for Miss Dolly can be made of the soft Shetland wool and
Germantown zephyr. For bed blankets, cream color, with stripes of two
or more colors, are very attractive. Carriage blankets made with white
centers and colored borders, or with a tone for the center and a shade
for the border, are a great addition to the carriage, as well as a
source of comfort to the little occupant. Bind the edges with ribbon and
run a narrow one through the beading formed by taking out the extra
rods. This ribbon can be run all around the center part by leaving out a
few woof threads at the top and bottom.

[Sidenote: _Knitting silk_]

By stringing a close warp of knitting silk and extending it the required
length, shawl-straps, suspenders, belts, and garters can be woven. The
rods should be adjusted for the desired width. Finish at each end with
pieces of silk elastic of the same color, and with buckles.

[Sidenote: _Angora wool_]

Angora wool makes pretty Tam O'Shanters. Initials can be woven in any

[Sidenote: _Books of patterns_]

Small books containing cross-stitch designs can be found at the German
and French embroidery stores in large cities--sometimes, but rarely, at
the art counter in department stores. The "Kindergarten Guides" can be
obtained at most public libraries, or a kindergartner friend will be
glad to loan one.

Chapter Six


[Sidenote: _Diamond dyes_]

A few hints with regard to dyeing raffia, cheese cloth, white cord for
hammocks, and other materials, may be found useful. For raffia use the
Diamond dyes which are intended for wool or silk. Wash the raffia first.
The color will be improved by soaking the raffia a day in alum water,
one-half pound to the gallon. Dye once used can be kept in an air-tight
dish and reheated whenever needed.

[Sidenote: _Vegetable dyes_]

Should one be interested in vegetable dyes much information can be
obtained at the public libraries. Dr. Washington Matthews speaks of
Indian dyes in his article on the Navajo weavers mentioned in this book.
"How to Make and How to Mend" also contains some good suggestions about

[Sidenote: _Mrs. Candace Wheeler's pamphlet_]

In her little pamphlet, _Home Industries and Domestic Weavings_,
published by the Associated Artists, 115 East 23d Street, New York City,
Mrs. Candace Wheeler has an interesting chapter on "Rag-Carpet Weaving."
Her suggestions for dyeing rags apply equally to yarns and to other
materials which may be used on hand looms for children. Through her kind
permission I am allowed to quote the following suggestions:

[Sidenote: _Uses of the indigo tub_]

"In the early days of this present century a dye tub was as much a
necessity in every house as a spinning-wheel, and the reëstablishment of
it in houses where weaving is practiced is almost a necessity; in fact,
it would be of far greater use at present than in the days when it was
only used to dye the wool needed for family knitting and weaving. All
shades of blue, from sky-blue to blue-black, can be dyed in the indigo
tub; and it has the merit of being a cheap as well as an almost
perfectly fast dye. It could be used for dyeing warps as well as
fillings, and I have before spoken of the difficulty, indeed almost
impossibility, of procuring indigo-dyed carpet yarn.

[Sidenote: _Blue universally used_]

[Sidenote: _Green_]

"Blue is, perhaps, more universally useful than any other color in
rag-rug making, since it is safe for both cotton and wool, and covers a
range from the white rug with blue warp, the blue rug with white warp,
through all varieties of shade to the dark blue, or clouded blue and
green rug, also, upon white warp. It can also be used in connection with
yellow or orange, or with copperas or walnut dye, in different shades
of green; and, in short, unless one has exceptional advantages in buying
rags from woolen mills, I can hardly imagine a profitable industry of
rag-weaving established in any farmhouse without the existence of an
indigo dyeing tub.

[Sidenote: _Red_]

[Sidenote: _Copperas_]

[Sidenote: _Dull green_]

"The next important color is red. Fortunately, red warps can be bought
which are reasonably fast, but the only way to procure red rags in
quantity is to dye them, and, although the dye is somewhat expensive,
there are two colors, turkey red and cardinal red, which are extremely
good for the purpose. Probably these could be bought at wholesale from
dealers in chemicals and dyestuffs at much cheaper rates than by the
small paper from the druggist or the country store. Copperas gives a
fast nankeen-colored dye, and this is very useful in making a dull green
by an after dip in the indigo tub.

[Sidenote: _Domestic dyes_]

[Sidenote: _Nut stains_]

[Sidenote: _Leaf stains_]

[Sidenote: _Iron rust_]

[Sidenote: _Ink stains_]

"There are some valuable domestic dyes which are within the reach of
every country dweller, the cheapest and best of which is walnut or
butternut stain. This is made by steeping the bark of the tree or the
shell of the nut until the water is dark with color, and setting it with
alum. It will give various shades of yellow, brown, dark brown, and
green brown, according to the strength of the decoction or the state of
the bark or nut when used. If the bark of the nut is used when green,
the result will be a yellow brown; and this stain is also valuable in
making a green tint when an after dip of blue is added. Leaves and
tree-bark will give a brown with a very green tint, and these different
shades used in different rags woven together give a very agreeably
clouded effect. Walnut stain will itself set or fasten some others; for
instance, pokeberry stain, which is a lovely crimson, can be made
reasonably fast by setting it with walnut juice. Iron rust is the most
indelible of all stains, besides being a most agreeable yellow, and it
is not hard to obtain, as bits of old iron left standing in water will
soon manufacture it. It would be a good use for old tin saucepans, and
various other house utensils which have come to a state of
mischievousness instead of usefulness. Ink gives various shades of gray
according to its strength, but it would be cheaper to purchase it in the
form of logwood than as ink.

[Sidenote: _Vegetable dyes_]

"There is a strong and well-founded preference among art producers in
favor of vegetable dyes, and yet it is possible to use certain of the
aniline colors, especially in combination, in safe and satisfactory

[Sidenote: _The variety of shades_]

"Everyone who undertakes domestic weaving must know how to dye one or
two good colors. Black, of course, and the half-black, or gray, which a
good colorist of my acquaintance calls _a light black_. Indigo blue
equally, of course, in three shades of very dark and light. Here are
seven shades from the three dyes, and when we add white we see that the
weaver is already very well equipped with a variety of color. The eight
shades can be still further enlarged by clouding and mixing. The mixing
can be done in two ways, either by carding two tints together before
spinning, or by twisting them together when spun.

[Sidenote: _Carding and twisting_]

"Carding together gives a very much better effect in wool, while
twisting together is preferable in cotton.

[Sidenote: _Blue_]

[Sidenote: _Pink_]

[Sidenote: _Gray_]

[Sidenote: _Clouding_]

"Dark blue and white and medium blue and white wool carded together will
give two blue grays which cannot be obtained by dyeing, and are most
valuable. White and red carded together give a lovely pink, and any
shade of gray can be made by carding different proportions of black and
white or half-black and white. A valuable gray is made by carding black
and white wool together, and by black wool I mean the natural black or
brownish wool of black sheep. Mixing of deeply dyed and white wool
together in carding is, artistically considered, a very valuable
process, as it gives a softness of color which it is impossible to get
in any other way. Clouding, which is almost an indispensable process for
rug centers, can be done by winding certain portions of the skeins or
hanks of yarn very tightly and closely with twine before they are thrown
into the dye pot. The winding must be close enough to prevent the dye
penetrating to the yarn. This means, of course, when the clouding is to
be of white and another color. If it is to be two shades of one color,
as a light and medium blue, the skein is first dyed a light blue, and
after drying, is wound as I have described, and thrown again into the
dye pot, until the unwound portions become the darker blue which we call

[Sidenote: _Mrs. Albee's manual_]

Through the courtesy of Mrs. Helen R. Albee, who has done much to revive
an interest in rug-weaving, I am allowed to quote the following detailed
suggestions on the subject of dyeing from her helpful manual, _Abnákee
Rugs_. This little manual treats fully of the "Abnákee Rug Industry,"
the "Materials," "Methods of Work," and "Dye Formulas." It was issued
through the Riverside Press in 1901.

Speaking of combinations of color, Mrs. Albee says:

[Sidenote: _Combinations of color_]

[Sidenote: _Safe tones_]

[Sidenote: _Colors in rugs_]

[Sidenote: _Use of white_]

"A careful study of the effects of colors upon each other will show that
colors which are in themselves beautiful are often inharmonious when
combined. Also, a little of a color may be good, when a larger
proportion seems to destroy the balance or harmony. Success in this
matter is largely a matter of close observation and experience, although
some persons have a natural feeling or instinct regarding color which is
seldom in error. Strong colors should never be used, especially greens.
Though they may be modest in the piece, when worked in with other
colors, they have an unfortunate way of becoming intensified tenfold.
The safest tones for an amateur to deal with are dull gray green, yellow
green, and a soft, full, but dark olive. In striking a certain key in
color it should be maintained throughout. Thus, if a full rich color
predominates, rich dark colors should be used through the whole scheme.
If a light tone is the body color, soft light tones of other colors will
be found most harmonious. Thus, for example, a rug for a library, or a
hall, in which a good deal of rich terra cotta appears, should have a
border or design worked in dark blues, full shades of olive green, and
dull yellow. There is an apparent exception to this in the use of dull
reds, old ivory, and black as seen in Bokhara rugs. But if studied, the
cream color is very dull, and is used in such small quantities as to be
quite subdued by the black that is used freely in the pattern. Old rose,
warm golden browns, and olive may be used effectively. A light Gobelin
blue may be worked with ivory, old pink, light dull olive, and the
outlines can be either a dark yellow brown or very dark bronze green. An
ivory center is lovely with an old pink border worked in green. A tan
center may be combined with old rose, sage green, bronze green, light
yellow, cream color, and dark brown outlines. Indigo blue, forest green,
and dull yellow are excellent colors when combined. A great variety of
beautiful rugs may be made by using only blue and white, and unless one
wishes to go extensively into dyeing, it might be well to choose a
certain simple color scheme such as blue and white, red, black, and
ivory, and abide by it. Let it be remembered that white in rugs is not
white, neither is it a delicate cream. Unless it is decidedly yellowish
or even grayish in tone, when in combination with other colors, it
becomes a staring white that is anything but artistic. I dye my cream
colors, just as much as I do dark reds or greens.

[Sidenote: _Planning a color scheme for a rug_]

"I have been asked many times what is the best way to plan a color
scheme for a rug. This is a point I cannot determine for another. Some
may find help in making water color sketches of what they wish to do. In
my own work I never use them, as it requires making a reduced drawing of
great accuracy, and much time to color it. Often I plan a combination
mentally, and match it up from the dyed flannels I always have on hand.
Other times I vary the scheme of some rug I have already made,
experimenting with different combinations, using other rugs as if they
were books of reference. I have discovered one rather curious thing,
which is, that when all my experimenting is done I find some particular
color scheme fits a certain rug as no other does. It seems to clothe or
to fulfill the pattern as if it belonged personally to it. When I once
discover this elective affinity of a pattern for its special coloring, I
never make it again save in that one guise.

[Sidenote: _Shading_]

[Sidenote: _Directions for shading_]

"Much skill can be shown by an artistic worker in the use of slight
shades of difference in the same color. For example, in the plain center
of a rug, several tones representing shades of the same color will give
the effect of a play of light on a silky surface, which is very
beautiful. By using material that has been dyed a trifle darker at one
end of the rug, and working in gradually lighter tones, the result is
surprisingly effective. To do this, each three or four yards should be
dyed with these slight differences of tone; then when within thirty
strips of the end of one color (more or less, according to the width of
the rug), work in a broken line of the next tone all across the rug.
Then use a few rows (not worked in single rows, however) of the first
color across the entire rug, then a wider broken line of the second
color. Broken lines blend better than continuous lines do. The portions
of the second line should fall above the broken spaces left in the first
line (in the same way that masons lay bricks), then a little more of the
first color, using less and less of it, and increasing the width of the
second in masses, until the first color has become only broken lines
upon the ground of the second color. All the way through, any changes
of color should be merged in this way. Be sure to work this method from
side to side across the rug, as the frameful is filled.

[Sidenote: _Coloring_]

"This is the most difficult feature of the whole handicraft, the actual
coloring, and yet for fine effects I should recommend only the use of
hand-dyed materials. Goods dyed by professional dyers are perfectly
uniform in color throughout, and rugs made of such material will have
nothing of that difference of tone, that play of color, that is
absolutely necessary for beauty.

[Sidenote: _Dye kettles_]

"In dyeing use only brass, copper, granite, or porcelain kettles, unless
one goes into it on a large scale and uses regular machinery. Brass and
copper vessels are to be preferred, while iron, or tin showing iron, are
to be carefully avoided, as the mordants have a great affinity for iron
and ruin the color. I use a large brass kettle holding about five

[Sidenote: _Mordants_]

"For mordants I use Glauber salts and sulphuric acid, and with the
weight of cloth I use, it takes 3 oz. of Glauber salts and 3/4 oz. of
sulphuric acid (full strength) to each six yards of flannel. I use a
one-ounce Phenix graduate (American standard) measuring glass, and as
full strength sulphuric acid has about twice the specific gravity of
water, one should measure by the scale engraved on the right-hand side
of the glass. The left-hand scale is based upon the standard unit of
weight, which is water.

[Sidenote: _Uses of acids_]

"In using sulphuric acid I dilute it in a little cold water in a cup by
pouring the acid on to the water, as sulphuric acid in uniting with
water causes a chemical reaction. Where a large quantity of acid is used
this reaction is accompanied by a sudden burst of steam, if the water
falls upon the acid. But in a small quantity as this, there is no
possible danger of accident if the acid is poured on the water.
Sulphuric acid should be closely stoppered and used with care, as it is
corrosive, eating holes in cotton or linen fabrics. With ordinary
precautions it can be used without the least difficulty.

[Sidenote: _Salts set the dyes_]

"Glauber salts are too well known in commerce to need description, and
are used to neutralize the acid. The two in combination do not injure
woolen fabrics, but merely set the dyes.

[Sidenote: _Preparation of a dye bath_]

"In preparing the dye bath allow three gallons of water, and 3/4 oz. of
sulphuric acid; stir thoroughly and add 3 oz. Glauber salts to six yards
of cloth. Then add the dyestuff in required proportions. Stir thoroughly
as each ingredient is added, for the evenness of the dye depends upon
the thorough distribution of the mordants and color in the dye bath.
Generally it is advised to strain the dye before it is added, but, as an
even tone is not the desired result for this special handicraft, I never
follow this suggestion.

[Sidenote: _Coloring depends on temperature_]

"The proper temperature for introducing the color in the bath is not
over 150° F., but if one has not a bath thermometer, the temperature
must be very hot, yet far below boiling point. Temperature plays a great
part in dyeing, for if the dye bath is too hot when the cloth is
introduced, the dye, having a great avidity for wool, will be absorbed
unequally by the cloth, the ends and outside folds of the cloth
absorbing more color than is desired, and the inner folds will have
less. I am not discussing the process of dyeing as it should be done on
a large scale with vats and suitable reels, etc., but as it is likely to
be done by an amateur, in a small way. When the bath is too hot, the
cloth takes the dye unequally and is quite spotted. A little
irregularity is necessary for a play of color, but it should be secured
in a definite way and only to a certain degree, and not as the result of
accident. If the cloth has come out spotty, it may be redipped, having
added more dye and mordants to the bath, but it will come out a darker
shade. If the bath is anywhere near the boiling point before the cloth
is dipped, reduce it by adding a quart or two of cold water."

[Sidenote: _Process of dyeing yarn or raffia_]

[Sidenote: _Clear days are best for dyeing_]

Before dyeing yarn or raffia, bind the skeins loosely in several places
to prevent tangling. "Having prepared the bath, gather the cloth in the
right hand at half a dozen places along one selvedge, and drop it in,
spreading it at once, using two stout sticks, lifting it up and down
continually so as to expose all parts to the dye. The temperature should
be increased to the boiling point and continued for three-quarters of an
hour. Then lift the cloth up and drain it, then rinse in cold water,
wring dry, but do not press with an iron, as the soft wooly texture is
very desirable. When a quantity of the same color is desired, the same
water can be used again by adding acid and Glauber salts, together with
more dyestuff with each fresh dip of cloth. It must be stated, however,
that the color will not be so clear with succeeding dips, but that does
not matter, as a difference is desired. The process of dyeing is very
delicate, and the utmost precision must be observed in following
proportions and directions regarding temperature, etc. Dyeing is more
successful in clear weather than on rainy days, and soft water is
required to get good results. If water contains much lime or earthy
salts it is unfit for dyeing, and must be neutralized by acetic acid. In
such cases it would be still better to use rain water.

[Sidenote: _Vegetable dyes and chemical dyes compared_]

"There is a curious conviction prevailing in some quarters that
beautiful durable colors are obtainable only from vegetable dyes. My
first experiments were with barks, mosses, etc., but the difficulty of
getting them, the enormous amount necessary to dye any quantity of
goods, the tedious process in their use, and the fact that after all
only a narrow range of colors is obtainable from them, compelled me to
abandon them altogether. I began to investigate chemical dyes, and to
gain information I applied to one of the largest woolen mills in New
England, one which maintains a high reputation for the class of goods it
manufactures; also to two wholesale houses dealing in all kinds of
dyestuffs; and finally to one of the best experts in color in the
country. Their verdict was unanimous, and is summed up in the opinion of
the expert which he expressed in a letter to me on this question:

"'In regard to the use of vegetable dyes, I would say that they have
almost disappeared from commerce, certainly for the purpose of dyeing

[Sidenote: _Aniline colors_]

"'We know, of course, that there are strong prejudices still existing in
the layman's mind in regard to the use of aniline colors, who supposes
that they are not only fugitive, but that the resulting tones are harsh
and unattractive. This, unfortunately, was so twenty-five years ago, and
the impression made then upon the layman's mind has not been changed
during all these years; but I can assure you that all the beautiful silk
goods, tapestries, cloths, and all the colors which we see in fabrics
to-day, are made, without exception, from aniline colors, which are
immeasurably more permanent than are the vegetable dyes used up to, say,

[Sidenote: _Formulas to be followed_]

"In using my range of eight colors I provide myself with large, strong
glass bottles in which I keep my diluted colors. I use a pint measure
for diluting the dyes. In preparing the fluid I put one half or one
quarter of an ounce of dry color, whichever amount the formula calls
for, into the pint measure and mix it thoroughly with a little cold
water. The reason for using cold water is that the dyes are a tar
product, and if mixed with hot water first, they are apt to grow waxy
under the heat and not dissolve readily. Having dissolved them, I fill
up the measure with hot water, stirring all the time. This makes a pint
of liquid which is of uniform strength under all circumstances, and
every formula is based upon this invariable pint measure of water. These
formulas I have tried over and over again. They are made with special
reference to the grade of flannel I have adopted, and doubtless will
vary in results if used on other weights or weaves of wool goods."



[Sidenote: _Dark terra cotta_]

Dissolve 1/2 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Take full pint measure of dull red dye and 4 tablespoonfuls of green dye
to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: 3/4 oz. sulphuric acid and 3 oz. Glauber salts. Boil 3/4 of an


[Sidenote: _Full terra cotta_]

Dissolve 1/2 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Use full pint measure of dull red dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: 3/4 oz. sulphuric acid and 3 oz. Glauber salts.


[Sidenote: _Lighter terra cotta_]

Dissolve 1/2 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Use 22 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: 3/4 oz. sulphuric acid and 3 oz. Glauber salts.


[Sidenote: _Rich old red_]

Dissolve 1/2 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Use 24 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye and 3 tablespoonfuls of green dye
to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Dull old rose_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright blue in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull yellow in 1 pint of water.

Use 16 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye, and 1 tablespoonful of bright
blue dye, and 3 tablespoonfuls of dull yellow dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Old pink_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Use 6 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye, and 3 tablespoonfuls of dull
yellow dye, and 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of dark blue dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Full yellow_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Use 6 tablespoonfuls of bright yellow dye, and 5 tablespoonfuls of dull
yellow dye, and 2 tablespoonfuls of green dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Rich dull yellow_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Use 12 tablespoonfuls of yellow dye and 6 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye
to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Dark tan yellow_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull yellow in 1 pint of water.

Use 14 tablespoonfuls of dull yellow dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Light olive tan_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Use 6 tablespoonfuls of bright yellow dye, 4 tablespoonfuls of dull
yellow dye, 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of dark blue dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Old ivory_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of drab in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Use 1 teaspoonful of yellow dye, and 1 teaspoonful of drab dye, and 1/4
teaspoonful of dull red dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Rich navy blue_]

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Use full pint measure of dark blue dye to 6 yds. of goods.

Mordants: 1 oz. sulphuric acid, 3 oz. Glauber salts. Boil 1 hour.


[Sidenote: _Dark Persian blue_]

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Use 10 tablespoonfuls of dark blue dye, 6 tablespoonfuls of green dye to
6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 12.


[Sidenote: _Gobelin blue_]

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Use 6 tablespoonfuls of dark blue dye, 4 tablespoonfuls of green dye to
6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 12.


[Sidenote: _Light gray blue_]

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Use 3 tablespoonfuls of dark blue dye, 2 tablespoonfuls of green dye to
6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 12.


[Sidenote: _Light sage green_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Use 10 tablespoonfuls of green dye, 2 tablespoonfuls of bright yellow
dye, and 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Light olive_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Use 16 tablespoonfuls of green dye, 4 tablespoonfuls of bright yellow
dye, and 3 tablespoonfuls of dull red to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 1.


[Sidenote: _Dark moss green_]

Dissolve 2 level teaspoonfuls of green in 1 pint measure of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Use full pint measure of green dye and 15 tablespoonfuls of bright
yellow dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: 3 oz. of Glauber salts and 1 oz. of sulphuric acid. Boil 3/4
of an hour.


[Sidenote: _Golden brown_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull yellow in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Use 20 tablespoonfuls of dull yellow dye, 5 tablespoonfuls of dull red
dye, 15 tablespoonfuls of green dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 18.


[Sidenote: _Dark bronze_]

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of green in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of dull red in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1 oz. of dark blue in 1 pint of water.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of bright yellow in 1 pint of water.

Use 8 tablespoonfuls of green dye, 12 tablespoonfuls of dull red dye, 4
tablespoonfuls of dark blue dye to 6 yds. of cloth.

Mordants: Same as in No. 18.

Redip in 4 tablespoonfuls of green dye and 5 tablespoonfuls of bright
yellow dye.

Mordants: Repeat the one above.

[Sidenote: _These formulas are the basis for numerous tones_]

"These formulas can be taken as the basis of many other tones and shades
which can be secured by a slight alteration of proportions. By adding a
trifle more dull red, green, indigo, or drab liquid dyes, a color can be
darkened. By using less of these than the formulas call for, the colors
will be lighter. By using more of dull or bright yellow a color can
often be made richer without darkening it. Beginners are cautioned
against making changes until they become familiar with the dyes. In
making new experiments, try them on yard lengths, carefully subdividing
any given formula for both dyes and mordants, and increasing the
proportion of any particular color desired. If the cloth should fail to
take up the dye properly after boiling the full time, increase the
quantity of acid, lifting the cloth out when adding the acid to the dye

Excellent suggestions by Miss Albee for color schemes in stripes may be
found on pages 64 and 65.

[Mrs. Albee is prepared to furnish any of the foregoing dyes at 20 cents
an ounce. Her address is Mrs. Helen R. Albee, Pequaket, Silver Lake P.
O., N. H.]

[Illustration: _A deep blue wool rug made of carpet yarn_]

Chapter Seven


[Sidenote: _Woolens, fine worsteds, ravelings, and cottons_]

Such materials as carpet and oriental wools, fine worsteds, carpet
ravelings, darning and knitting cotton should, in splicing, be run past
each other. In weaving, run the wool through the warp to the very end.
Start the new piece a few warp threads back, being careful to go over
and under exactly the _same_ warp threads as you did when finishing the
end. As you pass these threads you will find that you are taking up the
right warp threads, and that no mistake has been made. It is best to run
the threads past each other in the _middle_ of the mat rather than on
the _sides_. The children learn this method of splicing very quickly and
the result is much more satisfactory than knotting, because the back of
the rug or mat will be smooth. As Mrs. Wiggin says: "There should never
be a wrong side to work any more than there should be to folks."

[Sidenote: _Silkoline, cheese cloth, rags_]

[Sidenote: _Candle-wicking, chenille, and macremé cord_]

In splicing such materials as silkoline, rags, candle-wicking, chenille,
and macremé cord, lay the end of one piece over another, each lapping
about one-quarter inch, and sew securely with silk or thread of like
color. Cut off the selvedge ends of rags. These strips can be run past
each other, but the work will not be so smooth.

[Sidenote: _Germantown wool, heavy worsteds, and rope silk_]

In splicing Germantown wool, heavy worsteds, or rope silk, thread a
worsted needle with one strand obtained by unwinding the wool or silk,
lay one end over the other, and sew over and over. Twist the part just
sewn between the thumb and finger and the splicing will be hardly

When weaving stripes, splice the wool so that the piecing will come on
top of the rod. In this way the new color will start at the edge of the
rug, as it should, and the number of loops on the rod will be the same
on each side. Consider the _under_ side of the weaving as the _right_
side. It is always smoother and cleaner, and the splicing can be done
more neatly on top of the rod.

[Sidenote: _Raffia_]

Splicing raffia is the most difficult of all, and the method used in
braiding and basket weaving is the best. As you near the end of a strip
in weaving it usually becomes narrower. Find another strip having a
narrow end, and place one over the other, securing, if necessary, by
winding a very narrow piece--just a thread torn from a long piece--and
fastening this by sewing a few times over and over. Or, the two narrow
ends may be run past each other, as in carpet ravelings. Care should be
taken to have the splicing the same width as the other parts of the
weaving, so that the spliced parts will not be noticeable.

[Sidenote: _Leather, leatherette, and celluloid strips_]

Leather, leatherette, and celluloid strips should be long enough to
extend the entire width and length of the frame without splicing. The
ends can be cut, as is done in paper weaving, or turned in some pretty
way like that in the splint work.

Chapter Eight


[Illustration: _Silkoline rug with three white stripes_]

[Sidenote: _Plain rug with end stripes_]

[Sidenote: _Finishing the ends_]

Silkoline rugs or mats are by far the prettiest for doll-house use. The
method of preparing the strips is explained under Materials (page 51).
Make the warp with twine of the same color as the silkoline. It should
be a three-eighths-inch warp. Choose a plain color for the body of the
rug, and a short distance from each end weave several stripes of a
contrasting color. The rug in the illustration is of deep cardinal. The
stripes can be of olive green, black, or any preferred color. Mottled
stripes are also attractive and effective. When the stripes at the foot
are woven, ascertain the distance from the foot piece to the last one.
To know where to commence the first stripe at the head, measure the
distance just found from the head piece down, and mark on both rods by
tying or sewing a colored string to the warp. This helps the child to
understand where the stripe should begin, which he soon learns to
measure for himself; and this training in accuracy and independence is
most excellent. There is nothing better than learning self-reliance, and
the child who has been taught it, is not apt to ask others to do his
examples for him. To learn the manner of making the stripes and spaces
each of the same width, count the loops on the rods (one has to weave
twice across the loom to have one loop on a rod), and have the same
number on each side. Care should be taken not to _twist_ the strips in
weaving. The method of splicing the strips and fastening the warp
strings is explained in Chapter V. The rug may be finished with a wool
or silk fringe of the predominating color, or a fringe of the combined
colors. If desired, it may be left plain, catching the woof strips
together at each end to conceal the warp strings. When a mistake has
been made, run the needle back under the same strings instead of pulling
out what is wrong. It prevents stretching and a destruction of the

[Sidenote: _Mottled rugs made of figured silkoline_]

Mottled rugs are made of figured silkoline. Choose oriental colors, no
matter how gaudy the silkoline may look in the piece. It will have a
beautiful effect when woven. Portières are pretty made in this way.
These rugs should always be plain--that is, without stripes.

[Illustration: _A mottled rug of figured silkoline, in which the colors
brown, blue, and old gold predominate_]

[Sidenote: _Plain rugs with mottled borders, or mottled rugs with plain

Plain rugs with mottled borders, or mottled rugs with plain borders, are
the delight of the children. Adjust the frame for the size required, and
decide how wide the border is to be. It is necessary to have an extra
pair of rods, if one desires a smooth and well-finished rug. The border
of the rug represented in the illustration is two inches. This should be
woven with a tape needle. Weave the border at the foot of the loom. This
extends the entire width. Place the extra rods two inches toward the
center from the side rods on the outside of the rug, keeping them _back_
of the border already woven at the foot. This will outline the sides of
the plain oblong in the center. Weave the left and right hand borders up
to a point two inches from the head piece, taking care to go around the
rods just placed. Then begin the plain center. As you come to the border
on each side, run your tape needle _through_ the loops of mottled
silkoline which are around the rod, but do not go around the rod itself
with the plain silkoline, since doing so would make a ridge in the rug.
Draw the woof strips tightly and firmly, so that the work will lie flat
and smooth when removed from the loom. Be sure to weave the center far
enough, remembering that the upper woof strips in the border will crowd
it down. When the center is finished, remove the extra rods and finish
weaving the border to the head piece. In selecting a color for the
center, match one of the colors in the figured silkoline. The color for
the center in the rug of the illustration on page 90 is green, and the
same color appears also in the mottled border, with yellow and brown.
The ends should be left plain, the warp strings being concealed as
directed. These rugs are very beautiful, and can be made in an infinite
variety through the use of different colors, and by reversing the center
and border. They can be made of carpet or Germantown wool, in two colors
or in two tones of one color. In weaving rugs with centers and borders,
weave a little farther than the exact measure, because the next woof
threads will push down the woof already made, and you may find that you
have not woven the correct measure. These rugs are useful as "heel
rugs"; they are placed under the piano near the pedal to protect the
carpet from the pressure of the heel. (See also page 82.)

[Illustration: _A plain silkoline rug, with a mottled border_]

[Sidenote: _Holder or mat_]

[Sidenote: _Many squares joined together_]

[Sidenote: _Small rug with fringe_]

[Sidenote: _Stair and hall carpets_]

Adjust the loom for the size required. The plaid effect in the holder
illustrated on page 92 is obtained by stringing a close warp with green
and white carpet wool, alternating two of white with four of green. In
weaving, use two woof threads of white and _four_ of green to make the
square correct. The kindergarten designs make pretty holders. If you
have woven a holder, it will be finished when it is removed from the
loom and the warp strings have been fastened. If you wish your holder to
be very thick, weave two of these pieces, lay a square of felt or
flannel between and sew or crochet the edges together. If the work is to
be a mat, knot a pretty fringe all around it. Many of these squares can
be joined to make sofa pillows, afghans, slumber robes, and other dainty
articles. With a continuous warp, one can weave long strips for the same
articles. If a small rug for Miss Dolly's bedroom is desired, string the
warp so that the two ends will have a fringe. Stair and hall carpets for
the doll house can be woven in these pretty designs by adjusting the
loom for a narrow strip, and, if necessary, a continuous warp.

[Illustration: _Holder of green and white carpet wool_]

Chapter Nine


[Illustration: _Back of loom, showing method of stringing warp through
rings for a hammock_]

[Sidenote: _Method of adjustment_]

[Sidenote: _Use of stripes for various colors_]

[Sidenote: _Lengthwise stripes_]

To weave a hammock, one must first adjust the loom to its full size. Tie
two rings together and fasten them at the back of the loom, to head,
foot, and sides, as in the illustration. One must then decide how close
the warp is to be strung. Measure the string, which should be
continuous, allowing enough to go to the rings at the back and make a
buttonhole stitch each time. Then wind on a long thin stick or dress
steel, in such a way that it will pass easily through the rings. In
stringing the hammock in the illustration, a penholder was used. The
rings are tied, with white cord, to the four sides of the loom. By doing
this, all tangling of the warp string is avoided, and it is far
preferable to splicing. Tie the first warp string to the top ring. Draw
it tightly through the first groove, over the face of the loom to the
opposite groove, then to the back of the loom through the bottom ring.
Make a buttonhole stitch and return in the same manner over the face of
the loom, around to the top ring, where you make a buttonhole stitch and
return, until the whole warp is strung. Care should be taken to make it
firm and tight. Hold the string and ring firmly in the left hand while
making the buttonhole stitch with the right. Cut the woof cords long
enough to allow a fringe on each side of the hammock. Weave each cord
separately, tying in pairs around the rods. Stripes of one or more
colors can be woven at each end or at intervals through the hammock. By
weaving two colors alternately, the stripes will be lengthwise instead
of crosswise. Knot the fringe at each side. To fasten the top and bottom
woof cords so that they will not pull out of place, thread a tape needle
with cord and tie each warp string close to the woof. Another way to
secure the top and bottom woof cords is to weave two cords at one time,
twisting one over the other between the warp strings. The bottom one
should be woven before the hammock is commenced. The top one can be
woven before the hammock is finished, and pushed up close to the head
piece. Then fill up the space.

[Illustration: _A hammock made from strings of different colors in
lengthwise stripes_]

[Sidenote: _Making the fringe_]

[Sidenote: _The stretcher_]

[Sidenote: _The head-rest_]

[Sidenote: _Hammock with lengthwise colored stripes_]

[Sidenote: _Knotted hammocks_]

Instead of knotting the fringe as suggested, two cords can be twisted at
each side of the hammock in the same way that the woof cords are secured
at the top and bottom. This forms a heading for the fringe. Take up
_two_ cords of the fringe at a time. If desired, the strings which
extend from the rings to the hammock may be woven for the space of an
inch or so close to the rings instead of making a buttonhole stitch.
Make a stretcher for the head by covering a piece of rattan with
buttonhole stitch. Fasten this to the hammock. A head-rest can also be
woven and adjusted. To remove the hammock from the loom, cut the two
rings apart, and then lift the warp strings from the grooves. A very
pretty hammock can be made by stringing the warp of different colors, in
order to make _lengthwise_ stripes. Weave a neutral color through them.
In this case, have a close warp. Pretty hammocks can be made by knotting
instead of weaving.

[Sidenote: _To string warp for hammock in order to have the sides
shorter than the center_]

Cut two semi-circular pieces from light wood or pasteboard. These should
suit the width of the hammock to be made. If this is the width of the
loom, then 9-1/2 inches long and two inches at the widest part. Cut the
curved edge in notches to correspond with the number taken in the head
piece. These pieces will be firmer and more satisfactory if made of wood
and finished at the lower edges like the metal head piece. This can be
easily done by glueing them to a narrow piece of wood so that they will
stand. If furnished with perforations, they can be laced to the head and
foot pieces or the rods can be run through them. By stringing the warp
in this way, the sides of the hammock will be shorter than the center,
and there will be no danger of Miss Dolly falling out.

The warp can be strung more quickly and easily if hammock hooks similar
to those in the two illustrations below are used. Measure the right
length--22 warp strings 31 inches long for the metal loom, or 29 the
same length for the wooden loom--and wind as before.

[Illustration: _Hook No. 1_]

[Illustration: _Hook No. 2_]

[Sidenote: _Hammock hooks_]

[Sidenote: _Weaving_]

In using hammock hook No. 1, knot half the number of warp strings in the
left-hand ring and half in the right-hand ring. If hook No. 2 be used,
unpin the part at the right, knot the warp strings along the straight
edge at the bottom, and then pin the right-hand part again. Weaving each
cord separately across the loom makes a heavy fringe at the sides. If a
lighter fringe be desired, cut the woof cords twice the width of the
loom plus twice the length of the fringe. Weave across the loom, leaving
enough for the fringe at the side, then _around_ the rod and back again,
drawing the cord through to the same length as the part left at first.
Weave in the same way with the second color, having the loop on the
_same_ rod and the fringe at the _same_ side as the other. Weave the
next two cords with loops on the _opposite_ rod and fringe on the
_opposite_ side. Continue in this way until the hammock is finished.
Make a heading at the sides as described, only carry the two cords
_through_ the loops, crossing them between on top of the rods. The warp
strings can be passed through the rings without buttonholing. A firm
pretty finish can be made at the sides by cutting two cords--one of each
color two yards long and buttonholing around the rods on _top_ of the
woof cords which extend at each side. Fasten these long cords at the
bottom of the loom. After two pairs of woof cords have been tied,
buttonhole the edge over them and around the rods and continue this
until the hammock is finished.

[Illustration: _A square of silk canvas_]

Chapter Ten


[Illustration: _A face cloth made from cheese cloth_]

[Sidenote: _Materials_]

The materials for making face and dish cloths are: cheese cloth cut
bias, darning or knitting cotton, or candle-wicking. Those made from
cheese cloth resemble the Turkish rags. Cut and splice the cheese cloth
according to directions on page 83. The face cloth in the illustration
is made from white cheese cloth, cut bias. String the warp 3/16 inch
with white twine. It being desirable to have face and dish cloths as
soft as possible, do not push the woof threads too closely together.
When the cloth is removed from the loom, conceal the ends of the warp
strings as previously directed. Fine white thread should be used. If
preferred, the edges can be bound with tape. Cloths of candle-wicking
are very quickly woven, but they are not so soft.

Face cloths of cheese cloth with borders of knitting cotton would be
durable and satisfactory. Make them according to directions given for
rugs with centers and borders.

Cross-barred face cloths made of knitting cotton No. 4, in two colors,
are very pretty.

[Sidenote: _Bath rug made with continuous warp_]

Serviceable bath rugs can be made by making three strips as long as
desired, and then fastening together. They are made of cheese cloth cut
bias, but the woof threads are packed much tighter than in the face
cloths. Finish the edges by stitching a white tape all around. Floor
rugs of any kind can be made firmer by finishing in this way with tape
of the same color.

[Illustration: _A pattern for a floor rug_]

Chapter Eleven


[Illustration: _Method of weaving a raffia mat on the loom, showing
colored stripes_]

[Sidenote: _Method of making raffia mats_]

[Sidenote: _The rods and the warp strings in kindergarten patterns_]

Mats of raffia are made like all the other mats. The warp may be of
twine or carpet thread. In this case, the mat should be woven of raffia
in the natural color, with stripes of bright color at each end; or, it
may be of some dark tone with stripes of a contrasting color. By using
a warp of raffia, many of the beautiful kindergarten designs can be
produced. Use one color for the warp and another for the woof. The
method of stringing a warp of raffia is described in "Methods of
Stringing Warp," on page 45. The illustration shows a raffia mat in
process of making. The natural color of raffia is used, with stripes of
cardinal, and the method of stringing color in the warp to obtain this
effect is clearly seen. The children will have no difficulty in carrying
out the pattern, if they remember that the _rods_ correspond to the
_border_ of the paper mat. Before stringing the warp for a kindergarten
pattern, count the strips in the paper mat and begin to count on the
loom _from_ the rods. In this kind of work the string on top of the rod
does not count. It forms the _border_ of the mat.

[Illustration: _A woven mat of raffia, from a kindergarten pattern in
green and the natural color of the raffia_]

[Sidenote: _Stringing the warp_]

In making mats, or matting, of raffia, the material can be carried over
the rods as in wool-weaving, or it can be finished on the edges in the
same way as the real matting is done. This will be easily understood by
examining a piece of matting. In stringing the warp, have three strings
over each bar instead of one. Cut the woof strips several inches longer
than the width of the loom. Weave the first strip, leaving a piece at
each side. Thread a tape needle with one end and weave it in and out the
three warp threads on the rod. Then cut it off close to the edge. Finish
off all the ends in this way. When the work is removed from the loom,
press the edges flat with a warm iron. It is a little easier to keep the
pattern right by weaving in this way, and the work resembles the real
matting more nearly. Use a tape needle for weaving raffia.

[Sidenote: _Porch curtains_]

If the doll house which we are fitting is a large one with porches, one
could complete the furnishings with a porch curtain, for sunny

[Sidenote: _Glove, trinket, and mouchoir boxes_]

Boxes of all kinds can be made of raffia woven in panels. It will make
the box stronger and firmer to overhand a piece of rattan around the
edges of the panels before joining them in the form of a box. Thread a
worsted needle with a narrow strip of raffia and buttonhole the edges of
the panels together; or, sew them over and over and cover with a braid
of raffia. Spiral-weaving is pretty for this finishing. It is described
in an article entitled "Straw-Weaving," in "American Homes" for
September, 1900, a magazine published in Knoxville, Tenn. Glove,
trinket, and mouchoir boxes are pretty for holiday gifts. By using
different patterns and colors a great variety of them can be made.

[Sidenote: _Rugs of carpet wool_]

For rugs made of carpet wool, string a three-eighths-inch warp of twine,
or oriental cord, the color of the body of the rug. Use a deep tone of
red, olive green, or any preferred color, with a stripe at each end. A
study of rugs will soon enable one to get the right proportion of rug
and stripe. Beautiful rugs are made with a succession of Roman stripes
separated by a narrow one of deep red, green, or blue, the ends of the
rug being woven of the same color. Center and corner patterns can be
woven by placing the pattern under the warp. By stringing a close warp
of the same material all the designs for paper-weaving can be easily
reproduced. Lengthwise stripes are also pretty. String the warp with
different colors and weave a neutral color through them. The rug in the
frontispiece is woven of heavy carpet wool, some of which is seen on the

[Sidenote: _Patterns for rugs_]

[Sidenote: _Fundamental form No. 1_]

Beautiful patterns for rugs can be made by cutting squares and triangles
of paper according to directions given in the "Kindergarten Guides." The
"Paradise of Childhood" has some very pretty ones. There are two
fundamental forms for this paper-cutting. The first is made from a
nine-inch square. Fold one diagonal, place the right acute angle upon
the left so as to produce four triangles resting upon each other. The
form now lies before you with the right angle at the right and two acute
angles (one on top of the other) at the left. Lift one of these acute
angles and place on top of the angle at the back, creasing the fold;
then fold the remaining acute angle _under_ to the same angle at the
back, creasing as before. Now place the form with the right angle at the
back and hold all the open edges to the left while cutting.
Illustrations in the "Kindergarten Guides" show a network drawn on the
triangle at the top as an aid to transferring the pattern.

[Illustration: _A rug pattern from an equilateral triangle_]

[Sidenote: _Fundamental form No. 2_]

The second fundamental form is made from a six-fold equilateral
triangle. Directions for folding and cutting this from the square are
given in the "Paradise of Childhood." It can be cut, also, from a circle
whose diameter is equal to the width of the rug desired. In drawing and
cutting the pattern, hold the form with the entirely _open sides_ toward
you. The whole pattern is cut at once and the unfolding often reveals a
charming design for a rug, which can be woven in tones or contrasting
colors. If cut from colored paper, it can be mounted on white and placed
under the warp. Beautiful original designs in conventional leaf and
flower patterns can also be made.

[Sidenote: _Conventional leaf forms_]

To make a conventional leaf form, use fundamental form No. 1. Cut the
leaf on the mid-rib and lay this part on the base of the triangle with
the point of the leaf on the open edges at the left, and the stem on the
closed part at the right. Draw around the edges of the leaf and cut,
taking care not to separate the leaf forms at the center, which is at
the closed part at your right hand.

Some excellent suggestions for this leaf-cutting in centerpieces and
borders can be found in the "Pratt Institute Monthly" for April, 1900.

[Sidenote: _Dusters_]

Dusters for hardwood floors are best made of strips of old flannel. They
can be made of stocking strips, or cheese cloth. Make two mats the full
size of the loom, sew on three sides and run a gathering-string around
the top. It will fit better if it has a piece of cheese cloth sewn at
the top through which the gathering-string can be run. This makes a fine
duster to slip over a broom. If one prefers, a continuous warp can be
strung--the length to be twice the length of the broom part--and a long
piece woven which will require sewing on two sides only.

[Illustration: _A doll towel with fringed ends_]

[Sidenote: _Doll towels_]

[Sidenote: _Patterns for towel borders_]

[Sidenote: _Lunch cloths_]

[Sidenote: _Bedspreads_]

[Sidenote: _Quilts_]

Doll towels are very fascinating things to make. Adjust the loom for the
required size. The exact proportion can be ascertained from a large
towel. String the close warp with fine darning cotton and have the
strings in pairs with fringe at each end. Allow several inches for
fringe so that it can be knotted easily. The woof threads, which are
also of fine darning cotton, should be pushed very closely and smoothly
together. Plain stripes of red or blue, or fancy stripes made with a
kindergarten design, can be woven. Observe the same directions for
spacing the stripes which are given with the silkoline rug. The towel
in the illustration is made of white darning cotton, with the stripes
and initial of red. The children will be delighted to lay towel borders
with their tablets, and after cutting and pasting with colored paper,
weave them in towels for Miss Dolly's housekeeping. Cross-stitch the
initial as previously directed. Lunch cloths and bedspreads can be made
in the same way. These should be fringed all around. A cross-barred
cloth or spread can be made by putting the color in the warp at regular
intervals and weaving across with color and white to form squares.
Pretty quilts of coarse cotton can be made with kindergarten designs. By
weaving many squares, a large quilt can be made. See directions on page

[Sidenote: _Bed and carriage blankets_]

Bed and carriage blankets are best made of single zephyr, although
Germantown wool will do. The heavy carpet wools are also pretty. Some
suggestions for this work have already been given under the head of
Materials. These blankets are really mats, but made only for another
use, and are to be woven in a similar way. Those with centers and
borders are pretty, and the plaid ones are always attractive. (See
illustration of the holder on page 92.)

[Sidenote: _Doll shawls_]

For doll shawls choose a pretty Scotch plaid and match the colors in
fine wool. String a close warp with wool, copying the Scotch plaid
exactly. Weave the colors across so that a "truly" plaid shawl may grace
Miss Dolly's shoulders on the cold winter mornings. A striped shawl is
pretty, or one having one color for the center and another for the

[Sidenote: _Doll skirt_]

Miss Dolly may have a lovely petticoat, too. String a continuous warp
long enough for the width of the skirt. Adjust the rods for the length.
By using a little color in the warp near the right edge of the weaving,
the skirt will have some stripes. Twist a cord of the wool and run in
the top for a draw-string.

[Sidenote: _Reins_]

To make reins, adjust for a narrow strip and string a close, continuous
warp the length desired. Make a piece, also, to go across the front. Use
Germantown knitting yarn. A black warp with a bright red woof is pretty.

[Sidenote: _A square Tam O'Shanter_]

In order to obtain a Tam O'Shanter for Dolly, first weave a square the
required size. String a close warp with wool and weave a kindergarten
pattern with two colors. When completed, remove from the loom, fold four
corners to the center, turn them in to form an opening for the head, and
fasten the edges by sewing, or by lacing with a cord made of the two
colors. Fasten a tassel on the top and it is finished. Angora wool is
pretty for these caps.

[Illustration: _Fringe for a rug in red and black_]

[Sidenote: _Fringe_]

[Sidenote: _Threading the needle_]

[Sidenote: _Making the fringe into tassels_]

[Sidenote: _Removing the fringe from the loom_]

The head piece of the loom should be adjusted for the width of the rug
for which the fringe is required. A rug nine inches wide would require
fringe nine inches long. Adjust the rods one inch apart--that is, with
one perforation between the rods. String the warp in every groove, one
string over each rod and three between, making five in all. Weave over
and under one until the heading is finished. If you have an extra side
rod, place it in the sixth perforation from the right-hand rod. This
will make tassels a little over two inches long. If a shorter fringe is
preferred, adjust accordingly. If you have not an extra side rod remove
the _left_ one and place as directed, leaving the _right_ one in the
heading until the whole fringe is finished. Thread a large tape needle
with two pieces of worsted, as long as the two can be conveniently
managed. If the fringe is made of two colors, take one of each for the
tassels, weaving the heading with the one which predominates in the rug.
Run the ends in the grooves to fasten them. Wind under the right rod,
which was left in the heading, through the first stitch, which includes
the warp string over the rod, then over the extra rod to the right. Wind
under again through the next stitch in the heading (always around the
rod) and so on until the end is reached. To make this fringe into
tassels, separate six strands of each color and tie with the two colors,
running the tape needle and worsted along from one tassel to another, or
tie each one securely and cut. The fringe will need no finishing at the
ends. Run the short ends, which were wound through the grooves in the
beginning in order to fasten them, through a few stitches in the
heading. The fringe can be made of one color, and of any width. To take
the fringe from the loom, first remove the rod at the end of the tassels
and cut the fringe before removing the rods from the heading. This will
insure straight cutting at the ends of the tassels. If one prefers a
knotted fringe, cut and knot before removing the heading. By examining
rug fringes in the furniture stores one can get a very good idea of the
manner of knotting. (See also directions for splicing Germantown wool on
page 84.)

[Sidenote: _Knotting_]

A simple fringe can be knotted quickly and easily in the ends of the
warp strings, after the rug is taken from the loom. First decide upon
the length of the fringe when finished. Add at least two inches to allow
for knotting. Cut each piece of wool twice this length, double, and
thread a tape needle. Pass the needle from the right side of the rug to
the wrong, through the warp strings at the end of the rug. Draw the loop
of wool through and unthread the needle. Pass the two ends of the wool
down through the loop and draw it tight. When this has been done in
every pair of warp strings, knot every other piece of the fringe
together, in the same way that towel fringe is made.

This question of whether a rug should have fringe or not is much
discussed at present. It is largely a personal one. The best way,
perhaps, is to study different kinds of rugs and know which ones are
usually made with fringe and which are not.

[Illustration: _Bed shoes made of white wool_]

[Sidenote: _Bed shoes, or socks_]

[Sidenote: _Bed shoes_]

[Sidenote: _Baby shoes_]

Bed shoes of all sizes are easily woven, and make a useful holiday gift.
They are made without soles and are intended to be drawn up around the
ankle like a high moccasin. Use the soft double Germantown wool. White,
fastened together with pink or blue, or white striped with a color, may
be used, and are attractive. The socks in the illustration are of white
wool with a pink seam up the instep and pink scallops around the top.
One sock is shown on a last, and the other as it appears off the foot.
The stripes in the knitting can be shown in the weaving by using a
color. The full size of the loom makes a shoe of medium size. String a
close warp with white wool. If the shoe is to be all white, weave with
the same, leaving the color for the finishing. If it is to be striped,
weave perhaps eight or ten times across with color and then with white;
when the weaving is finished you will have a mat 9 × 12 inches. Double
one of the short edges and sew over and over on the wrong side with
white wool. This is the toe. The two long edges now lie together. They
may be crocheted, or knitted, with colored wool by holding them close
and fulling in, or by _puckering_ a little. If this is done in color,
it makes a pretty seam on the top of the foot and front of the ankle.
The top may be finished by crocheting a beading and scallops of the
colored wool. Run a ribbon or worsted cord through the beading. If
desired, the long edges may be laced together with ribbon one-half inch
wide. Baby shoes are made in the same way. To ascertain what length to
adjust the loom, measure the sole, then up, back of the heel, to a point
above the ankle. For the width, measure around the foot. Finish the cord
with tassels or balls.

[Sidenote: _Worsted balls for bed shoes, and other articles_]

To make worsted balls, first cut two small circles from cardboard. From
the center of each cut a smaller circle. Hold one circle over the other,
and with a worsted or tape needle threaded with wool, wind over and over
very closely until the hole in the center is completely filled. Always
piece the wool on the _outside_ edge. Cut the wool all around on the
outside. Make a cord of the wool and slip _between_ the two circles.
Then tie so as to fasten all the pieces of wool in the middle, leaving
the cord long enough to tie in a bow if desired. Tear the pasteboards,
remove them, and trim the wool evenly. A second ball should be fastened
on the other end of the cord, _after_ it has been laced through the

[Sidenote: _Photograph frames_]

To weave photograph and picture frames of silk, chenille, raffia,
celluloid, or leather, proceed in the same way as for a bordered rug,
having the oblong or square center the required size for the picture.
Foundation frames for mounting the work can be purchased, usually, at
the stores where tissue paper and flowers are sold.

[Sidenote: _Table mats_]

Square and oblong table mats for hot dishes can be made of
candle-wicking, knitting cotton, or cheese cloth.

[Sidenote: _Tippet or scarf_]

To-day, tippets and scarfs are very little used, but they are very
comfortable things to wear to school on a cold day. In order to make
them, string a continuous warp of the required length with Germantown
dark colored wool. Weave the same color for the woof, and brighten it at
intervals with Roman stripes. A plaid scarf can be woven, if preferred;
while with a close warp one can have a kindergarten pattern in another,
or contrasting color.

[Sidenote: _Wristlets_]

In making wristlets, one must decide how long they are to be, and adjust
the length on the loom. Measure around the wrist for the width,
remembering that the wristlets will stretch when pulled over the hand.
Weave in stripes or plaid, or, if desired, plain, stringing the warp
with the same wool as is used in weaving. Remove the mat and sew the
edges together.

[Sidenote: _Sleeve protectors_]

Sleeve protectors can be woven of raffia in the same way as wristlets.
Make them so they can be fastened on the outside of the sleeve, like a

[Illustration: _A table mat made from carpet wool_]

[Sidenote: _Purses, or chatelaine bags_]

Purses, or chatelaine bags, are made of knitting-silk. Beads can be
added, if desired. Adjust the loom for the required size, and string a
continuous warp, if necessary. One can obtain the silver or nickel tops,
which open and close, at the department stores.

[Illustration: _Borders for rugs or squares_]

[Sidenote: _Shopping and school bags_]

[Sidenote: _Opera glass bags_]

It will be better to use heavier material for shopping and school bags.
Raffia makes a strong bag; silk strips are serviceable, and leather
strips are good for school bags. For opera-glass bags, make two mats and
lace or weave them together, or string a continuous warp. Use rope silk,
chenille, or knitting silk with beads.

[Illustration: _Borders for rugs or squares_]

When one has mastered the mysteries of weaving thoroughly enough to make
a _good_ mat, it is very easy to "turn them into" various articles.
There is no sleight of hand about it.

[Sidenote: _Panels of silk canvas for boxes_]

Silk canvas panels are made by adjusting the loom for the required size
of the sides of the box, and weaving a plain mat for the top. A number
of suggestions have been given on page 52, under the head of Materials.

Pretty neckties of fine knitting silk can be made on the loom by using a
continuous warp of the same material.

[Illustration: _A square of silk canvas with cross-stitched pattern of

[Sidenote: _Sofa pillows, cushions, sachet cases and veil cases_]

The accompanying illustration, and another on page 98, and also the
vignette on the title page, show squares of silk canvas, and will give
one many ideas of how they may be used. One has a cross-stitched pattern
of chenille, and in another the chenille was alternated with silk in the
warp, and both chenille and silk were used in the woof. The squares can
be made up in cushion and box covers, sachet cases, sofa pillows, or the
larger squares can be used as veil cases. A number of them can be joined
for large sofa pillows. In the latter case they can be made of wool, and
many of them could be crocheted together for an afghan or slumber robe.

[Illustration: _Pattern for rugs or squares_]

The design in the illustration is a pattern which may be used for
either a Wilton or Axminster rug, or for mats, sachet cases, cushion or
box covers, or cross-stitch embroidery on burlap, or silk, or wool
canvas. The patterns given on pages 120, 125, 130, and 134 will be found
adaptable for rugs or squares.

[Sidenote: _Slumber robes or afghans_]

[Sidenote: _Portières_]

Slumber robes or afghans have been previously mentioned on page 54,
under the head of Materials. It will be found very easy, after a little
experience with a continuous warp, to make strips of any length. It is
better to wind the extra lengths of warp upon spools, as has been
suggested, or around the tops of the rods. Large portières can be made
of long strips of silk or silkoline cut bias. Fasten the long strips
together horizontally in imitation of Bagdad curtains.

[Illustration: _Borders for rugs or squares_]

[Sidenote: _Hair receivers_]

Hair receivers are easily made from raffia. Make a square mat and fold
it in cornucopia form.

Chapter Twelve


[Sidenote: _Rugs and draperies_]

To be quite up to date, Miss Dolly should have oriental rugs and
draperies in her house beautiful. These are easily made on the loom, and
the little girl or boy, who has first copied a pattern and then seen it
grow under patient fingers, has a thing of beauty and a joy forever.
What could give more pleasure than to be able to say fifty years from
now: "I wove that, my dear, when I went to school"? Truly the
grandchildren would reply: "How I wish I could have gone to grandma's
school!"--only they may have something equally beautiful which will take
its place in that far-off time--who knows?

[Illustration: _Border for rugs or squares_]

[Illustration: _Borders for rugs or squares_]

[Sidenote: _Patterns_]

[Sidenote: _Oriental colors_]

The patterns for oriental rugs familiar in the East have descended
through hundreds of years, and the exquisite colors, produced by
vegetable dyes, and increasing in richness and beauty with age, are only
to be seen in old rugs. We have nothing in our modern dyes to compare
with the old color. One is soon interested in the study of these Eastern
treasures, and it becomes second nature in a short time not only to chat
familiarly of Kermans, Serebends, Khivas, Bokharas, and Kiz-Kilims, _ad
infinitum_, but to jot down now and then in one's notebook, or still
better in one's design book (made of the kindergarten squared paper,
one-eighth inch), a pretty border or centerpiece for the rug which is to
grace some doll house. The patterns of Turkish rugs (see page 127) are
of geometrical or arabesque designs--an edict from the Koran having
prohibited the reproduction of living things. The Persians, however,
weave animals, birds, etc., as their ancestors did in days gone by.

[Sidenote: _Inscriptions on Persian rugs_]

There is some very interesting reading in "Oriental Rug Weaving," by V.
Kurdji, on the subject of inscriptions often found on Persian rugs. He
says: "If the possessors of some of the rare pieces that are sold in
this country knew the meaning of the inscriptions woven in their rugs,
the knowledge would add a charm and interest which would make them more
valuable than the harmonious colors so beautifully blended."

[Illustration: _Pattern for border of Persian rug_]

[Sidenote: _Bokkara rugs_]

[Sidenote: _Khiva rugs_]

Oriental rugs take their names from the countries or provinces in which
they are made. Bokhara rugs are made in mountainous districts of
Turkestan, and have never been successfully imitated, because the dyes
used are made from a plant grown only in that district. The designs are
geometrical, and the colors deep maroon or blue. The pile is woven as
close as velvet. They are noted for the superior quality of their dyes.
Khiva rugs, sometimes called afghan, are made in Turkestan. They
resemble the Bokhara rugs, but are coarser in texture and heavier in
pile, and they differ from them in having a wide selvage at each end.
Some Khivas have a small pattern in red mosaic over the surface with a
circle in the center. One often sees a rug made of a rich golden yellow
with a background of dark red.

[Illustration: _A Kiz-Kilim rug pattern_]

[Illustration: _Pattern for a Kiz-Kilim stripe_]

[Sidenote: _Kiz-Kilim rugs_]

The Kiz-Kilim rugs have no nap, and are woven with a needle. They are
thin and almost alike on both sides. The larger sizes are woven in two
strips fastened together so that they can be taken apart and used for
curtains. "These Kiz-Kilims are woven by Armenians and Turks in Anatolia
(the land of sunrise, and the Greek name for Asia Minor). The literal
translation of the word Kiz-Kilim is bride's rug, it being a custom in
that country for a bride to present to her husband one of these rugs,
which she has woven during her engagement to him. The quality of the rug
is supposed to measure the quality of the husband's affection for his
bride, consequently we have many beautiful specimens of this class, the
brilliant hues and intricate designs of which could only have been
inspired by the whisperings of Cupid. They are in open-work
patterns--called perforated--and often have long tufts of colored silk
tied to the rugs with blue beads, in order to keep them from the effects
of the Evil Eye." The Kiz-Kilim rug in the illustration was copied from
a genuine rug. The filling is a deep blue and the borders are in
oriental colors. The center figure is white, with red, brown, and yellow
inside. There are four kinds of Kilims. Much interesting and valuable
information can be found in John Kimberley Mumford's "Oriental Rugs";
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900, where directions for weaving
Kiz-Kilims, Khivas, and Bokharas are given, with a few patterns.

[Illustration: _A Kiz-Kilim rug_]

[Sidenote: _Materials used_]

[Sidenote: _Perforations_]

[Illustration: _Pattern for a Turkish rug_]

Oriental wools or carpet ravelings are used for these rugs. Copy your
figures and colors from genuine rugs. The accompanying patterns were
obtained in this way. See directions on page 47 for stringing a double
warp with fringe at each end. First fasten the pattern under the warp;
then weave about one-quarter inch at each end with carpet thread like
the warp. This will make it look like a "truly" Kiz-Kilim. Next to
this, weave a very narrow strip of several colors each twice across,
regarding the double strings as one. Then weave each part of the narrow
border. To make the perforations, take up one thread of the double warp
for one side of the pattern, and the other thread for weaving the
pattern next to it. For instance, the "steps," as the children call
them, of triangle No. 1, when finished, will stand close to the steps of
triangle No. 2, with a little slit between. These perforations occur
only where one pattern joins another of a different color, or the dark
filling. For instance, in the white figure in the center, where three or
five squares come together, the slits occur at each end, the part
between being woven over the double strings as if they were only one. In
this way the perforations of other parts are closed top and bottom. Use
a tape needle and weave each section of the pattern separately. Weave
the filling last. As this peculiar tone of blue could not be obtained in
carpet ravelings, an eighth of a yard of terry was raveled for the
purpose. Take care not to draw any part of the pattern too tight, or the
perforations will be too large. The right and left edges of the rug are
woven over the rods to keep them straight. Both narrow borders were
woven before the center was commenced. The pattern in the illustration
is for a Wilton or Axminster rug, but can be used for mats, or box,
sachet, and cushion covers. It is made with cross-stitch embroidery on
burlap, silk, or wool canvas. (See also page 120.)

[Illustration: _A pattern for a rug or square_]

[Sidenote: _Turkish patterns laid with tablets_]

The children can lay these Turkish patterns with square tablets upon
their desks, the pattern being drawn upon the board, or on paper with a
rubber pen. It will be a delight to the children to transfer them to
paper by drawing and then coloring, or by cutting and pasting colored

[Sidenote: _Stitches for Khiva and Bokhara rugs_]

The genuine Khiva and Bokhara rugs are made by weaving and knotting
alternately. It will be easier at first to weave a web, or foundation.
Choose a tight twisted yarn about the color of the rug to be woven.
String a close warp of the wool and weave plain up and down, one string
at a time, until you have a rug of the desired size. Put in the pattern
first, and then the filling. This work will be almost too difficult for
_little_ children. Carpet wools and Germantown wool can be used. It will
not be found difficult to follow the pattern, especially if one is used
to cross-stitch embroidery. Each stitch counts for one of cross-stitch.
Keep the stitches very close together so that the nap will stand up well
when finished. Silk rugs can be copied in the same way, using floss or
rope silk for the pile. If one prefers, a piece of burlap may be
stretched across the loom and secured to the rods, instead of weaving a
foundation, as suggested.

[Illustration: _Stitches for pile weaving_]

[Sidenote: _Stitches for pile weaving_]

[Sidenote: _The first stitch_]

Stitches for pile weaving are very easily made. This illustration
showing examples of stitches for pile weaving illustrates the methods
used in the stitches, and may be used for Axminster or Wilton rugs, for
boxes, sachet cases, and other articles. The tape needle is the kind
used for weaving when the large needle cannot be used. It is preferable
to use one of this kind on account of the eye and blunt point, and it
may be obtained at the notion counter in department stores for a few
cents. There are two stitches, each occupying half of the illustration
and numbered from left to right, beginning at the top. Make No. 1 by
passing a tape needle threaded with wool down through the web, leaving a
short end, then up one stitch to the left. This is the first step. In
No. 2 continue over on the right side, _past_ the stitch where you
started, to the stitch on the right; then down and up through the first
hole, and cut off the wool the same length as the end you left at first.
No. 3 shows a stitch completed. No. 4, one row of stitches, and No. 5,
three rows, showing how one row overlaps another. When the rug is
finished, the ends should be cut evenly, so that the nap is like velvet.
The children would say that this stitch looks like a two-legged stool,
and so it does.

[Sidenote: _The second stitch_]

The second stitch is made so that the nap lies sideways from left to
right. No. _a_ is just like the preceding stitch. No. _b_ shows the
needle passing down the stitch where you started and up one stitch to
the right. Cut off the wool and pull the end left at first over the
last one. This pile should stand very straight and even. No. _c_ shows a
completed stitch; No. _d_ one row, and No. _e_ three rows. These
stitches are useful in mending Khiva and Bokhara rugs.

[Sidenote: _Wilton and Axminster rugs_]

Wilton, Axminster, or any rugs having a pile, can be woven with the same
stitches. The pattern in the illustration may be used for either a
Wilton or Axminster rug, for a box cover, cushion, sachet case, or mat;
and can be cross-stitched embroidery, on burlap, silk or woolen canvas.

[Illustration: _Pattern for a rug, mat or cover_]

Chapter Thirteen


[Illustration: _A miniature Indian loom_]

[Sidenote: _A sketch_]

[Sidenote: _Indian weaving_]

[Sidenote: _The colors used_]

[Sidenote: _Old Indian blankets are rare_]

[Sidenote: _Description of the illustration_]

Navajo blankets were first made by the Pueblo Indians, from whom the
Navajo Indians learned the art, and not long after the latter excelled
in the making of them. Among the Pueblo Indians the men do the work; but
women are the weavers among the Navajos. In the illustration on this
page is seen a miniature Navajo loom with the blanket commenced. The two
cords woven at the sides with the woof can be easily seen. Simple looms
are suspended between two posts or trees, and the weaver sits upon the
ground. A twig is used for a shuttle, and a reed, fork-shaped like a
hand, is used to push down the woof threads. The blanket is made
waterproof by pounding down the threads with a batten, a good picture of
which is seen in Dr. Washington Matthews' article on Navajo weavers in
the Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. Separate balls of
color are used to carry out the pattern, which is sometimes traced in
the sand before the work is commenced. As many as twenty-nine different
balls have been seen hanging from a single blanket. Some of the designs
have been handed down from one generation to another, and are carried
entirely in the memory. They are often symbolical "and unfold a whole
legend to the knowing eye of the native." The weaving is done from the
bottom up, some working in one direction, while others weave first at
the bottom, then turn the loom upside down, and, after weaving about the
same distance there, finish in the middle. The last part of the weaving
is like darning, and is often done with a needle. The colors most used
are white, gray, black, a bright yellow, red (a scarlet, generally
obtained by raveling bayeta cloth), and sometimes blue. In former times,
when the Indians used vegetable dyes, the colors were beautiful and
lasting. These old blankets are becoming more and more rare, and to-day
in their places we have the bright and not always satisfactory results
of aniline dyes. The blanket in the illustration facing this page has
narrow stripes in the following colors: On each end (seven stripes) red,
black, white, orange, green, white, black. The two groups of six stripes
in the middle are: Black, white, red, green, white, black. Before the
advent of the present squaw dress, the black, red, and dark blue
blankets were used as clothing, but the best blankets were, and still
are, worn at sacred dances. Dr. Matthews, in his report, gives an
interesting description of the method of making these blankets, with
several pictures of the better examples. Navajo blankets are finished
with four border cords, which are secured as the weaving progresses, and
the ends are fastened at the four corners by small tassels.

[Illustration: _A Navajo Indian woman weaving a blanket_]

[Sidenote: _Method of making_]

[Sidenote: _Indian blankets_]

Small Navajo blankets can be woven on the loom. Draw the pattern and
place under the warp, fastening it to the side rods. Use warp or carpet
thread for the warp, and weave with a tape or upholstery needle. One may
weave all the pattern first, and then put in the filling; while another
will weave as the Indians do, filling in from one part of the pattern to
the other by threading the needle with a different color. This can be
done, without running the thread underneath, by hooking it in the loop
of the pattern just finished. These little blankets are very fascinating
things to make, and the children become much interested in them, and in
Indian life as well.

[Illustration: _A Navajo blanket_]

[Sidenote: _The colors in the blanket on page 141_]

This very beautiful Navajo blanket, shown in the illustration, has three
broad red stripes, two narrow red stripes about one-half the width of
the former, and four gray stripes about one-half the width of narrow red
stripes. The centers of all the figures are red, like the filling--a
brilliant scarlet. The colors of the large figures, beginning at the
center of each, and counting from left to right, are as follows: Nos. 1,
3, and 5, red, green, and light yellow. Nos. 2 and 4, red, white, and
black. The small figures, counting the same way, are: Nos. 1, 3, and 5,
red, white, and black. Nos. 2 and 4, red, yellow, and green. The four
corners are finished with twisted red cord-like tassels. This cord also
extends across the warp ends. Dr. Matthews tells in his article on
"Navajo Weavers" how two cords are twisted and woven at the sides with
the woof.

[Illustration: _A very beautiful Navajo Indian blanket, showing the
manner of decoration_]

The two Navajo Indian blankets illustrated in this chapter, and the
pattern on the following page, may be easily adapted for the loom.
Germantown knitting wool or carpet ravelings can be used, although to
obtain softer wool is better. Some of the handsomest Navajo blankets
have a long nap.

[Sidenote: _Navajo patterns laid with tablets_]

The children will take pleasure in laying Navajo patterns with
triangular tablets, and then transferring the pattern to paper by
drawing and coloring, or by cutting and pasting in colors.

[Illustration: _A pattern for a Navajo blanket_]

Chapter Fourteen


There are many beautiful songs which can be sung during the weaving.
Thomas Carlyle has said:

[Sidenote: _Songs and games lighten work_]

"Give us, O give us the man who sings at his work! He will do more in
the same time; he will do it better; he will persevere longer. One is
scarcely sensible of fatigue whilst he marches to music, and the very
stars are said to make harmony as they revolve in their spheres."

[Sidenote: _Songs for the children_]

There are songs about the birds' nests, always pleasing to the little
folks, and doubly so when they have held in their own hands the
wonderful bit of weaving, so strong and yet so soft, woven by the
mother-bird for the baby-birds. Mrs. Spider is also very interesting
with her lace-like webs which are to be found even in well-regulated
schoolrooms, and the songs of the bleating sheep who give us their wool
fill every little heart with delight. Miss Poulsson's Finger Play, "The
Lambs," gives the restless fingers something to do and the "eight white
sheep all fast asleep" afford a chance for a good laugh over the "two
old dogs close by" (the thumbs). One has the opportunity, too, of
noticing whether the eight white sheep on the tiny hands are really
_white_ enough to do the weaving. A smiling allusion to some small
_black_ sheep will bring them back clean for the next session.

[Sidenote: _A weaving game_]

The following weaving game can be played in several ways. This extract
is from the "Kindergarten Guide," by Lois Bates: "Six children stand in
a row; a tall one at each end for the border of the mat and the other
four representing the strips. The child who is to be the weaver holds
one end of a long tape, while the other is fastened to the left shoulder
of the first child. The weaver weaves the tape in and out among the
children, placing the second row lower down. It will be easily seen that
the children who had it passed in _front_ of them in the first row, had
it _behind_ them in the second, and vice versa."

The following weaving song in the Walker and Jenks book can be sung
during the weaving. To be sure it is not really "over and under" when
you think of them as _children_. Remember that they represent a mat,
and they are for the time the strips and border.

    (_Sung to the tune of "Nellie Bly._")

    Over one, under one,
    Over one again.
    Under one, over one,
    Then we do the same.
    Hi, weavers! Ho, weavers!
    Come and weave with me!
    You'll rarely find, go where you will,
    A happier band than we!

Kate Douglas Wiggin (Mrs. Riggs) in her "Republic of Childhood"
describes the game in this way:

[Sidenote: _Explanation of the game_]

"First choose a row of children for threads of the warp, standing at
such a distance from each other that a child may pass easily between
them. Second, choose a child, or children, for thread of woof. After
passing through the warp, each child takes his place at the end and
other children are chosen." In this way more children can take part than
if a tape were used. Some teachers play it in a different way, using the
desks with the seats turned up for the warp and the whole number of
children for the woof, winding in and out all over the room. This is
very delightful, indeed, if there is enough space for the children to
pass easily without tripping on the iron supports of the desks. This is
a good game for a rainy day, when there is no outdoor recess.

[Sidenote: _Bird games_]

The bird games are beautiful and leave a wholesome impression of home
life and home love on the children, which will have a lasting influence.
Few children, brought up in this tender and beautiful way, will ever
feel an inclination to harm the birds, or indeed any animal.

[Sidenote: _Interesting stories_]

The fund of stories of birds and birds' nests is almost inexhaustible.
Miss Poulsson's "In the Child's World" contains many stories of the
weaver (pages 407-412), and several about birds and birds' nests (pages
292-301). Her talks to teachers with regard to the presentation of each
subject are very helpful, as well as her suggestions for the teachers'
reading. Stories of the weaving birds, particularly the African weaver,
are interesting. It is said that two birds work together, one on the
inside of the nest and the other on the outside, passing the grass and
twigs in and out, until the home is completed. The children will enjoy,
too, stories of weaving in other lands, material for which can be easily
obtained. In fact, no one need to be without stories in these days of
books and magazines.

[Sidenote: _Conversation_]

[Sidenote: _Never repress the children_]

Last, but not least, is the conversation during the weaving. Anyone who
has attended a teachers' meeting, where the industrial work was being
given, has not failed to remark the sociability all over the room. "How
are you getting on?" "Let me see yours." "Oh, I cannot get it at all,"
etc., etc., are heard everywhere, and yet those same teachers go into
their class rooms the next day and expect the children to work without
whispering. If they will read what Mrs. Wiggin says in the "Republic of
Childhood," in her talk on "Sewing," they will never be guilty of it
again. A good plan is to have the room perfectly quiet while a dictation
is being given, and then allow a period of relaxation when the little
folks can compare and admire the work to their hearts' content. Beware
of too much repression. A child when asked why a tree grew crooked,
replied: "Somebody stepped on it, I suppose, when it was a little
fellow." The answer is painfully suggestive. Mrs. Wiggin truly says: "If
the children are never to speak except when they answer questions, how
are we to know aught of their inner life?"

The following list of songs, games, and stories suggests interesting
material to correlate with the work in hand-loom weaving.


ATKINSON, FRANK H., JR. Singing Songs for Children. See COONLEY.

BEEBE, KATHERINE. Schoolroom Plays. _Chicago: Thomas Charles Co._ 25

    A Weaving Game.

BROWN, KATE L. Stories in Song. See EMERSON.

COOLIDGE, ELIZABETH. After Supper Songs. _Chicago: Herbert S. Stone &
Co._ $2.00.

W.; and ATKINSON, FRANK H., JR. Singing Verses for Children. _New York:
The Macmillan Co._ $2.00.

DAVIS, KATHERINE WALLACE. Singing Rhymes and Games. _Chicago: Clayton T.
Summy Co._ 35 cents.

EMERSON, ELIZABETH U., and BROWN, KATE L. Stories in Song. _Boston:
Oliver Ditson Co._ $1.00.

    The Oriole's Nest.

FORSYTHE, CLARENCE. Old Songs for Young America. _New York: Doubleday,
Page & Co._ 1901. $2.00.

    Needle's Eye.

GAYNOR, JESSIE L. Songs of the Child World. _New York: The John Church
Co._ $1.00.

    The Bird's Nest.
    The Happy Lambkins.
    Song of the Shearers.
    Spinning the Yarn.
    Grandma's Knitting Song.
    Weaving Song.


HILL, PATTY S. Song Stories for the Kindergarten. _Chicago: Clayton T.
Summy Co._ $1.00.

    The Children and the Sheep.

HOFER, MARI RUEF. Children's Singing Games _Chicago: Published by Mari
Ruef Hofer, Kindergarten Magazine Co._ 50 cents.

HUBBARD, CLARA BEESON. Merry Songs and Games. _St. Louis: Balmer & Weber
Music Co._ $2.00.

JENKS, HARRIET S. Songs and Games for Little Ones. See WALKER.

NEIDLINGER, W. H. Small Songs for Small Singers. _New York: G.
Schirmer._ $1.00.

    The Spider.
    The Bee.
    The Rainy Day.

NURSERY STORIES and Rhymes for the Kindergarten and Home. _Springfield,
Mass.: Milton Bradley Co._ $1.00.

    The Song of a Baby's Blanket.
    The Song of a Baby's Shirt.

PRATT, WALDO S. St. Nicholas Songs. _New York: The Century Co._ $2.00.

ROOT, FREDERICK W. Singing Songs for Children. See COONLEY.

SMITH, ELEANOR. First Book in Vocal Music. _Chicago and New York:
Silver, Burdette & Co._ 30 cents.

    Oriole's Nest Song.
    Spinning Song.

SMITH, ELEANOR. A Primer of Vocal Music. _Chicago and New York: Silver,
Burdette & Co._ 25 cents.

    The Lazy Sheep.
    The Spider.
    The Silkworm.

---- See also COONLEY.

SONGS IN SEASON. Plan Book. _Chicago: A. Flanagan._ 50 cents.

    The Lambkin.

WALKER, GERTRUDE, and JENKS, HARRIET S. Songs and Games for Little Ones.
_Boston: Oliver Ditson Co._ $1.50.

    Birdies in the Green Wood.
    Fly, Little Birds.
    In the Branches of a Tree.
    Eight White Sheep.
    Weaving Song.


ANDREWS, JANE. Each and All. _Boston: Ginn & Co._ 50 cents. _Boston: Lee
& Shepard._ $1.00.

    New Work for Pense.

CHASE, A., and CLOW, E. Stories of Industry. _Boston: Educational
Publishing Co._ 2 vols. 60 cents each.

    Stories of Cotton, Wool, Silk, and Carpets.

CLOW, E. Stories of Industry. See CHASE.

FARMER, LYDIA HOYT. Boy's Book of Famous Rulers. _New York: Thomas Y.
Crowell & Co._ $1.50.

    Robert Bruce and the Spider.

MILLER, OLIVE THORNE. Little Folks in Feathers and Fur, and Others in
Neither. _New York: E. P. Dutton & Co._ $2.50.

    The Spider Speaks for Herself.
    Stories of Caterpillars and Butterflies.
    A Funny Little Log House.

PIERSON, CLARA DILLINGHAM. Among the Farmyard People. _New York: E. P.
Dutton & Co._ $1.25.

    The Lamb with the Longest Tail.
    The Twin Lambs.
    Why the Sheep Ran Away.

POULSSON, EMILIE. Nursery Finger Plays. _Boston: Lothrop Publishing Co._

    The Lambs.

---- Child Stories and Rhymes. _Boston: Lothrop Publishing Co._ $1.25.

    The Story of Baby's Blanket.

---- In the Child's World. _Springfield, Mass.: Milton Bradley Co._

    Stories of Caterpillars and Butterflies.
    A Visit to the Weaver.
    John's Trousers.
    How a Little Boy got a New Shirt.
    Molly's Lamb.
    Sequel to an Old Story.
    Cotton Field Stories.
    The Flax.
    The Flax Flower.
    The Silk Worm.
    The Sparrow's Nest.
    The Life of a Silk Worm.
    The Goddess of the Silk Worm.
    The Nest of Many Colors.
    The Little Worm that was Glad to be Alive.

SMITH, NORA A. The Story Hour. See WIGGIN.

STORIES IN SEASON. Plan Book. _Chicago: A. Flanagan._ 35 cents.

    The Bramble Bush and the Lambs.

WIGGIN, KATE DOUGLAS (Mrs. George C. Riggs), and SMITH, NORA A. The
Story Hour. _Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co._ $1.00.

    The Child and the World.

WILTSE, SARA A. Kindergarten Stories and Morning Talks. _Boston: Ginn &
Co._ 75 cents.

    Stories of Wool, etc.

Chapter Fifteen



ALBEE, MRS. HELEN R. Abnákee Rugs. _Boston: The Riverside Press. Issued
by the author, Pequaket, Silver Lake P. O., N. H._

---- Mountain Playmates. _Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co._

     (Chapter on Rug-making.)

ASHENHURST, THOMAS R. Designs in Textile Fabrics. _London: Cassell &

---- Weaving and Designing of Textile Fabrics. _London: Simpkin,
Marshall & Co._

     (Chapters on History of Weaving, Color, and Combination and
     Arrangement of Designs.)

BATES, LOIS. Kindergarten Guide. _New York: Longmans, Green & Co._

BENJAMIN, S. G. W. Persia and the Persians. _Boston: Houghton, Mifflin &

BIRDWOOD, SIR GEORGE. Industrial Arts of India. _London: Chapman &

BISHOP, MRS. I. B. Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan. _New York: G. P.
Putnam's Sons._

CAINE, WILLIAM S. Picturesque India. _New York: George Routledge &

COLLINS, TREACHOR E. In the Kingdom of the Shah. _London: T. Fisher

DAVIE, OLIVER. Nests and Eggs of North American Birds. _Columbus, Ohio:
The Landon Press._

DELLENBAUGH, FREDERICK S. North Americans of Yesterday. _New York: G. P.
Putnam's Sons._

DIXON, CHARLES. Curiosities in Bird Life. _London: George Redway & Son._

---- Curious Nests. _London: George Redway & Son._

DUGMORE, A. RADCLYFFE. Bird Homes. _New York: Doubleday, Page & Co._

EARLE, ALICE MORSE. Home Life in Colonial Days. _New York: The Macmillan

FIRTH, ANNIE. Cane Basket Work. _London: L. Upcott Gill. 1899. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons._

GRINNELL, GEORGE BIRD. Indians of To-day. _New York: D. Appleton & Co._

---- Story of the Indian. _New York: D. Appleton & Co._

GURDJI, V. Oriental Rug Weaving. _New York: F. Tennyson Neely Co._

HERRICK, FRANCIS HOBART. The Home Life of the Wild Birds. _New York: G.
P. Putnam's Sons._

HOLT, ROSA BELLE. Rugs: Oriental and Occidental. _Chicago: A. C. McClurg
& Co._

HOW TO MAKE and How to Mend. (Directions for dyeing.) _New York: The
Macmillan Co._

HUMMEL, PROF. The Dyeing of Textile Fabrics. _New York: Cassell & Co._

JAMES, GEORGE WHARTON. Indian Basketry. _New York: Henry Malkan. 1902._

KNAPP, ELIZABETH S. Raphia and Reed Weaving. _Springfield, Mass.: Milton
Bradley Co._

KRAUS-BOELTE, MME. Kindergarten Guide. (Occupations.) _New York: Steiger
& Co._

MASON, O. T. Woman's Share in Primitive Culture. _New York: D. Appleton
& Co._

MORRIS, WILLIAM. Some Hints on Pattern Designing. _New York: Longmans,
Green & Co._

MUMFORD, J. K. Oriental Rugs. _New York: Charles Scribner's Sons._

SHELDON, WILLIAM E., and others. Illustrated Lessons with Paper Folding.
_Springfield, Mass.: Milton Bradley Co._

WALKER, LOUISA. Varied Occupations in String Work; comprising Knotting,
Netting, Looping, Plating, and Macremé. _New York: The Macmillan Co._

---- Varied Occupations in Weaving. _New York: The Macmillan Co._

WHEELER, MRS. CANDACE. Home Industries and Domestic Weavings. _New York:
Associated Artists, 115 East 23d Street._

WHITE, MARY. How to Make Baskets. _New York: Doubleday, Page & Co.

WIEBE, EDWARD. Paradise of Childhood. _Springfield, Mass.: Milton
Bradley Co._

WIGGIN, KATE DOUGLAS (Mrs. George C. Riggs). Republic of Childhood
(Occupations). _Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co._

WORST, EDWARD F. Construction Work. _Chicago: A. W. Mumford. 1901._


The following books can be found in the Fine Art Collections in some
public libraries. They are very valuable and contain many very beautiful
illustrations of oriental rugs and carpets, which are helpful in the
study of design and of harmony in color:

BURTY, P. Masterpieces of Industrial Art.

COXON, HERBERT. Oriental Carpets.

LESSING, JULIUS. Ancient Oriental Carpet Patterns.

ROBINSON, VINCENT J. Eastern Carpets.



A PROFITABLE PHILANTHROPY, by Mrs. Helen R. Albee. _Review of Reviews,
July, 1900._

ART OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN. _Chautauquan, March, 1899._

A STUDY OF THE TEXTILE ART, by Wm. H. Holmes. _Sixth Annual Report,
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C._ (pp. 84, 85.)

DOMESTIC ART NUMBER. _Pratt Institute Monthly, February, 1901._

Outlook, Oct. 14, 1899._

Institute Monthly, November, 1898._

[Sidenote: _Magazine articles_]

Review, May, 1902._

JUVENILE PORTIERE MAKERS. _New York Tribune, New York City, March 10,
1901._ Reprinted in _Minneapolis Journal Junior, April 20, 1901,
Minneapolis, Minn._

LEAF CUTTING (for rug designs). _Pratt Institute Monthly, April, 1900._

MRS. VOLK AND HER WORK. _Good Housekeeping, September, 1901._

NAVAJO WEAVERS, by Dr. Washington Matthews. _Third Annual Report of
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C._

     (This volume also contains a number of fine illustrations of
     blankets, etc.)

NEW ENGLAND RUGS. _Minneapolis Journal, Minneapolis, Minn., March 28,

July and August, 1899._

_Thirteenth Annual Report of Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C._
(pp. 91, 92.)

SOME SOCIAL ASPECTS OF EDUCATION, by G. Stanley Hall. _Educational
Review, May, 1902._

STRAW WEAVING. _American Homes, Knoxville, Tenn., September, 1900._

_Teachers' College Record._ Teachers' College, Columbia University, New

     (Containing a number of articles on weaving.)


TEXTILE INDUSTRY SINCE 1890. _Forum, May, 1899._

TEXTILES, OLD AND NEW. _The Craftsman, The United Crafts, Eastwood, N.
Y., January, 1902._

     (Contains "Notes from the History of Textiles," "A Revival
     of English Handicrafts," and "Brain and Hand.")

_The Elementary School Record_, by Dr. John Dewey. Numbers 1 to 9. _The
University of Chicago Press, 1900._

     (Containing a number of articles on weaving and a record of
     industrial work done in the University Elementary School of
     the University of Chicago.)

THE LABOR MUSEUM AT HULL HOUSE, by Jessie Luther. _The Commons, Hull
House, Chicago, Vol. VII., No. 70, May, 1902._

     (Containing valuable illustrations of old looms, and the
     methods of spinning and weaving.)

WEAVERS OF THE PHILIPPINES, by G. E. Walsh. _The Catholic World, March,


Many topics interesting to teachers of industrial work are dealt with in
the instruction papers of the International Correspondence Schools,
Textile department. Communications should be addressed to Christopher P.
Brooks, New Bedford, Mass.

The Index

"Abnákee Rug Industry," 63 ff.

Accuracy, weaving develops, 22.

Acids, used in dyeing, 69, 74 ff.

Action, relation to ideas, 8.

Afghans, weaving of, 49, 54, 120, 121.

Albee, Mrs. Helen R., 63, 64 ff.

Angora wool, 57.

Aniline dyes, 73.

Ashenhurst, quotations from, 13, 14, 16.

Axminster rugs, 120-121, 131, 132, 134.

Baby shoes, 115.

Balls, worsted, 115.

Basketry, preparation for, 23, 24.

Bates, Lois, 23, 31, 144.

Bath rugs, 100.

Batten, The, Hindoo and Egyptian, 15.

Bed shoes, 113, 114.

Bed spreads, 109.

Blankets, 56-57;
  carriage, 109.

Blue dye, 59-60;
  wool carded, 62.

Bokhara rugs, 123, 124-125, 128, 131, 134.

Bookmark, 35-36, 37.

Borders, 89, 109, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124.

Candle-wicking, 52, 83-84, 108.

Cap, 40.

Carding, 62 ff.

Carpet ravelings, see _Ravelings_.

Carpet wool, rugs of, 105.

Carriage blankets, 109.

Celluloid strips, 55-56, 85.

Chatelaine bags, 117-118.

Cheese cloth, 51, 58 ff., 99, 108.

Chenille, 42, 53;
  splicing of, 83-84.

Chinese, weaving practiced by, 13.

Clavigero, on weaving in Mexico, 14.

Clouding, 63.

Coles, C. S., 24.

Colors, 62, 64-65, 136-138;
  color scheme, 66;
  shading, 67-68;
  see also _Dyes_, _Formulas_, and names of colors.

Concentration, weaving develops, 22.

Conversation in class room, 147.

Copperas, 60.

Cotton, darning, 55;
  knitting, 55.

Couch covers, weaving of, 49.

Creed, The, 7;
  disregarded, 7-8.

Cushions, 120.

Demonstration cards, 31.

Designing, weaving prepares for, 23, 25.

Designs, 27, 31, 33, 35, 47-48, 57, 105 ff., 120, 122.

Dexterity, weaving develops, 22, 24.

Discouragement, Froebel's theory, 17.

Dish cloths, 99-100.

Doll's shawl and skirt, 109-110.

Doll's towel, 55, 108-109.

Dusters, 107-108.

Dyeing, 14, 58-82;
  formulas, 73 ff.

Dyes, kinds of, 58, 60, 61, 72, 73;
  see also names of colors.

Easel support for loom, 19.

Egyptians, inventors of the loom, 14.

Face cloths, 99-100.

Felt mats, 23, 30-32.

Finger Play, 143.

Floor rugs, weaving of, 49-50.

Formulas for colors, 73 ff.

Frames, photograph and picture, 116.

Free-paper weaving, 35.

Fringe, 111-113.

Froebel, Friedrich, 10, 17.

Games, 143-152;
  list of, 148 ff.

Germantown wool, 54, 55, 84, 109, 114.

Gifts, made by children, 21, 34, 37, 55, 113.

Glauber salts, 68, 69, 71, 74 ff.

Glove boxes, 104.

Gray, wool carded, 62-63.

Green dye, 66;
  dull shade, 69.

Hair receivers, 121.

Hammocks, 93-98.

Hand-training in kindergarten, 10, 22.

Hindoo loom, 15-16.

Holders, 91, 92.

Hurwitz, Professor, 13.

Indian dyes, 58.

Indian loom, 135, 137.

Individual, The, training of, 28.

Industrial training, 11, 28-29.

Ink stains, 61.

Iron rust, 61.

"Jacob's ladder," 39.

Kerman rugs, 123.

Khiva rugs, 123, 125, 128, 131, 134.

Kindergarten, hand-training in, 10.

"Kindergarten Guides," 23, 31, 33, 144.

Kiz-Kilim rugs, 47, 123, 125, 126-129.

Knotting fringe, 113.

Kraus-Boelte, Mme., 25.

"Kraus-Boelte Guide," 25.

Kurdji, V., 124.

Leaf forms, 107.

Leaf stains, 61.

Leather strips, 55, 85.

Linings, 51.

Loom, The, 13-21.

Loom, The Todd Adjustable Hand, see _Todd_.

Lunch cloths, 109.

Macremé cord, 55;
  splicing of, 83-84.

Making, instinct for, 9.

Manual training, 10.

Materials, 10, 51-57.

Mats, see _Felt_, _Paper_, and _Table_.

Matthews, Dr. W., 58, 136, 138, 140.

Measuring glass, 68-69.

Mill, John Stuart, 8.

Mitten, 40.

Mordants, 68.

Mottled rugs and borders, 87 ff.

Mumford, John Kimberley, 128.

Navajo blankets, 48, 135-142.

Needle, used with loom, 19, 20.

Nut stains, 60-61.

Opera-glass bags, 118.

Oriental cord, for warp, 43.

Oriental rugs, weaving of, 122-134.

"Oriental Rugs," 128.

"Oriental Rug Weaving," 124.

Panels, of silk canvas, 119.

Paper mats, 23, 25, 33 ff.

"Paradise of Childhood," 35, 105, 107.

Patterns, see _Designs_.

Pencil holder, 38.

Persian rugs, designs for, 124.

Photograph and picture frames, 116.

Pile weaving, 132-134.

Pink, wool carded, 62.

Porch curtains, 104.

Portières, 121.

Poulsson, Miss, 143, 146.

Practical training, need of, 10.

Principles, value of learning, 23.

Public schools, practical training in, 10, 18, 26-27.

Purses, 117-118.

"Pussy-cat stairs," 39-40.

Quilts, 109.

Raffia, 42, 45, 56, 58 ff., 71, 84-85.

Raffia mats, method of weaving, 101-121.

Ravelings, 43, 53, 83.

Red dye, 60.

Reins, 110.

"Republic of Childhood," The, 34, 145.

Rope silk, 42, 52-53;
  splicing of, 84.

Sachet cases, 120.

Scarf, 116.

School bags, 118.

Scientific facts as applied in schools, 8.

Sequence weaving, 35 ff.

Serebend rugs, 123.

Shawls, 109-110.

Shetland wool, 56.

Shoes, bed, 113-114;
  baby, 115.

Shopping bags, 118.

Shuttle, Egyptian, 13;
  Hindoo, 15.

Silk, 52;
  knitting, 57.

Silk canvas, 119-120.

Silkoline, 51, 83;
  for rugs or mats, 86-92.

Skirt, doll's, 110.

Slats, weaving with, 23-24, 31-32.

Sleeve protectors, 117.

Slumber robes, 49, 54, 120, 121.

Socks, 113-114.

Sofa pillows, 120.

Songs, games, and stories, 143-152, 148 ff.

Splicing, methods of, 83-85.

Splints, weaving with, 23-24, 39.

Star, 37.

Steiger, E., publisher, 35.

Stories, 143, 152;
  list of, 148 ff.

"Straw Weaving," 104.

Success, Froebel's theory, 17.

Sweater, doll's, 41.

Table cover, 49.

Table mats, 38, 116, 117.

Tam O'Shanter, 110.

Tassels, 112.

Tippet, 116.

Todd Adjustable Hand-loom, 18-21.

Towels, doll's, 55, 108-109.

Turkish rugs, designs for, 47-48, 123-124.

Vegetable dyes, 58, 61, 72.

Vegetable fibres, for weaving, 13, 14.

Veil cases, 120.

Walker and Jenks, song by, 144, 145.

Warp, 20, 42-50.

Weaving, its advantages, 11, 22;
  oldest of the industrial arts, 12, 13, 14;
  defined, 22;
  first steps in, 23, 30-41;
  free paper, 35.

Wheeler, Mrs. Candace, 58.

Wiebe, Edward, 34, 35.

Wiggin, Mrs. Kate Douglas, 34, 145.

Wilton rugs, 120-121, 131, 132, 134.

Woof, stringing of, 20.

Wool, for weaving, 13, 14, 54, 62 ff.

Worsted, splicing of, 83.

Wristlets, 116-117.

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